WorldWideScience

Sample records for wood inhabiting fungi

  1. Forest management and the diversity of wood-inhabiting fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Lindner Czederpiltz; Glen R. Stanosz; Harold H. Burdsall

    1999-01-01

    Since the summer of 1996, a project has been underway at the University of Wisconsin-Madison,Dept. of Plant Pathology, to determine how different forest management regimes can affect the diversity of fungi found in northern hardwood forests. This report is an introduction to this project's goals, objectives and methods. A particular group of fungi, the wood-...

  2. Relationship between wood-inhabiting fungi and Reticulitermes spp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant T. Kirker; Terence Wagner; Susan. Diehl

    2012-01-01

    Fungi from coarse woody debris samples containing or lacking termites were isolated, and identified from upland and bottomland hardwoods and pines in northeast Mississippi. Samples yielded 860 unique fungal isolates, with 59% identified to genus level. Four phyla, six classes, 10 orders, 14 families, and 50 genera were recovered. The fungal groups encountered by...

  3. Community turnover of wood-inhabiting fungi across hierarchical spatial scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerea Abrego

    Full Text Available For efficient use of conservation resources it is important to determine how species diversity changes across spatial scales. In many poorly known species groups little is known about at which spatial scales the conservation efforts should be focused. Here we examined how the community turnover of wood-inhabiting fungi is realised at three hierarchical levels, and how much of community variation is explained by variation in resource composition and spatial proximity. The hierarchical study design consisted of management type (fixed factor, forest site (random factor, nested within management type and study plots (randomly placed plots within each study site. To examine how species richness varied across the three hierarchical scales, randomized species accumulation curves and additive partitioning of species richness were applied. To analyse variation in wood-inhabiting species and dead wood composition at each scale, linear and Permanova modelling approaches were used. Wood-inhabiting fungal communities were dominated by rare and infrequent species. The similarity of fungal communities was higher within sites and within management categories than among sites or between the two management categories, and it decreased with increasing distance among the sampling plots and with decreasing similarity of dead wood resources. However, only a small part of community variation could be explained by these factors. The species present in managed forests were in a large extent a subset of those species present in natural forests. Our results suggest that in particular the protection of rare species requires a large total area. As managed forests have only little additional value complementing the diversity of natural forests, the conservation of natural forests is the key to ecologically effective conservation. As the dissimilarity of fungal communities increases with distance, the conserved natural forest sites should be broadly distributed in space, yet

  4. The role of novel forest ecosystems in the conservation of wood-inhabiting fungi in boreal broadleaved forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juutilainen, Katja; Mönkkönen, Mikko; Kotiranta, Heikki; Halme, Panu

    2016-10-01

    The increasing human impact on the earth's biosphere is inflicting changes at all spatial scales. As well as deterioration and fragmentation of natural biological systems, these changes also led to other, unprecedented effects and emergence of novel habitats. In boreal zone, intensive forest management has negatively impacted a multitude of deadwood-associated species. This is especially alarming given the important role wood-inhabiting fungi have in the natural decay processes. In the boreal zone, natural broad-leaved-dominated, herb-rich forests are threatened habitats which have high wood-inhabiting fungal species richness. Fungal diversity in other broadleaved forest habitat types is poorly known. Traditional wood pastures and man-made afforested fields are novel habitats that could potentially be important for wood-inhabiting fungi. This study compares species richness and fungal community composition across the aforementioned habitat types, based on data collected for wood-inhabiting fungi occupying all deadwood diameter fractions. Corticioid and polyporoid fungi were surveyed from 67 130 deadwood particles in four natural herb-rich forests, four birch-dominated wood pastures, and four birch-dominated afforested field sites in central Finland. As predicted, natural herb-rich forests were the most species-rich habitat. However, afforested fields also had considerably higher overall species richness than wood pastures. Many rare or rarely collected species were detected in each forest type. Finally, fungal community composition showed some divergence not only among the different habitat types, but also among deadwood diameter fractions. Synthesis and applications : In order to maintain biodiversity at both local and regional scales, conserving threatened natural habitat types and managing traditional landscapes is essential. Man-made secondary woody habitats could provide the necessary resources and serve as surrogate habitats for many broadleaved deadwood

  5. The role of novel forest ecosystems in the conservation of wood?inhabiting fungi in boreal broadleaved forests

    OpenAIRE

    Juutilainen, Katja; M?nkk?nen, Mikko; Kotiranta, Heikki; Halme, Panu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The increasing human impact on the earth's biosphere is inflicting changes at all spatial scales. As well as deterioration and fragmentation of natural biological systems, these changes also led to other, unprecedented effects and emergence of novel habitats. In boreal zone, intensive forest management has negatively impacted a multitude of deadwood?associated species. This is especially alarming given the important role wood?inhabiting fungi have in the natural decay processes. In t...

  6. Analysis of diversity of wood-inhabiting fungi retrieved from a Mediterranean forest dominated by Pinus pinaster Aiton

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    Maria D'Aguanno

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is focused on the diversity of wood-inhabiting fungi in a poorly investigated habitat: a Mediterranean forest dominated by maritime pine. The sampling area lies in Tocchi biogenetic Reserve, located in the province of Siena (Tuscany, Italy. The monitoring campaign was carried out in 10 permanents plots, taking note of all the fungal species found on each piece of dead wood, irrespective of size and stage of decay. Over one year of surveys, 56 taxa of wood-inhabiting fungi were recorded, among which 39 are corticoids species, 16 polypores and 1 Heterobasidiomycetes. The fungal community seems to be dominated by a small number of species, which are more abundant than the others. Moreover, there are some specific features of deadwood influencing the species composition, such as the presence of coarse woody debris at the first decay stage and fine woody debris at the late decay stages. The results allowed characterizing the wood-inhabiting fungal community in this forest reserve, broadening our knowledge on several species and providing a preliminary database for further studies in Mediterranean areas.

  7. Citizen science data reveal ecological, historical and evolutionary factors shaping interactions between woody hosts and wood-inhabiting fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann-Clausen, Jacob; Maruyama, Pietro K; Bruun, Hans Henrik; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Laessøe, Thomas; Frøslev, Tobias Guldberg; Dalsgaard, Bo

    2016-12-01

    Woody plants host diverse communities of associated organisms, including wood-inhabiting fungi. In this group, host effects on species richness and interaction network structure are not well understood, especially not at large geographical scales. We investigated ecological, historical and evolutionary determinants of fungal species richness and network modularity, that is, subcommunity structure, across woody hosts in Denmark, using a citizen science data set comprising > 80 000 records of > 1000 fungal species on 91 genera of woody plants. Fungal species richness was positively related to host size, wood pH, and the number of species in the host genus, with limited influence of host frequency and host history, that is, time since host establishment in the area. Modularity patterns were unaffected by host history, but largely reflected host phylogeny. Notably, fungal communities differed substantially between angiosperm and gymnosperm hosts. Host traits and evolutionary history appear to be more important than host frequency and recent history in structuring interactions between hosts and wood-inhabiting fungi. High wood acidity appears to act as a stress factor reducing fungal species richness, while large host size, providing increased niche diversity, enhances it. In some fungal groups that are known to interact with live host cells in the establishment phase, host selectivity is common, causing a modular community structure. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. The effects of habitat degradation on metacommunity structure of wood-inhabiting fungi in European beech forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halme, Panu; Ódor, Péter; Christensen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Intensive forest management creates habitat degradation by reducing the variation of forest stands in general, and by removing old trees and dead wood in particular. Non-intervention forest reserves are commonly believed to be the most efficient tool to counteract the negative effects...... with different management histories. For this purpose, we used a large data set of wood-inhabiting fungi collected from dead beech trees in European beech-dominated forest reserves. The structure of fungal assemblages showed high beta diversity, while nestedness and similarity was low. During the decomposition...... extirpated specialized species from the local species pools in managed sites, and resulted in more homogeneous communities in managed sites. It is alarming that community structure is affected the most in the latest decay stages where the decay process turns the dead wood into litter, and which is thus...

  9. Seven wood-inhabiting new species of the genus Trichoderma (Fungi, Ascomycota) in Viride clade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wen-Tao; Zhuang, Wen-Ying

    2016-06-01

    More than 200 recent collections of Trichoderma from China were examined and 16 species belonging to the Viride clade were identified based on integrated studies of phenotypic and molecular data. Among them, seven wood-inhabiting new species, T. albofulvopsis, T. densum, T. laevisporum, T. sinokoningii, T. sparsum, T. sphaerosporum and T. subviride, are found. They form trichoderma- to verticillium-like conidiophores, lageniform to subulate phialides and globose to ellipsoidal conidia, but vary greatly in colony features, growth rates, and sizes of phialides and conidia. To explore their taxonomic positions, the phylogenetic tree including all the known species of the Viride clade is constructed based on sequence analyses of the combined RNA polymerase II subunit b and translation elongation factor 1 alpha exon genes. Our results indicated that the seven new species were well-located in the Koningii, Rogersonii and Neorufum subclades as well as a few independent terminal branches. They are clearly distinguishable from any existing species. Morphological distinctions and sequence divergences between the new species and their close relatives were discussed.

  10. Wood-inhabiting fungi in southern Italy forest stands: morphogroups, vegetation types and decay classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Vito Mario; Lunghini, Dario; Maggi, Oriana; Persiani, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    The authors conducted an ecological study of forests subjected to varying management. The aim of the study was to extend and integrate, within a multivariate context, knowledge of how saproxylic fungal communities behave along altitudinal/vegetational gradients in response to the varying features and quality of coarse woody debris (CWD). The intra-annual seasonal monitoring of saproxylic fungi, based on sporocarp inventories, was used to investigate saproxylic fungi in relation to vegetation types and management categories. We analyzed fungal species occurrence, recorded according to the presence/absence and frequency of sporocarps, on the basis of the harvest season, of coarse woody debris decay classes as well as other environmental and ecological variables. Two-way cluster analysis, DCA and Spearman's rank correlations, for indirect gradient analysis, were performed to identify any patterns of seasonality and decay. Most of the species were found on CWD in an intermediate decay stage. The first DCA axis revealed the vegetational/microclimate gradient as the main driver of fungal community composition, while the second axis corresponded to a strong gradient of CWD decay classes. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  11. A Note on the Dyeing of Wool Fabrics Using Natural Dyes Extracted from Rotten Wood-Inhabiting Fungi

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    Vicente A. Hernández

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Fungal isolates obtained from rotten wood samples were identified and selected by their ability to produce fungal dyes in liquid media. Fungal isolates produced natural extracellular dyes with colors ranging from red to orange, yellow and purple. Dyes from two of these fungi, Talaromyces australis (red and Penicillium murcianum (yellow, were extracted and used to dye wool samples in a Data Color Ahiba IR Pro-Trade (model Top Speed II machine. The protein nature of wool interacted well with the fungal dyes producing colors suitable for textile applications when used to a concentration of 0.1 g·L−1. Results on color fastness when washing confirmed the affinity of the dyes with wool as the dyed samples kept their color in acceptable ranges after washing, without the implementation of mordanting pretreatments or the use of fixing agents.

  12. Wood-inhabiting, polyporoid fungi in aspen-dominated forests managed for biomass in the U.S. Lake States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas J. Brazee; Daniel L. Lindner; Shawn Fraver; Anthony W. D' Amato; Amy M. Milo

    2012-01-01

    To better understand the potential long-term effects of biomass harvesting on biodiversity, the polyporoid fungi community was characterized from 120 plots in four aspen-dominated forests in Minnesota. Four deadwood variables (substratum species, substratum type, decay class and diameter class) were recorded for each polyporoid species occurrence. A total of 2358...

  13. Bacteria in decomposing wood and their interactions with wood-decay fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Sarah R; Boddy, Lynne; Weightman, Andrew J

    2016-11-01

    The fungal community within dead wood has received considerable study, but far less attention has been paid to bacteria in the same habitat. Bacteria have long been known to inhabit decomposing wood, but much remains underexplored about their identity and ecology. Bacteria within the dead wood environment must interact with wood-decay fungi, but again, very little is known about the form this takes; there are indications of both antagonistic and beneficial interactions within this fungal microbiome. Fungi are hypothesised to play an important role in shaping bacterial communities in wood, and conversely, bacteria may affect wood-decay fungi in a variety of ways. This minireview considers what is currently known about bacteria in wood and their interactions with fungi, and proposes possible associations based on examples from other habitats. It aims to identify key knowledge gaps and pressing questions for future research. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Phylogeny of rock-inhabiting fungi related to Dothideomycetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruibal, C.; Gueidan, C.; Selbmann, L.; Gorbushina, A.A.; Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Muggia, L.; Grube, M.; Isola, D.; Schoch, C.L.; Staley, J.T.; Lutzoni, F.; Hoog, de G.S.

    2009-01-01

    The class Dothideomycetes (along with Eurotiomycetes) includes numerous rock-inhabiting fungi (RIF), a group of ascomycetes that tolerates surprisingly well harsh conditions prevailing on rock surfaces. Despite their convergent morphology and physiology, RIF are phylogenetically highly diverse in

  15. Bioremediation of treated wood with fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Illman; Vina W. Yang

    2006-01-01

    The authors have developed technologies for fungal bioremediation of waste wood treated with oilborne or metal-based preservatives. The technologies are based on specially formulated inoculum of wood-decay fungi, obtained through strain selection to obtain preservative-tolerant fungi. This waste management approach provides a product with reduced wood volume and the...

  16. Assessment of wood-inhabiting Basidiomycetes for biokraft pulping of softwood chips

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wolfaardt, F

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Wood-inhabiting Basidiomycetes have been screened for various applications in the pulp and paper industry and it is evident that different fungi need to be used to suit the specific requirements of each application. This study assessed...

  17. Common wood decay fungi found in the Caribbean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Jean. Lodge

    2016-01-01

    There are hundreds of wood-decay fungi in the Caribbean Basin, but relatively few of these are likely to grow on manmade structures built of wood or wood-composites. The wood-decay fungi of greatest concern are those that cause brown-rot, and especially brown-rot fungi that are resistant to copper-based wood preservatives. Some fungi that grow in the Caribbean and...

  18. Effects of Wood Ash on Soil Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz Paredes, Carla

    ), copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni), is a major environmental concern. This work is part of the project ASHBACK (www.ashback.dk) which addresses the potentials and possible problems in re-distributing wood ash to the forest. The aim of this thesis was to determine the effects of biomass ash application...... in a Norway spruce forest where different amounts of wood ash were spread on the soil to study the effects on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, bioaccumulation of metals in sporocarps, and microbial communities. Laboratory microcosm experiments were run in parallel to the field studies, to compare the effects...... of wood ash with factorial additions of lime and Cd to disentangle the pH and Cd effects of wood ash amendments using community trait distributions. Barley yield, P content, and Cd content were not affected by biomass ashes. Some arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal species were reduced when biomass ashes...

  19. Biodegrading effects of some rot fungi on Pinus caribaea wood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... species of white-rot fungi; Corioliopsis polyzona and Pleurotus squarrosulus, and two species of brown- rot fungi; Lentinus ... The results indicated that biodegradation by rot fungi differs in intensity according to the fungus ..... wood of coast red wood Sequoia Sempervirens (D. Don). For. Prod. J. 33(5): 15-20 ...

  20. Interspecific interactions between wood-inhabiting basidiomycetes in boreal forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmer, L.

    1996-05-01

    Studies of competition and succession in communities of wood-decomposing fungi were carried out using laboratory tests with different approaches. Based on results of these tests, an attempt to biologically control Heterobasidion annosum was made in field. Competitive interactions between six species of wood decay fungi were studied using a system of preinoculated wood blocks in unsterilized soil. Two of the species were root-rotting pathogens with a primary resource capture strategy, and four were primarily saprotrophic cord-forming species assumed to use secondary resource capture strategy. Of the species tested, Resinicium bicolor was the most successful in spreading through the soil, and it replaced other species, including the pathogens. When R. bicolor was absent other cord-forming species were able to expand their domain. A new system for measuring competitive success was developed. `Pie slices` were cut from round wood-discs, and after preinoculation, the pieces were paired in all possible combinations on water agar. In this way, inoculum size could be varied while the size of the contact area remained the same. Large mycelia had more competitive success than did smaller ones when paired with the same species. In a pilot study, R. bicolor was most successful in replacing the opposing species and H. annosum had the least success. In general, species found late in the succession were strong competitors, while earlier colonizers had less success. Species acting as selective replacers of primary decay species were found to be more competitive than the latter. 134 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab

  1. Biodegrading effects of some rot fungi on Pinus caribaea wood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    morelet) in Ijaiye Forest Reserve, 38 km northwest of Ibadan, Nigeria. The wood samples were inoculated separately with two species of white-rot fungi; Corioliopsis polyzona and Pleurotus squarrosulus, and two species of brownrot fungi; ...

  2. Natural Protection of Wood with Antagonism Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba ZAREMSKI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological environments contain a certain number of microbial populations which, within a givenecological niche, display various relations ranging from symbiosis to parasitism. Researchers have beeninterested in these types of relations for around fifty years, especially in one very particular type ofrelationship: the antagonism exerted between individuals of the same microbial population.Today, the role played by biological agents, bringing into play inhibitive or destructive antibioticsubstances, reveals a certain potential for their use in controlling microorganisms associated with suchdegradation processes.The work undertaken by HydroQuébec and CIRAD involved two types of experiment: 1 in Petri dishes toassess and characterize the antagonistic capacity of Trichoderma against white rot and brown rot fungi; 2on pieces taken from untreated poles in order to study confrontation between the basidiomycete and theantagonistic strain in wood.This study investigated the antagonism of three ascomycetes of the genus Trichoderma against two whiterot basidiomycetes, Pycnoporus sanguineus and Coriolus versicolor, and two brown rot basidiomycetes,Antrodia sp. and Coniophora puteana, through direct confrontation in Petri dishes and in the wood ofHydroQuébec poles.The results obtained seemed to complete each other coherently. They revealed that the Trichodermagroup of fungi was not aggressive to wood and the results obtained after direct confrontation in Petri disheswere confirmed in wood.By directly exposing the different basidiomycetes and antagonists to each other in Petri dishes, two bytwo, we effectively revealed an antagonism effect for a large majority of the pairs. However, there wassubstantial variability in reactions from one pair to the next.

  3. Communities of fungi in decomposed wood of oak and pine

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    Kwaśna Hanna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The abundance and diversity of wood decomposing fungi were investigated by isolating and cultivating filamentous fungi from wood and by detection of fruit bodies of ascomycetous and basidiomycetous fungi. The objective was to study the impact of forest management on fungi in 100-year-old oak and 87-year-old Scots pine forests in Northern Poland. Fungi were found on coarse woody debris of decayed stumps and fallen logs, boughs and branches in each of the three (managed and unmanaged examined stands. In total, 226 species of Oomycota and fungi were recorded. Oak wood was colonized by one species of Oomycota and 141 species of fungi including Zygomycota (19 species, Ascomycota (103 species and Basidiomycota (19 species. Scots pine wood was also colonized by one species of Oomycota and 138 species of fungi including Zygomycota (19 species, Ascomycota (90 species and Basidiomycota (29 species. In the first, second and third stages of decomposition, the oak wood was colonized by 101, 89 and 56 species of fungi respectively and pine wood was colonized by 82, 103 and 47 species respectively. Eighty three of the observed species (37% occurred on both types of wood, while the other species displayed nutritional preferences. A decrease in the number of species with advancing decay indicates the necessity for a continuous supply of dead wood to the forest ecosystem.

  4. Potential wood protection strategies using physiological requirements of wood degrading fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sailer, M.F.; Etten, B.D. van

    2004-01-01

    Due to the increasing restrictions in the use of wood preserving biocides a number of potential biocide free wood preserving alternatives are currently assessed. Wood degrading fungi require certain conditions in the wood in order to be able to use wood as a food source. This paper discusses the

  5. Application of molecular genetic methods for identification of wood-decaying fungi in wood constructions

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Bobeková; Michal Tomšovský; Petr Horáček

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to evaluate the utilization of molecular biology methods for detection of wood decaying fungi directly from decomposed wood using a commercial DNA extraction kit developed for soil substrates (PowerSoil™ DNA isolation kit). The experiment based on dry rot fungus (Serpula lacrymans) detection from inoculated wooden pieces under laboratory conditions was followed by field detection of wood-decaying fungi from wood structures on building constructions. Fungal DNA was ide...

  6. Application of ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy to Compare the Cell Materials of Wood Decay Fungi with Wood Mould Fungi

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    Barun Shankar Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood fungi create vast damage among standing trees and all types of wood materials. The objectives of this study are to (a characterize the cell materials of two major wood decay fungi (Basidiomycota, namely, Trametes versicolor and Postia placenta, and (b compare the cell materials of decay fungi with four wood mould fungi (Ascomycota, namely, Aureobasidium pullulans, Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, and Ulocladium atrum. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy is used to characterize the microbial cellular materials. The results showed that the IR bands for the fatty acid at ∼2900 cm−1 were different for the two-decay-fungi genre. Postia placenta shows more absorbance peaks at the fatty acid region. Band ratio indices for amide I and amide II from protein amino acids were higher for the mould fungi (Ascomycota than the decay fungi (Basidiomycota. Similarly, the band ratio index calculated for the protein end methyl group was found to be higher for the mould fungi than the decay fungi. Mould fungi along with the decay fungi demonstrated a positive correlation (R2=0.75 between amide I and amide II indices. The three-component multivariate, principal component analysis showed a strong correlation of amide and protein band indices.

  7. Extracellular oxidative metabolism of wood decay fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Cullen

    2010-04-21

    Substantial progress has been made toward understanding the fundamental physiology and genetics of wood decay fungi, microbes that are capable of degrading all major components of plant cell walls. Efficient utilization of lignocellulosic biomass has been hampered in part by limitations in our understanding of enzymatic mechanisms of plant cell wall degradation. This is particularly true of woody substrates where accessibility and high lignin content substantially complicate enzymatic 'deconstruction'. The interdisciplinary research has illuminated enzymatic mechanisms essential for the conversion of lignocellulosics to simple carbohydrates and other small molecular weight products. Progress was in large part dependent on substantial collaborations with the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute (JGI) in Walnut Creek and Los Alamos, as well as the Catholic University, Santiago, Chile, the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, the University of Minnesota, St. Paul, and colleagues at the University of Wisconsin and the Forest Products Laboratory. Early accomplishments focused on the development of experimental tools (2, 7, 22, 24-26, 32) and characterization of individual genes and enzymes (1, 3-5, 8, 9, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 23, 27, 33). In 2004, the genome of the most intensively studied lignin-degrading fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, was published (21). This milestone lead to additional progress on this important model system (6, 10, 12, 13, 16, 28-31) and was further complemented by genome analysis of other important cellulose-degrading fungi (19, 20). These accomplishments have been highly cited and have paved the way for whole new research areas.

  8. Use of gamma radiation to eliminate fungi from wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitag, C.M.; Morrell, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    The use of gamma irradiation for eliminating pests from imported wood products was investigated, using ponderosa pine blocks colonized by Aspergillus niger, Ophiostoma piceae, O. perfectum, Penicillium spp., Phlebia subserialis, or Postia placenta. While previous studies suggest that a dosage of 2.5 Mrads is required to eliminate fungi from wood, only one isolation was made from wafers exposed to 1.5 Mrad. This suggests that lower dosages may be adequate for mitigating pests in wood, although further studies using other fungi are recommended

  9. Application of molecular genetic methods for identification of wood-decaying fungi in wood constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bobeková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to evaluate the utilization of molecular biology methods for detection of wood decaying fungi directly from decomposed wood using a commercial DNA extraction kit developed for soil substrates (PowerSoil™ DNA isolation kit. The experiment based on dry rot fungus (Serpula lacrymans detection from inoculated wooden pieces under laboratory conditions was followed by field detection of wood-decaying fungi from wood structures on building constructions. Fungal DNA was identified using the PCR–based methods including species-specific PCR and sequencing of amplified ITS region of ribosomal DNA.

  10. Wood-damaging fungi in truss structures of baroque churches

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frankl, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 5 (2015), s. 04014138 ISSN 0887-3828 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP105/11/P628; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : wood * biological damage * wood-damaging fungi Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage Impact factor: 0.893, year: 2015 http://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/(ASCE)CF.1943-5509.0000632

  11. Alteration of protein patterns in black rock inhabiting fungi as a response to different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesei, Donatella; Marzban, Gorji; Zakharova, Kristina; Isola, Daniela; Selbmann, Laura; Sterflinger, Katja

    2012-01-01

    Rock inhabiting fungi are among the most stress tolerant organisms on Earth. They are able to cope with different stressors determined by the typical conditions of bare rocks in hot and cold extreme environments. In this study first results of a system biological approach based on two-dimensional protein profiles are presented. Protein patterns of extremotolerant black fungi – Coniosporium perforans, Exophiala jeanselmei – and of the extremophilic fungus – Friedmanniomyces endolithicus – were compared with the cosmopolitan and mesophilic hyphomycete Penicillium chrysogenum in order to follow and determine changes in the expression pattern under different temperatures. The 2D protein gels indicated a temperature dependent qualitative change in all the tested strains. Whereas the reference strain P. chrysogenum expressed the highest number of proteins at 40 °C, thus exhibiting real signs of temperature induced reaction, black fungi, when exposed to temperatures far above their growth optimum, decreased the number of proteins indicating a down-regulation of their metabolism. Temperature of 1 °C led to an increased number of proteins in all of the analysed strains, with the exception of P. chrysogenum. These first results on temperature dependent reactions in rock inhabiting black fungi indicate a rather different strategy to cope with non-optimal temperature than in the mesophilic hyphomycete P. chrysogenum. PMID:22862921

  12. Soil-wood interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der Annemieke; klein Gunnewiek, Paulien; Boer, de Wietse

    2017-01-01

    Wood-inhabiting fungi may affect soil fungal communities directly underneath decaying wood via their exploratory hyphae. In addition, differences in wood leachates between decaying tree species may influence soil fungal communities. We determined the composition of fungi in 4-yr old decaying logs

  13. Control of grapevine wood fungi in commercial nurseries

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    C. Rego

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous surveys conducted in commercial nurseries found that different wood fungi, namely Cylindrocarpon spp., Botryosphaeriaceae, Phomopsis viticola and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora infect grapevine cuttings. Two field trials were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of cyprodinil + fludioxonil, pyraclostrobin + metiram, fludioxonil and cyprodinil to prevent or reduce natural infections caused by such fungi. Rootstock and scion cuttings were soaked in fungicidal suspensions for 50 min prior to grafting. After callusing, the grafted cuttings were planted in two commercial field nurseries with and without a previous history of grapevine cultivation. After nine months in the nursery, the plants were uprooted and analysed for the incidence and severity of the wood fungi. Plants uprooted from the field without a previous history of grapevine cultivation were generally less strongly infected by wood fungi. Under this condition, only the mixture cyprodinil + fludioxonil simultaneously reduced the incidence of Cylindrocarpon and Botryosphaeriaceae fungi, as well as the severity of Cylindrocarpon infections. Treatments did not produce significant differences in the incidence and severity of P. viticola, and Pa. chlamydospora. For plants grown in the field with a grapevine history, all fungicides except cyprodinil significantly reduced the incidence and severity of Cylindrocarpon fungi. Also, the incidence and severity of Botryosphaeriaceae pathogens were significantly decreased both by cyprodinil + fludioxonil and by cyprodinil. No significant differences were noticed for P. viticola incidence and severity, and Pa. chlamydospora was not detected again. These results suggest that the practice of soaking grapevine cuttings in selected fungicides prior to grafting significantly reduces Cylindrocarpon spp. and Botryosphaeriaceae infections, thus improving the quality of planting material.

  14. Taxonomy and phylogeny of new wood- and soil-inhabiting Sporothrix species in the Ophiostoma stenoceras-Sporothrix schenckii complex.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Meyer, E.M.; de Beer, Z.W.; Summerbell, R.C.; Moharram, A.M.; de Hoog, G.S.; Vismer, H.F.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Sporothrix, one of the anamorph genera of Ophiostoma, includes the important human pathogen S. schenckii and various fungi associated with insects and sap stain of wood. A survey of fungi from wood utility poles in South Africa yielded two distinct groups of Sporothrix isolates from different

  15. Phytate degradation by fungi and bacteria that inhabit sawdust and coffee residue composts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathallh Eida, Mohamed; Nagaoka, Toshinori; Wasaki, Jun; Kouno, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Phytate is the primary source of organic phosphorus, but it cannot be directly utilized by plants and is strongly adsorbed by the soil, reducing bioavailability. Composting is a process used to improve the bioavailability of phytate in organic wastes through degradation by microorganisms. In this study, we aimed to investigate the phytate-degrading ability of fungi and bacteria that inhabit sawdust compost and coffee residue compost, and their contribution to the composting process. In the plate assay, the fungi that formed clear zones around their colonies belonged to the genera Mucor, Penicillium, Galactomyces, Coniochaeta, Aspergillus, and Fusarium, while the bacteria belonged to the genera Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Chitinophaga, and Rahnella. Eight fungal isolates (genera Mucor, Penicillium, Galactomyces, and Coniochaeta) and four bacterial isolates (genera Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, and Rahnella) were selected to evaluate phytase activity in their liquid culture and their ability to degrade phytate in organic materials composed of mushroom media residue and rice bran. The selected fungi degraded phytate in organic materials to varying degrees. Penicillium isolates showed the highest degradation ability and Coniochaeta isolate exhibited relatively high degradation ability. The clear zone diameters of these fungal isolates displayed significantly positive and negative correlations with inorganic and phytate phosphorus contents in the organic materials after incubation, respectively; however, none of the selected bacteria reduced phytate phosphorus in organic materials. It is therefore possible that fungi are major contributors to phytate degradation during composting.

  16. Online resources for the identification of North American wood decay fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessie A. Glaeser

    2012-01-01

    The ability to identify wood decay fungi is an important skill for an arborist. Knowing which fungus is colonizing a tree can be used to better assess the type, amount, and position of decay in the tree, and its subsequent effects on wood strength. Distinguishing species of fungi that colonize sapwood, heartwood, or roots can provide information to improve the quality...

  17. Interactions between soil- and dead wood-inhabiting fungal communities during the decay of Norway spruce logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkipää, Raisa; Rajala, Tiina; Schigel, Dmitry; Rinne, Katja T; Pennanen, Taina; Abrego, Nerea; Ovaskainen, Otso

    2017-09-01

    We investigated the interaction between fungal communities of soil and dead wood substrates. For this, we applied molecular species identification and stable isotope tracking to both soil and decaying wood in an unmanaged boreal Norway spruce-dominated stand. Altogether, we recorded 1990 operational taxonomic units, out of which more than 600 were shared by both substrates and 589 were found to exclusively inhabit wood. On average the soil was more species-rich than the decaying wood, but the species richness in dead wood increased monotonically along the decay gradient, reaching the same species richness and community composition as soil in the late stages. Decaying logs at all decay stages locally influenced the fungal communities from soil, some fungal species occurring in soil only under decaying wood. Stable isotope analyses suggest that mycorrhizal species colonising dead wood in the late decay stages actively transfer nitrogen and carbon between soil and host plants. Most importantly, Piloderma sphaerosporum and Tylospora sp. mycorrhizal species were highly abundant in decayed wood. Soil- and wood-inhabiting fungal communities interact at all decay phases of wood that has important implications in fungal community dynamics and thus nutrient transportation.

  18. Acridine Orange Indicates Early Oxidation of Wood Cell Walls by Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl J. Houtman; Peter Kitin; Jon C. D. Houtman; Kenneth E. Hammel; Christopher G. Hunt

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of wood blocks by brown and white rot fungi rapidly resulted in detectable wood oxidation, as shown by a reduced phloroglucinol response, a loss of autofluorescence, and acridine orange (AO) staining. This last approach is shown to provide a novel method for identifying wood oxidation. When lignin was mildly oxidized, the association between AO and lignin...

  19. Dung-inhabiting fungi: a potential reservoir of novel secondary metabolites for the control of plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrocco, Sabrina

    2016-04-01

    Coprophilous fungi are a large group of saprotrophic fungi mostly found in herbivore dung. The number of these fungi undergoing investigation is continually increasing, and new species and genera continue to be described. Dung-inhabiting fungi play an important ecological role in decomposing and recycling nutrients from animal dung. They produce a large array of bioactive secondary metabolites and have a potent enzymatic arsenal able to utilise even complex molecules. Bioactive secondary metabolites are actively involved in interaction with and defence against other organisms whose growth can be inhibited, resulting in an enhanced ecological fitness of producer strains. Currently, these antibiotics and bioactive secondary metabolites are of interest in medicine in particular, while very little information is available concerning their potential use in agriculture. This review introduces the ecology of dung-inhabiting fungi, with particular emphasis on the production of antibiotic compounds as a means to compete with other microorganisms. Owing to the fast pace of technological progress, new approaches to predicting the biosynthesis of bioactive metabolites are proposed. Coprophilous fungi should be considered as elite candidate organisms for the discovery of novel antifungal compounds, above all in view of their exploitation for crop protection. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Hexadecyl ammonium chloride amylose inclusion complex to emulsify cedarwood oil and treat wood against termites and wood-decay fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.J. Eller; W.T. Hay; G.T. Kirker; M.E. Mankowski; G.W. Sellling

    2018-01-01

    Cedarwood oil (CWO) has a wide range of bioactivities, including insect repellency and toxicity, as well as conferring resistance against termites and wood-decay fungi. In previous work examining pressure treatment of wood, ethanol was used as the diluent/carrier for CWO. However, it is preferable to use a water-based carrier for environmental, safety and cost...

  1. Content of Chemical Elements in Wood-Destroying Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strapáč I.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the content of chemical elements in the dried fruiting bodies of edible wood decaying fungi such as Honey mushrooms (Armillaria mellea, Shiitakes (Lentinus edodes and Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus. Powdered samples of fungi were mineralized in a microwave digestion. Twenty-one (21 chemical elements were detected in the plasma of the device ICP-MS AGILENT 7500c by accredited methods with the aid of calibration curves. The content of individual elements varied within a considerable range. The highest contents of K, Mn, Cu and Cd were found in the fruiting bodies of Honey mushrooms (Armillaria mellea. Shiitakes (Lentinus edodes had the highest content of B and Mo. Significant differences were found in the content of elements in the Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus from Slovakia, Hungary and China. The highest content of Al was found in the Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus from Hungary. The Chinese oysters had a maximum contents of Ca, Mg, Co, Pb, As and U. The Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus from Lemešany (Slovakia had the highest contents of Na, Zn, Fe, Se, Ag, Hg and Cr. The difference of chemical element content could be influenced by the genotype of the fungus and by the composition of substrate on which mushroom grow up.

  2. Non-target effects of fungicides on nectar-inhabiting fungi of almond flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Robert N; Vannette, Rachel L; Brittain, Claire; Williams, Neal M; Fukami, Tadashi

    2017-04-01

    Nectar mediates interactions between plants and pollinators in natural and agricultural systems. Specialized microorganisms are common nectar inhabitants, and potentially important mediators of plant-pollinator interactions. However, their diversity and role in mediating pollination services in agricultural systems are poorly characterized. Moreover, agrochemicals are commonly applied to minimize crop damage, but may present ecological consequences for non-target organisms. Assessment of ecological risk has tended to focus on beneficial macroorganisms such as pollinators, with less attention paid to microorganisms. Here, using culture-independent methods, we assess the impact of two widely-used fungicides on nectar microbial community structure in the mass-flowering crop almond (Prunus dulcis). We predicted that fungicide application would reduce fungal richness and diversity, whereas competing bacterial richness would increase, benefitting from negative effects on fungi. We found that fungicides reduced fungal richness and diversity in exposed flowers, but did not significantly affect bacterial richness, diversity, or community composition. The relative abundance of Metschnikowia OTUs, nectar specialists that can impact pollination, was reduced by both fungicides. Given growing recognition of the importance of nectar microorganisms as mediators of plant-pollinator mutualisms, future research should consider the impact of management practices on plant-associated microorganisms and consequences for pollination services in agricultural landscapes. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Molecular characterization of endophytic fungi associated with the roots of Chenopodium quinoa inhabiting the Atacama Desert, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Teuber, M; Vilo, C; Bascuñán-Godoy, L

    2017-03-01

    Plant roots can be highly colonized by fungal endophytes. This seems to be of particular importance for the survival of plants inhabiting stressful habitats. This study focused on the Identification of the fungal endophytic community associated with the roots of quinoa plants ( Chenopodium quinoa ) growing near the salt lakes of the Atacama Desert, Chile. One hundred endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy quinoa roots, and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was sequenced for phylogenetic and taxonomic analysis. The isolates were classified into eleven genera and 21 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Despite a relatively high diversity of root endophytic fungi associated with quinoa plants, the fungal community was dominated by only the Ascomycota phyla. In addition, the most abundant genera were Penicillium , Phoma and Fusarium , which are common endophytes reported in plant roots. This study shows that roots of C . quinoa harbor a diverse group of endophytic fungi. Potential roles of these fungi in plant host tolerance to stressful conditions are discussed.

  4. Temporal changes in wood crystalline cellulose during degradation by brown rot fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howell, Caitlin; Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Goodell, Barry

    2009-01-01

    The degradation of wood by brown rot fungi has been studied intensely for many years in order to facilitate the preservation of in-service wood. In this work we used X-ray diffraction to examine changes in wood cellulose crystallinity caused by the brown rot fungi Gloeophyllum trabeum, Coniophora...... planes in all degraded samples after roughly 20% weight loss, as well as a decrease in the average observed relative peak width at 2¿ = 22.2°. These results may indicate a disruption of the outer most semi-crystalline cellulose chains comprising the wood microfibril. X-ray diffraction analysis of wood...... subjected to biological attack by fungi may provide insight into degradative processes and wood cellulose structure....

  5. Comparative transcriptome and secretome analysis of wood decay fungi Postia placenta and Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amber J. Vanden Wymelenberg; Jill Gaskell; Michael Mozuch; Grzegorz Sabat; John Ralph; Oleksandr Skyba; Shawn D Mansfield; Robert A. Blanchette; Diego Martinez; Igor Grigoriev; Philip J Kersten; Daniel Cullen

    2010-01-01

    Cellulose degradation by brown rot fungi, such as Postia placenta, is poorly understood relative to the phylogenetically related white rot basidiomycete, Phanerochaete chrysosporium. To elucidate the number, structure, and regulation of genes involved in lignocellulosic cell wall attack, secretome and transcriptome analyses were performed on both wood decay fungi...

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF WOOD DECAY BY ROT FUNGI USING COLORIMETRY AND INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mírian de Almeida Costa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Wood samples of marupá (Simarouba amara and andiroba (Carapa guianenis were submitted to Trametes versicolor (white rot and Gloeophylum trabeum (brown rot fungi attack. Colorimetry was used to determine the color of the wood before and after wood decaying fungi. To evaluate the changes in chemical compounds levels in the wood samples, the diffuse reflectance medium infrared spectroscopy was used. Both wood were non resistant against white rot fungus, while with brown rot attack andiroba was resistant and marupá was not. After Gloeophyllum trabeum attack both woods changed to a darken color, and after Trametes versicolor attack andiroba changed to a lighter color and marupá darkened slightly, The analysis showed a reduction in the peak intensity of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, for both species, after Trametes versicolor attack and a reduction in the peak intensity of cellulose after Gloeophyllum trabeum attack.

  7. NATURAL RESISTANCE OF SEVEN WOODS TO XYLOPHOGOUS FUNGI AND TERMITES UNDER LABORATORY CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed at evaluating the natural resistance of seven woods to xylophogous fungi and subterranean termites under laboratory assay. The studied woods were Leucaena leucocephala, Cordia trichotoma, Mimosa tenuiflora, Croton sonderianus, Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, Azadirachta indica and Tectona grandis. Test samples measuring 2.54 x 2.00 x 1.00 cm (fungi and 2.54 x 2.00 x 0.64 cm (termites, with larger dimensions in fiber direction were obtained in four positions in pith-to-bark direction. The samples were submitted by 98 days to action of Postia placenta and Polyporus fumosus fungi or 28 days to the termite Nasutitermes corniger action. To fungi, the Mimosa tenuiflora and Mimosa caesalpiniifolia woods were the more resistant and those of Azadirachta indica and Croton sonderianus the less resistant. The fungus Postia placenta attacked more severely the tested woods. To termites, the Mimosa tenuiflora, Cordia trichotoma, and Mimosa caesalpiniifolia were the most resistant and the Leucaena leucocephala the less resistant. The coming wood of external section of log were the more attacked. To fungi, there was an inverse relationship between the density and the loss of mass. Already for the termites, there was not relationship between the resistance and the density of the wood.

  8. Gene expression patterns of wood decay fungi Postia placenta and Phanerochaete chrysosporium are influenced by wood substrate composition during degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleksandr Skyba; Daniel Cullen; Carl J. Douglas; Shawn D. Mansfield

    2016-01-01

    Identification of the specific genes and enzymes involved in the fungal degradation of lignocellulosic biomass derived from feedstocks with various compositions is essential to the development of improved bioenergy processes. In order to elucidate the effect of substrate composition on gene expression in wood-rotting fungi, we employed microarrays based on the...

  9. Inhibition of in vitro growth of soil-borne pathogens by compost-inhabiting indigenous bacteria and fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramzan, N.; Noreen, N.; Shahzad, S.

    2014-01-01

    During the present studies, compost-inhabiting microorganisms including 44 fungi and 15 bacteria isolated from different compost samples were evaluated for their in vitro efficacy against soil-borne pathogens viz., Fusarium solani, Macrophomina phaseolina, Pythium aphanidermatum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Sclerotium rolfsii. Compost inhabiting microbes like Trichoderma harzianum, T. virens, Bacillus cereus, B. pumilus, B. subtilis, Micrococcus varians and Pseudomonas fluorescens were found to inhibit all the test pathogens. Acrophialophora fusispora and Penicillium citrinum reduced the mycelial growth of all the test pathogens except Sclerotium rolfsii. Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus megaterium showed biocontrol activity against all the pathogens except Rhizoctonia solani. Trichoderma harzianum parasitized mycelia of all the tested pathogens and produced coiling around the mycelium. (author)

  10. Syringyl-Rich Lignin Renders Poplars More Resistant to Degradation by Wood Decay Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skyba, Oleksandr; Douglas, Carl J.

    2013-01-01

    In order to elucidate the effects of lignin composition on the resistance of wood to degradation by decay fungi, wood specimens from two transgenic poplar lines expressing an Arabidopsis gene encoding ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H) driven by the cinnimate-4-hydroxylase promoter (C4H::F5H) that increased syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G) monolignol ratios relative to those in the untransformed control wood were incubated with six different wood decay fungi. Alterations in wood weight and chemical composition were monitored over the incubation period. The results showed that transgenic poplar lines extremely rich in syringyl lignin exhibited a drastically improved resistance to degradation by all decay fungi evaluated. Lignin monomer composition and its distribution among cell types and within different cell layers were the sole wood chemistry parameters determining wood durability. Since transgenic poplars with exceedingly high syringyl contents were recalcitrant to degradation, where wood durability is a critical factor, these genotypes may offer improved performance. PMID:23396333

  11. Simulated nitrogen deposition affects wood decomposition by cord-forming fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebber, Daniel P; Watkinson, Sarah C; Boddy, Lynne; Darrah, Peter R

    2011-12-01

    Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition affects many natural processes, including forest litter decomposition. Saprotrophic fungi are the only organisms capable of completely decomposing lignocellulosic (woody) litter in temperate ecosystems, and therefore the responses of fungi to N deposition are critical in understanding the effects of global change on the forest carbon cycle. Plant litter decomposition under elevated N has been intensively studied, with varying results. The complexity of forest floor biota and variability in litter quality have obscured N-elevation effects on decomposers. Field experiments often utilize standardized substrates and N-levels, but few studies have controlled the decay organisms. Decomposition of beech (Fagus sylvatica) blocks inoculated with two cord-forming basidiomycete fungi, Hypholoma fasciculare and Phanerochaete velutina, was compared experimentally under realistic levels of simulated N deposition at Wytham Wood, Oxfordshire, UK. Mass loss was greater with P. velutina than with H. fasciculare, and with N treatment than in the control. Decomposition was accompanied by growth of the fungal mycelium and increasing N concentration in the remaining wood. We attribute the N effect on wood decay to the response of cord-forming wood decay fungi to N availability. Previous studies demonstrated the capacity of these fungi to scavenge and import N to decaying wood via a translocating network of mycelium. This study shows that small increases in N availability can increase wood decomposition by these organisms. Dead wood is an important carbon store and habitat. The responses of wood decomposers to anthropogenic N deposition should be considered in models of forest carbon dynamics.

  12. Isolation and characterization of mold fungi and insects infecting sawmill wood, and their inhibition by gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalawate, Aparna; Mehetre, Sayaji

    2015-12-01

    This article describes the isolation, identification, and characterization of wood-rotting fungi and insects, and their inhibition was studied using gamma radiation. Products manufactured from plantation timber species are deteriorated by wood-rotting fungi such as Hypocrea lixii, Fusarium proliferatum, and Aspergillus flavus, and insects such as powderpost beetles. Proper preservation methods are necessary for ensuring a long service life of wood products. In this study, wood samples were treated with 2.5% copper ethanolamine boron (CEB) (10% w/v) and subsequently irradiated with gamma rays (10 kGy). It was observed that CEB-treated and gamma-irradiated samples controlled fungi and powderpost beetles significantly. As wood is a dead organic material, penetration of chemicals into it is very difficult. Gamma rays easily pass through wooden objects with hidden eggs and dormant spores of insects and fungi, respectively. Gamma irradiation was proved very effective in reducing damage caused by both fungi and insects.

  13. The most significant fungi: Agents of wood decay in oak forests of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijašević Tanja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The most widely distributed oak species in Serbia are Q. petrea (sessile oak, Q. cerris (Turkey oak and Q. frainetto (Hungarian oak and Quercus robur (common oak, and lignicolous fungi are the major agents of wood decay in natural and coppice oak forests. In this research, 33 species of fungi were identified. Eleven species were described, among which the most significant are: Armillaria mellea, Fomes fomentarius, Hypoxylon deustum Laetiporus sulphureus, Lenzites quercina and Phellinus robustus. This paper presents the morphological characteristics of the most significant identified fungi, their distribution, host plants and significance.

  14. Survival of FUngi Associated with Grapevine Decline in Pruned Wood after Composting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lecomte

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Recycling vine wood pruned in winter in the vineyard, after grinding and composting, might pose a risk of recontamination with fungi associated with grapevine decline. The survival of four ascomycete fungi (Botryosphaeria obtusa, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and Eutypa lata in composted material was investigated in a 3-year study conducted in the Bordeaux area. Naturally and artificially infested material was examined before and after composting using classical isolation procedures. Results clearly showed that a composting process can eradicate the four target fungi efficiently.

  15. DIVERSITY AND ECOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS OF DEAD WOOD FUNGI IN TREE NATURAL RESERVES OF BROAD LEAVED FORESTS FROM SUCEAVA COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian BÎRSAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dead wood fungi have a major importance for forests biodiversity as they produce wood degradation in forest habitats. In this paper are presented some aspects related to the diversity of dead wood fungi in tree deciduous forest types from tree natural reserves (Crujana, Dragomirna and Zamostea from Suceava County and the effect of some ecological factors (host tree, diameter and decomposition degree of the dead wood and some microclimatic characteristics of sites on their occurrence and diversity. Investigations carried out in 2013 resulted in the identification of 44 lignicolous fungi species. Analysis of similarities between lingnicolous fungi species from the investigated natural reserves (by hierarchical clustering shows a separation of three fungi groups, depending on the host-trees species. The effect of the tree host species was highlighted also by detrended correspondence analysis, which, in addition presented the existence of an altitudinal gradient and a weaker effect of site conditions (slope and aspect and microclimatic variables (solar radiation on dead wood fungi occurrence. The effect of diameter and decomposition degree of fallen trunks and branches on dead wood fungi species was investigated using the redundancy analysis showing that wood debris with large surfaces are more easily colonized by the fungi species developing large sporocarps compared to small branches with low diameters colonized only by few or a single fungus species.

  16. Competitive outcomes between wood-decaying fungi are altered in burnt wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edman, Mattias; Eriksson, Anna-Maria

    2016-06-01

    Fire is an important disturbance agent in boreal forests where it creates a wide variety of charred and other types of heat-modified dead wood substrates, yet how these substrates affect fungal community structure and development within wood is poorly understood. We allowed six species of wood-decaying basidiomycetes to compete in pairs in wood-discs that were experimentally burnt before fungal inoculation. The outcomes of interactions in burnt wood differed from those in unburnt control wood for two species:Antrodia sinuosanever lost on burnt wood and won over its competitor in 67% of the trials compared to 40% losses and 20% wins on unburnt wood. In contrast, Ischnoderma benzoinumwon all interactions on unburnt wood compared to 33% on burnt wood. However, the responses differed depending on the identity of the competing species, suggesting an interaction between competitor and substrate type. The observed shift in competitive balance between fungal species probably results from chemical changes in burnt wood, but the underlying mechanism needs further investigation. Nevertheless, the results indicate that forest fires indirectly structure fungal communities by modifying dead wood, and highlight the importance of fire-affected dead wood substrates in boreal forests. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Natural Durability of Citharexylum spinosum and Morus alba Woods Against Three Mold Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisa M. A. Mansour

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The natural durability of wood to mold fungi was tested under laboratory conditions with locally sourced Citharexylum spinosum and Morus alba woods. The mold fungi were Penicillium selerotigenum, Paecilomyces variotii, and Aspergillus niger. Changes in surface elemental composition were evaluated with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX and the biodeterioration of wood surfaces by scanning electron microscope (SEM. The C peak element of C. spinosum wood was affected significantly (P = 0.0004 and decreased from 49.91% in the control specimens to 47%, 40.1%, and 40% with P. selerotigenum, A. niger, and P. variotii, respectively. Also, the C peak element of M. alba heartwood significantly decreased (P < 0.0001 from 51.33% in the control specimens to 41.49%, 45.66%, and 43.66% in wood inoculated with A. niger, P. variotii, and P. selerotigenum, respectively. The elements Al and Cu were observed in high percentages with M. alba heartwood inoculated by P. variotii. The methanol extract from M. alba heartwood showed good inhibition against the growth of A. niger at a concentration of 32 μg/mL, and the methanol extract from C. spinosum wood showed remarkable inhibition against the growth of P. variotii at a concentration of 8 μg/mL. The results of this study clearly showed the changes that occur in wood samples as a result of fungal infestation.

  18. Enzymatic oxalic acid regulation correlated with wood degradation in four brown-rot fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Christine Steenkjær Hastrup; Frederick Green III; Patricia K. Lebow; Bo Jensen

    2012-01-01

    Oxalic acid is a key component in the initiation of brown-rot decay and it has been suggested that it plays multiple roles during the degradation process. Oxalic acid is accumulated to varying degrees among brown-rot fungi; however, details on active regulation are scarce. The accumulation of oxalic acid was measured in this study from wood degraded by the four brown-...

  19. Biotechnological Wood Modification with Selective White-Rot Fungi and Its Molecular Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Gradinger

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial mechanisms of lignin degradation may be utilised for solid-state fermentations other than biopulping, during which the selective conversion of lignin is required. The current paper reviews current work into selective lignin conversion, with emphasis on the contributions made by our research group, which consists of researchers from five different laboratories. Three of them cooperate within Wood K plus. The recent research of this group has focussed on fermentations utilising the unique metabolism of selective white-rot fungi to modify wood surfaces during relatively short fermentation times of less than one week and on research into the molecular mechanisms causing these modifications. Lignin degradation by selective fungi (e.g. Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and species of the genus Phlebia on the wood surfaces was significant after three days. After seven days the overall lignin content of spruce wood shavings was reduced by more than 3.5 %. Lignin loss was accompanied by an increase of extractable substances. To evaluate small changes and to trace the fungal modification processes, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR techniques and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy were applied and adapted. The spectra recorded in the near infrared region (FT-NIR turned out to be very useful for kinetic studies of the biopulping/biomodification processes and a good method to evaluate the capabilities of fungi to modify wood surfaces within this short period.

  20. Cellulolytic activities of wild type fungi isolated from decayed wood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mycological profile of decayed wood cuttings sourced from a saw mill located at Uwasota Road, Benin City was investigated using serial dilution and pour plate techniques. The mean fungal counts ranged from 0.9 ×106 cfu/g to 2.7 ×106 cfu/g respectively. Four fungal species were identified; Aspergillus niger, ...

  1. Contamination of pine and birch wood dust with microscopic fungi and determination of its sterol contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuper-Szablewska, Kinga; Rogoziński, Tomasz; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2017-06-27

    Wood compounds, especially sterols, are connected with the level of contamination with microscopic fungi. Within this study, tests were conducted on wood dust samples collected at various work stations in a pine and birch timber conversion plant. Their contamination with mycobiota was measured as the concentration of ergosterol (ERG) by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). Another aim of this study was to assess the effect of contamination with microscopic fungi on the sterol contents in wood dusts. Analyses were conducted on five sterols: desmosterol, cholesterol, lanosterol, stigmasterol, and β-sitosterol using UPLC and their presence was confirmed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results of chemical analyses showed the greatest contamination with mycobiota in birch wood dust. We also observed varied contents of individual sterols depending on the wood dust type. Their highest concentration was detected in birch dust. The discriminant analysis covering all tested compounds as predictors showed complete separation of all tested wood dust types. The greatest discriminatory power was found for stigmasterol, desmosterol, and ergosterol.

  2. Network analysis reveals ecological links between N-fixing bacteria and wood-decaying fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Björn; Kahl, Tiemo; Karasch, Peter; Wubet, Tesfaye; Bauhus, Jürgen; Buscot, François; Krüger, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen availability in dead wood is highly restricted and associations with N-fixing bacteria are thought to enable wood-decaying fungi to meet their nitrogen requirements for vegetative and generative growth. We assessed the diversity of nifH (dinitrogenase reductase) genes in dead wood of the common temperate tree species Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies from differently managed forest plots in Germany using molecular tools. By incorporating these genes into a large compilation of published nifH sequences and subsequent phylogenetic analyses of deduced proteins we verified the presence of diverse pools corresponding to functional nifH, almost all of which are new to science. The distribution of nifH genes strongly correlated with tree species and decay class, but not with forest management, while higher fungal fructification was correlated with decreasing nitrogen content of the dead wood and positively correlated with nifH diversity, especially during the intermediate stage of wood decay. Network analyses based on non-random species co-occurrence patterns revealed interactions among fungi and N-fixing bacteria in the dead wood and strongly indicate the occurrence of at least commensal relationships between these taxa.

