WorldWideScience

Sample records for wood-preservative treatment facility

  1. Amendment of arsenic and chromium polluted soil from wood preservation by iron residues from water treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sanne Skov; Petersen, L. R.; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    , mostly in the deepest samplers. This is likely due to the formation of a pseudo-gley because of precipitation surplus. Stabilization of arsenic and chromium contaminated soil using WTR is a promising method but the transformation of ferrihydrite in soil proves a concern in case of waterlogged soils......An iron-rich water treatment residue (WTR) consisting mainly of ferrihydrite was used for immobilization of arsenic and chromium in a soil contaminated by wood preservatives. A leaching batch experiment was conducted using two soils, a highly contaminated soil (1033mgkg−1 As and 371mgkg−1 Cr......) and slightly contaminated soil (225mgkg−1 As and 27mgkg−1 Cr). Compared to an untreated reference soil, amendment with 5% WTR reduced leaching in the highly contaminated soil by 91% for Cr and 98% for As. No aging effect was observed after 103d. In a small field experiment, soil was mixed with 2.5% WTR in situ...

  2. SYNERGISTIC WOOD PRESERVATIVES FOR REPLACEMENT OF CCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the potential synergistic combinations of environmentally-safe biocides as wood preservatives. These wood preservatives could be potential replacements for the heavy-metal based CCA.Didecyldimethylammonium chloride [DDAC] was...

  3. Tolerance of Serpula lacrymans to copper-based wood preservatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Green, Frederick; Clausen, Carol A.

    2005-01-01

    Serpula lacrymans, the dry rot fungus, is considered the most economically important wood decay fungus in certain temperate regions of the world, namely northern Europe, Japan, and Australia. Previously, copper-based wood preservatives were commonly used for pressure treatment of wood for buildin...

  4. Tolerance of Serpula lacrymans to copper-based wood preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Christine Steenkjaer Hastrup; Frederick Green; Carol A. Clausen; Bo Jensen

    2005-01-01

    Serpula lacrymans, the dry rot fungus, is considered the most economically important wood decay fungus in certain temperate regions of the world, namely northern Europe, Japan, and Australia. Previously, copper-based wood preservatives were commonly used for pressure treatment of wood for building construction, but some decay fungi are known to be copper tolerant. In...

  5. Interaction of copper wood preservatives and adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2003-01-01

    Compared to other substrates, wood is generally easy to bond. However, adhesion is diminished when the wood surface is covered by chemicals, whether natural oils and resins or added chemicals. Among the chemicals added to wood are fire retardants and wood preservatives. Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) has been widely used to protect wood against rot and termites, but...

  6. Corrosion avoidance with new wood preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Douglas R. Rammer

    2006-01-01

    The increased use of alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ) and copper azole (CuAz) as wood preservatives for residential construction has led to concerns about the corrosion performance of fasteners. Information on the effects of these preservatives on the corrosion rate is limited, although Simpson Strong Tie has published a technical bulletin indicating that both ACQ and...

  7. Wood preservatives : choosing the right one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt Humphries; Stan Lebow; David Moses

    2009-01-01

    If you are having trouble choosing the right wood preservative system for your application, you are not alone. Dozens of products are available, some older types have gone out of use, others may be completely inappropriate for your application. As designers, specifiers and builders, you need to understand key information to be able to navigate through all of these...

  8. Environmental education on wood preservatives and preservative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development and use of wood preservatives in Nigeria should address not only the cost and demand functions but also the potential hazards in environmental equations. Forest products specialists are often asked about the perceived risks and environmental costs of treated wood products. Evidently, the civil society is ...

  9. Effects of wood preservative leachates from docks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, P.H.; Van Dolah, R.F.; Bobo, M.Y.; Mathews, T.D. [South Carolina Marine Resources Research Inst., Charleston, SC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Recent evidence indicates that the wood preservative commonly used in dock pilings (chromated copper arsenate or CCA) is highly toxic to several estuarine organisms in laboratory experiments. Increasing demand for residential docks prompted a field study intended to complement these earlier laboratory investigations. Objectives of the study were to: (1) examine concentrations of Cu, Cr, and As in sediments and oysters from intertidal locations in several creeks with and without high densities of docks; (2) examine the bioaccumulation of wood preservative leachates by laboratory-reared oysters transferred to field sites near and distant from newly constructed docks; and (3) investigate the acute toxicity of wood preservative leachates for several species of estuarine fishes and invertebrates exposed to these compounds in the field. Preliminary results indicate that sediment concentrations of all three metals were well below ER-L levels reported by Long and Morgan at all but one dock site. In an ancillary study, 24h LC{sub 50} bioassays were performed using rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) which were exposed to pore water from sediments in creeks with and without docks. Toxicities of bulk sediments from the same sites were examined using Microtox which measures decreases in bioluminescence of marine bacteria (Photobacterium phosphoreum) as a function of sediment concentration. Neither the rotifer nor the Microtox bioassays showed any significant differences in toxicity between creeks with and without docks.

  10. Applicability of Vegetable Oils as a Wood Preservative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eylem Dizman Tomak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional heavy duty wood preservatives have been banned or restricted for some applications due to their mammalian toxicity and their adverse effect on the environment. New, eco-friendly, but nevertheless still effective protection systems, is needed to protect wood in outdoors. Non-toxic vegetable oils can form of a protective layer on the surface of the wood cells which decrease water uptake of wood. For that reason, oils have a good potential as being a wood preservative. However, impregnation with vegetable oils is insufficient to impart adequate biological decay and termite resistance, and indeed the treatment may increase wood’s propensity to burn. In addition, a high level of oil absorption required for good protection make the process impractical and uneconomic to use. The efficiency of the treatment can be improved with using the biocides and oils together. Beside this, usage of modified oils can decrease the retention levels in wood. In this study, applicability of vegetable oils being one of the environment-friendly, biodegradable water repellents on wood treatments was reported. Furthermore, problems related to the use of oils for wood protection, and possible solutions for the problems were discussed.In this study, applicability of vegetable oils as one of the environment-friendly, biodegradable water repellents was reported. Furthermore, problems related to the use of oils for wood protection and possible solutions for the problems were discussed

  11. LEACHING MECHANISM OF CHROMATED COPPER ARSENATE (CCA WOOD PRESERVATIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Derya Gezer

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the increase demand on wooden raw materials and destroyed forest area (i.e clear cutting led to pressure on forest resources. Thus, Wood used in outdoor applications should be treated with preservatives to extent service life. in our country, although there is no regulations or any standards to be obeyed to preserve wood materials, averagely, 400.000 m3 /per year utility poles manufactured from softwood species and 30.000 m3/per year rail road slippers produced from either hardwood species or softwood species have been impregnated with wood preservatives. Chromated copper arsenic (CCA is commonly used wood preservatives to preserve utility poles in our country. According to data taken from Turkish Electricity Transmission Company (TEDAS 208.000 utility poles are used in Trabzon city area, 180.000 utility poles are in Rize city area, 121.000 utility poles are used in Artvin. Roughly 17.000 utility poles are replaced every year in three cities. Determining leaching factors of treated wood is important for explaining the short service life of utility poles treated with CCA used in Black Sea area. Factors such as preservative formulation, fixation temperature, post-treatment handling, wood dimensions, leaching media, pH, salinity and temperature have been shown to effect leaching of CCA treated wood.

  12. Flavanoid biocides: Wood preservatives based on condensed tannins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Laks; Peggy A. McKaig; Richard W. Hemingway

    1988-01-01

    The condensed tannins are natural wood preservatives found in high concentrations in the bark and wood of some tree species. Condensed tannin-containing bark extracts from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) were evaluated as wood preservatives using standard methods. Bark extracts by themselves did not cause any reduction in weight loss of pressure-treated...

  13. Serpula lacrymans, the dry rot fungus and tolerance towards copper-based wood preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Christine Steenkjaer Hastrup; Frederick Green; Carol Clausen; Bo Jensen

    2005-01-01

    Serpula lacrymans (Wulfen : Fries) Schröter, the dry rot fungus, is considered the most economically important wood decay fungus in temperate regions of the world i.e. northern Europe, Japan and Australia. Previously copper based wood preservatives were the most commonly used preservatives for pressure treatment of wood for building constructions. Because of a...

  14. Effect of Wood Preservatives on Surface Properties of Coated Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgay Ozdemir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of wood preservatives (waterborne and organicborne on the performance of surface finishing properties is investigated. Sapwood of scots pine, (Pinus sylvestris L., oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky, and chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. specimens (300 × 100 × 15 mm along the grain were impregnated with aqueous solution of 2% CCA, 2% Tanalith E, 1% boric acid, and Immersol aqua. Surface roughness, dry film thickness, adhesion strength, gloss measurement, scratch, and abrasion resistance were determined according to related standards for treated and untreated samples. The results indicated that surface roughness and adhesion strength depended on wood species and the chemical composition of preservatives. Generally, waterborne wood preservatives increased the surface roughness of wood while the organic-based wood preservatives decreased it. The organic-based wood preservatives decreased adhesion but they increased gloss value. Wood preservatives did not affect the scratch resistance which was found to depend on properties of the coating. All the wood preservatives increased abrasion resistance.

  15. Direct current testing to measure corrosiveness of wood preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Douglas R. Rammer; Donald S. Stone; James T. Gilbertson

    2007-01-01

    A qualitative test that mimics the corrosion behaviour of metals in contact with treated wood without using wood specimens would be of great value in rapidly evaluating the corrosiveness of new wood preservatives. The objective of this study was to determine whether the linear polarisation resistance of metals immersed in a solution of preservative chemicals is related...

  16. Health assessment for Cape Fear Wood Preserving, Fayetteville, North Carolina, Region 4. CERCLIS No. NCD003188828. Preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-04-12

    The Cape Fear Wood Preserving site is listed on the National Priorities List. The site is located in Cumberland County, North Carolina, on the western side of Fayetteville near Highway 401. The site consists of 41 acres of which less than 10 acres were developed by the facility. Wood preserving operations began at the facility in 1953 and continued until 1983. Wood was treated using both creosote and the chromium-copper-arsenic process. Contaminants detected in water samples from on-site monitoring wells included benzene, chromium, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. During earlier investigations, 7 nearby domestic wells in the area were sampled for contamination. The site is considered to be of potential health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances.

  17. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 4): Cape Fear Wood Preserving, NC. (First Remedial Action), June 1989. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-06-30

    The 9-acre Cape Fear Wood Preserving site is in Cumberland County, North Carolina. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil, sediment, ground water, and surface water are VOCs including benzene, other organics including PAHs, and metals including arsenic and chromium. The selected remedial action for the site includes offsite disposal of CCA salt crystals found in the drainage system and solidified creosote at a RCRA landfill and offsite disposal of asbestos-containing pipe insulation in the county solid-waste facility; removal and decontamination of onsite pipes and tanks to be sold for scrap metal or disposed of in the county solid waste facility; excavation and onsite treatment of soil and sediment using soil flushing as the preferred alternative or a low thermal-desorption process to remove organics followed by soil washing or fixation/stabilization/solidification to address inorganics followed by placement of treated soil and sediment in the excavated area and revegetation; pumping with onsite treatment of ground water and surface water with offsite discharge at a POTW or a surface stream; sale of 50,000 gallons of CCA solution to a buyer; if no buyer is found, CCA solution and CCA-contaminated waste water will be treated using the ground water treatment system; and ground water monitoring.

  18. An investigation into the potential of ionic silver as a wood preservative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin Dorau; Rachel Arango; Frederick Green

    2004-01-01

    On December 3 1, 2003, the wood preservation industry, in conjunction with the Environmental Protection Agency, voluntarily phased out the use of chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated lumber for residential applications. This ended over 25 years of CCA as the predominant wood preservative in the United States. The first generation of replacement preservatives,...

  19. Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Individual permits for municipal, industrial, and semi-public wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)...

  20. Evaluating the corrosiveness of southern pine treated with several wood preservatives using electrochemical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Douglas R. Rammer; Donald S. Stone

    2009-01-01

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA), the most widely used wood preservative of the past 50 years, has been replaced for most uses with alkaline-copper systems such as alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ), copper azole (CuAz) and micronized copper quaternary (MCQ). Preliminary research using high-temperature, high-humidity environments have shown that some of these wood...

  1. Competitiveness in the sawmills and wood preservation industry in the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao V Nagubadi; Daowei Zhang

    2010-01-01

    We examine relative prices, relative productivity levels, and competitiveness in the sawmills and wood preservation industry in the united states and Canada between 1958 and 2003 by using purchasing power parities and bilateral translog production function. Our results show that the competitiveness of the Canadian industy is facilitated by higher relative productivity...

  2. Evaporation as an ageing procedure prior to wood preservative biological testing: when standardization needs metrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The wood preservation laboratory of Cirad is accredited by COFRAC (French accreditation committee – accreditation No. 1-1686 for tests on (1 durability of wood and wood-based products; (2 protective efficacy of wood preservatives; (3 efficacy of termite control products. In order to test the efficacy of wood preservatives, non-durable wood blocks are treated using different product doses and exposed to the attack of xylophageous organisms (fungi, insects. To reproduce the ageing of treated wood blocks, some laboratory procedures are available. Amongst them, there is an evaporation procedure, reproducing the action of a warm air flow onto treated wood. This ageing step is very discriminant, as only the formulations fixing effectively the active ingredients will pass the biological test afterwards. This ageing by evaporation is described in the EN73 standard. Nevertheless, many points remain difficult to overcome. The tunnels used for the evaporation are all prototypes; as such equipment is not available currently on the market. So each laboratory has got its own tunnel device. Moreover the way to measure the temperature and speed of the air flow is very difficult to achieve considering the prescriptions of the EN73 standard. The EN73 standard is being revised by the European standardization group (CEN TC38 and despite the metrological aspects were crucial and inadequate in former version, they were not considered as they should. The wood preservation laboratory has forwarded remarks in order to supersede some points of the revision document in order to consider the metrological aspects. This is of main importance as the ageing procedure is commonly used prior to most of the biological test, and such tested products are put on the market based on the efficacy results.

  3. Specifications in the application form for environmental assessment of wood preservatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucks, U.J. [ed.

    2000-09-01

    In 1990 the former Federal Health Office (Bundesgesundheitsamt) and the Federal Environmental Agency (Umweltbundesamt) jointly elaborated a catalogue of test requirements necessary for assessing the impact of wood preservatives on man and environment. Based on several years of experience, a revision was deemed necessary. Complying with the provisions of the Directive 98/8/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of 16 February 1998 concerning the placing of biocidal products on the market, which have to be transposed into national laws, the regulatory bodies BAM, BgVV and UBA, in cooperation with industry and academia (IUCT), developed an amended application form for wood preservatives. The provisions laid down there include different sets of data for wood preservatives, depending on the intended uses/hazard classes, e.g. physico-chemical and ecotoxicological properties, data on exposure, fate and behaviour in the environment and on waste management. The tests should be conducted according to standardized test protocols. Next to the list of data requirements explanations and justifications are given on why the data are needed and how they contribute to the risk assessment. Furthermore, recommendations are given on which test guidelines should preferably be followed to generate the data. In addition, annex I includes a proposal for a test guideline on how to screen leachates from preservative-treated wood surfaces for their ecotoxic potential to aquatic organisms. (orig.)

  4. Wood preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach

    1999-01-01

    When left untreated in many outdoor applications, wood becomes subject to degradation by a variety of natural causes. Although some trees possess naturally occurring resistance to decay (Ch. 3, Decay Resistance), many are in short supply or are not grown in ready proximity to markets. Because most commonly used wood species, such as Southern Pine, ponderosa pine, and...

  5. Freshwater Treatment and Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Freshwater Treatment and Test Facility, located at SANGB, has direct year-round access to water from Lake St. Clair and has a State of Michigan approved National...

  6. The metrological approach: a major key factor for the accreditation and continuous improvement of the wood preservation laboratory of Cirad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin L.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2006, the wood preservation laboratory of Cirad is accredited by COFRAC (French accreditation committee – accreditation No. 1-1686 for tests on the durability of wood and wood-based products and on protective efficacy of wood preservatives and termite control products. The metrological approach adopted by the wood preservation laboratory is a key factor on the continuous improvement of practices. Tests to determine the resistance against wood-destroying biological agents are the most difficult of all wood analysis tests. They are aimed at assessing and quantifying the impact of living organism, such as fungi and termites, on a lignocellulosic material. The extent of variability of this impact, which in turn is linked with the diversity of these organisms and of the material, can be readily determined. The validity and reliability of the findings therefore depend directly on the quality of the metrological process, including the choice of measurement devices, their management and compliance with international standards.

  7. Integrated control of wood destroying basidiomycetes combining Cu-based wood preservatives and Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribera, Javier; Fink, Siegfried; Bas, Maria Del Carmen; Schwarze, Francis W M R

    2017-01-01

    The production of new generation of wood preservatives (without addition of a co-biocide) in combination with an exchange of wood poles on identical sites with high fungal inoculum, has resulted in an increase of premature failures of wood utility poles in the last decades. Wood destroying basidiomycetes inhabiting sites where poles have been installed, have developed resistance against wood preservatives. The objective of the in vitro studies was to identify a Trichoderma spp. with a highly antagonistic potential against wood destroying basidiomycetes that is capable of colonizing Cu-rich environments. For this purpose, the activity of five Trichoderma spp. on Cu-rich medium was evaluated according to its growth and sporulation rates. The influence of the selected Trichoderma spp. on wood colonization and degradation by five wood destroying basidiomycetes was quantitatively analyzed by means of dry weight loss of wood specimens. Furthermore, the preventative effect of the selected Trichoderma spp. in combination with four Cu-based preservatives was also examined by mass loss and histological changes in the wood specimens. Trichoderma harzianum (T-720) was considered the biocontrol agent with higher antagonistic potential to colonize Cu-rich environments (up to 0.1% CuSO4 amended medium). T. harzianum demonstrated significant preventative effect on wood specimens against four wood destroying basidiomycetes. The combined effect of T. harzianum and Cu-based wood preservatives demonstrated that after 9 months incubation with two wood destroying basidiomycetes, wood specimens treated with 3.8 kg m-3 copper-chromium had weight losses between 55-65%, whereas containers previously treated with T. harzianum had significantly lower weight losses (0-25%). Histological studies on one of the wood destroying basidiomycetes revealed typical decomposition of wood cells by brown-rot fungi in Cu-impregnated samples, that were notably absent in wood specimens previously exposed to T

  8. The role of particle size of particulate nano-zinc oxide wood preservatives on termite mortality and leach resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Carol A.; Kartal, S. Nami; Arango, Rachel A.; Green, Frederick

    2011-06-01

    Historically most residential wood preservatives were aqueous soluble metal formulations, but recently metals ground to submicron size and dispersed in water to give particulate formulations have gained importance. In this study, the specific role nano-zinc oxide (ZnO) particle size and leach resistance plays in termite mortality resulting from exposure to particulate ZnO-treated wood was investigated. Southern yellow pine (SYP) sapwood impregnated with three concentrations of two particle sizes (30 and 70 nm) of ZnO were compared to wood treated with soluble zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) preservative for leach resistance and termite resistance. Less than four percent leached from the particulate nano-ZnO-treated specimens, while 13 to 25% of the zinc sulphate leached from the soluble treated wood. Nano-ZnO was essentially non-leachable from wood treated with 5% formulation for the 30-nm particle size. In a no-choice laboratory test, eastern subterranean termites ( Reticulitermes flavipes) consumed less than 10% of the leached nano-ZnO-treated wood with 93 to 100% mortality in all treatment concentrations. In contrast, termites consumed 10 to 12% of the leached ZnSO4-treated wood, but with lower mortality: 29% in the 1% treatment group and less than 10% (5 and 8%, respectively) in the group of wood blocks treated with 2.5 and 5.0% ZnSO4. We conclude that termites were repelled from consuming wood treated with nano-ZnO, but when consumed it was more toxic to eastern subterranean termites than wood treated with the soluble metal oxide formulation. There were no differences in leaching or termite mortality between the two particle sizes of nano-ZnO.

  9. The role of particle size of particulate nano-zinc oxide wood preservatives on termite mortality and leach resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartal S Nami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Historically most residential wood preservatives were aqueous soluble metal formulations, but recently metals ground to submicron size and dispersed in water to give particulate formulations have gained importance. In this study, the specific role nano-zinc oxide (ZnO particle size and leach resistance plays in termite mortality resulting from exposure to particulate ZnO-treated wood was investigated. Southern yellow pine (SYP sapwood impregnated with three concentrations of two particle sizes (30 and 70 nm of ZnO were compared to wood treated with soluble zinc sulphate (ZnSO4 preservative for leach resistance and termite resistance. Less than four percent leached from the particulate nano-ZnO-treated specimens, while 13 to 25% of the zinc sulphate leached from the soluble treated wood. Nano-ZnO was essentially non-leachable from wood treated with 5% formulation for the 30-nm particle size. In a no-choice laboratory test, eastern subterranean termites (Reticulitermes flavipes consumed less than 10% of the leached nano-ZnO-treated wood with 93 to 100% mortality in all treatment concentrations. In contrast, termites consumed 10 to 12% of the leached ZnSO4-treated wood, but with lower mortality: 29% in the 1% treatment group and less than 10% (5 and 8%, respectively in the group of wood blocks treated with 2.5 and 5.0% ZnSO4. We conclude that termites were repelled from consuming wood treated with nano-ZnO, but when consumed it was more toxic to eastern subterranean termites than wood treated with the soluble metal oxide formulation. There were no differences in leaching or termite mortality between the two particle sizes of nano-ZnO.

  10. Micronized copper wood preservatives: an efficiency and potential health risk assessment for copper-based nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civardi, Chiara; Schwarze, Francis W M R; Wick, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential biocide for wood protection, but fails to protect wood against Cu-tolerant wood-destroying fungi. Recently Cu particles (size range: 1 nm-25 μm) were introduced to the wood preservation market. The new generation of preservatives with Cu-based nanoparticles (Cu-based NPs) is reputedly more efficient against wood-destroying fungi than conventional formulations. Therefore, it has the potential to become one of the largest end uses for wood products worldwide. However, during decomposition of treated wood Cu-based NPs and/or their derivate may accumulate in the mycelium of Cu-tolerant fungi and end up in their spores that are dispersed into the environment. Inhaled Cu-loaded spores can cause harm and could become a potential risk for human health. We collected evidence and discuss the implications of the release of Cu-based NPs by wood-destroying fungi and highlight the exposure pathways and subsequent magnitude of health impact. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Groundwater Fate and Transport Modeling for Texarkana Wood Preserving Company Superfund Site, Texarkana, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnett, Ronald Chester

    1999-08-01

    Fate and transport model results are presented for the Texarkana Wood Preserving Company (TWPC)superfund site. The conceptual model assumes two sources of contamination, specifically, the areas around the old and new process areas. Recent data show the presence of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL) in the aquifer that are also sources of dissolved contamination in the aquifer. A flow model was constructed and calibrated against measured hydraulic heads at permanent monitoring wells. Good matches were obtained between model simulated heads and most measured heads. An unexplained exception occurs at monitoring well MW-13 down gradient of the site beyond the measured contaminant plume where the model predicts heads that are more than 2 ft. lower than reported field measurements. Adjusting hydraulic parameters in the model could not account for this anomaly and still preserve the head matches at other wells. There is likely a moderate deficiency in the conceptual model or perhaps a data error. Other information such as substantial amounts of infiltrating surface water in the area or a correction in surveyed elevation would improve the flow model. A particle tracking model calculated a travel time from the new process area to the Day’s Creek discharge location on the order of 40 years. Travel times from the old process area to Day’s Creek were calculated to be on the order of 80 years. While these calculations are subject to some uncertainty, travel times of decades are indicated.

  12. The Influence of Sample Origin on the Leachability of Wood Preservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kärt KÄNGSEPP

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have been conducted on impregnability of the raw material and large variations have been found. The leaching of wood preservatives into nature is a problem, especially agents that consist copper. Leachability of i. e. copper has been studied by several authors. This study tries to set the variation of leachability of Wolmanit CX-8 and Tanalith in system, evaluating the origin of a tree and the origin of a sample. Samples of Scots pine sapwood (Pinus Sylvestris (20×20×50 mm were treated with the wood protection agents Wolmanit CX-8 and Tanalith. The variation in leachability within trees, between trees and between different stands of Scots pine (in Norway and Denmark was studied. The samples were climatized, impregnated with preservatives and leached according to standard EN84. The study indicates differences between the products. Stand location and samples position in a tree play a role in preservative leaching from wood, favouring southern located trees to be more prone to loosing preservative. Also the lowest part of the tree does not fixate preservatives as well as the upper parts. http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.3.594

  13. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility/Effluent Treatment Facility Hazards Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simiele, G.A.

    1994-09-29

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and Effluent Treatment Facility the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

  14. Lethal synergism between organic and inorganic wood preservatives via formation of an unusual lipophilic ternary complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Zhi-Guo; Li, Yan; Fan, Rui-Mei; Chao, Xi-Juan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhu, Ben-Zhan, E-mail: bzhu@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2013-02-01

    We have shown previously that exposing bacteria to wood preservatives pentachlorophenol (PCP) and copper-containing compounds together causes synergistic toxicity. However, it is not clear whether these findings also hold true in mammalian cells; and if so, what is the underlying molecular mechanism? Here we show that PCP and a model copper complex bis-(1,10-phenanthroline) cupric (Cu(OP){sub 2}), could also induce synergistic cytotoxicity in human liver cells. By the single crystal X-ray diffraction and atomic absorption spectroscopy assay, the synergism was found to be mainly due to the formation of a lipophilic ternary complex with unusual structural and composition characteristics and subsequent enhanced cellular copper uptake, which markedly promoted cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, leading to apoptosis by decreasing mitochondrial membrane potential, increasing pro-apoptotic protein expression, releasing cytochrome c from mitochondria and activating caspase-3, and -9. Analogous results were observed with other polychlorinated phenols (PCPs) and Cu(OP){sub 2}. Synergistic cytotoxicity could be induced by PCP/Cu(OP){sub 2} via formation of an unusual lipophilic complex in HepG2 cells. The formation of ternary complexes with similar lipophilic character could be of relevance as a general mechanism of toxicity, which should be taken into consideration especially when evaluating the toxicity of environmental pollutants found at currently-considered non- or sub-toxic concentrations. -- Highlights: ► The combination of PCP/Cu(OP){sub 2} induces synergistic cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. ► The synergism is mainly due to forming a lipophilic ternary complex between them. ► The formation of lipophilic ternary complex enhances cellular copper uptake. ► PCP/Cu(OP){sub 2} stimulates the cellular ROS production. ► The ROS promoted by PCP/Cu(OP){sub 2} induces mitochondria-dependent apoptosis.

  15. Mechanical Treatment: Material Recovery Facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Bilitewski, B.

    2011-01-01

    A wide variety of mechanical treatment unit processes, including manual sorting, is described in Chapter 7.1. These unit processes may be used as a single separate operation (e.g. baling of recyclable cardboard) or as a single operation before or after biological and thermal treatment processes (e.......g. shredding prior to incineration or screening after composting). The mechanical treatment unit process is in the latter case an integrated part of the overall treatment usually with the purpose of improving the quality of the input material, or the efficiency or stability of the biological or thermal process......, or improving the quality of the output material. Examples hereof appear in the chapters on biological and thermal treatment. Mechanical treatment unit processes may also appear at industries using recycled material as part of their feedstock, for example, for removing impurities and homogenizing the material...

  16. Mobility and phytoavailability of Cu, Cr, Zn, and As in a contaminated soil at a wood preservation site after 4 years of aided phytostabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattab, Nour; Motelica-Heino, Mikael; Bourrat, Xavier; Mench, Michel

    2014-09-01

    The remediation of copper-contaminated soils by aided phytostabilisation in 16 field plots at a wood preservation site was investigated. The mobility and bioavailability of four potentially toxic trace elements (PTTE), i.e., Cu, Zn, Cr, and As, were investigated in these soils 4 years after the incorporation of compost (OM, 5 % w/w) and dolomite limestone (DL, 0.2 % w/w), singly and in combination (OMDL), and the transplantation of mycorrhizal poplar and willows. Topsoil samples were collected in all field plots and potted in the laboratory. Total PTTE concentrations were determined in soil pore water (SPW) collected by Rhizon soil moisture samplers. Soil exposure intensity was assessed by Chelex100-DGT (diffusive gradient in thin films) probes. The PTTE phytoavailability was characterized by growing dwarf beans on potted soils and analyzing their foliar PTTE concentrations. OM and DL, singly and in combination (OMDL), were effective to decrease foliar Cu, Cr, Zn, and As concentrations of beans, the lowest values being numerically for the OM plants. The soil treatments did not reduce the Cu and Zn mineral masses of the bean primary leaves, but those of Cr and As decreased for the OM and DL plants. The Cu concentration in SPW was increased in the OM soil and remained unchanged in the DL and OMDL soils. The available Cu measured by DGT used to assess the soil exposure intensity correlated with the foliar Cu concentration. The Zn concentrations in SPW were reduced in the DL soil. All amendments increased As in the SPW. Based on DGT data, Cu availability was reduced in both OM and OMDL soils, while DL was the most effective to decrease soil Zn availability.

  17. Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, liquid effluent retention facility and 200 area effluent treatment facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenenberg, J.G.

    1997-08-15

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to 10 be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document 11 number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the 12 Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation 13 submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal 14 units, such as the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 15 Treatment Facility (this document, DOE/RL-97-03). 16 17 Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford 18 Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B 19 permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of 20 Ecology (Ecology 1987 and 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 21 (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs 22 defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of 23 Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington 24 State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit 25 application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the 26 chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is 27 contained in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 28 Treatment Facility permit application documentation, in relation to the 29 Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents 30 Section. 31 32 Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in 33 nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units 34 (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever 35 appropriate, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 36 Treatment Facility permit application documentation makes cross-reference to 37 the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating

  18. Micronized Copper Wood Preservatives: Efficacy of Ion, Nano, and Bulk Copper against the Brown Rot Fungus Rhodonia placenta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Civardi

    Full Text Available Recently introduced micronized copper (MC formulations, consisting of a nanosized fraction of basic copper (Cu carbonate (CuCO3·Cu(OH2 nanoparticles (NPs, were introduced to the market for wood protection. Cu NPs may presumably be more effective against wood-destroying fungi than bulk or ionic Cu compounds. In particular, Cu- tolerant wood-destroying fungi may not recognize NPs, which may penetrate into fungal cell walls and membranes and exert their impact. The objective of this study was to assess if MC wood preservative formulations have a superior efficacy against Cu-tolerant wood-destroying fungi due to nano effects than conventional Cu biocides. After screening a range of wood-destroying fungi for their resistance to Cu, we investigated fungal growth of the Cu-tolerant fungus Rhodonia placenta in solid and liquid media and on wood treated with MC azole (MCA. In liquid cultures we evaluated the fungal response to ion, nano and bulk Cu distinguishing the ionic and particle effects by means of the Cu2+ chelator ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (TTM and measuring fungal biomass, oxalic acid production and laccase activity of R. placenta. Our results do not support the presence of particular nano effects of MCA against R. placenta that would account for an increased antifungal efficacy, but provide evidence that attribute the main effectiveness of MCA to azoles.

  19. Tolerance to wood preservatives by copper-tolerant wood-rot fungi native to south-central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, Yudith; Navias, David; Machuca, Angela

    2009-02-01

    Understanding the effect of heavy metals and wood preservatives on the growth of wood-rot fungi native to a certain region may improve reliability in determining the effectiveness of antifungal products, particularly when dealing with new formulations. In this investigation, strains of copper-tolerant wood-rot fungi native to south-central Chile were evaluated against two preservatives: commercial chromated copper arsenate type C (CCA-C) and a new formulation with boron and silicon (BS). Thirteen native strains, mainly white-rot fungi, were selected for their high growth rates in solid medium containing 3 mM of copper. A short-term test was then carried out, consisting of adding cellulose disks impregnated with different concentrations of preservatives to solid culture media inoculated with selected copper tolerant strains. There was a great variability in interspecific and intraspecific responses to the presence of copper and preservatives in culture media. Among the native and commercial strains evaluated, the white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor 38 and mainly Ganoderma australe 100 were notable for their tolerance to all the CCA-C and BS concentrations. The brown-rot fungus Wolfiporia cocos, used as reference strain, showed a high tolerance to CCA-C, but not to BS preservative. T. versicolor 38 and G. australe 100 were selected for subsequent studies on preserved wood degradation.

  20. Inoculum carrier and contaminant bioavailability affect fungal degradation performances of PAH-contaminated solid matrices from a wood preservation plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covino, Stefano; Svobodová, Katerina; Cvancarová, Monika; D'Annibale, Alessandro; Petruccioli, Maurizio; Federici, Federico; Kresinová, Zdena; Galli, Emanuela; Cajthaml, Tomás

    2010-05-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the impact of chopped wheat straw (CWS), ground corn cobs (GCC) and commercial pellets (CP), as inoculum carriers, on both growth and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) degradation performances of Dichomitus squalens, Pleurotus ostreatus and Coprinus comatus. A historically-contaminated soil (HCS) and creosote-treated shavings (CTS) from the Sobeslav wood preservation plant, characterized by different relative abundances of the PAH bioavailable fractions, were used to assess the contaminated matrix effect and its interaction with both carrier and fungal strain. In HCS, best results were obtained with CP-immobilized P. ostreatus, which was able to deplete benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) by 69.1%, 29.7%, 39.7%, 32.8% and 85.2%, respectively. Only few high-molecular mass PAHs such as BbF, BkF and BaP were degraded beyond their respective bioavailable fractions and this effect was confined to a limited number of inoculants. In CTS, only phenanthrene degradation exceeded its respective bioavailability from 1.42 to 1.86-fold. Regardless of both inoculum carrier and fungal species, degradation was positively and significantly (P<0.001) correlated with bioavailability in fungal microcosms on HCS and CTS and such correlation was very similar in the two matrices (R(adj)(2) equal to 0.60 and 0.59, respectively). The ability of white-rot fungi to degrade certain PAHs beyond their bioavailability was experimentally proven by this study. Although CTS and HCS considerably differed in their physico-chemical properties, PAH contents and contaminant aging, the relationship between degradation and bioavailability was not significantly affected by the type of matrix.

  1. Testicular Toxicity and Sperm Quality Following Exposure to Solignum and reg;: A Permethrin-Containing Wood Preservative in Adult Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley Chukwuemeka Patrick-Iwuanyanwu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Permethrin is widely used as a pesticide in agriculture, homes, gardens, and for treatment of ectoparasites such as fleas, lice, and scabies on human and animals. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the testicular toxicity and sperm quality of adult male Wistar albino rats exposed to Solignum and reg; (SOL, a commercial permethrin-containing wood preservative. Materials and Methods: A total number of 32 adult male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups of eight rats per group. SOL mixed with olive oil (1:1 was orally administered to rats daily at concentrations of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg for 28 days while the control received 1 ml of olive oil only. At the end of this study, animals were sacrificed and testes excised, weighed, and processed for histological examination. Results: Rats treated with SOL showed a significant (P and #8804; 0.05 decrease in body weight ranging from 127.30 +/- 5.95 to 84.50 +/- 15.37 g as compared with control group (138.50 +/- 6.7 g. Absolute testicular weight, relative testicular weight, and epididymis together with testes decreased significantly (P and #8804; 0.05 in treated rats ranging from 0.63 +/- 0.44 to 0.22 +/- 0.18; 0.49 +/- 7.39 to 0.26 +/- 1.17, and 1.07 +/- 0.75 to 0.37 +/- 0.19, respectively, when compared with control groups (0.89 +/- 0.27; 0.64 +/- 4.00; and 1.40 +/- 0.35 for absolute testicular weight, relative testicular weight, and epididymis together with testes, respectively after 28 days. However, there was a significant (P and #8804; 0.05 decrease in sperm count, sperm motility, sperm morphology, and sperm viability, whereas sperm debris increased significantly (P and #8804; 0.05 in a dose-dependent manner when compared with control group. Furthermore, histological examination of the testes indicated that rats exposed to SOL were characterized by significant degenerative changes when compared with control group. Conclusion: Therefore, exposure to SOL may inhibit

  2. Region 9 NPDES Facilities - Waste Water Treatment Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Waste Water Treatment Plant Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA permit program that regulates direct discharges from facilities that discharge treated waste water into waters of the US. Facilities are issued NPDES permits regulating their discharge as required by the Clean Water Act. A facility may have one or more outfalls (dischargers). The location represents the facility or operating plant.

  3. Region 9 NPDES Facilities 2012- Waste Water Treatment Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Waste Water Treatment Plant Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA permit program that regulates direct discharges from facilities that discharge treated waste water into waters of the US. Facilities are issued NPDES permits regulating their discharge as required by the Clean Water Act. A facility may have one or more outfalls (dischargers). The location represents the facility or operating plant.

  4. Synthesis of wood treatment alternatives for timber railroad structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    A wealth of information exists on various wood preservatives, treatment techniques, curing practices, and other engineered : controls, along with alternative materials for replacement. This study was initiated to review and synthesize available : inf...

  5. Analyses of the wood preservative component N-cyclohexyl-diazeniumdioxide in impregnated pine sapwood by direct thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jüngel, Peter; de Koning, Sjaak; Brinkman, Udo A Th; Melcher, Eckhard

    2002-04-12

    Investigations concerning the qualitative and quantitative determination of the organic wood preservative component N-cyclohexyl-diazeniumdioxide (HDO) in treated timber were carried out by means of direct thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (DTD-GC-MS). It could be shown that the identification of HDO in treated pine sapwood (Pinus sylyestris L.) is relatively simple using this analytical technique. Quantification of this active ingredient can be carried out using the peak area of the specific mass fragment m/z 114. A calibration curve with a high correlation coefficient was obtained in the range from 40 to 550 mg HDO per kg timber. Furthermore it can be deduced that the results obtained are characterised by an excellent reproducibility with standard deviations ranging from 5 to 10% in general. For the chosen experimental set up a detection limit of 4 mg HDO per kg treated pine sapwood was calculated, although merely 20% of the active ingredient was desorbed.

  6. Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application documentation consists of both Part A and a Part B permit application documentation. An explanation of the Part A revisions associated with this treatment and storage unit, including the current revision, is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. Once the initial Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit is issued, the following process will be used. As final, certified treatment, storage, and/or disposal unit-specific documents are developed, and completeness notifications are made by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology, additional unit-specific permit conditions will be incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit through the permit modification process. All treatment, storage, and/or disposal units that are included in the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application will operate under interim status until final status conditions for these units are incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit. The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility contains information current as of May 1, 1993.

  7. A PROBABILISTIC EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FOR CHILDREN WHO CONTACT CCA-TREATED PLAYSETS AND DECKS USING THE STOCHASTIC HUMAN EXPOSURE AND DOSE SIMULATION (SHEDS) MODEL FOR THE WOOD PRESERVATIVE EXPOSURE SCENARIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has conducted a probabilistic exposure and dose assessment on the arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr) components of Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) using the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation model for wood preservatives (SHEDS-Wood...

  8. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains data on wastewater treatment plants, based on EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS), EPA's Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS)...

  9. Emergency Planning for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, R. A.; And Others

    This manual for the development of emergency operating plans for municipal wastewater treatment systems was compiled using information provided by over two hundred municipal treatment systems. It covers emergencies caused by natural disasters, civil disorders and strikes, faulty maintenance, negligent operation, and accidents. The effects of such…

  10. Addressing social aspects associated with wastewater treatment facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla-Rivera, Alejandro; Morgan-Sagastume, Juan Manuel; Noyola, Adalberto; Güereca, Leonor Patricia, E-mail: lguerecah@iingen.unam.mx

    2016-02-15

    In wastewater treatment facilities (WWTF), technical and financial aspects have been considered a priority, while other issues, such as social aspects, have not been evaluated seriously and there is not an accepted methodology for assessing it. In this work, a methodology focused on social concerns related to WWTF is presented. The methodology proposes the use of 25 indicators as a framework for measuring social performance to evaluate the progress in moving towards sustainability. The methodology was applied to test its applicability and effectiveness in two WWTF in Mexico (urban and rural). This evaluation helped define the key elements, stakeholders and barriers in the facilities. In this context, the urban facility showed a better overall performance, a result that may be explained mainly by the better socioeconomic context of the urban municipality. Finally, the evaluation of social aspects using the semi-qualitative approach proposed in this work allows for a comparison between different facilities and for the identification of strengths and weakness, and it provides an alternative tool for achieving and improving wastewater management. - Highlights: • The methodology proposes 25 indicators as a framework for measuring social performance in wastewater treatment facilities. • The evaluation helped to define the key elements, stakeholders and barriers in the wastewater treatment facilities. • The evaluation of social aspects allows the identification of strengths and weakness for improving wastewater management. • It provides a social profile of the facility that highlights the best and worst performances.

  11. MC-PELMO 3.0 - a computer model to estimate groundwater contamination caused by leaching of wood preservatives from storage sites of treated wood in Germany; Grundwassergefaehrdung durch Holzschutzmittel. MCPELMO 3.0 - ein mathematische Simulationsprogramm zur Abschaetzung der Grundwassergefaehrdung unter Holzlagerflaechen in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, M. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Molekularbiologie und Angewandte Oekologie, Schmallenberg-Grafschaft (Germany); Herrmann, M. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Methods. Based on already in-use versions of the leaching model PELMO, an advanced version (MC-PELMO 3.0) was developed with a specific focus on estimating groundwater contamination under storage sites at wood preserving facilities in Germany. The model processes twenty-two different leaching scenarios that were derived from twelve characteristic soil profiles representing pedological regions in Germany along with recorded meteorological data from nine weather stations. These data are related to geographic distribution of industrial wood preserving activity. The model calculates statistic probabilities of concentrations of wood preservatives in seepage water beneath timber storage sites of regions to be selected by the user. Results and Discussion. The reports provided by MC-PELMO 3.0 include mean average concentrations, 55 to 99 percentiles, and single maximum concentrations for each of the scenarios. The results can be related to the total area of Germany, its forest area or to the density of preservation activity in various regions. Beside concentrations of the parent compounds, those of degradation products may be calculated for the seepage water. Conclusion. The described model is a particularly useful tool for comparative assertion of various wood preservative products under aspects of the exposure of groundwater resources. Comparative assertion is a new element within EU-chemicals policy, for the first time materialized in the biocidal products directive 98/8/EC. Furthermore, the results of model calculations identify vulnerable regions in Germany for which appropriate risk management measures have to be taken in order to protect groundwater from contamination. (orig.) [German] Methoden. Basierend auf bestehenden Versionen des Versickerungsmodells PELMO wurde eine Version speziell fuer die Abschaetzung des Versickerungsverhaltens von Holzschutzmitteln unter Lagerplaetzen von Holz-Impraegnierbetrieben in Deutschland entwickelt. Das stochastische Modell

  12. Hong kong chemical waste treatment facilities: a technology overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siuwang, Chu [Enviropace Ltd., Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    1993-12-31

    The effective management of chemical and industrial wastes represents one of the most pressing environmental problems confronting the Hong Kong community. In 1990, the Hong Kong government contracted Enviropace Limited for the design, construction and operation of a Chemical Waste Treatment Facility. The treatment and disposal processes, their integration and management are the subject of discussion in this paper

  13. Analysis of safeguards information treatment system at the facility level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Doo; Song, Dae Yong; Kwack, Eun Ho

    2000-12-01

    Safeguards Information Treatment System(SITS) at the facility level is required to implement efficiently the obligations under the Korea-IAEA Safeguards Agreement, bilateral agreements with other countries and domestic law. In this report, the analysis of information, which the SITS treats, and operation environment of SITS including the review of the relationship between safeguards information are described. SITS will be developed to cover the different accounting procedures and methods applied at the various facilities under IAEA safeguards.

  14. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghajanzadeh, Arian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wray, Craig [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKane, Aimee [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-30

    Previous research over a period of six years has identified wastewater treatment facilities as good candidates for demand response (DR), automated demand response (Auto-­DR), and Energy Efficiency (EE) measures. This report summarizes that work, including the characteristics of wastewater treatment facilities, the nature of the wastewater stream, energy used and demand, as well as details of the wastewater treatment process. It also discusses control systems and automated demand response opportunities. Furthermore, this report summarizes the DR potential of three wastewater treatment facilities. In particular, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has collected data at these facilities from control systems, submetered process equipment, utility electricity demand records, and governmental weather stations. The collected data were then used to generate a summary of wastewater power demand, factors affecting that demand, and demand response capabilities. These case studies show that facilities that have implemented energy efficiency measures and that have centralized control systems are well suited to shed or shift electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. In summary, municipal wastewater treatment energy demand in California is large, and energy-­intensive equipment offers significant potential for automated demand response. In particular, large load reductions were achieved by targeting effluent pumps and centrifuges. One of the limiting factors to implementing demand response is the reaction of effluent turbidity to reduced aeration at an earlier stage of the process. Another limiting factor is that cogeneration capabilities of municipal facilities, including existing power purchase agreements and utility receptiveness to purchasing electricity from cogeneration facilities, limit a facility’s potential to participate in other DR activities.

  15. Federal Facilities Compliance Act, Conceptual Site Treatment Plan. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-10-29

    This Conceptual Site Treatment Plan was prepared by Ames Laboratory to meet the requirements of the Federal Facilities Compliance Act. Topics discussed in this document include: general discussion of the plan, including the purpose and scope; technical aspects of preparing plans, including the rationale behind the treatability groupings and a discussion of characterization issues; treatment technology needs and treatment options for specific waste streams; low-level mixed waste options; TRU waste options; and future waste generation from restoration activities.

  16. Operation technology of air treatment system in nuclear facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Chun, Y B; Hwong, Y H; Lee, H K; Min, D K; Park, K J; Uom, S H; Yang, S Y

    2001-01-01

    Effective operation techniques were reviewed on the air treatment system to protect the personnel in nuclear facilities from the contamination of radio-active particles and to keep the environment clear. Nuclear air treatment system consisted of the ventilation and filtering system was characterized by some test. Measurement of air velocity of blowing/exhaust fan in the ventilation system, leak tests of HEPA filters in the filtering, and measurement of pressure difference between the areas defined by radiation level were conducted. The results acquired form the measurements were reflected directly for the operation of air treatment. In the abnormal state of virus parts of devices composted of the system, the repairing method, maintenance and performance test were also employed in operating effectively the air treatment system. These measuring results and techniques can be available to the operation of air treatment system of PIEF as well as the other nuclear facilities in KAERI.

  17. Energy Efficiency Strategies for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daw, J.; Hallett, K.; DeWolfe, J.; Venner, I.

    2012-01-01

    Water and wastewater systems are significant energy consumers with an estimated 3%-4% of total U.S. electricity consumption used for the movement and treatment of water and wastewater. Water-energy issues are of growing importance in the context of water shortages, higher energy and material costs, and a changing climate. In this economic environment, it is in the best interest for utilities to find efficiencies, both in water and energy use. Performing energy audits at water and wastewater treatment facilities is one way community energy managers can identify opportunities to save money, energy, and water. In this paper the importance of energy use in wastewater facilities is illustrated by a case study of a process energy audit performed for Crested Butte, Colorado's wastewater treatment plant. The energy audit identified opportunities for significant energy savings by looking at power intensive unit processes such as influent pumping, aeration, ultraviolet disinfection, and solids handling. This case study presents best practices that can be readily adopted by facility managers in their pursuit of energy and financial savings in water and wastewater treatment. This paper is intended to improve community energy managers understanding of the role that the water and wastewater sector plays in a community's total energy consumption. The energy efficiency strategies described provide information on energy savings opportunities, which can be used as a basis for discussing energy management goals with water and wastewater treatment facility managers.

  18. 200 area effluent treatment facility opertaional test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crane, A.F.

    1995-10-26

    This document reports the results of the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (200 Area ETF) operational testing activities. These Operational testing activities demonstrated that the functional, operational and design requirements of the 200 Area ETF have been met and identified open items which require retesting.

  19. The integration of an educational program into a treatment facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuckit, M A; Berger, F

    1989-02-01

    This paper reviews the integration of an active teaching program into a busy treatment facility. All first and second year medical students at the University of California, San Diego take part in a series of didactic lectures and small group discussions, while third and fourth year students have the opportunity of joining a treatment team for 4 to 6 weeks. All psychiatric residents spend a minimum of 8 weeks working on the unit, and one fourth year resident is chosen to work with the staff for a year. The interactions between treatment teams and students in various stages of development help maximize enthusiasm and the commitment to the best patient care possible.

  20. Estimation of marginal costs at existing waste treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Hulgaard, Tore; Hindsgaul, Claus; Riber, Christian; Kamuk, Bettina; Astrup, Thomas F

    2016-04-01

    address and include costs in existing waste facilities in decision-making may unintendedly lead to higher overall costs at societal level. To avoid misleading conclusions, economic assessment of alternative SWM solutions should not only consider potential costs associated with alternative treatment but also include marginal costs associated with existing facilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Water quality, organic chemistry of sediment, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradfield, A.D.; Flexner, N.M.; Webster, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of water quality, organic sediment chemistry, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee, was conducted during December 1990. The study was designed to assess the extent of possible contamination of water and biota in the streams from creosote-related discharge originating at this Superfund site. Central Creek, adjacent to the plant, had degraded water quality and biological conditions. Water samples from the most downstream station on Central Creek contained 30 micrograms per liter of pentachlorophenol, which exceeds the State's criterion maximum concentrations of 9 micrograms per liter for fish and aquatic life. Bottom-sediment samples from stations on Central Creek contained concentrations of acenaphthene, napthalene, and phenanthrene ranging from 1,400 to 2,500 micrograms per kilogram. Chronic or acute toxicity resulted during laboratory experiments using test organisms exposed to creosote-related contaminants. Sediment elutriate samples from Central Creek caused slightly to highly toxic effects on Ceriodaphnia dubia. Pimephales promelas, and Photobacterium phosphoreum. Fish-tissue samples from this station contained concentrations of naphthalene. dibenzofuran, fluorene, and phenanthrene ranging from 1.5 to 3.9 micrograms per kilogram Blue-green algae at this station represented about 79 percent of the organisms counted, whereas diatoms accounted for only 11 percent. Benthic invertebrate and fish samples from Central Creek had low diversity and density. Sediment samples from a station on the South Fork Forked Deer River downstream from its confluence with Central Creek contained concentrations of acenaphthene, anthracene, chrysene, fluoranthene, fluorene, pyrere, and phenanthrene ranging from 2,800 to 69,000 micrograms per kilogram. Sediment elutriate samples using water as elutriate from this station contained concentrations of extractable organic compounds ranging from an estimated

  2. Occurrence of antibiotics in wastewater treatment facilities in Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, K.G.; Meyer, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Samples from several wastewater treatment facilities in Wisconsin were screened for the presence of 21 antibiotic compounds. These facilities spanned a range of community size served (average daily flow from 0.0212 to 23.6 million gallons/day), secondary treatment processes, geographic locations across the state, and they discharged the treated effluents to both surface and ground waters (for ground water after a soil passage). A total of six antibiotic compounds were detected (1-5 compounds per site), including two sulfonamides (sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole), one tetracycline (tetracycline), fluoroquinolone (ciprofloxacin), macrolide (erythromycin-H2O) and trimethoprim. The frequency of detection of antibiotics was in the following order: tetracycline and trimethoprim (80%) > sulfamethoxazole (70%) > erythromycin-H2O (45%) > ciprofloxacin (40%) > sulfamethazine (10%). However, the soluble concentrations were in the parts-per-billion (ppb) range (??? 1.3 ??g/L), and importantly were unaffected by the size of the wastewater treatment facility. The concentrations detected were within an order of magnitude of those reported for similar systems in Europe and Canada: they were within a factor of two in comparison to those reported for Canada but generally lower relative to those measured in wastewater systems in Europe. Only sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline were detected in groundwater monitoring wells adjacent to the treatment systems. Future intensive wastewater monitoring programs in Wisconsin may be limited to the six antibiotic compounds detected in this study. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Climate Adaptation Capacity for Conventional Drinking Water Treatment Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, A.; Goodrich, J.; Yang, J.

    2013-12-01

    Water supplies are vulnerable to a host of climate- and weather-related stressors such as droughts, intense storms/flooding, snowpack depletion, sea level changes, and consequences from fires, landslides, and excessive heat or cold. Surface water resources (lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and streams) are especially susceptible to weather-induced changes in water availability and quality. The risks to groundwater systems may also be significant. Typically, water treatment facilities are designed with an underlying assumption that water quality from a given source is relatively predictable based on historical data. However, increasing evidence of the lack of stationarity is raising questions about the validity of traditional design assumptions, particularly since the service life of many facilities can exceed fifty years. Given that there are over 150,000 public water systems in the US that deliver drinking water to over 300 million people every day, it is important to evaluate the capacity for adapting to the impacts of a changing climate. Climate and weather can induce or amplify changes in physical, chemical, and biological water quality, reaction rates, the extent of water-sediment-air interactions, and also impact the performance of treatment technologies. The specific impacts depend on the watershed characteristics and local hydrological and land-use factors. Water quality responses can be transient, such as erosion-induced increases in sediment and runoff. Longer-term impacts include changes in the frequency and intensity of algal blooms, gradual changes in the nature and concentration of dissolved organic matter, dissolved solids, and modulation of the microbiological community structure, sources and survival of pathogens. In addition, waterborne contaminants associated with municipal, industrial, and agricultural activities can also impact water quality. This presentation evaluates relationships between climate and weather induced water quality variability and

  4. Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility: Environmental Information Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haagenstad, H.T.; Gonzales, G.; Suazo, I.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the treatment of radioactive liquid waste is an integral function of the LANL mission: to assure U.S. military deterrence capability through nuclear weapons technology. As part of this mission, LANL conducts nuclear materials research and development (R&D) activities. These activities generate radioactive liquid waste that must be handled in a manner to ensure protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Radioactive liquid waste currently generated at LANL is treated at the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF), located at Technical Area (TA)-50. The RLWTF is 30 years old and nearing the end of its useful design life. The facility was designed at a time when environmental requirements, as well as more effective treatment technologies, were not inherent in engineering design criteria. The evolution of engineering design criteria has resulted in the older technology becoming less effective in treating radioactive liquid wastestreams in accordance with current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Department of Energy (DOE) regulatory requirements. Therefore, to support ongoing R&D programs pertinent to its mission, LANL is in need of capabilities to efficiently treat radioactive liquid waste onsite or to transport the waste off site for treatment and/or disposal. The purpose of the EID is to provide the technical baseline information for subsequent preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the RLWTF. This EID addresses the proposed action and alternatives for meeting the purpose and need for agency action.

  5. Travel Distance to Cancer Treatment Facilities in the Deep South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Mary J; Whitman, Marilyn V; English, Thomas M

    Despite ongoing efforts to improve rural healthcare, the health problems facing rural communities persist. The lack of healthcare providers and infrastructure in rural areas has been linked to a number of negative consequences. Among the elderly rural population, the lack of proximal access presents greater barriers because many elderly people are further limited in their ability to travel and pay for services. In the Deep South specifically, rural residents experience limited access to care and overall poor health outcomes. With cancer in particular, the Deep South has been dubbed the "cancer belt," faring far worse in prevalence and mortality rates than other areas of the country. The present study examines the average travel distance for rural elderly patients residing in the Deep South who are receiving treatment for prostate, breast, or colorectal cancer. We analyzed Medicare claims data of beneficiaries residing in the five Deep South states who had received a primary diagnosis of prostate, breast, or colorectal cancer, with a service date ranging from January 1, 2011, through December 31, 2014. The findings reveal that rural Medicare beneficiaries in the Deep South travel significantly greater distances than do their urban counterparts. In addition, travel distances to prostate cancer treatment facilities are significantly greater than those to breast or colorectal cancer treatment facilities. With cancer incidence predicted to increase, the need to reduce travel distances to treatment is vital in efforts to curb the mortality rate in the Deep South.

