WorldWideScience

Sample records for wood fracture characterization

  1. Moisture-driven fracture in solid wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn; Ormarsson, Sigurdur; Olesen, John Forbes

    2011-01-01

    process, suggesting that sealing the ends of timber logs while in the green moisture state could considerably reduce the development of end-cracks. The initial moisture content and the shrinkage properties of the wood varied markedly from pith to bark. The importance of taking material inhomogeneities......Moisture-induced fractures in solid timber create considerable problems for both building industries and sawmills. Cracks caused by kiln-drying of solid timber are extremely difficult to predict. This paper reports on experiments concerned with methods of reducing cracks in wood...... into account when modelling crack propagation in solid wood is emphasized. © 2011 Taylor & Francis....

  2. The fracture of wood in relation to its structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeronimides, G.

    1976-01-01

    The work of fracture of wood has been measured and the experimental results have been discussed in relation to a model based on various morphological aspects of wood structure. The asymmetrical helical structure of the S2 wall layers appears to be relevant to the fracture behaviour of wood in

  3. FRACTURING FLUID CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subhash Shah

    2000-08-01

    Hydraulic fracturing technology has been successfully applied for well stimulation of low and high permeability reservoirs for numerous years. Treatment optimization and improved economics have always been the key to the success and it is more so when the reservoirs under consideration are marginal. Fluids are widely used for the stimulation of wells. The Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility (FFCF) has been established to provide the accurate prediction of the behavior of complex fracturing fluids under downhole conditions. The primary focus of the facility is to provide valuable insight into the various mechanisms that govern the flow of fracturing fluids and slurries through hydraulically created fractures. During the time between September 30, 1992, and March 31, 2000, the research efforts were devoted to the areas of fluid rheology, proppant transport, proppant flowback, dynamic fluid loss, perforation pressure losses, and frictional pressure losses. In this regard, a unique above-the-ground fracture simulator was designed and constructed at the FFCF, labeled ''The High Pressure Simulator'' (HPS). The FFCF is now available to industry for characterizing and understanding the behavior of complex fluid systems. To better reflect and encompass the broad spectrum of the petroleum industry, the FFCF now operates under a new name of ''The Well Construction Technology Center'' (WCTC). This report documents the summary of the activities performed during 1992-2000 at the FFCF.

  4. Fracture Mechanics of Wood and Wood-Like Reinforced Polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Put, T.A.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter discusses the theory of fracture mechanics based on the flat elliptical crack; the derivation of the mixed "mode I - II" - interaction equation, with the relations between the mode I and mode II stress intensities and energy release rates, based on an orthotropic-isotropic

  5. Discrete Fracture Network Characterization of Fractured Shale Reservoirs with Implications to Hydraulic Fracturing Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, G.

    2016-12-01

    Shales are important petroleum source rocks and reservoir seals. Recent developments in hydraulic fracturing technology have facilitated high gas production rates from shale and have had a strong impact on the U.S. gas supply and markets. Modeling of effective permeability for fractured shale reservoirs has been challenging because the presence of a fracture network significantly alters the reservoir hydrologic properties. Due to the frequent occurrence of fracture networks, it is of vital importance to characterize fracture networks and to investigate how these networks can be used to optimize the hydraulic fracturing. We have conducted basic research on 3-D fracture permeability characterization and compartmentization analyses for fractured shale formations, which takes the advantages of the discrete fracture networks (DFN). The DFN modeling is a stochastic modeling approach using the probabilistic density functions of fractures. Three common scenarios of DFN models have been studied for fracture permeability mapping using our previously proposed techniques. In DFN models with moderately to highly concentrated fractures, there exists a representative element volume (REV) for fracture permeability characterization, which indicates that the fractured reservoirs can be treated as anisotropic homogeneous media. Hydraulic fracturing will be most effective if the orientation of the hydraulic fracture is perpendicular to the mean direction of the fractures. A DFN model with randomized fracture orientations, on the other hand, lacks an REV for fracture characterization. Therefore, a fracture permeability tensor has to be computed from each element. Modeling of fracture interconnectivity indicates that there exists no preferred direction for hydraulic fracturing to be most effective oweing to the interconnected pathways of the fracture network. 3-D fracture permeability mapping has been applied to the Devonian Chattanooga Shale in Alabama and the results suggest that an

  6. Characterization of liquefied wood residues from different liquefaction conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui Pan; Todd f. Shupe; Chung-Yun Hse

    2007-01-01

    The amount of wood residue is used as a measurement of the extent of wood liquefaction. Characterization of the residue from wood liquefaction provides a new approach to understand some fundamental aspects of the liquefaction reaction. Residues were characterized by wet chemical analyses, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and...

  7. ELASTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF Eucalyptus citriodora WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Wagner Ballarin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributed to the elastic characterization of Eucalyptus citriodora grown inBrazil, considering an orthotropic model and evaluating its most important elastic constants.Considering this as a reference work to establish basic elastic ratios — several important elasticconstants of Brazilian woods were not determined yet - the experimental set-up utilized one tree of 65years old from plantations of “Horto Florestal Navarro de Andrade”, at Rio Claro-SP, Brazil. All theexperimental procedures attended NBR 7190/97 – Brazilian Code for wooden structures –withconventional tension and compression tests. Results showed statistical identity between compressionand tension modulus of elasticity. The relation observed between longitudinal and radial modulus ofelasticity was 10 (EL/ER ≈ 10 and same relation, considering shear modulus (modulus of rigidity was20 (EL/GLR ≈ 20. These results, associated with Poisson’s ratios herein determined, allow theoreticalmodeling of wood mechanical behavior in structures.

  8. Natural fracture characterization using passive seismic illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nihei, K.T.

    2003-01-08

    The presence of natural fractures in reservoir rock can significantly enhance gas production, especially in tight gas formations. Any general knowledge of the existence, location, orientation, spatial density, and connectivity of natural fractures, as well as general reservoir structure, that can be obtained prior to active seismic acquisition and drilling can be exploited to identify key areas for subsequent higher resolution active seismic imaging. Current practices for estimating fracture properties before the acquisition of surface seismic data are usually based on the assumed geology and tectonics of the region, and empirical or fracture mechanics-based relationships between stratigraphic curvature and fracturing. The objective of this research is to investigate the potential of multicomponent surface sensor arrays, and passive seismic sources in the form of local earthquakes to identify and characterize potential fractured gas reservoirs located near seismically active regions. To assess the feasibility of passive seismic fracture detection and characterization, we have developed numerical codes for modeling elastic wave propagation in reservoir structures containing multiple, finite-length fractures. This article describes our efforts to determine the conditions for favorable excitation of fracture converted waves, and to develop an imaging method that can be used to locate and characterize fractures using multicomponent, passive seismic data recorded on a surface array.

  9. Adhesive Through-Reinforcement Improves the Fracture Toughness of a Laminated Birch Wood Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchang He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we test the hypothesis that adhesive through-reinforcement in combination with glass-fibre reinforcement of adhesive bond lines will significantly improve the fracture toughness of a laminated birch wood composite. We test this hypothesis using a model composite consisting of perforated veneer that allowed a polyurethane adhesive to penetrate and reinforce veneers within the composite. Model composite specimens were tested for mode I fracture properties, and scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the microstructure of fracture surfaces. Our results clearly show that through-reinforcement, and also reinforcing adhesive bond lines with glass-fibre, significantly improved fracture toughness of the birch wood composite. Our results also indicate that improvements in fracture toughness depended on the level of reinforcement. Improvements in fracture toughness were related to the ability of the reinforcement to arrest crack development during fracture testing and the fibre bridging effect of glass-fibre in adhesive bond lines. We conclude that through-reinforcement is an effective way of improving the fracture toughness of laminated wood composites, but further research is needed to develop practical ways of creating such reinforcement in composites that more closely resemble commercial products.

  10. Relation between geometry of fracture surfaces and impact work of wood composite materials

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Přemyslovská; Petr Koňas

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work is description of geometry of fracture surfaces of wood composite materials (cement-bonded particleboard, gypsum-bonded fibreboard and wood particleboard) using fractal analysis and exploration relation between fractal dimension and impact work. Fractal dimension determinated by filtration, volumetric and robust Box-Counting methods and Richardson method is different considering type of material and method. Proportional relationship between fractal dimension (computed by ...

  11. Image-based characterization of cement pore structure using Wood`s metal intrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willis, K.L.; Abell, A.B.; Lange, D.A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1998-12-01

    Mercury intrusion porosimetry is a widely used technique for characterization of the pore size distribution of cement-based materials. However, the technique has several limitations, among which are the ink bottle effect and a cylindrical pore geometry assumption that lead to inaccurate pore size distribution curves. By substituting Wood`s metal for mercury as the intruding liquid, scanning electron microscopy and imaging techniques can be applied to the sample after intrusion. The molten Wood`s metal solidifies within the pore structure of the sample, which allows it to be sectioned and observed in the scanning electron microscopy. From here, the sample can be analyzed both qualitatively, by observing the changes in the appearance of the sample as the intrusion process progresses, and quantitatively, by applying image analysis techniques. This study provides insight for better interpretation of mercury intrusion porosimetry results and the possibility for quantitative characterization of the spatial geometry of pores in cement-based materials.

  12. Characterization of Juvenile wood in Lodgepole Pine in the Intermountain West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas M. Gorman; David E. Kretschmann

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile wood (core wood) is typically characterized as being less dimensionally stable and having lower mechanical properties than mature wood. Determination of the age of transition from juvenile wood to mature wood can provide basic information needed to assess dimensional stability and better utilize small-diameter trees growing in the intermountain west as solid-...

  13. XPS characterization of naturally aged wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, Carmen-Mihaela, E-mail: mihapop@icmpp.ro [Romanian Academy, ' P.Poni' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Physical Chemistry of Polymers Laboratory, 41A Gr. Ghica Voda Alley, Ro 700487, Iasi (Romania); Tibirna, Carmen-Mihaela [Centre de Recherche sur le Bois (CRB), Departement des Sciences du Bois et de la Foret, Laval University, Quebec, G1 V 0A6 (Canada); Vasile, Cornelia [Romanian Academy, ' P.Poni' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Physical Chemistry of Polymers Laboratory, 41A Gr. Ghica Voda Alley, Ro 700487, Iasi (Romania)

    2009-12-15

    Wood deterioration over time (by a simultaneously biological, chemical or physical attack) is an inevitable continuous process in the environment. This process destroys all heritage resulting in a loss of valuable old wooden structures and their properties. What type of deterioration occurs and how these processes impact the wood are important questions that need consideration if old wooden structures are to be studied and properly preserved. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to analyze the undegraded (sound wood of {approx}6 years) and degraded lime wood ({approx}150 years, {approx}180 years, {approx}250 years) from painting supports, differing in terms of the provenance, conservation status and environmental conditions of storage. Elaborated XPS analysis (comparison of C and O individual spectra, decomposition for each atomic component, calculation of O/C ratio) provided a view of the composition of the sample surfaces analyzed. On the basis of these results, it was confirmed that significant changes occurred in the first period of ageing, the {approx}150 years lime wood sample having the highest percent of the carbon atoms and the lowest percentage of oxygen atoms and, respectively O/C ratio. According to our previous studies (X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, analytical pyrolysis combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and ESR-spectroscopy results), these features could be attributed to the fact that hemicelluloses and amorphous cellulose are degraded in time, whereas the crystalline fraction of cellulose decreases more slowly than the amorphous one. Consequently, the observation may be made that lignin is not so easily degraded under the environmental conditions where paintings are frequently exposed.

  14. Characterizing wood-plastic composites via data-driven methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    John G. Michopoulos; John C. Hermanson; Robert Badaliance

    2007-01-01

    The recent increase of wood-plastic composite materials in various application areas has underlined the need for an efficient and robust methodology to characterize their nonlinear anisotropic constitutive behavior. In addition, the multiplicity of various loading conditions in structures utilizing these materials further increases the need for a characterization...

  15. Relation between geometry of fracture surfaces and impact work of wood composite materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Přemyslovská

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is description of geometry of fracture surfaces of wood composite materials (cement-bonded particleboard, gypsum-bonded fibreboard and wood particleboard using fractal analysis and exploration relation between fractal dimension and impact work. Fractal dimension determinated by filtration, volumetric and robust Box-Counting methods and Richardson method is different considering type of material and method. Proportional relationship between fractal dimension (computed by robust BC method and impact work of mentioned materials was found in other cases non-proportional relationships were founded.

  16. Fracture characterization in a deep geothermal reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühaak, Wolfram; Hehn, Vera; Hassanzadegan, Alireza; Tischner, Torsten

    2017-04-01

    At the geothermal research drilling Horstberg in North West Germany studies for the characterization of a vertical fracture are performed. The fracture was created by a massive hydraulic stimulation in 2003 in approx. 3700 m depth within rocks of the middle Buntsandstein. The fracture surface is in the order of 100,000 m2, depending on the flow rate at which water is injected. Besides hydraulic characterization, multiple tracer tests are planned. At the depth of interest the reservoir temperature is around 150 °C, pressure is around 600 bar (60 MPa) and due to salinity the water density is around 1200 kg/m3. Knowledge of tracer stability and behavior at these reservoir conditions is limited. Additionally, the planned tracer tests will be performed within one single borehole. In a closed cycle water is injected into the inner pipe of the well (tubing), which is separated by a permanent packer from the outer pipe (annulus). The water is produced back from the annulus approximately 150 m above the injection point. Thus, the circulation of thermal water between two sandstone layers via an artificial fracture can be achieved. Tests will be carried out with different flow rates and accordingly with different pressures, resulting in different fracture areas. Due to this test setup tracer signals will be stacked and will remain for a longer time in the fracture - which is the reason why different tracers are required. For an optimal characterization both conservative and reactive tracers will be used and different injection methods (continuous, instantaneous and pulsed) will be applied. For a proper setup of the tracer test numerical modelling studies are performed in advance. The relevant thermal, hydraulic and chemical processes (mainly adsorption and degredation) are coupled, resulting in a THC model; additionally the dependence of fracture aperture and area on fluid pressure has to be considered. Instead of applying a mechanically coupled model (THMC) a simplified

  17. Experimental study of moisture-driven distortion and fracture in solid wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn; Ormarsson, Sigurdur; Olesen, John Forbes

    2010-01-01

    Moisture-induced fracture and lack of shape stability in solid wood products are well known problems to the saw-milling and building industries. Cracks that initiate during the drying process may cause severe material losses and the building industry may be forced to use alternative building...... materials. The cracking caused by kiln-drying of solid timber (and round wood) is extremely difficult to predict due to the strong orthotropic and non-homogeneous characteristics of the material in combination with considerable amounts of microscopic defects which may act as crack initiators....... An experimental study has been performed to reveal the cracking behaviour of Norway spruce during drying from green moisture content down to equilibrium moisture content (EMC) at a temperature of 22-24°C and a RH of 64%. The moisture related strains and crack widths were measured with a digital image correlation...

  18. Characterization of borehole fractures by the body and interface waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henry, F.

    2005-01-01

    The success of the fracturing process in the oil and gas industry depends on our ability to define the hydraulic fracture geometry. To have a method of measurement for characterizing completely the fracture dimensions from a single well in reliable way, will be a primordial importance, in term of

  19. Formation, analysis and characterization of wood pyrolyzed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadwad, O. K.; Wagh, D. D.; Kokil, P. L.

    2017-06-01

    Pyrolysis of wood is the possible path for converting biomass to higher valuable products such as bio-oil, bio-char and bio-gas. Bio-oil or liquid biofuels have higher heating values so it can store and transport more conveniently. The by-products bio-char and bio-gas, which can be used to provide heat required in the process. This work focused on the formation, analysis and characterization of bio-oil which was obtained from the mixed wood pyrolysis. A GC-MS technique was used for the determination of families of lighter chemicals form pyrolyzed oil. Karl fisher titration and other analytical methods were used for the characterization of pyrolyzed oil. In all there were sixty-six compounds found in the GC-MS analysis of bio-oil and the major compound was acetic acid (19.06 wt ), formic acid (4.90 wt ) 1,2-benzenediol (4.43 wt ) and furfural (3.46 wt ). Along with this analysis, pyrolyzed oil was characterized by calculating its viscosity, density, calorific value, acid value, fire point, flash point, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, ash and water content in it. Most of the above mention properties of bio-oil matches with the properties of crude oil except it show more water content in it.

  20. Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2014-01-01

    is a renewable resource makes it predestinated for what is considered ´sustainable architecture´. But the reality is less linear and there are serious traps: In fact the lecture shows by examples that it is much easier to build very unsustainable buildings in wood than the other way round! Where does the wood...

  1. Raman spectroscopic characterization of wood and pulp fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh Prasad Agarwal

    2008-01-01

    This chapter reviews applications of Raman spectroscopy in the field of wood and pulp fibers. Most of the literature examined was published between 1998 and 2006. In addition to introduction, this chapter contains sections on wood and components, mechanical pulp, chemical pulp, modified/treated wood, cellulose I crystallinity of wood fibers, and the self-absorption...

  2. Tracer Methods for Characterizing Fracture Creation in Engineered Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Peter [Energy & Geoscience Institute at the University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Harris, Joel [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2014-05-08

    The aim of this proposal is to develop, through novel high-temperature-tracing approaches, three technologies for characterizing fracture creation within Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS). The objective of a first task is to identify, develop and demonstrate adsorbing tracers for characterizing interwell reservoir-rock surface areas and fracture spacing. The objective of a second task is to develop and demonstrate a methodology for measuring fracture surface areas adjacent to single wells. The objective of a third task is to design, fabricate and test an instrument that makes use of tracers for measuring fluid flow between newly created fractures and wellbores. In one method of deployment, it will be used to identify qualitatively which fractures were activated during a hydraulic stimulation experiment. In a second method of deployment, it will serve to measure quantitatively the rate of fluid flowing from one or more activated fracture during a production test following a hydraulic stimulation.

  3. Effect of oxidation agent on wood biomass in ethylene vinyl acetate conductive polymer: tensile properties, tensile fracture surface and electrical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, M. P. M.; Supri, A. G.; Rozyanty, A. R.; Tan, S. J.

    2017-10-01

    The wood fiber (WF) type of Pulverised Wood Filler obtained by combustion process at temperature under 700 °C for 3 hours was characterized and coated with ferric chloride (FeCl3) by ethanol solution. Both carbonized wood fiber (CWF) and carbonized wood fiber-ferric chloride (CWF-FeCl3) were used as filler in ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) conductive polymer. The filler was coated with FeCl3 to enhance the properties of the CWF to achieve progressive mechanical and electrical properties. The CWF and CWF-FeCl3 loading were varied from 2.5 to 10.0 wt%. EVA/CWF and EVA/CWF-FeCl3 conductive polymer were processed by using Brabender Plasticoder at 160 °C with 50 rpm rotor speed for 10 min. The mechanical properties were investigated by tensile testing and the tensile fractured surface of conductive polymers was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Then, the electrical conductivity of conductive polymer was determined by four-point probe I-V measurement system. The EVA/CWF-FeCl3 conductive polymer showed greater electrical conductivity and tensile strength but lower elongation at break than EVA/CWF conductive polymer. SEM morphology displayed rougher surface between CWF-FeCl3 and EVA phases compared to EVA/CWF conductive polymer.

  4. Nondestructive wood discrimination: FTIR - Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy in the characterization of different wood species used for artistic objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buoso, Maria Crista; de Poli, Mario; Matthaes, Peter; Silvestrin, Luca; Zafiropoulos, Demetre

    2016-09-01

    Wooden artifacts represent a significant component of past cultures. Successful conservation of wooden artifacts depends on the knowledge of wood structure and types. It is critical that conservators know the category of wood that they are treating in order to successfully conserve it. Recently, vibrational spectroscopy has been successfully applied to determine the chemical structure of wood and to characterize wood types. FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) is a useful nondestructive or micro-destructive analytical technique providing information about chemical bonding and molecular structure. Its application in the discrimination between softwoods (conifers) and hardwoods (broad-leafs) has already been reported. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of FTIR as a tool for the discrimination between different wood types belonging to the same genus. Three different hardwood species, namely poplar (Populus spp), lime (Tilia spp) and birch (Betula spp), were investigated by means of FTIR spectroscopy. The woods were first inspected using a light microscope to certify the wood essence types through micrographic and morphoanatomical features. The FTIR spectra in the 4000 cm-1 to 450 cm-1 region were recorded using a Perkin-Elmer Spectrum 100 spectrometer. To enhance the qualitative interpretation of the IR spectra, second derivatives of all spectra were calculated using the Spectrum software to separate superimposed bands and to extract fine spectral details. To obtain a comprehensive characterization, the essences under investigation were also analyzed by means of Raman Spectroscopy. Clear differences were found in the spectra of the three samples confirming FTIR to be a powerful tool for wood type discrimination.

  5. Characterization of fracture loci in metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, P.A.F.; Bay, Niels; Tekkaya, A.E.

    2014-01-01

    Fracture in metal forming can occur in three different modes: (i) tensile; (ii) in-plane shear; and (iii) out-of-plane shear (respectively the same as modes I, II and III of fracture mechanics). The circumstances under which each mode will occur are identified in terms of plastic flow and microst...

  6. Fracture mechanics and statistical modeling of ternary blends of polylactide/ethylene-acrylate copolymer /wood-flour composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrifah, Kojo Agyapong

    This study examined the mechanisms of toughening the brittle bio-based poly(lactic acid) (PLA) with a biodegradable rubbery impact modifier to develop biodegradable and cost effective PLA/wood-flour composites with improved impact strength, toughness, high ductility, and flexibility. Semicrystalline and amorphous PLA grades were impact modified by melt blending with an ethylene-acrylate copolymer (EAC) impact modifier. EAC content was varied to study the effectiveness and efficiency of the impact modifier in toughening the semicrystalline and amorphous grades of the PLA. Impact strength was used to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of the EAC in toughening the blends, whereas the toughening mechanisms were determined with the phase morphologies and the miscibilities of the blends. Subsequent tensile property analyses were performed on the most efficiently toughened PLA grade. Composites were made from PLA, wood flour of various particle sizes, and EAC. Using two-level factorial design the interaction between wood flour content, wood flour particle size, and EAC content and its effect on the mechanical properties of the PLA/wood-flour composites was statistically studied. Numerical optimization was also performed to statistically model and optimize material compositions to attain mechanical properties for the PLA/wood-flour composites equivalent to at least those of unfilled PLA. The J-integral method of fracture mechanics was applied to assess the crack initiation (Jin) and complete fracture (J f) energies of the composites to account for imperfections in the composites and generate data useful for engineering designs. Morphologies of the fractured surfaces of the composites were analyzed to elucidate the failure and toughening mechanisms of the composites. The EAC impact modifier effectively improved the impact strength of the PLA/EAC blends, regardless of the PLA type. However, the EAC was more efficient in the semicrystalline grades of PLA compared to the

  7. Characterizing phenolformaldehyde adhesive cure chemistry within the wood cell wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Yelle; John Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Adhesive bonding of wood using phenol-formaldehyde remains the industrial standard in wood product bond durability. Not only does this adhesive infiltrate the cell wall, it also is believed to form primary bonds with wood cell wall polymers, particularly guaiacyl lignin. However, the mechanism by which phenol-formaldehyde adhesive intergrally interacts and bonds to...

  8. Homogeneous esterification of poplar wood in an ionic liquid under mild conditions: characterization and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tong-Qi; Sun, Shao-Ni; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang

    2010-11-10

    Wood meal was completely dissolved under constant conditions (130 °C, 6 h) in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C4mim]Cl), and the various factors and potential mechanism of the homogeneous esterification of wood in this reaction medium were mainly studied. The physicochemical properties of the esterified wood were also investigated. It has been shown that highly substituted wood esters could be obtained by reacting wood dissolved in [C(4)mim]Cl with octanoyl chloride in the presence of triethylamine as a neutralizer. The weight percent gain was arranged from 121.5% to 297.4%. All reactions were performed under mild conditions, low excess of reagent, and a short reaction time compared to the heterogeneous chemical modification. Meanwhile, characterization of the derivatives confirmed that the homogeneous esterification was successfully processed. It was also found that thermal stability and morphological properties of the esterified wood were significantly different from those in previous reports. Octanoylation of wood meal in the [C(4)mim]Cl homogeneous system reduced the initial temperature of their thermal degradation and decreased the thermal stability compared to those in unmodified wood meal. Furthermore, the fibrillar appearance of wood meal changed into a relatively more homogeneous macrostructure of the esterfied wood. All these results suggested that homogeneous esterification of poplar wood in [C(4)mim]Cl would enhance the compatibility and improve the processability of wood with synthetic polymers.

  9. Production and characterization of activated carbon from wood wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, A. P.; Giraldo, S.; Ulloa, M.; Flórez, E.; Y Acelas, N.

    2017-12-01

    Cedarwood (Cedrela Angustifolia) and teak (Tectona Grandis) woods are typically used for furniture manufacture because they have high durability, are light and easy to work. During these manufacturing process, large amount of these wastes is generated causing disposal environmental problems. In this paper, the residual wastes (sawdust) of Cedar (C) and Teak (T) are transformed into an activated material. The chemical composition of both biomass (C and T) was determinate by TGA (Thermogravimetric Analysis). Activated materials were characterized in surface area following the BET (Brunauer, Emmett and Teller) method, morphology using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) and to know their functional groups a FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) analysis was done. Their adsorption capacity was evaluated by removal of Methylene Blue (MB) and Congo Red (CR) from aqueous solutions.

  10. Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Robert H. White; Antoni TenWolde; William Simpson; Joseph Murphy; Robert J. Ross; Roland Hernandez; Stan T. Lebow

    2006-01-01

    Wood is a naturally formed organic material consisting essentially of elongated tubular elements called cells arranged in a parallel manner for the most part. These cells vary in dimensions and wall thickness with position in the tree, age, conditions of growth, and kind of tree. The walls of the cells are formed principally of chain molecules of cellulose, polymerized...

  11. Development of Reservoir Characterization Techniques and Production Models for Exploiting Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggins, Michael L.; Brown, Raymon L.; Civan, Frauk; Hughes, Richard G.

    2001-08-15

    Research continues on characterizing and modeling the behavior of naturally fractured reservoir systems. Work has progressed on developing techniques for estimating fracture properties from seismic and well log data, developing naturally fractured wellbore models, and developing a model to characterize the transfer of fluid from the matrix to the fracture system for use in the naturally fractured reservoir simulator.

  12. Characterization of wood mulch and leachate/runoff from three wood recycling facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannepalli, Sarat; Strom, Peter F; Krogmann, Uta; Subroy, Vandana; Giménez, Daniel; Miskewitz, Robert

    2016-11-01

    Large-scale open storage of wood mulch is common practice at wood recycling facilities. During rain and snow melt, leachate with soluble compounds and suspended particles is released from mulch stockpiles. The objective of this study was to determine the quality of leachate/runoff from wood recycling facilities to evaluate its potential to contaminate receiving waterbodies. Wood mulch (n = 30) and leachate/runoff (n = 26) samples were collected over 1.5 years from three wood recycling facilities in New Jersey, USA. Differences by site were found (p recycling facilities should not be released to surface waters as it is a potential source of organic contamination and low levels of nutrients. A study in which runoff from a controlled drainage area containing wood mulch of known properties is monitored would allow for better assessment of the potential impact of stormwater runoff from wood recycling facilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization and potential recycling of home building wood waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip A. Araman; D.P. Hindman; M.F. Winn

    2010-01-01

    Construction waste represents a significant portion of landfill waste, estimated as 17% of the total waste stream. Wood construction waste of a 2000 square foot single family home we found to be 1500-3700 lbs of solid-sawn wood, and 1000-1800 lbs of engineered wood products (EWP). Much of the solid-sawn lumber and EWPs could be recycled into several products. Through a...

  14. School playground surfacing and arm fractures in children: a cluster randomized trial comparing sand to wood chip surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Andrew W; Macarthur, Colin; Rothman, Linda; Willan, Andrew; Macpherson, Alison K

    2009-12-01

    The risk of playground injuries, especially fractures, is prevalent in children, and can result in emergency room treatment and hospital admissions. Fall height and surface area are major determinants of playground fall injury risk. The primary objective was to determine if there was a difference in playground upper extremity fracture rates in school playgrounds with wood fibre surfacing versus granite sand surfacing. Secondary objectives were to determine if there were differences in overall playground injury rates or in head injury rates in school playgrounds with wood fibre surfacing compared to school playgrounds with granite sand surfacing. The cluster randomized trial comprised 37 elementary schools in the Toronto District School Board in Toronto, Canada with a total of 15,074 students. Each school received qualified funding for installation of new playground equipment and surfacing. The risk of arm fracture from playground falls onto granitic sand versus onto engineered wood fibre surfaces was compared, with an outcome measure of estimated arm fracture rate per 100,000 student-months. Schools were randomly assigned by computer generated list to receive either a granitic sand or an engineered wood fibre playground surface (Fibar), and were not blinded. Schools were visited to ascertain details of the playground and surface actually installed and to observe the exposure to play and to periodically monitor the depth of the surfacing material. Injury data, including details of circumstance and diagnosis, were collected at each school by a prospective surveillance system with confirmation of injury details through a validated telephone interview with parents and also through collection (with consent) of medical reports regarding treated injuries. All schools were recruited together at the beginning of the trial, which is now closed after 2.5 years of injury data collection. Compliant schools included 12 schools randomized to Fibar that installed Fibar and seven

  15. Characterization of fracture toughness of epoxy resin after hygrothermal aging

    KAUST Repository

    Quispe, Gustavo Q.

    2013-07-01

    Characterization of fracture toughness of epoxy resin after hygrothermal ageing Gustavo Quino Quispe The aim of this work is to characterize the e ects of hygrothermal aging in the plain strain fracture toughness of the epoxy system composed by cycloaliphatic epoxy resin and diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA). For this, after having been under hygrothermal aging in a climatic chamber, epoxy samples were studied using ASTM D5045 fracture toughness test, and micrography and roughness measurements of the fracture surface. It is reported a rapid decrease of GIc and KIc during the rst 2 days. Moreover, a numerical model [13] was used to simulate and see with more detail the water absorption in the aged samples. From that, it was observed the heterogeneous distribution of water. Accordingly, it was proposed that the results should be correlated with the water content at the vicinity of the crack tip. Consequently, it was possible to obtain, by quasi-static simulations, the ideal load-displacement curves of crack propagation in the heterogeneous samples. Finally, another contribution of this work is the study of the fracture surface, that gives a clue of the relationship among the fracture energy, the appearance of microcracks in the fracture surface, and the roughness (Ra).

  16. Fracture Characterization of Sandwich Face/Core Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manca, Marcello

    such result it is important to devise new experimental and analytical techniques to establish the multi-mode fracture characteristics of sandwich plate structures and accordingly develop methods to inhibit defect propagation. This thesis deals with characterization of fracture between face and core...... samples. A number of sandwich materials were tested (GFRP/foam cores and CFRP/Nomex) bothin static and fatigue. A linear elastic fracture mechanics model was used to determine the analyticalexpression of compliance which allowed to calculate automatically the crack length. In combination, a finite element...

  17. Production and characterization of carbon structures derived from wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xinfeng

    The objective of this research was to produce structural carbon materials from wood, a renewable biomaterial, for advanced material application. A broad range of materials were produced for study including carbonized wood, resin infused carbon composites made from carbonized wood, and carbon nanotubes from wood fibers. The effect of slow heating on the properties of carbonized wood was studied and important carbonized wood properties were found to be produced over a range of heating rates and peak temperatures. Slow heating rates promoted the formation and growth of graphene sheets in turbostratic crystallites, which had a significant influence on the electrical resistivity and Young's modulus of the carbonized wood. A reduction in the rate of heating may be beneficial with respect to carbon properties and the prevention of crack production during the manufacture of large monolithic carbon specimens from wood and wood-based materials. Investigation of selected physical and mechanical properties of resin-infused porous carbon composites made from medium density fiberboard demonstrated that the infused material can be used in specific applications, where high mechanical strength is not required but high dimensional stability at elevated-use temperatures, fire safety, or static dissipation and shielding is required. A unique cyclic heating process has been developed to produce carbon nanotubes directly from wood fibers. Study on the oxidative behavior of carbons derived from cellulose and lignin showed that cellulose carbon ablates faster at a lower temperature in air than lignin carbon when they were prepared at temperatures lower than 500°C due to cellulose carbon's lower content of aromatic structures. It is hypothesized that the formation of carbon nanotubes during the cyclic heating process occurred via template synthesis, with the nanochannels formed from the ablation of cellulose fibrils functioning as a template. Evidence of formation of nanochannels has been

  18. Characterization of wood-based molding bonded with citric acid

    OpenAIRE

    Umemura, Kenji; Ueda, Tomohide; Kawai, Shuichi

    2012-01-01

    The wood-based moldings were fabricated by using only citric acid as an adhesive. The mechanical properties, water resistances, thermal properties and chemical structure were investigated. Wood powder obtained from Acacia mangium was mixed with citric acid under certain weight ratios (0-40 wt%), and each powder mixture was molded using two types of metal molds at 200 °C and 4MPa for 10 min. The modulus of rupture (MOR) and the modulus of elasticity (MOE) values of the wood-based molding conta...

  19. School playground surfacing and arm fractures in children: a cluster randomized trial comparing sand to wood chip surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W Howard

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The risk of playground injuries, especially fractures, is prevalent in children, and can result in emergency room treatment and hospital admissions. Fall height and surface area are major determinants of playground fall injury risk. The primary objective was to determine if there was a difference in playground upper extremity fracture rates in school playgrounds with wood fibre surfacing versus granite sand surfacing. Secondary objectives were to determine if there were differences in overall playground injury rates or in head injury rates in school playgrounds with wood fibre surfacing compared to school playgrounds with granite sand surfacing.The cluster randomized trial comprised 37 elementary schools in the Toronto District School Board in Toronto, Canada with a total of 15,074 students. Each school received qualified funding for installation of new playground equipment and surfacing. The risk of arm fracture from playground falls onto granitic sand versus onto engineered wood fibre surfaces was compared, with an outcome measure of estimated arm fracture rate per 100,000 student-months. Schools were randomly assigned by computer generated list to receive either a granitic sand or an engineered wood fibre playground surface (Fibar, and were not blinded. Schools were visited to ascertain details of the playground and surface actually installed and to observe the exposure to play and to periodically monitor the depth of the surfacing material. Injury data, including details of circumstance and diagnosis, were collected at each school by a prospective surveillance system with confirmation of injury details through a validated telephone interview with parents and also through collection (with consent of medical reports regarding treated injuries. All schools were recruited together at the beginning of the trial, which is now closed after 2.5 years of injury data collection. Compliant schools included 12 schools randomized to Fibar that installed

  20. Solid state NMR and IR characterization of wood polymer structure in relation to tree provenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoni, Ilaria; Callone, Emanuela; Sandak, Anna; Sandak, Jakub; Dirè, Sandra

    2015-03-06

    (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance and mid-infrared spectroscopies were used for characterizing changes in the chemical structure of wood polymers (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) in relation to the tree growth location. Samples of three provenances in Europe (Finland, Poland and Italy) were selected for studies. The requirement was to use untreated solid wood samples to minimize any manipulation to the nanostructure of native wood. The results confirm that the chemical and physical properties of samples belonging to the same wood species (Picea abies Karst.) differ due to the origin. Both FT-IR and dynamic NMR spectroscopies were able to correctly discriminate samples originating from three different provenances in Europe. Such methods might be very useful for both, research and understanding of wood microstructure and its variability due to the growth conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of EGS Fracture Network Lifecycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillian R. Foulger

    2008-03-31

    Geothermal energy is relatively clean, and is an important non-hydrocarbon source of energy. It can potentially reduce our dependence on fossil fuels and contribute to reduction in carbon emissions. High-temperature geothermal areas can be used for electricity generation if they contain permeable reservoirs of hot water or steam that can be extracted. The biggest challenge to achieving the full potential of the nation’s resources of this kind is maintaining and creating the fracture networks required for the circulation, heating, and extraction of hot fluids. The fundamental objective of the present research was to understand how fracture networks are created in hydraulic borehole injection experiments, and how they subsequently evolve. When high-pressure fluids are injected into boreholes in geothermal areas, they flow into hot rock at depth inducing thermal cracking and activating critically stressed pre-existing faults. This causes earthquake activity which, if monitored, can provide information on the locations of the cracks formed, their time-development and the type of cracking underway, e.g., whether shear movement on faults occurred or whether cracks opened up. Ultimately it may be possible to monitor the critical earthquake parameters in near-real-time so the information can be used to guide the hydraulic injection while it is in progress, e.g., how to adjust factors such as injectate pressure, volume and temperature. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to mature analysis techniques and software that were, at the start of this project, in an embryonic developmental state. Task 1 of the present project was to develop state-of-the-art techniques and software for calculating highly accurate earthquake locations, earthquake source mechanisms (moment tensors) and temporal changes in reservoir structure. Task 2 was to apply the new techniques to hydrofracturing (Enhanced Geothermal Systems, or “EGS”) experiments performed at the Coso geothermal field

  2. TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF Eucalyptus benthamii WOOD FOR KRAFT PULP PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Nogueira Alves

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of Eucalyptus benthamii wood for kraft pulp production. A hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis, probably the most planted Eucalyptus clone in Brazil, was also analyzed for comparison purposes. Basic density, chemical composition and fiber dimensions were determined for the two species. The Eucalyptus benthamii wood presented an anatomical structure, basic density and fiber dimensions quite similar to those of other species planted by the Brazilian pulp industry. However, it presented poorer wood quality characteristics when compared to the hybrid urograndis species, with higher amounts of extractives and lignin, lower amount of glucans, more galactans and lower S/G ratio, characteristics leading to lower pulping yield. Additional studies should be carried out to establish its pulping, bleaching and paper strength properties.

  3. Fabrication and characterization of reversible thermochromic wood veneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaodong; Liu, Yu; Dong, Ningwen; Li, Zhao

    2017-12-05

    Leuco dyes are widely used as functional materials for their thermosensitive chromogenic nature. The influences of thermochromic compounds and impregnation processing conditions on thermochromic wood veneer properties were investigated in this paper. The thermochromic compounds included thermochromic dye (ODB-2), color developer (bisphenol A) and solvent (1-tetradecanol). To achieve the maximum color change, the optimum mixing ratio of ODB-2 to bisphenol A to 1-tetradecanol was 1:2:60. Juglans mandshurica veneers were ultrasonically impregnated with reversible thermochromic compound suspensions. Analysis of variance showed that the influences of impregnation parameters on veneer color change were significant at the 0.05 level. The optimum thermochromic wood veneer can be obtained by impregnating with a thermochromic compound suspension for 2.0 min at 65 °C. In this paper, the thermochromic properties of wood veneers were evaluated, and functional thermochromic veneers exhibited excellent properties and thermostability.

  4. Physical-mechanical and anatomical characterization in 26-year-old Eucalyptus resinifera wood

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Israel Luiz de; Longui, Eduardo Luiz; Freitas, Miguel Luiz Menezes; Zanatto, Antonio Carlos Scatena; Zanata, Marcelo; Florsheim, Sandra Monteiro Borges; Bortoletto Jr., Geraldo

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to characterize Eucalyptus resinifera wood through physical and mechanical assays and wood anatomy studies, as well as determine the relationships between the properties and anatomy of wood. We used samples collected from the area close to the bark of ten 26-year-old E. resinifera trees. We concluded that the specific gravity (Gb), compression (f c0), and shear parallel to grain (f v0) were ranked in strength classes C30, C40 and C60, respectively, and that volu...

  5. Statistical analysis of surface lineaments and fractures for characterizing naturally fractured reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Genliang; George, S.A.; Lindsey, R.P.

    1997-08-01

    Thirty-six sets of surface lineaments and fractures mapped from satellite images and/or aerial photos from parts of the Mid-continent and Colorado Plateau regions were collected, digitized, and statistically analyzed in order to obtain the probability distribution functions of natural fractures for characterizing naturally fractured reservoirs. The orientations and lengths of the surface linear features were calculated using the digitized coordinates of the two end points of each individual linear feature. The spacing data of the surface linear features within an individual set were, obtained using a new analytical sampling technique. Statistical analyses were then performed to find the best-fit probability distribution functions for the orientation, length, and spacing of each data set. Twenty-five hypothesized probability distribution functions were used to fit each data set. A chi-square goodness-of-fit test was used to rank the significance of each fit. A distribution which provides the lowest chi-square goodness-of-fit value was considered the best-fit distribution. The orientations of surface linear features were best-fitted by triangular, normal, or logistic distributions; the lengths were best-fitted by PearsonVI, PearsonV, lognormal2, or extreme-value distributions; and the spacing data were best-fitted by lognormal2, PearsonVI, or lognormal distributions. These probability functions can be used to stochastically characterize naturally fractured reservoirs.

  6. Oral motor and electromyographic characterization of adults with facial fractures: a comparison between different fracture severities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Pagliotto da Silva

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To characterize the oral motor system of adults with facial injuries and to compare the oral motor performance/function between two different groups. METHODS: An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 38 patients presenting with facial trauma who were assigned to the Division of Orofacial Myology of a Brazilian School Hospital. Patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 (G1 consisted of 19 patients who were submitted to open reduction of at least one facial fracture, and Group 2 (G2 consisted of 19 individuals who were submitted to closed fracture reduction with maxillomandibular fixation. For comparison purposes, a group of 19 healthy volunteers was recruited. All participants underwent a clinical assessment that included an oral motor evaluation, assessment of the mandibular range of motions, and electromyographic assessment of the masticatory muscles. RESULTS: Clinical assessment of the oral motor organs indicated that G1 and G2 presented deficits related to the posture, position, and mobility of the oral motor organs. Patients also presented limited mandibular ranges of movement. Deficits were greater for individuals in G1, especially for maximal incisor opening. Additionally, patients in G1 and G2 presented a similar electromyographic profile of the masticatory muscles (i.e., patients with facial fractures presented lower overall muscle activity and significant asymmetrical activity of the masseter muscle during maximum voluntary teeth clenching. CONCLUSION: Patients in G1 and G2 presented similar functional deficits after fracture treatment. The severity of facial fractures did not influence muscle function/performance 4 months after the correction of fractures.

  7. Characterization of Midface Fractures Incurred in Recent Wars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Characterization of Midface Fractures Incurred in Recent Wars Christopher P. Kittle, DDS,* Adam J. Verrett, DDS,Þ Jesse Wu, BS,* Davin E. Mellus, DMD ...battlefield is needed to improve our understanding of these injuries, to optimize treatment, and to potentially direct strategic development of protective...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 such as landmines.11 In contrast , the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan saw more injuries from within armored vehicles

  8. Demonstration of a Fractured Rock Geophysical Toolbox (FRGT) for Characterization and Monitoring of DNAPL Biodegradation in Fractured Rock Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    USER’S GUIDE Demonstration of a Fractured Rock Geophysical Toolbox (FRGT) for Characterization and Monitoring of DNAPL Biodegradation in...Fractured Rock Aquifers ESTCP Project ER-201118 JANUARY 2016 F.D. Day-Lewis C.D. Johnson U. S. Geological Survey, Office of Groundwater...RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 01/01/2016 Guidance July 2011 - January 2016 Demonstration of a Fractured Rock Geophysical

  9. Preliminary evaluation of production and characterization of wood vinegar from rubberwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraivan Ratanapisit

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with a slow pyrolysis of rubberwood in a furnace at an atmospheric pressure to produce pyroligneous liquid or wood vinegar. Pyroligneous liquids produced were separated into two fractions based on temperatures in a furnace. The yields of wood vinegar were quantified. Also pH, SG and boiling ranges were determined. The optimum condition of pyrolysis was obtained at the heating rate of 1.4oC/min to the final temperature at 550oC/min with a yield of 27.45%. The pH and specific gravity were attained at about 2.9-3.83 and 1.009-1.027, respectively, depend on process conditions. Also the boiling ranges of rubberwood vinegar approximately were 96-108oC based on the ASTM-D86 method. However, no significantlychanges were seen in the pH, specific gravity and boiling ranges of rubberwood vinegar regarding to hearting rates. For characterization, wood vinegar was fractionated by a distillation into three fractions. Both crude and distilled wood vinegars were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and gas chromatography. Results showed that the wood vinegar is mainly composed of acetic acid. Also the rubberwood pyrolysis yields high methanol content compared to other woods.

  10. ANATOMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF TENSION WOOD IN Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex A. Juss. Mull. Arg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Maria Alves Ramos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Tension wood is an important anatomical structure for its participation in the orientation of the trunk and the architecture of the branches as a function of structural reinforcement. However, its presence in large amounts significantly affects the technological properties of wood, just as in the rubber tree. Nevertheless, there is still demand for information about the origin, distribution and structural features in this species. Thus, this study aims to characterize the cellular structures in tension and opposite wood in Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree, as well as its radial and longitudinal distribution. Discs at the base and the middle of the commercial logs were collected from three trees in a commercial plantation located in Tabapoã - SP. Tangential diameter of vessels, fiber length (gelatinous and non-gelatinous fibers, microfibril angle and proportionality of cellular elements (vessels, axial parenchyma, ray, gelatinous fibers and non-gelatinous fibers were measured, and influence of gelatinous fiber presence in vessel diameter was observed. Gelatinous fibers were observed in the two types of wood and in the two trunk heights. Both types of wood were distinguished by gelatinous fiber length and the proportion of axial parenchyma. The tension wood in mid-trunk was the most different, with long gelatinous fibers and less abundant, larger vessel diameter and vessel proportion. Moreover, smaller vessel diameter was observed in the regions with a high proportion of gelatinous fibers, suggesting that the plant invests more support than in liquid transport.

  11. Characterization of volatile constituents in commercial oak wood chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Muiño, Iria; Cadahía, Estrella

    2010-09-08

    The volatile composition of the different oak wood pieces (chips of Quercus spp.) that can be found on the market to be used as alternatives to barrels for aging wines, as well as of chips of Quercus pyrenaica which are being introduced, was studied, evaluating the contents of volatile phenols, lactones, furanic compounds, pyranones, phenolic aldehydes, phenolic ketones, and others. In regard to the overall results, the volatile composition of these products varies widely and has not been clearly laid out according to either the oak species or the wood toasting intensity. Taking into account that the different characteristics of alternatives to barrel products are reflected in the wine treated with them and that an oenological profile based on these variables (origin and toasting level) cannot be defined, only an appropriate chemical analysis would reveal the quality of alternative-to-barrel products and allow us to attempt to foresee its effects on the chemical and organoleptic characteristics of the wines treated with them. On the other hand, the Q. pyrenaica alternative products are very similar to those of other species, with some aromatic particularities, such as their high levels of furanic compounds, eugenol, Furaneol, and cis-whiskylactone, and low levels of vanillin.

  12. An overview of geophysical technologies appropriate for characterization and monitoring at fractured-rock sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geophysical methods are used increasingly for characterization and monitoring at remediation sites in fractured-rock aquifers. The complex heterogeneity of fractured rock poses enormous challenges to groundwater remediation professionals, and new methods are needed to cost-effect...

  13. Analog site for fractured rock characterization. Annual report FY 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, J.C.S.; Loughty, C.; Faybishenko, B. [and others

    1995-10-01

    This report describes the accomplishments of the Analog Site for Fracture Rock Characterization Project during fiscal year 1995. This project is designed to address the problem of characterizing contaminated fractured rock. In order to locate contaminant plumes, develop monitoring schemes, and predict future fate and transport, the project will address the following questions: What parts of the system control flow-geometry of a fracture network? What physical processes control flow and transport? What are the limits on measurements to determine the above? What instrumentation should be used? How should it be designed and implemented? How can field tests be designed to provide information for predicting behavior? What numerical models are good predictors of the behavior of the system? The answers to these question can be used to help plan drilling programs that are likely to intersect plumes and provide effective monitoring of plume movement. The work is done at an {open_quotes}analogue{close_quotes} site, i.e., a site that is not contaminated, but has similar geology to sites that are contaminated, in order to develop tools and techniques without the financial, time and legal burdens of a contaminated site. The idea is to develop conceptual models and investigations tools and methodology that will apply to the contaminated sites in the same geologic regimes. The Box Canyon site, chosen for most of this work represents a unique opportunity because the Canyon walls allow us to see a vertical plane through the rock. The work represents a collaboration between the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL), Stanford University (Stanford), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and Parsons Environmental Engineering (Parsons). LBL and Stanford bring extensive experience in research in fractured rock systems. INEL and Parsons bring significant experience with the contamination problem at INEL.

  14. Seismic Fracture Characterization Methodologies for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queen, John H. [Hi-Geophysical, Inc., Ponca, OK (United States)

    2016-05-09

    Executive Summary The overall objective of this work was the development of surface and borehole seismic methodologies using both compressional and shear waves for characterizing faults and fractures in Enhanced Geothermal Systems. We used both surface seismic and vertical seismic profile (VSP) methods. We adapted these methods to the unique conditions encountered in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) creation. These conditions include geological environments with volcanic cover, highly altered rocks, severe structure, extreme near surface velocity contrasts and lack of distinct velocity contrasts at depth. One of the objectives was the development of methods for identifying more appropriate seismic acquisition parameters for overcoming problems associated with these geological factors. Because temperatures up to 300º C are often encountered in these systems, another objective was the testing of VSP borehole tools capable of operating at depths in excess of 1,000 m and at temperatures in excess of 200º C. A final objective was the development of new processing and interpretation techniques based on scattering and time-frequency analysis, as well as the application of modern seismic migration imaging algorithms to seismic data acquired over geothermal areas. The use of surface seismic reflection data at Brady's Hot Springs was found useful in building a geological model, but only when combined with other extensive geological and geophysical data. The use of fine source and geophone spacing was critical in producing useful images. The surface seismic reflection data gave no information about the internal structure (extent, thickness and filling) of faults and fractures, and modeling suggests that they are unlikely to do so. Time-frequency analysis was applied to these data, but was not found to be significantly useful in their interpretation. Modeling does indicate that VSP and other seismic methods with sensors located at depth in wells will be the most

  15. Ultrasonic sensor to characterize wood pulp during refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, M S; Panetta, P D; Bond, L J; McCaw, M W

    2006-12-22

    A novel sensor concept has been developed for measuring the degree of refining, the water retention value (WRV), and the weight percentage of wood pulp during the refining process. The measurement time is less than 5 min and the sensor can operate in a slip-stream of the process line or as an at-line instrument. The degree of refining and the WRV are determined from settling measurements. The settling of a pulp suspension (with a weight percentage less than 0.5 wt%) is observed, after the mixer, which keeps the pulp uniformly distributed, is turned off. The attenuation of ultrasound as a function of time is recorded and these data show a peak at a time designated as the "peak time." The peak time T increases with the degree of refining, as demonstrated by measuring pulp samples with known degrees of refining. The WRV can be determined using the relative peak time, defined as the ratio T(2)/T(1), where T(1) is an initial peak time and T(2) is the value after additional refining. This method offers an alternative WRV test for the industry to the current time-consuming method.

  16. DFNModeler: an efficient discrete fracture network modeler and its application to fracture characterization in Black Warrior basin, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, G.; Pashin, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    Discrete fracture network (DFN) models are stochastic representations of natural fracture systems that incorporate statistical scaling rules derived from analysis of fracture length, height, spacing, orientation, and aperture, and have been used increasingly in coalbed methane reservoir characterization. The DFN technique has been applied in a number of areas such as hydraulic fluid transport, carbon sequestration modeling, and fracture reservoir characterization, etc. The goal of DFN modeling is to represent the important aspects of natural fractures within the mathematical framework of numerical simulation and engineering calculations. DFN models are important vehicles for the simulation of flow and solute transport in a fractured rock mass, thus DFN modeling techniques have become important and powerful tools for fractured reservoir characterization and CO2 sequestration studies. We have developed a computer software package called DFNModeler, which is designed for the realization, visualization, and analysis of discrete fracture network models. Computerized analysis of fracture networks is important because fractures are abundant in reservoirs and aquifers and can have a strong effect on fluid flow patterns and compartmentalization. DFNModeler has four major functionalities: 1) edit and input information on the statistical properties of fracture networks; 2) realize the DFN model using derived stochastic populations; 3) analyze fracture compartmentalization and fluid migration pathways; and 4) visualize the DFN model. These functionalities are provided through user-friendly, menu-driven interfaces. Accuracy, efficiency, and reliability are three important factors that guided software development. The DFNModeler has been applied to the fracture reservoir characterization of the Lower Pennsylvanian-age Pottsville Formation in the Black Warrior basin, Alabama. The Pottsville Formation constitutes a thick succession of shale, sandstone, and coal. Coalbed methane

  17. From Micro to Meso: an exercise in determining hydraulic conductivity of fractured sandstone cores from detailed characterization of the fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraka-Lokmane, Salima; Liedl, Rudolf

    2006-09-01

    Hydraulic conductivities of fractured sandstone bore cores of 0.1 m in diameter are calculated using detailed characterization of the fracture geometry parameters determined using a resin casting technique. The accuracy of the measurements was about 0.25-1.25 μm with the image size used. The values of the effective fracture apertures vary between 10 μm and 50 μm. For modelling purposes the samples are sectioned serially, perpendicular to the flow direction along the cylinder axis. The hydraulic conductivity of individual slices is estimated by summing the contribution of the matrix (assumed uniform) and each fracture (depending on its length and aperture). Finally, the hydraulic conductivity of the bulk sample is estimated by a harmonic average in series along the flow path. Results of this geometrical upscaling compare favourably with actual conductivity measured in hydraulic and pneumatic experiments carried out prior to sectioning. This study shows that the determination of larger-scale conductivity can be achieved, based on the evaluation of fracture geometry parameters (e.g. fracture aperture, fracture width and fracture length), measured using an optical method, at least at the laboratory scale.

  18. Preparation, characterization and phenol adsorption capacity of activated carbons from African beech wood sawdust

    OpenAIRE

    N.T. Abdel-Ghani; G.A. El-Chaghaby; F. Helal

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, different activated carbons were prepared from carbonized African beech wood sawdust by potassium hydroxide activation. The activated carbons were characterized by brunauer–emmett–teller, scanning electron microscope, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analyzer. The phenol adsorption capacity of the prepared carbons was evaluated. The different factors affecting phenol’s removal were studied including: contact time, solution pH and initial phe...

  19. Structure-function characterization of the crinkle-leaf peach wood phenotype: a future model system for wood properties research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variations in wood features of two genotypes of Prunus persica L. trees, wild-type and crinkle-leaf, were examined to elucidate the nature of weak wood in crinkle-leaf trees. Trees from three vigor classes (low, average, and high) of each genotype were sampled. No meaningful tendency of dissimilarit...

  20. Investigations of Accelerated Climate Aged Wood Substrates by Fourier Transform Infrared Material Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Petter Jelle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourier transform infrared (FTIR material characterization by applying the attenuated total reflectance (ATR experimental technique represents a powerful measurement tool. The ATR technique may be applied on both solid state materials, liquids and gases with none or only minor sample preparations, also including materials which are nontransparent to infrared radiation. This facilitation is made possible by pressing the sample directly onto various crystals, for example, diamond, with high refractive indices, in a special reflectance setup. Materials undergoing ageing processes by natural and accelerated climate exposure, decomposition and formation of chemical bonds and products, may be studied in an ATR-FTIR analysis. In this work, the ATR-FTIR technique is utilized to detect changes in selected wood building material substrates subjected to accelerated climate exposure conditions. Changes in specific FTIR absorbance peaks are designated to different wood deterioration processes. One aim is by ATR-FTIR analysis to be able to quantitatively determine the length of the wood ageing time before priming/treatment. Climate parameters like temperature (including freezing/thawing, relative air humidity, wind driven rain amount, solar and/or ultraviolet radiation, and exposure duration may be controlled in different climate ageing apparatuses. Both impregnated and raw wood samples have been employed in the experimental investigations.

  1. Structure-Property Characterization of the Crinkle-Leaf Peach Wood Phenotype: A Future Model System for Wood Properties Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedenhoeft, Alex C.; Arévalo, Rafael; Ledbetter, Craig; Jakes, Joseph E.

    2016-09-01

    Nearly 400 million years of evolution and field-testing by the natural world has given humans thousands of wood types, each with unique structure-property relationships to study, exploit, and ideally, to manipulate, but the slow growth of trees makes them a recalcitrant experimental system. Variations in wood features of two genotypes of peach ( Prunus persica L.) trees, wild-type and crinkle-leaf, were examined to elucidate the nature of weak wood in crinkle-leaf trees. Crinkle-leaf is a naturally-occurring mutation in which wood strength is altered in conjunction with an easily observed `crinkling' of the leaves' surface. Trees from three vigor classes (low growth rate, average growth rate, and high growth rate) of each genotype were sampled. No meaningful tendency of dissimilarities among the different vigor classes was found, nor any pattern in features in a genotype-by-vigor analysis. Wild-type trees exhibited longer vessels and fibers, wider rays, and slightly higher specific gravity. Neither cell wall mechanical properties measured with nanoindentation nor cell wall histochemical properties were statistically or observably different between crinkle-leaf and wild-type wood. The crinkle-leaf mutant has the potential to be a useful model system for wood properties investigation and manipulation if it can serve as a field-observable vegetative marker for altered wood properties.

  2. Propagation of Gaussian wave packets in complex media and application to fracture characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yinshuai; Zheng, Yingcai; Zhou, Hua-Wei; Howell, Michael; Hu, Hao; Zhang, Yu

    2017-08-01

    Knowledge of the subsurface fracture networks is critical in probing the tectonic stress states and flow of fluids in reservoirs containing fractures. We propose to characterize fractures using scattered seismic data, based on the theory of local plane-wave multiple scattering in a fractured medium. We construct a localized directional wave packet using point sources on the surface and propagate it toward the targeted subsurface fractures. The wave packet behaves as a local plane wave when interacting with the fractures. The interaction produces multiple scattering of the wave packet that eventually travels up to the surface receivers. The propagation direction and amplitude of the multiply scattered wave can be used to characterize fracture density, orientation and compliance. Two key aspects in this characterization process are the spatial localization and directionality of the wave packet. Here we first show the physical behaviour of a new localized wave, known as the Gaussian Wave Packet (GWP), by examining its analytical solution originally formulated for a homogenous medium. We then use a numerical finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method to study its propagation behaviour in heterogeneous media. We find that a GWP can still be localized and directional in space even over a large propagation distance in heterogeneous media. We then propose a method to decompose the recorded seismic wavefield into GWPs based on the reverse-time concept. This method enables us to create a virtually recorded seismic data using field shot gathers, as if the source were an incident GWP. Finally, we demonstrate the feasibility of using GWPs for fracture characterization using three numerical examples. For a medium containing fractures, we can reliably invert for the local parameters of multiple fracture sets. Differing from conventional seismic imaging such as migration methods, our fracture characterization method is less sensitive to errors in the background velocity model

  3. Mode II Interlaminar Fracture Toughness and Fatigue Characterization of a Graphite Epoxy Composite Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, T. Kevin; Johnston, William M.; Toland, Gregory J.