  3. Network analysis reveals ecological links between N-fixing bacteria and wood-decaying fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Hoppe

    Full Text Available Nitrogen availability in dead wood is highly restricted and associations with N-fixing bacteria are thought to enable wood-decaying fungi to meet their nitrogen requirements for vegetative and generative growth. We assessed the diversity of nifH (dinitrogenase reductase genes in dead wood of the common temperate tree species Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies from differently managed forest plots in Germany using molecular tools. By incorporating these genes into a large compilation of published nifH sequences and subsequent phylogenetic analyses of deduced proteins we verified the presence of diverse pools corresponding to functional nifH, almost all of which are new to science. The distribution of nifH genes strongly correlated with tree species and decay class, but not with forest management, while higher fungal fructification was correlated with decreasing nitrogen content of the dead wood and positively correlated with nifH diversity, especially during the intermediate stage of wood decay. Network analyses based on non-random species co-occurrence patterns revealed interactions among fungi and N-fixing bacteria in the dead wood and strongly indicate the occurrence of at least commensal relationships between these taxa.

  4. Production and regulation of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes of Poria-like wood-inhabiting basidiomycetes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomšovský, M.; Popelářová, Petra; Baldrian, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2009), s. 74-80 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 155 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : FUNGUS DICHOMITUS-SQUALENS * WHITE-ROT FUNGI * CERIPORIOPSIS-SUBVERMISPORA Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.978, year: 2009

  5. Diversity of dead wood inhabiting fungal and bryophytes in semi-natural beech forests in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ódor, P.; Heilmann-Clausen, J.; Christensen, M.; Aude, E.; Dort, van K.W.; Piltaver, A.; Siller, I.; Veerkamp, M.T.; Walleyn, R.; Standovár, T.; Hees, van A.F.M.; Kosec, J.; Matocec, N.; Kraigher, H.; Grebenc, T.

    2006-01-01

    Saproxylic organisms are among the most threatened species in Europe and constitute a major conservation problem because they depend on the most important forestry product - dead wood. Diversity of fungal and bryophyte communities occurring on dead beech trees was analyzed in five European countries

  6. Belowground communication: impacts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from soil fungi on other soil-inhabiting organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Stephanie; Polle, Andrea; Brinkmann, Nicole

    2016-10-01

    We reviewed the impact of fungal volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on soil-inhabiting organisms and their physiological and molecular consequences for their targets. Because fungi can only move by growth to distinct directions, a main mechanism to protect themselves from enemies or to manipulate their surroundings is the secretion of exudates or VOCs. The importance of VOCs in this regard has been significantly underestimated. VOCs not only can be means of communication, but also signals that are able to specifically manipulate the recipient. VOCs can reprogram root architecture of symbiotic partner plants or increase plant growth leading to enlarged colonization surfaces. VOCs are also able to enhance plant resistance against pathogens by activating phytohormone-dependent signaling pathways. In some cases, they were phytotoxic. Because the response was specific to distinct species, fungal VOCs may contribute to regulate the competition of plant communities. Additionally, VOCs are used by the producing fungus to attack rivaling fungi or bacteria, thereby protecting the emitter or its nutrient sources. In addition, animals, like springtails, nematodes, and earthworms, which are important components of the soil food web, respond to fungal VOCs. Some VOCs are effective repellents for nematodes and, therefore, have applications as biocontrol agents. In conclusion, this review shows that fungal VOCs have a huge impact on soil fauna and flora, but the underlying mechanisms, how VOCs are perceived by the recipients, how they manipulate their targets and the resulting ecological consequences of VOCs in inter-kingdom signaling is only partly understood. These knowledge gaps are left to be filled by future studies.

  7. Catalase-Aminotriazole Assay, an Invalid Method for Measurement of Hydrogen Peroxide Production by Wood Decay Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Highley, Terry L.

    1981-01-01

    The catalase-aminotriazole assay for determination of hydrogen peroxide apparently cannot be used for measuring hydrogen peroxide production in crude preparations from wood decay fungi because of materials in the crude preparations that interfere with the test.

  8. Bioconversion of dieldrin by wood-rotting fungi and metabolite detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, Ichiro; Takagi, Kazuhiro; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2010-08-01

    Dieldrin is one of the most persistent organochlorine pesticides, listed as one of the 12 persistent organic pollutants in the Stockholm Convention. Although microbial degradation is an effective way to remediate environmental pollutants, reports on aerobic microbial degradation of dieldrin are limited. Wood-rotting fungi can degrade a wide spectrum of recalcitrant organopollutants, and an attempt has been made to select wood-rotting fungi that can degrade dieldrin, and to identify the metabolite. Thirty-four isolates of wood-rotting fungi were investigated for their ability to degrade dieldrin. Strain YK543 degraded 39.1 +/- 8.8% of dieldrin during 30 days of incubation. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that strain YK543 was closely related to the fungus Phlebia brevispora Nakasone TMIC33929, which has been reported as a fungus that can degrade chlorinated dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. 9-Hydroxydieldrin was detected as a metabolite in the cultures of strain YK543. It is important to select the microorganisms that degrade organic pollutants, and to identify the metabolic pathway for the development of bioremediation methods. Strain YK543 was selected as a fungus capable of degrading dieldrin. The metabolic pathway includes 9-hydroxylation reported in rat's metabolism catalysed by liver microsomal monooxygenase. This is the first report of transformation of dieldrin to 9-hydroxydieldrin by a microorganism. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Fourier Transform Infrared Radiation Spectroscopy Applied for Wood Rot Decay and Mould Fungi Growth Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Petter Jelle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Material characterization may be carried out by the attenuated total reflectance (ATR Fourier transform infrared (FTIR radiation spectroscopical technique, which represents a powerful experimental tool. The ATR technique may be applied on both solid state materials, liquids, and gases with none or only minor sample preparations, also including materials which are nontransparent to IR radiation. This facilitation is made possible by pressing the sample directly onto various crystals, for example, diamond, with high refractive indices, in a special reflectance setup. Thus ATR saves time and enables the study of materials in a pristine condition, that is, the comprehensive sample preparation by pressing thin KBr pellets in traditional FTIR transmittance spectroscopy is hence avoided. Materials and their ageing processes, both ageing by natural and accelerated climate exposure, decomposition and formation of chemical bonds and products, may be studied in an ATR-FTIR analysis. In this work, the ATR-FTIR technique is utilized to detect wood rot decay and mould fungi growth on various building material substrates. An experimental challenge and aim is to be able to detect the wood rot decay and mould fungi growth at early stages when it is barely visible to the naked eye. Another goal is to be able to distinguish between various species of fungi and wood rot.

  10. Extensive sampling of basidiomycete genomes demonstrates inadequacy of the white-rot/brown-rot paradigm for wood decay fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) make up some 37% of the described fungi and are important in forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes symbionts, pathogens, and saprotrophs including the majority of wood decaying and ectomycorrhizal species. To b...

  11. Impact of stereoide fungi on decomposition of oak wood and possibility of its protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirić Milenko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Four stereoide fungi, causers of decay of oak wood, have been investigated as follows: Stereum hirsutum, Chondrostereum purpureum, Stereum rugosum and Xylobolus frustulatus. The field tests have been undertaken in order to determine the influence of the stereoide fungi on the wood of Sessile oak (Quercus petraea and Austrian oak (Quercus robur. Artificial inoculations with mycelia have been provoked in vital standing trees, as well as in laying trunks. The appearance of dying back symptoms, the rate of mycelia spread through the stem, speed of wound callusing and appearance of fruit bodies or decay symptoms, have been observed. The protection possibility of trunks has been tested as well by using preservatives based on chromo-cupric boron salts, dichlorfluanide and chlorinepyriphos, cupric naphtenates, as well as with antiseptic paste. Microscopically analysis of attacked oak wood has been performed by utilizing of scanning electron (SEM and standard optical microscope providing normal, fluorescence, polarized and UV light, so that anatomical changes of the wood structure elements influenced by fungal activity have been noted.

  12. Extensive sampling of basidiomycete genomes demonstrates inadequacy of the white rot/brown rot paradigm for wood decay fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) make up 32% of the described fungi and include most wood decaying species, as well as pathogens and mutualistic symbionts. Wood-decaying basidiomycetes have typically been classified as either white rot or brown rot, based on the ability (in white rot only) to degrade ...

  13. Extensive sampling of basidiomycete genomes demonstrates inadequacy of the white-rot/brown-rot paradigm for wood decay fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Riley; Asaf A. Salamov; Daren W. Brown; Laszlo G. Nagy; Dimitrios Floudas; Benjamin W. Held; Anthony Levasseur; Vincent Lombard; Emmanuelle Morin; Robert Otillar; Erika A. Lindquist; Hui Sun; Kurt M. LaButti; Jeremy Schmutz; Dina Jabbour; Hong Luo; Scott E. Baker; Antonio G. Pisabarro; Jonathan D. Walton; Robert A. Blanchette; Bernard Henrissat; Francis Martin; Daniel Cullen; David S. Hibbett; Igor V. Grigoriev

    2014-01-01

    Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) make up 32% of the described fungi and include most wood-decaying species, as well as pathogens and mutualistic symbionts. Wood-decaying basidiomycetes have typically been classified as either white rot or brown rot, based on the ability (in white rot only) to degrade lignin along with cellulose and hemicellulose. Prior genomic...

  14. [Bacterium Arthrobacter agilis UMCV2 and diverse amines inhibit in vitro growth of wood-decay fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Mosqueda, M Del Carmen; Valencia-Cantero, Eduardo; López-Albarrán, Pablo; Martínez-Pacheco, Mauro; Velázquez-Becerra, Crisanto

    2015-01-01

    The kingdom Fungi is represented by a large number of organisms, including pathogens that deteriorate the main structural components of wood, such as cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. The aim of our work was to characterize the antifungal activity in Arthrobacter agilis UMCV2 and diverse amines against wood-decaying fungi. Four fungal organisms (designated as UMTM) were isolated from decaying wood samples obtained from a forest in Cuanajo-Michoacán, México. Two of them showed a clear enzymatic activity of cellulases, xylanases and oxido-reducing enzymes and were identified as Hypocrea (UMTM3 isolate) and Fusarium (UMTM13 isolate). In vitro, the amines showed inhibitory effect against UMTM growth and one of the amines, dimethylhexadecylamine (DMA16), exhibited strong potential as wood preventive treatment, against the attack of decaying fungi. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Increased heat resistance in mycelia from wood fungi prevalent in forests characterized by fire: a possible adaptation to forest fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Fredrik; Edman, Mattias; Holm, Svante; Eriksson, Anna-Maria; Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar

    2012-10-01

    Forest fires have been the major stand-replacing/modifying disturbance in boreal forests. To adapt to fire disturbance, different strategies have evolved. This study focuses on wood fungi, and a specific adaptation to forest fire: increased heat resistance in their mycelia. Fifteen species of wood fungi were selected and a priori sorted in two groups according to their prevalence in fire-affected environments. The fungi were cultivated on fresh wood and exposed to 100, 140, 180, 220 °C for 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 min. under laboratory conditions. A clear difference was found among the two groups. Species prevalent in fire-affected habitats had a much higher survival rate over all combinations of time and temperature compared to species associated with other environments. Thus, the results indicate that fire adaptation in terms of increased heat resistance in mycelia occurs in some species of wood fungi. Such adaptation will influence the ecology and population dynamics of wood fungi, as well as having implications for best practices during restoration fires. Copyright © 2012 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Isolation of Fungi and Bacteria Associated with the Guts of Tropical Wood-Feeding Coleoptera and Determination of Their Lignocellulolytic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keilor Rojas-Jiménez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The guts of beetle larvae constitute a complex system where relationships among fungi, bacteria, and the insect host occur. In this study, we collected larvae of five families of wood-feeding Coleoptera in tropical forests of Costa Rica, isolated fungi and bacteria from their intestinal tracts, and determined the presence of five different pathways for lignocellulolytic activity. The fungal isolates were assigned to three phyla, 16 orders, 24 families, and 40 genera; Trichoderma was the most abundant genus, detected in all insect families and at all sites. The bacterial isolates were assigned to five phyla, 13 orders, 22 families, and 35 genera; Bacillus, Serratia, and Pseudomonas were the dominant genera, present in all the Coleopteran families. Positive results for activities related to degradation of wood components were determined in 65% and 48% of the fungal and bacterial genera, respectively. Our results showed that both the fungal and bacterial populations were highly diverse in terms of number of species and their phylogenetic composition, although the structure of the microbial communities varied with insect host family and the surrounding environment. The recurrent identification of some lignocellulolytic-positive inhabitants suggests that particular microbial groups play important roles in providing nutritional needs for the Coleopteran host.

  17. Wood-inhabiting beetles in low stumps, high stumps and logs on boreal clear-cuts: implications for dead wood management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Andersson

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for biofuels from logging residues require serious attention on the importance of dead wood substrates on clear-cuts for the many forestry-intolerant saproxylic (wood-inhabiting species. In particular, the emerging harvest of low stumps motivates further study of these substrates. On ten clear-cuts we compared the species richness, abundance and species composition of saproxylic beetles hatching from four to nine year old low stumps, high stumps and logs of Norway spruce. By using emergence traps we collected a total of 2,670 saproxylic beetles among 195 species during the summers of 2006, 2007 and 2009. We found that the species assemblages differed significantly between high stumps and logs all three years. The species assemblages of low stumps, on the other hand, were intermediate to those found in logs and high stumps. There were also significant difference in species richness between the three examined years, and we found significant effect of substrate type on richness of predators and fungivores. As shown in previous studies of low stumps on clear-cuts they can sustain large numbers of different saproxylic beetles, including red-listed species. Our study does, in addition to this fact, highlight a possible problem in creating just one type of substrate as a tool for conservation in forestry. Species assemblages in high stumps did not differ significantly from those found in low stumps. Instead logs, which constitute a scarcer substrate type on clear-cuts, provided habitat for a more distinct assemblage of saproxylic species than high stumps. It can therefore be questioned whether high stumps are an optimal tool for nature conservation in clear-cutting forestry. Our results also indicate that low stumps constitute an equally important substrate as high stumps and logs, and we therefore suggest that stump harvesting is done after carefully evaluating measures to provide habitat for saproxylic organisms.

  18. Wood-inhabiting beetles in low stumps, high stumps and logs on boreal clear-cuts: implications for dead wood management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Jon; Hjältén, Joakim; Dynesius, Mats

    2015-01-01

    The increasing demand for biofuels from logging residues require serious attention on the importance of dead wood substrates on clear-cuts for the many forestry-intolerant saproxylic (wood-inhabiting) species. In particular, the emerging harvest of low stumps motivates further study of these substrates. On ten clear-cuts we compared the species richness, abundance and species composition of saproxylic beetles hatching from four to nine year old low stumps, high stumps and logs of Norway spruce. By using emergence traps we collected a total of 2,670 saproxylic beetles among 195 species during the summers of 2006, 2007 and 2009. We found that the species assemblages differed significantly between high stumps and logs all three years. The species assemblages of low stumps, on the other hand, were intermediate to those found in logs and high stumps. There were also significant difference in species richness between the three examined years, and we found significant effect of substrate type on richness of predators and fungivores. As shown in previous studies of low stumps on clear-cuts they can sustain large numbers of different saproxylic beetles, including red-listed species. Our study does, in addition to this fact, highlight a possible problem in creating just one type of substrate as a tool for conservation in forestry. Species assemblages in high stumps did not differ significantly from those found in low stumps. Instead logs, which constitute a scarcer substrate type on clear-cuts, provided habitat for a more distinct assemblage of saproxylic species than high stumps. It can therefore be questioned whether high stumps are an optimal tool for nature conservation in clear-cutting forestry. Our results also indicate that low stumps constitute an equally important substrate as high stumps and logs, and we therefore suggest that stump harvesting is done after carefully evaluating measures to provide habitat for saproxylic organisms.

  19. The Ecological Genomics of Fungi: Repeated Elements in Filamentous Fungi with a Focus on Wood-Decay Fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murat, Claude [INRA, Nancy, France; Payen, Thibaut [INRA, Nancy, France; Petitpierre, Denis [INRA, Nancy, France; Labbe, Jessy L [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, the genome of several dozen filamentous fungi have been sequenced. Interestingly, vast diversity in genome size was observed (Fig. 2.1) with 14-fold differences between the 9 Mb of the human pathogenic dandruff fungus (Malassezia globosa; Xu, Saunders, et al., 2007) and the 125 Mb of the ectomycorrhizal black truffle of P rigord (Tuber melanosporum; Martin, Kohler, et al., 2010). Recently, Raffaele and Kamoun (2012) highlighted that the genomes of several lineages of filamentous plant pathogens have been shaped by repeat-driven expansion. Indeed, repeated elements are ubiquitous in all prokaryote and eukaryote genomes; however, their frequencies can vary from just a minor percentage of the genome to more that 60 percent of the genome. Repeated elements can be classified in two major types: satellites DNA and transposable elements. In this chapter, the different types of repeated elements and how these elements can impact genome and gene repertoire will be described. Also, an intriguing link between the transposable elements richness and diversity and the ecological niche will be highlighted.

  20. Spatial and temporal distribution of fungi and wood-borers in the coastal tropical waters of Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vishwakiran, Y.; Thakur, N.L.; Raghukumar, S.; Yennawar, P.L.; Anil, A.C.

    . (Meyers) Yusoff, Read, E. B. G. Jones et S. T. Moss 2 416 4 Arenariomyces trifurcatus Höhnk 22 4 5 Bathyascus tropicalis Kohlm. 2 44 6 Bathyascus vermisporus Kohlm. 8 4 2 7 Corollospora pulchella Kohlm., I. Schmidt et Nair. 8 2 8 8 Dactylospora haliotrepha... faster growth and multiplication rate dur- ing the early stage of wood decomposition (Cooke Distribution of fungi and wood-borers in the coastal tropical waters of Goa, India 53 54 Y. Vishwakiran et al. and Rayner 1984). Such fungi face a competition from...

  1. Significant alteration of gene expression in wood decay fungi Postia placenta and Phanerochaete chrysosporium by plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amber Vanden Wymelenberg; Jill Gaskell; Michael Mozuch; Sandra Splinter BonDurant; Grzegorz Sabat; John Ralph; Oleksandr Skyba; Shawn D. Mansfield; Robert A. Blanchette; Igor Grigoriev; Philip J. Kersten; Daniel Cullen

    2011-01-01

    Identification of specific genes and enzymes involved in conversion of lignocellulosics from an expanding number of potential feedstocks is of growing interest to bioenergy process development. The basidiomycetous wood decay fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Postia placenta are promising in this regard because they are able to utilize a wide range of simple and...

  2. A multiplex PCR-based method for the detection and early identification of wood rotting fungi in standing trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmo, F; Bergemann, S E; Gonthier, P; Nicolotti, G; Garbelotto, M

    2007-11-01

    The goal of this research was the development of a PCR-based assay to identify important decay fungi from wood of hardwood tree species in northern temperate regions. Eleven taxon-specific primers were designed for PCR amplification of either nuclear or mitochondrial ribosomal DNA regions of Armillaria spp., Ganoderma spp., Hericium spp., Hypoxylon thouarsianum var. thouarsianum, Inonotus/Phellinus-group, Laetiporus spp., Perenniporia fraxinea, Pleurotus spp., Schizophyllum spp., Stereum spp. and Trametes spp. Multiplex PCR reactions were developed and optimized to detect fungal DNA and identify each taxon with a sensitivity of at least 1 pg of target DNA in the template. This assay correctly identified the agents of decay in 82% of tested wood samples. The development and optimization of multiplex PCRs allowed for reliable identification of wood rotting fungi directly from wood. Early detection of wood decay fungi is crucial for assessment of tree stability in urban landscapes. Furthermore, this method may prove useful for prediction of the severity and the evolution of decay in standing trees.

  3. Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship of Cinnamaldehyde Compounds against Wood-Decaying Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Yang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamaldehyde, of the genius Cinnamomum, is a major constituent of the bark of the cinnamon tree and possesses broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. In this study, we used best multiple linear regression (BMLR to develop quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR models for cinnamaldehyde derivatives against wood-decaying fungi Trametes versicolor and Gloeophyllun trabeum. Based on the two optimal QSAR models, we then designed and synthesized two novel cinnamaldehyde compounds. The QSAR models exhibited good correlation coefficients: R2Tv = 0.910 for Trametes versicolor and R2Gt = 0.926 for Gloeophyllun trabeum. Small errors between the experimental and calculated values of two designed compounds indicated that these two QSAR models have strong predictability and stability.

  4. Influence of corn steep liquor and glucose on colonization of control and CCB (Cu/Cr/B)-treated wood by brown rot fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humar, Miha; Amartey, Sam A.; Pohleven, Franc

    2006-01-01

    There are increasing problems with regard to the disposal of treated wood waste. Due to heavy metals or arsenic in impregnated wood waste, burning and landfill disposal options are not considered to be environmentally friendly solutions for dealing with this problem. Extraction of the heavy metals and recycling of the preservatives from the wood waste is a much more promising and environmentally friendly solution. In order to study the scale up of this process, copper/chromium/boron-treated wood specimens were exposed to copper tolerant (Antrodia vaillantii and Leucogyrophana pinastri) and copper sensitive wood decay fungi (Gloeophyllum trabeum and Poria monticola). Afterwards, the ability of fungal hyphae to penetrate and overgrow the wood specimens was investigated. The fungal growths were stimulated by immersing the specimens into aqueous solution of glucose or corn steep liquor prior to exposure to the fungi. The fastest colonization of the impregnated wood was by the copper tolerant A. vaillantii. Addition of glucose onto the surface of the wood specimens increased the fungi colonization of the specimens; however, immersion of the specimens into the solution of corn steep liquor did not have the same positive influence. These results are important in elucidating copper toxicity in wood decay fungi and for using these fungi for bioremediation of treated wood wastes

  5. The Biological Diversity and Production of Volatile Organic Compounds by Stem-Inhabiting Endophytic Fungi of Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Rundell, Susan; Spakowicz, Daniel; Narváez-Trujillo, Alexandra; Strobel, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Fungal endophytes colonize every major lineage of land plants without causing apparent harm to their hosts. Despite their production of interesting and potentially novel compounds, endophytes—particularly those inhabiting stem tissues—are still a vastly underexplored component of microbial diversity. In this study, we explored the diversity of over 1500 fungal endophyte isolates collected from three Ecuadorian ecosystems: lowland tropical forest, cloud forest, and coastal dry forest. We sough...

  6. Diversity in the socio-economic role of the main non-wood forest products for the inhabitants of small villages and large towns in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Barszcz, Anna; Suder, Alicja

    2009-01-01

    The NWFPs (non-wood forest products) sector is of the crucial importance to the Polish households but its social and economic role is varied and depends on place of residence. For the inhabitants of villages and small towns forests are the place of working and NWFPs sale provides an additional financial resource. City-dwellers do not treat NWFPs as a source of income but rather as an element of recreation and they use these products mainly for their own needs. Some remarks for the developing ...

  7. Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajek, Ann E.; Meyling, Nicolai Vitt

    2018-01-01

    been the focus of most ecological research. Some taxa of invertebrate pathogenic fungi have evolved adaptations for utilizing living plants as substrates, and these lifestyles have recently received increased attention from researchers following the initial documentations of such plant associations...

  8. Extensive sampling of basidiomycete genomes demonstrates inadequacy of the white rot/ brown rot paradigm for wood decay fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Brown, Daren W.; Nagy, Laszlo G.; Floudas, Dimitris; Held, Benjamin; Levasseur, Anthony; Lombard, Vincent; Morin, Emmanuelle; Otillar, Robert; Lindquist, Erika; Sun, Hui; LaButti, Kurt; Schmutz, Jeremy; Jabbour, Dina; Luo, Hong; Baker, Scott E.; Pisabarro, Antonio; Walton, Jonathan D.; Blanchette, Robert; Henrissat, Bernard; Martin, Francis; Cullen, Dan; Hibbett, David; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2014-03-14

    Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) make up 32percent of the described fungi and include most wood decaying species, as well as pathogens and mutualistic symbionts. Wood-decaying basidiomycetes have typically been classified as either white rot or brown rot, based on the ability (in white rot only) to degrade lignin along with cellulose and hemicellulose. Prior genomic comparisons suggested that the two decay modes can be distinguished based on the presence or absence of ligninolytic class II peroxidases (PODs), as well as the abundance of enzymes acting directly on crystalline cellulose (reduced in brown rot). To assess the generality of the white rot/brown rot classification paradigm we compared the genomes of 33 basidiomycetes, including four newly sequenced wood decayers, and performed phylogenetically-informed Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of a broad range of gene families encoding plant biomass-degrading enzymes. The newly sequenced Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea genomes lack PODs, but possess diverse enzymes acting on crystalline cellulose, and they group close to the model white rot species Phanerochaete chrysosporium in the PCA. Furthermore, laboratory assays showed that both B. botryosum and J. argillacea can degrade all polymeric components of woody plant cell walls, a characteristic of white rot. We also found expansions in reducing polyketide synthase genes specific to the brown rot fungi. Our results suggest a continuum rather than a dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay. A more nuanced categorization of rot types is needed, based on an improved understanding of the genomics and biochemistry of wood decay.

  9. Inoculation of Schizolobium parahyba with mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria increases wood yield under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Viviana Torres Cely

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum (Huber ex Ducke occurs naturally in the Brazilian Amazon. Currently, it is being planted extensively because of its fast growth and excellent use in forestry. Consequently, there is great interest in new strategies to increase wood production. The interaction between soil microorganisms and plants, specifically in the roots, provides essential nutrients for plant growth. These interactions can have growth-promoting effects. In this way, this study assessed the effect of the inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR on growth of S. parahyba var. amazonicum under field conditions. We used two native species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Claroideoglomus etunicatum (Ce and Acaulospora sp. (Ac; two native strains of Rhizobium sp. (Rh1 and Rh2; and a non-native strain of Burkholderia sp. Different combinations of microorganisms were supplemented with chemical fertilizers (doses D1 and D2 in two planting methods, seed sowing and seedling planting. In seed sowing, the results showed that treatments with Ce/Rh1/Fertilizer D2 and Ac/No PGPR/Fertilizer D2 increased wood yield. In seedling planting, two combinations (Ac/Rh2/Fertilizer D1 and Ac/Rh1/Fertilizer D1 were more effective in increasing seedling growth. In these experiments, inoculation with AMF and PGPR increased wood yield by about 20% compared to the application of fertilizer alone.

  10. Inoculation of Schizolobium parahyba with Mycorrhizal Fungi and Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Increases Wood Yield under Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cely, Martha V T; Siviero, Marco A; Emiliano, Janaina; Spago, Flávia R; Freitas, Vanessa F; Barazetti, André R; Goya, Erika T; Lamberti, Gustavo de Souza; Dos Santos, Igor M O; De Oliveira, Admilton G; Andrade, Galdino

    2016-01-01

    Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum (Huber ex Ducke) occurs naturally in the Brazilian Amazon. Currently, it is being planted extensively because of its fast growth and excellent use in forestry. Consequently, there is great interest in new strategies to increase wood production. The interaction between soil microorganisms and plants, specifically in the roots, provides essential nutrients for plant growth. These interactions can have growth-promoting effects. In this way, this study assessed the effect of the inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on growth of S. parahyba var. amazonicum under field conditions. We used two native species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Claroideoglomus etunicatum (Ce), and Acaulospora sp. (Ac); two native strains of Rhizobium sp. (Rh1 and Rh2); and a non-native strain of Burkholderia sp. Different combinations of microorganisms were supplemented with chemical fertilizers (doses D1 and D2) in two planting methods, seed sowing and seedling planting. In seed sowing, the results showed that treatments with Ce/Rh1/Fertilizer D2 and Ac/No PGPR/Fertilizer D2 increased wood yield. In seedling planting, two combinations (Ac/Rh2/Fertilizer D1 and Ac/Rh1/Fertilizer D1) were more effective in increasing seedling growth. In these experiments, inoculation with AMF and PGPR increased wood yield by about 20% compared to the application of fertilizer alone.

  11. Wood Degradation by Thermotolerant and Thermophilic Fungi for Sustainable Heat Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caizan Juanarena, Leire; ter Heijne, Annemiek; Buisman, Cees; Van der Wal, A.

    2016-01-01

    The use of renewable biomass for production of heat and electricity plays an important role in the circular economy. Degradation of wood biomass to produce heat is a clean and novel process proposed as an alternative to wood burning, and could be used for various heating applications. So far, wood

  12. ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI INCREASED EARLY GROWTH OF GAHARU WOOD OF Aquilaria malaccencsis and A. crasna UNDER GREENHOUSE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maman Turjaman

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Gaharu wood stand has an important source of profits to the forest community in South and Southeast Asia tropical forest countries, but Aquilaria species have reduced in number and turn out to be endangered due to overexploitation.   Today,   the planting stocks of   Aquilaria species are not sufficient to sustain the yield of gaharu wood and promote forest conservation.  The objective of this study was to determine   the effect of   five arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi: Entrophospora sp., Gigaspora decipiens, Glomus clarum, Glomus sp. ZEA, and Glomus sp. ACA, on the early growth of  Aquilaria malaccensis and A. crasna under greenhouse conditions. The seedlings of  Aquilaria spp. were inoculated with Entrophospora sp., Gi. decipiens, Glomus clarum, Glomus sp. ZEA, Glomus sp. ACA and uninoculated (control under greenhouse conditions. Then, percentage AM colonization, plant growth, survival rate and nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P content and mycorrhizal dependence (MD were measured. The percentage AM colonization of A. malaccensis and A. crasna ranged from 83 to 97% and from 63 to 78%, respectively. Colonization by five AM fungi increased plant height, diameter, and shoot and root dry weights. N and P content of  the seedlings were also increased by AM colonization. Survival rates were higher in the AM-colonized seedlings at 180 days after transplantation than those in the control seedlings. The MD of Aquilaria species was higher than 55 %. The results suggested that AM fungi can be inoculated`to Aquilaria species under nursery conditions to obtain vigorous seedlings, and the field experiment is underway to clarify the role of AM fungi under field conditions.

  13. Wood decay by Chlorociboria aeruginascens (Nyl.) Kanouse (Helotiales, Leotiaceae) and associated basidiomycete fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana L. Richter; Jessie A. Glaeser

    2015-01-01

    Two isolates of Chlorociboria aeruginascens (Nyl.) Kanouse incubated axenically on aspen wood blocks resulted in 18% and 32% mass loss after 134 wks (2 yrs 8 mo). Aspen wood decayed by C. aeruginascens contained cavities in the S2 layer of the secondary cell wall, similar to Type I soft rot attack, as well as erosion troughs and...

  14. Metal bioaccumulation, genotoxicity and gene expression in the European wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) inhabiting an abandoned uranium mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Joana; Pereira, Ruth; Gonçalves, Fernando; Mendo, Sónia

    2013-01-15

    Genotoxic effects caused by the exposure to wastes containing metals and radionuclides were investigated in the European wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus). The animals were captured in the surroundings of an abandoned uranium mining site. DNA damage was assessed by comet assay; gene expression and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were assessed, respectively, by Real-Time PCR and melt curve analysis. The bioaccumulation of metals in the liver, kidney and bones was also determined to help clarify cause-effect relationships. Results confirmed the bioaccumulation of cadmium and uranium in organisms exposed to uranium mining wastes. P53 gene was found to be significantly up-regulated in the liver of those organisms and SNPs in the Rb gene were also detected in the kidney. Our results showed that uranium mining wastes caused serious DNA damage resulting in genomic instability, disclosed by the significant increase in DNA strand breaks and P53 gene expression disturbance. These effects can have severe consequences, since they may contribute for the emergence of serious genetic diseases. The fact that mice are often used as bioindicator species for the evaluation of risks of environmental exposure to humans, raises concerns on the risks for human populations living near uranium mining areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of CaCl2 on growth rate, wood decay and oxalic acid accumulation in Serpula lacrymans and related brown-rot fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Christine Steenkjaer Hastrup; Bo Jensen; Carol Clausen; Frederick Green

    2006-01-01

    The dry rot fungus, Serpula lacrymans, is one of the most destructive copper-tolerant fungi causing timber decay in buildings in temperate regions. Calcium and oxalic acid have been shown to play important roles in the mechanism of wood decay. The effect of calcium on growth and decay was evaluated for 12 strains of S. lacrymans and compared to five brown-rot fungi....

  16. Metal bioaccumulation, genotoxicity and gene expression in the European wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) inhabiting an abandoned uranium mining area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lourenço, Joana, E-mail: joanalourenco@ua.pt [Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CESAM, Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Pereira, Ruth [Departamento de Biologia, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); CESAM, Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Gonçalves, Fernando; Mendo, Sónia [Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CESAM, Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2013-01-15

    Genotoxic effects caused by the exposure to wastes containing metals and radionuclides were investigated in the European wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus). The animals were captured in the surroundings of an abandoned uranium mining site. DNA damage was assessed by comet assay; gene expression and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were assessed, respectively, by Real-Time PCR and melt curve analysis. The bioaccumulation of metals in the liver, kidney and bones was also determined to help clarify cause–effect relationships. Results confirmed the bioaccumulation of cadmium and uranium in organisms exposed to uranium mining wastes. P53 gene was found to be significantly up-regulated in the liver of those organisms and SNPs in the Rb gene were also detected in the kidney. Our results showed that uranium mining wastes caused serious DNA damage resulting in genomic instability, disclosed by the significant increase in DNA strand breaks and P53 gene expression disturbance. These effects can have severe consequences, since they may contribute for the emergence of serious genetic diseases. The fact that mice are often used as bioindicator species for the evaluation of risks of environmental exposure to humans, raises concerns on the risks for human populations living near uranium mining areas. - Highlights: ► Long term effects of chronic pollution in natural population of rodents. ► Bioaccumulation of cadmium and uranium by organisms exposed to uranium wastes. ► P53 upregulation in the liver and SNPs in the Rb gene detected in the kidney. ► Significant DNA damages detected by the comet assay. ► Concerns on the risks of human populations living nearby uranium mining areas.

  17. Changes in structural and chemical components of wood delignified by fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchette, R.A.; Otjen, L.; Effland, M.J.; Eslyn, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    Cerrena unicolor, Ganoderma applanatum, Ischnoderma resinosum and Poria medulla-panis were associated with birch (Betula papyrifera) wood that had been selectively delignified in the forest. Preferential lignin degradation was not uniformly distributed throughout the decayed wood. A typical white rot causing a simultaneous removal of all cell wall components was also present. In the delignified wood, 95 to 98% of the lignin was removed as well as substantial amounts of hemicelluloses. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to identify the micromorphological and ultrastructural changes that occurred in the cells during degradation. In delignified areas the compound middle lamella was extensively degraded causing a defibration of cells. The secondary wall, especially the S2 layer, remained relatively unaltered. In simultaneously white-rotted wood all cell wall layers were progressively removed from the lumen toward the middle lamella causing erosion troughs or holes to form. Large voids filled with fungal mycelia resulted from a coalition of degraded areas. Birch wood decayed in laboratory soil-block tests was also intermittently delignified, selective delignification, sparsely distributed throughout the wood, and a simultaneous rot resulting in the removal of all cell wall components were evident. SEM appears to be an appropriate technique for examining selectively delignified decayed wood. 30 references.

  18. Ecology, environmental requirements and conservation of corticioid fungi occupying small diameter dead wood

    OpenAIRE

    Juutilainen, Katja

    2016-01-01

    The increasing human impact upon the biosphere of earth is causing profound changes across all spatial scales. The ability to cope with human-induced disturbance varies among organisms; specialist species are more negatively affected than generalist species. Forests are among the most heavily affected ecosystems; especially the dead wood associated organisms are in peril. The earlier research has strongly focused on large diameter dead wood and associated species. The ...

  19. Microbial detoxification of waste rubber material by wood-rotting fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredberg, Katarina; Andersson, B Erik; Landfors, Eva; Holst, Olle

    2002-07-01

    The extensive use of rubber products, mainly tires, and the difficulties to recycle those products, has resulted in world wide environmental problems. Microbial devulcanisation is a promising way to increase the recycling of rubber materials. One obstacle is that several microorganisms tested for devulcanisation are sensitive to rubber additives. A way to overcome this might be to detoxify the rubber material with fungi prior to the devulcanisation. In this study, 15 species of white-rot and brown-rot fungi have been screened with regard to their capacity to degrade an aromatic model compound in the presence of ground waste tire rubber. The most effective fungus, Resinicium bicolor, was used for detoxification of rubber material. Increase in growth of the desulfurising bacterium Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in presence of the rubber treated with Resinicium bicolor compared to untreated rubber demonstrated that detoxification with fungi is possible.

  20. Impact of Wood Biochar and Its Interactions with Mycorrhizal Fungi, Phosphorus Fertilization and Irrigation Strategies on Potato Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, C.; Liu, F.; Ravnskov, S.

    2017-01-01

    Biochar amendment to soil has the potential to improve soil quality and increase crop yield. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) provide beneficial plant services of stress alleviation with respect to phosphorus (P) deficiency and drought. The aim of this study was to explore interactive effects...... of biochar with AMF, P fertilization levels and irrigation strategies on growth of potato plants. Potato plants were amended with wood biochar of 0.74 % w/w (B+) or not (B−), fertilized with phosphorus of 0.11 mg P g−1 soil (P1) or not (P0), irrigated with full irrigation (FI) or partial root-zone drying...... irrigation (PRD) and inoculated with AMF of Rhizophagus irregularis (M+) or not (M−) in split-root pots in a sandy loam soil. Plants were analysed for growth performance, P and nitrogen (N) uptake and water use efficiency (WUE). Biochar adsorption of mineral P and N in aqueous solution was tested...

  1. Priority effects of early successional insects influence late successional fungi in dead wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Rannveig Margrete; Birkemoe, Tone; Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne

    2015-11-01

    Community assembly is an integral process in all ecosystems, producing patterns of species distributions, biodiversity, and ecosystem functioning. Environmental filters and colonization history govern the assembly process, but their relative importance varies depending on the study system. Dead wood decomposition is a slow process, allowing decomposer communities to develop within a slowly changing substrate for decades. Despite this, there are few long-term studies of priority effects from colonization history in this ecosystem. In this study, we investigate the importance of insects in early succession of dead wood on the fungal community present one decade later. Sixty aspen trees were killed in two study landscapes, each tree producing one aspen high stump and log. Insects were sampled with flight interception traps during the first 4 years after tree death, and fungal fruiting bodies were registered in year twelve. We found positive priority effects of two fungivorous beetles, the sap beetle Glischrochilus quadripunctatus and the round fungus beetle Agathidium nigripenne, on the Artist's bracket (Ganoderma applanatum) and a positive priority effect of wood-boring beetles on the ascomycete Yellow fairy cup (Bisporella citrina). The Aspen bracket (Phellinus tremulae) did not respond to insects in early succession of the dead wood. Our results suggest that early successional insects can have significant, long-lasting effects on the late successional fungal community in dead wood. Also, the effect can be specific, with one fungus species depending on one or a few fungivorous beetle species. This has implications for decomposition and biodiversity in dead wood, as loss of early colonizing beetles may also affect the successional pathways they seem to initiate.

  2. Fungos emboloradores e manchadores de madeira em toras estocadas em indústrias madeireiras no município de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil Mould and stain fungi in logs stored in wood industries of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Eiji Hanada

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Visando conhecer a diversidade e a incidência de fungos emboloradores e manchadores de madeira da região Amazônica, foi realizado um levantamento em 12 espécies florestais, estocadas em quatro indústrias madeireiras de Manaus. De cada espécie florestal selecionaram-se cinco toras, das quais retiraram-se amostras de onde procedeu-se isolamento dos fungos. Foram isolados 106 fungos associados às essências florestais, representados por nove gêneros e por dezesseis espécies. Paecilomyces variotii e Lasiodiplodia theobromae foram as espécies fúngicas mais freqüentemente associadas às espécies florestais. Ceiba pentandra e Hura crepitans foram as essências florestais que apresentaram maior diversidade de fungos, com sete espécies cada uma. Hymeneae courbaril foi a que apresentou menor diversidade de fungo, com apenas uma espécie.In order to know a diversity and incidence of wood mould and wood stain fungi from Amazonian wood, the survey and identification of these kinds of fungi were carried out in twelve wood species from four wood industries of Manaus, Amazonas. Five logs were randomly selected. Wood samples were prepared and transported to the Wood Pathology Laboratory at the Forest Product Research Center of the National Institute for Amazonian Research, where the isolation and identification of the fungi were conducted. One hundred and six fungi associated to the wood species were isolated, represented by nine genera and sixteen fungi species. Paecilomyces variotti and Lasiodiplodia theobromae were the more representative fungi, associated with ten and seven wood species respectively. Ceiba pentandra e Hura crepitans were the wood species with highest diversity of fungi, with seven species each. Hymenae courbaril was the wood that presented the lowest diversity of fungi, with only one fungus.

  3. Wood Colorization through Pressure Treating: The Potential of Extracted Colorants from Spalting Fungi as a Replacement for Woodworkers’ Aniline Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara C. Robinson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular colorants produced by Chlorociboria aeruginosa, Scytalidium cuboideum, and Scytalidium ganodermophthorum, three commonly utilized spalting fungi, were tested against a standard woodworker’s aniline dye to determine if the fungal colorants could be utilized in an effort to find a naturally occurring replacement for the synthetic dye. Fungal colorants were delivered in two methods within a pressure treater—the first through solubilization of extracted colorants in dichloromethane, and the second via liquid culture consisting of water, malt, and the actively growing fungus. Visual external evaluation of the wood test blocks showed complete surface coloration of all wood species with all colorants, with the exception of the green colorant (xylindein from C. aeruginosa in liquid culture, which did not produce a visible surface color change. The highest changes in external color came from noble fir, lodgepole pine, port orford cedar and sugar maple with aniline dye, cottonwood with the yellow colorant in liquid culture, lodgepole pine with the red colorant in liquid culture, red alder and Oregon maple with the green colorant in dichloromethane, and sugar maple and port orford cedar with the yellow colorant in dichloromethane. The aniline dye was superior to the fungal colorants in terms of internal coloration, although none of the tested compounds were able to completely visually color the inside of the test blocks.

  4. Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2014-01-01

    come from? How is it harvested? How is it manufactured and treated ? How are the buildings detailed and protected against weather during construction to keep them dry and make them long-life ? In a period of climate change, forests are the last lungs of the planet to sequestrate CO2. Their global size......Wood – a sustainable building material ? For thousands of years and all over the planet, wood has been used as a building material and exciting architecture has been created in wood. The fantastic structural, physical and aesthetic properties of the material as well as the fact that wood...

  5. Wood decay by brown-rot fungi : changes in pore structure and cell wall volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas S. Flournoy; T. Kent Kirk; T.L. Highley

    1991-01-01

    Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) wood blocks were decayed by Postia (= Poria) placenta in soilblock cultures. Decay was terminated at various weight losses, and the pore volumes available to four low molecular weight molecules, (water, 4 Å,; glucose, 8 Å,; maltose, 10 Å; and raffinose, 128,) and three dextrans (Mr 6,000, 38 Å; 11,200, 51 Å; nd 17,500, 61 Å) were...

  6. Extracellular oxidases and the transformation of solubilised low-rank coal by wood-rot fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph, J.P. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park (Australia). School of Biological Sciences; Graham, L.A. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park (Australia). School of Biological Sciences; Catcheside, D.E.A. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park (Australia). School of Biological Sciences

    1996-12-31

    The involvement of extracellular oxidases in biotransformation of low-rank coal was assessed by correlating the ability of nine white-rot and brown-rot fungi to alter macromolecular material in alkali-solubilised brown coal with the spectrum of oxidases they produce when grown on low-nitrogen medium. The coal fraction used was that soluble at 3.0{<=}pH{<=}6.0 (SWC6 coal). In 15-ml cultures, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Lentinus lepideus and Trametes versicolor produced little or no lignin peroxidase, manganese (Mn) peroxidase or laccase activity and caused no change to SWC6 coal. Ganoderma applanatum and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus also produced no detectable lignin or Mn peroxidases or laccase yet increased the absorbance at 400 nm of SWC6 coal. G. applanatum, which produced veratryl alcohol oxidase, also increased the modal apparent molecular mass. SWC6 coal exposed to Merulius tremellosus and Perenniporia tephropora, which secreted Mn peroxidases and laccase and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, which produced Mn and lignin peroxidases was polymerised but had unchanged or decreased absorbance. In the case of both P. chrysosporium and M. tremellosus, polymerisation of SWC6 coal was most extensive, leading to the formation of a complex insoluble in 100 mM NaOH. Rigidoporus ulmarius, which produced only laccase, both polymerised and reduced the A{sub 400} of SWC6 coal. P. chrysosporium, M. tremellosus and P. tephropora grown in 10-ml cultures produced a spectrum of oxidases similar to that in 15-ml cultures but, in each case, caused more extensive loss of A{sub 400}, and P. chrysosporium depolymerised SWC6 coal. It is concluded that the extracellular oxidases of white-rot fungi can transform low-rank coal macromolecules and that increased oxygen availability in the shallower 10-ml cultures favours catabolism over polymerisation. (orig.)

  7. Myco-phytoremediation of arsenic- and lead-contaminated soils by Helianthus annuus and wood rot fungi, Trichoderma sp. isolated from decayed wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govarthanan, M; Mythili, R; Selvankumar, T; Kamala-Kannan, S; Kim, H

    2018-04-30

    In the present study, Helianthus annuus grown in arsenic- (As) and lead- (Pb) contaminated soil were treated with plant-growth promoting fungi Trichoderma sp. MG isolated from decayed wood and assessed for their phytoremediation efficiency. The isolate MG exhibited a high tolerance to As (650mg/L) and Pb (500mg/L), and could remove > 70% of metals in aqueous solution with an initial concentration of 100mg/L each. In addition, the isolate MG was screened for plant-growth-promoting factors such as siderophores, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase, indole acetic acid (IAA) synthesis, and phosphate solubilisation. Phytoremediation studies indicated that treatment of H. annuus with the isolate MG had the maximum metal-accumulation in shoots (As; 67%, Pb; 59%). Furthermore, a significant increase in the soil extracellular enzyme-activities was observed in myco-phytoremediated soils. The activities of phosphatase (35 U/g dry soil), dehydrogenase (41mg TPF/g soil), cellulase (37.2mg glucose/g/2h), urease (55.4mgN/g soil/2h), amylase (49.3mg glucose/g/2h) and invertase (45.3mg glucose/g/2h) significantly increased by 12%, 14%, 12%, 22%, 19% and 14% in As contaminated soil, respectively. Similarly, the activities of phosphatase (31.4U/g dry soil), dehydrogenase (39.3mg TPF/g soil), cellulase (37.1mg glucose/g/2h), urease (49.8mgN/g soil/2h), amylase (46.3mg glucose/g/2h), and invertase (42.1mg glucose/g/2h) significantly increased by 11%, 15%, 11%, 18%, 20% and 14% in Pb contaminated soil, respectively. Obtained results indicate that the isolate MG could be a potential strain for myco-phytoremediation of As and Pb contaminated soil. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mycolytic enzymes produced by Streptomyces violaceusniger and their role in antagonism towards wood-rotting fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpure, Anand; Choudhary, Bharti; Gupta, Rajinder K

    2014-05-01

    Extracellular mycolytic enzymes produced under submerged fermentation by the fungal antagonist Streptomyces violaceusniger MTCC 3959 were characterized. This streptomycete produced higher amounts of extracellular chitinase and protease during late exponential phase, whereas β-1,3-glucanase production was at peak in mid-stationary phase. Cell-free culture filtrate (CCF) exhibited a broad range of antifungal activity against both white rot and brown rot fungi. The inhibitory activity was completely lost after treatment with proteinase K and heat, indicating that extracellular antifungal metabolites are heat labile and proteinaceous in nature. Optimum pH and temperature for enzyme activity were: 9.0 and 60 °C for chitinase; 6.0 and 60 °C for β-1,3-glucanase; and 9.0 and 70 °C for protease. Mycolytic enzymes were moderately thermostable, and had a wide pH stability range extending from pH 5.0 to 10.0. The zymogram analysis of CCF revealed five chitinase isoenzymes with an apparent molecular weight of 20.8, 33.3, 45.6, 67.4, and 114.8 kDa, one β-1,3-glucanase appeared as a single band of ∼131.8 kDa and four protease isoenzymes with approximate molecular weights of 22.8, 62.52, 74.64, and 120.5 kDa. S. violaceusniger MTCC 3959 produced mycolytic enzymes that can be effectively used for suppression of phytopathogenic basidiomycetes. It has the potential to be an effective biofungicide. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Robert H. White; Antoni TenWolde; William Simpson; Joseph Murphy; Robert J. Ross; Roland Hernandez; Stan T. Lebow

    2006-01-01

    Wood is a naturally formed organic material consisting essentially of elongated tubular elements called cells arranged in a parallel manner for the most part. These cells vary in dimensions and wall thickness with position in the tree, age, conditions of growth, and kind of tree. The walls of the cells are formed principally of chain molecules of cellulose, polymerized...

  10. The effect of CaCl2 on growth rate, wood decay and oxalic acid accumulation in Serpula lacrymans and related brown-rot fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Jensen, Bo; Clausen, Carol. A.

    2006-01-01

    The dry rot fungus, Serpula lacrymans, is one of the most destructive copper-tolerant fungi causing timber decay in buildings in temperate regions. Calcium and oxalic acid have been shown to play important roles in the mechanism of wood decay. The effect of calcium on growth and decay was evaluated...... for 12 strains of S. lacrymans and compared to five brown-rot fungi. This was done by treating copper citrate (CC)-treated Southern yellow pine (SYP) wood with a CaCl2 solution and estimating the decay rate and amount of soluble oxalic acid in an ASTM soil block test. Decay by S. lacrymans was found....... In summary, a marked decrease was observed in the decay capacity of S. lacrymans in pine treated with CC+CaCl2. The amount of soluble oxalic acid was measured in CC-treated blocks and blocks also treated with CaCl2. Of the comparative brown-rot fungi, both Antrodia vaillantii (TFFH 294) and Postia placenta...

  11. Fungi occurring in forests injured by air pollutants in the Upper Silesia and Cracov industrial Regions. V. Fungi inhabiting the overground portions of trees used in the regeneration of stands converted in 1971-1975

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Domański

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Results of investigations on fungi infecting both the leaves, needles or shoots, and the branches or trunks of 6-15-year-old tree species in forest stands rebuilt within two industrial regions in Poland are given in this paper.

  12. Various forms of organic and inorganic P fertilizers did not negatively affect soil- and root-inhabiting AM fungi in a maize-soybean rotation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauregard, M S; Gauthier, M-P; Hamel, C; Zhang, T; Welacky, T; Tan, C S; St-Arnaud, M

    2013-02-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are key components of most agricultural ecosystems. Therefore, understanding the impact of agricultural practices on their community structure is essential to improve nutrient mobilization and reduce plant stress in the field. The effects of five different organic or mineral sources of phosphorus (P) for a maize-soybean rotation system on AM fungal diversity in roots and soil were assessed over a 3-year period. Total DNA was extracted from root and soil samples collected at three different plant growth stages. An 18S rRNA gene fragment was amplified and taxa were detected and identified using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis followed by sequencing. AM fungal biomass was estimated by fatty acid methyl ester analysis. Soil P fertility parameters were also monitored and analyzed for possible changes related with fertilization or growth stages. Seven AM fungal ribotypes were detected. Fertilization significantly modified soil P flux, but had barely any effect on AM fungi community structure or biomass. There was no difference in the AM fungal community between plant growth stages. Specific ribotypes could not be significantly associated to P treatment. Ribotypes were associated with root or soil samples with variable detection frequencies between seasons. AM fungal biomass remained stable throughout the growing seasons. This study demonstrated that roots and soil host distinct AM fungal communities and that these are very temporally stable. The influence of contrasting forms of P fertilizers was not significant over 3 years of crop rotation.

  13. Bacterial Community Succession in Pine-Wood Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielak, Anna M; Scheublin, Tanja R; Mendes, Lucas W; van Veen, Johannes A; Kuramae, Eiko E

    2016-01-01

    Though bacteria and fungi are common inhabitants of decaying wood, little is known about the relationship between bacterial and fungal community dynamics during natural wood decay. Based on previous studies involving inoculated wood blocks, strong fungal selection on bacteria abundance and community composition was expected to occur during natural wood decay. Here, we focused on bacterial and fungal community compositions in pine wood samples collected from dead trees in different stages of decomposition. We showed that bacterial communities undergo less drastic changes than fungal communities during wood decay. Furthermore, we found that bacterial community assembly was a stochastic process at initial stage of wood decay and became more deterministic in later stages, likely due to environmental factors. Moreover, composition of bacterial communities did not respond to the changes in the major fungal species present in the wood but rather to the stage of decay reflected by the wood density. We concluded that the shifts in the bacterial communities were a result of the changes in wood properties during decomposition and largely independent of the composition of the wood-decaying fungal communities.

  14. Bacterial community succession in pine-wood decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eKielak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Though bacteria and fungi are common inhabitants of decaying wood, little is known about the relationship between bacterial and fungal community dynamics during natural wood decay. Based on previous studies involving inoculated wood blocks, strong fungal selection on bacteria abundance and community composition was expected to occur during natural wood decay. Here we focused on bacterial and fungal community compositions in pine wood samples collected from dead trees in different stages of decomposition. We showed that bacterial communities undergo less drastic changes than fungal communities during wood decay. Furthermore, we found that bacterial community assembly was a stochastic process at initial stage of wood decay and became more deterministic in later stages, likely due to environmental factors. Moreover, composition of bacterial communities did not respond to the changes in the major fungal species present in the wood but rather to the stage of decay reflected by the wood density. We concluded that the shifts in the bacterial communities were a result of the changes in wood properties during decomposition and largely independent of the composition of the wood-decaying fungal communities.