  6. 3718-F Alkali Metal Treatment and Storage Facility Closure Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-12-01

    Since 1987, Westinghouse Hanford Company has been a major contractor to the U.S. Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and has served as co-operator of the 3718-F Alkali Metal Treatment and Storage Facility, the waste management unit addressed in this closure plan. The closure plan consists of a Part A Dangerous waste Permit Application and a RCRA Closure Plan. An explanation of the Part A Revision (Revision 1) submitted with this document is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. The closure plan consists of 9 chapters and 5 appendices. The chapters cover: introduction; facility description; process information; waste characteristics; groundwater; closure strategy and performance standards; closure activities; postclosure; and references.

  7. 40 CFR 403.19 - Provisions of specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. 403.19 Section 403.19 Protection of Environment... Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term “Participating... Industrial User discharging to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility in Owatonna, Minnesota, when a...

  8. Mixed and low-level waste treatment facility project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    The technology information provided in this report is only the first step toward the identification and selection of process systems that may be recommended for a proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility. More specific information on each technology will be required to conduct the system and equipment tradeoff studies that will follow these preengineering studies. For example, capacity, maintainability, reliability, cost, applicability to specific waste streams, and technology availability must be further defined. This report does not currently contain all needed information; however, all major technologies considered to be potentially applicable to the treatment of mixed and low-level waste are identified and described herein. Future reports will seek to improve the depth of information on technologies.

  9. Multidisciplinary pain facility treatment outcome for pain-associated fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbain, David A; Lewis, John; Cole, Brandly; Cutler, Brian; Smets, Eve; Rosomoff, Hubert; Rosomoff, Rennee Steele

    2005-01-01

    Fatigue is frequently found in chronic pain patients (CPPs) and may be etiologically related to the presence of pain. Fishbain et al. have recently demonstrated that chronic low back pain (LBP) and chronic neck pain patients are more fatigued than controls. The purpose of this study was to determine whether chronic LBP- and chronic neck pain-associated fatigue responded to multidisciplinary multimodal treatment not specifically targeted to the treatment of fatigue. A total of 85 chronic LBP and 33 chronic neck pain patients completed the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI), Neuropathic Pain Scale (NPS), and Beck Depression Inventory on admission. In addition, an information tool was completed on each CPP by the senior author. This tool listed demographic information, primary and secondary pain diagnoses, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) psychiatric diagnoses assigned, pain location, pain precipitating event, type of injury, years in pain, number of surgeries, type of surgery, type of pain pattern, opioids consumed per day in morphine equivalents, worker compensation status, and whether, according to the clinical examination, the CPP had a neuropathic pain component. At completion of the multidisciplinary multimodal treatment, each CPP again completed the MFI. Student's t-test was utilized to test for statistical changes on the MFI five scales from pre- to post-treatment. Pearson and point-biserial correlations were utilized to determine which variables significantly correlated with MFI change scores. Variables found significant at less than or equal to 0.01 were utilized in a stepwise aggression analysis to find variables predictive of change in MFI scores. Multidisciplinary pain facility. Chronic LBP and chronic neck pain patients. Multidisciplinary multimodal treatment significantly improved CPP fatigue as measured by the MFI. The available variables utilized to predict fatigue best explained only a small percentage

  10. Mass school physicals at military treatment facilities: a successful approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Brian D

    2009-05-01

    Mass physicals are commonly employed by military treatment facilities (MTFs) as a way to complete school physicals for large numbers of military dependents. Because these events are usually held a few times yearly, military staff may lack the experience necessary to conduct these events efficiently. Patient and staff satisfaction at these events can be very low if they are poorly planned and executed. At Martin Army Community Hospital (BMACH), the primary care clinics have developed an efficient and effective mass physical plan. The use of appointments for these physicals and prescreening immunization records are crucial to smooth mass physical operation. The use of color-coded signs, clear command structure, and pre-event training for staff are important tools for success. We describe our approach to mass physicals which can be adapted for use at other MTFs.

  11. Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided.

  12. Analysis of material and energy flow in sewage treatment facilities in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, N; Hu, H Y; Lim, B R; Fujie, K

    2001-05-01

    Energy consumption in sewage treatment facilities in Japan has increased due to increasing tap water consumption. To reduce the resource/energy consumption in sewage treatment facilities, measures such as the selection of optimum treatment processes and operating conditions should be considered. The objective of this study is to gather information necessary for the determination of optimum sewage treatment processes and optimum operating conditions. The energy consumption and material flow in sewage treatment facilities in Japan are analyzed using statistical data. In 1994, reuse rate of treated sewage outside the treatment facilities in Japan was 18% of the amount of domestic treated water. In this regard, reuse of water outside facilities should be encouraged. Average electric power consumption per unit volume of wastewater in sewage treatment facilities varies widely from facility to facility and closely correlates with the facility scale. For example, the smaller the facility scale, the larger the electric power consumption. Treatment volume of sewage in smaller facilities is much less than their capacity. 3.7 million t year-1 of dehydration cake is incinerated and 0.1 million t year-1 of it is converted by composting. The recycle rate of the cake was low. Developing a new sludge treatment process other than incineration is necessary.

  13. Treatment, Storage and Disposal (TSD) Corrective Action Facility Polygons, Region 9, 2015, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RCRA Treatment, Storage and Disposal facilities (TSDs) are facilities that have treated, stored or disposed of hazardous wastes. They are required to clean up...

  14. PEROXIDE DESTRUCTION TESTING FOR THE 200 AREA EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HALGREN DL

    2010-03-12

    The hydrogen peroxide decomposer columns at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) have been taken out of service due to ongoing problems with particulate fines and poor destruction performance from the granular activated carbon (GAC) used in the columns. An alternative search was initiated and led to bench scale testing and then pilot scale testing. Based on the bench scale testing three manganese dioxide based catalysts were evaluated in the peroxide destruction pilot column installed at the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The ten inch diameter, nine foot tall, clear polyvinyl chloride (PVC) column allowed for the same six foot catalyst bed depth as is in the existing ETF system. The flow rate to the column was controlled to evaluate the performance at the same superficial velocity (gpm/ft{sup 2}) as the full scale design flow and normal process flow. Each catalyst was evaluated on peroxide destruction performance and particulate fines capacity and carryover. Peroxide destruction was measured by hydrogen peroxide concentration analysis of samples taken before and after the column. The presence of fines in the column headspace and the discharge from carryover was generally assessed by visual observation. All three catalysts met the peroxide destruction criteria by achieving hydrogen peroxide discharge concentrations of less than 0.5 mg/L at the design flow with inlet peroxide concentrations greater than 100 mg/L. The Sud-Chemie T-2525 catalyst was markedly better in the minimization of fines and particle carryover. It is anticipated the T-2525 can be installed as a direct replacement for the GAC in the peroxide decomposer columns. Based on the results of the peroxide method development work the recommendation is to purchase the T-2525 catalyst and initially load one of the ETF decomposer columns for full scale testing.

  15. Biological Information Document, Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biggs, J.

    1995-12-31

    This document is intended to act as a baseline source material for risk assessments which can be used in Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements. The current Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) does not meet current General Design Criteria for Non-reactor Nuclear Facilities and could be shut down affecting several DOE programs. This Biological Information Document summarizes various biological studies that have been conducted in the vicinity of new Proposed RLWTF site and an Alternative site. The Proposed site is located on Mesita del Buey, a mess top, and the Alternative site is located in Mortandad Canyon. The Proposed Site is devoid of overstory species due to previous disturbance and is dominated by a mixture of grasses, forbs, and scattered low-growing shrubs. Vegetation immediately adjacent to the site is a pinyon-juniper woodland. The Mortandad canyon bottom overstory is dominated by ponderosa pine, willow, and rush. The south-facing slope was dominated by ponderosa pine, mountain mahogany, oak, and muhly. The north-facing slope is dominated by Douglas fir, ponderosa pine, and oak. Studies on wildlife species are limited in the vicinity of the proposed project and further studies will be necessary to accurately identify wildlife populations and to what extent they utilize the project area. Some information is provided on invertebrates, amphibians and reptiles, and small mammals. Additional species information from other nearby locations is discussed in detail. Habitat requirements exist in the project area for one federally threatened wildlife species, the peregrine falcon, and one federal candidate species, the spotted bat. However, based on surveys outside of the project area but in similar habitats, these species are not expected to occur in either the Proposed or Alternative RLWTF sites. Habitat Evaluation Procedures were used to evaluate ecological functioning in the project area.

  16. Perceptions of Organizational Functioning in Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Steven; Louw, Johann; Myers, Bronwyn

    2011-01-01

    Directors' and treatment staff's perceptions of organizational functioning within substance abuse treatment facilities in four provinces in South Africa were examined via the Texas Christian University's Organizational Readiness for Change instrument. Forty-four treatment facilities (out of 89) participated in the study. Results indicated that…

  17. Provision of Mental Health Services in South African Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Bronwyn; Fakier, Nuraan

    2009-01-01

    To date, South African research has not examined mental health service provision in substance abuse treatment facilities, even though these services improve client retention and treatment outcomes. To describe the extent to which substance abuse treatment facilities in Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal provinces provide clients with mental health services…

  18. 24 CFR 960.205 - Drug use by applicants: Obtaining information from drug treatment facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... This section addresses a PHA's authority to request and obtain information from drug abuse treatment... abuse treatment facilities other than under the authority of section 6(t). (b) Additional terms used in... household member. (2) Drug abuse treatment facility. An entity: (i) That holds itself out as providing, and...

  19. Testing for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems: Identification of Technologies for Effluent Treatment in Test Facilities Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop a comprehensive understanding of requirements for a facility that could safely conduct effluent treatment for a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) rocket...

  20. Strengthening Critical Infrastructure: Combined Heat and Power at Wastewater Treatment Facilities (Webinar) – November 15, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    This webinar provides information about CHP at wastewater treatment facilities (WWTFs), including advantages and challenges, financial incentives and funding programs, and technical and economic potential.

  1. Estimation of marginal costs at existing waste treatment facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Sanchez, Veronica; Hulgaard, Tore; Hindsgaul, Claus

    2016-01-01

    , based on the determination of average costs in such waste facilities as function of key facility and waste compositional parameters. The applicability of the method was demonstrated through a case study including two existing Waste-to-Energy (WtE) facilities, one with co-generation of heat and power...... (CHP) and another with only power generation (Power), affected by diversion strategies of five waste fractions (fibres, plastic, metals, organics and glass), named "target fractions". The study assumed three possible responses to waste diversion in the WtE facilities: (i) biomass was added to maintain...... a constant thermal load, (ii) Refused-Derived-Fuel (RDF) was included to maintain a constant thermal load, or (iii) no reaction occurred resulting in a reduced waste throughput without full utilization of the facility capacity. Results demonstrated that marginal costs of diversion from WtE were up to eleven...

  2. Incineration facilities for treatment of radioactive wastes: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, B.L.

    1976-02-01

    A description is given of incinerator installations in the US and in foreign countries. Included are descriptions of inactive incinerators, incinerator facilities currently in operation, and incinerator installations under construction. Special features of each installation and operational problems of each facility are emphasized. Problems in the incineration of radioactive waste are discussed in relation to the composition of the waste and the amount and type of radioactive contaminant.

  3. Potable Water Treatment Facility General Permit (PWTF GP) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-28

    The Final PWTF GP establishes permit eligibility conditions, Notice of Intent (NOI) requirements, effluent limitations, standards, prohibitions, and best management practices for facilities that discharge to waters in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts (including both Commonwealth and Indian country lands) and the State of New Hampshire.

  4. Mixed and low-level waste treatment facility project. Volume 3, Waste treatment technologies (Draft)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    The technology information provided in this report is only the first step toward the identification and selection of process systems that may be recommended for a proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility. More specific information on each technology will be required to conduct the system and equipment tradeoff studies that will follow these preengineering studies. For example, capacity, maintainability, reliability, cost, applicability to specific waste streams, and technology availability must be further defined. This report does not currently contain all needed information; however, all major technologies considered to be potentially applicable to the treatment of mixed and low-level waste are identified and described herein. Future reports will seek to improve the depth of information on technologies.

  5. Exposure to airborne fungi during sorting of recyclable plastics in waste treatment facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Kristýna Černá; Zdeňka Wittlingerová; Magdaléna Zimová; Zdeněk Janovský

    2017-01-01

    Background: In working environment of waste treatment facilities, employees are exposed to high concentrations of airborne microorganisms. Fungi constitute an essential part of them. This study aims at evaluating the diurnal variation in concentrations and species composition of the fungal contamination in 2 plastic waste sorting facilities in different seasons. Material and Methods: Air samples from the 2 sorting facilities were collected through the membrane filters method on 4 different ty...

  6. Infection Prevention and Control in Deployed Military Medical Treatment Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, by day 5 after injury.8 Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Colonization and Infection of Wounds Numerous reports have documented the...the best place to start. More rapid detection, identification , and analysis of antimicrobial susceptibility could help guide antimicrobial selection...and sterilization in healthcare facilities, 2008. Available at: www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dhqp/ pdf / guidelines/Disinfection_Nov_2008. pdf . Accessed April 27

  7. Markers for aggression in inpatient treatment facilities for adults with mild to borderline intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tenneij, N.H.; Didden, R.; Stolker, J.J.; Koot, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    In high care settings for persons with intellectual disability (ID) aggressive incidents often occur. Still little is known about factors that are associated with an increased risk for aggressive behavior in clients who are admitted to an inpatient treatment facility. In four inpatient facilities,

  8. Suicidal behaviours in male and female users of illicit drugs recruited in drug treatment facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Arribas-Ibar

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: Prevalence of suicidal ideation/plans was high among illicit drug users recruited from healthcare facilities. Besides psychological variables, participation in illegal market activities and crime ought to be considered in drug users’ suicidal prevention. Suicide risk needs to be evaluated in drug treatment facilities and psychological status and context contemplated.

  9. NPDES Permit for Soap Creek Associates Wastewater Treatment Facility in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number MT-0023183, Soap Creek Associates, Inc. is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility located in West, Bighorn County, Montana, to Soap Creek.

  10. Potable Water Treatment Facility General Permit (PWTF GP) for Massachusetts & New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents, links & contacts for the Notice of Availability of the draft NPDES General Permit for Discharges from Potable Water Treatment Facilities in Massachusetts (MAG640000) and New Hampshire (NHG640000).

  11. Ground Water Monitoring Requirements for Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The groundwater monitoring requirements for hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facilities (TSDFs) are just one aspect of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste management strategy for protecting human health and the

  12. Village of Pender, Nebraska Wastewater Treatment Facility, Pender, Nebraska - Clean Water Act Public Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against the Village of Pender, Nebraska Wastewater Treatment Facility (“Respondent”) for alleged violations of Sections 301 and/or 404 of the Clean Water Act

  13. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Facility Registry Service (FRS) Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This GIS dataset contains data on wastewater treatment plants, based on EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) and NPDES, along with Clean Watersheds Needs Survey...

  14. 77 FR 58470 - Irradiation Treatment; Location of Facilities in the Southern United States; Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... approving treatment facilities for fruits, vegetables, and other articles to prevent the introduction or...'' link under the ``Core Activities'' heading. List of Subjects in 7 CFR Part 319 Coffee, Cotton, Fruits...

  15. Navajo Tribal Utility Authority Shiprock Wastewater Treatment Facility; Draft NPDES Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is proposing to issue a NPDES permit (No. NN0020621) to Navajo Tribal Utility Authority (NTUA) for the Shiprock wastewater treatment facility in San Juan County, New Mexico, within the northeastern portion of the Navajo Nation.

  16. Operation, Maintenance and Management of Wastewater Treatment Facilities: A Bibliography of Technical Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himes, Dottie

    This is an annotated bibliography of wastewater treatment manuals. Fourteen manuals are abstracted including: (1) A Planned Maintenance Management System for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants; (2) Anaerobic Sludge Digestion, Operations Manual; (3) Emergency Planning for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities; (4) Estimating Laboratory Needs…

  17. 3718-F Alkali Metal Treatment and Storage Facility Closure Plan. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-11-01

    The Hanford Site, located northwest of the city of Richland, Washington, houses reactors, chemical-separation systems, and related facilities used for the production of special nuclear materials, as well as for activities associated with nuclear energy development. The 300 Area of the Hanford Site contains reactor fuel manufacturing facilities and several research and development laboratories. The 3718-F Alkali Metal Treatment and Storage Facility (3718-F Facility), located in the 300 Area, was used to store and treat alkali metal wastes. Therefore, it is subject to the regulatory requirements for the storage and treatment of dangerous wastes. Closure will be conducted pursuant to the requirements of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 (Ecology 1989) and 40 CFR 270.1. Closure also will satisfy the thermal treatment facility closure requirements of 40 CFR 265.381. This closure plan presents a description of the 3718-F Facility, the history of wastes managed, and the approach that will be followed to close the facility. Only hazardous constituents derived from 3718-F Facility operations will be addressed.

  18. Successful Treatment of Acute Boron Poisoning Induced Neurotoxicity by Haemodialysis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Hosagoudar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Boric acid is commonly used as pesticide, disinfectant and wood preservative. Acute boron poisoning may manifest with vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, headache, altered sensorium, seizure etc. Treatment of acute boron poisoning is conservative, no specific antidote is available.

  19. Mesa Verde National Park Wastewater Treatment Facility NPDES Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit number CO-0034398, the United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Mesa Verde National Park is authorized to discharge from the Mesa Verde National Park wastewater treatment plant, in Montezuma County, Colo.

  20. Argonne-West facility requirements for a radioactive waste treatment demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwight, C.C.; Felicione, F.S.; Black, D.B.; Kelso, R.B.; McClellan, G.C.

    1995-03-01

    At Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W), near Idaho Falls, Idaho, facilities that were originally constructed to support the development of liquid-metal reactor technology are being used and/or modified to meet the environmental and waste management research needs of DOE. One example is the use of an Argonne-West facility to conduct a radioactive waste treatment demonstration through a cooperative project with Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company. The Plasma Hearth Process (PBP) project will utilize commercially-adapted plasma arc technology to demonstrate treatment of actual mixed waste. The demonstration on radioactive waste will be conducted at Argonne`s Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT). Utilization of an existing facility for a new and different application presents a unique set of issues in meeting applicable federal state, and local requirements as well as the additional constraints imposed by DOE Orders and ANL-W site requirements. This paper briefly describes the PHP radioactive demonstrations relevant to the interfaces with the TREAT facility. Safety, environmental design, and operational considerations pertinent to the PHP radioactive demonstration are specifically addressed herein. The personnel equipment, and facility interfaces associated with a radioactive waste treatment demonstration are an important aspect of the demonstration effort. Areas requiring significant effort in preparation for the PBP Project being conducted at the TREAT facility include confinement design, waste handling features, and sampling and analysis considerations. Information about the facility in which a radioactive demonstration will be conducted, specifically Argonne`s TREAT facility in the case of PHP, may be of interest to other organizations involved in developing and demonstrating technologies for mixed waste treatment.

  1. Process Design Manual: Wastewater Treatment Facilities for Sewered Small Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffel, R. E.; And Others

    This manual attempts to describe new treatment methods, and discuss the application of new techniques for more effectively removing a broad spectrum of contaminants from wastewater. Topics covered include: fundamental design considerations, flow equalization, headworks components, clarification of raw wastewater, activated sludge, package plants,…

  2. Operation and Maintenance Manual for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norm Stanley

    2011-02-01

    This Operation and Maintenance Manual lists operator and management responsibilities, permit standards, general operating procedures, maintenance requirements and monitoring methods for the Sewage Treatment Plant at the Central Facilities Area at the Idaho National Laboratory. The manual is required by the Municipal Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000141-03) the sewage treatment plant.

  3. Improving the Quality of Services in Residential Treatment Facilities: A Strength-Based Consultative Review Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavkov, Thomas W.; Lourie, Ira S.; Hug, Richard W.; Negash, Sesen

    2010-01-01

    This descriptive case study reports on the positive impact of a consultative review methodology used to conduct quality assurance reviews as part of the Residential Treatment Center Evaluation Project. The study details improvement in the quality of services provided to youth in unmonitored residential treatment facilities. Improvements were…

  4. Implementing Trauma-Informed Treatment for Youth in a Residential Facility: First-Year Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Ricky; Siradas, Lynn; Schmitt, Thomas A.; Reslan, Summar; Fierle, Julia; Sande, Brad

    2012-01-01

    Training in the Fairy Tale model of trauma-informed treatment was provided to clinical and direct care staff working with 53 youth in a residential treatment facility. Compared to the year prior to training, in the year of the training the average improvement in presenting problems was increased by 34%, time to discharge was reduced by 39%, and…

  5. Power Burst Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Program for cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, A.L. (ed.); Dorn, R.V. III.

    1990-08-01

    This report discusses monthly progress in the Power Boron Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (PBF/BNCT) Program for Cancer Treatment. Highlights of the PBF/BNCT Program during August 1990 include progress within the areas of: Gross Boron Analysis in Tissue, Blood, and Urine, boron microscopic (subcellular) analytical development, noninvasive boron quantitative determination, analytical radiation transport and interaction modeling for BNCT, large animal model studies, neutron source and facility preparation, administration and common support and PBF operations.

  6. Power Burst Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy program for cancer treatment, Volume 4, No. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, A.L. (ed.)

    1990-07-01

    This report discusses the monthly progress of the Power Burst Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (PBF/BNLT) program for cancer treatment. Highlights of the PBF/BNCT Program during July 1990 include progress within the areas of: Gross boron analysis in tissue, blood, and urine; noninvasive boron quantitative determination; analytical radiation transport and interaction modeling for BNCT; large animal model studies; neutron source and facility preparation; administration and common support and PBF operations.

  7. Transuranic-contaminated solid waste Treatment Development Facility. Final safety analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, C.L. (comp.)

    1979-07-01

    The Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for the Transuranic-Contaminated Solid-Waste Treatment Facility has been prepared in compliance with the Department of Energy (DOE) Manual Chapter 0531, Safety of Nonreactor Nuclear Facilities. The Treatment Development Facility (TDF) at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is a research and development facility dedicated to the study of radioactive-waste-management processes. This analysis addresses site assessment, facility design and construction, and the design and operating characteristics of the first study process, controlled air incineration and aqueous scrub off-gas treatment with respect to both normal and accident conditions. The credible accidents having potentially serious consequences relative to the operation of the facility and the first process have been analyzed and the consequences of each postulated credible accident are presented. Descriptions of the control systems, engineered safeguards, and administrative and operational features designed to prevent or mitigate the consequences of such accidents are presented. The essential features of the operating and emergency procedures, environmental protection and monitoring programs, as well as the health and safety, quality assurance, and employee training programs are described.

  8. Economic impacts of zebra mussels on drinking water treatment and electric power generation facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Nancy A; O'Neill, Charles R; Knuth, Barbara A; Brown, Tommy L

    2007-07-01

    Invasions of nonnative species such as zebra mussels can have both ecological and economic consequences. The economic impacts of zebra mussels have not been examined in detail since the mid-1990s. The purpose of this study was to quantify the annual and cumulative economic impact of zebra mussels on surface water-dependent drinking water treatment and electric power generation facilities (where previous research indicated the greatest impacts). The study time frame was from the first full year after discovery in North America (Lake St. Clair, 1989) to the present (2004); the study area was throughout the mussels' North American range. A mail survey resulted in a response rate of 31% for electric power companies and 41% for drinking water treatment plants. Telephone interviews with a sample of nonrespondents assessed nonresponse bias; only one difference was found and adjusted for. Over one-third (37%) of surveyed facilities reported finding zebra mussels in the facility and almost half (45%) have initiated preventive measures to prevent zebra mussels from entering the facility operations. Almost all surveyed facilities (91%) with zebra mussels have used control or mitigation alternatives to remove or control zebra mussels. We estimated that 36% of surveyed facilities experienced an economic impact. Expanding the sample to the population of the study area, we estimated 267 million dollars (BCa 95% CI = 161 million dollars - 467 million dollars) in total economic costs for electric generation and water treatment facilities through late 2004, since 1989. Annual costs were greater (44,000 dollars/facility) during the early years of zebra mussel infestation than in recent years (30,000 dollars). As a result of this and other factors, early predictions of the ultimate costs of the zebra mussel invasion may have been excessive.

  9. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 325 hazardous waste treatment units. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This report contains the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application for the 325 Hazardous Waste Treatment Units (325 HWTUs) which consist of the Shielded Analytical Laboratory, the 325 Building, and the 325 Collection/Loadout Station Tank. The 325 HWTUs receive, store, and treat dangerous waste generated by Hanford Facility programs. Routine dangerous and/or mixed waste treatment that will be conducted in the 325 HWTUs will include pH adjustment, ion exchange, carbon absorption, oxidation, reduction, waste concentration by evaporation, precipitation, filtration, solvent extraction, solids washing, phase separation, catalytic destruction, and solidification/stabilization.

  10. TSD-DOSE: A radiological dose assessment model for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfingston, M.; Arnish, J.; LePoire, D.; Chen, S.-Y.

    1998-10-14

    Past practices at US Department of Energy (DOE) field facilities resulted in the presence of trace amounts of radioactive materials in some hazardous chemical wastes shipped from these facilities. In May 1991, the DOE Office of Waste Operations issued a nationwide moratorium on shipping all hazardous waste until procedures could be established to ensure that only nonradioactive hazardous waste would be shipped from DOE facilities to commercial treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities. To aid in assessing the potential impacts of shipments of mixed radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes, a radiological assessment computer model (or code) was developed on the basis of detailed assessments of potential radiological exposures and doses for eight commercial hazardous waste TSD facilities. The model, called TSD-DOSE, is designed to incorporate waste-specific and site-specific data to estimate potential radiological doses to on-site workers and the off-site public from waste-handling operations at a TSD facility. The code is intended to provide both DOE and commercial TSD facilities with a rapid and cost-effective method for assessing potential human radiation exposures from the processing of chemical wastes contaminated with trace amounts of radionuclides.

  11. Corrosion of metals in wood : comparing the results of a rapid test method with long-term exposure tests across six wood treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Donald S. Stone

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares two methods of measuring the corrosion of steel and galvanized steel in wood: a long-term exposure test in solid wood and a rapid test method where fasteners are electrochemically polarized in extracts of wood treated with six different treatments. For traditional wood preservatives, the electrochemical extract method correlates with solid wood...

  12. Quantification of greenhouse gas emissions from a biological waste treatment facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Bang; Møller, Jacob; Mønster, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Whole-site emissions of methane and nitrous oxide, from a combined dry anaerobic digestion and composting facility treating biowaste, were quantified using a tracer dispersion technique that combines a controlled tracer gas release from the treatment facility with time-resolved concentration...... measured after work hours ended, in comparison to emissions measured during the facility's opening hours (30.2kg CH4 h-1). Nitrous oxide emission was too small for a downwind quantification. Direct on-site measurements, however, suggested that the main part of the emitted nitrous oxide came from...... measurements downwind of the facility. Emission measurements were conducted over a period of three days, and in total, 80 plume traverses were obtained. On-site screening showed that important processes resulting in methane emissions were aerobic composting reactors, anaerobic digester reactors, composting...

  13. Wood preservation of low-temperature carbonisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselink, R.J.A.; Krosse, A.M.A.; Putten, van der J.C.; Kolk, van der J.C.; Klerk-Engels, de B.; Dam, van J.E.G.

    2004-01-01

    Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood with dimensions (100 x 10 x 10mm) was thermally treated at 275degreesC in a muffle oven to impart resistance to microbial degradation. Low-temperature carbonised pine resulted in a visually homogeneously treated product with a substantial (about 70% w/w) reduced

  14. Training the Staff of a Drug Addiction Treatment Facility: A Case Study of Hogar De Encuentro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Andrew A.; Leske, M. Cristina

    1977-01-01

    This paper, presented at the American Public Health Association meeting; Chicago, November 1975, discusses a staff training program at a drug addiction treatment facility established for Spanish-speaking (and other) drug addicts. Staff improved counseling skills and knowledge of drug addiction, but changed little in attitudes toward drug use and…

  15. Calculation of chemical quantities for the radioactive liquid waste treatment facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Signore, John C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); McClenahan, Robert L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2007-03-01

    The Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) receives, stores, and treats both low-level and transuranic radioactive liquid wastes (RLW). Treatment of RLW requires the use of different chemicals. Examples include the use of calcium oxide to precipitate metals and radioactive elements from the radioactive liquid waste, and the use of hydrochloric acid to clean membrane filters that are used in the treatment process. The RL WTF is a Hazard Category 2 nuclear facility, as set forth in the LANL Final Safety Analysis Report of October 1995, and a DOE letter of March 11, 1999. A revised safety basis is being prepared for the RLWTF, and will be submitted to the NNSA in early 2007. This set of calculations establishes maximum chemical quantities that will be used in the 2007 safety basis.

  16. Project C-018H, 242-A Evaporator/PUREX Plant Process Condensate Treatment Facility, functional design criteria. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, N.

    1995-05-02

    This document provides the Functional Design Criteria (FDC) for Project C-018H, the 242-A Evaporator and Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant Condensate Treatment Facility (Also referred to as the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility [ETF]). The project will provide the facilities to treat and dispose of the 242-A Evaporator process condensate (PC), the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant process condensate (PDD), and the PUREX Plant ammonia scrubber distillate (ASD).

  17. City Of Elizabeth City, N.C. Summary Report And recommendations On Water Supply And Water Treatment Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Elizabeth City has an inadequate water supply and a greatly overloaded and deteriorated treatment facility. The present treatment plant was designed for an output of...

  18. TSD-DOSE : a radiological dose assessment model for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfingston, M.

    1998-12-23

    In May 1991, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Waste Operations, issued a nationwide moratorium on shipping slightly radioactive mixed waste from DOE facilities to commercial treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities. Studies were subsequently conducted to evaluate the radiological impacts associated with DOE's prior shipments through DOE's authorized release process under DOE Order 5400.5. To support this endeavor, a radiological assessment computer code--TSD-DOSE (Version 1.1)--was developed and issued by DOE in 1997. The code was developed on the basis of detailed radiological assessments performed for eight commercial hazardous waste TSD facilities. It was designed to utilize waste-specific and site-specific data to estimate potential radiological doses to on-site workers and the off-site public from waste handling operations at a TSD facility. The code has since been released for use by DOE field offices and was recently used by DOE to evaluate the release of septic waste containing residual radioactive material to a TSD facility licensed under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Revisions to the code were initiated in 1997 to incorporate comments received from users and to increase TSD-DOSE's capability, accuracy, and flexibility. These updates included incorporation of the method used to estimate external radiation doses from DOE's RESRAD model and expansion of the source term to include 85 radionuclides. In addition, a detailed verification and benchmarking analysis was performed.

  19. Differences between U.S. substance abuse treatment facilities that do and do not offer domestic violence services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Amy; Najavits, Lisa M

    2014-04-01

    Victimization by and perpetration of domestic violence are associated with co-occurring mental and substance use disorders. This study used data from the National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services to examine differences in organizational factors, treatment approaches offered, and client-level factors among 13,342 substance abuse treatment facilities by whether or not they offered domestic violence services. Only 36% of the facilities offered domestic violence services. Those that offered such services were more likely than those that did not to treat clients with co-occurring disorders. Principal-components analysis reduced eight treatment approaches to two factors: psychosocial services and traditional substance abuse services. Regression models indicated that the frequency with which psychosocial services were offered depended on the percentage of clients with co-occurring disorders who were being treated in the facility and whether or not that facility offered domestic violence services. Specifically, facilities that did not offer domestic violence services and that had a high percentage of clients with co-occurring disorders were more likely to offer psychosocial services than facilities that offered domestic violence services. A larger proportion of facilities offering domestic violence services offered traditional substance abuse treatment services, compared with facilities not offering domestic violence services, but this relationship was not contingent on the percentage of clients with co-occurring disorders at each facility. Improved efforts should be made to tailor treatments to accommodate the links between domestic violence, mental disorders, and substance abuse.

  20. Request for modification of 200 Area effluent treatment facility final delisting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOWMAN, R.C.

    1998-11-19

    A Delisting Petition submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in August 1993 addressed effluent to be generated at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility from treating Hanford Facility waste streams. This Delisting Petition requested that 71.9 million liters per year of treated effluent, bearing the designation 'F001' through 'F005', and/or 'F039' that is derived from 'F001' through 'F005' waste, be delisted. On June 13, 1995, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency published the final rule (Final Delisting), which formally excluded 71.9 million liters per year of 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility effluent from ''being listed as hazardous wastes'' (60 FR 31115 now promulgated in 40 CFR 261). Given the limited scope, it is necessary to request a modification of the Final Delisting to address the management of a more diverse multi-source leachate (F039) at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility. From past operations and current cleanup activities on the Hanford Facility, a considerable amount of both liquid and solid Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 regulated mixed waste has been and continues to be generated. Ultimately this waste will be treated as necessary to meet the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Land Disposal Restrictions. The disposal of this waste will be in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act--compliant permitted lined trenches equipped with leachate collection systems. These operations will result in the generation of what is referred to as multi-source leachate. This newly generated waste will receive the listed waste designation of F039. This waste also must be managed in compliance with the provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  1. Continuous quality improvement in substance abuse treatment facilities: How much does it cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Priscillia; Hunter, Sarah B; Levan, Deborah

    2017-06-01

    Continuous quality improvement (CQI) has grown in the U.S. since the 1970s, yet little is known about the costs to implement CQI in substance abuse treatment facilities. This paper is part of a larger group randomized control trial in a large urban county evaluating the impact of Plan-Study-Do-Act (PDSA)-CQI designed for community service organizations (Hunter, Ober, Paddock, Hunt, & Levan, 2014). Operated by one umbrella organization, each of the eight facilities of the study, four residential and four outpatient substance abuse treatment facilities, selected their own CQI Actions, including administrative- and clinical care-related Actions. Using an activity-based costing approach, we collected labor and supplies and equipment costs directly attributable to CQI Actions over a 12-month trial period. Our study finds implementation of CQI and meeting costs of this trial per facility were approximately $2000 to $10,500 per year ($4500 on average), or $10 to $60 per admitted client. We provide a description of the sources of variation in these costs, including differing intensity of the CQI Actions selected, which should help decision makers plan use of PDSA-CQI. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Recycled Water Reuse Permit Renewal Application for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Mike [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This renewal application for a Recycled Water Reuse Permit is being submitted in accordance with the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act 58.01.17 “Recycled Water Rules” and the Municipal Wastewater Reuse Permit LA-000141-03 for continuing the operation of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant located at the Idaho National Laboratory. The permit expires March 16, 2015. The permit requires a renewal application to be submitted six months prior to the expiration date of the existing permit. For the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant, the renewal application must be submitted by September 16, 2014. The information in this application is consistent with the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality’s Guidance for Reclamation and Reuse of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater and discussions with Idaho Department of Environmental Quality personnel.

  3. An integrated prediction and optimization model of biogas production system at a wastewater treatment facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbaş, Halil; Bilgen, Bilge; Turhan, Aykut Melih

    2015-11-01

    This study proposes an integrated prediction and optimization model by using multi-layer perceptron neural network and particle swarm optimization techniques. Three different objective functions are formulated. The first one is the maximization of methane percentage with single output. The second one is the maximization of biogas production with single output. The last one is the maximization of biogas quality and biogas production with two outputs. Methane percentage, carbon dioxide percentage, and other contents' percentage are used as the biogas quality criteria. Based on the formulated models and data from a wastewater treatment facility, optimal values of input variables and their corresponding maximum output values are found out for each model. It is expected that the application of the integrated prediction and optimization models increases the biogas production and biogas quality, and contributes to the quantity of electricity production at the wastewater treatment facility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigation of development and management of treatment planning systems for BNCT at foreign facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A new computational dosimetry system for BNCT: JCDS is developed by JAERI in order to carry out BNCT with epithermal neutron beam at present. The development and management situation of computational dosimetry system, which are developed and are used in BNCT facilities in foreign countries, were investigated in order to accurately grasp functions necessary for preparation of the treatment planning and its future subjects. In present state, 'SERA', which are developed by Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is used in many BNCT facilities. Followings are necessary for development and management of the treatment planning system. (1) Reliability confirmation of system performance by verification as comparison examination of calculated value with actual experimental measured value. (2) Confirmation systems such as periodic maintenance for retention of the system quality. (3) The improvement system, which always considered relative merits and demerits with other computational dosimetry system. (4) The development of integrated system with patient setting. (author)

  5. Wastewater Land Application Permit LA-000141 Renewal Information for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laboratory, Idaho National

    1999-02-01

    On July 25, 1994, the State ofldaho Division of Environmental Quality (DEQ) issued a Wastewater Land Application Permit (WLAP) for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's (INEL, now the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory [INEEL]) Central Facilities Area (CFA) Sewage Treatment Plant (STP). The permit expires August 7, 1999. In addition to the renewal application, this report was prepared to provide the following information as requested by DEQ.

  6. Uncertainties of stormwater characteristics and removal rates of stormwater treatment facilities: implications for stormwater handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeveld, J G; Liefting, H J; Boogaard, F C

    2012-12-15

    Stormwater runoff is a major contributor to the pollution of receiving waters. This study focuses at characterising stormwater in order to be able to determine the impact of stormwater on receiving waters and to be able to select the most appropriate stormwater handling strategy. The stormwater characterisation is based on determining site mean concentrations (SMCs) and their uncertainties as well as the treatability of stormwater by monitoring specific pollutants concentration levels (TSS, COD, BOD, TKN, TP, Pb, Cu, Zn, E.coli) at three full scale stormwater treatment facilities in Arnhem, the Netherlands. This has resulted in 106 storm events being monitored at the lamella settler, 59 at the high rate sand filter and 132 at the soil filter during the 2 year monitoring period. The stormwater characteristics in Arnhem in terms of SMCs for main pollutants TSS and COD and settling velocities differ from international data. This implies that decisions for stormwater handling made on international literature data will very likely be wrong due to assuming too high concentrations of pollutants and misjudgement of the treatability of stormwater. The removal rates monitored at the full scale treatment facilities are within the expected range, with the soil filter and the sand filter having higher removal rates than the lamella settler. The full scale pilots revealed the importance of incorporating gross solids removal in the design of stormwater treatment facilities, as the gross solids determine operation and maintenance requirements. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Exposure to airborne fungi during sorting of recyclable plastics in waste treatment facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristýna Černá

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In working environment of waste treatment facilities, employees are exposed to high concentrations of airborne microorganisms. Fungi constitute an essential part of them. This study aims at evaluating the diurnal variation in concentrations and species composition of the fungal contamination in 2 plastic waste sorting facilities in different seasons. Material and Methods: Air samples from the 2 sorting facilities were collected through the membrane filters method on 4 different types of cultivation media. Isolated fungi were classified to genera or species by using a light microscopy. Results: Overall, the highest concentrations of airborne fungi were recorded in summer (9.1×103–9.0×105 colony-forming units (CFU/m3, while the lowest ones in winter (2.7×103–2.9×105 CFU/m3. The concentration increased from the beginning of the work shift and reached a plateau after 6–7 h of the sorting. The most frequently isolated airborne fungi were those of the genera Penicillium and Aspergillus. The turnover of fungal species between seasons was relatively high as well as changes in the number of detected species, but potentially toxigenic and allergenic fungi were detected in both facilities during all seasons. Conclusions: Generally, high concentrations of airborne fungi were detected in the working environment of plastic waste sorting facilities, which raises the question of health risk taken by the employees. Based on our results, the use of protective equipment by employees is recommended and preventive measures should be introduced into the working environment of waste sorting facilities to reduce health risk for employees. Med Pr 2017;68(1:1–9

  8. Exposure to airborne fungi during sorting of recyclable plastics in waste treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Černá, Kristýna; Wittlingerová, Zdeňka; Zimová, Magdaléna; Janovský, Zdeněk

    2017-02-28

    In working environment of waste treatment facilities, employees are exposed to high concentrations of airborne microorganisms. Fungi constitute an essential part of them. This study aims at evaluating the diurnal variation in concentrations and species composition of the fungal contamination in 2 plastic waste sorting facilities in different seasons. Air samples from the 2 sorting facilities were collected through the membrane filters method on 4 different types of cultivation media. Isolated fungi were classified to genera or species by using a light microscopy. Overall, the highest concentrations of airborne fungi were recorded in summer (9.1×103-9.0×105 colony-forming units (CFU)/m3), while the lowest ones in winter (2.7×103-2.9×105 CFU/m3). The concentration increased from the beginning of the work shift and reached a plateau after 6-7 h of the sorting. The most frequently isolated airborne fungi were those of the genera Penicillium and Aspergillus. The turnover of fungal species between seasons was relatively high as well as changes in the number of detected species, but potentially toxigenic and allergenic fungi were detected in both facilities during all seasons. Generally, high concentrations of airborne fungi were detected in the working environment of plastic waste sorting facilities, which raises the question of health risk taken by the employees. Based on our results, the use of protective equipment by employees is recommended and preventive measures should be introduced into the working environment of waste sorting facilities to reduce health risk for employees. Med Pr 2017;68(1):1-9.

  9. Environmental assessment for the Explosive Waste Treatment Facility at Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory proposes to build, permit, and operate the Explosive Waste Treatment Facility (EWTF) to treat explosive waste at LLNL`s Experimental Test Site, Site 300. It is also proposed to close the EWTF at the end of its useful life in accordance with the regulations. The facility would replace the existing Building 829 Open Burn Facility (B829) and would treat explosive waste generated at the LLNL Livermore Site and at Site 300 either by open burning or open detonation, depending on the type of waste. The alternatives addressed in the 1992 sitewide EIS/EIR are reexamined in this EA. These alternatives included: (1) the no-action alternative which would continue open burning operations at B829; (2) continuation of only open burning at a new facility (no open detonation); (3) termination of open burning operations with shipment of explosive waste offsite; and (4) the application of alternative treatment technologies. This EA examines the impact of construction, operation, and closure of the EWTF. Construction of the EWTF would result in the clearing of a small amount of previously disturbed ground. No adverse impact is expected to any state or federal special status plant or animal species (special status species are classified as threatened, endangered, or candidate species by either state or federal legislation). Operation of the EWTF is expected to result in a reduced threat to involved workers and the public because the proposed facility would relocate existing open burning operations to a more remote area and would incorporate design features to reduce the amount of potentially harmful emissions. No adverse impacts were identified for activities necessary to close the EWTF at the end of its useful life.

  10. Risk assessment of CST-7 proposed waste treatment and storage facilities Volume I: Limited-scope probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of proposed CST-7 waste treatment & storage facilities. Volume II: Preliminary hazards analysis of proposed CST-7 waste storage & treatment facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasser, K.

    1994-06-01

    In FY 1993, the Los Alamos National Laboratory Waste Management Group [CST-7 (formerly EM-7)] requested the Probabilistic Risk and Hazards Analysis Group [TSA-11 (formerly N-6)] to conduct a study of the hazards associated with several CST-7 facilities. Among these facilities are the Hazardous Waste Treatment Facility (HWTF), the HWTF Drum Storage Building (DSB), and the Mixed Waste Receiving and Storage Facility (MWRSF), which are proposed for construction beginning in 1996. These facilities are needed to upgrade the Laboratory`s storage capability for hazardous and mixed wastes and to provide treatment capabilities for wastes in cases where offsite treatment is not available or desirable. These facilities will assist Los Alamos in complying with federal and state requlations.

  11. Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production and Fabrication: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Area Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    This NESHAP applies to facilities using pressure or thermal treatment processes involving wood preservatives containing chromium, arsenic, dioxins, or methylene chloride. Inlcudes federal register citations, rule history and additional resources.

  12. Knowledge and stigma regarding methadone maintenance treatment among personnel of methadone maintenance treatment and non-methadone maintenance treatment addiction facilities in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shidlansik, Lia; Adelson, Miriam; Peles, Einat

    2017-01-01

    Stigma attached to methadone maintenance treatment is very common. The objective of the current article is to evaluate the presence of stigma and its relation to the extent of knowledge about methadone maintenance treatment. The authors conducted a survey among methadone maintenance treatment and non-methadone maintenance treatment addiction therapists from different treatment centers in Israel, including methadone maintenance treatment clinics (Ministry of Health) and non-methadone maintenance treatment addiction facilities (Ministry of Social Services), using an anonymous questionnaire about methadone maintenance treatment stigma and knowledge. There were 63 therapists from methadone maintenance treatment clinics (63%) and 46 therapists from the social services department (SSD) non-methadone maintenance treatment addiction facilities (9.2%) who responded. Methadone maintenance treatment versus social services department personnel were older (42.7 ± 12.8 versus 37.5 ± 8.2 years; p = 0.03), with fewer females (48 versus 75%; p = 0.006), and 50% were social workers compared to 100% social workers in the SSD group (p methadone maintenance treatment personnel compared to the social services department personnel (3 ± 2.5 versus 5.0 ± 3.5; p = 0.0001), while the knowledge score about methadone maintenance treatment was higher among the methadone maintenance treatment personnel (10.3 ± 2.9 versus 7.7 ± 2.8; p methadone maintenance treatment (R = -0.5, p methadone maintenance treatment, with ignorance and stigma against methadone maintenance treatment being more pronounced among social services department personnel. An educational intervention, especially among social services department personnel, may benefit people who use opioids and improve the overall quality of treatment for opioid addiction in Israel.

  13. Report: transboundary hazardous waste management. part II: performance auditing of treatment facilities in importing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tien-Chin; Ni, Shih-Piao; Fan, Kuo-Shuh; Lee, Ching-Hwa

    2006-06-01

    Before implementing the self-monitoring model programme of the Basel Convention in the Asia, Taiwan has conducted a comprehensive 4-year follow-up project to visit the governmental authorities and waste-disposal facilities in the countries that import waste from Taiwan. A total of nine treatment facilities, six of which are reported in this paper, and the five countries where the plants are located were visited in 2001-2002. France, Belgium and Finland primarily handled polychlorinated biphenyl capacitors, steel mill dust and metal waste. The United States accepted metal sludge, mainly electroplating sludge, from Taiwan. Waste printed circuit boards, waste wires and cables, and a mixture of waste metals and electronics were the major items exported to China. Relatively speaking, most treatment plants for hazardous waste paid close attention to environmental management, such as pollution control and monitoring, site zoning, system management regarding occupational safety and hygiene, data management, permits application, and image promotion. Under the tight restrictions formulated by the central environment agency, waste treatment plants in China managed the environmental issues seriously. For example, one of the treatment plants had ISO 14001 certification. It is believed that with continuous implementation of regulations, more improvement is foreseeable. Meanwhile, Taiwan and China should also continuously enhance their collaboration regarding the transboundary management of hazardous waste.

  14. Reducing the treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in seniors in a long-term care facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Andrée

    2014-10-01

    Cases of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in elderly people are often treated with antibiotics, but current guidelines recommend that bacteriuria in seniors not be treated unless it is associated with a urinary tract infection (UTI). Stanford Place Care Campus is a 182-bed complex-care facility in Parksville, B.C., catering primarily to seniors. To increase the accuracy of the clinical diagnosis of UTIs and reduce the treatment of ASB in this facility, the author developed a self-learning package and a clinical pathway to help nurses and other care providers better assess, manage and monitor residents with suspected UTIs. She also provided education sessions for the nursing and support staff. In the year after the new clinical pathway was introduced, the number of treated UTIs decreased, as did the percentage of treated UTIs that had been inadequately assessed (i.e., diagnosed solely on the basis of a dipstick urinalysis).

  15. Remediation of copper-contaminated topsoils from a wood treatment facility using in situ stabilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bes, C; Mench, M

    2008-12-01

    Five organic matters, three phosphate compounds, zerovalent iron grit (ZVIG, 2% by soil weight), two alkaline compounds, and two commercial formulations were incorporated, singly and some combined with ZVIG, into a highly Cu-contaminated topsoil (Soil P7, 2600 mg Cu kg(-1)) from a wood treatment facility. Formulations and two composts were also singly incorporated into a slightly Cu-contaminated topsoil (Soil P10, 118 mg Cu kg(-1)) from the facility surrounding. This aimed to reduce the labile pool of Cu and its accumulation in beans cultivated on potted soils in a climatic chamber. Lowest Cu concentration in soil solution occurred in P7 soils amended with activated carbon (5%) and ZVIG, singly and combined. Basic slag (3.9%) and compost of sewage sludge (5%) combined with ZVIG promoted shoot production and limited foliar Cu accumulation. For amended P10 soils, no changes occurred in soil solution and foliar Cu concentrations, but one compost increased shoot production.

  16. Dental Treatment in a State-Funded Primary Dental Care Facility: Contextual and Individual Predictors of Treatment Need?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina L Wanyonyi

    Full Text Available This study examined individual and contextual factors which predict the dental care received by patients in a state-funded primary dental care training facility in England.Routine clinical and demographic data were extracted from a live dental patient management system in a state-funded facility using novel methods. The data, spanning a four-year period [2008-2012] were cleaned, validated, linked by means of postcode to deprivation status, and analysed to identify factors which predict dental treatment need. The predictive relationship between patients' individual characteristics (demography, smoking, payment status and contextual experience (deprivation based on area of residence, with common dental treatments received was examined using unadjusted analysis and adjusted logistic regression. Additionally, multilevel modelling was used to establish the isolated influence of area of residence on treatments.Data on 6,351 dental patients extracted comprised of 147,417 treatment procedures delivered across 10,371 courses of care. Individual level factors associated with the treatments were age, sex, payment exemption and smoking status and deprivation associated with area of residence was a contextual predictor of treatment. More than 50% of children (<18 years and older adults (≥65 years received preventive care in the form of 'instruction and advice', compared with 46% of working age adults (18-64 years; p = 0.001. The odds of receiving treatment increased with each increasing year of age amongst adults (p = 0.001: 'partial dentures' (7%; 'scale and polish' (3.7%; 'tooth extraction' (3%; p = 0.001, and 'instruction and advice' (3%; p = 0.001. Smokers had a higher likelihood of receiving all treatments; and were notably over four times more likely to receive 'instruction and advice' than non-smokers (OR 4.124; 95% CI: 3.088-5.508; p = 0.01. A further new finding from the multilevel models was a significant difference in treatment related to area

  17. Federal Facility Compliance Act: Conceptual Site Treatment Plan for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is required by section 3021(b) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended by the Federal Facility Compliance Act (the Act), to prepare plans describing the development of treatment capacities and technologies for treating mixed waste. The Act requires site treatment plans (STPs or plans) to be developed for each site at which DOE generates or stores mixed waste and submitted to the State or EPA for approval, approval with modification, or disapproval. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Conceptual Site Treatment Plan (CSTP) is the preliminary version of the plan required by the Act and is being provided to California, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and others for review. A list of the other DOE sites preparing CSTPs is included in Appendix 1.1 of this document. Please note that Appendix 1.1 appears as Appendix A, pages A-1 and A-2 in this document.

  18. American Youths' Access to Substance Abuse Treatment: Does Type of Treatment Facility Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Celia C.; Cheng, Tyrone C.

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the 2007 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, this study examines whether several social exclusion and psychological factors affect adolescents' receipt of substance abuse treatment. Multinomial logistic regression techniques were used to analyze data. The study asked how the specified factors provide pathways to receipt of…

  19. Diagnosis, treatment and outcomes for koala chlamydiosis at a rehabilitation facility (1995-2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, J E; Higgins, D P

    2012-11-01

    To document the application of diagnostics and treatments at one rehabilitation facility over 10 years and their effects on recovery and post-release survival of 88 koalas treated for chlamydiosis, and to highlight associated wildlife care issues with potential significance to animal welfare and disease ecology. Using a retrospective analysis of medical records, we identified risk factors for successful release using a logistic regression model and descriptive statistics. We examined the clinical presentation, signalment, diagnostics, treatments, outcomes and whether released koalas were re-presented by the end of 2008 indicating post-release survival. Records of 88 koalas were included. Treatments and diagnostics were directed at the anatomical site displaying clinical signs. Younger age and use of ancillary treatments were associated with successful release. The type, route and duration of the treatments used were not those theorised to result in microbial cure. Despite this, approximately 50% of koalas were released and many survived in the wild for extended periods. Wildlife rehabilitators' records can guide research priorities and the development of care facilities and policies. This study identified the need for more accessible chlamydial diagnostic tests and veterinary support of carers, and the need for a more rigorous assessment of novel therapies. Current treatment regimens appear to be moderately successful in terms of clinical improvement, but it is unclear which aspects are responsible for the success or whether microbial cure is achieved. The long-term effect of released koalas on wild populations requires further study to assess its contribution to the conservation of koala populations. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2012 Australian Veterinary Association.

  20. 200 Area effluent treatment facility process control plan 98-02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, E.Q.

    1998-01-30

    This Process Control Plan (PCP) provides a description of the background information, key objectives, and operating criteria defining Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) Campaign 98-02 as required per HNF-IP-0931 Section 37, Process Control Plans. Campaign 98-62 is expected to process approximately 18 millions gallons of groundwater with an assumption that the UP-1 groundwater pump will be shut down on June 30, 1998. This campaign will resume the UP-1 groundwater treatment operation from Campaign 97-01. The Campaign 97-01 was suspended in November 1997 to allow RCRA waste in LERF Basin 42 to be treated to meet the Land Disposal Restriction Clean Out requirements. The decision to utilize ETF as part of the selected interim remedial action of the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit is documented by the Declaration of the Record of Decision, (Ecology, EPA and DOE 1997). The treatment method was chosen in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (known as the Tri-Party Agreement or TPA), and to the extent practicable, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP).

  1. Suicidal behaviours in male and female users of illicit drugs recruited in drug treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas-Ibar, Elisabet; Suelves, Josep Maria; Sanchez-Niubò, Albert; Domingo-Salvany, Antònia; T Brugal, M

    We assessed prevalence of suicidal ideation and plans among illicit drug users and their association with contextual factors, by gender. Cross-sectional study. In a sample of 511 illicit drug users recruited during spring 2012 in drug treatment and prevention facilities in Catalonia (Spain), the prevalence of suicidal ideation/plans in the last 12 months was assessed. Poisson regression was used to examine associations between suicidal ideation/plans and various factors (socio-demographic, psychological, illegal drug market activities and marginal income generation activities, which included any reported sex work, stealing, peddling, begging or borrowing on credit from a dealer). The average age was 37.9 years (standard deviation: 8.62); 76.3% were men. Suicidal ideation/plans were reported by 30.8% of men and 38.8% of women, with no significant differences by age or gender. Recent aggression (male prevalence ratio [PR]=2.2; female PR=1.4), psychological treatment (male PR=1.2; female PR=1.3) and illegal/marginal income generation activities (male PR=1.5; female PR=1.1) were associated with suicidal ideation/plans. Men who trafficked were more likely to have suicidal ideation/plans (PR=1.3), while prison history was positive for women (PR=1.8) and negative for men (PR=0.7). Prevalence of suicidal ideation/plans was high among illicit drug users recruited from healthcare facilities. Besides psychological variables, participation in illegal market activities and crime ought to be considered in drug users' suicidal prevention. Suicide risk needs to be evaluated in drug treatment facilities and psychological status and context contemplated. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Notification: EPA Region 10 Management Controls Over Allowing Substantial Public Funds to Construct the Spokane County Wastewater Treatment Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    January 20, 2012. This EPA's OIG is initiating a review from an OIG hotline complaint regarding whether federal funds were properly used to construct the new Spokane County wastewater treatment facility in accordance with 40 CFR 35, Subpart K.

  3. Wastewater Land Application Permit LA-000141 Renewal Information for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-02-01

    On July 25, 1994, the State of ldaho Division of Environmental Quality issued a Wastewater Land Application Permit, #LA-000141-01, for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant. The permit expires August 7, 1999. This report is being submitted with the renewal application and specifically addresses; Wastewater flow; Wastewater characteristics; Impacts to vegetation in irrigation area; Impacts to soil in irrigation area; Evaluation of groundwater monitoring wells for Wastewater Land Application Permit purposes; Summary of trends observed during the 5-year reporting period; and Projection of changes and new processes.

  4. Methods of sampling airborne fungi in working environments of waste treatment facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristýna Černá

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare the efficiency of a filter based sampling method and a high volume sampling method for sampling airborne culturable fungi present in waste sorting facilities. Material and Methods: Membrane filters method was compared with surface air system method. The selected sampling methods were modified and tested in 2 plastic waste sorting facilities. Results: The total number of colony-forming units (CFU/m3 of airborne fungi was dependent on the type of sampling device, on the time of sampling, which was carried out every hour from the beginning of the work shift, and on the type of cultivation medium (p < 0.001. Detected concentrations of airborne fungi ranged 2×102–1.7×106 CFU/m3 when using the membrane filters (MF method, and 3×102–6.4×104 CFU/m3 when using the surface air system (SAS method. Conclusions: Both methods showed comparable sensitivity to the fluctuations of the concentrations of airborne fungi during the work shifts. The SAS method is adequate for a fast indicative determination of concentration of airborne fungi. The MF method is suitable for thorough assessment of working environment contamination by airborne fungi. Therefore we recommend the MF method for the implementation of a uniform standard methodology of airborne fungi sampling in working environments of waste treatment facilities.