    2010-01-01

    Mode II interlaminar fracture toughness and delamination onset and growth characterization data were generated for IM7/8552 graphite epoxy composite materials from two suppliers for use in fracture mechanics analyses. Both the fracture toughness testing and the fatigue testing were conducted using the End-notched Flexure (ENF) test. The ENF test for mode II fracture toughness is currently under review by ASTM as a potential standard test method. This current draft ASTM protocol was used as a guide to conduct the tests on the IM7/8552 material. This report summarizes the test approach, methods, procedures and results of this characterization effort.

  4. Proximal third humeral shaft fractures -- a fracture entity not fully characterized by conventional AO classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedtfeld, H W; Biber, R

    2014-01-01

    The retrospective study was made to evaluate the fracture patterns at the proximal humeral shaft for which the long version of a standard proximal humeral nail (PHNLV) has been used. The indication has been decided by the individual surgeons. Over a five year period 72 consecutive PHNLV cases of an acute fracture were identified and were included in the study. Mean patient age was 68.9 years. Gender ratio was m/f=22/50. 86.1% of the patients fractured their humerus by a fall, the rest by a high velocity accident. We analysed patient comorbidity, ASA score, osteoporosis, social status before accident, additional injuries affecting local soft tissues or other anatomic regions. We analysed the expansion of the fractures, dividing the humerus into five zones. Fracture morphology was categorized according to the standard AO/ASIF classification (if applicable). Comorbidities were found in 76.4% of the patients. Almost all patients (93.1%) had been living independently at home before the accident. 47.2% of patients had osteoporosis in their medical history. Five patients (6.9%) had a primary palsy of the radial nerve. Six fractures chosen for PHNLV fixation were clearly restricted to the humeral head. The remaining 66 fractures were located in the humeral shaft (AO region 12). There were 5 segmental fractures. Of the remaining 67 fractures affecting the proximal third of the humeral shaft 49.3 percent extended into the humeral head. 98 percent of these fractures displayed spiral morphology. Proximal humeral shaft fractures are amazingly similar to subtrochanteric and distal tibial shaft fractures: Spiral fracture types with different grades of comminution are absolutely dominant; a great proportion of the fractures extend into the humeral head with growing tendency of displacement if located closer to the humeral head. Diverging traction of deltoid and pectoralis muscle causes typical displacement if the fracture line runs in between their attachments substantiating the

  5. Characterization of reservoir fractures using conventional geophysical logging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paitoon Laongsakul

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In hydrocarbon exploration fractures play an important role as possible pathways for the hydrocarbon flow and bythis enhancing the overall formation’s permeability. Advanced logging methods for fracture analysis, like the boreholeacoustic televiewer and Formation Microscanner (FMS are available, but these are additional and expensive tools. However,open and with water or hydrocarbon filled fractures are also sensitive to electrical and other conventional logging methods.For this study conventional logging data (electric, seismic, etc were available plus additional fracture information from FMS.Taking into account the borehole environment the results show that the micro-spherically focused log indicates fractures byshowing low resistivity spikes opposite open fractures, and high resistivity spikes opposite sealed ones. Compressional andshear wave velocities are reduced when passing trough the fracture zone, which are assumed to be more or less perpendicularto borehole axis. The photoelectric absorption curve exhibit a very sharp peak in front of a fracture filled with bariteloaded mud cake. The density log shows low density spikes that are not seen by the neutron log, usually where fractures,large vugs, or caverns exist. Borehole breakouts can cause a similar effect on the logging response than fractures, but fracturesare often present when this occurs. The fracture index calculation by using threshold and input weight was calculatedand there was in general a good agreement with the fracture data from FMS especially in fracture zones, which mainlycontribute to the hydraulic system of the reservoir. Finally, the overall results from this study using one well are promising,however further research in the combination of different tools for fracture identification is recommended as well as the useof core for further validation.

  6. MULTI-ATTRIBUTE SEISMIC/ROCK PHYSICS APPROACH TO CHARACTERIZING FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Mavko

    2000-10-01

    This project consists of three key interrelated Phases, each focusing on the central issue of imaging and quantifying fractured reservoirs, through improved integration of the principles of rock physics, geology, and seismic wave propagation. This report summarizes the results of Phase I of the project. The key to successful development of low permeability reservoirs lies in reliably characterizing fractures. Fractures play a crucial role in controlling almost all of the fluid transport in tight reservoirs. Current seismic methods to characterize fractures depend on various anisotropic wave propagation signatures that can arise from aligned fractures. We are pursuing an integrated study that relates to high-resolution seismic images of natural fractures to the rock parameters that control the storage and mobility of fluids. Our goal is to go beyond the current state-of-the art to develop and demonstrate next generation methodologies for detecting and quantitatively characterizing fracture zones using seismic measurements. Our study incorporates 3 key elements: (1) Theoretical rock physics studies of the anisotropic viscoelastic signatures of fractured rocks, including up scaling analysis and rock-fluid interactions to define the factors relating fractures in the lab and in the field. (2) Modeling of optimal seismic attributes, including offset and azimuth dependence of travel time, amplitude, impedance and spectral signatures of anisotropic fractured rocks. We will quantify the information content of combinations of seismic attributes, and the impact of multi-attribute analyses in reducing uncertainty in fracture interpretations. (3) Integration and interpretation of seismic, well log, and laboratory data, incorporating field geologic fracture characterization and the theoretical results of items 1 and 2 above. The focal point for this project is the demonstration of these methodologies in the Marathon Oil Company Yates Field in West Texas.

  7. Particle size characterization of oak wood leachate: chemical oxygen demand and toxicity distribution within different fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Henric; Jani, Yahya; Hogland, William; Marques, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    Oak wood leachate obtained from two storage facilities (storage pound and ditch) in a wood-based industry, and leachate generated by a laboratory leaching test, were characterized in seven categories regarding particle size distribution (PSD) (raw leachate, ≤ 20 μm, ≤ 10 μm, ≤ 1.2 μm, ≤ 13 nm, ≤ 5 nm and ≤ 2 nm). The PSD followed a normal distribution model with a correlation coefficient (r) varying from 82 to 88. Each fraction was analysed regarding chemical oxygen demand, polyphenols and acute toxicity in toxicity assays with Artemia salina, Vibrio fischeri and Lactuca sativa. Fractions with particles >1.2 μm were more toxic to A. salina and V. fisheri than fractions with particles ≤ 1.2 μm. No toxic effect was observed for L. sativa. The results suggest that polyphenols are the main toxic compounds in oak wood leachate. A conspicuous difference was found between field and laboratory samples.

  8. Fractures in the deep critical zone characterized by drilling and geophysics in the Laramie Range, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, J. L.; Holbrook, W. S.; Carr, B.; Flinchum, B. A.; Rempe, D.; Novitsky, C. G.; Dewey, J.

    2016-12-01

    Fractures are linked to many processes that influence the architecture of the deep critical zone; for example, fractures may regulate the influx of meteoric water and thus direct the propagation of chemical weathering. It is therefore important to understand the subsurface distribution of fractures and their control on deep critical zone architecture. Several proposed theoretical frameworks imply that the distribution of fractures in the deep critical zone may vary along hillslopes. Frost cracking models predict variations in cracking intensity depending on aspect and temperature variation. Surface curvature and inherited tectonic fractures may also provide controls on fracture distribution. A recently proposed model combines topographic and tectonic stresses to calculate the lateral distribution of subsurface stress and failure potential, thus implying local and regional controls on the distribution and density of fractures. In light of these models, we use geophysical surveys and observations from boreholes to characterize fractures in the deep critical zone in the Laramie Mountains, Wyoming. Our geophysical results from seismic refraction surveys suggest that local topographic and regional tectonic stresses control the distribution of fractures. This interpretation is supported by borehole measurements, which show that fracture density decreases with depth and is lower beneath valleys than ridges. We estimate fracture density from pixel analysis of amplitude and traveltime acoustic televiewer data, which accounts for fracture aperture. Comparisons of p-wave velocities and fracture density show that increasing seismic velocity (i.e., from 1-4 km/s) corresponds to decreasing fracture density. From optical televiewer images of the borehole we also interpret thick (> 10 cm) weathering zones along fractures in the upper portions of boreholes located on the ridge. This observation emphasizes the complex interplay of chemical and physical processes in shaping the deep

  9. Fracture network topology and characterization of structural permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansberry, Rowan; King, Rosalind; Holford, Simon

    2017-04-01

    There are two fundamental requirements for successful geothermal development: elevated temperatures at accessible depths, and a reservoir from which fluids can be extracted. The Australian geothermal sector has successfully targeted shallow heat, however, due in part to the inherent complexity of targeting permeability, obtaining adequate flow rates for commercial production has been problematic. Deep sedimentary aquifers are unlikely to be viable geothermal resources due to the effects of diagenetic mineral growth on rock permeability. Therefore, it is likely structural permeability targets, exploiting natural or induced fracture networks will provide the primary means for fluid flow in geothermal, as well as unconventional gas, reservoirs. Recent research has focused on the pattern and generation of crustal stresses across Australia, while less is known about the resultant networks of faults, joints, and veins that can constitute interconnected sub-surface permeability pathways. The ability of a fracture to transmit fluid is controlled by the orientation and magnitude of the in-situ stress field that acts on the fracture walls, rock strength, and pore pressure, as well as fracture properties such as aperture, orientation, and roughness. Understanding the distribution, orientation and character of fractures is key to predicting structural permeability. This project focuses on extensive mapping of fractures over various scales in four key Australian basins (Cooper, Otway, Surat and Perth) with the potential to host geothermal resources. Seismic attribute analysis is used in concert with image logs from petroleum wells, and field mapping to identify fracture networks that are usually not resolved in traditional seismic interpretation. We use fracture network topology to provide scale-invariant characterisation of fracture networks from multiple data sources to assess similarity between data sources, and fracture network connectivity. These results are compared with

  10. Characterization of novolac type liquefied wood/phenol/formaldehyde (LWPF) resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui Pan; Todd F. Shupe; Chung-Yun Hse

    2009-01-01

    Novolac type liquefied wood/phenol/formaldehyde (LWPF) resins were synthesized from liquefied wood and formaldehyde. The average molecular weight of the LWPF resin made from the liquefied wood reacted in an atmospheric three neck flask increased with increasing P/W ratio. However, it decreased with increasing phenol/wood ratio when using a sealed Parr reactor. On...

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION TECHNIQUES AND PRODUCTION MODELS FOR EXPLOITING NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Wiggins; Raymon L. Brown; Faruk Civan; Richard G. Hughes

    2002-12-31

    For many years, geoscientists and engineers have undertaken research to characterize naturally fractured reservoirs. Geoscientists have focused on understanding the process of fracturing and the subsequent measurement and description of fracture characteristics. Engineers have concentrated on the fluid flow behavior in the fracture-porous media system and the development of models to predict the hydrocarbon production from these complex systems. This research attempts to integrate these two complementary views to develop a quantitative reservoir characterization methodology and flow performance model for naturally fractured reservoirs. The research has focused on estimating naturally fractured reservoir properties from seismic data, predicting fracture characteristics from well logs, and developing a naturally fractured reservoir simulator. It is important to develop techniques that can be applied to estimate the important parameters in predicting the performance of naturally fractured reservoirs. This project proposes a method to relate seismic properties to the elastic compliance and permeability of the reservoir based upon a sugar cube model. In addition, methods are presented to use conventional well logs to estimate localized fracture information for reservoir characterization purposes. The ability to estimate fracture information from conventional well logs is very important in older wells where data are often limited. Finally, a desktop naturally fractured reservoir simulator has been developed for the purpose of predicting the performance of these complex reservoirs. The simulator incorporates vertical and horizontal wellbore models, methods to handle matrix to fracture fluid transfer, and fracture permeability tensors. This research project has developed methods to characterize and study the performance of naturally fractured reservoirs that integrate geoscience and engineering data. This is an important step in developing exploitation strategies for

  12. Field Mapping and Fracture Characterization Techniques Predict Groundwater Preferential Flow Paths in Fractured Bedrock Aquifers, Nashoba Terrane, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manda, A. K.; Mabee, S. B.; Hubbs, S. A.

    2005-12-01

    A study examining the relationship between fracture characteristics and groundwater was undertaken in the crystalline Nashoba Terrane of eastern Massachusetts. The Nashoba Terrane, a fault-bounded, highly deformed sliver of Paleozoic igneous and metamorphic rocks, covers an area of 600 sq km about 50 km northwest of Boston. Increasing industrial development coupled with population growth place significant pressure on developers to provide sufficient potable water for the population. To aid water development and management, this study examined fracture characteristics at regional, quadrangle and wellfield scales. The regional-scale work involved recording over 4000 structural measurements from 80 outcrops in the terrane. Fracture information recorded at each data station included strike and dip, trace length, spacing, termination, and fracture type. Preliminary results show that hydrostructural domains can be defined from combinations of fracture characterization and rock types. These domains are used to conceptualize general groundwater flow patterns in the subsurface: steeply dipping fractures, such as partings parallel to foliation enhance recharge potential and impose strong flow anisotropy. A different character is observed if steeply dipping joints intersect sheeting joints. In this instance, both recharge and lateral flow will be enhanced and flow anisotropy will be reduced. The distribution and intensity of particular fracture sets varies as a function of rock type, proximity to major features and local stress states. Partings parallel to foliation are prevalent in gneissic rocks whereas sheeting joints are more common in igneous rocks. Common joints are the most prevalent fractures, present in all rock types across the entire terrane. Quadrangle and wellfield scale data can be used to validate the regional-scale conceptual models. A comprehensive well-yield database was created to test the proposed models. Over 500 water wells in the terrane were evaluated

  13. Characterization of fracture patterns and hygric properties for moisture flow modelling in cracked concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rouchier, Simon; Janssen, Hans; Rode, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Several years after their installation, building materials such as concrete present signs of ageing in the form of fractures covering a wide range of sizes, from microscopic to macroscopic cracks. All sizes of fractures can have a strong influence on heat and moisture flow in the building envelope......, but their distribution is difficult to predict due to the variety of environmental factors which cause them. This paper aims at applying experimental non-destructive techniques for the observation of fracture patterns and of fluid flow in fractures, in order to provide this data to models for fluid transfer in fractured...... moisture concentration profiles. Digital Image Correlation was found suitable as a mean to obtain a complete mapping of the deformations at the surface of the samples, and a first step was made towards the use of non-destructive fracture characterization for the purpose of moisture transfer modelling....

  14. Characterization and modelling of naturally fractured granites in the Redang Island, Terengganu, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Kadir, Askury; Rahman, Mohd Razlan Abdul; Chee Meng, Choong; Jamaludin, Fathiyah; Talib, Jasmi Ab

    2015-04-01

    The Redang Island is situated in the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia, in the state of Terengganu. Geologically, it is mainly composed of medium- to coarse-grained biotite-hornblend granite and overlain by sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. The close-spaced fractured pattern gave an indicator for the active tectonic, which create a fractured basement in Anding Utara that situated 200km SE of the study area. The main primary objective is to characterize the fracture orientation, fracture density as well as to create the static DFN model based on the surface outcrops. A systematic and accurate data collection is crucial for a proper statistical analysis of fracture parameters for fracture modeling. A total of five scan-lines at different length was captured to represent the area. The mode I (extension) and mode II (sheared) fractures are identified during the data aquisition. Hence, the maximum stresses (α1) were interpreted from rose diagram and stereoplots, which are trending towards NE-SW and ENE-WSW. The regional stresses obtained is almost identical to FMI data from the Malay Basin (Anding). Hence, this study suggests that the fracture networking are genetically correlated between fractured basement in the Malay Basin and the Redang Island. Therefore, it can become a good analogue for in-depth studies for better understanding of fracture reservoir.

  15. Characterization of hydraulic fractures and reservoir properties of shale using natural tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, J. E.; Gardner, P.; Kuhlman, K. L.; Malama, B.

    2013-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing plays a major role in the economic production of hydrocarbon from shale. Current fracture characterization techniques are limited in diagnosing the transport properties of the fractures on the near wellbore scale to that of the entire stimulated reservoir volume. Microseismic reveals information on fracture geometries, but not transport properties. Production analysis (e.g., rate transient analysis using produced fluids) estimates fracture and reservoir flow characteristics, but often relies on simplified models in terms of fracture geometries and fluid storage and transport. We present the approach and potential benefits of incorporating natural tracers with production data analysis for fracture and reservoir characterization. Hydraulic fracturing releases omnipresent natural tracers that accumulate in low permeability rocks over geologic time (e.g., radiogenic 4He and 40Ar). Key reservoir characteristics govern the tracer release, which include: the number, connectivity, and geometry of fractures; the distribution of fracture-surface-area to matrix-block-volume; and the nature of hydrocarbon phases within the reservoir (e.g., methane dissolved in groundwater or present as a separate gas phase). We explore natural tracer systematics using numerical techniques under relevant shale-reservoir conditions. We evaluate the impact on natural tracer transport due to a variety of conceptual models of reservoir-transport properties and boundary conditions. Favorable attributes for analysis of natural tracers include the following: tracer concentrations start with a well-defined initial condition (i.e., equilibrium between matrix and any natural fractures); there is a large suite of tracers that cover a range of at least 7x in diffusion coefficients; and diffusive mass-transfer out of the matrix into hydraulic fractures will cause elemental and isotopic fractionation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by

  16. Characterization and determination of lignin in different types of Iraqi phoenix date palm pruning woods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Hilal M; Abdul Latif, Mohammed H; Attiya, Hanaa G

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to find analytical data base for Iraqi phoenix date palm pruning woods, which produced by pruning process at the season of date palm production. Lignin has been extracted and purified for five types of Iraqi date palm using Klason lignin method. The weight of the extracted lignin ranged from 0.410 g to 0.720 g, and the lignin % ranged from 17.6 to 36. The other ingredients (waxes, oils, resin, and proteins of wood gums) % ranged from 20 to 29.5. FT-IR characterization showed that the (-OH) phenolic group appear in Ashrasi lignin structure only and disappear in other lignin samples, and the (4-O-5 inter monomeric lignin linkage) showed strong to moderate intensity peaks for all studied samples except the Austa omran sample has a weak intensity peaks. Also (DODO inter monomeric lignin linkage) showed strong intensity peaks for all studied samples except the Barban sample showed moderate intensity peaks. UV-vis characterization showed that the lowest absorption maximum (266 nm) corresponds to Barban lignin sample, while the highest absorption maximum (271 nm) corresponds to Sultani lignin sample. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mixed mode fracture toughness characterization of sandwich interfaces using the modified TSD specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggreen, Christian; Andreasen, J.H.; Carlsson, L.A.

    2009-01-01

    An extensive parametric analysis shows that the modified Tilted Sandwich Debond (TSD) specimen provides a methodology for characterization of the face/core fracture resistance over a range of mode-mixities. A pilot experimental mixed mode characterization of the fracture toughness of sandwich spe...... specimens, with composite faces and various PVC foam cores spanning a range of phase angles, has been achieved by specific steel bar reinforcements and testing over a range of tilt angles....

  18. Characterizing saturated mass transport in fractured cementitious materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Alireza

    Concrete, when designed and constructed properly, is a durable material. However in aggressive environments concrete is prone to gradual deterioration which is due to penetration of water and aggressive agents (e.g., chloride ions) into concrete. As such, the rate of mass transport is the primary factor, controlling the durability of cementitious materials. Some level of cracking is inevitable in concrete due to brittle nature of the material. While mass transport can occur through concrete’s porous matrix, cracks can significantly accelerate the rate of mass transport and effectively influence the service life of concrete structures. To allow concrete service life prediction models to correctly account for the effect of cracks on concrete durability, mass transport thru cracks must be characterized. In this study, transport properties of cracks are measured to quantify the saturated hydraulic permeability and diffusion coefficient of cracks as a function of crack geometry (i.e.; crack width, crack tortuosity and crack wall roughness). Saturated permeability and diffusion coefficient of cracks are measured by constant head permeability test, electrical migration test, and electrical impedance spectroscopy. Plain and fiber reinforced cement paste and mortar as well as simulated crack samples are tested. The results of permeability test showed that the permeability of a crack is a function of crack width squared and can be predicted using Louis formula when crack tortuosity and surface roughness of the crack walls are accounted for. The results of the migration and impedance tests showed that the diffusion coefficient of the crack is not dependent on the crack width, but is primarily a function of volume fraction of cracks. The only parameter that is changing with the crack width is the crack connectivity. Crack connectivity was found to be linearly dependent on crack width for small crack and constant for large cracks (i.e.; approximately larger than 80 µm). The

  19. Characterizing Fracture Property Using Resistivity Measured at Different Frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horne, Roland N. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Li, Kewen [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The objective was to develop geophysical approaches to detecting and evaluating the fractures created or existing in EGS and other geothermal reservoirs by measuring the resistivity at different frequencies. This project has been divided into two phases: Phase I (first year): Proof of Concept – develop the resistivity approach and verify the effect of frequency on the resistivity in rocks with artificial or natural fractures over a wide range of frequencies. Phase II: Prototyping Part 1 (second year): measure the resistivity in rocks with fractures of different apertures, different length, and different configurations at different frequencies. Part 2 (third year): develop mathematical models and the resistivity method; infer the fracture properties using the measured resistivity data.

  20. Characterization of dielectric properties of nanocellulose from wood and algae for electrical insulator applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bras, David; Strømme, Maria; Mihranyan, Albert

    2015-05-07

    Cellulose is one of the oldest electrically insulating materials used in oil-filled high-power transformers and cables. However, reports on the dielectric properties of nanocellulose for electrical insulator applications are scarce. The aim of this study was to characterize the dielectric properties of two nanocellulose types from wood, viz., nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC), and algae, viz., Cladophora cellulose, for electrical insulator applications. The cellulose materials were characterized with X-ray diffraction, nitrogen gas and moisture sorption isotherms, helium pycnometry, mechanical testing, and dielectric spectroscopy at various relative humidities. The algae nanocellulose sample was more crystalline and had a lower moisture sorption capacity at low and moderate relative humidities, compared to NFC. On the other hand, it was much more porous, which resulted in lower strength and higher dielectric loss than for NFC. It is concluded that the solid-state properties of nanocellulose may have a substantial impact on the dielectric properties of electrical insulator applications.

  1. Characterization of fluid flow in naturally fractured reservoirs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, R.D.

    1981-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of a four month study of the characteristics of multiphase flow in naturally fractured porous media. An assessment and evaluation of the literature was carried out and a comprehensive list of references compiled on the subject. Mathematical models presented in the various references cited were evaluated along with the stated assumptions or those inherent in the equations. Particular attention was focused upon identifying unique approaches which would lead to the formulation of a general mathematical model of multiphase/multi-component flow in fractured porous media. A model is presented which may be used to more accurately predict the movement of multi-phase fluids through such type formations. Equations of motion are derived for a multiphase/multicomponent fluid which is flowing through a double porosity, double permeability medium consisting of isotropic primary rock matrix blocks and an anisotropic fracture matrix system. The fractures are assumed to have a general statistical distribution in space and orientation. A general distribution function, called the fracture matrix function is introduced to represent the statistical nature of the fractures.

  2. Characterization of fractured reservoirs joint inversion of seismic and production data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahraini, Ali

    2011-03-15

    Significant amounts of oil and gas reserves are trapped in fractured reservoirs. A proper characterization of fractured reservoirs can contribute to better reservoir management, including optimum well placement, planning of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods, well completion and so on. Characterization of fractured (and faulted) reservoirs has been a challenging and complicated task due to the high degree of heterogeneity and anisotropy that exists in this kind of reservoirs. In this thesis I look at the problem of fractured reservoir characterization as an inverse problem, and try to estimate the uncertain fracture parameters by joint inversion (or history matching) of seismic and production data. Updating a reservoir model to behave as closely as possible to the real reservoir is called history matching, which generally has a non-unique solution. History matching is a time consuming problem. Using both production and seismic data can help to narrow the solution space. This work aims to propose and develop work flows and methodologies for improved characterization of fractured reservoirs. It is based on an integrated approach using both seismic and production data in the characterization process. The fluid flow- seismic wave system for fractured reservoir characterization consists of a reservoir simulator coupled to consistent rock physics models and forward seismic modeling tools. A consistent (computationally inexpensive) rock physics model is used to calculate the effective permeability and stiffness tensors of fractured porous media from a limited number of uncertain fracture parameters. Based on the calculated effective permeability tensors, the reservoir simulator calculates production data such as well oil production, well bottom hole pressure, well water cut, saturation and pressure for all grid blocks at specific time steps. Similarly, using the effective stiffness tensors (calculated from saturation maps and assumed fracture parameters), seismic

  3. Application of artificial intelligence to characterize naturally fractured zones in Hassi Messaoud Oil Field, Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Ouahed, Abdelkader Kouider; Mazouzi, Amine [Sonatrach, Rue Djenane Malik, Hydra, Algiers (Algeria); Tiab, Djebbar [Mewbourne School of Petroleum and Geological Engineering, The University of Oklahoma, 100 East Boyd Street, SEC T310, Norman, OK, 73019 (United States)

    2005-12-15

    In highly heterogeneous reservoirs classical characterization methods often fail to detect the location and orientation of the fractures. Recent applications of Artificial Intelligence to the area of reservoir characterization have made this challenge a possible practice. Such a practice consists of seeking the complex relationship between the fracture index and some geological and geomechanical drivers (facies, porosity, permeability, bed thickness, proximity to faults, slopes and curvatures of the structure) in order to obtain a fracture intensity map using Fuzzy Logic and Neural Network. This paper shows the successful application of Artificial Intelligence tools such as Artificial Neural Network and Fuzzy Logic to characterize naturally fractured reservoirs. A 2D fracture intensity map and fracture network map in a large block of Hassi Messaoud field have been developed using Artificial Neural Network and Fuzzy Logic. This was achieved by first building the geological model of the permeability, porosity and shale volume using stochastic conditional simulation. Then by applying some geomechanical concepts first and second structure directional derivatives, distance to the nearest fault, and bed thickness were calculated throughout the entire area of interest. Two methods were then used to select the appropriate fracture intensity index. In the first method well performance was used as a fracture index. In the second method a Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) was built. Using this FIS, static and dynamic data were coupled to reduce the uncertainty, which resulted in a more reliable Fracture Index. The different geological and geomechanical drivers were ranked with the corresponding fracture index for both methods using a Fuzzy Ranking algorithm. Only important and measurable data were selected to be mapped with the appropriate fracture index using a feed forward Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN). The neural network was then used to obtain a fracture intensity

  4. Formation and characterization of early bacterial biofilms on different wood typologies applied in dairy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruciata, Margherita; Gaglio, Raimondo; Scatassa, Maria Luisa; Sala, Giovanna; Cardamone, Cinzia; Palmeri, Marisa; Moschetti, Giancarlo; La Mantia, Tommaso; Settanni, Luca

    2017-11-27

    Main hypothesis: Sicilian forestry resources are suitable for the production of equipment to be used in cheese making and indigenous milk lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are able to develop stable biofilms providing starter and non starter cultures necessary for curd fermentation and cheese ripening, respectively. Hence, the present work was carried out to evaluate LAB biofilm formation on different woods derived from trees species grown in Sicily with deproteinized whey. Microbiological and scanning electron microscopy analyses showed minimal differences in microbial levels and composition for the neoformed biofilms. The specific investigation of Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS) and sulfite-reducing anaerobes did not generate any colony for all vats before and after bacterial adhesion. LAB populations dominated all vat surfaces. The highest levels (7.63 Log CFU/cm2) were registered for thermophilic cocci. Different colonies were characterized physiologically, biochemically and genetically (at strain and species level). Six species within the genera Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus and Streptococcus were identified. The species most frequently present were Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactococcus lactis LAB found on the surfaces of the wooden vats in this study showed interesting characteristics important for dairy manufacture. In order to deeply investigate on the safety of the wooden vat, test of artificial contamination on new Calabrian chestnut (control wood) vats were carried out. The results showed that LAB represent efficient barriers to the adhesion of the main dairy pathogens, probably due to their acidity and bacteriocin generation.IMPORTANCE This study highlights the importance to use the wooden vats for traditional cheese production and provides evidences for the valorisation of the Sicilian forest wood resources through the production of dairy equipment. Copyright © 2017 American

  5. Femtosecond laser machining for characterization of local mechanical properties of biomaterials: a case study on wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakob, Severin; Pfeifenberger, Manuel J; Hohenwarter, Anton; Pippan, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    The standard preparation technique for micro-sized samples is focused ion beam milling, most frequently using Ga + ions. The main drawbacks are the required processing time and the possibility and risks of ion implantation. In contrast, ultrashort pulsed laser ablation can process any type of material with ideally negligible damage to the surrounding volume and provides 4 to 6 orders of magnitude higher ablation rates than the ion beam technique. In this work, a femtosecond laser was used to prepare wood samples from spruce for mechanical testing at the micrometre level. After optimization of the different laser parameters, tensile and compressive specimens were produced from microtomed radial-tangential and longitudinal-tangential sections. Additionally, laser-processed samples were exposed to an electron beam prior to testing to study possible beam damage. The specimens originating from these different preparation conditions were mechanically tested. Advantages and limitations of the femtosecond laser preparation technique and the deformation and fracture behaviour of the samples are discussed. The results prove that femtosecond laser processing is a fast and precise preparation technique, which enables the fabrication of pristine biological samples with dimensions at the microscale.

  6. Integrated workflow for characterizing and modeling fracture network in unconventional reservoirs using microseismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayatollahy Tafti, Tayeb

    We develop a new method for integrating information and data from different sources. We also construct a comprehensive workflow for characterizing and modeling a fracture network in unconventional reservoirs, using microseismic data. The methodology is based on combination of several mathematical and artificial intelligent techniques, including geostatistics, fractal analysis, fuzzy logic, and neural networks. The study contributes to scholarly knowledge base on the characterization and modeling fractured reservoirs in several ways; including a versatile workflow with a novel objective functions. Some the characteristics of the methods are listed below: 1. The new method is an effective fracture characterization procedure estimates different fracture properties. Unlike the existing methods, the new approach is not dependent on the location of events. It is able to integrate all multi-scaled and diverse fracture information from different methodologies. 2. It offers an improved procedure to create compressional and shear velocity models as a preamble for delineating anomalies and map structures of interest and to correlate velocity anomalies with fracture swarms and other reservoir properties of interest. 3. It offers an effective way to obtain the fractal dimension of microseismic events and identify the pattern complexity, connectivity, and mechanism of the created fracture network. 4. It offers an innovative method for monitoring the fracture movement in different stages of stimulation that can be used to optimize the process. 5. Our newly developed MDFN approach allows to create a discrete fracture network model using only microseismic data with potential cost reduction. It also imposes fractal dimension as a constraint on other fracture modeling approaches, which increases the visual similarity between the modeled networks and the real network over the simulated volume.

  7. Multi-Attribute Seismic/Rock Physics Approach to Characterizing Fractured Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Mavko

    2004-11-30

    Most current seismic methods to seismically characterize fractures in tight reservoirs depend on a few anisotropic wave propagation signatures that can arise from aligned fractures. While seismic anisotropy can be a powerful fracture diagnostic, a number of situations can lessen its usefulness or introduce interpretation ambiguities. Fortunately, laboratory and theoretical work in rock physics indicates that a much broader spectrum of fracture seismic signatures can occur, including a decrease in P- and S-wave velocities, a change in Poisson's ratio, an increase in velocity dispersion and wave attenuation, as well as well as indirect images of structural features that can control fracture occurrence. The goal of this project was to demonstrate a practical interpretation and integration strategy for detecting and characterizing natural fractures in rocks. The approach was to exploit as many sources of information as possible, and to use the principles of rock physics as the link among seismic, geologic, and log data. Since no single seismic attribute is a reliable fracture indicator in all situations, the focus was to develop a quantitative scheme for integrating the diverse sources of information. The integrated study incorporated three key elements: The first element was establishing prior constraints on fracture occurrence, based on laboratory data, previous field observations, and geologic patterns of fracturing. The geologic aspects include analysis of the stratigraphic, structural, and tectonic environments of the field sites. Field observations and geomechanical analysis indicates that fractures tend to occur in the more brittle facies, for example, in tight sands and carbonates. In contrast, strain in shale is more likely to be accommodated by ductile flow. Hence, prior knowledge of bed thickness and facies architecture, calibrated to outcrops, are powerful constraints on the interpreted fracture distribution. Another important constraint is that

  8. Massive hydraulic fracture mapping and characterization program. First annual report, August 1975--July 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, R.P.; Hay, R.G.; Bartel, L.C.

    1977-06-01

    The FY'76 major objectives of the Massive Hydraulic Fracture Mapping and Characterization Program were to assess the feasibility of the surface electrical potential and surface seismic systems to provide locational information on hydraulically created fracture systems. The surface electrical potential system has demonstrated the capability to provide information on fracture azimuthal orientation, asymmetry of fracture, and direction of major fracture wing. Assessment of the surface seismic technique for fracture characterization is not encouraging. During FY'76, Sandia participated in five MHF experiments for natural gas stimulation. Two of these were conducted by El Paso Natural Gas in the Green River Basin at Pinedale, Wyoming, and three were conducted by AMOCO in the Wattenberg field northeast of Denver, Colorado. Sandia supported all five experiments with the surface electrical potential system and three with surface seismic arrays. This report describes both fracture characterization techniques, provides an overview of the associated hardware and software development, and presents the results obtained from participation in the field tests.

  9. Characterization of woods known as pau-de-escora marketed in the city of Manaus, Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonnys Paz Castro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to characterize the wood product commercially known as pau-de-escora in Manaus, Amazonas. Pau-de-escora is a key foundation material to build concrete lining or storey in tower buildings. The use of pau-de-escora is very popular in Manaus even in public building construction. To carry out the analyses and the anatomical identification of the material, we used 450 pau-de-escora poles, which were apprehended by the Environmental Battalion of Amazonas Police Force. It was also carried out a social survey to better understand the dynamics of the trade of this product in Manaus. The length of the 450 poles averaged 3.74 ± 0.08 m (CI 95% and diameter at the base averaged 4.48 ± 0.03 cm (CI 95%. These small differences related to the means indicate that the market requires a very clear dimension pattern for this wood product. The seven most abundant families encountered were: Fabaceae, Annonaceae, Sapotaceae, Lecythidaceae, Lauraceae, Burseraceae and Chrysobalanaceae. The selling price of pau-deescora pole in Manaus averaged R$ 2.63, and the buying price averaged R$ 3.94. The custody chain of pau-de-escora is completely illegal not only in Brazil, perhaps worldwide because it is part of the natural regeneration of primary or recovery forests.

  10. GC-MS Characterizations of Termiticidal Heartwood Extractives from Wood Species Utilized in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Mankowski; Blossie Boyd; Barbar Hassan; Grant T. Kirker

    2016-01-01

    Wood species that exhibit innate tolerance to wood destroying organisms such as termites are considered to be naturally durable. This durability can, in part, be due to the complex chemical compounds in the heartwood of naturally durable wood species. We examined the effects of varying concentrations of heartwood extractives on the subterranean termite, ...

  11. Stand structure and dead wood characterization in cork forest of Calabria region (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreca L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The cork forests are one the most interesting forest ecosystems in the Mediterranean area. Their distribution and ecological characteristics have undergone a significant transformation after the significant changes following the development and establishment of agricultural crops. Currently, only a few stands, which survive in hard to reach places, prove the wide spread distribution of this species was also in the recent past. This study describes the stand structure of some cork forests in Calabria region (southern Italy. In order, to characterize the vertical structure Latham index has been applied, while for the description of the horizontal distribution NBSI group indices has been used. Detailed surveys on dead wood were also conducted determining the occurring volume and its decay stage according to the decay classes system proposed by Hunter. The aim of this study is to provide guidelines for sustainable management of cork forests, improving and promoting the structural complexity and functional efficiency of these forest stands.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of carbon nanospheres obtained by hydrothermal carbonization of wood-derived and other saccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiangu Yan; Rui Li; Hossein Toghiani; Zhiyong Cai; Jilei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanospheres were synthesized by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of four different carbon sources: xylose, glucose, sucrose, and pine wood derived saccharides. The obtained carbon nanospheres were characterized for particle morphology and size, and surface functional groups. Morphological and structural differences among these saccharides derived HTC carbons...

  13. Characterization on the Fracture system in jurassic granitic rocks: Kosung and Yusung areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Su; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Chun Soo; Park, Byung Yoon; Koh, Yong Kweon

    2001-03-01

    The safety of waste disposal can be achieved by a complete isolation of radioactive wastes from biosphere or by a retardation of nuclide migration to reach an acceptable dose level. For the deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, the potential pathways of nuclide primarily depend on the spatial distribution characteristics of conductive fractures in rock mass. Major key issues in the quantification of fracture system for a disposal site are involved in classification criteria, hydraulic parameters, geometry, field investigation methods etc. This research aims to characterize the spatial distribution characteristics of regional lineaments and background fractures in eastern and western-type granite rock mass.

  14. Fatigue and Fracture Characterization of HPDC AM6OB Magnesium Alloy at Cold Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Hossain, Md.; Taheri, Farid

    2011-12-01

    An investigation of the fatigue and fracture characterization of the high pressure die cast (HPDC) AM60B magnesium alloy at -40 °C temperature was conducted by means of the constant load amplitude fatigue test. The results demonstrated that low temperature had a significant influence on alloy's fatigue life; the life increased at -40 °C temperature as compared to that at room temperature. The fracture surfaces of the tested specimens were observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to further understand the fracture phenomenon at low temperature.

  15. Experimental characterization of the hygroscopic properties of wood during convective drying using digital holographic interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Shakher, Chandra

    2016-02-10

    In this paper, an application of digital holography for the measurement of surface deformations and the strain field to understand the shrinkage behavior of wood during convective drying is presented. Moisture absorption and desorption induce the dimensional changes and deformations in wood that leads to failure of certain components made of wood. The knowledge of the dimensional changes in wood, deformations, strain distribution and their causes are important for the best utilization of wood. For the study, lensless Fourier transform digital holographic interferometry is used to measure moisture- induced deformation, strain distribution, and the coefficient of hygroscopic shrinkage in different samples of wood. The technique is highly sensitive and enables the observation of deformation and strain distribution during the variations of moisture content in the wood. The wet wood sample was exposed to convective drying, which leads to changes in the moisture content and the associated deformations. The deformation/strain in each step of drying process is used to evaluate the coefficient of hygroscopic shrinkage in different wood samples. The experiments were repeated for differently treated woods. The experimental results show that the strain and coefficient of hygroscopic shrinkage can be minimized if the wood is dried in the presence of the proper moisture content.

  16. Characterization of Marcellus Shale Fracture Properties through Size Effect Tests and Computations

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Weixin; Jin, Zhefei; Cusatis, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical characterization of shale-like rocks requires understanding the scaling of the measured properties to enable the extrapolation from small scale laboratory tests to field study. In this paper, the size effect of Marcellus shale was analyzed, and the fracture properties were obtained through size effect tests. A number of fracture tests were conducted on Three-Point-Bending (TPB) specimens with increasing size. Test results show that the nominal strength decreases with increasing spe...

  17. Characterization of the fracture system using borehole televiewer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-08-01

    This technical guide introduces the theoretical backgrounds, hardwares, softwares, field operation and interpretation procedures of the Borehole Televiewer System manufactured by GMT, Germany. The principal outputs of the Televiewer System are fracture distribution characteristics including orientation, spacing, aperture type and size, in-filling conditions, and roughness through the outstanding high resolution image. This report is expected to help the scientists devoted for the radioactive waste disposal project, especially on the field of groundwater flow modeling, rock mass stability, etc. This technical guide describes mainly how to acquire the fracture data in the field and to analyse the data are provided quantitatively. Also the additional functions and applicable fields of the Televiewer System and the case study are introduced. 16 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  18. Characterization of resistance to pine wood nematode infection in Pinus thunbergii using suppression subtractive hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Pine wilt disease is caused by the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, which threatens pine forests and forest ecosystems worldwide and causes serious economic losses. In the 40 years since the pathogen was identified, the physiological changes occurring as the disease progresses have been characterized using anatomical and biochemical methods, and resistant trees have been selected via breeding programs. However, no studies have assessed the molecular genetics, e.g. transcriptional changes, associated with infection-induced physiological changes in resistant or susceptible trees. Results We constructed seven subtractive suppression hybridization (SSH) cDNA libraries using time-course sampling of trees inoculated with pine wood nematode at 1, 3, or 7 days post-inoculation (dpi) in susceptible trees and at 1, 3, 7, or 14 dpi in resistant trees. A total of 3,299 sequences was obtained from these cDNA libraries, including from 138 to 315 non-redundant sequences in susceptible SSH libraries and from 351 to 435 in resistant SSH libraries. Using Gene Ontology hierarchy, those non-redundant sequences were classified into 15 subcategories of the biological process Gene Ontology category and 17 subcategories of the molecular function category. The transcriptional components revealed by the Gene Ontology classification clearly differed between resistant and susceptible libraries. Some transcripts were discriminative: expression of antimicrobial peptide and putative pathogenesis-related genes (e.g., PR-1b, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) was much higher in susceptible trees than in resistant trees at every time point, whereas expression of PR-9, PR-10, and cell wall-related genes (e.g., for hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein precursor and extensin) was higher in resistant trees than in susceptible trees at 7 and 14 dpi. Conclusions Following inoculation with pine wood nematode, there were marked differences between resistant and susceptible trees in transcript diversity

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF WOOD DECAY BY ROT FUNGI USING COLORIMETRY AND INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mírian de Almeida Costa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Wood samples of marupá (Simarouba amara and andiroba (Carapa guianenis were submitted to Trametes versicolor (white rot and Gloeophylum trabeum (brown rot fungi attack. Colorimetry was used to determine the color of the wood before and after wood decaying fungi. To evaluate the changes in chemical compounds levels in the wood samples, the diffuse reflectance medium infrared spectroscopy was used. Both wood were non resistant against white rot fungus, while with brown rot attack andiroba was resistant and marupá was not. After Gloeophyllum trabeum attack both woods changed to a darken color, and after Trametes versicolor attack andiroba changed to a lighter color and marupá darkened slightly, The analysis showed a reduction in the peak intensity of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, for both species, after Trametes versicolor attack and a reduction in the peak intensity of cellulose after Gloeophyllum trabeum attack.

  20. Development of Reservoir Characterization Techniques and Production Models for Exploiting Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggins, Michael L.; Brown, Raymon L.; Civan, Faruk; Hughes, Richard G.

    2003-02-11

    This research was directed toward developing a systematic reservoir characterization methodology which can be used by the petroleum industry to implement infill drilling programs and/or enhanced oil recovery projects in naturally fractured reservoir systems in an environmentally safe and cost effective manner. It was anticipated that the results of this research program will provide geoscientists and engineers with a systematic procedure for properly characterizing a fractured reservoir system and a reservoir/horizontal wellbore simulator model which can be used to select well locations and an effective EOR process to optimize the recovery of the oil and gas reserves from such complex reservoir systems.

  1. High-resolution Fracture Characterization Using Elastic Full-waveform Inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Z.

    2017-05-26

    Current methodologies to characterize fractures at the reservoir scale have serious limitations in spatial resolution. Here, we propose to estimate both the spatial distribution and physical properties of fractures using full waveform inversion (FWI) of multicomponent surface seismic data. An effective orthorhombic medium with five clusters of vertical fractures distributed in a checkboard fashion is used to test the algorithm. To better understand the inversion results, we analyze the FWI radiation patterns of the fracture weaknesses. A shape regularization term is added to the objective function to improve the inversion for the horizontal weakness, which is otherwise poorly constrained. Alternatively, a simplified model of penny-shaped cracks is used to reduce the nonuniqueness in the inverted weaknesses and achieve a faster convergence.

  2. Characterization of Hydraulic Fractures Growth During the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory Experiment (Sweden)

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Comino, J. A.; Cesca, S.; Heimann, S.; Grigoli, F.; Milkereit, C.; Dahm, T.; Zang, A.

    2017-11-01

    A crucial issue to characterize hydraulic fractures is the robust, accurate and automated detection and location of acoustic emissions (AE) associated with the fracture nucleation and growth process. Waveform stacking and coherence analysis techniques are here adapted using massive datasets with very high sampling (1 MHz) from a hydraulic fracturing experiment that took place 410 m below surface in the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory (Sweden). We present the results obtained during the conventional, continuous water injection experiment Hydraulic Fracture 2. The resulting catalogue is composed of more than 4000 AEs. Frequency-magnitude distribution from AE magnitudes (MAE) reveals a high b value of 2.4. The magnitude of completeness is also estimated approximately MAE 1.1, and we observe an interval range of MAE between 0.77 and 2.79. The hydraulic fractures growth is then characterized by mapping the spatiotemporal evolution of AE hypocentres. The AE activity is spatially clustered in a prolate ellipsoid, resembling the main activated fracture volume ( 105 m3), where the lengths of the principal axes ( a = 10 m; b = 5 m; c = 4 m) define its size and its orientation can be estimated for a rupture plane (strike 123°, dip 60°). An asymmetric rupture process regarding to the fracturing borehole is clearly exhibited. AE events migrate upwards covering the depth interval between 404 and 414 m. After completing each injection and reinjection phase, the AE activity decreases and appears located in the same area of the initial fracture phase, suggesting a crack-closing effect.

  3. Fracture characterization and discrimination criteria for karst and tectonic fractures in the Ellenburger Group, West Texas: Implications for reservoir and exploration models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoak, T.E. [Science Applications International Corp., Germantown, MD (United States)]|[Kestrel Geoscience, Littleton, CO (United States); Sundberg, K.R. [Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States); Deyhim, P. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Ortoleva, P. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Lab. for Computational Geodynamics

    1998-12-31

    In the Ellenburger Group fractured dolomite reservoirs of West Texas, it is extremely difficult to distinguish between multiple phases of karst-related fracturing, modifications to the karst system during burial, and overprinting tectonic fractures. From the analyses of drill core, the authors developed criteria to distinguish between karst and tectonic fractures. In addition, they have applied these criteria within the context of a detailed diagenetic cement history that allows them to further refine the fracture genesis and chronology. In these analyses, the authors evaluated the relationships between fracture intensity, morphologic attributes, host lithology, fracture cement, and oil-staining. From this analysis, they have been able to characterize variations in Ellenburger tectonic fracture intensity by separating these fractures from karst-related features. In general, the majority of fracturing in the Ellenburger is caused by karst-related fracturing although a considerable percentage is caused by tectonism. These findings underscore the importance of considering the complete geologic evolution of a karst reservoir during exploration and field development programs. The authors have been able to more precisely define the spatial significance of the fracture data sets by use of oriented core from Andector Field. They have also demonstrated the importance of these results for exploration and reservoir development programs in West Texas, and the potential to extrapolate these results around the globe. Given the historic interest in the large hydrocarbon reserves in West Texas carbonate reservoirs, results of this study will have tremendous implications for exploration and production strategies targeting vuggy, fractured carbonate systems not only in West Texas, but throughout the globe.

  4. Characterizing fractures and shear zones in crystalline rock using anisotropic seismic inversion and GPR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doetsch, Joseph; Krietsch, Hannes; Lajaunie, Myriam; Jordi, Claudio; Gischig, Valentin; Schmelzbach, Cedric; Maurer, Hansrudi

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the natural or artificially created hydraulic conductivity of a rock mass is critical for the successful exploitation of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). The hydraulic response of fractured crystalline rock is largely governed by the spatial organization of permeable fractures. Defining the 3D geometry of these fractures and their connectivity is extremely challenging, because fractures can only be observed directly at their intersections with tunnels or boreholes. In the framework of an in-situ stimulation experiment at the Grimsel Test Site, a detailed rock mass characterization was carried out, combining geological and geophysical methods. While geological observations from tunnel mapping, core- and geophysical borehole-logging are reliable, the obtained data could just be interpolated between tunnels and boreholes. The geophysical surveys, including ground-penetration radar (GPR) imaging and tunnel-tunnel seismic tomography were able to image shear and fracture zones throughout the experimental volume. Clear GPR reflections up to a distance of 30 m from the tunnels allow to define the geometry of tunnel-mapped shear zones in the center of the experimental volume. Anisotropic traveltime inversion of tunnel-tunnel seismic data reveals fracture zones as low velocity zones and ductile shear zones as areas of increased seismic anisotropy. It is thus possible to characterize both type and geometry of shear and fracture zones, which is important for the planned rock stimulation. Combining the GPR and seismic results with the geological information, the geological model could be significantly improved, demonstrating the potential to characterize even subtle geological features in 3D.

  5. The Fabrication and Properties Characterization of Wood-Based Flame Retardant Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood-based flame retardant composites were fabricated based on vacuum-pressure impregnating method after high intensive microwave pretreatment. The effects of ammonium polyphosphate (APP and modified nano-zinc borate (nZB addition on flame-retardation and smoke-suppression properties of wood were investigated by cone calorimeter method (CONE and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The results show that the heat release rate (HRR, peak heat release rate (pk-HRR, and total heat release (THR of APP-treated woods decreased greatly with increasing concentration of APP. However, mean yield of CO (Mean COY of APP-treated wood was much higher (3.5 times than that of untreated wood. Compared with wood treated with APP at a concentration of 15%, the total smoke product (TSP, Mean COY, and pk-HRR decreased by 78.4%, 71.43%, and 31.23%, when wood was treated with APP and nZB (both concentrations were at 15%. APP and nZB have synergistic effects of flame-retardation and smoke-suppression. Nano-zinc borate combined with APP would be used in wood-based composites to efficiently retard flame, reduce fire intensity, and decrease noxious (CO/smoke release.

  6. Chemical characterization and stable carbon isotopic composition of particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons issued from combustion of 10 Mediterranean woods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Guillon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to characterize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from particulate matter emitted during wood combustion and to determine, for the first time, the isotopic signature of PAHs from nine wood species and Moroccan coal from the Mediterranean Basin. In order to differentiate sources of particulate-PAHs, molecular and isotopic measurements of PAHs were performed on the set of wood samples for a large panel of compounds. Molecular profiles and diagnostic ratios were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS and molecular isotopic compositions (δ13C of particulate-PAHs were determined by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS. Wood species present similar molecular profiles with benz(aanthracene and chrysene as dominant PAHs, whereas levels of concentrations range from 1.8 to 11.4 mg g−1 OC (sum of PAHs. Diagnostic ratios are consistent with reference ratios from literature but are not sufficient to differentiate the species of woods. Concerning isotopic methodology, PAH molecular isotopic compositions are specific for each species and contrary to molecular fingerprints, significant variations of δ13C are observed for the panel of PAHs. This work allows differentiating wood combustion (with δ13CPAH = −28.7 to −26.6‰ from others origins of particulate matter (like vehicular exhaust using isotopic measurements but also confirms the necessity to investigate source characterisation at the emission in order to help and complete source assessment models. These first results on woodburnings will be useful for the isotopic approach to source tracking.

  7. Experiments on torrefied wood pellet: study by gasification and characterization for waste biomass to energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinson, Andrew N; Williams, Orla

    2016-05-01

    Samples of torrefied wood pellet produced by low-temperature microwave pyrolysis were tested through a series of experiments relevant to present and near future waste to energy conversion technologies. Operational performance was assessed using a modern small-scale downdraft gasifier. Owing to the pellet's shape and surface hardness, excellent flow characteristics were observed. The torrefied pellet had a high energy density, and although a beneficial property, this highlighted the present inflexibility of downdraft gasifiers in respect of feedstock tolerance due to the inability to contain very high temperatures inside the reactor during operation. Analyses indicated that the torrefaction process had not significantly altered inherent kinetic properties to a great extent; however, both activation energy and pre-exponential factor were slightly higher than virgin biomass from which the pellet was derived. Thermogravimetric analysis-derived reaction kinetics (CO2 gasification), bomb calorimetry, proximate and ultimate analyses, and the Bond Work Index grindability test provided a more comprehensive characterization of the torrefied pellet's suitability as a fuel for gasification and also other combustion applications. It exhibited significant improvements in grindability energy demand and particle size control compared to other non-treated and thermally treated biomass pellets, along with a high calorific value, and excellent resistance to water.

  8. Preparation, characterization and phenol adsorption capacity of activated carbons from African beech wood sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.T. Abdel-Ghani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, different activated carbons were prepared from carbonized African beech wood sawdust by potassium hydroxide activation. The activated carbons were characterized by brunauer–emmett–teller, scanning electron microscope, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analyzer. The phenol adsorption capacity of the prepared carbons was evaluated. The different factors affecting phenol’s removal were studied including: contact time, solution pH and initial phenol concentration. The optimum phenol removal was obtained after a contact time of 300 min. and at an initial phenol solution pH 7. The maximum removal percentages were determined at 5mg/l initial phenol concentration as 79, 93, 94 and 98% for AC0, AC1, AC2 and AC3; respectively. The adsorption of phenol on African beech sawdust activated carbons was found to follow the Lagergren first order kinetics and the intraparticle diffusion mechanism gave a good fit to the experimental data. The isothermal models applied fitted the experimental data in the order: Langmuir> Dubinin–Radushkevich> Freundlich and Temkin.

  9. Experiments on torrefied wood pellet: study by gasification and characterization for waste biomass to energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinson, Andrew N.; Williams, Orla

    2016-01-01

    Samples of torrefied wood pellet produced by low-temperature microwave pyrolysis were tested through a series of experiments relevant to present and near future waste to energy conversion technologies. Operational performance was assessed using a modern small-scale downdraft gasifier. Owing to the pellet's shape and surface hardness, excellent flow characteristics were observed. The torrefied pellet had a high energy density, and although a beneficial property, this highlighted the present inflexibility of downdraft gasifiers in respect of feedstock tolerance due to the inability to contain very high temperatures inside the reactor during operation. Analyses indicated that the torrefaction process had not significantly altered inherent kinetic properties to a great extent; however, both activation energy and pre-exponential factor were slightly higher than virgin biomass from which the pellet was derived. Thermogravimetric analysis-derived reaction kinetics (CO2 gasification), bomb calorimetry, proximate and ultimate analyses, and the Bond Work Index grindability test provided a more comprehensive characterization of the torrefied pellet's suitability as a fuel for gasification and also other combustion applications. It exhibited significant improvements in grindability energy demand and particle size control compared to other non-treated and thermally treated biomass pellets, along with a high calorific value, and excellent resistance to water. PMID:27293776

  10. Characterization of wood dust emission from hand-held woodworking machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, F-X; Chata, F

    2018-01-01

    This article focuses on the prevention of exposure to wood dust when operating electrical hand-held sawing and sanding machines. A laboratory methodology was developed to measure the dust concentration around machines during operating processes. The main objective was to characterize circular saws and sanders, with the aim of classifying the different power tools tested in terms of dust emission (high dust emitter vs. low dust emitter). A test set-up was developed and is described and a measurement methodology was determined for each of the two operations studied. The robustness of the experimental results is discussed and shows good tendencies. The impact of air-flow extraction rate was assessed and the pressure loss of the system for each machine established. For the circular saws, three machines over the nine tested could be classified in the low dust emitter group. Their mean concentration values measured are between 0.64 and 0.98 mg/m3 for the low dust emitter group and from 2.55 and 4.37 mg/m3 for the high dust emitter group. From concentration measurements, a machine classification is possible-one for sanding machines and one for sawing machines-and a ratio from 1-7 is obtained when comparing the results. This classification will be helpful when a choice of high performance power tools, in terms of dust emission, must be made by professionals.

  11. Preparation and Characterization of Cellulose Nanofibril Films from Wood Fibre and Their Thermoplastic Polycarbonate Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Panthapulakkal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop cellulose-nanofibril-film-reinforced polycarbonate composites by compression molding. Nano fibres were prepared from wood pulp fibres by mechanical defibrillation, and diameter distribution of the fibres produced was in the range of 1–100 nm. Nanofibre films were prepared from the nanofibre suspensions and were characterized in terms of strength properties, crystallinity, and thermal properties. Strength and modulus of the nano fibre films prepared were 240 MPa and 11 GPa, respectively. Thermal properties of the sheets demonstrated the suitability of processing fibre sheets at high temperature. Tensile properties of the films subjected to composite-processing conditions demonstrated the thermal stability of the fibre films during the compression molding process. Nanocomposites of different fibre loads were prepared by press-molding nano fibre sheets with different thickness in between polycarbonate sheet at 205°C under pressure. The tensile modulus and strength of the polycarbonate increased with the incorporation of the fibres. The strength of the thermoplastic increased 24% with 10% of the fibres and is increased up to 30% with 18% of the fibres. Tensile modulus of the polycarbonate demonstrated significant enhancement (about 100%.

  12. Fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Bourdin, Blaise; Francfort, Gilles A.

    2011-01-01

    These notes begin with a review of the mainstream theory of brittle fracture, as it has emerged from the works of Griffi th and Irwin. We propose a re-formulation of that theory within the confi nes of the calculus of variations, focussing on crack path prediction. We then illustrate the various possible minimality criteria in a simple 1d-case as well as in a tearing experiment and discuss in some details the only complete mathematical formulation so far, that is that where global minimality ...

  13. Statistical methods of fracture characterization using acoustic borehole televiewer log interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massiot, Cécile; Townend, John; Nicol, Andrew; McNamara, David D.

    2017-08-01

    Acoustic borehole televiewer (BHTV) logs provide measurements of fracture attributes (orientations, thickness, and spacing) at depth. Orientation, censoring, and truncation sampling biases similar to those described for one-dimensional outcrop scanlines, and other logging or drilling artifacts specific to BHTV logs, can affect the interpretation of fracture attributes from BHTV logs. K-means, fuzzy K-means, and agglomerative clustering methods provide transparent means of separating fracture groups on the basis of their orientation. Fracture spacing is calculated for each of these fracture sets. Maximum likelihood estimation using truncated distributions permits the fitting of several probability distributions to the fracture attribute data sets within truncation limits, which can then be extrapolated over the entire range where they naturally occur. Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and Schwartz Bayesian Criterion (SBC) statistical information criteria rank the distributions by how well they fit the data. We demonstrate these attribute analysis methods with a data set derived from three BHTV logs acquired from the high-temperature Rotokawa geothermal field, New Zealand. Varying BHTV log quality reduces the number of input data points, but careful selection of the quality levels where fractures are deemed fully sampled increases the reliability of the analysis. Spacing data analysis comprising up to 300 data points and spanning three orders of magnitude can be approximated similarly well (similar AIC rankings) with several distributions. Several clustering configurations and probability distributions can often characterize the data at similar levels of statistical criteria. Thus, several scenarios should be considered when using BHTV log data to constrain numerical fracture models.