  15. Integrated control of wood destroying basidiomycetes combining Cu-based wood preservatives and Trichoderma spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ribera

    Full Text Available The production of new generation of wood preservatives (without addition of a co-biocide in combination with an exchange of wood poles on identical sites with high fungal inoculum, has resulted in an increase of premature failures of wood utility poles in the last decades. Wood destroying basidiomycetes inhabiting sites where poles have been installed, have developed resistance against wood preservatives. The objective of the in vitro studies was to identify a Trichoderma spp. with a highly antagonistic potential against wood destroying basidiomycetes that is capable of colonizing Cu-rich environments. For this purpose, the activity of five Trichoderma spp. on Cu-rich medium was evaluated according to its growth and sporulation rates. The influence of the selected Trichoderma spp. on wood colonization and degradation by five wood destroying basidiomycetes was quantitatively analyzed by means of dry weight loss of wood specimens. Furthermore, the preventative effect of the selected Trichoderma spp. in combination with four Cu-based preservatives was also examined by mass loss and histological changes in the wood specimens. Trichoderma harzianum (T-720 was considered the biocontrol agent with higher antagonistic potential to colonize Cu-rich environments (up to 0.1% CuSO4 amended medium. T. harzianum demonstrated significant preventative effect on wood specimens against four wood destroying basidiomycetes. The combined effect of T. harzianum and Cu-based wood preservatives demonstrated that after 9 months incubation with two wood destroying basidiomycetes, wood specimens treated with 3.8 kg m-3 copper-chromium had weight losses between 55-65%, whereas containers previously treated with T. harzianum had significantly lower weight losses (0-25%. Histological studies on one of the wood destroying basidiomycetes revealed typical decomposition of wood cells by brown-rot fungi in Cu-impregnated samples, that were notably absent in wood specimens

  16. Integrated control of wood destroying basidiomycetes combining Cu-based wood preservatives and Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribera, Javier; Fink, Siegfried; Bas, Maria Del Carmen; Schwarze, Francis W M R

    2017-01-01

    The production of new generation of wood preservatives (without addition of a co-biocide) in combination with an exchange of wood poles on identical sites with high fungal inoculum, has resulted in an increase of premature failures of wood utility poles in the last decades. Wood destroying basidiomycetes inhabiting sites where poles have been installed, have developed resistance against wood preservatives. The objective of the in vitro studies was to identify a Trichoderma spp. with a highly antagonistic potential against wood destroying basidiomycetes that is capable of colonizing Cu-rich environments. For this purpose, the activity of five Trichoderma spp. on Cu-rich medium was evaluated according to its growth and sporulation rates. The influence of the selected Trichoderma spp. on wood colonization and degradation by five wood destroying basidiomycetes was quantitatively analyzed by means of dry weight loss of wood specimens. Furthermore, the preventative effect of the selected Trichoderma spp. in combination with four Cu-based preservatives was also examined by mass loss and histological changes in the wood specimens. Trichoderma harzianum (T-720) was considered the biocontrol agent with higher antagonistic potential to colonize Cu-rich environments (up to 0.1% CuSO4 amended medium). T. harzianum demonstrated significant preventative effect on wood specimens against four wood destroying basidiomycetes. The combined effect of T. harzianum and Cu-based wood preservatives demonstrated that after 9 months incubation with two wood destroying basidiomycetes, wood specimens treated with 3.8 kg m-3 copper-chromium had weight losses between 55-65%, whereas containers previously treated with T. harzianum had significantly lower weight losses (0-25%). Histological studies on one of the wood destroying basidiomycetes revealed typical decomposition of wood cells by brown-rot fungi in Cu-impregnated samples, that were notably absent in wood specimens previously exposed to T

  17. Mechanical properties and chemical composition of beech wood exposed for 30 and 120 days to white-rot fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan Bari; Hamid Reza Taghiyari; Behbood Mohebby; Carol A. Clausen; Olaf Schmidt; Mohammad Ali Tajick Ghanbary; Mohammad Javad Vaseghi

    2015-01-01

    The effects of exposing specimens of Oriental beech [Fagus sylvatica subsp. orientalis (Lipsky) Greuter and Burdet] to the white-rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) Kummer and Trametes versicolor (L.: Fr.) Pilát strain 325 have been studied concerning the mechanical properties and...

  18. Critical fluid extraction of Juniperus virginiana L. and bioactivity of extracts against subterranean termites and wood-rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. J. Eller; Carol A. Clausen; Frederick Green; S.L. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) is an abundant renewable resource and represents a vast potential source of valuable natural products that may serve as natural biocides. Both the wood and needles from J. virginiana were extracted using liquid carbon dioxide (L-CO2) as well as ethanol (EtOH) and the yields determined.Woodblocks were...

  19. Potential of Wood-Rotting Fungi to Attack Polystyrene Sulfonate and Its Depolymerisation by Gloeophyllum trabeum via Hydroquinone-Driven Fenton Chemistry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin C Krueger

    Full Text Available Synthetic polymers often pose environmental hazards due to low biodegradation rates and resulting accumulation. In this study, a selection of wood-rotting fungi representing different lignocellulose decay types was screened for oxidative biodegradation of the polymer polystyrene sulfonate (PSS. Brown-rot basidiomycetes showed PSS depolymerisation of up to 50 % reduction in number-average molecular mass (Mn within 20 days. In-depth investigations with the most efficient depolymeriser, a Gloeophyllum trabeum strain, pointed at extracellular hydroquinone-driven Fenton chemistry responsible for depolymerisation. Detection of hydroxyl radicals present in the culture supernatants showed good compliance with depolymerisation over the time course of PSS degradation. 2,5-Dimethoxy-1,4-hydroquinone (2,5-DMHQ, which was detected in supernatants of active cultures via liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, was demonstrated to drive the Fenton processes in G. trabeum cultures. Up to 80% reduction in Mn of PSS where observed when fungal cultures were additionally supplemented with 2,5-dimethoxy benzoquinone, the oxidized from of 2,5-DMHQ. Furthermore, 2,5-DMHQ could initiate the Fenton's reagent-mediated PSS depolymerisation in cell-free systems. In contrast, white-rot fungi were unable to cause substantial depolymerising effects despite the expression of lignin-modifying exo-enzymes. Detailed investigations with laccase from Trametes versicolor revealed that only in presence of certain redox mediators limited PSS depolymerisation occurred. Our results indicate that brown-rot fungi might be suitable organisms for the biodegradation of recalcitrant synthetic polymeric pollutants.

  20. Exposure to biohazards in wood dust: bacteria, fungi, endotoxins, and (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwis, K U; Mandryk, J; Hocking, A D

    1999-09-01

    Personal exposure to fungi, bacteria, endotoxin, and (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan was determined at different woodworking sites--logging sites, sawmills, woodchipping sites, and joineries. Exposure levels to fungi at logging sites and sawmills were in the range of 10(3)-10(4) cfu/m3, at the woodchipping mill, 10(3)-10(5) cfu/m3, and at joineries, 10(2)-10(4) cfu/m3. Although mean endotoxin levels were lower than the suggested threshold value of 20 ng/m3, some personal exposures at sawmills and a joinery exceeded the standard. The geometric mean personal (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan exposure level at the woodchipping mill was 2.32 ng/m3, at sawmills, 1.37 ng/m3, at logging sites, 2.02 ng/m3, and at joineries, 0.43 ng/m3. Highly significant associations were found between mean personal inhalable endotoxin exposures and Gram-negative bacteria levels (p 3)-beta-D-glucan exposures and fungi levels (p = 0.0003). The prevalence of cough, phlegm, chronic bronchitis, nasal symptoms, frequent headaches, and eye and throat irritations was significantly higher among woodworkers than controls. Dose-response relationships were found between personal exposures and work-related symptoms among joinery workers and sawmill and chip mill workers.

  1. Concentration of "1"3"7Cs from water using a modified sorbent of wood decaying fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petercova, S.; Dulanska, S.; Matel, L.

    2016-01-01

    Wood-destroying fungus - tinder fungus (Fomes fomentarius) was used to prepare the modified biosorbent and tested for the possibility of concentrating of "1"3"7Cs from aqueous solution. Biosorbent was modified with help of ferric chloride, copper sulfate and potassium ferrocyanide. Cesium sorption kinetics, the effect of pH, weight carrier Cs"+, competing ions, ionic strength and the possibility of desorption was tested in the paper. The method will be applied to the "1"3"7Cs-concentration in aqueous solutions.

  2. Concentration of "1"3"7Cs from water using a modified sorbent of wood decaying fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petercova, S.; Dulanska, S.; Matel, L.

    2016-01-01

    Wood-destroying fungus - tinder fungus (Fomes fomentarius) was used to prepare the modified biosorbent and tested for the possibility of concentrating of "1"3"7Cs from aqueous solution. Biosorbent was modified with help of ferric chloride, copper sulfate and potassium ferrocyanide. Cesium sorption kinetics, the effect of pH, weight carrier Cs"+, competing ions, ionic strength and the possibility of desorption was tested in this work. The method will be applied to the "1"3"7Cs-concentration in aqueous solutions.

  3. Preliminary studies of fungi in the Biebrza National Park (NE Poland. II. Macromycetes

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    Anna Kujawa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the second part of the results of the first short-term inventory of fungi species occurring in the Biebrza National Park and is focused on a survey of macrofungi. The total number of macrofungi found during the survey in late August 2012 was 289 taxa: 17 ascomycetes and 272 basidiomycetes, inhabiting diverse ecological niches. The identified fungi belonged to ectomycorrhizal symbionts and saprobionts decomposing wood, plant litter and animal remnants. The identity of 25 mycorrhizal fungi species has been confirmed using molecular techniques. Five species are newly reported for Poland (Amanita olivaceogrisea, Lepiota lepida, Stropharia alcis, Xerocomus fennicus, X. cisalpinus and 225 taxa (79 % were not known in the Biebrza National Park. Fifty species are endangered in Poland, of which nine species are protected by law. Data on species richness and the taxonomic diversity of the identified fungi are briefly commented in terms of their significance for nature conservation and future research.

  4. Fungal accumulation of metals from building materials during brown rot wood decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Jensen, Bo; Jellison, Jody

    2014-08-01

    This study analyzes the accumulation and translocation of metal ions in wood during the degradation performed by one strain of each of the three brown rot fungi; Serpula lacrymans, Meruliporia incrassata and Coniophora puteana. These fungi species are inhabitants of the built environment where the prevention and understanding of fungal decay is of high priority. This study focuses on the influence of various building materials in relation to fungal growth and metal uptake. Changes in the concentration of iron, manganese, calcium and copper ions in the decayed wood were analyzed by induced coupled plasma spectroscopy and related to wood weight loss and oxalic acid accumulation. Metal transport into the fungal inoculated wood was found to be dependent on the individual strain/species. The S. lacrymans strain caused a significant increase in total iron whereas the concentration of copper ions in the wood appeared decreased after 10 weeks of decay. Wood inoculated with the M. incrassata isolate showed the contrary tendency with high copper accumulation and low iron increase despite similar weight losses for the two strains. However, significantly lower oxalic acid accumulation was recorded in M. incrassata degraded wood. The addition of a building material resulted in increased weight loss in wood degraded by C. puteana in the soil-block test; however, this could not be directly linked specifically to the accumulation of any of the four metals recorded. The accumulation of oxalic acid seemed to influence the iron uptake. The study assessing the influence of the presence of soil and glass in the soil-block test revealed that soil contributed the majority of the metals for uptake by the fungi and contributed to increased weight loss. The varying uptake observed among the three brown rot fungi strains toward the four metals analyzed may be related to the specific non-enzymatic and enzymatic properties including bio-chelators employed by each of the species during wood

  5. Occurrence of root parsley pathogens inhabiting seeds

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    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies on root parsley pathogens inhabiting seeds were conducted during 1981-1988 and in 1993. Filter paper method with prefreezing and keeping under light was used. Each test sample comprised 500 seeds. Pathogenicity of collected fungal isolates was tested following two laboratory methods. 238 seed samples were studied. 18 fungal species were found but only 7 proved to be important pathogens of root parsley. The most common inhabitants of root parsley seeds were Alternaria spp. A.allernata occurred on 74,8% of seeds but only a few isolates showed to be slightly pathogenic while A.petroselini and A.radicina were higly pathogenic and inhabited 11,4 and 4,2% of seeds, respectively. The second group of important pathogens were species of Fusarium found on 3,9% of seeds. F.avenaceum dominated as it comprised 48% of Fusarium isolates, the next were as follow: F.culmorum - 20%, F.equiseti - 15%, F.solani - 8%, F.oxysporum - 7% and F.dimerum -2%. Some fungi like Botrytis cinerea, Septoria petroselini and Phoma spp. inhabited low number of seeds, respectively O,4; 0,5 and 0,8%, but they were highly pathogenic to root parsley. The fungi: Bipolaris sorokiniana, Drechslera biseptata, Stemphylium botryosum and Ulocludium consortiale showed slight pathogenicity. They were isolated from 3,8% of seeds.

  6. Resistência natural da madeira de Corymbia maculata (Hook. K.D.Hill & L.A.S. Johnson a fungos e cupins xilófagos, em condições de laboratório Wood natural resistance of Corymbia maculata (Hook. K.D.Hill & L.A.S Johnson to wood destroying fungi and termites, under laboratory tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa teve o objetivo de avaliar a resistência natural da madeira de Corymbia maculata a fungos e a cupins xilófagos, em condições de laboratório. De peças radiais (tábuas que continham o cerne e o alburno intactos foram retirados corpos-de-prova de 2,00 x 2,00 x 1,00 cm, com a menor dimensão na direção tangencial (ensaio com fungos, e de 2,54 x 2,00 x 0,64 cm, com a maior dimensão na direção das fibras (ensaio com cupins, em quatro posições na direção medula-casca. As amostras foram submetidas à ação dos fungos Postia placenta, Neolentinus lepideus e Polyporus fumosus por 12 semanas, ou à ação de cupins do gênero Nasutitermes por 30 dias. Constatou-se que a resistência da madeira ao apodrecimento foi dependente da posição na direção medula-casca e dos fungos utilizados. As amostras retiradas nas posições mais externas do tronco foram mais deterioradas que as internas. Dentro de cada posição, os fungos causaram deterioração semelhante à madeira, exceto para a posição mais externa (alburno, em que o fungo P. fumosus causou menos deterioração que os demais. De modo geral, a madeira de C. maculata foi altamente resistente (posições internas ou resistente (posições externas aos fungos ensaiados. Somente para o fungo N. lepideus a posição mais externa foi moderadamente resistente. Quanto aos cupins, a resistência da madeira não foi afetada pela posição na direção medula-casca e apresentou uma baixa perda de massa para as posições analisadas. Além disto, os cupins causaram somente desgaste superficial à madeira, e morreram durante o ensaio, o que permitiu classificar a madeira de C.maculata como resistente aos cupins ensaiados.This research evaluated the natural resistance of Corymbia maculata wood to wood-destroying fungi and termites, under laboratory tests. Radial pieces (boards, containing intact heartwood and sapwood were transformed into test samples measuring 2.00 x 2.00 x 1.00 cm

  7. Chemical changes and increased degradability of wheat straw and oak wood chips treated with the white rot fungi Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Lentinula edodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van Sandra J.A.; Sonnenberg, Anton S.M.; Baars, Johan J.P.; Hendriks, Wouter H.; Río, del José C.; Rencoret, Jorge; Gutiérrez, Ana; Ruijter, de Norbert C.A.; Cone, John W.

    2017-01-01

    Wheat straw and oak wood chips were incubated with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Lentinula edodes for 8 weeks. Samples from the fungal treated substrates were collected every week for chemical characterization. L. edodes continuously grew during the 8 weeks on both wheat straw and oak wood chips,

  8. Natural substrata for corticioid fungi

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    Eugene O. Yurchenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the types of substrata inhabited by non-poroid resupinate Homobasidiomycetes in situ in global scale with both examples from literature sources and from observations on Belarus corticioid fungi biota. The groups of organic world colonized by corticioid basidiomata and vegetative mycelium are arboreous, semi-arboreous, and herbaceous vascular plants, Bryophyta, epiphytic coccoid algae, lichenized and non-lichenized fungi, and occasionally myxomycetes and invertebrates. The fungi occur on living, dying, and dead on all decay stages parts of organisms. Besides, the fungi are known on soil, humus, stones, artificial inorganic and synthetic materials and dung.

  9. Wood : adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.H. Conner

    2001-01-01

    This chapter on wood adhesives includes: 1) Classification of wood adhesives 2) Thermosetting wood adhesives 3) Thermoplastic adhesives, 4) Wood adhesives based on natural sources 5) Nonconventional bonding of wood 6) Wood bonding.

  10. The effect of adding urea, manganese and linoleic acid to wheat straw and wood chips on lignin degradation by fungi and subsequent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van S.J.A.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Hendriks, W.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was optimizing Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Lentinula edodes pre-treatment of wheat straw and wood chips by adding urea, manganese and linoleic acid. Optimization was defined as more lignin degradation and an increase in in vitro gas

  11. Holistic approach to wood protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell

    2006-01-01

    When untreated wood is exposed to adverse outdoor conditions, nature has a series of chemistries to degrade it to its original building blocks of carbon dioxide and water. Fungi, termites, heat, moisture, ultraviolet (UV) energy, and chemicals take their toll on the performance properties of wood. We tend to study each of these degradation chemistries as individual...

  12. Some mycogenous fungi from Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Chlebicki

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the results of earlier studies on mycogenous fungi which were gathered occasionally are summarized. Fifieen specres. previously Pyrenomycetes s.l., have been found growing on other fungi Immothia hypoxylon and Lophiostoma polyporicola are new species to the Polish mycoflora. Sphaeronaemella Kulczyńskiana described by K. R o u p p e r t (1912 is considered to be Eleuteromyces subultus. Relatively high number of fungi inhabiting stromata of Diatrypella favacea is probably connected with its early colonization of the Polish area.

  13. Resistência natural de nove madeiras do semiárido brasileiro a fungos xilófagos em simulares de campo Natural resistance of nine woods from the Brazilian semi-arid region to wood-destroying fungi in field simulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos desta pesquisa foram avaliar a resistência de nove madeiras de ocorrência no semiárido brasileiro a fungos xilófagos em simuladores de campo e relacionar a resistência natural com a densidade e teor de substâncias extraídas em água quente. As madeiras estudadas foram algaroba (Prosopis juliflora, angico-vermelho (Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil, aroeira (Myracrodruon urundeuva, braúna (Schinopsis brasiliensis, cássia (Senna siamea, craibeira (Tabebuia aurea, cumaru (Amburana cearensis, pau-d'arco (Tabebuia impetiginosa e pereiro (Aspidosperma pyrifolium. De cada espécie foram retirados corpos-de-prova de 0,5 x 1,5 x 15,0 cm, com a maior dimensão na direção das fibras, em quatro posições na direção medula-casca do tronco. As amostras permaneceram por 180 dias sob ação da microflora natural existente em três tipos de solos: de floresta, de uso agrícola e com gramíneas. Em todas as madeiras ensaiadas, a resistência ao apodrecimento foi afetada pela posição na direção medula-casca. Apenas na aroeira a resistência da madeira esteve associada à sua densidade e à quantidade de extrativos solúveis em água quente. A resistência das madeiras de algaroba, angico, craibeira e pau-d'arco não esteve associada à densidade nem ao teor de extrativos. O alburno foi a posição mais atacada em todos os solos analisados. Entre os solos testados, o de uso agrícola apresentou menos atividade biológica, deteriorando menos as madeiras testadas.The objectives of this research were to evaluate the natural resistance of nine woods from the Brazilian semi-arid region to fungi under field simulator condition and to correlate the wood natural resistance with the wood density and the content of extractives soluble in hot water. The studied woods were Prosopis juliflora, Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil, Myracrodruon urundeuva, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Senna siamea, Tabebuia aurea, Amburana cearensis, Tabebuia

  14. Resistência natural de nove madeiras do semi-árido brasileiro a fungos xilófagos em condições de laboratório Natural resistance of nine woods of Brazilian semi-arid region to wood-destroying fungi under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a resistência natural de nove madeiras do semi-árido brasileiro a fungos xilófagos, em condições de laboratório. As madeiras estudadas foram a algaroba (Prosopis juliflora, o angico (Anadenanthera macrocarpa, a aroeira (Myracrodruon urundeuva, a braúna (Schinopsis brasiliensis, a cássia (Senna siamea, a craibeira (Tabebuia aurea, o cumaru (Amburana cearensis, o ipê (Tabebuia impetiginosa e o pereiro (Aspidosperma pyrifolium. De cada espécie foram retirados corpos-de-prova de 2,54 x 2,00 x 1,00 cm, com a maior dimensão na direção das fibras, em quatro posições na direção medula-casca. As amostras foram submetidas, por 14 semanas, à ação dos fungos Postia placenta e Neolentinus lepideus. A resistência natural, com exceção da algaroba e do angico (P. placenta, da craibeira (N. lepideus e da cássia (P. placenta e N. lepideus, foi afetada pela posição na direção medula-casca, sem estar relacionada à densidade das madeiras ensaiadas. A madeira de ipê e a madeira de cerne da aroeira e braúna foram as mais resistentes aos fungos testados. As diferenças entre a resistência natural, exceto para a aroeira e braúna, não estavam associadas à concentração de extrativos solúveis em água quente.The objective of this research was to evaluate the natural resistance of nine semi arid region Brazilian woods to wood-destroying fungi under laboratory conditions. The studied woods were the Prosopis juliflora, Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Myracrodruon urundeuva, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Senna siamea, Tabebuia aurea, Amburana cearensis, Tabebuia impetiginosa and Aspidosperma pyrifolium. Test samples measuring 2.54 x 2.00 x 1.00 cm, with the largest measure taken fiber-wise were obtained from four pith-to-bark positions. The samples were submitted to action of the Postia placenta and Neolentinus lepideus fungi for 14 weeks. Species resistance, with exception of those of Prosopis juliflora and Anadenanthera

  15. Inhabiting Adaptive Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Schnädelbach

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive Architecture concerns buildings that are specifically designed to adapt to their inhabitants and to their environments. Work in this space has a very long history, with a number of adaptive buildings emerging during the modernist period, such as Rietveld’s Schröder house, Gaudi’s Casa Batlló and Chareau's Maison de Verre. Such early work included manual adaptivity, even if that was motor-assisted. Today, buildings have started to combine this with varying degrees of automation and designed-for adaptivity is commonplace in office buildings and eco homes, where lighting, air conditioning, access and energy generation respond to and influence the behaviour of people, and the internal and external climate.

  16. Resistance of particleboard panels made of agricultural residues and bonded with synthetic resins or PVC plastic to wood-rotting fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divino Eterno Teixeira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the resistance of three types of particleboard panel to biodeterioration, two of which bonded with synthetic resins and one bonded with PVC plastic. Composite panels were made using sugar cane straw particles as raw material which were bonded together with urea-formaldehyde (UF, tannin-formaldehyde (TANI and PVC plastic (PVC resins. Decay tests were performed following procedures outlined in the ASTM D2017-81/1994 standard, whereby sample specimens were subjected to attack by white rot fungus Trametes versicolor and brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum using pine (Pinus sp. and embaúba (Cecropia sp. as reference timber. Panels bonded with PVC resin were rated ‘resistant’ to attack by both fungi while those bonded with UF and TANI resins were rated ‘slightly resistant’ to their attack.

  17. Comparative genomics of the white-rot fungi, Phanerochaete carnosa and P. chrysosporium, to elucidate the genetic basis of the distinct wood types they colonize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Hitoshi; MacDonald, Jacqueline; Syed, Khajamohiddin; Salamov, Asaf; Hori, Chiaki; Aerts, Andrea; Henrissat, Bernard; Wiebenga, Ad; vanKuyk, Patricia A.; Barry, Kerrie; Lindquist, Erika; LaButti, Kurt; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Coutinho, Pedro; Gong, Yunchen; Samejima, Masahiro; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan; Abou-Zaid, Mamdouh; de Vries, Ronald P.; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Yadav, Jagit S.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Master, Emma R.

    2012-02-17

    Background Softwood is the predominant form of land plant biomass in the Northern hemisphere, and is among the most recalcitrant biomass resources to bioprocess technologies. The white rot fungus, Phanerochaete carnosa, has been isolated almost exclusively from softwoods, while most other known white-rot species, including Phanerochaete chrysosporium, were mainly isolated from hardwoods. Accordingly, it is anticipated that P. carnosa encodes a distinct set of enzymes and proteins that promote softwood decomposition. To elucidate the genetic basis of softwood bioconversion by a white-rot fungus, the present study reports the P. carnosa genome sequence and its comparative analysis with the previously reported P. chrysosporium genome. Results P. carnosa encodes a complete set of lignocellulose-active enzymes. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that P. carnosa is enriched with genes encoding manganese peroxidase, and that the most divergent glycoside hydrolase families were predicted to encode hemicellulases and glycoprotein degrading enzymes. Most remarkably, P. carnosa possesses one of the largest P450 contingents (266 P450s) among the sequenced and annotated wood-rotting basidiomycetes, nearly double that of P. chrysosporium. Along with metabolic pathway modeling, comparative growth studies on model compounds and chemical analyses of decomposed wood components showed greater tolerance of P. carnosa to various substrates including coniferous heartwood. Conclusions The P. carnosa genome is enriched with genes that encode P450 monooxygenases that can participate in extractives degradation, and manganese peroxidases involved in lignin degradation. The significant expansion of P450s in P. carnosa, along with differences in carbohydrate- and lignin-degrading enzymes, could be correlated to the utilization of heartwood and sapwood preparations from both coniferous and hardwood species.

  18. Fungal community structure of fallen pine and oak wood at different stages of decomposition in the Qinling Mountains, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jie; Zheng, Xiaofeng; Cheng, Fei; Zhu, Xian; Hou, Lin; Li, Jingxia; Zhang, Shuoxin

    2017-10-24

    Historically, intense forest hazards have resulted in an increase in the quantity of fallen wood in the Qinling Mountains. Fallen wood has a decisive influence on the nutrient cycling, carbon budget and ecosystem biodiversity of forests, and fungi are essential for the decomposition of fallen wood. Moreover, decaying dead wood alters fungal communities. The development of high-throughput sequencing methods has facilitated the ongoing investigation of relevant molecular forest ecosystems with a focus on fungal communities. In this study, fallen wood and its associated fungal communities were compared at different stages of decomposition to evaluate relative species abundance and species diversity. The physical and chemical factors that alter fungal communities were also compared by performing correspondence analysis according to host tree species across all stages of decomposition. Tree species were the major source of differences in fungal community diversity at all decomposition stages, and fungal communities achieved the highest levels of diversity at the intermediate and late decomposition stages. Interactions between various physical and chemical factors and fungal communities shared the same regulatory mechanisms, and there was no tree species-specific influence. Improving our knowledge of wood-inhabiting fungal communities is crucial for forest ecosystem conservation.

  19. Micronized copper wood preservatives: An efficiency and potential health risk assessment for copper-based nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Civardi, Chiara; Schwarze, Francis W.M.R.; Wick, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential biocide for wood protection, but fails to protect wood against Cu-tolerant wood-destroying fungi. Recently Cu particles (size range: 1 nm–25 μm) were introduced to the wood preservation market. The new generation of preservatives with Cu-based nanoparticles (Cu-based NPs) is reputedly more efficient against wood-destroying fungi than conventional formulations. Therefore, it has the potential to become one of the largest end uses for wood products worldwide. However, during decomposition of treated wood Cu-based NPs and/or their derivate may accumulate in the mycelium of Cu-tolerant fungi and end up in their spores that are dispersed into the environment. Inhaled Cu-loaded spores can cause harm and could become a potential risk for human health. We collected evidence and discuss the implications of the release of Cu-based NPs by wood-destroying fungi and highlight the exposure pathways and subsequent magnitude of health impact. - Highlights: • We compared copper particulate wood preservatives with conventional ones. • We assessed the fungicidal activity of particulate copper wood preservatives. • We reviewed the Cu-tolerance mechanisms of some wood-destroying fungi. • Fungi colonizing wood treated with particulate copper may release Cu-loaded spores. - We assess the fungicidal activity of particulate copper wood preservatives and their possible release in the air by Cu-tolerant wood-destroying fungi

  20. Preservation of forest wood chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofman, P.D.; Thomsen, I.M.; Ohlsson, C.; Leer, E.; Ravn Schmidt, E.; Soerensen, M.; Knudsen, P.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Danish Energy Research Programme on biomass utilisation for energy production (EFP), this project concerns problems connected to the handling and storing of wood chips. In this project, the possibility of preserving wood chips of the Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) is addressed, and the potential improvements by anaerobic storage are tested. Preservation of wood chips aims at reducing dry matter losses from extensive heating during storage and to reduce production of fungal spores. Fungal spores pose a health hazards to workers handling the chips. Further the producers of wood chips are interested in such a method since it would enable them to give a guarantee for the delivery of homogeneous wood chips also during the winter period. Three different types of wood chips were stored airtight and further one of these was stored in accordance with normal practise and use as reference. The results showed that airtight storage had a beneficial impact on the quality of the chips: no redistribution of moisture, low dry matter losses, unfavourable conditions for microbial activity of most fungi, and the promotion of yeasts instead of fungi with airborne spores. Likewise the firing tests showed that no combustion problems, and no increased risk to the environment or to the health of staff is caused by anaerobic storage of wood chips. In all, the tests of the anaerobic storage method of forest wood chips were a success and a large-scale test of the method will be carried out in 1999. (au)

  1. Classificação de lâminas de madeira de Pinus spp. contaminadas por fungos manchadores Classification of Pinus spp. veneers wood contaminated by blue stain fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Elita Carneiro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A busca por novas tecnologias que garantam a uniformidade da qualidade dos produtos tem se tornado constante, assim este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a potencialidade de medidas espectroscópicas combinadas a ferramentas estatísticas para classificação de lâminas de madeiras de Pinus spp. contaminadas por fungos manchadores. As amostras foram coletadas em processo industrial, e observou-se que algumas lâminas estavam contaminadas por fungos manchadores. Assim, utilizou-se este material para investigar a influência dessa mancha azul em metodologias espectroscópicas e a possibilidade de discriminação dessa contaminação. Desse material contaminado foram capturados os espectros, na faixa de 400 a 1000 nm. Com esses dados, realizou-se uma análise exploratória por Componentes Principais (PCA e classificação via SIMCA, em que se verificou a discriminação eficiente em dois grupos, madeiras sadias e contaminadas. Observou-se que a técnica de espectroscopia óptica preenche os requisitos necessários para uma possível aplicação na classificação de lâminas no processo produtivo.The search for new technologies that ensure uniformity of product quality has become constant. The objective of this work was to study the potential of spectroscopic measurements combined with statistical tools for sorting sheets of wood of Pinus spp. contaminated by staining fungi. Samples were collected in the industrial process and it was found that some blades were contaminated by fungus staining. Thus, this material was used to investigate its influence on blue stain and spectroscopic methods and the possibility of discrimination by such contamination. Spectra at 400-1000 m range were captured from this contaminated material. By using these data, it was performed an exploratory analysis by Principal Components (PCA and classification via SIMCA, where discrimination was found effective in healthy and diseased wood. It is observed that the use of

  2. Comparative genome analysis of Basidiomycete fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Henrissat, Bernard; Nagy, Laszlo; Brown, Daren; Held, Benjamin; Baker, Scott; Blanchette, Robert; Boussau, Bastien; Doty, Sharon L.; Fagnan, Kirsten; Floudas, Dimitris; Levasseur, Anthony; Manning, Gerard; Martin, Francis; Morin, Emmanuelle; Otillar, Robert; Pisabarro, Antonio; Walton, Jonathan; Wolfe, Ken; Hibbett, David; Grigoriev, Igor

    2013-08-07

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes), make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important in forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes symbionts, pathogens, and saprotrophs including the majority of wood decaying and ectomycorrhizal species. To better understand the genetic diversity of this phylum we compared the genomes of 35 basidiomycetes including 6 newly sequenced genomes. These genomes span extremes of genome size, gene number, and repeat content. Analysis of core genes reveals that some 48percent of basidiomycete proteins are unique to the phylum with nearly half of those (22percent) found in only one organism. Correlations between lifestyle and certain gene families are evident. Phylogenetic patterns of plant biomass-degrading genes in Agaricomycotina suggest a continuum rather than a dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay. Based on phylogenetically-informed PCA analysis of wood decay genes, we predict that that Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea have properties similar to white rot species, although neither has typical ligninolytic class II fungal peroxidases (PODs). This prediction is supported by growth assays in which both fungi exhibit wood decay with white rot-like characteristics. Based on this, we suggest that the white/brown rot dichotomy may be inadequate to describe the full range of wood decaying fungi. Analysis of the rate of discovery of proteins with no or few homologs suggests the value of continued sequencing of basidiomycete fungi.

  3. Insect-mediated nitrogen dynamics in decomposing wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen

    2015-01-01

    1.Wood decomposition is characterised by complex and poorly understood nitrogen (N) dynamics with unclear implications for forest nutrient cycling and productivity.Wood-dwelling microbes have developed unique strategies for coping with the N limitations imposed by their substrate, including the translocation of N into wood by cord-forming fungi and the fixation of...

  4. Tolerance of Serpula lacrymans to copper-based wood preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Christine Steenkjaer Hastrup; Frederick Green; Carol A. Clausen; Bo Jensen

    2005-01-01

    Serpula lacrymans, the dry rot fungus, is considered the most economically important wood decay fungus in certain temperate regions of the world, namely northern Europe, Japan, and Australia. Previously, copper-based wood preservatives were commonly used for pressure treatment of wood for building construction, but some decay fungi are known to be copper tolerant. In...

  5. Wood burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, H

    1955-01-01

    Discussed are the use of wood as a fuel, the technique of wood combustion and the operation of wood-burning stoves for cooking and heating. In addition, there is a section which reviews the use of wood stoves in various countries and lists manufacturers of stoves, central heating furnaces and in some cases sawdust burners.

  6. Isolation and characterization of efficient cellulolytic fungi from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation and characterization of efficient cellulolytic fungi from degraded wood and industrial samples. Abreham Bekele, Tariku Abena, Adane Habteyohannes, Addisalem Nugissie, Fitala Gudeta, Tigist Getie, Musin Kelel, Admas Berhanu ...

  7. The fungal composition of natural biofinishes on oil-treated wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, Elke J.; Houbraken, Jos A. M. P.; Punt, Peter J; Roeselers, Guus; Adan, Olaf C G; Samson, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    Biofinished wood is considered to be a decorative and protective material for outdoor constructions, showing advantages compared to traditional treated wood in terms of sustainability and self-repair. Natural dark wood staining fungi are essential to biofinish formation on wood. Although all sorts

  8. The fungal composition of natural biofinishes on oil-treated wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, E.J.; Houbraken, J.A.M.P.; Punt, P.J.; Roeselers, G.; Adan, O.C.G.; Samson, R.A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Biofinished wood is considered to be a decorative and protective material for outdoor constructions, showing advantages compared to traditional treated wood in terms of sustainability and self-repair. Natural dark wood staining fungi are essential to biofinish formation on wood. Although

  9. Screening and assessment of laccase producing fungi isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... enzyme is found in many plant species and is widely distributed in fungi including wood-rotting fungi .... mat and weight of only filter paper represented biomass of fungal mat. ... substrate conversion/s) (Das et al., 1997).

  10. Rate Growth comparison of basidiomycetous fungi isolated in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera-Rios, J. M.; Cruz Ramirez, M. G.; Cruz Madrid, L. C.; Medina Moreno, S. A.; Tellez-Jurado, A.; Mercado-Flores, Y.; Arana-Cuenca, A.

    2009-01-01

    Huejutla de Reyes is a place with a warm-humid climate and counts on an annual average temperature of 30 degree centigrade. We collected fungi that growth in wood or trees with the purpose of isolation this lignionolytic fungi in two seasons (one is spring, before raining station and another one in autumn, during raining station). (Author)

  11. Pulmonary adiaspiromycosis in the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) inhabiting Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolka, I; Giżejewska, A; Giżejewski, Z; Kołodziejska-Lesisz, J; Kluciński, W

    2017-09-26

    Adiaspiromycosis is a rare fungal infection caused by saprophytic fungi Emmonsia spp. (type Ascomycota) occurring especially in small free-living mammals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of histopathological lesions asscociated with adiaspiromycosis in the Eurasian beaver inhabiting Poland. In order to evaluate the presence of natural adiaspiromycosis we systematically investigated beaver populations from north-eastern Poland for adiaspores in the lungs. This study reveals for the first time the presence of pulmonary adiaspiromycosis of Eurasian beaver in Poland. As far as we know, there is no published data regarding pulmonary adiaspiromycosis in human patients in Poland.

  12. Wood Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about wood dust, which can raise the risk of cancers of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. High amounts of wood dust are produced in sawmills, and in the furniture-making, cabinet-making, and carpentry industries.

  13. Wood Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoke is made up of a complex mixture of gases and fine, microscopic particles produced when wood and other organic matter burn. The biggest health threat from wood smoke comes from fine particles (also called particulate matter).

  14. Copper tolerance of brown-rot fungi : time course of oxalic acid production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick Green; Carol A. Clausen

    2003-01-01

    The increase in the use of non-arsenical copper-based wood preservatives in response to environmental concerns has been accompanied by interest in copper-tolerant decay fungi. Oxalic acid production by brown-rot fungi has been proposed as one mechanism of copper tolerance. Fifteen brown-rot fungi representing the genera Postia, Wolfiporia, Meruliporia, Gloeophyllum,...

  15. Comparative Genome Analysis of Basidiomycete Fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Morin, Emmanuelle; Nagy, Laszlo; Manning, Gerard; Baker, Scott; Brown, Daren; Henrissat, Bernard; Levasseur, Anthony; Hibbett, David; Martin, Francis; Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-19

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes), make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important in forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes the mushrooms, wood rots, symbionts, and plant and animal pathogens. To better understand the diversity of phenotypes in basidiomycetes, we performed a comparative analysis of 35 basidiomycete fungi spanning the diversity of the phylum. Phylogenetic patterns of lignocellulose degrading genes suggest a continuum rather than a sharp dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay. Patterns of secondary metabolic enzymes give additional insight into the broad array of phenotypes found in the basidiomycetes. We suggest that the profile of an organism in lignocellulose-targeting genes can be used to predict its nutritional mode, and predict Dacryopinax sp. as a brown rot; Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea as white rots.

  16. Filamentous Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers-Fletcher, Margaret V; Kendall, Brian A; Griffin, Allen T; Hanson, Kimberly E

    2016-06-01

    Filamentous mycoses are often associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Prompt diagnosis and aggressive treatment are essential for good clinical outcomes in immunocompromised patients. The host immune response plays an essential role in determining the course of exposure to potential fungal pathogens. Depending on the effectiveness of immune response and the burden of organism exposure, fungi can either be cleared or infection can occur and progress to a potentially fatal invasive disease. Nonspecific cellular immunity (i.e., neutrophils, natural killer [NK] cells, and macrophages) combined with T-cell responses are the main immunologic mechanisms of protection. The most common potential mold pathogens include certain hyaline hyphomycetes, endemic fungi, the Mucorales, and some dematiaceous fungi. Laboratory diagnostics aimed at detecting and differentiating these organisms are crucial to helping clinicians make informed decisions about treatment. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the medically important fungal pathogens, as well as to discuss the patient characteristics, antifungal-therapy considerations, and laboratory tests used in current clinical practice for the immunocompromised host.

  17. How spectroscopy and microspectroscopy of degraded wood contribute to understand fungal wood decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fackler, Karin; Schwanninger, Manfred

    2012-11-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance, mid and near infrared, and ultra violet (UV) spectra of wood contain information on its chemistry and composition. When solid wood samples are analysed, information on the molecular structure of the lignocellulose complex of wood e.g. crystallinity of polysaccharides and the orientation of the polymers in wood cell walls can also be gained. UV and infrared spectroscopy allow also for spatially resolved spectroscopy, and state-of-the-art mapping and imaging systems have been able to provide local information on wood chemistry and structure at the level of wood cells (with IR) or cell wall layers (with UV). During the last decades, these methods have also proven useful to follow alterations of the composition, chemistry and physics of the substrate wood after fungi had grown on it as well as changes of the interactions between the wood polymers within the lignocellulose complex caused by decay fungi. This review provides an overview on how molecular spectroscopic methods could contribute to understand these degradation processes and were able to characterise and localise fungal wood decay in its various stages starting from the incipient and early ones even if the major share of research focussed on advanced decay. Practical issues such as requirements in terms of sample preparation and sample form and present examples of optimised data analysis will also be addressed to be able to detect and characterise the generally highly variable microbial degradation processes within their highly variable substrate wood.

  18. Wood composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lars Berglund; Roger M. Rowell

    2005-01-01

    A composite can be defined as two or more elements held together by a matrix. By this definition, what we call “solid wood” is a composite. Solid wood is a three-dimensional composite composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin (with smaller amounts of inorganics and extractives), held together by a lignin matrix. The advantages of developing wood composites are (...

  19. Molecular diversity of fungi from marine oxygen-deficient environments (ODEs)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Manohar, C.S.; Forster, D.; Kauff, F.; Stoeck, T.

    . Sparrow Jr F K (1936) Biological observations of the marine fungi of woods hole waters. Biol Bull 70: 236-263. States JS & Christensen M (2001) Fungi Associated with Biological Soil Crusts in Desert Grasslands of Utah and Wyoming. Mycologia 93: 432... version: Biology of marine fungi. Ed. by: Raghukumar, C. (Prog. Mol. Subcellular Biol). Springer, vol.53 (Chap 10); 2012; 189-208 Chapter # 10 Molecular diversity of fungi from marine oxygen-deficient environments (ODEs) Cathrine S. Jebaraj 1...

  20. Chapter 5: Organopollutant Degradation by Wood Decay Basidiomycetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yitzhak Hadar; Daniel Cullen

    2013-01-01

    Wood decay fungi are obligate aerobes, deriving nutrients from the biological ‘combustion’ of wood, using molecular oxygen as terminal electron acceptor (Kirk and Farrell 1987; Blanchette 1991). Non-specific extracellular enzymes are generally viewed as key components in lignin depolymerization. The major enzymes implicated in lignin degradation are lignin peroxidase (...

  1. Laboratory tests on fungal resistance of wood filled polyethylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig M. Clemons; Rebecca E. Ibach

    2002-01-01

    A standard method for determining the durability of structural wood was modified for testing the fungal resistance of composites made from high density polyethylene filled with 50% wood flour. Moisture content, mechanical properties, and weight loss were measured over 12 weeks exposure to brown-and white-rot fungi. Mechanical properties were decreased, but irreversible...

  2. Wood preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach

    1999-01-01

    When left untreated in many outdoor applications, wood becomes subject to degradation by a variety of natural causes. Although some trees possess naturally occurring resistance to decay (Ch. 3, Decay Resistance), many are in short supply or are not grown in ready proximity to markets. Because most commonly used wood species, such as Southern Pine, ponderosa pine, and...

  3. Fungal decay resistance of wood reacted with phosphorus pentoxide-amine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong-Lin Lee; George C. Chen; Roger M. Rowell

    2004-01-01

    Resistance of wood reacted in situ with phosphorus pentoxide-amine to the brown-rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum and white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor was examined. Wood reacted with either octyl, tribromo, or nitro derivatives were more resistant to both fungi. Threshold retention values of phosphoramide-reacted wood to white-rot fungus T. versicolor ranged from 2.9...

  4. Laboratory evaluations of woods from Pakistan and their extractives against Postia placenta and Trametes versicolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Mankowski; Barbar Hassan; Amy Blodgett; Grant T. Kirker

    2016-01-01

    Natural durable wood species are those which exhibit innate tolerance to wood decay organisms such as fungi and termites. The goal of this study was to evaluate 4 wood species (Dalbergia sissoo, Cedrus deodara, Morus alba and Pinus roxburghii) from Pakistan in order to determine their resistance to both a model brown (

  5. Decay and termite resistance, water absorption and swelling of thermally compressed wood panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oner Unsal; S. Nami Kartal; Zeki Candan; Rachel A. Arango; Carol A. Clausen; Frederick Green

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated decay and termite resistance of thermally compressed pine wood panels under pressure at either 5 or 7 MPa and either 120 or 150 °C for 1 h. Wood specimens from the panels were exposed to laboratory decay resistance by using the wood degrading fungi, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Trametes versicolor. The thermal compression process caused increases in...

  6. Alternative Carrier Solvents for Pigments Extracted from Spalting Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Pittis

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of both naturally occurring and synthetic pigmented wood has been prevalent in woodcraft for centuries. Modern manifestations generally involve either woodworkers’ aniline dyes, or pigments derived from a special class of fungi known as spalting fungi. While fungal pigments are more renewable than anilines and pose less of an environmental risk, the carrier required for these pigments—dichloromethane (DCM—is both problematic for humans and tends to only deposit the pigments on the surface of wood instead of evenly within the material. Internal coloration of wood is key to adoption of a pigmenting system by woodworkers. To address this issue, five solvents that had moderate solubility with the pigments extracted from Chlorociboria aeruginosa and Scytalidium cuboideum were identified, in the hopes that a reduction in solubility would result in a greater amount of the pigment deposited inside the wood. Of the tested solvents, acetonitrile was found to produce the highest internal color in ash, Douglas-fir, madrone, mountain hemlock, Port-Orford cedar, Pacific silver fir, red alder and sugar maple. While these carrier solvents are not ideal for extracting the pigments from the fungi, acetonitrile in particular does appear to allow for more pigment to be deposited within wood. The use of acetonitrile over DCM offers new opportunities for possible industrial spalting applications, in which larger pieces of wood could be uniformly pigmented and sold to the end user in larger quantities than are currently available with spalted wood.

  7. Chapter 5:Biological Properties of Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach

    2013-01-01

    There are numerous biological degradations that wood is exposed to in various environments. Biological damage occurs when a log, sawn product, or final product is not stored, handled, or designed properly. Biological organisms such as bacteria, mold, stain, decay fungi, insects, and marine borers depend heavily on temperature and moisture conditions to grow. Figure 5.1...

  8. Incorporating biopulping technology into wood yard operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary M. Scott; Eric. Horn; Masood. Akhtar; Ross E. Swaney; Michael J. Lentz; David F. Shipley

    1998-01-01

    Biopulping is the treatment of wood chips and other lignocellulosic materials with lignin-degrading fungi prior to pulping. Ten years of industry-sponsored research has demonstrated the technical feasibility of the technology for mechanical pulping at a laboratory scale. Two 50-ton outdoor chip pile trials recently conducted at the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products...

  9. Protection of Wood from Microorganisms by Laccase-Catalyzed Iodination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, J.; Thöny-Meyer, L.; Schwarze, F. W. M. R.; Ihssen, J.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, Norway spruce wood (Picea abies L.) was reacted with a commercial Trametes versicolor laccase in the presence of potassium iodide salt or the phenolic compounds thymol and isoeugenol to impart an antimicrobial property to the wood surface. In order to assess the efficacy of the wood treatment, a leaching of the iodinated and polymerized wood and two biotests including bacteria, a yeast, blue stain fungi, and wood decay fungi were performed. After laccase-catalyzed oxidation of the phenols, the antimicrobial effect was significantly reduced. In contrast, the enzymatic oxidation of iodide (I−) to iodine (I2) in the presence of wood led to an enhanced resistance of the wood surface against all microorganisms, even after exposure to leaching. The efficiency of the enzymatic wood iodination was comparable to that of a chemical wood preservative, VP 7/260a. The modification of the lignocellulose by the laccase-catalyzed iodination was assessed by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) technique. The intensities of the selected lignin-associated bands and carbohydrate reference bands were analyzed, and the results indicated a structural change in the lignin matrix. The results suggest that the laccase-catalyzed iodination of the wood surface presents an efficient and ecofriendly method for wood protection. PMID:22865075

  10. Wood preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin Archer; Stan Lebow

    2006-01-01

    Wood preservation can be interpreted to mean protection from fire, chemical degradation, mechanical wear, weathering, as well as biological attack. In this chapter, the term preservation is applied more restrictively to protection from biological hazards.

  11. Cellular responses of microcolonial rock fungi to long-term desiccation and subsequent rehydration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorbushina, A.A.; Kotlova, E.R.; Sherstneva, O.A.

    2008-01-01

    Melanised rock-inhabiting fungi are astonishingly resistant to environmental stresses. Also known as micro-colonial fungi (MCF), they are ubiquitous and even colonise bare rocks in deserts. To survive in nutrient poor and extremely stressful conditions, MCF have reduced morphogenetic complexity to a

  12. Ecological aspects of microorganisms inhabiting uranium mill tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C.L.; Landa, E.R.; Updegraff, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    Numbers and types of microorganisms in uranium mill tailings were determined using culturing techniques. Arthrobacter were found to be the predominant microorganism inhabiting the sandy tailings, whereas Bacillus and fungi predominated in the slime tailings. Sulfate-reducing bacteria, capable of leaching radium, were isolated in low numbers from tailings samples but were isolated in significantly high numbers from topsoil in contact with the tailings. The results are placed in the context of the magnitude of uranium mill tailings in the United States, the hazards posed by the tailings, and how such hazards could be enhanced or diminished by microbial activities. Patterns in the composition of the microbial population are evaluated with respect to the ecological variables that influence microbial growth. ?? 1987 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  13. A Minimally Invasive Method for Sampling Nest and Roost Cavities for Fungi: a Novel Approach to Identify the Fungi Associated with Cavity-Nesting Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle A. Jusino; Daniel Lindner; John K. Cianchetti; Adam T. Grisé; Nicholas J. Brazee; Jeffrey R. Walters

    2014-01-01

    Relationships among cavity-nesting birds, trees, and wood decay fungi pose interesting management challenges and research questions in many systems. Ornithologists need to understand the relationships between cavity-nesting birds and fungi in order to understand the habitat requirements of these birds. Typically, researchers rely on fruiting body surveys to identify...

  14. Wood handbook : wood as an engineering material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Ross; Forest Products Laboratory. USDA Forest Service.

    2010-01-01

    Summarizes information on wood as an engineering material. Presents properties of wood and wood-based products of particular concern to the architect and engineer. Includes discussion of designing with wood and wood-based products along with some pertinent uses.

  15. Microfungi problem, health aspects. [Storage of wood fuel chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jirjis, Raida (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (SE). Dept. of Forest Products)

    1988-11-01

    The storage of wood fuel chips, in general, leads to the establishment of microbial activity in the pile. Fungi are one of these microorganisms which can grow vigorously in stored forest products. Different types of fungi are commonly present on wood chip pile; rot fungi, blue stain fungi and moulds. Each fungis has its optimum temperature and humidity. Fungi also differ in their ability to utilize different components of the biofuel; moulds are unable to degrade lignin and only few species can degrade cellulose. Rot fungi on the other hand can attack all parts of the substrate and degrade it to varying degrees. Sporulation in fungi is their mechanisms for reproduction and survival. The spores are produced asexually in special spore carriers which are specific for each type of fungi. In stored wood chip pile the sporulation of moulds is the source of health hazard due to its ability to produce very large numbers of microspores in a short period. These microspores are usually airborne and they are almost always present in air but their numbers differ with time, weather and location. Most people can tolerate the presence of these microfungi at concentrations up to 10{sup 6} spore/m{sup 3} air, but a more intense exposure of 10{sup 10} spores/m{sup 3} air con provoke allergic reactions in certain individuals causing allergic alveolitis. The growth of different fungi on stored wood chips pile depends on the time and the system of storage that is used for that pile. In general, indoors storage, high moisture contents and excess of fine fractions are factors that could lead to intensive fungal activity. Handling of such material necessitate the use of protective helmet to avoid the risks of allergic reactions. (4 refs.) (au).

  16. Succession of root-associated fungi in Pisum sativum during a plant growth cycle as examined by 454 pyrosequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, L.; Nicolaisen, M.; Larsen, J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Roots are inhabited by a broad range of fungi, including pathogens and mycorrhizal fungi, with functional traits related to plant health and nutrition. Management of these fungi in agroecosystems requires profound knowledge about their ecology. The main objective of this study was to exam...

  17. How to make a beetle out of wood: multi-elemental stoichiometry of wood decay, xylophagy and fungivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipiak, Michał; Weiner, January

    2014-01-01

    The majority of terrestrial biomass is wood, but the elemental composition of its potential consumers, xylophages, differs hugely from that of wood. This causes a severe nutritional imbalance. We studied the stoichiometric relationships of 11 elements (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Na) in three species of pine-xylem-feeding insects, Stictoleptura rubra, Arhopalus rusticus (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) and Chalcophora mariana (Coleoptera, Buprestidae), to elucidate their mechanisms of tissue growth and to match their life histories to their dietary constraints. These beetles do not differ from other Coleoptera in their absolute elemental compositions, which are approximately 1000 (N), 100 (P, Cu) and 50 (K, Na) times higher than in dead but undecayed pine wood. This discrepancy diminishes along the wood decay gradient, but the elemental concentrations remain higher by an order of magnitude in beetles than in highly decayed wood. Numerical simulation of the life history of S. rubra shows that feeding on nutrient-poor undecayed wood would extend its development time to implausible values, whereas feeding on highly decomposed wood (heavily infected with fungi) would barely balance its nutritional budget during the long development period of this species. The changes in stoichiometry indicate that the relative change in the nutrient levels in decaying wood cannot be attributed solely to carbon loss resulting from decomposer respiration: the action of fungi substantially enriches the decaying wood with nutritional elements imported from the outside of the system, making it a suitable food for wood-eating invertebrates.

  18. Chemical ecology of fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteller, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Fungi are widespread in nature and have conquered nearly every ecological niche. Fungi occur not only in terrestrial but also in freshwater and marine environments. Moreover, fungi are known as a rich source of secondary metabolites. Despite these facts, the ecological role of many of these metabolites is still unknown and the chemical ecology of fungi has not been investigated systematically so far. This review intends to present examples of the various chemical interactions of fungi with other fungi, plants, bacteria and animals and to give an overview of the current knowledge of fungal chemical ecology.

  19. Mildew fungi found in termites (Reticulitermes lucifugus and their nests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wójcik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of observation of mould growth in laboratory colonies of termites. It also attempts to determine the species of mould fungi present in the research laboratory and the main colonies and their entomopathogenic for the termites. The following four species were found in test termite colonies: Trichoderme viride, Mucor himeralis, Rhizopus nigricans, Aspergillus sp., Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria sp., Penicylium verucosum and Fusarium sp. were recognisable in test colonies with domestic and exotic wood. Morphological observations of the fungi were carried out using a microscope with a 40x magnification. The growth of mould fungi in test containers caused death of whole termite colonies.

  20. Experimental evidence of a symbiosis between red-cockaded woodpeckers and fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle A. Jusino; Daniel L. Lindner; Mark T. Banik; Kevin R. Rose; Jeffrey R. Walters

    2016-01-01

    Primary cavity excavators, such as woodpeckers, are ecosystem engineers in many systems. Associations between cavity excavators and fungi have long been hypothesized to facilitate cavity excavation, but these relationships have not been experimentally verified. Fungi may help excavators by softening wood, while excavators may facilitate fungal dispersal. Here we...

  1. Biotechnology of marine fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Damare, S.R.; Singh, P.; Raghukumar, S.

    Filamentous fungi are the most widely used eukaryotes in industrial and pharmaceutical applications. Their biotechnological uses include the production of enzymes, vitamins, polysaccharides, pigments, lipids and others. Marine fungi are a still...