  5. Methods of sampling airborne fungi in working environments of waste treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Černá, Kristýna; Wittlingerová, Zdeňka; Zimová, Magdaléna; Janovský, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare the efficiency of a filter based sampling method and a high volume sampling method for sampling airborne culturable fungi present in waste sorting facilities. Membrane filters method was compared with surface air system method. The selected sampling methods were modified and tested in 2 plastic waste sorting facilities. The total number of colony-forming units (CFU)/m3 of airborne fungi was dependent on the type of sampling device, on the time of sampling, which was carried out every hour from the beginning of the work shift, and on the type of cultivation medium (p fungi ranged 2×102-1.7×106 CFU/m3 when using the membrane filters (MF) method, and 3×102-6.4×104 CFU/m3 when using the surface air system (SAS) method. Both methods showed comparable sensitivity to the fluctuations of the concentrations of airborne fungi during the work shifts. The SAS method is adequate for a fast indicative determination of concentration of airborne fungi. The MF method is suitable for thorough assessment of working environment contamination by airborne fungi. Therefore we recommend the MF method for the implementation of a uniform standard methodology of airborne fungi sampling in working environments of waste treatment facilities. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  6. Efficiency of U.S. dialysis centers: an updated examination of facility characteristics that influence production of dialysis treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreay, Sanatan; Ma, Martin; McCluskey, Jill; Mittelhammer, Ron C; Gitlin, Matthew; Stephens, J Mark

    2014-06-01

    To explore the relative efficiency of dialysis facilities in the United States and identify factors that are associated with efficiency in the production of dialysis treatments. Medicare cost report data from 4,343 free-standing dialysis facilities in the United States that offered in-center hemodialysis in 2010. A cross-sectional, facility-level retrospective database analysis, utilizing data envelopment analysis (DEA) to estimate facility efficiency. Treatment data and cost and labor inputs of dialysis treatments were obtained from 2010 Medicare Renal Cost Reports. Demographic data were obtained from the 2010 U.S. Census. Only 26.6 percent of facilities were technically efficient. Neither the intensity of market competition nor the profit status of the facility had a significant effect on efficiency. Facilities that were members of large chains were less likely to be efficient. Cost and labor savings due to changes in drug protocols had little effect on overall dialysis center efficiency. The majority of free-standing dialysis facilities in the United States were functioning in a technically inefficient manner. As payment systems increasingly employ capitation and bundling provisions, these institutions will need to evaluate their efficiency to remain competitive. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  7. Urinary arsenic levels in timber treatment operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollop, B R; Glass, W I

    1979-01-10

    An investigation was carried out into arsenic levels in urine of timber treatment operators at six treatment plants in the Waikato-Rotorua area. The mean arsenic level for treatment operators was 222 migrograms/l compared with the normal range of 5-40 micrograms/l. In order to reduce the present significant exposure to treatment chemicals such as arsenic and chromium, it is recommended that the wood preservation industry take engineering measures to reduce the present air emissions and adopt strict work practices in hygiene and protective clothing in similar manner to those handling mercury and lead.

  8. 2012 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Central facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Lewis

    2013-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2011, through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: • Site description • Facility and system description • Permit required monitoring data and loading rates • Status of compliance conditions and activities • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2012 permit year, no wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant.

  9. 2010 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike lewis

    2011-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2009, through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Site description • Facility and system description • Permit required monitoring data and loading rates • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2010 permit year, approximately 2.2 million gallons of treated wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area at Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment plant.

  10. Elimination of Pasteurella pneumotropica from a mouse barrier facility by using a modified enrofloxacin treatment regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towne, Justin W; Wagner, April M; Griffin, Kurt J; Buntzman, Adam S; Frelinger, Jeffrey A; Besselsen, David G

    2014-09-01

    Multiple NOD. Cg-Prkdc(scid)Il2rg(tm1Wjl)Tg(HLA-A2.1)Enge/Sz (NSG/A2) transgenic mice maintained in a mouse barrier facility were submitted for necropsy to determine the cause of facial alopecia, tachypnea, dyspnea, and sudden death. Pneumonia and soft-tissue abscesses were observed, and Pasteurella pneumotropica biotype Jawetz was consistently isolated from the upper respiratory tract, lung, and abscesses. Epidemiologic investigation within the facility revealed presence of this pathogen in mice generated or rederived by the intramural Genetically Engineered Mouse Model (GEMM) Core but not in mice procured from several approved commercial vendors. Epidemiologic data suggested the infection originated from female or vasectomized male ND4 mice obtained from a commercial vendor and then comingled by the GEMM Core to induce pseudopregnancy in female mice for embryo implantation. Enrofloxacin delivered in drinking water (85 mg/kg body weight daily) for 14 d was sufficient to clear bacterial infection in normal, breeding, and immune-deficient mice without the need to change the antibiotic water source. This modified treatment regimen was administered to 2400 cages of mice to eradicate Pasteurella pneumotropica from the facility. Follow-up PCR testing for P. pneumotropica biotype Jawetz remained uniformly negative at 2, 6, 12, and 52 wk after treatment in multiple strains of mice that were originally infected. Together, these data indicate that enrofloxacin can eradicate P. pneumotropica from infected mice in a less labor-intensive approach that does not require breeding cessation and that is easily adaptable to the standard biweekly cage change schedule for individually ventilated cages.

  11. Evaluation of high-rate clarification for wet-weather-only treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolis, Domènec; Ahmad, Meei-Lih

    2004-01-01

    High-rate clarification (HRC) processes are well suited for enhanced primary treatment of wet-weather flows in combined sewer systems. Suspended solids removal in excess of 75% of influent concentrations can be achieved consistently. Chemical oxygen demand and five-day biochemical oxygen demand removal are better than 60%. However, although optimal treatment could be achieved in a matter of minutes when the units were started full, a delay of up to one-half hour was observed when the units were started empty. Operational strategies that minimize this effect need to be developed in full-scale tests before HRC processes can be implemented with confidence in wet-weather-only facilities.

  12. Study on the pool water treatment system in post irradiation examination facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Young Zoon; Chum, Y. B.; Kim, D. K.; Kim, E. K.; Eom, S. H.; Bae, S. M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-02-01

    Defected spent fuels transported from NPPs have been stored in the water pool at Post-Irradiation Examination Facility. Non-destructive inspection on those fuels has been conducted in the pool. Therefore transparency of pool water should be maintained during inspection and released radionuclides from defected fuels should be effectively removed to reduce radiation exposure of inspectors. On the basis of 3-year operational experience on water treatment process, concentrations of radionuclides and inactive pollutants in the pool water have been analyzed. Decontamination efficiency of recently substituted domestic-made ion-exchanger has been also determined. In addition, the adsorption of Cs ions on inorganic ion-exchanger (Durasil-230) and those on organic ion-exchange resins (SK-1B) were experimentally investigated. Using inorganic ion-exchanger to treat the storage water can give higher removal efficiency for water treatment process. In this concern, improvement points are suggested in this study. 15 refs., 36 figs., 20 tabs. (Author)

  13. Multi-criteria Decision Support System (DSS) for optimal locations of Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsangaratos, P; Kallioras, A; Pizpikis, Th; Vasileiou, E; Ilia, I; Pliakas, F

    2017-12-15

    Managed Aquifer Recharge is a wide-spread well-established groundwater engineering method which is largely seen as sound and sustainable solution to water scarcity hydrologically sensitive areas, such as the Circum Mediterranean. The process of site selection for the installation of a MAR facility is of paramount importance for the feasibility and effectiveness of the project itself, especially when the facility will include the use of waters of impaired quality as a recharge source, as in the case of Soil-Aquifer-Treatment systems. The main objective of this study is to present the developed framework of a multi-criteria Decision Support System (DSS) that integrates within a dynamic platform the main groundwater engineering parameters associated with MAR applications together with the general geographical features which determine the effectiveness of such a project. The proposed system will provide an advanced coupled DSS-GIS tool capable of handling local MAR-related issues -such as hydrogeology, topography, soil, climate etc., and spatially distributed variables -such as societal, economic, administrative, legislative etc., with special reference to Soil-Aquifer-Treatment technologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Open Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California -- Phase I Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; McKane, Aimee; Song, Katherine; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-04-01

    This report summarizes the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory?s research to date in characterizing energy efficiency and automated demand response opportunities for wastewater treatment facilities in California. The report describes the characteristics of wastewater treatment facilities, the nature of the wastewater stream, energy use and demand, as well as details of the wastewater treatment process. It also discusses control systems and energy efficiency and automated demand response opportunities. In addition, several energy efficiency and load management case studies are provided for wastewater treatment facilities.This study shows that wastewater treatment facilities can be excellent candidates for open automated demand response and that facilities which have implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems are well-suited to shift or shed electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. Control technologies installed for energy efficiency and load management purposes can often be adapted for automated demand response at little additional cost. These improved controls may prepare facilities to be more receptive to open automated demand response due to both increased confidence in the opportunities for controlling energy cost/use and access to the real-time data.

  15. Detection, fate and inactivation of pathogenic norovirus employing settlement and UV treatment in wastewater treatment facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, M. [Microbial Ecology Laboratory, Microbiology, School of Natural sciences, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland); Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland); College of Engineering and Informatics, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland); Fitzhenry, K. [Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland); College of Engineering and Informatics, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland); O' Flaherty, V. [Microbial Ecology Laboratory, Microbiology, School of Natural sciences, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland); Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland); Dore, W.; Keaveney, S. [Marine Institute, Galway (Ireland); Cormican, M. [Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland); Centre for Health from Environment, Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland); Rowan, N. [Bioscience Research Institute, Athlone Institute of Technology (Ireland); Clifford, E., E-mail: eoghan.clifford@nuigalway.ie [Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland); College of Engineering and Informatics, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland)

    2016-10-15

    It is accepted that discharged wastewaters can be a significant source of pathogenic viruses in receiving water bodies contributing to pollution and may in turn enter the human food chain and pose a risk to human health, thus norovirus (NoV) is often a predominant cause of gastroenteritis globally. Working with NoV poses particular challenges as it cannot be readily identified and detection by molecular methods does not assess infectivity. It has been proposed that the infectivity of NoV may be modelled through the use of an alternative virus; F-specific RNA (FRNA) bacteriophages; GA genotype and other FRNA bacteriophages have been used as a surrogate in studies of NoV inactivation. This study investigated the efficiency of novel pulsed ultraviolet irradiation and low pressure ultraviolet irradiation as a potential pathogen inactivation system for NoV and FRNA bacteriophage (GA) in secondary treated wastewaters. The role of UV dose and the impact of suspended solids concentration on removal efficiency were also examined. The study also investigated the role of settlement processes in wastewater treatment plants in removing NoV. While NoV inactivation could not be determined it was found that at a maximum UV dose of 6.9 J/cm{sup 2} (6900 mJ/cm{sup 2}) an average 2.4 log removal of FRNA bacteriophage (GA) was observed; indicating the potential need for high UV doses to remove NoV if FRNA bacteriophage prove a suitable indicator for NoV. The study found that increasing concentrations of suspended solids impacted on PUV efficiency however, it appears the extent of the impact may be site specific. Furthermore, the study found that settlement processes can play a significant role in the removal of FRNA bacteriophage, thus potentially NoV. - Highlights: • Effectiveness of low pressure UV and novel high-intensity pulsed UV disinfection in NoVs removal. • Reduction of FRNA bacteriophage was seen in clarified wastewater after settling. • Adsorption of viral particles

  16. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California - Southeast Water Pollution Control Plant Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Daniel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goli, Sasank [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Faulkner, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKane, Aimee [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-12-20

    This report details a study into the demand response potential of a large wastewater treatment facility in San Francisco. Previous research had identified wastewater treatment facilities as good candidates for demand response and automated demand response, and this study was conducted to investigate facility attributes that are conducive to demand response or which hinder its implementation. One years' worth of operational data were collected from the facility's control system, submetered process equipment, utility electricity demand records, and governmental weather stations. These data were analyzed to determine factors which affected facility power demand and demand response capabilities The average baseline demand at the Southeast facility was approximately 4 MW. During the rainy season (October-March) the facility treated 40% more wastewater than the dry season, but demand only increased by 4%. Submetering of the facility's lift pumps and centrifuges predicted load shifts capabilities of 154 kW and 86 kW, respectively, with large lift pump shifts in the rainy season. Analysis of demand data during maintenance events confirmed the magnitude of these possible load shifts, and indicated other areas of the facility with demand response potential. Load sheds were seen to be possible by shutting down a portion of the facility's aeration trains (average shed of 132 kW). Load shifts were seen to be possible by shifting operation of centrifuges, the gravity belt thickener, lift pumps, and external pump stations These load shifts were made possible by the storage capabilities of the facility and of the city's sewer system. Large load reductions (an average of 2,065 kW) were seen from operating the cogeneration unit, but normal practice is continuous operation, precluding its use for demand response. The study also identified potential demand response opportunities that warrant further study: modulating variable-demand aeration loads, shifting

  17. Opportunities for Open Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California - Phase II Report. San Luis Rey Wastewater Treatment Plant Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Lisa; Lekov, Alex; McKane, Aimee; Piette, Mary Ann

    2010-08-20

    This case study enhances the understanding of open automated demand response opportunities in municipal wastewater treatment facilities. The report summarizes the findings of a 100 day submetering project at the San Luis Rey Wastewater Treatment Plant, a municipal wastewater treatment facility in Oceanside, California. The report reveals that key energy-intensive equipment such as pumps and centrifuges can be targeted for large load reductions. Demand response tests on the effluent pumps resulted a 300 kW load reduction and tests on centrifuges resulted in a 40 kW load reduction. Although tests on the facility?s blowers resulted in peak period load reductions of 78 kW sharp, short-lived increases in the turbidity of the wastewater effluent were experienced within 24 hours of the test. The results of these tests, which were conducted on blowers without variable speed drive capability, would not be acceptable and warrant further study. This study finds that wastewater treatment facilities have significant open automated demand response potential. However, limiting factors to implementing demand response are the reaction of effluent turbidity to reduced aeration load, along with the cogeneration capabilities of municipal facilities, including existing power purchase agreements and utility receptiveness to purchasing electricity from cogeneration facilities.

  18. GIS based location optimization for mobile produced water treatment facilities in shale gas operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitwadkar, Amol Hanmant

    Over 60% of the nation's total energy is supplied by oil and natural gas together and this demand for energy will continue to grow in the future (Radler et al. 2012). The growing demand is pushing the exploration and exploitation of onshore oil and natural gas reservoirs. Hydraulic fracturing has proven to not only create jobs and achieve economic growth, but also has proven to exert a lot of stress on natural resources---such as water. As water is one of the most important factors in the world of hydraulic fracturing, proper fluids management during the development of a field of operation is perhaps the key element to address a lot of these issues. Almost 30% of the water used during hydraulic fracturing comes out of the well in the form of flowback water during the first month after the well is fractured (Bai et. al. 2012). Handling this large amount of water coming out of the newly fractured wells is one of the major issues as the volume of the water after this period drops off and remains constant for a long time (Bai et. al. 2012) and permanent facilities can be constructed to take care of the water over a longer period. This paper illustrates development of a GIS based tool for optimizing the location of a mobile produced water treatment facility while development is still occurring. A methodology was developed based on a multi criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to optimize the location of the mobile treatment facilities. The criteria for MCDA include well density, ease of access (from roads considering truck hauls) and piping minimization if piping is used and water volume produced. The area of study is 72 square miles east of Greeley, CO in the Wattenberg Field in northeastern Colorado that will be developed for oil and gas production starting in the year 2014. A quarterly analysis is done so that we can observe the effect of future development plans and current circumstances on the location as we move from quarter to quarter. This will help the operators to

  19. Childhood Tuberculosis in a Sub-Saharan Tertiary Facility: Epidemiology and Factors Associated with Treatment Outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loukia Aketi

    Full Text Available Childhood tuberculosis (TB is a diagnostic challenge in developing countries, and patient outcome can be influenced by certain factors. We report the disease course, clinical profile and factors associated with treatment outcome in a tertiary facility of Kinshasa. Documentary and analytical studies were conducted using clinical and exploratory data for children aged up to 15 years who were admitted to the University Clinics of Kinshasa for TB. Data are presented as frequencies and averages, and binary and logistic regression analyses were performed. Of 283 children with TB, 82 (29.0% had smear-negative TB, 40 (14.1% had smear-positive TB, 159 (56.1% had extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB, 2 (0.7% had multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB, 167 (59.0% completed treatment, 30 (10.6% were cured, 7 (2.5% failed treatment, 4 (1.4% died, 55 (19.4% were transferred to health centers nearest their home, and 20 (7.0% were defaulters. In the binary analysis, reported TB contacts (p = 0.048, type of TB (p = 0.000, HIV status (p = 0.050, Ziehl-Nielsen test result (p = 0.000, Lowenstein culture (p = 0.004 and chest X-ray (p = 0.057 were associated with outcome. In the logistic regression, none of these factors was a significant predictor of outcome. Tertiary level care facilities must improve the diagnosis and care of patients with childhood TB, which justifies the development of alternative diagnostic techniques and the assessment of other factors that potentially affect outcome.

  20. Treatment of nanomaterial-containing waste in thermal waste treatment facilities; Behandlung nanomaterialhaltiger Abfaelle in thermischen Abfallbehandlungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, Julia; Weiss, Volker [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau-Rosslau (Germany); Oischinger, Juergen; Meiller, Martin; Daschner, Robert [Fraunhofer Umsicht, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    There is already a multitude of products on the market, which contain synthetic nanomaterials (NM), and for the coming years an increase of such products can be expected. Consequently, it is predictable that more nanomaterial-containing waste will occur in the residual waste that is predominately disposed in thermal waste treatment plants. However, the knowledge about the behaviour and effects of nanomaterials from nanomaterial-containing waste in this disposal route is currently still low. A research project of the German Environment Agency on the ''Investigation of potential environmental impacts when disposing nanomaterial-containing waste in waste treatment plants'' will therefore dedicate itself to a detailed examination of emission pathways in the thermal waste treatment facilities. The tests carried out i.a. on an industrial waste incineration plant and a sludge incineration plant with controlled addition of titanium dioxide at the nanoscale, showed that no increase in the emissions of NM in the exhaust gas was detected. The majority of the NM was found in the combustion residues, particularly the slag.

  1. Pharmaceutical Formulation Facilities as Sources of Opioids and Other Pharmaceuticals to Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Facilities involved in the manufacture of pharmaceutical products are an under-investigated source of pharmaceuticals to the environment. Between 2004 and 2009, 35 to 38 effluent samples were collected from each of three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in New York and analyzed for seven pharmaceuticals including opioids and muscle relaxants. Two WWTPs (NY2 and NY3) receive substantial flows (>20% of plant flow) from pharmaceutical formulation facilities (PFF) and one (NY1) receives no PFF flow. Samples of effluents from 23 WWTPs across the United States were analyzed once for these pharmaceuticals as part of a national survey. Maximum pharmaceutical effluent concentrations for the national survey and NY1 effluent samples were generally 400 μg/L. Maximum concentrations of oxycodone (1700 μg/L) and metaxalone (3800 μg/L) in samples from NY3 effluent exceeded 1000 μg/L. Three pharmaceuticals (butalbital, carisoprodol, and oxycodone) in samples of NY2 effluent had median concentrations ranging from 2 to 11 μg/L. These findings suggest that current manufacturing practices at these PFFs can result in pharmaceuticals concentrations from 10 to 1000 times higher than those typically found in WWTP effluents. PMID:20521847

  2. Remediation of copper-contaminated topsoils from a wood treatment facility using in situ stabilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bes, C. [UMR BIOGECO INRA 1202, Ecology of Communities, University of Bordeaux 1, Bat B8 RdC Est, gate 002, Avenue des Facultes, F-33405 Talence (France); Mench, M. [UMR BIOGECO INRA 1202, Ecology of Communities, University of Bordeaux 1, Bat B8 RdC Est, gate 002, Avenue des Facultes, F-33405 Talence (France)], E-mail: mench@bordeaux.inra.fr

    2008-12-15

    Five organic matters, three phosphate compounds, zerovalent iron grit (ZVIG, 2% by soil weight), two alkaline compounds, and two commercial formulations were incorporated, singly and some combined with ZVIG, into a highly Cu-contaminated topsoil (Soil P7, 2600 mg Cu kg{sup -1}) from a wood treatment facility. Formulations and two composts were also singly incorporated into a slightly Cu-contaminated topsoil (Soil P10, 118 mg Cu kg{sup -1}) from the facility surrounding. This aimed to reduce the labile pool of Cu and its accumulation in beans cultivated on potted soils in a climatic chamber. Lowest Cu concentration in soil solution occurred in P7 soils amended with activated carbon (5%) and ZVIG, singly and combined. Basic slag (3.9%) and compost of sewage sludge (5%) combined with ZVIG promoted shoot production and limited foliar Cu accumulation. For amended P10 soils, no changes occurred in soil solution and foliar Cu concentrations, but one compost increased shoot production. - Three soil amendments, iron grit with compost, calcium oxide, and basic slags, decreased the phytotoxicity of a Cu-contaminated soil.

  3. Contribution of the FPA tasting panel to decision making about drinking water treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devesa, R; Cardeñoso, R; Matía, L

    2007-01-01

    The flavour profile analysis (FPA) panel of Aigües de Barcelona has participated in three engineering projects initiated to improve both the quality of the water supplied and the use of the scarce resources available. The information provided by the panel enables a solid evaluation of the organoleptic quality of the water produced in the facilities, which is very useful in making decisions concerning the development of the projects. The first project refers to the Besòs full scale nanofiltration pilot plant. The study includes characterisation of the organoleptic quality of the water obtained and the behaviour of blends in different proportions with water from the Ter river. Secondly, this article presents the results obtained in El Papiol pilot plant for the reduction of trihalomethanes in water from the Abrera WTP, situated by the Llobregat river. The tasting results indicate that the stripping treatment slightly improves the quality of water, whereas the improvement is more remarkable with carbon filtration. The third project was the reverse osmosis pilot plant installed in the Sant Joan Despi WTP, which also collects water from the Llobregat river. A gradual improvement of the water treated was clearly observed when increasing amounts of reverse osmosis treated water were added. Some trends were also observed according to the characteristics of the feed water to the reverse osmosis facilities.

  4. Incremental validity of the MMPI-A content scales in a residential treatment facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbey, Johnathan D; Ben-Porath, Yossef S

    2003-06-01

    The current study explores the incremental validity of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) content scales. Participants were 335 adolescents (250 boys and 85 girls) between the ages of 13 and 18 who were receiving mental health services from a residential treatment facility. Regression analyses were conducted to identify the amount of additional variance accounted for by the content scales over the clinical scales in predicting scores on a clinician rating form of psychological symptomatology. Several of the MMPI-A content scales demonstrated significant incremental validity above the clinical scales in predicting clinician ratings of adolescents' behavior and personality characteristics. The clinical scales also demonstrated incremental validity in reference to the content scales, indicating then that the two sets of scales provide complementary information. Magnitude of the additional criterion variance predicted was modest.

  5. Composition and uses of anaerobic digestion derived biogas from wastewater treatment facilities in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackey, Jillian C; Peppley, B; Champagne, P; Maier, A

    2015-08-01

    A study was conducted to determine the current knowledge of biogas production and its use at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) across North America. Information was provided by municipal WWTPs across Canada and the US. It was determined that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and silicon (Si) compounds had sufficient variability to be of concern. The only biogas production trend that could be identified was a possible seasonal relationship with sludge input and biogas production. Secondary analysis was performed to observe trends in biogas usage in urban areas larger than 150,000 in the US and 50,000 in Canada; 66% of facilities had anaerobic digestion systems and, of those, only 35% had an energy recovery system. Climatic, population, and socio-political influences on the trends were considered. The primary conclusion was that more data is required to perform significant analyses on biogas production and composition variation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. SECONDARY WASTE/ETF (EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY) PRELIMINARY PRE-CONCEPTUAL ENGINEERING STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAY TH; GEHNER PD; STEGEN GARY; HYMAS JAY; PAJUNEN AL; SEXTON RICH; RAMSEY AMY

    2009-12-28

    This pre-conceptual engineering study is intended to assist in supporting the critical decision (CD) 0 milestone by providing a basis for the justification of mission need (JMN) for the handling and disposal of liquid effluents. The ETF baseline strategy, to accommodate (WTP) requirements, calls for a solidification treatment unit (STU) to be added to the ETF to provide the needed additional processing capability. This STU is to process the ETF evaporator concentrate into a cement-based waste form. The cementitious waste will be cast into blocks for curing, storage, and disposal. Tis pre-conceptual engineering study explores this baseline strategy, in addition to other potential alternatives, for meeting the ETF future mission needs. Within each reviewed case study, a technical and facility description is outlined, along with a preliminary cost analysis and the associated risks and benefits.

  7. Public perception of odour and environmental pollution attributed to MSW treatment and disposal facilities: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Feo, Giovanni, E-mail: g.defeo@unisa.it [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, via Ponte don Melillo 1, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); De Gisi, Sabino [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, via Ponte don Melillo 1, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Williams, Ian D. [Waste Management Research Group, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Effects of closing MSW facilities on perception of odour and pollution studied. ► Residents’ perception of odour nuisance considerably diminished post closure. ► Odour perception showed an association with distance from MSW facilities. ► Media coverage increased knowledge about MSW facilities and how they operate. ► Economic compensation possibly affected residents’ views and concerns. - Abstract: If residents’ perceptions, concerns and attitudes towards waste management facilities are either not well understood or underestimated, people can produce strong opposition that may include protest demonstrations and violent conflicts such as those experienced in the Campania Region of Italy. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of the closure of solid waste treatment and disposal facilities (two landfills and one RDF production plant) on public perception of odour and environmental pollution. The study took place in four villages in Southern Italy. Identical questionnaires were administered to residents during 2003 and after the closure of the facilities occurred in 2008. The residents’ perception of odour nuisance considerably diminished between 2003 and 2009 for the nearest villages, with odour perception showing an association with distance from the facilities. Post closure, residents had difficulty in identifying the type of smell due to the decrease in odour level. During both surveys, older residents reported most concern about the potentially adverse health impacts of long-term exposure to odours from MSW facilities. However, although awareness of MSW facilities and concern about potentially adverse health impacts varied according to the characteristics of residents in 2003, substantial media coverage produced an equalisation effect and increased knowledge about the type of facilities and how they operated. It is possible that residents of the village nearest to the facilities reported lower awareness of and concern about

  8. METHODS FOR DETERMINING AGITATOR MIXING REQUIREMENTS FOR A MIXING & SAMPLING FACILITY TO FEED WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PLANT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GRIFFIN PW

    2009-08-27

    The following report is a summary of work conducted to evaluate the ability of existing correlative techniques and alternative methods to accurately estimate impeller speed and power requirements for mechanical mixers proposed for use in a mixing and sampling facility (MSF). The proposed facility would accept high level waste sludges from Hanford double-shell tanks and feed uniformly mixed high level waste to the Waste Treatment Plant. Numerous methods are evaluated and discussed, and resulting recommendations provided.

  9. Facility-level, state, and financial factors associated with changes in the provision of smoking cessation services in US substance abuse treatment facilities: Results from the National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services 2006 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Amy; Elmasry, Hoda; Niaura, Ray

    2017-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is common among patients in substance abuse treatment. Tobacco control programs have advocated for integrated tobacco dependence treatment into behavioral healthcare, including within substance abuse treatment facilities (SATFs) to reduce the public health burden of tobacco use. This study used data from seven waves (2006 to 2012) of the National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (n=94,145) to examine state and annual changes in the provision of smoking cessation services within US SATFs and whether changes over time could be explained by facility-level (private vs public ownership, receipt of earmarks, facility admissions, acceptance of government insurance) and state-level factors (cigarette tax per pack, smoke free policies, and percent of CDC recommended tobacco prevention spending). Results showed that the prevalence of SATFs offering smoking cessation services increased over time, from 13% to 65%. The amount of tax per cigarette pack, accepting government insurance, government (vs private) ownership, facility admissions, and CDC recommended tobacco prevention spending (per state) were the strongest correlates of the provision of smoking cessation programs in SATFs. Facilities that received earmarks were less likely to provide cessation services. Adult smoking prevalence and state-level smoke free policies were not significant correlates of the provision of smoking cessation services over time. Policies aimed at increasing the distribution of tax revenues to cessation services in SATFs may offset tobacco-related burden among those with substance abuse problems. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Role of health care professionals in multidisciplinary pain treatment facilities in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Philip; Stinson, Jennifer N; Choiniere, Manon; Dion, Dominique; Intrater, Howard; LeFort, Sandra; Lynch, Mary; Ong, May; Rashiq, Saifee; Tkachuk, Gregg; Veillette, Yves

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the role of health care professionals in multidisciplinary pain treatment facilities (MPTF) for the treatment of chronic pain across Canada. METHODS: MPTF were defined as clinics that advertised specialized multidisciplinary services for the diagnosis and management of chronic pain, and had staff from a minimum of three different health care disciplines (including at least one medical specialty) available and integrated within the facility. Administrative leaders at eligible MPTF were asked to complete a detailed questionnaire on their infrastructure as well as clinical, research, teaching and administrative activities. RESULTS: A total of 102 MPTF returned the questionnaires. General practitioners, anesthesiologists and physiatrists were the most common types of physicians integrated in the MPTF (56%, 51% and 32%, respectively). Physiotherapists, psychologists and nurses were the most common nonphysician professionals working within these MPTF (75%, 68% and 57%, respectively), but 33% to 56% of them were part-time staff. Only 77% of the MPTF held regular interdisciplinary meetings to discuss patient management, and 32% were staffed with either a psychologist or psychiatrist. The three most frequent services provided by physiotherapists were patient assessment, individual physiotherapy or exercise, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. The three most common services provided by psychologists were individual counselling, cognitive behavioural therapy and psychodynamic therapy. The major roles of nurses were patient assessment, assisting in interventional procedures and patient education. CONCLUSION: Different health care professionals play a variety of important roles in MPTF in Canada. However, few of them are involved on a full-time basis and the extent to which pain is assessed and treated in a truly multidisciplinary manner is questionable. PMID:19225605

  11. Evaporation Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Direct Feed Low Activity Waste Effluent Management Facility Core Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Mcclane, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate, LMOGC) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation, and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream is to evaporate it in a new evaporator, in the Effluent Management Facility (EMF), and then return it to the LAW melter. It is important to understand the composition of the effluents from the melter and new evaporator, so that the disposition of these streams can be accurately planned and accommodated. Furthermore, alternate disposition of the LMOGC stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would reduce the need for closely integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Long-term implementation of this option after WTP start-up would decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste, amongst the other operational complexities such a recycle stream presents. In order to accurately plan for the disposition path, it is key to experimentally determine the fate of contaminants. To do this, testing is needed to accurately account for the buffering chemistry of the components, determine the achievable evaporation end point, identify insoluble solids that form, and determine the distribution of key regulatory-impacting constituents. The LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate stream will contain components that are volatile at melter temperatures, have limited solubility in the glass waste form, and represent a materials corrosion concern, such as halides and sulfate. Because this stream will recycle within WTP, these components will accumulate in the Melter Condensate

  12. The Design and Construction of the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrop, G.

    2003-02-27

    The Advanced Mixed Treatment Project (AMWTP) privatized contract was awarded to BNFL Inc. in December 1996 and construction of the main facility commenced in August 2000. The purpose of the advanced mixed waste treatment facility is to safely treat plutonium contaminated waste, currently stored in drums and boxes, for final disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The plant is being built at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Construction was completed in 28 months, to satisfy the Settlement Agreement milestone of December 2002. Commissioning of the related retrieval and characterization facilities is currently underway. The first shipment of pre-characterized waste is scheduled for March 2003, with AMWTP characterized and certified waste shipments from June 2003. To accommodate these challenging delivery targets BNFL adopted a systematic and focused construction program that included the use of a temporary structure to allow winter working, proven design and engineering principles and international procurement policies to help achieve quality and schedule. The technology involved in achieving the AMWTP functional requirements is primarily based upon a BNFL established pedigree of plant and equipment; applied in a manner that suits the process and waste. This technology includes the use of remotely controlled floor mounted and overhead power manipulators, a high power shredder and a 2000-ton force supercompactor with the attendant glove box suite, interconnections and automated material handling. The characterization equipment includes real-time radiography (RTR) units, drum and box assay measurement systems, drum head space gas sampling / analysis and drum venting, drum coring and sampling capabilities. The project adopted a particularly stringent and intensive pre-installation testing philosophy to ensure that equipment would work safely and reliably at the required throughput. This testing included the complete off site

  13. [Utilization of radionuclide therapy facility and assembly-temporary type therapeutic facility for medical treatment of radioactivity contaminated patients in nuclear emergency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Naoyuki; Satro, Hiroyuki; Kawahara, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Yasuhito

    2011-05-01

    Medical management of patients internally contaminated in nuclear emergency needs, in addition to general medical treatment, to evaluate doses due to intakes of radioactive materials, to conduct effective treatment with stable isotopes and chelating agents and to keep public away from radioactive materials in and excreted from patients. The idea of medical treatment for internal contamination is demonstrated in the general principles on medical management of victims in nuclear emergency issued by the Cabinet Office in Japan. However, if impressive number patients with internal contamination are generated, the current medical management scheme in nuclear emergency is not able to admit them. The utilization of radionuclide therapy facilities where patients with thyroid diseases are treated with radioisotope and assembly-temporary housing type treatment facilities dedicated for internal contaminated patients may be expected to complement the medical management scheme in nuclear emergency. The effect or more medical management system for patients internally contaminated may become one of the safety nets in the contemporary society that inclines to use nuclear energy on account of accessibility.

  14. Application of HACCP principles as a management tool for monitoring and controlling microbiological hazards in water treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagals, C; Jagals, P

    2004-01-01

    HACCP (hazard analysis and critical control points) principles were applied to evaluate the effectiveness of two water treatment facilities to continually produce potable water free of microbiological health hazards. This paper reports a hazard analyses protocol (microbiological hazards based on faecal coliforms (FC) and turbidity (TBY) as indicators) for critical control points (CCPs) within each facility. The CCPs were raw resource water, sedimentation, filtration and chlorine-disinfection. The aim was to determine the effectiveness of each CCP to remove the indicators from the water under treatment. Arbitrary critical performance limit targets (CPLTs) were set up for each CCP to determine to what extent each contributed to effective removal and to predict what the effect would be if any of the CCPs should fail. Health-related water quality guideline limits for expected health effects were applied and compliance measured at the 90th percentile. The raw resource river water used at both treatment facilities complied with raw resource water extraction CPLTs. The treated potable water complied with health-related drinking water guidelines. Sedimentation removed the largest proportion of the indicators from the raw water, but showed failure potential that could overload the consequent system. Filtration effectiveness at both treatment facilities showed potential to break down the overall effectiveness of the entire treatment facility, since the filter systems failed to meet their respective CPLTs. This left the disinfection phase to remove the remaining portion of indicators. Faecal coliforms appeared to be completely removed from post-chlorination samples. This indicated that both chlorine disinfection phases were 100% effective in meeting their disinfection CPLTs, despite having to "clean up" the indicator organisms that spilt over from the upstream CCPs. This, nevertheless, implied a risk of unsafe water release into distribution. CCPs at these treatment

  15. PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) 241-Z LIQUID WASTE TREATMENT FACILITY DEACTIVATION AND DEMOLITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSTON GA

    2008-01-15

    Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) is proud to submit the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) 241-Z liquid Waste Treatment Facility Deactivation and Demolition (D&D) Project for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2008. The decommissioning of the 241-Z Facility presented numerous challenges, many of which were unique with in the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. The majority of the project budget and schedule was allocated for cleaning out five below-grade tank vaults. These highly contaminated, confined spaces also presented significant industrial safety hazards that presented some of the most hazardous work environments on the Hanford Site. The 241-Z D&D Project encompassed diverse tasks: cleaning out and stabilizing five below-grade tank vaults (also called cells), manually size-reducing and removing over three tons of process piping from the vaults, permanently isolating service utilities, removing a large contaminated chemical supply tank, stabilizing and removing plutonium-contaminated ventilation ducts, demolishing three structures to grade, and installing an environmental barrier on the demolition site . All of this work was performed safely, on schedule, and under budget. During the deactivation phase of the project between November 2005 and February 2007, workers entered the highly contaminated confined-space tank vaults 428 times. Each entry (or 'dive') involved an average of three workers, thus equaling approximately 1,300 individual confined -space entries. Over the course of the entire deactivation and demolition period, there were no recordable injuries and only one minor reportable skin contamination. The 241-Z D&D Project was decommissioned under the provisions of the 'Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order' (the Tri-Party Agreement or TPA), the 'Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976' (RCRA), and the 'Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and

  16. Process evaluation of an environmental and educational nutrition intervention in residential drug-treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Jennifer A; Devine, Carol M

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the implementation of a controlled, 6-week, environmental and educational intervention to improve dietary intake and body composition, and to study the association of implementation fidelity with diet and body composition outcomes. A process evaluation documented participation, dose of nutrition education delivered, participant satisfaction, fidelity and completeness of the food environment intervention implementation, and context through observations and interviews with staff and residents. Intervention sites were scored and categorized as high or low participation and implementation and compared on essential elements of the food environment and on diet and body composition outcomes. Six urban residential drug-treatment facilities in Upstate New York. Fifty-five primarily black and white men in residential drug-treatment programmes. Participants were exposed to 94 % and 69 % of the educational and environmental elements, respectively. High implementation sites were significantly more likely to provide water and 100 % juice, offer fruit or vegetable salad, offer choices of fruits and vegetables, and limit fried foods. Mixed-model analysis of covariance revealed that participants in the high participation and implementation sites reported greater reductions in total energy, percentage of energy from sweets, daily servings of fats, oils and sweets, and BMI over the intervention period. Participants in low participation and implementation sites reported greater reductions in percentage of energy from fat. Differential implementation of environmental elements limited the intervention impact. These findings document the contribution of changes in eating environments to facilitate dietary behaviour change in community residential substance-abuse settings.

  17. Assess and improve the sustainability of water treatment facility using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Tejada-Martinez, Andres; Lei, Hongxia; Zhang, Qiong

    2016-11-01

    Fluids problems in water treatment industry are often simplified or omitted since the focus is usually on chemical process only. However hydraulics also plays an important role in determining effluent water quality. Recent studies have demonstrated that computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has the ability to simulate the physical and chemical processes in reactive flows in water treatment facilities, such as in chlorine and ozone disinfection tanks. This study presents the results from CFD simulations of reactive flow in an existing full-scale ozone disinfection tank and in potential designs. Through analysis of the simulation results, we found that baffling factor and CT10 are not optimal indicators of disinfection performance. We also found that the relationship between effluent CT (the product of disinfectant concentration and contact time) obtained from CT transport simulation and baffling factor depends on the location of ozone release. In addition, we analyzed the environmental and economic impacts of ozone disinfection tank designs and developed a composite indicator to quantify the sustainability of ozone disinfection tank in technological, environmental and economic dimensions.

  18. 2013 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Lewis

    2014-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2012, through October 31, 2013. The report contains, as applicable, the following information: • Site description • Facility and system description • Permit required monitoring data and loading rates • Status of compliance conditions and activities • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2013 permit year, no wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant and therefore, no effluent flow volumes or samples were collected from wastewater sampling point WW-014102. However, soil samples were collected in October from soil monitoring unit SU-014101.

  19. Treatment of Moderately Intellectually Disabled Delinquent Youth in a Dutch Juvenile Justice Facility with Closed and Open Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodewijks, Henny P. B.

    2011-01-01

    This article will focus on a juvenile justice facility in the Netherlands, targeted at moderately intellectually disabled juveniles, who are sentenced because of serious crimes. All of the juveniles have a disruptive disorder (conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder) and 70% have comorbid psychiatric classifications. Treatment amounts to…

  20. The relation between detention length, living group climate, coping, and treatment motivation among juvenile delinquents in a youth correctional facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Helm, P.; Beunk, L.; Stams, G.J.; van der Laan, P.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between detention length, living group climate, coping, and treatment motivation among 59 juvenile delinquents in a Dutch youth correctional facility. Longer detention was associated with the perception of a more open living group climate, but proved to be

  1. A Demonstration of Long Term Follow-Up of a Psychoeducational Intensive Day Treatment Facility for Emotionally Handicapped Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Jerome

    To determine the status of emotionally handicapped children who had attended a psychoeducational intensive day treatment facility and to explore procedures for long term assessment, a followup telephone interview was undertaken with 37 parents or guardians of the elementary program clients. It was found that the children are for the most part…

  2. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Screening & Grinding Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Gerald A.; Montgomery, James A.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the screening and grinding process of wastewater treatment facilities. The objective of this process is the removal of coarse materials from the raw waste stream for the protection of subsequent equipment and processes. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for safety inspection,…

  3. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Sludge Thickening Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwing, Carl M.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the screening and grinding process of wastewater treatment facilities. The objective of this process is the removal of coarse materials from the raw waste stream for the protection of subsequent equipment and processes. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for safety inspection,…

  4. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Digestion Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwing, Carl M.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the digestion process of wastewater treatment facilities. This process is for reducing the volume of sludge to be treated in subsequent units and to reduce the volatile content of sludge. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for pre-startup, startup, continuous operating, shutdown,…

  5. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Sludge Conditioning & Dewatering Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwing, Carl M.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the sludge conditioning and dewatering process of wastewater treatment facilities. In this process, sludge is treated with chemicals to make the sludge coagulate and give up its water more easily. The treated sludge is then dewatered using a vacuum filter. The guide gives step-by-step…

  6. 2015 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Michael George [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2014, through October 31, 2015.

  7. Treatment adherence in patients living with HIV/AIDS assisted at a specialized facility in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyada, Simone; Garbin, Artênio José Ísper; Gatto, Renata Colturato Joaquim; Garbin, Cléa Adas Saliba

    2017-01-01

    In the 1990s, Brazil adopted a public policy that allowed for universal, free access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Since then, treatment adherence has become a new challenge for administrators of sexually transmitted disease/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (STD/AIDS) policies. This study quantified adherence to ART and verified whether there is an association between sociodemographic variables and clinical/laboratory data in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. This was a cross-sectional, exploratory study with a quantitative approach that was conducted over 8 months. The target population contained patients who were assisted at the ambulatory care facility specialized in STD/AIDS of a medium-size city located in Northwest São Paulo. In order to verify the level of adherence to ART, a validated CEAT-VIH (Assessment of Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy Questionnaire) questionnaire was used. Sociodemographic aspects and clinical/laboratory data were obtained from the medical records. The results were analyzed using the Student's t-test and Pearson's coefficient. Herein, 109 patients were interviewed, 56% of whom were male. The age of the population ranged 18-74 years (mean 45.67 years). Adherence to ART was classified as insufficient in 80.7% of cases. There was an association between ART adherence and presence of symptoms and/or opportunistic infection (p=0.008) and economic status (ptreatment adherence than those who needed to take more than 3 pills a day.

  8. Integrated, long term, sustainable, cost effective biosolids management at a large Canadian wastewater treatment facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBlance, R.J.; Allain, C.J.; Laughton, P.J.; Henry, J.G.

    2003-07-01

    The Greater Moncton Sewerage Commission's 115 000 m{sup 3}/d advanced, chemically assisted primary wastewater treatment facility located in New Brunswick, Canada, has developed an integrated, long term, sustainable, cost effective programme for the management and beneficial utilization of biosolids from lime stabilized raw sludge. The paper overviews biosolids production, lime stabilization, conveyance, and odour control followed by an indepth discussion of the wastewater sludge as a resource programme, namely: composting, mine site reclamation, landfill cover, land application for agricultural use, tree farming, sod farm base as a soil enrichment, topsoil manufacturing. The paper also addresses the issues of metals, pathogens, organic compounds, the quality control program along with the regulatory requirements. Biosolids capital and operating costs are presented. Research results on removal of metals from primary sludge using a unique biological process known as BIOSOL as developed by the University of Toronto, Canada to remove metals and destroy pathogens are presented. The paper also discusses an ongoing cooperative research project with the Universite de Moncton where various mixtures of plant biosolids are composted with low quality soil. Integration, approach to sustainability and ''cumulative effects'' as part of the overall biosolids management strategy is also discussed. (author)

  9. Waste characterization for the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility in support of waste certification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.F.

    1994-10-17

    The Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) procedures define the rules concerning packages of solid Low Level Waste (LLW) that are sent to the E-area vaults (EAV). The WACs tabulate the quantities of 22 radionuclides that require manifesting in waste packages destined for each type of vault. These quantities are called the Package Administrative Criteria (PAC). If a waste package exceeds the PAC for any radionuclide in a given vault, then specific permission is needed to send to that vault. To avoid reporting insignificant quantities of the 22 listed radionuclides, the WAC defines the Minimum Reportable Quantity (MRQ) of each radionuclide as 1/1000th of the PAC. If a waste package contains less than the MRQ of a particular radionuclide, then the package`s manifest will list that radionuclide as zero. At least one radionuclide has to be reported, even if all are below the MRQ. The WAC requires that the waste no be ``hazardous`` as defined by SCDHEC/EPA regulations and also lists several miscellaneous physical/chemical requirements for the packages. This report evaluates the solid wastes generated within the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) for potential impacts on waste certification.

  10. Addiction Treatment Within U.S. Correctional Facilities: Bridging the Gap Between Current Practice and Evidence-Based Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeman, Sarah E; Rich, Josiah D

    2015-01-01

    The United States leads the world in creating prisoners. This epidemic of incarceration is largely due to the "War on Drugs," which has resulted in criminalization of the disease of addiction. Half of prisoners have an active substance use disorder yet a minority receives formal treatment. Opioid agonist maintenance is among the most effective treatments for opioid use disorder. Maintenance treatment reduces illicit opioid use, crime, recidivism, and cost, yet few correctional facilities provide this lifesaving treatment. Increased access to opioid agonist maintenance as well as reexamination of drug policy is necessary to address this costly and morbid incarceration epidemic.

  11. Household expenditures on pneumonia and diarrhoea treatment in Ethiopia: a facility-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memirie, Solomon Tessema; Metaferia, Zewdu Sisay; Norheim, Ole F; Levin, Carol E; Verguet, Stéphane; Johansson, Kjell Arne

    2017-01-01

    Out-of-pocket (OOP) medical payments can lead to catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment. We quantified household OOP expenditure for treatment of childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea and its impact on poverty for different socioeconomic groups in Ethiopia. This study employs a mix of retrospective and prospective primary household data collection for direct medical and non-medical costs (2013 US$). Data from 345 pneumonia and 341 diarrhoea cases (0-59 months of age) were collected retrospectively through exit interviews from 35 purposively sampled health facilities in Ethiopia. Prospective 2-week follow-up interviews were conducted at the household level using a structured questionnaire. The mean total medical expenditures per outpatient visit were US$8 for pneumonia and US$6 for diarrhoea, while the mean for inpatient visits was US$64 for severe pneumonia and US$79 for severe diarrhoea. The mean associated direct non-medical costs (mainly transport costs) were US$2, US$2, US$13 and US$20 respectively. 7% and 6% of the households with a case of severe pneumonia and severe diarrhoea, respectively, were pushed below the extreme poverty threshold of purchasing power parity (PPP) US$1.25 per day. Wealthier and urban households had higher OOP payments, but poorer and rural households were more likely to be impoverished due to medical payments. Households in Ethiopia incur considerable costs for the treatment of childhood diarrhoea and pneumonia with catastrophic consequences and impoverishment. The present circumstances call for revisiting the existing health financing strategy for high-priority services that places a substantial burden of payment on households at the point of care.

  12. Race/ethnicity and geographic access to Medicaid substance use disorder treatment facilities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Janet R; Wen, Hefei; Ko, Michelle; Druss, Benjamin G

    2014-02-01

    Although substance use disorders (SUDs) are prevalent and associated with adverse consequences, treatment rates remain low. Unlike physical and mental health problems, treatment for SUDs is predominantly provided in a separate specialty sector and more heavily financed by public sources. Medicaid expansion under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act has the potential to increase access to treatment for SUDs but only if an infrastructure exists to serve new enrollees. To examine the availability of outpatient SUD treatment facilities that accept Medicaid across US counties and whether counties with a higher percentage of racial/ethnic minorities are more likely to have gaps in this infrastructure. We used data from the 2009 National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services public use file and the 2011-2012 Area Resource file to examine sociodemographic factors associated with county-level access to SUD treatment facilities that serve Medicaid enrollees. Counties in all 50 states were included. We estimated a probit model with state indicators to adjust for state-level heterogeneity in demographics, politics, and policies. Independent variables assessed county racial/ethnic composition (ie, percentage black and percentage Hispanic), percentage living in poverty, percentage living in a rural area, percentage insured with Medicaid, percentage uninsured, and total population. Dichotomous indicator for counties with at least 1 outpatient SUD treatment facility that accepts Medicaid. Approximately 60% of US counties have at least 1 outpatient SUD facility that accepts Medicaid, although this rate is lower in many Southern and Midwestern states than in other areas of the country. Counties with a higher percentage of black (marginal effect [ME],  -3.1; 95% CI,  -5.2% to -0.9%), rural (-9.2%; -11.1% to -7.4%), and/or uninsured (-9.5%; -13.0% to -5.9%) residents are less likely to have one of these facilities. The potential for increasing access to SUD

  13. Magnitude and Predictors of Anti-Retroviral Treatment (ART) Failure in Private Health Facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshome Yimer, Yesunesh; Yalew, Alemayehu Worku

    2015-01-01

    The public health approach to antiretroviral treatment management encourages the public private partnership in resource limited countries like Ethiopia. As a result, some private health facilities are accredited to provide antiretroviral treatment free services. Evidence on magnitude and predictors of treatment failure are crucial for timely actions. However, there are few studies in this regard. To assess the magnitude and predictors of ART failure in private health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The study followed retrospective cohort design, with 525 adult antiretroviral treatment clients who started the treatment since October 2009 and have at least six months follow up until December 31, 2013. Kaplan Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazard model were used for analysis. Treatment failure, using the three WHO antiretroviral treatment failure criteria, was 19.8%. The immunologic, clinical, and virologic failures were 15%, 6.3% and 1.3% respectively. The mean and median survival times in months were 41.17 with 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [39.69, 42.64] and 49.00, 95% CI [47.71, 50.29] respectively. The multivariate cox regression analysis showed years since HIV diagnosis (Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR)=13.87 with 95% CI [6.65, 28.92]), disclosure (AHR=0.59, 95% CI [0.36, 0.96]), WHO stage at start (AHR=1.84, 95% CI [1.16, 2.93]), weight at baseline (AHR=0.58, 95% CI [0.38, 0.89]), and functionality status at last visit (AHR=2.57, 95% CI [1.59, 4.15]) were independent predictors of treatment failure. The study showed that the treatment failure is high among the study subjects. The predictors for antiretroviral treatment failure were years since HIV diagnosis, weight at start, WHO stage at start, status at last visit and disclosure. Facilities need to monitor antiretroviral treatment clients to avoid disease progression and drug resistance.

  14. LITERATURE REVIEW ON IMPACT OF GLYCOLATE ON THE 2H EVAPORATOR AND THE EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adu-Wusu, K.

    2012-05-10

    Glycolic acid (GA) is being studied as an alternate reductant in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation process. It will either be a total or partial replacement for the formic acid that is currently used. A literature review has been conducted on the impact of glycolate on two post-DWPF downstream systems - the 2H Evaporator system and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). The DWPF recycle stream serves as a portion of the feed to the 2H Evaporator. Glycolate enters the evaporator system from the glycolate in the recycle stream. The overhead (i.e., condensed phase) from the 2H Evaporator serves as a portion of the feed to the ETF. The literature search revealed that virtually no impact is anticipated for the 2H Evaporator. Glycolate may help reduce scale formation in the evaporator due to its high complexing ability. The drawback of the solubilizing ability is the potential impact on the criticality analysis of the 2H Evaporator system. It is recommended that at least a theoretical evaluation to confirm the finding that no self-propagating violent reactions with nitrate/nitrites will occur should be performed. Similarly, identification of sources of ignition relevant to glycolate and/or update of the composite flammability analysis to reflect the effects from the glycolate additions for the 2H Evaporator system are in order. An evaluation of the 2H Evaporator criticality analysis is also needed. A determination of the amount or fraction of the glycolate in the evaporator overhead is critical to more accurately assess its impact on the ETF. Hence, use of predictive models like OLI Environmental Simulation Package Software (OLI/ESP) and/or testing are recommended for the determination of the glycolate concentration in the overhead. The impact on the ETF depends on the concentration of glycolate in the ETF feed. The impact is classified as minor for feed glycolate concentrations {le} 33 mg/L or 0.44 mM. The ETF unit operations that will have

  15. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT PHASE 1 SLUDGE STORAGE OPTIONS ASSESSMENT OF T PLANT VERSUS ALTERNATE STORAGE FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RUTHERFORD WW; GEUTHER WJ; STRANKMAN MR; CONRAD EA; RHOADARMER DD; BLACK DM; POTTMEYER JA

    2009-04-29

    The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has recommended to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) a two phase approach for removal and storage (Phase 1) and treatment and packaging for offsite shipment (Phase 2) of the sludge currently stored within the 105-K West Basin. This two phased strategy enables early removal of sludge from the 105-K West Basin by 2015, allowing remediation of historical unplanned releases of waste and closure of the 100-K Area. In Phase 1, the sludge currently stored in the Engineered Containers and Settler Tanks within the 105-K West Basin will be transferred into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs). The STSCs will be transported to an interim storage facility. In Phase 2, sludge will be processed (treated) to meet shipping and disposal requirements and the sludge will be packaged for final disposal at a geologic repository. The purpose of this study is to evaluate two alternatives for interim Phase 1 storage of K Basin sludge. The cost, schedule, and risks for sludge storage at a newly-constructed Alternate Storage Facility (ASF) are compared to those at T Plant, which has been used previously for sludge storage. Based on the results of the assessment, T Plant is recommended for Phase 1 interim storage of sludge. Key elements that support this recommendation are the following: (1) T Plant has a proven process for storing sludge; (2) T Plant storage can be implemented at a lower incremental cost than the ASF; and (3) T Plant storage has a more favorable schedule profile, which provides more float, than the ASF. Underpinning the recommendation of T Plant for sludge storage is the assumption that T Plant has a durable, extended mission independent of the K Basin sludge interim storage mission. If this assumption cannot be validated and the operating costs of T Plant are borne by the Sludge Treatment Project, the conclusions and recommendations of this study would change. The following decision-making strategy, which is

  16. HIV treatment and care services for adolescents: a situational analysis of 218 facilities in 23 sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Daniella; Armstrong, Alice; Andrade, Catarina; Penazzato, Martina; Hatane, Luann; Taing, Lina; Runciman, Toby; Ferguson, Jane

    2017-05-16

    In 2013, an estimated 2.1 million adolescents (age 10-19 years) were living with HIV globally. The extent to which health facilities provide appropriate treatment and care was unknown. To support understanding of service availability in 2014, Paediatric-Adolescent Treatment Africa (PATA), a non-governmental organisation (NGO) supporting a network of health facilities across sub-Saharan Africa, undertook a facility-level situational analysis of adolescent HIV treatment and care services in 23 countries. Two hundred and eighteen facilities, responsible for an estimated 80,072 HIV-infected adolescents in care, were surveyed. Sixty per cent of the sample were from PATA's network, with the remaining gathered via local NGO partners and snowball sampling. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and coding to describe central tendencies and identify themes. Respondents represented three subregions: West and Central Africa (n = 59; 27%), East Africa (n = 77, 35%) and southern Africa (n = 82, 38%). Half (50%) of the facilities were in urban areas, 17% peri-urban and 33% rural settings. Insufficient data disaggregation and outcomes monitoring were critical issues. A quarter of facilities did not have a working definition of adolescence. Facilities reported non-adherence as their key challenge in adolescent service provision, but had insufficient protocols for determining and managing poor adherence and loss to follow-up. Adherence counselling focused on implications of non-adherence rather than its drivers. Facilities recommended peer support as an effective adherence and retention intervention, yet not all offered these services. Almost two-thirds reported attending to adolescents with adults and/or children, and half had no transitioning protocols. Of those with transitioning protocols, 21% moved pregnant adolescents into adult services earlier than their peers. There was limited sexual and reproductive health integration, with 63% of facilities offering

  17. [Treatment of elderly with chronic pain in geriatric care and pain therapy facilities in Germany. Survey results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, M; Becker, A; Lindena, G; Mattenklodt, P

    2015-08-01

    Even though there are no satisfactory data available on the prevalence of chronic pain in the elderly, it is certainly a common problem in Germany. The goal of this study is to provide information on the treatment of elderly patients with chronic pain in geriatric care and pain therapy facilities in Germany. Throughout Germany geriatric and pain clinics were asked by email about their treatment practice of patients with chronic pain. The questions related to four types of patients sharing the same chronic pain characteristics and comorbidities but differing with respect to cognitive and physical impairment. The questions were divided into the following areas: equipment, staff, patient care, documentation, and cooperation. Replies from a total of 85 institutions were evaluated. The response rates were approximately 5 % for geriatric units and 10 % for pain units. More patients with chronic pain are treated in geriatrics units than in pain therapy facilities due to larger capacities. Although all four types of patients are treated in both types of facilities, the functionally more competent patients are more common in pain therapy facilities. In geriatrics, the inverse relationship was found. Differences exist in the staff structure and qualification, frequency and refinement of individual and group therapies, assessments used, teamwork, documentation, and cooperation with outpatient care. Due to the differences between geriatric and pain management departments shown in all investigated areas, an exchange between these two cross-sectional subjects could help to improve inpatient, outpatient and intersectoral treatment of elderly patients with chronic pain.