  14. Natural Fractures Characterization and In Situ Stresses Inference in a Carbonate Reservoir—An Integrated Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shafiei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we characterized the natural fracture system inferred the state of in situ stress field through an integrated study in a very complex and heterogeneous fractured carbonate reservoir. Relative magnitudes and orientations of the in-situ principal stresses in a naturally fractured carbonate heavy oil field were estimated with a combination of available data (World Stress Map, geological and geotectonic evidence, outcrop studies and techniques (core analysis, borehole image logs and Side View Seismic Location. The estimates made here using various tools and data including routine core analysis and image logs are confirmatory to estimates made by the World Stress Map and geotectonic facts. NE-SW and NW-SE found to be the dominant orientations for maximum and minimum horizontal stresses in the study area. In addition, three dominant orientations were identified for vertical and sub-vertical fractures atop the crestal region of the anticlinal structure. Image logs found useful in recognition and delineation of natural fractures. The results implemented in a real field development and proved practical in optimal well placement, drilling and production practices. Such integrated studies can be instrumental in any E&P projects and related projects such as geological CO2 sequestration site characterization.

  15. [Preparation and characterization of wood/methylolurea composite with in-situ polymerization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guo-Feng; Lang, Qian; Chen, He-Yu; Jiang, Yi-Fei; Pu, Jun-Wen

    2011-11-01

    Wood/methylolurea composite was prepared with the in-situ polymerization. The green timber with high moisture content was impregnated by a pulse-dipping machine and then was dried in a hot-press drying kiln. The cross-linking reaction was taken under the heat treatment between the wood modifier and the wood composition, including cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin. The chemical composition was analyzed according to the Chinese standard, including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDXA). The changes in chemical composition of modified wood and carbon and nitrogen element were disused in the research The results showed that the content of water extraction and benzene alcohol extraction increased 187.43% and 230.87% respectively compared with the natural wood, while the lignin and holocellulose decreased 26.55% and 26.39% respectively. XPS showed that the concentrations of O and C atoms increased 9.4% and N element content increased 137.2%. 13C-NMR analysis showed that chemical reaction of the hydroxyl methyl urea with the hydroxyl in timber structure took place, with the reduction of hydroxyl content and increase in ether bond content. EDXA showed that the processing method can get impregnated modification wood and nitrogen element is evenly distributed in wood cell walls and intercellular space.

  16. Advanced Characterization of Fractured Reservoirs in Carbonate Rocks: The Michigan Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, James R.; Harrison, William B.

    2000-10-24

    The main objective of this project is for a university-industry consortium to develop a comprehensive model for fracture carbonate reservoirs based on the ''data cube'' concept using the Michigan Basin as a prototype. This project combined traditional historical data with 2D and 3D seismic data as well as data from modern logging tools in a novel way to produce a new methodology for characterizing fractured reservoirs in carbonate rocks. Advanced visualization software was used to fuse the data and to image it on a variety of scales, ranging from basin-scale to well-scales.

  17. Volatile compounds and sensorial characterization of wines from four Spanish denominations of origin, aged in Spanish Rebollo (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.) oak wood barrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Cadahía, Estrella; Sanz, Miriam; Poveda, Pilar; Perez-Magariño, Silvia; Ortega-Heras, Miriam; González-Huerta, Carlos

    2008-10-08

    The evolution of almost 40 oak-related volatile compounds and the sensorial characteristics of red wines from four Spanish denominations of origin (DOs) (Bierzo, Toro, Ribera de Duero, and Rioja) during aging in barrels made of Rebollo oak wood, Quercus pyrenaica, were studied and compared to the same wines aged in American and French oak barrels. Each oak wood added unique and special characteristics to the wine, and in addition, each wine showed a different ability to extract the compounds, which result in these characteristics from the oak wood. In general, wines aged in Q. pyrenaica wood were characterized by high levels of eugenol, guaiacol, and other volatile phenols. In regards to compounds like cis-whiskylactone or maltol, the behavior of this wood is very similar to that of American oaks. When considering phenolic aldehydes and ketones, the levels of these compounds are intermediate between those of French and American woods and depend greatly on the type of wine. The type of oak, on the other hand, does not affect the chromatic characteristics of the wines. In sensory analysis, the biggest differences are found in the olfactory phase. Among the four DOs studied, wine aged in Q. pyrenaica presented the highest notes of wood, with more aromas of roasting, toasting, milky coffee, spices, or wine-wood interactions. The wines aged in barrels made of Q. pyrenaica wood were highly regarded, and preference was shown for them over those same wines when they had been aged in barrels of American or French oak.

  18. Characterization of the Oxygen Transmission Rate of Oak Wood Species Used in Cooperage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Alamo-Sanza, María; Cárcel, Luis Miguel; Nevares, Ignacio

    2017-01-25

    The oxygen that wine receives while aged in barrels is of interest because it defines the reactions that occur during aging and, therefore, the final properties of the wine. This study is intended to make up for the lack of information concerning the oxygen permeability of eight different woods of Quercus alba L. and Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. commonly used. In addition, it shows how oxygen transfer evolves with the liquid contact time during testing under similar aging conditions to those in wine barrels. French oak woods permitted a higher oxygenation rate than American ones in all cases. A decrease in the oxygen entry caused by impregnation of the wood during the process was observed in all of the species studied. This process is determined by the thickness of the flooded wood layer containing free water, although differently in the two species, possibly due to the anatomical structure and the logging process for each.

  19. Characterization of acoustic and mechanical properties of common tropical woods used in classical guitars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproßmann, Robert; Zauer, Mario; Wagenführ, André

    There is a need of substitution woods for the use in musical instruments because of the limited availability of some commonly used tropical tonewoods. Before substitutions can be found, it is necessary to know about the required properties. Hence, in this paper acoustical, mechanical and physical properties of four common tropical hardwoods (Indian rosewood, ziricote, African blackwood and ebony) were determined because there are less literature values for some properties available, e.g. internal friction, hardness or swelling behaviour. The acoustic properties were determined by means of experimental modal analysis, the mechanical properties by means of static bending tests and tests of the Brinell hardness. For the swelling behaviour the volume swelling and also the differential swelling coefficients were determined. With the results it is possible to look for new 'tonewoods' or to specifically modified woods, e.g. thermally treated wood, to substitute tropical wood species.

  20. [Characterization of Wood Surface Treated with Electroless Copper Plating by Near Infrared Spectroscopy Technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jing; Zhang, Mao-mao; Zhao, Guang-jie; Yang, Zhong

    2015-05-01

    Wood electromagnetic shielding material, which was made by treating wood with electroless plating, not only keep the superior characteristics of wood, but also improve the conductivity, thermal conductivity and electromagnetic shielding properties of wood. The emergence of this material opens the way to the value-added exploitation of wood and widens the processing and application field for the electromagnetic shielding material. In order to explore the feasibility of using NIR technology to investigate the properties of wood electromagnetic shielding material, this study analysis the samples before and after copper plated process by the NIR spectroscopy coupled with principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed that (1) there exist significant differences between samples before and after copper plated process both on the spectral shape and absorption, and the great differences can also be seen in the samples with different treat time, especially for the samples with 5 min treat time; (2) after PCA analysis, six clusters from the samples before and after copper plated process were separately distributed in the score plot, and the properties of untreated wood and sensitized wood were similar, and the properties of samples for 25 and 40 min treat time were also similar in order that these samples were close to each other, all of which might suggest that the NIR spectroscopy reflected major feature information about material treatment; (3) After comparing the PCA performance between NIR and visible spectral region, it could be found that the classification performance of samples before and after copper plated process based on the NIR region were better than that based on the visible region, and the information of color on the surface of samples were preferably reflected in the visible region, which could indicate that there are more information about samples' surface characters using the visible spectroscopy coupled with NIR spectroscopy and it is feasible to

  1. Techniques for Source Zone and Plume Characterization of Tetrachloroethene in Fractured Limestone Aquifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjordbøge, Annika Sidelmann; Mosthaf, Klaus; Janniche, Gry S.

    Characterization of chlorinated solvents in fractured limestone aquifers is essential for proper development of site specific conceptual models and subsequent risk assessment and remediation. High resolution characterization is challenged by the difficulties involved in collection of intact core...... fractured limestone aquifers. The two sites represent different scales (source and plume) and contaminant levels (DNAPL and dissolved). The scope of the investigations was to evaluate different techniques for characterization of the contaminant distribution in the limestone aquifers and to obtain...... of the FACT field measurements, which allows the conversion of discrete activated carbon concentrations to aqueous concentrations at given hydraulic parameters and FACT parameters. The passive groundwater sampling with snap samplers resulted in significantly different concentration levels and concentration...

  2. Characterization of composites based on expanded polystyrene wastes and wood flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletto, Matheus; Dettenborn, Juliane; Zeni, Mara; Zattera, Ademir J

    2011-04-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the potential for the use of recycled expanded polystyrene and wood flour as materials for the development of wood plastic composites. The effects of wood flour loading and coupling agent addition on the mechanical properties and morphology of wood thermoplastic composites were examined. In addition, a methodology for the thermo-mechanical recycling of expanded polystyrene waste was developed. The results show that the mechanical properties decreased as the wood flour loading increased. On the other hand, the use of poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride), SMA, as a coupling agent improved the compatibility between the wood flour and polystyrene matrix and the mechanical properties subsequently improved. A morphological study revealed the positive effect of the coupling agent on the interfacial bonding. The density values obtained for the composites were compared with the theoretical values and showed agreement with the rule of mixtures. Based on the findings of this work, it appears that both recycled materials can be used to manufacture composites with high mechanical properties and low density. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A multidisciplinary fractured rock characterization study at Raymond field site, Raymond, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasaki, K.; Freifeld, B.; Cohen, A.; Grossenbacher, K.; Cook, P.; Vasco, D.

    2000-09-01

    A dedicated field site was developed and a suite of experiments were conducted in the Sierra Nevada foothills, near the town of Raymond, CA to develop and test a multi-disciplinary approach to the characterization of groundwater flow and transport in fractured rocks. A wealth of geologic, hydrologic and geophysical data was collected at the site using a variety of unique tools. A cluster of nine approximately 90 m deep boreholes were drilled at the site in a V-shaped pattern with an angle of 60°. The boreholes are spaced 7.5, 15, 30 and 60 m from the central borehole. Various geophysical and hydrologic tests were conducted in and between these boreholes. Integration of cross-hole radar and seismic tomography, borehole flow surveys and images from a new digital borehole scanner indicated that groundwater flow is mainly confined to a few sub-horizontal fracture zones. A unique suite of hydraulic tests were conducted, in which three to four intervals in each of the nine boreholes were isolated using pneumatic packers. Some 130 injection tests were conducted, and more than 4100 cross-hole transient pressure measurements were obtained. A computer algorithm was developed to analyze such massive interference data systematically. As a result of the analysis, an image of the fracture connections emerged, which is consistent with the geophysical data. High precision tiltmeters were effective in remotely characterizing the preferential flow path. Several radial convergent tracer tests were conducted by injecting a mixture of several conservative tracers and one sorbing tracer: deuterium, fluorescein, lithium bromide and polystyrene micro-spheres. Some differences between the breakthrough curves are observed, which may be due to possible differences among so-called "conservative" tracers. Some characterization tools were found to be more effective than others in locating flowing fractures. However, no single tool was almighty. Characterization of fractured rock is extremely

  4. Identification and Biochemical Characterization of Four Wood-Associated Glucuronoxylan Methyltransferases in Populus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Youxi; Teng, Quincy; Zhong, Ruiqin; Ye, Zheng-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Wood is one of the promising bioenergy feedstocks for lignocellulosic biofuel production. Understanding how wood components are synthesized will help us design strategies for better utilization of wood for biofuel production. One of the major wood components is xylan, in which about 10% of xylosyl residues are substituted with glucuronic acid (GlcA) side chains. All the GlcA side chains of xylan in wood of Populus trichocarpa are methylated, which is different from Arabidopsis xylan in which about 60% of GlcA side chains are methylated. Genes responsible for methylation of GlcA side chains in Populus xylan have not been identified. Here, we report genetic and biochemical analyses of four DUF579 domain-containing proteins, PtrGXM1, PtrGXM2, PtrGXM3 and PtrGXM4, from Populus trichocarpa and their roles in GlcA methylation in xylan. The PtrGXM genes were found to be highly expressed in wood-forming cells and their encoded proteins were shown to be localized in the Golgi. When overexpressed in the Arabidopsis gxm1/2/3 triple mutant, PtrGXMs were able to partially complement the mutant phenotypes including defects in glucuronoxylan methyltransferase activity and GlcA methylation in xylan, indicating that PtrGXMs most likely function as glucuronoxylan methyltransferases. Direct evidence was provided by enzymatic analysis of recombinant PtrGXM proteins showing that they possessed a methyltransferase activity capable of transferring the methyl group onto GlcA-substituted xylooligomers. Kinetic analysis showed that PtrGXMs exhibited differential affinities toward the GlcA-substituted xylooligomer acceptor with PtrGXM3 and PtrGXM4 having 10 times higher Km values than PtrGXM1 and PtrGXM2. Together, these findings indicate that PtrGXMs are methyltransferases mediating GlcA methylation in Populus xylan during wood formation. PMID:24523868

  5. Characterizing fractures and shear zones in crystalline rock using seismic and GPR methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doetsch, Joseph; Jordi, Claudio; Laaksonlaita, Niko; Gischig, Valentin; Schmelzbach, Cedric; Maurer, Hansruedi

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the natural or artificially created hydraulic conductivity of a rock mass is critical for the successful exploitation of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). The hydraulic response of fractured crystalline rock is largely governed by the spatial organization of permeable fractures. Defining the 3D geometry of these fractures and their connectivity is extremely challenging, because fractures can only be observed directly at their intersections with tunnels or boreholes. Borehole-based and tunnel-based ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and seismic measurements have the potential to image fractures and other heterogeneities between and around boreholes and tunnels, and to monitor subtle time-lapse changes in great detail. We present the analysis of data acquired in the Grimsel rock laboratory as part of the In-situ Stimulation and Circulation (ISC) experiment, in which a series of stimulation experiments have been and will be performed. The experiments in the granitic rock range from hydraulic fracturing to controlled fault-slip experiments. The aim is to obtain a better understanding of coupled seismo-hydro-mechanical processes associated with high-pressure fluid injections in crystalline rocks and their impact on permeability creation and enhancement. GPR and seismic data have been recorded to improve the geological model and characterize permeable fractures and shear zones. The acquired and processed data include reflection GPR profiles measured from tunnel walls, single-borehole GPR images, and borehole-to-borehole and tunnel-to-tunnel seismic and GPR tomograms. The reflection GPR data reveal the geometry of shear zones up to a distance of 30 m from the tunnels and boreholes, but the interpretation is complicated by the geometrical ambiguity around tunnels and boreholes and by spurious reflections from man-made structures such as boreholes. The GPR and seismic traveltime tomography results reveal brittle fractured rock between two ductile shear zones. The

  6. Characterizing Fractures in Geysers Geothermal Field by Micro-seismic Data, Using Soft Computing, Fractals, and Shear Wave Anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aminzadeh, Fred [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Sammis, Charles [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Sahimi, Mohammad [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Okaya, David [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-04-30

    The ultimate objective of the project was to develop new methodologies to characterize the northwestern part of The Geysers geothermal reservoir (Sonoma County, California). The goal is to gain a better knowledge of the reservoir porosity, permeability, fracture size, fracture spacing, reservoir discontinuities (leaky barriers) and impermeable boundaries.

  7. The Preparation and Characterization of Pyrolysis Bio-Oil-Resorcinol-Aldehyde Resin Cold-Set Adhesives for Wood Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyong Ren

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF resin is a kind of excellent exterior-grade wood structural adhesive, which can be conveniently cold-set for various applications. In order to decrease the production cost, pyrolysis bio-oil from renewable bioresources was used to replace resorcinol to synthesize the bio-oil-resorcinol-aldehyde (BRF resin. The effect of replacing resorcinol with bio-oil on the properties, bonding performance, and characterization of resorcinol-aldehyde resin was comparatively investigated. A higher solid content and viscosity, albeit a lower shear strength, was found when the replacement ratio of bio-oil increased. The bonding performance of BRF with 10 and 20 wt % bio-oil was close to that of the pure RF resin. However, the trends of being less cross-linked, more easily decomposed, but more porous were found when the substitution ratio of bio-oil was higher than 20 wt %. Interestingly, it was found that the wood failure values of the BRF resins with bio-oil of no more than 20 wt % were slightly higher than that of the pure RF resin. On the whole, BRF resins with 20 wt % bio-oil is recommended as a wood structural adhesive, comprehensively considering the bio-oil substitution ratio and resin properties. The results obtained here showed that pyrolysis bio-oil is a promising green raw material for the production of RF resin with lower cost.

  8. Structure–property characterization of the crinkle-leaf peach wood phenotype: a future model system for wood properties research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Rafael Arévalo; Craig Ledbetter; Joseph E. Jakes

    2016-01-01

    Nearly 400 million years of evolution and field-testing by the natural world has given humans thousands of wood types, each with unique structure– property relationships to study, exploit, and ideally, to manipulate, but the slow growth of trees makes them a recalcitrant experimental system. Variations in wood features of two genotypes of peach (Prunus persica L.)...

  9. Characterization of retention processes and their effect on the analysis of tracer tests in fractured reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walkup, G.W. Jr.

    1984-06-01

    Retention processes such as adsorption and diffusion into an immobile region can effect tracer movement through a fractured reservoir. This study has conducted experimental work and has developed a two-dimensional model to characterize retention processes. A method to directly determine some important flow parameters, such as the fracture aperture, from the analysis of tracer tests has been developed as a result of the new two-dimensional model. The experimental work consisted of batch experiments designed to both reproduce earlier work and to determine the magnitude of the retention effects. Negligible retention was observed from which it was concluded that the batch experiments were not sensitive enough and that more sensitive flowing tests were needed. A two-dimensional model that represents a fractured medium by a mobile region, in which convention, diffusion, and adsorption are allowed, and an immobile region in which only diffusion and adsorption are allowed has been developed. It was possible to demonstrate how each of the mass-transfer processes included in the model affect tracer return curves by producing return curves for any set of the defining variables. Field data from the New Zealand was numerically fit with the model. The optimum values of the parameters determined from curve fitting provided a direct estimate of the fracture width and could be used to estimate other important flow parameters if experimentally determinable values were known. 25 refs., 22 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Tensile and impact properties of three-component PP/wood/elastomer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Pukanszky

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Polypropylene (PP was reinforced with wood flour and impact modified with elastomers to increase stiffness and impact resistance simultaneously. Elastomer content changed in four (0, 5, 10 and 20 wt%, while that of wood content in seven steps, the latter from 0 to 60 wt% in 10 wt% steps. Structure and adhesion were controlled by the addition of functionalized (maleated polymers. Composites were homogenized in a twin-screw extruder and then injection molded to tensile bars. Fracture resistance was characterized by standard and instrumented impact tests. The results showed that the components are dispersed independently of each other even when a functionalized elastomer is used for impact modification, at least under the conditions of this study. Impact resistance does not change much as a function of wood content in PP/wood composites, but decreases drastically from the very high level of the PP/elastomer blend to almost the same value obtained without impact modifier in the three-component materials. Increasing stiffness and fiber related local deformation processes led to small fracture toughness at large wood content. Micromechanical deformation processes depend mainly on the strength of PP/wood interaction; debonding and pull-out take place at poor adhesion, while fiber fracture dominates when adhesion is strong. Composites with sufficiently large impact resistance cannot be prepared in the usual range of wood contents (50–60 wt%.

  11. Exterior Decay of Wood-Plastic Composite Boards: Characterization and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca Ibach; Grace Sun; Marek Gnatowski; Jessie Glaeser; Mathew Leung; John Haight

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to evaluate free water content and distribution in wood-plastic composite (WPC) materials decayed during exterior exposure near Hilo, Hawaii. Two segments of the same board blend were selected from 6 commercial decking boards that had fungal fruiting bodies. One of the two board segments was exposed in sun, the other in shadow...

  12. Physical characterization of particleboard panels made from Eucalyptus grandis with addition of industrial wood residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cristina Pierre

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the wood from planted forests constitutes the main material source for the production of particleboards. The utilization of forest residues for production of these panels was not implemented in industrial level yet. This work had the objective of evaluating the physical properties of three layers particleboard, industrially manufactured, using wood of Eucalyptus grandis from plantation and industrial wood residues in different ratios (adittion from 10% to 35% in volume. The material (Eucalyptus grandis wood and industrial residues - recycled pallets and sawdust was supplied by Eucatex S. A. Ind. e Com. located in Botucatu - Sao Paulo State, Brazil, where the panels had been manufactured in Eucatex plant. Physical tests were carried out at the Process Laboratories of Eucatex and in the Materials Testing Laboratory, Rural Engineering Department of the College of Agronomic Sciences - Sao Paulo State University - UNESP. Results revealed that panels had very good physical performance, attending, in general, to all the technical specifications established by the product standards, even in the treatments with higher addition of residues. The final moisture content of the panel presented effect in the properties studied with general trend of reduction in water absorption and swelling in thickness when the moisture content increased from 9% for 12,5%.

  13. Characterization of wood strands from young, small-diameter Douglas-fir and western hemlock trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikram Yadama; Eini C. Lowell; Christopher E. Langum

    2012-01-01

    Tensile properties of strands processed from small-diameter Douglas-fir and western hemlock trees grown on the Washington coast were analyzed and effects of location within the tree on properties was examined. Reduction factors for strand properties relative to small, clear solid wood specimen properties were determined by correlating strand properties to previously...

  14. Multi-tracer approach to characterize domestic wood burning in Athens (Greece) during wintertime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourtziou, L.; Liakakou, E.; Stavroulas, I.; Theodosi, C.; Zarmpas, P.; Psiloglou, B.; Sciare, J.; Maggos, T.; Bairachtari, K.; Bougiatioti, A.; Gerasopoulos, E.; Sarda-Estève, R.; Bonnaire, N.; Mihalopoulos, N.

    2017-01-01

    During the last years the atmosphere of the Great Athens Area (GAA) and other Greek cities is burdened from extended residential biomass burning for heating purposes. In this work, a series of near real-time and off-line biomass burning tracers are analyzed during intense wood burning events in Athens. The measurements were conducted at an urban background site located in the center of Athens, and in the heart of wood burning activities (winter 2013-2014). The measured tracers include high resolution measurements of non-sea salt potassium (nss-K+), wood burning black carbon (BCwb), the m/z 60 fragment associated with levoglucosan and monosaccharide anhydrides (levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan) determined on selected filter samples. The suitability of these tracers was evaluated when the prevailing meteorological conditions with low dispersion and deposition mechanisms (low wind speed, absence of precipitation) were associated with high biomass burning emissions at nighttime. During the severe smog periods, the levels of K+, BCwb, m/z 60 and levoglucosan were up to 2.2 μg m-3, 12.5 μg m-3, 3.4 μg m-3 and 8.6 μg m-3, respectively, higher by a factor of at least two, relatively to the non smog periods due to biomass burning. Correlations between biomass burning tracers as well as between monosaccharide anhydrides provided information about the type of material and wood being burned.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of birch wood xylan succinoylated in 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Natanya Majbritt Louie; Plackett, David

    2011-01-01

    The chemical modification of birch wood xylan was undertaken in the ionic liquid 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C4mimCl) using three different long-chain succinic anhydrides: n-octenyl succinic anhydride (n-OSA), n-dodecenyl succinic anhydride (n-DDSA) and n-octadecenyl succinic anhydrid...

  16. Demonstration of a Fractured Rock Geophysical Toolbox (FRGT) for Characterization and Monitoring of DNAPL Biodegradation in Fractured Rock Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-29

    estimates of hydraulic conductivity using Schlumberger Doll vi Research (SDR) and sum of echoes (SOE) equations. NMR logs compare well with fracture ...image for slice 85-83-87 with fracture intersection depths, packers and strike/dip of formation noted, showing alternating conductive and resistive...biodegradation occurring in fractured rock whilst maintaining hydraulically and electrically isolated intervals in all seven boreholes. 3 The demonstration

  17. Ssismic Methodologies Applied To The Characterization Of Fractured Rock Massifs: Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, D.; Carbonell, R.; Flecha, I.; Palomeras, I.; Font-Capo, J.; Vazquez-Sune, E.; Perez-Estaun, A.

    2007-05-01

    The detailed characterization of fractured media in the shallow subsurface is becoming important. The detailed knowledge of the fracture network is mandatory in any hydrogeological model to constrain the potential pathways for water circulation. The geophysical methodolgies can provide a detailed image of the fractured rock and also the 3D distribution of physical properties. Two case studies are discussed in this work. The characterization of fractures in a waste disposal site and, the design and construction of a subway tunnel. In the first case, a multiseismic experiment was carried out in an old abandoned uranium mine. 2D and 3D seismic experiments including VSP, surface seismic reflection and travel time seismic tomography provided a 3D image of the internal structure of a granitic massif for hydrogeological studies of the preferred paths for the migration of contaminants. The tectonic stability of the site was also addressed by means of seismic measurements. The joint interpretation of all the available data enabled the interpretation of the low velocity anomalies in the 3D seismic tomography image as the fragile fractures and the alteration associated to them. A 3D image of the geometry of the heterogeneous weathered surface layer was also obtained. This surface is controlled by the complex network of faults and dykes observed in the area. The second case study involves 2D and 3D seismic experiments to aid the horizontal drilling of tunnels for a new subway line in Barcelona (Spain). Seismic data acquisition in a densely populated city is very difficult. The street layout determines the geometry of the acquisition experiments. The instrumentation can not always be located on the surface projection of the tunnel trace, therefore, pseudo 3D acquisition is required, deploying the instrumentation were it is possible. Furthermore, the shallow subsurface features extremely heterogeneous "weathered" layer of variable thickness (building fundations, sewage system

  18. Characterization of black carbon and organic contaminants in wood ash from different feedstocks and types of furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Agustin; Rey-Salgueiro, Ledicia; Omil, Beatriz; Martinez-Carballo, Elena; Simal-Gandara, Jesus

    2015-04-01

    Due to their important concentration of nutrient and charcoal, wood ash from biomass power plants (WA) can be used as a fertilizer and organic amendment in intensively managed soils. Unlike biochar produced in under anoxic conditions, the nature of the organic compounds present in wood ash has been scarcely studied. Due to the incomplete combustion, wood ash may contain a wide range of organic compounds, from charred to highly condensed refractory biomass, which determines the possibilities of WA as an organic amendment. In addition, the possible environmental risk of this practice must be assessed by determining the content of water-soluble and insoluble organic contaminants. due to the incomplete combustion of organic matter, organic pollutants, such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), can be formed and can remain in the combustion residue. Also, the four alkyl benzene volatile organic compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and the ortho, para, and meta xylenes) can be formed, depending on certain conditions during combustion. For this study 15 biomass power stations in Spain were selected. In all of them the feedstock is pine or eucalyptus branches and bark. Nine of them were bottom wood ash generated from wood fires furnaces, obtained from grate-fired or water-tube boilers. Whereas four of them were fly ash, obtained in cyclone separators. The samples were collected following a common procedure to ensure the representiveness of the sampling. Bottom ash samples were fraccionated in three fractions: 5mm. Each fraction was characterized for organic matter and BTEX, styrene and total petroleum hydrocarbons Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. For each analyzes, three replicates were analyzed per sample. Mixes wood ash shows higher amounts of charred material than fly ash. The 13 C CPMAS NMR, DSC/TG and FTIR analysis showed the loss of carbohydrates and aliphatic constituents and revealed the formation of aromatic compounds. The atomic H/C ratios, NMR

  19. Dynamic characterization of fractured carbonates at the Hontomín CO2 storage site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gallo, yann; de Dios, José Carlos; Salvador, Ignacio; Acosta Carballo, Taimara

    2017-04-01

    The geological storage of CO2 is investigated at the Technology Development Plant (TDP) at Hontomín (Burgos, Spain) into a deep saline aquifer, formed by fractured carbonates with poor matrix porosity. During the hydraulic characterization tests, 2,300 tons of liquid CO2 and 14,000 m3 synthetic brine were co-injected on site in various sequences to determine the pressure and temperature responses of the facture network. The results of the pressure tests were analyzed using an analytical approach to determine the overall petrophysical characteristics of the storage formation. Later on, these characteristics were implemented in a 3-D numerical model. The model is a compositional dual medium (fracture + matrix) which accounts for temperature effects, as CO2 is liquid at the well bottom-hole, and multiphase flow hysteresis as alternating water and CO2 injection tests were performed. The pressure and temperature responses of the storage formation were history-matched mainly through the petrophysical and geometrical characteristics of the facture network. This dynamic characterization of the fracture network controls the CO2 migration while the matrix does not appear to significantly contribute to the storage capacity. Consequently, the hydrodynamic behavior of the aquifer is one of the main challenge of the modeling workflow.

  20. Characterization of hydraulic fracturing flowback water in Colorado: Implications for water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Yaal; Ferrer, Imma; Thurman, E. Michael; Sitterley, Kurban A.; Korak, Julie A.; Aiken, George R.; Linden, Karl G.

    2015-01-01

    A suite of analytical tools was applied to thoroughly analyze the chemical composition of an oil/gas well flowback water from the Denver–Julesburg (DJ) basin in Colorado, and the water quality data was translated to propose effective treatment solutions tailored to specific reuse goals. Analysis included bulk quality parameters, trace organic and inorganic constituents, and organic matter characterization. The flowback sample contained salts (TDS = 22,500 mg/L), metals (e.g., iron at 81.4 mg/L) and high concentration of dissolved organic matter (DOC = 590 mgC/L). The organic matter comprised fracturing fluid additives such as surfactants (e.g., linear alkyl ethoxylates) and high levels of acetic acid (an additives' degradation product), indicating the anthropogenic impact on this wastewater. Based on the water quality results and preliminary treatability tests, the removal of suspended solids and iron by aeration/precipitation (and/or filtration) followed by disinfection was identified as appropriate for flowback recycling in future fracturing operations. In addition to these treatments, a biological treatment (to remove dissolved organic matter) followed by reverse osmosis desalination was determined to be necessary to attain water quality standards appropriate for other water reuse options (e.g., crop irrigation). The study provides a framework for evaluating site-specific hydraulic fracturing wastewaters, proposing a suite of analytical methods for characterization, and a process for guiding the choice of a tailored treatment approach.

  1. Characterization of hydraulic fracturing flowback water in Colorado: implications for water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Yaal; Ferrer, Imma; Thurman, E Michael; Sitterley, Kurban A; Korak, Julie A; Aiken, George; Linden, Karl G

    2015-04-15

    A suite of analytical tools was applied to thoroughly analyze the chemical composition of an oil/gas well flowback water from the Denver-Julesburg (DJ) basin in Colorado, and the water quality data was translated to propose effective treatment solutions tailored to specific reuse goals. Analysis included bulk quality parameters, trace organic and inorganic constituents, and organic matter characterization. The flowback sample contained salts (TDS=22,500 mg/L), metals (e.g., iron at 81.4 mg/L) and high concentration of dissolved organic matter (DOC=590 mgC/L). The organic matter comprised fracturing fluid additives such as surfactants (e.g., linear alkyl ethoxylates) and high levels of acetic acid (an additives' degradation product), indicating the anthropogenic impact on this wastewater. Based on the water quality results and preliminary treatability tests, the removal of suspended solids and iron by aeration/precipitation (and/or filtration) followed by disinfection was identified as appropriate for flowback recycling in future fracturing operations. In addition to these treatments, a biological treatment (to remove dissolved organic matter) followed by reverse osmosis desalination was determined to be necessary to attain water quality standards appropriate for other water reuse options (e.g., crop irrigation). The study provides a framework for evaluating site-specific hydraulic fracturing wastewaters, proposing a suite of analytical methods for characterization, and a process for guiding the choice of a tailored treatment approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of Mode I Fracture and Morphological Properties of PLLA Blends with Addition of Lysine Triisocyanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannaladsaysy, Vilay; Todo, Mitsugu

    Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) was toughened by blending with three different ductile biopolymers such as poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(butylene succinate-co-e-caprolactone) (PBSC), poly (butylene succinate-co-L-lactate) (PBSL). The blend ratio was fixed to 50:50. Lysine triisocyanate (LTI) was added to the blends as a compatibilizer. Characterizations such as Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy, field-emission electron microscope (FE-SEM), and mode I fracture test were used to characterize the effectiveness of LTI on the mechanical and morphological properties of various PLLA blends. It was found that PLLA/PCL blend shows the highest toughness energy among the binary blends. On the other hand, addition of LTI in PLLA/PBSC blend exhibits the best toughness property. Based on the FE-SEM observation, fractured surfaces of PLLA blends with LTI indicate ductile fracture with dense elongated fibrils. The largest damage zone is generated in the vicinity of crack-trip, suggesting that high energy dissipation occurred in the crack-trip region. FT-IR analysis also suggested that the NCO groups of LTI were acted as a compatibilizer, as the results of interaction between the two phases of the polymer blends.

  3. Fracture incidence and characterization in patients on osteoporosis treatment: the ICARO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, Silvano; Isaia, Giancarlo; Luisetto, Giovanni; Minisola, Salvatore; Sinigaglia, Luigi; Gentilella, Raffaella; Agnusdei, Donato; Iori, Nicoletta; Nuti, Ranuccio

    2006-10-01

    None of the available osteoporosis therapies have been shown to completely abolish the risk of fractures. In clinical practice, the outcome may be even poorer. In 880 patients prescribed with antiresorptives (alendronate, risedronate, and raloxifene) for >1 year, a fragility fracture was recorded in 8.9%/year of them. This incidence is considerably higher than that observed in randomized clinical trials, and it was significantly related to poor compliance and lack of supplementation with calcium and vitamin D. Osteoporotic fracture is one of the most important public health concerns among the elderly. Currently available therapies have been shown to significantly decrease the risk of fracture, although none of them completely abolishes this risk. In clinical practice, poor treatment response may also result from a number of other factors. The Incidence and ChAracterization of inadequate clinical Responders in Osteoporosis (ICARO) is a multicenter, observational study carried out in Italy. It aimed to analyze, in postmenopausal women with established osteoporosis, the risk factors for an "inadequate clinical response" to drug therapy, defined as the occurrence of new vertebral or nonvertebral fragility fractures in patients prescribed, for at least 1 year, alendronate, risedronate, or raloxifene, with a compliance >50%. In 880 patients treated with antiresorptive agents for a median of 2.0 years (95% CI: 1.0-4.5) years, the "inadequate clinical responder (ICR)" subjects over the observation period were 220 (25%), with an annual incidence of 8.9%. ICRs, compared with "adequate clinical responders (ACRs)," had more pretreatment fractures and were treated longer (2.8 versus 1.8 years; p < 0.001). After multiple adjustment for these confounding factors, significant determinants of inadequate clinical response were a poorer treatment compliance and a less frequent co-administration of calcium and vitamin D supplements. The incidence of fractures during treatment with

  4. Screening of feral and wood pigeons for viruses harbouring a conserved mobile viral element: characterization of novel Astroviruses and Picornaviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tone Kofstad

    Full Text Available A highly conserved RNA-motif of yet unknown function, called stem-loop-2-like motif (s2m, has been identified in the 3' end of the genomes of viruses belonging to different RNA virus families which infect a broad range of mammal and bird species, including Astroviridae, Picornaviridae, Coronaviridae and Caliciviridae. Since s2m is such an extremely conserved motif, it is an ideal target for screening for viruses harbouring it. In this study, we have detected and characterized novel viruses harbouring this motif in pigeons by using a s2m-specific amplification. 84% and 67% of the samples from feral pigeons and wood pigeons, respectively, were found to contain a virus harbouring s2m. Four novel viruses were identified and characterized. Two of the new viruses belong to the genus Avastrovirus in the Astroviridae family. We propose two novel species to be included in this genus, Feral pigeon astrovirus and Wood pigeon astrovirus. Two other novel viruses, Pigeon picornavirus A and Pigeon picornavirus B, belong to the Picornaviridae family, presumably to the genus Sapelovirus. Both of the novel picornaviruses harboured two adjacent s2m, called (s2m(2, suggesting a possible increased functional effect of s2m when present in two copies.

  5. Topochemical and morphological characterization of wood cell wall treated with the ionic liquid, 1-ethylpyridinium bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanbayashi, Toru; Miyafuji, Hisashi

    2015-09-01

    MAIN CONCLUSION : [EtPy][Br] is more reactive toward lignin than toward the PSs in wood cell walls, and [EtPy][Br] treatment results in inhomogenous changes to the cell wall's ultrastructural and chemical components. The effects of the ionic liquid 1-ethylpyridinium bromide ([EtPy][Br]), which prefers to react with lignin rather than cellulose on the wood cell walls of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica), were investigated from a morphology and topochemistry point of view. The [EtPy][Br] treatment induced cell wall swelling, the elimination of warts, and the formation of countless pores in the tracheids. However, many of the pit membranes and the cellulose crystalline structure remained unchanged. Raman microscopic analyses revealed that chemical changes in the cell walls were different for different layers and that the lignin in the compound middle lamella and the cell corner resists interaction with [EtPy][Br]. Additionally, the interaction of [EtPy][Br] with the wood cell wall is different to that of other types of ionic liquid.

  6. [Changes in chemistry component structure and microstructure characterization of acetylated wood before and after UV radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhan; Liu, Yi; Xing, Fang-Ru; Guo, Hong-Wu

    2014-11-01

    The poplar powder was acetylated with different duration as sample, processed ray radiation by using ultraviolet test box, contrasting the influences to lightfastness of wood with different acetylation degree, analyzing changing rules of characteristic peaks' intensity which belonged to the chemistry components of samples based on FTIR spectra, and the relationship between duration of acetylation and changes of chemistry components was established, The results showed that: Before UV radiation, the characteristic peaks' intensity of acetylated poplar powder at 1 739 cm(-1) which belonged to C = O in saturated esters compounds and 1 385 cm(-1) which belonged to C-H in acetate were higher than untreated ones', the poplar powder with 40 min's acetylation has the highest characteristic peaks' intensity, highest weight gain rate, remarkable acetylation effect; After UV radiation, characteristic peaks' intensity of Benzene at 1 504 cm(-1) which belonged to lignin of poplar powder was obviously higher than untreated ones', and characteristic peaks' intensity of poplar powder with 40 min's acetylation was the highest, this showed that acetylation could effectively reduce the light degradation of wood chemistry components, in order to improve the lightfastness, especially the poplar powder with 40 min's acetylation; SEM photos showed that, the fibrous surface of acetylated poplar powder was more smooth and had more narrow particle size than untreated ones', so acetylation can effectively improve the stability of wood.

  7. ANATOMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF “CERRADO” VEGETATION WOOD FOR ENERGY PROUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Elias de Paula

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The wood anatomy of 7 from “cerrado”(chapada natives specie, Santa Quitéria(Maranhão was studied. Mainlyrelated to their qualification for energy production (charcoal and fire wood. The fraction of total area in a transverse section,fiber vessel, parenchyma cells, and total biomass per cubic meter of dry wood and also the basic density (specific weight ofwood were studied. For energy production, wall fraction in relation to the occupied area of the cell (%, percent of fibers,vessel, and both axial and ray parenchyma, as well as wall density were considered. The study was based in 3 areas in a crosssectionof the trunk, from the center towards the sapwood, called areas 1, 2 and 3. Based on anatomy and density mentioned,Lindackeria paraensis (farinha-seca, Parkia platycephala (faveira, Platonia insignis (bacuri, Salvertia convallariodora(folha-grande, Swartzia flaemingii(jacarandá, Vatarea macrocarpa (amargoso and Zeyhera tuberculata(pau-d”arcocabeludocan be classified as energy production tree species.

  8. An integrated methodology for sub-surface fracture characterization using microseismic data: A case study at the NW Geysers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminzadeh, Fred; Tafti, Tayeb A.; Maity, Debotyam

    2013-04-01

    Geothermal and unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs are often characterized by low permeability and porosity. So, they are difficult to produce and require stimulation techniques, such as thermal shear deactivation and hydraulic fracturing. Fractures provide porosity for fluid storage and permeability for fluid movement and play an important role in production from this kind of reservoirs. Hence, characterization of fractures has become a vitally important consideration in every aspect of exploration, development and production so as to provide additional energy resources for the world. During the injection or production of fluid, induced seismicity (micro-seismic events) can be caused by reactivated shears created fractures or the natural fractures in shear zones and faults. Monitoring these events can help visualize fracture growth during injection stimulation. Although the locations of microseismic events can be a useful characterization tool and have been used by many authors, we go beyond these locations to characterize fractures more reliably. Tomographic inversion, fuzzy clustering, and shear wave splitting are three methods that can be applied to microseismic data to obtain reliable characteristics about fractured areas. In this article, we show how each method can help us in the characterization process. In addition, we demonstrate how they can be integrated with each other or with other data for a more holistic approach. The knowledge gained might be used to optimize drilling targets or stimulation jobs to reduce costs and maximize production. Some of the concepts discussed in this paper are general in nature, and may be more applicable to unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs than the metamorphic and igneous reservoir rocks at The Geysers geothermal field.

  9. Preparation and Characterization of Epoxy Resin Cross-Linked with High Wood Pyrolysis Bio-Oil Substitution by Acetone Pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of cost effective solvents may be necessary to store wood pyrolysis bio-oil in order to stabilize and control its viscosity, but this part of the production system has not been explored. Conversely, any rise in viscosity during storage, that would occur without a solvent, will add variance to the production system and render it cost ineffective. The purpose of this study was to modify bio-oil with a common solvent and then react the bio-oil with an epoxy for bonding of wood without any loss in properties. The acetone pretreatment of the bio-oil/epoxy mixture was found to improve the cross-linking potential and substitution rate based on its mechanical, chemical, and thermal properties. Specifically, the bio-oil was blended with epoxy resin at weight ratios ranging from 2:1 to 1:5 and were then cured. A higher bio-oil substitution rate was found to lower the shear bond strength of the bio-oil/epoxy resins. However, when an acetone pretreatment was used, it was possible to replace the bio-oil by as much as 50% while satisfying usage requirements. Extraction of the bio-oil/epoxy mixture with four different solvents demonstrated an improvement in cross-linking after acetone pretreatment. ATR-FTIR analysis confirmed that the polymer achieved a higher cross-linked structure. DSC and TGA curves showed improved thermal stability with the addition of the acetone pretreatment. UV-Vis characterization showed that some functional groups of the bio-oil to epoxy system were unreacted. Finally, when the resin mixture was utilized to bond wood, the acetone pretreatment coupled with precise tuning of the bio-oil:epoxy ratio was an effective method to control cross-linking while ensuring acceptable bond strength.

  10. Detection and Characterization of Natural and Induced Fractures for the Development of Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toksoz, M. Nafi [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences

    2013-04-06

    The objective of this 3-year project is to use various geophysical methods for reservoir and fracture characterization. The targeted field is the Cove Fort-Sulphurdale Geothermal Field in Utah operated by ENEL North America (ENA). Our effort has been focused on 1) understanding the regional and local geological settings around the geothermal field; 2) collecting and assembling various geophysical data sets including heat flow, gravity, magnetotelluric (MT) and seismic surface and body wave data; 3) installing the local temporary seismic network around the geothermal site; 4) imaging the regional and local seismic velocity structure around the geothermal field using seismic travel time tomography; and (5) determining the fracture direction using the shear-wave splitting analysis and focal mechanism analysis. Various geophysical data sets indicate that beneath the Cove Fort-Sulphurdale Geothermal Field, there is a strong anomaly of low seismic velocity, low gravity, high heat flow and high electrical conductivity. These suggest that there is a heat source in the crust beneath the geothermal field. The high-temperature body is on average 150 °C – 200 °C hotter than the surrounding rock. The local seismic velocity and attenuation tomography gives a detailed velocity and attenuation model around the geothermal site, which shows that the major geothermal development target is a high velocity body near surface, composed mainly of monzonite. The major fracture direction points to NNE. The detailed velocity model along with the fracture direction will be helpful for guiding the geothermal development in the Cove Fort area.

  11. Phenomenological and mechanics aspects of nondestructive evaluation and characterization by sound and ultrasound of material and fracture properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, L. S. W.

    1982-01-01

    Developments in fracture mechanics and elastic wave theory enhance the understanding of many physical phenomena in a mathematical context. Available literature in the material, and fracture characterization by NDT, and the related mathematical methods in mechanics that provide fundamental underlying principles for its interpretation and evaluation are reviewed. Information on the energy release mechanism of defects and the interaction of microstructures within the material is basic in the formulation of the mechanics problems that supply guidance for nondestructive evaluation (NDE).

  12. Characterization of structure and development of models to quantify wood potential of an unmanaged Araucaria angustifolia stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella De Angeli Curto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize of an unmanaged stand of Araucaria angustifolia and to development of models to quantify the wood potential, aiming to support the development of forest management plans in stands with similar conditions. The work was developed into a stand established in 1946, in National Forest of Açungui, in Campo Largo County, Paraná State, Brazil. There was only one thinning in the stand, between 1970 and 1980. From the frequency of individuals in each diametric class, it was observed the condition of stagnation and competition with cohort in the beginning of class distribution. With the application of the probability density function of Weibull-3P, Trorey model, and the 5th polynomial by diameter class, it was possible to confirm the stock estimative of timber volume of the stand. This analysis indicated that the stand presents average annual wood production smaller than the species potential. So it is recommended the thinning to promote growth of remnant trees. With the probability density function of Weibull-3p, that was selected, it is possible to project the diametric distribution of the stand, when analyzed complementarily with growth diameter information, if the stand remains unmanaged. Certainly, the optimum potential of timber production could have been manifested if the stand were managed during the cycle planed.

  13. Integrated Methods for Site Characterization and Conceptual Model Development for a Contaminated Fractured-Bedrock Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. D.; Kastrinos, J. R.; Haeni, F. P.

    2005-12-01

    A multi-disciplined and team-based approach was used to integrate geophysical, hydrologic, and chemical data to characterize lithology, fractures, and hydraulic properties of fractured crystalline bedrock and to determine the nature and extent of ground-water contamination from a landfill and former chemical-waste disposal pits at the University of Connecticut. Detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in domestic bedrock wells in the mid-1980s led to this investigation, in which a team comprised of hydrologists, engineers, geophysicists, geologists, chemists, toxicologists, and community-involvement personnel collected, analyzed, and evaluated data; developed and refined a conceptual model of the ground-water flow and contaminant distribution at the site; and evaluated alternatives and implemented a final remediation plan. The characterization phase began in 1999 and the remediation phase is currently ongoing. An integrated and iterative approach of using multiple methods in phases was important for corroborating the interpretation of individual methods and essential for guiding the design and implementation of additional testing at the site. The use of geophysical data early in the investigation allowed the study team to obtain detailed subsurface information using a minimum of boreholes. Surface geophysical methods were used to target potential discharge of contaminants from the landfill for further investigation. Borehole geophysical methods were used to investigate the anomalies identified by surface geophysical methods, the location and orientation of fractures that intersect and surround each well, the direction and magnitude of ambient flow in the wells, and the transmissive fractures that could provide pathways for contaminant migration. Borehole geophysical and hydraulic data were used to design discrete-zone monitoring systems for the collection of hydraulic head and chemical data and to prevent cross contamination through the boreholes. The results

  14. Wood flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig M. Clemons

    2010-01-01

    The term “wood flour” is somewhat ambiguous. Reineke states that the term wood flour “is applied somewhat loosely to wood reduced to finely divided particles approximating those of cereal flours in size, appearance, and texture.” Though its definition is imprecise, the term wood flour is in common use. Practically speaking, wood flour usually refers to wood particles...

  15. Wood flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig M. Clemons; Daniel F. Caufield

    2005-01-01

    The term “wood flour” is somewhat ambiguous. Reineke states that the term wood flour “is applied somewhat loosely to wood reduced to finely divided particles approximating those of cereal flours in size, appearance, and texture”. Though its definition is imprecise, the term wood flour is in common use. Practically speaking, wood flour usually refers to wood particles...

  16. Fracture Characterization in Enhanced Geothermal Systems by Wellbore and Reservoir Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horne, Roland N.; Li, Kewen; Alaskar, Mohammed; Ames, Morgan; Co, Carla; Juliusson, Egill; Magnusdottir, Lilja

    2012-06-30

    This report highlights the work that was done to characterize fractured geothermal reservoirs using production data. That includes methods that were developed to infer characteristic functions from production data and models that were designed to optimize reinjection scheduling into geothermal reservoirs, based on these characteristic functions. The characterization method provides a robust way of interpreting tracer and flow rate data from fractured reservoirs. The flow-rate data are used to infer the interwell connectivity, which describes how injected fluids are divided between producers in the reservoir. The tracer data are used to find the tracer kernel for each injector-producer connection. The tracer kernel describes the volume and dispersive properties of the interwell flow path. A combination of parametric and nonparametric regression methods were developed to estimate the tracer kernels for situations where data is collected at variable flow-rate or variable injected concentration conditions. The characteristic functions can be used to calibrate thermal transport models, which can in turn be used to predict the productivity of geothermal systems. This predictive model can be used to optimize injection scheduling in a geothermal reservoir, as is illustrated in this report.

  17. Characterization of the 3-D fracture setting of an unstable rock mass: From surface and seismic investigations to numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombero, C.; Baillet, L.; Comina, C.; Jongmans, D.; Vinciguerra, S.

    2017-08-01

    The characterization of the fracturing state of a potentially unstable rock cliff is a crucial requirement for stability assessments and mitigation purposes. Classical measurements of fracture location and orientation can however be limited by inaccessible rock exposures. The steep topography and high-rise morphology of these cliffs, together with the widespread presence of fractures, can additionally condition the success of geophysical prospecting on these sites. In order to mitigate these limitations, an innovative approach combining noncontact geomechanical measurements, active and passive seismic surveys, and 3-D numerical modeling is proposed in this work to characterize the 3-D fracture setting of an unstable rock mass, located in NW Italian Alps (Madonna del Sasso, VB). The 3-D fracture geometry was achieved through a combination of field observations and noncontact geomechanical measurements on oriented pictures of the cliff, resulting from a previous laser-scanning and photogrammetric survey. The estimation of fracture persistence within the rock mass was obtained from surface active seismic surveys. Ambient seismic noise and earthquakes recordings were used to assess the fracture control on the site response. Processing of both data sets highlighted the resonance properties of the unstable rock volume decoupling from the stable massif. A finite element 3-D model of the site, including all the retrieved fracture information, enabled both validation and interpretation of the field measurements. The integration of these different methodologies, applied for the first time to a complex 3-D prone-to-fall mass, provided consistent information on the internal fracturing conditions, supplying key parameters for future monitoring purposes and mitigation strategies.

  18. Hydrogeloogic characterization of fractured rock formations: A guide for groundwater remediators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, A.J.B.

    1995-10-01

    A field site was developed in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada, California to develop and test a multi-disciplinary approach to the characterization of ground water flow and transport in fractured rocks. Nine boreholes were drilled into the granitic bedrock, and a wide variety of new and traditional subsurface characterization tools were implemented. The hydrogeologic structure and properties of the field site were deduced by integrating results from the various geologic, geophysical, hydrologic, and other investigative methods. The findings of this work are synthesized into this report, which is structured in a guidebook format. The applications of the new and traditional technologies, suggestions on how best to use, integrate, and analyze field data, and comparisons of the shortcoming and benefits of the different methods are presented.

  19. Temperature Logging to Characterize Flow Patterns in a Highly Permeable Fractured Karstic Aquifer, Poitiers (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelier, M.; Ruelleu, S.; Bour, O.; Porel, G.; Delay, F.

    2008-12-01

    In heterogeneous media, such as higly fractured rocks or karstic aquifers, the characterization of the main flow paths is required for further flow modeling but rather difficult to achieve due to the complexity of the flow field. Here we compare the information provided by temperature logs with flow logs measurements in a fractured karstic aquifer at the Hydrogeological Experimental Site (HES) of Poitiers (France). Temperature logs have been widely used to address flow in fractured rocks. Basically, the method tracks eventual distortions of the geothermic gradient due to groundwater motion. It is considered as inexpensive since the point is simply to monitor water temperatures along a borehole profile and then to translate the measures in terms of inflow-outflow locations and incidentally of vertical flows along the borehole. Flow logs were obtained from an heat-pulse flowmeter that allow to measure downward or upward vertical groundwater velocities larger than a mm/s. The HES is set up over a 100m thickness confined Jurassic limestone aquifer. The HES includes 32 fully penetrating wells which geometry is inspired from the "five spot" borehole configuration. The inter- comparisons between previous data from flowmeter testing, borehole imaging and 3D seismic imaging indicate that main flow-paths are mostly concealed within sub-horizontal layers riddled with karstic channels and along sub-vertical fractures. Temperature and flow measurements have been carried out under both ambient and forced flow conditions. Two forced flow conditions are available yielding short pumping time data with pumping at the monitored well, large pumping time data with pumping at a distant well. Most boreholes show quite constant vertical profiles of temperature indicating the existence of flow along boreholes. In addition, a few wells may show drop of temperature at 115 m depth and anomalous warm-water arrivals at 65m. These features associated with non equilibrated temperatures highlight

  20. Single well thermal tracer test, a new experimental set up for characterizing thermal transport in fractured media

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Bernardie, Jérôme; Bour, Olivier; Guihéneuf, Nicolas; Chatton, Eliot; Labasque, Thierry; Longuevergne, Laurent; Le Lay, Hugo; Koch, Floriant; Gerard, Marie-Françoise; Le Borgne, Tanguy

    2017-04-01

    Thermal transport in fractured media depends on the hydrological properties of fractures and thermal characteristics of rock. Tracer tests using heat as tracer can thus be a good alternative to characterize fractured media for shallow geothermal needs. This study investigates the possibility of implementing a new thermal tracer test set up, the single well thermal tracer test, to characterize hydraulic and thermal transport properties of fractured crystalline rock. The experimental setup is based on injecting hot water in a fracture isolated by a double straddle packer in the borehole while pumping and monitoring the temperature in a fracture crossing the same borehole at greater elevation. One difficulty comes from the fact that injection and withdrawal are achieved in the same borehole involving thermal losses along the injection tube that may disturb the heat recovery signal. To be able to well localize the heat influx, we implemented a Fiber-Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing (FO-DTS) which allows the temperature monitoring with high spatial and temporal resolution (29 centimeters and 30 seconds respectively). Several tests, at different pumping and injection rates, were performed in a crystalline rock aquifer at the experimental site of Ploemeur (H+ observatory network). We show through signal processing how the thermal breakthrough may be extracted thanks to Fiber-Optic distributed temperature measurements. In particular, we demonstrate how detailed distributed temperature measurements were useful to identify different inflows and to estimate how much heat was transported and stored within the fractures network. Thermal breakthrough curves of single well thermal tracer tests were then interpreted with a simple analytical model to characterize hydraulic and thermal characteristics of the fractured media. We finally discuss the advantages of these tests compared to cross-borehole thermal tracer tests.

  1. WOOD PROPERTIES AND EFFECT OF WOOD PROPERTIES ON THE WOOD FINISHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkadir Malkoçoğlu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Wood is basic raw material for furniture and joinery industries with wood structures. Wood is a biological material that has widely different properties depending on species, geographic area where the tree grew, the growth condition, size of the tree at harvest, sawing, and other manufacturing processes. Wood properties have been characterized within two groups as natural and manufacturing factors that effects finishing performance. Grow rate, density, knots, moisture content, extractives and juvenile wood are natural characteristics. Grain orientation, texture, drying and performance expectations are manufacturing characteristics. In this review, the effects of natural and manufacturing characteristics are discussed on the surface finishing performance of wood.

  2. Cohesive mixed mode fracture modelling and experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Rasmus; Olesen, John Forbes

    2008-01-01

    . An experimental set-up for the assessment of mixed mode interfacial fracture properties is presented, applying a bi-material specimen, half steel and half concrete, with an inclined interface and under uniaxial load. Loading the inclined steel–concrete interface under different angles produces load–crack opening......A nonlinear mixed mode model originally developed by Wernersson [Wernersson H. Fracture characterization of wood adhesive joints. Report TVSM-1006, Lund University, Division of Structural Mechanics; 1994], based on nonlinear fracture mechanics, is discussed and applied to model interfacial cracking...... in a steel–concrete interface. The model is based on the principles of Hillerborgs fictitious crack model, however, the Mode I softening description is modified taking into account the influence of shear. The model couples normal and shear stresses for a given combination of Mode I and II fracture...

  3. Characterization and electrodialytic treatment of wood combustion fly ash for removal of cadmium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2003-01-01

    -for the aim of recycling-was described. Initial characterisation of the experimental ash showed that the Cd content exceeded the limiting values for agricultural use and therefore needed treatment before being recycled. The pH in the ash was very high (13.3), and the Cd was not soluble at these alkaline......Due to a high content of macronutrients and a potential liming capacity, recycling of ashes from biomass combustion to agricultural fields as fertilisers and/or for soil improvement is considered in Denmark and other countries utilising biomass as an energy source. However, the fly ash fractions...... especially contain amounts of the toxic heavy metal cadmium that may exceed the limiting values for agricultural utilisation given by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency.In this work the advances of using an electrodialytic remediation method to reduce the Cd content in wood combustion fly ash...

  4. Wood characterization of Salix. 2: Relationships between optical and other wood properties; Caracterizacion de la madera de Salix. 2: Relaciones entre propiedades opticas y otros atributos del leno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villegas, M. S.; Area, M. C.

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to establish relationships between some characteristics of the wood of Salix and their possible influence on its optical properties. In both willow clones, the presence of stains caused the decrease of brightness, L*, and b*. This effect was intensified in the more deteriorated areas. Tylose increased with the presence of such stains. The whiter wood showed the highest values of L*, being more yellow and less red, except for the dark zone in the American willow, and the brown stains and the blue stain in the hybrid willow, in which the parameters a* and b* correlated positively. The presence of defects in the wood was related to the decrease of density in both clones, except for the dark-brown stain in the American willow, which caused the increase of disks density when present. The content of insoluble and total lignin correlated negatively with brightness and L* in American willow, and with basic density in the hybrid. In the last clone, the extractives in hot water and alcohol-benzene, correlated with the alkali soluble substances content (frequently used as a measure of decay degree), and also played an important role in determining the tendency to blue color in the stains of the wood. (Author) 22 refs.