  2. Identification of lignionolytic fungi isolated in Mexico using its like molecular marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera-Rios, J. M.; Cruz Ramirez, M. G.; Cruz Madrid, L. C.; Medina Moreno, S. A.; Tellez-Jurado, A.; Arana-Cuenca, A.; Maqueda Galvez, A. P.

    2009-01-01

    Huejutla de Reyes is a place with a warm-humid climate and counts on an annual average temperature of 30 degree centigrade. We collected fungi that growth in wood or trees with the purpose of isolation this ligninolytic fungi in two seasons (one is spring, before raining station and another one in autumn, during raining station). The experimental work was done in the laboratory of the university, where the fungi were isolated. (Author)

  3. Decay fungi associated with oaks and other hardwoods in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessie A. Glaeser; Kevin T. Smith

    2010-01-01

    An assessment of the presence and extent of the wood decay process should be part of any hazard tree analysis. Identification of the fungi responsible for decay improves both the prediction of the consequences of wood decay and the prescription of management options including tree pruning or removal. Until the outbreak of Sudden Oak Death (SOD), foresters in the...

  4. Activity of two strobilurin fungicides against three species of decay fungi in agar plate tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliet D. Tang; Tina Ciaramitaro; Maria Tomaso-Peterson; Susan V. Diehl

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the toxicity of strobilurin fungicides against wood decay fungi in order to assess their potential to act as a co-biocide for copper-based wood protection. Two strobilurin fungicides, Heritage (50% azoxystrobin active ingredient) and Insignia (20% pyraclostrobin active ingredients), and copper sulfate pentahydrate were tested...

  5. Ability of some species of fungi of the Basidiomycetes class to degrade cellulose and lignocellulose substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław Tagoński

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried-out on the ability of 18 strains of 15 white-rot and brown-rot basidiomycetons fungi to degrade wood components and to synthesize cellulolytic enzymes and laccase. 28,5% lignin and 26,1% carbohydrates of pine wood meal, 46,2% lignin and 67,8% carbohydrates of beech wood meal was degraded after 6 weeks incubation by the white-rot fungus Phanerochate chrysosporium. The highest activity of laccase was obtained in from fungi Coriotus zonatus and Fomes fomentarius.

  6. Isolamento e seleção de fungos causadores da podridão-branca da madeira em florestas de Eucalyptus spp. com potencial de degradação de cepas e raízes Isolation and screening of wood white rot fungi from Eucalyptus spp. forests with potential for use in degradation of stumps and roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Kunieda de Alonso

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou isolar fungos causadores da podridão-branca da madeira, a partir de basidiocarpos e de fragmentos de madeira de eucalipto coletados em várias regiões do país, bem como testar seu potencial de degradação de cepas e raízes mortas em plantios comerciais de eucalipto, após o corte raso. Para o isolamento dos fungos foi desenvolvido um meio de cultura de serragem de eucalipto-ágar. Dentre 292 isolados obtidos e submetidos ao teste de Bavendamm, 144 foram classificados como causadores de podridão-branca, capazes de produzir fenoloxidases. Dentre as nove relações C/N testadas, observou-se uma tendência de ocorrer maior degradação de cavacos naquelas iguais a 60 : 1, 200 : 1 e 300 : 1. Utilizando a relação C/N igual a 60 : 1, realizaram-se dois experimentos para avaliar a degradação de cavacos de Eucalyptus saligna por isolados fúngicos de podridão-branca. No primeiro experimento, avaliado aos 90 dias de incubação, foram selecionados sete isolados, que causaram perda de peso em cavacos superior ou igual à causada por Trametes versicolor, usado para comparação. No segundo experimento foram testados 46 isolados fúngicos. Dentre os mais eficientes estavam os sete isolados selecionados no primeiro teste, além de outros quatro isolados. Baseado na análise de DNA, seis isolados foram identificados, sendo três pertencentes à espécie Pycnoporus sanguineus, um ao gênero Peniophora sp., um ao gênero Pestalotiopsis sp. e um ao gênero Ganoderma sp.The aim of this work was to isolate native wood white-rot fungi from fungal fruit-bodies and eucalyptus wood fragments from different regions of Brazil and to test their potential for degrading dead stumps and roots in Eucalyptus plantings after harvest. Fungi isolates were obtained in a culture medium composed by Eucalyptus sawdust and agar. Among 292 isolates submitted to the Banvedamm test, 144 were classified as phenoloxidases producing isolates. Among nine C

  7. Significance of wood extractives for wood bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffael, Edmone

    2016-02-01

    Wood contains primary extractives, which are present in all woods, and secondary extractives, which are confined in certain wood species. Extractives in wood play a major role in wood-bonding processes, as they can contribute to or determine the bonding relevant properties of wood such as acidity and wettability. Therefore, extractives play an immanent role in bonding of wood chips and wood fibres with common synthetic adhesives such as urea-formaldehyde-resins (UF-resins) and phenol-formaldehyde-resins (PF-resins). Extractives of high acidity accelerate the curing of acid curing UF-resins and decelerate bonding with alkaline hardening PF-resins. Water-soluble extractives like free sugars are detrimental for bonding of wood with cement. Polyphenolic extractives (tannins) can be used as a binder in the wood-based industry. Additionally, extractives in wood can react with formaldehyde and reduce the formaldehyde emission of wood-based panels. Moreover, some wood extractives are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and insofar also relevant to the emission of VOC from wood and wood-based panels.

  8. Higher marine fungi from mangroves (Manglicolous fungi)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ChinnaRaj, S.

    of higher marine fungi which included 23 Ascomycetes, 2 Basidiomycetes and 17 Deuteromycetes (Kohlmeyer and Kohlmeyer, 1979). Hyde (1990a) listed 120 species from 29 mangroves from all over the World this includes 87 Ascomycetes, 2 Basidiomycetes and 31...

  9. X-ray initiated polymerization of wood impregnants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, Marshall R.; Galloway, Richard A. [IBA Industrial, Inc., Edgewood, NY (United States); Berejka, Anthony J. [Ionicorp, Huntington, NY 11743 (United States)], E-mail: berejka@msn.com; Montoney, Daniel [Strathmore Products, Syracuse, NY (United States); Driscoll, Mark; Smith, Leonard; Scott Larsen, L. [State University of New York, SUNY-ESF, Syracuse, NY (United States)

    2009-07-15

    X-rays, derived from a high energy, high-current electron beam (EB), initiated in-situ polymerization of a unique class of monomers that were found to penetrate the cell walls of wood. X-rays initiated an auto-catalytic acrylic polymerization and penetrated through thick pieces of wood. The final cured product having the polymerizate, a polymer, both in the wood cell lumens and in the cell walls is called wood impregnated with a wood-polymer penetrant (WPP). The controlled lower dose rate of X-rays overcame disproportionation encountered when using higher dose-rate electron beam initiation. With X-rays, the in-situ polymerization took place in one exposure of modest dose. With EB, multiple passes were needed to avoid excessive heat build-up and monomer volatilization. Having entered the cell walls of the wood and then being polymerized within the cell walls, these radiation-cured unique monomers imparted outstanding dimensional stability upon exposure of the impregnated wood to humidity cycling. The preferred monomer system was also chemically modified prior to impregnation with agents that would remain in the wood and prevent the growth of fungi and other microbials. This technique differs from historic uses of monomers that merely filled the lumens of the wood (historic wood-polymer composites), which are only suitable for indoor use. The WPP impregnated wood that was either X-ray cured or EB cured demonstrated enhanced structural properties, dimensional stability, and decay resistance.

  10. X-ray initiated polymerization of wood impregnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, Marshall R.; Galloway, Richard A.; Berejka, Anthony J.; Montoney, Daniel; Driscoll, Mark; Smith, Leonard; Scott Larsen, L.

    2009-01-01

    X-rays, derived from a high energy, high-current electron beam (EB), initiated in-situ polymerization of a unique class of monomers that were found to penetrate the cell walls of wood. X-rays initiated an auto-catalytic acrylic polymerization and penetrated through thick pieces of wood. The final cured product having the polymerizate, a polymer, both in the wood cell lumens and in the cell walls is called wood impregnated with a wood-polymer penetrant (WPP). The controlled lower dose rate of X-rays overcame disproportionation encountered when using higher dose-rate electron beam initiation. With X-rays, the in-situ polymerization took place in one exposure of modest dose. With EB, multiple passes were needed to avoid excessive heat build-up and monomer volatilization. Having entered the cell walls of the wood and then being polymerized within the cell walls, these radiation-cured unique monomers imparted outstanding dimensional stability upon exposure of the impregnated wood to humidity cycling. The preferred monomer system was also chemically modified prior to impregnation with agents that would remain in the wood and prevent the growth of fungi and other microbials. This technique differs from historic uses of monomers that merely filled the lumens of the wood (historic wood-polymer composites), which are only suitable for indoor use. The WPP impregnated wood that was either X-ray cured or EB cured demonstrated enhanced structural properties, dimensional stability, and decay resistance.

  11. Study on wood vinegars for use as coagulating and antifungal agents on the production of natural rubber sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baimark, Yodthong; Niamsa, Noi [Department of Chemistry and Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham 44150 (Thailand)

    2009-06-15

    Coagulating and antifungal properties of wood vinegars in the preparation process of Hevea brasiliensis natural rubber (NR) sheets were investigated and compared with those of formic and acetic acids. The wood vinegars produced from biomasses such as inner coconut shell, bamboo and Eucalyptus woods were evaluated. It was found that plasticity retention index, Mooney viscosity and mechanical properties of NR coagulated by wood vinegars were similar to those using acetic acid and better than using formic acid. The antifungal efficiency of coagulants determined from a fungi growth area on NR sheet surfaces was found in the following order: coconut shell wood vinegar > bamboo wood vinegar {approx} Eucalyptus wood vinegar > acetic acid {approx} formic acid. The antifungal efficiency of the wood vinegars was strongly depended upon their phenolic compound contents and confirmed through the inhibitory growth of the main fungi, Penicillium griseofulvum, on potato dextrose agar. (author)

  12. Fungal hydroquinones contribute to brown rot of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melissa R. Suzuki; Christopher G. Hunt; Carl J. Houtman; Zachary D. Dalebroux; Kenneth E. Hammel

    2006-01-01

    The fungi that cause brown rot of wood initiate lignocellulose breakdown with an extracellular Fenton system in which Fe2+ and H2O2 react to produce hydroxyl radicals (•OH), which then oxidize and cleave the wood holocellulose. One such fungus, Gloeophyllum trabeum, drives Fenton chemistry on defined media by reducing Fe3+ and O2 with two extracellular hydroquinones,...

  13. Friendly Home and Inhabitants' Morality: Mutual Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nartova-Bochaver, Sofya K.; Kuznetsova, Valeriya B.

    2018-01-01

    The study is aimed at investigating the connection between the friendliness of the home environment and the moral motives' level. The friendliness of the home environment includes two aspects: the number of functions provided by home (functionality) and the congruence of these functions with inhabitants' needs (relevance). The theoretical framework of the study was formed by research and ideas emphasizing the interplay between people and their environments. We hypothesized that the friendliness of the home environment and inhabitants' moral motives would have a reciprocal relationship: the friendlier the home the higher the inhabitants' moral motives' level, and, vice versa, the higher the person's moral motives' level the more positive home image. The respondents were 550 students (25% male). The Home Environment Functionality Questionnaire, the Home Environment Relevance Questionnaire, and the Moral Motivation Model Scale were used. As expected, it was found that the friendliness of the home environment and the inhabitants' moral motives are in reciprocal synergetic relationships. Relevance formed more nuanced correlation patterns with moral motives than functionality did. Functionality predicted moral motives poorly whereas moral motives predicted functionality strongly. Finally, relevance and moral motives were found to be in mutual relationships whereas the perceived functionality was predicted by moral motives only. PMID:29375450

  14. Fluorescing macerals from wood precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, S A; Bensley, D F

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary investigation into the origin of wood-derived macerals has established the existence of autofluorescent maceral precursors in the secondary xylem of swamp-inhabiting plant species. The optical character and fluorescent properties of microtomed thin-sections of modern woods from the Florida Everglades and Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia are compared to the character and properties of their peatified equivalents from various Everglades and Okefenokee peat horizons and their lignitic equivalents from the Brandon lignite of Vermont and the Trail Ridge lignitic peat from northern Florida. The inherent fluorescence of woody cell walls is believed to be caused by lignin though other cell wall components may contribute. The fluorescence spectra for several wood and cell types had a ..gamma../sub m//sub a//sub x/ of 452 nm and Q value of 0.00. The color as observed in blue light and the spectral geometry as measured in UV light of peatified and lignitic woody cell walls (potential textinites) may change progressively during early coalification. Cell wall-derived maceral material is shown to maintain its fluorescing properties after being converted to a structureless material, perhaps a corpohuminite or humodetrinite precursor. Fluorescing xylem cell contents, such as condensed tannins or essential oils, can maintain the fluorescent character through early coalification. Xylem cell walls and xylem cell contents are shown to provide fluorescing progenitor materials which would not require subsequent infusion with 'lipid' materials to account for their fluorescence as phytoclast material or as macerals in coal. 35 references.

  15. Choosing Wood Burning Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information to assist consumers in choosing a wood burning appliance, including types of appliances, the differences between certified and non-certified appliances, and alternative wood heating options.

  16. Regulation of Gene Expression during the Onset of Ligninolytic Oxidation by Phanerochaete chrysosporium on Spruce Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premsagar Korripally; Christopher G. Hunt; Carl J. Houtman; Don C. Jones; Peter J. Kitin; Dan Cullen; Kenneth E. Hammel; A. A. Brakhage

    2015-01-01

    Since uncertainty remains about how white rot fungi oxidize and degrade lignin in wood, it would be useful to monitor changes in fungal gene expression during the onset of ligninolysis on a natural substrate. We grew Phanerochaete chrysosporium on solid spruce wood and included oxidant-sensing beads bearing the fluorometric dye BODIPY 581/591 in...

  17. Micronized copper wood preservatives: an efficiency and potential health risk assessment for copper-based nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civardi, Chiara; Schwarze, Francis W M R; Wick, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential biocide for wood protection, but fails to protect wood against Cu-tolerant wood-destroying fungi. Recently Cu particles (size range: 1 nm-25 μm) were introduced to the wood preservation market. The new generation of preservatives with Cu-based nanoparticles (Cu-based NPs) is reputedly more efficient against wood-destroying fungi than conventional formulations. Therefore, it has the potential to become one of the largest end uses for wood products worldwide. However, during decomposition of treated wood Cu-based NPs and/or their derivate may accumulate in the mycelium of Cu-tolerant fungi and end up in their spores that are dispersed into the environment. Inhaled Cu-loaded spores can cause harm and could become a potential risk for human health. We collected evidence and discuss the implications of the release of Cu-based NPs by wood-destroying fungi and highlight the exposure pathways and subsequent magnitude of health impact. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Isolation and identification mould micoflora inhabiting plant leaf litter from Mount Lawu, Surakarta, Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD ILYAS

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A study on isolation and identification mould inhabiting plant leaf litter had been conducted. The objective of the study was to isolate and identify mould inhabiting plant leaf litter from Mount Lawu, Surakarta, Central Java. The mould isolation was based on washing and filtering with membrane isolation method. The result showed that 39 moulds generas with 55 species varians, one group identified in class level, and three groups of unidentified mould isolates had been isolated. Taxas distributions showed that there were endophyte and phytopatogen mould isolates had been isolated such as Fusarium, Pestalotiopsis, Phoma, and Coelomycetes. However, typical soil taxa and common saprobic fungi such as Aspergillus, Cunninghamella, Mucor, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Rhizopus, and Trichoderma remain dominated the resulted isolates.

  19. Proteomics of Filamentous Fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passel, van M.W.J.; Schaap, P.J.; Graaff, de L.H.

    2013-01-01

    Filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae traditionally have had an important role in providing enzymes and enzyme cocktails that are used in food industry. In recent years the genome sequences of many filamentous fungi have become available. This combined with

  20. Marine fungi: A critique

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, S.; Raghukumar, C.

    in the sea have been ignored to a large extent. However, several instances of terrestrial species of fungi, active in marine environment have been reported. The arguments to support the view that terrestrial species of fungi by virtue of their physiological...

  1. Inhabiting compassion: A pastoral theological paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil C. Zylla

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the vision of care in Vincent van Gogh’s depiction of the parable of the Good Samaritan, this article offers a paradigm for inhabiting compassion. Compassion is understood in this article as a moral emotion that is also a pathocentric virtue. This definition creates a dynamic view of compassion as a desire to alleviate the suffering of others, the capacity to act on behalf of others and a commitment to sustain engagement with the suffering other. To weave this vision of compassion as a habitus rather than a theoretical construct, the article develops three phases of compassion: seeing, companioning and sighing. This framework deepens and augments a pastoral theological paradigm of compassion with the aim of inculcating an inhabited compassion in caregivers and the communities in which they participate.

  2. Copper tolerance of brown-rot fungi : oxalic acid production in southern pine treated with arsenic-free preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick Green; Carol A. Clausen

    2005-01-01

    The voluntary withdrawal of chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood from most residential applications has increased the use of non-arsenical copper-based organic wood preservatives. Because the arsenic component of CCA controlled copper tolerant fungi, scientists have renewed interest in and concern about the decay capacity in the important copper-tolerant group...

  3. Change of inhabitants consciousness on air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, N; Abe, K; Komuro, K; Oda, M

    1972-11-01

    The consciousness of inhabitants in Isogo Ward, Yokohama City about air pollution was surveyed in 1969 and 1973. A group of industrial factories was partly in operation in 1969 but was in full operation by 1973. Fortunately there was very slight difference in sex ratio, age, occupation, health condition, and smoking habits of the objects between 1969 and 1973. The survey was performed by questionnaires consisting of 43 items. The percentage of positive answers to human impairments in 1969 and 1973 were: 38.7 and 34.2 experience of health damage; 8.1 and 5.4 of eye-irritation; 16.1 and 14.5 of throat-irritation; 5.8 and 13.6 of sneeze; 4.2 and 2.3 of snivel; 9.2 and 10.2 of cough; 3.6 and 17.1 of dyspnea; 5.4 and 7.4 of asthma; and 22.2 and 5.7 of odor. Generally, the largest source of air pollution in this area was auto exhaust followed by factory-exhaust, and the change of inhabitants consciousness about air pollution pointed out the situation. Most inhabitants were pessimistic about the future status of air pollution in the surveys in 1969 and also in 1973.

  4. Differences in crystalline cellulose modification due to degradation by brown and white rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Howell, Caitlin; Larsen, Flemming Hofmann; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Goodell, Barry; Jellison, Jody

    2012-10-01

    Wood-decaying basidiomycetes are some of the most effective bioconverters of lignocellulose in nature, however the way they alter wood crystalline cellulose on a molecular level is still not well understood. To address this, we examined and compared changes in wood undergoing decay by two species of brown rot fungi, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Meruliporia incrassata, and two species of white rot fungi, Irpex lacteus and Pycnoporus sanguineus, using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and (13)C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The overall percent crystallinity in wood undergoing decay by M. incrassata, G. trabeum, and I. lacteus appeared to decrease according to the stage of decay, while in wood decayed by P. sanguineus the crystallinity was found to increase during some stages of degradation. This result is suggested to be potentially due to the different decay strategies employed by these fungi. The average spacing between the 200 cellulose crystal planes was significantly decreased in wood degraded by brown rot, whereas changes observed in wood degraded by the two white rot fungi examined varied according to the selectivity for lignin. The conclusions were supported by a quantitative analysis of the structural components in the wood before and during decay confirming the distinct differences observed for brown and white rot fungi. The results from this study were consistent with differences in degradation methods previously reported among fungal species, specifically more non-enzymatic degradation in brown rot versus more enzymatic degradation in white rot. Copyright © 2012 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Finishing of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam Williams

    1999-01-01

    The primary function of any wood finish (paint, varnish, and stain, for example) is to protect the wood surface, help maintain a certain appearance, and provide a cleanable surface. Although wood can be used both outdoors and indoors without finishing, unfinished wood surfaces exposed to the weather change color, are roughened by photodegradation and surface checking,...

  6. Tolerance of Serpula lacrymans to copper-based wood preservatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Green, Frederick; Clausen, Carol A.

    2005-01-01

    construction, but some decay fungi are known to be copper tolerant. In this study, soil-block tests were undertaken to clarify the effect of copper, copper citrate, and alkaline copper quaternary-type D (ACQ-D) on the decay capabilities of S. lacrymans compared with an alternative wood preservative......Serpula lacrymans, the dry rot fungus, is considered the most economically important wood decay fungus in certain temperate regions of the world, namely northern Europe, Japan, and Australia. Previously, copper-based wood preservatives were commonly used for pressure treatment of wood for building...... not containing copper. Twelve isolates of the dry rot fungus S. lacrymans and four other brown-rot species were evaluated for weight loss on wood treated with 1.2% copper citrate, 0.5% ACQ-D, and 0.5% naphthaloylhydroxylamine (NHA). Eleven out of 12 isolates of S. lacrymans were shown to be tolerant towards...

  7. RNA extraction from decaying wood for (meta)transcriptomic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, Martino; Voyron, Samuele; Girlanda, Mariangela; Marmeisse, Roland

    2017-10-01

    Wood decomposition is a key step of the terrestrial carbon cycle and is of economic importance. It is essentially a microbiological process performed by fungi and to an unknown extent by bacteria. To gain access to the genes expressed by the diverse microbial communities participating in wood decay, we developed an RNA extraction protocol from this recalcitrant material rich in polysaccharides and phenolic compounds. This protocol was implemented on 22 wood samples representing as many tree species from 11 plant families in the Angiosperms and Gymnosperms. RNA was successfully extracted from all samples and converted into cDNAs from which were amplified both fungal and bacterial protein coding genes, including genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes participating in lignocellulose hydrolysis. This protocol applicable to a wide range of decomposing wood types represents a first step towards a metatranscriptomic analysis of wood degradation under natural conditions.

  8. Gut bacteria of bark and wood boring beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archana Vasanthakumar; Yasmin Cardoza; Italo Delalibera; Patrick Schloss; Jo Handelsman; Kier Klepzig; Kenneth Raffa

    2007-01-01

    Bark beetles are known to have complex associations with a variety of microorganisms (Paine and others 1987; Ayres and others 2000; Six and Klepzig 2004). However, most of our knowledge involves fungi, particularly external species. In contrast, we know very little about their associations with bacterial gut symbionts (Bridges 1981). Similarly, work with wood...

  9. Who's Counting Dead Wood ?

    OpenAIRE

    Woodall, C. W.; Verkerk, H.; Rondeux, Jacques; Ståhl, G.

    2009-01-01

    Dead wood in forests is a critical component of biodiversity, carbon and nutrient cycles, stand structure, and fuel loadings. Until recently, very few countries have conducted systematic inventories of dead wood resources across their forest lands. This may be changing as an increasing number of countries implement dead wood inventories. A recent survey looks at the status and attributes of forest dead wood inventories in over 60 countries. About 13 percent of countries inventory dead wood gl...

  10. Decay of oak Wood provoked by fungus Stereum hirsutum (Willd. ex Fr. S. F. Gray. and its' essential physiological requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirić Milenko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available White rot fungi usually decompose cell walls of attacked wood destroying tissue elements (i.e. parenchyma cells, wood fibres, tension wood, tracheas etc in different amount, depending to wood-species as well as to its' zones. Different fungi secrete specific enzymes that are responsible for certain damages. As consequence, the wood structure use to be significantly and unfixable decomposed and changed. Microscopical analyses that have been run provided clear and indicative information relating to effects of fungal activity on wood tissue. Physiological requirements of fungi are for shore of the highest importance in understanding of mechanism of decaying process in the wood. The most important factors as like temperature and concentration of H ions, as well as main nutrients as sources of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus can affect the behaviour of wood decaying fungi. The impacts of these factors on the growth and production on mycelial mass of Stereum hirsutum (Willd. ex Fr. S.F. Gray., have been investigated. This fungus is one of the most frequent appearing on the Sessile- and Pedunculate Oak weakened trees or felled logs, behaving as parasite as well as saprophyte. As a causer of Oak sapwood white rot S. hirsutum causes significant damages of wood at forest- as well as at industrial storages.

  11. Bacteria in a woody fungal disease: characterization of bacterial communities in wood tissues of esca-foliar symptomatic and asymptomatic grapevines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie eBruez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Esca is a grapevine trunk disease (GTD associated with different pathogenic fungi inhabiting the woody tissues. Bacteria can also be found in such tissues and they may interact with these fungal colonizers. Although such types of microbial interaction have been observed for wood diseases in many trees, this has never been studied for grapevine. In this study, the bacterial microflora of different vine status (esca-symptomatic and asymptomatic, different anatomical part (trunk and cordon and different type of tissues (necrotic or not have been studied. Based on Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP analyses, data showed that (i specific complexes of bacterial microflora colonize the wood of both necrotic and non-necrotic tissues of esca-foliar symptomatic and asymptomatic vines, and also that (ii depending on the anatomical part of the plant, cordon or trunk, differences could be observed between the bacterial communities. Such differences were also revealed through the Community-Level Physiological Profiling (CLPP with Biolog Ecoplates™. Two hundred seventeen bacterial strains were also isolated from plants samples and then assigned to bacterial species based on the 16S rRNA genes. Although Bacillus spp. and Pantoea agglomerans were the two most commonly isolated species from all kinds of tissues, various other taxa were also isolated. Inoculation of vine cuttings with 14 different bacterial species, and one GTD fungus, Neofusicoccum parvum, showed no impact of these bacteria on the size of the wood necroses caused by N. parvum. This study showed, therefore, that bacterial communities differ according to the anatomical part (trunk or cordon and/or the type of tissue (necrotic or non necrotic of wood of grapevine plants showing external symptoms of esca disease. However, research into bacteria having a role in GTD development needs further studies.

  12. Arbuscules of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inhabit an acidic compartment within plant roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttenberger, M

    2000-08-01

    The most widespread type of mycorrhiza is the so-called vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza. In this endomycorrhiza, fungal hyphae penetrate plant cell walls in the root cortex. There they form densely branched arbuscules. Fungus and plant plasma membrane are separated by a common interfacial apoplast. The pH of the compartment between the symbionts is of pivotal importance for nutrient transfer. Histochemical experiments were conducted to check for an acidic nature of the interface in the model system Glomus versiforme (Karst.) Berch-Allium porrum L. Two chemically different acidotropic dyes (neutral red and LysoSensor Green DND-189) stained the arbuscules intensely. The staining of arbuscules could be eliminated by addition of the protonophore carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) or treatments leading to membrane rupture. Therefore, the staining of the arbuscules was based on the ion-trap mechanism, which indicates acidic, membrane-bound compartments. Microscopic examination of stained arbuscules at high optical resolution revealed a peripheral accumulation of the dye. Since plasmolysis rapidly destained the arbuscules, it is concluded that the dyes accumulate in the arbuscular interface, indicating the highly acidic nature of this compartment. The findings are discussed with respect to their relevance for the nutrient transfer in mycorrhizas. In addition, evidence for a discontinuity in the arbuscular interface between the stem and the branches of the arbuscule is given.

  13. Antarctic Epilithic Lichens as Niches for Black Meristematic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Zucconi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen epilithic lichen samples (13 species, collected from seven locations in Northern and Southern Victoria Land in Antarctica, were investigated for the presence of black fungi. Thirteen fungal strains isolated were studied by both morphological and molecular methods. Nuclear ribosomal 18S gene sequences were used together with the most similar published and unpublished sequences of fungi from other sources, to reconstruct an ML tree. Most of the studied fungi could be grouped together with described or still unnamed rock-inhabiting species in lichen dominated Antarctic cryptoendolithic communities. At the edge of life, epilithic lichens withdraw inside the airspaces of rocks to find conditions still compatible with life; this study provides evidence, for the first time, that the same microbes associated to epilithic thalli also have the same fate and chose endolithic life. These results support the concept of lichens being complex symbiotic systems, which offer attractive and sheltered habitats for other microbes.

  14. Genomic Encyclopedia of Fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-08-10

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 150 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such parts suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  15. Maarja Unduski 'Fungi'

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    24. nov.-st Linnagaleriis Tallinnas Maarja Unduski kolmas isiknäitus 'Fungi'. Eksponeeritud hiigelseened ja rida värviliste lehtedega ramatuid, mille kaante valmistamisel on autor esmakordselt kasutanud ka lõuendit ja paberreljeefi.

  16. Manglicolous fungi from India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chinnaraj, S.; Untawale, A.G.

    This paper deals with nine Ascomycetous fungi viz. Rhizophila marina Hyde et Jones, Trematosphaeria striatispora Hyde, Lineolata rhizophorae (Kohlm. et. Kohlm.) Kohlm. et. Volkm.-Kohlm., Caryosporella rhizophorae Kohlm., Passeriniella savoryellopsis...

  17. Wood Decomposition of Cyrilla racemiflora (Cyrillaceae) in Puerto Rican Dry and Wet Forests: A 13-year Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan A. Torres; Grizelle Gonzalez

    2005-01-01

    We studied the decomposition of Cyrilla racemiflora logs over a 13-yr period in tropical dry and wet forests in Puerto Rico. The mean mass loss, ratio of soft to hard wood, nutrient concentrations, and the diversity of wood-inhabiting organisms were greater in logs decomposing in the dry forest than in the wet forest. Termites were also more abundant in the logs...

  18. The diversity and distribution of fungi on residential surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel I Adams

    Full Text Available The predominant hypothesis regarding the composition of microbial assemblages in indoor environments is that fungal assemblages are structured by outdoor air with a moderate contribution by surface growth, whereas indoor bacterial assemblages represent a mixture of bacteria entered from outdoor air, shed by building inhabitants, and grown on surfaces. To test the fungal aspect of this hypothesis, we sampled fungi from three surface types likely to support growth and therefore possible contributors of fungi to indoor air: drains in kitchens and bathrooms, sills beneath condensation-prone windows, and skin of human inhabitants. Sampling was done in replicated units of a university-housing complex without reported mold problems, and sequences were analyzed using both QIIME and the new UPARSE approach to OTU-binning, to the same result. Surfaces demonstrated a mycological profile similar to that of outdoor air from the same locality, and assemblages clustered by surface type. "Weedy" genera typical of indoor air, such as Cladosporium and Cryptococcus, were abundant on sills, as were a diverse set of fungi of likely outdoor origin. Drains supported more depauperate assemblages than the other surfaces and contained thermotolerant genera such as Exophiala, Candida, and Fusarium. Most surprising was the composition detected on residents' foreheads. In addition to harboring Malassezia, a known human commensal, skin also possessed a surprising richness of non-resident fungi, including plant pathogens such as ergot (Claviceps purperea. Overall, fungal richness across indoor surfaces was high, but based on known autecologies, most of these fungi were unlikely to be growing on surfaces. We conclude that while some endogenous fungal growth on typical household surfaces does occur, particularly on drains and skin, all residential surfaces appear - to varying degrees - to be passive collectors of airborne fungi of putative outdoor origin, a view of the origins

  19. Ecotoxicity and fungal deterioration of recycled polypropylene/wood composites: effect of wood content and coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudár, András; López, María J; Keledi, Gergely; Vargas-García, M Carmen; Suárez-Estrella, Francisca; Moreno, Joaquín; Burgstaller, Christoph; Pukánszky, Béla

    2013-09-01

    Recycled polypropylene (rPP) was recovered from an industrial shredder and composites were prepared with a relatively wide range of wood content and with two coupling agents, a maleated PP (MAPP) and a maleated ethylene-propylene-diene elastomer (MAEPDM). The mechanical properties of the composites showed that the coupling agents change structure only slightly, but interfacial adhesion quite drastically. The durability of the materials was determined by exposing them to a range of fungi and, ecotoxicity was studied on the aquatic organism Vibrio fischeri. The composites generally exhibit low acute toxicity, with values below the levels considered to have direct ecotoxic effect on aquatic ecosystems (deterioration proved that wood facilitates fungal colonization. Fungi caused slight mass loss (below 3%) but it was not correlated with substantial deterioration in material properties. MAPP seems to be beneficial in the retention of mechanical properties during fungal attack. rPP/wood composites can be considered non-ecotoxic and quite durable, but the influence of wood content on resistance to fungal attack must be taken into account for materials intended for applications requiring long-term outdoor exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Trichoderma-enriched organic charcoal in the integrated wood protection strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ribera

    Full Text Available The gradual elimination of chromium from wood preservative formulations results in higher Cu leaching and increased susceptibility to wood decay fungi. Finding a sustainable strategy in wood protection has become of great interest among researchers. The objective of these in vitro studies was to demonstrate the effect of T-720-enriched organic charcoal (biochar against five wood decay basidiomycetes isolated from strongly damaged poles. For this purpose, the antagonistic potential of Trichoderma harzianum (strain T-720 was confirmed among other four Trichoderma spp. against five brown-rot basidiomycetes in dual culture tests. T-720 was genetically transformed and tagged with the green fluorescent protein (GFP in order to study its antagonistic mechanism against wood decay basidiomycetes. It was also demonstrated that T-720 inhibits the oxalic acid production by basidiomycetes, a well-known mechanism used by brown-rot fungi to detoxify Cu from impregnated wood. Additionally, this study evaluated the effect of biochar, alone or in combination with T-720, on Cu leaching by different preservatives, pH stabilization and prevention of wood decay caused by five basidiomycetes. Addition of biochar resulted in a significant Cu binding released from impregnated wood specimens. T-720-enriched biochar showed a significant reduction of wood decay caused by four basidiomycetes. The addition of T-720-enriched biochar to the soil into which utility poles are placed may improve the efficiency of Cr-free wood preservatives.

  1. [Microscopic soil fungi - bioindicators organisms contaminated soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donerian, L G; Vodianova, M A; Tarasova, Zh E

    In the paper there are considered methodological issues for the evaluation of soil biota in terms of oil pollution. Experimental studies have shown that under the exposure of a various levels of oil pollution meeting certain gradations of the state and optimal alteration in microbocenosis in sod-podzolic soils, there is occurred a transformation of structure of the complex of micromycetes and the accumulation of toxic species, hardly typical for podzolic soils - primarily represantatives of the genus Aspergillus (A.niger and A. versicolor), Paecilomyces (P.variotii Bainer), Trichoderma (T.hamatum), the genus of phytopathogens Fusarium (F.oxysporum), dermatophytes of genus Sporothrix (S. schenckii) and dark-colored melanin containing fungi of Dematiaceae family. Besides that there are presented data on the study of microbiocenosis of the urban soil, the urban soil differed from the zone soil, but shaped in similar landscape and climatic conditions, and therefore having a tendency to a similar response from the side of microorganisms inhabiting the soil. Isolated complex of soil microscopic fungi is described by many authors as a complex, characteristic for soils of megalopolises. This allowed authors of this work to suggest that in urban soils the gain in the occurrence of pathogenic species micromycetes also increases against a background of chronic, continuously renewed inflow of petroleum hydrocarbons from various sources of pollution. Because changes in the species composition of micromycetes occurred in accordance with the increasing load of oil, so far as microscopic soil fungi can be recommended as a bioindicator organisms for oil. In the article there is also provided information about the distinctive features of modern DNA identification method of soil microscopic fungi and accepted in our country methodology of isolation of micromycetes with the use of a nutrient Czapek medium.

  2. Olive mill wastewater biodegradation potential of white-rot fungi - Mode of action of fungal culture extracts and effects of ligninolytic enzymes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ntougias, S.; Baldrian, Petr; Ehaliotis, C.; Nerud, František; Merhautová, Věra; Zervakis, G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 189, č. 1 (2015), s. 121-130 ISSN 0960-8524 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Wood-rot fungi * Laccase * Peroxidase Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.917, year: 2015

  3. How deep-sea wood falls sustain chemosynthetic life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Bienhold

    Full Text Available Large organic food falls to the deep sea--such as whale carcasses and wood logs--are known to serve as stepping stones for the dispersal of highly adapted chemosynthetic organisms inhabiting hot vents and cold seeps. Here we investigated the biogeochemical and microbiological processes leading to the development of sulfidic niches by deploying wood colonization experiments at a depth of 1690 m in the Eastern Mediterranean for one year. Wood-boring bivalves of the genus Xylophaga played a key role in the degradation of the wood logs, facilitating the development of anoxic zones and anaerobic microbial processes such as sulfate reduction. Fauna and bacteria associated with the wood included types reported from other deep-sea habitats including chemosynthetic ecosystems, confirming the potential role of large organic food falls as biodiversity hot spots and stepping stones for vent and seep communities. Specific bacterial communities developed on and around the wood falls within one year and were distinct from freshly submerged wood and background sediments. These included sulfate-reducing and cellulolytic bacterial taxa, which are likely to play an important role in the utilization of wood by chemosynthetic life and other deep-sea animals.

  4. How Deep-Sea Wood Falls Sustain Chemosynthetic Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienhold, Christina; Pop Ristova, Petra; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Dittmar, Thorsten; Boetius, Antje

    2013-01-01

    Large organic food falls to the deep sea – such as whale carcasses and wood logs – are known to serve as stepping stones for the dispersal of highly adapted chemosynthetic organisms inhabiting hot vents and cold seeps. Here we investigated the biogeochemical and microbiological processes leading to the development of sulfidic niches by deploying wood colonization experiments at a depth of 1690 m in the Eastern Mediterranean for one year. Wood-boring bivalves of the genus Xylophaga played a key role in the degradation of the wood logs, facilitating the development of anoxic zones and anaerobic microbial processes such as sulfate reduction. Fauna and bacteria associated with the wood included types reported from other deep-sea habitats including chemosynthetic ecosystems, confirming the potential role of large organic food falls as biodiversity hot spots and stepping stones for vent and seep communities. Specific bacterial communities developed on and around the wood falls within one year and were distinct from freshly submerged wood and background sediments. These included sulfate-reducing and cellulolytic bacterial taxa, which are likely to play an important role in the utilization of wood by chemosynthetic life and other deep-sea animals. PMID:23301092

  5. Application of lignocellulolytic fungi for bioethanol production from renewable biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Jelena M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pretreatment is a necessary step in the process of conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol; by changing the structure of lignocellulose, enhances enzymatic hydrolysis, but, often, it consumes large amounts of energy and/or needs an application of expensive and toxic chemicals, which makes the process economically and ecologically unfavourable. Application of lignocellulolytic fungi (from the class Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and Deuteromycetes is an attractive method for pre-treatment, environmentally friendly and does not require the investment of energy. Fungi produce a wide range of enzymes and chemicals, which, combined in a variety of ways, together successfully degrade lignocellulose, as well as aromatic polymers that share features with lignin. On the basis of material utilization and features of a rotten wood, they are divided in three types of wood-decay fungi: white rot, brown rot and soft rot fungi. White rot fungi are the most efficient lignin degraders in nature and, therefore, have a very important role in carbon recycling from lignified wood. This paper describes fungal mechanisms of lignocellulose degradation. They involve oxidative and hydrolytic mechanisms. Lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, laccase, cellobiose dehydrogenase and enzymes able to catalyze formation of hydroxyl radicals (•OH such as glyoxal oxidase, pyranose-2-oxidase and aryl-alcohol oxidase are responsible for oxidative processes, while cellulases and hemicellulases are involved in hydrolytic processes. Throughout the production stages, from pre-treatment to fermentation, the possibility of their application in the technology of bioethanol production is presented. Based on previous research, the advantages and disadvantages of biological pre-treatment are pointed out.

  6. A fissitunicate ascus mechanism in the Calosphaeriaceae, and novel species of Jattaea and Calosphaeria on Prunus wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Crous, P.W.; Fourie, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    During a survey of Prunus wood from South Africa, isolations were made of three presumably Calosphaerialean fungi that formed hyphomycetous, phialidic anamorphs in culture. In order to reveal the phylogenetic relationship of these fungi, they were characterised on a morphological and molecular (LSU

  7. Screening of freshwater fungi for decolorizing multiple synthetic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Panpan; Shi, Wenxiao; Wang, Hongkai; Liu, Hongmei

    The biodegradation of synthetic dyes by fungi is emerging as an effective and promising approach. In the present study, freshwater fungal strains isolated from submerged woods were screened for the decolorization of 7 synthetic dyes. Subsequently, 13 isolates with high decolorization capability were assessed in a liquid system; they belonged to 9 different fungal species. Several strains exhibited a highly effective decolorization of multiple types of dyes. New absorbance peaks appeared after the treatment with 3 fungal strains, which suggests that a biotransformation process occurred through fungal biodegradation. These results showed the unexploited and valuable capability of freshwater fungi for the treatment of dye-containing effluents. The ability of certain fungi to decolorize dyes is reported here for the first time. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Phylogeny and comparative genome analysis of a Basidiomycete fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert W.; Salamov, Asaf; Grigoriev, Igor; Hibbett, David

    2011-03-14

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota, make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important from the perspectives of forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes the mushrooms, wood rots, plant pathogenic rusts and smuts, and some human pathogens. To better understand these important fungi, we have undertaken a comparative genomic analysis of the Basidiomycetes with available sequenced genomes. We report a phylogeny that sheds light on previously unclear evolutionary relationships among the Basidiomycetes. We also define a `core proteome? based on protein families conserved in all Basidiomycetes. We identify key expansions and contractions in protein families that may be responsible for the degradation of plant biomass such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Finally, we speculate as to the genomic changes that drove such expansions and contractions.

  9. Feasibility of biodegradation of pentachlorophenol in scrap wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaulieu, G.; Besner, A.; Gilbert, R.; Tetreault, P.; Beaudet, R.; Bisaillon, J. G.; Lepine, F.; Ottou, J. M.; Sansregret, J. L.; Lei, J.

    1998-04-01

    The feasibility of biological treatment of scrap wood impregnated in pentachlorophenol (PCP) was investigated using wood samples impregnated with PCP for biodegradation experiments by the Hydro-Quebec Research Institute (IREQ). IREQ identified the necessity of pre-treating the wood, first by shredding wood poles into wood shavings, followed by mechanical milling of the shavings to obtain wood dust. Biodegradation experiments under anaerobic conditions were performed by the Armand-Frappier Institute by isolating a consortium of bacteria from a mixture of PCP-contaminated soils and a municipal anaerobic sludge that was able to degrade PCP under anaerobic methanogenic conditions at 29 degrees C. A complementary source of carbon was found to be necessary for the bacterial consortium to degrade the PCP. The best PCP degradation results were obtained with an aerobic fixed-film reactor. Aerobic biodegradation tests were performed on liquor extracted from wood dust contaminated with PCP. The anaerobic fixed field reactor was able to completely degrade the PCP extracted from wood dust in less than one day. Aerobic biodegradation was also investigated using microorganisms and fungi. Over a four month experimental period only low concentrations of PCP were found in effluents treated with the aerobic cultures. 117 refs., 38 tabs., 31 figs

  10. Cytochemical localization of cellulases in decayed and nondecayed wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murmanis, L.; Highley, T.L.; Palmer, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    Sawdust from undecayed western hemlock wood and from wood previously decayed by the brown-rot fungus Poria placenta or by the white-rot fungus Ganoderma applanatum was incubated with commercial cellulase from Trichoderma viride. Samples were treated cytochemically to locate cellulase activity and examined by TEM. Results showed that cellulase degraded undecayed wood extensively, with the attack starting on the outer border of a cell wall and progressing inside. Wood decayed by P. placenta, with or without cellulase incubation, and treated by the cytochemical test showed uniform distribution of electron dense particles throughout the cell walls. In wood decayed by G. applanatum, cellulase degradation was similar to that in undecayed wood. From measurements of particle diameter it is suggested that electron dense particles are cellulase. It is concluded that brown-rot and white-rot fungi have different effects on the microstructure of wood. The brown-rot fungus appears to open the wood microstructure so that cellulase can diffuse throughout the degraded tracheid wall.

  11. Do Native Insects and Associated Fungi Limit Non-Native Woodwasp, Sirex noctilio, Survival in a Newly Invaded Environment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel J Haavik

    Full Text Available Sirex noctilio F. (Hymenoptera: Siricidae is an introduced pest of pines (Pinus spp. in several countries in the Southern Hemisphere. Although S. noctilio is established in North America (first discovered in 2004, it has not been a destructive pest there so far, where forest communities more closely resemble those in its native Eurasian range—where it is not a pest. To investigate the influence of the existing community of associated insects (competitors + natural enemies and fungi (vectored by insects on S. noctilio survival in North America, we examined stage-specific mortality factors and their relative importance, generating life tables drawn from experimentally-manipulated and natural cohorts of Sirex spp. (mostly S. noctilio, but some native S. nigricornis F.. For both natural and experimentally-manipulated cohorts, factors which acted during the earliest Sirex life stages, most likely tree resistance and/or competition among fungal associates, were paramount in dictating woodwasp survival. Experimentally-manipulated life tables revealed that protection from the community of associates resulted in a significantly, and substantially larger (>15x S. noctilio F1 generation than exposure to it. Seventy percent of generation mortality in the exposed cohort was due to tree resistance or unknown causes early in larval development, which could have included competition among other bark- or wood-inhabiting insects and/or their fungal associates. Only 46% of generation mortality in the protected cohort was due to tree resistance and/or unknown causes. Parasitoids, particularly endoparasitoids (Ibalia spp., showed limited ability to control S. noctilio, and reduced the experimentally-established cohort by only 11%, and natural cohorts an average of 3.4%. The relative importance of tree resistance vs. competition with bark- and wood-borers in reducing S. noctilio survival remains unclear. Tree resistance and/or competition likely contribute more

  12. Wood-plastic combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaudy, R.

    1978-02-01

    A review on wood-plastic combinations is given including the production (wood and plastic component, radiation hardening, curing), the obtained properties, present applications and prospects for the future of these materials. (author)

  13. Mechanics of Wood Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Csanády, Etele

    2013-01-01

    Wood is one of the most valuable materials for mankind, and since our earliest days wood materials have been widely used. Today we have modern woodworking machine and tools; however, the raw wood materials available are continuously declining. Therefore we are forced to use this precious material more economically, reducing waste wherever possible. This new textbook on the “Mechanics of Wood Machining” combines the quantitative, mathematical analysis of the mechanisms of wood processing with practical recommendations and solutions. Bringing together materials from many sources, the book contains new theoretical and experimental approaches and offers a clear and systematic overview of the theory of wood cutting, thermal loading in wood-cutting tools, dynamic behaviour of tool and work piece, optimum choice of operational parameters and energy consumption, the wear process of the tools, and the general regularities of wood surface roughness. Diagrams are provided for the quick estimation of various process ...

  14. Wood's lamp examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003386.htm Wood lamp examination To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A Wood lamp examination is a test that uses ultraviolet ( ...

  15. Wood's lamp illumination (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Wood's lamp emits ultraviolet light and can be a diagnostic aid in determining if someone has a fungal ... is an infection on the area where the Wood's lamp is illuminating, the area will fluoresce. Normally ...

  16. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Search How We Work Our Focus Areas About RWJF Search Menu How We Work Grants ... Learn more For Grantees and Grantseekers The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation funds a wide array of programs ...

  17. Corrosion of Embedded Metals in Wood: An Overview of Recent Research with Implications for building moisture design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka

    2013-01-01

    ASHRAE Standard 160, Criteria for Moisture-Control Design Analysis in Buildings, specifies moisture design criteria in buildings to prevent moisture damage such as fungal activity and corrosion. While there has been much research on mold and decay fungi in wood buildings, it is often overlooked that wet wood is corrosive to the metal screws...

  18. Cellulolytic activities of wild type fungi isolated from decayed wood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    amongst the fungal isolates while M. mucedo had the least cellulolytic ... across plant taxa, high cellulose content; typically in the range of ... antibiotic mixture made up of distilled water, 50 ml and Erythromycin: 500mg was .... cellulases including β-glucosidase were produced from Penicillium, Aspergillus and Trichoderma ...

  19. Non_standard Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin

    . Using parametric design tools and computer controlled production facilities Copenhagens Centre for IT and Architecture undertook a practice based research into performance based non-standard element design and mass customization techniques. In close cooperation with wood construction software......, but the integration of traditional wood craft techniques. The extensive use of self adjusting, load bearing wood-wood joints contributed to ease in production and assembly of a performance based architecture....

  20. EPR TOOTH DOSIMETRY OF SNTS AREA INHABITANTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholom, Sergey; Desrosiers, Marc; Bouville, André; Luckyanov, Nicholas; Chumak, Vadim; Simon, Steven L

    2007-07-01

    The determination of external dose to teeth of inhabitants of settlements near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) was conducted using the EPR dosimetry technique to assess radiation doses associated with exposure to radioactive fallout from the test site. In this study, tooth doses have been reconstructed for 103 persons with all studied teeth having been formed before the first nuclear test in 1949. Doses above those received from natural background radiation, termed "accident doses", were found to lie in the range from zero to approximately 2 Gy, with one exception, a dose for one person from Semipalatinsk city was approximately 9 Gy. The variability of reconstructed doses within each of the settlements demonstrated heterogeneity of the deposited fallout as well as variations in lifestyle. The village mean external gamma doses for residents of nine[ settlements were in the range from a few tens of mGy to approximately 100 mGy.

  1. EPR tooth dosimetry of SNTS area inhabitants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholom, Sergey [Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, Melnikova str., 53, Kiev (Ukraine); Desrosiers, Marc [Ionizing Radiation Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Bouville, Andre; Luckyanov, Nicholas [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 6120 Executive Boulevard, Bethesda, MD (United States); Chumak, Vadim [Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, Melnikova str., 53, Kiev (Ukraine); Simon, Steven L. [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 6120 Executive Boulevard, Bethesda, MD (United States)], E-mail: ssimon@mail.nih.gov

    2007-07-15

    The determination of external dose to teeth of inhabitants of settlements near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) was conducted using the EPR dosimetry technique to assess radiation doses associated with exposure to radioactive fallout from the test site. In this study, tooth doses have been reconstructed for 103 persons with all studied teeth having been formed before the first nuclear test in 1949. Doses above those received from natural background radiation, termed 'accident doses', were found to lie in the range from zero to approximately 2 Gy, with one exception, a dose for one person from Semipalatinsk city was approximately 9 Gy. The variability of reconstructed doses within each of the settlements demonstrated heterogeneity of the deposited fallout as well as variations in lifestyle. The village mean external gamma doses for residents of nine settlements were in the range from a few tens of mGy to approximately 100 mGy.

  2. Metal accumulation in earthworms inhabiting floodplain soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijver, Martina G.; Vink, Jos P.M.; Miermans, Cornelis J.H.; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van

    2007-01-01

    The main factors contributing to variation in metal concentrations in earthworms inhabiting floodplain soils were investigated in three floodplains differing in inundation frequency and vegetation type. Metal concentrations in epigeic earthworms showed larger seasonal variations than endogeic earthworms. Variation in internal levels between sampling intervals were largest in earthworms from floodplain sites frequently inundated. High and low frequency flooding did not result in consistent changes in internal metal concentrations. Vegetation types of the floodplains did not affect metal levels in Lumbricus rubellus, except for internal Cd levels, which were positively related to the presence of organic litter. Internal levels of most essential metals were higher in spring. In general, no clear patterns in metal uptake were found and repetition of the sampling campaign will probably yield different results. - Metal levels in earthworms show large variation among sites, among seasons and among epigeic and endogeic species

  3. Nematode-Trapping Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiangzhi; Xiang, Meichun; Liu, Xingzhong

    2017-01-01

    Nematode-trapping fungi are a unique and intriguing group of carnivorous microorganisms that can trap and digest nematodes by means of specialized trapping structures. They can develop diverse trapping devices, such as adhesive hyphae, adhesive knobs, adhesive networks, constricting rings, and nonconstricting rings. Nematode-trapping fungi have been found in all regions of the world, from the tropics to Antarctica, from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems. They play an important ecological role in regulating nematode dynamics in soil. Molecular phylogenetic studies have shown that the majority of nematode-trapping fungi belong to a monophyletic group in the order Orbiliales (Ascomycota). Nematode-trapping fungi serve as an excellent model system for understanding fungal evolution and interaction between fungi and nematodes. With the development of molecular techniques and genome sequencing, their evolutionary origins and divergence, and the mechanisms underlying fungus-nematode interactions have been well studied. In recent decades, an increasing concern about the environmental hazards of using chemical nematicides has led to the application of these biological control agents as a rapidly developing component of crop protection.

  4. Genetically Engineering Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H; Lovett, B; Fang, W

    2016-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi have been developed as environmentally friendly alternatives to chemical insecticides in biocontrol programs for agricultural pests and vectors of disease. However, mycoinsecticides currently have a small market share due to low virulence and inconsistencies in their performance. Genetic engineering has made it possible to significantly improve the virulence of fungi and their tolerance to adverse conditions. Virulence enhancement has been achieved by engineering fungi to express insect proteins and insecticidal proteins/peptides from insect predators and other insect pathogens, or by overexpressing the pathogen's own genes. Importantly, protein engineering can be used to mix and match functional domains from diverse genes sourced from entomopathogenic fungi and other organisms, producing insecticidal proteins with novel characteristics. Fungal tolerance to abiotic stresses, especially UV radiation, has been greatly improved by introducing into entomopathogens a photoreactivation system from an archaean and pigment synthesis pathways from nonentomopathogenic fungi. Conversely, gene knockout strategies have produced strains with reduced ecological fitness as recipients for genetic engineering to improve virulence; the resulting strains are hypervirulent, but will not persist in the environment. Coupled with their natural insect specificity, safety concerns can also be mitigated by using safe effector proteins with selection marker genes removed after transformation. With the increasing public concern over the continued use of synthetic chemical insecticides and growing public acceptance of genetically modified organisms, new types of biological insecticides produced by genetic engineering offer a range of environmentally friendly options for cost-effective control of insect pests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Adhesive interactions with wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2004-01-01

    While the chemistry for the polymerization of wood adhesives has been studied systematically and extensively, the critical aspects of the interaction of adhesives with wood are less clearly understood. General theories of bond formation need to be modified to take into account the porosity of wood and the ability of chemicals to be absorbed into the cell wall....

  6. Iron Stain on Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Iron stain, an unsightly blue–black or gray discoloration, can occur on nearly all woods. Oak, redwood, cypress, and cedar are particularly prone to iron stain because these woods contain large amounts of tannin-like extractives. The discoloration is caused by a chemical reaction between extractives in the wood and iron in steel products, such as nails, screws, and...

  7. Wood preservative testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca Ibach; Stan T. Lebow

    2012-01-01

    Most wood species used in commercial and residential construction have little natural biological durability and will suffer from biodeterioration when exposed to moisture. Historically, this problem has been overcome by treating wood for outdoor use with toxic wood preservatives. As societal acceptance of chemical use changes, there is continual pressure to develop and...