  18. Improvements in access to malaria treatment in Tanzania following community, retail sector and health facility interventions -- a user perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obrist Brigit

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ACCESS programme aims at understanding and improving access to prompt and effective malaria treatment. Between 2004 and 2008 the programme implemented a social marketing campaign for improved treatment-seeking. To improve access to treatment in the private retail sector a new class of outlets known as accredited drug dispensing outlets (ADDO was created in Tanzania in 2006. Tanzania changed its first-line treatment for malaria from sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP to artemether-lumefantrine (ALu in 2007 and subsidized ALu was made available in both health facilities and ADDOs. The effect of these interventions on understanding and treatment of malaria was studied in rural Tanzania. The data also enabled an investigation of the determinants of access to treatment. Methods Three treatment-seeking surveys were conducted in 2004, 2006 and 2008 in the rural areas of the Ifakara demographic surveillance system (DSS and in Ifakara town. Each survey included approximately 150 people who had suffered a fever case in the previous 14 days. Results Treatment-seeking and awareness of malaria was already high at baseline, but various improvements were seen between 2004 and 2008, namely: better understanding causes of malaria (from 62% to 84%; an increase in health facility attendance as first treatment option for patients older than five years (27% to 52%; higher treatment coverage with anti-malarials (86% to 96% and more timely use of anti-malarials (80% to 93-97% treatments taken within 24 hrs. Unfortunately, the change of treatment policy led to a low availability of ALu in the private sector and, therefore, to a drop in the proportion of patients taking a recommended malaria treatment (85% to 53%. The availability of outlets (health facilities or drug shops is the most important determinant of whether patients receive prompt and effective treatment, whereas affordability and accessibility contribute to a lesser extent. Conclusions An

  19. State waste discharge permit application for the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility and the State-Approved Land Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Application is being made for a permit pursuant to Chapter 173--216 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC), to discharge treated waste water and cooling tower blowdown from the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) to land at the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). The ETF is located in the 200 East Area and the SALDS is located north of the 200 West Area. The ETF is an industrial waste water treatment plant that will initially receive waste water from the following two sources, both located in the 200 Area on the Hanford Site: (1) the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and (2) the 242-A Evaporator. The waste water discharged from these two facilities is process condensate (PC), a by-product of the concentration of waste from DSTs that is performed in the 242-A Evaporator. Because the ETF is designed as a flexible treatment system, other aqueous waste streams generated at the Hanford Site may be considered for treatment at the ETF. The origin of the waste currently contained in the DSTs is explained in Section 2.0. An overview of the concentration of these waste in the 242-A Evaporator is provided in Section 3.0. Section 4.0 describes the LERF, a storage facility for process condensate. Attachment A responds to Section B of the permit application and provides an overview of the processes that generated the wastes, storage of the wastes in double-shell tanks (DST), preliminary treatment in the 242-A Evaporator, and storage at the LERF. Attachment B addresses waste water treatment at the ETF (under construction) and the addition of cooling tower blowdown to the treated waste water prior to disposal at SALDS. Attachment C describes treated waste water disposal at the proposed SALDS.

  20. Role of house flies in the ecology of Enterococcus faecalis from wastewater treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doud, C W; Scott, H M; Zurek, L

    2014-02-01

    Enterococci are important nosocomial pathogens, with Enterococcus faecalis most commonly responsible for human infections. In this study, we used several measures to test the hypothesis that house flies, Musca domestica (L.), acquire and disseminate antibiotic-resistant and potentially virulent E. faecalis from wastewater treatment facilities (WWTF) to the surrounding urban environment. House flies and sludge from four WWTF (1-4) as well as house flies from three urban sites close to WWTF-1 were collected and cultured for enterococci. Enterococci were identified, quantified, screened for antibiotic resistance and virulence traits, and assessed for clonality. Of the 11 antibiotics tested, E. faecalis was most commonly resistant to tetracycline, doxycycline, streptomycin, gentamicin, and erythromycin, and these traits were intra-species horizontally transferrable by in vitro conjugation. Profiles of E. faecalis (prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and virulence traits) from each of WWTF sludge and associated house flies were similar, indicating that flies successfully acquired these bacteria from this substrate. The greatest number of E. faecalis with antibiotic resistance and virulence factors (i.e., gelatinase, cytolysin, enterococcus surface protein, and aggregation substance) originated from WWTF-1 that processed meat waste from a nearby commercial meat-processing plant, suggesting an agricultural rather than human clinical source of these isolates. E. faecalis from house flies collected from three sites 0.7-1.5 km away from WWTF-1 were also similar in their antibiotic resistance profiles; however, antibiotic resistance was significantly less frequent. Clonal diversity assessment using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed the same clones of E. faecalis from sludge and house flies from WWTF-1 but not from the three urban sites close to WWTF-1. This study demonstrates that house flies acquire antibiotic-resistant enterococci from WWTF and potentially

  1. Effect of wastewater treatment facility closure on endocrine disrupting chemicals in a Coastal Plain stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M.; Journey, Celeste; Clark, Jimmy M.

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) closures are rare environmental remediation events; offering unique insight into contaminant persistence, long-term wastewater impacts, and ecosystem recovery processes. The U.S. Geological Survey assessed the fate of select endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) in surface water and streambed sediment one year before and one year after closure of a long-term WWTF located within the Spirit Creek watershed at Fort Gordon, Georgia. Sample sites included a WWTF-effluent control located upstream from the outfall, three downstream effluent-impacted sites located between the outfall and Spirit Lake, and one downstream from the lake's outfall. Prior to closure, the 2.2-km stream segment downstream from the WWTF outfall was characterized by EDC concentrations significantly higher (α = 0.05) than at the control site; indicating substantial downstream transport and limited in-stream attenuation of EDC, including pharmaceuticals, estrogens, alkylphenol ethoxylate (APE) metabolites, and organophosphate flame retardants (OPFR). Wastewater-derived pharmaceutical, APE metabolites, and OPFR compounds were also detected in the outflow of Spirit Lake, indicating the potential for EDC transport to aquatic ecosystems downstream of Fort Gordon under effluent discharge conditions. After the WWTF closure, no significant differences in concentrations or numbers of detected EDC compounds were observed between control and downstream locations. The results indicated EDC pseudo-persistence under preclosure, continuous supply conditions, with rapid attenuation following WWTF closure. Low concentrations of EDC at the control site throughout the study and comparable concentrations in downstream locations after WWTF closure indicated additional, continuing, upstream contaminant sources within the Spirit Creek watershed. 

  2. Integrative approach for wastewater treatment facilities with biomass transformation into energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anker Yaakov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Current industrial environmental regulations favor processes with Integrative Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC. While several systems are regarded by different international directives as IPPC Best Available Techniques or Technologies (BAT, none of these systems are capable handling various pollutants of both gaseous and aquatic effluents. Additional hinder to a BAT-IPPC complete procedure are hazardous or uneconomical byproducts of the IPPC processes and significant auxiliary costs for consumables and energy. The current research and subsequent projects are aimed to the development of a Biological Integrative Pollution Prevention and Control (Bio-IPPC system. Such system can be incorporated in various industrial processes, in a way that the byproduct is without hazardous potential and may be used as an economical raw material. The main initiative and heart of these systems is a micro-algae reactor, which is capable of treating various types of industrial pollutants both in the gaseous and aquatic phases. The algae nutrition is through thin-film circulation of the aquatic effluent and the reactor atmosphere is enriched by flue gases. The excessive algal biomass may be utilized for economic purposes starting with animal feedstock, through organic fertilizer and as industrial raw material for biofuels production or direct energy production. The first industrial project is a wastewater (WW polishing stage to an industry zone WW treatment facility, which ensures high level effluent purification and assimilation of greenhouse gases, which are released during the WW bioremediation process. The second industrial application aims to treat aquatic and gaseous effluents from coal propelled power plants. The raw algal material from both projects although very different, is used for the development of new efficient scheme for bioethanol production. In summary, the system presented is an actual Bio-IPPC that can interactively treat several industrial

  3. Power Burst Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Program for cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, A.L. (ed.); Dorn, R.V. III.

    1990-09-01

    This monthly bulletin describes activities in the following project areas during this reporting period: supporting technology development, large animal model studies, neutron source and facility preparation, administration and common support, and PBF operations. (FI)

  4. Methods of sampling airborne fungi in working environments of waste treatment facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Kristýna Černá; Zdeňka Wittlingerová; Magdaléna Zimová; Zdeněk Janovský

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare the efficiency of a filter based sampling method and a high volume sampling method for sampling airborne culturable fungi present in waste sorting facilities. Material and Methods: Membrane filters method was compared with surface air system method. The selected sampling methods were modified and tested in 2 plastic waste sorting facilities. Results: The total number of colony-forming units (CFU)/m3 of airborne fungi w...

  5. The role of body image psychological flexibility on the treatment of eating disorders in a residential facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluett, E J; Lee, E B; Simone, M; Lockhart, G; Twohig, M P; Lensegrav-Benson, Tera; Quakenbush-Roberts, Benita

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether pre-treatment levels of psychological flexibility would longitudinally predict quality of life and eating disorder risk in patients at a residential treatment facility for eating disorders. Data on body image psychological flexibility, quality of life, and eating disorder risk were collected from 63 adolescent and 50 adult, female, residential patients (N=113) diagnosed with an eating disorder. These same measures were again collected at post-treatment. Sequential multiple regression analyses were performed to test whether pre-treatment levels of psychological flexibility longitudinally predicted quality of life and eating disorder risk after controlling for age and baseline effects. Pre-treatment psychological flexibility significantly predicted post-treatment quality of life with approximately 19% of the variation being attributable to age and pre-treatment psychological flexibility. Pre-treatment psychological flexibility also significantly predicted post-treatment eating disorder risk with nearly 30% of the variation attributed to age and pre-treatment psychological flexibility. This study suggests that levels of psychological flexibility upon entering treatment for an eating disorder longitudinally predict eating disorder outcome and quality of life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Randomized Implementation Study of Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adjudicated Teens in Residential Treatment Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Jankowski, Kay; Rosenberg, Stanley; Kodya, Suzanne; Wolford, George L.

    2016-01-01

    Adjudicated youth in residential treatment facilities (RTFs) have high rates of trauma exposure and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study evaluated strategies for implementing trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) in RTF. Therapists (N = 129) treating adjudicated youth were randomized by RTF program (N = 18) to receive one of the two TF-CBT implementation strategies: (1) web-based TF-CBT training + consultation (W) or (2) W + 2 day live TF-CBT workshop + twice month...

  7. Distance to Radiation Facility and Treatment Choice in Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acharya, Sahaja; Hsieh, Samantha; Michalski, Jeff M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine-St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Shinohara, Eric T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Perkins, Stephanie M., E-mail: sperkins@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine-St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Purpose: Breast-conserving therapy (BCT) is a recommended alternative to mastectomy (MT) for early-stage breast cancer. Limited access to radiation therapy (RT) may result in higher rates of MT. We assessed the association between distance to the nearest RT facility and the use of MT, in a modern cohort of women. Methods and Materials: Women with stage 0-II breast cancer eligible for BCT diagnosed from 2004 to 2010 were identified from the Florida Cancer Data System (FCDS). Distances from patient census tracts to the nearest RT facility census tract were calculated. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify explanatory variables that influenced MT use. Results: Of the 27,489 eligible women, 32.1% (n=8841) underwent MT, and 67.8% (n=18,648) underwent BCS. Thirty-two percent of patients lived in a census tract that was >5 miles from an RT facility. MT use increased with increasing distance to RT facility (31.1% at ≤5 miles, 33.8% at >5 to <15 miles, 34.9% at 15 to <40 miles, and 51% at ≥40 miles, P<.001). The likelihood was that MT was independently associated with increasing distance to RT facility on multivariate analysis (P<.001). Compared to patients living <5 miles away from an RT facility, patients living 15 to <40 miles away were 1.2 times more likely to be treated with MT (odds ratio [OR]: 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-1.35, P<.01), and those living ≥40 miles away were more than twice as likely to be treated with MT (OR: 2.17, 95% CI: 1.48-3.17, P<.001). However, in patients younger than 50 years (n=5179), MT use was not associated with distance to RT facility (P=.235). Conclusions: MT use in a modern cohort of women is independently associated with distance to RT facility. However, for young patients, distance to RT is not a significant explanatory variable for MT use.

  8. Elimination of Pasteurella pneumotropica from a Mouse Barrier Facility by Using a Modified Enrofloxacin Treatment Regimen

    OpenAIRE

    Towne, Justin W; Wagner, April M; Griffin, Kurt J; Buntzman, Adam S.; Frelinger, Jeffrey A.; Besselsen, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1WjlTg(HLA-A2.1)Enge/Sz (NSG/A2) transgenic mice maintained in a mouse barrier facility were submitted for necropsy to determine the cause of facial alopecia, tachypnea, dyspnea, and sudden death. Pneumonia and soft-tissue abscesses were observed, and Pasteurella pneumotropica biotype Jawetz was consistently isolated from the upper respiratory tract, lung, and abscesses. Epidemiologic investigation within the facility revealed presence of this pathogen in mice...

  9. High level nuclear waste treatment in the Defense Waste Processing Facility: Overview and integrated flowsheet model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, A.S.; Fowler, J.R.; Edwards, R.E. Jr.; Randall, C.T.

    1991-12-31

    Design and construction of the world`s largest vitrification facility for high level nuclear waste has been nearly completed at the US Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site. Equipment testing and calibration are currently being performed in preparation for the nonradioactive Chemical Runs in the late 1991. In 1993, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will begin producing 100 kg/hr of radioactive waste glass at 28 wt% waste oxide loading. This paper describes all phases of waste processing operations in DWPF and waste tank farms using the integrated flowsheet modeling approach. Particular emphases are given to recent developments in the DWPF processes and design.

  10. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT KOP DISPOSITION - THERMAL AND GAS ANALYSIS FOR THE COLD VACUUM DRYING FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SWENSON JA; CROWE RD; APTHORPE R; PLYS MG

    2010-03-09

    The purpose of this document is to present conceptual design phase thermal process calculations that support the process design and process safety basis for the cold vacuum drying of K Basin KOP material. This document is intended to demonstrate that the conceptual approach: (1) Represents a workable process design that is suitable for development in preliminary design; and (2) Will support formal safety documentation to be prepared during the definitive design phase to establish an acceptable safety basis. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is responsible for the disposition of Knock Out Pot (KOP) sludge within the 105-K West (KW) Basin. KOP sludge consists of size segregated material (primarily canister particulate) from the fuel and scrap cleaning process used in the Spent Nuclear Fuel process at K Basin. The KOP sludge will be pre-treated to remove fines and some of the constituents containing chemically bound water, after which it is referred to as KOP material. The KOP material will then be loaded into a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO), dried at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and stored in the Canister Storage Building (CSB). This process is patterned after the successful drying of 2100 metric tons of spent fuel, and uses the same facilities and much of the same equipment that was used for drying fuel and scrap. Table ES-l present similarities and differences between KOP material and fuel and between MCOs loaded with these materials. The potential content of bound water bearing constituents limits the mass ofKOP material in an MCO load to a fraction of that in an MCO containing fuel and scrap; however, the small particle size of the KOP material causes the surface area to be significantly higher. This relatively large reactive surface area represents an input to the KOP thermal calculations that is significantly different from the calculations for fuel MCOs. The conceptual design provides for a copper insert block that limits the volume available to

  11. Race/ethnic disparities in the utilization of treatment for drug dependent inmates in U.S. state correctional facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowotny, Kathryn M

    2015-01-01

    Research has documented racial and ethnic disparities in utilization, access, continuity, and quality of care for psychiatric disorders including treatment for substance use disorders among those with similar need in the general community. Currently, the extent of racial and ethnic disparities in treatment within U.S. correctional facilities is unknown. This study examines race/ethnic disparities in treatment for drug dependent inmates using the 2004 Survey of Inmates in State Correctional Facilities. Fixed effects logistic regression is used to analyze treatment outcomes for 5180 inmates housed within 286 prisons. The analysis accounts for differences in background characteristics (i.e., age, gender, marital status, foreign born status, veteran status), socioeconomic characteristics (i.e., education, employment prior to incarceration), mental health (i.e., diagnosis with a serious mental illness), and incarceration experiences (i.e., current conviction, previous incarceration episodes, time served, additional sentencing requirements, external social support, disciplinary violations). The findings identify a remarkable unmet need among drug dependent inmates in that less than one-half of drug dependent inmates had received any type of treatment in prison at the time of the interview with the most common treatment type being self-help groups. Compared to whites, drug dependent Latino inmates have significantly lower odds of utilizing treatment, yet there are no significant black--white disparities found. The current study suggests that treatment for drug dependent inmates needs to be expanded to include clinically or medically based treatment since the failure to address addictions in the criminal legal system has been identified as the single most significant reason for rearrest and recidivism once released. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Magnitude and Predictors of Anti-Retroviral Treatment (ART Failure in Private Health Facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesunesh Teshome Yimer

    Full Text Available The public health approach to antiretroviral treatment management encourages the public private partnership in resource limited countries like Ethiopia. As a result, some private health facilities are accredited to provide antiretroviral treatment free services. Evidence on magnitude and predictors of treatment failure are crucial for timely actions. However, there are few studies in this regard.To assess the magnitude and predictors of ART failure in private health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.The study followed retrospective cohort design, with 525 adult antiretroviral treatment clients who started the treatment since October 2009 and have at least six months follow up until December 31, 2013. Kaplan Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazard model were used for analysis.Treatment failure, using the three WHO antiretroviral treatment failure criteria, was 19.8%. The immunologic, clinical, and virologic failures were 15%, 6.3% and 1.3% respectively. The mean and median survival times in months were 41.17 with 95% Confidence Interval (CI [39.69, 42.64] and 49.00, 95% CI [47.71, 50.29] respectively. The multivariate cox regression analysis showed years since HIV diagnosis (Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR=13.87 with 95% CI [6.65, 28.92], disclosure (AHR=0.59, 95% CI [0.36, 0.96], WHO stage at start (AHR=1.84, 95% CI [1.16, 2.93], weight at baseline (AHR=0.58, 95% CI [0.38, 0.89], and functionality status at last visit (AHR=2.57, 95% CI [1.59, 4.15] were independent predictors of treatment failure.The study showed that the treatment failure is high among the study subjects. The predictors for antiretroviral treatment failure were years since HIV diagnosis, weight at start, WHO stage at start, status at last visit and disclosure.Facilities need to monitor antiretroviral treatment clients to avoid disease progression and drug resistance.

  13. Facility-Based treatment of under five diarrhoea in Cross River State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-06-29

    Jun 29, 2015 ... Consent to audit diarrhoea case management records was sought from the heads of the selected health facilities. Identification numbers were assigned to the field workers and patients' case records for the purpose of confidentiality. Data extraction. Information extracted from the patients' case records.

  14. Constructed wetland with a polyculture of ornamental plants for wastewater treatment at a rural tourism facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calheiros, Cristina S C; Bessa, Vânia S.; Mesquita, Raquel B R

    2015-01-01

    Sewage management in remote rural and mountain areas constitutes a challenge because of the lack of adequate infrastructure and economical capability. Tourism facilities, in particular, possess a special challenge because of huge variability in sewage production and composition as a consequence o...

  15. Research on common methods for evaluating the operation effect of integrated wastewater treatment facilities of iron and steel enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingsheng, Xu

    2017-04-01

    Considering the large quantities of wastewater generated from iron and steel enterprises in China, this paper is aimed to research the common methods applied for evaluating the integrated wastewater treatment effect of iron and steel enterprises. Based on survey results on environmental protection performance, technological economy, resource & energy consumption, services and management, an indicator system for evaluating the operation effect of integrated wastewater treatment facilities is set up. By discussing the standards and industrial policies in and out of China, 27 key secondary indicators are further defined on the basis of investigation on main equipment and key processes for wastewater treatment, so as to determine the method for setting key quantitative and qualitative indicators for evaluation indicator system. It is also expected to satisfy the basic requirements of reasonable resource allocation, environmental protection and sustainable economic development, further improve the integrated wastewater treatment effect of iron and steel enterprises, and reduce the emission of hazardous substances and environmental impact.

  16. Manual of Considerations and Techniques for Start-Up of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, R. D.; And Others

    This manual provides guidance for putting into initial operation a new municipal wastewater treatment plant, a new addition to an existing treatment plant, or a change in the mode of a treatment plant's operation. Information is provided on preparing for actual treatment plant start-up. Preparation for start-up includes: staffing the plant,…

  17. 2014 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Mike [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2013, through October 31, 2014. The report contains, as applicable, the following information; Site description; Facility and system description; Permit required monitoring data and loading rates; Status of compliance conditions and activities; and Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. The current permit expires on March 16, 2015. A permit renewal application was submitted to Idaho Department of Environmental Quality on September 15, 2014. During the 2014 permit year, no wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant and therefore, no effluent flow volumes or samples were collected from wastewater sampling point WW-014102. Seepage testing of the three lagoons was performed between August 26, 2014 and September 22, 2014. Seepage rates from Lagoons 1 and 2 were below the 0.25 inches/day requirement; however, Lagoon 3 was above the 0.25 inches/day. Lagoon 3 has been isolated and is being evaluated for future use or permanent removal from service.

  18. Where Is Buprenorphine Dispensed to Treat Opioid Use Disorders? The Role of Private Offices, Opioid Treatment Programs, and Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities in Urban and Rural Counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Bradley D; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Gordon, Adam J; Burns, Rachel M; Leslie, Douglas L; Sorbero, Mark J; Bauhoff, Sebastian; Mandell, Todd W; Dick, Andrew W

    2015-09-01

    Buprenorphine is an effective opioid dependence treatment that has expanded access to care since its 2002 approval, but it can only be prescribed by physicians waivered to treat a limited number of individuals. We examined the impact of 2006 legislation that increased waivered physician patient limits from 30 to 100 on buprenorphine use, and found that 100-patient-waivered physicians were significantly associated with growth in buprenorphine use, with no such relationship for 30-patient-waivered physicians. Policies relaxing patient limits may be more effective in increasing buprenorphine use than alternatives such as opening new substance abuse treatment facilities or increasing the overall number of waivered physicians. Opioid use disorders are a significant public health problem. In 2002, the FDA approved buprenorphine as an opioid use disorder treatment when prescribed by waivered physicians who were limited to treating 30 patients at a time. In 2006, federal legislation raised this number to 100 patients. Although federal legislators are considering increasing these limits further and expanding prescribing privileges to nonphysicians, little information is available regarding the impact of such changes on buprenorphine use. We therefore examined the impact of the 2006 legislation-as well as the association between urban and rural waivered physicians, opioid treatment programs, and substance abuse treatment facilities-on buprenorphine distributed per capita over the past decade. Using 2004-2011 state-level data on buprenorphine dispensed and county-level data on the number of buprenorphine-waivered physicians and substance abuse treatment facilities using buprenorphine, we estimated a multivariate ordinary least squares regression model with state fixed effects of a state's annual total buprenorphine dispensed per capita as a function of the state's number of buprenorphine providers. The amount of buprenorphine dispensed has been increasing at a greater rate

  19. Application of a Bimetallic Treatment System (BTS) for PCB Removal from Older Structures on DoD Facilities. Cost and Performance Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    material and adhesives, as their properties enhanced structural integrity, reduced flammability and boosted antifungal properties. Numerous DoD facilities...flammability and boosted antifungal properties. Numerous DoD facilities have older metal structures upon which paints containing PCB were applied...Bimetallic Treatment System (BTS) for PCB Removal from Older Structures on DoD Facilities By Thomas Krug and Suzanne O’Hara, Geosyntec

  20. Community-based facilities may be replacing hospitals for the treatment of alcoholism: the evidence from Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, M; Ogborne, A C; Rankin, J G; Ferguson, B S; Jull, P

    1994-11-01

    We examined hospital utilization and use of community facilities for the treatment of alcohol problems in Ontario using Statistics Canada, Hospital Medical Records Institute records, and other administrative records. Between 1974 and 1986 there was a large drop in utilization of hospital services for treatment of alcohol problems. Rates of alcohol inpatient cases in general hospitals dropped by 47% and in mental hospitals by 33%. At the same time, there was an increase in overall availability of hospital beds and bed-days of care for all medical conditions, and no change in the total number of hospital discharges (1.3 million) and occupancy rates (80-85%). Also at the same time, the number of community-based programs for the treatment of alcohol problems increased, as did the number of persons or cases treated by them. This was associated with a drop of inpatient cases treated for alcohol problems in 38 out of 48 counties in Ontario (P take into account the effect of the slight decline in overall alcohol consumption in this period. We found that after controlling for changes in alcohol consumption, the addition of one community-based alcohol treatment program was associated with a reduction in the number of cases treated on a hospital inpatient basis for alcohol-related problems, with a short-run drop of 27.1 hospital cases within 1 year of a community facility's availability and a long-run reduction of 52.2 cases. (P < .005).

  1. The prevalence, reporting, and treatment of anxiety among older adults in nursing homes and other residential aged care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, Alexandra S; Davison, Tanya E; Kissane, David W

    2018-02-01

    Little is known about anxiety in aged care populations, despite its increase in this frail population. This study investigated the prevalence, recording, and treatment rate of anxiety disorders among aged care residents. A cross-sectional, observational design was used to assess 180 elderly residents from 12 aged care facilities in Melbourne, Australia. Participants were assessed for threshold and subthreshold anxiety disorders and comorbid depression using the MINI for DSM-5. Medical files were also reviewed to determine whether there was any indication that anxiety had previously been detected, and what treatment those with a threshold/subthreshold diagnosis were receiving. Overall prevalence of threshold and subthreshold anxiety disorders was 19.4% and 11.7%, respectively. Generalized anxiety disorder was the most common threshold disorder and agoraphobia was the most prevalent subthreshold anxiety disorder. While less than half of those with a threshold or subthreshold anxiety disorder had an indication of anxiety in their file, the majority received psychotropic medication. Cognitive impairment was not significantly associated with the prevalence or treatment of anxiety. The prevalence of threshold and subthreshold anxiety in aged care settings is high, but remains under-reported by staff and GPs. Facility staff and GPs should ensure they are aware of how anxiety presents in elderly residents and routinely screen for this common mental health issue. This cohort had poor access to psychological treatments for their condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Use of information systems in Air Force medical treatment facilities in strategic planning and decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Glenn A; Platonova, Elena A; Musa, Philip F

    2006-02-01

    An exploratory study used Ansoff's strategic planning model as a framework to assess perceived effectiveness of information systems in supporting strategic business plan development at Air Force medical treatment facilities (MTFs). Results showed information systems were most effective in supporting historical trend analysis, strategic business plans appeared to be a balance of operational and strategic plans, and facilities perceived a greater need for new clinical, vice administrative, information systems to support strategic planning processes. Administrators believed information systems should not be developed at the local level and perceived information systems have the greatest impact on improving clinical quality outcomes, followed by ability to deliver cost effective care and finally, ability to increase market share.

  3. Factors Associated with Treatment Delay among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Public and Private Health Facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getinet Shewaseged Adenager

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Early detection and diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB and the timely commencement of antituberculosis (anti-TB treatment are the parts of efficient tuberculosis prevention and control program. Delay in the commencement of anti-TB treatment worsens the prognosis and increases the risk of death and the chance of transmission in the community and among health care workers. Objective. To assess tuberculosis treatment delay and associated factors among pulmonary TB patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 public and 10 private health facilities that provide TB treatment. The data were collected from 425 newly registered pulmonary TB patients using pretested structured questionnaire from April to June 2012. Data were entered in EPI info version 3.5.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Findings. The median durations of a patient, health care system, and total treatment delays were 17, 9, and 35 days, respectively. Overall 179 (42.1%, 233 (54.8%, and 262 (61.6% of patients experienced patient delay, health care system delay, and total treatment delay, respectively. Distance more than 2.5 km from TB treatment health facility [AOR = 1.6, 95% CI (1.1–2.5] and the presence of TB-associated stigma [AOR = 2.1, 95% CI (1.3, 3.4] indicate higher odds of patient delay, whereas, being unemployed, patients with the hemoptysis symptom complain indicated lower odds of health care system delay [AOR = 0.41, 95% CI (0.24, 0.70] and [AOR = 0.61 (0.39, 0.94], respectively. Conclusions. A significant proportion of clients experienced patient and health care system delay. Thus, there is a need for designing and implementing appropriate strategies to decrease the delays. Efforts to reduce delays should give focus on integrating prevention programs such as active case detection and expanding access to TB care.

  4. Formulation and preparation of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant direct feed low activity waste Effluent Management Facility core simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, Charles A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL; Adamson, Duane J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL

    2016-05-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate, LMOGC) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream is to evaporate it in a new evaporator in the Effluent Management Facility (EMF) and then return it to the LAW melter. It is important to understand the composition of the effluents from the melter and new evaporator so that the disposition of these streams can be accurately planned and accommodated. Furthermore, alternate disposition of the LMOGC stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Alternate disposition would also eliminate this stream from recycling within WTP when it begins operations and would decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste, amongst the other problems such a recycle stream present. This LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate stream will contain components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form, such as halides and sulfate. Because this stream will recycle within WTP, these components accumulate in the Melter Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Diverting the stream reduces the halides and sulfate in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. This overall program examines the potential treatment and immobilization of this stream to enable alternative disposal. The objective of this task was to formulate and prepare a simulant of the LAW Melter

  5. Preparation and evaporation of Hanford Waste treatment plant direct feed low activity waste effluent management facility simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Howe, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-07

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate, LMOGC) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation, and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream involves concentrating the condensate in a new evaporator at the Effluent Management Facility (EMF) and returning it to the LAW melter. The LMOGC stream will contain components, e.g. halides and sulfates, that are volatile at melter temperatures, have limited solubility in glass waste forms, and present a material corrosion concern. Because this stream will recycle within WTP, these components are expected to accumulate in the LMOGC stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Diverting the stream reduces the halides and sulfates in the glass and is a key objective of this program. In order to determine the disposition path, it is key to experimentally determine the fate of contaminants. To do this, testing is needed to account for the buffering chemistry of the components, determine the achievable evaporation end point, identify insoluble solids that form, determine the formation and distribution of key regulatoryimpacting constituents, and generate an aqueous stream that can be used in testing of the subsequent immobilization step. This overall program examines the potential treatment and immobilization of the LMOGC stream to enable alternative disposal. The objective of this task was to (1) prepare a simulant of the LAW Melter Off-gas Condensate expected during DFLAW operations, (2) demonstrate evaporation in order to predict the final composition of the effluents from the EMF

  6. Impact of harmful algal blooms on several Lake Erie drinking water treatment facilities; methodology considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The propagation of cyanbacterial cells and their toxins were investigated at seven drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) on Lake Erie were investigated with regards to harmful algal bloom (HAB) toxin concentrations, water quality variations in treatment plant influents, and pr...

  7. Impact of travel distance to the treatment facility on overall mortality in US patients with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetterlein, Malte W; Löppenberg, Björn; Karabon, Patrick; Dalela, Deepansh; Jindal, Tarun; Sood, Akshay; Chun, Felix K-H; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Menon, Mani; Abdollah, Firas

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of travel distance to the treating facility on the risk of overall mortality (OM) among US patients with prostate cancer (PCa). In total, 775,999 patients who had PCa in all stages and received treatment with different strategies (radical prostatectomy, radiation therapy, observation, androgen-deprivation therapy, multimodal treatment, and chemotherapy) were drawn from the National Cancer Data Base from 2004 through 2012. Independent predictors of travel distance (intermediate [12.5-49.9 miles] and long [49.9-249.9 miles] vs short[traveled short, intermediate, and long distances, respectively. Residency in rural areas and the receipt of treatment at academic/high-volume centers independently predicted long travel distance. Non-Hispanic black men and Medicaid-insured men were less likely to travel long distances (all P traveling a long distance (hazard ratio, 0.87; 95% confidence interval, 0.83-0.92; P traveling a short distance. This held true among non-Hispanic white men; privately insured and Medicare-insured men; those who underwent radical prostatectomy, received radiation therapy, and received multimodal strategies; and those who received treatment at academic/high-volume centers (P travel distance was associated with an increased OM in Medicaid-insured patients (P traveled long distances for PCa treatment, which is likely to be a reflection of centralization of care and more favorable patient-level characteristics in those travelers. Furthermore, the survival benefit mediated by long travel distances appears to be influenced by baseline socioeconomic, treatment, and facility-level factors. Cancer 2017;123:3241-52. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  8. Lessons Learned from the 200 West Pump and Treatment Facility Construction Project at the US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership for Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility - 13113

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorr, Kent A.; Freeman-Pollard, Jhivaun R.; Ostrom, Michael J. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, P.O. Box 1600, MSIN R4-41, 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built to an accelerated schedule with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility to meet DOE's mission objective of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012. The project team's successful integration of the project's core values and green energy technology throughout design, procurement, construction, and start-up of this complex, first-of-its-kind Bio Process facility resulted in successful achievement of DOE's mission objective, as well as attainment of LEED GOLD certification (Figure 1), which makes this Bio Process facility the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award. (authors)

  9. Lessons Learned from the 200 West Pump and Treatment Facility Construction Project at the US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership for Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorr, Kent A.; Ostrom, Michael J.; Freeman-Pollard, Jhivaun R.

    2013-01-11

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built to an accelerated schedule with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility to meet DOE’s mission objective of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012. The project team’s successful integration of the project’s core values and green energy technology throughout design, procurement, construction, and start-up of this complex, first-of-its-kind Bio Process facility resulted in successful achievement of DOE’s mission objective, as well as attainment of LEED GOLD certification, which makes this Bio Process facility the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award.

  10. SU-F-T-169: A Periodic Quality Assurance Program for a Spot-Scanning Proton Treatment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundy, D; Tryggestad, E; Beltran, C; Furutani, K; Gilson, G; Ito, S; Johnson, J; Kruse, J; Remmes, N; Tasson, A; Whitaker, T; Herman, M [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop daily and monthly quality assurance (QA) programs in support of a new spot-scanning proton treatment facility using a combination of commercial and custom equipment and software. Emphasis was placed on efficiency and evaluation of key quality parameters. Methods: The daily QA program was developed to test output, spot size and position, proton beam energy, and image guidance using the Sun Nuclear Corporation rf-DQA™3 device and Atlas QA software. The program utilizes standard Atlas linear accelerator tests repurposed for proton measurements and a custom jig for indexing the device to the treatment couch. The monthly QA program was designed to test mechanical performance, image quality, radiation quality, isocenter coincidence, and safety features. Many of these tests are similar to linear accelerator QA counterparts, but many require customized test design and equipment. Coincidence of imaging, laser marker, mechanical, and radiation isocenters, for instance, is verified using a custom film-based device devised and manufactured at our facility. Proton spot size and position as a function of energy are verified using a custom spot pattern incident on film and analysis software developed in-house. More details concerning the equipment and software developed for monthly QA are included in the supporting document. Thresholds for daily and monthly tests were established via perturbation analysis, early experience, and/or proton system specifications and associated acceptance test results. Results: The periodic QA program described here has been in effect for approximately 9 months and has proven efficient and sensitive to sub-clinical variations in treatment delivery characteristics. Conclusion: Tools and professional guidelines for periodic proton system QA are not as well developed as their photon and electron counterparts. The program described here efficiently evaluates key quality parameters and, while specific to the needs of our facility

  11. Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities-Organic Air Emission Standards for Process Vents and Equipment Leaks - Technical Amendment - Federal Register Notice, April 26, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document corrects typographical errors in the regulatory text of the final standards that would limit organic air emissions as a class at hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities (TSDF) that are subject to regulation under subtitle

  12. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Closure of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant Lagoon 3 and Land Application Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Michael G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This quality assurance project plan describes the technical requirements and quality assurance activities of the environmental data collection/analyses operations to close Central Facilities Area Sewage treatment Plant Lagoon 3 and the land application area. It describes the organization and persons involved, the data quality objectives, the analytical procedures, and the specific quality control measures to be employed. All quality assurance project plan activities are implemented to determine whether the results of the sampling and monitoring performed are of the right type, quantity, and quality to satisfy the requirements for closing Lagoon 3 and the land application area.

  13. Supporting the massive scale-up of antiretroviral therapy: the evolution of PEPFAR-supported treatment facilities in South Africa, 2005-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Elysia; O'Bra, Heidi; Brown, J W; Mbengashe, Thobile; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2012-03-09

    South Africa has an estimated 1.5 million persons in need of antiretroviral therapy (ART). In 2004, the South African government began collaborating with the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) to increase access to ART. We determined how PEPFAR treatment support changed from 2005-2009. In order to describe the change in number and type of PEPFAR-supported ART facilities, we analyzed routinely collected program-monitoring data from 2005-2009. The collected data included the number, type and province of facilities as well as the number of patients receiving ART at each facility. The number of PEPFAR-supported facilities providing ART increased from 184 facilities in 2005 to 1,469 facilities in 2009. From 2005-2009 the number of PEPFAR-supported government facilities increased 10.1 fold from 54 to 546 while the number of PEPFAR-supported NGO facilities (including general practitioner and NGO facilities) increased 6.2 fold from 114 to 708. In 2009 the total number of persons treated at PEPFAR-supported NGO facilities was 43,577 versus 501,089 persons at PEPFAR-supported government facilities. Overall, the median number of patients receiving ART per site increased from 81 in 2005 to 136 in 2009. To mitigate the gap between those needing and those receiving ART, more facilities were supported. The proportion of government facilities supported and the median number of persons treated at these facilities increased. This shift could potentially be sustainable as government sites reach more individuals and receive government funding. These results demonstrate that PEPFAR was able to support a massive scale-up of ART services in a short period of time.

  14. Supporting the massive scale-up of antiretroviral therapy: the evolution of PEPFAR-supported treatment facilities in South Africa, 2005-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larson Elysia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa has an estimated 1.5 million persons in need of antiretroviral therapy (ART. In 2004, the South African government began collaborating with the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR to increase access to ART. We determined how PEPFAR treatment support changed from 2005-2009. Methods In order to describe the change in number and type of PEPFAR-supported ART facilities, we analyzed routinely collected program-monitoring data from 2005-2009. The collected data included the number, type and province of facilities as well as the number of patients receiving ART at each facility. Results The number of PEPFAR-supported facilities providing ART increased from 184 facilities in 2005 to 1,469 facilities in 2009. From 2005-2009 the number of PEPFAR-supported government facilities increased 10.1 fold from 54 to 546 while the number of PEPFAR-supported NGO facilities (including general practitioner and NGO facilities increased 6.2 fold from 114 to 708. In 2009 the total number of persons treated at PEPFAR-supported NGO facilities was 43,577 versus 501,089 persons at PEPFAR-supported government facilities. Overall, the median number of patients receiving ART per site increased from 81 in 2005 to 136 in 2009. Conclusions To mitigate the gap between those needing and those receiving ART, more facilities were supported. The proportion of government facilities supported and the median number of persons treated at these facilities increased. This shift could potentially be sustainable as government sites reach more individuals and receive government funding. These results demonstrate that PEPFAR was able to support a massive scale-up of ART services in a short period of time.

  15. Thermal treatment of municipal solid waste. Assessment of the 42 French facilities funded by ADEME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Between 1993 and 2000, Ademe provided a financial assistance to the construction of 42 municipal solid waste incinerators, covering an average of 5,7 % of the required investments. This note outlines the lessons to be drawn from the assessment of the operation of these units, which was produced within the framework of a study steered by Ademe and carried out by Trivalor. It contents details on the in-depth modification of french facilities, a complete mastery of operations, the economic conditions in the sector, the analysis of Ademe subsidies and evaluates the market over the next ten years. (A.L.B.)

  16. Lessons Learned From The 200 West Pump And Treatment Facility Construction Project At The US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership For Energy And Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorr, Kent A. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Ostrom, Michael J. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Freeman-Pollard, Jhivaun R. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-11-14

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built in an accelerated manner with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds and has attained Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) GOLD certification, which makes it the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and LEED challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility. This paper will present the Project and LEED accomplishments, as well as Lessons Learned by CHPRC when additional ARRA funds were used to accelerate design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of the 200 West Groundwater Pump and Treatment (2W P&T) Facility to meet DOE's mission of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012.

  17. Measures to reduce the impact of anti-icing agents on the environment and on the work of wastewater treatment facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronov Yuriy Viktorovich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the impact of the excess of chemical agents in the snow on the environment and on the working waste water treatment facilities. The article presents some suggestions for improvement of regulatory requirements concerning design engineering of snow melting facilities in the water disposal system. This suggestion was substantiated to assess snow as waste disposed from road surface, and to register snow mass delivered to snow melting facilities in equivalent units. It is assumed that snow melting stations are facilities designed for waste treatment, and this is why the project documentation for construction of these facilities has to undergo a state expertise for Environmental Impact Assessment. Completed studies provide estimates of the receipted snow, its pollution, etc. But at the same time these studies serve as the basis for approving the necessity of developing a unified system for monitoring the city's snow-melting plants to ensure the reliability.

  18. Treatment of Uranium and Plutonium Solutions Generated in the Atalante Facility, France - 12004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagrave, Herve [French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission - CEA, Rhone Valley Research Center, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France)

    2012-07-01

    The Atalante complex operated by the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) at the Rhone Valley Research Center consolidates research programs on actinide chemistry, especially separation chemistry, processing for recycling spent fuel, and fabrication of actinide targets for innovative concepts in future nuclear systems. The design of future systems (Generation IV reactors, material recycling) will increase the uranium and plutonium flows in the facility, making it important to anticipate the stepped-up activity and provide Atalante with equipment dedicated to processing these solutions to obtain a mixed uranium-plutonium oxide that will be stored pending reuse. Ongoing studies for integral recycling of the actinides have highlighted the need for reserving equipment to produce actinides mixed oxide powder and also minor actinides bearing oxide for R and D purpose. To meet this double objective a new shielded line should be built in the facility and should be operational 6 years after go decision. The main functions of the new unit would be to receive, concentrate and store solutions, purify them, ensure group conversion of actinides and conversion of excess uranium. This new unit will be constructed in a completely refurbished building devoted to subcritical and safe geometry of the process equipments. (author)

  19. 76 FR 60390 - Irradiation Treatment; Location of Facilities in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ...: Post Harvest Crop Activities (except cotton ginning) (NAICS 115114), and Fresh Fruit and Vegetable... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Parts 305 and 319 RIN 0579-AD35 Irradiation Treatment..., USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: We are proposing to amend the phytosanitary treatment regulations...

  20. A centralized hazardous waste treatment plant: the facilities of the ZVSMM at Schwabach as an example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amsoneit, Norbert [Zweckverband Sondermuell-Entsorgung Mittelfranken, Rednitzhembach (Germany)

    1993-12-31

    In this work a centralized hazardous waste treatment plant is described and its infra-structure is presented. Special emphasis is given to the handling of the residues produced and the different treatment processes at the final disposal. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Effective Treatments of Late-Life Depression in Long-Term Care Facilities: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seokwon; Moon, Sung Seek; Pitner, Ronald

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify effective treatment to manage the depression of older residents. Methods: Using Klein and Bloom's criteria, we analyzed the number of subjects, designs and methodologies, residential types, intervention types and duration of treatment, standardized measures, and findings. Data searches were…

  2. 75 FR 47519 - TRICARE: Unfortunate Sequelae From Noncovered Services in a Military Treatment Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ...) * * * (9) Complications (unfortunate sequelae) resulting from noncovered initial surgery or treatment. (i... complications resulting from a noncovered incident of treatment (such as nonadjunctive dental care and cosmetic surgery) but only if the later complication represents a separate medical condition such as a systemic...

  3. FRAX or fiction: determining optimal screening strategies for treatment of osteoporosis in residents in long-term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspan, Susan L; Perera, Subashan; Nace, David; Zukowski, Kimberly S; Ferchak, Mary A; Lee, Carroll J; Nayak, Smita; Resnick, Neil M

    2012-04-01

    To examine screening strategies for osteoporosis and fractures for treatment of long-term care residents. Cross-sectional analysis to examine screening strategies for treatment. Assisted living and skilled care facilities. Two hundred two frail women aged 65 and older (mean 85), excluding those receiving bisphosphonates. Clinical fractures of the hip or spine (Clin Fx); Clin Fx or bone mineral density (BMD); Clin Fx, BMD, or vertebral fractures (VF) assessed according to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-based vertebral fracture assessments; fracture risk algorithm using femoral neck BMD (FRAX-FN); fracture risk algorithm using body mass index (FRAX-BMI); or Clin Fx or heel ultrasound (heel US). Treatment eligibility ranged from 17% (Clin Fx) to 98% (FRAX-BMI). VFs were found in 47%, 74% of which were silent. Criteria with Clin Fx, BMD, or VF identified 73% of study participants for treatment. FRAX-FN suggested treatment in 81% but would have missed approximately 10% of individuals with silent VFs. Clin Fx or heel US suggested that 39% of participants were eligible for treatment. Long-term care residents eligible for osteoporosis treatment ranged from fewer than 20% to roughly all residents depending on screening criteria. VFs are common and identify a subset of residents missed by conventional BMD scans or FRAX-FN. A reasonable clinical approach could consider treatment for those with Clin Fx of the hip or spine, radiological evidence of a VF, or osteoporosis according to BMD classification. Prospective studies are needed to determine optimal screening strategies for treatment in this cohort. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, The American Geriatrics Society.

  4. Multi-country analysis of treatment costs for HIV/AIDS (MATCH): facility-level ART unit cost analysis in Ethiopia, Malawi, Rwanda, South Africa and Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagar, Elya; Sundaram, Maaya; Condliffe, Kate; Matatiyo, Blackson; Chimbwandira, Frank; Chilima, Ben; Mwanamanga, Robert; Moyo, Crispin; Chitah, Bona Mukosha; Nyemazi, Jean Pierre; Assefa, Yibeltal; Pillay, Yogan; Mayer, Sam; Shear, Lauren; Dain, Mary; Hurley, Raphael; Kumar, Ritu; McCarthy, Thomas; Batra, Parul; Gwinnell, Dan; Diamond, Samantha; Over, Mead

    2014-01-01

    Today's uncertain HIV funding landscape threatens to slow progress towards treatment goals. Understanding the costs of antiretroviral therapy (ART) will be essential for governments to make informed policy decisions about the pace of scale-up under the 2013 WHO HIV Treatment Guidelines, which increase the number of people eligible for treatment from 17.6 million to 28.6 million. The study presented here is one of the largest of its kind and the first to describe the facility-level cost of ART in a random sample of facilities in Ethiopia, Malawi, Rwanda, South Africa and Zambia. In 2010-2011, comprehensive data on one year of facility-level ART costs and patient outcomes were collected from 161 facilities, selected using stratified random sampling. Overall, facility-level ART costs were significantly lower than expected in four of the five countries, with a simple average of $208 per patient-year (ppy) across Ethiopia, Malawi, Rwanda and Zambia. Costs were higher in South Africa, at $682 ppy. This included medications, laboratory services, direct and indirect personnel, patient support, equipment and administrative services. Facilities demonstrated the ability to retain patients alive and on treatment at these costs, although outcomes for established patients (2-8% annual loss to follow-up or death) were better than outcomes for new patients in their first year of ART (77-95% alive and on treatment). This study illustrated that the facility-level costs of ART are lower than previously understood in these five countries. While limitations must be considered, and costs will vary across countries, this suggests that expanded treatment coverage may be affordable. Further research is needed to understand investment costs of treatment scale-up, non-facility costs and opportunities for more efficient resource allocation.

  5. Multi-country analysis of treatment costs for HIV/AIDS (MATCH: facility-level ART unit cost analysis in Ethiopia, Malawi, Rwanda, South Africa and Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elya Tagar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Today's uncertain HIV funding landscape threatens to slow progress towards treatment goals. Understanding the costs of antiretroviral therapy (ART will be essential for governments to make informed policy decisions about the pace of scale-up under the 2013 WHO HIV Treatment Guidelines, which increase the number of people eligible for treatment from 17.6 million to 28.6 million. The study presented here is one of the largest of its kind and the first to describe the facility-level cost of ART in a random sample of facilities in Ethiopia, Malawi, Rwanda, South Africa and Zambia. METHODS & FINDINGS: In 2010-2011, comprehensive data on one year of facility-level ART costs and patient outcomes were collected from 161 facilities, selected using stratified random sampling. Overall, facility-level ART costs were significantly lower than expected in four of the five countries, with a simple average of $208 per patient-year (ppy across Ethiopia, Malawi, Rwanda and Zambia. Costs were higher in South Africa, at $682 ppy. This included medications, laboratory services, direct and indirect personnel, patient support, equipment and administrative services. Facilities demonstrated the ability to retain patients alive and on treatment at these costs, although outcomes for established patients (2-8% annual loss to follow-up or death were better than outcomes for new patients in their first year of ART (77-95% alive and on treatment. CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrated that the facility-level costs of ART are lower than previously understood in these five countries. While limitations must be considered, and costs will vary across countries, this suggests that expanded treatment coverage may be affordable. Further research is needed to understand investment costs of treatment scale-up, non-facility costs and opportunities for more efficient resource allocation.

  6. Third-Party Evaluation: A Review of Dietary Supplements Dispensed by Military Treatment Facilities From 2007 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Donnamaria R; Kasper, Korey B; Deuster, Patricia A

    2015-07-01

    Third-party certification/verification of dietary supplements (DS), although not mainstream, is one way to help ensure high-quality products. In the medical setting, physicians may prescribe DS to correct a deficiency or improve a health care outcome, and they want products of a certain standard of quality, free of adulteration/contamination. We reviewed DS dispensed from all Department of Defense military treatment facilities over a 5-year period to determine which products had been third-party reviewed and certified/verified. By using product name, manufacturer, and/or National Drug Codes, we examined product listings on the websites of three independent-evaluating organizations. Over 1.5 million dietary supplement prescriptions consisting of 753 different products were dispensed from 2007 through 2011. Less than 3.6% of the products examined were third-party certified/verified by any of the three most well-known evaluation organizations: 19 were verified by United States Pharmacopeial Convention; 9 products were reviewed and 8 certified by ConsumerLab; and none of the products were certified by NSF International. Most DS dispensed by military treatment facilities are not reviewed by a third party. This is not unexpected, as third party certification is not yet mainstream. However, one way to reduce potential hazards and exposure to unsafe products is to encourage use of supplements that have third-party certification/verification. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  7. Implementation of 'Goals of Patient Care' medical treatment orders in residential aged care facilities: protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ruth S; Hayes, Barbara J; Hutchinson, Anastasia; Yates, Paul; Lim, Wen Kwang

    2017-03-10

    Systematic reviews demonstrate that advance care planning (ACP) has many positive effects for residents of aged care facilities, including decreased hospitalisation. The proposed Residential Aged Care Facility (RACF) 'Goals of Patient Care' (GOPC) form incorporates a resident's prior advance care plan into medical treatment orders. Where none exists, it captures residents' preferences. This documentation helps guide healthcare decisions made at times of acute clinical deterioration. This is a mixed methods study. An unblinded cluster randomised controlled trial is proposed in three pairs of RACFs. In the intervention arm, GOPC forms will be completed by a doctor incorporating advance care plans or wishes. In the control arm, residents will have usual care which may include an advance care plan. The primary hypothesis is that the GOPC form is superior to standard ACP alone and will lead to decreased hospitalisation due to clearer documentation of residents' medical treatment plans. The primary outcome will be an analysis of the effect of the GOPC medical treatment orders on emergency department attendances and hospital admissions at 6 months. Secondary outcome measurements will include change in hospitalisation rates at 3 and 12 months, length of stay and external mortality rates among others. Qualitative interviews, 12 months post GOPC implementation, will be used for process evaluation of the GOPC and to evaluate staff perceptions of the form's usefulness for improving communication and medical decision-making at a time of deterioration. The results will be disseminated in peer review journals and research conferences. This robust randomised controlled trial will provide high-quality data about the influence of medical treatment orders that incorporate ACP or preferences adding to the current gap in knowledge and evidence in this area. ACTRN12615000298516, Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already

  8. Gaps between HIV/AIDS policies and treatment in correctional facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amankwaa, A A; Bavon, A L; Amankwaa, L C

    2001-01-01

    In this article the authors examined correctional policy and its impact on the incidence of HIV/AIDS in prison population. Using data from the Florida Correctional System, they find that HIV/AIDS is still the leading cause of death. Improved treatment and care may have led to declines in AIDS-related mortality but the prison population continues to experience a much higher risk of mortality than he general population in spite of changes in the treatment and provision of care to infected patients. The dominance of HIV-related deaths indicates that treatment and voluntary testing policy have been ineffective. The authors argue that the persistence of HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths is largely attributable to continuing unequal distribution of health care resources between identified and unidentified HIV-infected inmates. Their analysis suggests that future changes in HIV/AIDS policy ib testing and treatment can contribute to improvement in health conditions of infected inmates.

  9. Treatment outcomes in a safety observational study of dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine (Eurartesim(®)) in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria at public health facilities in four African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjei, Alexander; Narh-Bana, Solomon; Amu, Alberta; Kukula, Vida; Nagai, Richard Afedi; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Oduro, Abraham; Macete, Eusebio; Abdulla, Salim; Halidou, Tinto; Sie, Ali; Osei, Isaac; Sevene, Esperance; Asante, Kwaku-Poku; Mulokozi, Abdunoor; Compaore, Guillaume; Valea, Innocent; Adjuik, Martin; Baiden, Rita; Ogutu, Bernhards; Binka, Fred; Gyapong, Margaret

    2016-01-27

    Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PQ) is one of five WHO recommended artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. However, little was known on its post-registration safety and effectiveness in sub-Saharan Africa. DHA-PQ provides a long post-treatment prophylactic effect against re-infection; however, new infections have been reported within a few weeks of treatment, especially in children. This paper reports the clinical outcomes following administration of DHQ-PQ in real-life conditions in public health facilities in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Mozambique, and Tanzania for the treatment of confirmed uncomplicated malaria. An observational, non-comparative, longitudinal study was conducted on 10,591 patients with confirmed uncomplicated malaria visiting public health facilities within seven health and demographic surveillance system sites in four African countries (Ghana, Tanzania, Burkina Faso, Mozambique) between September 2013 and April 2014. Patients were treated with DHA-PQ based on body weight and followed up for 28 days to assess the clinical outcome. A nested cohort of 1002 was intensely followed up. Clinical outcome was assessed using the proportion of patients who reported signs and symptoms of malaria after completing 3 days of treatment. A total of 11,097 patients were screened with 11,017 enrolled, 94 were lost to follow-up, 332 withdrew and 10,591 (96.1%) patients aged 6 months-85 years met protocol requirements for analysis. Females were 52.8 and 48.5% were Malaria was diagnosed by microscopy and rapid diagnostic test in 69.8% and 29.9%, respectively. At day 28, the unadjusted risk of recurrent symptomatic parasitaemia was 0.5% (51/10,591). Most of the recurrent symptomatic malaria patients (76%) were children malaria and provides an excellent alternative first-line ACT in sub-Saharan Africa.