  5. Interdependence of Primary Metabolism and Xenobiotic Mitigation Characterizes the Proteome of Bjerkandera adusta during Wood Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, S C; Dudley, E; Hiscox, J; Boddy, L; Eastwood, D C

    2018-01-15

    The aim of the current work was to identify key features of the fungal proteome involved in the active decay of beechwood blocks by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera adusta at 20°C and 24°C. A combination of protein and domain analyses ensured a high level of annotation, which revealed that while the variation in the proteins identified was high between replicates, there was a considerable degree of functional conservation between the two temperatures. Further analysis revealed differences in the pathways and processes employed by the fungus at the different temperatures, particularly in relation to nutrient acquisition and xenobiotic mitigation. Key features showing temperature-dependent variation in mechanisms for both lignocellulose decomposition and sugar utilization were found, alongside differences in the enzymes involved in mitigation against damage caused by toxic phenolic compounds and oxidative stress.IMPORTANCE This work was conducted using the wood decay fungus B. adusta, grown on solid wood blocks to closely mimic the natural environment, and gives greater insight into the proteome of an important environmental fungus during active decay. We show that a change in incubation temperature from 20°C to 24°C altered the protein profile. Proteomic studies in the field of white-rotting basidiomycetes have thus far been hampered by poor annotation of protein databases, with a large proportion of proteins simply with unknown function. This study was enhanced by extensive protein domain analysis, enabling a higher level of functional assignment and greater understanding of the proteome composition. This work revealed a strong interdependence of the primary process of nutrient acquisition and specialized metabolic processes for the detoxification of plant extractives and the phenolic breakdown products of lignocellulose. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  6. The characterization of airborne occupational safety and health hazards in selected small businesses; manufacturing wood pallets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkin, Robert; Lentz, Thomas J; Topmiller, Jennifer; Hudock, Stephen D; Niemeier, Richard W

    2006-01-01

    Researchers from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) investigated occupational safety and health concerns in the small business wood pallet manufacturing industry because of an injury rate (2000) 226% greater than that for general industry. NIOSH investigators conducted walk-through evaluations at seven wood pallet manufacturing companies, and returned to four of them to take environmental measurements. Carbon monoxide (CO) levels, noise levels, and total particulate were measured, ergonomic observations made, and occupational safety practices analyzed at each of the four facilities where measurements were taken. The focus of this study is the evaluation of airborne particulate and carbon monoxide exposures for the purpose of determining areas of potentially high exposures. This knowledge can guide the plant owner or health professional to determine whether further measurements are necessary and where they might be needed. Safety factors and physical stressors (noise and ergonomic stressors) were described in a previously published companion paper. Although we did not take 8 h samples, we did find certain exposures that were potentially of concern to the small business owner. The main findings of this investigation were as follows: 1) CO levels in three plants, for the time periods measured, were less than the OSHA permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 50 parts per million (ppm) for an 8-h TWA. Three measurements, all from one plant, were due to a older and defective forklift and were above 50 ppm. 2) Total dust measures ranged from 0.86 to 1.67 mg/m3, taken adjacent to an operating machine cutting hardwood and measured up to 6 min. The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) guideline for hardwood dust is 1.0 mg/m3, again for an 8-h TWA.

  7. Wood Quality and Growth Characterization across Intra- and Inter-Specific Hybrid Aspen Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn D. Mansfield

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx. is one of the most abundant poplar species in North America; it is native, displays substantial breadth in distribution inhabiting several geographical and climatic ecoregions, is notable for its rapid growth, and is ecologically and economically important. As the demand for raw material continues to increase rapidly, there is a pressing need to improve both tree quality and growth rates via breeding efforts. Hybridization is considered one of the most promising options to simultaneously accelerate these tree characteristics, as it takes advantage of heterosis. Two aspen species showing particular promise for hybridization with trembling aspen are European aspen (P. tremula and Chinese aspen (P. davidiana because their native climates are similar to that of P. tremuloides and are also very easy to hybridize. In 2003, aspen clones were planted in Athabasca, Alberta from the following species crosses: open pollinated (OP P. tremuloides (NN, OP P. davidiana (CC, P. tremula × P. tremula (EE, P. tremula × P. tremuloides (EN, and P. tremuloides × P. davidiana (CN. In November 2010, growth measurements and core samples were taken from seven-year field grown clones. Comparisons of the mean growth and cell wall traits were made between crosses using generalized linear model least squares means tests for stem volume, fiber length, fiber width, coarseness, wood density, microfibril angle, total cell wall carbohydrate and lignin content, and lignin composition. The results clearly indicated that the inter-specific crosses offer a means to breed for more desirable wood characteristics than the intra-specific Populus spp. crosses.

  8. Fracture mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, Nestor

    2017-01-01

    The second edition of this textbook includes a refined presentation of concepts in each chapter, additional examples; new problems and sections, such as conformal mapping and mechanical behavior of wood; while retaining all the features of the original book. The material included in this book is based upon the development of analytical and numerical procedures pertinent to particular fields of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) and plastic fracture mechanics (PFM), including mixed-mode-loading interaction. The mathematical approach undertaken herein is coupled with a brief review of several fracture theories available in cited references, along with many color images and figures. Dynamic fracture mechanics is included through the field of fatigue and Charpy impact testing. Explains computational and engineering approaches for solving crack-related problems using straightforward mathematics that facilitate comprehension of the physical meaning of crack growth processes; Expands computational understandin...

  9. Characterizing trabecular bone structure for assessing vertebral fracture risk on volumetric quantitative computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Mahesh B.; Checefsky, Walter A.; Abidin, Anas Z.; Tsai, Halley; Wang, Xixi; Hobbs, Susan K.; Bauer, Jan S.; Baum, Thomas; Wismüller, Axel

    2015-03-01

    While the proximal femur is preferred for measuring bone mineral density (BMD) in fracture risk estimation, the introduction of volumetric quantitative computed tomography has revealed stronger associations between BMD and spinal fracture status. In this study, we propose to capture properties of trabecular bone structure in spinal vertebrae with advanced second-order statistical features for purposes of fracture risk assessment. For this purpose, axial multi-detector CT (MDCT) images were acquired from 28 spinal vertebrae specimens using a whole-body 256-row CT scanner with a dedicated calibration phantom. A semi-automated method was used to annotate the trabecular compartment in the central vertebral slice with a circular region of interest (ROI) to exclude cortical bone; pixels within were converted to values indicative of BMD. Six second-order statistical features derived from gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) and the mean BMD within the ROI were then extracted and used in conjunction with a generalized radial basis functions (GRBF) neural network to predict the failure load of the specimens; true failure load was measured through biomechanical testing. Prediction performance was evaluated with a root-mean-square error (RMSE) metric. The best prediction performance was observed with GLCM feature `correlation' (RMSE = 1.02 ± 0.18), which significantly outperformed all other GLCM features (p < 0.01). GLCM feature correlation also significantly outperformed MDCTmeasured mean BMD (RMSE = 1.11 ± 0.17) (p< 10-4). These results suggest that biomechanical strength prediction in spinal vertebrae can be significantly improved through characterization of trabecular bone structure with GLCM-derived texture features.

  10. Experimental Characterization and Modeling of the Fracturing Behavior of Marcellus Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, C.; Li, W.; Sageman, B. B.; Cusatis, G.

    2014-12-01

    Adequate knowledge and prediction of mechanical properties of shale are pivotal to the design of hydraulic fractures. The urgent technical challenge of such an endeavor is how to translate the highly heterogeneous nature of shale into a predictive model of the mechanical properties. Our group addressed this challenge by adopting a combined experimental and numerical approach to investigate fracture processes and failure mechanisms of shale.Lattice Discrete Particle Model (LDPM), having shown superior capabilities in predicting qualitative and quantitative behavior of concrete and concrete-like materials, as shown in Fig. 1, has been adopted to simulate mesoscale behavior of shale. The polyhedral cell system defining the geometric attributes of the rock microstructure is built via a 3D tessellation procedure based on X-ray microtomography results of microstructure and grain size distribution of shale specimens. The adopted tessellation procedure makes use of well-established packing algorithms for no-contact spherical particle placement and non-overlapping volume tessellation. The polyhedral particles interact through triangular facets where appropriate measure of stresses and strains are defined. Especially, LDPM is extended to simulate transversely isotropic materials by using orientation-dependent and strain-dependent strength limits coupled with orientation-dependent normal and shear stiffnesses on each facet. Appropriate interface constitutive equations are formulated to simulate all phenomena occurring at a scale that is smaller than the resolution of LDPM system, including microscopic fracture, frictional contact, particle breakage, pore collapse, and distributed damage. Bedding planes and natural joints are characterized by greatly decreased strength limits for facets within that region. To calibrate/validate the LDPM model, microscopic and mesoscopic experiments, including Brazilian tests, uniaxial compression tests, and three point-bending tests, are

  11. Characterizing Fractures Across the Astronaut Corps: Preliminary Findings from Population-Level Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Meredith M.; Charvat, Jacqueline; Sibonga, Jean; Sieker, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Despite evidence of bone loss during spaceflight and operational countermeasures to mitigate this loss, the subsequent risk of fracture among astronauts is not known. The physiologic process of diminished bone density and bone recovery during or following spaceflight is multifactorial. Such factors as age, sex, fracture history, and others may combine to increase fracture risk among astronauts. As part of the 2016 Bone Research and Clinical Advisory Panel (RCAP), the authors analyzed data collected on 338 NASA astronauts to describe the demographics, bone-relevant characteristics, and fracture history of the astronaut population. The majority of the population are male (n=286, 84.6%), have flown at least one mission (n=306, 90.5%), and were between the ages of 30 and 49 at first mission (n=296, 96.7% of those with at least one mission). Of the 338 astronauts, 241 (71.3%) experienced a fracture over the course of their lifetime. One hundred and five (43.5%) of these 241 astronauts only experienced a fracture prior to being selected into the Astronaut Corps, whereas 53 (22.0%) only experienced a fracture after selection as an astronaut. An additional 80 astronauts (33.2%) had both pre- and post-selection fractures. The remaining 3 astronauts had a fracture of unknown date, which could not be categorized as pre- or post-selection. Among the 133 astronauts with at least one post-selection fracture, males comprised 90.2% (n=120) compared to 84.5% of the entire Corps, and females accounted for 9.8% (n=13) compared to 15.4% of the Corps. Ninety-seven of the 133 astronauts with post-selection fractures (72.9%) had one fracture event, 22 (16.5%) had two fractures, and 14 (10.5%) had three or more fractures. Some astronauts with multiple fractures suffered these in a single event, such as an automobile accident. The 133 astronauts with a post-selection fracture accounted for a total of 188 fracture events. One hundred and four (78.2%) of astronauts with post

  12. Noble gas signatures in the Island of Maui, Hawaii: Characterizing groundwater sources in fractured systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yi; Castro, M. Clara; Hall, Chris M.; Gingerich, Stephen B.; Scholl, Martha A.; Warrier, Rohit B.

    2017-01-01

    Uneven distribution of rainfall and freshwater scarcity in populated areas in the Island of Maui, Hawaii, renders water resources management a challenge in this complex and ill-defined hydrological system. A previous study in the Galapagos Islands suggests that noble gas temperatures (NGTs) record seasonality in that fractured, rapid infiltration groundwater system rather than the commonly observed mean annual air temperature (MAAT) in sedimentary systems where infiltration is slower thus, providing information on recharge sources and potential flow paths. Here we report noble gas results from the basal aquifer, springs, and rainwater in Maui to explore the potential for noble gases in characterizing this type of complex fractured hydrologic systems. Most samples display a mass-dependent depletion pattern with respect to surface conditions consistent with previous observations both in the Galapagos Islands and Michigan rainwater. Basal aquifer and rainwater noble gas patterns are similar and suggest direct, fast recharge from precipitation to the basal aquifer. In contrast, multiple springs, representative of perched aquifers, display highly variable noble gas concentrations suggesting recharge from a variety of sources. The distinct noble gas patterns for the basal aquifer and springs suggest that basal and perched aquifers are separate entities. Maui rainwater displays high apparent NGTs, incompatible with surface conditions, pointing either to an origin at high altitudes with the presence of ice or an ice-like source of undetermined origin. Overall, noble gas signatures in Maui reflect the source of recharge rather than the expected altitude/temperature relationship commonly observed in sedimentary systems.

  13. Chemical and toxicological characterizations of hydraulic fracturing flowback and produced water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuhe; Flynn, Shannon L; Folkerts, Erik J; Zhang, Yifeng; Ruan, Dongliang; Alessi, Daniel S; Martin, Jonathan W; Goss, Greg G

    2017-05-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (HF) has emerged as a major method of unconventional oil and gas recovery. The toxicity of hydraulic fracturing flowback and produced water (HF-FPW) has not been previously reported and is complicated by the combined complexity of organic and inorganic constituents in HF fluids and deep formation water. In this study, we characterized the solids, salts, and organic signatures in an HF-FPW sample from the Duvernay Formation, Alberta, Canada. Untargeted HPLC-Orbitrap revealed numerous unknown dissolved polar organics. Among the most prominent peaks, a substituted tri-phenyl phosphate was identified which is likely an oxidation product of a common polymer antioxidant. Acute toxicity of zebrafish embryo was attributable to high salinity and organic contaminants in HF-FPW with LC50 values ranging from 0.6% to 3.9%, depending on the HF-FPW fractions and embryo developmental stages. Induction of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was detected, due in part to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and suspended solids might have a synergistic effect on EROD induction. This study demonstrates that toxicological profiling of real HF-FPW sample presents great challenges for assessing the potential risks and impacts posed by HF-FPW spills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Noble gas signatures in the Island of Maui, Hawaii: Characterizing groundwater sources in fractured systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yi; Castro, M. Clara; Hall, Chris M.; Gingerich, Stephen B.; Scholl, Martha A.; Warrier, Rohit B.

    2017-05-01

    Uneven distribution of rainfall and freshwater scarcity in populated areas in the Island of Maui, Hawaii, renders water resources management a challenge in this complex and ill-defined hydrological system. A previous study in the Galapagos Islands suggests that noble gas temperatures (NGTs) record seasonality in that fractured, rapid infiltration groundwater system rather than the commonly observed mean annual air temperature (MAAT) in sedimentary systems where infiltration is slower thus, providing information on recharge sources and potential flow paths. Here we report noble gas results from the basal aquifer, springs, and rainwater in Maui to explore the potential for noble gases in characterizing this type of complex fractured hydrologic systems. Most samples display a mass-dependent depletion pattern with respect to surface conditions consistent with previous observations both in the Galapagos Islands and Michigan rainwater. Basal aquifer and rainwater noble gas patterns are similar and suggest direct, fast recharge from precipitation to the basal aquifer. In contrast, multiple springs, representative of perched aquifers, display highly variable noble gas concentrations suggesting recharge from a variety of sources. The distinct noble gas patterns for the basal aquifer and springs suggest that basal and perched aquifers are separate entities. Maui rainwater displays high apparent NGTs, incompatible with surface conditions, pointing either to an origin at high altitudes with the presence of ice or an ice-like source of undetermined origin. Overall, noble gas signatures in Maui reflect the source of recharge rather than the expected altitude/temperature relationship commonly observed in sedimentary systems.

  15. Isolation and characterization of triacylglycerol-accumulating microorganisms which can utilize wood polysaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, S. A.

    2017-05-01

    Triacylglycerol is an ester which is made of glycerol and three fatty acids. This compound is an important feedstock for biodiesel production. In this study, several strains of oleaginous bacteria were isolated from environmental sample based on their ability to grow in mineral salts medium supplemented with wood-derived sugars such as cellulose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, and galactose. The lipid accumulating bacteria were selected based on fluorescent signal from hydrophobic inclusion in the cytoplasm after incubation in selective medium containing lipophilic dye 0.5 % (w/v) nile red. The lipid content was analyzed using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In this study, three bacterial isolates 2HPCS1R4, 1LPCS2R2, and 1LPCS2R14 were selected among several candidates. TLC analysis of hydrophobic substance from 1LPCS2R2 and 1LPCS2R14 showed two overlapped discrete bands corresponded to triacylglycerol reference band. While 2HPCS1R4 displayed a faint band located above the reference band. GC-MS analysis confirmed that the bands consisted of fatty acid methyl esters with alkyl length varied from C12 to C17. Kinetic study showed that the fastest growing strain was 1LPCS2R2 had the highest growth rates and when grown in glucose (µ = 0.29 h-1) and xylose (µ = 0.16 h-1). In conclusion, this study has identified of prospective bacterial isolates for commercial biodiesel production.

  16. Mechanical properties, fracture surface characterization, and microstructural analysis of six noble dental casting alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucar, Yurdanur; Brantley, William A; Johnston, William M; Dasgupta, Tridib

    2011-06-01

    Because noble dental casting alloys for metal ceramic restorations have a wide range of mechanical properties, knowledge of these properties is needed for rational alloy selection in different clinical situations where cast metal restorations are indicated. The purpose of this study was to compare the mechanical properties and examine both the fracture and polished surfaces of 6 noble casting alloys that span many currently marketed systems. Five alloys were designed for metal ceramic restorations, and a sixth Type GPT has Type IV alloy for fixed prosthodontics (Maxigold KF) was included for comparison. Specimens (n=6) meeting dimensional requirements for ISO Standards 9693 and 8891 were loaded to failure in tension using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 2 mm/min. Values of 0.1% and 0.2% yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, elastic modulus, and percentage elongation were obtained. Statistical comparisons of the alloy mechanical properties were made using 1-way ANOVA and the REGW multiple-range test (α=.05). Following fracture surface characterization using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), specimens were embedded in epoxy resin, polished, and again, examined with the SEM. When the multiple comparisons were considered, there were generally no significant differences in the elastic modulus, 0.1% and 0.2% offset yield strength, and ultimate tensile strength for the d.SIGN 91 (Au-Pd), d.SIGN 59 (Pd-Ag), Capricorn 15 (Pd-Ag-Au) and Maxigold KF (Au-Ag-Pd) alloys, except that the ultimate tensile strength was significantly lower (PGold XH (Au-Pt). The d.SIGN 59 (14.6%) and Capricorn 15 (13.8%) alloys had the highest values of mean percentage elongation, which were not significantly different. Aquarius XH (6.0%) and Maxigold KF (4.2%) had the lower mean values of percentage elongation, which were also not significantly different. The polished and etched surfaces for all alloys revealed equiaxed, fine-grain microstructures, and all fracture

  17. Seismic Imaging And Characterization Of Fractured Oil Reservoirs By Focusing Gaussian Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Fang, X.; Fehler, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    Most of global oil is from carbonate reservoirs and fractures of different length scales are ubiquitous in such reservoirs. Presence of natural fractures creates major problems for oil production since fractures can influence fluid flow. A prior knowledge about fractures, their orientation, spatial density, fracture compliances, and geometrical connectivity is essential for stimulation and enhanced oil recovery. An existing fracture scaling relation shows that large fractures (10s of m) are more compliant than smaller ones. We have developed a new method, which can invert for spatially dependent fracture orientation, spacing/density, and compliance using surface seismic data in exploration acquisition. In contrast to most methods that use singly scattered waves by fractures, our method uses multiply scattered waves between fractures. The direction information of the fracture multiply scattered waves contains fracture orientation and spacing information, and the amplitude of these waves gives the compliance. Our algorithm makes use of the interference of two true-amplitude 3D Gaussian beams emitted from surface source and receiver arrays that are extrapolated downward and focused on fractured reservoir targets. The double beam interference pattern provides information about the fractures. We performed a blind test on our methodology. A 3D model with two sets of orthogonal fractures was built, and a 3D staggered finite-difference method using the Schoenberg linear-slip boundary condition for fractures was used to generate the synthetic surface seismic data set. The test results showed that we were able to not only invert for the fracture orientation and spacing, but also the compliance field.

  18. Characterization of residues from thermal treatment of treated wood and extraction of Cu, Cr, As and Zn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Christensen, Iben Vernegren

    2005-01-01

    of small particles with wood structure with elevated Cu and Cr concentrations, but most particles were irregular shaped matrix particles rich in Si, Al and K. Cr was abundant in many different particles including the lignin skeleton of the small, unburned wood pieces, but also inside silica-based matrix...... from pyrolysis of treated waste wood. By SEM/EDX it was seen that the charcoal still showed wood structure with both tracheids and rays and that Cu, Cr and As were found inside this wood structure. Cu was found alone while Cr and As were often found together. By chemical analysis it was found, too...... particles. Ca was often found associated with char-like (porous) particles, indicating that Ca-arsenates had been formed during combustion. Cu was often associated with Cr in the unburned wood pieces, whereas it was less abundant inside the silica-based matrix particles. Cu was also found in an almost pure...

  19. On the analysis of a mixed mode bending sandwich specimen for debond fracture characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quispitupa, Amilcar; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.

    2009-01-01

    The mixed mode bending specimen originally developed for mixed mode delamination fracture characterization of unidirectional composites has been extended to the study of debond propagation in foam cored sandwich specimens. The compliance and strain energy release rate expressions for the mixed mode...... expressions for the global mode mixities. An extensive parametric analysis to improve the understanding of the influence of loading conditions, specimen geometry and mechanical properties of the face and core materials has been performed using the derived expressions and finite element analysis. The mixed...... mode bending compliance and energy release rate predictions were in good agreement with finite element results. Furthermore, the numerical crack surface displacement extrapolation method implemented in finite element analysis was applied to determine the local mode mixity at the tip of the debond....

  20. Characterization of the Oriskany and Berea Sandstones: Evaluating Biogeochemical Reactions of Potential Sandstone–Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verba, Circe [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Harris, Aubrey [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States)

    2016-07-07

    , guar gum, and isopropanol]; 3) reviews the known research about the interactions between several hydraulic fracturing chemicals [e.g. polyacrylamide, ethylene glycol, poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride), and glutaraldehyde] with the minerals (quartz, clay, pyrite, and carbonates) common to the lithologies of the Marcellus shale and its surrounding sandstones; and 4) characterizes the Berea sandstone and analyzes the physical and chemical effects of flowing guar gum through a Berea sandstone core.

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF IN-SITU STRESS AND PERMEABILITY IN FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel R. Burns; Nafi Toksoz

    2006-03-16

    Using a 3-D finite difference method with a rotated-staggered-grid (RSG) scheme we generated synthetic seismograms for a reservoir model consisting of three horizontal layers with the middle layer containing parallel, equally spaced fractures. By separating and analyzing the backscattered signals in the FK domain, we can obtain an estimate of the fracture spacing. The fracture spacing is estimated by taking one-half of the reciprocal of the dominant wavenumber of the backscattered energy in data acquired normal to the fractures. FK analysis for fracture spacing estimation was successfully applied to these model results, with particular focus on PS converted waves. The method was then tested on data from the Emilio Field. The estimated fracture spacing from the dominant wavenumber values in time windows at and below the reservoir level is 25-40m. A second approach for fracture spacing estimation is based on the observation that interference of forward and backscattered energy from fractures introduces notches in the frequency spectra of the scattered wavefield for data acquired normal to the fracture strike. The frequency of these notches is related to the spacing of the fractures. This Spectral Notch Method was also applied to the Emilio data, with the resulting range of fracture spacing estimates being 25-50m throughout the field. The dominant spacing fracture spacing estimate is about 30-40 m, which is very similar to the estimates obtained from the FK method.

  2. Fracture characterization of flysch formation by terrestrial digital photogrammetry: an example in the Antola Formation (upper Staffora Valley, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisina, Claudia; Menegoni, Niccolò; Perotti, Cesare

    2016-04-01

    Geomechanical characterization of flysch formations plays an important role for its implication in slope stability and fluids circulation, especially in Apenninic areas. The Antola Formation of Upper Cretaceous age crops out extensively in the Northern Apennines and provides an important case of study. It consists of turbiditic graded units of calcareous sandstones, sandstones, marlstones, and shales and is interpreted as a deep-sea basin plain deposit, with lateral facies variations which range from proximal, thick-bedded turbidities to distal turbidites that show predominantly thickening upward cycles and have a high percentage of shale. It is in general characterized by folds developed in absence of metamorphism and a usually high degree of fracturation. The presence of well developed fracture networks enhances circulation of fluid and therefore alteration of the less competent layers causing problems of slope stability. Fracture characterization of Antola Formation based on field survey is very time consuming and often limited by the insufficient availability and inaccessibility of outcrops. For this reason, terrestrial remote sensing and in particular terrestrial digital photogrammetry has been applied to investigate the geomechanical features of the formation in the upper Staffora Valley (Northern Italy). Digital photogrammetry allows to generate by Structure from Motion (SfM) technique a 3D point cloud that represents the Digital Outcrop Model (DOM). New technologies allow to associate appropriate texture to the point cloud from the images, in order to preserve important visual information. The analysis of several textured 3D DOMs allows to digitally acquire a large amount of data on discontinuities parameters such as orientation, spacing, aperture, persistence and filling, in order to better characterize the rock mass. Some tests performed by field survey data acquisition to validate the digitally collected data, gave positive results, showing differences

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF IN-SITU STRESS AND PERMEABILITY IN FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel R. Burns; M. Nafi Toksoz

    2004-07-19

    Expanded details and additional results are presented on two methods for estimating fracture orientation and density in subsurface reservoirs from scattered seismic wavefield signals. In the first, fracture density is estimated from the wavenumber spectra of the integrated amplitudes of the scattered waves as a function of offset in pre-stack data. Spectral peaks correctly identified the 50m, 35m, and 25m fracture spacings from numerical model data using a 40Hz source wavelet. The second method, referred to as the Transfer Function-Scattering Index Method, is based upon observations from 3D finite difference modeling that regularly spaced, discrete vertical fractures impart a ringing coda-type signature to any seismic energy that is transmitted through or reflected off of them. This coda energy is greatest when the acquisition direction is parallel to the fractures, the seismic wavelengths are tuned to the fracture spacing, and when the fractures have low stiffness. The method uses surface seismic reflection traces to derive a transfer function, which quantifies the change in an apparent source wavelet propagating through a fractured interval. The transfer function for an interval with low scattering will be more spike-like and temporally compact. The transfer function for an interval with high scattering will ring and be less temporally compact. A Scattering Index is developed based on a time lag weighting of the transfer function. When a 3D survey is acquired with a full range of azimuths, the Scattering Index allows the identification of subsurface areas with high fracturing and the orientation (or strike) of those fractures. The method was calibrated with model data and then applied to field data from a fractured reservoir giving results that agree with known field measurements. As an aid to understanding the scattered wavefield seen in finite difference models, a series of simple point scatterers was used to create synthetic seismic shot records collected over

  4. Characterization of biomass burning: Fourier transform infrared analysis of wood and vegetation combustion products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Diomaris

    The Fourier transform infrared examination of the combustion products of a selection of forest materials has been undertaken in order to guide future detection of biomass burning using satellite remote sensing. Combustion of conifer Pinus strobus (white pine) and deciduous Prunus serotina (cherry), Acer rubrum (red maple), Friglans nigra (walnut), Fraxinus americana (ash), Betula papyrifera (birch), Querus alba (white oak) and Querus rubra (red oak) lumber, in a Meeker burner flame at temperatures of 400 to 900 degrees Fahrenheit produces a broad and relatively flat signal with a few distinct peaks throughout the wavelength spectra (400 to 4000 cm-1). The distinct bands located near wavelengths of 400-700, 1500-1700, 2200-2400 and 3300-3600 cm-1 vary in intensity with an average difference between the highest and lowest absorbing species of 47 percent. Spectral band differences of 10 percent are within the range of modern satellite spectrometers, and support the argument that band differences can be used to discriminate between various types of vegetation. A similar examination of soot and smoke derived from the leaves and branches of the conifer Pinus strobus and deciduous Querus alba (white oak), Querus rubra (red oak), Liquidambar styraciflua (sweetgum), Acer rubrum (maple) and Tilea americana (American basswood) at combustion temperatures of 400 to 900 degrees Fahrenheit produce a similar broad spectrum with a shift in peak location occurring in peaks below the 1700 cm-1 wavelength. The new peaks occur near wavelengths of 1438-1444, 875 and 713 cm-1. This noted shift in wavelength location may be indicative of a fingerprint region for green woods distinguishable from lumber through characteristic biomass suites. Temperature variations during burning show that the spectra of low temperature smoldered aerosols, occurring near 400 to 450 degrees Fahrenheit, may be distinguished from higher temperature soot aerosols that occur above 600 degrees Fahrenheit. A

  5. Characterization and Quantification of Pneumatic Fracturing Effects at a Clay Till Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Camilla Maymann; Riis, Charlotte; Christensen, Stine Brok

    2008-01-01

    for the distribution of the injected tracers in the subsurface. They reveal that tracer was distributed within 2 m of the fracturing well, mainly in existing fractures above the redox boundary (2 to 4 m.b.s.; 5 to 10 cm spacing). Spacing of observed tracer-filled fractures was large (>1 m) at greater depths...... on direct documentation of fracture propagation patterns and spacing, was performed at a typical basal clay till site. The study applied a novel package of documentation methods, including injection of five tracers with different characteristics (bromide, uvitex, fluorescein, rhodamine WT, and brilliant......Environmental fracturing offers assistance to remediation efforts at contaminated, low-permeability sites via creation of active fracture networks, and hence, reduction of mass transport limitations set by diffusion in low-permeability matrices. A pilot study of pneumatic fracturing, focusing...

  6. Characterization of sp(2)- and sp(3)-bonded carbon in wood charcoal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishimaru, Kengo; Hata, Toshimitsu; Bronsveld, Paul; Nishizawa, Takashi; Imamura, Yuji

    2007-01-01

    Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) preheated at 700 degrees C was subsequently heated to 1800 degrees C and characterized by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The degree of disorder of carbon crystallites and the amount of amorphous phase decreased considerably

  7. Characterization of In-Situ Stress and Permeability in Fractured Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel R. Burns; M. Nafi Toksoz

    2006-06-30

    Fracture orientation and spacing are important parameters in reservoir development. This project resulted in the development and testing of a new method for estimating fracture orientation and two new methods for estimating fracture spacing from seismic data. The methods developed were successfully applied to field data from fractured carbonate reservoirs. Specific results include: the development a new method for estimating fracture orientation from scattered energy in seismic data; the development of two new methods for estimating fracture spacing from scattered energy in seismic data; the successful testing of these methods on numerical model data and field data from two fractured carbonate reservoirs; and the validation of fracture orientation results with borehole data from the two fields. Researchers developed a new method for determining the reflection and scattering characteristics of seismic energy from subsurface fractured formations. The method is based upon observations made from 3D finite difference modeling of the reflected and scattered seismic energy over discrete systems of vertical fractures. Regularly spaced, discrete vertical fractures impart a ringing coda type signature to seismic energy that is transmitted through or reflected off of them. This signature varies in amplitude and coherence as a function of several parameters including: (1) the difference in angle between the orientation of the fractures and the acquisition direction, (2) the fracture spacing, (3) the wavelength of the illuminating seismic energy, and (4) the compliance, or stiffness, of the fractures. This coda energy is the most coherent when the acquisition direction is parallel to the strike of the fractures. It has the largest amplitude when the seismic wavelengths are tuned to the fracture spacing, and when the fractures have low stiffness. The method uses surface seismic reflection traces to derive a transfer function that quantifies the change in the apparent source

  8. Characterization of the Micromorphology and Topochemistry of Poplar Wood during Mild Ionic Liquid Pretreatment for Improving Enzymatic Saccharification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquids (ILs as designer solvents have been applied in biomass pretreatment to increase cellulose accessibility and therefore improve the enzymatic hydrolysis. We investigated the characterization of the micromorphology and the topochemistry of poplar wood during 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate pretreatment with mild conditions (90 °C for 20 and 40 min by multiple microscopic techniques (FE-SEM, CLSM, and CRM. Chemical composition analysis, XRD, cellulase adsorption isotherm, and enzymatic hydrolysis were also performed to monitor the variation of substrate properties. Our results indicated that the biomass conversion was greatly enhanced (from 20.57% to 73.64% due to the cell wall deconstruction and lignin dissolution (29.83% lignin was removed after incubation for 40 min, rather than the decrystallization or crystallinity transformation of substrates. The mild ILs pretreatment, with less energy input, can not only enhance enzymatic hydrolysis, but also provide a potential approach as the first step in improving the sequential pretreatment effectiveness in integrated methods. This study provides new insights on understanding the ILs pretreatment with low temperature and short duration, which is critical for developing individual and/or combined pretreatment technologies with reduced energy consumption.

  9. Integrating 3D seismic curvature and curvature gradient attributes for fracture characterization: Methodologies and interpretational implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Dengliang

    2013-03-01

    In 3D seismic interpretation, curvature is a popular attribute that depicts the geometry of seismic reflectors and has been widely used to detect faults in the subsurface; however, it provides only part of the solutions to subsurface structure analysis. This study extends the curvature algorithm to a new curvature gradient algorithm, and integrates both algorithms for fracture detection using a 3D seismic test data set over Teapot Dome (Wyoming). In fractured reservoirs at Teapot Dome known to be formed by tectonic folding and faulting, curvature helps define the crestal portion of the reservoirs that is associated with strong seismic amplitude and high oil productivity. In contrast, curvature gradient helps better define the regional northwest-trending and the cross-regional northeast-trending lineaments that are associated with weak seismic amplitude and low oil productivity. In concert with previous reports from image logs, cores, and outcrops, the current study based on an integrated seismic curvature and curvature gradient analysis suggests that curvature might help define areas of enhanced potential to form tensile fractures, whereas curvature gradient might help define zones of enhanced potential to develop shear fractures. In certain fractured reservoirs such as at Teapot Dome where faulting and fault-related folding contribute dominantly to the formation and evolution of fractures, curvature and curvature gradient attributes can be potentially applied to differentiate fracture mode, to predict fracture intensity and orientation, to detect fracture volume and connectivity, and to model fracture networks.

  10. Characterizing hydraulic fractures in shale gas reservoirs using transient pressure tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Wang

    2015-06-01

    This work presents an unconventional gas reservoir simulator and its application to quantify hydraulic fractures in shale gas reservoirs using transient pressure data. The numerical model incorporates most known physical processes for gas production from unconventional reservoirs, including two-phase flow of liquid and gas, Klinkenberg effect, non-Darcy flow, and nonlinear adsorption. In addition, the model is able to handle various types and scales of fractures or heterogeneity using continuum, discrete or hybrid modeling approaches under different well production conditions of varying rate or pressure. Our modeling studies indicate that the most sensitive parameter of hydraulic fractures to early transient gas flow through extremely low permeability rock is actually the fracture-matrix contacting area, generated by fracturing stimulation. Based on this observation, it is possible to use transient pressure testing data to estimate the area of fractures generated from fracturing operations. We will conduct a series of modeling studies and present a methodology using typical transient pressure responses, simulated by the numerical model, to estimate fracture areas created or to quantity hydraulic fractures with traditional well testing technology. The type curves of pressure transients from this study can be used to quantify hydraulic fractures in field application.

  11. Characterization of gas-phase organics using proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry: fresh and aged residential wood combustion emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Emily A.; Slowik, Jay G.; El Haddad, Imad; Kilic, Dogushan; Klein, Felix; Dommen, Josef; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Marchand, Nicolas; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2017-01-01

    Organic gases emitted during the flaming phase of residential wood combustion are characterized individually and by functionality using proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The evolution of the organic gases is monitored during photochemical aging. Primary gaseous emissions are dominated by oxygenated species (e.g., acetic acid, acetaldehyde, phenol and methanol), many of which have deleterious health effects and play an important role in atmospheric processes such as secondary organic aerosol formation and ozone production. Residential wood combustion emissions differ considerably from open biomass burning in both absolute magnitude and relative composition. Ratios of acetonitrile, a potential biomass burning marker, to CO are considerably lower ( ˜ 0.09 pptv ppbv-1) than those observed in air masses influenced by open burning ( ˜ 1-2 pptv ppbv-1), which may make differentiation from background levels difficult, even in regions heavily impacted by residential wood burning. A considerable amount of formic acid forms during aging ( ˜ 200-600 mg kg-1 at an OH exposure of (4.5-5.5) × 107 molec cm-3 h), indicating residential wood combustion can be an important local source for this acid, the quantities of which are currently underestimated in models. Phthalic anhydride, a naphthalene oxidation product, is also formed in considerable quantities with aging ( ˜ 55-75 mg kg-1 at an OH exposure of (4.5-5.5) × 107 molec cm-3 h). Although total NMOG emissions vary by up to a factor of ˜ 9 between burns, SOA formation potential does not scale with total NMOG emissions and is similar in all experiments. This study is the first thorough characterization of both primary and aged organic gases from residential wood combustion and provides a benchmark for comparison of emissions generated under different burn parameters.

  12. Bone fracture characterization under mixed-mode I+II loading using the single leg bending test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, F A M; de Moura, M F S F; Dourado, N; Morais, J J L; Dias, M I R

    2014-11-01

    Fracture under mixed-mode I+II was induced in bovine cortical bone tissue using a developed miniaturized version of the single leg bending test (SLB). Due to the difficulty in crack length monitoring in the course of the test, an equivalent crack method based on specimen compliance and beam theory was adopted as a data reduction scheme. The method was applied to the experimental results in order to obtain the Resistance curves in each loading mode. The determined fracture energy is well described by an energetic power law whose exponent is below one, which means that the linear energetic criterion is not applicable to this material. The proposed procedure was numerically validated by means of a cohesive mixed-mode I+II damage model with bilinear softening. It was concluded that the miniaturized version of the SLB test is adequate for mixed-mode I+II fracture characterization of bone for a constant mode ratio.

  13. ­­Secondary organic aerosol formation from photo-oxidation of wood combustion emissions: Characterization of gas phase precursors and their link to SOA budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattu, D.; Stefenelli, G.; Zotter, P.; Zhou, J.; Nussbaumer, T.; Bertrand, A.; Marchand, N.; Termine-Roussel, B.; Baltensperger, U.; Slowik, J.; Prevot, A. S.; El-Haddad, I.; Dommen, J.

    2016-12-01

    Current legislation limits the emission of particulate matter, but does not regulate the precursors potentially forming secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Recent literature has shown that only 22 non-traditional SOA precursors from residential wood combustion explains 84-116% of the observed SOA mass whereas traditional precursors in the models account for only 3-27% of the SOA mass (Bruns et al., 2016). Investigation of gas phase emissions from wood combustion and their SOA formation potential have largely focused on single combustion devices with limited operating conditions. As, both primary emissions and SOA formation is a strong function of device type, load, fuel and operating conditions, we have performed a detailed chamber study investigating the gas-phase precursors from beech wood using three combustion devices namely a pellet boiler (combustion conditions: optimum, lack and excess of oxygen), an industrial wood chip grate boiler (30% and 100% power), and a log wood stove (varying fuel load and moisture content) using a potential aerosol mass reactor (PAM) with varying OH exposure. The short residence time in the reactor allowed a time resolved picture of SOA production potential and reduced wall losses. The main aim of this study is to characterize the primary and aged gaseous emissions and investigate their SOA formation potential depending on their mass yield, molecular structures, functional groups and OH reactivity in order to ascertain the contribution of residential wood burning in total carbonaceous OA budget. The physical and chemical effects of different OA aging conditions were monitored using an SMPS, an Aethalometer, an HR-ToF-AMS, as well as a PTR-ToF-MS and other gas monitors. In pellet boiler, significant SOA mass enhancement is observed in excess oxygen conditions compared to optimum and oxygen deprived conditions. Highest gas phase emissions from wood stove are observed at cold start (start of each burn cycle) and lowest in burn out phase

  14. WOOD WELDING

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Theodoro Muller; Rafael Rodolfo de Melo; Diego Martins Stangerlin

    2010-01-01

    The term "wood welding" designates what can be defined as "welding of wood surfaces". This new process, that it provides the joint of wood pieces without the use of adhesives or any other additional material, provokes growing interest in the academic environment, although it is still in laboratorial state. Linear friction welding induced bymechanical vibration yields welded joints of flat wood surfaces. The phenomenon of the welding occurs in less time than 10 seconds, with the temperature in...

  15. Advances in coalbed methane reservoirs using integrated reservoir characterization and hydraulic fracturing in Karaganda coal basin, Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivakhnenko, Aleksandr; Aimukhan, Adina; Kenshimova, Aida; Mullagaliyev, Fandus; Akbarov, Erlan; Mullagaliyeva, Lylia; Kabirova, Svetlana; Almukhametov, Azamat

    2017-04-01

    Coalbed methane from Karaganda coal basin is considered to be an unconventional source of energy for the Central and Eastern parts of Kazakhstan. These regions are situated far away from the main traditional sources of oil and gas related to Precaspian petroleum basin. Coalbed methane fields in Karaganda coal basin are characterized by geological and structural complexity. Majority of production zones were characterized by high methane content and extremely low coal permeability. The coal reservoirs also contained a considerable natural system of primary, secondary, and tertiary fractures that were usually capable to accommodate passing fluid during hydraulic fracturing process. However, after closing was often observed coal formation damage including the loss of fluids, migration of fines and higher pressures required to treat formation than were expected. Unusual or less expected reservoir characteristics and values of properties of the coal reservoir might be the cause of the unusual occurred patterns in obtained fracturing, such as lithological peculiarities, rock mechanical properties and previous natural fracture systems in the coals. Based on these properties we found that during the drilling and fracturing of the coal-induced fractures have great sensitivity to complex reservoir lithology and stress profiles, as well as changes of those stresses. In order to have a successful program of hydraulic fracturing and avoid unnecessary fracturing anomalies we applied integrated reservoir characterization to monitor key parameters. In addition to logging data, core sample analysis was applied for coalbed methane reservoirs to observe dependence tiny lithological variations through the magnetic susceptibility values and their relation to permeability together with expected principal stress. The values of magnetic susceptibility were measured by the core logging sensor, which is equipped with the probe that provides volume magnetic susceptibility parameters

  16. Origin of Petrified Wood Color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Mustoe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fossil forests have world-wide distribution, commonly preserving mineralized wood that displays vivid hues and complex color patterns. However, the origin of petrified color has received little scientific attention. Color of silicified wood may be influenced by the presence of relict organic matter, but the most significant contribution comes from trace metals. This study reports quantitative analysis of trace metals in 35 silicified wood samples, determined using LA-ICP-MS spectrometry. The most important of these metals is Fe, which can produce a rainbow of hues depending on its abundance and oxidation state. Cr is the dominant colorant for bright green fossil wood from Arizona, USA and Zimbabwe, Africa. Complex color patterns result from the progressive nature of the fossilization process, which causes wood to have varying degrees of permeability during successive episodes of permineralization. These processes include simple diffusion, chromatographic separation, infiltration of groundwater along fractures and void spaces, and oxidation/reduction.

  17. Transition Fracture Toughness Characterization of Eurofer 97 Steel using Pre-Cracked Miniature Multi-notch Bend Bar Specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiang [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sokolov, Mikhail A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Linton, Kory D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Clowers, Logan N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Katoh, Yutai [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-11-01

    In this report, we present the feasibility study of using pre-cracked miniature multi-notch bend bar specimens (M4CVN) with a dimension of 45mm (length) x 3.3mm (width) x 1.65mm (thickness) to characterize the transition fracture toughness of Eurofer97 based on the ASTM E1921 Master Curve method. From literature survey results, we did not find any obvious specimen size effects on the measured fracture toughness of unirradiated Eurofer97. Nonetheless, in order to exclude the specimen size effect on the measured fracture toughness of neutron irradiated Eurofer97, comparison of results obtained from larger size specimens with those from smaller size specimens after neutron irradiation is necessary, which is not practical and can be formidably expensive. However, limited literature results indicate that the transition fracture toughness of Eurofer97 obtained from different specimen sizes and geometries followed the similar irradiation embrittlement trend. We then described the newly designed experimental setup to be used for testing neutron irradiated Eurofer97 pre-cracked M4CVN bend bars in the hot cell. We recently used the same setup for testing neutron irradiated F82H pre-cracked miniature multi-notch bend bars with great success. Considering the similarity in materials, specimen types, and the nature of tests between Eurofer97 and F82H, we believe the newly designed experimental setup can be used successfully in fracture toughness testing of Eurofer97 pre-cracked M4CVN specimens.

  18. Characterization of wood plastic composites made from landfill-derived plastic and sawdust: Volatile compounds and olfactometric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Félix, Juliana S., E-mail: jfelix@unizar.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, I3A, EINA, University of Zaragoza (UNIZAR), Zaragoza 50018 (Spain); Domeño, Celia, E-mail: cdomeno@unizar.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, I3A, EINA, University of Zaragoza (UNIZAR), Zaragoza 50018 (Spain); Nerín, Cristina, E-mail: cnerin@unizar.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, I3A, EINA, University of Zaragoza (UNIZAR), Zaragoza 50018 (Spain)

    2013-03-15

    Graphical abstract: This work details the characterization of VOCs of WPC, produced from residual materials which would have landfills as current destination, and evaluates their odor profile. Highlights: ► More than 140 volatile compounds were identified in raw materials and WPC products. ► Markers were related to the thermal degradation, sawdust or coupling agents. ► WPC prototype showed a characteristic odor profile of burnt, sweet and wax-like. ► Aldehydes, carboxylic acids, ketones and phenols were odor descriptors of WPC. - Abstract: Application of wood plastic composites (WPCs) obtained from recycled materials initially intended for landfill is usually limited by their composition, mainly focused on release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which could affect quality or human safety. The study of the VOCs released by a material is a requirement for new composite materials. Characterization and quantification of VOCs of several WPC produced with low density polyethylene (LDPE) and polyethylene/ethylene vinyl acetate (PE/EVA) films and sawdust were carried out, in each stage of production, by solid phase microextraction in headspace mode (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). An odor profile was also obtained by HS-SPME and GC–MS coupled with olfactometry analysis. More than 140 compounds were observed in the raw materials and WPC samples. Some quantified compounds were considered WPC markers such as furfural, 2-methoxyphenol, N-methylphthalimide and 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol. Hexanoic acid, acetic acid, 2-methoxyphenol, acetylfuran, diacetyl, and aldehydes were the most important odorants. None of the VOCs were found to affect human safety for use of the WPC.

  19. Modelling Orthorhombic Anisotropic Effects for Reservoir Fracture Characterization of a Naturally Fractured Tight Carbonate Reservoir, Onshore Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinowo, Olawale Olakunle; Chapman, Mark; Bell, Rebecca; Lynn, Heloise B.

    2017-09-01

    In this study we present a step-by-step theoretical modelling approach, using established seismic wave propagation theories in anisotropic media, to generate unique anisotropic reflection patterns observed from three-dimensional pure-mode pressure (3D-PP), full-azimuth and full-offset seismic reflection data acquired over a naturally fractured tight carbonate field, onshore Texas, USA. Our aim is to gain an insight into the internal structures of the carbonate reservoir responsible for the observed anisotropic reflection patterns. From the generated model we were able to establish that the observed field seismic reflection patterns indicate azimuthal anisotropy in the form of crack induced shear-wave splitting and variation in P-wave velocity with offset and azimuth. Amplitude variation with azimuth (AVAZ) analysis also confirmed multi-crack sets induced anisotropy which is characteristic of orthorhombic symmetry, evident as multiple bright and dim-amplitude azimuth directions as well as complete reversal of bright-amplitude to dim-amplitude azimuth direction as the angle of incidence increases from near (≤15°) to mid (≥30°) offsets. Finally, we fitted the generated P-wave velocity into an ellipse to determine the intensity and orientation (N26E) of the open crack set as well as the direction of the minimum in situ stress axis (N116E) within the reservoir. The derived information served as an aid for the design of horizontal well paths that would intercept open fractures and ensure production optimization of the carbonate reservoir, which was on production decline despite reservoir studies that indicate un-depleted reserves.

  20. Modelling Orthorhombic Anisotropic Effects for Reservoir Fracture Characterization of a Naturally Fractured Tight Carbonate Reservoir, Onshore Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinowo, Olawale Olakunle; Chapman, Mark; Bell, Rebecca; Lynn, Heloise B.

    2017-11-01

    In this study we present a step-by-step theoretical modelling approach, using established seismic wave propagation theories in anisotropic media, to generate unique anisotropic reflection patterns observed from three-dimensional pure-mode pressure (3D-PP), full-azimuth and full-offset seismic reflection data acquired over a naturally fractured tight carbonate field, onshore Texas, USA. Our aim is to gain an insight into the internal structures of the carbonate reservoir responsible for the observed anisotropic reflection patterns. From the generated model we were able to establish that the observed field seismic reflection patterns indicate azimuthal anisotropy in the form of crack induced shear-wave splitting and variation in P-wave velocity with offset and azimuth. Amplitude variation with azimuth (AVAZ) analysis also confirmed multi-crack sets induced anisotropy which is characteristic of orthorhombic symmetry, evident as multiple bright and dim-amplitude azimuth directions as well as complete reversal of bright-amplitude to dim-amplitude azimuth direction as the angle of incidence increases from near (≤15°) to mid (≥30°) offsets. Finally, we fitted the generated P-wave velocity into an ellipse to determine the intensity and orientation (N26E) of the open crack set as well as the direction of the minimum in situ stress axis (N116E) within the reservoir. The derived information served as an aid for the design of horizontal well paths that would intercept open fractures and ensure production optimization of the carbonate reservoir, which was on production decline despite reservoir studies that indicate un-depleted reserves.

  1. Outcrop fracture characterization on suppositional planes cutting through digital outcrop models (DOMs)

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xin; Zou, Lejun; Ren, Yupeng; QIN, YI; Guo, Zhonghao; Shen, Xiaohua

    2017-01-01

    Conventional fracture data collection methods are usually implemented on planar surfaces or assuming they are planar; these methods may introduce sampling errors on uneven outcrop surfaces. Consequently, data collected on limited types of outcrop surfaces (mainly bedding surfaces) may not be a sufficient representation of fracture network characteristic in outcrops. Recent development of techniques that obtain DOMs from outcrops and extract the full extent of individual fractures offers the o...

  2. Fracture characterization by fusion of geophysical and geomechanical data: a case study from the Asmari reservoir, the Central Zagros fold-thrust belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosari, Ehsan; Ghareh-Cheloo, Sajjad; Kadkhodaie-Ilkhchi, Ali; Bahroudi, Abbas

    2015-02-01

    Fractured reservoirs contain a large proportion of hydrocarbon reserves in the Middle East. In these types of reservoirs, a variety of fracture types and networks provide the required permeability for hydrocarbon storage and flow. Fractured reservoir characterization has been challenging to petroleum geoscientists and reservoir engineers in terms of developing new approaches in this direction. A variety of techniques have been developed in the literature to study the distribution and the impact of fracture pore types on reservoir characterization. However, such techniques are not suitable for subsurface cases where prediction of fractures become troublesome and each of the developed techniques has its own advantages and limitations. In this study, an integrated approach is proposed for fracture characterization by employing different sources of data including 3D seismic attributes, geomechanical parameters, unconventional logs (image log and nuclear magnetic response (NMR) log), velocity-deviation log (VDL), conventional well logs, and routine core analysis data. Based on the azimuths of horizontal principal stresses and natural fractures, location of the wells over the structure hanging wall is determined. Interpretation of the seismic profiles from the study area indicated a fault-related fold structure style with fault throws controlling the magnitude of curvature. Moreover, fracture distribution of the Asmari reservoir is predicted by using curvature attribute, geomechanical parameters and horizontal slices of VDL. It seems that fractures probably have a much higher distribution at zone 1 and zone 3 of the Asmari formation.

  3. Influence of juvenile wood content on shear parallel, compression, and tension transverse to grain strength and mode I fracture toughness for loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Kretschmann

    2008-01-01

    To satisfy the increased demand for forest products, much of future timber supply is expected to be from improved trees grown on managed plantations. This fast growth resource will tend to be harvested in short-age rotations and will contain higher proportions of juvenile wood than those of current harvests. In anticipation of this resource, definitive information is...

  4. Fracture Characterization of PVC Foam Core Sandwich Specimen Using the DCB-UBM Test Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saseendran, Vishnu; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.

    2017-01-01

    coupled with experimental validation is paramount to determine the fracture resistance of the face/core interface. In this paper, the test-rig exploiting the double cantilever beam with uneven bending moments (DCB-UBM) concept is used to determine the fracture toughness of PVC foam core sandwich...

  5. Enhanced characterization of fracture compliance heterogeneity using multiple reflections and data-driven Green's function retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minato, S.; Ghose, R.

    2016-01-01

    The spatial heterogeneity along a fracture is a key determinant for fracture-associated mechanical and hydraulic properties of the subsurface. Laboratory experiments have been performed to test the applicability of the nonwelded interface representation to predict the frequency- and

  6. Fracture Characterization of PVC Foam Core Sandwich Specimen Using the DCB-UBM Test Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saseendran, Vishnu; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.

    coupled with experimental validation is paramount to determine the fracture resistance of the face/core interface. In this paper, the test-rig exploiting the double cantilever beam with uneven bending moments (DCB-UBM) concept is used to determine the fracture toughness of PVC foam core sandwich...

  7. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Evaluation of C02 Gravity Drainage in the Naturally Fractured Sprayberry Trend Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David S. Schechter

    1998-04-30

    The objective is to assess the economic feasibility of CO2 flooding of the naturally fractured Straberry Trend Area in west Texas. Research is being conducted in the extensive characterization of the reservoirs, the experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, the analytical and numerical simulation of Spraberry reservoirs, and the experimental investigations on CO2 gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores.

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF IN-SITU STRESS AND PERMEABILITY IN FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel R. Burns; M. Nafi Toksoz

    2005-02-04

    Numerical modeling and field data tests are presented on the Transfer Function/Scattering Index Method for estimating fracture orientation and density in subsurface reservoirs from the ''coda'' or scattered energy in the seismic trace. Azimuthal stacks indicate that scattered energy is enhanced along the fracture strike direction. A transfer function method is used to more effectively indicate fracture orientation. The transfer function method, which involves a comparison of the seismic signature above and below a reservoir interval, effectively eliminates overburden effects and acquisition imprints in the analysis. The transfer function signature is simplified into a scattering index attribute value that gives fracture orientation and spatial variations of the fracture density within a field. The method is applied to two field data sets, a 3-D Ocean Bottom Cable (OBC) seismic data set from an offshore fractured carbonate reservoir in the Adriatic Sea and a 3-D seismic data set from an onshore fractured carbonate field in the Middle East. Scattering index values are computed in both fields at the reservoir level, and the results are compared to borehole breakout data and Formation MicroImager (FMI) logs in nearby wells. In both cases the scattering index results are in very good agreement with the well data. Field data tests and well validation will continue. In the area of technology transfer, we have made presentations of our results to industry groups at MIT technical review meetings, international technical conferences, industry workshops, and numerous exploration and production company visits.

  9. Active Ultrasonic Imaging and Interfacial Characterization of Stationary and Evolving Fractures in Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzina, B. B.

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study is to deploy ultrasonic waves toward better understanding of preexisting and evolving fractures in rock, with the dual focus on i) reconstructing the curvilinear fracture geometry, and ii) mapping out the distribution of its heterogeneous (shear and normal) specific stiffness. This is accomplished via the 3D Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer (SLDV) that is capable of monitoring the triaxial particle velocity at every scan point on the sample's surface. Experiments are performed on slab-like granite specimens featuring either stationary or evolving fractures, where the fracturing (in the latter case) is effected in a 3-point bending configuration. The rock specimens are then excited, under the plane stress condition, by a piezoelectric transducer at 20-30kHz, while monitoring the in-plane particle velocity field over a rectangular region covering the fracture. Thus obtained full-field data are next used to recover both the fracture geometry, and to expose its nonlinear contact behavior. The latter is then approximated in a point-wise fashion in terms of the linearized contact properties i.e. the (shear and normal) specific stiffness, whose recovered spatial variations for stationary and advancing fractures are found to conform with expected trends.

  10. Precision wood particle feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30

    Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

  11. Detection in situ and characterization of lignin in the G-layer of tension wood fibres of Populus deltoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseleau, Jean-Paul; Imai, Takanori; Kuroda, Katsushi; Ruel, Katia

    2004-06-01

    The occurrence of lignin in the additional gelatinous (G-) layer that differentiates in the secondary wall of hardwoods during tension wood formation has long been debated. In the present work, the ultrastructural distribution of lignin in the cell walls of normal and tension wood fibres from poplar (Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marshall) was investigated by transmission electron microscopy using cryo-fixation-freeze-substitution in association with immunogold probes directed against typical structural motifs of lignin. The specificity of the immunological probes for condensed and non-condensed guaiacyl and syringyl interunit linkages of lignin, and their high sensitivity, allowed detection of lignin epitopes of definite chemical structures in the G-layer of tension wood fibres. Semi-quantitative distribution of the corresponding epitopes revealed the abundance of syringyl units in the G-layer. Predominating non-condensed lignin sub-structures appeared to be embedded in the crystalline cellulose matrix prevailing in the G-layer. The endwise mode of polymerization that is known to lead to these types of lignin structures appears consistent with such an organized cellulose environment. Immunochemical labelling provides the first visualization in planta of lignin structures within the G-layer of tension wood. The patterns of distribution of syringyl epitopes indicate that syringyl lignin is deposited more intensely in the later phase of fibre secondary wall assembly. The data also illustrate that syringyl lignin synthesis in tension wood fibres is under specific spatial and temporal regulation targeted differentially throughout cell wall layers. Copyright 2004 Springer-Verlag

  12. Wood composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lars Berglund; Roger M. Rowell

    2005-01-01

    A composite can be defined as two or more elements held together by a matrix. By this definition, what we call “solid wood” is a composite. Solid wood is a three-dimensional composite composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin (with smaller amounts of inorganics and extractives), held together by a lignin matrix. The advantages of developing wood composites are (...

  13. Functional Wood

    OpenAIRE

    Cronhjort, Yrsa (ed.); Hughes, Mark (ed.); Paakkanen, Mikko (ed.); Sahi, Karola (ed.); Tukiainen, Pekka (ed.); Tulamo, Tomi (ed.); Vahtikari, Katja (ed.)

    2016-01-01

    Design has been recognized as a key discipline to bring ideas to the market. In addition to current research on human perceptions and the functional capacities of wood, this publication demonstrates the potential of wood in various applications. The designs are the results of three design courses, implemented during 2015 and 2016 at Aalto University in Finland. The Masters student courses included two Wood Studios at Aalto University’s School of Arts, Design and Architecture and the Integrate...

  14. MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND SHRINKAGE OF Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel WOOD IN A HOMOGENEOUS PLANTING UNDER DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FERTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joselito Bonifácio Oliveira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purposa of this work was to study the influence of fertilization on wood quality of Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel. A homogeneous planting trial, under different levels of liming and phosphorus, was established by Embrapa-Cerrados 18 years ago in Planaltina, Distrito Federal, Brazil, tropical wood savanna region. Mechanical tests conducted were static bending, parallel compression to grain, shear strength and shrinkage. No significant differences were observed for mechanical properties or for shrinkage, which presented: ¦b = 650kg/cm2, E = 59.877kg/cm2, ¦c = 296kg/cm2 e ¦n = 131kg/cm2. Control treatment showed highest values for shear strength and compression parallel to grain. Too many branches in all trees and also too many knots in lumber were observed. Pruning is recommended for homogeneous planting of Sclerolobium paniculatum to avoid knots in order to be produced wood of superior quality.