  8. Wood thermoplastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel F. Caulfield; Craig Clemons; Roger M. Rowell

    2010-01-01

    The wood industry can expand into new sustainable markets with the formation of a new class of composites with the marriage of the wood industry and the plastics industry. The wood component, usually a flour or fiber, is combined with a thermoplastic to form an extrudable, injectable or thermoformable composite that can be used in many non-structural applications....

  9. Request for wood samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1977-01-01

    In recent years the wood collection at the Rijksherbarium was greatly expanded following a renewed interest in wood anatomy as an aid for solving classification problems. Staff members of the Rijksherbarium added to the collection by taking interesting wood samples with them from their expeditions

  10. Visual cues for woodpeckers: light reflectance of decayed wood varies by decay fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Daniels, Sean T.; Kesler, Dylan C.; Mihail, Jeanne D.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Werner, Scott J.

    2018-01-01

    The appearance of wood substrates is likely relevant to bird species with life histories that require regular interactions with wood for food and shelter. Woodpeckers detect decayed wood for cavity placement or foraging, and some species may be capable of detecting trees decayed by specific fungi; however, a mechanism allowing for such specificity remains unidentified. We hypothesized that decay fungi associated with woodpecker cavity sites alter the substrate reflectance in a species-specific manner that is visually discriminable by woodpeckers. We grew 10 species of wood decay fungi from pure cultures on sterile wood substrates of 3 tree species. We then measured the relative reflectance spectra of decayed and control wood wafers and compared them using the receptor noise-limited (RNL) color discrimination model. The RNL model has been used in studies of feather coloration, egg shells, flowers, and fruit to model how the colors of objects appear to birds. Our analyses indicated 6 of 10 decayed substrate/control comparisons were above the threshold of discrimination (i.e., indicating differences discriminable by avian viewers), and 12 of 13 decayed substrate comparisons were also above threshold for a hypothetical woodpecker. We conclude that woodpeckers should be capable of visually detecting decayed wood on trees where bark is absent, and they should also be able to detect visually species-specific differences in wood substrates decayed by fungi used in this study. Our results provide evidence for a visual mechanism by which woodpeckers could identify and select substrates decayed by specific fungi, which has implications for understanding ecologically important woodpecker–fungus interactions.

  11. Ant-plants and fungi: a new threeway symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defossez, Emmanuel; Selosse, Marc-André; Dubois, Marie-Pierre; Mondolot, Laurence; Faccio, Antonella; Djieto-Lordon, Champlain; McKey, Doyle; Blatrix, Rumsaïs

    2009-06-01

    Symbioses between plants and fungi, fungi and ants, and ants and plants all play important roles in ecosystems. Symbioses involving all three partners appear to be rare. Here, we describe a novel tripartite symbiosis in which ants and a fungus inhabit domatia of an ant-plant, and present evidence that such interactions are widespread. We investigated 139 individuals of the African ant-plant Leonardoxa africana for occurrence of fungus. Behaviour of mutualist ants toward the fungus within domatia was observed using a video camera fitted with an endoscope. Fungi were identified by sequencing a fragment of their ribosomal DNA. Fungi were always present in domatia occupied by mutualist ants but never in domatia occupied by opportunistic or parasitic ants. Ants appear to favour the propagation, removal and maintenance of the fungus. Similar fungi were associated with other ant-plants in Cameroon. All belong to the ascomycete order Chaetothyriales; those from L. africana formed a monophyletic clade. These new plant-ant-fungus associations seem to be specific, as demonstrated within Leonardoxa and as suggested by fungal phyletic identities. Such tripartite associations are widespread in African ant-plants but have long been overlooked. Taking fungal partners into account will greatly enhance our understanding of symbiotic ant-plant mutualisms.

  12. Changing Face of Wood Science in Modern Era: Contribution of Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Pawan Kumar; Giagli, Kyriaki; Tsalagkas, Dimitrios; Mishra, Harshita; Talegaonkar, Sushma; Gryc, Vladimír; Wimmer, Rupert

    2018-02-14

    Wood science and nanomaterials science interact together in two different aspects; a) fabrication of lignocellulosic nanomaterials derived from wood and plant-based sources and b) surface or bulk wood modification by nanoparticles. In this review, we attempt to visualize the impact of nanoparticles on the wood coating and preservation treatments based on a thorough registration of the patent databases. The study was carried out as an overview of the scientifically most followed trends on nanoparticles utilization in wood science and wood protection depicted by recent universal filed patents. This review is exclusively targeted on the solid (timber) wood as a subject material. Utilization of mainly metal nanoparticles as photoprotection, antibacterial, antifungal, antiabrasive and functional component on wood modification treatments was found to be widely patented. Additionally, an apparent minimization in the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been succeeded. Bulk wood preservation and more importantly, wood coating, splay the range of strengthening wood dimensional stability and biological degradation, against moisture absorption and fungi respectively. Nanoparticle materials have addressed various issues of wood science in a more efficient and environmental way than the traditional methods. Nevertheless, abundant tests and regulations are still needed before industrializing or recycling these products. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Heteroresistance and fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Gabriella F; Santos, Daniel A

    2017-09-01

    The concept of heteroresistance refers to the heterogeneous susceptibility to an antimicrobial drug in a microorganism population, meaning that some clones may be resistant and others are susceptible. This phenomenon has been widely studied in bacteria, but little attention has been given to its expression in fungi. We review the available literature on heteroresistance in fungi and invite the reader to recognise this phenomenon as a fungal mechanism to adapt to environmental stress, which may interfere both in resistance and virulence. Finally, heteroresistance may explain the treatment failures to eradicate mycosis in some patients treated with a seemingly appropriate antifungal. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Associations among arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and seedlings are predicted to change with tree successional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelot, Benedicte; Uriarte, María; Muscarella, Robert; Forero-Montaña, Jimena; Thompson, Jill; McGuire, Krista; Zimmerman, Jess; Swenson, Nathan G; Clark, James S

    2018-03-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in the soil may influence tropical tree dynamics and forest succession. The mechanisms are poorly understood, because the functional characteristics and abundances of tree species and AM fungi are likely to be codependent. We used generalized joint attribute modeling to evaluate if AM fungi are associated with three forest community metrics for a sub-tropical montane forest in Puerto Rico. The metrics chosen to reflect changes during forest succession are the abundance of seedlings of different successional status, the amount of foliar damage on seedlings of different successional status, and community-weighted mean functional trait values (adult specific leaf area [SLA], adult wood density, and seed mass). We used high-throughput DNA sequencing to identify fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the soil. Model predictions showed that seedlings of mid- and late-successional species had less leaf damage when the 12 most common AM fungi were abundant compared to when these fungi were absent. We also found that seedlings of mid-successional species were predicted to be more abundant when the 12 most common AM fungi were abundant compared to when these fungi were absent. In contrast, early-successional tree seedlings were predicted to be less abundant when the 12 most common AM fungi were abundant compared to when these fungi were absent. Finally, we showed that, among the 12 most common AM fungi, different AM fungi were correlated with functional trait characteristics of early- or late-successional species. Together, these results suggest that early-successional species might not rely as much as mid- and late-successional species on AM fungi, and AM fungi might accelerate forest succession. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  15. Wood frame systems for wood homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Molina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of constructive systems that combine strength, speed, with competitive differential techniques and mainly, compromising with the environment, is becoming more popular in Brazil. The constructive system in wood frame for houses of up to five stories is very interesting, because it is a light system, structured in reforested treated wood which allows the combination of several materials, besides allowing speed in the construction and total control of the expenses already in the project phase for being industrialized. The structural behavior of the wood frame is superior to the structural masonry in strength, thermal and acoustic comfort. However, in Brazil, the wood frame is still little known and used, due to lack of technical knowledge about the system, prejudice associated the bad use of the wood as construction material, or still, in some cases, lack of normalization. The aim of this manuscript consists of presenting the main technical characteristics and advantages of the constructive system in wood frame homes, approaching the main stages of the constructive process through examples, showing the materials used in the construction, in addition the main international normative recommendations of the project. Thus, this manuscript also hopes to contribute to the popularization of the wood frame system in Brazil, since it is a competitive, fast and ecologically correct system. Moreover, nowadays, an enormous effort of the technical, commercial and industrial section has been accomplished for the development of this system in the country.

  16. Enumeration of fungi in barley

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rabie, CJ

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of fungal contamination of barley grain is important as certain fungi can proliferate during the malting process. The following factors which may affect the enumeration of fungi were evaluated: dilution versus direct plating, pre...

  17. Wood-inhabiting ligninolytic basidiomycetes in soils: Ecology and constraints for applicability in bioremediation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baldrian, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2008), s. 4-12 ISSN 1754-5048 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06066; GA MŠk OC 155 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : bioremedation * ecology * interspecific interactions Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  18. Genera of phytopathogenic fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin-Felix, Y.; Hernández-Restrepo, Margarita; Wingfield, M.J.; Akulov, A.; Carnegie, A.J.; Cheewangkoon, R.; Gramaje, D.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Guarnaccia, V.; Halleen, F.; Lombard, L.; Luangsa-ard, J.; Marincowitz, S.; Moslemi, A.; Mostert, L.; Quaedvlieg, W.; Schumacher, R.K.; Spies, C.F.J.; Thangavel, R.; Taylor, P.W.J.; Wilson, A.M.; Wingfield, B.D.; Wood, A.R.; Crous, P.W.

    2019-01-01

    This paper represents the second contribution in the Genera of Phytopathogenic Fungi (GOPHY) series. The series provides morphological descriptions and information regarding the pathology, distribution, hosts and disease symptoms for the treated genera. In addition, primary and secondary DNA

  19. Deep-sea fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C; Damare, S.R.

    significant in terms of carbon sequestration (5, 8). In light of this, the diversity, abundance, and role of fungi in deep-sea sediments may form an important link in the global C biogeochemistry. This review focuses on issues related to collection...

  20. Fun with Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLure, John W.

    1993-01-01

    Describes hands-on activities with fungi that may provoke the curiosity of early adolescents and increase their enjoyment and understanding of a vast, important portion of botany. Some of the activities may be conducted during the winter months when most fieldwork ceases. (PR)

  1. Fungi that Infect Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Julia R; Hube, Bernhard; Puccia, Rosana; Casadevall, Arturo; Perfect, John R

    2017-06-01

    Fungi must meet four criteria to infect humans: growth at human body temperatures, circumvention or penetration of surface barriers, lysis and absorption of tissue, and resistance to immune defenses, including elevated body temperatures. Morphogenesis between small round, detachable cells and long, connected cells is the mechanism by which fungi solve problems of locomotion around or through host barriers. Secretion of lytic enzymes, and uptake systems for the released nutrients, are necessary if a fungus is to nutritionally utilize human tissue. Last, the potent human immune system evolved in the interaction with potential fungal pathogens, so few fungi meet all four conditions for a healthy human host. Paradoxically, the advances of modern medicine have made millions of people newly susceptible to fungal infections by disrupting immune defenses. This article explores how different members of four fungal phyla use different strategies to fulfill the four criteria to infect humans: the Entomophthorales, the Mucorales, the Ascomycota, and the Basidiomycota. Unique traits confer human pathogenic potential on various important members of these phyla: pathogenic Onygenales comprising thermal dimorphs such as Histoplasma and Coccidioides ; the Cryptococcus spp. that infect immunocompromised as well as healthy humans; and important pathogens of immunocompromised patients- Candida , Pneumocystis , and Aspergillus spp. Also discussed are agents of neglected tropical diseases important in global health such as mycetoma and paracoccidiomycosis and common pathogens rarely implicated in serious illness such as dermatophytes. Commensalism is considered, as well as parasitism, in shaping genomes and physiological systems of hosts and fungi during evolution.

  2. Philatelic Mycology: Families of Fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marasas, W.F.O.; Marasas, H.M.; Wingfield, M.J.; Crous, P.W.

    2014-01-01

    Philately, the study of postage stamps, and mycology, the study of fungi, are seldom connected by those that practice these very different activities. When associated, philatelic mycology would be considered as the study of fungi on stamps. The Fungi touch every aspect of our daily lives, most

  3. SUICIDAL ATTEMPTS AMONG YOUNG RURAL INHABITANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław Brzeski

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years changes have been noted in the motivations for acute suicidal poisonings among young people from various environments, which are due to psychosocial changes both in the urban and rural environments. Suicidal attempts are accompanied – especially in the rural environment – by low social status, difficulties with adapting to a free market economy, emotional tension within the family, at school, in the environment of young people, addiction to alcohol, drug overuse, including psychotropes. Based on clinical material concerning rural inhabitants hospitalized due to suicidal poisonings, the authors performed the analysis of attitudes, motivations and causes of acute poisonings among the young rural population. Among rural adolescents who continued school or university education the dominant causes of undertaking a suicidal attempt were: adolescent period problems, conflicts within the family, conflicts with mates, and disappointment in love. Among young adults the motivations were as follows: difficulties with finding employment in the place of residence, conflicts within the family, overuse of stimulants, and sometimes states of depression during the period of aggravation of a disease.

  4. Ectomycorrhizal community structure and function in relation to forest residue harvesting and wood ash applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, Shahid

    2000-05-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi form symbiotic associations with tree roots and assist in nutrient-uptake and -cycling in forest ecosystems, thereby constituting a most significant part of the microbial community. The aims of the studies described in this thesis were to evaluate the potential of DNA-based molecular methods in below-ground ectomycorrhizal community studies and to investigate changes in ectomycorrhizal communities on spruce roots in sites with different N deposition, and in sites subjected to harvesting of forest residues or application of wood ash. The ability of selected ectomycorrhizal fungi to mobilise nutrients from wood ash and to colonise root systems in the presence and absence of ash was also studied. In total 39 ectomycorrhizal species were detected in the experimental forests located in southern Sweden. At each site five to six species colonised around 60% of the root tips. The dominant species, common to the sites, were Tylospora fibrillosa, Thelephora terrestris and Cenococcum geophilum. Differences between two sites with differing levels of N deposition suggested that community structure may be influenced by N deposition, although site history, location and degree of isolation may also influence species composition. Repeated harvesting of forest residues reduced numbers of mycorrhizal roots in the humus layer to approximately 50% of that in control plots but no shift in the ectomycorrhizal community could be detected. At another site, application of granulated wood ash induced a shift in ectomycorrhizal community structure and three ectomycorrhizal fungi ('ash fungi') were found to colonise ash granules. Two 'ash fungi' showed a superior ability to solubilise stabilised wood ash in laboratory experiments compared to other ectomycorrhizal isolates from the same site. In laboratory microcosms containing intact mycorrhizal mycelia, colonisation of wood ash patches by one 'ash fungus' was good whereas colonisation by Piloderma croceum was poor. In a

  5. Micronized Copper Wood Preservatives: Efficacy of Ion, Nano, and Bulk Copper against the Brown Rot Fungus Rhodonia placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civardi, Chiara; Schubert, Mark; Fey, Angelika; Wick, Peter; Schwarze, Francis W M R

    2015-01-01

    Recently introduced micronized copper (MC) formulations, consisting of a nanosized fraction of basic copper (Cu) carbonate (CuCO3·Cu(OH)2) nanoparticles (NPs), were introduced to the market for wood protection. Cu NPs may presumably be more effective against wood-destroying fungi than bulk or ionic Cu compounds. In particular, Cu- tolerant wood-destroying fungi may not recognize NPs, which may penetrate into fungal cell walls and membranes and exert their impact. The objective of this study was to assess if MC wood preservative formulations have a superior efficacy against Cu-tolerant wood-destroying fungi due to nano effects than conventional Cu biocides. After screening a range of wood-destroying fungi for their resistance to Cu, we investigated fungal growth of the Cu-tolerant fungus Rhodonia placenta in solid and liquid media and on wood treated with MC azole (MCA). In liquid cultures we evaluated the fungal response to ion, nano and bulk Cu distinguishing the ionic and particle effects by means of the Cu2+ chelator ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (TTM) and measuring fungal biomass, oxalic acid production and laccase activity of R. placenta. Our results do not support the presence of particular nano effects of MCA against R. placenta that would account for an increased antifungal efficacy, but provide evidence that attribute the main effectiveness of MCA to azoles.

  6. Using hierarchical clustering of secreted protein families to classify and rank candidate effectors of rust fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust fungi are obligate biotrophic pathogens causing considerable damage on crop plants. P. graminis f. sp. tritici, the causal agent of wheat stem rust, and M. larici-populina, the poplar rust pathogen, have strong deleterious impact on wheat and poplar wood production, respectively. The recently r...

  7. Monitoring congenital malformation among inhabitants of town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawel, I.

    2004-01-01

    In Russia rendering of medical care of inhabitants of town located not far from works of nuclear industries be provided for system of special referral centers. Now the congenital malformation (CM) is one of the most issue of the day unresolved problem protection of genetic health of populations. CM account weighty part of structure incidence nursery every where. The most of CM lead to developmental disability, substantively restrict to life span and fertility. for the present moment the treatment CM developed for isolated instances therefore special prophylaxis to take on special significance. The one way to prophylaxis is simultaneous monitoring of CM and chief factors of disutility. In the framework of the State system of monitoring of CM our research laboratory of the State Research Centre Institute of Biophysics to Make a reality monitoring CM in the families of personnel of units of the atomic industry. From 2000 and during the present moment we are logged data about 21 a species of CM. In any case monstriparity with one of these CM in the families of workers of the atomic industry we investigated this case. Pro hac vice we are logged data about professional contacts parents this child with any factors of professional disutility including ionizing radiation. During 2002 we was obtained reliable information from 13 special referral centers about 33 case of birth of baby with CM. It's average about 1/1000 from all case of birth. From this case only 12 babies with CM was birth in the families of personnel of the atomic industry. (Author)

  8. Weathering of radionuclides deposited in inhabited areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, J.; Andersson, K.G.; Togawa, O.

    1996-01-01

    When determining the long-term consequences of an accidental deposition of radionuclides from a nuclear power plant in an inhabited area it is essential to be able to predict the migration with time of the deposited radiocaesium. Through the years that have passed since the Chernobyl accident occurred in 1986, the weathering effects on deposited radiocaesium on different types of surface in urban, suburban and industrial areas have been followed through six measurement campaigns to the Gaevle area of Sweden. The weathering effects after the Chernobyl accident were also investigated in towns in the Ukraine and in Russia. The radiocaesium level on asphalt and concrete pavements was found to decrease rather rapidly. It was found that the weathering effects over the first decade could be described by a double exponential function. Similar analytical functions were derived for the other urban surfaces. However, the weathering half-lives of radiocaesium on walls and roofs of buildings were found to be much longer. Even in urban centres, the largest contribution to the dose-rate immediately after deposition often comes from the open grassed areas and areas of soil. As the dose-rate from such surfaces usually decreases slowly, depending on the soil type, the relative importance of these surfaces will often increase with time. After a decade, the dose-rate from horizontal pavements will decrease by a factor of 10 or more, but the dose-rate from an area of soil or a roof may only be halved. Correspondingly, the dose-rate from a wall decreases by only 10-20 %. (author)

  9. Many Roles of Wood Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2014-01-01

    Although wood bonding is one of the oldest applications of adhesives, going back to early recorded history (1), some aspects of wood bonds are still not fully understood. Most books in the general area of adhesives and adhesion do not cover wood bonding. However, a clearer understanding of wood bonding and wood adhesives can lead to improved products. This is important...

  10. Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, G.

    1998-11-20

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris.

  11. Controversy. The wood war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, O.

    2010-01-01

    The author comments the conflict emerging in France between industries exploiting wood for construction and those exploiting it as a heating material for power generation. The first ones accuse the others to steal their raw material, to pull the prices up, and to destabilize the sector. This conflict takes place notably around sawmill wastes which are used either by wood panel fabricators or by wood pellets producers. Both sectors are claiming they are creating more jobs than the other. The French forest indeed offers good opportunities for both sectors, but other countries which are lacking forest surfaces, are buying wood in France. Several issues are matter of discussion: burning wood seems to go against the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, subsidies awarded to big heater projects. The situation of the wood sector in Austria, Finland and Poland is briefly presented

  12. Investigations of biodeterioration by fungi in historic wooden churches of Chiloé, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Rodrigo; Párraga, Mario; Navarrete, José; Carrasco, Ivo; de la Vega, Eduardo; Ortiz, Manuel; Herrera, Paula; Jurgens, Joel A; Held, Benjamin W; Blanchette, Robert A

    2014-04-01

    The use of wood in construction has had a long history and Chile has a rich cultural heritage of using native woods for building churches and other important structures. In 2000, UNESCO designated a number of the historic churches of Chiloé, built entirely of native woods, as World Heritage Sites. These unique churches were built in the late 1700 s and throughout the 1800 s, and because of their age and exposure to the environment, they have been found to have serious deterioration problems. Efforts are underway to better understand these decay processes and to carryout conservation efforts for the long-term preservation of these important structures. This study characterized the types of degradation taking place and identified the wood decay fungi obtained from eight historic churches in Chiloé, seven of them designated as UNESCO World Heritage sites. Micromorphological observations identified white, brown and soft rot in the structural woods and isolations provided pure cultures of fungi that were identified by sequencing of the internal transcribed region of rDNA. Twenty-nine Basidiomycota and 18 Ascomycota were found. These diverse groups of fungi represent several genera and species not previously reported from Chile and demonstrates a varied microflora is causing decay in these historic buildings.

  13. Chapter 9: Wood Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco X. Aguilar; Karen Abt; Branko Glavonjic; Eugene Lopatin; Warren  Mabee

    2016-01-01

    The availabilty of information on wood energy continues to improve, particularly for commoditized woodfuels.  Wood energy consumption and production vary in the UNECE region because demand is strngly affected by weather and the prices of competing energy sources.  There has been an increase in wood energy in the power-and-heat sector in the EU28 and North American...

  14. Complex geometries in wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Riiber Nielsen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust...... parametric model and a generic design language a later explored the possibilities to construct complex shaped geometries with self registering joints on modern wood crafting machines. The research was carried out as collaboration with industrial partners....

  15. Moisture Transport in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of moisture transport in wood is of great importance as most mechanical and physical properties of wood depend on moisture content. Moisture transport in porous materials is often described by Ficks second law, but several observations indicate that this does not apply very well to wood....... Recently at the Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering, a new model for moisture transport in wood has been developed. The model divides the transport into two phases, namely water vapour in the cell lumens and bound water in the cell walls....

  16. Wood pellet seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarniala, M.; Puhakka, A.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the wood pellet seminar, arranged by OPET Finland and North Karelia Polytechnic, was to deliver information on wood pellets, pellet burners and boilers, heating systems and building, as well as on the activities of wood energy advisors. The first day of the seminar consisted of presentations of equipment and products, and of advisory desks for builders. The second day of the seminar consisted of presentations held by wood pellet experts. Pellet markets, the economy and production, the development of the pellet markets and their problems (in Austria), the economy of heating of real estates by different fuel alternatives, the production, delivery and marketing of wood pellets, the utilization of wood pellet in different utilization sites, the use of wood pellets in detached houses, pellet burners and fireplaces, and conversion of communal real estate houses to use wood pellets were discussed in the presentations. The presentations held in the third day discussed the utilization of wood pellets in power plants, the regional promotion of the production and the use of pellets. The seminar consisted also of visits to pellet manufacturing plant and two pellet burning heating plants

  17. Current perspectives on mitochondrial inheritance in fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu J

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Jianping Xu,1,2 He Li2 1Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada; 2The Key Laboratory for Non-Wood Forest Cultivation and Conservation of the Federal Ministry of Education, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The mitochondrion is an essential organelle of eukaryotes, generating the universal energy currency, adenosine triphosphate, through oxidative phosphorylation. However, aside from generation of adenosine triphosphate, mitochondria have also been found to impact a diversity of cellular functions and organ system health in humans and other eukaryotes. Thus, inheriting and maintaining functional mitochondria are essential for cell health. Due to the relative ease of conducting genetic and molecular biological experiments using fungi, they (especially the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been used as model organisms for investigating the patterns of inheritance and intracellular dynamics of mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA. Indeed, the diversity of mitochondrial inheritance patterns in fungi has contributed to our broad understanding of the genetic, cellular, and molecular controls of mitochondrial inheritance and their evolutionary implications. In this review, we briefly summarize the patterns of mitochondrial inheritance in fungi, describe the genes and processes involved in controlling uniparental mitochondrial DNA inheritance in sexual crosses in basidiomycete yeasts, and provide an overview of the molecular and cellular processes governing mitochondrial inheritance during asexual budding in S. cerevisiae. Together, these studies reveal that complex regulatory networks and molecular processes are involved in ensuring the transmission of healthy mitochondria to the progeny. Keywords: uniparental inheritance, biparental inheritance, mating type, actin cable, mitochore, mitochondrial partition 

  18. Nuclear movement in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xin

    2017-12-11

    Nuclear movement within a cell occurs in a variety of eukaryotic organisms including yeasts and filamentous fungi. Fungal molecular genetic studies identified the minus-end-directed microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein as a critical protein for nuclear movement or orientation of the mitotic spindle contained in the nucleus. Studies in the budding yeast first indicated that dynein anchored at the cortex via its anchoring protein Num1 exerts pulling force on an astral microtubule to orient the anaphase spindle across the mother-daughter axis before nuclear division. Prior to anaphase, myosin V interacts with the plus end of an astral microtubule via Kar9-Bim1/EB1 and pulls the plus end along the actin cables to move the nucleus/spindle close to the bud neck. In addition, pushing or pulling forces generated from cortex-linked polymerization or depolymerization of microtubules drive nuclear movements in yeasts and possibly also in filamentous fungi. In filamentous fungi, multiple nuclei within a hyphal segment undergo dynein-dependent back-and-forth movements and their positioning is also influenced by cytoplasmic streaming toward the hyphal tip. In addition, nuclear movement occurs at various stages of fungal development and fungal infection of plant tissues. This review discusses our current understanding on the mechanisms of nuclear movement in fungal organisms, the importance of nuclear positioning and the regulatory strategies that ensure the proper positioning of nucleus/spindle. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Macrofungi on woody substrata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabine M. Huhndorf; D. J. Lodge; Chun-Juan Wang; Jogeir N. Stokland

    2004-01-01

    Wood-inhabiting macrofungi inhabit substrata that differ in size, state of decay, and moisture content. Thus, the ecologies of fungi growing on wood differ. Wood-inhabiting species include fungi that were in or on the wood when a tree or tree part fell to the ground (e.g., pathogens and nonpathogenic endophytes of living tissue, heart rots), as well as the succession...

  20. Species diversity of culturable endophytic fungi from Brazilian mangrove forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Sebastianes, Fernanda Luiza; Romão-Dumaresq, Aline Silva; Lacava, Paulo Teixeira; Harakava, Ricardo; Azevedo, João Lúcio; de Melo, Itamar Soares; Pizzirani-Kleiner, Aline Aparecida

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to perform a comparative analysis of the diversity of endophytic fungal communities isolated from the leaves and branches of Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia schaueriana and Laguncularia racemosa trees inhabiting two mangroves in the state of São Paulo, Brazil [Cananeia and Bertioga (oil spill-affected and unaffected)] in the summer and winter. Three hundred and forty-three fungi were identified by sequencing the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA. Differences were observed in the frequencies of fungi isolated from the leaves and branches of these three different plant species sampled from the Bertioga oil spill-affected and the oil-unaffected mangrove sites in the summer and winter; these differences indicate a potential impact on fungal diversity in the study area due to the oil spill. The molecular identification of the fungi showed that the fungal community associated with these mangroves is composed of at least 34 different genera, the most frequent of which were Diaporthe, Colletotrichum, Fusarium, Trichoderma and Xylaria. The Shannon and the Chao1 indices [H'(95 %) = 4.00, H'(97 %) = 4.22, Chao1(95 %) = 204 and Chao1(97 %) = 603] indicated that the mangrove fungal community possesses a vast diversity and richness of endophytic fungi. The data generated in this study revealed a large reservoir of fungal genetic diversity inhabiting these Brazilian mangrove forests and highlighted substantial differences between the fungal communities associated with distinct plant tissues, plant species, impacted sites and sampling seasons.

  1. Toxins of filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Deepak; Yu, Jiujiang; Ehrlich, Kenneth C

    2002-01-01

    Mycotoxins are low-molecular-weight secondary metabolites of fungi. The most significant mycotoxins are contaminants of agricultural commodities, foods and feeds. Fungi that produce these toxins do so both prior to harvest and during storage. Although contamination of commodities by toxigenic fungi occurs frequently in areas with a hot and humid climate (i.e. conditions favorable for fungal growth), they can also be found in temperate conditions. Production of mycotoxins is dependent upon the type of producing fungus and environmental conditions such as the substrate, water activity (moisture and relative humidity), duration of exposure to stress conditions and microbial, insect or other animal interactions. Although outbreaks of mycotoxicoses in humans have been documented, several of these have not been well characterized, neither has a direct correlation between the mycotoxin and resulting toxic effect been well established in vivo. Even though the specific modes of action of most of the toxins are not well established, acute and chronic effects in prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems, including humans have been reported. The toxicity of the mycotoxins varies considerably with the toxin, the animal species exposed to it, and the extent of exposure, age and nutritional status. Most of the toxic effects of mycotoxins are limited to specific organs, but several mycotoxins affect many organs. Induction of cancer by some mycotoxins is a major concern as a chronic effect of these toxins. It is nearly impossible to eliminate mycotoxins from the foods and feed in spite of the regulatory efforts at the national and international levels to remove the contaminated commodities. This is because mycotoxins are highly stable compounds, the producing fungi are ubiquitous, and food contamination can occur both before and after harvest. Nevertheless, good farm management practices and adequate storage facilities minimize the toxin contamination problems. Current research is

  2. Contribution to the study of fungi in the genera Sparassis Fr. and Hericium Pers. in our forests

    OpenAIRE

    Karadžić Dragan

    2006-01-01

    Fungi in the genera Sparassis and Hericium cause wood decay. In the forests of Serbia and Montenegro 4 species are identified in the genus Sparassis, and 3 species in the genus Hericium. These fungi develop on physiologically weakened trees, recently killed trees and branch litter (windthrows, broken trees, logs, thick branches). Especially great damage in the stands of Pinus species can be caused by the fungus Sparassis crispa. This fungus colonizes the living trees through the root and caus...

  3. Dose in a house built with contaminated wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassin, A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to assess the annual effective dose which could be received by a person living in a house built in France with wood from Belarus and contaminated by cesium 137 from Chernobylsk accident fallout. After the context be specified and the potential levels of radioactivity presented, an assessment of the annual effective dose is performed, based on an as realistic as possible scenario. After calculations it appears that the annual effective dose by external exposure potentially received by an inhabitant living in a house build with contaminated wood (pine or birch) at 1,000 Bq/kg is of the order of 1 mSv, due to external exposure to walls. This dose is not negligible, and could even be much more higher if wood from highly contaminated Belarusian areas is used for building houses. Projects of such wooden buildings should be studied with a particular attention to the characterization of the contamination. (N.C.)

  4. Dose in a house built with contaminated wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomassin, A. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    2006-07-01

    This paper aims to assess the annual effective dose which could be received by a person living in a house built in France with wood from Belarus and contaminated by cesium 137 from Chernobylsk accident fallout. After the context be specified and the potential levels of radioactivity presented, an assessment of the annual effective dose is performed, based on an as realistic as possible scenario. After calculations it appears that the annual effective dose by external exposure potentially received by an inhabitant living in a house build with contaminated wood (pine or birch) at 1,000 Bq/kg is of the order of 1 mSv, due to external exposure to walls. This dose is not negligible, and could even be much more higher if wood from highly contaminated Belarusian areas is used for building houses. Projects of such wooden buildings should be studied with a particular attention to the characterization of the contamination. (N.C.)

  5. Ecology of coarse wood decomposition by the saprotrophic fungus Fomes fomentarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Větrovský, Tomáš; Voříšková, Jana; Snajdr, Jaroslav; Gabriel, Jiří; Baldrian, Petr

    2011-07-01

    Saprotrophic wood-inhabiting basidiomycetes are the most important decomposers of lignin and cellulose in dead wood and as such they attracted considerable attention. The aims of this work were to quantify the activity and spatial distribution of extracellular enzymes in coarse wood colonised by the white-rot basidiomycete Fomes fomentarius and in adjacent fruitbodies of the fungus and to analyse the diversity of the fungal and bacterial community in a fungus-colonised wood and its potential effect on enzyme production by F. fomentarius. Fungus-colonised wood and fruitbodies were collected in low management intensity forests in the Czech Republic. There were significant differences in enzyme production by F. fomentarius between Betula pendula and Fagus sylvatica wood, the activity of cellulose and xylan-degrading enzymes was significantly higher in beech wood than in birch wood. Spatial analysis of a sample B. pendula log segment proved that F. fomentarius was the single fungal representative found in the log. There was a high level of spatial variability in the amount of fungal biomass detected, but no effects on enzyme activities were observed. Samples from the fruiting body showed high β-glucosidase and chitinase activities compared to wood samples. Significantly higher levels of xylanase and cellobiohydrolase were found in samples located near the fruitbody (proximal), and higher laccase and Mn-peroxidase activities were found in the distal ones. The microbial community in wood was dominated by the fungus (fungal to bacterial DNA ratio of 62-111). Bacterial abundance composition was lower in proximal than distal parts of wood by a factor of 24. These results show a significant level of spatial heterogeneity in coarse wood. One of the explanations may be the successive colonization of wood by the fungus: due to differential enzyme production, the rates of biodegradation of coarse wood are also spatially inhomogeneous.

  6. Influence of xylem ray integrity and degree of polymerization on bending strength of beech wood decayed by Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan Bari; Reza Oladi; Olaf Schmidt; Carol A. Clausen; Katie Ohno; Darrel D. Nicholas; Mehrdad Ghodskhah Daryaei; Maryam Karim

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this research was to evaluate the influence of xylem ray (XR) and degree of polymerization (DP) of holocellulose in Oriental beech wood (Fagus orientalis Lipsky.) on impact bending strength against two white-rot fungi. Beech wood specimens, exposed to Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor, were evaluated for...

  7. The wood, renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, C.

    2006-12-01

    This document evaluates the french forest situation and its future. Indeed, the wood energy constitutes in France the first renewable energy after the hydraulic. It presents the today situation of the french forest providing statistical data, evaluation of the energy estimation, the carbon fixation, the resources, the perspectives wood energy for 2050, the biofuels and an economic analysis. (A.L.B.)

  8. Heat sterilization of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang

    2010-01-01

    Two important questions should be considered in heat sterilizing solid wood materials: First, what temperature–time regime is required to kill a particular pest? Second, how much time is required to heat the center of any wood configuration to the kill temperature? The entomology research on the first question has facilitated the development of international standards...

  9. Wood thermoplastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel F. Caulfield; Craig Clemons; Rodney E. Jacobson; Roger M. Rowell

    2005-01-01

    The term “wood-plastic composites” refers to any number of composites that contain wood (of any form) and either thermoset or thermoplastic polymers. Thermosets or thermoset polymers are plastics that, once cured, cannot be remelted by heating. These include cured resins, such as epoxies and phenolics, plastics with which the forest products industry is most familiar (...

  10. Wood supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; David B. McKeever

    2011-01-01

    At times in history, there have been concerns that demand for wood (timber) would be greater than the ability to supply it, but that concern has recently dissipated. The wood supply and demand situation has changed because of market transitions, economic downturns, and continued forest growth. This article provides a concise overview of this change as it relates to the...

  11. Economy of wood supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imponen, V.

    1993-01-01

    Research and development of wood fuels production was vigorous in the beginning of the 1980's. Techniques and working methods used in combined harvesting and transportation of energy and merchantable wood were developed in addition to separate energy wood delivery. After a ten year silent period the research on this field was started again. At present the underutilization of forest supplies and the environmental effects of energy production based on fossil fuels caused the rebeginning of the research. One alternative for reduction of the price of wood fuels at the utilization site is the integration of energy and merchantable wood deliveries together. Hence the harvesting and transportation devices can be operated effectively, and the organizational costs are decreased as well. The wood delivery costs consist of the stumpage price, the harvesting and transportation costs, and of general expenses. The stumpage price form the largest cost category (over 50 %) of the industrial merchantable wood delivery, and the harvesting and transportation costs in the case of thinningwood delivery. Forest transportation is the largest part of the delivery costs of logging residues. The general expenses, consisting of the management costs and the interest costs of the capital bound to the storages, form a remarkable cost category in delivery of low-rank wood for energy or conversion purposes. The costs caused by the harvesting of thinningwood, the logging residues, chipping and crushing, the lorry transportation are reviewed in this presentation

  12. How James Wood Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Evan R., Comp.

    2008-01-01

    Reading through news-media clippings about James Wood, one might reasonably conclude that "pre-eminent critic" is his official job title. In fact, Wood is a staff writer for "The New Yorker" and a professor of the practice of literary criticism at Harvard University. But at a time when there is much hand-wringing about the death of the…

  13. Method of stabilizing wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesek, M.; Jarkovsky, J.

    1973-01-01

    Wood is impregnated with a mixture of a vinyl or an allyl monomer (20 - 90 wt. %) and unsaturated polyester resins. The impregnated wood is then exposed to ionizing radiation at doses of 0.1 to 20 Mrad at a temperature of 60 to 180 degC. (B.S.)

  14. Chemical modification of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell

    2007-01-01

    After millions of years of evolution, wood was designed to perform in a wet environment, and nature is programmed to recycle it, in a timely way, back to the basic building blocks of carbon dioxide and water through biological, thermal, aqueous, photochemical, chemical, and mechanical degradation. The properties of wood are, for the most part, a result of the chemistry...

  15. Autophagy in plant pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Hong; Xu, Fei; Snyder, John Hugh; Shi, Huan-Bin; Lu, Jian-Ping; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Autophagy is a conserved cellular process that degrades cytoplasmic constituents in vacuoles. Plant pathogenic fungi develop special infection structures and/or secrete a range of enzymes to invade their plant hosts. It has been demonstrated that monitoring autophagy processes can be extremely useful in visualizing the sequence of events leading to pathogenicity of plant pathogenic fungi. In this review, we introduce the molecular mechanisms involved in autophagy. In addition, we explore the relationship between autophagy and pathogenicity in plant pathogenic fungi. Finally, we discuss the various experimental strategies available for use in the study of autophagy in plant pathogenic fungi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fusarium and other opportunistic hyaline fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter focuses on those fungi that grow in tissue in the form of hyaline or lightly colored septate hyphae. These fungi include Fusarium and other hyaline fungi. Disease caused by hyaline fungi is referred to as hyalohyphomycosis. Hyaline fungi described in this chapter include the anamorphic,...

  17. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Lodgepole Pine Wood Chips Affected by the Mountain Pine Beetle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartwig Peemoeller

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, wood-water interactions of mountain pine beetle affected lodgepole pine were found to vary with time since death. Based on an analysis of magnetization components and spin-spin relaxation times from 1H NMR, it was determined that the mountain pine beetle attack does not affect the crystalline structure of the wood. Both the amorphous structure and the water components vary with time since death, which could be due to the fungi present after a mountain pine beetle attack, as well as the fact that wood from the grey-stage of attack cycles seasonally through adsorption and desorption in the stand.

  18. Molecular mechanisms underlying the close association between soil Burkholderia and fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopnisek, Nejc; Zühlke, Daniela; Carlier, Aurélien; Barberán, Albert; Fierer, Noah; Becher, Dörte; Riedel, Katharina; Eberl, Leo; Weisskopf, Laure

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial species belonging to the genus Burkholderia have been repeatedly reported to be associated with fungi but the extent and specificity of these associations in soils remain undetermined. To assess whether associations between Burkholderia and fungi are widespread in soils, we performed a co-occurrence analysis in an intercontinental soil sample collection. This revealed that Burkholderia significantly co-occurred with a wide range of fungi. To analyse the molecular basis of the interaction, we selected two model fungi frequently co-occurring with Burkholderia, Alternaria alternata and Fusarium solani, and analysed the proteome changes caused by cultivation with either fungus in the widespread soil inhabitant B. glathei, whose genome we sequenced. Co-cultivation with both fungi led to very similar changes in the B. glathei proteome. Our results indicate that B. glathei significantly benefits from the interaction, which is exemplified by a lower abundance of several starvation factors that were highly expressed in pure culture. However, co-cultivation also gave rise to stress factors, as indicated by the increased expression of multidrug efflux pumps and proteins involved in oxidative stress response. Our data suggest that the ability of Burkholderia to establish a close association with fungi mainly lies in the capacities to utilize fungal-secreted metabolites and to overcome fungal defense mechanisms. This work indicates that beneficial interactions with fungi might contribute to the survival strategy of Burkholderia species in environments with sub-optimal conditions, including acidic soils. PMID:25989372

  19. Molecular mechanisms underlying the close association between soil Burkholderia and fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopnisek, Nejc; Zühlke, Daniela; Carlier, Aurélien; Barberán, Albert; Fierer, Noah; Becher, Dörte; Riedel, Katharina; Eberl, Leo; Weisskopf, Laure

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial species belonging to the genus Burkholderia have been repeatedly reported to be associated with fungi but the extent and specificity of these associations in soils remain undetermined. To assess whether associations between Burkholderia and fungi are widespread in soils, we performed a co-occurrence analysis in an intercontinental soil sample collection. This revealed that Burkholderia significantly co-occurred with a wide range of fungi. To analyse the molecular basis of the interaction, we selected two model fungi frequently co-occurring with Burkholderia, Alternaria alternata and Fusarium solani, and analysed the proteome changes caused by cultivation with either fungus in the widespread soil inhabitant B. glathei, whose genome we sequenced. Co-cultivation with both fungi led to very similar changes in the B. glathei proteome. Our results indicate that B. glathei significantly benefits from the interaction, which is exemplified by a lower abundance of several starvation factors that were highly expressed in pure culture. However, co-cultivation also gave rise to stress factors, as indicated by the increased expression of multidrug efflux pumps and proteins involved in oxidative stress response. Our data suggest that the ability of Burkholderia to establish a close association with fungi mainly lies in the capacities to utilize fungal-secreted metabolites and to overcome fungal defense mechanisms. This work indicates that beneficial interactions with fungi might contribute to the survival strategy of Burkholderia species in environments with sub-optimal conditions, including acidic soils.

  20. Biochemiluminescence of certain fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Sławiński

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Twelve species of fungi growing on the Sabouraud medium in darkness and illumination in an incubator, were tested to find out their ability to emit the ultra-weak biochemiluminescence. Using a sensitive photon-counling device, it was possible to measure biochemiluminescence intensity during ten days of cultures growth. Boletus edulis, Pestalotia funerea and Microsporum gypseum displayed biochemiluminescence, while Aspergillus nidulans, A. quadrilineatus, Beauveria bassiana, Macrophoma candollei, Mucor lausanensis, Paecilomyces farinosus, Penicillium sp., Trichoderma lignorum and Tricholoma equestre failed to do it. Illumination put down biochemiluminescence and stimulated colour formation in both mycelia and in the medium.

  1. DNA quantification of basidiomycetous fungi during storage of logging residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Børja

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The demand for bioenergy caused an increased use of logging residues, branches and treetops that were previously left on the ground after harvesting. Residues are stored outdoors in piles and it is unclear to what extent fungi transform this material. Our objective was to quantify the amount of wood degrading fungi during storage using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR to detect basidiomycetous DNA in logging residues, a novel approach in this field. We found that the qPCR method was accurate in quantifying the fungal DNA during storage. As the moisture content of the piled logging residues decreased during the storage period, the fungal DNA content also decreased. Scots pine residues contained more fungal DNA than residues from Norway spruce. Loose piles had generally more fungal DNA than bundled ones.

  2. Guanophilic fungi in three caves of southwestern Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves-Rivera Angel M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty species of guanophilic (bat guano-loving fungi were isolated from field-collected samples within three caves in southwesternPuerto Rico; most were mitosporic fungi (23 species. The caves studied were Cueva La Tuna (Cabo Rojo, Cueva de Malano(Sistema de Los Chorros, San Germán, and Cueva Viento (El Convento Cave-Spring System, Guayanilla-Peñuelas. The mostconspicuous fungus by far was the zygomycete Circinella umbellata (Mucorales. Circinella umbellata dominated the bat guanoincubation chambers (Petri dishes lined with sterile filter paper moistened with sterile water at ambient laboratory conditions.Nineteen species of basidiomycetes (e.g., Ganoderma cf. resinaceum, Geastrum cf. minimum, Lepiota sp., Polyporus sp., Ramariasp. and three species of ascomycetes (Hypoxylon sp., Xylaria anisopleura, and X. kegeliana were also recorded. They were foundon soil, rotting leaves, bark and rotting wood, buried in bat guano located below natural skylights or sinkholes.

  3. Wood adhesives : vital for producing most wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2011-01-01

    A main route for the efficient utilization of wood resources is to reduce wood to small pieces and then bond them together (Frihart and Hunt 2010). Although humankind has been bonding wood since early Egyptian civilizations, the quality and quantity of bonded wood products has increased dramatically over the past 100 years with the development of new adhesives and...

  4. Fire and EMS Districts - MDC_FDStationTerritoryInhabited

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A polygon feature class of Miami-Dade County Fire Rescue (MDFR) Fire District Station Territories clipped to the extent of inhabited areas. This layer is intended...

  5. Cord Wood Testing in a Non-Catalytic Wood Stove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trojanowski, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wei, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-06-30

    EPA Method 28 and the current wood stove regulations have been in-place since 1988. Recently, EPA proposed an update to the existing NSPS for wood stove regulations which includes a plan to transition from the current crib wood fuel to cord wood fuel for certification testing. Cord wood is seen as generally more representative of field conditions while the crib wood is seen as more repeatable. In any change of certification test fuel, there are questions about the impact on measured results and the correlation between tests with the two different fuels. The purpose of the work reported here is to provide data on the performance of a noncatalytic stove with cord wood. The stove selected has previously been certified with crib wood which provides a basis for comparison with cord wood. Overall, particulate emissions were found to be considerably higher with cord wood.

  6. Soft rot decay capabilities and interactions of fungi and bacteria from fumigated utility poles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.J.K.; Worrall, J.J.

    1992-11-01

    The objectives were to (1) identify microfungi and bacterial associates isolated from fumigated southern pine poles from EPRI project RP 1471-72, (2) study the soft-rot capabilities of predominant fungi, and (3) study interactions among microorganisms in relation to wood decay. Methods for identification followed standard techniques using morphological and physiological criteria. Soft-rot by microfungi alone and with bacteria was determined as weight loss and anatomical examination of wood blocks using light microscopy and limited electron microscopy. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus was the predominant bacterium. Twenty-one species of microfungi were identified including four new species. A book entitled IDENTIFICATION MANUAL FOR FUNGI FROM UTILITY POLES IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES was published. An improved soft-rot test was devised. Fifty-one of 84 species (60%) of microfungi from poles tested were soft-rot positive; that is much greater than previously reported. Three types of anatomical damage of wood of pine or birch caused by soft-rot fungi were described. Interaction tests showed that, in some cases, there was a strong synergism between bacteria and fungi in causing weight loss, but results were inconsistent. Although soft rot is often most apparent under conditions of very high moisture, intermediate moisture levels appear to be optimal, as with basidiomycete decayers

  7. Chapter 6: Wood energy and competing wood product markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth E. Skog; Robert C. Abt; Karen Abt

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effect of expanding wood energy markets is important to all wood-dependent industries and to policymakers debating the implementation of public programs to support the expansion of wood energy generation. A key factor in determining the feasibility of wood energy projects (e.g. wood boiler or pellet plant) is the long-term (i.e. 20-30year) supply...

  8. Fatigue Damage in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Fatigue failure is found to depend both on the total time under load and on the number of cycles.Recent accelerated fatigue research on wood is reviewed, and a discrepancy between...... to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation between stiffness reduction...

  9. Wood wastes: Uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cipro, A.

    1993-01-01

    The 1,500 industrial firms manufacturing furniture in the Italian Province of Treviso can generate up to 190,000 tonnes of wood wastes annually. In line with the energy conservation-environmental protection measures contained in Italian Law No. 475/88, this paper indicates convenient uses for these wood wastes - as a raw material for fibreboards or as a fuel to be used in the furniture manufacturing plants themselves and in kilns producing lime. Reference is made to the wood wastes gasification/power generation system being developed by ENEA (the Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment)

  10. Coniochaeta (Lecythophora), Collophora gen. nov. And Phaeomoniella species associated with wood necroses of Prunus trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Fourie, P.H.; Crous, P.W.

    2010-01-01

    Species of the genus Coniochaeta (anamorph: Lecythophora) are known as pathogens of woody hosts, but can also cause opportunistic human infections. Several fungi with conidial stages resembling Lecythophora were isolated from necrotic wood samples of Prunus trees in South Africa. In order to reveal

  11. Starch inclusion complex to emulsify cedarwood oil and pressure treat wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously, we have demonstrated that CO2-derived cedarwood oil has a range of bioactivities, including insect repellency and toxicity as well as conferring resistance to both termites and wood-rot fungi. In the earlier pressure treatment work, ethanol was used as the diluent/carrier. However, it is...

  12. Copper radical oxidases and related extracellular oxidoreductases of wood-decay Agaricomycetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phil Kersten; Dan Cullen

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular peroxide generation, a key component of oxidative lignocellulose degradation, has been attributed to various enzymes including the copper radical oxidases. Encoded by a family of structurally related sequences, the genes are widely distributed among wood decay fungi including three recently completed polypore genomes. In all cases, core catalytic residues...

  13. A Contextual Analysis of Land-Use and Vegetation Changes in Two Wooded Pastures in the Swiss Jura Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joël Chételat

    2013-03-01

    The most important changes in tree density occurred during World War II and resulted in a more open landscape. The intensive use of wooded pastures during the war was the consequence of a high demand for wood and food resources. Postwar protectionist regulations, agricultural subsidies, and technical improvements maintained considerable pressure on wooded pastures. Storms and drought episodes further exacerbated this process in some areas. The trend then reversed from the 1970s onwards because of the limitations put on milk production and the falling price of wood. This resulted in a more extensive use of pastures, leading to tree encroachment. However, remote sites were more impacted than pastures closer to inhabited areas, which exhibited a trend towards more segregation between grassland and densely wooded pastures. With both extensification and segregation of land use, the complex vegetation mosaic and the landscape diversity that characterize wooded pastures are threatened but still offer good economic opportunities that call for differentiated management strategies.

  14. Tracing nitrogen accumulation in decaying wood and examining its impact on wood decomposition rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, Katja T.; Rajala, Tiina; Peltoniemi, Krista; Chen, Janet; Smolander, Aino; Mäkipää, Raisa

    2016-04-01

    Decomposition of dead wood, which is controlled primarily by fungi is important for ecosystem carbon cycle and has potentially a significant role in nitrogen fixation via diazotrophs. Nitrogen content has been found to increase with advancing wood decay in several studies; however, the importance of this increase to decay rate and the sources of external nitrogen remain unclear. Improved knowledge of the temporal dynamics of wood decomposition rate and nitrogen accumulation in wood as well as the drivers of the two processes would be important for carbon and nitrogen models dealing with ecosystem responses to climate change. To tackle these questions we applied several analytical methods on Norway spruce logs from Lapinjärvi, Finland. We incubated wood samples (density classes from I to V, n=49) in different temperatures (from 8.5oC to 41oC, n=7). After a common seven day pre-incubation period at 14.5oC, the bottles were incubated six days in their designated temperature prior to CO2 flux measurements with GC to determine the decomposition rate. N2 fixation was measured with acetylene reduction assay after further 48 hour incubation. In addition, fungal DNA, (MiSeq Illumina) δ15N and N% composition of wood for samples incubated at 14.5oC were determined. Radiocarbon method was applied to obtain age distribution for the density classes. The asymbiotic N2 fixation rate was clearly dependent on the stage of wood decay and increased from stage I to stage IV but was substantially reduced in stage V. CO2 production was highest in the intermediate decay stage (classes II-IV). Both N2 fixation and CO2 production were highly temperature sensitive having optima in temperature 25oC and 31oC, respectively. We calculated the variation of annual levels of respiration and N2 fixation per hectare for the study site, and used the latter data together with the 14C results to determine the amount of N2 accumulated in wood in time. The proportion of total nitrogen in wood

  15. Transfer soil-wood of radionuclides of uranium decay series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deus, P.; Petschat, U.; Schmidt, P.

    1998-01-01

    The radionuclide transfer soil-plant is an essential feature for radioecological characterisation of the biosphere. Beside of plants used only for nutrition purposes also plants have to be investigated which are used otherwise intensively or over long periods by humans. This e.g. comes true in the case of wood which as timber or furniture in buildings could be the reason of radiation expositions of inhabitants. In this work by means of experimental investigations for 226 Ra, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 238 U and 227 Ac transfer factors of wood grown on areas used formerly by uranium mining are estimated. The dependence of transfer factors on specific activity in soil is determined. It is shown that in the case of higher soil activities transfer factors of wood are comparable with factors published for other vegetation. As a rule no linear dependence of plant activity on soil activity has been found. As known from other radionuclides saturations take place which result in an upper level of activity in the plants. An effective dose estimation in the case of typical applications shows as a rule no remarkable radioecological risk due to wood grown on mining areas with the exception of processes including radionuclide enrichment. In latter cases and for wood grown on areas with soil activities >1 000 Bq/kg with respect to a general radiation protection precaution duty and aspects of licence problems, however, a case-to-case decision is recommended. (orig.) [de

  16. Filamentous Fungi Fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Anders; Stocks, Stuart; Woodley, John

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi (including microorganisms such as Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae) represent an enormously important platform for industrial fermentation. Two particularly valuable features are the high yield coefficients and the ability to secrete products. However, the filamentous...... morphology, together with non-Newtonian rheological properties (shear thinning), result in poor oxygen transfer unless sufficient energy is provided to the fermentation. While genomic research may improve the organisms, there is no doubt that to enable further application in future it will be necessary...... to match such research with studies of oxygen transfer and energy supply to high viscosity fluids. Hence, the implementation of innovative solutions (some of which in principle are already possible) will be essential to ensure the further development of such fermentations....

  17. A new shock wave assisted wood preservative injection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K. S.; Ravikumar, G.; Lai, Ram; Jagadeesh, G.