  10. Smoking and tobacco-free policies in women's residential substance use disorder treatment facilities: A community engaged approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallin-Bennett, Amanda; Parker, Kimberly A; Miller, Alana; Ashford, Kristin; Hahn, Ellen J

    2017-09-19

    The purpose of this study was to: (1) describe the role of smoking in the lives of women in residential SUD treatment; (2) explore perceptions of the facilitators and barriers to tobacco-free policy among women in residential SUD treatment. This was a community engaged study using qualitative descriptive methods. We first recruited women in a residential SUD treatment facility to participate on a community research team. Interviews with staff (N=10) and focus groups with clients (N=42) were conducted using guides informed by the community research team. Interviews and focus groups were analyzed using content analysis. There were two themes related to the role of smoking in the women's lives: (1) smoking facilitates socialization; and (2) smoking as a coping mechanism. There were three themes related to the benefits of tobacco-free policy: (1) improved health; (2) support for continued abstinence from a previous tobacco-free placement (e.g, prison); and (3) less grounds up-keep. Barriers to tobacco-free policy included: (1) lack of an alternative coping mechanism to smoking; (2) fear that a tobacco-free policy would drive clients away; and (3) anticipation of implementation challenges. Many women in residential SUD treatment smoke, which they attribute to the fact that smoking is used to facilitate socialization and cope with stress. Future research is needed to develop and test messages to counter the misperception that smoking is an effective method to cope with stress. Ultimately, evidence based tobacco-free policies are needed to reduce tobacco-related disease among women with SUDs. To promote smoking cessation among women with substance use disorders through evidence based tobacco policy, it is necessary to first understand the role of smoking in their lives as well as facilitators and barriers to tobacco-free policy in residential treatment facilities. Participants reported that smoking facilitated socialization and served as a coping mechanism. Tobacco

  11. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 1, Waste streams and treatment technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns.

  12. Facile nanofibrillation of chitin derivatives by gas bubbling and ultrasonic treatments in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kohei; Yamamoto, Kazuya; Kadokawa, Jun-ichi

    2014-10-29

    In this paper, we report that nanofiber network structures were constructed from chitin derivatives by gas bubbling and ultrasonic treatments in water. When chitin was first subjected to N2 gas bubbling with ultrasonication in water, the SEM images of the product showed nanofiber network morphology. However, nanofiber network was not re-constructed by the same N2 gas bubbling and ultrasonic treatments after agglomeration. We then have paid attention to an amidine group to provide the agglomeration-nanofibrillation behavior of chitin derivatives. An amidinated chitin was synthesized by the reaction of the amino groups in a partially deacetylated chitin with N,N-dimethylacetamide dimethyl acetal, which was subjected to CO2 gas bubbling and ultrasonic treatments in water to convert into an amidinium chitin by protonation. The SEM images of the product clearly showed nanofiber network morphology. We further examined re-nanofibrillation of the agglomerated material, which was obtained by mixing the nanofibrillated amidinium chitin with water, followed by drying under reduced pressure. Consequently, the material was re-nanofibrillated by N2 gas bubbling with ultrasonication in water owing to electrostatic repulsion between the amidinium groups. Furthermore, deprotonation of the amidinium chitin and re-protonation of the resulting amidinated chitin were conducted by alkaline treatment and CO2 gas bubbling-ultrasonic treatments, respectively. The material showed the agglomeration-nanofibrillation behavior during the processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Electrodialytic Remediation of Soil Polluted with Copper from Wood Preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Henrik; Laursen, Søren

    1997-01-01

    The principle of electrodialytic soil remediation was tested in six experiments on a copper polluted loamy sand. It was possible to decontaminate from 1360 to below 40 mg of Cu/kg of dry soil......The principle of electrodialytic soil remediation was tested in six experiments on a copper polluted loamy sand. It was possible to decontaminate from 1360 to below 40 mg of Cu/kg of dry soil...

  14. Comparison of wood preservatives in stake tests : 2011 progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessie M. Woodward; Cherilyn A. Hatfield; Stan T. Lebow

    2011-01-01

    This report covers stake test results primarily from Southern Pine 2- by 4- by 18-in. sapwood, treated by pressure and nonpressure processes and installed by Forest Products Laboratory employees and cooperators in decay and termite exposure sites at various times since 1938 at Saucier, Mississippi; Madison, Wisconsin; Bogalusa, Louisiana; Lake Charles, Louisiana;...

  15. Corrosion of Fasteners in Wood Treated with Newer Wood Preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka

    2013-01-01

    This document compiles recent research findings related to corrosion of metals in preservative treated wood into a single report on corrosion of metals in wood. The research was conducted as part of the Research, Technology and Education portion of the National Historic Covered Bridge Preservation (NHCBP) Program administered by the Federal Highway Administration. The...

  16. Comparison of Wood Preservatives in Stake Tests (1983 Progress Report).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    LANINATED PAPER PLASTIC (PAPREG) --INSTALLED DECEIBER 2, 1942 1 to 10 37.0 pct phenolic resina 2 pct hardener, 4.7 pct volatile matter 10 7 70 . . 3...30 7.4 % 11 to 20 31.6 pct phenolic resina + 2 pct hardener, 4.4 pct volatile matter 10 3 30 1 10 6 60 5.6 21 to 30 41.0 pct phenolic resina + 2 pct

  17. Family member involvement in relapse prevention improves alcohol dependence outcomes: a prospective study at an addiction treatment facility in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattala, Prasanthi; Leung, Kit Sang; Nagarajaiah; Murthy, Pratima

    2010-07-01

    The aims of this study were to test if outcomes would be different when family members of alcohol-dependent individuals were included in intervention and to examine the factors associated with relapse during a 6-month follow-up period. Ninety male participants admitted for 3 weeks at an inpatient facility in India were randomly assigned to individual relapse prevention (IRP), dyadic relapse prevention (DRP), and treatment as usual (TAU), with 30 participants in each group. In IRP, intervention was administered to the individual participant. In DRP, both the participant and a family member were included in intervention. In all three conditions, family members stayed in the facility with participants. Participants were followed up for 6 months after discharge from the treatment center. DRP consistently performed better than TAU on all of the outcomes (reduction in quantity of alcohol, drinking days, and number of days with dysfunction in family, occupational, and financial dimensions). DRP participants also reported a significant reduction in the quantity of alcohol, drinking days, and family problems, compared with IRP. Results of Cox regression showed that being in IRP/TAU groups, early-onset dependence (<25 years), and paternal history of alcohol dependence were associated with relapse after adjusting for baseline alcohol use and other covariates. Findings provide evidence for the effectiveness of Western-based family-oriented intervention for alcohol-dependent patients in India; also, findings might help to alert treatment providers that some subsets of alcohol users might need more tailored interventions and rigorous monitoring during follow-up.

  18. Evaluation of Membrane Ultrafiltration and Residual Chlorination as a Decentralized Water Treatment Strategy for Ten Rural Healthcare Facilities in Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttinger, Alexandra; Dreibelbis, Robert; Roha, Kristin; Ngabo, Fidel; Kayigamba, Felix; Mfura, Leodomir; Moe, Christine

    2015-01-01

    There is a critical need for safe water in healthcare facilities (HCF) in low-income countries. HCF rely on water supplies that may require additional on-site treatment, and need sustainable technologies that can deliver sufficient quantities of water. Water treatment systems (WTS) that utilize ultrafiltration membranes for water treatment can be a useful technology in low-income countries, but studies have not systematically examined the feasibility of this technology in low-income settings. We monitored 22 months of operation of 10 WTS, including pre-filtration, membrane ultrafiltration, and chlorine residual disinfection that were donated to and operated by rural HCF in Rwanda. The systems were fully operational for 74% of the observation period. The most frequent reasons for interruption were water shortage (8%) and failure of the chlorination mechanism (7%). When systems were operational, 98% of water samples collected from the HCF taps met World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for microbiological water quality. Water quality deteriorated during treatment interruptions and when water was stored in containers. Sustained performance of the systems depended primarily on organizational factors: the ability of the HCF technician to perform routine servicing and repairs, and environmental factors: water and power availability and procurement of materials, including chlorine and replacement parts in Rwanda. PMID:26516883

  19. Evaluation of Membrane Ultrafiltration and Residual Chlorination as a Decentralized Water Treatment Strategy for Ten Rural Healthcare Facilities in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Huttinger

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a critical need for safe water in healthcare facilities (HCF in low-income countries. HCF rely on water supplies that may require additional on-site treatment, and need sustainable technologies that can deliver sufficient quantities of water. Water treatment systems (WTS that utilize ultrafiltration membranes for water treatment can be a useful technology in low-income countries, but studies have not systematically examined the feasibility of this technology in low-income settings. We monitored 22 months of operation of 10 WTS, including pre-filtration, membrane ultrafiltration, and chlorine residual disinfection that were donated to and operated by rural HCF in Rwanda. The systems were fully operational for 74% of the observation period. The most frequent reasons for interruption were water shortage (8% and failure of the chlorination mechanism (7%. When systems were operational, 98% of water samples collected from the HCF taps met World Health Organization (WHO guidelines for microbiological water quality. Water quality deteriorated during treatment interruptions and when water was stored in containers. Sustained performance of the systems depended primarily on organizational factors: the ability of the HCF technician to perform routine servicing and repairs, and environmental factors: water and power availability and procurement of materials, including chlorine and replacement parts in Rwanda.

  20. Evaluation of Membrane Ultrafiltration and Residual Chlorination as a Decentralized Water Treatment Strategy for Ten Rural Healthcare Facilities in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttinger, Alexandra; Dreibelbis, Robert; Roha, Kristin; Ngabo, Fidel; Kayigamba, Felix; Mfura, Leodomir; Moe, Christine

    2015-10-27

    There is a critical need for safe water in healthcare facilities (HCF) in low-income countries. HCF rely on water supplies that may require additional on-site treatment, and need sustainable technologies that can deliver sufficient quantities of water. Water treatment systems (WTS) that utilize ultrafiltration membranes for water treatment can be a useful technology in low-income countries, but studies have not systematically examined the feasibility of this technology in low-income settings. We monitored 22 months of operation of 10 WTS, including pre-filtration, membrane ultrafiltration, and chlorine residual disinfection that were donated to and operated by rural HCF in Rwanda. The systems were fully operational for 74% of the observation period. The most frequent reasons for interruption were water shortage (8%) and failure of the chlorination mechanism (7%). When systems were operational, 98% of water samples collected from the HCF taps met World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for microbiological water quality. Water quality deteriorated during treatment interruptions and when water was stored in containers. Sustained performance of the systems depended primarily on organizational factors: the ability of the HCF technician to perform routine servicing and repairs, and environmental factors: water and power availability and procurement of materials, including chlorine and replacement parts in Rwanda.

  1. Challenges in implementing uncomplicated malaria treatment in children: a health facility survey in rural Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabaghe, Alinune N.; Phiri, Mphatso D.; Phiri, Kamija S.; van Vugt, Michèle

    2017-01-01

    Prompt and effective malaria treatment are key in reducing transmission, disease severity and mortality. With the current scale-up of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) coverage, there is need to focus on challenges affecting implementation of the intervention. Routine indicators focus on

  2. Aspects of tuberculosis and HIV diagnosis, care and treatment in Rwandan health facilities: operational studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayigamba, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis outlines studies that were conducted between 2006 and 2010 in Rwandan clinical and public health settings to respond to some unresolved research priority questions. It describes and analyses sputum completion and conversion rates at two months of treatment and their determinants. It

  3. [Who benefits from the night clinic? - Value of a part-time treatment facility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutz, Constanze; Kawohl, Wolfram; Platz, Christoph; Warnke, Ingeborg; Jäger, Matthias

    2017-12-01

    The night clinic which is part of the psychiatric department of the University of Zurich is a part-time treatment option with psychiatric treatment and support in the evening. This study aimed to characterize the patients and detect different functions of the treatment setting. Data of 253 patients covering a six-year period from 2008 up to 2013 were retrospectively assessed using descriptive methods. Subgroups according to the situation before admission and after discharge were compared. Patients admitted from home differed considerably from those who were transferred from a psychiatric ward concerning sociodemographic and clinical factors. They were more frequently single, unemployed, received disability funds and suffered from a psychotic disorder. They were also more likely to be discharged in a supported housing condition. The night clinic serves as an alternative to full inpatient treatment for individuals who have work as well as a rehabilitative option for homeless patients with severe mental illness. It contributes to a reduction of avoidance of inpatients stays for those groups of patients.

  4. DUI/DWAI Offenders Compared to Clients Seen in an Outpatient Alcohol-Treatment Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Michele A.

    1987-01-01

    Examined client records to compare 50 subjects admitted to a drinking-driver program and 50 subjects admitted to an outpatient alcohol treatment clinic. Highly significant differences were found between groups on 10 of 12 drinking indices, suggesting that clients referred for alcohol-related traffic offenses represent a population different from…

  5. Reconsidering Urban Sewer and Treatment Facilities in East Africa as Interplay of Flows, Networks and Spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.C.; Vliet, van B.J.M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2010-01-01

    Urbanization has brought about concentrations of people in densely populated settlements, resulting in the generation of waste water that needs to be disposed off in a hygienic way to avoid the outbreak of diseases. Decisions on what area to sewer, the nature of sewer schemes and treatment works to

  6. 40 CFR 270.20 - Specific part B information requirements for land treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... frequency; (ii) Procedures for selecting sampling locations; (iii) Analytical procedures; (iv) Chain of custody control; (v) Procedures for establishing background values; (vi) Statistical methods for... of particulate matter, if applicable; (d) If food-chain crops are to be grown in or on the treatment...

  7. Percent CO2. Operational Control Tests for Wastewater Treatment Facilities. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooley, John F.

    Designed for individuals who have completed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) level 1 laboratory training skills, this module on digestor gas analysis provides waste water treatment plant operators with the basic skills and information needed to: (1) successfully run the carbon dioxide analysis test; (2) accurately record…

  8. Performance optimization of biological waste treatment by flotation clarification at a chemical manufacturing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerecz, B.J. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States); Miller, D.R. [Komline-Sanderson, Peapack, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., utilizes a deep-tank activated sludge wastewater treatment system with a dissolved air flotation clarifier (DAF) to effectively treat amine wastes containing residual organics, ammonia-nitrogen and organic nitrogen. The bio-system, a deep tank aeration system, produces a high quality final effluent low in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), ammonia and organic nitrogen, turbidity and total suspended solids. Prior to installing the DAF, treatment performance was at risk with a gravity clarifier. Waste treatment performance was jeopardized by poor settling bio-flocs and uncontrollable solids-liquid separation problems within the gravity clarifier. The solids settleability problems resulted primarily from mixed liquor nitrogen supersaturation degassing in the clarifier. As a result of the degassing, biomass floated on the gravity clarifier or overflowed the effluent weir. As a result of biomass loss periodically organic carbon and total Kjeldahl nitrogen loadings had to be reduced in order to maintain optimal food-to-mass ratios. As biomass levels dropped within the aeration basin, waste treatment performance was at risk and waste loads had to be decreased causing waste inventories to increase in storage tanks.

  9. Jaffrey, N.H. Facility to Upgrade its Wastewater Treatment Systems Under Clean Water Act Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under the terms of a Consent Decree lodged in federal court, EMD Millipore Corp. of Jaffrey, N.H., will upgrade its on-site wastewater treatment system to comply with the terms of the company’s industrial wastewater discharge permit & prevent...

  10. A Manual of Simplified Laboratory Methods for Operators of Wastewater Treatment Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhold, Arnold F., Ed.; Bennett, Ernest C., Ed.

    This manual is designed to provide the small wastewater treatment plant operator, as well as the new or inexperienced operator, with simplified methods for laboratory analysis of water and wastewater. It is emphasized that this manual is not a replacement for standard methods but a guide for plants with insufficient equipment to perform analyses…

  11. Capillary Suction Time. Operational Control Tests for Wastewater Treatment Facilities. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooley, John F.

    Capillary suction time is time required for the liquid phase of a treated sludge to travel through 1 centimeter of media (blotter or filter paper). Designed for individuals who have completed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) level 1 laboratory training skills, this module provides waste water treatment plant operators with…

  12. The Effects of Response Effort on Safe Performance by Therapists at an Autism Treatment Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Sarah E.; Wilder, David A.; Neidert, Pamela; Rey, Catalina; Compton, Megan; Chong, Ivy

    2010-01-01

    The effects of response effort on safe behaviors (i.e., glove wearing, hand sanitizing, and electrical outlet replacement) exhibited by therapists at an autism treatment center were examined. Participants were exposed to 2 or 3 levels of effort (i.e., high, medium, low) for each dependent variable. Results showed increased safe performance during…

  13. Expense reduction in waste water treatment facility. Haisui shori setsubi no keihi setsugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, S. (Kyushu Electronic Metal Co. Ltd., Saga (Japan))

    1991-02-04

    An attempt was made on reducing the treatment expense through improving the methods of waste water treatment and dehydration in silicon wafer manufacturing processes in a semiconductor factory. Chemicals used for treating miscellaneous-use waste waters were changed to cation organic coagulants to reduce the use amount of aluminum sulfate and neutralizers. The Ca (OH) {sub 2} injection interlocked with a pH meter in HF system treatment, and the use amount of neutralizer were reduced. The high molecular coagulant used for waste water treatment was changed from paste to powder to improve its solubility during the winter season. The pumps were reviewed, the air lift blowers were discontinued, and the integration of pump types, the size reduction and inverter association of pumps motors were proceeded. For the sludge dehydrating machine, tests were carried out on an adequate injection amount of coagulants, and the injection points were changed. The flow rate control was changed from diaphragm system to ball system to stabilize the raw sludge flow. Among the high molecular coagulants used in the dehydrating machine, the cation coagulant was discontinued of its use. These improvement efforts resulted in an annual power saving of 2.59 million yen, and a resource saving equivalent to 66.144 million yen.

  14. Determining treatment outcome of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis cases in Afar Regional State, Ethiopia: A retrospective facility based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafess, Ketema; Mengistu, Belete; Woldeyohannes, Desalegn; Sisay, Solomon

    2016-06-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) declared tuberculosis (TB) as a global public health emergency and recommended directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS) as a standard strategy to control the disease. In Ethiopia the strategy was started in 1992 as a pilot in the Arsi and Bale zone, Oromia Region. The DOTS strategy has been subsequently scaled up in the country and implemented at a national level reaching better coverage, although there are recognizable variations from region to region and district to district. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the DOTS strategy on smear-positive pulmonary TB case findings and their treatment outcomes in the Afar Regional State, Ethiopia, from 2003 to 2012 and from 2002 to 2011, respectively. A health facility-based retrospective study was conducted. Data were collected and reported on a quarterly basis using the WHO reporting format for TB case findings and their treatment outcomes from all DOTS-implementing health facilities in all zones of the region to the Federal Ministry of Health. A total of 34,894 of TB cases had been registered in the period from 2003 to 2012. Out of these, 11,595 (33.2%) were smear-positive pulmonary TB, 13,859 (39.7%) smear-negative pulmonary TB, and 9838 (28.2%) extrapulmonary TB. The case detection rate (CDR) of smear-positive pulmonary TB had increased from 18.3% to 37.2%, with the average value being 32% (standard deviation=6.8) from the total TB cases to its peak of 39% in 2008. The treatment success rate (TSR) had an average value of 86.2% from 2002 to 2011 with its peak value being 96.5% in 2007. Moreover, the average values of treatment defaulter and treatment failure rate were 2.9% and 2.7%, respectively. The implementation for the DOTS strategy in the area improved the CDR of smear-positive TB, although it is unacceptably lower than the recommended WHO target of 70%. Additionally, the WHO target of 85% for TSR had already been achieved in the region. However, continued

  15. Presence of selected priority and personal care substances in an onsite bathroom greywater treatment facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Donner, E.; Ledin, Anna

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, concerns about climate change and the inefficient use and ongoing pollution of water resources have increased the political motivation to encourage water recycling. This has led to the widespread introduction of water saving measures and to advances in the decentralised treatment...... and reuse of wastewater. In particular, the treatment and reuse of greywater has received attention, although important information such as greywater substance loadings is still only rarely available. With the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive the focus on controlling and phasing......-out Priority/Priority Hazardous Substances (PS/PHS) is growing, and it is vital to know their sources and flows in order to generate sustainable emission control strategies. The main objective of this study was to quantify the concentrations and loads of PS/PHS and personal care substances in bathroom...

  16. Evaluating the Heat Pump Alternative for Heating Enclosed Wastewater Treatment Facilities in Cold Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    develop this procedure was obtained from site visits, technical reports and papers, and heating!/I ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) manuals . It...Calculation Manual (1979) for many U.S., Canadian and foreign cities. Appendix A lists winter design temperatures for a few selected cities in the United...Service Capacity Construction* maintenance materiall area (1000 Btu/hr) costs ($) costs ($/yr) 1 Enclosed 2100 86,676 4,400 Treatment Area 2 Office area

  17. Fate of steroid hormones and endocrine activities in swine manure disposal and treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combalbert, Sarah; Bellet, Virginie; Dabert, Patrick; Bernet, Nicolas; Balaguer, Patrick; Hernandez-Raquet, Guillermina

    2012-03-01

    Manure may contain high concern endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) such as steroid hormones, naturally produced by pigs, which are present at μgL(-1) levels. Manure may also contain other EDCs such as nonylphenols (NP), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dioxins. Thus, once manure is applied to the land as soil fertilizer these compounds may reach aquifers and consequently living organisms, inducing abnormal endocrine responses. In France, manure is generally stored in anaerobic tanks prior spreading on land; when nitrogen removal is requested, manure is treated by aerobic processes before spreading. However, little is known about the fate of hormones and multiple endocrine-disrupting activities in such manure disposal and treatment systems. Here, we determined the fate of hormones and diverse endocrine activities during manure storage and treatment by combining chemical analysis and in vitro quantification of estrogen (ER), aryl hydrocarbon (AhR), androgen (AR), pregnane-X (PXR) and peroxysome proliferator-activated γ (PPARγ) receptor-mediated activities. Our results show that manure contains large quantities of hormones and activates ER and AhR, two of the nuclear receptors studied. Most of these endocrine activities were found in the solid fraction of manure and appeared to be induced mainly by hormones and other unidentified pollutants. Hormones, ER and AhR activities found in manure were poorly removed during manure storage but were efficiently removed by aerobic treatment of manure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Removal of antibiotics from wastewater by sewage treatment facilities in Hong Kong and Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulkowska, A; Leung, H W; So, M K; Taniyasu, S; Yamashita, N; Yeung, Leo W Y; Richardson, Bruce J; Lei, A P; Giesy, J P; Lam, Paul K S

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of nine antibiotics [erythromycin-H(2)O (ERY-H(2)O); trimethoprim (TMP); tetracycline (TET); norfloxacin (NOR); penicillin G (PEN G); penicillin V (PEN V); cefalexin (CLX); cefotaxim (CTX); and cefazolin (CFZ)] were measured in influent and effluent samples from four sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Hong Kong as well as in influent samples from one STP in Shenzhen. Levels of PEN V and CFZ were below method detection limits in all of the samples analyzed. CLX concentrations were the highest in most of the Hong Kong samples, ranging from 670 to 2900 ng/L and 240 to 1800 ng/L in influent and effluent samples, respectively, but CLX was not detected in the samples from Shenzhen. Comparatively lower concentrations were observed for ERY-H(2)O (470-810 ng/L) and TET (96-1300 ng/L) in the influent samples from all STPs in Hong Kong. CTX was found to be the dominant antibiotic in the Shenzhen STP influents with a mean concentration of 1100 ng/L, but occurred at lower concentrations in Hong Kong sewage. These results likely reflect regional variations in the prescription and use patterns of antibiotics between Hong Kong and Shenzhen. Antibiotic removal efficiencies depended on their chemical properties and the wastewater treatment processes used. In general, relatively higher removal efficiencies were observed for NOR (5-78%) and TET (7-73%), which are readily adsorbed to particulate matter, while lower removal efficiencies were observed for ERY-H(2)O (9-19%), which is relatively persistent in the environment. Antibiotics were removed more efficiently at Hong Kong STPs employing secondary treatment processes compared with those using primary treatment only. Concentrations of NOR measured in effluents from STPs in Hong Kong were lower than the predicted no-effect concentration of 8000 ng/L determined in a previous study. Therefore, concentrations of antibiotics measured in this preliminary study would be unlikely to cause adverse effects on microorganisms used

  19. Patient-, Treatment-, and Facility-Level Structural Characteristics Associated With the Receipt of Preoperative Lower Extremity Amputation Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Barbara E.; Hallenbeck, Richard; Ferrario, Toni; Kwong, Pui L.; Kurichi, Jibby E.; Stineman, Margaret G.; Xie, Dawei

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine patient, treatment, or facility characteristics that influence decisions to initiate a rehabilitation assessment before transtibial or transfemoral amputation within the Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system. Design Retrospective database study. Setting VA medical centers. Participants A total of 4226 veterans with lower extremity amputations discharged from a VA medical center between October 1, 2002, and September 30, 2004. Outcome Evidence of a preoperative rehabilitation assessment after the index surgical stay admission but before the surgical date. Results Evidence was found that 343 of 4226 veterans (8.12%) with lower extremity amputations received preoperative rehabilitation assessments. Veterans receiving preoperative rehabilitation were more likely to be older, admitted from home, or transferred from another hospital. Patients who underwent surgical amputation at smaller-sized hospitals or in the South Central or Mountain Pacific regions were more likely to receive preoperative rehabilitation compared with patients in mid-sized hospitals or in the Northeast, Southeast, or Midwest regions. Patients with evidence of paralysis, patients treated in facilities with programs accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilities (P amputation etiology of a previous amputation complication were more likely to receive preoperative consultation rehabilitation services (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.02–2.19) compared with patients who did not have this etiology. Compared with patients treated in the Southeast region of the United States, those treated in the South Central region (OR 2.52, 95% CI 1.82–3.48) or Mountain Pacific region (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.11–2.37) were more likely to receive preoperative consultation rehabilitation services. Patients with evidence of paralysis were less likely to receive preoperative rehabilitative services compared with patients who did not have this condition (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.09–0.93), and

  20. Evaluation of the impact of a simple hand-washing and water-treatment intervention in rural health facilities on hygiene knowledge and reported behaviours of health workers and their clients, Nyanza Province, Kenya, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasan, N; Gotestrand, S A; Ombeki, S; Oluoch, G; Fischer, T K; Quick, R

    2015-03-01

    Many clinics in rural western Kenya lack access to safe water and hand-washing facilities. To address this problem, in 2005 a programme was initiated to install water stations for hand washing and drinking water in 109 health facilities, train health workers on water treatment and hygiene, and motivate clients to adopt these practices. In 2008, we evaluated this intervention's impact by conducting observations at facilities, and interviewing staff and clients about water treatment and hygiene. Of 30 randomly selected facilities, 97% had water stations in use. Chlorine residuals were detectable in at least one container at 59% of facilities. Of 164 interviewed staff, 79% knew the recommended water-treatment procedure. Of 298 clients, 45% had received training on water treatment at a facility; of these, 68% knew the recommended water-treatment procedure. Use of water stations, water treatment, and client training were sustained in some facilities for up to 3 years.

  1. Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project. Appendix B, Waste stream engineering files, Part 1, Mixed waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided.

  2. Environmental Assessment for the High Explosives Wastewater Treatment Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-03

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has identified a need to improve the management of wastewater resulting from high explosives (HE) research and development work at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). LANL`s current methods off managing HE-contaminated wastewater cannot ensure that discharged HE wastewater would consistently meet the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) standards for wastewater discharge. The DOE needs to enhance He wastewater management to e able to meet both present and future regulatory standards for wastewater discharge. The DOE also proposes to incorporate major pollution prevention and waste reduction features into LANL`s existing HE production facilities. Currently, wastewater from HE processing buildings at four Technical Areas (TAs) accumulates in sumps where particulate HE settles out and barium is precipitated. Wastewater is then released from the sumps to the environment at 15 permitted outfalls without treatment. The released water may contain suspended and dissolved contaminants, such as HE and solvents. This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes two alternatives, the Proposed Action and the Alternative Action, that would meet the purpose and need for agency action. Both alternatives would treat all HE process wastewater using sand filters to remove HE particulates and activated carbon to adsorb organic solvents and dissolved HE. Under either alternative, LANL would burn solvents and flash dried HE particulates and spent carbon following well-established procedures. Burning would produce secondary waste that would be stored, treated, and disposed of at TA-54, Area J. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact and Floodplain Statement of Findings for the High Explosives Wastewater Treatment Facility.

  3. Impact of clinical pharmacist intervention on diabetes-related outcomes in a military treatment facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallgren, Stephanie; Berry-Cabán, Cristóbal S; Bowers, Laura

    2012-03-01

    Clinical pharmacist management of patients with diabetes has been well justified, but there is a lack of research that evaluates the impact of pharmacist-managed diabetes care versus standard medical care on American Diabetes Association (ADA) treatment goals other than hemoglobin A(1c) (A1C). To evaluate the reduction in A1C, blood pressure, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) for patients with diabetes whose care was managed by a clinical pharmacist and compare these values to those of a cohort of patients whose care was managed by primary care providers. The difference in percentage of patients attaining ADA treatment goals between the 2 groups was also evaluated. This retrospective chart review identified 98 diabetic patients managed by a clinical pharmacist with at least 2 A1C measurements between September 15, 2008, and March 15, 2011. The Military Health System Population Health Portal was used to identify a similar group of patients with diabetes managed by their primary care provider (N = 90). The Armed Forces Health Longitudinal Technology Application was used to collect baseline data and the most recent measurements for A1C, blood pressure, LDL-C, and documented immunizations. The pharmacist group saw positive improvements in all primary end points, including a 1.6% reduction in A1C, a 9-mm Hg and 1.4-mm Hg reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively, and a 16.3-mg/dL reduction in LDL-C. Conversely, the control group had an increase of 0.8% in A1C and 1.5 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure. Reductions in systolic blood pressure and LDL-C were much less robust than in the pharmacist group (1.6 mm Hg and 5.2 mg/dL, respectively). Overall, patients in the pharmacist group were more likely to achieve ADA treatment goals. Pharmacist management of patients with diabetes significantly reduces A1C and allows more patients to meet ADA treatment goals. A clinical pharmacist-run diabetes clinic can provide numerous clinical benefits

  4. Impacts of Biomonitoring Requirements on DoD Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    wastewater effluent on algae growth. A government estimate of the cost for this type of test is $500 per test, while a contractor’s estimate was given as...aaA 4 f 0 AD-IJtLLm 4r, DEATMN OfTl’ ARFC F-RC INTTT FTCKI0ik4,1 V41 Cii . AFIT/GEM/DEV/91S-2 IMPACTS OF BIOMONITORING REQUIREMENTS ON DOD WASTEWATER ...A00033ion For DTIC TAB Austifloatlon BYOi st!tu:n Di •)•bl~vt ~ 6 "AFIT/GEM/DEV/91S-2 IMPACTS OF BIOMONITORING REQUIREMENTS ON DOD WASTEWATER TREATMENT

  5. Spatial accessibility of drug treatment facilities and the effects on locus of control, drug use, and service use among heroin-injecting Mexican American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Dennis; Torres, Luis R; Guerrero, Erick G; Mauldin, Rebecca L; Bordnick, Patrick S

    2014-05-01

    This study explores the spatial accessibility of outpatient drug treatment facilities and the potential relationship with drug use-related outcomes among Mexican American heroin users. Secondary data on 219 current and former heroin-injecting Mexican American men aged 45 and older were drawn from a research study in Houston, Texas. We used geographic information systems (GIS) to derive two spatial accessibility measures: distance from one's place of residence to the closest drug treatment facility (in minutes); and the number of facilities within a 10-minute driving distance from one's place of residence. Exploratory logistic regression analyses examined the association between the spatial accessibility of drug treatment facilities and several drug use-related outcomes: internal locus of control (LOC); perceived chances and worries of injecting in the next six months; treatment utilization; and location of last heroin purchase. Participants with greater spatial access to treatment programs were more likely to report a higher chance of injecting in the near future. However, while current heroin users were more worried about injecting in the next six months, greater spatial access to treatment programs seemed to have a buffering effect. Finally, those who lived closer to a treatment programs were more likely to have last purchased heroin inside the neighborhood versus outside the neighborhood. Spatial accessibility was not associated with internal LOC or treatment utilization. The findings showed that the presence of outpatient treatment facilities-particularly services in Spanish-may influence perceived risk of future heroin use and purchasing behaviors among Mexican American men. Implications for future spatially-informed drug use research and the planning of culturally and linguistically responsive drug treatment programs are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ecological surveys of the proposed high explosives wastewater treatment facility region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haarmann, T.

    1995-07-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) proposes to improve its treatment of wastewater from high explosives (HE) research and development activities. The proposed project would focus on a concerted waste minimization effort to greatly reduce the amount of wastewater needing treatment. The result would be a 99% decrease in the HE wastewater volume, from the current level of 6,760,000 L/mo (1,786,000 gal./mo) to 41,200 L/mo (11,000 gal./mo). This reduction would entail closure of HE wastewater outfalls, affecting some wetland areas that depend on HE wastewater effluents. The outfalls also provide drinking water for many wildlife species. Terminating the flow of effluents at outfalls would represent an improvement in water quality in the LANL region but locally could have a negative effect on some wetlands and wildlife species. None of the affected species are protected by any state or federal endangered species laws. The purpose of this report is to briefly discuss the different biological studies that have been done in the region of the project area. This report is written to give biological information and baseline data and the biota of the project area.

  7. Cost and cost-effectiveness of community based and health facility based directly observed treatment of tuberculosis in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robberstad Bjarne

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying new approaches to tuberculosis treatment that are effective and put less demand to meagre health resources is important. One such approach is community based direct observed treatment (DOT. The purpose of the study was to determine the cost and cost effectiveness of health facility and community based directly observed treatment of tuberculosis in an urban setting in Tanzania. Methods Two alternative strategies were compared: health facility based directly observed treatment by health personnel and community based directly observed treatment by treatment supervisors. Costs were analysed from the perspective of health services, patients and community in the year 2002 in US $ using standard methods. Treatment outcomes were obtained from a randomised-controlled trial which was conducted alongside the cost study. Smear positive, smear negative and extra-pulmonary TB patients were included. Cost-effectiveness was calculated as the cost per patient successfully treated. Results The total cost of treating a patient with conventional health facility based DOT and community based DOT were $ 145 and $ 94 respectively. Community based DOT reduced cost by 35%. Cost fell by 27% for health services and 72% for patients. When smear positive and smear negative patients were considered separately, community DOT was associated with 45% and 19% reduction of the costs respectively. Patients used about $ 43 to follow their medication to health facility which is equivalent to their monthly income. Indirect costs were as important as direct costs, contributing to about 49% of the total patient's cost. The main reason for reduced cost was fewer number of visits to the TB clinic. Community based DOT was more cost-effective at $ 128 per patient successfully treated compared to $ 203 for a patient successfully treated with health facility based DOT. Conclusion Community based DOT presents an economically attractive option to complement

  8. Irradiation facility at the TRIGA Mainz for treatment of liver metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, G; Wortmann, B; Blaickner, M; Knorr, J; Kratz, J V; Lizón Aguilar, A; Minouchehr, S; Nagels, S; Otto, G; Schmidberger, H; Schütz, C; Vogtländer, L

    2009-07-01

    The TRIGA Mark II reactor at the University of Mainz provides ideal conditions for duplicating BNCT treatment as performed in Pavia, Italy, in 2001 and 2003 [Pinelli, T., Zonta, A., Altieri, S., Barni, S., Braghieri, A., Pedroni, P., Bruschi, P., Chiari, P., Ferrari, C., Fossati, F., Nano, R., Ngnitejeu Tata, S., Prati, U., Ricevuti, G., Roveda, L., Zonta, C., 2002. TAOrMINA: from the first idea to the application to the human liver. In: Sauerwein et al. (Eds.), Research and Development in Neutron Capture Therapy. Proceedings of the 10th International Congress on Neutron Capture Therapy, Monduzzi editore, Bologna, pp. 1065-1072]. In order to determine the optimal parameters for the planned therapy and therefore for the design of the thermal column, calculations were conducted using the MCNP-code and the transport code ATTILA. The results of the parameter study as well as a possible configuration for the irradiation of the liver are presented.

  9. Irradiation facility at the TRIGA Mainz for treatment of liver metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampel, G. [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, D-55128 Mainz (Germany)], E-mail: gabriele.hample@uni-mainz.de; Wortmann, B. [Evonik Energy Services GmbH Essen, Ruettenscheider Str. 1-3, D-45128 Essen (Germany); Blaickner, M. [Austrian Research Centers, 2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Knorr, J. [TU Dresden, Institut fuer Energietechnik, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Kratz, J.V. [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Lizon Aguilar, A. [Evonik Energy Services GmbH Essen, Ruettenscheider Str. 1-3, D-45128 Essen (Germany); Minouchehr, S. [Transplantationschirurgie, Universitaetsklinikum Mainz, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Nagels, S. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institut fuer Strahlenforschung (ISF), Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Otto, G. [Transplantationschirurgie, Universitaetsklinikum Mainz, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Schmidberger, H. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie, Universitaetsklinikum Mainz, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Schuetz, C.; Vogtlaender, L. [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, D-55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    The TRIGA Mark II reactor at University of Mainz provides ideal conditions for duplicating BNCT treatment as performed in Pavia, Italy, in 2001 and 2003 [Pinelli, T., Zonta, A., Altieri, S., Barni, S., Braghieri, A., Pedroni, P., Bruschi, P., Chiari, P., Ferrari, C., Fossati, F., Nano, R., Ngnitejeu Tata, S., Prati, U., Ricevuti, G., Roveda, L., Zonta, C., 2002. TAOrMINA: from the first idea to the application to the human liver. In: Sauerwein et al. (Eds.), Research and Development in Neutron Capture Therapy. Proceedings of the 10th International Congress on Neutron Capture Therapy, Monduzzi editore, Bologna, pp. 1065-1072]. In order to determine the optimal parameters for the planned therapy and therefore for the design of the thermal column, calculations were conducted using the MCNP-code and the transport code ATTILA. The results of the parameter study as well as a possible configuration for the irradiation of the liver are presented.

  10. Cost-effectiveness analysis of health care waste treatment facilities in iran hospitals; a provider perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidian, Arash; Alinia, Cyrus; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2015-03-01

    Our aim was to make right and informative decision about choosing the most cost-effectiveness heterogeneous infectious waste treatment methods and devices. In this descriptive study, decision tree analysis, with 10-yr time horizon in bottom-up approach was used to estimate the costs and effectiveness criteria of the employed devices at provider perspective in Iranian hospitals. We used the one-way and scenario sensitivity analysis to measure the effects of variables with uncertainty. The resources of data were national Environmental and Occupational Health Center Survey (EOHCS) in 2012, field observation and completing questionnaire by relevant authorities in mentioned centers. Devices called Saray 2, Autoclave based, and Newster 10, Hydroclave based, with 92032.4 (±12005) and 6786322.9 (±826453) Dollars had the lowest and highest costs respectively in studied time period and given the 5-10% discount rate. Depending on effectiveness factor type, Newster 10 with Ecodas products and Saray products respectively had the highest and lowest effectiveness. In most considered scenarios, Caspian-Alborz device was the most cost-effectiveness alternative, so for the treatment of each adjusted unit of volume and weight of infectious waste in a 10 year period and in different conditions, between 39.4 (±5.1) to 915 (±111.4) dollars must be spent. The findings indicate the inefficiency and waste of resources, so in order to efficient resource allocation and to encourage further cost containment in infectious waste management we introduce policy recommendation that be taken in three levels.

  11. Trends in sociodemographic and drug abuse variables in patients with alcohol and drug use disorders in a Nigerian treatment facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, T A; Onifade, P O; Ogunwale, A

    2010-01-01

    Globally, patterns of the use of psychoactive substances have been changing. To evaluate the trend in two five year periods, 1992 to 1997 versus 2002 to 2007, of alcohol and substance use disorders and associated variables in patients admitted to a drug abuse treatment facility. This was a comparative cross-sectional study involving all patients admitted into Drug Abuse Treatment, Education, and Research (DATER), Unit of the Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Aro, Nigeria within the study period. All subjects had a structured psychiatric interview, a physical examination, laboratory investigations and DATER Questionnaire protocols that elicited socio-demographic, drug and family variables. The patients in 2002 to 2007 versus those of 1992 to 1997 were younger (chi squared 13.29; p,0.01). More last borns were using drugs by 2002 to 2007 (chi squared, 11.37; p,0.01). Cannabis was the most abused drug in 2002 to 2007 (53.5%) as compared to cocaine (44%) in 1992 to 1997 (chi squared 35.5; p,0.001). Polydrug abuse was high in the two periods but significantly the drug combination changed to cannabis in combination with alcohol in 2002 to 2007 as against cocaine in combination with opiates in 1992 to 1997 chi squared 45.3, p 0.001). More patients had co-morbid psychiatric disorders in 2000 to 2007 (67.6% as against 38.5% in 1992 to 1999 chi squared 28.32, p,0.001). In both periods, co-morbidity associated with cannabis use rather than any other drug of abuse as the odds ratio was greater than one. The findings in the trend in the two five year periods underscore the imperatives of continuous evaluation of the drug abuse patient population in treatment which may help drive changes in treatment inputs.

  12. Water-wettable polypropylene fibers by facile surface treatment based on soy proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Carlos; Genzer, Jan; Lucia, Lucian A; Hubbe, Martin A; Rojas, Orlando J

    2013-07-24

    Modification of the wetting behavior of hydrophobic surfaces is essential in a variety of materials, including textiles and membranes that require control of fluid interactions, adhesion, transport processes, sensing, etc. This investigation examines the enhancement of wettability of an important class of textile materials, viz., polypropylene (PP) fibers, by surface adsorption of different proteins from soybeans, including soy flour, isolate,glycinin, and β-conglycinin. Detailed investigations of soy adsorption from aqueous solution (pH 7.4, 25 °C) on polypropylene thin films is carried out using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). A significant amount of protein adsorbs onto the PP surfaces primarily due to hydrophobic interactions. We establish that adsorption of a cationic surfactant, dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODA) onto PP surfaces prior to the protein deposition dramatically enhances its adsorption. The adsorption of proteins from native (PBS buffer, pH 7.4, 25 °C) and denatured conditions (PBS buffer, pH 7.4, 95 °C) onto DODA-treated PP leads to a high coverage of the proteins on the PP surface as confirmed by a significant improvement in water wettability. A shift in the contact angle from 128° to completely wettable surfaces (≈0°) is observed and confirmed by imaging experiments conducted with fluorescence tags. Furthermore, the results from wicking tests indicate that hydrophobic PP nonwovens absorb a significant amount of water after protein treatment, i.e., the PP-modified surfaces become completely hydrophilic.

  13. Special wettable nanostructured copper mesh achieved by a facile hot water treatment process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadi, Nawzat S.; Hassan, Laylan B.; Brozak, Matt; Karabacak, Tansel

    2017-09-01

    In this research, a special wettable copper mesh with superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity properties is reported using a low-cost, eco-friendly, rapid, and scalable synthesis method. Hot water treatment (HWT) method is used to integrate the micro-textured copper mesh surface with a nanoscale roughness to achieve a hierarchical micro-nano structured surface. The surface energy of the nanoscale roughened copper mesh reduced by coating the hot water treated mesh with polymer ligands containing thiol or fluorine functional groups of low energy. Surface morphology characterization showed the formation of copper oxide nanostructures on the mesh surface by hot water process performed at 95 °C and under a low dissolved oxygen condition. X-ray diffraction patterns reveal the development of stable, uniformly distributed, and compactly arranged, cubic and plate-like nanostructures of cuprous oxide (Cu2O) on the copper mesh surface. The surface wettability of the as-prepared copper mesh was assessed by contact angle (CA) measurement for water and several oils and organic solvents. CA values showed the formation of special wettable copper mesh surface with superhydrophobic property with water contact angle of about 157° and superoleophilic property with oil contact angle as low as 0°. In addition, the effect of the mesh’s geometry on the wetting property was examined through correlations between wire diameter, pore size, and optimal values for the highest water CA.

  14. Consumer and carer perspectives in the development of a mental health research, treatment and teaching facility: A thematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsikitis, M; Lane, B R; Ozols, I; Statham, D

    2017-09-01

    perspectives addressing the establishment of a mental health research, treatment and teaching facility in their region. Methods Two 2-hr focus groups were conducted, with separate groups held for mental health consumers (n = 9) and carers (n = 9), respectively. Discussions pertained to mental health literacy, gaps in current services, desires for an ideal facility (in terms of physical design and services offered) and what would help in recovery. Results Inductive thematic analysis was used to generate three themes: care outside of consultations, carer involvement in recovery and holistic approaches to mental health care. Consumers desired a facility that could cater to individual needs. Carers felt excluded in recovery and unable to provide effective support. Both groups preferred holistic approaches to mental health, expressing ambivalence towards medication and hospitalization. Discussion Consumers and carers have many needs that conventional practices may not meet. Implications for practice They have clear desires for equal partnership in recovery and for transformation of conventional treatment methods. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Automotive fleet repair facility wastewater treatment using air/ZVI and air/ZVI/H2O2 processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogacki Jan Paweł

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Advanced automotive fleet repair facility wastewater treatment was investigated with Zero-Valent Iron/Hydrogen Peroxide (Air/ZVI/H2O2 process for different process parameters: ZVI and H2O2 doses, time, pH. The highest Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD removal efficiency, 76%, was achieved for ZVI/H2O2 doses 4000/1900 mg/L, 120 min process time, pH 3.0. COD decreased from 933 to 227 mg/L. In optimal process conditions odor and color were also completely removed. COD removal efficiency was increasing with ZVI dose. Change pH value below and over 3.0 causes a rapid decrease in the treatment effectiveness. The Air/ZVI/H2O2 process kinetics can be described as d[COD]/dt = −a [COD]tm, where ‘t’ corresponds with time and ‘a’ and ‘m’ are constants that depend on the initial reagent concentrations. H2O2 influence on process effect was assessed. COD removal could be up to 40% (560 mg/L for Air/ZVI process. The FeCl3 coagulation effect was also evaluated. The best coagulation results were obtained for 700 mg/L Fe3+ dose, that was slightly higher than dissolved Fe used in ZVI/H2O2 process. COD was decreased to 509 mg/L.

  16. A Randomized Implementation Study of Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adjudicated Teens in Residential Treatment Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Judith A; Mannarino, Anthony P; Jankowski, Kay; Rosenberg, Stanley; Kodya, Suzanne; Wolford, George L

    2016-05-01

    Adjudicated youth in residential treatment facilities (RTFs) have high rates of trauma exposure and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study evaluated strategies for implementing trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) in RTF. Therapists (N = 129) treating adjudicated youth were randomized by RTF program (N = 18) to receive one of the two TF-CBT implementation strategies: (1) web-based TF-CBT training + consultation (W) or (2) W + 2 day live TF-CBT workshop + twice monthly phone consultation (W + L). Youth trauma screening and PTSD symptoms were assessed via online dashboard data entry using the University of California at Los Angeles PTSD Reaction Index. Youth depressive symptoms were assessed with the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire-Short Version. Outcomes were therapist screening; TF-CBT engagement, completion, and fidelity; and youth improvement in PTSD and depressive symptoms. The W + L condition resulted in significantly more therapists conducting trauma screening (p = .0005), completing treatment (p = .03), and completing TF-CBT with fidelity (p = .001) than the W condition. Therapist licensure significantly impacted several outcomes. Adjudicated RTF youth receiving TF-CBT across conditions experienced statistically and clinically significant improvement in PTSD (p = .001) and depressive (p = .018) symptoms. W + L is generally superior to W for implementing TF-CBT in RTF. TF-CBT is effective for improving trauma-related symptoms in adjudicated RTF youth. Implementation barriers are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Facile fabrication of visible light induced Bi2O3 nanorod using conventional heat treatment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Waseem; Khan, Azam; Alam, Umair; Muneer, M.; Bahnemann, D.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a new Bi2O3 based photocatalyst doped with varying concentration of Nb and Mn metal ion was fabricated by conventional heat treatment method and their photocatalytic activity was investigated. The prepared material was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Visible Spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) techniques. The XRD analysis of synthesized photocatalyst was found to exhibit characteristic peaks of well crystallized monoclinic α-Bi2O3. The XRD pattern of pure and metal doped Bi2O3 were found to more or less similar. The crystallite size of doped materials were smaller than pure Bi2O3 and size decreases with increasing dopant concentration from 0.5 to 2.0% for Nb & 1.0-3.0% for Mn and remains almost constant at higher dopant concentration. The SEM analysis clearly indicate the formation of nanorod like morphologies. The UV-Vis absorption spectra of synthesized nanorods revealed that the absorption edge shift towards longer wavelength on doping with Nb and Mn metal ions which is beneficial for absorbing more visible light in the solar spectrum. The prepared doped Bi2O3 nanorod showed the excellent photocatalytic activity for degradation of selected organic pollutants, such as Methylene Blue (MB) and Rodaamime B (RhB) under visible light source. The higher activity of doped Bi2O3 nanorod may be attributed to absorption of more visible light leading to generation of higher photogenerated electron hole pairs and efficient separation of photoinduced charge carrier to inhibit the recombination rate.

  18. Routine delivery of artemisinin-based combination treatment at fixed health facilities reduces malaria prevalence in Tanzania: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatib Rashid A

    2012-04-01

    fixed health facilities only modestly reduced asexual parasitaemia prevalence. ACT is effective for treatment of uncomplicated malaria and should have substantial public health impact on morbidity and mortality, but is unlikely to reduce malaria transmission substantially in much of sub-Saharan Africa where individuals are rapidly re-infected.

  19. Effect of polyvinylpyrrolidone on cerium oxide nanoparticle characteristics prepared by a facile heat treatment technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Ali Baqer

    Full Text Available An aqueous medium composed of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP and cerium nitrates at calcination temperature was utilised in the production of cerium oxide (CeO2 semiconductor nanoparticles. A variety of analytical approaches was utilized to examine the structural, morphological and optical characteristics of the resulting nanoparticles. Differential thermal (DTA and thermogravimetric (TGA analyses, indicated that the best calcination temperatures for achieving CeO2 nanoparticle production were more than 485 °C. The results from Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR verified the formation of a crystalline structure after calcination procedures were performed to remove residual organic compounds. Additionally, results from X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis confirmed the cubic fluorite structure of the CeO2 produced. Samples were also analysed by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDXA which indicated the existence of O and Ce in the samples. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM was used in the characterisation of nanoparticle morphological features. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM was employed to estimate typical nanoparticle and distribution within sample. This analysis indicated that mean particle sizes were inversely correlated with PVP concentration, with nanoparticle sizes ranging between 12 ± 7 nm at 0.03 g/mL PVP and 6 ± 2 nm at 0.05 g/mL PVP. These results corroborated those obtained by XRD analysis. A UV–vis spectrophotometer was utilised in the demonstration of optical properties and to examine the band gap energy of samples. The potential UV-shielding properties of the nanoparticles were demonstrated by the observed blue shift of the estimated optical energy band, i.e. from 3.35 to 3.43 eV, whilst PL spectra results indicated that decreasing particle size was associated with diminishing photoluminescence intensity. Keywords: Cerium oxide nanoparticles, Heat treatment technique, Structural

  20. The disparity of health facilities in an urban area discourages proposed treatment application in inoperable lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillas, Georgios; Bakakos, Petros; Trichas, Miltiadis; Vlastos, Fotis

    2010-11-15

    Patients with a newly diagnosed non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) stage IIIB are offered chemoradiotherapy, as proposed by the current guidelines. This combination treatment is facilitated by the coexistence of corresponding departments in the same establishment. The geographical disparity of these health facilities influences patients' willingness to be treated and may influence their survival. This is an observational study that compares the survival of two groups of patients with NSCLC stage IIIB: those treated with chemoradiotherapy versus those treated only with chemotherapy. These two comparable groups were formed exclusively by patients' and/or their families' decisions. One hundred fifteen consecutive NSCLC stage IIIB patients were included in the study. All were hospitalized in the biggest Chest Disease Hospital in Athens and were offered sequential chemoradiotherapy. Only 54 patients opted for the proposed treatment, while 61 decided to be treated with chemotherapy only, denying continuing their treatment in another health care unit (radiotherapy). Their survival and related factors were analyzed. Mean overall survival was estimated 10 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.96-12.04). Patients treated with chemoradiotherapy had almost double overall survival compared to those under chemotherapy (P = 0.001): 13.6 months (95% CI: 12.3-14.9) versus 7.5 (95% CI: 6.1-8.9). Patients aged ≤ 65 years (P < 0.001), smokers (P < 0.001), and those without a cancer history (P < 0.001) survived longer. The lack of a radiotherapy department in a hospital providing chemotherapy impedes the application of current guidelines advocating combined radiochemotherapy. When recommended radiotherapy after six chemo cycles, half of the patients are unwilling to be displaced and do not follow the recommendations. This has an impact on patient survival.

  1. Investigating Impacts of Incorporating an Adjuvant Mind–Body Intervention Method Into Treatment as Usual at a Community-Based Substance Abuse Treatment Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Nakamura

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of substance use/misuse (SUM continues to pose a difficult challenge. This exploratory pilot study evaluated whether a novel mind–body intervention program called “Mind–Body Bridging” (MBB could be an effective short-term adjuvant intervention for managing SUM and coexisting symptoms in women undergoing residential and outpatient substance use treatment in a community setting. Thirty-eight women attending a local substance abuse (SA facility were recruited and randomly assigned to either (a treatment as usual (TAU or (b MBB and TAU. The MBB program consisted of 20 sessions and lasted for 10 weeks. Participants were asked to complete a set of self-report questionnaires designed to assess drug/alcohol cravings, impact of past trauma, depression, sleep disturbance, mindfulness, self-compassion, and well-being. They completed the questionnaires at three time points: preintervention, midintervention (after the fifth week, and postintervention. MBB + TAU significantly reduced drug/alcohol cravings, trauma-related thinking, and disturbed sleep in comparison with TAU. Furthermore, MBB + TAU significantly increased mindfulness, self-compassion, and well-being in comparison with TAU. MBB for SUM appears promising as a complementary adjuvant intervention, warranting future larger scale randomized controlled trials of MBB for SUM populations. SUM is a difficult condition to treat and manage clinically, especially given the multiple comorbid conditions that frequently affect those with SUM. In the search to develop effective adjuvant interventions for SUM, the present pilot study suggested that adding MBB to standard SUM treatment in community-based settings could enhance therapeutic efficacy and quality of care.

  2. Patient Enrolment into HIV Care and Treatment within 90 Days of HIV Diagnosis in Eight Rwandan Health Facilities: A Review of Facility-Based Registers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayigamba, Felix R.; Bakker, Mirjam I.; Fikse, Hadassa; Mugisha, Veronicah; Asiimwe, Anita; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased greatly in sub-Saharan Africa. However many patients do not enrol timely into HIV care and treatment after HIV diagnosis. We studied enrolment into care and treatment and determinants of non-enrolment in Rwanda. Methods: Data were

  3. Proposed Use of a Constructed Wetland for the Treatment of Metals in the S-04 Outfall of the Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glover, T.

    1999-11-23

    The DWPF is part of an integrated waste treatment system at the SRS to treat wastes containing radioactive contaminants. In the early 1980s the DOE recognized that there would be significant safety and cost advantages associated with immobilizing the radioactive waste in a stable solid form. The Defense Waste Processing Facility was designed and constructed to accomplish this task.