  15. Microseismic Signal Characterization and Numerical Simulation of Concrete Beam Subjected to Three-Point Bending Fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Nuwen; Dai, Feng; Sha, Chun; Lei, Yingcheng; Li, Biao

    2015-01-01

    To study the generation mechanism and failure mode of cracks in mass concrete, microseismic monitoring is conducted on the fracture processes of the three-point bending roller compacted concrete (RCC) beam of Guanyinyan hydropower station. The spectrum characteristics of microseismic signals in different deformation and failure stages of the concrete beam are analyzed, and the identification method of the fracture stages and crack propagation precursors of concrete beam is established. Meanwh...

  16. Fractoluminescence characterization of the energy dissipated during fast fracture of glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallares, G.; Rountree, C. L.; Douillard, L.; Charra, F.; Bouchaud, E.

    2012-07-01

    Fractoluminescence experiments are performed on two kinds of silicate glasses. All the light spectra collected during dynamic fracture reveal a black-body radiator behaviour, which is interpreted as a crack velocity-dependent temperature rise close to the crack tip. Crack velocities are estimated to be of the order of 1300 m/s and fracture process zones are shown to extend over a few nanometers.

  17. Nose fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fracture of the nose; Broken nose; Nasal fracture; Nasal bone fracture; Nasal septal fracture ... A fractured nose is the most common fracture of the face. It most ... occurs with other fractures of the face. Nose injuries and neck ...

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF IN-SITU STRESS AND PERMEABILITY IN FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel R. Burns; M. Nafi Toksoz

    2005-08-01

    During the past six months we have adapted our 3-D elastic, anisotropic finite difference code by implementing the rotated staggered grid (RSG) method to more accurately represent large contrasts of elastic moduli between the fractures and surrounding formation, and applying the perfectly matched layer (PML) absorbing boundary condition to minimize boundary reflections. Two approaches for estimating fracture spacing from scattered seismic energy were developed. The first relates notches in the amplitude spectra of the scattered wavefield to the dominant fracture spacing that caused the scattering. The second uses conventional FK filtering to isolate the backscattered signals and then recovers an estimate of the fracture spacing from the dominant wavelength of those signals. Both methods were tested on synthetic data and then applied to the Emilio field data. The spectral notch method estimated the Emilio fracture spacing to be about 30 to 40 m, while the FK method found fracture spacing of about 48 to 53 m. We continue to work on two field data sets from fractured carbonate reservoirs provided by our industry sponsors--the offshore Emilio Field data (provided by ENIAGIP), and an onshore reservoir from the Middle East (provided by Shell). Calibration data in the form of well logs and previous fracture studies are available for both data sets. In previous reports we showed the spatial distribution fractures in the Emilio Field based on our calculated scattering index values. To improve these results we performed a map migration of all the scattering indices. The results of this migration process show a very strong correlation between the spatial distribution and orientation of our estimated fracture distribution and the fault system in the field. We observe that the scattering index clusters tend to congregate around the fault zones, particularly near multiple faults and at fault tips. We have also processed a swath of data from the second data set (the onshore

  19. kISMET: Stress and fracture characterization in a deep mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, C. M.; Dobson, P. F.; Daley, T. M.; Birkholzer, J. T.; Cook, P. J.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Rutqvist, J.; Siler, D.; Kneafsey, T. J.; Nakagawa, S.; Wu, Y.; Guglielmi, Y.; Ulrich, C.; Marchesini, P.; Wang, H. F.; Haimson, B. C.; Sone, H.; Vigilante, P.; Roggenthen, W.; Doe, T.; Lee, M.; Mattson, E.; Huang, H.; Johnson, T. C.; Morris, J.; White, J. A.; Johnson, P. A.; Coblentz, D. D.; Heise, J.

    2016-12-01

    We are developing a community facility called kISMET (permeability (k) and Induced Seismicity Management for Energy Technologies) at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. The purpose of kISMET is to investigate stress and the effects of rock fabric on hydraulic fracturing. Although findings from kISMET may have broad applications that inform stress and fracturing in anisotropic rock, results will be most applicable to improving control of hydraulic fracturing for enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) in crystalline rock. At the kISMET site on the 4850 ft (1480 m depth) level of SURF, we have drilled and cored an array of nearly vertical boreholes in Precambrian phyllite. The array consists of four 50-m deep monitoring boreholes surrounding one 100-m deep borehole forming a 6 m-wide five-spot pattern at a depth of 1530 m. Previous investigations of the stress field at SURF suggest that the principal stress s1 is nearly vertical. By aligning the kISMET boreholes approximately with σ1, fractures created in the center borehole should in theory be perpendicular to σ3, the least principal horizontal stress. But the phyllite at kISMET has a strong fabric (foliation) that could influence fracturing. Stress measurements and stimulation using hydraulic fracturing will be carried out in the center borehole using a straddle packer and high-pressure pump. We will use an impression packer and image logs after stress testing and stimulation to determine fracture orientation and extent at the center borehole. In order to study the control of stress, rock fabric, and stimulation approach on size, aperture, and orientation of hydraulic fractures, we will carefully monitor the stress measurements and stimulation. For example, we will use continuous active source seismic (CASSM) in two of the monitoring boreholes to measure changes in seismic-wave velocity as water fills the fracture. Second, near real-time electrical resistance tomography (ERT) will be used in

  20. Functional Gene Discovery and Characterization of Genes and Alleles Affecting Wood Biomass Yield and Quality in Populus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busov, Victor [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)

    2017-02-12

    Adoption of biofuels as economically and environmentally viable alternative to fossil fuels would require development of specialized bioenergy varieties. A major goal in the breeding of such varieties is the improvement of lignocellulosic biomass yield and quality. These are complex traits and understanding the underpinning molecular mechanism can assist and accelerate their improvement. This is particularly important for tree bioenergy crops like poplars (species and hybrids from the genus Populus), for which breeding progress is extremely slow due to long generation cycles. A variety of approaches have been already undertaken to better understand the molecular bases of biomass yield and quality in poplar. An obvious void in these undertakings has been the application of mutagenesis. Mutagenesis has been instrumental in the discovery and characterization of many plant traits including such that affect biomass yield and quality. In this proposal we use activation tagging to discover genes that can significantly affect biomass associated traits directly in poplar, a premier bioenergy crop. We screened a population of 5,000 independent poplar activation tagging lines under greenhouse conditions for a battery of biomass yield traits. These same plants were then analyzed for changes in wood chemistry using pyMBMS. As a result of these screens we have identified nearly 800 mutants, which are significantly (P<0.05) different when compared to wild type. Of these majority (~700) are affected in one of ten different biomass yield traits and 100 in biomass quality traits (e.g., lignin, S/G ration and C6/C5 sugars). We successfully recovered the position of the tag in approximately 130 lines, showed activation in nearly half of them and performed recapitulation experiments with 20 genes prioritized by the significance of the phenotype. Recapitulation experiments are still ongoing for many of the genes but the results are encouraging. For example, we have shown successful

  1. Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Biomorphic Silicon Carbide Ceramics Fabricated from Wood Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mrityunjay; Salem, J. A.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Silicon carbide based, environment friendly, biomorphic ceramics have been fabricated by the pyrolysis and infiltration of natural wood (maple and mahogany) precursors. This technology provides an eco-friendly route to advanced ceramic materials. These biomorphic silicon carbide ceramics have tailorable properties and behave like silicon carbide based materials manufactured by conventional approaches. The elastic moduli and fracture toughness of biomorphic ceramics strongly depend on the properties of starting wood preforms and the degree of molten silicon infiltration. Mechanical properties of silicon carbide ceramics fabricated from maple wood precursors indicate the flexural strengths of 3441+/-58 MPa at room temperature and 230136 MPa at 1350C. Room temperature fracture toughness of the maple based material is 2.6 +/- 0.2 MPa(square root of)m while the mahogany precursor derived ceramics show a fracture toughness of 2.0 +/- 0.2 Mpa(square root of)m. The fracture toughness and the strength increase as the density of final material increases. Fractographic characterization indicates the failure origins to be pores and chipped pockets of silicon.

  2. Wood preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach

    1999-01-01

    When left untreated in many outdoor applications, wood becomes subject to degradation by a variety of natural causes. Although some trees possess naturally occurring resistance to decay (Ch. 3, Decay Resistance), many are in short supply or are not grown in ready proximity to markets. Because most commonly used wood species, such as Southern Pine, ponderosa pine, and...

  3. DNA-based characterization of wood-, butt- and root-rot fungi from the western Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara M. Ashiglar; Phil G. Cannon; Robert L. Schlub; Mee-Sook Kim; Yuko Ota; Norio Sahashi; Ned B. Klopfenstein

    2015-01-01

    Although the islands of the western Pacific comprise a hotspot of species, including fungi, a large number of these species have not been catalogued or documented in the scientific literature on an island to island basis. Butt- and root-rot fungi were collected from infected wood and fruiting bodies of diverse tropical trees from forest, agricultural, and...

  4. Characterization of wood decay enzymes by MALDI-MS for post-translational modification and gene identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorus H. de Koker; Philip J. Kersten

    2002-01-01

    The recent sequencing of the Phanerochaete chrysosporium genome presents many opportunities, including the possibility of rapidly correlating specific wood decay proteins of the fungus with the corresponding gene sequences. Here we compare mass fragments of trypsin digests, determined by MALDI-MS (Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Mass Spectrometry), with...

  5. Synthesis, characterization, and wear and friction properties of variably structured SiC/Si elements made from wood by molten Si impregnation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhiman, Rajnish; Rana, Kuldeep; Bengu, Erman

    2012-01-01

    We have synthesized pre-shaped SiC/Si ceramic material elements from charcoal (obtained from wood) by impregnation with molten silicon, which takes place in a two-stage process. In the first process, a porous structure of connected micro-crystals of β-SiC is formed, while, in the second process...... ceramic material can be achieved, thus suggesting new industrial applications. The structure and composition of numerous as-synthesized samples were characterized in detail by using a wide range of techniques. Wear and friction properties were also investigated, with polished samples. The properties found...

  6. Fracture characterization in patterned thin films by cross-sectional nanoindentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocana, I. [CEIT and TECNUN (University of Navarra), P. Manuel Lardizabal 15, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Molina-Aldareguia, J.M. [CEIT and TECNUN (University of Navarra), P. Manuel Lardizabal 15, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Gonzalez, D. [CEIT and TECNUN (University of Navarra), P. Manuel Lardizabal 15, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Elizalde, M.R. [CEIT and TECNUN (University of Navarra), P. Manuel Lardizabal 15, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain)]. E-mail: relizalde@ceit.es; Sanchez, J.M. [CEIT and TECNUN (University of Navarra), P. Manuel Lardizabal 15, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Martinez-Esnaola, J.M. [CEIT and TECNUN (University of Navarra), P. Manuel Lardizabal 15, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Gil Sevillano, J. [CEIT and TECNUN (University of Navarra), P. Manuel Lardizabal 15, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Scherban, T.. E-mail: Tracey_Scherban@Hotmail.com; Pantuso, D. [Logic Technology Development, Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, OR 97124 (United States); Sun, B. [Logic Technology Development, Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, OR 97124 (United States); Xu, G. [Logic Technology Development, Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, OR 97124 (United States); Miner, B. [Logic Technology Development, Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, OR 97124 (United States); He, J. [Logic Technology Development, Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, OR 97124 (United States); Maiz, J. [Logic Technology Development, Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, OR 97124 (United States)

    2006-08-15

    A testing technique based on cross-sectional nanoindentation has been used to assess the mechanical reliability of interconnect structures. A Berkovich indenter was used to initiate fracture in a silicon substrate and cracks propagated through the structure. To better control crack growth and to convert the problem into two dimensions, a trench parallel to the indentation surface was previously machined using a focused ion beam. The crack lengths obtained for different material systems in the interconnect structure correlate well with the fracture energies measured for the same materials in blanket films. Finite element model simulations incorporating cohesive elements have been used to model the fracture processes and to explain the different cracking behaviour observed.

  7. A Measurement System for Systematic Hydrological Characterization of Unsaturated Fractured Welded Tuff in a Mined Underground Tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. J. Cook; R. Salve; B.M. Freifeld; Y.W. Tsang

    2001-11-21

    A field investigation of unsaturated flow through a lithophysal unit of fractured welded tuff containing lithophysal cavities has been initiated. To characterize flow in this spatially heterogeneous medium, a systematic approach has been developed to perform tests in boreholes drilled at regular intervals in an underground tunnel (drift). In this paper, we describe the test equipment system that has been built for this purpose. Since the field-scale measurements, of liquid flow in the unsaturated, fractured rocks, require continuous testing for periods of days to weeks, the control of test equipment has been fully automated, allowing operation with no human presence at the field site. Preliminary results from the first set of tests are described. These tests give insight into the role of the matrix (perhaps also lithophysal cavities) as potential storage during the initial transient flow prior to the breakthrough of water at the drift crown, as well as the role of connected fractures that provide the subsequent quasi-steady flow. These tests also reveal the impact of evaporation on seepage into the drift.

  8. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Evaluation of CO{sub 2} Gravity Drainage in the Naturally Fractured Spraberry Trend Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schechter, D.S.

    1999-02-03

    The overall goal of this project is to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective is being accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interactions in the reservoirs, (3) reservoir performance analysis, and, (4) experimental investigations on CO2 gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the third year of the five-year project for each of the four areas including a status report of field activities leading up to injection of CO2.

  9. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Evaluation of CO2 Gravity Drainage in the Naturally Fractured Spraberry Trend Area, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, Bill; Schechter, David S.

    2002-07-26

    The goal of this project was to assess the economic feasibility of CO2 flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in west Texas. This objective was accomplished through research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interactions in the reservoirs, (3) reservoir performance analysis, and (4) experimental investigations on CO2 gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This provides results of the final year of the six-year project for each of the four areas.

  10. Characterization and Management of Mandibular Fractures: Lessons Learned from Iraq and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    interdental splints and intermaxillary fixation.4 Thomas Brian Gunning4 showed the importance of dentistry in treating these fractures by restoring occlusion...for resolution. These patients should be treated medically if they develop dysthesia and referred to a specialist if their symptoms do not improve

  11. Face/core mixed mode debond fracture toughness characterization using the modified TSD test method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggreen, Christian; Quispitupa, Amilcar; Costache, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    The modified tilted sandwich debond (TSD) test method is used to examine face/core debond fracture toughness of sandwich specimens with glass/polyester face sheets and PVC H45 and H100 foam cores over a large range of mode-mixities. The modification was achieved by reinforcing the loaded face she...

  12. Face/core interface fracture characterization of mixed mode bending sandwich specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quispitupa, Amilcar; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    and PVC H45, H100 and H250 foam core materials were evaluated. A methodology to perform precracking on fracture specimens in order to achieve a sharp and representative crack front is outlined. The mixed mode loading was controlled in the mixed mode bending (MMB) test rig by changing the loading...

  13. Characterization of fly ash from the gasification of wood and assessment for its application as a soil amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui Pan; Thomas L. Eberhardt

    2011-01-01

    Fly ash was collected as a byproduct from the processing of southern pine wood chips in a pilot-scale biomass gasifier. General properties of the fly ash were determined to assess its applicability as a soil amendment. Its alkaline pH (9.5) and high concentrations of Ca, K, and Mg suggest that it could be used as both a liming agent and a fertilizer. The...

  14. Trichoderma species occurring on wood with decay symptoms in mountain forests in Central Europe: genetic and enzymatic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczyk, Lidia; Strakowska, Judyta; Chełkowski, Jerzy; Gąbka-Buszek, Agnieszka; Kaczmarek, Joanna

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the species diversity of Trichoderma obtained from samples of wood collected in the forests of the Gorce Mountains (location A), Karkonosze Mountains (location B) and Tatra Mountains (location C) in Central Europe and to examine the cellulolytic and xylanolytic activity of these species as an expression of their probable role in wood decay processes. The present study has led to the identification of the following species and species complex: Trichoderma atroviride P. Karst., Trichoderma citrinoviride Bissett, Trichoderma cremeum P. Chaverri & Samuels, Trichoderma gamsii Samuels & Druzhin., Trichoderma harzianum complex, Trichoderma koningii Oudem., Trichoderma koningiopsis Samuels, C. Suárez & H.C. Evans, Trichoderma longibrachiatum Rifai, Trichoderma longipile Bissett, Trichoderma sp. (Hypocrea parapilulifera B.S. Lu, Druzhin. & Samuels), Trichoderma viride Schumach. and Trichoderma viridescens complex. Among them, T. viride was observed as the most abundant species (53 % of all isolates) in all the investigated locations. The Shannon's biodiversity index (H), evenness (E), and the Simpson's biodiversity index (D) calculations for each location showed that the highest species diversity and evenness were recorded for location A-Gorce Mountains (H' = 1.71, E = 0.82, D = 0.79). The preliminary screening of 119 Trichoderma strains for cellulolytic and xylanolytic activity showed the real potential of all Trichoderma species originating from wood with decay symptoms to produce cellulases and xylanases-the key enzymes in plant cell wall degradation.

  15. Expression and Characterization of the Novel Gene fr47 during Freezing in the Wood Frog, Rana sylvatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina J. Sullivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The wood frog, Rana sylvatica, has numerous adaptations that allow it to survive freezing of up to 65% of its total body water during the winter. Such adaptations have been found to include the expression of novel freeze responsive genes that are thought to be important for adaptation and survival. In this study, the tissue-specific stress responsive expression of one novel gene, fr47, was assessed in seven wood frog tissues. In response to freezing, the transcript expression of fr47 increased significantly in six tissues: heart, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, kidney, and testes. The expression of fr47 was also strongly upregulated by component stresses of freezing, namely, anoxia and dehydration. A dynamic change in fr47 expression was also observed during tadpole development, with expression low in embryonic stages (Gosner stages 14–20, increasing through intermediate (stages 26–43 and transformation phases (stages 44-45. These results indicated that fr47 potentially has a role to play in development and metamorphosis, in addition to freeze, anoxia, and dehydration tolerance. De novo analysis of FR47 protein structure revealed a likelihood of membrane associated function and possible GRB2 association. It is hypothesized that this interaction may influence inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production, known to increase during wood frog freezing.

  16. Optical and chemical characterization of aerosols emitted from coal, heavy and light fuel oil, and small-scale wood combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Anna K; Saarnio, Karri; Lamberg, Heikki; Mylläri, Fanni; Karjalainen, Panu; Teinilä, Kimmo; Carbone, Samara; Tissari, Jarkko; Niemelä, Ville; Häyrinen, Anna; Rautiainen, Jani; Kytömäki, Jorma; Artaxo, Paulo; Virkkula, Aki; Pirjola, Liisa; Rönkkö, Topi; Keskinen, Jorma; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Hillamo, Risto

    2014-01-01

    Particle emissions affect radiative forcing in the atmosphere. Therefore, it is essential to know the physical and chemical characteristics of them. This work studied the chemical, physical, and optical characteristics of particle emissions from small-scale wood combustion, coal combustion of a heating and power plant, as well as heavy and light fuel oil combustion at a district heating station. Fine particle (PM1) emissions were the highest in wood combustion with a high fraction of absorbing material. The emissions were lowest from coal combustion mostly because of efficient cleaning techniques used at the power plant. The chemical composition of aerosols from coal and oil combustion included mostly ions and trace elements with a rather low fraction of absorbing material. The single scattering albedo and aerosol forcing efficiency showed that primary particles emitted from wood combustion and some cases of oil combustion would have a clear climate warming effect even over dark earth surfaces. Instead, coal combustion particle emissions had a cooling effect. Secondary processes in the atmosphere will further change the radiative properties of these emissions but are not considered in this study.

  17. Advanced reservoir characterization and evaluation of CO2 gravity drainage in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area. Annual report, September 1, 1996--August 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, P.

    1998-06-01

    The objective of the Spraberry CO{sub 2} pilot project is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of continuous CO{sub 2} injection in the naturally fractured reservoirs of the Spraberry Trend. In order to describe, understand, and model CO{sub 2} flooding in the naturally fractured Spraberry reservoirs, characterization of the fracture system is a must. Additional reservoir characterization was based on horizontal coring in the second year of the project. In addition to characterization of natural fractures, horizontal coring has confirmed a previously developed rock model for describing the Spraberry Trend shaly sands. A better method for identifying Spraberry pay zones has been verified. The authors have completed the reservoir characterization, which includes matrix description and detection (from core-log integration) and fracture characterization. This information is found in Section 1. The authors have completed extensive imbibition experiments that strongly indicate that the weakly water-wet behavior of the reservoir rock may be responsible for poor waterflood response observed in many Spraberry fields. The authors have also made significant progress in analytical and numerical simulation of performance in Spraberry reservoirs as seen in Section 3. They have completed several suites of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry and Berea whole cores at reservoir conditions and reported in Section 4. The results of these experiments have been useful in developing a model for free-fall gravity drainage and have validated the premise that CO{sub 2} will recover oil from tight, unconfined Spraberry matrix.

  18. Method development and strategy for the characterization of complexly faulted and fractured rhyolitic tuffs, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasaki, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Galloway, D. [Geological Survey, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1991-06-01

    The planned high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, would exist in unsaturated, fractured welded tuff. One possible contaminant pathway to the accessible environment is transport by groundwater infiltrating to the water table and flowing through the saturated zone. Therefore, an effort to characterize the hydrology of the saturated zone is being undertaken in parallel with that of the unsaturated zone. As a part of the saturated zone investigation, there wells-UE-25c{number_sign}1, UE-25c{number_sign}2, and UE-25c{number_sign}3 (hereafter called the c-holes)-were drilled to study hydraulic and transport properties of rock formations underlying the planned waste repository. The location of the c-holes is such that the formations penetrated in the unsaturated zone occur at similar depths and with similar thicknesses as at the planned repository site. In characterizing a highly heterogeneous flow system, several issues emerge. (1) The characterization strategy should allow for the virtual impossibility to enumerate and characterize all heterogeneities. (2) The methodology to characterize the heterogeneous flow system at the scale of the well tests needs to be established. (3) Tools need to be developed for scaling up the information obtained at the well-test scale to the larger scale of the site. In the present paper, the characterization strategy and the methods under development are discussed with the focus on the design and analysis of the field experiments at the c-holes.

  19. Characterization of fractures and flow zones in a contaminated crystalline-rock aquifer in the Tylerville section of Haddam, Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Carole D.; Kiel, Kristal F.; Joesten, Peter K.; Pappas, Katherine L.

    2016-10-04

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection, investigated the characteristics of the bedrock aquifer in the Tylerville section of Haddam, Connecticut, from June to August 2014. As part of this investigation, geophysical logs were collected from six water-supply wells and were analyzed to (1) identify well construction, (2) determine the rock type and orientation of the foliation and layering of the rock, (3) characterize the depth and orientation of fractures, (4) evaluate fluid properties of the water in the well, and (5) determine the relative transmissivity and head of discrete fractures or fracture zones. The logs included the following: caliper, electromagnetic induction, gamma, acoustic and (or) optical televiewer, heat-pulse flowmeter under ambient and pumped conditions, hydraulic head data, fluid electrical conductivity and temperature under postpumping conditions, and borehole-radar reflection collected in single-hole mode. In a seventh borehole, a former water-supply well, only caliper, fluid electrical conductivty, and temperature logs were collected, because of a constriction in the borehole.This report includes a description of the methods used to collect and process the borehole geophysical data, the description of the data collected in each of the wells, and a comparison of the results collected in all of the wells. The data are presented in plots of the borehole geophysical logs, tables, and figures. Collectively these data provide valuable characterizations that can be used to improve or inform site conceptual models of groundwater flow in the study area.

  20. Skull fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilar skull fracture; Depressed skull fracture; Linear skull fracture ... Skull fractures may occur with head injuries . The skull provides good protection for the brain. However, a severe impact ...

  1. Electromagnetic characterization of fractured rock for geological disposal studies of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eloranta, E. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Ermutlu, M. [Nokia Research Center, Helsinki (Finland); Flykt, M.; Lindell, I.; Nikoskinen, K.; Sihvola, A. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Electromagnetics Lab.

    1998-04-01

    In the report, the results of a joint research project carried out in 1991-1997 by the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) and the Electromagnetics Laboratory of the Helsinki University of Technology are presented. The main purpose was to create computational models for electric potential responses when the medium is anisotropic and is bounded by a perfect magnetic conductor, a perfect electric conductor, and an anisotropic impedance surface. Furthermore, the geometry of two anisotropic half spaces and a layered medium were considered. The solutions of the problems were made using image theory. For modeling the electric potential in anisotropic medium with inhomogeneities, an integral equation was formulated. Also a wedge structure was treated as an extension to the traditional two parallel plate model of fracture geometry. The equivalentization of fracturing with anisotropy is a research area that still continues that still continues 46 refs. The publication contains also fourteen previous publications by authors

  2. Advanced Characterization of Fractured Reservoirs in Carbonate Rocks: The Michigan Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, James R.; Harrison, William B.

    2002-12-02

    The purpose of the study was to collect and analyze existing data on the Michigan Basin for fracture patterns on scales ranging form thin section to basin. The data acquisition phase has been successfully concluded with the compilation of several large digital databases containing nearly all the existing information on formation tops, lithology and hydrocarbon production over the entire Michigan Basin. These databases represent the cumulative result of over 80 years of drilling and exploration.

  3. Wood handbook : wood as an engineering material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest Products Laboratory

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes information on wood as an engineering material. Presents properties of wood and wood-based products of particular concern to the architect and engineer. Includes discussion of designing with wood and wood-based products along with some pertinent uses.

  4. Microseismic Signal Characterization and Numerical Simulation of Concrete Beam Subjected to Three-Point Bending Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuwen Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the generation mechanism and failure mode of cracks in mass concrete, microseismic monitoring is conducted on the fracture processes of the three-point bending roller compacted concrete (RCC beam of Guanyinyan hydropower station. The spectrum characteristics of microseismic signals in different deformation and failure stages of the concrete beam are analyzed, and the identification method of the fracture stages and crack propagation precursors of concrete beam is established. Meanwhile, the Realistic Failure Process Analysis code (RFPA is adopted to simulate and analyze the entire failure processes of concrete beam from its cracks initiation, development, propagation, and coalescence, until macroscopic fractures formation subjected to three-point bending test. The relation curve of the load, loaded displacement, and acoustic emission (AE of concrete beam in the three-point bending test is also obtained. It is found that the failure characteristics of concrete beam obtained from numerical experiments agree well with the field physical test results. The heterogeneity of concrete is the major cause of zigzag propagation paths of beam cracks subjected to three-point bending tests. The results lay foundation for further exploring the formation mechanism of dam concrete cracks of Guanyinyan hydropower station.

  5. Preparation, Characterization and Mechanical Properties of Bio-Based Polyurethane Adhesives from Isocyanate-Functionalized Cellulose Acetate and Castor Oil for Bonding Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Tenorio-Alfonso

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, different types of natural carbohydrates such as sugars, starch, cellulose and their derivatives are widely used as renewable raw materials. Vegetable oils are also considered as promising raw materials to be used in the synthesis of high quality products in different applications, including in the adhesive field. According to this, several bio-based formulations with adhesion properties were synthesized first by inducing the functionalization of cellulose acetate with 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate and then mixing the resulting biopolymer with a variable amount of castor oil, from 20% to 70% (wt. These bio-based adhesives were mechanically characterized by means of small-amplitude oscillatory torsion measurements, at different temperatures, and standardized tests to evaluate tension loading (ASTM-D906 and peel strength (ASTM-D903. In addition, thermal properties and stability of the synthesized bio-polyurethane formulations were also analyzed through differential scanning calorimetry and thermal gravimetric analysis. As a result, the performance of these bio-polyurethane products as wood adhesives were compared and analyzed. Bio-polyurethane formulations exhibited a simple thermo-rheological behavior below a critical temperature of around 80–100 °C depending on the castor oil/cellulose acetate weight ratio. Formulation with medium castor oil/biopolymer weight ratio (50:50 % wt showed the most suitable mechanical properties and adhesion performance for bonding wood.

  6. Characterization of fracture reservoirs using static and dynamic data: From sonic and 3D seismic to permeability distribution. Annual report, March 1, 1996--February 28, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, J.O.; Collier, H.A.; Owen, T.E. [and others

    1997-06-01

    In low porosity, low permeability zones, natural fractures are the primary source of permeability which affect both production and injection of fluids. The open fractures do not contribute much to porosity, but they provide an increased drainage network to any porosity. They also may connect the borehole to remote zones of better reservoir characteristics. An important approach to characterizing the fracture orientation and fracture permeability of reservoir formations is one based on the effects of such conditions on the propagation of acoustic and seismic waves in the rock. The project is a study directed toward the evaluation of acoustic logging and 3D-seismic measurement techniques as well as fluid flow and transport methods for mapping permeability anisotropy and other petrophysical parameters for the understanding of the reservoir fracture systems and associated fluid dynamics. The principal application of these measurement techniques and methods is to identify and investigate the propagation characteristics of acoustic and seismic waves in the Twin Creek hydrocarbon reservoir owned by Union Pacific Resources (UPR) and to characterize the fracture permeability distribution using production data. This site is located in the overthrust area of Utah and Wyoming. UPR drilled six horizontal wells, and presently UPR has two rigs running with many established drill hole locations. In addition, there are numerous vertical wells that exist in the area as well as 3D seismic surveys. Each horizontal well contains full FMS logs and MWD logs, gamma logs, etc.

  7. Análise da madeira do Pinus oocarpa parte II: caracterização estrutural da lignina de madeira moída Chemical analysis of the Pinus oocarpa wood. Part II: characterization of the milled wood lignin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Antônio Lemos de Morais

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo caracterizou a Lignina de Madeira Moída (LMM proveniente de Pinus oocarpa cultivado na região do Cerrado brasileiro. A LMM foi isolada e analisada por meio das espectrometrias no infravermelho com transformada de Fourier (IVTF, de ressonância magnética nuclear do próton e carbono-13 e por intermédio de métodos químicos de análise por via úmida. A LMM apresentou uma fórmula mínima igual a C9H9,2O2,6(OCH 30,8 e massas molares médias em massa (Mw e numérica (Mn de 3.969 e 1.133 Da, respectivamente. A LMM dessa madeira se enquadra dentro das ligninas típicas de coníferas.This work presents the characterization of the milled wood lignin (MWL of the Pinus oocarpa cultivated in the Brazilian cerrado. FTIR, carbon-13 and proton NMR spectroscopies as well as wet chemical methods were used. The established C9 unit formula for MWL was C9H9,2O2,6(OCH 30,8 and its relative molecular weights (Mw and (Mn were 3969 and 1133 Da, respectively. Pinus oocarpa MWL was typical of softwood lignins.

  8. Materials characterization and fracture mechanics of a space grade dielectric silicone insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Latif, A. I.; Tweedie, A. T.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with the DC 93-500 high voltage silicone insulation material employed to pot the gun and the collector end of a traveling wave tube (TWT) used on the Landsat D Satellite. The fracture mechanics behavior of the silicone resin was evaluated by measuring the slow crack velocity as a function of the opening mode of the stress intensity factor at +25 and -10 C, taking into account various uniaxial discrete strain values. It was found that the silicone resins slow crack growth is faster than that for a high voltage insulation polyurethane material at the same stress intensity factor value and room temperature.

  9. Micromechanical modelling of mechanical behaviour and strength of wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon; Qing, Hai

    2008-01-01

    An overview of the micromechanical theoretical and numerical models of wood is presented. Different methods of analysis of the effects of wood microstructures at different scale levels on the mechanical behaviour, deformation and strength of wood are discussed and compared. Micromechanical models...... of deformation and strength of wood are divided into three groups: cellular models (applied most often to the mesoscale or cell scale analysis of the wood deformation), continuum micromechanics and homogenization based methods, models which consider wood as a composite and are applied mainly to the analysis...... of wood at the microscale (cell wall scale) level and multiscale models. Lattice and composite models, which are used to analyze the damage and fracture of wood, are considered in a separate section. The areas of applicability and strong sides of each approach are discussed. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All...

  10. Wood as an adherend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan H. River; Charles B. Vick; Robert H. Gillespie

    1991-01-01

    Wood is a porous, permeable, hygroscopic, orthotropic, biological composite material of extreme chemical diversity and physical intricacy. Table 1.1 provides an overview of the may variables, including wood variables, that bear on the bonding and performance of wood in wood joints and wood-based materials. Of particular note is the fact that wood properties vary...

  11. Inherited and induced fractures characterized from acoustic and electric boreholes images; Fracturation heritee et induite caracterisee a partir d`images acoustiques et electriques de parois de forages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dezayes, C.; Genter, A. [Savoie Univ., 73 - Chambery (France); Villemin, T. [Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM), 45 - Orleans (France)

    1996-12-31

    In the framework of a European Geothermal Project, three boreholes were drilled at Soultz-sous-Forets, Rhinegraben, which reached the hot and fractured granitic basement. Fresh water will be injected into one borehole, and recovered hot from the other. To design this reservoir, a knowledge of both the paleo-fracture pattern in the granite and the orientation of the present-day stress field is required. Fracture analysis was carried out on borehole images coming from different boreholes. Two types of logging tools were used to produce theses images: acoustic tools (BHTV, UBI) and electric tools (FMI, FMS). Fractures observed have two origins: pre-existing and induced. Pre-existing fractures showed a symmetrical pattern with a principally N-S direction. These fractures have been created during the tectonic history of the massif since the Visean. This fracture pattern appears to be related to the graben opening which took place during the E-W extensional Oligocene regime. The strike-slip fractures created from other tectonic regimes seem under-sampled by the borehole. However, another fracture set (N50 deg. E) exists but is visible on the acoustic image only. The N-S set is in the present-day horizontal stress direction and locally contains natural fluid. Electric tools are very sensitive to the occurrence of fluid. Fractures with offset are easily detected by acoustic tools. The analysis of induced fractures indicates directly the present-day stress field. Their direction is parallel to the maximum stress in the plane perpendicular to the borehole axis. This direction is N125 deg. E in the EPS1 well and N160 deg. E in the upper part of the GPK1 well, located 500 m apart, but N180 deg. E in the lower part of the GPK1 well and N170 deg. E in GPK2 well. These variations are due to a variation of the present-day stress field at the site scale and at the borehole scale. The results of other in situ present-day stress measurements confirm this variation. This stress

  12. Characterization of an injectable, degradable polymer for mechanical stabilization of mandibular fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henslee, Allan M; Yoon, Diana M; Lu, Benjamin Y; Yu, Joseph; Arango, Andrew A; Marruffo, Liann P; Seng, Luke; Anver, Tamir D; Ather, Hunaiza; Nair, Manitha B; Piper, Sean O; Demian, Nagi; Wong, Mark E K; Kasper, F Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the use of injectable poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) formulations for mandibular fracture stabilization applications. A full factorial design with main effects analysis was employed to evaluate the effects of the PPF:N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP, crosslinking agent) ratio and dimethyl toluidine (DMT, accelerator) concentration on key physicochemical properties including setting time, maximum temperature, mechanical properties, sol fraction, and swelling ratio. Additionally, the effects of formulation crosslinking time on the mechanical and swelling properties were investigated. The results showed that increasing the PPF:NVP ratio from 3:1 to 4:1 or decreasing the DMT concentration from 0.05 to 0.01 v/w % significantly decreased all mechanical properties as well as significantly increased the sol fraction and swelling ratio. Also, increasing the crosslinking time at 37°C from 1 to 7 days significantly increased all mechanical properties and decreased both the sol fraction and swelling ratio. This study further showed that the flexural stiffness of ex vivo stabilized rabbit mandibles increased from 1.7 ± 0.3 N/mm with a traditional mini-plate fixator to 14.5 ± 4.1 N/mm for the 4:1 (0.05 v/w % DMT) PPF formulation at day 1. Overall, the formulations tested in this study were found to have properties suitable for potential further consideration in mandibular fracture fixation applications. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Mechanical characterization and fracture toughness of electroplated cadmium coating of Al -Zn alloy, T6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan Kumar, S.; Ravi Kumar, V.; Shashi Kumar, M. E.; Govindaraju, H. K.

    2017-07-01

    Fracture toughness, Hardness and Tensile Strength of the Aluminum alloy 7075-T6 coated with Cadmium with varying thickness of 10µ and 20µ were investigated. Electroplating Cadmium coating process gives excellent corrosion resistance, provides low coefficient of friction which increases the surface hardness of the material. It also provides a uniform and dense coating, in many cases, maintains surface finish as it was before plating. The specimens prepared in line with ASTM E-8M and E-399 standard were subjected to various tests. The results shows thatthe hardness of the EC coted specimens has increased by 10% and increases with increase in thickness, butthe thicker the EC coating, more brittle is the material. The Ultimate Tensile Strength also increased by 5% compared to the uncoated counterpart. There was a steep increase in plain strain fracture toughness with the increase in the coating thickness for the Aluminum 7075-T6 alloy in TL orientation. The crack growth was Unstable due to the strong adhesion between the EC coating and the alloy.

  14. Characterization of the role of heterogeneous advection and diffusion on transport in weathered and fractured granite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guihéneuf, N.; Boisson, A.; Bour, O.; Le Borgne, T.; Marechal, J.; Nigon, B.; Wajiddudin, M.; Ahmed, S.

    2013-12-01

    The prediction of transport in weathered and fractured rocks is critical as it represents the primary control of contaminant transfer from the subsurface in many parts of the world. This is the case in Southern India, where the subsurface is composed mainly of weathered and fractured granite and where the overexploitation of the groundwater resource since the 70's has led to high water table depletion and strong groundwater quality deterioration. One key issue for modelling transport in such systems is to quantify the respective role of advective heterogeneities and matrix diffusion, which can both lead to strongly non Fickian transport properties. We investigate this question by analysing tracer test experiments performed under different flow configurations at a fractured granite experimental site located in Andhra Pradesh (India). We performed both convergent and push-pull tracer tests within the same fracture and at different scales. Three convergent tracer tests were performed with a solution of fluorescein for different pumping rate and for different distances between injection and pumping boreholes: 6, 30 and 41 meters. To evaluate diffusive process, we performed two long-duration push-pull tests (push time of 3 hours) with a solution of two conservative tracers of different diffusion coefficient (fluorescein and sodium chloride). We performed also six others push-pull tests with only fluorescein but for a variable push times of 14 min and 55 min with or without resting time of about 60 min. The late-time behaviour on the breakthrough curves (BTCs) obtained for all convergent tracer tests showed a power-law slope of -2. Two of them showed an inflexion in the BTCs suggesting the existence of two independent flow paths and thus a highly channelized flow. The long-duration push-pull tests showed similar late-time behaviour with a power-law slope of -2.2 for both tracers. The six others push-pull tests showed a variation of power-law exponent from -3 to -2

  15. EVALUATION OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND LIGNIN STRUCTURAL FEATURES OF SIMAROUBA VERSICOLOR WOOD ON ITS PULPING PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Cristina F. Silva,; José Lívio Gomide; Ricardo Balleirini Santos

    2012-01-01

    Simarouba versicolor wood was evaluated relative to its kraft pulping ability and compared with Eucalyptus urograndis wood. Comprehensive chemical analysis of wood and milled wood lignin (MWL) was performed, aiming to correlate wood and lignin structural features with kraft pulping response. Wood characterization of S. versicolor revealed higher lignin content (37.3%) and lower cellulose content (45.1%) than E. urograndis. 13C NMR spectroscopy was performed to characterize MWL, and the result...

  16. Fracture Toughness, Mechanical Property, And Chemical Characterization Of A Critical Modification To The NASA SLS Solid Booster Internal Material System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancoast, Justin; Garrett, William; Moe, Gulia

    2015-01-01

    A modified propellant-liner-insulation (PLI) bondline in the Space Launch System (SLS) solid rocket booster required characterization for flight certification. The chemical changes to the PLI bondline and the required additional processing have been correlated to mechanical responses of the materials across the bondline. Mechanical properties testing and analyses included fracture toughness, tensile, and shear tests. Chemical properties testing and analyses included Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, cross-link density, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and wave dispersion X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF). The testing identified the presence of the expected new materials and found the functional bondline performance of the new PLI system was not significantly changed from the old system.

  17. Wood Availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelhaas, M.; Layos Mayr, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Estimation of the amount of wood that could potentially be harvested in a country can be accomplished using several approaches. A simple indicator is the balance between annual fellings and Net Annual Increment. However, this indicator does not take into account the actual age-class distribution of

  18. Interobserver reliability of classification and characterization of proximal humeral fractures: a comparison of two and three-dimensional CT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinsma, Wendy E.; Guitton, Thierry G.; Warner, Jon J. P.; Ring, David; Melvanki, Parag; Poolman, Rudolf W.; Crist, Brett D.; Borris, Lars C.; Iyer, Vishwanath M.; Babst, Reto H.; Zura, Robert D.; van der Heide, Huub; Frihagen, Frede; McGraw, Iain; Schwab, Eckart; Thomas, George; Jubel, Axel; Kellam, James; Schmidt, Andrew; Lenzlinger, Philipp; Baumgaertel, Fred; Grosso, Elena; Mormino, Matt; Swiontkowski, Marc; Jeray, Kyle; Beingessner, Daphne; Bijlani, Neeraj; Prayson, Michael; Mica, Ladislav; Sonnabend, David; Drosdowech, Darren; Lopez-Gonzalez, Francisco; Willems, W. Jaap; Walter, Frank; Zalavras, Charalampos; Page, Richard S.; Wright, Thomas; Duncan, Scott; Gosens, Taco; Dyer, George S. M.; Garrigues, Grant; Hernandez, German Ricardo; Greenberg, Jeffrey A.; Dantuluri, Phani; Ortiz, Jose A.; Cassidy, Charles; Castillo, Alberto Pérez; Papandrea, Rick; Kakar, Sanjeev; Kronlage, Steve; Benson, Leon; Adams, Julie; Weiss, Lawrence; Ruggiero, Gustavo Mantovani; Pomerance, Jay; de Bedout, Ramon; Hofmeister, Eric; Richard, Marc J.; Suarez, Fabio; Wyrick, Theresa; Baskies, Michael; Hughes, Thomas; Wilson, Neil; Goslings, J. C.; Navin, Thakkar; Eng, Kevin; Wang, Qiugen; Choudhari, Pradeep; Broekhuyse, Henry; Jenkinson, Richard; Ponsen, K. J.; van Vugt, Arie B.; Elmans, Leon; Rhemrev, Steven J.; Kloen, Peter; Platz, Andreas; Brink, Peter R. G.; Varma, Rajat; Kawaguchi, Alan; Nepola, James V.; DeCoster, Thomas; Smith, Raymond Malcolm; Egol, Kenneth; Conflitti, Joseph M.; Barquet, Antonio; Pesantez, Rodrigo; Park, Jin-Young; Jiang, Chunyan; Richardson, Martin; Hall, Jeremy; Kontakis, George; Eygendaal, Denise; Mazzocca, Augustus D.; Duralde, Xavier A.; Williams, Gerald; Endrizzi, Donald; Hattrup, Steven J.; Petersen, Steve; Checchia, Sergio L.; Spruijt, Sander; Fanuele, Jason C.; Baxamusa, Taizoon; Wilson, Chris; Sierra, Francisco Javier Aguilar; Boretto, Jorge; Chivers, Karel; Rubio, Jorge; Schandelmaier, Peter; Marsh, John L.; Porcellini, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Interobserver reliability for the classification of proximal humeral fractures is limited. The aim of this study was to test the null hypothesis that interobserver reliability of the AO classification of proximal humeral fractures, the preferred treatment, and fracture characteristics is the same

  19. An Integrated Approach to Characterizing Bypassed Oil in Heterogeneous and Fractured Reservoirs Using Partitioning Tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil Datta-Gupta

    2006-12-31

    We explore the use of efficient streamline-based simulation approaches for modeling partitioning interwell tracer tests in hydrocarbon reservoirs. Specifically, we utilize the unique features of streamline models to develop an efficient approach for interpretation and history matching of field tracer response. A critical aspect here is the underdetermined and highly ill-posed nature of the associated inverse problems. We have investigated the relative merits of the traditional history matching ('amplitude inversion') and a novel travel time inversion in terms of robustness of the method and convergence behavior of the solution. We show that the traditional amplitude inversion is orders of magnitude more non-linear and the solution here is likely to get trapped in local minimum, leading to inadequate history match. The proposed travel time inversion is shown to be extremely efficient and robust for practical field applications. The streamline approach is generalized to model water injection in naturally fractured reservoirs through the use of a dual media approach. The fractures and matrix are treated as separate continua that are connected through a transfer function, as in conventional finite difference simulators for modeling fractured systems. A detailed comparison with a commercial finite difference simulator shows very good agreement. Furthermore, an examination of the scaling behavior of the computation time indicates that the streamline approach is likely to result in significant savings for large-scale field applications. We also propose a novel approach to history matching finite-difference models that combines the advantage of the streamline models with the versatility of finite-difference simulation. In our approach, we utilize the streamline-derived sensitivities to facilitate history matching during finite-difference simulation. The use of finite-difference model allows us to account for detailed process physics and compressibility effects

  20. Grouting design based on characterization of the fractured rock. Presentation and demonstration of a methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fransson, Aasa (SWECO Environment, Stockholm (Sweden); Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    The design methodology presented in this document is based on an approach that considers the individual fractures. The observations and analyses made during production enable the design to adapt to the encountered conditions. The document is based on previously published material and overview flow charts are used to show the different steps. Parts of or the full methodology has been applied for a number of tunneling experiments and projects. SKB projects in the Aespoe tunnel include a pillar experiment and pre-grouting of a 70 meter long tunnel (TASQ). Further, for Hallandsas railway tunnel (Skaane south Sweden), a field pre-grouting experiment and design and post-grouting of a section of 133 meters have been made. For the Nygard railway tunnel (north of Goeteborg, Sweden), design and grouting of a section of 86 meters (pre-grouting) and 60 meters (post-grouting) have been performed. Finally, grouting work at the Tornskog tunnel (Stockholm, Sweden) included design and grouting along a 100 meter long section of one of the two tunnel tubes. Of importance to consider when doing a design and evaluating the result are: - The identification of the extent of the grouting needed based on inflow requirements and estimates of tunnel inflow before grouting. - The selection of grout and performance of grouting materials including penetration ability and length. The penetration length is important for the fan geometry design. - The ungrouted compared to the grouted and excavated rock mass conditions: estimates of tunnel inflow and (if available) measured inflows after grouting and excavation. Identify if possible explanations for deviations. For the Hallandsas, Nygard and Tornskog tunnel sections, the use of a Pareto distribution and the estimate of tunnel inflow identified a need for sealing small aperture fractures (< 50 - 100 mum) to meet the inflow requirements. The tunneling projects show that using the hydraulic aperture as a basis for selection of grout is a good

  1. Isolation and Characterization of Novel Denitrifying Bacterium sp. SG-01 Strain from Wood Chips Composted with Swine Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hak Yang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate contamination in ground and surface water is an increasingly serious environmental problem and only a few bacterial strains have been identified that have the ability to remove nitrogen pollutants from wastewater under thermophilic conditions. We therefore isolated thermophilic facultative bacterial strains from wood chips that had been composted with swine manure under aerated high temperature conditions so as to identify strains with denitrifying ability. Nine different colonies were screened and 3 long rod-shaped bacterial strains designated as SG-01, SG-02, and SG-03 were selected. The strain SG-01 could be differentiated from SG-02 and SG-03 on the basis of the method that it used for sugar utilization. The 16S rRNA genes of this strain also had high sequence similarity with Geobacillus thermodenitrificans 465T (99.6%. The optimal growth temperatures (55°C, pH values (pH 7.0, and NaCl concentrations (1% required for the growth of strain SG-01 were established. This strain reduced 1.18 mM nitrate and 1.45 mM nitrite in LB broth after 48 h of incubation. These results suggest that the G. thermodenitrificans SG-01 strain may be useful in the removal of nitrates and nitrites from wastewater generated as a result of livestock farming.

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Wood Plastic Composite Made Up of Durian Husk Fiber and Recycled Polystyrene Foam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koay Seong Chun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Polystyrene foam is one of the major plastic waste that hardly to recycle. The present research is aims to recycle polystyrene foam as raw material to produce wood plastic composites (WPC. The WPC was produced from recycled polystyrene (rPS and durian husk fiber (DHF using melt compound and compression moulding processes. This paper is focus on effect of fiber content on tensile and thermal properties of rPS/DHF composite. The results found the tensile strength modulus of this WPC increased at higher fiber content, but elongation at break was reduced. However, this composites exhibited an early thermal degradation when subjected to high temperature and this was commonly found among WPC. The thermal degradation of rPS/DHF composites yielded high percentage of char residue due to char formation of DHF. Overall, the rPS/DHF composites with 60 phr fiber content able to achieved strength slight above 16 MPa without any chemical treatment additives. This indicates the rPS/DHF composites can be a potential WPC if further modify with to improve its strength.

  3. Evaluation of methods for the physical characterization of the fine particle emissions from two residential wood combustion appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsey, John S.; Kariher, Peter H.; Dong, Yuanji

    The fine particle emissions from a U. S. certified non-catalytic wood stove and a zero-clearance fireplace burning Quercus rubra L. (northern red oak) and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas fir) cordwood each at two different moisture levels were determined. Emission testing was performed using both time-integrated and continuous instrumentation for total particle mass, particle number, particle size distribution, and fixed combustion gases using an atmospheric wind tunnel, full-flow laboratory dilution tunnel, and dilution stack sampler with a comparison made between the three dilution systems and two sampling filter types. The total mass emission factors (EFs) for all dilution systems and filter media are extremely variable ranging from ELPI) and Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer. The PM-2.5 (particles ≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter) fractions determined from the ELPI electrometer data ranged from 93 to 98% (mass) depending on appliance type as reported previously by Hays et al. (Aerosol Science, 34, 1061, 2003).

  4. Wood characterization of Salix. 1. Influence of the site, clone, age and sampling height; Caracterizacion de la madera de Salix. 1: Influencia del sitio, clon, edad y altura de muestreo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villegas, M. S.; Area, M. C.; Marlats, R. M.

    2009-07-01

    The wood of two Salix clones cultivated in the Delta of Parana River in Argentina was characterized according to their optical properties, chemical composition, basic density, tylose content and health condition, analysing variations in terms of site, clone, age and sampling height. American willow showed more cellulose content, higher density and less lignin, extractives and tylose than the 131/27 hybrid. The wood of the last one had the smallest damaged area in the disks and the highest brightness values. The most appropriate site for both clones was the one less affected by flood. Brightness, L* and basic density increased, whereas deteriorated area decreased from bottom to tip within each tree. The tally's percentage also decreased, both in vertical and horizontal directions. Six different types of wood were defined. Between them, grey-coloured rings, result of flood, and dark zone, may be considered similar to healthy wood. Three types of stains were responsible for the main changes in the wood analysed. The brown stains showed low brightness and high tylose, but the darkest one showed high lignin and low cellulose contents. The light-brown stain had the highest alkali-soluble substances content. The blue stain showed low brightness and high extractives content. (Author) 32 refs.

  5. AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO CHARACTERIZING BYPASSED OIL IN HETEROGENEOUS AND FRACTURED RESERVOIRS USING PARTITIONING TRACERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil Datta-Gupta

    2003-08-01

    We explore the use of efficient streamline-based simulation approaches for modeling partitioning interwell tracer tests in hydrocarbon reservoirs. Specifically, we utilize the unique features of streamline models to develop an efficient approach for interpretation and history matching of field tracer response. A critical aspect here is the underdetermined and highly ill-posed nature of the associated inverse problems. We have adopted an integrated approach whereby we combine data from multiple sources to minimize the uncertainty and non-uniqueness in the interpreted results. For partitioning interwell tracer tests, these are primarily the distribution of reservoir permeability and oil saturation distribution. A novel approach to multiscale data integration using Markov Random Fields (MRF) has been developed to integrate static data sources from the reservoir such as core, well log and 3-D seismic data. We have also explored the use of a finite difference reservoir simulator, UTCHEM, for field-scale design and optimization of partitioning interwell tracer tests. The finite-difference model allows us to include detailed physics associated with reactive tracer transport, particularly those related with transverse and cross-streamline mechanisms. We have investigated the potential use of downhole tracer samplers and also the use of natural tracers for the design of partitioning tracer tests. Finally, the behavior of partitioning tracer tests in fractured reservoirs is investigated using a dual-porosity finite-difference model.

  6. Significance of wood extractives for wood bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffael, Edmone

    2016-02-01

    Wood contains primary extractives, which are present in all woods, and secondary extractives, which are confined in certain wood species. Extractives in wood play a major role in wood-bonding processes, as they can contribute to or determine the bonding relevant properties of wood such as acidity and wettability. Therefore, extractives play an immanent role in bonding of wood chips and wood fibres with common synthetic adhesives such as urea-formaldehyde-resins (UF-resins) and phenol-formaldehyde-resins (PF-resins). Extractives of high acidity accelerate the curing of acid curing UF-resins and decelerate bonding with alkaline hardening PF-resins. Water-soluble extractives like free sugars are detrimental for bonding of wood with cement. Polyphenolic extractives (tannins) can be used as a binder in the wood-based industry. Additionally, extractives in wood can react with formaldehyde and reduce the formaldehyde emission of wood-based panels. Moreover, some wood extractives are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and insofar also relevant to the emission of VOC from wood and wood-based panels.

  7. Characterization of fracture behavior of human atherosclerotic fibrous caps using a miniature single edge notched tensile test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lindsey A; Stewart, Samantha E; Carsten, Christopher G; Snyder, Bruce A; Sutton, Michael A; Lessner, Susan M

    2016-10-01

    One well-established cause of ischemic stroke is atherosclerotic plaque rupture in the carotid artery. Rupture occurs when a tear in the fibrous cap exposes highly thrombogenic material in the lipid core. Though some fibrous cap material properties have been measured, such as ultimate tensile strength and stress-strain responses, there has been very little, if any, data published regarding the fracture behavior of atherosclerotic fibrous caps. This study aims to characterize the qualitative and quantitative fracture behavior of human atherosclerotic plaque tissue obtained from carotid endarterectomy samples using two different metrics. Uniaxial tensile experiments along with miniature single edge notched tensile (MSENT) experiments were performed on strips of isolated fibrous cap. Crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) and stress in the un-cracked segment (UCS) were measured at failure in fibrous cap MSENT specimens subjected to uniaxial tensile loading. Both CTOD and the degree of crack blunting, measured as the radius of curvature of the crack tip, increased as tearing propagated through the tissue. Higher initial stress in the UCS is significantly correlated with higher collagen content and lower macrophage content in the fibrous cap (ρ=0.77, P=0.009; ρ=-0.64, P=0.047; respectively). Trends in the data show that higher CTOD is inversely related to collagen content, though the sample size in this study is insufficient to statistically substantiate this relationship. To the authors' knowledge, this is the pioneering study examining the fracture behavior of fibrous caps and the first use of the CTOD metric in vascular tissue. A tear in the fibrous cap of atherosclerotic plaque can lead to ischemic stroke or myocardial infarction. While there is some information in the literature regarding quantitative measures of fibrous cap failure, there is little information regarding the behavior of the tissue during failure. This study examines the failure behavior of fibrous

  8. Characterization of glue sizing layers in Portuguese wood paintings from the 15th and 16th centuries by SEM secondary electron images and μ-FTIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Vanessa; J Oliveira, Maria; Vargas, Helena; Candeias, António; Seruya, Ana; Dias, Luís; Serrão, Vítor; Coroado, João

    2014-02-01

    According to treatises on 15th and 16th century paintings, artists dedicated particular attention to the sizing layer-consisting mainly of animal glue applied onto the wood support before further application of the ground layer. The stability of a painting mainly depends on the presence of a very cohesive sizing layer. However, the study of these layers has not received special attention from researchers. In this article we present a methodology for characterization of the sizing layer both chemically, by IR spectroscopy (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), and morphologically, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Secondary electron images obtained by SEM allow precise characterization of such layers. Painting reconstructions were used as references in development of the method to study the sizing layer in real painting samples. Presented herein are examples of this study on 15th and 16th century Portuguese paintings, particularly on the Triptych of S. Simão, from the Aveiro Museum, and S. Pedro, belonging to the Mercy of Tavira.

  9. Distribution and characterization of in-channel large wood in relation to geomorphic patterns on a low-gradient river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, Bertrand; Schenk, Edward R.; Hupp, Cliff R.

    2011-01-01

    A 177 river km georeferenced aerial survey of in-channel large wood (LW) on the lower Roanoke River, NC was conducted to determine LW dynamics and distributions on an eastern USA low-gradient large river. Results indicate a system with approximately 75% of the LW available for transport either as detached individual LW or as LW in log jams. There were approximately 55 individual LW per river km and another 59 pieces in log jams per river km. Individual LW is a product of bank erosion (73% is produced through erosion) and is isolated on the mid and upper banks at low flow. This LW does not appear to be important for either aquatic habitat or as a human risk. Log jams rest near or at water level making them a factor in bank complexity in an otherwise homogenous fine-grained channel. A segmentation test was performed using LW frequency by river km to detect breaks in longitudinal distribution and to define homogeneous reaches of LWfrequency. Homogeneous reaches were then analyzed to determine their relationship to bank height, channel width/depth, sinuosity, and gradient. Results show that log jams are a product of LW transport and occur more frequently in areas with high snag concentrations, low to intermediate bank heights, high sinuosity, high local LW recruitment rates, and narrow channel widths. The largest concentration of log jams (21.5 log jams/km) occurs in an actively eroding reach. Log jam concentrations downstream of this reach are lower due to a loss of river competency as the channel reaches sea level and the concurrent development of unvegetated mudflats separating the active channel from the floodplain forest. Substantial LW transport occurs on this low-gradient, dam-regulated large river; this study, paired with future research on transport mechanisms should provide resource managers and policymakers with options to better manage aquatic habitat while mitigating possible negative impacts to human interests.

  10. Quantifying Fracture Heterogeneity in Different Domains of Folded Carbonate Rocks to Improve Fractured Reservoir Analog Fluid Flow Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisdom, K.; Bertotti, G.; Gauthier, B.D.M.; Hardebol, N.J.