    Preservative treatment of many tropical hard woods and bamboo pose severe problem. A number of wood preservatives (chemical formulations toxic to wood decay/ destroying organisms like fungi, wood destroying termites, marine borers etc.) and wood impregnating techniques are currently in use for improving bio resistance of timber and bamboo and thereby enhancing service life for different end uses. How ever, some species of tropical hardwoods and many species of bamboo are difficult to treat, posing technical problems. In this paper we report preliminary results of treatment of bamboo with a novel Shockwave assisted injection treatment. Samples (30×2.5×1.00 cm) of an Indian species of bamboo Dendrocalamus strictus prepared from defect free culms of dry bamboo are placed in the driven section of a vertical shock tube filled with the 4Coppepr-Chrome-Arsenic(CCA) preservative solution.The bamboo samples are subjected to repeated shock wave loading (3 shots) with typical over pressures of 30 bar. The results from the study indicate excellent penetration and retention of CCA preservative in bamboo samples. The method itself is much faster compared to the conventional methods like pressure treatment or hot and cold process.

  18. What influences the composition of fungi in wheat grains?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biruta Bankina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat grains are inhabited by different fungi, including plant pathogens and fungi – mycotoxin producers. The composition of seed mycobiota can be influenced by different factors, including agronomic practices, but the results are still contradictory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mycobiota of wheat grains depending on agroecological conditions. Wheat grains were obtained from a two-factorial field trial: A – tillage system (A1 – ploughing at a depth of 22–24 cm; A2 – harrowing at a depth of up to 10 cm; B – crop rotation (B1 – continuous wheat; B2 – oilseed rape and wheat; B3 – crop rotation. The mycobiota of grain were determined by mycological and molecular methods. The most abundant and widespread of the mycobiota were Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, Alternaria spp., Arthrinium spp., and Fusarium avenaceum. Higher amounts of precipitation increased the infection of grains with Fusarium fungi. Seven species of Fusarium were identified in the grain samples: F. avenaceum, F. poae, F. graminearum, F. culmorum, F. acuminatum, F. sporotrichioides, and F. tricinctum. The soil tillage method and crop rotation did not influence the total incidence of Fusarium spp., but the abundance of a particular species differed depending on agronomic practice. The research suggests that continuous wheat sowing under conditions of reduced soil tillage can increase the level of risk of grain infection with F. graminearum and, consequently, the accumulation of mycotoxins.

  19. Mycoremediation of wood and soil from an old sawmill area contaminated for decades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentín, Lara; Oesch-Kuisma, Hanna; Steffen, Kari T.; Kähkönen, Mika A.; Hatakka, Annele; Tuomela, Marja, E-mail: marja.tuomela@helsinki.fi

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • We performed experiments with non-sterile soil and wood with aged contamination. • We isolated fungal strains from a saw mill site with chlorophenols contamination. •Fungal strains were screened for tolerance to native microbes and contamination. • The best fungi degraded chlorophenols and chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans. -- Abstract: We investigated the potential of white-rot and litter-decomposing fungi for the treatment of soil and wood from a sawmill area contaminated with aged chlorinated phenols, dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/F). Eight screening assays with emphasis on application of non-sterile conditions were carried out in order to select the strains with capability to withstand indigenous microbes and contamination. Nine fungi were then selected for degrading pentachlorophenol (PCP), and 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol (2,3,4,6-TeCP) and mineralizing radiolabelled pentachlorophenol ({sup 14}C-PCP) in non-sterile soil or wood during 15 weeks of incubation. Soil indigenous microbes and fungal inoculated soil (fungal inoculum + indigenous microbes) achieved similar degradation of PCP and 2,3,4,6-TeCP and mineralization of {sup 14}C-PCP. However, the mineralization rate of {sup 14}C-PCP by indigenous microbes was much slower than that boosted by fungal inoculum. The litter-decomposing fungus (LDF) Stropharia rugosoannulata proved to be a suitable fungus for soil treatment. This fungus mineralized 26% of {sup 14}C-PCP and degraded 43% of 2,3,4,6-TeCP and 73% of PCP. Furthermore, S. rugosoannulata attained 13% degradation of PCDD/F (expressed as WHO-Toxic Equivalent). In wood, white-rot fungi grew and degraded chlorophenols better than LDF. No efficient indigenous degraders were present in wood. Interestingly, production of toxic chlorinated organic metabolites (anisoles and veratroles) by LDF in wood was negligible.

  20. Mycoremediation of wood and soil from an old sawmill area contaminated for decades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentín, Lara; Oesch-Kuisma, Hanna; Steffen, Kari T.; Kähkönen, Mika A.; Hatakka, Annele; Tuomela, Marja

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We performed experiments with non-sterile soil and wood with aged contamination. • We isolated fungal strains from a saw mill site with chlorophenols contamination. •Fungal strains were screened for tolerance to native microbes and contamination. • The best fungi degraded chlorophenols and chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans. -- Abstract: We investigated the potential of white-rot and litter-decomposing fungi for the treatment of soil and wood from a sawmill area contaminated with aged chlorinated phenols, dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/F). Eight screening assays with emphasis on application of non-sterile conditions were carried out in order to select the strains with capability to withstand indigenous microbes and contamination. Nine fungi were then selected for degrading pentachlorophenol (PCP), and 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol (2,3,4,6-TeCP) and mineralizing radiolabelled pentachlorophenol ( 14 C-PCP) in non-sterile soil or wood during 15 weeks of incubation. Soil indigenous microbes and fungal inoculated soil (fungal inoculum + indigenous microbes) achieved similar degradation of PCP and 2,3,4,6-TeCP and mineralization of 14 C-PCP. However, the mineralization rate of 14 C-PCP by indigenous microbes was much slower than that boosted by fungal inoculum. The litter-decomposing fungus (LDF) Stropharia rugosoannulata proved to be a suitable fungus for soil treatment. This fungus mineralized 26% of 14 C-PCP and degraded 43% of 2,3,4,6-TeCP and 73% of PCP. Furthermore, S. rugosoannulata attained 13% degradation of PCDD/F (expressed as WHO-Toxic Equivalent). In wood, white-rot fungi grew and degraded chlorophenols better than LDF. No efficient indigenous degraders were present in wood. Interestingly, production of toxic chlorinated organic metabolites (anisoles and veratroles) by LDF in wood was negligible

  1. The Lignin-Degrading Enzyme, Laccase from Marine Fungi : Biochemical and Molecular Approaches

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza-Ticlo, D.

    system that provides a good environment for the fungus to thrive in. Fungi decay the woody substrate to alter the lignin in the cell walls of the wood, which therefore ‘softens’ the wood chips. This process is non-polluting since it is chemical-free... % it also saves about $ 9 - $ 20 per ton of pulp (http://www.biopulping.com/2.html). The paper-pulp is then subjected to alkali-treatment to free the cellulose fibers from the hemicellulose and lignin. This is then bleached to reduce the colour due...

  2. Impact of abiotic factors on development of the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the soil: a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamiołkowska, Agnieszka; Księżniak, Andrzej; Gałązka, Anna; Hetman, Beata; Kopacki, Marek; Skwaryło-Bednarz, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inhabiting soil play an important role for vascular plants. Interaction between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, plants and soil microorganisms leads to many mutual advantages. However, the effectiveness of mycorrhizal fungi depends not only on biotic, but also abiotic factors such as physico-chemical properties of the soil, availability of water and biogenic elements, agricultural practices, and climatic conditions. First of all, it is important to adapt the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi species to changing environmental conditions. The compactness of the soil and its structure have a huge impact on its biological activity. Soil pH reaction has a substantial impact on the mobility of ions in soil dilutions and their uptake by plants and soil microflora. Water excess can be a factor negatively affecting arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi because these microorganisms are sensitive to a lower availability of oxygen. Mechanical cultivation of the soil has a marginal impact on the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spores. However, soil translocation can cause changes to the population of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi abundance in the soil profile. The geographical location and topographic differentiation of cultivated soils, as well as the variability of climatic factors affect the population of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the soils and their symbiotic activity.

  3. Wood for the trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Garbutt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Our paper focuses on the materiality, cultural history and cultural relations of selected artworks in the exhibition Wood for the trees (Lismore Regional Gallery, New South Wales, Australia, 10 June – 17 July 2011. The title of the exhibition, intentionally misreading the aphorism “Can’t see the wood for the trees”, by reading the wood for the resource rather than the collective wood[s], implies conservation, preservation, and the need for sustaining the originating resource. These ideas have particular resonance on the NSW far north coast, a region once rich in rainforest. While the Indigenous population had sustainable practices of forest and land management, the colonists deployed felling and harvesting in order to convert the value of the local, abundant rainforest trees into high-value timber. By the late twentieth century, however, a new wave of settlers launched a protest movements against the proposed logging of remnant rainforest at Terania Creek and elsewhere in the region. Wood for the trees, curated by Gallery Director Brett Adlington, plays on this dynamic relationship between wood, trees and people. We discuss the way selected artworks give expression to the themes or concepts of productive labour, nature and culture, conservation and sustainability, and memory. The artworks include Watjinbuy Marrawilil’s (1980 Carved ancestral figure ceremonial pole, Elizabeth Stops’ (2009/10 Explorations into colonisation, Hossein Valamanesh’s (2008 Memory stick, and AñA Wojak’s (2008 Unread book (in a forgotten language. Our art writing on the works, a practice informed by Bal (2002, Muecke (2008 and Papastergiadis (2004, becomes a conversation between the works and the themes or concepts. As a form of material excess of the most productive kind (Grosz, 2008, p. 7, art seeds a response to that which is in the air waiting to be said of the past, present and future.

  4. Evolution of novel wood decay mechanisms in Agaricales revealed by the genome sequences of Fistulina hepatica and Cylindrobasidium torrendii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floudas, Dimitrios; Held, Benjamin W.; Riley, Robert; Nagy, Laszlo G.; Koehler, Gage; Ransdell, Anthony S.; Younus, Hina; Chow, Julianna; Chiniquy, Jennifer; Lipzen, Anna; Tritt, Andrew; Sun, Hui; Haridas, Sajeet; LaButti, Kurt; Ohm, Robin A.; Kües, Ursula; Blanchette, Robert A.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Minto, Robert E.; Hibbett, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Wood decay mechanisms in Agaricomycotina have been traditionally separated in two categories termed white and brown rot. Recently the accuracy of such a dichotomy has been questioned. Here, we present the genome sequences of the white rot fungus Cylindrobasidium torrendii and the brown rot fungus Fistulina hepatica both members of Agaricales, combining comparative genomics and wood decay experiments. Cylindrobasidium torrendii is closely related to the white-rot root pathogen Armillaria mellea, while F. hepatica is related to Schizophyllum commune, which has been reported to cause white rot. Our results suggest that C. torrendii and S. commune are intermediate between white-rot and brown-rot fungi, but at the same time they show characteristics of decay that resembles soft rot. Both species cause weak wood decay and degrade all wood components but leave the middle lamella intact. Their gene content related to lignin degradation is reduced, similar to brown-rot fungi, but both have maintained a rich array of genes related to carbohydrate degradation, similar to white-rot fungi. These characteristics appear to have evolved from white-rot ancestors with stronger ligninolytic ability. Fistulina hepatica shows characteristics of brown rot both in terms of wood decay genes found in its genome and the decay that it causes. However, genes related to cellulose degradation are still present, which is a plesiomorphic characteristic shared with its white-rot ancestors. Four wood degradation-related genes, homologs of which are frequently lost in brown-rot fungi, show signs of pseudogenization in the genome of F. hepatica. These results suggest that transition towards a brown rot lifestyle could be an ongoing process in F. hepatica. Our results reinforce the idea that wood decay mechanisms are more diverse than initially thought and that the dichotomous separation of wood decay mechanisms in Agaricomycotina into white rot and brown rot should be revisited. PMID:25683379

  5. Survey of Tsuruga inhabitants concerning radiation and its risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinoda, Yoshihiko; Yamano, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident has led to changes in the acceptance of nuclear power in many people. The authors conducted an opinion survey of 300 adult inhabitants of Tsuruga city in Fukui prefecture, Japan. The aim of this survey is to obtain people's opinions concerning radiation and its risks. Authors classified Tsuruga inhabitants on the basis of responses to questions on the concept and knowledge of risk and the cognition of radiation by factor and cluster analyses of multivariable analysis. Using the results of these analyses, Tsuruga inhabitants have been assigned to five categories: “acceptance group,” “anxiety group,” and three intermediate groups. (author)

  6. Wood fuel and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to try and demonstrate the role that the use of Wood as a Fuel can play in our environment. The term ''Wood Fuel'', for the purposes of these proceedings, refers to the use of wood obtained from the forest or the farm. It does not refer to waste wood from for example buildings. The role of wood fuel in the environment can be assessed at many different levels. In this paper three different scales of ''Environment'' and the role of wood fuel in each, will be considered. These three scales are namely the global environment, the local environment, and the National (community) environment. (Author)

  7. Neurobehavioral effects among inhabitants around mobile phone base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rassoul, G; El-Fateh, O Abou; Salem, M Abou; Michael, A; Farahat, F; El-Batanouny, M; Salem, E

    2007-03-01

    There is a general concern on the possible hazardous health effects of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiations (RFR) emitted from mobile phone base station antennas on the human nervous system. To identify the possible neurobehavioral deficits among inhabitants living nearby mobile phone base stations. A cross-sectional study was conducted on (85) inhabitants living nearby the first mobile phone station antenna in Menoufiya governorate, Egypt, 37 are living in a building under the station antenna while 48 opposite the station. A control group (80) participants were matched with the exposed for age, sex, occupation and educational level. All participants completed a structured questionnaire containing: personal, educational and medical histories; general and neurological examinations; neurobehavioral test battery (NBTB) [involving tests for visuomotor speed, problem solving, attention and memory]; in addition to Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ). The prevalence of neuropsychiatric complaints as headache (23.5%), memory changes (28.2%), dizziness (18.8%), tremors (9.4%), depressive symptoms (21.7%), and sleep disturbance (23.5%) were significantly higher among exposed inhabitants than controls: (10%), (5%), (5%), (0%), (8.8%) and (10%), respectively (Pstation exhibited a lower performance in the problem solving test (block design) than those under the station. All inhabitants exhibited a better performance in the two tests of visuomotor speed (Digit symbol and Trailmaking B) and one test of attention (Trailmaking A) than controls. The last available measures of RFR emitted from the first mobile phone base station antennas in Menoufiya governorate were less than the allowable standard level. Inhabitants living nearby mobile phone base stations are at risk for developing neuropsychiatric problems and some changes in the performance of neurobehavioral functions either by facilitation or inhibition. So, revision of standard guidelines for public

  8. In vitro wood decay of teak (Tectona grandis by Rigidoporus cf. microporus (Meripiliaceae, Polyporales, Basidiomycota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sarmiento S

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of exotic species like teak for industry demands has increased over the last decades in Central America, however its vulnerability to decay by saprophytic fungi has not been well studied. Among these fungi, Rigidoporus spp. have been described as white rotters of dead hardwoods and conifers worldwide. In Costa Rica, R. microporus has been found growing on teak stumps. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of this white rot fungus on the chemical, mechanical and physical properties of teak wood from trees of different ages. Six and ten year old sapwood and heartwood samples were used in the assays. Severe anatomical damage and the highest weight and resistance losses were observed on 6 yr. old sapwood samples. There was an increase in the quantity of soluble materials in 1% NaOH (relative values and lignin content in all the samples analyzed, after 3 months exposure and up to the end of the experiment. Mass loss reduction and increased resistance of wood to compressive strength parallel to the grain were related to both the type of wood and the age of the tree. Knowledge of the potential damage that this fungus can cause to teak wood might help in a better selection of wood and developing more effective protection measures against decay in the field or in construction wood.

  9. Wood plastic combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunanan, S.A.; Bonoan, L.S.; Verceluz, F.P.; Azucena, E.A.

    1976-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to improve the physical and mechaniproperties of local inferior quality wood species by radiation-induced graft polymerization with plastic monomers. The process involves the following: 1) Preparation of sample; 2) Impregnation of sample with the monomers; 3) Irradiation of the impregnated sample with the use of 20,000 curie Co-60 as gamma-source; 4) Drying of irradiated sample to remove the unpolymerized monomer. Experimentation on different wood species were undertaken and the results given. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that the monomers systems MMA, MMA-USP, and styrene-USP are suitable for graft polymerization with the wood species almon, apitong, bagtikan, mayapis, red lauan, and tanguile. This is shown by their maximum conversion value which range from 86% to 96% with the optimum dose range of 1 to 2 Mrads. However, in the application of WPC process, properties that are required in a given wood product must be considered, thus aid in the selection of the monomer system to be used with a particular wood species. Some promising applications of WPC is in the manufacture of picker sticks, shuttles, and bobbins for the textile industry. However, there is a need for a pilot plant scale study so that an economic assessment of the commercial feasibility of this process can be made

  10. Enzyme and biochemical producing fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübeck, Peter Stephensen; Lübeck, Mette; Nilsson, Lena

    2010-01-01

    factories for sustainable production of important molecules. For developing fungi into efficient cell factories, the project includes identification of important factors that control the flux through the pathways using metabolic flux analysis and metabolic engineering of biochemical pathways....

  11. Digital wood craft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette

    2009-01-01

    In 1995, Robin Evans points out in his book The Projective Cast how the development of techniques changed architecture and the space inhabited in times of Gothic and early Renaissance. We see a parallel phenomenon today, where the interplay of technology and tool gives shape to new design (Kolare...

  12. Turning wood residues into wood revenues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.G.; Kravetz, Don

    1996-01-01

    Ensyn is a profitable commercial company which derives its revenues from the conversion of wood residues into liquid biofuel and chemicals. The technology, Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP (TM) )is based on extremely fast ''cracking'' of biomass which results in light liquid yields exceeding 70% by weight, from wood. Whether producing chemicals or liquid biofuel, the RTP plant is configured identically and operated essentially in the same mode. Chemicals production simply allows economical production to occur at a lower plant capacity, as low as 2 tonnes/day, than is feasible for a dedicated fuel plant (typically greater than 100 tonnes/day). Ensyn has developed the commercialisation of RTP TM from bench to industrial scale in 10 years. A variety of crative funding initiatives in the early years allowed for capital to be raised for R and D without the loss of intellectual property (IP). The transition years of technology demonstration, prior to full commercialisation, were funded by a blend of revenues from venture capital and public sources, and by quickly tapping into a niche market for RTP TM . The utilisation of the technology at the niche market scale opened the doors to the larger fuel and commodity markets. Once, again, both IP and control of the company were maintained during these years. Flexibility, creativity and expertise are necessary to understand the significance of various financing options (private investments, commercial banking and bond issues) and to integrate these options with various renewable energy, recycling and tax incentives. Understanding these options with various renewable energy, recycling and tax incentives is necessary. Understanding both the core and peripheral needs of the customer are essential in successfully advancing a commercial wood energy venture. Ensyn's experience in these areas is the focus of the paper. (Author)

  13. Energy from wood - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussbaumer, T.

    2000-01-01

    The present publication is the introduction to a series of papers on fundamentals and applications of wood energy. It summarizes figures and data of the actual situation of fuel wood utilization in Switzerland and its potential for the future. Further, the advantages of bio-energy are discussed and the possibilities of funding for bio-energy in Switzerland are described. Wood contributes with 2.5% to the total energy demand in Switzerland nowadays. However, the utilization of wood energy can be more than doubled, which is one of the targets of the Swiss energy policy. The supply chains for the different types of fuel wood are described and specifications and prices of log wood, forestry wood chips and wood residues are presented. The main applications of wood energy are residential heating with manually operated wood boilers and stoves, on the one hand, and heat production with automatic wood furnaces in industry and communities, on the other hand. Automatic furnaces have been promoted in the past ten years and hence they contribute nowadays with more than 50% to the energy supply from wood with a further growing share. As an assistance for further information, a list of institutions and addresses in the field of wood energy in Switzerland is given in the paper. (author)

  14. WOOD PROPERTIES AND EFFECT OF WOOD PROPERTIES ON THE WOOD FINISHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkadir Malkoçoğlu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Wood is basic raw material for furniture and joinery industries with wood structures. Wood is a biological material that has widely different properties depending on species, geographic area where the tree grew, the growth condition, size of the tree at harvest, sawing, and other manufacturing processes. Wood properties have been characterized within two groups as natural and manufacturing factors that effects finishing performance. Grow rate, density, knots, moisture content, extractives and juvenile wood are natural characteristics. Grain orientation, texture, drying and performance expectations are manufacturing characteristics. In this review, the effects of natural and manufacturing characteristics are discussed on the surface finishing performance of wood.

  15. Wood for sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegst, Ulrike G K

    2006-10-01

    The unique mechanical and acoustical properties of wood and its aesthetic appeal still make it the material of choice for musical instruments and the interior of concert halls. Worldwide, several hundred wood species are available for making wind, string, or percussion instruments. Over generations, first by trial and error and more recently by scientific approach, the most appropriate species were found for each instrument and application. Using material property charts on which acoustic properties such as the speed of sound, the characteristic impedance, the sound radiation coefficient, and the loss coefficient are plotted against one another for woods. We analyze and explain why spruce is the preferred choice for soundboards, why tropical species are favored for xylophone bars and woodwind instruments, why violinists still prefer pernambuco over other species as a bow material, and why hornbeam and birch are used in piano actions.

  16. Wood for fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaton, D

    1986-01-01

    Growing wood for energy could contribute three million tonnes of coal equivalent per year by the end of the century. Research programmes in the UK involved with energy forestry are reported. Three systems of wood energy, modified conventional forestry, single stem timber cropping and short rotation coppicing are being investigated. The short rotation coppicing requires inputs similar to those of agricultural crops and the machinery geared towards agricultural operations is compatible with it. Single stem forestry has a medium rotation period of 20 years. The production of coppice wood fuels is discussed in further detail for different parts of the UK with recommendations for species selection and adaption of existing farming practices. A coppice willow harvester has been developed for harvesting during November - February. Weed control and fertilizer application are also briefly mentioned.

  17. Precision wood particle feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30

    Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

  18. Methane from wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, T. F.; Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S.; Stucki, S

    2005-07-15

    The role of wood-based energy technologies in the Swiss energy system in the long-term is examined using the energy-system Swiss MARKAL model. The Swiss MARKAL model is a 'bottom-up' energy-systems optimization model that allows a detailed representation of energy technologies. The model has been developed as a joint effort between the Energy Economics Group (EEG) at Paul Scherrer Institute PSI) and the University of Geneva and is currently used at PSI-EEG. Using the Swiss MARKAL model, this study examines the conditions under which wood-based energy technologies could play a role in the Swiss energy system, the most attractive pathways for their use and the policy measures that could support them. Given the involvement of PSI in the ECOGAS project, especial emphasis is put on the production of bio-SNG from wood via gasification and methanation of syngas and on hydrothermal gasification of woody biomass. Of specific interest as weIl is the fraction of fuel used in passenger cars that could be produced by locally harvested wood. The report is organized as follows: Section 2 presents a brief description of the MARKAL model. Section 3 describes the results of the base case scenario, which represents a plausible, 'middle-of-the-road' development of the Swiss energy system. Section 4 discusses results illustrating the conditions under which the wood-based methanation technology could become competitive in the Swiss energy market, the role of oil and gas prices, subsidies to methanation technologies and the introduction of a competing technology, namely the wood-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. FinaIly, section 5 outlines some conclusions from this analysis. (author)

  19. Methane from wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, T. F.; Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S.; Stucki, S.

    2005-07-01

    The role of wood-based energy technologies in the Swiss energy system in the long-term is examined using the energy-system Swiss MARKAL model. The Swiss MARKAL model is a 'bottom-up' energy-systems optimization model that allows a detailed representation of energy technologies. The model has been developed as a joint effort between the Energy Economics Group (EEG) at Paul Scherrer Institute PSI) and the University of Geneva and is currently used at PSI-EEG. Using the Swiss MARKAL model, this study examines the conditions under which wood-based energy technologies could play a role in the Swiss energy system, the most attractive pathways for their use and the policy measures that could support them. Given the involvement of PSI in the ECOGAS project, especial emphasis is put on the production of bio-SNG from wood via gasification and methanation of syngas and on hydrothermal gasification of woody biomass. Of specific interest as weIl is the fraction of fuel used in passenger cars that could be produced by locally harvested wood. The report is organized as follows: Section 2 presents a brief description of the MARKAL model. Section 3 describes the results of the base case scenario, which represents a plausible, 'middle-of-the-road' development of the Swiss energy system. Section 4 discusses results illustrating the conditions under which the wood-based methanation technology could become competitive in the Swiss energy market, the role of oil and gas prices, subsidies to methanation technologies and the introduction of a competing technology, namely the wood-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. FinaIly, section 5 outlines some conclusions from this analysis. (author)

  20. Wood energy-commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    Wood energy is being widely investigated in many areas of the country because of the many obvious benefits of wood fuel such as the low price per million Btus relative to coal, oil, and gas; the wide availability of noncommercial wood and the proven ability to harvest it; established technology which is reliable and free of pollution; renewable resources; better conservation for harvested land; and the potential for jobs creation. The Southeastern United States has a specific leadership role in wood energy based on its established forest products industry experience and the potential application of wood energy to other industries and institutions. Significant questions about the widespread usage of wood energy are being answered in demonstrations around the country as well as the Southeast in areas of wood storage and bulk handling; high capitalization costs for harvesting and combustion equipment; long term supply and demand contracts; and the economic feasibility of wood energy outside the forest products industry.

  1. Variation in root wood anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  2. Compressive Fatigue in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Small clear specimens of spruce are taken to failure in square wave formed fatigue loading at a stress excitation level corresponding to 80% of the short term strength. Four...... frequencies ranging from 0.01 Hz to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation...

  3. Human-associated fungi in deep subseafloor sediment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulfer, V. M.; Kirkpatrick, J. B.; D'Hondt, S.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have reported fungi in marine sediment samples from depths as great as 1740 meters below seafloor (mbsf) (Rédou et al., 2014). Such studies have utilized a variety of techniques to identify fungi, including cultivation of isolates, amplicon sequencing, and metagenomics. Six recent studies of marine sediment collectively identify nearly 100 fungal taxa at the genus and species levels (Damare et al., 2006; Lai et al., 2007; Edgcomb et al., 2010; Singh et al., 2010; Orsi et al., 2013; Rédou et al., 2014). Known marine taxa are rarely identified by these studies. For individual studies with more than two taxa, between 16% and 57% of the fungal taxa are human microflora or associated with human environments (e.g., human skin or indoor air). For example, three of the six studies identified Malassezia species that are common skin inhabitants of humans and dogs. Although human-associated taxa have been identified in both shallow and deep sediment, they pose a particularly acute problem for deep subseafloor samples, where claims of a eukaryotic deep biosphere are most striking; depending on the study, 25% to 38% of species identified in sediment taken at depths greater than 40 meters are human-associated. Only one to three species have been reported from each of the four samples taken at depths greater than one km (eight species total; Rédou et al., 2014). Of these eight species, three are human-associated. This ubiquity of human-associated microflora is very problematic for interpretations of an indigenous deep subseafloor fungal community; either human-associated taxa comprise a large fraction of marine sedimentary fungi, or sample and analytical contamination is so widespread that the extent and ubiquity of a deep subseafloor fungal community remains uncertain. This highlights the need for stringent quality control measures throughout coring, sampling, and recovery of marine sediment, and when cultivating, extracting, and/or sequencing fungi from

  4. Inhabiting compassion: A pastoral theological paradigm | Zylla | HTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inspired by the vision of care in Vincent van Gogh's depiction of the parable of the Good Samaritan, this article offers a paradigm for inhabiting compassion. Compassion is understood in this article as a moral emotion that is also a pathocentric virtue. This definition creates a dynamic view of compassion as a desire to ...

  5. Power generation from waste wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitsche, H

    1980-04-18

    Since the energy crisis, power generation from waste wood has become increasingly important. The most profitable way to use waste wood in woodworking plants with an annual production of 100 to 150,000 m/sup 3/ solid measure of wood chips and bark is by combustion and thermal energy recovery. In plants with an annual production of 10,000 m/sup 3/ solid measure of wood chips and bark, electric power generation is a suitable application.

  6. Structure and function of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex Wiedenhoeft

    2010-01-01

    Wood is a complex biological structure, a composite of many chemistries and cell types acting together to serve the needs of a living plant. Attempting to understand wood in the context of wood technology, we have often overlooked the key and basic fact that wood evolved over the course of millions of years to serve three main functions in plants― conduction of water...

  7. Final Technical Report - Consolidating Biomass Pretreatment with Saccharification by Resolving the Spatial Control Mechanisms of Fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, Jonathan [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2017-07-06

    Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of lignocellulose combines enzymatic sugar release (saccharification) with fermentation, but pretreatments remain separate and costly. In nature, lignocellulose-degrading brown rot fungi consolidate pretreatment and saccharification, likely using spatial gradients to partition these incompatible reactions. With the field of biocatalysis maturing, reaction partitioning is increasingly reproducible for commercial use. Therefore, my goal was to resolve the reaction partitioning mechanisms of brown rot fungi so that they can be applied to bioconversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks. Brown rot fungi consolidate oxidative pretreatments with saccharification and are a focus for biomass refining because 1) they attain >99% sugar yield without destroying lignin, 2) they use a simplified cellulase suite that lacks exoglucanase, and 3) their non-enzymatic pretreatment is facilitative and may be accelerated. Specifically, I hypothesized that during brown rot, oxidative pretreatments occur ahead of enzymatic saccharification, spatially, and the fungus partitions these reactions using gradients in pH, lignin reactivity, and plant cell wall porosity. In fact, we found three key results during these experiments for this work: 1) Brown rot fungi have an inducible cellulase system, unlike previous descriptions of a constitutive mechanism. 2) The induction of cellulases is delayed until there is repression of oxidatively-linked genes, allowing the brown rot fungi to coordinate two incompatible reactions (oxidative pretreatment with enzymatic saccharification, to release wood sugars) in the same pieces of wood. 3) This transition is mediated by the same wood sugar, cellobiose, released by the oxidative pretreatment step. Collectively, these findings have been published in excellent journal outlets and have been presented at conferences around the United States, and they offer clear targets for gene discovery en route to making biofuels and biochemicals

  8. Wood Flour Moulding Technology: Implications for Technical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intent of this article is to demonstrate how wood waste called sawdust or wood flour can be transformed by plastic moulding machine into items of economic value. Wood flour is wood reduced to very fine particle form. It can be waste product from saw mills, wood working plants or produced from selected dry wood by ...

  9. LTR retrotransposons in fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Muszewska

    Full Text Available Transposable elements with long terminal direct repeats (LTR TEs are one of the best studied groups of mobile elements. They are ubiquitous elements present in almost all eukaryotic genomes. Their number and state of conservation can be a highlight of genome dynamics. We searched all published fungal genomes for LTR-containing retrotransposons, including both complete, functional elements and remnant copies. We identified a total of over 66,000 elements, all of which belong to the Ty1/Copia or Ty3/Gypsy superfamilies. Most of the detected Gypsy elements represent Chromoviridae, i.e. they carry a chromodomain in the pol ORF. We analyzed our data from a genome-ecology perspective, looking at the abundance of various types of LTR TEs in individual genomes and at the highest-copy element from each genome. The TE content is very variable among the analyzed genomes. Some genomes are very scarce in LTR TEs (8000 elements. The data shows that transposon expansions in fungi usually involve an increase both in the copy number of individual elements and in the number of element types. The majority of the highest-copy TEs from all genomes are Ty3/Gypsy transposons. Phylogenetic analysis of these elements suggests that TE expansions have appeared independently of each other, in distant genomes and at different taxonomical levels. We also analyzed the evolutionary relationships between protein domains encoded by the transposon pol ORF and we found that the protease is the fastest evolving domain whereas reverse transcriptase and RNase H evolve much slower and in correlation with each other.

  10. Status of wood energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerbe, J.I.

    1991-01-01

    In this address, the potential of wood and wood residues to supply future energy needs is examined. In addition, the possible environmental impact of the use of wood fuels on global climate change is discussed. Technologies for the development of new fuels are described

  11. Strength loss in decayed wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Patricia K. Lebow

    2014-01-01

    Wood is a durable engineering material when used in an appropriate manner, but it is susceptible to biological decay when a log, sawn product, or final product is not stored, handled, or designed properly. Even before the biological decay of wood becomes visually apparent, the decay can cause the wood to become structurally unsound. The progression of decay to that...

  12. Macrophotographic wood atlas of Annonaceae.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Westra, L.I.T.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a general description of the microscopic wood anatomy of Annonaceae is given. We provide a description of the wood anatomical features of the family and of all subfamilies and tribes, all from material in the Utrecht Wood collection. Hand-lens images can be an important help in

  13. Fungi with multifunctional lifestyles: endophytic insect pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barelli, Larissa; Moonjely, Soumya; Behie, Scott W; Bidochka, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    This review examines the symbiotic, evolutionary, proteomic and genetic basis for a group of fungi that occupy a specialized niche as insect pathogens as well as endophytes. We focus primarily on species in the genera Metarhizium and Beauveria, traditionally recognized as insect pathogenic fungi but are also found as plant symbionts. Phylogenetic evidence suggests that these fungi are more closely related to grass endophytes and diverged from that lineage ca. 100 MYA. We explore how the dual life cycles of these fungi as insect pathogens and endophytes are coupled. We discuss the evolution of insect pathogenesis while maintaining an endophytic lifestyle and provide examples of genes that may be involved in the transition toward insect pathogenicity. That is, some genes for insect pathogenesis may have been co-opted from genes involved in endophytic colonization. Other genes may be multifunctional and serve in both lifestyle capacities. We suggest that their evolution as insect pathogens allowed them to effectively barter a specialized nitrogen source (i.e. insects) with host plants for photosynthate. These ubiquitous fungi may play an important role as plant growth promoters and have a potential reservoir of secondary metabolites.

  14. Preliminary study on antifungal effect of commercial essential oils against white rot fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Nurul Izzaty; Baharum, Azizah; Daud, Fauzi

    2015-09-01

    Protecting and preserving wood plastic composite from deterioration caused by fungal attack is a high challenge issue to cater nowadays. The objective of this study was to carry out a screening test towards antifungal effect of essential oil and to investigate the potential of raw materials that will be used as basic material for manufacturing wood plastic composite against white rot fungi. Essential oils from four types of natural products comprising cinnamon, lemongrass, lavender and geranium have been screened for their ability to inhibit five types of white rot fungi species which are Lentinus squarrosulus, Pleuorotus pulmonarius, Lentinus sp., Pleuorotus sajor-caju and Lignosus rhinocerus. The antifungal evaluation showed that no inhibitory effect against tested white rot fungi since the mycelia completely filled the plates. From the observation, mycelia of L. squarrosulus, P. pulmonarius and Lentinus sp. were found to filled the surface of falcon tubes with rubber sawdust after 15 days. Mycelia of L. squarrosulus and P. pulmonarius also were found to completely covered the surface of media that contain polypropylene and maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene on it. Therefore, this report proved that the main materials that will be applicable in manufacturing of wood plastic composite had potential to be degraded by this type of fungal attack.

  15. Wood construction and magnetic characteristics of impregnated type magnetic wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Hideo; Hojo, Atsushi; Seki, Kyoushiro; Takashiba, Toshio

    2002-01-01

    The results of experiments involving the AC and DC magnetic characteristics of impregnated type magnetic wood were studied by taking into consideration the wood construction and fiber direction. The experimental results show that the sufficient amount of impregnated magnetic fluid varies depending on the fiber direction and length, and the grain face of the wood material. The impregnated type magnetic wood sample that is fully impregnated by magnetic fluid has a 60% saturation magnetization compared to the saturation magnetization of magnetic fluid. Samples for which the wood fiber direction was the same as the direction of the magnetic path had a higher magnetization intensity and permeability

  16. ¹H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Lodgepole Pine Wood Chips Affected by the Mountain Pine Beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todoruk, Tara M; Hartley, Ian D; Teymoori, Roshanak; Liang, Jianzhen; Peemoeller, Hartwig

    2010-12-31

    In this study, wood-water interactions of mountain pine beetle affected lodgepole pine were found to vary with time since death. Based on an analysis of magnetization components and spin-spin relaxation times from 1H NMR, it was determined that the mountain pine beetle attack does not affect the crystalline structure of the wood. Both the amorphous structure and the water components vary with time since death, which could be due to the fungi present after a mountain pine beetle attack, as well as the fact that wood from the grey-stage of attack cycles seasonally through adsorption and desorption in the stand.

  17. Spatial Heterogeneity of SOM Concentrations Associated with White-rot Versus Brown-rot Wood Decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhen; Ma, Qiang; Dai, Yucheng; Yuan, Haisheng; Ye, Ji; Yu, Wantai

    2017-10-23

    White- and brown-rot fungal decay via distinct pathways imparts characteristic molecular imprints on decomposing wood. However, the effect that a specific wood-rotting type of fungus has on proximal soil organic matter (SOM) accumulation remains unexplored. We investigated the potential influence of white- and brown-rot fungi-decayed Abies nephrolepis logs on forest SOM stocks (i.e., soil total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N)) and the concentrations of amino sugars (microbial necromass) at different depths and horizontal distances from decaying woody debris. The brown-rot fungal wood decay resulted in higher concentrations of soil C and N and a greater increase in microbial necromass (i.e., 1.3- to 1.7-fold greater) than the white-rot fungal wood decay. The white-rot sets were accompanied by significant differences in the proportions of the bacterial residue index (muramic acid%) with soil depth; however, the brown-rot-associated soils showed complementary shifts, primarily in fungal necromass, across horizontal distances. Soil C and N concentrations were significantly correlated with fungal rather than bacterial necromass in the brown-rot systems. Our findings confirmed that the brown-rot fungi-dominated degradation of lignocellulosic residues resulted in a greater SOM buildup than the white-rot fungi-dominated degradation.

  18. Tannins in tropical woods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doat, J

    1978-01-01

    A preliminary study was made of the chemistry of pyrogallol- and catecholtannins, their general properties and methods of extraction and determination. Three methods of estimation - Lowenthal, powdered hide and spectrophotometry - were compared using two control solutions, four samples of wood and one of bark. Using the empirical powdered hide method, tannins of both types were estimated in wood and bark of various tropical species (some separately and some as a mixture), Moroccan oaks (Quercus suber and Q. ilex), and European oak 9Q. petraea). Further tests were made on the wood and bark of the two mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle and R. racemosa, by subjecting them to successive extraction with a range of solvents. None of the woods tested had as much as the 10% of tannins considered necessary in economic sources. The bark of the two mangroves, of Eucalyptus urophylla and of Prosopis africana had tannin contents over 10% and the latter two species had very favorable tannin/non-tannin ratios. All the tropical species, with the probable exception of E. urophylla, had only catecholtannins. Only the oaks and E. urophylla bark gave positive results when tested for gallotannins.

  19. Grant Wood: "American Gothic."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Diane M.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which exposes students in grades 10-12 to the visual symbols and historical references contained in Grant Wood's "American Gothic." Includes background information on the artist and the painting, instructional strategies, a studio activity, and evaluation criteria. (GEA)

  20. Dark Dark Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    2017 student Bachelor film. Synopsis: Young princess Maria has had about enough of her royal life – it’s all lesson, responsibilities and duties on top of each other, every hour of every day. Overwhelmed Maria is swept away on an adventure into the monster-filled dark, dark woods. During 2017...

  1. Wood waste in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, O; Ribeiro, R [Biomass Centre for Energy - CBE, Miranda do Corvo (Portugal)

    1998-12-31

    The energy policy of the EC, as well as most of member states points to a sizeable increase of energy production based on renewable energy sources, wood, wood residues, agricultural residues, energy crops including SRF, organic sludges, solid residues, etc. Most recent goals indicate a desirable duplication of today`s percentage by 2010. The reasons for this interest, besides diversification of sources, less dependence on imported fuels, use of endogenous resources, expected decrease of fossil fuel reserves, use of available land, additional employment and income for rural communities, etc., are related to important environmental benefits namely in terms of emissions of hot house gases. Wood waste, resulting from forest operations, cleaning, cultural and final cuttings, and from wood based industries, constitute a special important resource by reason of quality and availability. In addition to this they do not require additional land use and the removal is beneficial. In the run-up to the becoming December`s 1997 `Climate Change Summit` in Kioto, there is mounting pressure on companies to plan on carbon cuts. (author) 6 refs., 1 tab.

  2. Sweetgum - an American wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. B. Briscoe

    1973-01-01

    Sweetgum grows throughout most of the eastern United States and sporadically throughout Mexico and Central America. The wood is moderately heavy, even-textured, and it machines moderately well. It is used for a variety of purposes, with furniture, plywood, containers, and pulp absorbing the most volume. Growth is good, but supplies are slowly diminishing because the...

  3. Wood waste in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, O.; Ribeiro, R. [Biomass Centre for Energy - CBE, Miranda do Corvo (Portugal)

    1997-12-31

    The energy policy of the EC, as well as most of member states points to a sizeable increase of energy production based on renewable energy sources, wood, wood residues, agricultural residues, energy crops including SRF, organic sludges, solid residues, etc. Most recent goals indicate a desirable duplication of today`s percentage by 2010. The reasons for this interest, besides diversification of sources, less dependence on imported fuels, use of endogenous resources, expected decrease of fossil fuel reserves, use of available land, additional employment and income for rural communities, etc., are related to important environmental benefits namely in terms of emissions of hot house gases. Wood waste, resulting from forest operations, cleaning, cultural and final cuttings, and from wood based industries, constitute a special important resource by reason of quality and availability. In addition to this they do not require additional land use and the removal is beneficial. In the run-up to the becoming December`s 1997 `Climate Change Summit` in Kioto, there is mounting pressure on companies to plan on carbon cuts. (author) 6 refs., 1 tab.

  4. Handling wood shavings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-09-18

    Details of bulk handling equipment suitable for collection and compressing wood waste from commercial joinery works are discussed. The Redler Bin Discharger ensures free flow of chips from storage silo discharge prior to compression into briquettes for use as fuel or processing into chipboard.

  5. Soil food web structure after wood ash application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Louise Hindborg; Qin, Jiayi; Cruz-Paredes, Carla

    the consequences of returning wood ash to biofuel producing coniferous forest. We that the change in pH and increased availability of nutrients after ash application to forest floor can facilitate an increase in the bacteria to fungi ratio with possible effects for the soil food by applying ash of different...... concentrations to experimental plots in a coniferous forest the soil will be collected with varying intervals and subsequently analyzed. The food web included several trophic levels; bacteria/fungi, protozoa, nematodes, enchytraeids and microarthropods and arthropods. Results from 2014 indicated that bacteria...... and protozoa were stimulated in the uppermost soil layer (0-3 cm) two months ash application, whereas the enchytraeids seemed to be slightly negatively affected. Generally, nematodes also appeared to be negatively affected, although it differed between feeding groups. On the higher trophic levels, no effect...

  6. Variation in oxalate and oxalate decarboxylase production by six species of brown and white rot fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Oliver, Jason; Howell, Caitlin

      Oxalic acid (C2O4H2), the strongest of the organic acids is produced by both brown and white rot decay fungi and has been connected to various aspects of brown- and white rot decay including the Fenton reaction (Green and Highley, 1997; Munir et al.,2001). Oxalic acid is secreted into the wood...... cell lumen where it quickly dissociates into hydrogen ions and oxalate, resulting in a pH decrease of the environment, and oxalate-cation complexes. Generally, brown rot fungi accumulate larger quantities of oxalic acid in the wood than white rot fungi. The amount of oxalic acid has been shown to vary...... of formic acid and CO2 (Makela et al., 2002). So far only a few species of brown rot fungi have been shown to accumulate this enzyme (Micales, 1995, Howell and Jellison, 2006).   The purpose of this study was to investigate the variation in the levels of soluble oxalate and total oxalate, in correlation...

  7. Vector Affinity and Diversity of Geosmithia Fungi Living on Subcortical Insects Inhabiting Pinaceae Species in Central and Northeastern Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolařík, Miroslav; Jankowiak, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 3 (2013), s. 682-700 ISSN 0095-3628 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/11/2302 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : SCOLYTIDAE COLONIZING BRANCHES * PINUS-SYLVESTRIS L * BARK BEETLES Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.118, year: 2013

  8. Lectins in human pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Belém; Martínez, Ruth; Pérez, Laura; Del Socorro Pina, María; Perez, Eduardo; Hernández, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins widely distributed in nature. They constitute a highly diverse group of proteins consisting of many different protein families that are, in general, structurally unrelated. In the last few years, mushroom and other fungal lectins have attracted wide attention due to their antitumour, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activities. The present mini-review provides concise information about recent developments in understanding lectins from human pathogenic fungi. A bibliographic search was performed in the Science Direct and PubMed databases, using the following keywords "lectin", "fungi", "human" and "pathogenic". Lectins present in fungi have been classified; however, the role played by lectins derived from human pathogenic fungi in infectious processes remains uncertain; thus, this is a scientific field requiring more research. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012). Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Carbon Dioxide and Methane Formation in Norway Spruce Stems Infected by White-Rot Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari M. Hietala

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Globally, billions of tons of carbon sequestered in trees are annually recycled back to the atmosphere through wood decomposition by microbes. In Norway, every fifth Norway spruce shows at final harvest infection by pathogenic white-rot fungi in the genera Heterobasidion and Armillaria. As these fungi can mineralize all components of wood, we predicted that they have a significant carbon footprint. Gas samples taken from infected stems were analyzed for CO2 and CH4 concentrations, and wood samples from different parts of the decay columns were incubated under hypoxic (4% O2 and anoxic laboratory conditions. In spring and summer the stem concentrations of CO2 were generally two times higher in trees with heartwood decay than in healthy trees. For most of the healthy trees and trees with heartwood decay, mean stem concentrations of CH4 were comparable to ambient air, and only some Armillaria infected trees showed moderately elevated CH4. Consistently, low CH4 production potentials were recorded in the laboratory experiment. Up-scaling of CO2 efflux due to wood decay in living trees suggests that the balance between carbon sequestration and emission may be substantially influenced in stands with high frequency of advanced root and stem heartwood decay.

  10. Ectomycorrhizal community structure and function in relation to forest residue harvesting and wood ash applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmood, Shahid

    2000-05-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi form symbiotic associations with tree roots and assist in nutrient-uptake and -cycling in forest ecosystems, thereby constituting a most significant part of the microbial community. The aims of the studies described in this thesis were to evaluate the potential of DNA-based molecular methods in below-ground ectomycorrhizal community studies and to investigate changes in ectomycorrhizal communities on spruce roots in sites with different N deposition, and in sites subjected to harvesting of forest residues or application of wood ash. The ability of selected ectomycorrhizal fungi to mobilise nutrients from wood ash and to colonise root systems in the presence and absence of ash was also studied. In total 39 ectomycorrhizal species were detected in the experimental forests located in southern Sweden. At each site five to six species colonised around 60% of the root tips. The dominant species, common to the sites, were Tylospora fibrillosa, Thelephora terrestris and Cenococcum geophilum. Differences between two sites with differing levels of N deposition suggested that community structure may be influenced by N deposition, although site history, location and degree of isolation may also influence species composition. Repeated harvesting of forest residues reduced numbers of mycorrhizal roots in the humus layer to approximately 50% of that in control plots but no shift in the ectomycorrhizal community could be detected. At another site, application of granulated wood ash induced a shift in ectomycorrhizal community structure and three ectomycorrhizal fungi ('ash fungi') were found to colonise ash granules. Two 'ash fungi' showed a superior ability to solubilise stabilised wood ash in laboratory experiments compared to other ectomycorrhizal isolates from the same site. In laboratory microcosms containing intact mycorrhizal mycelia, colonisation of wood ash patches by one 'ash fungus' was good whereas colonisation by

  11. Wood construction under cold climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Hagman, Olle; Sundqvist, Bror

    2014-01-01

    As wood constructions increasingly use engineered wood products worldwide, concerns arise about the integrity of the wood and adhesives system. The glueline stability is a crucial issue for engineered wood application, especially under cold climate. In this study, Norway spruce (Picea abies...... affected shear strength of wood joints. As temperature decreased, the shear strength decreased. PUR resin resulted in the strongest shear strength at all temperatures tested. MF resin responded to temperature changes in a similar ways as the PUR resin. The shear strength of wood joints with EPI resins...... specimens need to be tested in further work to more completely present the issue. The EN 301 and EN 302 may need to be specified based on wood species....

  12. Serpula lacrymans, The Dry Rot Fungus and Tolerance Towards Copper-Based Wood Preservatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Jensen, Bo; Clausen, Carol

    2005-01-01

    -rot fungi is thought to be due in part to oxalic acid production and accumulation. Oxalic acid has been implicated in copper tolerance by the formation of copper oxalate crystals. Twelve isolates of the dry rot fungus, S. lacrymans and four other brown rot species were evaluated for weight loss on wood...

  13. Proteomic and functional analysis of the cellulase system expressed by Postia placenta during brown rot of solid wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jae San Ryu; Semarjit Shary; Carl J. Houtman; Ellen A. Panisko; Premsagar Korripally; Franz J. St. John; Casey Crooks; Matti Siika-aho; Jon K. Magnuson; Kenneth E. Hammel

    2011-01-01

    Brown rot basidiomycetes have an important ecological role in lignocellulose recycling and are notable for their rapid degradation of wood polymers via oxidative and hydrolytic mechanisms. However, most of these fungi apparently lack processive (exo-acting) cellulases, such as cellobiohydrolases, which are generally required for efficient cellulolysis. The recent...

  14. Analysis of the Phlebiopsis gigantea Genome, Transcriptome and Secretome Provides Insight into Its Pioneer Colonization Strategies of Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaki Hori; Takuya Ishida; Kiyohiko Igarashi; Masahiro Samejima; Hitoshi Suzuki; Emma Master; Patricia Ferreira; Francisco J. Ruiz-Duenas; Benjamin Held; Paulo Canessa; Luis F. Larrondo; Monika Schmoll; Irina S. Druzhinina; Christian P. Kubicek; Jill A. Gaskell; Phil Kersten; Franz St. John; Jeremy Glasner; Grzegorz Sabat; Sandra Splinter Bondurant; Khajamohiddin Syed; Jagjit Yadav; Anthony C. Mgbeahuruike; Andriy Kovalchuk; Fred O. Asiegbu; Gerald Lackner; Dirk Hoffmeister; Jorge Recoret; Ana Gutierrez; Hui Sun; Erika Lindquist; Kerrie Barry; Robert Riley; Igor V. Grigoriev; Bernard Henrissat; Ursula Kues; Randy M. Berka; Angel T. Martinez; Sarah F. Covert; Robert A. Blanchette; Daniel Cullen

    2014-01-01

    Collectively classified as white-rot fungi, certain basidiomycetes efficiently degrade the major structural polymers of wood cell walls. A small subset of these Agaricomycetes, exemplified by Phlebiopsis gigantea, is capable of colonizing freshly exposed conifer sapwood despite its high content of extractives, which retards the establishment of other...

  15. Transcriptome and secretome analyses of the wood decay fungus Wolfiporia cocos support alternative mechanisms of lignocellulose conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill Gaskell; Robert A. Blanchette; Philip E. Stewart; Sandra Splinter BonDurant; Marie Adams; Grzegorz Sabat; Philip Kersten; Daniel Cullen

    2016-01-01

    Certain wood decay basidiomycetes, collectively referred to as brown rot fungi, rapidly depolymerize cellulose while leaving behind the bulk of cell wall lignin as a modified residue. The mechanism(s) employed is unclear, but considerable evidence implicates the involvement of diffusible oxidants generated via Fenton-like chemistry. Toward a better understanding of...

  16. Filamentous Growth in Eremothecium Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskarsson, Therese

    , this thesis deals with some of the aspects of hyphal growth, which is an important virulence factor for pathogenic fungi infecting both humans and plants. Hyphal establishment through continuous polar growth is a complex process, requiring the careful coordination of a large subset of proteins involved......-regulatory activity of AgGts1, the protein could have additional actin organizing properties. In the second and third part, this thesis addresses the use of A. gossypii and its relative E. cymbalariae as model organisms for filamentous growth. A series of assays analyzed the capability of Eremothecium genus fungi...... of molecular tools for E. cymbalariae to enable a faster and more efficient approach for genetic comparisons between Eremothecium genus fungi....

  17. Anaerobic fungi (phylum Neocallimastigomycota): advances in understanding their taxonomy, life cycle, ecology, role and biotechnological potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruninger, Robert J; Puniya, Anil K; Callaghan, Tony M; Edwards, Joan E; Youssef, Noha; Dagar, Sumit S; Fliegerova, Katerina; Griffith, Gareth W; Forster, Robert; Tsang, Adrian; McAllister, Tim; Elshahed, Mostafa S

    2014-10-01

    Anaerobic fungi (phylum Neocallimastigomycota) inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammalian herbivores, where they play an important role in the degradation of plant material. The Neocallimastigomycota represent the earliest diverging lineage of the zoosporic fungi; however, understanding of the relationships of the different taxa (both genera and species) within this phylum is in need of revision. Issues exist with the current approaches used for their identification and classification, and recent evidence suggests the presence of several novel taxa (potential candidate genera) that remain to be characterised. The life cycle and role of anaerobic fungi has been well characterised in the rumen, but not elsewhere in the ruminant alimentary tract. Greater understanding of the 'resistant' phase(s) of their life cycle is needed, as is study of their role and significance in other herbivores. Biotechnological application of anaerobic fungi, and their highly active cellulolytic and hemi-cellulolytic enzymes, has been a rapidly increasing area of research and development in the last decade. The move towards understanding of anaerobic fungi using -omics based (genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic) approaches is starting to yield valuable insights into the unique cellular processes, evolutionary history, metabolic capabilities and adaptations that exist within the Neocallimastigomycota. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Isolation, Identification and Seasonal Distribution of Soilborne Fungi in Different Areas of Erbil Governorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid M. Toma

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A survey study was undertaken for the isolation and identification of soilborne fungi inhabiting different areas in Erbil, Iraq. A total of 15 soil samples collected seasonally during August 2008-July 2009. Fungi were isolated from soil during this study's period, by soil dilution plate method on selective medium: Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA, eighty-one different genera of fungi were isolated during the four seasons; (30, 33, 70, and 53 genera isolated in (summer, autumn, winter and spring respectively, the most frequently isolated fungi during four seasons were Aspergillus sp. (539x103 colony forming units /g.soil, followed by Penicillium sp. (215x103 cfu/g.soil, Rhizopus spp. (115x103 cfu/g.soil, Emericella spp. (109x103 cfu/g.soil, Fusarium spp. (47x103 cfu/g.soil, and Ulocladium botrytis (47x103 cfu/g.soil, while the least frequently isolated fungal genera were Blakeslea tuningtam, Clasterosporium cyperi, Idriella sp., Naranus cryptomeriae and Torula alternata, (1x103 cfu/g.soil, for each one. Fungi isolated from soil by washing method counted for ninety three species belonging to fifty six genera, among them: Aspergillus sp., Circinella sp., Cunninghamella sp., Mucor spp., Mycelia sterilia, Rhizopus sp.