  4. Substance abuse, coping strategies, adaptive skills and behavioral and emotional problems in clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability admitted to a treatment facility: A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, H.C.M.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.; Toorn, M. van der; Laarhoven, N.

    2009-01-01

    Many clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability (ID) who are admitted to a treatment facility show serious problems in alcohol and/or drugs use. In the present case file study, we explored differences in coping strategies, adaptive skills and emotional and behavioral problems between

  5. Substance Abuse, Coping Strategies, Adaptive Skills and Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Clients with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability Admitted to a Treatment Facility: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didden, Robert; Embregts, Petri; van der Toorn, Mirjam; Laarhoven, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Many clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability (ID) who are admitted to a treatment facility show serious problems in alcohol and/or drugs use. In the present case file study, we explored differences in coping strategies, adaptive skills and emotional and behavioral problems between clients who showed substance abuse and clients who…

  6. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Activated Sludge - Aeration & Sedimentation Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, George J.

    This guide for developing standard operating job procedures for wastewater treatment facilities is devoted to the activated sludge aeration and sedimentation process. This process is for conversion of nonsettleable and nonfloatable materials in wastewater to settleable, floculated biological groups and separation of the settleable solids from the…

  7. Outpatient evaluation, recognition, and initial management of pediatric overweight and obesity in U.S. military medical treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Wayne; Arday, David R; Kelly, Joseph; Carnahan, Col David

    2017-02-01

    As childhood obesity is a concern in many communities, this study investigated outpatient evaluation and initial management of overweight and obese pediatric patients in U.S. military medical treatment facilities (MTFs). Samples of 579 overweight and 341 obese patients (as determined by body mass index [BMI]) aged 3-17 years were drawn from MTFs. All available FY2011 outpatient records were searched for documentation of BMI assessment, overweight/obesity diagnosis, and counseling. Administrative data for these patients were merged to assess coded diagnostic and counseling rates and receipt of recommended laboratory screenings. Generic BMI documentation was high, but BMI percentile assessments were found among fewer than half the patients. Diagnostic recording or recognition totaled 10.9% of overweight and 32.0% of obese. Counseling rates were higher, with 46.4% and 61.0% of overweight and obese patients, respectively, receiving weight related counseling. Among patients 10 years of age or older, rates of recommended lab screenings for diabetes, liver abnormality, and dyslipidemia were not greater than 33%. BMI percentile recording was strongly associated with diagnostic recording, and diagnostic recording was strongly associated with counseling. Improvements to electronic health records or implementation of local procedures to facilitate better diagnostic recording would likely improve adherence to clinical practice guidelines. ©2016 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  8. Norovirus contamination levels in ground water treatment systems used for food-catering facilities in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bo-Ram; Lee, Sung-Geun; Park, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Kwang-Yup; Ryu, Sang-Ryeol; Rhee, Ok-Jae; Park, Jeong-Woong; Lee, Jeong-Su; Paik, Soon-Young

    2013-07-02

    This study aimed to inspect norovirus contamination of groundwater treatment systems used in food-catering facilities located in South Korea. A nationwide study was performed in 2010. Water samples were collected and, for the analysis of water quality, the temperature, pH, turbidity, and residual chlorine content were assessed. To detect norovirus genotypes GI and GII, RT-PCR and semi-nested PCR were performed with specific NV-GI and NV-GII primer sets, respectively. The PCR products amplified from the detected strains were then subjected to sequence analyses. Of 1,090 samples collected in 2010, seven (0.64%) were found to be norovirus-positive. Specifically, one norovirus strain was identified to have the GI-6 genotype, and six GII strains had the GII, GII-3, GII-4, and GII-17 genotypes. The very low detection rate of norovirus most likely reflects the preventative measures used. However, this virus can spread rapidly from person to person in crowded, enclosed places such as the schools investigated in this study. To promote better public health and sanitary conditions, it is necessary to periodically monitor noroviruses that frequently cause epidemic food poisoning in South Korea.

  9. Trends in Vitamin A, C, D, E, K Supplement Prescriptions From Military Treatment Facilities: 2007 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, Travis Y; Bolin, Jeremy T; Attipoe, Selasi; Jones, Donnamaria R; Stephens, Mark B; Deuster, Patricia A

    2015-07-01

    Although prior studies have examined the prevalence of dietary supplement use among various populations, data on single vitamins prescribed by health care providers are limited. This study examined trends in single-vitamin supplement (A, C, D, E, K) prescriptions by providers from military treatment facilities from 2007 to 2011. We examined prescription data from the Department of Defense Pharmacy Data Transaction Service to determine trends in the aforementioned single-vitamin supplement prescriptions. Prescription rates per 1,000 active duty personnel were estimated using population data retrieved from the Defense Medical Epidemiology Database (i.e., [number of prescriptions/population size] × 1,000). Across the 5-year period, the number of vitamin D prescriptions per 1,000 active duty personnel increased 454%. In contrast, the number of vitamin A, vitamin E, and vitamin K prescriptions per 1,000 active duty personnel decreased by 32%, 53%, and 29% respectively. Vitamin C prescriptions remained relatively constant. Across all age groups, total single-vitamin supplement prescriptions increased by 180%. Together, prescriptions examined in this study increased steadily from 2007 to 2011, primarily because of the increase in vitamin D prescriptions. The exhibited trend reflects the current general-population pattern of dietary supplement use, with large increases in vitamin D and declines in vitamin E. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  10. A Longitudinal Study of Child Maltreatment and Mental Health Predictors of Admission to Psychiatric Residential Treatment Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick A. Rose

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The child welfare system is an access point for children’s mental health services. Psychiatric residential treatment facilities (PRTFs are the most restrictive, and most expensive setting for children to receive long-term care. Given the high rates of behavioral health concerns among maltreated children in out-of-home care, research is needed to examine the factors that predict entry in PRTFs among children investigated for maltreatment. This exploratory study used cross-sector administrative records linked across multiple systems, including child welfare records and Medicaid claims, from a single state over a five-year period (n = 105,982. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to predict entry into a PRTF. After controlling for many factors, PRTF entry was predicted by diagnosis code indicating a trauma-related condition, antipsychotic medication prescriptions, and entry into lower levels of out-of-home care, supporting the view that youth are admitted to PRTFs largely due to clinical need. However, PRTF admission is also associated with characteristics of their experiences with the social service system, primarily foster care placement stability and permanency. Implications for practice and research are discussed.

  11. A Longitudinal Study of Child Maltreatment and Mental Health Predictors of Admission to Psychiatric Residential Treatment Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Roderick A; Lanier, Paul

    2017-09-28

    The child welfare system is an access point for children's mental health services. Psychiatric residential treatment facilities (PRTFs) are the most restrictive, and most expensive setting for children to receive long-term care. Given the high rates of behavioral health concerns among maltreated children in out-of-home care, research is needed to examine the factors that predict entry in PRTFs among children investigated for maltreatment. This exploratory study used cross-sector administrative records linked across multiple systems, including child welfare records and Medicaid claims, from a single state over a five-year period ( n = 105,982). Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to predict entry into a PRTF. After controlling for many factors, PRTF entry was predicted by diagnosis code indicating a trauma-related condition, antipsychotic medication prescriptions, and entry into lower levels of out-of-home care, supporting the view that youth are admitted to PRTFs largely due to clinical need. However, PRTF admission is also associated with characteristics of their experiences with the social service system, primarily foster care placement stability and permanency. Implications for practice and research are discussed.

  12. Field Sampling Plan for Closure of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant Lagoon 3 and Land Application Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Michael George [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This field sampling plan describes sampling of the soil/liner of Lagoon 3 at the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant. The lagoon is to be closed, and samples obtained from the soil/liner will provide information to determine if Lagoon 3 and the land application area can be closed in a manner that renders it safe to human health and the environment. Samples collected under this field sampling plan will be compared to Idaho National Laboratory background soil concentrations. If the concentrations of constituents of concern exceed the background level, they will be compared to Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act preliminary remediation goals and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act levels. If the concentrations of constituents of concern are lower than the background levels, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act levels, or the preliminary remediation goals, then Lagoon 3 and the land application area will be closed. If the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act levels and/or the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act preliminary remediation goals are exceeded, additional sampling and action may be required.

  13. Facile and highly effective synthesis of controllable lattice sulfur-doped graphene quantum dots via hydrothermal treatment of durian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Guo, Qinglei; Chen, Da; Liu, Zhiduo; Zheng, Xiaohu; Xu, Anli; Yang, Siwei; Ding, Guqiao

    2018-01-19

    Recently, the biomass "bottom-up" approach for the synthesis of graphene quantum dots have attracted broad interest because of the outstanding features, including low-cost, rapid and environmentally friendly nature. However, the low crystalline quality of products, substitutional doping with heteroatoms in lattice and ambiguous reaction mechanism strongly challenge the further development of this technique. Herein, we proposed a facile and effective strategy to prepare controllable sulfur (S) doping in graphene quantum dots, occurring in a lattice substitution manner, by hydrothermal treatment of durian with platinum catalyst. S atoms in graphene quantum dots are demonstrated to exist in the thiophene structure, resulting good optical and chemical stabilities, as well as ultrahigh quantum yield. Detailed mechanism of the hydrothermal reaction progress was investigated. High-efficiency reforming-cyclization provided by platinum was evidenced by the co-existence of diversified sp2 fused heterocyclic compounds and thiophene derivatives. Moreover, we also demonstrated that saccharides in durian with small molecular weight (graphene quantum dots. Due to the desulfurizing process, controllable photoluminescence properties could be achieved in as-prepared graphene quantum dots via tuning doping concentrations.

  14. A preliminary Monte Carlo study for the treatment head of a carbon-ion radiotherapy facility using TOPAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongdong; Zhang, Lian; Chen, Zhi; Liu, Xinguo; Dai, Zhongying; Li, Qiang; Xu, Xie George

    2017-09-01

    In medical physics it is desirable to have a Monte Carlo code that is less complex, reliable yet flexible for dose verification, optimization, and component design. TOPAS is a newly developed Monte Carlo simulation tool which combines extensive radiation physics libraries available in Geant4 code, easyto-use geometry and support for visualization. Although TOPAS has been widely tested and verified in simulations of proton therapy, there has been no reported application for carbon ion therapy. To evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of TOPAS simulations for carbon ion therapy, a licensed TOPAS code (version 3_0_p1) was used to carry out a dosimetric study of therapeutic carbon ions. Results of depth dose profile based on different physics models have been obtained and compared with the measurements. It is found that the G4QMD model is at least as accurate as the TOPAS default BIC physics model for carbon ions, but when the energy is increased to relatively high levels such as 400 MeV/u, the G4QMD model shows preferable performance. Also, simulations of special components used in the treatment head at the Institute of Modern Physics facility was conducted to investigate the Spread-Out dose distribution in water. The physical dose in water of SOBP was found to be consistent with the aim of the 6 cm ridge filter.

  15. Treatment at high-volume facilities and academic centers is independently associated with improved survival in patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, John M; Ho, Allen S; Luu, Michael; Yoshida, Emi J; Kim, Sungjin; Mita, Alain C; Scher, Kevin S; Shiao, Stephen L; Tighiouart, Mourad; Zumsteg, Zachary S

    2017-10-15

    The treatment of head and neck cancers is complex and associated with significant morbidity, requiring multidisciplinary care and physician expertise. Thus, facility characteristics, such as clinical volume and academic status, may influence outcomes. The current study included 46,567 patients taken from the National Cancer Data Base who were diagnosed with locally advanced invasive squamous cell carcinomas of the oropharynx, larynx, and hypopharynx and were undergoing definitive radiotherapy. High-volume facilities (HVFs) were defined as the top 1% of centers by the number of patients treated from 2004 through 2012. Multivariable Cox regression and propensity score matching were performed to account for imbalances in covariates. The median follow-up was 55.1 months. Treatment at a HVF (hazard ratio, 0.798; 95% confidence interval, 0.753-0.845 [Ppatients treated at an HVF versus lower-volume facilities, respectively (Ppatients treated at academic versus nonacademic facilities (Pnumber of patients treated. The impact of facility volume and academic designation on survival was observed when using a variety of thresholds to define HVF, and across the vast majority of subgroups, including both oropharyngeal and nonoropharyngeal subsites. Patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma who are undergoing curative radiotherapy at HVFs and academic centers appear to have improved survival. Cancer 2017;123:3933-42. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  16. Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment for the Operation of the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility at Site 300 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, G; Daniels, J; Wegrecki, A

    2007-10-01

    This document contains the human health and ecological risk assessment for the Resource Recovery and Conservation Act (RCRA) permit renewal for the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility (EWTF). Volume 1 is the text of the risk assessment, and Volume 2 (provided on a compact disc) is the supporting modeling data. The EWTF is operated by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) at Site 300, which is located in the foothills between the cities of Livermore and Tracy, approximately 17 miles east of Livermore and 8 miles southwest of Tracy. Figure 1 is a map of the San Francisco Bay Area, showing the location of Site 300 and other points of reference. One of the principal activities of Site 300 is to test what are known as 'high explosives' for nuclear weapons. These are the highly energetic materials that provide the force to drive fissionable material to criticality. LLNL scientists develop and test the explosives and the integrated non-nuclear components in support of the United States nuclear stockpile stewardship program as well as in support of conventional weapons and the aircraft, mining, oil exploration, and construction industries. Many Site 300 facilities are used in support of high explosives research. Some facilities are used in the chemical formulation of explosives; others are locations where explosive charges are mechanically pressed; others are locations where the materials are inspected radiographically for such defects as cracks and voids. Finally, some facilities are locations where the machined charges are assembled before they are sent to the onsite test firing facilities, and additional facilities are locations where materials are stored. Wastes generated from high-explosives research are treated by open burning (OB) and open detonation (OD). OB and OD treatments are necessary because they are the safest methods for treating explosives wastes generated at these facilities, and they eliminate the requirement for further handling

  17. The Fixation of New Alternative Wood Protection Systems by Means of Oil Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura LIIBERT

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the improvement of a combined impregnation process (CIP, also known as the Royal process. This treatment combines the protective properties of a wood protection agent and the hydrophobic properties of a subsequent oil treatment in a wood product. Copper-based wood preservatives, which are traditionally used in CIP, are very effective but their long-term future use is questionable because of environmental concerns, especially the toxicity against water-living organisms. There is a need for new environmentally friendly wood preservative systems for a use in CIP. The substitutes for copper used in this study are natural polymers and organic biocides. The aim of this research is to describe the fixation effectiveness of the following compounds: Chitosan, Propiconazole, Wolmanit CX-8, Tannin, fire protection agent, Alginate. The scots pine sapwood samples (50´25´15 mm were impregnated and oil treated. The treated products were analysed for their preservative-and oil-retention. Preservative fixation time influence on oil treatment was tested. The treated samples were leached according to EN84. Water samples were analyzed for the amount of active ingredient.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.4.777

  18. Water Treatment Unit Breadboard: Ground test facility for the recycling of urine and shower water for one astronaut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeboom, Ralph E. F.; Lamaze, Brigitte; Clauwaert, Peter; Christiaens, Marlies E. R.; Rabaey, Korneel; Vlaeminck, Siegfried; Vanoppen, Marjolein; Demey, Dries; Farinas, Bernabé Alonso; Coessens, Wout; De Paepe, Jolien; Dotremont, Chris; Beckers, Herman; Verliefde, Arne

    2016-07-01

    One of the major challenges for long-term manned Space missions is the requirement of a regenerative life support system. Average water consumption in Western Countries is >100 L d-1. Even when minimizing the amount of water available per astronauts to 13 L d-1, a mission of 6 crew members requires almost 30 ton of fresh water supplies per year. Note that the International Space Station (ISS) weighs approximately 400 ton. Therefore the development of an efficient water recovery system is essential to future Space exploration. The ISS currently uses a Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) unit following the addition of chromic and sulphuric acid for the microbial stabilization of urine (Carter, Tobias et al. 2012), yielding a water recovery percentage of only 70% due to scaling control. Additionally, Vapor Compression Distillation of 1.5 L urine cap 1 d-1 has a significantly higher power demand with 6.5 W cap-1 compared to a combination of electrodialysis (ED) and reverse osmosis (RO) with 1.9 and 0.6 W cap-1 respectively (Udert and Wächter 2012). A Water Treatment Unit Breadboard (WTUB) has been developed which combines a physicochemical and biological treatment. The aim was to recover 90% of the water in urine, condensate and shower water produced by one crew member and this life support testbed facility was inspired by the MELiSSA loop concept, ESA's Life Support System. Our experimental results showed that: 1) using a crystallisation reactor prior to the nitrification reduced scaling risks by Ca2+- and Mg2+ removal 2) the stabilization of urine diluted with condensate resulted in the biological conversion of 99% of Total Kjeldahl nitrogen into nitrate in the biological nitrification reactor 3) salinity and nitrate produced could be removed by 60-80% by electrodialysis, 4) shower water contaminated with skin microbiota and Neutrogena soap ® could be mixed with electrodialysis diluate and filtered directly over a ceramic nanofiltration at 93% water recovery and 5

  19. Future and present condition of waste treatment facilities for foundry; Chuzo kojo haikibutsu shori setsubi no genjo to shorai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, M. [Shinto Kogyo Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-25

    The current state of waste disposal facilities in foundries is introduced, and the future way that it should be is investigated from the viewpoint of environmental management of manufacturing plants which is shifting from taking countermeasures for environmental conservation to giving priority to environmental conservation. As the methods for waste disposal, there are a case of reusing it to decrease the quantity of waste as far as possible and a case of converting it into valuable material for reuse by other industries as valuable material. In connection with the facilities for decreasing the quantity of generated waste, outlines are given on the recovery system for spilled sand, classifiers (sieve, air classifier), separators (magnetic separator, shot separator), sand reproducing system, humidifier, and granulators (briquette of turning, granulation of dust). As regards future disposal facilities, investigation must be made on the support facility for production so as to reduce waste generation as far as possible, facility which sort generated waste reliably for easy disposal, facility for material recycling, and facility for realizing zero emission. 5 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Variation in Locoregional Prostate Cancer Care and Treatment Trends at Commission on Cancer Designated Facilities: A National Cancer Data Base Analysis 2004 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löppenberg, Björn; Sood, Akshay; Dalela, Deepansh; Karabon, Patrick; Sammon, Jesse D; Vetterlein, Malte W; Noldus, Joachim; Peabody, James O; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Menon, Mani; Abdollah, Firas

    2017-12-01

    Contemporary treatment trends for prostate cancer show increased rates of active surveillance. However, nationwide applicability of these reports is limited. Additionally, the effect of Commission on Cancer facility type on prostate cancer treatment patterns is unknown. We used the National Cancer Data Base to identify men diagnosed with prostate cancer, between 2004 and 2013. Our cohort was stratified on the basis of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network prostate cancer risk classes. Cochran-Armitage tests were used to evaluate temporal trends. Random effects hierarchical logit models were used to assess treatment variation at Commission on Cancer facility and institution level. In 825,707 men, utilization of radiation therapy declined and utilization of radical prostatectomy increased for all prostate cancer risk groups between 2004 and 2013 (P < .0001). Observation for low-risk prostate cancer increased from 16.3% in 2004 to 2005 to 32.0% in 2012 to 2013 (P < .0001). Significant treatment variation was observed on the basis of Commission on Cancer facility type. Across all risk groups, the lowest rates of radical prostatectomy and highest rates of external beam radiation therapy were observed in community cancer programs. The highest rates of observation for low-risk disease were observed in academic centers. Treatment variation according to institution ranged from 14% (95% confidence interval, 0.12-0.15) for androgen deprivation therapy up to 59% (95% confidence interval, 0.45-0.73) for cryotherapy. The increased utilization of observation in low-risk prostate cancer is an encouraging finding, which appears to be mainly derived by a decrease in radiotherapy utilization in this risk group. Regardless of tumor characteristics, significant variations in treatment modality exist among different facility types and institutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Site specific risk assessment of an energy-from-waste thermal treatment facility in Durham Region, Ontario, Canada. Part A: Human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollson, Christopher A; Knopper, Loren D; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L; Jayasinghe, Ruwan

    2014-01-01

    The regions of Durham and York in Ontario, Canada have partnered to construct an energy-from-waste thermal treatment facility as part of a long term strategy for the management of their municipal solid waste. This paper presents the results of a comprehensive human health risk assessment for this facility. This assessment was based on extensive sampling of baseline environmental conditions (e.g., collection and analysis of air, soil, water, and biota samples) as well as detailed site specific modeling to predict facility-related emissions of 87 identified contaminants of potential concern. Emissions were estimated for both the approved initial operating design capacity of the facility (140,000 tonnes per year) and for the maximum design capacity (400,000 tonnes per year). For the 140,000 tonnes per year scenario, this assessment indicated that facility-related emissions are unlikely to cause adverse health risks to local residents, farmers, or other receptors (e.g., recreational users). For the 400,000 tonnes per year scenarios, slightly elevated risks were noted with respect to inhalation (hydrogen chloride) and infant consumption of breast milk (dioxins and furans), but only during predicted 'upset conditions' (i.e. facility start-up, shutdown, and loss of air pollution control) that represent unusual and/or transient occurrences. However, current provincial regulations require that additional environmental screening would be mandatory prior to expansion of the facility beyond the initial approved capacity (140,000 tonnes per year). Therefore, the potential risks due to upset conditions for the 400,000 tonnes per year scenario should be more closely investigated if future expansion is pursued. © 2013.

  2. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report contains health and safety information relating to the chemicals that have been identified in the mixed waste streams at the Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Information is summarized in two summary sections--one for health considerations and one for safety considerations. Detailed health and safety information is presented in material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for each chemical.

  3. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 2, Chemical constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report contains health and safety information relating to the chemicals that have been identified in the mixed waste streams at the Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Information is summarized in two summary sections--one for health considerations and one for safety considerations. Detailed health and safety information is presented in material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for each chemical.

  4. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns.

  5. Facilities & Leadership

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The facilities web service provides VA facility information. The VA facilities locator is a feature that is available across the enterprise, on any webpage, for the...

  6. Using On-line Analytical Processing (OLAP) and data mining to estimate emergency room activity in DoD Medical Treatment Facilities in the Tricare Central Region

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson, Cary V.

    2001-01-01

    On-line Analytical Processing (OLAP) and data mining can greatly enhance the ability of the Military Medical Treatment Facility (MTF) emergency room (ER) manager to improve ER staffing and utilization. MTF ER managers use statistical data analysis to help manage the efficient operation and use of ERs. As the size and complexity of databases increase, traditional statistical analysis becomes limited in the amount and type of information it can extract. OLAP tools enable the analysis of multi-d...

  7. FINAL REPORT FOR THE REDUCTION OF CHROME (VI) TO CHROME (III) IN THE SECONDARY WASTE STREAM OF THE EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DUNCAN JB; GUTHRIE MD

    2008-08-29

    This report documents the laboratory results of RPP-PLAN-35958, Test Plan for the Effluent Treatment Facility to Reduce Chrome (VI) to Chrome (III) in the Secondary Waste Stream With the exception of the electrochemical corrosion scans, all work was carried out at the Center for Laboratory Science (CLS) located at the Columbia Basin College. This document summarizes the work carried out at CLS and includes the electrochemical scans and associated corrosion rates for 304 and 316L stainless steel.

  8. Factors associated with the length of delay with tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment among adult tuberculosis patients attending at public health facilities in Gondar town, Northwest, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogale, Selamsew; Diro, Ermias; Shiferaw, Atsede Mazengia; Yenit, Melaku Kindie

    2017-02-14

    Early diagnosis and prompt treatment is essential for an effective tuberculosis (TB) control program. However, significant proportion of cases remains undiagnosed and untreated. Delay in diagnosis and treatment increases transmission. Hence, the study assessed the length of delay and associated factors with tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment among adults attending public health facilities in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to May, 2016. A total of 296 adults who came to health facilities for treatment for pulmonary TB from February to May, 2016, were included in the study. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire through interviewing and record review, cleaned, coded, and entered into Epi-info version 3.5.3, and transferred into SPSS version 20.0 for further statistical analysis. A p-value of less than 0.05 at multiple linear regression analysis was considered statistically significant. The mean duration of the total delay (in days) for tuberculosis diagnosis and initiation of treatment was 41.6 days (SD = 16.6). In this study, the mean duration of patient delay and the median health system delay were 33.9 days (SD = 14) and 5 days (IQR = 4-7), respectively. Total delay for TB diagnosis and treatment was shorter among HIV positive people (β:-12.62, 95% CI: -20.72,-4.53). Longer patient delay was noted among rural dwellers (β: 8.0, 95% CI: 5.26, 10.75); increased household income (β:-0.006, 95% CI: -0.008,-0.004) was associated with a shorter delay. Health system delay was positively associated with seeking care from more than one health care providers (β: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.34) and seeking initial care from primary level health care facilities (β: 0.10, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.13). In this study, the majority of patients faced delayed in seeking health care and continued as sources of infection. Longer days of delay for TB diagnosis and treatment were noted among

  9. Overview of Corrosion, Erosion, and Synergistic Effects of Erosion and Corrosion in the WTP Pre-treatment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imrich, K. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-03-27

    Corrosion is an extremely complex process that is affected by numerous factors. Addition of a flowing multi-phase solution further complicates the analysis. The synergistic effects of the multiple corrosive species as well as the flow-induced synergistic effects from erosion and corrosion must be thoroughly evaluated in order to predict material degradation responses. Public domain data can help guide the analysis, but cannot reliably provide the design basis especially when the process is one-of-a-kind, designed for 40 plus years of service, and has no viable means for repair or replacement. Testing in representative simulants and environmental conditions with prototypic components will provide a stronger technical basis for design. This philosophy was exemplified by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site and only after 15 plus years of successful operation has it been validated. There have been “hiccups”, some identified during the cold commissioning phase and some during radioactive operations, but they were minor and overcome. In addition, the system is robust enough to tolerate most flowsheet changes and the DWPF design allows minor modifications and replacements – approaches not available with the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) “Black Cell” design methodology. Based on the available data, the synergistic effect between erosion and corrosion is a credible – virtually certain – degradation mechanism and must be considered for the design of the WTP process systems. Testing is recommended due to the number of variables (e.g., material properties, process parameters, and component design) that can affect synergy between erosion and corrosion and because the available literature is of limited applicability for the complex process chemistries anticipated in the WTP. Applicable testing will provide a reasonable and defensible path forward for design of the WTP Black Cell and Hard-to-Reach process equipment. These

  10. Final closure plan for the high-explosives open burn treatment facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Experimental Test Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, S.

    1997-04-01

    This document addresses the interim status closure of the HE Open Bum Treatment Facility, as detailed by Title 22, Division 4.5, Chapter 15, Article 7 of the Califonia Code of Regulations (CCR) and by Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 265, Subpart G, ``Closure and Post Closure.`` The Closure Plan (Chapter 1) and the Post- Closure Plan (Chapter 2) address the concept of long-term hazard elimination. The Closure Plan provides for capping and grading the HE Open Bum Treatment Facility and revegetating the immediate area in accordance with applicable requirements. The Closure Plan also reflects careful consideration of site location and topography, geologic and hydrologic factors, climate, cover characteristics, type and amount of wastes, and the potential for contaminant migration. The Post-Closure Plan is designed to allow LLNL to monitor the movement, if any, of pollutants from the treatment area. In addition, quarterly inspections will ensure that all surfaces of the closed facility, including the cover and diversion ditches, remain in good repair, thus precluding the potential for contaminant migration.

  11. Biochemistry Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Biochemistry Facility provides expert services and consultation in biochemical enzyme assays and protein purification. The facility currently features 1) Liquid...

  12. Economic Costs and Health-Related Quality of Life Outcomes of HIV Treatment After Self- and Facility-Based HIV Testing in a Cluster Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheswaran, Hendramoorthy; Petrou, Stavros; MacPherson, Peter; Kumwenda, Felistas; Lalloo, David G; Corbett, Elizabeth L; Clarke, Aileen

    2017-07-01

    The scale-up of HIV self-testing (HIVST) in Africa is recommended, but little is known about how this novel approach influences economic outcomes following subsequent antiretroviral treatment (ART) compared with established facility-based HIV testing and counseling (HTC) approaches. HIV clinics in Blantyre, Malawi. Consecutive HIV-positive participants, diagnosed by HIVST or facility-based HTC as part of a community cluster-randomized trial (ISRCTN02004005), were followed from initial assessment for ART until 1-year postinitiation. Healthcare resource use was prospectively measured, and primary costing studies undertaken to estimate total health provider costs. Participants were interviewed to establish direct nonmedical and indirect costs over the first year of ART. Costs were adjusted to 2014 US$ and INT$. Health-related quality of life was measured using the EuroQol EQ-5D at each clinic visit. Multivariable analyses estimated predictors of economic outcomes. Of 325 participants attending HIV clinics for assessment for ART, 265 were identified through facility-based HTC, and 60 through HIVST; 168/265 (69.2%) and 36/60 (60.0%), respectively, met national ART eligibility criteria and initiated treatment. The mean total health provider assessment costs for ART initiation were US$22.79 (SE: 0.56) and US$19.92 (SE: 0.77) for facility-based HTC and HIVST participants, respectively, and was US$2.87 (bootstrap 95% CI: US$1.01 to US$4.73) lower for the HIVST group. The mean total health provider costs for the first year of ART were US$168.65 (SE: 2.02) and US$164.66 (SE: 4.21) for facility-based HTC and HIVST participants, respectively, and comparable between the 2 groups (bootstrap 95% CI: -US$12.38 to US$4.39). EQ-5D utility scores immediately before and one year after ART initiation were comparable between the 2 groups. EQ-5D utility scores 1 year after ART initiation had increased by 0.129 (SE: 0.011) and 0.139 (SE: 0.027) for facility-based HTC and HIVST participants

  13. The X-625 Groundwater Treatment Facility: A field-scale test of trichloroethylene dechlorination using iron filings for the X-120/X-749 groundwater plume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, L.; West, O.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Korte, N.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Grand Junction, CO (United States)] [and others

    1997-09-01

    The dehalogenation of chlorinated solvents by zero-valence iron has recently become the subject of intensive research and development as a potentially cost-effective, passive treatment for contaminated groundwater through reactive barriers. Because of its successful application in the laboratory and other field sites, the X-625 Groundwater Treatment Facility (GTF) was constructed to evaluate reactive barrier technology for remediating trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated groundwater at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The X-625 GTF was built to fulfill the following technical objectives: (1) to test reactive barrier materials (e.g., iron filings) under realistic groundwater conditions for long term applications, (2) to obtain rates at which TCE degrades and to determine by-products for the reactive barrier materials tested, and (3) to clean up the TCE-contaminated water in the X-120 plume. The X-625 is providing important field-scale and long-term for the evaluation and design of reactive barriers at PORTS. The X-625 GTS is a unique facility not only because it is where site remediation is being performed, but it is also where research scientists and process engineers can test other promising reactive barrier materials. In addition, the data collected from X-625 GTF can be used to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of replacing the activated carbon units in the pump-and-treat facilities at PORTS.

  14. Improvement of the management of residual waste in areas without thermal treatment facilities: A life cycle analysis of an Italian management district

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Maria, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.dimaria@unipg.it [LAR Laboratory, Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Via G. Duranti 93, Perugia (Italy); Micale, Caterina; Morettini, Emanuela [LAR Laboratory, Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Via G. Duranti 93, Perugia (Italy); Sisani, Luciano [TSA spa, Via Case Sparse 107, Magione (Italy); Damiano, Roberto [GESENU spa, Via della Molinella 7, Perugia (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • LCA analysis of two option for residual waste management. • Exploitation of mechanical physical sorting facility for extracting recyclable from RMSW. • Processing the mechanically sorted organic fraction in bioreactor landfill. • Sensitivity analysis demonstrate high influence for impact assessment of substitution ratio for recycle materials. - Abstract: Starting from an existing waste management district without thermal treatment facilities, two different management scenarios for residual waste were compared by life cycle assessment (LCA). The adoption of a bioreactor landfill for managing the mechanically sorted organic fraction instead of bio-stabilization led to reduction of global warming and fresh water eutrophication by 50% and 10%, respectively. Extraction of recyclables from residual waste led to avoided emissions for particulate matter, acidification and resource depletion impact categories. Marginal energy and the amount of energy recovered from landfill gas marginally affected the LCA results. On the contrary the quality of the recyclables extracted can significantly modify the eco profile of the management schemes.

  15. Optimal Conventional and Semi-Natural Treatments for the Upper Yakima Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Treatment Definitions and Descriptions and Biological Specifications for Facility Design, 1995-1999 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hager, Robert C. (Hatchery Operations Consulting); Costello, Ronald J. (Mobrand Biometrics, Inc., Vashon Island, WA)

    1999-10-01

    This report describes the Yakima Fisheries Project facilities (Cle Elum Hatchery and acclimation satellites) which provide the mechanism to conduct state-of-the-art research for addressing questions about spring chinook supplementation strategies. The definition, descriptions, and specifications for the Yakima spring chinook supplementation program permit evaluation of alternative fish culture techniques that should yield improved methods and procedures to produce wild-like fish with higher survival that can be used to rebuild depleted spring chinook stocks of the Columbia River Basin. The definition and description of three experimental treatments, Optimal Conventional (OCT), Semi-Natural (SNT), Limited Semi-Natural (LSNT), and the biological specifications for facilities have been completed for the upper Yakima spring chinook salmon stock of the Yakima Fisheries Project. The task was performed by the Biological Specifications Work Group (BSWG) represented by Yakama Indian Nation, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, National Marine Fisheries Service, and Bonneville Power Administration. The control and experimental variables of the experimental treatments (OCT, SNT, and LSNT) are described in sufficient detail to assure that the fish culture facilities will be designed and operated as a production scale laboratory to produce and test supplemented upper Yakima spring chinook salmon. Product specifications of the treatment groups are proposed to serve as the generic templates for developing greater specificity for measurements of product attributes. These product specifications will be used to monitor and evaluate treatment effects, with respect to the biological response variables (post release survival, long-term fitness, reproductive success and ecological interactions).

  16. Effects of wastewater effluent discharge and treatment facility upgrades on environmental and biological conditions of Indian Creek, Johnson County, Kansas, June 2004 through June 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jennifer L.; Stone, Mandy L.; Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Foster, Guy M.; Poulton, Barry C.; Paxson, Chelsea R.; Harris, Theodore D.

    2014-01-01

    Indian Creek is one of the most urban drainage basins in Johnson County, Kansas, and environmental and biological conditions of the creek are affected by contaminants from point and other urban sources. The Johnson County Douglas L. Smith Middle Basin (hereafter referred to as the “Middle Basin”) and Tomahawk Creek Wastewater Treatment Facilities (WWTFs) discharge to Indian Creek. In summer 2010, upgrades were completed to increase capacity and include biological nutrient removal at the Middle Basin facility. There have been no recent infrastructure changes at the Tomahawk Creek facility; however, during 2009, chemically enhanced primary treatment was added to the treatment process for better process settling before disinfection and discharge with the added effect of enhanced phosphorus removal. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Johnson County Wastewater, assessed the effects of wastewater effluent on environmental and biological conditions of Indian Creek by comparing two upstream sites to four sites located downstream from the WWTFs using data collected during June 2004 through June 2013. Environmental conditions were evaluated using previously and newly collected discrete and continuous data and were compared with an assessment of biological community composition and ecosystem function along the upstream-downstream gradient. This study improves the understanding of the effects of wastewater effluent on stream-water and streambed sediment quality, biological community composition, and ecosystem function in urban areas. After the addition of biological nutrient removal to the Middle Basin WWTF in 2010, annual mean total nitrogen concentrations in effluent decreased by 46 percent, but still exceeded the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) wastewater effluent permit concentration goal of 8.0 milligrams per liter (mg/L); however, the NPDES wastewater effluent permit total phosphorus concentration goal of 1.5 mg/L or less was

  17. Waste Water Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset contains the locations of municipal and industrial direct discharge wastewater treatment facilities throughout the state of Vermont. Spatial data is not...

  18. Descriptive analysis of the medical care performed in the Spanish military Role 1 Medical Treatment Facility deployed in Operation 'Inherent Resolve' (Iraq), 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Cañas, Rafael; Navarro Suay, R

    2017-12-01

    Operation 'Inherent Resolve' was approved by the United Nations in August 2014 with the objective of suppressing the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant and increasing the region's stability. The mission of the Spanish military forces within this was to direct training missions for the Iraqi Army. The aim of this study is to analyse the medical care provided in the Spanish Role 1 deployed medical treatment facility during Operation 'Apoyo a Irak'. A cross-sectional, descriptive and retrospective study was conducted between 15 December 2015 and 18 November 2016. The study population comprised all personnel treated at the Spanish Role 1 medical treatment facility of the 'Gran Capitan' base in Besmaya, Iraq. During the study period, a total of 2208 consultations were performed, 1547 of which were first consultations. The predominant type of medical care was categorised as 'traumatology' (n=438; 19.8%), followed by 'healing of wounds and minor surgical processes' (n=332; 15%), 'acute upper respiratory tract infections' (n=267; 12%), 'dermatology' (n=214; 9.6%) and 'gastroenterology' (n=214; 9.6%). Twenty-eight patients (1.2%) required care in the upper medical echelon of care, three of whom were urgently evacuated. Oral diseases were the main reason for evacuation to the next medical echelon. Four patients were repatriated to the national territory for medical reasons. One death was recorded due to a vehicle accident. The results of our study reinforce those found in similar recent international missions in which the Spanish Armed Forces and other allied armies have deployed a Role 1 medical treatment facility. Military physicians deploying on operations such as Iraq should have up-to-date training in emergency and primary care medicine, with special emphasis on basic trauma knowledge and performing minor surgical processes. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is

  19. Impact of rapid diagnostic tests for the diagnosis and treatment of malaria at a peripheral health facility in Western Uganda: an interrupted time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Ross M; Muiru, Anthony; Reyes, Raquel; Ntaro, Moses; Mulogo, Edgar; Matte, Michael; Siedner, Mark J

    2015-05-15

    The World Health Organization recommends that all suspected malaria cases receive a parasitological diagnosis prior to treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapy. A recent meta-analysis of clinical trials evaluating RDTs for the management of patients with fever found substantial reductions in anti-malarial prescriptions when health workers adhered to treatment protocols based on test results. However few studies have reported on the impact of RDTs on health systems outside research settings. The study comprised a retrospective interrupted time series analysis, comparing rates of malaria diagnosis, treatment, and resource utilization before and after introduction of RDTs at a peripheral health facility in rural Western Uganda. The use of malaria diagnostic tests was graphically depicted throughout the study period and fit regression models to identify correlates of three outcomes of interest: (1) length of stay (2) the proportion of patients referred to a higher-level health facility, and (3) administration of antibiotics. Over the course of the study period, 14,357 individuals underwent diagnostic testing for malaria with either a RDT (9,807) or microscopy (4,550). The proportion of patients with parasite-based diagnoses more than tripled to 34% after the introduction of RDTs. RDTs largely replaced microscopy as the diagnostic method of choice. Compared to patients admitted during the pre-RDT period, patients admitted to the health centre with malaria in the post-RDT period had significantly reduced odds of being referred to another health centre (AOR=0.49, P=0.038), receiving antibiotics (AOR=0.42, Pintroduction of RDTs for the diagnosis of malaria at a rural health facility in Uganda. The results show a reduction in referrals and shorter mean inpatient LOS even as antibiotics were prescribed less frequently. This change greatly increased laboratory throughput and the resultant proportion of patients receiving a parasite-based diagnosis.

  20. HUMAN MACHINE INTERFACE (HMI) EVALUATION OF ROOMS TA-50-1-60/60A AT THE RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE TREATMENT FACILITY (RLWTF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmore, Walter E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stender, Kerith K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-29

    This effort addressed an evaluation of human machine interfaces (HMIs) in Room TA-50-1-60/60A of the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF). The evaluation was performed in accordance with guidance outlined in DOE-STD-3009, DOE Standard Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses, 2006 [DOE 2006]. Specifically, Chapter 13 of DOE 2006 highlights the 10 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Management, 2012, [CFR 2012] and DOE G 421.1-2 [DOE 2001a] requirements as they relate to the human factors process and, in this case, the safety of the RLWTF. The RLWTF is a Hazard Category 3 facility and, consequently, does not have safety-class (SSCs). However, safety-significant SSCs are identified. The transuranic (TRU) wastewater tanks and associated piping are the only safety-significant SSCs in Rooms TA-50-1-60/60A [LANL 2010]. Hence, the human factors evaluation described herein is only applicable to this particular assemblage of tanks and piping.

  1. Waste Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset was developed from the Vermont DEC's list of certified solid waste facilities. It includes facility name, contact information, and the materials...

  2. Fabrication Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fabrication Facilities are a direct result of years of testing support. Through years of experience, the three fabrication facilities (Fort Hood, Fort Lewis, and...

  3. Dosimetry and radiobiology at the new RA-3 reactor boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) facility: Application to the treatment of experimental oral cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozzi, E. [Research and Production Reactors, National Atomic Energy Commission, Ezeiza Atomic Center (Argentina); Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Constituyentes Atomic Center (Argentina)], E-mail: epozzi@cnea.gov.ar; Nigg, D.W. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls (United States); Miller, M.; Thorp, S.I. [Instrumentation and Control Department, National Atomic Energy Commission, Ezeiza Atomic Center (Argentina); Heber, E.M. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Constituyentes Atomic Center (Argentina); Zarza, L.; Estryk, G. [Research and Production Reactors, National Atomic Energy Commission, Ezeiza Atomic Center (Argentina); Monti Hughes, A.; Molinari, A.J.; Garabalino, M. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Constituyentes Atomic Center (Argentina); Itoiz, M.E. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Constituyentes Atomic Center (Argentina); Department of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires (Argentina); Aromando, R.F. [Department of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires (Argentina); Quintana, J. [Research and Production Reactors, National Atomic Energy Commission, Ezeiza Atomic Center (Argentina); Trivillin, V.A.; Schwint, A.E. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Constituyentes Atomic Center (Argentina)

    2009-07-15

    The National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina (CNEA) constructed a novel thermal neutron source for use in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) applications at the RA-3 research reactor facility located in Buenos Aires. The aim of the present study was to perform a dosimetric characterization of the facility and undertake radiobiological studies of BNCT in an experimental model of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch. The free-field thermal flux was 7.1x10{sup 9} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} and the fast neutron flux was 2.5x10{sup 6} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, indicating a very well-thermalized neutron field with negligible fast neutron dose. For radiobiological studies it was necessary to shield the body of the hamster from the neutron flux while exposing the everted cheek pouch bearing the tumors. To that end we developed a lithium (enriched to 95% in {sup 6}Li) carbonate enclosure. Groups of tumor-bearing hamsters were submitted to BPA-BNCT, GB-10-BNCT, (GB-10+BPA)-BNCT or beam only treatments. Normal (non-cancerized) hamsters were treated similarly to evaluate normal tissue radiotoxicity. The total physical dose delivered to tumor with the BNCT treatments ranged from 6 to 8.5 Gy. Tumor control at 30 days ranged from 73% to 85%, with no normal tissue radiotoxicity. Significant but reversible mucositis in precancerous tissue surrounding tumors was associated to BPA-BNCT. The therapeutic success of different BNCT protocols in treating experimental oral cancer at this novel facility was unequivocally demonstrated.

  4. Dosimetry and radiobiology at the new RA-3 reactor boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) facility: application to the treatment of experimental oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, E; Nigg, D W; Miller, M; Thorp, S I; Heber, E M; Zarza, L; Estryk, G; Monti Hughes, A; Molinari, A J; Garabalino, M; Itoiz, M E; Aromando, R F; Quintana, J; Trivillin, V A; Schwint, A E

    2009-07-01

    The National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina (CNEA) constructed a novel thermal neutron source for use in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) applications at the RA-3 research reactor facility located in Buenos Aires. The aim of the present study was to perform a dosimetric characterization of the facility and undertake radiobiological studies of BNCT in an experimental model of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch. The free-field thermal flux was 7.1 x 10(9) n cm(-2)s(-1) and the fast neutron flux was 2.5 x 10(6) n cm(-2)s(-1), indicating a very well-thermalized neutron field with negligible fast neutron dose. For radiobiological studies it was necessary to shield the body of the hamster from the neutron flux while exposing the everted cheek pouch bearing the tumors. To that end we developed a lithium (enriched to 95% in (6)Li) carbonate enclosure. Groups of tumor-bearing hamsters were submitted to BPA-BNCT, GB-10-BNCT, (GB-10+BPA)-BNCT or beam only treatments. Normal (non-cancerized) hamsters were treated similarly to evaluate normal tissue radiotoxicity. The total physical dose delivered to tumor with the BNCT treatments ranged from 6 to 8.5 Gy. Tumor control at 30 days ranged from 73% to 85%, with no normal tissue radiotoxicity. Significant but reversible mucositis in precancerous tissue surrounding tumors was associated to BPA-BNCT. The therapeutic success of different BNCT protocols in treating experimental oral cancer at this novel facility was unequivocally demonstrated.

  5. Summary Report of Ecological Risk Assessment for the Operation of the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility at Site 300 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, Gretchen M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Terusaki, Stan H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    An ecological risk assessment is required as part of the Resource Recovery and Conservation Act (RCRA) permit renewal process for Miscellaneous Units subject to 22 CCR 66270.23. This risk assessment is prepared in support of the RCRA permit renewal for the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility (EWTF) at Site 300 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). LLNL collected soil samples and used the resulting data to produce a scoping-level ecological risk assessment pursuant to the Department of Toxic Substances Control, Guidance for Ecological Risk Assessment at Hazardous Waste Sites and Permitted Facilities, Part A: Overview, July 4, 1996. The scoping-level ecological risk assessment provides a framework to determine the potential interaction between ecological receptors and chemicals of concern from hazardous waste treatment operations in the area of EWTF. A scoping-level ecological risk assessment includes the step of conducting soil sampling in the area of the treatment units. The Sampling Plan in Support of the Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment for the Operation of the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility at Site 300 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, (Terusaki, 2007), outlines the EWTF project-specific soil sampling requirements. Soil samples were obtained and analyzed for constituents from four chemical groups: furans, explosives, semi-volatiles and metals. Analytical results showed that furans, explosives and semi-volatiles were not detected; therefore, no further analysis was conducted. The soil samples did show the presence of metals. Soil samples analyzed for metals were compared to site-wide background levels, which had been developed for site -wide cleanup activities pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Total metal concentrations from 28 discrete soil samples obtained in the EWTF area were all below CERCLA-developed background levels. Therefore, following DTSC 1996

  6. Post-cold war United Nations peacekeeping operations: a review of the case for a hybrid level 2+ medical treatment facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ralph Jay

    2015-01-01

    Post-Cold War, UN peacekeeping operations (UN PKOs) have become larger, more mobile, multi-faceted and conducted over vast areas of remote, rugged, and harsh geography. They have been increasingly involved in dangerous areas with ill-defined boundaries, simmering internecine armed conflict, and disregard on the part of some local parties for peacekeepers' security and role. Yet progressively there have been expectations of financial restraint and austerity. Additionally, UN PKOs have become more "robust," that is, engaged in preemptive, assertive operations. A statistically positive and significant relationship exists between missions' size, complexity, remoteness, and aggressive tenor and a higher probability of trauma or death, especially as a result of hostile actions or disease. Therefore, in the interest of "force protection" and optimizing operations, a key component of UN PKOs is health care and medical treatment. The expectation is that UN PKO medical support must conform to the general intent and structure of current UN PKOs to become more streamlined, portable, mobile, compartmentalized, and specialized, but also more varied and complex to address the medical aspects of these missions cost-efficiently. This article contends that establishing a hybrid level 2-a level 2 with level 3 modules and components (i.e., level 2+)-is a viable course of action when considering trends in the medical aspects of Post-Cold War UN PKOs. A level 2 medical treatment facility has the potential to provide needed forward mobile medical treatment, especially trauma care, for extended, complex, large-scale, and comprehensive UN PKOs. This is particularly the case for missions that include humanitarian outreach, preventive medicine, and psychiatry. The level 2 treatment facility is flexible enough to expand into a hybrid level 2+ with augmentation of modules based on changes in mission requirements and variation in medical aspects.

  7. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Organic Air Emission Standards for Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facilities and Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) organic air emission standards contained in 40 CFR parts 264/265, subpart CC for hazardous waste treatment

  8. Outcomes of antiretroviral treatment program in Ethiopia: Retention of patients in care is a major challenge and varies across health facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kloos Helmut

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many resource-limited countries are scaling up antiretroviral treatment (ART towards universal access. However, there are few studies which evaluated outcomes of ART programs in these countries. In addition, these studies generally include a limited number of facilities and patients creating a clear need for studies with a wide range of facilities and large numbers of patients. In this study, we intended to evaluate the outcomes of the ART services in 55 health facilities in Ethiopia. Methods A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted to determine levels of patient retention in care, CD4 count and shift to second-line ART regimen in 30 hospitals and 25 health centers selected as sentinel sites for monitoring the outcomes of ART program in the country. The outcomes were determined at baseline, after 6, 12 and 24 months on ART. Data was collected from routine patient registers and charts, and entered and analyzed using EPI-Info statistical software. Results Health facilities were able to retain 29,893 (80%, 20,079 (74% and 5,069 (68% of their patients after 6, 12 and 24 months on ART, respectively. Retention rates vary across health facilities, ranging from 51% to 85% after 24 months on ART. Mortality was 5%, 6% and 8% after 6, 12 and 24 months on ART. More than 79% of patients with available CD4-cell counts had a baseline CD4-cell counts less than 200 cells per micro-liter of blood. The median CD4-cell counts (based on patients who were retained after 24 months on ART increased from 125 (inter-quartile (IQ, 68-189 at baseline to 242 (IQ, 161-343, 269 (IQ, 185-380 and 316 (IQ, 226-445 cells per micro-liter after 6, 12, and 24 months on ART, respectively. The transition to second-line ART remained very low, 0.33%, 0.58% and 2.13% after 6, 12 and 24 months on ART. Conclusion The outcomes of the ART services in the 55 health facilities in Ethiopia are similar to those in other countries. Retention of patients in care is a

  9. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Tertiary Chemical Treatment - Lime Precipitation Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrasek, Al, Jr.

    This guide describes the standard operating job procedures for the tertiary chemical treatment - lime precipitation process of wastewater treatment plants. Step-by-step instructions are given for pre-start up, start-up, continuous operation, and shut-down procedures. In addition, some theoretical material is presented along with some relevant…

  10. Facile synthesis of reduced graphene oxide–gold nanohybrid for potential use in industrial waste-water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Prasenjit; Sardar, Samim; Liu, Bo; Sreemany, Monjoy; Lemmens, Peter; Ghosh, Srabanti; Pal, Samir Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Here, we report a facile approach, by the photochemical reduction technique, for in situ synthesis of Au-reduced graphene oxide (Au-RGO) nanohybrids, which demonstrate excellent adsorption capacities and recyclability for a broad range of dyes. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data confirm the successful synthesis of Au-RGO nanohybrids. The effect of several experimental parameters (temperature and pH) variation can effectively control the dye adsorption capability. Furthermore, kinetic adsorption data reveal that the adsorption process follows a pseudo second-order model. The negative value of Gibbs free energy (ΔG0) confirms spontaneity while the positive enthalpy (ΔH0) indicates the endothermic nature of the adsorption process. Picosecond resolved fluorescence technique unravels the excited state dynamical processes of dye molecules adsorbed on the Au-RGO surface. Time resolved fluorescence quenching of Rh123 after adsorption on Au-RGO nanohybrids indicates efficient energy transfer from Rh123 to Au nanoparticles. A prototype device has been fabricated using Au-RGO nanohybrids on a syringe filter (pore size: 0.220 μm) and the experimental data indicate efficient removal of dyes from waste water with high recyclability. The application of this nanohybrid may lead to the development of an efficient reusable adsorbent in portable water purification. PMID:27877889

  11. Theme day: corrosion and surface treatments in nuclear facilities. Proceedings; Journee Thematique: Corrosion et Traitements de surface dans les Installations Nucleaires. Recueil des presentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    This document brings together the available presentations given at the theme day organized by the Bourgogne Nuclear Pole on the topic of corrosion and surface treatments in nuclear facilities. Eleven presentations (slides) are compiled in this document: 1 - Introduction - PNB centre of competitiveness and R and D activities (A. Mantovan, PNB); 2 - Corrosion damage (M. Foucault, Areva NP - Centre Technique Le Creusot); 3 - Corrosion mechanisms (R. Oltra, UB-ICB); 4 - Examples of expertise management (C. Duret-Thual, Institut de la corrosion/Corrosion Institute); 5 - General framework of surface treatments (C. Nouveau, ENSAM Cluny Paris Tech); 6 - Surfaces et interfaces characterisation - Part A (C. Langlade, Y. Gachon, UTBM and HEF); 7 - Surfaces et interfaces characterisation - Part B (C. Langlade, Y. Gachon, UTBM and HEF); 8 - Ion beam surface treatment (Y. Le Guellec, Quertech Ingenierie); 9 - Impact surface treatment (G. Saout, Sonats); 10 - Metal oxides Characterisation by US laser (R. Oltra, UB-ICB); 11 - Detection and Characterisation of intergranular corrosion (Y. Kernin, Stephane Bourgois, Areva Intercontrole)

  12. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Primary Sedimentation Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles County Community Coll., La Plata, MD.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the primary sedimentation process of wastewater treatment plants. The primary sedimentation process involves removing settleable and suspended solids, in part, from wastewater by gravitational forces, and scum and other floatable solids from wastewater by mechanical means. Step-by-step…

  13. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Tertiary Multimedia Filtration Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrasek, Al, Jr.

    This guide describes the standard operating job procedures for the tertiary multimedia filtration process of wastewater treatment plants. The major objective of the filtration process is the removal of suspended solids from the reclaimed wastewater. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for pre-start up, start-up, continuous operation, and…

  14. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Pump Station Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perley, Gordon F.

    This is a guide for standard operating job procedures for the pump station process of wastewater treatment plants. Step-by-step instructions are given for pre-start up inspection, start-up procedures, continuous routine operation procedures, and shut-down procedures. A general description of the equipment used in the process is given. Two…

  15. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Grit Removal Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Gerald A.; Montgomery, James A.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the grit removal process of wastewater treatment plants. Step-by-step instructions are given for pre-start up inspection, start-up, continuous operation, and shut-down procedures. A description of the equipment used in the process is given. Some theoretical material is presented. (BB)

  16. A facile, versatile approach to hydroxyl-anchored metal oxides with high Cr(VI) adsorption performance in water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ji; Zuo-Jiang, SiZhi; He, Yunhao; Sun, Qinglei; Wang, Yunguo; Liu, Wei; Sun, Shuangshuang; Chen, Kezheng

    2016-11-01

    In this study, a facile and versatile urea-assisted approach was proposed to synthesize Chinese rose-like NiO, pinecone-like ZnO and sponge-like CoO adsorbents. The presence of urea during syntheses endowed these adsorbents with high concentration of surface hydroxyl groups, which was estimated as 1.83, 1.32 and 4.19 mmol [OH-] g-1 for NiO, ZnO and CoO adsorbents, respectively. These surface hydroxyl groups would facilitate the adsorption of Cr(vi) species (e.g. HCrO4-, Cr2O72- and CrO42-) from wastewater by exchanging with hydroxyl protons or hydroxide ions, and hence result in extremely high maximum adsorbed amounts of Cr(vi), being 2974, 14 256 and 408 mg g-1 for NiO, ZnO and CoO adsorbents in the pH range of 5.02-5.66 at 298 K, respectively. More strikingly, the maximum adsorbed amounts of Cr(vi) would be greatly enhanced as the adsorbing temperature is increased, and even amount to 23 411 mg g-1 for ZnO adsorbents at 323 K. Based on the kinetics and equilibrium studies of adsorptive removal of Cr(vi) from wastewater, our synthetic route will greatly improve the adsorptivity of the as-synthesized metal-oxide adsorbents, and hence it will shed new light on the development of high-performance adsorbents.