    2013-01-01

    Fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs is largely controlled by multiscale fracture networks. Significant variations of fracture network porosity and permeability are caused by the 3D heterogeneity of the fracture network characteristics, such as intensity, orientation and size. Characterizing fracture

  11. Characterization and evaluation of sites for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in fractured rocks. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The third Aespoe International Seminar was organised by SKB to assess the state of the art in characterisation and evaluation of sites for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in fractured rocks. Site characterisation and evaluation are important elements for determining the site suitability and long-term safety of a geological repository for radioactive waste disposal. Characterisation work also provides vital information for the design of the underground facility and the engineered barrier system that will contain the waste. The aim of the seminar was to provide a comprehensive assessment of the current know-how on this topic based on world-wide experience from more than 20 years of characterisation and evaluation work. The seminar, which was held at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory was attended by 72 scientists from 10 different countries. The program was divided into four sessions of which two were run in parallel. A total of 38 oral and 5 poster presentations were given at the seminar. The presentations gave a comprehensive summary of recently completed and current work on site characterisation, modelling and application in performance assessments. The results presented at the seminar generally show that significant progress has been made in this field during the last decade. New characterisation techniques have become available, strategies for site investigations have developed further, and model concepts and codes have reached new levels of refinement. Data obtained from site characterisation have also successfully been applied in several site specific performance assessments. The seminar clearly showed that there is a solid scientific basis for assessing the suitability of sites for actual repositories based on currently available site characterisation technology and modelling capabilities. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 38 of the presentations

  12. Fracture characterization of inhomogeneous wrinkled metallic films deposited on soft substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Hiroshi; Ishizaka, Satoshi; Nagakura, Takumi; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yonezu, Akio

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the fracture properties of wrinkled metallic films on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft substrate. In particular, the crack density of the wrinkled film during tensile deformation was examined. In order to achieve better deformability of metallic thin films, a method to fabricate a wrinkled thin film on a PDMS soft substrate was first established. The copper (Cu) nano-film fabricated in this study possessed a wrinkled geometry, which plays a critical role in determining the extent of large elastic deformation. To create the wrinkled structure, wet-etching with a polymeric sacrificial layer was used. A sacrificial layer was first deposited onto a silicone rubber sheet. During the curing process of the layer, a compressive strain was applied such that the hardened surface layer buckled, and a wrinkled form was obtained. Subsequently, a PDMS solution was used to cover the layer in order to form a wrinkled PDMS substrate. Finally, the Cu film was deposited onto the wrinkled PDMS, such that the wrinkled Cu film on a soft PDMS substrate was fabricated. The use of uni-axial tensile tests resulted in film crack generation at the stress concentration zone in the wrinkled structure of the films. When the tensile loading was increased, the number of cracks increased. It was found that the increase in crack density was strongly related to the inhomogeneous nature of the wrinkled structure. Such a trend in crack density was investigated using FEM (finite element method) computations, such that this study established a simple mechanical model that may be used to predict the increase in crack density during tensile deformation. This model was verified through several experiments using various wrinkle patterns. The proposed mechanical model may be useful to predict the crack density of a wrinkled metallic film subject to tensile loading.

  13. Characterization of fracture behavior of 2024-O and 2024-T3 aluminum alloys; Caracterizacion de la respuesta a fractura de las aleaciones de aluminio 2024-O y 2024-T3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monsalve, A.; Morales, R.

    2004-07-01

    The fracture behavior of 2024-O (annealed) and 2024-T3 (precipitation hardened) aluminum alloys used in aeronautical applications have been characterized. The study of the annealed alloy was carried out through the concept of Essential Specific Work of Fracture, using the ESIS protocol. DENT (Double Edge Notch Tension) samples were used, varying the ligament length in order to determine the relationship between the essential specific work of fracture and the thickness of the material. In the case of 2024-T3 alloy, the essential specific work of fracture was determined only for low thicknesses, where the predominant conditions are plane stress. However, for this alloy, the results were not conclusive because of the high fracture toughness of these hardened alloys. Finally, the fracture surface of these alloys was characterized finding a ductile mechanism in the case of the annealed alloy and ductile-brittle mechanism in the case of the hardened alloy. (Author) 9 refs.

  14. The influence of juvenile wood content on shear parallel, compression,and tension perpendicular to grain strength and mode I fracture toughness of loblolly pine at various ring orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Kretschmann

    2008-01-01

    Forest products from improved trees grown on managed plantations and harvested in short rotations will contain higher proportions of juvenile wood than in current harvests. More information is needed on the influence of juvenile wood on lumber properties. Most information developed to date has concentrated on ultimate tensile stress, modulus of rupture, and modulus of...

  15. Characterizing Ground-Water Flow Paths in High-Altitude Fractured Rock Settings Impacted by Mining Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wireman, M.; Williams, D.

    2003-12-01

    The Rocky Mountains of the western USA have tens of thousands of abandoned, inactive and active precious-metal(gold,silver,copper)mine sites. Most of these sites occur in fractured rock hydrogeologic settings. Mining activities often resulted in mobilization and transport of associated heavy metals (zinc,cadmium,lead) which pose a significant threat to aquatic communities in mountain streams.Transport of heavy metals from mine related sources (waste rock piles,tailings impoudments,underground workings, mine pits)can occur along numerous hydrological pathways including complex fracture controlled ground-water pathways. Since 1991, the United States Environmental Protection Agency, the Colorado Division of Minerals and Geology and the University of Colorado (INSTAAR)have been conducting applied hydrologic research at the Mary Murphy underground mine. The mine is in the Chalk Creek mining district which is located on the southwestern flanks of the Mount Princeton Batholith, a Tertiary age intrusive comprised primarily of quartz monzonite.The Mount Princeton batholith comprises a large portion of the southern part of the Collegiate Range west of Buena Vista in Chaffee County, CO. Chalk Creek and its 14 tributaries drain about 24,900 hectares of the eastern slopes of the Range including the mining district. Within the mining district, ground-water flow is controlled by the distribution, orientation and permeability of discontinuities within the bedrock. Important discontinuities include faults, joints and weathered zones. Local and intermediate flow systems are perturbed by extensive underground excavations associated with mining (adits, shafts, stopes, drifts,, etc.). During the past 12 years numerous hydrological investigations have been completed. The investigations have been focused on developing tools for characterizing ground-water flow and contaminant transport in the vicinity of hard-rock mines in fractured-rock settings. In addition, the results from these

  16. The wood structure of Dicranostyles (Convolvulaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennega, Alberta M.W.

    1969-01-01

    The anatomy of the mature wood of three species of the South American genus of woody climbers Dicranostyles Bth. is described and compared with that of the secondary wood of other genera of the Convolvulaceae. The stems are characterized by the occurrence of concentric rings of included phloem

  17. Delineating pMDI model reactions with loblolly pine via solution-state NMR spectroscopy. Part 1, Catalyzed reactions with wood models and wood polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Yelle; John Ralph; Charles R. Frihart

    2011-01-01

    To better understand adhesive interactions with wood, reactions between model compounds of wood and a model compound of polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (pMDI) were characterized by solution-state NMR spectroscopy. For comparison, finely ground loblolly pine sapwood, milled-wood lignin and holocellulose from the same wood were isolated and derivatized with...

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Mn/N Co-Doped TiO2 Loaded on Wood-Based Activated Carbon Fiber and Its Visible Light Photodegradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Ma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Using MnSO4·H2O as manganese source and urea as nitrogen source, Mn/N co-doped TiO2 loaded on wood-based activated carbon fiber (Mn/Ti-N-WACF was prepared by sol–gel method. Mn/Ti-N-WACF with different Mn doping contents was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies (XPS, and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. Results showed that the loading rate of TiO2 in Mn/Ti-N-WACF was improved by Mn/N co-doping. After calcination at 450 °C, the degree of crystallinity of TiO2 was reduced due to Mn/N co-doption in the resulting Mn/Ti-N-WACF samples, but the TiO2 crystal phase was not changed. XPS spectra revealed that some Ti4+ ions from the TiO2 lattice of Mn/Ti-N-WACF system were substituted by doped Mn. Moreover, new bonds formed within N–Ti–N and Ti–N–O because of the doped N that substituted some oxygen atoms in the TiO2 lattice. Notably, the degradation rate of methylene blue for Mn/Ti-N-WACF was improved because of the co-doped Mn/N under visible-light irradiation.

  19. Molecular Dissection of Xylan Biosynthesis During Wood Formation in Poplar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xylan, being the second most abundant polysaccharide in dicot wood, is considered to be one of the factors contributing to wood biomass recalcitrance for biofuel production. To better utilize wood as biofuel feedstock, it is crucial to functionally characterize all the genes invo...

  20. Enhanced characterization of faults and fractures at EGS sites by CO2 injection coupled with active seismic monitoring, pressure-transient testing, and well logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, C. M.; Daley, T. M.; Borgia, A.; Zhang, R.; Doughty, C.; Jung, Y.; Altundas, B.; Chugunov, N.; Ramakrishnan, T. S.

    2016-12-01

    Faults and fractures in geothermal systems are difficult to image and characterize because they are nearly indistinguishable from host rock using traditional seismic and well-logging tools. We are investigating the use of CO2 injection and production (push-pull) in faults and fractures for contrast enhancement for better characterization by active seismic, well logging, and push-pull pressure transient analysis. Our approach consists of numerical simulation and feasibility assessment using conceptual models of potential enhanced geothermal system (EGS) sites such as Brady's Hot Spring and others. Faults in the deep subsurface typically have associated damage and gouge zones that provide a larger volume for uptake of CO2 than the slip plane alone. CO2 injected for push-pull well testing has a preference for flowing in the fault and fractures because CO2 is non-wetting relative to water and the permeability of open fractures and fault gouge is much higher than matrix. We are carrying out numerical simulations of injection and withdrawal of CO2 using TOUGH2/ECO2N. Simulations show that CO2 flows into the slip plane and gouge and damage zones and is driven upward by buoyancy during the push cycle over day-long time scales. Recovery of CO2 during the pull cycle is limited because of buoyancy effects. We then use the CO2 saturation field simulated by TOUGH2 in our anisotropic finite difference code from SPICE-with modifications for fracture compliance-that we use to model elastic wave propagation. Results show time-lapse differences in seismic response using a surface source. Results suggest that CO2 can be best imaged using time-lapse differencing of the P-wave and P-to-S-wave scattering in a vertical seismic profile (VSP) configuration. Wireline well-logging tools that measure electrical conductivity show promise as another means to detect and image the CO2-filled fracture near the injection well and potential monitoring well(s), especially if a saline-water pre

  1. Development and Application of Wood Flour-Filled Polylactic Acid Composite Filament for 3D Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yubo; Wang, Honglei; Li, Zelong; Li, Peng; Shi, Sheldon Q

    2017-03-24

    This paper presents the development of wood flour (WF)-filled polylactic acid (PLA) composite filaments for a fused deposition modeling (FDM) process with the aim of application to 3D printing. The composite filament consists of wood flour (5 wt %) in a PLA matrix. The detailed formulation and characterization of the composite filament were investigated experimentally, including tensile properties, microstructure, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The feedstock filaments of this composite were produced and used successfully in an assembled FDM 3D printer. The research concludes that compared with pure PLA filament, adding WF changed the microstructure of material fracture surface, the initial deformation resistance of the composite was enhanced, the starting thermal degradation temperature of the composite decreased slightly, and there were no effects on the melting temperature. The WF/PLA composite filament is suitable to be printed by the FDM process.

  2. Skeletal Structure in Postmenopausal Women with Osteopenia and Fractures is Characterized by Abnormal Trabecular Plates and Cortical Thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Emily M.; Kepley, Anna; Walker, Marcella; Nickolas, Thomas L.; Nishiyama, Kyle; Zhou, Bin; Liu, X. Sherry; McMahon, Donald J.; Zhang, Chiyuan; Boutroy, Stephanie; Cosman, Felicia; Nieves, Jeri; Guo, X. Edward; Shane, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The majority of fragility fractures occur in women with osteopenia rather than osteoporosis by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). However, it is difficult to identify which women with osteopenia are at greatest risk. We performed this study to determine whether osteopenic women with and without fracture had differences in trabecular morphology and biomechanical properties of bone. We hypothesized that women with fractures would have fewer trabecular plates, less trabecular connectivity and lower stiffness. We enrolled 117 postmenopausal women with osteopenia by DXA (mean age 66 years; 58 with fragility fractures and 59 non-fractured controls). All had areal bone mineral density by DXA. Trabecular and cortical volumetric BMD (vBMD), trabecular microarchitecture, and cortical porosity were measured by high resolution peripheral computed tomography (HR-pQCT) of the distal radius and tibia. HR-pQCT scans were subjected to finite element analysis to estimate whole bone stiffness and individual trabecula segmentation (ITS) to evaluate trabecular type (as plate or rod), orientation and connectivity. Groups had similar age, race, BMI, and mean T-scores. Fracture subjects had lower cortical and trabecular vBMD, thinner cortices, and thinner more widely separated trabeculae. By ITS, fracture subjects had fewer trabecular plates, less axially aligned trabeculae and less trabecular connectivity. Whole bone stiffness was lower in women with fractures. Cortical porosity did not differ. Differences in cortical bone were found at both sites, whereas trabecular differences were more pronounced at the radius. In summary, postmenopausal women with osteopenia and fractures had lower cortical and trabecular vBMD, thinner, more widely separated and rod-like trabecular structure, less trabecular connectivity and lower whole bone stiffness compared to controls, despite similar aBMD by DXA. Our results suggest that in addition to trabecular and cortical bone loss, changes in plate and

  3. Characterization and simulation of an exhumed fractured petroleum reservoir. Final report, March 18, 1996--September 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forster, C.B.; Nielson, D.L.; Deo, M.

    1998-12-01

    An exhumed fractured reservoir located near Alligator Ridge in central Nevada provides the basis for developing and testing different approaches for simulating fractured petroleum reservoirs. The fractured analog reservoir comprises a 90 m thickness of silty limestone and shaly interbeds within the Devonian Pilot Shale. A period of regional compression followed by ongoing basin and range extension has created faults and fractures that, in tern, have controlled the migration of both oil and gold ore-forming fluids. Open pit gold mines provide access for observing oil seepage, collecting the detailed fracture data needed to map variations in fracture intensity near faults, build discrete fracture network models and create equivalent permeability structures. Fault trace patterns mapped at the ground surface provide a foundation for creating synthetic fault trace maps using a stochastic procedure conditioned by the outcrop data. Conventional simulations of petroleum production from a 900 by 900 m sub-domain within the reservoir analog illustrate the possible influence of faults and fractures on production. The consequences of incorporating the impact of different stress states (e.g., extension, compression or lithostatic) are also explored. Simulating multiphase fluid flow using a discrete fracture, finite element simulator illustrates how faults acting as conduits might be poorly represented by the upscaling procedures used to assign equivalent permeability values within reservoir models. The parallelized reservoir simulators developed during this project provide a vehicle to evaluate when it might be necessary to incorporate very fine scale grid networks in conventional reservoir simulators or to use finely gridded discrete fracture reservoir simulators.

  4. Characterizing fractured rock aquifers using heated Distributed Fiber-Optic Temperature Sensing to determine borehole vertical flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, T. O.; Bour, O.; Selker, J. S.; Le Borgne, T.; Bense, V.; Hochreutener, R.; Lavenant, N.

    2013-12-01

    start of both the pumping and recovery phase of cross-borehole- and dipole- tests. In addition, the clear advantage of this is that by deploying a single fiber optic cable in multiple boreholes at a site, the flow profiles in all boreholes can be simultaneously measured, allowing many different pumping experiments to be conducted and monitored in a time efficient manner. Klepikova M. V., Le Borgne T., Bour O., and J-R.de Dreuzy, Inverse modelling of flow tomography experiments in fractured media, submitted to Water Resources Research. Le Borgne T., Bour O., Riley M. S., Gouze P., Pezard P.A., Belghoul A., Lods G., Le Provost R., Greswell R. B., Ellis P.A., Isakov E., and B. J. Last, Comparison of alternative methodologies for identifying and characterizing preferential flow paths in heterogeneous aquifers. Journal of Hydrology 2007, 345, 134-148.

  5. Interobserver reliability of classification and characterization of proximal humeral fractures: a comparison of two and three-dimensional CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinsma, Wendy E; Guitton, Thierry G; Warner, Jon J P; Ring, David

    2013-09-04

    Interobserver reliability for the classification of proximal humeral fractures is limited. The aim of this study was to test the null hypothesis that interobserver reliability of the AO classification of proximal humeral fractures, the preferred treatment, and fracture characteristics is the same for two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) computed tomography (CT). Members of the Science of Variation Group--fully trained practicing orthopaedic and trauma surgeons from around the world--were randomized to evaluate radiographs and either 2-D CT or 3-D CT images of fifteen proximal humeral fractures via a web-based survey and respond to the following four questions: (1) Is the greater tuberosity displaced? (2) Is the humeral head split? (3) Is the arterial supply compromised? (4) Is the glenohumeral joint dislocated? They also classified the fracture according to the AO system and indicated their preferred treatment of the fracture (operative or nonoperative). Agreement among observers was assessed with use of the multirater kappa (κ) measure. Interobserver reliability of the AO classification, fracture characteristics, and preferred treatment generally ranged from "slight" to "fair." A few small but statistically significant differences were found. Observers randomized to the 2-D CT group had slightly but significantly better agreement on displacement of the greater tuberosity (κ = 0.35 compared with 0.30, p Proximal humeral fracture classifications may be helpful conceptually, but they have poor interobserver reliability even when 3-D rather than 2-D CT is utilized. This may contribute to the similarly poor interobserver reliability that was observed for selection of the treatment for proximal humeral fractures. The lack of a reliable classification confounds efforts to compare the outcomes of treatment methods among different clinical trials and reports.

  6. Development of an experimental model of burst fracture with damage characterization of the vertebral bodies under dynamic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germaneau, A; Vendeuvre, T; Saget, M; Doumalin, P; Dupré, J C; Brémand, F; Hesser, F; Brèque, C; Maxy, P; Roulaud, M; Monlezun, O; Rigoard, P

    2017-11-01

    Burst fractures represent a significant proportion of fractures of the thoracolumbar junction. The recent advent of minimally invasive techniques has revolutionized the surgical treatment of this type of fracture. However mechanical behaviour and primary stability offered by these solutions have to be proved from experimental validation tests on cadaveric specimens. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop an original and reproducible model of burst fracture under dynamic impact. Experimental tests were performed on 24 cadaveric spine segments (T11-L3). A system of dynamic loading was developed using a modified Charpy pendulum. The mechanical response of the segments (strain measurement on vertebrae and discs) was obtained during the impact by using an optical method with a high-speed camera. The production of burst fracture was validated by an analysis of the segments by X-ray tomography. Burst fracture was systematically produced on L1 for each specimen. Strain analysis during impact highlighted the large deformation of L1 due to the fracture and small strains in adjacent vertebrae. The mean reduction of the vertebral body of L1 assessed for all the specimens was around 15%. No damage was observed in adjacent discs or vertebrae. With this new, reliable and replicable procedure for production and biomechanical analysis of burst fractures, comparison of different types of stabilization systems can be envisaged. The loading system was designed so as to be able to produce loads leading to other types of fractures and to provide data to validate finite element modelling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization and partitioning of the char ash collected after the processing of pine wood chips in a pilot-scale gasification unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Hui Pan; Leslie H. Groom; Chi-Leung So

    2011-01-01

    Southern yellow pine wood chips were used as the feedstock for a pilot-scale gasification unit coupled with a 25 kW generator. The pulp-grade wood chips were relatively free of bark and low in ash content. Processing this feedstock yielded a black/sooty by-product that upon combustion in a muffle furnace resulted in an ash content of about 48%. The term "char ash...

  8. VALORIZATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF WOOD OF THE JUJUBE SHELL: APPLICATION TO THE REMOVAL OF CATIONIC DYE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. EL MESSAOUDI

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the powder of jujube shell (raw and modified was tested for removing crystal violet (CVfrom aqueous solution. The biosorbents were characterized by FTIR, SEM and pHZPC analysis.The biosorption behavior was studied in batch experiments such as biosorbent mass, contact time, temperature, initial dye pH, biosorbent particles size and initial dye concentration. The removal efficiency of crystal violet attained 95.84% and 98.16 %, using 0.2g of raw jujube shell (JS of and 0.1g of modified jujube shell with sodium hydroxide (NMJS, respectively. The obtained results indicate the endothermic nature of biosorption and that the biosorption system studied belongs to the second-order kinetic model. Equilibrium data of the biosorption process fitted very well to Langmuir model. The maximum biosorption monolayer capacities of crystal violet on raw and modified jujube shell were found to be 59.84 mg/g and 288.18 mg/g at 50°C, respectively. Thus, the raw jujube shell treatment with base is very effective and greatly improves the dye adsorption capacity.

  9. Fractures of the proximal humerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig

    2013-01-01

    . The bandages were further supported by splints made of wood or coarse grass. Healing was expected in forty days. Different fracture patterns have been discussed and classified since Ancient Greece. Current classification of proximal humeral fractures mainly relies on the classifications proposed by Charles......, classification of proximal humeral fractures remains a challenge for the conduct, reporting, and interpretation of clinical trials. The evidence for the benefits of surgery in complex fractures of the proximal humerus is weak. In three systematic reviews I studied the outcome after locking plate osteosynthesis......Fractures of the proximal humerus have been diagnosed and managed since the earliest known surgical texts. For more than four millennia the preferred treatment was forceful traction, closed reduction, and immobilization with linen soaked in combinations of oil, honey, alum, wine, or cerate...

  10. Characterization of fracture reservoirs using static and dynamic data: From sonic and 3D seismic to permeability distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, J.O.; Hackett, C.L.; Brown, R.L.; Collier, H.A.; Datta-Gupta, A.

    1998-10-01

    To characterize the Buena Vista Hills field, the authors have implemented methods of modeling, processing and interpretation. The modeling methods are based on deterministic and stochastic solutions. Deterministic solutions were developed in Phase 1 and applied in Phase 2 to simulate acoustic responses of laminated reservoirs. Specifically, the simulations were aimed at implementing processing techniques to correct P-wave and S-wave velocity logs for scattering effects caused by thin layering. The authors are also including a summary of the theory and the processing steps of this new method for predicting intrinsic dispersion and attenuation in Section 2. Since the objective for correcting velocity scattering effects is to predict intrinsic dispersion from velocity data, they are presenting an application to illustrate how to relate permeability anisotropy with intrinsic dispersion. Also, the theoretical solution for calculating full waveform dipole sonic that was developed in Phase 1 was applied to simulate dipole responses at different azimuthal source orientations. The results will be used to interpret the effects of anisotropy associated with the presence of vertical fractures at Buena Vista Hills. The results of the integration of core, well logs, and geology of Buena Vista Hills is also given in Section 2. The results of this integration will be considered as the input model for the inversion technique for processing production data. Section 3 summarizes accomplishments. In Section 4 the authors present a summary of the technology transfer and promotion efforts associated with this project. In the last section, they address the work to be done in the next six months and future work by applying the processing, modeling and inversion techniques developed in Phases 1 and 2 of this project.

  11. Characterization and scaling of anisotropy of fabrics and fractures at laboratory scales: insights from volumetric analysis using computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketcham, Richard A.

    2017-04-01

    Anisotropy in three-dimensional quantities such as geometric shape and orientation is commonly quantified using principal components analysis, in which a second order tensor determines the orientations of orthogonal components and their relative magnitudes. This approach has many advantages, such as simplicity and ability to accommodate many forms of data, and resilience to data sparsity. However, when data are sufficiently plentiful and precise, they sometimes show that aspects of the principal components approach are oversimplifications that may affect how the data are interpreted or extrapolated for mathematical or physical modeling. High-resolution X-ray computed tomography (CT) can effectively extract thousands of measurements from a single sample, providing a data density sufficient to examine the ways in which anisotropy on the hand-sample scale and smaller can be quantified, and the extent to which the ways the data are simplified are faithful to the underlying distributions. Features within CT data can be considered as discrete objects or continuum fabrics; the latter can be characterized using a variety of metrics, such as the most commonly used mean intercept length, and also the more specialized star length and star volume distributions. Each method posits a different scaling among components that affects the measured degree of anisotropy. The star volume distribution is the most sensitive to anisotropy, and commonly distinguishes strong fabric components that are not orthogonal. Although these data are well-presented using a stereoplot, 3D rose diagrams are another visualization option that can often help identify these components. This talk presents examples from a number of cases, starting with trabecular bone and extending to geological features such as fractures and brittle and ductile fabrics, in which non-orthogonal principal components identified using CT provide some insight into the origin of the underlying structures, and how they should be

  12. Resistance to Crack Propagation of Algerian Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhakim DAOUI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wood is the most building materials widely used since prehistory for the construction of houses, tools, weapons. Accidents occurring during the use of materials caused by different defaults, as: knots, resin pockets, cracks. These various defaults and others are the starting point of the principle of crack mechanics. Our present work focuses on determining the resistance to crack propagation of three types of Algerians wood, (Aleppo pine, eucalyptus and oak, by calculating the energy release rate G (mode I. The estimation of factor G allows the possibility of fracture propagation.

  13. Ground-based hyperspectral imaging and terrestrial laser scanning for fracture characterization in the Mississippian Boone Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Khan, Shuhab D.; Sarmiento, Sergio; Lakshmikantha, M. R.; Zhou, Huawei

    2017-12-01

    Petroleum geoscientists have been using cores and well logs to study source rocks and reservoirs, however, the inherent discontinuous nature of these data cannot account for horizontal heterogeneities. Modern exploitation requires better understanding of important source rocks and reservoirs at outcrop scale. Remote sensing of outcrops is becoming a first order tool for reservoir analog studies including horizontal heterogeneities. This work used ground-based hyperspectral imaging, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), and high-resolution photography to study a roadcut of the Boone Formation at Bella Vista, northwest Arkansas, and developed an outcrop model for reservoir analog analyses. The petroliferous Boone Formation consists of fossiliferous limestones interbedded with chert of early Mississippian age. We used remote sensing techniques to identify rock types and to collect 3D geometrical data. Mixture tuned matched filtering classification of hyperspectral data show that the outcrop is mostly limestones with interbedded chert nodules. 1315 fractures were classified according to their strata-bounding relationships, among these, larger fractures are dominantly striking in ENE - WSW directions. Fracture extraction data show that chert holds more fractures than limestones, and both vertical and horizontal heterogeneities exist in chert nodule distribution. Utilizing ground-based remote sensing, we have assembled a virtual outcrop model to extract mineral composition as well as fracture data from the model. We inferred anisotropy in vertical fracture permeability based on the dominancy of fracture orientations, the preferential distribution of fractures and distribution of chert nodules. These data are beneficial in reservoir analogs to study rock mechanics and fluid flow, and to improve well performances.

  14. Characterization of the chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing fluids for wells located in the Marcellus Shale Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huan; Carter, Kimberly E

    2017-09-15

    Hydraulic fracturing, coupled with the advances in horizontal drilling, has been used for recovering oil and natural gas from shale formations and has aided in increasing the production of these energy resources. The large volumes of hydraulic fracturing fluids used in this technology contain chemical additives, which may be toxic organics or produce toxic degradation byproducts. This paper investigated the chemicals introduced into the hydraulic fracturing fluids for completed wells located in Pennsylvania and West Virginia from data provided by the well operators. The results showed a total of 5071 wells, with average water volumes of 5,383,743 ± 2,789,077 gal (mean ± standard deviation). A total of 517 chemicals was introduced into the formulated hydraulic fracturing fluids. Of the 517 chemicals listed by the operators, 96 were inorganic compounds, 358 chemicals were organic species, and the remaining 63 cannot be identified. Many toxic organics were used in the hydraulic fracturing fluids. Some of them are carcinogenic, including formaldehyde, naphthalene, and acrylamide. The degradation of alkylphenol ethoxylates would produce more toxic, persistent, and estrogenic intermediates. Acrylamide monomer as a primary degradation intermediate of polyacrylamides is carcinogenic. Most of the chemicals appearing in the hydraulic fracturing fluids can be removed when adopting the appropriate treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. In situ nanomechanical characterization of multi-layer MoS2 membranes: from intraplanar to interplanar fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peifeng; Jiang, Chenchen; Xu, Shang; Zhuang, Yu; Gao, Libo; Hu, Alice; Wang, Hongtao; Lu, Yang

    2017-07-06

    Layered molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) exhibits rich electronic and optical properties and possesses vastly differing characteristic dimensions. A multi-layer MoS2 membrane represents the critical hierarchical structure which bridges the length-scale of monolayer and bulk material architectures. In this study, the in-plane mechanical properties of MoS2 membranes were investigated by in situ SEM tensile testing. Under the uniaxial tensile loading, brittle fracture caused failure in a highly localized region of the MoS2 membranes and their mechanical properties showed a thickness effect: the strengths of the relatively thicker MoS2 membranes (thickness around hundreds of nanometers) distribute from ∼100 to ∼250 MPa, while the corresponding values of the MoS2 nanosheets (thickness around tens of nanometers) increase significantly to more than 1 GPa. Upon molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on the fractures of MoS2 with various thicknesses/layers, the thicker MoS2 membranes show interplanar fracture, and the typical MoS2 nanosheets demonstrate the transition from interplanar to intraplanar fractures, while monolayer and few-layer MoS2 are dominated by intraplanar fracture. Our study provides some critical insights into the mechanical properties and fracture behavior of layered MoS2 2D materials, which could be of value for their flexible electronic, optoelectronic and nano-electro-mechanical system (NEMS) applications.

  16. Master curve characterization of the fracture toughness behavior in SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki-Hyoung; Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Bong-Sang; Wee, Dang-Moon

    2010-08-01

    The fracture toughness properties of the tempered martensitic SA508 Gr.4N Ni-Mo-Cr low alloy steel for reactor pressure vessels were investigated by using the master curve concept. These results were compared to those of the bainitic SA508 Gr.3 Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel, which is a commercial RPV material. The fracture toughness tests were conducted by 3-point bending with pre-cracked charpy (PCVN) specimens according to the ASTM E1921-09c standard method. The temperature dependency of the fracture toughness was steeper than those predicted by the standard master curve, while the bainitic SA508 Gr.3 steel fitted well with the standard prediction. In order to properly evaluate the fracture toughness of the Gr.4N steels, the exponential coefficient of the master curve equation was changed and the modified curve was applied to the fracture toughness test results of model alloys that have various chemical compositions. It was found that the modified curve provided a better description for the overall fracture toughness behavior and adequate T0 determination for the tempered martensitic SA508 Gr.4N steels.

  17. Master curve characterization of the fracture toughness behavior in SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ki-Hyoung, E-mail: shirimp@kaist.ac.k [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Bong-Sang [Nuclear Materials Research Division, KAERI, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Wee, Dang-Moon [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    The fracture toughness properties of the tempered martensitic SA508 Gr.4N Ni-Mo-Cr low alloy steel for reactor pressure vessels were investigated by using the master curve concept. These results were compared to those of the bainitic SA508 Gr.3 Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel, which is a commercial RPV material. The fracture toughness tests were conducted by 3-point bending with pre-cracked charpy (PCVN) specimens according to the ASTM E1921-09c standard method. The temperature dependency of the fracture toughness was steeper than those predicted by the standard master curve, while the bainitic SA508 Gr.3 steel fitted well with the standard prediction. In order to properly evaluate the fracture toughness of the Gr.4N steels, the exponential coefficient of the master curve equation was changed and the modified curve was applied to the fracture toughness test results of model alloys that have various chemical compositions. It was found that the modified curve provided a better description for the overall fracture toughness behavior and adequate T{sub 0} determination for the tempered martensitic SA508 Gr.4N steels.

  18. Weathering Characteristics of Wood Plastic Composites Reinforced with Extracted or Delignified Wood Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated weathering performance of an HDPE wood plastic composite reinforced with extracted or delignified wood flour (WF. The wood flour was pre-extracted with three different solvents, toluene/ethanol (TE, acetone/water (AW, and hot water (HW, or sodium chlorite/acetic acid. The spectral properties of the composites before and after artificial weathering under accelerated conditions were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, the surface color parameters were analyzed using colorimetry, and the mechanical properties were determined by a flexural test. Weathering of WPC resulted in a surface lightening and a decrease in wood index (wood/HDPE and flexural strength. WPCs that were reinforced with delignified wood flour showed higher ΔL* and ΔE* values, together with lower MOE and MOR retention ratios upon weathering when compared to those with non-extracted control and extracted WF.

  19. A frequency domain analysis to characterize heterogeneity and recharge mechanisms in a fractured crystalline-rock aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Martinez, J.; Longuevergne, L.; Le Borgne, T.; Davy, P.; Bour, O.; Goderniaux, P.; Russian, A.; Thomas, Z.

    2011-12-01

    We investigate aquifer behavior and recharge mechanisms in fracture media using a frequency domain approach. Main interest was the quantification of aquifer characteristic time response, storativity and estimation of heterogeneity and connectivity impact on well behavior on a wide range of temporal scales from 1 day to 8 years. Transfer Functions were calculated for a fractured crystalline-rock aquifer system located in Ploemeur (S of Brittany, France). Recharge, first calculated as effective rainfall, and groundwater level fluctuations (tide effects removed) were used as input and output functions, respectively. The Transfer Function quantifies the ratio of amplitudes of the input and output in the frequency domain. The obtained transfer functions are typically constant at low frequency and decay with frequency for mid and high frequencies. Classical behavior models for interpreting transfer functions are the linear and Dupuit models, plus combination with fast flow component. For linear and Dupuit models, the transfer function |H(ω)|2 scales respectively as |H(ω)|2 ~ ω-2, and |H(ω)|2 ~ ω-1 for high frequencies. The transfer functions obtained for the fractured rock aquifer of Ploemeur do not follow these scaling. Instead, they scale as |H(ω)|2 ~ ω-β, with β=0.7. This suggests that the heterogeneity at different scales in this fractured system involves a variety of transfer processes that cannot be represented by classical models. We discuss the relevance of alternative dual-permeability and multi-permeability models for modeling the rainfall-hydraulic head response in this fractured media. We analyze the variability of the response (characteristic time, amplitude and asymptotic log-log slope) for wells intersecting the main fracture zone, intersecting secondary fracture zones or located in weathered rock.

  20. IMPREGNATION OF WOOD COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Derya Gezer

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The production of wood based structural panel and lumber composites become to increase since the wood supply is changing due to the limit of larger dimension solid sawn lumber and insufficient solid woods with enough high strength as well. As we substitute wood composites for solid wood in protected application, these composite must show resistance to wood-destroying organisms such as fungi and insects. Accordingly, the exterior structural composites is required to be treated with preservatives. This paper provides an understanding of preservative treated wood composites. The objectives of this paper includes studying how to add preservative to wood composites, examining additive effect on glue-line and evaluating the best method of manufacturing wood composites treated with preservatives.

  1. A simultaneous characterization and uncertainty analysis of thermal conductivity and diffusivity of bio-insulate material "Palm date Wood" obtained from a periodic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlijani, M.; Ben Younes, R.; Durastanti, J. F.; Boudenne, A.

    2010-11-01

    A periodic method is used to determine simultaneously both thermal conductivity and diffusivity of various insulate materials at room temperature. The sample is placed between two metallic plates and temperature modulation is applied on the front side of one of the metallic plates. The temperature at the front and rear sides of both plates is measured and the experimental transfer function is calculated. The theoretical thermal heat transfer function is calculated by the quadripole method. Thermal conductivity and diffusivity are simultaneously identified from both real and imaginary parts of the experimental transfer function. The thermophysical parameters of several wood scale samples obtained from palm wood trees and common trees with unknown thermal properties (E) with different thicknesses were studied. The value identified for the thermal conductivity 0.03 Wm-1 K-1 compared with different insulate solid material such as glass, glass-wool and PVC is much better and close to the air conductivity, It allowed us to consider the wood scale extracted from palm wood trees, bio and renewable material as good heat insulator aiming in the future as a use for lightness applications, insulating or as a reinforcement in a given matrix. These potentialities still unknown are stengthened by the enormous quantity of such kind of wood gathered annually from palm trees and considered as wastes.

  2. Bulge Testing and Interface Fracture Characterization of Plasma-Sprayed and HIP Bonded Zr Coatings on U-Mo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, K.; Liu, C.; Leckie, R.; Lovato, M.

    2015-01-01

    Bulge testing using a pressurized fluid to fracture the interface between bonded material layers along with three-dimensional digital image correlation to measure the sample distortion caused by pressurized fluid was applied to plasma-sprayed coatings. The initiation fracture toughness associated with the bonded materials was measured during the testing. The bulge testing of the uranium-molybdenum alloy plasma sprayed with zirconium and clad in aluminum is presented. The initiation fracture toughness was observed to increase with the increasing cathodic arc-cleaning current and the use of alternating polarity transferred arc current. This dependence was linked to the interface composition of oxide and mixed metal phases along with the interface temperature during spray deposition.

  3. Advanced reservoir characterization and evaluation of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area. Annual report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schechter, D.S.

    1997-12-01

    The overall goal of this project is to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective is being accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, (3) analytical and numerical simulation of Spraberry reservoirs, and, (4) experimental investigations on CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the first year of the five-year project for each of the four areas.

  4. Advanced reservoir characterization and evaluation of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area. Quarterly technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schechter, David S.

    1998-07-07

    The overall goal of this project is to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective is being accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, (3) analytical and numerical simulation of Spraberry reservoirs, and, (4) experimental investigations on CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the fourth quarter of 1997 in the fourth area.

  5. Mechanics of Wood Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Csanády, Etele

    2013-01-01

    Wood is one of the most valuable materials for mankind, and since our earliest days wood materials have been widely used. Today we have modern woodworking machine and tools; however, the raw wood materials available are continuously declining. Therefore we are forced to use this precious material more economically, reducing waste wherever possible. This new textbook on the “Mechanics of Wood Machining” combines the quantitative, mathematical analysis of the mechanisms of wood processing with practical recommendations and solutions. Bringing together materials from many sources, the book contains new theoretical and experimental approaches and offers a clear and systematic overview of the theory of wood cutting, thermal loading in wood-cutting tools, dynamic behaviour of tool and work piece, optimum choice of operational parameters and energy consumption, the wear process of the tools, and the general regularities of wood surface roughness. Diagrams are provided for the quick estimation of various process ...

  6. Wood quality changes caused by mineral fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Sette Jr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The diverse and important use of wood from fast growth eucalyptus plantations requires the analysis of the effect of mineral fertilizers on wood quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anatomical characteristics and wood density from Eucalyptus grandis trees (3 m x 2 m spacing fertilized with potassium and sodium (at planting, 6 th and 12th month. Fifteen (15 6 years old eucalyptus trees were selected (5 trees/treatment, cut and wood samples at DBH (1,3 m were taken for anatomical characteristics (fiber and vessels and wood density analysis. Results showed that eucalyptus trees treated with mineral fertilizers did not show significant alteration in average wood density, with radial profile model common to all three treatments, characterized by a values increase in the region next to the pith, toward to bark. Mineral fertilization influenced wood anatomical characteristics: treatment with sodium was characterized by thinner walls and lumen larger diameter; in treatment with potassium, larger vessels were detected.

  7. Characterization of Cytospora isolates from wood cankers of declining grapevine in North America, with the descriptions of two new Cytospora species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cytospora species are ubiquitous pathogens of woody plants, causing dieback and wood cankers in numerous perennial hosts, including agronomic crops (e.g., Prunus), timber trees (e.g., Eucalyptus), and riparian hosts (e.g., Salix). Cytospora chrysosperma, C. cincta, and C. leucostoma have been report...

  8. Microstructural characterization, formation mechanism and fracture behavior of the needle δ phase in Fe–Ni–Cr type superalloys with high Nb content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ning, Yongquan, E-mail: luckyning@nwpu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science & Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Huang, Shibo [Anshan Iron & Steel Group Corporation Bayuquan Subsidiary Company, Bayuquan 115007 (China); Fu, M.W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Dong, Jie [Inspection & Research Institute of Boiler & Pressure Vessel of Jiangxi Province, Nanchang 330029 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Microstructural characterization, formation mechanism and fracture behavior of the needle δ phase in Fe–Ni–Cr type superalloys with high Nb content (GH4169, equivalent to Inconel 718) have been quantitatively investigated in this research. The typical microstructures of δ phases with the stick, mixed and needle shapes obviously present in Inconel 718 after the isothermal upsetting at the temperature of 980–1060 °C with the initial strain rate of 10{sup −3}–10{sup −1} s{sup −1}. It is found that the shape of the δ phase has a great effect on the mechanical properties of the alloy, viz., the stick δ phase behaves good plasticity and the needle δ phase has good strength. In addition, the needle δ phase can be used to control the grain size as it can prevent grain growth. The combined effect of the localized necking and microvoid coalescence leads to the final ductile fracture of the GH4169 components with the needle δ phase. Both dislocation motion and atom diffusion are the root-cause for the needle δ phase to be firstly separated at grain boundary and then at sub-boundary. The formation mechanism of the needle δ phase is the new finding in this research. Furthermore, it is the primary mechanism for controlling the needle δ phase in Fe–Ni–Cr type superalloys with high Nb content. - Highlights: • Shape of the δ phase takes great effect on mechanical property. • Needle δ phase plays a great role to prevent grain growth. • Needle δ phase can enhance the fracture strength. • Microstructure mechanism of the needle δ phase has been investigated. • Fracture behavior of the needle δ phase has been studied.

  9. Mineralogical, Chemical, and Isotopic Characterization of Fracture-Coating Minerals in Borehole Samples from Western Pahute Mesa and Oasis Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedict, F C; Rose, T P; Zhou, X

    2000-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of a mineralogical and geochemical investigation of fracture-coating phases obtained from archived borehole core and cuttings samples from the western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley region. The objective is to provide data needed to validate UGTA flow and transport models for this region. Fracture-lining minerals were characterized using micrographic techniques (SEM-EDS), and selected calcite samples were analyzed for their stable isotope ({sup 13}C/{sup 12}C and {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O) and rare earth element (REE) abundances. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) The distribution of fracture-lining mineral phases is a function of primary rock type, the style and degree of syn-depositional alteration, effects of post-depositional hydrothermal alteration, and fracture location relative to recharge waters (in the unsaturated zone) or through going groundwater (in the saturated zone). (2) Fracture-lining minerals within the welded tuff aquifers (principally the Timber Mountain and Paintbrush Tuffs) are characterized by the assemblage calcite + chalcedony + Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxides + mixed illite/smectite (in approximate decreasing order of abundance). The predominant mode of host rock alteration is quartzofeldspathic. (3) Interbedded rhyolitic lava flow aquifers are characterized by the fracture-lining assemblage chalcedony + mixed illite/smectite + Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxides {+-} calcite {+-} quartz {+-} K-feldspar (in approximate decreasing order of abundance). These include lava flow aquifers from the Thirsty Canyon, Beatty Wash, Paintbrush, and Quartz Mountain groups. The predominant mode of host rock alteration is quartzofeldspathic. (4) Fracture-lining zeolite minerals are abundant only within one of the basaltic lava flow aquifers (Trachyte of Ribbon Cliff) where they occur with chalcedony + calcite + clay minerals. (5) Stable isotope analyses ({sup 13}C/{sup 12}C and {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O) of secondary calcite samples were used to

  10. Characterization by notched and precracked Charpy tests of the in-service degradation of RPV steel fracture toughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabry, A.

    1997-01-01

    The current engineering and regulatory practice to estimate fracture toughness safety margins for nuclear reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) relies heavily on the CVN impact test. Techniques to estimate in-service toughness degradation directly using a variety of precracked specimens are under development worldwide. Emphasis is on their miniaturization. In the nuclear context, it is essential to address many issues such as representativity of the surveillance programs with respect to the vessel in terms of materials and environment, transferability of test results to the structure (constraint and size effects), lower bound toughness certification, creadibility relative to trends of exising databases. An enhanced RPV surveillance strategy in under development in Belgium. It combines state-of-the-art micromechanical and damage modelling to the evaluation of CVN load-deflection signals, tensile stress-strain curves and slow-bend tests of reconstituted precracked Charpy specimens. A probabilistic micromechanical model has been established for static and dynamic transgranular cleavage initiation fracture toughness in the ductile-brittle transition temperature range. This model allows to project toughness bounds for any steel embrittlement condition from the corresponding CVN and static tensile properties, using a single scaling factor defined by imposing agreement with toughness tests in a single condition. The outstanding finding incorporated by this toughness transfer model is that the microcleavage fracture stress is affected by temperature in the ductile-brittle transition and that this influence is strongly correlated to the flow stress: this explains the shape of the K{sub Ic}n K{sub Id} temperature curves as well as the actual magnitude of the strain rate and irradiation effects. Furthermore, CVN crack arrest loads and fracture appearance are also taken advantage of in order to estimate K{sub Ia} degradation. Finally, the CVN-tensile load-temperature diagram

  11. Request for wood samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1977-01-01

    In recent years the wood collection at the Rijksherbarium was greatly expanded following a renewed interest in wood anatomy as an aid for solving classification problems. Staff members of the Rijksherbarium added to the collection by taking interesting wood samples with them from their expeditions

  12. Iron Stain on Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Iron stain, an unsightly blue–black or gray discoloration, can occur on nearly all woods. Oak, redwood, cypress, and cedar are particularly prone to iron stain because these woods contain large amounts of tannin-like extractives. The discoloration is caused by a chemical reaction between extractives in the wood and iron in steel products, such as nails, screws, and...

  13. Energy from wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.I. Zerbe

    2004-01-01

    In most developing countries wood and charcoal are the predominant fuels for preparation of food to maintain the quality of life that encompasses the majority of citizens. In many developing countries wood fuels are also important for small and medium size industries. Moreover, energy from wood continues to be important in industrial countries. In the USA biomass...

  14. Wood Formation in Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanie Mauriat; Gregoire Le Provost; Phillippe Rozenberg; Sylvain Delzon; Nathalie Breda; Bruno Clair; Catherine Coutand; Jean-Christoph Domec; Thierry Fourcaud; Jacqueline Grima-Pettenati; Raul Herrera; Jean-Charles Leple; Nicolas Richet; Jean-Francois Trontin; Christophe Plomion

    2014-01-01

    Among the ecosystem services provided by forests, wood provisioning takes a central position. Wood and derived products have played a critical role in the evolution of human kind and demand for raw material is increasing in a foreseeable future. Wood is used for energy production, construction and a wide variety of products for which different properties are required....

  15. Solution-state NMR analysis of hydroxymethylated resorcinol cured in the presence of crude milled-wood lignin from Acer saccharum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Yelle

    2017-01-01

    Resorcinol-formaldehyde adhesives can reinforce stress fractures that appear from wood surface preparation. Researchers have found that applying the resorcinol-formaldehyde prepolymer, hydroxymethylated resorcinol is thought to plasticize lignin components and stabilize stress fractures through reactions with lignin subunits and hemicelluloses in wood. In this study, a...

  16. Wood frame systems for wood homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Molina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of constructive systems that combine strength, speed, with competitive differential techniques and mainly, compromising with the environment, is becoming more popular in Brazil. The constructive system in wood frame for houses of up to five stories is very interesting, because it is a light system, structured in reforested treated wood which allows the combination of several materials, besides allowing speed in the construction and total control of the expenses already in the project phase for being industrialized. The structural behavior of the wood frame is superior to the structural masonry in strength, thermal and acoustic comfort. However, in Brazil, the wood frame is still little known and used, due to lack of technical knowledge about the system, prejudice associated the bad use of the wood as construction material, or still, in some cases, lack of normalization. The aim of this manuscript consists of presenting the main technical characteristics and advantages of the constructive system in wood frame homes, approaching the main stages of the constructive process through examples, showing the materials used in the construction, in addition the main international normative recommendations of the project. Thus, this manuscript also hopes to contribute to the popularization of the wood frame system in Brazil, since it is a competitive, fast and ecologically correct system. Moreover, nowadays, an enormous effort of the technical, commercial and industrial section has been accomplished for the development of this system in the country.

  17. Influence of Maleic Anhydride/Glycidyl Methacrylate Cografted Polylactic Acid on Properties of Wood Flour/PLA Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DU Jun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Graft copolymers of PLA-g-MAH, PLA-g-GMA and PLA-co-MAH/GMA were prepared by means of melt grafting. The structure of the graft copolymers were characterized by FTIR.Wood flour/PLA composites were prepared by injection molding with three kinds of graft copolymers as compatibilizers, and the fractured morphology of composites was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM. Results show that there is no obvious phase interface between wood flour and PLA,which indicating the interfacial compatibility of wood flour/PLA composites is improved after adding different graft copolymers. The determination results of mechanical properties, processing flowability and dynamic rheological property of composites prepared with different graft copolymers reveal that, compared to the composite without compatibilizer, the tensile strength and impact strength of wood flour/PLA composites are increased by 9.54% and 7.23% respectively, and the equilibrium torque, shear heat, storage modulus and complex viscosity are all increased after adding maleic anhydride/glycidyl methacrylate cografted polylactic acid.

  18. Wood production, wood technology, and biotechnological impacts.

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    In the year 2001, Prof. Dr. Ursula Kües was appointed at the Faculty of Forest Sciences and Forest Ecology of the Georg-August-University Göttingen to the chair Molecular Wood Biotechnology endowed by the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU). Her group studies higher fungi in basic and applied research. Research foci are on mushroom development and on fungal enzymes degrading wood and their applications in wood biotechnology. This book has been edited to thank the DBU for all support given to...

  19. Extraction and characterization of cellulose nano whiskers from balsa wood; Extracao e caracterizacao de nanocristais de celulose obtidos da madeira balsa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morelli, Carolina L.; Bretas, Rosario E.S., E-mail: bretas@ufscar.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos - UFSCar, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Marconcini, Jose M. [Embrapa Instrumentacao, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Pereira, Fabiano V. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Branciforti, Marcia C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo - USP, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In this study cellulose nano whiskers were obtained from balsa wood. For this purpose, fibers of balsa wood were subjected to hydrolysis reactions for lignin and hemi cellulose digestion and acquisition of nano-scale cellulose. Cellulose nano crystals obtained had medium length and thickness of 176 nm and 7 nm respectively. Infrared spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction showed that the process used for extracting nano whiskers could digest nearly all the lignin and hemi cellulose from the balsa fiber and still preserve the aspect ratio and crystallinity, satisfactory enough for future application in polymer nano composites. Thermogravimetry showed that the onset temperature of thermal degradation of cellulose nano crystals (226 degree C) was higher than the temperature of the balsa fiber (215 degree C), allowing its use in molding processes with many polymers from the molten state.(author)

  20. Physicochemical And Biochemical Characterization Of Non-Biodegradable Cellulose In Miocene Gymnosperm Wood From The Entre-Sambre-Et-Meuse, Southern Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Lechien, Valérie; Rodriguez, Christian; Ongena, MARC; Hiligsmann, Serge; Rulmont, André; Thonart, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Specimens of Miocene fossil wood from the Entre-Sambre-et-Meuse karsts (southern Belgium) were examined using physicochemical and biochemical techniques in order to understand the reasons for the exceptional preservation of these fossilized remains after 15 million years. Structural and chemical changes were assessed by comparing the structural features of the fossil samples with those of their modern counterpart, Metaseguoia. Solid state C-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and microscopic ...

  1. Bacteria in a woody fungal disease: characterization of bacterial communities in wood tissues of esca-foliar symptomatic and asymptomatic grapevines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie eBruez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Esca is a grapevine trunk disease (GTD associated with different pathogenic fungi inhabiting the woody tissues. Bacteria can also be found in such tissues and they may interact with these fungal colonizers. Although such types of microbial interaction have been observed for wood diseases in many trees, this has never been studied for grapevine. In this study, the bacterial microflora of different vine status (esca-symptomatic and asymptomatic, different anatomical part (trunk and cordon and different type of tissues (necrotic or not have been studied. Based on Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP analyses, data showed that (i specific complexes of bacterial microflora colonize the wood of both necrotic and non-necrotic tissues of esca-foliar symptomatic and asymptomatic vines, and also that (ii depending on the anatomical part of the plant, cordon or trunk, differences could be observed between the bacterial communities. Such differences were also revealed through the Community-Level Physiological Profiling (CLPP with Biolog Ecoplates™. Two hundred seventeen bacterial strains were also isolated from plants samples and then assigned to bacterial species based on the 16S rRNA genes. Although Bacillus spp. and Pantoea agglomerans were the two most commonly isolated species from all kinds of tissues, various other taxa were also isolated. Inoculation of vine cuttings with 14 different bacterial species, and one GTD fungus, Neofusicoccum parvum, showed no impact of these bacteria on the size of the wood necroses caused by N. parvum. This study showed, therefore, that bacterial communities differ according to the anatomical part (trunk or cordon and/or the type of tissue (necrotic or non necrotic of wood of grapevine plants showing external symptoms of esca disease. However, research into bacteria having a role in GTD development needs further studies.

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Bio-based Nanomaterials from Jabon (Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb. Miq Wood Bark: an Organic Waste Material from Community Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutrisno

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of nanotechnology to produce nanomaterials from renewable bio-based materials, like wood bark, has great potential to benefit the wood processing industry. To support this issue, we investigated the production of bio-based nanomaterials using conventional balls milling. Jabon (Anthocephalus cadamba(Roxb. Miq wood bark (JWB, an organic waste material from a community forest was subjected to conventional balls milling for 96 h and was converted into bio-based nanomaterial. The morphology and particle size, chemical components, functional groups and crystallinity of the bio-based nanomaterial were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, scanning electron microscopy extended with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The particle-sizes obtained for the JWB bio-based nanomaterial were between 43 nm to 469 nm and the functional groups were detected as cellulose. The chemical components found were carbon, oxygen, chloride, potassium and calcium, except for the sample produced from sieve type T14, which did not contain chloride. The crystalline structure was calcium oxalate hydrate (C2CaO4.H2O with crystalline sizes 21 nm and 15 nm, produced from sieve types T14 and T200 respectively.

  3. Physicochemical and biochemical characterization of non-biodegradable cellulose in Miocene gymnosperm wood from the Entre-Sambre-et-Meuse, Southern Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechien, Valerie; Rodriguez, Christian; Ongena, Marc; Hiligsmann, Serge; Thonart, Philippe [Liege Univ., Walloon Center of Industrial Biology, Gembloux (Belgium); Rulmont, Andre [Liege Univ., Chemistry Dept., Liege (Belgium)

    2006-11-15

    Specimens of Miocene fossil wood from the Entre-Sambre-et-Meuse karsts (southern Belgium) were examined using physicochemical and biochemical techniques in order to understand the reasons for the exceptional preservation of these fossilized remains after 15 million years. Structural and chemical changes were assessed by comparing the structural features of the fossil samples with those of their modern counterpart, Metasequoia. Solid state {sup 13} C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and microscopic analysis showed good preservation of the cellulose structure in the fossil wood from the Florennes peat deposit. Despite the substantial cellulose fraction available in the fossil tissue, an enzymatic degradation test and a biochemical methane potential assay showed that the fossil cellulose could not be degraded by cellulases and anaerobic microorganisms usually involved in the biodegradation of organic matter. Moreover, the cellulose structure (crystallinity and surface area) seemed to have no effect on cellulose biodegradability in these Miocene fossil wood samples. On the basis of our observations, we suggest that the presence of a modified lignin structure could greatly influence cellulose preservation/biodegradability. (Author)

  4. fracture criterion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fracture in metallic glasses. What are the connections between nano- and micro- mechanisms and toughness? Metallic glasses are schizophrenic in the fracture sense. PDF Create! 5 Trial www.nuance.com ...

  5. Shoulder Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... arm bone), the scapula (shoulder blade) and the clavicle (collarbone) (Figure 1). The upper end of the humerus ... age. Most fractures in children occur in the clavicle bone. In adults, the most common fracture is ...

  6. Hand Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lead to arthritis down the road. In addition, fractures in children occasionally affect future growth of that bone. Figure 1: Examples of fractures in fingers Figure 2: Examples of plates, pins ...

  7. Root fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens Ove; Christensen, Søren Steno Ahrensburg; Tsilingaridis, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze tooth loss after root fractures and to assess the influence of the type of healing and the location of the root fracture. Furthermore, the actual cause of tooth loss was analyzed.......The purpose of this study was to analyze tooth loss after root fractures and to assess the influence of the type of healing and the location of the root fracture. Furthermore, the actual cause of tooth loss was analyzed....

  8. Stress Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stress fractures Overview Stress fractures are tiny cracks in a bone. They're caused by repetitive force, often from overuse — such as repeatedly jumping up and down or running long distances. Stress fractures can also arise from normal use of ...

  9. Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, G.

    1998-11-20

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris.

  10. Structure and function of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Regis B. Miller

    2005-01-01

    Despite the many human uses to which various woods are suited, at a fundamental level wood is a complex biological structure, itself a composite of many chemistries and cell types acting together to serve the needs of the plant. Although humans have striven to understand wood in the context of wood technology, we have often overlooked the key and basic fact that wood...