  19. Fungi isolated in school buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Ejdys

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the species composition of fungi occurring on wall surfaces and in the air in school buildings. Fungi isolated from the air using the sedimentation method and from the walls using the surface swab technique constituted the study material. Types of finish materials on wall surfaces were identified and used in the analysis. Samples were collected in selected areas in two schools: classrooms, corridors, men's toilets and women's toilets, cloakrooms, sports changing rooms and shower. Examinations were conducted in May 2005 after the heating season was over. Fungi were incubated on Czapek-Dox medium at three parallel temperatures: 25, 37 and 40°C, for at least three weeks. A total of 379 isolates of fungi belonging to 32 genera of moulds, yeasts and yeast-like fungi were obtained from 321 samples in the school environment. The following genera were isolated most frequently: Aspergillus, Penicillium and Cladosporium. Of the 72 determined species, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum occurred most frequently in the school buildings. Wall surfaces were characterised by an increased prevalence of mycobiota in comparison with the air in the buildings, with a slightly greater species diversity. A certain species specificity for rough and smooth wall surfaces was demonstrated. Fungi of the genera Cladosporium and Emericella with large spores adhered better to smooth surfaces while those of the genus Aspergillus with smaller conidia adhered better to rough surfaces. The application of three incubation temperatures helped provide a fuller picture of the mycobiota in the school environment.

  20. Fungi and mycotoxins: Food contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of fungi on food causes physical and chemical changes which, further affect negatively the sensory and nutritive quality of food. Species from genera: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Alternariа, Cladosporium, Mucor, Rhizopus, Eurotium and Emericella are usually found. Some of them are potentially dangerous for humans and animals, due to possible synthesis and excretion of toxic secondary metabolites - mycotoxins into the food. Their toxic syndroms in animals and humans are known as mycotoxicoses. The pathologic changes can be observed in parenhimatic organs, and in bones and central nervous system also. Specific conditions are necessary for mycotoxin producing fungi to synthetize sufficient quantities of these compounds for demonstration of biologic effects. The main biochemical paths in the formation of mycotoxins include the polyketide (aflatoxins, sterigmatocystin, zearalenone, citrinine, patulin, terpenic (trichothecenes, aminoacid (glicotoxins, ergotamines, sporidesmin, malformin C, and carbonic acids path (rubratoxins. Aflatoxins are the most toxigenic metabolites of fungi, produced mostly by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus species. Aflatoxins appear more frequently in food in the tropic and subtropic regions, while the food in Europe is more exposed to also very toxic ochratoxin A producing fungi (A. ochraceus and some Penicillium species. The agricultural products can be contaminated by fungi both before and after the harvest. The primary mycotoxicoses in humans are the result of direct intake of vegetable products contaminated by mycotoxins, while the secondary mycotoxicoses are caused by products of animal origin. The risk of the presence of fungi and mycotoxin in food is increasing, having in mind that some of them are highly thermoresistent, and the temperatures of usual food sterilization is not sufficient for their termination. The paper presents the review of most important mycotoxins, their biologic effects

  1. Glass bead cultivation of fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, H.

    2013-01-01

    Production of bioactive compounds and enzymes from filamentous fungi is highly dependent on cultivation conditions. Here we present an easy way to cultivate filamentous fungi on glass beads that allow complete control of nutrient supply. Secondary metabolite production in Fusarium graminearum...... and Fusarium solani cultivated on agar plates, in shaking liquid culture or on glass beads was compared. Agar plate culture and glass bead cultivation yielded comparable results while liquid culture had lower production of secondary metabolites. RNA extraction from glass beads and liquid cultures was easier...... to specific nutrient factors. •Fungal growth on glass beads eases and improves fungal RNA extraction....

  2. Consequences of bioenergy wood extraction for landscape-level availability of habitat for dead wood-dependent organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiron, Matthew; Jonsell, Mats; Kubart, Ariana; Thor, Göran; Schroeder, Martin; Dahlberg, Anders; Johansson, Victor; Ranius, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    Stumps and slash resulting from forest clearcutting is used as a source of low-net-carbon energy, but there are concerns about the consequences of biofuel extraction on biodiversity. Logging residues constitute potentially important habitats, since a large part of forest biodiversity is dependent on dead wood. Here we used snapshot field data from a managed forest landscape (25 000 ha) to predict landscape scale population changes of dead wood dependent organisms after extraction of stumps and slash after clearcutting. We did this by estimating habitat availability for all observed dead wood-dependent beetles, macrofungi, and lichens (380 species) in the whole landscape. We found that 53% of species occurred in slash or stumps. For most species, population declines after moderate extraction (≤30%) were small (dead wood types. However, some species were only recorded in slash and stumps. Red listed species were affected by slash and stump extraction (12 species), but less often than other species. Beetles and fungi were more affected by stump extraction, while lichens were more affected by slash extraction. For beetles and lichens, extraction of a combination of spruce, pine and birch resulted in larger negative effects than if only extracting spruce, while for fungi tree species had little effect. We conclude that extensive extraction decreases the amount of habitat to such extent that it may have negative consequences on species persistence at the landscape level. The negative consequences can be limited by extracting only slash, or only logging residues from spruce stands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Lodgepole Pine Wood Chips Affected by the Mountain Pine Beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Todoruk, Tara M.; Hartley, Ian D.; Teymoori, Roshanak; Liang, Jianzhen; Peemoeller, Hartwig

    2010-01-01

    In this study, wood-water interactions of mountain pine beetle affected lodgepole pine were found to vary with time since death. Based on an analysis of magnetization components and spin-spin relaxation times from 1H NMR, it was determined that the mountain pine beetle attack does not affect the crystalline structure of the wood. Both the amorphous structure and the water components vary with time since death, which could be due to the fungi present after a mountain pine beetle attack, as wel...

  4. Lump wood combustion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubesa, Petr; Horák, Jiří; Branc, Michal; Krpec, Kamil; Hopan, František; Koloničný, Jan; Ochodek, Tadeáš; Drastichová, Vendula; Martiník, Lubomír; Malcho, Milan

    2014-08-01

    The article deals with the combustion process for lump wood in low-power fireplaces (units to dozens of kW). Such a combustion process is cyclical in its nature, and what combustion facility users are most interested in is the frequency, at which fuel needs to be stoked to the fireplace. The paper defines the basic terms such as burnout curve and burning rate curve, which are closely related to the stocking frequency. The fuel burning rate is directly dependent on the immediate thermal power of the fireplace. This is also related to the temperature achieved in the fireplace, magnitude of flue gas losses and the ability to generate conditions favouring the full burnout of the fuel's combustible component, which, at once ensures the minimum production of combustible pollutants. Another part of the paper describes experiments conducted in traditional fireplaces with a grate, at which well-dried lump wood was combusted.

  5. Fight Fungi with Fungi: Antifungal Properties of the Amphibian Mycobiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Kearns

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Emerging infectious diseases caused by fungal taxa are increasing and are placing a substantial burden on economies and ecosystems worldwide. Of the emerging fungal diseases, chytridomycosis caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (hereafter Bd is linked to global amphibian declines. Amphibians have innate immunity, as well as additional resistance through cutaneous microbial communities. Despite the targeting of bacteria as potential probiotics, the role of fungi in the protection against Bd infection in unknown. We used a four-part approach, including high-throughput sequencing of bacterial and fungal communities, cultivation of fungi, Bd challenge assays, and experimental additions of probiotic to Midwife Toads (Altyes obstetricans, to examine the overlapping roles of bacterial and fungal microbiota in pathogen defense in captive bred poison arrow frogs (Dendrobates sp.. Our results revealed that cutaneous fungal taxa differed from environmental microbiota across three species and a subspecies of Dendrobates spp. frogs. Cultivation of host-associated and environmental fungi realved numerous taxa with the ability to inhibit or facilitate the growth of Bd. The abundance of cutaneous fungi contributed more to Bd defense (~45% of the fungal community, than did bacteria (~10% and frog species harbored distinct inhibitory communities that were distinct from the environment. Further, we demonstrated that a fungal probiotic therapy did not induce an endocrine-immune reaction, in contrast to bacterial probiotics that stressed amphibian hosts and suppressed antimicrobial peptide responses, limiting their long-term colonization potential. Our results suggest that probiotic strategies against amphibian fungal pathogens should, in addition to bacterial probiotics, focus on host-associated and environmental fungi such as Penicillium and members of the families Chaetomiaceae and Lasiosphaeriaceae.

  6. Lignin-Retaining Transparent Wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Fu, Qiliang; Rojas, Ramiro; Yan, Min; Lawoko, Martin; Berglund, Lars

    2017-09-11

    Optically transparent wood, combining optical and mechanical performance, is an emerging new material for light-transmitting structures in buildings with the aim of reducing energy consumption. One of the main obstacles for transparent wood fabrication is delignification, where around 30 wt % of wood tissue is removed to reduce light absorption and refractive index mismatch. This step is time consuming and not environmentally benign. Moreover, lignin removal weakens the wood structure, limiting the fabrication of large structures. A green and industrially feasible method has now been developed to prepare transparent wood. Up to 80 wt % of lignin is preserved, leading to a stronger wood template compared to the delignified alternative. After polymer infiltration, a high-lignin-content transparent wood with transmittance of 83 %, haze of 75 %, thermal conductivity of 0.23 W mK -1 , and work-tofracture of 1.2 MJ m -3 (a magnitude higher than glass) was obtained. This transparent wood preparation method is efficient and applicable to various wood species. The transparent wood obtained shows potential for application in energy-saving buildings. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  7. Radioactivity of Wood and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hus, M.; Kosutic, K.; Lulic, S.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear experiments in the atmosphere and nuclear accidents caused global deposition of artificial radionuclides in the soil of Earth's northern hemisphere, the territory of the Republic of Croatia included. Soil contamination by radionuclides resulted in their deposition in plants growing on the contaminated soil as well as in the trees. Large area of the Republic of Croatia is covered with wood, which is exploited in manufacture of industrial wood and for firewood. From approximately 3 million cubic metres of wood exploited annually, nearly one third serves for firewood. In the process of burning a smaller portion of radionuclides deposited in the wood evaporates and goes to atmosphere while a larger portion is retained in the ash. In this paper are presented the results of natural radionuclides 4 0K , 2 32T h and 2 38U as well as of artificial radionuclide 1 37C s content determination in the wood, wood briquette, charcoal and in ash remained after burning the wood, wood briquette and charcoal. The obtained results are discussed from wood radiocontamination aspect and from the aspect of potential environmental radiocontamination by the products from wood burning process. (author)

  8. Radioactivity of wood ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.; Moring, M.

    2000-01-01

    STUK (Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) has investigated natural and artificial radioactivity in wood ash and radiation exposure from radionuclides in ash since 1996. The aim was to consider both handling of ash and different ways of using ash. In all 87 ash samples were collected from 22 plants using entirely or partially wood for their energy production in 1996-1997. The sites studied represented mostly chemical forest industry, sawmills or district heat production. Most plants used fluidised bed combustion technique. Samples of both fly ash and bottom ash were studied. The activity concentrations of radionuclides in samples of, e.g., dried fly ash from fuel containing more than 80% wood were determined. The means ranged from 2000 to less than 50 Bq kg -1 , in decreasing order: 137 Cs, 40 K, 90 Sr, 210 Pb, 226 Ra, 232 Th, 134 Cs, 235 U. In bott radionuclide contents decreased in the same order as in fly ash, but were smaller, and 210 Pb was hardly detectable. The NH 4 Ac extractable fractions of activities for isotopes of alkaline elements (K, Cs) in bottom ash were lower than in fly ash, whereas solubility of heavier isotopes was low. Safety requirements defined by STUK in ST-guide 12.2 for handling of peat ash were fulfilled at each of the sites. Use of ash for land-filling and construction of streets was minimal during the sampling period. Increasing this type of ash use had often needed further investigations, as description of the use of additional materials that attenuate radiation. Fertilisation of forests with wood ash adds slightly to the external irradiation in forests, but will mostly decrease doses received through use of timber, berries, mushrooms and game meat. (orig.)

  9. Method of stabilizing wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesek, M.; Dedek, V.; Plander, E.

    1975-01-01

    Wood is impregnated with vinyl monomers in a solution of organic solvents and in the presence of a swelling agent. The impregnation mixture contains a diolefinic hydrocarbon and/or a solid chlorinated or bromated compound with the melting point exceeding 30 degC and less than 10 % of an organosilicon compound. Polymerization is effected by ionizing radiation and a subsequent action of temperature in a range of 40 to 150 JegC. (B.S.)

  10. Detection of phytohormones in temperate forest fungi predicts consistent abscisic acid production and a common pathway for cytokinin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Erin N; Knowles, Sarah; Hayward, Allison; Thorn, R Greg; Saville, Barry J; Emery, R J N

    2015-01-01

    The phytohormones, abscisic acid and cytokinin, once were thought to be present uniquely in plants, but increasing evidence suggests that these hormones are present in a wide variety of organisms. Few studies have examined fungi for the presence of these "plant" hormones or addressed whether their levels differ based on the nutrition mode of the fungus. This study examined 20 temperate forest fungi of differing nutritional modes (ectomycorrhizal, wood-rotting, saprotrophic). Abscisic acid and cytokinin were present in all fungi sampled; this indicated that the sampled fungi have the capacity to synthesize these two classes of phytohormones. Of the 27 cytokinins analyzed by HPLC-ESI MS/MS, seven were present in all fungi sampled. This suggested the existence of a common cytokinin metabolic pathway in fungi that does not vary among different nutritional modes. Predictions regarding the source of isopentenyl, cis-zeatin and methylthiol CK production stemming from the tRNA degradation pathway among fungi are discussed. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  11. Wood Composite Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Bueso, Jose; Haupt, Robert

    The global environment, in which phenolic resins are being used for wood composite manufacture, has changed significantly during the last decade. This chapter reviews trends that are driving the use and consumption of phenolic resins around the world. The review begins with recent data on volume usage and regional trends, followed by an analysis of factors affecting global markets. In a section on environmental factors, the impact of recent formaldehyde emission regulations is discussed. The section on economics introduces wood composite production as it relates to the available adhesive systems, with special emphasis on the technical requirement to improve phenolic reactivity. Advances in composite process technology are introduced, especially in regard to the increased demands the improvements place upon adhesive system performance. The specific requirements for the various wood composite families are considered in the context of adhesive performance needs. The results of research into current chemistries are discussed, with a review of recent findings regarding the mechanisms of phenolic condensation and acceleration. Also, the work regarding alternate natural materials, such as carbohydrates, lignins, tannins, and proteinaceous materials, is presented. Finally, new developments in alternative adhesive technologies are reported.

  12. Radiographic testing of wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterloh, K.; Zscherpel, U.; Raedel, C.; Weidemann, G.; Meinel, D.; Goebbels, J.; Ewert, U.; Hasenstab, A.; Buecherl, T.

    2007-01-01

    Wood is an old and established consumption and construction material. It is still the most common material for constructing furniture, roofs, playgrounds and mine supports. In contrast to steel and concrete, wood warns of extreme loads by creaking. Its mechanical stability is more influenced by decay than by peripheral cracks. While external cracks are visible, internal decay by fungus growth is undetectable from outside. This may be a safety problem in supporting structures. The best analysis of the internal structure is provided by computed tomography, but this is also the most complex method, much more so than simple radiographic testing. However, the latter is made inaccurate by scattered radiation resulting from internal moisture. With the image processing options of digital radiographic techniques, the structural information can be separated effectively from noise. In contrast to X-ray and gamma radiography, neutron radiography provides information on the spatial distribution of moisture. In healthy wood, water is conducted in the sapwood while the hardwood is dry. Moisture in hardwood is caused by infestations, e.g. fungus growth. The contribution presents a comparative analysis of the available radiographic methods. (orig.)

  13. The symbiotic playground of lichen thalli--a highly flexible photobiont association in rock-inhabiting lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggia, Lucia; Vancurova, Lucie; Škaloud, Pavel; Peksa, Ondrej; Wedin, Mats; Grube, Martin

    2013-08-01

    The development of characteristic thallus structures in lichen-forming fungi requires the association with suitable photoautotrophic partners. Previous work suggests that fungi have a specific range of compatible photobionts and that selected algal strains are also correlated with the habitat conditions. We selected the rock-inhabiting crust lichen Protoparmeliopsis muralis, which exhibits high flexibility in algal associations. We present a geographically extended and detailed analysis of algal association patterns including thalli which host superficial algal colonies. We sampled 17 localities in Europe, and investigated the photobiont genotypic diversity within and between thalli and compared the diversity of intrathalline photobionts and externally associate algal communities between washed and unwashed thalli by single-strand conformation polymorphism analyses and ITS sequence data. The results show that (1) photobiont population within the lichen thalli is homogeneous; (2) multiple photobiont genotypes occur within single areoles and lobes of individual lichens; and (3) algal communities which superficially colonize the lichen thalli host taxa known as photobionts in unrelated lichens. Photobiont association patterns are extremely flexible in this ecologically versatile crust-forming lichen. We suggest that lichen surfaces represent a potential temporary niche for free-living stages of lichen photobionts, which could facilitate the establishment of further lichens in the proximal area. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Oxidative Metabolism of Fossil Hydrocarbons and Sulfide Minerals by the Lithobiontic Microbial Community Inhabiting Deep Subterrestrial Kupferschiefer Black Shale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Włodarczyk

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Black shales are one of the largest reservoirs of fossil organic carbon and inorganic reduced sulfur on Earth. It is assumed that microorganisms play an important role in the transformations of these sedimentary rocks and contribute to the return of organic carbon and inorganic sulfur to the global geochemical cycles. An outcrop of deep subterrestrial ~256-million-year-old Kupferschiefer black shale was studied to define the metabolic processes of the deep biosphere important in transformations of organic carbon and inorganic reduced sulfur compounds. This outcrop was created during mining activity 12 years ago and since then it has been exposed to the activity of oxygen and microorganisms. The microbial processes were described based on metagenome and metaproteome studies as well as on the geochemistry of the rock. The microorganisms inhabiting the subterrestrial black shale were dominated by bacterial genera such as Pseudomonas, Limnobacter, Yonghaparkia, Thiobacillus, Bradyrhizobium, and Sulfuricaulis. This study on black shale was the first to detect archaea and fungi, represented by Nitrososphaera and Aspergillus genera, respectively. The enzymatic oxidation of fossil aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons was mediated mostly by chemoorganotrophic bacteria, but also by archaea and fungi. The dissimilative enzymatic oxidation of primary reduced sulfur compounds was performed by chemolithotrophic bacteria. The geochemical consequences of microbial activity were the oxidation and dehydrogenation of kerogen, as well as oxidation of sulfide minerals.

  15. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of anamorphic fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Madrid Lorca, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Anamorphic fungi (those reproducing asexually) are a big part of kingdom Fungi. Most of them occur as saprobes in nature, but numerous species are pathogenic to plants and animals including man. With the aim of contributing to the knowledge of the diversity and distribution of anamorphic fungi, we performed a phenotypic and molecular characterization of environmental and clinical isolates of these fungi. Based on a polyphasic taxonomy approach which included morphology, physiology and DNA seq...

  16. Wood fuels utilization in Central Europe - the wood fuels consumption and the targets of utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alakangas, E.

    1999-01-01

    Following subjects are discussed in this presentation: The share of bioenergy of the total energy consumption in EU region; the wood fuels consumption in EU region in 1995; the division of bioenergy utilization (households, wood- based district heating, wood consumption in industry, power generation from wood and residues, biofuels, biogas and sludges); wood fuels consumption in households in EU countries in 1995; wood consumption in France; the additional wood fuel consumption potential in France; Blan bois - wood energy program; French wood energy markets; German wood energy markets; energy consumption in Germany; wood consumption in Bavaria; the wood fuels potential in Bavaria; wood fuels consumption in households in Bavaria; wood fuels consumption for district heating in Bavaria; fuel prices in Bavaria; Environmental regulations in Germany; small boiler markets in Germany; Energy consumption in Austria; small-scale utilization of wood fuels; utilization of wood energy. (Slides, additional information from the author)

  17. The importance of associations with saprotrophic non-Rhizoctonia fungi among fully mycoheterotrophic orchids is currently under-estimated: novel evidence from sub-tropical Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yung-I; Yang, Chih-Kai; Gebauer, Gerhard

    2015-09-01

    Most fully mycoheterotrophic (MH) orchids investigated to date are mycorrhizal with fungi that simultaneously form ectomycorrhizas with forest trees. Only a few MH orchids are currently known to be mycorrhizal with saprotrophic, mostly wood-decomposing, fungi instead of ectomycorrhizal fungi. This study provides evidence that the importance of associations between MH orchids and saprotrophic non-Rhizoctonia fungi is currently under-estimated. Using microscopic techniques and molecular approaches, mycorrhizal fungi were localized and identified for seven MH orchid species from four genera and two subfamilies, Vanilloideae and Epidendroideae, growing in four humid and warm sub-tropical forests in Taiwan. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope natural abundances of MH orchids and autotrophic reference plants were used in order to elucidate the nutritional resources utilized by the orchids. Six out of the seven MH orchid species were mycorrhizal with either wood- or litter-decaying saprotrophic fungi. Only one orchid species was associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi. Stable isotope abundance patterns showed significant distinctions between orchids mycorrhizal with the three groups of fungal hosts. Mycoheterotrophic orchids utilizing saprotrophic non-Rhizoctonia fungi as a carbon and nutrient source are clearly more frequent than hitherto assumed. On the basis of this kind of nutrition, orchids can thrive in deeply shaded, light-limiting forest understoreys even without support from ectomycorrhizal fungi. Sub-tropical East Asia appears to be a hotspot for orchids mycorrhizal with saprotrophic non-Rhizoctonia fungi. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Fungi as a Source of Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Joëlle; Dequin, Sylvie; Giraud, Tatiana; Le Tacon, François; Marsit, Souhir; Ropars, Jeanne; Richard, Franck; Selosse, Marc-André

    2017-06-01

    In this article, we review some of the best-studied fungi used as food sources, in particular, the cheese fungi, the truffles, and the fungi used for drink fermentation such as beer, wine, and sake. We discuss their history of consumption by humans and the genomic mechanisms of adaptation during artificial selection.

  19. Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiltsee, G.

    1998-01-01

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris

  20. European wood-fuel trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, B.; Vinterbaeck, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses research carried out during the l990s on European wood fuel trade at the Department of Forest Management and Products, SLU, in Sweden. Utilisation of wood-fuels and other biofuels increased very rapidly in some regions during that period. Biofuels are replacing fossil fuels which is an effective way to reduce the future influence of green house gases on the climate. The results indicate a rapid increase in wood-fuel trade in Europe from low levels and with a limited number of countries involved. The chief products traded are wood pellets, wood chips and recycled wood. The main trading countries are, for export, Germany and the Baltic states and, for import, Sweden, Denmark and to some extent the Netherlands. In the future, the increased use of biofuel in European countries is expected to intensify activity in this trade. (orig.)

  1. Longevity of Wood-Forced Pools in an Old-Growth Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffington, J. M.; Woodsmith, R. D.; Johnson, A. C.

    2009-12-01

    Wood debris plays an important role in scouring pools in forest channels and providing resultant habitat for aquatic organisms. We investigated the longevity of such pools in a gravel-bed river flowing through old-growth forest in southeastern Alaska by aging trees and “bear’s bread” fungi (Ganoderma applanatum, Fomitopsis pinicola) growing on pool-forming wood debris. Ages were determined by counting annual growth rings from cores and cross sections of trees and fungi growing on the wood debris. These ages are minimum values because they do not account for lag time between debris recruitment and seedling/spore establishment on the debris, nor do they account for flood scour that may periodically reset tree and fungi growth on the debris. The study stream has a gradient of about 1%, bankfull width and depth of 13.3 and 0.78 m, respectively, median grain size of 18 mm, a high wood loading (0.8 pieces/m), and a correspondingly low pool spacing (0.3 bankfull widths/pool), with 81% of the pools forced by wood debris. The size of wood debris in the study stream is large relative to the channel (average log length of 7.6 m and diameter of 0.35 m), rendering most debris immobile. Eighty-one pool-forming pieces of wood were dated over 1.2 km of stream length, with 28% of these pieces causing scour of more than one pool. In all, 122 wood-forced pools were dated, accounting for 38% of all pools at the site and 47% of the wood-forced pools. Fifty-three percent of the wood-forced pools lacked datable wood because these pieces either: were newly recruited; had been scoured by floods; or were contained below the active channel elevation, prohibiting vegetation establishment on the wood debris (the most common cause). The debris age distribution declined exponentially from 2 to 113 yrs., with a median value of 18 yrs. Similar exponential residence time distributions have been reported in other studies, but our analysis focused specifically on the ages of pool-forming wood

  2. Metal-chelating compounds produced by ectomycorrhizal fungi collected from pine plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machuca, A; Pereira, G; Aguiar, A; Milagres, A M F

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the in vitro production of metal-chelating compounds by ectomycorrhizal fungi collected from pine plantations in southern Chile. Scleroderma verrucosum, Suillus luteus and two isolates of Rhizopogon luteolus were grown in solid and liquid modified Melin-Norkans (MMN) media with and without iron addition and the production of iron-chelating compounds was determined by Chrome Azurol S (CAS) assay. The presence of hydroxamate and catecholate-type compounds and organic acids was also investigated in liquid medium. All isolates produced iron-chelating compounds as detected by CAS assay, and catecholates, hydroxamates as well as oxalic, citric and succinic acids were also detected in all fungal cultures. Scleroderma verrucosum produced the greatest amounts of catecholates and hydroxamates whereas the highest amounts of organic acids were detected in S. luteus. Nevertheless, the highest catecholate, hydroxamate and organic acid concentrations did not correlate with the highest CAS reaction which was observed in R. luteolus (Yum isolate). Ectomycorrhizal fungi produced a variety of metal-chelating compounds when grown in liquid MMN medium. However, the addition of iron to all fungi cultures reduced the CAS reaction, hydroxamate and organic acid concentrations. Catecholate production was affected differently by iron, depending on the fungal isolate. The ectomycorrhizal fungi described in this study have never been reported to produce metal-chelating compound production. Moreover, apart from some wood-rotting fungi, this is the first evidence of the presence of catecholates in R. luteolus, S. luteus and S. verrucosum cultures.

  3. Isolation of laccase gene-specific sequences from white rot and brown rot fungi by PCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Souza, T.M.; Boominathan, K.; Reddy, C.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Degenerate primers corresponding to the consensus sequences of the copper-binding regions in the N-terminal domains of known basidiomycete laccases were used to isolate laccase gene-specific sequences from strains representing nine genera of wood rot fungi. All except three gave the expected PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequences of each of the PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequence of each of the PCR products analyzed as a laccase gene sequence, suggesting the specificity of the primers. PCR products of the white rot fungi Ganoderma lucidum, Phlebia brevispora, and Trametes versicolor showed 65 to 74% nucleotide sequence similarity to each other; the similarity in deduced amino acid sequences was 83 to 91%. The PCR products of Lentinula edodes and Lentinus tigrinus, on the other hand, showed relatively low nucleotide and amino acid similarities (58 to 64 and 62 to 81%, respectively); however, these similarities were still much higher than when compared with the corresponding regions in the laccases of the ascomycete fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa. A few of the white rot fungi, as well as Gloeophyllum trabeum, a brown rot fungus, gave a 144-bp PCR fragment which had a nucleotide sequence similarity of 60 to 71%. Demonstration of laccase activity in G. trabeum and several other brown rot fungi was of particular interest because these organisms were not previously shown to produce laccases. 36 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Isolation of laccase gene-specific sequences from white rot and brown rot fungi by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, T M; Boominathan, K; Reddy, C A

    1996-01-01

    Degenerate primers corresponding to the consensus sequences of the copper-binding regions in the N-terminal domains of known basidiomycete laccases were used to isolate laccase gene-specific sequences from strains representing nine genera of wood rot fungi. All except three gave the expected PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequence of each of the PCR products analyzed as a laccase gene sequence, suggesting the specificity of the primers. PCR products of the white rot fungi Ganoderma lucidum, Phlebia brevispora, and Trametes versicolor showed 65 to 74% nucleotide sequence similarity to each other; the similarity in deduced amino acid sequences was 83 to 91%. The PCR products of Lentinula edodes and Lentinus tigrinus, on the other hand, showed relatively low nucleotide and amino acid similarities (58 to 64 and 62 to 81%, respectively); however, these similarities were still much higher than when compared with the corresponding regions in the laccases of the ascomycete fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa. A few of the white rot fungi, as well as Gloeophyllum trabeum, a brown rot fungus, gave a 144-bp PCR fragment which had a nucleotide sequence similarity of 60 to 71%. Demonstration of laccase activity in G. trabeum and several other brown rot fungi was of particular interest because these organisms were not previously shown to produce laccases. PMID:8837429

  5. Use of DNA sequencing to detect pathogenic, saprotrophic, and stain fungi in sapwood of declining red pine (Pinus resinosa) in the Upper Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.T. Banik; D.L. Lindner; J. Juzwik; J.A. Glaeser

    2013-01-01

    An inexpensive kit was developed to collect wood samples for molecular detection of pathogenic, saprotrophic and stain fungi in declining Pinus resinosa in the Upper Midwest. The kit contained materials for "clean" collection of sapwood drill shavings, which were then subjected to PCR of the rDNA ITS region with fungal-specific primers,...

  6. Inoculation Expedition of Agar wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, C.S.; Mohd Fajri Osman; Rusli Zakaria

    2015-01-01

    Inoculation expedition of agar wood is a main field works for researcher in Nuclear Malaysia to prove the real inoculation of agar wood in real jungle. These expeditions was conducted fourth times in the jungles of Malaysia including Gunung Tebu in Terengganu, Murum in Belaga, Sarawak, Kampung Timbang in Kota Belud, Sabah and Nuclear Malaysia itself. This expedition starts from preparation of samples and equipment, transportation into the jungle, searching and recognition of agar wood and lastly, inoculation of the agar wood. Safety aspects precedence set out in the preparation and implementation of this expedition. (author)

  7. The wood energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douard, F.; Oremus, Y.; Garsault-Fabbi, A.

    2007-01-01

    The program law fixing the energy policy (POPE Law of the 13 july 2005) fixes an objective of 50% of growth for the renewable heat. As this renewable heat is today generated by the biomass, it seems necessary to adjust all the efforts on this sector. This document proposes to takes stock on the wood energy in France. It presents the wood fuels, an evaluation of the Wood-Energy Plan decided by the ADEME in 2000, the wood heat networks, and some example of installations. (A.L.B.)

  8. Laminated composite based on polyester geotextile fibers and polyurethane resin for coating wood structures

    OpenAIRE

    Assagra,Yuri Andrey Olivato; Altafim,Ruy Alberto Pisani; Silva,José Francisco Resende da; Basso,Heitor Cury; Lahr,Francisco Antonio Rocco; Altafim,Ruy Alberto Corrêa

    2013-01-01

    New environmental laws have restricted the use of hardwood trees in overhead power lines structures, such as, poles and cross-arms, leading companies to seek alternative materials. Reforested wood coated with polymeric resin has been proposed as an environmental friendly solution, with improved electrical properties and protection against external agents, e.g. moisture, ultraviolet radiation and fungi. However, the single thin layer of resin, normally applied on such structures reveal to be i...

  9. Nutritional habits of the inhabitants of the island of Vis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missoni, Sasa

    2009-12-01

    The island of Vis belongs to middle Dalmatian group of islands with caracteristics Mediterranean climate. The assumption was that the dominant diet of the inhabitants is also Mediterranean. Such diet is considered to be one of the best for the prevention of many complex and chronic diseases, as confirmed by numerous studies in different parts of the World. This study showed a shift in dietary habits in the direction of a more globalized diet. Such sudden shift may prove to be an important trigger for the development of complex diseases such as diabetes melitus type 2, cardiovascular diseases, gout, as well as certain types of cancer.

  10. Variability in growth, nutrition and phytochemical constituents of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour Spreng. as influenced by indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevanan Rajeshkumar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted under greenhouse nursery condition on the efficacy of seven indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi in the improvement of growth, biomass, nutrition and phytochemical constituents, namely total phenols, ortho dihydroxy phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins and saponins, in the roots and leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour Spreng. Seedlings were raised in polythene bags containing soil inoculated with isolates of seven different indigenous AM fungi, viz. Acaulospora bireticulata, A. scrobiculata, Gigaspora margarita, Glomus aggregatum, G. mosseae, G. geosporum, and Scutellospora heterogama. P. amboinicus seedlings raised in the presence of AM fungi generally showed an increase in plant growth, nutritional status and phytochemical constituents over those grown in the absence of AM fungi. The extent of growth, biomass, nutritional status and phytochemical constituents enhanced by AM fungi varied with the species of AM fungi inhabiting the roots and leaves of P. amboinicus seedlings. Considering the various plant growth parameters, nutritional status of the plant, total phenols, ortho dihydroxy phenols, alkaloids , flavonoids , tannins, and saponins in the roots and leaves, it was observed that Gigaspora margarita is the best AM symbiont for P. amboinicus used in this experiment.

  11. Corrosion of Fasteners in Wood Treated with Newer Wood Preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka

    2013-01-01

    This document compiles recent research findings related to corrosion of metals in preservative treated wood into a single report on corrosion of metals in wood. The research was conducted as part of the Research, Technology and Education portion of the National Historic Covered Bridge Preservation (NHCBP) Program administered by the Federal Highway Administration. The...

  12. Survival, growth, wood basic density and wood biomass of seven ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A performance comparison of seven-year-old individuals of 13 Casuarina species/provenances in terms of survival, growth (diameter, height and volume), wood basic density and wood biomass was undertaken at Kongowe, Kibaha, Tanzania. The trial was laid out using a randomised complete block design with four ...

  13. Quantifying arthropod contributions to wood decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Ulyshen; Terry Wagner

    2013-01-01

    Termites carry large amounts of soil into dead wood, and this behaviour complicates efforts to measure their contributions to wood decay. A novel method for isolating termite soil by burning the wood is described, and some preliminary results are presented.

  14. Wood pole overhead lines

    CERN Document Server

    Wareing, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This new book concentrates on the mechanical aspects of distribution wood pole lines, including live line working, environmental influences, climate change and international standards. Other topics include statutory requirements, safety, profiling, traditional and probabilistic design, weather loads, bare and covered conductors, different types of overhead systems, conductor choice, construction and maintenance. A section has also been devoted to the topic of lightning, which is one of the major sources of faults on overhead lines. The book focuses on the effects of this problem and the strate

  15. Life history and habitat associations of the broad wood cockroach, Parcoblatta lata (Blattaria: Blattellidae) and other native cockroaches in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James, L.

    2002-06-18

    Wood cockroaches are an important prey of the red-cockaded woodpecker, Picoides borealis, an endangered species inhabiting pine forests in the southern United States. These woodpeckers forage on the boles of live pine trees, but their prey consists of a high proportion of wood cockroaches, Parcoblatta spp., that are more commonly associated with dead plant material. Cockroach population density samples were conducted on live pine trees, dead snags and coarse woody debris on the ground. The studies showed that snags and logs are also important habitats of wood cockroaches in pine forests.

  16. Phytotoxins Produced by Fungi Associated with Grapevine Trunk Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andolfi, Anna; Mugnai, Laura; Luque, Jordi; Surico, Giuseppe; Cimmino, Alessio; Evidente, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Up to 60 species of fungi in the Botryosphaeriaceae family, genera Cadophora, Cryptovalsa, Cylindrocarpon, Diatrype, Diatrypella, Eutypa, Eutypella, Fomitiporella, Fomitiporia, Inocutis, Phaeoacremonium and Phaeomoniella have been isolated from decline-affected grapevines all around the World. The main grapevine trunk diseases of mature vines are Eutypa dieback, the esca complex and cankers caused by the Botryospheriaceae, while in young vines the main diseases are Petri and black foot diseases. To understand the mechanism of these decline-associated diseases and the symptoms associated with them, the toxins produced by the pathogens involved in these diseases were isolated and characterised chemically and biologically. So far the toxins of only a small number of these decline fungi have been studied. This paper presents an overview of the toxins produced by the most serious of these vine wood pathogens: Eutypa lata, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and some taxa in the Botryosphaeriaceae family, and examines how these toxins produce decline symptoms. The chemical structure of these metabolites and in some cases their vivotoxin nature are also discussed. PMID:22295177

  17. Phytotoxins Produced by Fungi Associated with Grapevine Trunk Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Evidente

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Up to 60 species of fungi in the Botryosphaeriaceae family, genera Cadophora, Cryptovalsa, Cylindrocarpon, Diatrype, Diatrypella, Eutypa, Eutypella, Fomitiporella, Fomitiporia, Inocutis, Phaeoacremonium and Phaeomoniella have been isolated from decline-affected grapevines all around the World. The main grapevine trunk diseases of mature vines are Eutypa dieback, the esca complex and cankers caused by the Botryospheriaceae, while in young vines the main diseases are Petri and black foot diseases. To understand the mechanism of these decline-associated diseases and the symptoms associated with them, the toxins produced by the pathogens involved in these diseases were isolated and characterised chemically and biologically. So far the toxins of only a small number of these decline fungi have been studied. This paper presents an overview of the toxins produced by the most serious of these vine wood pathogens: Eutypa lata, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and some taxa in the Botryosphaeriaceae family, and examines how these toxins produce decline symptoms. The chemical structure of these metabolites and in some cases their vivotoxin nature are also discussed.

  18. Wood-related occupations, wood dust exposure, and sinonasal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, R B; Gerin, M; Raatgever, J W; de Bruyn, A

    1986-10-01

    A case-control study was conducted to examine the relations between type of woodworking and the extent of wood dust exposure to the risks for specific histologic types of sinonasal cancer. In cooperation with the major treatment centers in the Netherlands, 116 male patients newly diagnosed between 1978 and 1981 with primary malignancies of epithelial origin of this site were identified for study. Living controls were selected from the municipal registries, and deceased controls were selected from the national death registry. Interviews were completed for 91 (78%) cases and 195 (75%) controls. Job histories were coded by industry and occupation. An index of exposure was developed to classify the extent of occupational exposure to wood dust. When necessary, adjustment was made for age and usual cigarette use. The risk for nasal adenocarcinoma was elevated by industry for the wood and paper industry (odds ratio (OR) = 11.9) and by occupation for those employed in furniture and cabinet making (OR = 139.8), in factory joinery and carpentry work (OR = 16.3), and in association with high-level wood dust exposure (OR = 26.3). Other types of nasal cancer were not found to be associated with wood-related industries or occupations. A moderate excess in risk for squamous cell cancer (OR = 2.5) was associated with low-level wood dust exposure; however, no dose-response relation was evident. The association between wood dust and adenocarcinoma was strongest for those employed in wood dust-related occupations between 1930 and 1941. The risk of adenocarcinoma did not appear to decrease for at least 15 years after termination of exposure to wood dust. No cases of nasal adenocarcinoma were observed in men whose first exposure to wood dust occurred after 1941.

  19. Decision support handbook for recovery of contaminated inhabited areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, K.G. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)); Ammann, M. (STUK, Helsinki (Finland)); Backe, S. (IFE, Kjeller (Norway)); Rosen, K. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2008-07-15

    The handbook is aimed at providing Nordic decision-makers and their expert advisors with required background material for the development of an optimised, operational preparedness for situations where airborne radioactive matter has contaminated a Nordic inhabited area. The focus is on the mitigation of long-term problems. It should be stressed that the information given in the handbook is comprehensive, and many details require careful consideration well in time before implementation of countermeasures in a specific area. Training sessions are therefore recommended. The handbook describes the current relevant Nordic preparedness (dissemination routes) in detail, and suggests methods for measurement of contamination and prognoses of resultant doses, and data for evaluation of countermeasures and associated waste management options. A number of non-technical aspects of contamination in inhabited areas, and of countermeasures for its mitigation, are discussed, and a series of recommendations on the application of all the handbook data in a holistic countermeasure strategy are given. A part of the handbook development has been a dialogue with end-user representatives in each of the Nordic countries, to focus the work of the specific needs of the users. (au)

  20. Decision support handbook for recovery of contaminated inhabited areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, K.G.; Ammann, M.; Backe, S.; Rosen, K.

    2008-07-01

    The handbook is aimed at providing Nordic decision-makers and their expert advisors with required background material for the development of an optimised, operational preparedness for situations where airborne radioactive matter has contaminated a Nordic inhabited area. The focus is on the mitigation of long-term problems. It should be stressed that the information given in the handbook is comprehensive, and many details require careful consideration well in time before implementation of countermeasures in a specific area. Training sessions are therefore recommended. The handbook describes the current relevant Nordic preparedness (dissemination routes) in detail, and suggests methods for measurement of contamination and prognoses of resultant doses, and data for evaluation of countermeasures and associated waste management options. A number of non-technical aspects of contamination in inhabited areas, and of countermeasures for its mitigation, are discussed, and a series of recommendations on the application of all the handbook data in a holistic countermeasure strategy are given. A part of the handbook development has been a dialogue with end-user representatives in each of the Nordic countries, to focus the work of the specific needs of the users. (au)

  1. Antifungal activity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons against Ligninolytic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memić Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs has caused increasing concern because of their known, or suspected, carcinogenic and mutagenic effects. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons occurring in the environment are usually the result of the incomplete combustion of carbon containing materials. The main sources of severe PAHs contamination in soil come from fossil fuels, i.e. production or use of fossil fuels or their products, such as coal tar and creosote. Creosote is used as a wood preservation for railway ties, bridge timbers, pilling and large-sized lumber. It consists mainly of PAHs, phenol and cresol compounds that cause harmful health effects. Research on biodegradation has shown that a special group of microorganisms, the white-rot fungi and brown-rot fungi, has a remarkable potential to degrade PAHs. This paper presents a study of the antifungal activity of 12 selected PAHs against two ligninolytic fungi Hypoxylon fragiforme (white rot and Coniophora puteana (brown rot. The antifungal activity of PAHs was determined by the disc-diffusion method by measuring the diameter of the zone of inhibition. The results showed that the antifungal activity of the tested PAHs (concentration of 2.5 mmol/L depends on the their properties such as molar mass, solubility in water, values of log Kow, ionization potential and Henry’s Law constant as well as number of aromatic rings, molecule topology or pattern of ring linkage. Among the 12 investigated PAHs, benzo(k fluoranthene with five rings, and pyrene with four cyclic condensed benzene rings showed the highest antifungal activity.

  2. Aquatic wood -- an insect perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter S. Cranston; Brendan McKie

    2006-01-01

    Immersed wood provides refugia and substrate for a diverse array of macroinvertebrates, and food for a more restricted genuinely xylophagous fauna. Worldwide, xylophages are found across aquatic insect orders, including Coleoptera, Diptera, Trichoptera and Plecoptera. Xylophages often are specialised, feeding on the wood surface or mining deep within. Many feed...

  3. The wood of Merovingian weaponry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tegel, W.; Muigg, B.; Büntgen, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, JAN (2016), s. 148-153 ISSN 0305-4403 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Early Middle Ages * Merovingian weaponry * Mineralised wood * Wood anatomy Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.602, year: 2016

  4. Assessing potential sustainable wood yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Powers

    2001-01-01

    Society is making unprecedented demands on world forests to produce and sustain many values. Chief among them is wood supply, and concerns are rising globally about the ability of forests to meet increasing needs. Assessing this is not easy. It requires a basic understanding of the principles governing forest productivity: how wood yield varies with tree and stand...

  5. The sustainable wood production initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert. Deal

    2004-01-01

    To address concerns about sustainable forestry in the region, the Focused Science Delivery Program is sponsoring a three year Sustainable Wood Production Initiative. The Pacific Northwest is one of the world's major timber producing regions, and the ability of this region to produce wood on a sustained yield basis is widely recognized. Concerns relating to the...

  6. Composites from wood and plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Clemons

    2010-01-01

    Composites made from thermoplastics and fillers or reinforcements derived from wood or other natural fibers are a dynamic research area encompassing a wide variety of composite materials. For example, as the use of biopolymers grows, wood and other natural fiber sources are being investigated as renewable sources of fillers and reinforcements to modify performance....

  7. Moisture transport in coated wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meel, P.A. van; Erich, S.J.F.; Huinink, H.P.; Kopinga, K.; Jong, J. DE; Adan, O.C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Moisture accumulation inside wood causes favorable conditions for decay. Application of a coating alters the moisture sorption of wood and prevents accumulation of moisture. This paper presents the results of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study on the influence of a coating on the moisture

  8. Measuring wood specific gravity, correctly

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Bruce Williamson; Michael C. Wiemann

    2010-01-01

    The specific gravity (SG) of wood is a measure of the amount of structural material a tree species allocates to support and strength. In recent years, wood specific gravity, traditionally a forester’s variable, has become the domain of ecologists exploring the universality of plant functional traits and conservationists estimating global carbon stocks. While these...

  9. Public opinion and wood energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah Hitchner; John Schelhas; Teppo Hujala; J. Peter Brosius

    2014-01-01

    As wood-based bioenergy continues to develop around the world, it will utilize forestlands in new ways and will have different effects on a number of stakeholders, including forest landowners, local communities, extant industries, policymakers, investors, and others. As more stakeholders become involved in the wood energy web, and as the general public becomes more...

  10. On Erdos–Wood's conjecture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this article, we prove that infinite number of integers satsify Erdős–Woods conjecture. Moreover, it follows that the number of natural numbers ≤ satisfies Erdős–Woods conjecture with = 2 is at least /(log ) for some positive constant > 2.

  11. Contribution to the study of fungi in the genera Sparassis Fr. and Hericium Pers. in our forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadžić Dragan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi in the genera Sparassis and Hericium cause wood decay. In the forests of Serbia and Montenegro 4 species are identified in the genus Sparassis, and 3 species in the genus Hericium. These fungi develop on physiologically weakened trees, recently killed trees and branch litter (windthrows, broken trees, logs, thick branches. Especially great damage in the stands of Pinus species can be caused by the fungus Sparassis crispa. This fungus colonizes the living trees through the root and causes the brown cubical rot of wood. The rot then spreads from the root to the heartwood and gradually occupies the lower, economically the most valuable part of the tree. In the young phase, the fruiting bodies of all the identified species are edible. Sparassis crispa and Hericium erinaceus excel by their nutritive value and today (in some countries they are even artificially cultivated.

  12. Evolution of entomopathogenicity in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humber, Richard A

    2008-07-01

    The recent completions of publications presenting the results of a comprehensive study on the fungal phylogeny and a new classification reflecting that phylogeny form a new basis to examine questions about the origins and evolutionary implications of such major habits among fungi as the use of living arthropods or other invertebrates as the main source of nutrients. Because entomopathogenicity appears to have arisen or, indeed, have lost multiple times in many independent lines of fungal evolution, some of the factors that might either define or enable entomopathogenicity are examined. The constant proximity of populations of potential new hosts seem to have been a factor encouraging the acquisition or loss of entomopathogenicity by a very diverse range of fungi, particularly when involving gregarious and immobile host populations of scales, aphids, and cicadas (all in Hemiptera). An underlying theme within the vast complex of pathogenic and parasitic ascomycetes in the Clavicipitaceae (Hypocreales) affecting plants and insects seems to be for interkingdom host-jumping by these fungi from plants to arthropods and then back to the plant or on to fungal hosts. Some genera of Entomophthorales suggest that the associations between fungal pathogens and their insect hosts appear to be shifting away from pathogenicity and towards nonlethal parasitism.

  13. Effector proteins of rust fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petre, Benjamin; Joly, David L; Duplessis, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Rust fungi include many species that are devastating crop pathogens. To develop resistant plants, a better understanding of rust virulence factors, or effector proteins, is needed. Thus far, only six rust effector proteins have been described: AvrP123, AvrP4, AvrL567, AvrM, RTP1, and PGTAUSPE-10-1. Although some are well established model proteins used to investigate mechanisms of immune receptor activation (avirulence activities) or entry into plant cells, how they work inside host tissues to promote fungal growth remains unknown. The genome sequences of four rust fungi (two Melampsoraceae and two Pucciniaceae) have been analyzed so far. Genome-wide analyses of these species, as well as transcriptomics performed on a broader range of rust fungi, revealed hundreds of small secreted proteins considered as rust candidate secreted effector proteins (CSEPs). The rust community now needs high-throughput approaches (effectoromics) to accelerate effector discovery/characterization and to better understand how they function in planta. However, this task is challenging due to the non-amenability of rust pathosystems (obligate biotrophs infecting crop plants) to traditional molecular genetic approaches mainly due to difficulties in culturing these species in vitro. The use of heterologous approaches should be promoted in the future.

  14. Diversity and communities of foliar endophytic fungi from different agroecosystems of Coffea arabica L. in two regions of Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo-García, Aurora; Anaya, Ana Luisa; Espinosa-García, Francisco J; González, María C

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the biodiversity associated with shaded coffee plantations and the role of diverse agroforestry types in biodiversity conservation and environmental services have been topics of debate. Endophytic fungi, which are microorganisms that inhabit plant tissues in an asymptomatic manner, form a part of the biodiversity associated with coffee plants. Studies on the endophytic fungi communities of cultivable host plants have shown variability among farming regions; however, the variability in fungal endophytic communities of coffee plants among different coffee agroforestry systems is still poorly understood. As such, we analyzed the diversity and communities of foliar endophytic fungi inhabiting Coffea arabica plants growing in the rustic plantations and simple polycultures of two regions in the center of Veracruz, Mexico. The endophytic fungi isolates were identified by their morphological traits, and the majority of identified species correspond to species of fungi previously reported as endophytes of coffee leaves. We analyzed and compared the colonization rates, diversity, and communities of endophytes found in the different agroforestry systems and in the different regions. Although the endophytic diversity was not fully recovered, we found differences in the abundance and diversity of endophytes among the coffee regions and differences in richness between the two different agroforestry systems of each region. No consistent pattern of community similarity was found between the coffee agroforestry systems, but we found that rustic plantations shared the highest number of morphospecies. The results suggest that endophyte abundance, richness, diversity, and communities may be influenced predominantly by coffee region, and to a lesser extent, by the agroforestry system. Our results contribute to the knowledge of the relationships between agroforestry systems and biodiversity conservation and provide information regarding some endophytic fungi and

  15. The Swedish wood fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, Bengt

    1999-01-01

    In Sweden, wood fuels are traditionally used in the Swedish forest products industry and for heating of single-family houses. More recently they are also become established as an energy source for district heating and electricity production. Energy policy, especially the energy taxation system, has favoured wood fuels and other biofuels, mainly for environmental reasons. There is now an established commercial market for wood fuels in the district heating sector, which amounts to 45 PJ and is growing 20 per cent annually. Price levels have been stable in current prices for a decade, mainly because of good access to wood fuels. Price levels are dominated by production costs on a market that is largely governed by the buyer. It is expected that the use of wood fuels will increased in Sweden in the future, which will push a further development of this section on the market and bring about technological changes in the area. (Author)

  16. Characterisation of wood combustion ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto

    The combustion of wood chips and wood pellets for the production of renewable energy in Denmark increased from 5.7 PJ to 16 PJ during the period 2000-2015, and further increases are expected to occur within the coming years. In 2012, about 22,300 tonnes of wood ashes were generated in Denmark....... Currently, these ashes are mainly landfilled, despite Danish legislation allowing their application onto forest and agricultural soils for fertilising and/or liming purposes. During this PhD work, 16 wood ash samples generated at ten different Danish combustion plants were collected and characterised...... for their composition and leaching properties. Despite the relatively large variations in the contents of nutrients and trace metals, the overall levels were comparable to typical ranges reported in the literature for other wood combustion ashes, as well as with regards to leaching. In general, the composition...

  17. Late Permian wood-borings reveal an intricate network of ecological relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhuo; Wang, Jun; Rößler, Ronny; Ślipiński, Adam; Labandeira, Conrad

    2017-09-15

    Beetles are the most diverse group of macroscopic organisms since the mid-Mesozoic. Much of beetle speciosity is attributable to myriad life habits, particularly diverse-feeding strategies involving interactions with plant substrates, such as wood. However, the life habits and early evolution of wood-boring beetles remain shrouded in mystery from a limited fossil record. Here we report new material from the upper Permian (Changhsingian Stage, ca. 254-252 million-years ago) of China documenting a microcosm of ecological associations involving a polyphagan wood-borer consuming cambial and wood tissues of the conifer Ningxiaites specialis. This earliest evidence for a component community of several trophically interacting taxa is frozen in time by exceptional preservation. The combination of an entry tunnel through bark, a cambium mother gallery, and up to 11 eggs placed in lateral niches-from which emerge multi-instar larval tunnels that consume cambium, wood and bark-is ecologically convergent with Early Cretaceous bark-beetle borings 120 million-years later.Numerous gaps remain in our knowledge of how groups of organisms interacted in ancient ecosystems. Here, Feng and colleagues describe a late Permian fossil wood-boring beetle microcosm, with the oldest known example of complex tunnel geometry, host tissue response, and the presence of fungi within.

  18. HIGH RESOLUTION MICROTOMOGRAPHY FOR DENSITY AND SPATIAL INFORMATION ABOUT WOOD STRUCTURES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ILLMAN,B.

    1999-07-22

    Microtomography has successfully been used to characterize loss of structural integrity of wood. Tomographic images were generated with the newly developed third generation x-ray computed microtomography (XCMT) instrument at the X27A beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The beamline is equipped with high-flux x-ray monochromator based on multilayer optics developed for this application. The sample is mounted on a translation stage with which to center the sample rotation, a rotation stage to perform the rotation during data collection and a motorized goniometer head for small alignment motions. The absorption image is recorded by a single-crystal scintillator, an optical microscope and a cooled CCD array detector. Data reconstruction has provided three-dimensional geometry of the heterogeneous wood matrix in microtomographic images. Wood is a heterogeneous material composed of long lignocellulose vessels. Although wood is a strong natural product, fungi have evolved chemical systems that weaken the strength properties of wood by degrading structural vessels. Tomographic images with a resolution of three microns were obtained nonintrusively to characterize the compromised structural integrity of wood. Computational tools developed by Lindquist et al (1996) applied to characterize the microstructure of the tomographic volumes.