  17. Assessing the phytoplankton and water quality of Kingston Harbour and Hellshire coast, Jamaica, after the implementation of a waste water treatment facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen A. Liu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Deteriorating water quality of Kingston Harbour, due primarily to sewage discharge and its effect on nearby Hellshire Coast, has been an issue since the 1970s. The implementation of a new sewage treatment facility in 2007 to receive the harbour’s waste at Soapberry was expected to make a positive difference. Physico-chemical and biological parameters were used to assess water quality to determine the effect of the facility. Eleven stations used in earlier studies (1990 to 1998 were re-sampled to represent Kingston, Hunts Bay and North East Hellshire coastline over a four week sampling regime between May and June 2011. While temperature, salinity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen and pH remained unchanged between the 1990’s and 2011, BOD5, faecal coliform and nitrate concentrations indicated that the water quality had improved minimally in Kinsgton and Hellshire,and deteriorated significantly in Hunts. Phytoplankton biomass decreased in Kingston (from 3.84 mg m-3 in 1998 to 2.81 mg m-3 in 2011 and increased significantly in Hunts (from 14.69 mg m-3 in 1998 to 24.17 mg m-3 in 2011. Biomass along Hellshire was similar (2.15 mg m-3 in 1998; 2.45 mg m-3 in 2011. In 1998 the nanoplankton biomass (2.7 to 20μm dominated throughout the Harbour. In 2011 Hunts Bay was dominated by net-plankton (>20μm, indicative of eutrophic waters.

  18. Analysis of accident sequences and source terms at treatment and storage facilities for waste generated by US Department of Energy waste management operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, C.; Nabelssi, B.; Roglans-Ribas, J.; Folga, S.; Policastro, A.; Freeman, W.; Jackson, R.; Mishima, J.; Turner, S.

    1996-12-01

    This report documents the methodology, computational framework, and results of facility accident analyses performed for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The accident sequences potentially important to human health risk are specified, their frequencies assessed, and the resultant radiological and chemical source terms evaluated. A personal-computer-based computational framework and database have been developed that provide these results as input to the WM PEIS for the calculation of human health risk impacts. The WM PEIS addresses management of five waste streams in the DOE complex: low-level waste (LLW), hazardous waste (HW), high-level waste (HLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and transuranic waste (TRUW). Currently projected waste generation rates, storage inventories, and treatment process throughputs have been calculated for each of the waste streams. This report summarizes the accident analyses and aggregates the key results for each of the waste streams. Source terms are estimated, and results are presented for each of the major DOE sites and facilities by WM PEIS alternative for each waste stream. Key assumptions in the development of the source terms are identified. The appendices identify the potential atmospheric release of each toxic chemical or radionuclide for each accident scenario studied. They also discuss specific accident analysis data and guidance used or consulted in this report.

  19. [Structure of pain management facilities in Germany : Classification of medical and psychological pain treatment services-Consensus of the Joint Commission of the Professional Societies and Organizations for Quality in Pain Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Schwefe, G H H; Nadstawek, J; Tölle, T; Nilges, P; Überall, M A; Laubenthal, H J; Bock, F; Arnold, B; Casser, H R; Cegla, T H; Emrich, O M D; Graf-Baumann, T; Henning, J; Horlemann, J; Kayser, H; Kletzko, H; Koppert, W; Längler, K H; Locher, H; Ludwig, J; Maurer, S; Pfingsten, M; Schäfer, M; Schenk, M; Willweber-Strumpf, A

    2016-06-01

    On behalf of the Medical/Psychological Pain Associations, Pain Patients Alliance and the Professional Association of Pain Physicians and Psychologists, the Joint Commission of Professional Societies and Organizations for Quality in Pain Medicine, working in close collaboration with the respective presidents, has developed verifiable structural and process-related criteria for the classification of medical and psychological pain treatment facilities in Germany. Based on the established system of graded care in Germany and on existing qualifications, these criteria also argue for the introduction of a basic qualification in pain medicine. In addition to the first-ever comprehensive description of psychological pain facilities, the criteria presented can be used to classify five different levels of pain facilities, from basic pain management facilities, to specialized institutions, to the Centre for Interdisciplinary Pain Medicine. The recommendations offer binding and verifiable criteria for quality assurance in pain medicine and improved pain treatment.

  20. Preliminary design of a biological treatment facility for trench water from a low-level radioactive waste disposal area at West Valley, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosten, R.; Malkumus, D. [Pacific Nuclear, Inc. (United States); Sonntag, T. [New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, NY (United States); Sundquist, J. [Ecology and Environment, Inc. (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) owns and manages a State-Licensed Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area (SDA) at West Valley, New York. Water has migrated into the burial trenches at the SDA and collected there, becoming contaminated with radionuclides and organic compounds. The US Environmental Protection Agency issued an order to NYSERDA to reduce the levels of water in the trenches. A treatability study of the contaminated trench water (leachate) was performed and determined the best available technology to treat the leachate and discharge the effluent. This paper describes the preliminary design of the treatment facility that incorporates the bases developed in the leachate treatability study.

  1. Ecotoxicological screen of Potential Release Site 50-006(d) of Operable Unit 1147 of Mortandad Canyon and relationship to the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facilities project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, G.J.; Newell, P.G.

    1996-04-01

    Potential ecological risk associated with soil contaminants in Potential Release Site (PRS) 50-006(d) of Mortandad Canyon at the Los Alamos National Laboratory was assessed by performing an ecotoxicological risk screen. The PRS surrounds Outfall 051, which discharges treated effluent from the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility. Discharge at the outfall is permitted under the Clean Water Act National Pollution Discharge Elimination System. Radionuclide discharge is regulated by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.5. Ecotoxicological Screening Action Levels (ESALSs) were computed for nonradionuclide constituents in the soil, and human risk SALs for radionuclides were used as ESALs. Within the PRS and beginning at Outfall 051, soil was sampled at three points along each of nine linear transects at 100-ft intervals. Soil samples from 3 depths for each sampling point were analyzed for the concentration of a total of 121 constituents. Only the results of the surface sampling are reported in this report.

  2. Directional Trans-Planar and Different In-Plane Water Transfer Properties of Composite Structured Bifacial Fabrics Modified by a Facile Three-Step Plasma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengxin Sun

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Fabrics with moisture management properties are strongly expected to benefit various potential applications in daily life, industry, medical treatment and protection. Here, a bifacial fabric with dual trans-planar and in-plane liquid moisture management properties was reported. This novel fabric was fabricated to have a knitted structure on one face and a woven structure on the other, contributing to the different in-plane water transfer properties of the fabric. A facile three-step plasma treatment was used to enrich the bifacial fabric with asymmetric wettability and liquid absorbency. The plasma treated bifacial fabric allowed forced water to transfer from the hydrophobic face to hydrophilic face, while it prevented water to spread through the hydrophobic face when water drops were placed on the hydrophilic face. This confirmed one-way water transport capacity of the bifacial fabric. Through the three-step plasma treatment, the fabric surface was coated with a Si-containing thin film. This film contributed to the hydrophobic property, while the physical properties of the fabrics such as stiffness and color were not affected. This novel fabric can potentially be used to design and manufacture functional and smart textiles with tunable moisture transport properties.

  3. Increasing incidence of pregnancy among women receiving HIV care and treatment at a large urban facility in western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabami, Jane; Turyakira, Eleanor; Biraro, Sam; Bajunirwe, Francis

    2014-12-06

    Antiretroviral treatment restores physical functioning and may have an impact on fertility desires. Counseling is given to HIV positive women to create awareness and to provide information on pregnancy and delivery. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of pregnancy and factors that predict pregnancy among women of reproductive age receiving HIV care and treatment at a large urban center in western Uganda. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using routinely collected data at the Immune Suppression (ISS) Clinic of Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital located in Mbarara District, western Uganda collected between January 2006 and June 2010. Women aged 15 to 50 years were eligible for analysis. The primary outcome was incidence of pregnancy calculated as number of pregnancies per 1000 person years (PY). Data was analyzed by calendar year and year of enrolment and used survival analysis to determine the predictors of pregnancy. A total of 3144 women were included with a median follow up of 12.5 months. The overall incidence rate was 90.7 pregnancies per 1000 person years. Incidence increased from 29.8 pregnancies per 1000 PY in 2006 to 122 pregnancies per 1000 PY in 2010 (p HIV status of the spouse (HR 1.46, 95%CI 1.13-1.93) compared to knowing. The use of family planning (HR 0.23 95% CI 0.18- 0.30) and an increase in CD4 count between baseline and most recent count were protective against pregnancy. ART use was not a significant predictor. Incidence of pregnancy among women receiving routine HIV care and treatment has increased and is almost comparable to that in the general population. Thus routine HIV care should integrate reproductive health needs for these women.

  4. Biological Treatment of Composition B Wastewaters. 2. Analysis of Performance of Holston Army Ammunition Plant Wastewater Treatment Facility, January 1985 through August 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-18

    If not removed, this accumulation can break the plate in the next cycle. Removal of this accumulation is easily accomplished with a spatula ; this...Industrial Waste Treatment. Enviro Press, Inc., Nashville, TN, p53ff. 16. U.S. Army Armament Research and Davelopment Command. 1979. As quoted in Kitchens

  5. Removal Efficiency and Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in a Typical Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facility in Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhineng Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The loading and removal efficiency of 16 US EPA polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were examined in an inverted A2/O wastewater treatment plant (WWTP located in an urban area in China. The total PAH concentrations were 554.3 to 723.2 ng/L in the influent and 189.6 to 262.7 ng/L in the effluent. The removal efficiencies of ∑PAHs in the dissolved phase ranged from 63 to 69%, with the highest observed in naphthalene (80% removal. Concentration and distribution of PAHs revealed that the higher molecular weight PAHs became more concentrated with treatment in both the dissolved phase and the dewatered sludge. The sharpest reduction was observed during the pretreatment and the biological phase. Noncarcinogenic risk, carcinogenic risk, and total health risk of PAHs found in the effluent and sewage sludge were also assessed. The effluent BaP toxic equivalent quantities (TEQBaP were above, or far above, standards in countries. The potential toxicities of PAHs in sewage effluent were approximately 10 to 15 times higher than the acceptable risk level in China. The health risk associated with the sewage sludge also exceeded international recommended levels and was mainly contributed from seven carcinogenic PAHs. Given that WWTP effluent is a major PAH contributor to surface water bodies in China and better reduction efficiencies are achievable, the present study highlights the possibility of utilizing WWTPs for restoring water quality in riverine and coastal regions heavily impacted by PAHs contamination.

  6. Removal Efficiency and Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in a Typical Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facility in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhineng; Li, Qing; Wu, Qihang; Kuo, Dave T F; Chen, Shejun; Hu, Xiaodong; Deng, Mingjun; Zhang, Haozhi; Luo, Min

    2017-08-01

    The loading and removal efficiency of 16 US EPA polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were examined in an inverted A²/O wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) located in an urban area in China. The total PAH concentrations were 554.3 to 723.2 ng/L in the influent and 189.6 to 262.7 ng/L in the effluent. The removal efficiencies of ∑PAHs in the dissolved phase ranged from 63 to 69%, with the highest observed in naphthalene (80% removal). Concentration and distribution of PAHs revealed that the higher molecular weight PAHs became more concentrated with treatment in both the dissolved phase and the dewatered sludge. The sharpest reduction was observed during the pretreatment and the biological phase. Noncarcinogenic risk, carcinogenic risk, and total health risk of PAHs found in the effluent and sewage sludge were also assessed. The effluent BaP toxic equivalent quantities (TEQBaP) were above, or far above, standards in countries. The potential toxicities of PAHs in sewage effluent were approximately 10 to 15 times higher than the acceptable risk level in China. The health risk associated with the sewage sludge also exceeded international recommended levels and was mainly contributed from seven carcinogenic PAHs. Given that WWTP effluent is a major PAH contributor to surface water bodies in China and better reduction efficiencies are achievable, the present study highlights the possibility of utilizing WWTPs for restoring water quality in riverine and coastal regions heavily impacted by PAHs contamination.

  7. Facility-level intervention to improve attendance and adherence among patients on anti-retroviral treatment in Kenya--a quasi-experimental study using time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boruett, Patrick; Kagai, Dorine; Njogo, Susan; Nguhiu, Peter; Awuor, Christine; Gitau, Lillian; Chalker, John; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Wahlström, Rolf; Tomson, Göran

    2013-07-01

    Achieving high rates of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-poor settings comprises serious, but different, challenges in both the first months of treatment and during the life-long maintenance phase. We measured the impact of a health system-oriented, facility-based intervention to improve clinic attendance and patient adherence. This was a quasi-experimental, longitudinal, controlled intervention study using interrupted time series analysis. The intervention consisted of (1) using a clinic appointment diary to track patient attendance and monitor monthly performance; (2) changing the mode of asking for self-reported adherence; (3) training staff on adherence concepts, intervention methods, and use of monitoring data; (4) conducting visits to support facility teams with the implementation.We conducted the study in 12 rural district hospitals (6 intervention, 6 control) in Kenya and randomly selected 1894 adult patients over 18 years of age in two cohorts: experienced patients on treatment for at least one year, and newly treated patients initiating ART during the study. Outcome measures were: attending the clinic on or before the date of a scheduled appointment, attending within 3 days of a scheduled appointment, reporting perfect adherence, and experiencing a gap in medication supply of more than 14 days. Among experienced patients, the percentage attending the clinic on or before a scheduled appointment increased in both level (average total increase immediately after intervention) (+5.7%; 95% CI=2.1, 9.3) and trend (increase per month) (+1.0% per month; 95% CI=0.6, 1.5) following the intervention, as did the level and trend of those keeping appointments within three days (+4.2%; 95% CI=1.6, 6.7; and +0.8% per month; 95% CI=0.6, 1.1, respectively). The relative difference between the intervention and control groups based on the monthly difference in visit rates increased significantly in both level (+6.5; 95% CI=1.4, 11.6) and trend (1.0% per

  8. Dissolved organic nitrogen recalcitrance and bioavailable nitrogen quantification for effluents from advanced nitrogen removal wastewater treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lu; Brett, Michael T; Jiang, Wenju; Li, Bo

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the composition of nitrogen (N) in the effluents of advanced N removal (ANR) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This study also tested two different experimental protocols for determining dissolved N recalcitrance. An analysis of 15 effluent samples from five WWTPs, showed effluent concentrations and especially effluent composition varied greatly from one system to the other, with total nitrogen (TN) ranging between 1.05 and 8.10 mg L-1. Nitrate (NO3-) accounted for between 38 ± 32% of TN, and ammonium accounted for a further 29 ± 28%. All of these samples were dominated by dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN; NO3- + NH4+), and uptake experiments indicated the DIN fraction was as expected highly bioavailable. Dissolved organic N (DON) accounted for 20 ± 11% for the total dissolved N in these effluents, and uptake experiments indicated the bioavailability of this fraction varied between 27 ± 26% depending on the WWTP assessed. These results indicate near complete DIN removal should be the primary goal of ANR treatment systems. The comparison of bioavailable nitrogen (BAN) quantification protocols showed that the dissolved nitrogen uptake bioassay approach was clearly a more reliable way to determine BAN concentrations compared to the conventional cell yield protocol. Moreover, because the nitrogen uptake experiment was much more sensitive, this protocol made it easier to detect extrinsic factors (such as biological contamination or toxicity) that could affect the accuracy of these bioassays. Based on these results, we recommend the nitrogen uptake bioassay using filtered and autoclaved samples to quantify BAN concentrations. However, for effluent samples indicating toxicity, algal bioassays will not accurately quantify BAN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Factors influencing knowledge on completion of treatment among TB patients under directly observed treatment strategy, in selected health facilities in Embu County, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndwiga, Joshua Muriuki; Kikuvi, Gideon; Omolo, Jared Odhiambo

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) promotes the Directly Observed Treatment (DOT) strategy as the standard to increase adherence to Tuberculosis (TB) medication. However, cases of retreatment and Multi Drug Resistant continue to be reported in many parts of Kenya. This study sought to determine the factors influencing the completion of tuberculosis medication among TB patients in Embu County, Kenya. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on a population of tuberculosis patients under DOT attending selected TB treatment clinics in Embu County, in Kenya. One hundred and forty TB patients interviewed within a period of 3 months. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 and included Bivariate and Multivariate Analysis. The level of significance was p≤ 0.05. The male and female participants were 61.4% and 38.6% respectively. The mean age of the respondents was 35±31.34-39.3 years. For the majority (52%) of the participants, the highest level of education was primary education. The unemployed participants formed the highest number of the respondent in the study (73%). The majorities (91.4%0) of the respondents were under the home-based DOT strategy (91.4%, 95% C.I: 85.5-95.5). Bivariate analysis using Chi-square showed that the level of education (p=0.003), patients feeling uncomfortable during supervision (p=0.01), and knowledge regarding the frequency of taking medication (p=0.004) were all significantly associated with knowledge regarding the importance of completion of medication. However, none of these factors was significant after multivariate analysis. Most participants did not know the importance of completion of medication. TB programs should come up with better ways to educate TB patients on the importance of supervision and treatment completion during the treatment of TB. The education programs should focus on influencing the attitudes of patients and creating awareness about the importance of treatment completion. The TB programs should be

  10. Factors influencing the long-term sustainment of quality improvements made in addiction treatment facilities: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumbo, Scott P; Ford, James H; Green, Carla A

    2017-11-01

    A greater understanding of the factors that influence long-term sustainment of quality improvement (QI) initiatives is needed to promote organizational ability to sustain QI practices over time, help improve future interventions, and increase the value of QI investments. We approached 83 of 201 executive sponsors or change leaders at addiction treatment organizations that participated in the 2007-2009 NIATx200 QI intervention. We completed semi-structured interviews with 33 individuals between November 2015 and April 2016. NIATx200 goals were to decrease wait time, increase admissions and improve retention in treatment. Interviews sought to understand factors that either facilitated or impeded long-term sustainment of organizational QI practices made during the intervention. We used thematic analysis to organize the data and group patterns of responses. We assessed available quantitative outcome data and intervention engagement data to corroborate qualitative results. We used narrative analysis to group four important themes related to long-term sustainment of QI practices: (1) finding alignment between business- and client-centered practices; (2) staff engagement early in QI process added legitimacy which facilitated sustainment; (3) commitment to integrating data into monitoring practices and the identification of a data champion; and (4) adequate organizational human resources devoted to sustainment. We found four corollary factors among agencies which did not sustain practices: (1) lack of evidence of impact on business practices led to discontinuation; (2) disengaged staff and lack of organizational capacity during implementation period led to lack of sustainment; (3) no data integration into overall business practices and no identified data champion; and (4) high staff turnover. In addition, we found that many agencies' current use of NIATx methods and tools suggested a legacy effect that might improve quality elsewhere, even absent overall sustainment of

  11. Factors influencing the long-term sustainment of quality improvements made in addiction treatment facilities: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott P. Stumbo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A greater understanding of the factors that influence long-term sustainment of quality improvement (QI initiatives is needed to promote organizational ability to sustain QI practices over time, help improve future interventions, and increase the value of QI investments. Methods We approached 83 of 201 executive sponsors or change leaders at addiction treatment organizations that participated in the 2007–2009 NIATx200 QI intervention. We completed semi-structured interviews with 33 individuals between November 2015 and April 2016. NIATx200 goals were to decrease wait time, increase admissions and improve retention in treatment. Interviews sought to understand factors that either facilitated or impeded long-term sustainment of organizational QI practices made during the intervention. We used thematic analysis to organize the data and group patterns of responses. We assessed available quantitative outcome data and intervention engagement data to corroborate qualitative results. Results We used narrative analysis to group four important themes related to long-term sustainment of QI practices: (1 finding alignment between business- and client-centered practices; (2 staff engagement early in QI process added legitimacy which facilitated sustainment; (3 commitment to integrating data into monitoring practices and the identification of a data champion; and (4 adequate organizational human resources devoted to sustainment. We found four corollary factors among agencies which did not sustain practices: (1 lack of evidence of impact on business practices led to discontinuation; (2 disengaged staff and lack of organizational capacity during implementation period led to lack of sustainment; (3 no data integration into overall business practices and no identified data champion; and (4 high staff turnover. In addition, we found that many agencies’ current use of NIATx methods and tools suggested a legacy effect that might improve

  12. Delisting petition for 300-M saltstone (treated F006 sludge) from the 300-M liquid effluent treatment facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-04-04

    This petition seeks exclusion for stabilized and solidified sludge material generated by treatment of wastewater from the 300-M aluminum forming and metal finishing processes. The waste contains both hazardous and radioactive components and is classified as a mixed waste. The objective of this petition is to demonstrate that the stabilized sludge material (saltstone), when properly disposed, will not exceed the health-based standards for the hazardous constituents. This petition contains sampling and analytical data which justify the request for exclusion. The results show that when the data are applied to the EPA Vertical and Horizontal Spread (VHS) Model, health-based standards for all hazardous waste constituents will not be exceeded during worst case operating and environmental conditions. Disposal of the stabilized sludge material in concrete vaults will meet the requirements pertaining to Waste Management Activities for Groundwater Protection at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, S.C. Documents set forth performance objectives and disposal options for low-level radioactive waste disposal. Concrete vaults specified for disposal of 300-M saltstone (treated F006 sludge) assure that these performance objectives will be met.

  13. Gas-Solid Reaction Properties of Fluorine Compounds and Solid Adsorbents for Off-Gas Treatment from Semiconductor Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Yasui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have been developing a new dry-type off-gas treatment system for recycling fluorine from perfluoro compounds present in off-gases from the semiconductor industry. The feature of this system is to adsorb the fluorine compounds in the exhaust gases from the decomposition furnace by using two types of solid adsorbents: the calcium carbonate in the upper layer adsorbs HF and converts it to CaF2, and the sodium bicarbonate in the lower layer adsorbs HF and SiF4 and converts them to Na2SiF6. This paper describes the fluorine compound adsorption properties of both the solid adsorbents—calcium carbonate and the sodium compound—for the optimal design of the fixation furnace. An analysis of the gas-solid reaction rate was performed from the experimental results of the breakthrough curve by using a fixed-bed reaction model, and the reaction rate constants and adsorption capacity were obtained for achieving an optimal process design.

  14. Green and facile approach for enhancing the inherent magnetic properties of carbon nanotubes for water treatment applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateia, Mohamed; Koch, Christian; Jelavić, Stanislav; Hirt, Ann; Quinson, Jonathan; Yoshimura, Chihiro; Johnson, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Current methods for preparing magnetic composites with carbon nanotubes (MCNT) commonly include extensive use of treatment with strong acids and result in massive losses of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). In this study we explore the potential of taking advantage of the inherent magnetic properties associated with the metal (alloy or oxide) incorporated in CNTs during their production. The as-received CNTs are refined by applying a permanent magnet to a suspension of CNTs to separate the high-magnetic fraction; the low-magnetic fraction is discarded with the solvent. The collected MCNTs were characterized by a suite of 10 diffraction and spectroscopic techniques. A key discovery is that metallic nano-clusters of Fe and/or Ni located in the interior cavities of the nanotubes give MCNTs their ferromagnetic character. After refinement using our method, the MCNTs show saturation magnetizations up to 10 times that of the as-received materials. In addition, we demonstrate the ability of these MCNTs to repeatedly remove atrazine from water in a cycle of dispersion into a water sample, adsorption of the atrazine onto the MCNTs, collection by magnetic attraction and regeneration by ethanol. The resulting MCNTs show high adsorption capacities (> 40 mg-atrazine/g), high magnetic response, and straightforward regeneration. The method presented here is simpler, faster, and substantially reduces chemical waste relative to current techniques and the resulting MCNTs are promising adsorbents for organic/chemical contaminants in environmental waters.

  15. Green and facile approach for enhancing the inherent magnetic properties of carbon nanotubes for water treatment applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ateia

    Full Text Available Current methods for preparing magnetic composites with carbon nanotubes (MCNT commonly include extensive use of treatment with strong acids and result in massive losses of carbon nanotubes (CNTs. In this study we explore the potential of taking advantage of the inherent magnetic properties associated with the metal (alloy or oxide incorporated in CNTs during their production. The as-received CNTs are refined by applying a permanent magnet to a suspension of CNTs to separate the high-magnetic fraction; the low-magnetic fraction is discarded with the solvent. The collected MCNTs were characterized by a suite of 10 diffraction and spectroscopic techniques. A key discovery is that metallic nano-clusters of Fe and/or Ni located in the interior cavities of the nanotubes give MCNTs their ferromagnetic character. After refinement using our method, the MCNTs show saturation magnetizations up to 10 times that of the as-received materials. In addition, we demonstrate the ability of these MCNTs to repeatedly remove atrazine from water in a cycle of dispersion into a water sample, adsorption of the atrazine onto the MCNTs, collection by magnetic attraction and regeneration by ethanol. The resulting MCNTs show high adsorption capacities (> 40 mg-atrazine/g, high magnetic response, and straightforward regeneration. The method presented here is simpler, faster, and substantially reduces chemical waste relative to current techniques and the resulting MCNTs are promising adsorbents for organic/chemical contaminants in environmental waters.

  16. Mammography Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mammography Facility Database is updated periodically based on information received from the four FDA-approved accreditation bodies: the American College of...

  17. Canyon Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — B Plant, T Plant, U Plant, PUREX, and REDOX (see their links) are the five facilities at Hanford where the original objective was plutonium removal from the uranium...

  18. Health Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health facilities are places that provide health care. They include hospitals, clinics, outpatient care centers, and specialized care centers, such as birthing centers and psychiatric care centers. When you ...

  19. Diagnosis and treatment of malaria in peripheral health facilities in Uganda: findings from an area of low transmission in south-western Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarke Siân

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early recognition of symptoms and signs perceived as malaria are important for effective case management, as few laboratories are available at peripheral health facilities. The validity and reliability of clinical signs and symptoms used by health workers to diagnose malaria were assessed in an area of low transmission in south-western Uganda. Methods The study had two components: 1 passive case detection where all patients attending the out patient clininc with a febrile illness were included and 2 a longitudinal active malaria case detection survey was conducted in selected villages. A malaria case was defined as any slide-confirmed parasitaemia in a person with an axillary temperature ≥ 37.5°C or a history of fever within the last 24 hrs and no signs suggestive of other diseases. Results Cases of malaria were significantly more likely to report joint pains, headache, vomiting and abdominal pains. However, due to the low prevalence of malaria, the predictive values of these individual signs alone, or in combination, were poor. Only 24.8% of 1627 patients had malaria according to case definition and > 75% of patients were unnecessarily treated for malaria and few slide negative cases received alternative treatment. Conclusion In low-transmission areas, more attention needs to be paid to differential diagnosis of febrile illnesses In view of suggested changes in anti-malarial drug policy, introducing costly artemisinin combination therapy accurate, rapid diagnostic tools are necessary to target treatment to people in need.

  20. Hydrogeologic data and water-quality data from a thick unsaturated zone at a proposed wastewater-treatment facility site, Yucca Valley, San Bernardino County, California, 2008-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, David; Clark, Dennis A.; Izbicki, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The Hi-Desert Water District, in the community of Yucca Valley, California, is considering constructing a wastewater-treatment facility and using the reclaimed water to recharge the aquifer system through surface spreading. The Hi-Desert Water District is concerned with possible effects of this recharge on water quality in the underlying groundwater system; therefore, an unsaturated-zone monitoring site was constructed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to characterize the unsaturated zone, monitor a pilot-scale recharge test, and, ultimately, to monitor the flow of reclaimed water to the water table once the treatment facility is constructed.

  1. Facile one-pot formulation of TRAIL-embedded paclitaxel-bound albumin nanoparticles for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Sun Young; Byeon, Hyeong Jun; Lee, Changkyu; Seo, Jisoo; Lee, Eun Seong; Shin, Beom Soo; Choi, Han-Gon; Lee, Kang Choon; Youn, Yu Seok

    2015-10-15

    Nanoparticle albumin-bound (nab™) technology is an effective way of delivering hydrophobic chemotherapeutics. We developed a one-pot/one-step formulation of paclitaxel (PTX)-bound albumin nanoparticles with embedded tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL/PTX HSA-NP) for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. TRAIL/PTX HSA-NPs were fabricated using a high-pressure homogenizer at a TRAIL feeding ratio of 0.2%, 1.0%, and 2.0%. TRAIL/PTX HSA-NPs were spherical and became larger in size (170-230 nm) with increasing TRAIL amount (0.2-2.0%). The loading efficiencies of PTX were in the range of ∼86.4% and significantly low at 2.0% TRAIL (60.4%). Specifically, the inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of TRAIL (1.0 or 2.0%)/PTX HSA-NPs were >20-fold lower than that of plain PTX-HSA NP (0.032±0.06, 0.022±0.005, and 0.96±0.15 ng/ml, respectively) in pancreatic Mia Paca-2 cells. Considering TRAIL loading, bioactivity, and particle size, TRAIL(1.0%)/PTX HSA-NPs were determined as the optimal candidate for further studies. TRAIL(1.0%)/PTX HSA-NPs displayed substantially greater apoptotic activity than plain PTX HSA-NP in both FACS and TUNEL analysis. The loaded PTX and TRAIL were gradually released from the TRAIL(1.0%)/PTX HSA-NPs until ∼24 h, which is considered to be a sufficient time for delivery to the tumor tissue. TRAIL(1.0%)/PTX HSA-NP displayed markedly more antitumor efficacy than plain PTX HSA-NP in Mia Paca-2 cell-xenografted mice in terms of tumor volume (size) and weight (213.9 mm(3) and 0.18 g vs. 1126.8 mm(3) and 0.80 g, respectively). These improved in vitro and in vivo performances were due to the combined synergistic effects of PTX and TRAIL. We believe that this TRAIL/PTX HSA-NP would have potential as a novel apoptosis-based anticancer agent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Group Education and Multidisciplinary Management for Chronic Headaches Among Adolescents in a Military Treatment Facility: A Retrospective Chart Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormond, Andrew; Faux, Brian M; Zickefoose, Betty A; Aden, James; Kapunan, Patricia E; Roberts, Timothy A

    2018-02-07

    To assess the effect of group education on the frequency of chronic headaches among adolescents. Chronic headaches are a common problem among adolescents with significant psychosocial morbidity. Brief education on lifestyle interventions to decrease headache frequency has established benefits among adult patients but is less proven among adolescents. This study is a chart review examining our experience with a group education program for 155 adolescents, aged 12-17 years old, enrolled in the U.S. military medical system with at least 3 months of chronic headaches who were referred to a headache evaluation clinic. The primary outcome of our study was self-reported number of days with a headache in the previous 30 days based on patient recall. We used a paired samples t-test to measure the change in headache frequency between the frequency reported at the headache class and follow-up more than 6 months after the class. Most of the adolescents seen in the program were female (114/155 [73.5%]) and suffered from migraine headaches (108/155 [69.8%]). Severe headache-related disability was reported by 40.6% of subjects (63/155). Subjects reported an average of 19 days with headache during the previous 30 days. Females and patients with higher headache-related disability reported a higher number of days with headache. Participation in the group education was associated with an 11.5 (SD 11.9, P < .001) day decrease in the frequency of headaches during the previous 30 days at follow-up at least 6 months after the class, with largest decline seen in patients with the highest level of migraine-related disability at baseline. Based on our retrospective chart review study, group education on headache evaluation and lifestyle management has potential as an effective, low-cost intervention for treatment of chronic headaches among adolescents. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. A simple analytical procedure to replace HPLC for monitoring treatment concentrations of chloramine-T on fish culture facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Verdel K.; Meinertz, Jeffery R.; Schmidt, Larry J.; Gingerich, William H.

    2003-01-01

    Concentrations of chloramine-T must be monitored during experimental treatments of fish when studying the effectiveness of the drug for controlling bacterial gill disease. A surrogate analytical method for analysis of chloramine-T to replace the existing high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method is described. A surrogate method was needed because the existing HPLC method is expensive, requires a specialist to use, and is not generally available at fish hatcheries. Criteria for selection of a replacement method included ease of use, analysis time, cost, safety, sensitivity, accuracy, and precision. The most promising approach was to use the determination of chlorine concentrations as an indicator of chloramine-T. Of the currently available methods for analysis of chlorine, the DPD (N,N-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine) colorimetric method best fit the established criteria. The surrogate method was evaluated under a variety of water quality conditions. Regression analysis of all DPD colorimetric analyses with the HPLC values produced a linear model (Y=0.9602 X+0.1259) with an r2 value of 0.9960. The average accuracy (percent recovery) of the DPD method relative to the HPLC method for the combined set of water quality data was 101.5%. The surrogate method was also evaluated with chloramine-T solutions that contained various concentrations of fish feed or selected densities of rainbow trout. When samples were analyzed within 2 h, the results of the surrogate method were consistent with those of the HPLC method. When samples with high concentrations of organic material were allowed to age more than 2 h before being analyzed, the DPD method seemed to be susceptible to interference, possibly from the development of other chloramine compounds. However, even after aging samples 6 h, the accuracy of the surrogate DPD method relative to the HPLC method was within the range of 80–120%. Based on the data comparing the two methods, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration

  4. Facility effluent monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the facility effluent monitoring programs and provides an evaluation of effluent monitoring data. These evaluations are useful in assessing the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control systems, as well as management practices.

  5. Long-term performance of liter-scale microbial fuel cells treating primary effluent installed in a municipal wastewater treatment facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fei; Ge, Zheng; Grimaud, Julien; Hurst, Jim; He, Zhen

    2013-05-07

    Two 4 L tubular microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were installed in a municipal wastewater treatment facility and operated for more than 400 days on primary effluents. Both MFCs removed 65-70% chemical oxygen demand (COD) at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 11 h and reduced about 50% suspended solids. The COD removal rates were about 0.4 (total) or 0.2 (soluble) kg m(-3) day(-1). They could handle fluctuation, such as emptying the anode for 1-3 days or different HRTs. The preliminary analysis of energy production and consumption indicated that the two MFCs could theoretically achieve a positive energy balance and energy consumption could be reduced using larger tubing connectors. Through linkage to a denitrifying MFC, the MFC system improved the removal of total nitrogen from 27.1 to 76.2%; however, the energy production substantially decreased because of organic consumption in the denitrifying MFC. Establishing a carbon (electron) balance revealed that sulfate reduction was a major electron scavenger (37-64%) and methane production played a very minor role (1.3-3.3%) in electron distribution. These results demonstrate the technical viability of MFC technology outside the laboratory and its potential advantages in low energy consumption, low sludge production, and energy recovery from wastes.

  6. Using phenotype microarrays in the assessment of the antibiotic susceptibility profile of bacteria isolated from wastewater in on-site treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jałowiecki, Łukasz; Chojniak, Joanna; Dorgeloh, Elmar; Hegedusova, Berta; Ejhed, Helene; Magnér, Jörgen; Płaza, Grażyna

    2017-04-27

    The scope of the study was to apply Phenotype Biolog MicroArray (PM) technology to test the antibiotic sensitivity of the bacterial strains isolated from on-site wastewater treatment facilities. In the first step of the study, the percentage values of resistant bacteria from total heterotrophic bacteria growing on solid media supplemented with various antibiotics were determined. In the untreated wastewater, the average shares of kanamycin-, streptomycin-, and tetracycline-resistant bacteria were 53, 56, and 42%, respectively. Meanwhile, the shares of kanamycin-, streptomycin-, and tetracycline-resistant bacteria in the treated wastewater were 39, 33, and 29%, respectively. To evaluate the antibiotic susceptibility of the bacteria present in the wastewater, using the phenotype microarrays (PMs), the most common isolates from the treated wastewater were chosen: Serratia marcescens ss marcescens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila, Microbacterium flavescens, Alcaligenes faecalis ss faecalis, Flavobacterium hydatis, Variovorax paradoxus, Acinetobacter johnsonii, and Aeromonas bestiarum. The strains were classified as multi-antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Most of them were resistant to more than 30 antibiotics from various chemical classes. Phenotype microarrays could be successfully used as an additional tool for evaluation of the multi-antibiotic resistance of environmental bacteria and in preliminary determination of the range of inhibition concentration.

  7. Role of Human Health Care Providers and Medical Treatment Facilities in Military Working Dog Care and Accessibility Difficulties with Military Working Dog Blood Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles Iii, James T

    2016-01-01

    The use of military working dogs (MWDs) in support of military operations has increased dramatically over recent years, as they have proven to be our most reliable deterrent to improvised explosive devices. Healthcare delivery for MWDs in combat presents unique challenges and requires extensive collaboration between veterinarians and human health care providers (HCPs). A successful example is the incorporation of MWD emergency care for nonveterinary HCPs into the Joint Trauma System Clinical Practice Guidelines, which has proven to be a helpful product. Additional challenges that need further solutions include MWDs as patients in human medical treatment facilities (MTFs) and the procurement of appropriate canine blood components in an operational environment. It is often necessary for MWDs to be treated as patients in human MTFs, however, there is no Department of Defense guidance to support this activity. Access to MWD blood products is limited to collection of fresh whole blood in the operational setting. Similar to humans, specific blood component therapy, such as fresh frozen plasma, is often indicated for sick or injured MWDs. Currently there is no formal system in place to deliver any blood products for MWDs or to facilitate collection in theater.

  8. Effect of nitrogen doping on the microstructure and visible light photocatalysis of titanate nanotubes by a facile cohydrothermal synthesis via urea treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Cheng-Ching; Hsu, Tzu-Chien, E-mail: tjhsu@facmail.nsysu.edu.tw; Lu, Shan-Yu

    2013-09-01

    A facile one-step cohydrothermal synthesis via urea treatment has been adopted to prepare a series of nitrogen-doped titanate nanotubes with highly efficient visible light photocatalysis of rhodamine B, in an effect to identify the effect of nitrogen doping on the photodegradation efficiency. The morphology and microstructure of the thus-prepared N-doped titanates were characterized by nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. With increasing urea loadings, the N-doped titanates change from a porous multi-layer and nanotube-shaped to a dense and aggregated particle-shaped structure, accompanied with reduced specific surface area and pore volume and enhanced pore diameter. Interstitial linkage to titanate via Ti-O-N and Ti-N-O is confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Factors governing the photocatalytic degradation such as the specific surface area of the catalyst and the degradation pathway are analyzed, a mechanistic illustration on the photodegradation is provided, and a 3-stage degradation mechanism is identified. The synergistic contribution due to the enhanced deethylation and chromophore cleavage on rhodamine B molecules and the reduced band gap on the catalyst TiO{sub 2} by interstitial nitrogen-doping has been accounted for the high photodegradation efficiency of the N-doped titanate nanotubes.

  9. Fluoride tracer test for the performance analysis of a basin used as a lagooning pre-treatment facility in a WTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffino, Barbara

    2015-07-01

    The water treatment plant (WTP) of the city of Torino (NW Italy), which treats about 40 · 10(6) m(3)/year of raw water from Po river, has a 15-ha basin used as a lagooning pre-treatment facility. Since the efficiency of the lagooning process in the removal of pollutants from raw water depends on the internal hydrodynamics of the basin, the hydraulic performance of the basin was studied by combining the results of a stimulus-response tracer test with the monitoring of the tracer (fluoride) concentration throughout the basin at different times. The outcomes of the test demonstrated that the system was efficiently mixed and could be assimilated to a continuous stirred reactor presenting no flow anomalies, with an actual mean residence time (RT) of 12.7 days, compared with a nominal RT of 18 days. This assured that dissolved contaminants (such as fluoride) coming from the river were efficiently diluted before entering the WTP. The axial dispersion coefficient calculated from the RT distribution was approximately 47,300 m(2)/day. Three of the most popular formulae developed for the calculation of the axial dispersion coefficient provided results spreading over three orders of magnitude, thus showing their limitations. Finally, because of the width extent of the basin and the characteristics of its inflow, the 1-D advection-dispersion model failed in predicting the tracer concentration values in time at the outlet channel. On the contrary, the analytical solution of the 2-D advection-dispersion model proved to be suitable to fit the tracer concentration data over time at the outlet channel but it failed in describing the tracer distribution throughout the basin on the monitoring dates.

  10. Substance Abuse Treatment Facility Locator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... certification/accreditation All / None / Reverse   State substance abuse agency   State mental health department   State department of health   Hospital licensing authority   The Joint Commission   Commission on Accreditation ...

  11. Ballast Water Treatment Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides functionality for the full-scale testing and controlled simulation of ship ballasting operations for assessment of aquatic nuisance species (ANS)...

  12. Effects of wastewater effluent discharge and treatment facility upgrades on environmental and biological conditions of the upper Blue River, Johnson County, Kansas and Jackson County, Missouri, January 2003 through March 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jennifer L.; Stone, Mandy L.; Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Poulton, Barry C.

    2010-01-01

    The Johnson County Blue River Main Wastewater Treatment Facility discharges into the upper Blue River near the border between Johnson County, Kansas and Jackson County, Missouri. During 2005 through 2007 the wastewater treatment facility underwent upgrades to increase capacity and include biological nutrient removal. The effects of wastewater effluent on environmental and biological conditions of the upper Blue River were assessed by comparing an upstream site to two sites located downstream from the wastewater treatment facility. Environmental conditions were evaluated using previously and newly collected discrete and continuous data, and were compared with an assessment of biological community composition and ecosystem function along the upstream-downstream gradient. This evaluation is useful for understanding the potential effects of wastewater effluent on water quality, biological community structure, and ecosystem function. In addition, this information can be used to help achieve National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) wastewater effluent permit requirements after additional studies are conducted. The effects of wastewater effluent on the water-quality conditions of the upper Blue River were most evident during below-normal and normal streamflows (about 75 percent of the time), when wastewater effluent contributed more than 20 percent to total streamflow. The largest difference in water-quality conditions between the upstream and downstream sites was in nutrient concentrations. Total and inorganic nutrient concentrations at the downstream sites during below-normal and normal streamflows were 4 to 15 times larger than at the upstream site, even after upgrades to the wastewater treatment facility were completed. However, total nitrogen concentrations decreased in wastewater effluent and at the downstream site following wastewater treatment facility upgrades. Similar decreases in total phosphorus were not observed, likely because the biological

  13. Performance specifications for proton medical facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, W.T.; Staples, J.W.; Ludewigt, B.A.; Renner, T.R.; Singh, R.P.; Nyman, M.A.; Collier, J.M.; Daftari, I.K.; Petti, P.L.; Alonso, J.R. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Kubo, H.; Verhey, L.J. [University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States). Cancer Center]|[California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). School of Medicine; Castro, J.R. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States). Cancer Center]|[California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). School of Medicine

    1993-03-01

    Performance specifications of technical components of a modern proton radiotherapy facility are presented. The technical items specified include: the accelerator; the beam transport system including rotating gantry; the treatment beamline systems including beam scattering, beam scanning, and dosimetric instrumentation; and an integrated treatment and accelerator control system. Also included are treatment ancillary facilities such as diagnostic tools, patient positioning and alignment devices, and treatment planning systems. The facility specified will accommodate beam scanning enabling the three-dimensional conformal therapy deliver .

  14. Planning Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Richard B., Ed.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Nine articles give information to help make professionals in health, physical education, recreation, dance, and athletics more knowledgeable about planning facilities. Design of natatoriums, physical fitness laboratories, fitness trails, gymnasium lighting, homemade play equipment, indoor soccer arenas, and dance floors is considered. A…

  15. Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment for the Operation of the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility at Site 300 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Volume 1: Report of Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, G; Daniels, J; Wegrecki, A

    2006-04-24

    This document contains the human health and ecological risk assessment for the Resource Recovery and Conservation Act (RCRA) permit renewal for the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility (EWTF). Volume 1 is the text of the risk assessment, and Volume 2 (provided on a compact disc) is the supporting modeling data. The EWTF is operated by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) at Site 300, which is located in the foothills between the cities of Livermore and Tracy, approximately 17 miles east of Livermore and 8 miles southwest of Tracy. Figure 1 is a map of the San Francisco Bay Area, showing the location of Site 300 and other points of reference. One of the principal activities of Site 300 is to test what are known as ''high explosives'' for nuclear weapons. These are the highly energetic materials that provide the force to drive fissionable material to criticality. LLNL scientists develop and test the explosives and the integrated non-nuclear components in support of the United States nuclear stockpile stewardship program as well as in support of conventional weapons and the aircraft, mining, oil exploration, and construction industries. Many Site 300 facilities are used in support of high explosives research. Some facilities are used in the chemical formulation of explosives; others are locations where explosive charges are mechanically pressed; others are locations where the materials are inspected radiographically for such defects as cracks and voids. Finally, some facilities are locations where the machined charges are assembled before they are sent to the on-site test firing facilities, and additional facilities are locations where materials are stored. Wastes generated from high-explosives research are treated by open burning (OB) and open detonation (OD). OB and OD treatments are necessary because they are the safest methods for treating explosives wastes generated at these facilities, and they eliminate the requirement for

  16. Vancomycin vs. Vancomycin/Piperacillin-Tazobactam-Associated Acute Kidney Injury in Noncritically Ill Patients at a Tertiary Care Military Treatment Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Caleb W; Cazares, Kathy S; Lustik, Michael B; Patel, Shivam M; Denunzio, Troy M

    2017-09-01

    the treatment of skin and soft-tissue infections and further supported the need for rapid de-escalation of antibiotics within our military training facility. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  17. Association Between Treatment at a High-Volume Facility and Improved Survival for Radiation-Treated Men With High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu-Wei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Mahal, Brandon A. [Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Muralidhar, Vinayak [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Nezolosky, Michelle [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Beard, Clair J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Den, Robert B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Feng, Felix Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Hoffman, Karen E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Martin, Neil E.; Orio, Peter F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Nguyen, Paul L., E-mail: pnguyen@LROC.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Purpose: Although the association between higher hospital volume and improved outcomes has been well-documented in surgery, there is little data about whether this effect exists for radiation-treated patients. We investigated whether treatment at a radiation facility that treats a high volume of prostate cancer patients is associated with improved survival for men with high-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We used the National Cancer Database (NCDB) to identity patients diagnosed with prostate cancer from 2004 to 2006. The radiation case volume (RCV) of each hospital was based on its number of radiation-treated prostate cancer patients. We used propensity-score based analysis to compare the overall survival (OS) of high-risk prostate cancer patients in high versus low RCV hospitals. Primary endpoint is overall survival. Covariates adjusted for were tumor characteristics, sociodemographic factors, radiation type, and use of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Results: A total of 19,565 radiation-treated high-risk patients were identified. Median follow-up was 81.0 months (range: 1-108 months). When RCV was coded as a continuous variable, each increment of 100 radiation-managed patients was associated with improved OS (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]: 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.95-0.98; P<.0001) after adjusting for known confounders. For illustrative purposes, when RCV was dichotomized at the 80th percentile (43 patients/year), high RCV was associated with improved OS (7-year overall survival 76% vs 74%, log-rank test P=.0005; AHR: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.86-0.96, P=.0005). This association remained significant when RCV was dichotomized at 75th (37 patients/year), 90th (60 patients/year), and 95th (84 patients/year) percentiles but not the 50th (19 patients/year). Conclusions: Our results suggest that treatment at centers with higher prostate cancer radiation case volume is associated with improved OS for radiation-treated men with high-risk prostate

  18. Biotechnology Facility: An ISS Microgravity Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Steve R.; Tsao, Yow-Min

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will support several facilities dedicated to scientific research. One such facility, the Biotechnology Facility (BTF), is sponsored by the Microgravity Sciences and Applications Division (MSAD) and developed at NASA's Johnson Space Center. The BTF is scheduled for delivery to the ISS via Space Shuttle in April 2005. The purpose of the BTF is to provide: (1) the support structure and integration capabilities for the individual modules in which biotechnology experiments will be performed, (2) the capability for human-tended, repetitive, long-duration biotechnology experiments, and (3) opportunities to perform repetitive experiments in a short period by allowing continuous access to microgravity. The MSAD has identified cell culture and tissue engineering, protein crystal growth, and fundamentals of biotechnology as areas that contain promising opportunities for significant advancements through low-gravity experiments. The focus of this coordinated ground- and space-based research program is the use of the low-gravity environment of space to conduct fundamental investigations leading to major advances in the understanding of basic and applied biotechnology. Results from planned investigations can be used in applications ranging from rational drug design and testing, cancer diagnosis and treatments and tissue engineering leading to replacement tissues.

  19. High-level waste inventory, characteristics, generation, and facility assessment for treatment, storage, and disposal alternatives considered in the US Department of Energy eenvironmental management programmatic environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folga, S.M.; Conzelmann, G.; Gillette, J.L.; Kier, P.H.; Poch, L.A.

    1996-12-01

    This report provides data and information needed to support the risk and impact assessments of high-level waste (HLW) management alternatives in the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management (WM) Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). Available data on the physical form, chemical and isotopic composition, storage locations, and other waste characteristics of interest are presented. High-level waste management follows six implementation phases: current storage, retrieval, pretreatment, treatment, interim canister storage, and geologic repository disposal; pretreatment, treatment, and repository disposal are outside the scope of the WM PEIS. Brief descriptions of current and planned HLW management facilities are provided, including information on the type of waste managed in the facility, costs, product form, resource requirements, emissions, and current and future status. Data sources and technical and regulatory assumptions are identified. The range of HLW management alternatives (including decentralized, regionalized, and centralized approaches) is described. The required waste management facilities include expanded interim storage facilities under the various alternatives. Resource requirements for construction (e.g., land and materials) and operation (e.g., energy and process chemicals), work force, costs, effluents, design capacities, and emissions are presented for each alternative.

  20. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 325 Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The Applied Chemistry Laboratory (325 Facility) houses radiochemistry research, radioanalytical service, radiochemical process development, and hazardous and mixed hazardous waste treatment activities. The laboratories and specialized facilities enable work ranging from that with nonradioactive materials to work with picogram to kilogram quantities of fissionable materials and up to megacurie quantities of other radionuclides. The special facilities include two shielded hot-cell areas that provide for process development or analytical chemistry work with highly radioactive materials, and a waste treatment facility for processing hazardous, mixed, low-level, and transuranic wastes generated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Radioactive material storage and usage occur throughout the facility and include a large number of isotopes. This material is in several forms, including solid, liquid, particulate, and gas. Some of these materials are also heated during testing which can produce vapors. The research activities have been assigned to the following activity designations: High-Level Hot Cell, Hazardous Waste Treatment Unit, Waste Form Development, Special Testing Projects, Chemical Process Development, Analytical Hot Cell, and Analytical Chemistry. The following summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the results of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) determination for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements.

  1. Emission Facilities - Erosion & Sediment Control Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — An Erosion and Sediment Control Facility is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Pollution Control program. The following sub-facility types related to...

  2. Acceptability of lifelong treatment among HIV-positive pregnant and breastfeeding women (Option B+) in selected health facilities in Zimbabwe: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadambuka, Addmore; Katirayi, Leila; Muchedzi, Auxilia; Tumbare, Esther; Musarandega, Reuben; Mahomva, Agnes I; Woelk, Godfrey

    2017-07-25

    Zimbabwe's Ministry of Health and Child Care (MOHCC) adopted 2013 World Health Organization (WHO) prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) guidelines recommending initiation of HIV-positive pregnant and breastfeeding women (PPBW) on lifelong antiretroviral treatment (ART) irrespective of clinical stage (Option B+). Option B+ was officially launched in Zimbabwe in November 2013; however the acceptability of life-long ART and its potential uptake among women was not known. A qualitative study was conducted at selected sites in Harare (urban) and Zvimba (rural) to explore Option B+ acceptability; barriers, and facilitators to ART adherence and service uptake. In-depth interviews (IDIs), focus group discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews (KIIs) were conducted with PPBW, healthcare providers, and community members. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and translated; data were coded and analyzed in MaxQDA v10. Forty-three IDIs, 22 FGDs, and five KIIs were conducted. The majority of women accepted lifelong ART. There was however, a fear of commitment to taking lifelong medication because they were afraid of defaulting, especially after cessation of breastfeeding. There was confusion around dosage; and fear of side effects, not having enough food to take drugs, and the lack of opportunities to ask questions in counseling. Participants reported the need for strengthening community sensitization for Option B+. Facilitators included receiving a simplified pill regimen; ability to continue breastfeeding beyond 6 months like HIV-negative women; and partner, community and health worker support. Barriers included distance of health facility, non-disclosure of HIV status, poor male partner support and knowing someone who had negative experience on ART. This study found that Option B+ is generally accepted among PPBW as a means to strengthen their health and protect their babies. Consistent with previous literature, this study demonstrated the

  3. Acceptability of lifelong treatment among HIV-positive pregnant and breastfeeding women (Option B+ in selected health facilities in Zimbabwe: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addmore Chadambuka

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zimbabwe’s Ministry of Health and Child Care (MOHCC adopted 2013 World Health Organization (WHO prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT guidelines recommending initiation of HIV-positive pregnant and breastfeeding women (PPBW on lifelong antiretroviral treatment (ART irrespective of clinical stage (Option B+. Option B+ was officially launched in Zimbabwe in November 2013; however the acceptability of life-long ART and its potential uptake among women was not known. Methods A qualitative study was conducted at selected sites in Harare (urban and Zvimba (rural to explore Option B+ acceptability; barriers, and facilitators to ART adherence and service uptake. In-depth interviews (IDIs, focus group discussions (FGDs and key informant interviews (KIIs were conducted with PPBW, healthcare providers, and community members. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and translated; data were coded and analyzed in MaxQDA v10. Results Forty-three IDIs, 22 FGDs, and five KIIs were conducted. The majority of women accepted lifelong ART. There was however, a fear of commitment to taking lifelong medication because they were afraid of defaulting, especially after cessation of breastfeeding. There was confusion around dosage; and fear of side effects, not having enough food to take drugs, and the lack of opportunities to ask questions in counseling. Participants reported the need for strengthening community sensitization for Option B+. Facilitators included receiving a simplified pill regimen; ability to continue breastfeeding beyond 6 months like HIV-negative women; and partner, community and health worker support. Barriers included distance of health facility, non-disclosure of HIV status, poor male partner support and knowing someone who had negative experience on ART. Conclusions This study found that Option B+ is generally accepted among PPBW as a means to strengthen their health and protect their babies

  4. Air Quality Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research FacilityFacilities with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act, as well as facilities required to submit an air emissions inventory, and other facilities...

  5. Fifty-Year Durability Evaluation of Posts Treated with Industrial Wood Preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan T. Lebow; Patricia Lebow; Bessie Woodward; Grant T. Kirker; Rachel Arango

    2015-01-01

    Long-term durability data are needed to improve service life estimates for treated wood products used as critical structural supports in industrial applications. This article reports the durability of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) posts pressure treated with ammoniacal copper arsenate (ACA), chromated copper arsenate (CCA), creosote, or...

  6. Treatability of underutilized northeastern species with CCA and alternative wood preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan T. Lebow; Steven A. Halverson; Cherilyn A. Hatfield

    2005-01-01

    Opportunities for use of northeastern species such as balsam fir, eastern spruce, eastern hemlock, and red maple could be improved if these species could be adequately penetrated with preservatives and subsequently shown to be durable in outdoor exposures. In this study, specimens cut from lumber of northeastern species were pressure-treated with either chromated...

  7. 40 CFR 429.80 - Applicability; description of the wood preserving-steam subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... preserving-steam subcategory. 429.80 Section 429.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Preserving Steam Subcategory § 429.80 Applicability; description of the wood preserving—steam subcategory... steam impingment on wood as the predominant conditioning method; processes that use the vapor drying...

  8. Performance of copper-based wood preservatives in soil bed exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan T. Lebow; Thomas Nilsson; Jeffrey J. Morrell

    Copper-based biocides are widely used to protect wood from biological attack in a variety of environments. Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) is the dominant copper-based preservative for wood protection (J. T. MICKLEWRIGHT, 1989). First developed in India in the 1930s, CCA contains a very effective combination of materials. Copper provides protection against most...

  9. Wood preservatives and pressure-treated wood: considerations for historic-preservation projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald W. Anthony; Stan T. Lebow

    2015-01-01

    Wood, an abundant resource throughout most of the world, has been used as a building material for thousands of years. Many historic buildings have been built primarily of wood, and masonry and stone buildings generally have wood elements, both structural and architectural. As a biological material, wood is both remarkably complex and yet quite durable if well...

  10. Identifying gaps in HIV service delivery across the diagnosis-to-treatment cascade: findings from health facility surveys in six sub-Saharan countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Church

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: We identified a high standard of health facility performance in delivering strategies that may support progression through the continuum of HIV care. HIV testing policy and practice was particularly weak. Inter- and intra-country differences in quality and coverage represent opportunities to improve the delivery of comprehensive services to people living with HIV.