  11. Wood Specific Gravity Variations and Biomass of Central African Tree Species: The Simple Choice of the Outer Wood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Bastin

    Full Text Available Wood specific gravity is a key element in tropical forest ecology. It integrates many aspects of tree mechanical properties and functioning and is an important predictor of tree biomass. Wood specific gravity varies widely among and within species and also within individual trees. Notably, contrasted patterns of radial variation of wood specific gravity have been demonstrated and related to regeneration guilds (light demanding vs. shade-bearing. However, although being repeatedly invoked as a potential source of error when estimating the biomass of trees, both intraspecific and radial variations remain little studied. In this study we characterized detailed pith-to-bark wood specific gravity profiles among contrasted species prominently contributing to the biomass of the forest, i.e., the dominant species, and we quantified the consequences of such variations on the biomass.Radial profiles of wood density at 8% moisture content were compiled for 14 dominant species in the Democratic Republic of Congo, adapting a unique 3D X-ray scanning technique at very high spatial resolution on core samples. Mean wood density estimates were validated by water displacement measurements. Wood density profiles were converted to wood specific gravity and linear mixed models were used to decompose the radial variance. Potential errors in biomass estimation were assessed by comparing the biomass estimated from the wood specific gravity measured from pith-to-bark profiles, from global repositories, and from partial information (outer wood or inner wood.Wood specific gravity profiles from pith-to-bark presented positive, neutral and negative trends. Positive trends mainly characterized light-demanding species, increasing up to 1.8 g.cm-3 per meter for Piptadeniastrum africanum, and negative trends characterized shade-bearing species, decreasing up to 1 g.cm-3 per meter for Strombosia pustulata. The linear mixed model showed the greater part of wood specific gravity

  12. Wood Specific Gravity Variations and Biomass of Central African Tree Species: The Simple Choice of the Outer Wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, Jean-François; Fayolle, Adeline; Tarelkin, Yegor; Van den Bulcke, Jan; de Haulleville, Thales; Mortier, Frederic; Beeckman, Hans; Van Acker, Joris; Serckx, Adeline; Bogaert, Jan; De Cannière, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Wood specific gravity is a key element in tropical forest ecology. It integrates many aspects of tree mechanical properties and functioning and is an important predictor of tree biomass. Wood specific gravity varies widely among and within species and also within individual trees. Notably, contrasted patterns of radial variation of wood specific gravity have been demonstrated and related to regeneration guilds (light demanding vs. shade-bearing). However, although being repeatedly invoked as a potential source of error when estimating the biomass of trees, both intraspecific and radial variations remain little studied. In this study we characterized detailed pith-to-bark wood specific gravity profiles among contrasted species prominently contributing to the biomass of the forest, i.e., the dominant species, and we quantified the consequences of such variations on the biomass. Radial profiles of wood density at 8% moisture content were compiled for 14 dominant species in the Democratic Republic of Congo, adapting a unique 3D X-ray scanning technique at very high spatial resolution on core samples. Mean wood density estimates were validated by water displacement measurements. Wood density profiles were converted to wood specific gravity and linear mixed models were used to decompose the radial variance. Potential errors in biomass estimation were assessed by comparing the biomass estimated from the wood specific gravity measured from pith-to-bark profiles, from global repositories, and from partial information (outer wood or inner wood). Wood specific gravity profiles from pith-to-bark presented positive, neutral and negative trends. Positive trends mainly characterized light-demanding species, increasing up to 1.8 g.cm-3 per meter for Piptadeniastrum africanum, and negative trends characterized shade-bearing species, decreasing up to 1 g.cm-3 per meter for Strombosia pustulata. The linear mixed model showed the greater part of wood specific gravity variance was

  13. Characterization the microstructure of pulsed Nd:YAG welding method in low frequencies; correlation with tensile and fracture behavior in laser-welded nitinol joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaei Zoeram, Ali; Rahmani, Aida; Asghar Akbari Mousavi, Seyed Ali

    2017-05-01

    The precise controllability of heat input in pulsed Nd:YAG welding method provided by two additional parameters, frequency and pulse duration, has made this method very promising for welding of alloys sensitive to heat input. The poor weldability of Ti-rich nitinol as a result of the formation of Ti2Ni IMC has deprived us of the unique properties of this alloy. In this study, to intensify solidification rate during welding of Ti-rich nitinol, pulsed Nd:YAG laser beam in low frequency was employed in addition to the employment of a copper substrate. Specific microstructure produced in this condition was characterized and the effects of this microstructure on tensile and fracture behavior of samples welded by two different procedures, full penetration and double-sided method with halved penetration depth for each side were investigated. The investigations revealed although the combination of low frequencies, the use of a high thermal conductor substrate and double-sided method eliminated intergranular fracture and increased tensile strength, the particular microstructure, built in the pulsed welding method in low frequencies, results to the formation of the longitudinal cracks during the first stages of tensile test at weld centerline. This degrades tensile strength of welded samples compared to base metal. The results showed samples welded in double-sided method performed much better than samples welded in full penetration mode.

  14. Chapter 9: Wood Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco X. Aguilar; Karen Abt; Branko Glavonjic; Eugene Lopatin; Warren  Mabee

    2016-01-01

    The availabilty of information on wood energy continues to improve, particularly for commoditized woodfuels.  Wood energy consumption and production vary in the UNECE region because demand is strngly affected by weather and the prices of competing energy sources.  There has been an increase in wood energy in the power-and-heat sector in the EU28 and North American...

  15. Untargeted Identification of Wood Type-Specific Markers in Particulate Matter from Wood Combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weggler, Benedikt A; Ly-Verdu, Saray; Jennerwein, Maximilian; Sippula, Olli; Reda, Ahmed A; Orasche, Jürgen; Gröger, Thomas; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2016-09-20

    Residential wood combustion emissions are one of the major global sources of particulate and gaseous organic pollutants. However, the detailed chemical compositions of these emissions are poorly characterized due to their highly complex molecular compositions, nonideal combustion conditions, and sample preparation steps. In this study, the particulate organic emissions from a masonry heater using three types of wood logs, namely, beech, birch, and spruce, were chemically characterized using thermal desorption in situ derivatization coupled to a GCxGC-ToF/MS system. Untargeted data analyses were performed using the comprehensive measurements. Univariate and multivariate chemometric tools, such as analysis of variance (ANOVA), principal component analysis (PCA), and ANOVA simultaneous component analysis (ASCA), were used to reduce the data to highly significant and wood type-specific features. This study reveals substances not previously considered in the literature as meaningful markers for differentiation among wood types.

  16. Moisture Transport in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, T.; Hansen, K. K.; Hoffmeyer, P.

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of moisture transport in wood is of great importance as most mechanical and physical properties of wood depend on moisture content. Moisture transport in porous materials is often described by Ficks second law, but several observations indicate that this does not apply very well to wood....... Recently at the Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering, a new model for moisture transport in wood has been developed. The model divides the transport into two phases, namely water vapour in the cell lumens and bound water in the cell walls....

  17. Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Doug [Baker-Hughes Oilfield Operation Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Leggett, Jim [Baker-Hughes Oilfield Operation Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2013-07-29

    The Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager project has a goal to develop a wireline ultrasonic imager that is capable of operating in temperatures up to 300°C (572°F) and depths up to 10 km (32,808 ft). This will address one of the critical needs in any EGS development of understanding the hydraulic flow paths in the reservoir. The ultrasonic imaging is well known in the oil and gas industry as one of the best methods for fracture evaluation; providing both high resolution and complete azimuthal coverage of the borehole. This enables fracture detection and characterization, both natural and induced, providing information as to their location, dip direction and dip magnitude. All of these factors are critical to fully understand the fracture system to enable the optimization of the thermal drainage through injectors and producers in a geothermal resource.

  18. The seismogenic Gole Larghe Fault Zone (Italian Southern Alps): quantitative 3D characterization of the fault/fracture network, mapping of evidences of fluid-rock interaction, and modelling of the hydraulic structure through the seismic cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistacchi, A.; Mittempergher, S.; Di Toro, G.; Smith, S. A. F.; Garofalo, P. S.

    2016-12-01

    The Gole Larghe Fault Zone (GLFZ) was exhumed from 8 km depth, where it was characterized by seismic activity (pseudotachylytes) and hydrous fluid flow (alteration halos and precipitation of hydrothermal minerals in veins and cataclasites). Thanks to glacier-polished outcrops exposing the 400 m-thick fault zone over a continuous area > 1.5 km2, the fault zone architecture has been quantitatively described with an unprecedented detail, providing a rich dataset to generate 3D Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) models and simulate the fault zone hydraulic properties. The fault and fracture network has been characterized combining > 2 km of scanlines and semi-automatic mapping of faults and fractures on several photogrammetric 3D Digital Outcrop Models (3D DOMs). This allowed obtaining robust probability density functions for parameters of fault and fracture sets: orientation, fracture intensity and density, spacing, persistency, length, thickness/aperture, termination. The spatial distribution of fractures (random, clustered, anticlustered…) has been characterized with geostatistics. Evidences of fluid/rock interaction (alteration halos, hydrothermal veins, etc.) have been mapped on the same outcrops, revealing sectors of the fault zone strongly impacted, vs. completely unaffected, by fluid/rock interaction, separated by convolute infiltration fronts. Field and microstructural evidence revealed that higher permeability was obtained in the syn- to early post-seismic period, when fractures were (re)opened by off-fault deformation. We have developed a parametric hydraulic model of the GLFZ and calibrated it, varying the fraction of faults/fractures that were open in the post-seismic, with the goal of obtaining realistic fluid flow and permeability values, and a flow pattern consistent with the observed alteration/mineralization pattern. The fraction of open fractures is very close to the percolation threshold of the DFN, and the permeability tensor is strongly anisotropic

  19. Advanced reservoir characterization and evaluation of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckman, Tracy; Schechter, David S.

    2000-04-11

    The overall goal of this project was to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective was accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, (3) analytical and numerical simulation of Spraberry reservoirs, and, (4) experimental investigations on CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the fourth year of the five-year project for each of the four areas including a status report of field activities leading up to injection of CO{sub 2}.

  20. Multi-isotope (carbon and chlorine) analysis for fingerprinting and site characterization at a fractured bedrock aquifer contaminated by chlorinated ethenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palau, Jordi; Marchesi, Massimo; Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia

    2014-01-01

    The use of compound specific multi-isotope approach (C and Cl) in the characterization of a chlorinated ethenes contaminated fractured aquifer allows the identification of several sources and contaminant plumes, as well as the occurrence of biodegradation and mixing processes. The study site...... is located in Spain with contamination resulting in groundwater concentrations of up to 50 mg/L of trichloroethene (TCE), the most abundant chlorinated ethene, and 7 mg/L of tetrachloroethene (PCE). The potential sources of contamination including abandoned barrels, an underground tank, and a disposal lagoon......, showed a wide range in δ13C values from − 15.6 to − 40.5‰ for TCE and from − 18.5 to − 32.4‰ for PCE, allowing the use of isotope fingerprinting for tracing of the origin and migration of these contaminants in the aquifer. In contrast, there is no difference between the δ37Cl values for TCE...

  1. Characterization of the Interunit Bonds of Lignin Oligomers Released by Acid-Catalyzed Selective Solvolysis of Cryptomeria japonica and Eucalyptus globulus Woods via Thioacidolysis and 2D-NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kaori; Kaiho, Atsushi; Sakai, Ryo; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Okada, Hitomi; Watanabe, Takashi

    2016-12-07

    Acid-catalyzed degradation of lignin in toluene containing methanol selectively yields C6-C2 lignin monomers and releases lignin oligomers, a potential raw feedstock for epoxy resins. We herein characterize the structures of the lignin oligomers by focusing on the changes in the interunit linkage types during solvolysis. The oligomeric lignin products were analyzed via thioacidolysis and 2D-HSQC-NMR. The results show that lignin oligomers ranging from monomers to tetramers are released through considerable cleavage of the β-O-4 linkages. The lignin oligomers from Cryptomeria japonica (softwood) mainly comprise β-5, β-1, and tetrahydrofuran β-β linkages, whereas Eucalyptus globulus (hardwood) yields oligomers rich in β-1 and syringaresinol β-β linkages. Both wood samples exhibit selective release of β-β dimers and a relative decrease in 5-5 and 4-O-5 bonds during solvolysis. The method presented for the separation of lignin oligomers without β-O-4 linkages and with linkages unique to each wood species will be useful for the production of lignin-based materials.

  2. Pediatric Supracondylar Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Peña

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 7-year-old left-handed male presented with left arm pain and deformity after being tackled while playing. On exam, there appeared to be dorsal displacement of the distal segment of the upper extremity. He had two-plus radial and ulnar pulses, and normal capillary refill. Sensation was intact to axillary, radial, ulnar, and median nerve distributions. Compartments were soft. Significant findings: Plain film radiography showed a displaced supracondylar fracture with disrupted anterior and posterior periostea, consistent with a type 3 supracondylar fracture. Discussion: Supracondylar fractures are the most common pediatric elbow fracture.1 Approximately 95% are due to a fall onto an outstretched hand while the elbow is in extension. Direct trauma to the posterior aspect of a flexed elbow accounts for the remainder.2 There are three classifications of supracondylar fractures: type 1 is non-displaced, type 2 is displaced, but has an intact posterior periosteum, and type 3 is displaced with disrupted anterior and posterior periostea. Careful examination assessing for pulses, perfusion, neurologic integrity, and elevated compartment pressures are important in the evaluation.3 The brachial artery is often injured in posterior lateral displaced fractures.4 Neurologic deficits to the median, ulnar, or radial nerves are seen in as many of 49% of Type 3 supracondylar fractures; however, neuropraxias often resolve within two to three months.5 Untimely treated compartment syndrome may lead to Volkmann ischemic contractors, which are characterized by flexion of the elbow, pronation of the forearm, flexion of the wrist, and extension of the metacarpal phalangeal joints.6 Plain film radiography oriented in the anterior-posterior (AP and lateral fashions are typically sufficient for diagnosis; however, a fracture may exist without overt signs on X-ray.7 Given the high morbidity associated with Type 3 fractures, emergent Orthopedic

  3. Hip fracture - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inter-trochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Subtrochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Femoral neck fracture repair - discharge; Trochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Hip pinning surgery - ...

  4. Characterization of Odors of Wood by Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry with Removal of Extractives as Attempt to Control Indoor Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ru; Wang, Chen; Huang, Anmin; Lv, Bin

    2018-01-18

    Indoor air quality problems are usually revealed by occupants' complaints. In this study, the odors of two types of hardwood species, namely, Cathy poplar (Populus cathayana Rehd.) and rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) were selected and extracted with ethanol-toluene for removal of extractives in an attempt to eliminate the odors. The odorous components of neat and extracted woods were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O). The results showed that about 33 kinds of key volatile compounds (peak area above 0.2%) were detected from the GC-MS, and about 40 kinds of odorants were identified from GC-O. The components were concentrated between 15 and 33 min in GC-O, which was different from the concentration time in GC-MS. Lots of the odors identified from GC-O were unpleasant to humans, and variously described as stinky, burnt, leather, bug, herb, etc. These odors may originate from the thermos-oxidation of wood components. After extraction, the amounts and intensities of some odorants decreased, while some remained. However, the extraction process resulted in a benzene residue and led to increased benzene odor.

  5. Characterization of Odors of Wood by Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry with Removal of Extractives as Attempt to Control Indoor Air Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air quality problems are usually revealed by occupants’ complaints. In this study, the odors of two types of hardwood species, namely, Cathy poplar (Populus cathayana Rehd. and rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis were selected and extracted with ethanol-toluene for removal of extractives in an attempt to eliminate the odors. The odorous components of neat and extracted woods were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O. The results showed that about 33 kinds of key volatile compounds (peak area above 0.2% were detected from the GC-MS, and about 40 kinds of odorants were identified from GC-O. The components were concentrated between 15 and 33 min in GC-O, which was different from the concentration time in GC-MS. Lots of the odors identified from GC-O were unpleasant to humans, and variously described as stinky, burnt, leather, bug, herb, etc. These odors may originate from the thermos-oxidation of wood components. After extraction, the amounts and intensities of some odorants decreased, while some remained. However, the extraction process resulted in a benzene residue and led to increased benzene odor.

  6. Acetabular Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Correa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 77-year-old female presented to her primary care physician (PCP with right hip pain after a mechanical fall. She did not lose consciousness or have any other traumatic injuries. She was unable to ambulate post-fall, so X-rays were ordered by her PCP. Her X-rays were concerning for a right acetabular fracture (see purple arrows, so the patient was referred to the emergency department where a computed tomography (CT scan was ordered. Significant findings: The non-contrast CT images show a minimally displaced comminuted fracture of the right acetabulum involving the acetabular roof, medial and anterior walls (red arrows, with associated obturator muscle hematoma (blue oval. Discussion: Acetabular fractures are quite rare. There are 37 pelvic fractures per 100,000 people in the United States annually, and only 10% of these involve the acetabulum. They occur more frequently in the elderly totaling an estimated 4,000 per year. High-energy trauma is the primary cause of acetabular fractures in younger individuals and these fractures are commonly associated with other fractures and pelvic ring disruptions. Fractures secondary to moderate or minimal trauma are increasingly of concern in patients of advanced age.1 Classification of acetabular fractures can be challenging. However, the approach can be simplified by remembering the three basic types of acetabular fractures (column, transverse, and wall and their corresponding radiologic views. First, column fractures should be evaluated with coronally oriented CT images. This type of fracture demonstrates a coronal fracture line running caudad to craniad, essentially breaking the acetabulum into two halves: a front half and a back half. Secondly, transverse fractures should be evaluated by sagittally oriented CT images. By definition, a transverse fracture separates the acetabulum into superior and inferior halves with the fracture line extending from anterior to posterior

  7. Mesoscale Characterization of Fracture Properties of Steel Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Using a Lattice-Particle Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Chacón, Francisco; Cifuentes, Héctor; Medina, Fernando

    2017-02-21

    This work presents a lattice-particle model for the analysis of steel fiber-reinforced concrete (SFRC). In this approach, fibers are explicitly modeled and connected to the concrete matrix lattice via interface elements. The interface behavior was calibrated by means of pullout tests and a range for the bond properties is proposed. The model was validated with analytical and experimental results under uniaxial tension and compression, demonstrating the ability of the model to correctly describe the effect of fiber volume fraction and distribution on fracture properties of SFRC. The lattice-particle model was integrated into a hierarchical homogenization-based scheme in which macroscopic material parameters are obtained from mesoscale simulations. Moreover, a representative volume element (RVE) analysis was carried out and the results shows that such an RVE does exist in the post-peak regime and until localization takes place. Finally, the multiscale upscaling strategy was successfully validated with three-point bending tests.

  8. Mesoscale Characterization of Fracture Properties of Steel Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Using a Lattice–Particle Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Chacón, Francisco; Cifuentes, Héctor; Medina, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a lattice–particle model for the analysis of steel fiber-reinforced concrete (SFRC). In this approach, fibers are explicitly modeled and connected to the concrete matrix lattice via interface elements. The interface behavior was calibrated by means of pullout tests and a range for the bond properties is proposed. The model was validated with analytical and experimental results under uniaxial tension and compression, demonstrating the ability of the model to correctly describe the effect of fiber volume fraction and distribution on fracture properties of SFRC. The lattice–particle model was integrated into a hierarchical homogenization-based scheme in which macroscopic material parameters are obtained from mesoscale simulations. Moreover, a representative volume element (RVE) analysis was carried out and the results shows that such an RVE does exist in the post-peak regime and until localization takes place. Finally, the multiscale upscaling strategy was successfully validated with three-point bending tests. PMID:28772568

  9. Mesoscale Characterization of Fracture Properties of Steel Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Using a Lattice–Particle Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Montero-Chacón

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a lattice–particle model for the analysis of steel fiber-reinforced concrete (SFRC. In this approach, fibers are explicitly modeled and connected to the concrete matrix lattice via interface elements. The interface behavior was calibrated by means of pullout tests and a range for the bond properties is proposed. The model was validated with analytical and experimental results under uniaxial tension and compression, demonstrating the ability of the model to correctly describe the effect of fiber volume fraction and distribution on fracture properties of SFRC. The lattice–particle model was integrated into a hierarchical homogenization-based scheme in which macroscopic material parameters are obtained from mesoscale simulations. Moreover, a representative volume element (RVE analysis was carried out and the results shows that such an RVE does exist in the post-peak regime and until localization takes place. Finally, the multiscale upscaling strategy was successfully validated with three-point bending tests.

  10. Multi-isotope (carbon and chlorine) analysis for fingerprinting and site characterization at a fractured bedrock aquifer contaminated by chlorinated ethenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palau, Jordi, E-mail: jordi.palau@unine.ch [Departament de Cristal.lografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès, s/n 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Marchesi, Massimo [Departament de Cristal.lografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès, s/n 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Chambon, Julie C.C. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Aravena, Ramon [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Canals, Àngels [Departament de Cristal.lografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès, s/n 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Binning, Philip J.; Bjerg, Poul L. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Otero, Neus; Soler, Albert [Departament de Cristal.lografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès, s/n 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-03-01

    The use of compound specific multi-isotope approach (C and Cl) in the characterization of a chlorinated ethenes contaminated fractured aquifer allows the identification of several sources and contaminant plumes, as well as the occurrence of biodegradation and mixing processes. The study site is located in Spain with contamination resulting in groundwater concentrations of up to 50 mg/L of trichloroethene (TCE), the most abundant chlorinated ethene, and 7 mg/L of tetrachloroethene (PCE). The potential sources of contamination including abandoned barrels, an underground tank, and a disposal lagoon, showed a wide range in δ{sup 13}C values from − 15.6 to − 40.5‰ for TCE and from − 18.5 to − 32.4‰ for PCE, allowing the use of isotope fingerprinting for tracing of the origin and migration of these contaminants in the aquifer. In contrast, there is no difference between the δ{sup 37}Cl values for TCE in the contaminant sources, ranging from + 0.53 to + 0.66‰. Variations of δ{sup 37}Cl and δ{sup 13}C in the different contaminant plumes were used to investigate the role of biodegradation in groundwater. Moreover, the isotopic data were incorporated into a reactive transport model for determination of whether the isotope pattern observed downstream from the tank's source could be explained by the simultaneous effect of mixing and biodegradation. The results demonstrate that a multi-isotope approach is a valuable tool for characterization of complex sites such as fractured bedrock aquifer contaminated by multiple sources, providing important information which can be used by consultants and site managers to prioritize and design more successful remediation strategies. - Highlights: • Origin and fate of CAHs in groundwater by means of multi CSIA ({sup 13}C,{sup 35}Cl) survey • Innovative/new approach tested in a fractured bedrock site • Differentiation of distinct CAH sources • Biodegradation and source mixing recognition in the aquifer.

  11. Heat sterilization of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang

    2010-01-01

    Two important questions should be considered in heat sterilizing solid wood materials: First, what temperature–time regime is required to kill a particular pest? Second, how much time is required to heat the center of any wood configuration to the kill temperature? The entomology research on the first question has facilitated the development of international standards...

  12. Wood supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; David B. McKeever

    2011-01-01

    At times in history, there have been concerns that demand for wood (timber) would be greater than the ability to supply it, but that concern has recently dissipated. The wood supply and demand situation has changed because of market transitions, economic downturns, and continued forest growth. This article provides a concise overview of this change as it relates to the...

  13. Simultaneous bond degradation and bond formation during phenol-formaldehyde curing with wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Yelle; John Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Bonding of wood using phenol–formaldehyde adhesive develops highly durable bonds. Phenol– formaldehyde is believed to form primary bonds with wood cell wall polymers (e.g., lignin). However, it is unclear how this adhesive interacts and bonds to lignin. Through wood solubilisation methodologies, earlywood and latewood bonded assemblies were characterized using two-...

  14. Microclimate and habitat heterogeneity as the major drivers of beetle diversity in dead wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian Seibold; Claus Bassler; Roland Brandl; Boris Buche; Alexander Szallies; Simon Thorn; Michael D. Ulyshen; Jorg Muller; Christopher Baraloto

    2016-01-01

    1. Resource availability and habitat heterogeneity are principle drivers of biodiversity, but their individual roles often remain unclear since both factors are usually correlated. The biodiversity of species dependent on dead wood could be driven by either resource availability represented by dead-wood amount or habitat heterogeneity characterized by dead-wood...

  15. Subtrochanteric fractures in bisphosphonate-naive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adachi, Jonathan D; Lyles, Kenneth; Boonen, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Our purpose was to characterize the risks of osteoporosis-related subtrochanteric fractures in bisphosphonate-naive individuals. Baseline characteristics of patients enrolled in the HORIZON-Recurrent Fracture Trial with a study-qualifying hip fracture were examined, comparing those who sustained ...

  16. Complex geometries in wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Riiber Nielsen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust parame...... parametric model and a generic design language a later explored the possibilities to construct complex shaped geometries with self registering joints on modern wood crafting machines. The research was carried out as collaboration with industrial partners.......The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust...

  17. Hip Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramponi, Denise R; Kaufmann, Judith; Drahnak, Gwendolen

    Hip fractures are associated with significant morbidity and mortality and a major health problem in the United States (). Eighty percent of hip fractures are experienced by 80-year-old women. Plain radiographs usually confirm the diagnosis, but if there is a high level of suspicion of an occult hip fracture, magnetic resonance imaging or bone scan is the next step to confirm the diagnosis. Areas of the hip bone have varied bone strength and blood supply, making the femoral neck one of the most vulnerable areas for fracture. A consultation to an orthopedic surgeon will determine surgical interventions.

  18. Hamate fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabia Condés, J M; Ibañez Martínez, L; Sánchez Carrasco, M A; Carrillo Julia, F J; Salmerón Martínez, E L

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present our experience in the treatment of the fractures of the hamate and to make a review of the literature on this topic. We retrospectively reviewed 10 patients treated in our clinic between 2005-2012 suffering from fractures of the hamate. Six cases were fractures of the body and four were fractures of the hamate. Five cases were of associated injuries. Diagnostic delay ranged from 30 days to 2 years. Patient follow-up ranged from 1 to 10 years. Patient satisfaction was evaluated using the DASH questionnaire. Five patients with a fracture of the body underwent surgery, and one was treated conservatively. Two patients with fracture of the hook of the hamate were treated with immobilization, and two more patients had the fragment removed. The grip strength and the digital clip were reduced in 2 cases. Flexion and extension of the wrist was limited in 3 cases. The mobility of the fingers was normal in all the cases, except in one. The results obtained from the DASH questionnaire were normal in all the cases, except in one case of fracture of the hamate, and in two cases of fracture of the body. The surgical treatment should reduce the dislocation and stabilize the injuries with osteosynthesis. The fractures of the hamate are usually diagnosed late, and the most recommended treatment is removal of the fragment, although it cannot be deduced from this study. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Colles Fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez León, Belisario; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    Our expertise is the study of more than 2,000 cases of Colles' fractures. Colles name should in this case to synthesize the type of fractures of the lower end of the radius. There have been various proposed classifications according to the different fracture lines can be demonstrated radiologically in the region of the wrist. We believe that these ratings should only be retained if the concept of the articular fracture or not in the classical sense, since it has great value in the functional ...

  20. Characterization of Sheet Fracture Patterns in Polygonal-Jointed Lavas at Kokostick Butte, OR, and Mazama Ridge, WA: Investigation and Interpretation of Their Formation and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodge, R. W.; Lescinsky, D. T.

    2006-12-01

    Polygonal joints in lava flows ("columns") are commonly equant leading to a model of formation associated with cooling in an isotropic stress field. This model, however, does not explain rectangular columns, sheet-like fractures, fractures with crosscutting relationships, and fractures with orientations other than perpendicular to the cooling surface. These fracture patterns are often observed at glaciated volcanoes. The presence of preferential fracture orientations suggests an applied stress component likely due to environmental conditions such as the presence of glaciers or flow dynamics such as down-slope settling or flow margin inflation. During this study we investigated the formation and significance of these non-equant fracture patterns to propose a model for their formation. These `abnormal' fracture patterns have not been discussed in the literature and may be important to better understanding the cooling conditions of such lava flows. To test these possibilities we studied Kokostick Butte dacite flow, OR (near South Sister), and Mazama Ridge andesite flow at Mount Rainier, WA. Both of these flows have well developed sheet-like fractures and display evidence of ice-contact during eruption and emplacement. Sheet fractures are long and continuous fractures that have perpendicular connecting fractures forming rectangular columns. The sheet-like fractures are largely parallel to each other on the exposure surface and the connecting fractures vary locally from primary fractures (associated with cooling toward flow interior) to secondary fractures (associated with cooling by water infiltration). Detailed measurements of fracture orientations and spacing were collected at Kokostick Butte and Mazama Ridge to examine the relationship between the sheet fractures and flow geometry. Preliminary results support this relationship and suggest these patterns likely form due to shear associated with small amounts of flow advance by the rapidly cooling lava. Laboratory

  1. New C2 synchondrosal fracture classification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusin, Jerome A.; Ruess, Lynne [Department of Radiology, Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States); The Ohio State University College of Medicine and Public Health, Columbus, OH (United States); Daulton, Robert S. [Department of Radiology, Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Excessive cervical flexion-extension accompanying mild to severe impact injuries can lead to C2 synchondrosal fractures in young children. To characterize and classify C2 synchondrosal fracture patterns. We retrospectively reviewed imaging and medical records of children who were treated for cervical spine fractures at our institution between 1995 and 2014. We reviewed all fractures involving the five central C2 synchondroses with regard to patient demographics, mechanism of injury, fracture pattern, associated fractures and other injuries, treatment plans and outcome. Fourteen children had fractures involving the central C2 synchondroses. There were nine boys and five girls, all younger than 6 years. We found four distinct fracture patterns. Eleven complete fractures were further divided into four subtypes (a, b, c and d) based on degree of anterior displacement of the odontoid segment and presence of distraction. Nine of these 11 children had fractures through both odontoneural synchondroses and the odontocentral synchondrosis; one had fractures involving both neurocentral synchondroses and the odontoneural synchondrosis; one had fractures through bilateral odontoneural and bilateral neurocentral synchondroses. Three children had incomplete fractures, defined as a fracture through a single odontoneural synchondrosis with or without partial extension into either the odontocentral or the adjacent neurocentral synchondroses. All complete fractures were displaced or angulated. Four had associated spinal cord injury, including two contusions (subtype c fractures) and two fatal transections (subtype d fractures). Most children were treated with primary halo stabilization. Subtype c fractures required surgical fixation. We describe four patterns of central C2 synchondrosal fractures, including two unique patterns that have not been reported. We propose a classification system to distinguish these fractures and aid in treatment planning. (orig.)

  2. Characterization of pyrolytic products obtained from fast pyrolysis of chromated copper arsenate (CCA)- and alkaline copper quaternary compounds (ACQ)-treated wood biomasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Young; Kim, Tae-Sung; Eom, In-Yong; Kang, Sung Mo; Cho, Tae-Su; Choi, In Gyu; Choi, Joon Weon

    2012-08-15

    In this study, chromated copper arsenate-treated wood (CCA-W) and alkaline copper quaternary compounds-treated wood (ACQ-W) were subjected to fast pyrolysis at 500°C for ca. 2s to produce bio-oil and char. The physicochemical properties of the pyrolytic products as well as the distribution of heavy metals - arsenic, copper and chrome - during fast pyrolysis were investigated. The water content, viscosity, pH and higher heating value (HHV) of bio-oil from CCA-W were 24.8 wt%, 13.5 cSt, 2.1 and 16 MJ/kg, respectively, whereas those of bio-oil from ACQ-W were 27.9 wt%, 16 cSt, 3.0 and 14.1 MJ/kg, respectively. The yields of bio-oil from CCA-W and ACQ-W were 43.3% and 46.6%, respectively, significantly lower than that of control (61.6%). In the pyrolytic products of CCA-W, the concentrations of arsenic, copper and chromium were determined to be 36.4 wt%, 74.0 wt% and 75.4 wt% in char, respectively, 34.5 wt%, 10.3 wt% and 9.0 wt% in bio-oil, respectively, and 29.0 wt%, 15.7 wt% and 15.5 wt% in gas, respectively. In addition, most of the copper appeared in the char (98.8 wt%) and only a trace amount of copper was detected in the bio-oil (0.2 wt%) produced by ACQ-W. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A new attempt at discrimination between Quercus petraea and Quercus robur based on wood anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Feuillat, François; Dupouey, Jean-Luc; Sciama, Delphine; Keller, René

    1997-01-01

    The interspecific variability of wood anatomy between the two major oak species Quercus robur L. and Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. is still largely unknown. However, anatomy strongly influences the technological properties of wood and the ecophysiological functioning of trees. Moreover, identification of oak wood species is a long-standing challenge and important for many purposes. In the Cîteaux Forest (Burgundy), 58 oaks from 14 mixed stands were sampled for wood anatomy characterization. ...

  4. Characterization of the Edge Crack Torsion (ECT) Test for Mode III Fracture Toughness Measurement of Laminated Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, James G.

    2004-01-01

    The edge crack torsion (ECT) test is designed to initiate mode III delamination growth in composite laminates. The test has undergone several design changes during its development. The objective of this paper was to determine the suitability of the current ECT test design a mode III fracture test. To this end, ECT tests were conducted on specimens manufactured from IM7/8552 and S2/8552 tape laminates. Three-dimensional finite element analyses were performed. The analysis results were used to calculate the distribution of mode I, mode II, and mode III strain energy release rate along the delamination front. The results indicated that mode IIIdominated delamination growth would be initiated from the specimen center. However, in specimens of both material types, the measured values of GIIIc exhibited significant dependence on delamination length. Load-displacement response of the specimens exhibited significant deviation from linearity before specimen failure. X-radiographs of a sample of specimens revealed that damage was initiated in the specimens prior to failure. Further inspection of the failure surfaces is required to identify the damage and determine that mode III delamination is initiated in the specimens.

  5. Advanced reservoir characterization and evaluation of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area. Annual report, September 1, 1996--August 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schechter, D.S.

    1998-07-01

    The overall goal of this project is to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective is being accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, (3) reservoir performance analysis, and (4) experimental investigations on CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the second year of the five-year project for each of the four areas. In the first area, the author has completed the reservoir characterization, which includes matrix description and detection (from core-log integration) and fracture characterization. This information is found in Section 1. In the second area, the author has completed extensive inhibition experiments that strongly indicate that the weakly water-wet behavior of the reservoir rock may be responsible for poor waterflood response observed in many Spraberry fields. In the third area, the author has made significant progress in analytical and numerical simulation of performance in Spraberry reservoirs as seen in Section 3. In the fourth area, the author has completed several suites of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry and Berea whole cores at reservoir conditions and reported in Section 4. The results of these experiments have been useful in developing a model for free-fall gravity drainage and have validated the premise that CO{sub 2} will recover oil from tight, unconfined Spraberry matrix. The final three years of this project involves implementation of the CO{sub 2} pilot. Up to twelve new wells are planned in the pilot area; water injection wells to contain the CO{sub 2}, three production wells to monitor performance of CO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} injection wells including one horizontal injection well and logging observation wells to monitor CO{sub 2} flood fronts. Results of drilling

  6. Cord Wood Testing in a Non-Catalytic Wood Stove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trojanowski, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wei, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-06-30

    EPA Method 28 and the current wood stove regulations have been in-place since 1988. Recently, EPA proposed an update to the existing NSPS for wood stove regulations which includes a plan to transition from the current crib wood fuel to cord wood fuel for certification testing. Cord wood is seen as generally more representative of field conditions while the crib wood is seen as more repeatable. In any change of certification test fuel, there are questions about the impact on measured results and the correlation between tests with the two different fuels. The purpose of the work reported here is to provide data on the performance of a noncatalytic stove with cord wood. The stove selected has previously been certified with crib wood which provides a basis for comparison with cord wood. Overall, particulate emissions were found to be considerably higher with cord wood.

  7. UV resistance and dimensional stability of wood modified with isopropenyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajappa, Giridhar B; Pandey, Krishna K

    2016-02-01

    Chemical modification of Rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis Müll.Arg) with isopropenyl acetate (IPA) in the presence of anhydrous aluminum chloride as a catalyst has been carried out under solvent free conditions. The level of modification was estimated by determining the weight percent gain and modified wood was characterized by FTIR-ATR and CP/MAS (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The effect of catalyst concentration on WPG was studied. UV resistance, moisture adsorption and dimensional stability of modified wood were evaluated. UV resistance of modified wood was evaluated by exposing unmodified and modified wood to UV irradiation in a QUV accelerated weathering tester. Unmodified wood showed rapid color changes and degradation of lignin upon exposure to UV light. Chemical modification of wood polymers with IPA was effective in reducing light induced color changes (photo-yellowing) at wood surfaces. In contrast to unmodified wood, modified wood exhibited bleaching. FTIR analysis of modified wood exposed to UV light indicated stabilization of wood polymers against UV degradation. Modified wood showed good dimensional stability and hydrophobicity. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that modification with IPA improved thermal stability of wood. Improved dimensional stability and UV resistance of modified wood indicates IPA as a promising reagent since there is no acid byproduct of reaction as observed in case of other esterification reactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Applying Fractal Dimensions and Energy-Budget Analysis to Characterize Fracturing Processes During Magma Migration and Eruption: 2011-2012 El Hierro (Canary Islands) Submarine Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Carmen; Martí, Joan; Abella, Rafael; Tarraga, Marta

    2014-07-01

    The impossibility of observing magma migration inside the crust obliges us to rely on geophysical data and mathematical modelling to interpret precursors and to forecast volcanic eruptions. Of the geophysical signals that may be recorded before and during an eruption, deformation and seismicity are two of the most relevant as they are directly related to its dynamic. The final phase of the unrest episode that preceded the 2011-2012 eruption on El Hierro (Canary Islands) was characterized by local and accelerated deformation and seismic energy release indicating an increasing fracturing and a migration of the magma. Application of time varying fractal analysis to the seismic data and the characterization of the seismicity pattern and the strain and the stress rates allow us to identify different stages in the source mechanism and to infer the geometry of the path used by the magma and associated fluids to reach the Earth's surface. The results obtained illustrate the relevance of such studies to understanding volcanic unrest and the causes that govern the initiation of volcanic eruptions.

  9. Mixed-Mode Crack Growth in Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian POP

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In timber elements the mixed mode dependsessentially of wood anatomy and load configuration.In these conditions, in order to evaluate the materialbehavior and the fracture process, it’s necessary toseparate the part of each mode. The mixed modeseparation allows evaluating the amplitude offracture mode. In the present paper, using a mixedmodecrack growth specimen made in Douglas fir,the mixed mode crack growth process is studythanks to marks tracking method. Using the markstracking method the characteristic displacementsassociated to opening and shear mode aremeasured. From the experimental measurements,the energy release rate associated to opening andshear modes is calculated into to account the crackadvancement during the test.

  10. Chapter 6: Wood energy and competing wood product markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth E. Skog; Robert C. Abt; Karen Abt

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effect of expanding wood energy markets is important to all wood-dependent industries and to policymakers debating the implementation of public programs to support the expansion of wood energy generation. A key factor in determining the feasibility of wood energy projects (e.g. wood boiler or pellet plant) is the long-term (i.e. 20-30year) supply...

  11. Greenstick Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... small, "green" branch on a tree. Most greenstick fractures occur in children younger than 10 years of age. This type ... mistaken for sprains or bruises. More-severe greenstick fractures may cause an obvious ... your doctor if your child has persistent pain in an injured limb. Seek ...

  12. Structure and Function of Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2012-01-01

    Wood is a complex biological structure, a composite of many cell types and chemistries acting together to serve the needs of living plant. Attempting to understand wood inthe context of wood technology, we have often overlooked the basic fact that wood evolved over the course of millions of years to serve three main functions in plants-conduction of water from the...

  13. Fatigue Damage in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Fatigue failure is found to depend both on the total time under load and on the number of cycles.Recent accelerated fatigue research on wood is reviewed, and a discrepancy between...... to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation between stiffness reduction...

  14. Fracture Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Zehnder, Alan T

    2012-01-01

    Fracture mechanics is a vast and growing field. This book develops the basic elements needed for both fracture research and engineering practice. The emphasis is on continuum mechanics models for energy flows and crack-tip stress- and deformation fields in elastic and elastic-plastic materials. In addition to a brief discussion of computational fracture methods, the text includes practical sections on fracture criteria, fracture toughness testing, and methods for measuring stress intensity factors and energy release rates. Class-tested at Cornell, this book is designed for students, researchers and practitioners interested in understanding and contributing to a diverse and vital field of knowledge. Alan Zehnder joined the faculty at Cornell University in 1988. Since then he has served in a number of leadership roles including Chair of the Department of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, and Director of the Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.  He teaches applied mechanics and his research t...

  15. Ankle fracture - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malleolar fracture; Tri-malleolar; Bi-malleolar; Distal tibia fracture; Distal fibula fracture; Malleolus fracture ... Some ankle fractures may require surgery when: The ends of the bone are out of line with each other (displaced). The ...

  16. Rules of the road: A qualitative and quantitative synthesis of large wood transport through drainage networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Natalie; Wohl, Ellen

    2017-02-01

    To effectively manage wood in rivers, we need a better understanding of wood mobility within river networks. Here, we review primarily field-based (and some numerical) studies of wood transport. We distinguish small, medium, large, and great rivers based on wood piece dimensions relative to channel and flow dimensions and dominant controls on wood transport. We suggest further identification and designation of wood transport regimes as a useful way to characterize spatial-temporal network heterogeneity and to conceptualize the primary controls on wood mobility in diverse river segments. We draw analogies between wood and bedload transport, including distinguishing Eulerian and Lagrangian approaches, exploring transport capacity, and quantifying thresholds of wood mobility. We identify mobility envelopes for remobilization of wood with relation to increasing peak discharges, stream size, and dimensionless log lengths. Wood transport in natural channels exhibits high spatial and temporal variability, with discontinuities along the channel network at bankfull flow and when log lengths equal channel widths. Although median mobilization rates increase with increasing channel size, maximum mobilization rates are greatest in medium-sized channels. Most wood is transported during relatively infrequent high flows, but flows under bankfull can transport up to 30% of stored wood. We use conceptual models of dynamic equilibrium of wood in storage and of spiralling wood transport paths through drainage networks, as well as a metaphor of traffic on a road, to explore discontinuous wood movement through a river network. The primary limitations to describing wood transport are inappropriate time scales of observation and lack of sufficient data on mobility from diverse rivers. Improving models of wood flux requires better characterization of average step lengths within the lifetime travel path of a piece of wood. We suggest that future studies focus on: (i) continuous or high

  17. Wood construction under cold climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Hagman, Olle; Sundqvist, Bror

    2014-01-01

    As wood constructions increasingly use engineered wood products worldwide, concerns arise about the integrity of the wood and adhesives system. The glueline stability is a crucial issue for engineered wood application, especially under cold climate. In this study, Norway spruce (Picea abies...... specimens need to be tested in further work to more completely present the issue. The EN 301 and EN 302 may need to be specified based on wood species....

  18. Adenocarcinoma and wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraub, S; Belon-Leneutre, M; Mercier, M; Bourgeois, P

    1989-12-01

    The relation of adenocarcinoma of the facial sinuses and exposure to wood dust has been recognized for 20 years. As the tracheobronchial mucosa is similar to that lining the sinuses, a link between bronchial adenocarcinoma and wood dust exposure has been postulated. To test this hypothesis, a case-control study was conducted, based on all the histologically proven cases of adenocarcinoma of the lung reported to the tumor registry of the Doubs region of France from 1978 to 1985 and random population controls matched for age and residence. A questionnaire on occupational exposure and tobacco consumption was completed by 53 cases and 160 controls. Exposure to wood was similar for both groups, the crude relative risk (odds ratio) being 1.06; adjustment for tobacco consumption did not modify this value. Exposure to wood dust does not seem to be an occupational risk factor in the genesis of bronchial adenocarcinoma.

  19. Wood - a carbon depot

    OpenAIRE

    Lipušček, Igor; Tišler, Vesna

    2003-01-01

    The article examines the global movement of carbon dioxide, the most important greenhouse gas due to its large quantities. We studied the carbon cycle with possibilities of its extension, and analysed the mechanisms that remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and bind it into solid substances for a longer period of time. The focus was on carbon dioxide sink into biomass and carbon deposit in wood. On the basis of wood component data and chemical analysis of the components, we calculated th...

  20. Fracture fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taljanovic, Mihra S; Jones, Marci D; Ruth, John T; Benjamin, James B; Sheppard, Joseph E; Hunter, Tim B

    2003-01-01

    The basic goal of fracture fixation is to stabilize the fractured bone, to enable fast healing of the injured bone, and to return early mobility and full function of the injured extremity. Fractures can be treated conservatively or with external and internal fixation. Conservative fracture treatment consists of closed reduction to restore the bone alignment. Subsequent stabilization is then achieved with traction or external splinting by slings, splints, or casts. Braces are used to limit range of motion of a joint. External fixators provide fracture fixation based on the principle of splinting. There are three basic types of external fixators: standard uniplanar fixator, ring fixator, and hybrid fixator. The numerous devices used for internal fixation are roughly divided into a few major categories: wires, pins and screws, plates, and intramedullary nails or rods. Staples and clamps are also used occasionally for osteotomy or fracture fixation. Autogenous bone grafts, allografts, and bone graft substitutes are frequently used for the treatment of bone defects of various causes. For infected fractures as well as for treatment of bone infections, antibiotic beads are frequently used. Copyright RSNA, 2003

  1. Research program to develop and validate conceptual models for flow and transport through unsaturated, fractured rock; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, R.J.; Tidwell, V.C.

    1991-09-01

    As part of the Yucca Mountain Project, our research program to develop and validate conceptual models for flow and transport through unsaturated fractured rock integrates fundamental physical experimentation with conceptual model formulation and mathematical modeling. Our research is directed toward developing and validating macroscopic, continuum-based models and supporting effective property models because of their widespread utility within the context of this project. Success relative to the development and validation of effective property models is predicted on a firm understanding of the basic physics governing flow through fractured media, specifically in the areas of unsaturated flow and transport in a single fracture and fracture-matrix interaction.

  2. Modification of the original color of the Eucalyptus grandis wood by heat treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilei Aparecida Garcia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the modification of original color of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex. Maiden wood after heat-treatment. Wood samples were heat-treated under different temperatures (180, 200, 215 and 230ºC and time conditions (15 minutes, 2 and 4 hours. Color analysis were performed on the CIE L*a*b* system by using a Color Eye XTH-X-Rite 200d spectrophotometer. All heat treatments promoted an alteration of the original color of wood. Heat-treated woods presented lower L* (lightness values than untreated wood (control, characterizing the wood darkness, mainly for more severe conditions of temperature and time. Chromatic coordinates (a* and b* showed different behaviors depending on the temperature-time combination. The modification of the original color of the wood allowed the creation of new color patterns, which can add greater value to the studied wood.

  3. Not Just Lumber—Using Wood in the Sustainable Future of Materials, Chemicals, and Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakes, Joseph E.; Arzola, Xavier; Bergman, Rick; Ciesielski, Peter; Hunt, Christopher G.; Rahbar, Nima; Tshabalala, Mandla; Wiedenhoeft, Alex C.; Zelinka, Samuel L.

    2016-09-01

    Forest-derived biomaterials can play an integral role in a sustainable and renewable future. Research across a range of disciplines is required to develop the knowledge necessary to overcome the challenges of incorporating more renewable forest resources in materials, chemicals, and fuels. We focus on wood specifically because in our view, better characterization of wood as a raw material and as a feedstock will lead to its increased utilization. We first give an overview of wood structure and chemical composition and then highlight current topics in forest products research, including (1) industrial chemicals, biofuels, and energy from woody materials; (2) wood-based activated carbon and carbon nanostructures; (3) development of improved wood protection treatments; (4) massive timber construction; (5) wood as a bioinspiring material; and (6) atomic simulations of wood polymers. We conclude with a discussion of the sustainability of wood as a renewable forest resource.

  4. Not Just Lumber—Using Wood in the Sustainable Future of Materials, Chemicals, and Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakes, Joseph E.; Arzola, Xavier; Bergman, Rick; Ciesielski, Peter; Hunt, Christopher G.; Rahbar, Nima; Tshabalala, Mandla; Wiedenhoeft, Alex C.; Zelinka, Samuel L.

    2016-07-21

    Forest-derived biomaterials can play an integral role in a sustainable and renewable future. Research across a range of disciplines is required to develop the knowledge necessary to overcome the challenges of incorporating more renewable forest resources in materials, chemicals, and fuels. We focus on wood specifically because in our view, better characterization of wood as a raw material and as a feedstock will lead to its increased utilization. We first give an overview of wood structure and chemical composition and then highlight current topics in forest products research, including (1) industrial chemicals, biofuels, and energy from woody materials; (2) wood-based activated carbon and carbon nanostructures; (3) development of improved wood protection treatments; (4) massive timber construction; (5) wood as a bioinspiring material; and (6) atomic simulations of wood polymers. We conclude with a discussion of the sustainability of wood as a renewable forest resource.

  5. General Regularities of Wood Surface Roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAGOSS, Endre

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface roughness of wood products is depending on many factors related both towood properties and wood working operational parameters. Probably this is the reason why there areno generally valid correlation determining surface roughness parameters as a function of influencingfactors. In particular, the account of wood structure in the surface roughness interpretation proved tobe difficult.In the last years an important progress was made in recognizing the role of the anatomicalstructure of wood species in the attainable surface roughness. The introduction of a structure numbermade it possible to express and characterize the different wood species numerically.The aim of these studies was the separation of roughness components due to the anatomicalstructure and the woodworking operation. Using a special finishing technique, the roughnesscomponent due to woodworking operations was not significant and could be separated. The samespecimens were also subjected to different woodworking operations using cutting velocities between10 and 50 m/s. The processing of experimental data resulted in a chart showing the minimumroughness component due to different woodworking operations. Special experimental investigationwas conducted to clear the influence of edge dullness on the surface roughness, especially on itsAbbott-parameters. The measurements showed that the Rk-parameter is a good indicator to predictedge dullness.

  6. Fractures in infants and toddlers with rickets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Teresa; Done, Stephen [Seattle Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Sugar, Naomi; Feldman, Kenneth [Seattle Children' s Hospital, Children' s Protection Program, Seattle, WA (United States); Marasigan, Joanne; Wambold, Nicolle [University of Washington, College of Arts and Sciences, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Rickets affects young infants and toddlers. However, there is a paucity of literature regarding the types of fractures that occur in rachitic patients. To evaluate the age of patients at which radiographically evident rickets occurs, and to characterize the age incidence and fractures that are observed in infants and toddlers with radiographically evident rickets. A retrospective study of children younger than 24 months was performed. Clinical data and radiographs were reviewed. Radiographs obtained within 1 month of the diagnosis were evaluated for the presence or absence of osteopenia, presence or absence of fraying-cupping, and presence and characterization of fractures. After exclusion criteria were applied, 45 children were included in the study. Children with rickets evident by radiograph were in the age range of 2-24 months. Fractures were present in 17.5% of the study group, exclusively in mobile infants and toddlers. Fracture types included transverse long bone fractures, anterior and anterior-lateral rib fractures, and metaphyseal fractures. All fractures occurred exclusively in patients with severe, overtly evident rickets. Fractures occur in older infants and toddlers with overt rickets and can be seen by radiograph. Fractures do not resemble high-risk non-accidental trauma fractures. (orig.)

  7. Using multiple continuous fine particle monitors to characterize tobacco, incense, candle, cooking, wood burning, and vehicular sources in indoor, outdoor, and in-transit settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Wayne R.; Siegmann, Hans C.

    This study employed two continuous particle monitors operating on different measurement principles to measure concentrations simultaneously from common combustion sources in indoor, outdoor, and in-transit settings. The pair of instruments use (a) photo-charging (PC) operating on the principle ionization of fine particles that responds to surface particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAHs), and (b) diffusion charging (DC) calibrated to measure the active surface area of fine particles. The sources studied included: (1) secondhand smoke (cigarettes, cigars, and pipes), (2) incense (stick and cone), (3) candles used as food warmers, (4) cooking (toasting bread and frying meat), (5) fireplaces and ambient wood smoke, and (6) in-vehicle exposures traveling on California arterials and interstate highways. The ratio of the PC to the DC readings, or the PC/DC ratio, was found to be different for major categories of sources. Cooking, burning toast, and using a "canned heat" food warmer gave PC/DC ratios close to zero. Controlled experiments with 10 cigarettes averaged 0.15 ng mm -2 (ranging from 0.11 to 0.19 ng mm -2), which was similar to the PC/DC ratio for a cigar, although a pipe was slightly lower (0.09 ng mm -2). Large incense sticks had PC/DC ratios similar to those of cigarettes and cigars. The PC/DC ratios for ambient wood smoke averaged 0.29 ng mm -2 on 6 dates, or about twice those of cigarettes and cigars, reflecting a higher ratio of PAH to active surface area. The smoke from two artificial logs in a residential fireplace had a PC/DC ratio of 0.33-0.35 ng mm -2. The emissions from candles were found to vary, depending on how the candles were burned. If the candle flickered and generated soot, a higher PC/DC ratio resulted than if the candle burned uniformly in still air. Inserting piece of metal into the candle's flame caused high PPAH emissions with a record PC/DC reading of 1.8 ng mm -2. In-vehicle exposures measured on 43- and 50-min drives on a

  8. AN ADVANCED FRACTURE CHARACTERIZATION AND WELL PATH NAVIGATION SYSTEM FOR EFFECTIVE RE-DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT OF ULTIMATE RECOVERY FROM THE COMPLEX MONTEREY RESERVOIR OF SOUTH ELLWOOD FIELD, OFFSHORE CALIFORNIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Horner; Iraj Ershaghi

    2003-01-31

    Venoco Inc, intends to re-develop the Monterey Formation, a Class III basin reservoir, at South Ellwood Field, Offshore Santa Barbara, California. Well productivity in this field varies significantly. Cumulative Monterey production for individual wells has ranged from 260 STB to 8,700,000 STB. Productivity is primarily affected by how well the well path connects with the local fracture system and the degree of aquifer support. Cumulative oil recovery to date is a small percentage of the original oil in place. To embark upon successful re-development and to optimize reservoir management, Venoco intends to investigate, map and characterize field fracture patterns and the reservoir conduit system. State of the art borehole imaging technologies including FMI, dipole sonic and cross-well seismic, interference tests and production logs will be employed to characterize fractures and micro faults. These data along with the existing database will be used for construction of a novel geologic model of the fracture network. Development of an innovative fracture network reservoir simulator is proposed to monitor and manage the aquifer's role in pressure maintenance and water production. The new fracture simulation model will be used for both planning optimal paths for new wells and improving ultimate recovery. In the second phase of this project, the model will be used for the design of a pilot program for downhole water re-injection into the aquifer simultaneously with oil production. Downhole water separation units attached to electric submersible pumps will be used to minimize surface fluid handling thereby improving recoveries per well and field economics while maintaining aquifer support. In cooperation with the DOE, results of the field studies as well as the new models developed and the fracture database will be shared with other operators. Numerous fields producing from the Monterey and analogous fractured reservoirs both onshore and offshore will benefit from the

  9. An Advanced Fracture Characterization and Well Path Navigation System for Effective Re-Development and Enhancement of Ultimate Recovery from the Complex Monterey Reservoir of South Ellwood Field, Offshore California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horner, Steve; Ershaghi, Iraj

    2006-06-30

    Venoco Inc, intends to re-develop the Monterey Formation, a Class III basin reservoir, at South Ellwood Field, Offshore Santa Barbara, California. Well productivity in this field varies significantly. Cumulative Monterey production for individual wells has ranged from 260 STB to over 10,000,000 STB. Productivity is primarily affected by how well the well path connects with the local fracture system and the degree of aquifer support. Cumulative oil recovery to date is a small percentage of the original oil in place. To embark upon successful re-development and to optimize reservoir management, Venoco intended to investigate, map and characterize field fracture patterns and the reservoir conduit system. In the first phase of the project, state of the art borehole imaging technologies including FMI, dipole sonic, interference tests and production logs were employed to characterize fractures and micro faults. These data along with the existing database were used in the construction of a new geologic model of the fracture network. An innovative fracture network reservoir simulator was developed to better understand and manage the aquifer’s role in pressure maintenance and water production. In the second phase of this project, simulation models were used to plan the redevelopment of the field using high angle wells. Correct placement of the wells is critical to intersect the best-developed fracture zones and to avoid producing large volumes of water from the water leg. Particula r attention was paid to those areas of the field that have not been adequately developed with the existing producers. In cooperation with the DOE and the PTTC, the new data and the new fracture simulation model were shared with other operators. Numerous fields producing from the Monterey and analogous fractured reservoirs both onshore and offshore will benefit from the methodologies developed in this project. This report presents a summary of all technical work conducted during Budget Periods I

  10. AN ADVANCED FRACTURE CHARACTERIZATION AND WELL PATH NAVIGATION SYSTEM FOR EFFECTIVE RE-DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT OF ULTIMATE RECOVERY FROM THE COMPLEX MONTEREY RESERVOIR OF SOUTH ELLWOOD FIELD, OFFSHORE CALIFORNIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Horner; Iraj Ershaghi

    2003-10-31

    Venoco Inc, intends to re-develop the Monterey Formation, a Class III basin reservoir, at South Ellwood Field, Offshore Santa Barbara, California. Well productivity in this field varies significantly. Cumulative Monterey production for individual wells has ranged from 260 STB to 8,700,000 STB. Productivity is primarily affected by how well the well path connects with the local fracture system and the degree of aquifer support. Cumulative oil recovery to date is a small percentage of the original oil in place. To embark upon successful re-development and to optimize reservoir management, Venoco intends to investigate, map and characterize field fracture patterns and the reservoir conduit system. State of the art borehole imaging technologies including FMI, dipole sonic and cross-well seismic, interference tests and production logs will be employed to characterize fractures and micro faults. These data along with the existing database will be used for construction of a novel geologic model of the fracture network. Development of an innovative fracture network reservoir simulator is proposed to monitor and manage the aquifer's role in pressure maintenance and water production. The new fracture simulation model will be used for both planning optimal paths for new wells and improving ultimate recovery. In the second phase of this project, the model will be used for the design of a pilot program for downhole water re-injection into the aquifer simultaneously with oil production. Downhole water separation units attached to electric submersible pumps will be used to minimize surface fluid handling thereby improving recoveries per well and field economics while maintaining aquifer support. In cooperation with the DOE, results of the field studies as well as the new models developed and the fracture database will be shared with other operators. Numerous fields producing from the Monterey and analogous fractured reservoirs both onshore and offshore will benefit from the

  11. AN ADVANCED FRACTURE CHARACTERIZATION AND WELL PATH NAVIGATION SYSTEM FOR EFFECTIVE RE-DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT OF ULTIMATE RECOVERY FROM THE COMPLEX MONTEREY RESERVOIR OF SOUTH ELLWOOD FIELD, OFFSHORE CALIFORNIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Horner

    2004-04-29

    Venoco Inc, intends to re-develop the Monterey Formation, a Class III basin reservoir, at South Ellwood Field, Offshore Santa Barbara, California. Well productivity in this field varies significantly. Cumulative Monterey production for individual wells has ranged from 260 STB to 8,700,000 STB. Productivity is primarily affected by how well the well path connects with the local fracture system and the degree of aquifer support. Cumulative oil recovery to date is a small percentage of the original oil in place. To embark upon successful re-development and to optimize reservoir management, Venoco intends to investigate, map and characterize field fracture patterns and the reservoir conduit system. State of the art borehole imaging technologies including FMI, dipole sonic and cross-well seismic, interference tests and production logs will be employed to characterize fractures and micro faults. These data along with the existing database will be used for construction of a novel geologic model of the fracture network. Development of an innovative fracture network reservoir simulator is proposed to monitor and manage the aquifer's role in pressure maintenance and water production. The new fracture simulation model will be used for both planning optimal paths for new wells and improving ultimate recovery. In the second phase of this project, the model will be used for the design of a pilot program for downhole water re-injection into the aquifer simultaneously with oil production. Downhole water separation units attached to electric submersible pumps will be used to minimize surface fluid handling thereby improving recoveries per well and field economics while maintaining aquifer support. In cooperation with the DOE, results of the field studies as well as the new models developed and the fracture database will be shared with other operators. Numerous fields producing from the Monterey and analogous fractured reservoirs both onshore and offshore will benefit from the

  12. A resource for characterizing genome-wide binding and putative target genes of transcription factors expressed during secondary growth and wood formation in Populus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lijun; Ramsay, Trevor; Zinkgraf, Matthew; Sundell, David; Street, Nathaniel Robert; Filkov, Vladimir; Groover, Andrew

    2015-06-01

    Identifying transcription factor target genes is essential for modeling the transcriptional networks underlying developmental processes. Here we report a chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) resource consisting of genome-wide binding regions and associated putative target genes for four Populus homeodomain transcription factors expressed during secondary growth and wood formation. Software code (programs and scripts) for processing the Populus ChIP-seq data are provided within a publically available iPlant image, including tools for ChIP-seq data quality control and evaluation adapted from the human Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project. Basic information for each transcription factor (including members of Class I KNOX, Class III HD ZIP, BEL1-like families) binding are summarized, including the number and location of binding regions, distribution of binding regions relative to gene features, associated putative target genes, and enriched functional categories of putative target genes. These ChIP-seq data have been integrated within the Populus Genome Integrative Explorer (PopGenIE) where they can be analyzed using a variety of web-based tools. We present an example analysis that shows preferential binding of transcription factor ARBORKNOX1 to the nearest neighbor genes in a pre-calculated co-expression network module, and enrichment for meristem-related genes within this module including multiple orthologs of Arabidopsis KNOTTED-like Arabidopsis 2/6. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Characterization of Wood-Plastic Composites Made with Different Lignocellulosic Materials that Vary in Their Morphology, Chemical Composition and Thermal Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Chang Hung

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four kinds of lignocellulosic fibers (LFs, namely, those from Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata, Taiwan red pine (Pinus taiwanensis, India-charcoal trema (Trema orientalis and makino bamboo (Phyllostachys makinoi, were selected as reinforcements and incorporated into high-density polyethylene (HDPE to manufacture wood-plastic composites (WPCs by a flat platen pressing process. In addition to comparing the differences in the physico-mechanical properties of these composites, their chemical compositions were evaluated and their thermal decomposition kinetics were analyzed to investigate the effects of the lignocellulosic species on the properties of the WPCs. The results showed that the WPC made with Chinese fir displayed a typical M-shaped vertical density profile due to the high aspect ratio of its LFs, while a flat vertical density profile was observed for the WPCs made with other LFs. Thus, the WPC made with Chinese fir exhibited higher flexural properties and lower internal bond strength (IB than other WPCs. In addition, the Taiwan red pine contained the lowest holocellulose content and the highest extractives and α-cellulose contents, which gave the resulting WPC lower water absorption and flexural properties. On the other hand, consistent with the flexural properties, the results of thermal decomposition kinetic analysis showed that the activation energy of the LFs at 10% of the conversion rate increased in the order of Taiwan red pine (146–161 kJ/mol, makino bamboo (158–175 kJ/mol, India-charcoal trema (185–194 kJ/mol and Chinese fir (194–202 kJ/mol. These results indicate that the morphology, chemical composition and thermal stability of the LFs can have a substantial impact on the physico-mechanical properties of the resulting WPCs.