  19. Oligo-DNA custom macroarray for monitoring major pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungi and bacteria in the phyllosphere of apple trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ying-Hong; Isono, Sayaka; Shibuya, Makoto; Tsuji, Masaharu; Adkar Purushothama, Charith-Raj; Tanaka, Kazuaki; Sano, Teruo

    2012-01-01

    To monitor the richness in microbial inhabitants in the phyllosphere of apple trees cultivated under various cultural and environmental conditions, we developed an oligo-DNA macroarray for major pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungi and bacteria inhabiting the phyllosphere of apple trees. First, we isolated culturable fungi and bacteria from apple orchards by an agar-plate culture method, and detected 32 fungal and 34 bacterial species. Alternaria, Aureobasidium, Cladosporium, Rhodotorula, Cystofilobasidium, and Epicoccum genera were predominant among the fungi, and Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas, Methylobacterium, and Pantoea genera were predominant among the bacteria. Based on the data, we selected 29 major non-pathogenic and 12 phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria as the targets of macroarray. Forty-one species-specific 40-base pair long oligo-DNA sequences were selected from the nucleotide sequences of rDNA-internal transcribed spacer region for fungi and 16S rDNA for bacteria. The oligo-DNAs were fixed on nylon membrane and hybridized with digoxigenin-labeled cRNA probes prepared for each species. All arrays except those for Alternaria, Bacillus, and their related species, were specifically hybridized. The array was sensitive enough to detect 10(3) CFU for Aureobasidium pullulans and Bacillus cereus. Nucleotide sequencing of 100 each of independent fungal rDNA-ITS and bacterial 16S-rDNA sequences from apple tree was in agreement with the macroarray data obtained using the same sample. Finally, we analyzed the richness in the microbial inhabitants in the samples collected from apple trees in four orchards. Major apple pathogens that cause scab, Alternaria blotch, and Marssonina blotch were detected along with several non-phytopathogenic fungal and bacterial inhabitants. The macroarray technique presented here is a strong tool to monitor the major microbial species and the community structures in the phyllosphere of apple trees and identify key species

  20. Symptoms and fungi associated with esca in South African vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chana-LEE WHITE

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past, only a few incidences of esca diseased grapevines were reported from the Slanghoekand Rawsonville areas of South Africa, with the damage believed to be of little importance so that the diseasehas not been studied in South Africa. In the present study, vines with internal or external symptoms of the esca disease complex were sampled from table, raisin and wine grape cultivars from 37 production areas inthe Western Cape, Northern Cape and Limpopo provinces of that country. Most vines were greater than 10years old, but younger vines (3 and 5 years old were also found to be infected. External symptoms, includingdieback, tiger striped leaves, berry symptoms (shrivelling, insufficient colouring and apoplexy, resembledthose found on grapevines in Europe and the USA, although the typical tiger stripe symptom was observedless frequently. The internal stem and trunk symptoms were similar to European symptoms, and includedwhite rot, black and brown wood streaking, brown necrosis within white rot, sectorial brown necrosis andbrown/red/margins next to decay, which often included back lines delimiting white decay. The fungi isolatedmostly from the white rot were basidiomycetes species (30.4%. Black and brown wood streaking was primarily caused by Phaeomoniella chlamydospora (45.4%. Brown necrosis within the white rot was linked to colonization by basidiomycetes (20.4%, Phaeoacremonium aleophilum (15.9% and Pa. chlamydospora (13.6%. Phaeomoniella chlamydospora (20.8% and Botryosphaeriaceae species (10.7% were isolated the most fromthe sectorial brown necrosis and Pa. chlamydospora (29.1% from the brown/red margins and black lines next to decay. Given the wide distribution of esca complex wood and foliar symptoms in the grape growing regions investigated, this disease should be considered as an important limiting factor in the productive lifespan of vineyards and the quality of produce from grapevine in South Africa.

  1. Post-genomic approaches to understanding interactions between fungi and their environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Ronald P; Benoit, Isabelle; Doehlemann, Gunther; Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Magnuson, Jon K; Panisko, Ellen A; Baker, Scott E; Lebrun, Marc-Henri

    2011-06-01

    Fungi inhabit every natural and anthropogenic environment on Earth. They have highly varied life-styles including saprobes (using only dead biomass as a nutrient source), pathogens (feeding on living biomass), and symbionts (co-existing with other organisms). These distinctions are not absolute as many species employ several life styles (e.g. saprobe and opportunistic pathogen, saprobe and mycorrhiza). To efficiently survive in these different and often changing environments, fungi need to be able to modify their physiology and in some cases will even modify their local environment. Understanding the interaction between fungi and their environments has been a topic of study for many decades. However, recently these studies have reached a new dimension. The availability of fungal genomes and development of post-genomic technologies for fungi, such as transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics, have enabled more detailed studies into this topic resulting in new insights. Based on a Special Interest Group session held during IMC9, this paper provides examples of the recent advances in using (post-)genomic approaches to better understand fungal interactions with their environments.

  2. Role of carbon source in the shift from oxidative to hydrolytic wood decomposition by Postia placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiwei; Schilling, Jonathan S

    2017-09-01

    Brown rot fungi initiate wood decay using oxidative pretreatments to improve access for cellulolytic enzymes. These pretreatments are incompatible with enzymes, and we recently showed that Postia placenta overcomes this issue by delaying glycoside hydrolase (GH) gene upregulation briefly (wood wafers and spatially mapped expression (via quantitative PCR) of twelve ORs and GHs targeted using functional genomics analyses. By layering expression patterns over solubilized sugar data (via HPLC) from wood, we observed solubilization of wood glucose, cellobiose, mannose, and xylose coincident with the OR-GH transition. We then tested effects of these soluble sugars, plus polymeric carbon sources (spruce powder, cellulose), on P. placenta gene expression in liquid cultures. Expression of ORs was strictly (aox1, cro5) or progressively repressed over time (qrd1, lcc1) by all soluble sugars, including cellobiose, but not by polymeric sources. Simple sugars repressed hemicellulase gene expression over time, but these sugars did not repress cellulases. Cellulase genes were upregulated, however, along with hemicellulases in the presence of soluble cellobiose and in the presence of polymeric carbon sources, relative to starvation (carbon-free). This verifies an inducible cellulase system in P. placenta that lacks carbon catabolite repression (CCR), and it suggests that brown rot fungi use soluble sugars, particularly cellobiose, to cue a critical oxidative-hydrolytic transition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Projected wood energy impact on US forest wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skog, K.E. [USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The USDA Forest Service has developed long-term projections of wood energy use as part of a 1993 assessment of demand for and supply of resources from forest and range lands in the United States. To assess the impact of wood energy demand on timber resources, a market equilibrium model based on linear programming was developed to project residential, industrial, commercial, and utility wood energy use from various wood energy sources: roundwood from various land sources, primary wood products mill residue, other wood residue, and black liquor. Baseline projections are driven by projected price of fossil fuels compared to price of wood fuels and the projected increase in total energy use in various end uses. Wood energy use is projected to increase from 2.67 quad in 1986 to 3.5 quad in 2030 and 3.7 quad in 2040. This is less than the DOE National Energy Strategy projection of 5.5 quad in 2030. Wood energy from forest sources (roundwood) is projected to increase from 3.1 billion (10{sup 9}) ft{sup 3} in 1986 to 4.4. billion ft{sup 3} in 2030 and 4.8 billion ft{sup 3} in 2040 (88, 124 and 136 million m{sup 3}, respectively). This rate of increase of roundwood use for fuel -- 0.8 percent per year -- is virtually the same as the projected increase rate for roundwood for pulpwood. Pulpwood roundwood is projected to increase from 4.2 billion ft{sup 3} in 1986 to 6.0 billion ft{sup 3} in 2030 and 6.4 billion ft{sup 3} in 2040 (119, 170 and 183 million m{sup 3}, respectively).

  4. Consumption of sweetened beverages as a risk factor of colonization of oral cavity by fungi - eating habits of university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lll, Katarzyna Góralska; Klimczak, Alina; Rachubiński, Paweł; Jagłowska, Aleksandra; Kwapiszewska, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Foods rich in sugar are an excellent substrate for the microorganisms that inhabit the initial sections of the gastrointestinal tract, and one of the most commonly available sources of sugar is the sweetened drink. Students represent an interesting sub-population; the large number of classes and associated stress levels promote fixing of unhealthy behaviors, e.g. tendency to consume a lot of sweetened drinks, for example cola-type or energetic drinks. Aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the amount of sugar consumed in beverages and the prevalence of fungi in the oral cavity. The investigated material consisted of oral washings. Participants completed original questionnaire regarding beverages consumed. The relationship between the consumption of sweetened beverages and risk of the presence of fungi in the oral cavity was determined. Fungi were isolated from 68.1% of examined subjects. Seven species of the genus Candida were observed. Higher prevalence of fungi was seen in the oral cavity of subjects who declared consumption of beverages containing sugar. 37.8% of respondents were found to consume with beverages doses of sugar exceeding the recommended daily requirement. Significantly greater prevalence of oral cavity fungi was noted in those exceeding the recommended GDA (76.3%), compared to of those who were not (68.7%). There were positive correlations between occurrence of fungi and consumption of sweetened carbonated drinks or adding sugar to coffee and tea. The addition of sugar to coffee/tea and sugar consumption above the recommended daily amount significantly increases the risk of colonization of the oral cavity by fungi. Students, due to invalid nutritional habits especially excessive consumption of beverages containing large amounts of sugar, belong to a group with a predisposition to the occurrence of fungi in the oral cavity.

  5. Changes in carbon allocation to aboveground versus belowground forest components is driven by a trade-off involving mycorrhizal fungi, not fine roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouimette, A.; Ollinger, S. V.; Hobbie, E. A.; Lepine, L. C.; Stephens, R.; Rowe, R.; Vadeboncoeur, M. A.; Tumber-Davila, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    Species composition and resource availability exert a strong influence on the dynamics of carbon allocation among different forest ecosystem components. Recent work in temperate forests has highlighted a tradeoff between carbon allocation to aboveground woody tissues (access to light), and belowground to fine roots (access to soil nutrients). Although root-associated mycorrhizal fungi are crucial for N acquisition and can receive 20% or more of annual net primary production, most studies fail to explicitly include carbon allocation to mycorrhizal fungi. In part, this is due to the inherent difficulties in accurately quantifying fungal production. We took several approaches to quantify production of mycorrhizal fungi, including a carbon budget approach and isotopic techniques. Here we present data on patterns of carbon allocation to aboveground (wood and foliar production), and belowground components (production of fine roots and mycorrhizal fungi), across temperate forest stands spanning a range of nitrogen availability and species composition. We found that as the proportion of conifer species decreased, and stand nitrogen availability increased, both the absolute amount and the fraction of net primary production increased for foliage, aboveground wood, and fine roots ("a rising tide lifts all boats"). While allocation to plant pools increased, allocation to mycorrhizal fungi significantly decreased with decreasing conifer dominance and increasing soil nitrogen availability. We did not find a strong trade-off between carbon allocation to fine roots and aboveground wood or foliage. Instead, a negative relationship is seen between allocation to mycorrhizal fungi and other plant pools. Effort to estimate carbon allocation to mycorrhizal fungi is important for gaining a more complete understanding of how ecosystems respond to changes in growth-limiting resources.

  6. [Selenium status of the inhabitants in the Kaluga region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubkina, N A; Mal'tsev, G Iu; Bogdanov, N G; Vlaskina, S G; Alekseeva, I A; Khotimchenko, S A

    1995-01-01

    The human Se status of 8 areas of Kaluga region was studied. The mean serum Se levels 94 mg/l was significantly lower in the south compared to the northern area 126 mg/l. Areas with radioactive pollution possessed higher percentage of persons with low serum Se concentration than in regions without the pollution. Negative influence of radiation on serum Se level was confirmed also by epidemiological data for workers of Chernobil NNP (65 mg/l-workers attending to the reactor and 69 mg/l-for other employees). The same phenomenon was observed for males of Tula region who had taken part in the liquidation of an accident on the Chernobil NNP compared to other inhabitants of Tula region (78 mg/l and 89 mg/l correspondingly). The lowest antioxidant status (serum vitamin E, C and Se concentrations) in towns of Kaluga region with radioactive pollution possessed males of less than 60 years old.

  7. Energy Consumption Information Services for Smart Home Inhabitants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanzer, Michael; Fensel, Anna

    We investigate services giving users an adequate insight on his or her energy consumption habits in order to optimize it in the long run. The explored energy awareness services are addressed to inhabitants of smart homes, equipped with smart meters, advanced communication facilities, sensors and actuators. To analyze the potential of such services, a game at a social network Facebook has been designed and implemented, and the information about players' responses and interactions within the game environment has been collected and analyzed. The players have had their virtual home energy usage visualized in different ways, and had to optimize the energy consumption basing on their own perceptions of the consumption information. Evaluations reveal, in particular, that users are specifically responsive to information shown as a real-time graph and as costs in Euro, and are able to produce and share with each other policies for managing their smart home environments.

  8. Biomonitoring a human population inhabiting nearby a deactivated uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lourenço, J.; Pereira, R.; Pinto, F.; Caetano, T.; Silva, A.; Carvalheiro, T.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Human population environmentally exposed to uranium mining wastes. ► Significantly higher levels of manganese and uranium in peripheral blood samples. ► Significant DNA damages detected by the comet assay. ► Significant decrease of NK and T lymphocytes counts in exposed individuals. ► Concerns on the risks of human populations living nearby uranium mining areas. - Abstract: Environmental exposure to uranium and its daughter radionuclides, has been linked to several negative effects such as those related with important physiological processes, like hematopoiesis, and may also be associated with genotoxicity effects. Herein, genotoxic effects, immunotoxicity, trace elements and C reactive protein (CRP) analyses, were performed in peripheral blood samples collected from individuals of a population living near a deactivated uranium mine. C reactive protein analysis was performed to exclude candidates with active inflammatory processes from further evaluations. DNA damage and immunotoxicity (immunophenotyping and immune cell counts) were evaluated by comet assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Significant DNA damage was observed in the peripheral blood samples from volunteers living in the Cunha Baixa village. A significant decrease of NK and T lymphocytes counts were observed in the individuals from the Cunha Baixa village, when compared with individuals from the reference site. Uranium and manganese levels were significantly higher in the Cunha Baixa village inhabitants. On the other hand, zinc levels were significantly lower in those individuals when compared with the volunteers from the control village. Results suggest that inhabitants from Cunha Baixa have a higher risk of suffering from serious diseases such as cancer, since high DNA damages were observed in peripheral blood leukocytes and also decreased levels of NK and T cells, which play an essential role in the defense against tumor growth

  9. Cooling of wood briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adžić Miroljub M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the experimental research of surface temperature of wood briquettes during cooling phase along the cooling line. The cooling phase is an important part of the briquette production technology. It should be performed with care, otherwise the quality of briquettes could deteriorate and possible changes of combustion characteristics of briquettes could happen. The briquette surface temperature was measured with an IR camera and a surface temperature probe at 42 sections. It was found that the temperature of briquette surface dropped from 68 to 34°C after 7 minutes spent at the cooling line. The temperature at the center of briquette, during the 6 hour storage, decreased to 38°C.

  10. Wood power in North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, J.G.; Guessous, L. [Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    North Carolina (NC) is one of the most forested states, and supports a major wood products industry. The NC Department of Natural Resources sponsored a study by Research Triangle Institute to examine new, productive uses of the State`s wood resources, especially electric power generation by co-firing with coal. This paper summarizes our research of the main factors influencing wood power generation opportunities, i.e., (1) electricity demand; (2) initiative and experience of developers; (3) available fuel resources; (4) incentives for alternate fuels; and (5) power plant technology and economics. The results cover NC forests, short rotation woody crops, existing wood energy facilities, electrical power requirements, and environmental regulations/incentives. Quantitative assessments are based on the interests of government agencies, utilities, electric cooperatives, developers and independent power producers, forest products industries, and the general public. Several specific, new opportunities for wood-to-electricity in the State are identified and described. Comparisons are made with nationwide resources and wood energy operations. Preferred approaches in NC are co-generation in existing or modified boilers and in dedicated wood power plants in forest industry regions. Co-firing is mainly an option for supplementing unreliable primary fuel supplies to existing boilers.

  11. Foliar fungi of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris)

    OpenAIRE

    Millberg, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is an ecologically and economically important tree species in Fennoscandia. Scots pine needles host a variety of fungi, some with the potential to profoundly influence their host. These fungi can have beneficial or detrimental effects with important implications for both forest health and primary production. In this thesis, the foliar fungi of Scots pine needles were investigated with the aim of exploring spatial and temporal patterns, and development with needle...

  12. BIOMODIFICATION OF KENAF USING WHITE ROT FUNGI

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmina Halis,; Hui Rus Tan,; Zaidon Ashaari,; Rozi Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    White rot fungi can be used as a pretreatment of biomass to degrade lignin. It also alters the structure of the lignocellulosic matter, thus increasing its accessibility to enzymes able to convert polysaccharides into simple sugars. This study compares the ability of two species of white rot fungi, Pycnoporous sanguineus and Oxyporus latemarginatus FRIM 31, to degrade lignin in kenaf chips. The white rot fungi were originally isolated from the tropical forest in Malaysia. Kenaf chips were fir...

  13. Wood would burn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swithenbank, Jim; Chen, Qun; Zhang, Xiaohui; Sharifi, Vida; Pourkashanian, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Absract: In view of the world-wide problem of energy sustainability and greenhouse gas production (carbon dioxide), it is timely to review the issues involved in generating heat and power from all fuels and especially new (to the UK) solid fuels, including high moisture fuels such as wood, SRF, oil shale, tar sands and brown coal, which will become major international fuels as oil and gas become depleted. The combustion properties of some of these materials are significantly different from traditional coal, oil and gas fuels, however the technology proposed herein is also applicable to these conventional fuels. This paper presents some innovative combustion system options and the associated technical factors that must be considered for their implementation. For clarity of understanding, the novel concepts will be largely presented in terms of a currently developing solid fuel market; biomass wood chips. One of the most important characteristics of many solid fuels to be used in the future (including oil shale and brown coal) is their high moisture content of up to 60%. This could be removed by utilising low grade waste heat that is widely available in industry to dry the fuel and thus reduce transport costs. Burning such dried wood for power generation also increases the energy available from combustion and thus acts as a thermal transformer by upgrading the low grade heat to heat available at combustion temperatures. The alternative approach presented here is to recover the latent heat by condensing the extrinsic moisture and the water formed during combustion. For atmospheric combustion, the temperature of the condensed combustion products is below the dew point at about 55-65 o C and is only suitable for recovery in an efficient district heating system. However, in order to generate power from the latent heat, the condensation temperature must be increased to the level where the heat can be used in the thermodynamic power cycle. This can be achieved by

  14. Plant-ants use symbiotic fungi as a food source: new insight into the nutritional ecology of ant-plant interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatrix, Rumsaïs; Djiéto-Lordon, Champlain; Mondolot, Laurence; La Fisca, Philippe; Voglmayr, Hermann; McKey, Doyle

    2012-10-07

    Usually studied as pairwise interactions, mutualisms often involve networks of interacting species. Numerous tropical arboreal ants are specialist inhabitants of myrmecophytes (plants bearing domatia, i.e. hollow structures specialized to host ants) and are thought to rely almost exclusively on resources derived from the host plant. Recent studies, following up on century-old reports, have shown that fungi of the ascomycete order Chaetothyriales live in symbiosis with plant-ants within domatia. We tested the hypothesis that ants use domatia-inhabiting fungi as food in three ant-plant symbioses: Petalomyrmex phylax/Leonardoxa africana, Tetraponera aethiops/Barteria fistulosa and Pseudomyrmex penetrator/Tachigali sp. Labelling domatia fungal patches in the field with either a fluorescent dye or (15)N showed that larvae ingested domatia fungi. Furthermore, when the natural fungal patch was replaced with a piece of a (15)N-labelled pure culture of either of two Chaetothyriales strains isolated from T. aethiops colonies, these fungi were also consumed. These two fungi often co-occur in the same ant colony. Interestingly, T. aethiops workers and larvae ingested preferentially one of the two strains. Our results add a new piece in the puzzle of the nutritional ecology of plant-ants.

  15. Plant-ants use symbiotic fungi as a food source: new insight into the nutritional ecology of ant–plant interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatrix, Rumsaïs; Djiéto-Lordon, Champlain; Mondolot, Laurence; La Fisca, Philippe; Voglmayr, Hermann; McKey, Doyle

    2012-01-01

    Usually studied as pairwise interactions, mutualisms often involve networks of interacting species. Numerous tropical arboreal ants are specialist inhabitants of myrmecophytes (plants bearing domatia, i.e. hollow structures specialized to host ants) and are thought to rely almost exclusively on resources derived from the host plant. Recent studies, following up on century-old reports, have shown that fungi of the ascomycete order Chaetothyriales live in symbiosis with plant-ants within domatia. We tested the hypothesis that ants use domatia-inhabiting fungi as food in three ant–plant symbioses: Petalomyrmex phylax/Leonardoxa africana, Tetraponera aethiops/Barteria fistulosa and Pseudomyrmex penetrator/Tachigali sp. Labelling domatia fungal patches in the field with either a fluorescent dye or 15N showed that larvae ingested domatia fungi. Furthermore, when the natural fungal patch was replaced with a piece of a 15N-labelled pure culture of either of two Chaetothyriales strains isolated from T. aethiops colonies, these fungi were also consumed. These two fungi often co-occur in the same ant colony. Interestingly, T. aethiops workers and larvae ingested preferentially one of the two strains. Our results add a new piece in the puzzle of the nutritional ecology of plant-ants. PMID:22859596

  16. COMBUSTION PROPERTIES OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın ÖRS

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the combustion properties of some impregnation materials (abiotic and biotic factors used for eucalyptus wood in interior or exterior environments were investigated. The experimental samples were prepared from Eucalyptus wood based on ASTM-D-1413-76 Tanalith-CBC, boric acid, borax, vacsol-WR, immersol-WR, polyethylen glycole-400 and ammonium sulphate were used as an impregnation material. The results indicated that, vacuum treatment on Eucalyptus gave the lowest retention value of salts. Compounds containing boron+salt increased fire resistance however water repellents decreased the wood flammability.

  17. Wood fuels sources and markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koopmans, Auke

    2003-01-01

    Biomass energy is an important source of energy in most Asian countries. Households and industries use substantial amounts of fuel wood, charcoal and other biomass energy, such as agricultural residues, dung, leaves and sawmill residues. The main household applications are cooking and heating whereas industrial applications range widely. This paper provides an overview of estimates on the production and trade of biomass fuels in the South-east Asia region. The flows and channels used in the supply of wood fuels in different countries were analysed. This paper may help in identifying policy gaps with regards to the supply and consumption of wood fuels from both forest and non-forest sources. (Author)

  18. Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2006-01-01

    Lecture Notes on Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures including charring of wood and load bearing capacity of beams, columns, and connections.......Lecture Notes on Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures including charring of wood and load bearing capacity of beams, columns, and connections....

  19. Moisture relations and physical properties of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel V. Glass; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2010-01-01

    Wood, like many natural materials, is hygroscopic; it takes on moisture from the surrounding environment. Moisture exchange between wood and air depends on the relative humidity and temperature of the air and the current amount of water in the wood. This moisture relationship has an important influence on wood properties and performance. Many of the challenges of using...

  20. The challenge of bonding treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2004-01-01

    Wood products are quite durable if exposure to moisture is minimized; however, most uses of wood involve considerable exposure to moisture. To preserve the wood, chemicals are used to minimize moisture pickup, to prevent insect attack, and/or to resist microbial growth. The chemicals used as preservatives can interfere with adhesive bonds to wood. Given the many...

  1. FIRE INSURANCE AND WOOD SCHOOL BUILDINGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PURCELL, FRANK X.

    A COMPARISON OF FIRE INSURANCE COSTS OF WOOD, MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE STRUCTURES SHOWS FIRE INSURANCE PREMIMUMS ON WOOD STRUCTURES TEND TO BE HIGHER THAN PREMIUMS ON MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE BUILDINGS, HOWEVER, THE INITIAL COST OF THE WOOD BUILDINGS IS LOWER. DATA SHOW THAT THE SAVINGS ACHIEVED IN THE INITIAL COST OF WOOD STRUCTURES OFFSET…

  2. The Carbon Impacts of Wood Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Bergman; Maureen Puettmann; Adam Taylor; Kenneth E. Skog

    2014-01-01

    Wood products have many environmental advantages over nonwood alternatives. Documenting and publicizing these merits helps the future competitiveness of wood when climate change impacts are being considered. The manufacture of wood products requires less fossil fuel than nonwood alternative building materials such as concrete, metals, or plastics. By nature, wood is...

  3. Temporal Alterations in the Secretome of the Selective Ligninolytic Fungus Ceriporipsis subvermispora during growth on Aspen Wood Reveal this Organism's Strategy for Degrading Lighnocellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaki Hori; Jill Gaskell; Kiyohiko Igarashi; Phil Kersten; Michael Mozuch; Masahiro Samejima; Dan Cullen

    2014-01-01

    The white-rot basidiomycetes efficiently degrade all wood cell wall polymers. Generally, these fungi simultaneously degrade cellulose and lignin, but certain organisms, such as Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, selectively remove lignin in advance of cellulose degradation. However, relatively little is known about themechanismof selective ligninolysis. To...

  4. Genomewide analysis of polysaccharides degrading enzymes in 11 white- and brown-rot Polyporales provides insight into mechanisms of wood decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaki Hori; Jill Gaskell; Kiyohiko Igarashi; Masahiro Samejima; David Hibbett; Bernard Henrissat; Dan Cullen

    2013-01-01

    To degrade the polysaccharides, wood-decay fungi secrete a variety of glycoside hydrolases (GHs) and carbohydrate esterases (CEs) classified into various sequence-based families of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZys) and their appended carbohydrate-binding modules (CBM). Oxidative enzymes, such as cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase (...

  5. Environmentally friendly wood preservatives formulated with enzymatic-hydrolyzed okara, copper and/or boron salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Sye Hee; Oh, Sei Chang; Choi, In-gyu; Han, Gyu-seong; Jeong, Han-seob; Kim, Ki-woo; Yoon, Young-ho; Yang, In

    2010-01-01

    Novel biocides, such as copper azole (CuAz) and ammoniacal copper quaternary (ACQ), are extensively used as substitutes for chromate copper arsenate (CCA) in wood preservation. However, the expense of these biocides has necessitated the development of cost-effective and environmentally friendly wood preservatives. This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness against decaying fungi of the preservatives formulated with enzymatic-hydrolyzed okara (OK), which is an organic waste produced from the manufacture of tofu, CuCl 2 (CC) and/or Na 2 B 4 O 7 .10H 2 O (B). With the addition of NH 4 OH as a dissociating agent, the addition of OK facilitated the target retention of most of the OK/CC and OK/CC/B preservative formulations in wood blocks. The OK-based wood preservatives (OK-WPs) were stable against hot-water leaching. When compared with control and CC-treated wood blocks, the leached wood blocks treated with OK/CC and OK/CC/B formulations showed excellent decay resistance against both Postia placenta and Gloeophyllum trabeum, especially when OK was hydrolyzed by Celluclast at a loading level of 0.1 ml/g. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and SEM-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) spectrometry analyses demonstrated that preservative complexes, such as OK-CC and OK-CC-B, existed in the wood blocks treated with OK/CC and OK/CC/B formulations. This study results support the potential application of OK-WPs as environmentally friendly wood preservatives capable of replacing CuAz and ACQ.

  6. Environmentally friendly wood preservatives formulated with enzymatic-hydrolyzed okara, copper and/or boron salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Sye Hee; Oh, Sei Chang [Department of Forest Resources, Daegu University, Gyeongsan 712-714 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, In-gyu [Department of Forest Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Gyu-seong [Department of Wood and Paper Sciences, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Han-seob [Department of Forest Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki-woo [National Instrumentation Center for Environmental Management, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Young-ho [KCI Co. Ltd., Seosan, Chungcheongnam-do 356-874 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, In, E-mail: dahadad2000@yahoo.com [Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, San 56-1 Sillim-Dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Novel biocides, such as copper azole (CuAz) and ammoniacal copper quaternary (ACQ), are extensively used as substitutes for chromate copper arsenate (CCA) in wood preservation. However, the expense of these biocides has necessitated the development of cost-effective and environmentally friendly wood preservatives. This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness against decaying fungi of the preservatives formulated with enzymatic-hydrolyzed okara (OK), which is an organic waste produced from the manufacture of tofu, CuCl{sub 2} (CC) and/or Na{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}.10H{sub 2}O (B). With the addition of NH{sub 4}OH as a dissociating agent, the addition of OK facilitated the target retention of most of the OK/CC and OK/CC/B preservative formulations in wood blocks. The OK-based wood preservatives (OK-WPs) were stable against hot-water leaching. When compared with control and CC-treated wood blocks, the leached wood blocks treated with OK/CC and OK/CC/B formulations showed excellent decay resistance against both Postia placenta and Gloeophyllum trabeum, especially when OK was hydrolyzed by Celluclast at a loading level of 0.1 ml/g. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and SEM-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) spectrometry analyses demonstrated that preservative complexes, such as OK-CC and OK-CC-B, existed in the wood blocks treated with OK/CC and OK/CC/B formulations. This study results support the potential application of OK-WPs as environmentally friendly wood preservatives capable of replacing CuAz and ACQ.

  7. Experimental evidence of a symbiosis between red-cockaded woodpeckers and fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusino, Michelle A; Lindner, Daniel L; Banik, Mark T; Rose, Kevin R; Walters, Jeffrey R

    2016-03-30

    Primary cavity excavators, such as woodpeckers, are ecosystem engineers in many systems. Associations between cavity excavators and fungi have long been hypothesized to facilitate cavity excavation, but these relationships have not been experimentally verified. Fungi may help excavators by softening wood, while excavators may facilitate fungal dispersal. Here we demonstrate that excavators facilitate fungal dispersal and thus we report the first experimental evidence of a symbiosis between fungi and a cavity excavator, the red-cockaded woodpecker (RCW,Picoides borealis). Swab samples of birds showed that RCWs carry fungal communities similar to those found in their completed excavations. A 26-month field experiment using human-made aseptically drilled excavations in live trees, half of which were inaccessible to RCWs, demonstrated that RCWs directly alter fungal colonization and community composition. Experimental excavations that were accessible to RCWs contained fungal communities similar to natural RCW excavations, whereas inaccessible experimental excavations contained significantly different fungal communities. Our work demonstrates a complex symbiosis between cavity excavators and communities of fungi, with implications for forest ecology, wildlife management, and conservation. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Screening of highly cellulolytic fungi and the action of their cellulase enzyme systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saddler, J N

    1982-11-01

    Over 100 strains of wood-rotting fungi were compared for their ability to degrade wood blocks. Some of these strains were then assayed for extracellular cellulase (1,4-(1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucan 4- glucanohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.4) activity using a variety of different solid media containing carboxymethyl cellulose or acid swollen cellulose. The diameter of clearing on these plates gave an approximate indication of the order of cellulase activities obtained from culture filtrates of these strains. Trichoderma strains grown on Vogels medium gave the highest cellulase yields. The cellulase enzyme production of T. reesei C30 and QM9414 was compared with that of eight other Trichoderma strains. Trichoderma strain E58 had comparable endoglucanase and filter paper activities with the mutant strains while the beta-D-glucosidase (beta-D-glucoside glucohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.21) activity was approximately six to nine times greater. (Refs. 26).

  9. Women's work... in wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice K. Wiedenbeck

    1998-01-01

    Women have opportunities galore in the 1990s in wood products research, education, extension, consulting,manufacturing, marketing, and associations in North America. In the 1980s the same statement could not have been made.

  10. Slavic Forest, Norwegian Wood (models)

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Rudolf; Žabokrtský, Zdeněk; Zeman, Daniel; Mareček, David

    2017-01-01

    Trained models for UDPipe used to produce our final submission to VarDial 2017 shared task (https://bitbucket.org/hy-crossNLP/vardial2017) and described in a paper by the same authors titled Slavic Forest, Norwegian Wood.

  11. Wood and Paper Manufacturing Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find EPA regulatory information for the wood product and paper manufacturing sectors, including paper, pulp and lumber. Information includes NESHAPs and effluent guidelines for pulp and paper rulemaking, and compliance guidelines

  12. Rethinking wood dust safety standards

    OpenAIRE

    Ratnasingam, Jega; Wai, Lim Tau; Ramasamy, Geetha; Ioras, Florin; Tadin, Ishak; Universiti Putra Malaysia; Buckinghamshire New University; Centre for Occupational Safety and Health Singapore

    2015-01-01

    The current universal work safety and health standards pertaining to wood dust in factories lack the localisation required. As a study has shown, there is a urgent need to reevaluate the current guidelines and practices.

  13. Proteomics of Plant Pathogenic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel González-Fernández

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant pathogenic fungi cause important yield losses in crops. In order to develop efficient and environmental friendly crop protection strategies, molecular studies of the fungal biological cycle, virulence factors, and interaction with its host are necessary. For that reason, several approaches have been performed using both classical genetic, cell biology, and biochemistry and the modern, holistic, and high-throughput, omic techniques. This work briefly overviews the tools available for studying Plant Pathogenic Fungi and is amply focused on MS-based Proteomics analysis, based on original papers published up to December 2009. At a methodological level, different steps in a proteomic workflow experiment are discussed. Separate sections are devoted to fungal descriptive (intracellular, subcellular, extracellular and differential expression proteomics and interactomics. From the work published we can conclude that Proteomics, in combination with other techniques, constitutes a powerful tool for providing important information about pathogenicity and virulence factors, thus opening up new possibilities for crop disease diagnosis and crop protection.

  14. Higher fungal diversity is correlated with lower CO2 emissions from dead wood in a natural forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunyan; Schaefer, Douglas A; Liu, Weijie; Popescu, Viorel D; Yang, Chenxue; Wang, Xiaoyang; Wu, Chunying; Yu, Douglas W

    2016-08-24

    Wood decomposition releases almost as much CO2 to the atmosphere as does fossil-fuel combustion, so the factors regulating wood decomposition can affect global carbon cycling. We used metabarcoding to estimate the fungal species diversities of naturally colonized decomposing wood in subtropical China and, for the first time, compared them to concurrent measures of CO2 emissions. Wood hosting more diverse fungal communities emitted less CO2, with Shannon diversity explaining 26 to 44% of emissions variation. Community analysis supports a 'pure diversity' effect of fungi on decomposition rates and thus suggests that interference competition is an underlying mechanism. Our findings extend the results of published experiments using low-diversity, laboratory-inoculated wood to a high-diversity, natural system. We hypothesize that high levels of saprotrophic fungal biodiversity could be providing globally important ecosystem services by maintaining dead-wood habitats and by slowing the atmospheric contribution of CO2 from the world's stock of decomposing wood. However, large-scale surveys and controlled experimental tests in natural settings will be needed to test this hypothesis.

  15. Fungi and fungi-like Oomycetes isolated from affected leaves of rhododendron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kowalik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to identify fungi and fungi-like Oomycetes occurring on affected leaves of rhododendron Rhododendron L. Mycological analyses were carried out on 200 leaves collected from green areas of Kraków from May till September 2005. Isolated fungi-like Oomycetes belonged to 67 taxa. The most frequently found fungi included: Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, Botrytis cinerea, Coelophoma empetri, Nigrospora sphaerica, Pestalotia sydowiana, Phialophora cyclaminis, Phomopsis archeri, Septoria azalea and Sordaria fimicola. Among fungi-like organisms Phytophthora cinnamomi and P. citricola were isolated.

  16. Aquatic fungi in the Lake Sejny complex

    OpenAIRE

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-01-01

    The mycoflora of the Lake Sejny complex was studied. Samples of water were collected in 1990-1991 for hydrochemical analysis and determination of fungi species. In total 69 species of fungi reported for the first time from Poland (Myzocylium vermicolum, Angulospora aquatica, Zoophthora rhizospora).

  17. Aquatic fungi in the Lake Sejny complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The mycoflora of the Lake Sejny complex was studied. Samples of water were collected in 1990-1991 for hydrochemical analysis and determination of fungi species. In total 69 species of fungi reported for the first time from Poland (Myzocylium vermicolum, Angulospora aquatica, Zoophthora rhizospora.

  18. Antibacterial activity of marine-derived fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Carsten; Crescente, Oscar; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    1998-01-01

    A total of 227 marine isolates of ubiqituous fungi were cultivated on different media and the secondary metabolite content of the extracts (ethyl acetate/chlorofonn/methanol 3 : 2 : 1) characterized by HPLC. The fungi were secured from animals, plants and sediments of Venezuelan waters (0-10 m...

  19. Promising carbons for supercapacitors derived from fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Hui; Wang, Xiaolei; Yang, Fan; Yang, Xiurong [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130022 (China)

    2011-06-24

    Activated carbons with promising performance in capacitors are produced from fungi via a hydrothermal assistant pyrolysis approach. This study introduces a facile strategy to discover carbonaceous materials and triggers interest in exploring fungi for material science applications. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Alkali metals in fungi of forest soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinichuk, M.; Taylor, A.; Rosen, K.; Nikolova, I.; Johanson, K.J.

    2009-01-01

    The high affinity of forest soil fungi for alkali metals such as potassium, rubidium, caesium as well as radiocaesium is shown and discussed. Good positive correlation was found between K: Rb concentration ratios in soil and in fungi, when correlation between K: Cs concentration ratios was less pronounced. (LN)

  1. Fossil evidence of the zygomycetous fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krings, M.; Taylor, T.N.; Dotzler, N.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular clock data indicate that the first zygomycetous fungi occurred on Earth during the Precambrian, however, fossil evidence of these organisms has been slow to accumulate. In this paper, the fossil record of the zygomycetous fungi is compiled, with a focus on structurally preserved

  2. Thermophilic Fungi: Their Physiology and Enzymes†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Ramesh; Bharadwaj, Girish; Bhat, Mahalingeshwara K.

    2000-01-01

    Thermophilic fungi are a small assemblage in mycota that have a minimum temperature of growth at or above 20°C and a maximum temperature of growth extending up to 60 to 62°C. As the only representatives of eukaryotic organisms that can grow at temperatures above 45°C, the thermophilic fungi are valuable experimental systems for investigations of mechanisms that allow growth at moderately high temperature yet limit their growth beyond 60 to 62°C. Although widespread in terrestrial habitats, they have remained underexplored compared to thermophilic species of eubacteria and archaea. However, thermophilic fungi are potential sources of enzymes with scientific and commercial interests. This review, for the first time, compiles information on the physiology and enzymes of thermophilic fungi. Thermophilic fungi can be grown in minimal media with metabolic rates and growth yields comparable to those of mesophilic fungi. Studies of their growth kinetics, respiration, mixed-substrate utilization, nutrient uptake, and protein breakdown rate have provided some basic information not only on thermophilic fungi but also on filamentous fungi in general. Some species have the ability to grow at ambient temperatures if cultures are initiated with germinated spores or mycelial inoculum or if a nutritionally rich medium is used. Thermophilic fungi have a powerful ability to degrade polysaccharide constituents of biomass. The properties of their enzymes show differences not only among species but also among strains of the same species. Their extracellular enzymes display temperature optima for activity that are close to or above the optimum temperature for the growth of organism and, in general, are more heat stable than those of the mesophilic fungi. Some extracellular enzymes from thermophilic fungi are being produced commercially, and a few others have commercial prospects. Genes of thermophilic fungi encoding lipase, protease, xylanase, and cellulase have been cloned and

  3. ASSESSMENT OF NOISE POLLUTION OF INHABITED TERRITORIES IMPACTED BY AIRFIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazonov Eduard Vladimirovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article, authors provide an overview of effective regulatory, reference and technical documents that govern the extent of suitability of territories adjacent to airfields for building-up. Methods of assessing the acceptable limits of the aviation noise in the areas adjacent to airfields are considered in the article. Ecologization of airfield environs is not a new problem. The research described in the article is noteworthy for the proposed optimization of any plans for the assurance of habitability of specific areas impacted by noise pollutions. The optimization consists in a set of organizational and technical solutions based on the noise levels in specific areas, development planning conditions of inhabited areas, and the monitoring of the airfield environs. It is the multi-factor approach that is capable of resolving the problem of ecological stress imposed by the noise coming from the air transport. Towards this end, the problem-solving strategy is to be developed and implemented in the areas that feature the same unfavorable environmental characteristics.

  4. Heterogeneity and Developmental Connections between Cell Types Inhabiting Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krivanek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Every tissue is composed of multiple cell types that are developmentally, evolutionary and functionally integrated into the unit we call an organ. Teeth, our organs for biting and mastication, are complex and made of many different cell types connected or disconnected in terms of their ontogeny. In general, epithelial and mesenchymal compartments represent the major framework of tooth formation. Thus, they give rise to the two most important matrix–producing populations: ameloblasts generating enamel and odontoblasts producing dentin. However, the real picture is far from this quite simplified view. Diverse pulp cells, the immune system, the vascular system, the innervation and cells organizing the dental follicle all interact, and jointly participate in transforming lifeless matrix into a functional organ that can sense and protect itself. Here we outline the heterogeneity of cell types that inhabit the tooth, and also provide a life history of the major populations. The mouse model system has been indispensable not only for the studies of cell lineages and heterogeneity, but also for the investigation of dental stem cells and tooth patterning during development. Finally, we briefly discuss the evolutionary aspects of cell type diversity and dental tissue integration.

  5. Biometry of neotropical invertebrates inhabiting floodplain rivers: unraveling bionomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Zilli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Currently, it is widely recognized that invertebrates play key roles in neotropical floodplains and in many other environments worldwide. However, little information has been published concerning their biometry, in spite that it represents an essential tool for many different studies. Here, we provided length-mass and length-length relationships by fitting the linearized model (log10 Y = log10a + b log10 X and several mean biomass ratios ± SE for bivalves, gastropods, quironomids, ephemeropterans, oligochaetes and hirudineans. We measured, weighed, oven dried and incinerated to ashes specimens collected from 2005 to 2014 in the Paraná River, Argentina. The lineal equations had fit levels higher than 75% in most of the significant regressions. Hence, when slopes were compared, differences raised from ontogeny and phylogeny of taxa. Additionally, slopes resulted different from constants of other regions, types of environments and climates. In addition, organic matter ratios resulted significantly different among invertebrates according to their feeding types. The equations and ratios that we provided will facilitate future research on life history, productivity and energy transference in the food webs of invertebrates inhabiting floodplain wetlands and can be used as tools for planning management strategies and in restoration projects of aquatic environments.

  6. Dermal insecticide residues from birds inhabiting an orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hulse, C.S.; Gentry, S.; Borges, S.L.

    2007-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency conducts risk assessments of insecticide applications to wild birds using a model that is limited to the dietary route of exposure. However, free-flying birds are also exposed to insecticides via the inhalation and dermal routes. We measured azinphos-methyl residues on the skin plus feathers and the feet of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) in order to quantify dermal exposure to songbirds that entered and inhabited an apple (Malus x domestica) orchard following an insecticide application. Exposure to azinphos-methyl was measured by sampling birds from an aviary that was built around an apple tree. Birds sampled at 36 h and 7-day post-application were placed in the aviary within 1 h after the application whereas birds exposed for 3 days were released into the aviary 4-day post-application. Residues on vegetation and soil were also measured. Azinphos-methyl residues were detected from the skin plus feathers and the feet from all exposure periods. Our results underscore the importance of incorporating dermal exposure into avian pesticide risk assessments.

  7. Visuality, mobility and the cosmopolitan: inhabiting the world from afar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szerszynski, Bronislaw; Urry, John

    2006-03-01

    In earlier publications based on the research discussed in this article (e.g. Szerszynski and Urry 2002), we argued that an emergent culture of cosmopolitanism, refracted into different forms amongst different social groups, was being nurtured by a widespread 'banal globalism'--a proliferation of global symbols and narratives made available through the media and popular culture. In the current article we draw on this and other empirical research to explore the relationship between visuality, mobility and cosmopolitanism. First we describe the multiple forms of mobility that expand people's awareness of the wider world and their capacity to compare different places. We then chart the changing role that visuality has played in citizenship throughout history, noting that citizenship also involves a transformation of vision, an absenting from particular contexts and interests. We explore one particular version of that transformation--seeing the world from afar, especially in the form of images of the earth seen from space--noting how such images conventionally connote both power and alienation. We then draw on another research project, on place and vision, to argue that the shift to a cosmopolitan relationship with place means that humans increasingly inhabit their world only at a distance.

  8. External dose estimates for future Bikini Atoll inhabitants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudiksen, P.H.; Crites, T.R.; Robison, W.L.

    1976-01-01

    To evaluate the potential radiation doses that may be received by the returning Bikinians, we surveyed the residual radioactivity on Bikini and Eneu Islands in June of 1975. An integral part of the survey included measurements of gamma-ray exposure rates which are used to estimate external gamma-ray doses. The survey showed that on Bikini Island the rates are highly variable: values near the shores are generally of the order of 10 to 20 μR/h, while those within the interior average about 40 μR/h with a range of roughly 30 to 100 μR/h. Eneu Island, however, is characterized by more or less uniformly distributed gamma radiation levels of less than 10 μR/h over the entire island. These data, in conjunction with population statistics and expected life styles, allowed us to estimate the potential external gamma-ray doses associated with proposed housing locations along the lagoon road and within the interior portions of Bikini Island as well as along the lagoon side of Eneu Island. As expected, living on Eneu Island results in the lowest doses: 0.12 rem during the first year and 2.9 rem during 30 years. The highest values, 0.28 rem during the first year and 5.9 rem over 30 years, may potentially be received by inhabitants living within the interior of Bikini Island. Other options under consideration produce intermediate values

  9. Hyperuricemia in the inhabitants of the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, W.H.; Harper, J.A.; Heotis, P.M.; Jamner, A.H.

    1984-01-01

    Annual medical examinations are conducted by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for a population of Marshallese who were accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout in 1954, for a comparison population, and for all inhabitants of the atolls of Rongelap and Utirik. Disease surveillance includes analysis of serum samples. Elevated serum uric acid (SUA) levels are common along Pacific populations, and modifying environmental factors have been investigated as a cause for this finding. The authors have studied SUA levels of people living in the Marshall Islands, and have found elevated values similar to those reported for other Micronesian populations. The nearly Gaussian distribution of individual serum uric acid values for men, and for women less than or equal to45 years of age, indicates that the elevation is due to a regularized increase in serum uric acid rather than to a subpopulation that has pathologic hyperuricemia. The higher serum uric acid levels appear, therefore, to be normal for the Marshallese, a conclusion supported by the infrequency of clinical gout in the population tested

  10. Life cycle environmental impacts of different construction wood waste and wood packaging waste processing methods

    OpenAIRE

    Manninen, Kaisa; Judl, Jáchym; Myllymaa, Tuuli

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the life cycle environmental impacts of different wood waste processing methods in three impact categories: climate impact, acidification impacts and eutrophication impacts. The wood waste recovery methods examined were the use of wood waste in terrace boards made out of wood composite which replace impregnated terrace boards, incineration of wood waste in a multi-fuel boiler instead of peat and the use of wood waste in the production of particleboard in either Finland or ...

  11. Occurrence patterns of dead wood and wood-dependent lichens in managed boreal forest landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Måns

    2013-01-01

    Dead wood is a key resource for biodiversity, on which thousands of forest organisms are dependent. Because of current forest management, there has been a large-scale change in dead wood amounts and qualities, and consequently, many wood-dependent species are threatened. The general aim of this thesis is to increase our understanding of habitat requirements and occurrence patterns of wood-dependent lichens in managed, boreal forest landscapes. We surveyed dead wood and wood-dependent lichens ...

  12. Occurrence of keratinophilic fungi on Indian birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, A K; Kushwaha, R K

    1991-01-01

    Keratinophilic fungi were isolated from feathers of most common Indian birds, viz. domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus), domestic pigeon (Columba livia), house sparrow (Passer domesticus), house crow (Corvus splendens), duck (Anas sp.), rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri). Out of 87 birds, 58 yielded 4 keratinophilic fungal genera representing 13 fungal species and one sterile mycelium. The isolated fungi were cultured on Sabouraud's dextrose agar at 28 +/- 2 degrees C. Chrysosporium species were isolated on most of the birds. Chrysosporium lucknowense and Chrysosporium tropicum were the most common fungal species associated with these Indian birds. Maximum occurrence of fungi (47%) was recorded on domestic chickens and the least number of keratinophilic fungi was isolated from the domestic pigeon and duck. The average number of fungi per bird was found to be the 0.44.

  13. Effect of cement/wood ratios and wood storage conditions on hydration temperature, hydration time, and compressive strength of wood-cement mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andy W.C. Lee; Zhongli Hong; Douglas R. Phillips; Chung-Yun Hse

    1987-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of cement/wood ratios and wood storage conditions on hydration temperature, hydration time, and compressive strength of wood-cement mixtures made from six wood species: southern pine, white oak, southern red oak, yellow-poplar, sweetgum, and hickory. Cement/wood ratios varied from 13/1 to 4/1. Wood storage conditions consisted of air-...

  14. Robert Williams Wood: pioneer of invisible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shruti; Sharma, Amit

    2016-03-01

    The Wood's lamp aids in the diagnosis of multiple infectious, inflammatory and neoplastic dermatologic conditions. Although the Wood's lamp has many applications, which have improved both the diagnosis and management of disease, the man credited for its invention is relatively unknown in medicine. Robert Williams Wood, a prominent physicist of the early 20th century, is credited for the invention of the Wood's lamp. Wood was the father of infrared and ultraviolet photography and made significant contributions to other areas in optics and spectroscopy. Wood's work encompassed the formative years of American Physics; he published over 200 original papers over his lifetime. A few years after the invention of the Wood's lamp for ultraviolet photography, physicians in Europe adopted the Wood's lamp for dermatologic applications. Wood's lamp remains popular in clinics globally, given its ease of use and ability to improve diagnostic precision. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Reactivity and burnout of wood fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall'Ora, Michelangelo

    This thesis deals with the combustion of wood in pulverised fuel power plants. In this type of boiler, the slowest step in the wood conversion process is char combustion, which is one of the factors that not only determine the degree of fuel burnout, but also affect the heat release profile...... of different aspects relevant to wood combustion, including wood structure and composition, wood pyrolysis, wood char properties and wood char oxidation. The full scale campaign, which is the subject of Chapter 3, included sampling of wood fuel before and after milling and sampling of gas and particles...... at the top of the combustion chamber. The collected samples and data are used to obtain an evaluation of the mills in operation at the power plant, the particle size distribution of the wood fuel, as well as the char conversion attained in the furnace. In Chapter 4 an experimental investigation...

  16. Acoustic and adsorption properties of submerged wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilde, Calvin Patrick

    Wood is a common material for the manufacture of many products. Submerged wood, in particular, is used in niche markets, such as the creation of musical instruments. An initial study performed on submerged wood from Ootsa Lake, British Columbia, provided results that showed that the wood was not suitable for musical instruments. This thesis re-examined the submerged wood samples. After allowing the wood to age unabated in a laboratory setting, the wood was retested under the hypothesis that the physical acoustic characteristics would improve. It was shown, however, that the acoustic properties became less adequate after being left to sit. The adsorption properties of the submerged wood were examined to show that the submerged wood had a larger accessible area of wood than that of control wood samples. This implied a lower amount of crystalline area within the submerged wood. From the combined adsorption and acoustic data for the submerged wood, relationships between the moisture content and speed of sound were created and combined with previous research to create a proposed model to describe how the speed of sound varies with temperature, moisture content and the moisture content corresponding to complete hydration of sorption sites within the wood.

  17. Repeated DNA sequences in fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, S K

    1974-11-01

    Several fungal species, representatives of all broad groups like basidiomycetes, ascomycetes and phycomycetes, were examined for the nature of repeated DNA sequences by DNA:DNA reassociation studies using hydroxyapatite chromatography. All of the fungal species tested contained 10 to 20 percent repeated DNA sequences. There are approximately 100 to 110 copies of repeated DNA sequences of approximately 4 x 10/sup 7/ daltons piece size of each. Repeated DNA sequence homoduplexes showed on average 5/sup 0/C difference of T/sub e/50 (temperature at which 50 percent duplexes dissociate) values from the corresponding homoduplexes of unfractionated whole DNA. It is suggested that a part of repetitive sequences in fungi constitutes mitochondrial DNA and a part of it constitutes nuclear DNA. (auth)

  18. Fungi in neotropical epiphyte roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudes, D; Benzing, D H

    1989-01-01

    Roots of thirty-eight Ecuadoran vascular epiphytes, representing eleven angiosperm families, were examined for the presence of symbiotic microorganisms. Most orchid roots contained fungal endophytes like those that regularly infect terrestrial counterparts. Hyphae were also common in and on nonorchid roots, but assignments of these relationships to known mycorrhizal morphologies was not possible in all cases. Evidence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) existed in a number of subjects while in Ericaceae and Campanulaceae a fungal association similar to the demateaceous surface fungi (DSF) described for alpine and prarie plants was usually present. Some associations were characterized by multicellular propagules on root surfaces. The significance of these findings and the factors likely to influence occurrence and consequences of root-fungus mutualisms in tropical forest canopies are discussed. Facts and considerations that could aid future inquiry on these systems are provided.

  19. Entomopathogenic fungi on Hemiberlesia pitysophila.

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    Chengqun Lv

    Full Text Available Hemiberlesia pitysophila Takagi is an extremely harmful exotic insect in forest to Pinus species, including Pinus massoniana. Using both morphological taxonomy and molecular phylogenetics, we identified 15 strains of entomogenous fungi, which belong to 9 genera with high diversities. Surprisingly, we found that five strains that were classified as species of Pestalotiopsis, which has been considered plant pathogens and endophytes, were the dominant entomopathogenic fungus of H. pitysophila. Molecular phylogenetic tree established by analyzing sequences of ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer showed that entomopathogenic Pestalotiopsis spp. were similar to plant Pestalotiopsis, but not to other pathogens and endophytes of its host plant P. massoniana. We were the first to isolate entomopathogenic Pestalotiopsis spp. from H. pitysophila. Our findings suggest a potential and promising method of H. pitysophila bio-control.

  20. Entomopathogenic fungi on Hemiberlesia pitysophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Chengqun; Huang, Baoling; Qiao, Mengji; Wei, Jiguang; Ding, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Hemiberlesia pitysophila Takagi is an extremely harmful exotic insect in forest to Pinus species, including Pinus massoniana. Using both morphological taxonomy and molecular phylogenetics, we identified 15 strains of entomogenous fungi, which belong to 9 genera with high diversities. Surprisingly, we found that five strains that were classified as species of Pestalotiopsis, which has been considered plant pathogens and endophytes, were the dominant entomopathogenic fungus of H. pitysophila. Molecular phylogenetic tree established by analyzing sequences of ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer showed that entomopathogenic Pestalotiopsis spp. were similar to plant Pestalotiopsis, but not to other pathogens and endophytes of its host plant P. massoniana. We were the first to isolate entomopathogenic Pestalotiopsis spp. from H. pitysophila. Our findings suggest a potential and promising method of H. pitysophila bio-control.