  11. Supplemental analysis of accident sequences and source terms for waste treatment and storage operations and related facilities for the US Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folga, S.; Mueller, C.; Nabelssi, B.; Kohout, E.; Mishima, J.

    1996-12-01

    This report presents supplemental information for the document Analysis of Accident Sequences and Source Terms at Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities for Waste Generated by US Department of Energy Waste Management Operations. Additional technical support information is supplied concerning treatment of transuranic waste by incineration and considering the Alternative Organic Treatment option for low-level mixed waste. The latest respirable airborne release fraction values published by the US Department of Energy for use in accident analysis have been used and are included as Appendix D, where respirable airborne release fraction is defined as the fraction of material exposed to accident stresses that could become airborne as a result of the accident. A set of dominant waste treatment processes and accident scenarios was selected for a screening-process analysis. A subset of results (release source terms) from this analysis is presented.

  12. Breadboard Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    In the sixties, Chrysler was NASA's prime contractor for the Saturn I and IB test launch vehicles. The company installed and operated at Huntsville what was known as the Saturn I/IB Development Breadboard Facility. "Breadboard," means an array of electrical and electronic equipment for performing a variety of development and test functions. This work gave Chrysler a broad capability in computerized testing to assure quality control in development of solid-state electronic systems. Today that division is manufacturing many products not destined for NASA, most of them being associated with the company's automotive line. A major project is production and quality-control testing of the "lean-burn" engine, one that has a built-in Computer to control emission timing, and allow the engine to run on a leaner mixture of fuel and air. Other environment-related products include vehicle emission analyzers. The newest of the line is an accurate, portable solid state instrument for testing auto exhaust gases. The exhaust analyzers, now being produced for company dealers and for service

  13. Determination of dilution factors for discharge of aluminum-containing wastes by public water-supply treatment facilities into lakes and reservoirs in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, John A.; Massey, Andrew J.; Brandt, Sara L.

    2011-09-16

    Dilution of aluminum discharged to reservoirs in filter-backwash effluents at water-treatment facilities in Massachusetts was investigated by a field study and computer simulation. Determination of dilution is needed so that permits for discharge ensure compliance with water-quality standards for aquatic life. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency chronic standard for aluminum, 87 micrograms per liter (μg/L), rather than the acute standard, 750 μg/L, was used in this investigation because the time scales of chronic exposure (days) more nearly match rates of change in reservoir concentrations than do the time scales of acute exposure (hours).Whereas dilution factors are routinely computed for effluents discharged to streams solely on the basis of flow of the effluent and flow of the receiving stream, dilution determination for effluents discharged to reservoirs is more complex because (1), compared to streams, additional water is available for dilution in reservoirs during low flows as a result of reservoir flushing and storage during higher flows, and (2) aluminum removal in reservoirs occurs by aluminum sedimentation during the residence time of water in the reservoir. Possible resuspension of settled aluminum was not considered in this investigation. An additional concern for setting discharge standards is the substantial concentration of aluminum that can be naturally present in ambient surface waters, usually in association with dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which can bind aluminum and keep it in solution.A method for dilution determination was developed using a mass-balance equation for aluminum and considering sources of aluminum from groundwater, surface water, and filter-backwash effluents and losses caused by sedimentation, water withdrawal, and spill discharge from the reservoir. The method was applied to 13 reservoirs. Data on aluminum and DOC concentrations in reservoirs and influent water were collected during the fall of 2009. Complete

  14. The experiences of acute non-surgical pain of children who present to a healthcare facility for treatment: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Nicole; Tallon, Mary; McConigley, Ruth; Wilson, Sally

    2015-10-01

    The qualitative objective of this systematic review is to identify and synthesize the best available evidence on experiences of acute non-surgical pain, including pain management, of children (between four to 18 years) when they present to a healthcare facility for treatment.The specific objectives are to identify: The International Association for the Study of Pain defines pain as "an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage". The pain experience is multifaceted and complex, extending beyond the physiological interpretation of a noxious stimulus, encompassing other dimensions, including; psychological, cognitive, sociocultural, affective and emotional factors. Pain can be described as chronic (persisting for three months or more) or acute (a time limited response to a noxious stimuli). Over the past 50 years clinical research has made revolutionary contributions to better understanding pediatric pain. The once pervasive erroneous notion that infants do not experience pain the same way as adults has been firmly dispelled. We now know that nervous system structures associated with the physiological interpretation of pain are functional as early as fetal development. Despite this critical knowledge and the growing global commitment to improving pediatric pain management in clinical practice, evidence repeatedly suggests that pain management remains suboptimal and inconsistent, a phenomenon commonly referred to as oligoanalgesia. Research evidence has linked poorly managed pain in the pediatric population to negative behavioral and physiological consequences later in life. Effective pain management is therefore a priority area for health care professionals. Improved understanding of children's experiences of acute non-surgical pain may lead to improved pain management and a reduction in oligoanalgesia.In the 1970s and 1980s, studies began exploring the subjective experiences of

  15. SCFA lead lab technical assistance at Oak Ridge Y-12 nationalsecurity complex: Evaluation of treatment and characterizationalternatives of mixed waste soil and debris at disposal area remedialaction DARA solids storage facility (SSF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, Terry

    2002-08-26

    On July 17-18, 2002, a technical assistance team from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) met with the Bechtel Jacobs Company Disposal Area Remedial Action (DARA) environmental project leader to review treatment and characterization options for the baseline for the DARA Solids Storage Facility (SSF). The technical assistance request sought suggestions from SCFA's team of technical experts with experience and expertise in soil treatment and characterization to identify and evaluate (1) alternative treatment technologies for DARA soils and debris, and (2) options for analysis of organic constituents in soil with matrix interference. Based on the recommendations, the site may also require assistance in identifying and evaluating appropriate commercial vendors.

  16. Irradiation Facilities at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Gkotse, Blerina; Carbonez, Pierre; Danzeca, Salvatore; Fabich, Adrian; Garcia, Alia, Ruben; Glaser, Maurice; Gorine, Georgi; Jaekel, Martin, Richard; Mateu,Suau, Isidre; Pezzullo, Giuseppe; Pozzi, Fabio; Ravotti, Federico; Silari, Marco; Tali, Maris

    2017-01-01

    CERN provides unique irradiation facilities for applications in many scientific fields. This paper summarizes the facilities currently operating for proton, gamma, mixed-field and electron irradiations, including their main usage, characteristics and information about their operation. The new CERN irradiation facilities database is also presented. This includes not only CERN facilities but also irradiation facilities available worldwide.

  17. North Slope, Alaska ESI: FACILITY (Facility Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data for oil field facilities for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector points in this data set represent oil field facility locations. This data...

  18. Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The actual treatment areas for municipal, industrial, and semi-public wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System...

  19. Risk factors for visual impairment and blindness amongst black adult diabetis receiving treatment at Government healthcare facilitis in Mopani District, Limpopo province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond G. Mabaso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a common systemic disease amongst Black South Africans. It may lead to diabetic retinopathy (DR, a common cause of visual impairment (VI and blindness. DR may signifiantly increase the prevalence of VI and blindness.Aim: To assess risk factors for VI and blindness amongst a black diabetic South African population aged ≥ 40 years.Setting: The study was conducted in seven Government healthcare facilities (two hospitals, four clinics and one health centre in Mopani District, Limpopo province, South Africa.Methods: This was a cross-sectional health facility-based quantitative study. Structured interviews were used to obtain information, which included sociodemographic profie, knowledge about DM and its ocular complications, presence of hypertension and accessibility to health facilities. Subsequently participants were examined for VI and blindness using an autorefractor, pinhole disc, ophthalmoscope and logMAR visual acuity chart. Anthropometric measurements (height, weight and waist were also taken. Associations between 31 risk factors and VI as well as blindness were statistically examined.Results: Participants (N = 225 included 161 women and 64 men aged 40–90 years (mean 61.5 ± 10.49 years; 41.3% of them had VI and 3.6% were blind. Cataracts (76.8% and DR (7.1% were the common causes of compensated VI and blindness. Risk factors that were associated with VI and blindness were age, monthly income, compliance with losing weight and physical activity.Conclusion: Findings suggest that lifestyle intervention and appropriate eyecare programmes may reduce VI and blindness in this population.

  20. Jupiter Laser Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Jupiter Laser Facility is an institutional user facility in the Physical and Life Sciences Directorate at LLNL. The facility is designed to provide a high degree...

  1. Basic Research Firing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Basic Research Firing Facility is an indoor ballistic test facility that has recently transitioned from a customer-based facility to a dedicated basic research...

  2. Analysis of accident sequences and source terms at waste treatment and storage facilities for waste generated by U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Operations, Volume 3: Appendixes C-H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, C.; Nabelssi, B.; Roglans-Ribas, J. [and others

    1995-04-01

    This report contains the Appendices for the Analysis of Accident Sequences and Source Terms at Waste Treatment and Storage Facilities for Waste Generated by the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Operations. The main report documents the methodology, computational framework, and results of facility accident analyses performed as a part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The accident sequences potentially important to human health risk are specified, their frequencies are assessed, and the resultant radiological and chemical source terms are evaluated. A personal computer-based computational framework and database have been developed that provide these results as input to the WM PEIS for calculation of human health risk impacts. This report summarizes the accident analyses and aggregates the key results for each of the waste streams. Source terms are estimated and results are presented for each of the major DOE sites and facilities by WM PEIS alternative for each waste stream. The appendices identify the potential atmospheric release of each toxic chemical or radionuclide for each accident scenario studied. They also provide discussion of specific accident analysis data and guidance used or consulted in this report.

  3. Prevalence and risk factors of inpatient aggression by adults with intellectual disabilities and severe challenging behaviour: a long-term prospective study in two Dutch treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drieschner, Klaus H; Marrozos, Isabel; Regenboog, Maarten

    2013-08-01

    Over five years, various types of aggressive incidents by 421 intellectually disabled inpatients were recorded on a daily basis, using an adapted version of the Modified Overt Aggression Scale. Stable patient characteristics (e.g., gender, intelligence, DSM IV classification at the start of treatment) and pre-treatment scores of two treatment outcome measures (e.g., Adult Behavior Checklist and Dynamic Risk Outcome Scale) were used to predict aggression during the treatment. At an overall average of one incident per patient per week, about ten times more aggression occurred on admission compared to resocialisation wards, and the 20% most aggressive individuals caused 50% of the verbal and 80% of the physical incidents. The best predictor of aggressive behaviour was aggression early in treatment, followed by coping skills deficits and impulsiveness. The relevance of the results for the treatment of aggressive behaviour and methodological issues in the recording of inpatient aggression are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Safaa M. Raghab; Ahmed M. Abd El Meguid; Hala A. Hegazi

    2013-01-01

    ... composed. This paper presents the results of the analyses of leachate treatment from the solid waste landfill located in Borg El Arab landfill in Alexandria using an aerobic treatment process which was applied...

  5. Aperture area measurement facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NIST has established an absolute aperture area measurement facility for circular and near-circular apertures use in radiometric instruments. The facility consists of...

  6. Facility Registry Service (FRS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Facility Registry Service (FRS) provides an integrated source of comprehensive (air, water, and waste) environmental information about facilities across EPA,...

  7. Licensed Healthcare Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Licensed Healthcare Facilities point layer represents the locations of all healthcare facilities licensed by the State of California, Department of Health...

  8. High Throughput Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Argonne?s high throughput facility provides highly automated and parallel approaches to material and materials chemistry development. The facility allows scientists...

  9. Jointly optimizing selection of fuel treatments and siting of forest biomass-based energy production facilities for landscape-scale fire hazard reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Daugherty; Jeremy S. Fried

    2007-01-01

    Landscape-scale fuel treatments for forest fire hazard reduction potentially produce large quantities of material suitable for biomass energy production. The analytic framework FIA BioSum addresses this situation by developing detailed data on forest conditions and production under alternative fuel treatment prescriptions, and computes haul costs to alternative sites...

  10. Guide to research facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This Guide provides information on facilities at US Department of Energy (DOE) and other government laboratories that focus on research and development of energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies. These laboratories have opened these facilities to outside users within the scientific community to encourage cooperation between the laboratories and the private sector. The Guide features two types of facilities: designated user facilities and other research facilities. Designated user facilities are one-of-a-kind DOE facilities that are staffed by personnel with unparalleled expertise and that contain sophisticated equipment. Other research facilities are facilities at DOE and other government laboratories that provide sophisticated equipment, testing areas, or processes that may not be available at private facilities. Each facility listing includes the name and phone number of someone you can call for more information.

  11. Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services (CHAMPUS)/TRICARE: Refills of Maintenance Medications Through Military Treatment Facility Pharmacies or National Mail Order Pharmacy Program. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-02

    This final rule implements section 702 (c) of the Carl Levin and Howard P. "Buck" McKeon National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2015 which states that beginning October 1, 2015, the pharmacy benefits program shall require eligible covered beneficiaries generally to refill non-generic prescription maintenance medications through military treatment facility pharmacies or the national mail-order pharmacy program. An interim final rule is in effect. Section 702(c) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2015 also terminates the TRICARE For Life Pilot Program on September 30, 2015. The TRICARE For Life Pilot Program described in section 716(f) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013, was a pilot program which began in March 2014 requiring TRICARE For Life beneficiaries to refill non-generic prescription maintenance medications through military treatment facility pharmacies or the national mail-order pharmacy program. TRICARE for Life beneficiaries are those enrolled in the Medicare wraparound coverage option of the TRICARE program. This rule includes procedures to assist beneficiaries in transferring covered prescriptions to the mail order pharmacy program.

  12. Assessment of potential toxicity and aquatic community impacts associated with membrane and ion exchange water treatment facility effluents in coastal North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The application of reverse osmosis and ion exchange water treatment of groundwater to meet the growing potable water demand in eastern North Carolina has prompted...

  13. Experience with the use of modafinil in the treatment of narcolepsy in a outpatient facility specialized in diurnal excessive sleepiness in São Paulo ☆

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva Behrens, Nilce Sanny Costa; Lopes, Eduardo; Pereira, Danielle; de Almeida Fonseca, Hassana; Oliveira Cavalcanti, Paola; de Araújo Lima, Taís Figueiredo; Pradella-Hallinan, Marcia; Castro, Juliana; Tufik, Sergio; Santos Coelho, Fernando Morgadinho

    2014-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a chronic neurological disease characterized by diurnal excessive sleepiness and catapleaxy. It affects 1 in every 2000 to 4000 individuals with personal, social and familiar significant repercussions. The treatment of narcolepsy is mainly based on the use of stimulants for the control of the diurnal excessive sleepiness, in conjunction with behavioral measures and sleep hygiene. Among the stimulants, modafinil has presently been the drug of choice for the treatment of the diurn...

  14. Covering and ventilation for deodorising waste water treatment facilities; Cobertura y ventilacion para la desodorizacion de instalaciones de dupracion de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarca Diaz de la Espian, E.; Palacios Moreno, C.; Fernandez Cano, A.

    2004-07-01

    The solution to the odour problems in Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) is reduce to the treatment of the gas, one that the necessary actions and corrections for the appearance of these compounds in their liquid state in the least. In general, the next step is to contain, transport and treat it afterwards. Nowadays, the available technologies for chemical control of odour in ventilation air are very efficient, in consequence improvement are given by appropriate industrial ventilation design. (Author) 6 refs.

  15. Site maps and facilities listings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    In September 1989, a Memorandum of Agreement among DOE offices regarding the environmental management of DOE facilities was signed by appropriate Assistant Secretaries and Directors. This Memorandum of Agreement established the criteria for EM line responsibility. It stated that EM would be responsible for all DOE facilities, operations, or sites (1) that have been assigned to DOE for environmental restoration and serve or will serve no future production need; (2) that are used for the storage, treatment, or disposal of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed hazardous waste materials that have been properly characterized, packaged, and labelled, but are not used for production; (3) that have been formally transferred to EM by another DOE office for the purpose of environmental restoration and the eventual return to service as a DOE production facility; or (4) that are used exclusively for long-term storage of DOE waste material and are not actively used for production, with the exception of facilities, operations, or sites under the direction of the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. As part of the implementation of the Memorandum of Agreement, Field Offices within DOE submitted their listings of facilities, systems, operation, and sites for which EM would have line responsibility. It is intended that EM facility listings will be revised on a yearly basis so that managers at all levels will have a valid reference for the planning, programming, budgeting and execution of EM activities.

  16. Sports Facility Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Marcia L., Ed.; Stotlar, David K., Ed.

    The numbers of both sports facility management college courses and sport and exercise facilities are increasing, along with the need for an understanding of the trends and management concepts of these facilities. This book focuses exclusively on managing facilities where sporting events occur and includes examples in physical education, athletics,…

  17. Reliable Facility Location Problem with Facility Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Luohao; Zhu, Cheng; Lin, Zaili; Shi, Jianmai; Zhang, Weiming

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies a reliable facility location problem with facility protection that aims to hedge against random facility disruptions by both strategically protecting some facilities and using backup facilities for the demands. An Integer Programming model is proposed for this problem, in which the failure probabilities of facilities are site-specific. A solution approach combining Lagrangian Relaxation and local search is proposed and is demonstrated to be both effective and efficient based on computational experiments on random numerical examples with 49, 88, 150 and 263 nodes in the network. A real case study for a 100-city network in Hunan province, China, is presented, based on which the properties of the model are discussed and some managerial insights are analyzed.

  18. Reliable Facility Location Problem with Facility Protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luohao Tang

    Full Text Available This paper studies a reliable facility location problem with facility protection that aims to hedge against random facility disruptions by both strategically protecting some facilities and using backup facilities for the demands. An Integer Programming model is proposed for this problem, in which the failure probabilities of facilities are site-specific. A solution approach combining Lagrangian Relaxation and local search is proposed and is demonstrated to be both effective and efficient based on computational experiments on random numerical examples with 49, 88, 150 and 263 nodes in the network. A real case study for a 100-city network in Hunan province, China, is presented, based on which the properties of the model are discussed and some managerial insights are analyzed.

  19. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): ER_WWTP_NPDES

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web feature service contains location and facility identification information from EPA's Facility Registry System (FRS) for the subset of Waste Water Treatment...

  20. Shapley Facility Location Games

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Porat, Omer; Tennenholtz, Moshe

    2017-01-01

    Facility location games have been a topic of major interest in economics, operations research and computer science, starting from the seminal work by Hotelling. Spatial facility location models have successfully predicted the outcome of competition in a variety of scenarios. In a typical facility location game, users/customers/voters are mapped to a metric space representing their preferences, and each player picks a point (facility) in that space. In most facility location games considered i...

  1. 9 CFR 3.65 - Terminal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminal facilities. 3.65 Section 3.65... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment and Transportation of Rabbits Transportation Standards § 3.65 Terminal facilities. No person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations shall...

  2. 9 CFR 3.141 - Terminal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminal facilities. 3.141 Section 3... ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of... Mammals Transportation Standards § 3.141 Terminal facilities. Carriers and intermediate handlers shall not...

  3. 9 CFR 3.40 - Terminal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminal facilities. 3.40 Section 3.40... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.40 Terminal facilities. No person subject to the Animal...

  4. Can the male-to-female ratio of gonorrhoea in one sexually transmissible infection treatment facility be solely used to judge its efficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ruth; Bell, Gill; Talbot, Martin

    2008-09-01

    This facility has for a long time audited its efficacy in contact tracing (case finding) and found results comparable with national guidelines. In addition, we consistently measure control of the disease using three indices. A departure from the norm in one of these (the male-to-female ratio) prompted us to explore whether local case finding, and therefore control, was lacking resulting in the identification of a statistical anomaly. We have learnt a lesson, which may be of use to others who critically evaluate their work. Review of statutory clinic quarterly returns and manually-held contact tracer data, comparison of representative quarters (Wilcoxson sign rank test) and detailed inspection of sampled case-to-case contact tracing efficiency. Evidence was found challenging our belief that male-to-female ratios are at face value an inevitably accurate surrogate for case finding or infection control. In our clinic, we identified recording anomalies giving rise to false concerns that case finding was less efficient than usual. Although the heterosexual male:female ratio for gonorrhoea is one readily available and proxy measure of disease control and tracing efficiency, its sole use should be interpreted with caution. A time lag across quarters between patient and partner attendance and other recording anomalies may mislead. Ratios should therefore be interpreted in the context of partner notification outcomes, which give a more reliable measure of efficiency. The use of the ratio in critical evaluation of a unit's efficiency should be but one part of a package of measures.

  5. FRACTURING FLUID CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subhash Shah

    2000-08-01

    Hydraulic fracturing technology has been successfully applied for well stimulation of low and high permeability reservoirs for numerous years. Treatment optimization and improved economics have always been the key to the success and it is more so when the reservoirs under consideration are marginal. Fluids are widely used for the stimulation of wells. The Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility (FFCF) has been established to provide the accurate prediction of the behavior of complex fracturing fluids under downhole conditions. The primary focus of the facility is to provide valuable insight into the various mechanisms that govern the flow of fracturing fluids and slurries through hydraulically created fractures. During the time between September 30, 1992, and March 31, 2000, the research efforts were devoted to the areas of fluid rheology, proppant transport, proppant flowback, dynamic fluid loss, perforation pressure losses, and frictional pressure losses. In this regard, a unique above-the-ground fracture simulator was designed and constructed at the FFCF, labeled ''The High Pressure Simulator'' (HPS). The FFCF is now available to industry for characterizing and understanding the behavior of complex fluid systems. To better reflect and encompass the broad spectrum of the petroleum industry, the FFCF now operates under a new name of ''The Well Construction Technology Center'' (WCTC). This report documents the summary of the activities performed during 1992-2000 at the FFCF.

  6. Modeling opportunities and feasibility of siting wood-fired electrical generating facilities to facilitate landscape-scale fuel treatment with FIA BioSum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy S. Fried; Glenn Christensen; Dale Weyermann; R. Jamie Barbour; Roger Fight; Bruce Hiserote; Guy. Pinjuv

    2005-01-01

    Utilization of small diameter trees is viewed by many as the key to making landscape-scale fuel treatment financially feasible. But little capacity currently exists for utilizing such material and capacity of sufficient scale to have a significant impact on the economics of small diameter removals will only be added if predictable feedstocks can be assured. The FIA...

  7. Monitoring of Harmful Algal Blooms through Drinking Water Treatment Facilities Located on Lake Erie in the 2014 and 2015 Bloom Seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of drinking water treatment plants on Lake Erie have supplied water samples on a monthly basis for analysis related to the occurrence of harmful algal blooms (HABs). General water quality parameters including total organic carbon (TOC), orthophosphate, and chlorophyll-A ...

  8. Experience with the use of modafinil in the treatment of narcolepsy in a outpatient facility specialized in diurnal excessive sleepiness in São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilce Sanny Costa da Silva Behrens

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Narcolepsy is a chronic neurological disease characterized by diurnal excessive sleepiness and catapleaxy. It affects 1 in every 2000 to 4000 individuals with personal, social and familiar significant repercussions. The treatment of narcolepsy is mainly based on the use of stimulants for the control of the diurnal excessive sleepiness, in conjunction with behavioral measures and sleep hygiene. Among the stimulants, modafinil has presently been the drug of choice for the treatment of the diurnal excessive sleepiness in patients with narcolepsy. In the worldwide experience, its use is better tolerated and the majority of its side effects is considered light or moderate. However, the clinical use in Brazil was initiated at the end of 2008, with little experience on the narcolepsy population of this country. In this context, the objective of this study was the evaluation of the use of modafinil, verifying the indication of use, causes for discontinuation, daily dosage, efficiency of the treatment in a patient sample of narcoleptics consulted in a specialized center in Brazil. In this study, modafinil was effective for the control of the symptoms related do narcolepsy in 66% of the studied patients. The side effects such as headache, parestesias and diarrhea were the main reasons for the discontinuation of treatment with modafinil. It is important to clinically follow up the patients for a long period to evaluate symptomatology, control of use, tolerability and re-evaluation of the more effective therapeutic dosage able to control narcolepsy. Due to its high cost and clinical benefits, this drug should be on the government׳s list of free drugs for the treatment of these patients.

  9. Prevalence and causes of visual impairment and blindness among adults with diabetes mellitus aged 40 years and older receiving treatment at government health facilities in the Mopani District, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Mabaso

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents part of the findings of a study conducted to assess the prevalence and causes of visual impairment (VI and blindness among adults with diabetes mellitus (DM receiving treatment at the government health facilities in the Mopani District, South Africa.  This health facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 225 Black South African diabetics (161 females and 64 males aged 40-90 years (mean= 61.50 ± 10.49 years at seven different health care facilities. All the participants were examined for VI using an auto-refractor, pinhole disc, an ophthalmoscope, and a logMAR chart. Visual impairment was defined as visual acuity (VA of worse than 6/9.5 but better and equal to 3/60, and blindness as VA of worse than 3/60 to no light perception. The prevalence of uncompensated VI and blindness in the right eyes was 70.6 and 3.6%, respectively. In the left eyes, the prevalence was 72 and 3.1% for VI and blindness respectively. The prevalence of blindness remained the same after optical compensation. The leading causes of uncompensated VI and blindness in both eyes were uncorrected refractive error (RE (49.5%, cataract (24.7%, diabetic retinopathy (3.8% and glaucoma (2.2%. Following optical compensation, the prevalence of compensated VI and blindness in the right eyes was 41.3 and 3.6%, respectively and in the left eyes, the prevalence was 42.2 and 3.1%, respectively. Uncompensated RE and cataract were the common causes of VI and blindness in this sample. The socio-economic status of this population might have contributed to these findings. These results indicate the need for affordable vision examination and spectacles provision as well as cataract surgery services in this population.

  10. Uniform Facility Data Set US (UFDS-1997)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Uniform Facility Data Set (UFDS), formerly the National Drug and Alcohol Treatment Unit Survey or NDATUS, was designed to measure the scope and use of drug abuse...

  11. Uniform Facility Data Set US (UFDS-1998)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Uniform Facility Data Set (UFDS) was designed to measure the scope and use of drug abuse treatment services in the United States. The survey collects information...

  12. [Type of treatment and short-term outcome in elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction admitted to hospitals with a primary coronary angioplasty facility. The TRIANA (TRatamiento del Infarto Agudo de miocardio eN Ancianos) Registry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardají, Alfredo; Bueno, Héctor; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Cequier, Angel; Augé, Josep M; Heras, Magda

    2005-04-01

    The nature and outcome of treatment for acute myocardial infarction in elderly patients admitted to Spanish hospitals with primary angioplasty facilities are not well documented. Prospective analysis of registry data on patients > or =75 years old with ST-segment-elevation acute myocardial infarction admitted between April and July 2002 to Spanish hospitals with an active primary angioplasty program. We followed up 410 consecutive patients for 1 month. Their mean age was 80 (4.3) years and 46% were female. The median delay between symptom onset and arrival at hospital was 190 minutes. Around 42% of patients received no reperfusion therapy, 35% were treated by thrombolysis, and 22% by primary angioplasty. Patients who underwent reperfusion therapy were younger, were more frequently male, had a shorter delay from symptom onset to hospital arrival, and had a better initial hemodynamic status (Killip Class). However, they were more likely to have extensive anterior infarctions. Overall, 30-day mortality was 24.9%. Independent predictors of death were age, systolic blood pressure, and Killip class >1, but not use of thrombolysis or primary angioplasty. Over 42% of elderly patients with myocardial infarction admitted to Spanish hospitals with angioplasty facilities did not receive reperfusion therapy. Thrombolysis was the most frequently used reperfusion therapy. However, neither thrombolysis nor primary angioplasty improved 30-day mortality.

  13. Comparison of Methods to Identify Pathogens and Associated Virulence Functional Genes in Biosolids from Two Different Wastewater Treatment Facilities in Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Yergeau

    Full Text Available The use of treated municipal wastewater residues (biosolids as fertilizers is an attractive, inexpensive option for growers and farmers. Various regulatory bodies typically employ indicator organisms (fecal coliforms, E. coli and Salmonella to assess the adequacy and efficiency of the wastewater treatment process in reducing pathogen loads in the final product. Molecular detection approaches can offer some advantages over culture-based methods as they can simultaneously detect a wider microbial species range, including non-cultivable microorganisms. However, they cannot directly assess the viability of the pathogens. Here, we used bacterial enumeration methods together with molecular methods including qPCR, 16S rRNA and cpn60 gene amplicon sequencing and shotgun metagenomic sequencing to compare pre- and post-treatment biosolids from two Canadian wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs. Our results show that an anaerobic digestion WWTP was unsuccessful at reducing the live indicator organism load (coliforms, generic E. coli and Salmonella below acceptable regulatory criteria, while biosolids from a dewatering/pelletization WWTP met these criteria. DNA from other pathogens was detected by the molecular methods, but these species were considered less abundant. Clostridium DNA increased significantly following anaerobic digestion treatments. In addition to pathogen DNA, genes related to virulence and antibiotic resistance were identified in treated biosolids. Shotgun metagenomics revealed the widest range of pathogen DNA and, among the approaches used here, was the only approach that could access functional gene information in treated biosolids. Overall, our results highlight the potential usefulness of amplicon sequencing and shotgun metagenomics as complementary screening methods that could be used in parallel with culture-based methods, although more detailed comparisons across a wider range of sites would be needed.

  14. Microwave endometrial ablation at a frequency of 2.45 GHz for menorrhagia: analysis of treatment results at a single facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Kentaro; Ishibashi, Tomoka; Ishikawa, Masako; Katagiri, Atsuko; Katagiri, Hiroshi; Iida, Kouji; Nakayama, Naomi; Miyazaki, Kohji

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of microwave endometrial ablation at a frequency of 2.45 GHz in women with menorrhagia. This method has been attracting attention as an alternative to hysterectomy in the treatment of functional and organic menorrhagia. We performed microwave endometrial ablation in 103 women with menorrhagia between August 2007 and October 2012. All patients had completed child bearing. We evaluated the efficacy of microwave endometrial ablation using a visual analog scale for menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea, and patient satisfaction. We also evaluated the incidence of hypermenorrhea recurrence, amenorrhea, and procedure complications in relation to patients' clinical factors, such as the presence of myoma, adenomyosis, uterine size, and type of bleeding. A total of 76 patients completed the evaluation period. Excessive menstruation improved from a preoperative mean visual analog score of 10, to 1.9 after treatment. Dysmenorrhea improved from a mean score of 4.2, to 1.3, and patient satisfaction had a mean score of 9.0. Hemoglobin levels improved from 10.1 g/dL preoperatively to 12.5 g/dL postoperatively. Four patients experienced recurrence of excessive menstruation. No related clinical factors could be identified for recurrence risk or the occurrence of postoperative infection. A total of 26 patients (34.2%) became amenorrheic; these patients were less likely to have myomata, intramural myomata, and myomata larger than 5 cm. Microwave endometrial ablation at a frequency of 2.45 GHz is an effective and safe treatment. It should be considered as a standard treatment for conservative therapy-resistant menorrhagia. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. A comparison of sexually abused and non-sexually abused adolescents in a clinical treatment facility using the MMPI-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbey, J D; Ben-Porath, Y S; Davis, D L

    2000-04-01

    In the current study, the adolescent version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the MMPI-A, was used to address concerns voiced about the mixing of different developmental ages, use of inadequate comparison groups, and the lack of reliance on reliable and valid measures of psychological, behavioral, and psychosocial problems used in previous studies of sexually abused children and adolescents. A total of 107 adolescents in residential treatment (73 boys and 34 girls) were included in the study. Seventy-two of these adolescents had reportedly been sexually abused (42 boys and 30 girls); 35 had not been abused (31 boys and 4 girls). Predictions based on previous research with adolescents were made and tested regarding which MMPI-A validity, clinical, and content scales would differ between the sexually abused and non sexually abused groups of adolescents. Overall, and consistent with many predictions, sexually abused adolescents had both statistically and clinically higher elevations on several MMPI-A scales than did their non-abused counterparts. No scales were more elevated for non-abused adolescents than for abused adolescents. Sexually abused adolescents in residential treatment, as a group, present with concerns that their non-abused counterparts did not have, or did not share to the same extent. Treatment recommendations based on the MMPI-A scale elevations are provided, limitations of the current study discussed, and directions for further research are suggested.

  16. National Biomedical Tracer Facility: Project definition study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaton, R.; Peterson, E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Smith, P. [Smith (P.A.) Concepts and Designs (United States)

    1995-05-31

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is an ideal institution and New Mexico is an ideal location for siting the National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). The essence of the Los Alamos proposal is the development of two complementary irradiation facilities that combined with our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities and waste handling and disposal facilities provide a low cost alternative to other proposals that seek to satisfy the objectives of the NBTF. We propose the construction of a 30 MeV cyclotron facility at the site of the radiochemical facilities, and the construction of a 100 MeV target station at LAMPF to satisfy the requirements and objectives of the NBTF. We do not require any modifications to our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities or our waste treatment and disposal facilities to accomplish the objectives of the NBTF. The total capital cost for the facility defined by the project definition study is $15.2 M. This cost estimate includes $9.9 M for the cyclotron and associated facility, $2.0 M for the 100 MeV target station at LAMPF, and $3.3 M for design.

  17. Quantitative PCR Detection and Characterisation of Human Adenovirus, Rotavirus and Hepatitis A Virus in Discharged Effluents of Two Wastewater Treatment Facilities in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adefisoye, Martins Ajibade; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Green, Ezekiel; Okoh, Anthony Ifeanyin

    2016-12-01

    The occurrence of enteric viruses in reclaimed wastewater, their removal by efficient treatment processes and the public health hazards associated with their release into the environments are of great significance in environmental microbiology. In this study, TaqMan-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to assess the prevalence of human adenovirus (HAdV), rotavirus (RV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) in the final effluents of two wastewater treatment plants in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, over a twelve-month sampling period. The correlation between the concentrations of viruses in the effluents samples and faecal coliform (FC) densities were assessed as to validate the use of FC as microbiological indicator in water quality assessment. HAdV was detected in 62.5 % (30/48) of the samples with concentrations ranging between 8.4 × 10(1) and 1.0 × 10(5) genome copies/L while HAV and RV were only detected at concentrations below the set detection limits. FCs densities ranged from 1 to 2.7 × 10(4) CFU/100 ml. Adenovirus species HAdV-B (serotype 2) and HAdV-F (serotype 41) were detected in 86.7 % (26/30) and 6.7 % (2/30) of the HAdV-positive samples, respectively. No consistent seasonal trend was observed in HAdV concentrations, however, increased concentrations of HAdV were generally observed in the winter months. Also, there was no correlation between the occurrence of HAdV and FC at both the treatment plants. The persistent occurrence of HAdV in the discharged treated effluents points to the potential public health risk through the release of HAdV into the receiving watersheds, and the possibility of their transmission to human population.

  18. Materiel Evaluation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — CRREL's Materiel Evaluation Facility (MEF) is a large cold-room facility that can be set up at temperatures ranging from −20°F to 120°F with a temperature change...

  19. Integrated Disposal Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located near the center of the 586-square-mile Hanford Site is the Integrated Disposal Facility, also known as the IDF.This facility is a landfill similar in concept...

  20. Environmental Toxicology Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Fully-equipped facilities for environmental toxicology researchThe Environmental Toxicology Research Facility (ETRF) located in Vicksburg, MS provides over 8,200 ft...

  1. Explosive Components Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 98,000 square foot Explosive Components Facility (ECF) is a state-of-the-art facility that provides a full-range of chemical, material, and performance analysis...

  2. Dialysis Facility Compare

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Dialysis Facility Compare helps you find detailed information about Medicare-certified dialysis facilities. You can compare the services and the quality of care that...

  3. Armament Technology Facility (ATF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Armament Technology Facility is a 52,000 square foot, secure and environmentally-safe, integrated small arms and cannon caliber design and evaluation facility....

  4. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located near the K-Basins (see K-Basins link) in Hanford's 100 Area is a facility called the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF).Between 2000 and 2004, workers at the...

  5. Lesotho - Health Facility Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The main objective of the 2011 Health Facility Survey (HFS) was to establish a baseline for informing the Health Project performance indicators on health facilities,...

  6. Ouellette Thermal Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Thermal Test Facility is a joint Army/Navy state-of-the-art facility (8,100 ft2) that was designed to:Evaluate and characterize the effect of flame and thermal...

  7. Projectile Demilitarization Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Projectile Wash Out Facility is US Army Ammunition Peculiar Equipment (APE 1300). It is a pilot scale wash out facility that uses high pressure water and steam...

  8. Energetics Conditioning Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energetics Conditioning Facility is used for long term and short term aging studies of energetic materials. The facility has 10 conditioning chambers of which 2...

  9. Synthesis of Mn3O4 nanoparticles via a facile gel formation route and study of their phase and structural transformation with distinct surface morphology upon heat treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.M. Atique Ullah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mn3O4 nanoparticles (NPs were synthesized from the reduction of KMnO4 with glycerol at 80 °C in aqueous media via a gel formation route. In order to investigate the thermal stability and phase transformation, Mn3O4 NPs were subjected to heat treatment from 200 °C to 700 °C. The formation of different MnOx species observed by X-ray diffraction (XRD measurements showed temperature dependent phase transformation occurring during the heat treatment process. XRD patterns showed that Mn3O4 NPs were formed at a temperature of 80 °C and two new phases Mn5O8 and Mn2O3 were appeared at 350 °C and 700 °C respectively. The three different oxides having their distinct surface morphologies viz., spherical, rod and cube shape respectively, were observed. Detailed morphological and structural investigations using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM, XRD, Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC revealed the temperature dependent phases, crystal structures, lattice constants, particle sizes and surface morphologies of the MnOx species.

  10. Comparison of continuing medical education (CME priorities of midwives employed at health facilities and treatment centers of Kashan and Aran & Bidgol - 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Behrouzifar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Continuing Medical Education (CME, paying attention to professional empowerment on the basis of community needs and learners’ institutional requirements is necessary. This study was conducted to determine continuing CME priorities of midwifery graduates employed in health and treatment centers of Kashan and Aran & Bidgol cities located in central Iran (2010. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 71 midwives. A questionnaire including 87 educational items in 6 subjects was designed. Every item was scored on a Likert scale ranging from zero to ten. Data were extracted, classified and analyzed by SPSS software using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: Of the six subjects raised, gynecology (7.89±1.54 had the highest score and fundamentals of nursing (6.05±2.35 had the lowest score. Among different disease the topics of abnormal genital tract bleeding (9.32±1.3, diabetes mellitus during pregnancy (9.26±1.27, breast cancer (9±1.97, anemia (8.87±1.71, preventing the birth of premature infants (8.44±2.34 and infection control in special units (7.36±3.06, had the highest means, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between two groups of midwives employed in health centers and treatment centers regarding the need for learning some subjects. Conclusion: The need for CME priorities varied according to functional domains. This is essential to be considered by decision makers.

  11. Robustness in facility location

    OpenAIRE

    Van Lokven, Sander W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Facility location concerns the placement of facilities, for various objectives, by use of mathematical models and solution procedures. Almost all facility location models that can be found in literature are based on minimizing costs or maximizing cover, to cover as much demand as possible. These models are quite efficient for finding an optimal location for a new facility for a particular data set, which is considered to be constant and known in advance. In a real world situation, input da...

  12. CLEAR test facility

    CERN Multimedia

    Ordan, Julien Marius

    2017-01-01

    A new user facility for accelerator R&D, the CERN Linear Electron Accelerator for Research (CLEAR), started operation in August 2017. CLEAR evolved from the former CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3) used by the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). The new facility is able to host and test a broad range of ideas in the accelerator field.

  13. Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaa M. Raghab

    2013-08-01

    The main goal of this study is to utilize a natural low cost material “as an accelerator additive to enhance the chemical treatment process using Alum coagulant and the accelerator substances were Perlite and Bentonite. The performance of the chemical treatment was enhanced using the accelerator substances with 90 mg/l Alum as a constant dose. Perlite gave better performance than the Bentonite effluent. The removal ratio for conductivity, turbidity, BOD and COD for Perlite was 86.7%, 87.4%, 89.9% and 92.8% respectively, and for Bentonite was 83.5%, 85.0%, 86.5% and 85.0% respectively at the same concentration of 40 mg/l for each.

  14. The prevalence and factors associated for anti-tuberculosis treatment non-adherence among pulmonary tuberculosis patients in public health care facilities in South Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woimo, Tadele Teshome; Yimer, Wondwossen Kassahun; Bati, Temesgen; Gesesew, Hailay Abrha

    2017-03-20

    Evidence exists pointing out how non-adherence to treatment remains a major hurdle to efficient tuberculosis control in developing countries. Many tuberculosis (Tb) patients do not complete their six-month course of anti-tuberculosis medications and are not aware of the importance of sputum re-examinations, thereby putting themselves at risk of developing multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant forms of tuberculosis and relapse. However, there is a dearth of publications about non-adherence towards anti-Tb medication in these settings. We assessed the prevalence of and associated factors for anti-Tb treatment non-adherence in public health care facilities of South Ethiopia. This was a cross-sectional survey using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative study was conducted among 261 Tb patients from 17 health centers and one general hospital. The qualitative aspect included an in-depth interview of 14 key informants. For quantitative data, the analysis of descriptive statistics, bivariate and multiple logistic regression was carried out, while thematic framework analysis was applied for the qualitative data. The prevalence of non-adherence towards anti-Tb treatment was 24.5%. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that poor knowledge towards tuberculosis and its treatment (AOR = 4.6, 95%CI: 1.4-15.6), cost of medication other than Tb (AOR = 4.7, 95%CI: 1.7-13.4), having of health information at every visit (AOR = 3, 95% CI: 1.1-8.4) and distance of DOTS center from individual home (AOR = 5.7, 95%CI: 1.9-16.8) showed statistically significant association with non-adherence towards anti- tuberculosis treatment. Qualitative study also revealed that distance, lack of awareness about importance of treatment completion and cost of transportation were the major barriers for adherence. A quarter of Tb patients interrupted their treatment due to knowledge, availability and accessibility of DOTS service. We recommend

  15. The prevalence and factors associated for anti-tuberculosis treatment non-adherence among pulmonary tuberculosis patients in public health care facilities in South Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadele Teshome Woimo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence exists pointing out how non-adherence to treatment remains a major hurdle to efficient tuberculosis control in developing countries. Many tuberculosis (Tb patients do not complete their six-month course of anti-tuberculosis medications and are not aware of the importance of sputum re-examinations, thereby putting themselves at risk of developing multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant forms of tuberculosis and relapse. However, there is a dearth of publications about non-adherence towards anti-Tb medication in these settings. We assessed the prevalence of and associated factors for anti-Tb treatment non-adherence in public health care facilities of South Ethiopia. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative study was conducted among 261 Tb patients from 17 health centers and one general hospital. The qualitative aspect included an in-depth interview of 14 key informants. For quantitative data, the analysis of descriptive statistics, bivariate and multiple logistic regression was carried out, while thematic framework analysis was applied for the qualitative data. Results The prevalence of non-adherence towards anti-Tb treatment was 24.5%. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that poor knowledge towards tuberculosis and its treatment (AOR = 4.6, 95%CI: 1.4-15.6, cost of medication other than Tb (AOR = 4.7, 95%CI: 1.7-13.4, having of health information at every visit (AOR = 3, 95% CI: 1.1-8.4 and distance of DOTS center from individual home (AOR = 5.7, 95%CI: 1.9-16.8 showed statistically significant association with non-adherence towards anti- tuberculosis treatment. Qualitative study also revealed that distance, lack of awareness about importance of treatment completion and cost of transportation were the major barriers for adherence. Conclusions A quarter of Tb patients interrupted their treatment due to knowledge

  16. An evaluation of the Performance Diagnostic Checklist-Human Services to assess an employee performance problem in a center-based autism treatment facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditzian, Kyle; Wilder, David A; King, Allison; Tanz, Jeanine

    2015-01-01

    The Performance Diagnostic Checklist-Human Services (PDC-HS) is an informant-based tool designed to assess the environmental variables that contribute to poor employee performance in human services settings. We administered the PDC-HS to 3 supervisors to assess the variables that contributed to poor performance by 4 staff members when securing clients in therapy rooms at a treatment center for children with autism. The PDC-HS identified a lack of appropriate consequences as contributing to poor staff performance. We then evaluated a PDC-HS-indicated intervention as well as an intervention not suggested by PDC-HS results. The PDC-HS-indicated intervention (graphed feedback) was effective to increase performance; the non-PDC-HS-based intervention was ineffective. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  17. Prevalence of Multiple Antibiotics Resistant (MAR) Pseudomonas Species in the Final Effluents of Three Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odjadjare, Emmanuel E.; Igbinosa, Etinosa O.; Mordi, Raphael; Igere, Bright; Igeleke, Clara L.; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2012-01-01

    The final effluents of three (Alice, Dimbaza, and East London) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were evaluated to determine their physicochemical quality and prevalence of multiple antibiotics resistant (MAR) Pseudomonas species, between August 2007 and July 2008. The annual mean total Pseudomonas count (TPC) was 1.20 × 104 (cfu/100 mL), 1.08 × 104 (cfu/100 mL), and 2.66 × 104 (cfu/100 mL), for the Alice, Dimbaza, and East London WWTPs respectively. The effluents were generally compliant with recommended limits for pH, temperature, TDS, DO, nitrite and nitrate; but fell short of target standards for turbidity, COD, and phosphate. The tested isolates were highly sensitive to gentamicin (100%), ofloxacin (100%), clindamycin (90%), erythromycin (90%) and nitrofurantoin (80%); whereas high resistance was observed against the penicillins (90–100%), rifampin (90%), sulphamethoxazole (90%) and the cephems (70%). MAR index ranged between 0.26 and 0.58. The study demonstrated that MAR Pseudomonas species were quite prevalent in the final effluents of WWTPs in South Africa; and this can lead to serious health risk for communities that depend on the effluent-receiving waters for sundry purposes. PMID:22829792

  18. Facile synthesis of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@ porous hollow yeast-based carbonaceous microspheres for fluorescent whitening agent-VBL wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Pei; Tong, Zhiqing [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Chang' an University, Xi' an 710054 (China); Bai, Bo, E-mail: baibochina@163.com [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Medicine Research, Northwest Plateau Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810001 (China)

    2016-03-15

    Porous hollow carbonaceous microspheres (PHCMs) fabricated from yeast cells by hydrothermal treatment have stimulated interest because of their outstanding chemical and physical properties. Herein, the functionalizations of PHCMs by further coating of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles onto the surface were carried out. The structure of resulted α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@PHCMs products were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and BET specific surface area measurements (BET), respectively. Its promising application was evaluated by the Fenton-like degradation of fluorescent whitening agent-VBL from aqueous solutions. - Graphical abstract: In this work, novel α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@porous hollow carbonaceous microspheres (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@PHCMs) were synthesized through a combination of hydrothermal method and calcinations route and achieved excellent removal efficiency for fluorescent whitening Agent-VBL. - Highlights: • The hybrid α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@ porous hollow microspheres (PHCMs) were firstly fabricated. • The formation mechanism of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@PHCMs microspheres was proposed and verified. • Dithizone played a key role in the synthesis of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@PHCMs composites. • A favorable removal for the fluorescent whitening agent-VBL were achieved.

  19. Capacity of healthcare facilities in the implementation of Direct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority 17/26 (65.38%) of them were government owned. Thirty eight (44.7%) facilities were offer- ing TB laboratory services. All facilities with TB services (TB laboratory investigation and treatment) had TB registers. Seventy two (85.0%) of health facilities which do not provide any TB services had qualified clinical officers ...

  20. Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment for the Operation of the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility at Site 300 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Volume 1: Report of Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, G M; Daniels, J I; Wegrecki, A M

    2005-11-07

    Human health and ecological risk assessments are required as part of the Resource Recovery and Conservation Act (RCRA) permit renewal process for waste treatment units. This risk assessment is prepared in support of the RCRA permit renewal for the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility at Site 300 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The human health risk assessment is based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency approved emissions factors and on California Environmental Protection Agency, Air Resources Board and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency risk assessment and air dispersion models. The risk assessment identifies receptors of concern and evaluates carcinogenic risk, and acute and chronic noncarcinogenic hazard. The carcinogenic risk to a 30-year resident at the maximum offsite receptor location is 0.0000006 or 0.6 in one million. The carcinogenic risk to a 25-year worker at the maximum bystander on-site receptor location is also 0.0000006 or 0.6 in one million. Any risk of less than 1 in a million is below the level of regulatory concern. The acute noncarcinogenic hazard for the 30-year resident is 0.02 and the chronic noncarcinogenic hazard is 0.01. The acute noncarcinogenic hazard for the 25-year worker is 0.3 and the chronic noncarcinogenic hazard is 0.2. The point of comparison for acute and chronic noncarcinogenic hazard is 1.0, an estimate less than 1.0 is below the level of regulatory concern. The estimates of health effects are based on health conservative assumptions and represent an upper bound of the possible exposures to the receptors. For the ecological risk assessment, four receptor species were evaluated for potential detrimental effects; none were found to be adversely affected because for each species the predicted ecological hazard quotients are always less than one. Based on these results, emissions from the operations of the Explosive Waste Treatment Facility should not be considered to be of concern for human health or

  1. The outcome of patients in traumatic cardiac arrest presenting to deployed military medical treatment facilities: data from the UK Joint Theatre Trauma Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Ed B G; Hunt, P A F; Lewis, P E H; Smith, J E

    2017-10-06

    The UK military was continuously engaged in armed conflict in Iraq and Afghanistan between 2003 and 2014, resulting in 629 UK fatalities. Traumatic cardiac arrest (TCA) is a precursor to traumatic death, but data on military outcomes are limited. In order to better inform military treatment protocols, the aim of this study was to define the epidemiology of TCA in the military population with a particular focus on survival rates and injury patterns. A retrospective database analysis of the UK Joint Theatre Trauma Registry was undertaken. Patients who were transported to a UK deployed hospital between 2003 and 2014 and suffered TCA were included. Those patients injured by asphyxiation, electrocution, burns without other significant trauma and drowning were excluded. Data included mechanism of injury, Injury Severity Score (ISS), Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) for each body region and survival to deployed (Role 3) field hospital discharge. 424 TCA patients were identified during the study period; median age was 23 years, with a median ISS of 45. The most common mechanism of injury was explosive (55.7%), followed by gunshot wound (38.9%), road traffic collision (3.5%), crush (1.7%) and fall (0.2%). 45 patients (10.6% (95% CI 8.0% to 13.9%)) survived to deployed (Role 3) hospital discharge. The most prevalent body region with a severe to maximum AIS injury was the head, followed by the lower limbs, thorax and abdomen. Haemorrhage secondary to abdominal and lower limb injury was associated with survival; traumatic brain injury was associated with death. This study has shown that short-term survival from TCA in a military population is 10.6%. With appropriate and aggressive early management, although unlikely, survival is still potentially possible in military patients who suffer traumatic cardiac arrest. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  2. Ecological risks of home and personal care products in the riverine environment of a rural region in South China without domestic wastewater treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nai-Sheng; Liu, You-sheng; Van den Brink, Paul J; Price, Oliver R; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2015-12-01

    Home and personal care products (HPCPs) including biocides, benzotriazoles (BTs) and ultraviolet (UV) filters are widely used in our daily life. After use, they are discharged with domestic wastewater into the receiving environment. This study investigated the occurrence of 29 representative HPCPs, including biocides, BTs and UV filters, in the riverine environment of a rural region of South China where no wastewater treatment plants were present, and assessed their potential ecological risks to aquatic organisms. The results showed the detection of 11 biocides and 4 BTs in surface water, and 9 biocides, 3 BTs and 4 UV filters in sediment. In surface water, methylparaben (MeP), triclocarban (TCC), and triclosan (TCS) were detected at all sites with median concentrations of 9.23 ng/L, 2.64 ng/L and 5.39 ng/L, respectively. However, the highest median concentrations were found for clotrimazole (CLOT), 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole (MBT) and carbendazim (CARB) at 55.6 ng/L, 33.7 ng/L and 13.8 ng/L, respectively. In sediment, TCC, TCS, and UV-326 were detected with their maximum concentrations up to 353 ng/g, 155 ng/g, and 133 ng/g, respectively. The concentrations for those detected HPCPs in surface water and sediment were generally lower in the upper reach (rural area) of Sha River than in the lower reach of Sha River with close proximity to Dongjiang River (Pt-test<0.05), indicating other input sources of HPCPs in the lower reach. Biocides showed significantly higher levels in surface water in the wet season than in the dry and intermediate seasons. Preliminary risk assessment demonstrated that the majority of HPCPs monitored represented low risk in surface waters. There are potentially greater risks to aquatic organisms from the use of TCS and TCC in the wet season than in dry and intermediate seasons in surface waters. This preliminary assessment also indicates potential concerns associated with TCC, TCS, DEET, CARB, and CLOT in sediments, although additional data

  3. Facility Measures Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honess, Shawn B.; Narvaez, Pablo; Mcauley, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Partly automated facility measures and computes steady near magnetic field produced by object. Designed to determine magnetic fields of equipment to be installed on spacecraft including sensitive magnetometers, with view toward application of compensating fields to reduce interfernece with spacecraft-magnetometer readings. Because of its convenient operating features and sensitivity of its measurements, facility serves as prototype for similar facilities devoted to magnetic characterization of medical equipment, magnets for high-energy particle accelerators, and magnetic materials.

  4. Synchrotron radiation facilities

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    Particularly in the past few years, interest in using the synchrotron radiation emanating from high energy, circular electron machines has grown considerably. In our February issue we included an article on the synchrotron radiation facility at Frascati. This month we are spreading the net wider — saying something about the properties of the radiation, listing the centres where synchrotron radiation facilities exist, adding a brief description of three of them and mentioning areas of physics in which the facilities are used.

  5. Composite Structures Manufacturing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Composite Structures Manufacturing Facility specializes in the design, analysis, fabrication and testing of advanced composite structures and materials for both...

  6. GPS Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Global Positioning System (GPS) Test Facility Instrumentation Suite (GPSIS) provides great flexibility in testing receivers by providing operational control of...

  7. Flexible Electronics Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Flexible Electronics Research Facility designs, synthesizes, tests, and fabricates materials and devices compatible with flexible substrates for Army information...

  8. Nonlinear Materials Characterization Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Nonlinear Materials Characterization Facility conducts photophysical research and development of nonlinear materials operating in the visible spectrum to protect...

  9. Mobile Solar Tracker Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NIST's mobile solar tracking facility is used to characterize the electrical performance of photovoltaic panels. It incorporates meteorological instruments, a solar...

  10. Heated Tube Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Heated Tube Facility at NASA GRC investigates cooling issues by simulating conditions characteristic of rocket engine thrust chambers and high speed airbreathing...

  11. Imagery Data Base Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Imagery Data Base Facility supports AFRL and other government organizations by providing imagery interpretation and analysis to users for data selection, imagery...

  12. Universal Drive Train Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This vehicle drive train research facility is capable of evaluating helicopter and ground vehicle power transmission technologies in a system level environment. The...

  13. Proximal Probes Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Proximal Probes Facility consists of laboratories for microscopy, spectroscopy, and probing of nanostructured materials and their functional properties. At the...

  14. Catalytic Fuel Conversion Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility enables unique catalysis research related to power and energy applications using military jet fuels and alternative fuels. It is equipped with research...

  15. Textiles Performance Testing Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Textiles Performance Testing Facilities has the capabilities to perform all physical wet and dry performance testing, and visual and instrumental color analysis...

  16. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Department of Energy Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a collaborative, shared infrastructure to...

  17. Magnetics Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Magnetics Research Facility houses three Helmholtz coils that generate magnetic fields in three perpendicular directions to balance the earth's magnetic field....

  18. Neutron Therapy Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Neutron Therapy Facility provides a moderate intensity, broad energy spectrum neutron beam that can be used for short term irradiations for radiobiology (cells)...

  19. Target Assembly Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Target Assembly Facility integrates new armor concepts into actual armored vehicles. Featuring the capability ofmachining and cutting radioactive materials, it...

  20. Engine Test Facility (ETF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Air Force Arnold Engineering Development Center's Engine Test Facility (ETF) test cells are used for development and evaluation testing of propulsion systems for...