  14. Supracondylar Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Andrusaitis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 15-year-old male presented to the emergency department with right elbow pain after falling off a skateboard. The patient denied a decrease in strength or sensation but did endorse paresthesias to his hand. On exam, the patient had an obvious deformity of his right elbow with tenderness to palpation and decreased range of motion at the elbow. Sensation, motor function, and pulses were intact. Radiographic imaging was obtained. Significant findings: The pre-reduction films show a type III supracondylar fracture. There is complete displacement of the distal humerus anteriorly. Specific findings for supracondylar fracture include: a posterior fat pad (red arrow and a displaced anterior humeral line (yellow line.1 When no fracture is present, the anterior humeral line should intersect the middle third of the capitellum; in this X-ray, it does not intersect the capitellum at all. This X-ray demonstrates a normal radiocapitellar line (blue line that intersects the capitellum. The presence of a narrow anterior fat pad aka “sail sign” can be normal. Discussion: Supracondylar fractures of the humerus occur at the distal portion of the humerus without involving the growth plate.2 This is the second most common fracture in children overall. In children, it is the most common fracture of the elbow.3 This injury has a high risk of neurovascular compromise, such as compartment syndrome or ischemic contracture, and thus the clinician must perform immediate and frequent neurovascular assessments focusing on the distributions of the brachial artery in addition to the median, ulnar, and radial nerves.4 Hyperextension injuries that typically occur following a fall onto an outstretched arm are responsible for 95% of supracondylar fractures.1 A type I supracondylar fracture is non-displaced and can be treated with immobilization through a posterior splint and sling5 with close follow-up, type II is angulated but with an intact

  15. Wood for the trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Garbutt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Our paper focuses on the materiality, cultural history and cultural relations of selected artworks in the exhibition Wood for the trees (Lismore Regional Gallery, New South Wales, Australia, 10 June – 17 July 2011. The title of the exhibition, intentionally misreading the aphorism “Can’t see the wood for the trees”, by reading the wood for the resource rather than the collective wood[s], implies conservation, preservation, and the need for sustaining the originating resource. These ideas have particular resonance on the NSW far north coast, a region once rich in rainforest. While the Indigenous population had sustainable practices of forest and land management, the colonists deployed felling and harvesting in order to convert the value of the local, abundant rainforest trees into high-value timber. By the late twentieth century, however, a new wave of settlers launched a protest movements against the proposed logging of remnant rainforest at Terania Creek and elsewhere in the region. Wood for the trees, curated by Gallery Director Brett Adlington, plays on this dynamic relationship between wood, trees and people. We discuss the way selected artworks give expression to the themes or concepts of productive labour, nature and culture, conservation and sustainability, and memory. The artworks include Watjinbuy Marrawilil’s (1980 Carved ancestral figure ceremonial pole, Elizabeth Stops’ (2009/10 Explorations into colonisation, Hossein Valamanesh’s (2008 Memory stick, and AñA Wojak’s (2008 Unread book (in a forgotten language. Our art writing on the works, a practice informed by Bal (2002, Muecke (2008 and Papastergiadis (2004, becomes a conversation between the works and the themes or concepts. As a form of material excess of the most productive kind (Grosz, 2008, p. 7, art seeds a response to that which is in the air waiting to be said of the past, present and future.

  16. Multipass comminution process to produce precision wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from wood chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2014-05-27

    A process of comminution of wood chips (C) having a grain direction to produce a mixture of wood particles (P), wherein the wood chips are characterized by an average length dimension (L.sub.C) as measured substantially parallel to the grain, an average width dimension (W.sub.C) as measured normal to L.sub.C and aligned cross grain, and an average height dimension (H.sub.C) as measured normal to W.sub.C and L.sub.C, and wherein the comminution process comprises the step of feeding the wood chips in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction one or more times through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of wood chip travel.

  17. Caracterizaçao dos taninos da aroeira-preta (Myracrodruon urundeuva Characterization of aroeira-preta (Myracrodruon urundeuva wood tannins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Regina Amorim dos Anjos Queiroz

    2002-08-01

    . Fisetin, gallic acid and ellagic acid were detected through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. These results show that Myracrodruon urundeuva wood contains a great amount of tannins, which can contribute to its natural durability.

  18. Relationship Between Microstructure, Strength, and Fracture in an Al-Zn-Mg Electron Beam Weld: Part I: Microstructure Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puydt, Quentin; Flouriot, Sylvain; Ringeval, Sylvain; De Geuser, Frédéric; Parry, Guillaume; Deschamps, Alexis

    2014-12-01

    This work presents a detailed, multiscale, spatially resolved study of the microstructure of an electron beam butt weld of the EN-AW 7020 (Al-Zn-Mg) alloy. Using a combination of optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and small-angle X-ray scattering, the distribution of phases in the different areas of the heat-affected zone and of the fusion zone is quantitatively characterized, for two different aging states: naturally aged after welding and artificially aged at 423 K (150 °C). The heat-affected zone consists of regions experiencing different levels of precipitate dissolution and coarsening during welding as well as new precipitation during post-welding heat treatment (PWHT). The microstructure of the fusion zone is typical from a fast solidification process, with a strong solute segregation in the interdendritic zones. The precipitate distribution after PWHT follows this solute distribution, and the resulting hardness is much lower than the relatively homogeneous value in the base metal and the heat-affected zone.

  19. Photodegradation of thermally modified wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Kavyashree; Pandey, Krishna K

    2012-12-05

    Natural wood, being biological material, undergoes rapid degradation by ultraviolet (UV) radiations and other environmental factors under outdoor exposure. In order to protect wood from such degradation, the chemical structure of wood is altered by chemical modification or heat treatment. In the present study, heat treated specimens of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) were exposed to xenon light source in a weather-o-meter for different periods up to 300 h. Photostability of modified and unmodified wood was evaluated in terms of colour and chemical changes. Light coloured untreated wood became dark upon UV irradiation whereas, dark colour of heat treated wood lightened on UV exposure. CIE lightness parameter (L(*)) decreased for untreated wood whereas its value increased for heat treated wood upon irradiation. Other colour coordinates a(*) and b(*) increased with exposure duration for both untreated and heat treated wood. The overall colour change (ΔE(*)) increased for both untreated and heat treated wood. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies revealed severe lignin degradation of heat treated wood due to UV light exposure. Colour changes and FTIR measurements indicate that thermal modification of wood was ineffective in restricting light induced colour changes and photodegradation of wood polymers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Tibial Plateau Fracture Characteristics: Computed Tomography Mapping of Lateral, Medial, and Bicondylar Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaars, Rik J; Mellema, Jos J; Doornberg, Job N; Kloen, Peter

    2015-09-16

    Computed tomography (CT) is seen as a useful diagnostic modality in preoperative planning for tibial plateau fractures. The purpose of this study was to characterize patterns of tibial plateau fractures with use of CT mapping. We hypothesized that CT mapping of fractures of the tibial plateau would reveal recurrent patterns of fragments and fracture lines, including patterns that do not fit into Schatzker's original classification. One hundred and twenty-seven tibial plateau fractures were retrospectively included in this study. Fracture lines and zones of comminution were graphically superimposed onto an axial template of an intact subarticular tibial plateau to identify major patterns of fracture and comminution. This fracture map of the tibial plateau was subsequently divided into lateral (Schatzker types I, II, and III), medial (Schatzker type IV), and bicondylar (Schatzker types V and VI) fracture maps. This study included seventy-three female and fifty-four male patients (average age, forty-seven years [range, seventeen to ninety-one years]) with a tibial plateau fracture. Sixty-four of the fractures were Schatzker type I, II, or III; fifteen were Schatzker type IV; and forty-eight were Schatzker type V or VI. Analysis of the fracture maps suggested patterns in the Schatzker type-IV, V, and VI fractures beyond those described in Schatzker's original classification. The maps of the 127 fractures revealed four recurrent major fracture features: the lateral split fragment (A), found in 75%; the posteromedial fragment (B), seen in 43%; the tibial tubercle fragment (C), seen in 16%; and a zone of comminution that included the tibial spine and frequently extended to the lateral condyle (D), seen in 28%. Tibial plateau fracture maps show recurrent patterns of fracture lines, revealing four major fracture characteristics. An understanding of these recurrent features of tibial plateau fractures can aid surgeons during diagnosis, preoperative planning, and execution of

  1. Wood energy-commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    Wood energy is being widely investigated in many areas of the country because of the many obvious benefits of wood fuel such as the low price per million Btus relative to coal, oil, and gas; the wide availability of noncommercial wood and the proven ability to harvest it; established technology which is reliable and free of pollution; renewable resources; better conservation for harvested land; and the potential for jobs creation. The Southeastern United States has a specific leadership role in wood energy based on its established forest products industry experience and the potential application of wood energy to other industries and institutions. Significant questions about the widespread usage of wood energy are being answered in demonstrations around the country as well as the Southeast in areas of wood storage and bulk handling; high capitalization costs for harvesting and combustion equipment; long term supply and demand contracts; and the economic feasibility of wood energy outside the forest products industry.

  2. Variation in root wood anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  3. Methane from wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, T. F.; Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S.; Stucki, S

    2005-07-15

    The role of wood-based energy technologies in the Swiss energy system in the long-term is examined using the energy-system Swiss MARKAL model. The Swiss MARKAL model is a 'bottom-up' energy-systems optimization model that allows a detailed representation of energy technologies. The model has been developed as a joint effort between the Energy Economics Group (EEG) at Paul Scherrer Institute PSI) and the University of Geneva and is currently used at PSI-EEG. Using the Swiss MARKAL model, this study examines the conditions under which wood-based energy technologies could play a role in the Swiss energy system, the most attractive pathways for their use and the policy measures that could support them. Given the involvement of PSI in the ECOGAS project, especial emphasis is put on the production of bio-SNG from wood via gasification and methanation of syngas and on hydrothermal gasification of woody biomass. Of specific interest as weIl is the fraction of fuel used in passenger cars that could be produced by locally harvested wood. The report is organized as follows: Section 2 presents a brief description of the MARKAL model. Section 3 describes the results of the base case scenario, which represents a plausible, 'middle-of-the-road' development of the Swiss energy system. Section 4 discusses results illustrating the conditions under which the wood-based methanation technology could become competitive in the Swiss energy market, the role of oil and gas prices, subsidies to methanation technologies and the introduction of a competing technology, namely the wood-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. FinaIly, section 5 outlines some conclusions from this analysis. (author)

  4. TCP HolyWood

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Núñez Mori

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a new end-to-end, sender side Transport Control Protocol called TCP HolyWood or in short TCP-HW. In a simulated wired environment, TCP HolyWood outperforms in average throughput, three of the more important TCP protocols ever made, we are talking about TCP Reno, TCP Westwood, and TCP Vegas; and in average jitter to TCP Reno and TCP Vegas too. In addition, according to Jain’s index, our proposal is as fair as TCP Reno, the Standard. Apresentamos um novo Protocolo de Controle de...

  5. Compressive Fatigue in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Small clear specimens of spruce are taken to failure in square wave formed fatigue loading at a stress excitation level corresponding to 80% of the short term strength. Four...... frequencies ranging from 0.01 Hz to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation...

  6. Structure and function of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex Wiedenhoeft

    2010-01-01

    Wood is a complex biological structure, a composite of many chemistries and cell types acting together to serve the needs of a living plant. Attempting to understand wood in the context of wood technology, we have often overlooked the key and basic fact that wood evolved over the course of millions of years to serve three main functions in plants― conduction of water...

  7. The Asian Wood Pellet Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph A. Roos; Allen Brackley

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the three major wood pellet markets in Asia: China, Japan, and South Korea. In contrast to the United States, where most wood pellets are used for residential heating with pellet stoves, a majority of the wood pellets in Asia are used for co-firing at coal-fired power plants. Our analysis indicated that Japan is the largest importer of wood pellets...

  8. Caracterização e descrição da estrutura anatômica do lenho de seis espécies arbóreas com potencial medicinal Characterization and description of wood anatomical structure in six tree species with medicinal potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cury

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A caracterização morfoanatômica e a correta identificação das plantas medicinais são fundamentais para o controle de qualidade dos fitoterápicos. No presente trabalho é caracterizada a anatomia do lenho visando à identificação de seis espécies arbóreas com potencial medicinal. As amostras do lenho foram extraídas por método não destrutivo do tronco das árvores das espécies desenvolvidas em áreas de preservação. Em laboratório as amostras do lenho foram processadas para análises microscópicas do lenho, aplicando as metodologias para estudos de anatomia. Os resultados mostraram que o parênquima axial foi o parâmetro anatômico mais efetivo para a distinção das espécies através da análise do seu lenho. No trabalho discute-se a importância da aplicação da anatomia do lenho como ferramenta na identificação de espécies arbóreas medicinais.The morphoanatomical characterization and the correct identification of medicinal plants are fundamental for the quality control of phytotherapics. In the present work, wood anatomy was characterized in order to identify six tree species with medicinal potential. Wood samples were collected through a non-destructive method from the trunk of trees developed in conservation areas. In the laboratory, wood samples were processed for microscopic analysis by applying the methods for anatomical studies. Axial parenchyma was the most effective anatomical parameter to distinguish species through wood analysis. In this work, the importance of wood anatomy as a tool for the identification of medicinal tree species was discussed.

  9. Hydraulic fracturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clampitt, R.L.

    1973-04-17

    A method of fracturing a subterranean porous formation penetrated by a well bore consists of injecting down the well and into the formation, at a pressure sufficient to fracture the formation, a fracturing fluid comprising an aqueous gel. This gel is composed of water to which there has been added: a water-thickening amount of a water-dispersible polymer selected from the group consisting of polyacrylamides and polymethacrylamides; crosslinked polyacrylamides and crosslinked polyacrylamides; polyacrylic acid and polymethacrylic acid; polyacrylates; polymers of N-substituted acrylamides; copolymers of acrylamide with another ethylenically unsaturated monomer copolymerizable therewith; mixtures of the polymers; a water-soluble compound of a polyvalent metal which is capable of gelling the water when the valence of the metal is reduced to a lower valence state; and a water-soluble reducing agent. (31 claims)

  10. [Stress fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhl, M

    2016-07-01

    Bone stress injuries are due to repetitive mechanical overuse of the skeleton and occur as a result of microscopic lesions sustained when bone is subjected to repeated submaximal stress. Over time accumulation of such injuries can lead to bone failure and fractures. Stress-related bone injuries are relatively common among otherwise healthy persons who have recently started new or intensified forms of physical training activities. Stress injuries lead to typical findings on radiography, bone scintigraphy, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and need to be discriminated from other conditions, in particular infections and neoplasms. Stress fractures must be differentiated from insufficiency fractures that occur in bones with reduced mechanical resistance or disturbed structure.

  11. Classroom Demonstrations of Wood Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulger, A. N.

    Presented in this manual are 20 activities selected to show some of the properties of wood and how these properties relate to the cellular structure of wood. Each activity includes stated objectives, indicates materials needed, and explains procedures. Illustrations related to the activities, glossary of terms, and photographs of wood structure…

  12. Macrophotographic wood atlas of Annonaceae.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Westra, L.I.T.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a general description of the microscopic wood anatomy of Annonaceae is given. We provide a description of the wood anatomical features of the family and of all subfamilies and tribes, all from material in the Utrecht Wood collection. Hand-lens images can be an important help in

  13. Ovalbumin as a Wood Adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart; Holly Satori; Zhu Rongxian; Michael J. Birkeland

    2014-01-01

    Use of proteins to bond wood dominated industrial production until the middle of the 20th century (1). The ensuing creation of the plywood and glulam beam industries allowed for more efficient use of wood resources than is possible with solid wood products. Many protein sources have been used as adhesives, including plant (soybean) and animal (blood, fish scales,...

  14. Wood construction and magnetic characteristics of impregnated type magnetic wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Hideo; Hojo, Atsushi; Seki, Kyoushiro; Takashiba, Toshio

    2002-02-01

    The results of experiments involving the AC and DC magnetic characteristics of impregnated type magnetic wood were studied by taking into consideration the wood construction and fiber direction. The experimental results show that the sufficient amount of impregnated magnetic fluid varies depending on the fiber direction and length, and the grain face of the wood material. The impregnated type magnetic wood sample that is fully impregnated by magnetic fluid has a 60% saturation magnetization compared to the saturation magnetization of magnetic fluid. Samples for which the wood fiber direction was the same as the direction of the magnetic path had a higher magnetization intensity and permeability.

  15. The functional potential of microbial communities in hydraulic fracturing source water and produced water from natural gas extraction characterized by metagenomic sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Murali Mohan

    Full Text Available Microbial activity in produced water from hydraulic fracturing operations can lead to undesired environmental impacts and increase gas production costs. However, the metabolic profile of these microbial communities is not well understood. Here, for the first time, we present results from a shotgun metagenome of microbial communities in both hydraulic fracturing source water and wastewater produced by hydraulic fracturing. Taxonomic analyses showed an increase in anaerobic/facultative anaerobic classes related to Clostridia, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidia and Epsilonproteobacteria in produced water as compared to predominantly aerobic Alphaproteobacteria in the fracturing source water. The metabolic profile revealed a relative increase in genes responsible for carbohydrate metabolism, respiration, sporulation and dormancy, iron acquisition and metabolism, stress response and sulfur metabolism in the produced water samples. These results suggest that microbial communities in produced water have an increased genetic ability to handle stress, which has significant implications for produced water management, such as disinfection.

  16. The functional potential of microbial communities in hydraulic fracturing source water and produced water from natural gas extraction characterized by metagenomic sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Arvind Murali; Bibby, Kyle J; Lipus, Daniel; Hammack, Richard W; Gregory, Kelvin B

    2014-01-01

    Microbial activity in produced water from hydraulic fracturing operations can lead to undesired environmental impacts and increase gas production costs. However, the metabolic profile of these microbial communities is not well understood. Here, for the first time, we present results from a shotgun metagenome of microbial communities in both hydraulic fracturing source water and wastewater produced by hydraulic fracturing. Taxonomic analyses showed an increase in anaerobic/facultative anaerobic classes related to Clostridia, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidia and Epsilonproteobacteria in produced water as compared to predominantly aerobic Alphaproteobacteria in the fracturing source water. The metabolic profile revealed a relative increase in genes responsible for carbohydrate metabolism, respiration, sporulation and dormancy, iron acquisition and metabolism, stress response and sulfur metabolism in the produced water samples. These results suggest that microbial communities in produced water have an increased genetic ability to handle stress, which has significant implications for produced water management, such as disinfection.

  17. Fracture Blisters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uebbing, Claire M

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Fracture blisters are a relatively uncommon complication of fractures in locations of the body, such as the ankle, wrist elbow and foot, where skin adheres tightly to bone with little subcutaneous fat cushioning. The blister that results resembles that of a second degree burn.These blisters significantly alter treatment, making it difficult to splint or cast and often overlying ideal surgical incision sites. Review of the literature reveals no consensus on management; however, most authors agree on early treatment prior to blister formation or delay until blister resolution before attempting surgical correction or stabilization. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(1;131-133.

  18. Impact of residential wood burning on indoor air quality

    OpenAIRE

    Mandin, Corinne; Riberon, Jacques; Collet, Serge; Besombes, Jean-Luc; Pissot, Nicolas; Allemand, Nadine; Leoz-Garziandia, Eva

    2009-01-01

    International audience; This study aims at characterizing indoor air quality in single family dwellings burning wood regularly, studying the air change rate during wood burning and analyzing impact on outdoor air. Field investigations were performed, in February and November 2007, in six occupied houses located in rural areas (two equipped with an opened fireplace, two with respectively an old closed fireplace and a recent one, and two with respectively an old woodstove and a recent one). Con...

  19. Identification of coniferous woods

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Francis Kukachka

    1960-01-01

    The identification of coniferous woods is generally regarded as being more difficult than for the hardwood species. This is due to the fact that conifers are more elemental in their structure and, as a consequence, the number of diagnostic features that may he employed is proportionately smaller. Instructions are given here in the sequential use of primary diagnostic...

  20. Grant Wood: "American Gothic."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Diane M.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which exposes students in grades 10-12 to the visual symbols and historical references contained in Grant Wood's "American Gothic." Includes background information on the artist and the painting, instructional strategies, a studio activity, and evaluation criteria. (GEA)

  1. Chapter 3: Wood Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Cullen

    2014-01-01

    A significant portion of global carbon is sequestered in forest systems. Specialized fungi have evolved to efficiently deconstruct woody plant cell walls. These important decay processes generate litter, soil bound humic substances, or carbon dioxide and water. This chapter reviews the enzymology and molecular genetics of wood decay fungi, most of which are members of...

  2. Wood waste in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, O.; Ribeiro, R. [Biomass Centre for Energy - CBE, Miranda do Corvo (Portugal)

    1997-12-31

    The energy policy of the EC, as well as most of member states points to a sizeable increase of energy production based on renewable energy sources, wood, wood residues, agricultural residues, energy crops including SRF, organic sludges, solid residues, etc. Most recent goals indicate a desirable duplication of today`s percentage by 2010. The reasons for this interest, besides diversification of sources, less dependence on imported fuels, use of endogenous resources, expected decrease of fossil fuel reserves, use of available land, additional employment and income for rural communities, etc., are related to important environmental benefits namely in terms of emissions of hot house gases. Wood waste, resulting from forest operations, cleaning, cultural and final cuttings, and from wood based industries, constitute a special important resource by reason of quality and availability. In addition to this they do not require additional land use and the removal is beneficial. In the run-up to the becoming December`s 1997 `Climate Change Summit` in Kioto, there is mounting pressure on companies to plan on carbon cuts. (author) 6 refs., 1 tab.

  3. Tannins in tropical woods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doat, J.

    1978-01-01

    A preliminary study was made of the chemistry of pyrogallol- and catecholtannins, their general properties and methods of extraction and determination. Three methods of estimation - Lowenthal, powdered hide and spectrophotometry - were compared using two control solutions, four samples of wood and one of bark. Using the empirical powdered hide method, tannins of both types were estimated in wood and bark of various tropical species (some separately and some as a mixture), Moroccan oaks (Quercus suber and Q. ilex), and European oak 9Q. petraea). Further tests were made on the wood and bark of the two mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle and R. racemosa, by subjecting them to successive extraction with a range of solvents. None of the woods tested had as much as the 10% of tannins considered necessary in economic sources. The bark of the two mangroves, of Eucalyptus urophylla and of Prosopis africana had tannin contents over 10% and the latter two species had very favorable tannin/non-tannin ratios. All the tropical species, with the probable exception of E. urophylla, had only catecholtannins. Only the oaks and E. urophylla bark gave positive results when tested for gallotannins.

  4. History of wood machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Koch

    1967-01-01

    The history of wood machining is closely tied to advanced in metallurgy and power sources. It has been strongly and continuously shaped by prevailing economic forces and the rise and decline of other contemporary industries. This paper sketches a few of the highlights, with emphasis on developments in North America.

  5. Harvesting wood for energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger A. Arola; Edwin W. Miyata

    1981-01-01

    Illustrates the potential of harvesting wood for industrial energy, based on the results of five harvesting studies. Presents information on harvesting operations, equipment costs, and productivity. Discusses mechanized thinning of hardwoods, clearcutting of low-value stands and recovery of hardwood tops and limbs. Also includes basic information on the physical and...

  6. Preliminary 1H NMR study on archaeological waterlogged wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccotta, Antonella; Fantazzini, Paola; Garavaglia, Carla; Donato, Ines D; Perzia, Patrizia; Brai, Maria; Morreale, Filippa

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Relaxation (MRR) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are powerful tools to obtain detailed information on the pore space structure that one is unlikely to obtain in other ways. These techniques are particularly suitable for Cultural Heritage materials, because they use water 1H nuclei as a probe. Interaction with water is one of the main causes of deterioration of materials. Porous structure in wood, for example, favours the penetration of water, which can carry polluting substances and promote mould growth. A particular case is waterlogged wood from underwater discoveries and moist sites; in fact, these finds are very fragile because of chemical, physical and biological decay from the long contact with the water. When wood artefacts are brought to the surface and directly dried in air, there is the collapse of the cellular structures, and wood loses its original form and dimensions and cannot be used for study and museum exhibits. In this work we have undertaken the study of some wood finds coming from Ercolano's harbour by MRR and MRI under different conditions, and we have obtained a characterization of pore space in wood and images of the spatial distribution of the confined water in the wood.

  7. Bimalleolar ankle fracture with proximal fibular fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colenbrander, R. J.; Struijs, P. A. A.; Ultee, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    A 56-year-old female patient suffered a bimalleolar ankle fracture with an additional proximal fibular fracture. This is an unusual fracture type, seldom reported in literature. It was operatively treated by open reduction and internal fixation of the lateral malleolar fracture. The proximal fibular

  8. Substitution potentials of recycled HDPE and wood particles from post-consumer packaging waste in Wood-Plastic Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerhuber, Philipp F; Welling, Johannes; Krause, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    The market share of Wood-Plastic Composites (WPC) is small but expected to grow sharply in Europe. This raises some concerns about suitable wood particles needed in the wood-based panels industry in Europe. Concerns are stimulated by the competition between the promotion of wooden products through the European Bioeconomy Strategy and wood as an energy carrier through the Renewable Energy Directive. Cascade use of resources and valorisation of waste are potential strategies to overcome resource scarcity. Under experimental design conditions, WPC made from post-consumer recycled wood and plastic (HDPE) were compared to WPC made from virgin resources. Wood content in the polymer matrix was raised in two steps from 0% to 30% and 60%. Mechanical and physical properties and colour differences were characterized. The feasibility of using cascaded resources for WPC is discussed. Results indicate the technical and economic feasibility of using recycled HDPE from packaging waste for WPC. Based on technical properties, 30% recycled wood content for WPC is feasible, but economic and political barriers of efficient cascading of biomass need to be overcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Lignin‐Retaining Transparent Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiliang; Rojas, Ramiro; Yan, Min; Lawoko, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Optically transparent wood, combining optical and mechanical performance, is an emerging new material for light‐transmitting structures in buildings with the aim of reducing energy consumption. One of the main obstacles for transparent wood fabrication is delignification, where around 30 wt % of wood tissue is removed to reduce light absorption and refractive index mismatch. This step is time consuming and not environmentally benign. Moreover, lignin removal weakens the wood structure, limiting the fabrication of large structures. A green and industrially feasible method has now been developed to prepare transparent wood. Up to 80 wt % of lignin is preserved, leading to a stronger wood template compared to the delignified alternative. After polymer infiltration, a high‐lignin‐content transparent wood with transmittance of 83 %, haze of 75 %, thermal conductivity of 0.23 W mK−1, and work‐tofracture of 1.2 MJ m−3 (a magnitude higher than glass) was obtained. This transparent wood preparation method is efficient and applicable to various wood species. The transparent wood obtained shows potential for application in energy‐saving buildings. PMID:28719095

  10. ANATOMIC AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF Eucalyptus CLONES WOOD AND ITS INFLUENCE UPON BONDING

    OpenAIRE

    Angélica de Cássia Oliveira Carneiro; Lourival Marin Mendes; Celiana Kátia Pereira Lima; Fábio Akira Mori

    2007-01-01

    Wood is a heterogeneous and complex material made up from different elements distributed along the trunk in several proportions. Associated with hygroscopicity, they have an influence on wood processing, including bonding. Therefore the present study sought, not only through the anatomic characterization and measurement but also through the total extractive content in Eucalyptus clones wood, to find out the correlation between the quality and the bonding junctions. Pearson correlations wer...

  11. Lump wood combustion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubesa, Petr; Horák, Jiří; Branc, Michal; Krpec, Kamil; Hopan, František; Koloničný, Jan; Ochodek, Tadeáš; Drastichová, Vendula; Martiník, Lubomír; Malcho, Milan

    2014-08-01

    The article deals with the combustion process for lump wood in low-power fireplaces (units to dozens of kW). Such a combustion process is cyclical in its nature, and what combustion facility users are most interested in is the frequency, at which fuel needs to be stoked to the fireplace. The paper defines the basic terms such as burnout curve and burning rate curve, which are closely related to the stocking frequency. The fuel burning rate is directly dependent on the immediate thermal power of the fireplace. This is also related to the temperature achieved in the fireplace, magnitude of flue gas losses and the ability to generate conditions favouring the full burnout of the fuel's combustible component, which, at once ensures the minimum production of combustible pollutants. Another part of the paper describes experiments conducted in traditional fireplaces with a grate, at which well-dried lump wood was combusted.

  12. Mechanical properties of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Jerrold E. Winandy; David E. Kretschmann

    1999-01-01

    The mechanical properties presented in this chapter were obtained from tests of small pieces of wood termed “clear” and “straight grained” because they did not contain characteristics such as knots, cross grain, checks, and splits. These test pieces did have anatomical characteristics such as growth rings that occurred in consistent patterns within each piece. Clear...

  13. Importance of wood from planted forests for manufacturing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Almeida De Araujo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The manufactured wood products are essential to modern society, since they are made from renewable and recyclable raw material, characterizing a sustainable input. The objective of this study was to elucidate the importance of wood from planted forests in forest products manufacture of higher added value, addressing forest and wood contexts of topics related to education, resources, products, industry, government incentives, public policies and markets. Different from Europe, it was verified that Brazil does not support positively this important industrial sector, nevertheless it still presents growth potential due to range of wooden-based products. Thus, wood could reach a prominent position in Brazilian economy, if strategies and incentives were defined by rules and public policies..

  14. Wood Composite Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Bueso, Jose; Haupt, Robert

    The global environment, in which phenolic resins are being used for wood composite manufacture, has changed significantly during the last decade. This chapter reviews trends that are driving the use and consumption of phenolic resins around the world. The review begins with recent data on volume usage and regional trends, followed by an analysis of factors affecting global markets. In a section on environmental factors, the impact of recent formaldehyde emission regulations is discussed. The section on economics introduces wood composite production as it relates to the available adhesive systems, with special emphasis on the technical requirement to improve phenolic reactivity. Advances in composite process technology are introduced, especially in regard to the increased demands the improvements place upon adhesive system performance. The specific requirements for the various wood composite families are considered in the context of adhesive performance needs. The results of research into current chemistries are discussed, with a review of recent findings regarding the mechanisms of phenolic condensation and acceleration. Also, the work regarding alternate natural materials, such as carbohydrates, lignins, tannins, and proteinaceous materials, is presented. Finally, new developments in alternative adhesive technologies are reported.

  15. Interaction of copper wood preservatives and adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2003-01-01

    Compared to other substrates, wood is generally easy to bond. However, adhesion is diminished when the wood surface is covered by chemicals, whether natural oils and resins or added chemicals. Among the chemicals added to wood are fire retardants and wood preservatives. Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) has been widely used to protect wood against rot and termites, but...

  16. The risk of second hip fracture is decreased with compliant and persistent use of bisphosphonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Louise; Vestergaard, Peter; Petersen, Karin Dam

    BACKGROUND: Osteoporotic fractures are characterized as fractures of the hip, spine, and forearm resulting from low energy trauma. In Denmark, hip fracture is the second most prevalent fracture in persons above 50 years of age, with an estimated incidence of 5 per 1000 inhabitants in 2011. Patients...... experience a 19% increased mortality within the first year following hip fractures. Furthermore, studies have shown that within 10 years after first hip fracture 40% will experience another hip fracture. The risk for second hip fracture is markedly increased, initiating at a relative risk of 11.8 within...... the first month after fracture and does not normalise until 15 years later. Fracture prevention programs have focused on identifying patients at risk of secondary low energy trauma fractures. The secondary prevention programs for fractures begin immediately after the first fracture, through identification...

  17. Advanced reservoir characterization and evaluation of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area. First annual technical progress report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schechter, D.S.

    1996-12-17

    The overall goal of this project is to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective is being accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, (3) analytical and numerical simulation of Spraberry reservoirs, and, (4) experimental investigations on CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the first year of the five-year project for each of the four areas.

  18. Distal radius triplane fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkar, A A H; Marya, S; Auplish, S

    2014-11-01

    A triplane fracture is so named because of the three planes traversed by the fracture line. These are physeal fractures that result from injury during the final phase of maturation and cessation of growth. This fracture pattern typically involves the distal tibia. We present a rare case of a triplane fracture involving the distal radius.

  19. Effect of boundary conditions on the strength and deformability of replicas of natural fractures in welded tuff; Data report: Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wibowo, J.; Amadei, B.; Sture, S.; Robertson, A.B. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering; Price, R.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Four series of cyclic direct-shear experiments were conducted on several replicas of three natural fractures and a tensile fracture of welded tuff from Yucca Mountain. The objective of these tests was to examine the effect of cyclic loading on joint shear behavior under different boundary conditions. The shear tests were performed under either different levels of constant normal load ranging between 0.6 and 25.6 kips (2.7 and 113.9 kN) or constant normal stiffness ranging between 14.8 and 187.5 kips/in (25.9 and 328.1 kn/cm) . Bach test in the two categories consisted of five cycles of forward and reverse shear. Normal compression tests were also performed both before and after each shear experiment to measure changes in joint normal deformability. In order to quantify fracture surface damage during shear, fracture-surface fractal dimensions were obtained from measurements before and after shear.

  20. Characterization of Precipitation Behavior and Fracture Toughness along Thickness Direction in SA508 Gr.3 Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jaemin; Kim, Min-Chul; Hong, Seokmin; Lee, Bong-Sang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    SA 508 Gr.3 Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel forgings thicker than 200 mm are used for reactor pressure vessels in nuclear power plants. The cooling rate difference along the thickness direction during the quenching process causes variation in the microstructure and mechanical properties. The microstructural variation and its influence on the fracture toughness of RPV steels were investigated in this study. The cleavage fracture toughness in the transition region were evaluated with the ASTM E1921 master curve method for samples at different locations from the inner surface to the center thickness of the RPV steel. The microstructural features, such as the area fraction, and the size and distribution of precipitates were quantitatively evaluated at each sampling position. Microstructure observations showed that at near the surface position, bainite laths are finer, and furthermore, the carbides are smaller and homogeneously distributed. The fracture toughness at the surface was better than those at deeper positions. The reference temperature T{sub 0} showed a linear relationship with the area fraction of the carbides bigger than a certain critical size. It is concluded that the size of the precipitates caused by the cooling rate gradient may have a dominant role in controlling the cleavage fracture toughness variation along the thickness direction for a very thick RPV steel.

  1. Controlling mold on wood Pallets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol A. Clausen

    2012-01-01

    THE WOOD PALLET AND CONTAINER INDUSTRY CONSUMES 4.5 billion board feet (BBF) of hardwoods and 1.8 BBF of softwoods for the annual production of 400-500 million solid wood pallets. While alternative materials such as plastic, corrugated paperboard and metal have entered the market, solid wood remains the material of choice for a majority of pallets on the market (more...

  2. Chapter 1: Wood and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisopher D. Risbrudt

    2013-01-01

    Forests, and the wood they produce, have played an important role in human activity since before recorded history. Indeed, one of the first major innovations was utilizing fire, fueled by wood, for cooking and heating. It is very likely that early hominids used wood fires for cooking, as long as 1.5 million years ago (Clark and Harris 1985). Clear evidence of this use...

  3. Wood products and green chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Pizzi, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Key message Green chemistry for and from wood has developed numerous industrial products, namely biosourced, green wood adhesives and preservatives, foams, composite matrices, laminates, hard and flexible plastics, flexible films, and abrasive grinding discs, and their number is still growing.IntroductionThis review addresses (1) the elimination of toxic aldehydes from the most common wood panel adhesive, the one based on urea, itself a natural product, (2) biosourced ...

  4. Evaluation of Fractured Basement Complex Rock Porosity by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    current resistivity sounding as complementary geophysical technique to Schlumberger vertical electrical sounding in characterizing fractured geologic systems. Previously, Schlumberger vertical electrical sounding was used to collect data.

  5. Hand fracture - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000552.htm Hand fracture - aftercare To use the sharing features on ... need to be repaired with surgery. Types of Hand Fractures Your fracture may be in one of ...

  6. Fractured porous media

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, Pierre M; Mourzenko, Valeri V

    2013-01-01

    This monograph on fractures, fracture networks, and fractured porous media provides a systematic treatment of their geometrical and transport properties for students and professionals in geophysics, materials science, and Earth sciences.

  7. Comparing Life-Cycle Carbon and Energy Impacts for Biofuel, Wood Product, and Forest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce Lippke; Richard Gustafson; Richard Venditti; Philip Steele; Timothy A. Volk; Elaine Oneil; Leonard Johnson; Maureen E. Puettmann; Kenneth Skog

    2012-01-01

    The different uses of wood result in a hierarchy of carbon and energy impacts that can be characterized by their efficiency in displacing carbon emissions and/or in displacing fossil energy imports, both being current national objectives. When waste wood is used for biofuels (forest or mill residuals and thinnings) fossil fuels and their emissions are reduced without...

  8. Determining shear modulus of thin wood composite materials using a cantilever beam vibration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Guan; Houjiang Zhang; John F. Hunt; Haicheng Yan

    2016-01-01

    Shear modulus (G) of thin wood composite materials is one of several important indicators that characterizes mechanical properties. However, there is not an easy method to obtain this value. This study presents the use of a newly developed cantilever beam free vibration test apparatus to detect in-plane G of thin wood composite...

  9. Construction of hydrophobic wood surfaces by room temperature deposition of rutile (TiO2) nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongbo Zheng; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Qingyu Li; Hongyan Wang

    2015-01-01

    A convenient room temperature approach was developed for growing rutile TiO2 hierarchical structures on the wood surface by direct hydrolysis and crystallization of TiCl3 in saturated NaCl aqueous solution.The morphology and the crystal structure of TiO2 coated on the wood surface were characterized...

  10. Addresing environmental challenges to shale gas and hydraulic fracturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vadillo Fernandez, L.; Rodriguez Gomez, V.; Fernadez Naranjo, F.J.

    2016-07-01

    This article reviews the main issues of unconventional gas extracted by hydraulic fracturing techniques. Topics such as technology, fracturing stages, flowback characterization and alternatives of disposal and reuse, water consumption, physicochemical features of the geological formations, development of the fractures performed by hydraulic fracturing, well flow decline, land use and occupation and induced seismicity are presented, as well as the scientific debate: the potential steps of methane gas and groundwater contamination. (Author)

  11. Characterizing the influence of stress-induced microcracks on the laboratory strength and fracture development in brittle rocks using a finite-discrete element method-micro discrete fracture network FDEM-μDFN approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooya Hamdi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneity is an inherent component of rock and may be present in different forms including mineral heterogeneity, geometrical heterogeneity, weak grain boundaries and micro-defects. Microcracks are usually observed in crystalline rocks in two forms: natural and stress-induced; the amount of stress-induced microcracking increases with depth and in-situ stress. Laboratory results indicate that the physical properties of rocks such as strength, deformability, P-wave velocity and permeability are influenced by increase in microcrack intensity. In this study, the finite-discrete element method (FDEM is used to model microcrack heterogeneity by introducing into a model sample sets of microcracks using the proposed micro discrete fracture network (μDFN approach. The characteristics of the microcracks required to create μDFN models are obtained through image analyses of thin sections of Lac du Bonnet granite adopted from published literature. A suite of two-dimensional laboratory tests including uniaxial, triaxial compression and Brazilian tests is simulated and the results are compared with laboratory data. The FDEM-μDFN models indicate that micro-heterogeneity has a profound influence on both the mechanical behavior and resultant fracture pattern. An increase in the microcrack intensity leads to a reduction in the strength of the sample and changes the character of the rock strength envelope. Spalling and axial splitting dominate the failure mode at low confinement while shear failure is the dominant failure mode at high confinement. Numerical results from simulated compression tests show that microcracking reduces the cohesive component of strength alone, and the frictional strength component remains unaffected. Results from simulated Brazilian tests show that the tensile strength is influenced by the presence of microcracks, with a reduction in tensile strength as microcrack intensity increases. The importance of microcrack heterogeneity in

  12. Experimental Investigation of Moisture Driven Fracture in Solid Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn; Ormarsson, Sigurdur; Olesen, John Forbes

    2010-01-01

    Solid timber products, containing both heartwood and sapwood, often have a high tendency to crack during the drying process. This can cause severe loss of material for the saw-mills, especially for products with large cross sectional dimensions. The cracks (e.g. end-cracks) arise, in some cases......, early in the drying process and close again later in the process. It can be difficult to see the closed cracks with visual grading. This may result in too high grading of the damaged material which may cause problems for customers such as building and furniture industries. Moisture content (MC) in green...

  13. Acetabular Fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Correa, Chad; Lahham, Sari

    2017-01-01

    History of present illness: A 77-year-old female presented to her primary care physician (PCP) with right hip pain after a mechanical fall. She did not lose consciousness or have any other traumatic injuries. She was unable to ambulate post-fall, so X-rays were ordered by her PCP. Her X-rays were concerning for a right acetabular fracture (see purple arrows), so the patient was referred to the emergency department where a computed tomography (CT) scan was ordered. Significant findings:...

  14. Galeazzi Fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Reid Honda

    2017-01-01

    History of present illness: A 19-year-old male presented to the ED with right forearm pain after being struck in the forearm by a baseball. The patient then threw the ball and felt a sharp “pop” in his arm. The patient complained of sharp pain, worse with movement. Upon examination, the patient was neurovascularly intact. Significant findings: The X-ray showed an acute comminuted fracture of the distal diaphysis of the radius with disruption of the distal radioulnar joint, consisten...

  15. Survival, growth, wood basic density and wood biomass of seven ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A performance comparison of seven-year-old individuals of 13 Casuarina species/provenances in terms of survival, growth (diameter, height and volume), wood basic density and wood biomass was undertaken at Kongowe, Kibaha, Tanzania. The trial was laid out using a randomised complete block design with four ...

  16. Corrosion of Fasteners in Wood Treated with Newer Wood Preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka

    2013-01-01

    This document compiles recent research findings related to corrosion of metals in preservative treated wood into a single report on corrosion of metals in wood. The research was conducted as part of the Research, Technology and Education portion of the National Historic Covered Bridge Preservation (NHCBP) Program administered by the Federal Highway Administration. The...

  17. Effect of Wood Preservatives on Surface Properties of Coated Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgay Ozdemir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of wood preservatives (waterborne and organicborne on the performance of surface finishing properties is investigated. Sapwood of scots pine, (Pinus sylvestris L., oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky, and chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. specimens (300 × 100 × 15 mm along the grain were impregnated with aqueous solution of 2% CCA, 2% Tanalith E, 1% boric acid, and Immersol aqua. Surface roughness, dry film thickness, adhesion strength, gloss measurement, scratch, and abrasion resistance were determined according to related standards for treated and untreated samples. The results indicated that surface roughness and adhesion strength depended on wood species and the chemical composition of preservatives. Generally, waterborne wood preservatives increased the surface roughness of wood while the organic-based wood preservatives decreased it. The organic-based wood preservatives decreased adhesion but they increased gloss value. Wood preservatives did not affect the scratch resistance which was found to depend on properties of the coating. All the wood preservatives increased abrasion resistance.

  18. Wood pole overhead lines

    CERN Document Server

    Wareing, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This new book concentrates on the mechanical aspects of distribution wood pole lines, including live line working, environmental influences, climate change and international standards. Other topics include statutory requirements, safety, profiling, traditional and probabilistic design, weather loads, bare and covered conductors, different types of overhead systems, conductor choice, construction and maintenance. A section has also been devoted to the topic of lightning, which is one of the major sources of faults on overhead lines. The book focuses on the effects of this problem and the strate

  19. Whole bone testing in small animals: systematic characterization of the mechanical properties of different rodent bones available for rat fracture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodinger, Peter M; Foehr, Peter; Bürklein, Dominik; Bissinger, Oliver; Pilge, Hakan; Kreutzer, Kilian; von Eisenhart-Rothe, Rüdiger; Tischer, Thomas

    2018-02-14

    Rat fracture models are extensively used to characterize normal and pathological bone healing. Despite, systematic research on inter- and intra-individual differences of common rat bones examined is surprisingly not available. Thus, we studied the biomechanical behaviour and radiological characteristics of the humerus, the tibia and the femur of the male Wistar rat-all of which are potentially available in the experimental situation-to identify useful or detrimental biomechanical properties of each bone and to facilitate sample size calculations. 40 paired femura, tibiae and humeri of male Wistar rats (10-38 weeks, weight between 240 and 720 g) were analysed by DXA, pQCT scan and three-point-bending. Bearing and loading bars of the biomechanical setup were adapted percentually to the bone's length. Subgroups of light (skeletal immature) rats under 400 g (N = 11, 22 specimens of each bone) and heavy (mature) rats over 400 g (N = 9, 18 specimens of each bone) were formed and evaluated separately. Radiologically, neither significant differences between left and right bones, nor a specific side preference was evident. Mean side differences of the BMC were relatively small (1-3% measured by DXA and 2.5-5% by pQCT). Over all, bone mineral content (BMC) assessed by DXA and pQCT (TOT CNT, CORT CNT) showed high correlations between each other (BMC vs. TOT and CORT CNT: R 2  = 0.94-0.99). The load-displacement diagram showed a typical, reproducible curve for each type of bone. Tibiae were the longest bones (mean 41.8 ± 4.12 mm) followed by femurs (mean 38.9 ± 4.12 mm) and humeri (mean 29.88 ± 3.33 mm). Failure loads and stiffness ranged from 175.4 ± 45.23 N / 315.6 ± 63.00 N/mm for the femurs, 124.6 ± 41.13 N / 260.5 ± 59.97 N/mm for the humeri to 117.1 ± 33.94 N / 143.8 ± 36.99 N/mm for the tibiae. Smallest interindividual differences were observed in failure loads of the femurs (CV% 8.6) and tibiae (CV% 10.7) of heavy

  20. Assessment and management of dead-wood habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagar, Joan

    2007-01-01

    ; Marcot, 2003). For example, by puncturing bark and fragmenting sapwood, woodpeckers create sites favorable for wood-decaying organisms (Farris et al., 2004), which in turn create habitat for other species and facilitate nutrient cycling. Small mammals that use down wood for cover function in the dispersal of plant seeds and fungal spores (Carey et al., 1999). Resident cavitynesting birds may regulate insect populations by preying on overwintering arthropods (Jackson, 1979; Kroll and Fleet, 1979). These examples illustrate how dead wood not only directly provides habitat for a large number of wildlife species, but also forms the foundation of functional webs that critically influence forest ecosystems (Marcot, 2002; Marcot, 2003). The important and far-reaching implications of management of decaying wood highlight the need for conservation of dead-wood resources in managed forests. Consideration of the key ecological functions of species associated with dead wood can help guide management of dead wood in a framework consistent with the paradigm of ecosystem management (Marcot and Vander Heyden, 2001; Marcot, 2002.) As more information is revealed about the ecological and habitat values of decaying wood, concern has increased over a reduction in the current amounts of dead wood relative to historic levels (Ohmann and Waddell, 2002). Past management practices have tended to severely reduce amounts of dead wood throughout all stages of forest development (Hansen et al., 1991). The large amounts of legacy wood that characterize young post-disturbance forests are not realized in managed stands, because most of the wood volume is removed at harvest for economic and safety reasons. Mid-rotation thinning is used to “salvage” some mortality that might otherwise occur due to suppression, so fewer snags are recruited in mid-seral stages. Harvest rotations of 80 years or less truncate tree size in managed stands, and thus limit the production of large-diameter wood. As a

  1. Biomaterial based novel polyurethane adhesives for wood to wood and metal to metal bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitesh Ramanlal Patel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyurethane adhesives made from synthetic chemicals are non-biodegradable, costly and difficult to find raw materials from local market. To avoid solid pollution problem, cost effectiveness and easy availability of raw materials, biomaterials based polyurethane adhesives are used in current industrial interest. Direct use of castor oil in polyurethane adhesive gives limited hardness. Modification on active sites of castor oil to utilize double bond of unsaturated fatty acid and carboxyl group yields new modified or activated polyols, which can be utilized for polyurethane adhesive formulation. In view of this, we have synthesized polyurethane adhesives from polyester polyols, castor oil based polyols and epoxy based polyols with Isocyanate adducts based on castor oil and trimethylolpropane. To study the effects of polyurethane adhesive strength (i.e. lap shear strength on wood-to-wood and metal-to-metal bonding through various types of polyols, cross-linking density, isocyanate adducts and also to compare adhesive strength between wood to wood and metal to metal surface. These polyols and polyurethanes were characterized through GPC, NMR and IR-spectroscopy, gel and surface drying time. Thermal stability of PU adhesives was determined under the effect of cross-linking density (NCO/OH ratio. The NCO/OH ratio (1.5 was optimized for adhesives as the higher NCO/OH ratio (2.0 increasing cross-linking density and decreases adhesion. Lower NCO/OH ratio (1.0 provideslow cross-linking density and low strength of adhesives.

  2. Properties of seven Colombian woods

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. A. Bendtsen; M. Chudnoff

    1981-01-01

    Woods from abroad are an important raw material to the forest products industries in the United States. A major concern in effective utilization of this resource is the lack of technical information on many species. This report presents the results of an evaluation of the mechanical properties of small, clear specimens of seven Colombian woods. These results are...

  3. The wood of Merovingian weaponry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tegel, W.; Muigg, B.; Büntgen, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, JAN (2016), s. 148-153 ISSN 0305-4403 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Early Middle Ages * Merovingian weaponry * Mineralised wood * Wood anatomy Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.602, year: 2016

  4. Wood anatomy of the Rhizophoraceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van G.J.C.M.

    1976-01-01

    The wood anatomy of 127 samples of 65 species of all 18 genera of the Rhizophoraceae is described in detail; features not observed here, but recorded in the literature are added. Wood anatomically several groups can be recognized. Three distinct groups are very homogeneous, coinciding with the

  5. Public opinion and wood energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah Hitchner; John Schelhas; Teppo Hujala; J. Peter Brosius

    2014-01-01

    As wood-based bioenergy continues to develop around the world, it will utilize forestlands in new ways and will have different effects on a number of stakeholders, including forest landowners, local communities, extant industries, policymakers, investors, and others. As more stakeholders become involved in the wood energy web, and as the general public becomes more...

  6. Preservation of forest wood chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofman, P.D.; Thomsen, I.M.; Ohlsson, C.; Leer, E.; Ravn Schmidt, E.; Soerensen, M.; Knudsen, P.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Danish Energy Research Programme on biomass utilisation for energy production (EFP), this project concerns problems connected to the handling and storing of wood chips. In this project, the possibility of preserving wood chips of the Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) is addressed, and the potential improvements by anaerobic storage are tested. Preservation of wood chips aims at reducing dry matter losses from extensive heating during storage and to reduce production of fungal spores. Fungal spores pose a health hazards to workers handling the chips. Further the producers of wood chips are interested in such a method since it would enable them to give a guarantee for the delivery of homogeneous wood chips also during the winter period. Three different types of wood chips were stored airtight and further one of these was stored in accordance with normal practise and use as reference. The results showed that airtight storage had a beneficial impact on the quality of the chips: no redistribution of moisture, low dry matter losses, unfavourable conditions for microbial activity of most fungi, and the promotion of yeasts instead of fungi with airborne spores. Likewise the firing tests showed that no combustion problems, and no increased risk to the environment or to the health of staff is caused by anaerobic storage of wood chips. In all, the tests of the anaerobic storage method of forest wood chips were a success and a large-scale test of the method will be carried out in 1999. (au)

  7. WOOD CELLULOSE ACETATE MEMBRANE 179

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... permeability, swellability in organic liquids and organic liquid separation potentials. The ... currently employed to deal with some of these wastes, ... a waste. This is because the wood has poor mechanical strength and cannot be used as structural support in most buildings. Although used as fuel(fire wood) ...

  8. Metal bats more like wood

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gardiner, Andy

    2011-01-01

    ... Coefficient of Resolution (BBCOR), which brings bats even closer to duplicating the properties of wood. "I would have preferred to go more slowly," said Mark Marquess, who has two national championships during his 35 years as Stanford's coach. "Everyone likes the idea of becoming more like wood, but let's say all our games were 2-1 and our attendanc...

  9. Composites from wood and plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Clemons

    2010-01-01

    Composites made from thermoplastics and fillers or reinforcements derived from wood or other natural fibers are a dynamic research area encompassing a wide variety of composite materials. For example, as the use of biopolymers grows, wood and other natural fiber sources are being investigated as renewable sources of fillers and reinforcements to modify performance....

  10. Evaluation of the health impact of nanoparticles emitted from combustion sources: Comprehensive characterization of the physicochemical properties of nanoparticle emissions from wood combustion compliances, car- and ship diesel-engines as well as investigation of their toxicological effects on human lung cells and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, R.; Dittmar, G.; Kanashova, T.; Buters, J.; Öder, S.; Paur, H. R.; Mülhopt, S.; Dilger, M.; Weiss, C.; Harndorf, H.; Stengel, B.; Hirvonen, M. R.; Jokiniemi, J.; Hiller, K.; Sapcariu, S.; Sippula, O.; Streibel, T.; Karg, E.; Weggler, B.; Schnelle-Kreis, J.; Lintelmann, J.; Sklorz, M.; Orasche, J.; Müller, L.; Passig, J.; Gröger, T.; BéruBé, K.; Krebs, T.

    2016-12-01

    Combustion emissions cause health effects. The HICE-Aerosol and Health project team studies the physicochemical properties as well as biological and toxicological effects on lung cells of combustion particle emissions. The chemical composition and physical parameters thoroughly characterized. Human lung cells are exposed to the diluted combustion exhaust fumes at the air-liquid interface (ALI), allowing a realistic lung-cell exposure by simulation of the lung situation. After exposure, cellular responses of the exposed lung cells are studied by multi-omics molecular biological analyses on transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic level. Emissions of wood combustion (log wood, pellet heater), ship diesel engines and car gasoline engines are addressed. Special field deployable ALI-exposition systems in a mobile S2-biological laboratory were set up and applied. Human alveolar epithelial cells (A549, BEAS2B and primary cells) as well as murine macrophages were ALI-exposed to diluted emissions. The cellular effects were then comprehensively characterized (viability, cyto-toxicology, multi-omics effects monitoring) and put in context with the chemical and physical aerosol data. The following order of overall cellular response-strength was observed: A relatively mild cellular effect is observed for the diluted wood combustion emissions. Interestingly the effects-strength for log-wood and pellet burner emissions are similar, although PM-concentrations are much higher for the log-wood heater. Similar mild biological effects are observed for the gasoline car emissions. The ship diesel engine emissions induced the most intense biological responses. A surprising result in this context is, that heavy fuel oil (HFO)-emissions showed lower biological effect strengths than the supposedly cleaner diesel fuel emissions (DF). The HFO-emission contain high concentrations of known toxicants (transition metals, polycyclic aromatics). This result was recently confirmed by experiments

  11. Characterisation of wood combustion ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto

    for their composition and leaching properties. Despite the relatively large variations in the contents of nutrients and trace metals, the overall levels were comparable to typical ranges reported in the literature for other wood combustion ashes, as well as with regards to leaching. In general, the composition......The combustion of wood chips and wood pellets for the production of renewable energy in Denmark increased from 5.7 PJ to 16 PJ during the period 2000-2015, and further increases are expected to occur within the coming years. In 2012, about 22,300 tonnes of wood ashes were generated in Denmark....... Currently, these ashes are mainly landfilled, despite Danish legislation allowing their application onto forest and agricultural soils for fertilising and/or liming purposes. During this PhD work, 16 wood ash samples generated at ten different Danish combustion plants were collected and characterised...

  12. [Bone Fractures in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Angela; Rocha, Gustavo; Silva, Ana Isabel; Alegrete, Nuno; Guimarães, Hercília

    2015-01-01

    Fractures during the neonatal period are rare. Some fractures, especially long bones, may occur during birth. Moreover, neonates hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit have an increased risk of fractures for several reasons. To evaluate the incidence and characterize fractures in newborns admitted in a tertiary Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. A retrospective analysis of the newborns admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit with a diagnosis at discharge of one or more bone fractures from January 1996 to June 2013. Eighty neonates had one or more fractures. In 76 (95%) infants the fractures were attributed to birth injury. The most common fracture was the clavicle fracture in 60 (79%) neonates, followed by skull fracture in 6 (8%). In two (2.5%) neonates, extremely low birth weight infants, fractures were interpreted as resulting from osteopenia of prematurity. Both had multiple fractures, and one of them with several ribs. A change in obstetric practices allied to improvement premature neonateâÄôs care contributed to the decreased incidence of fractures in neonatal period. But in premature infants the diagnosis may be underestimated, given the high risk of fracture that these infants present.

  13. Numerical Simulation of Fluid Flow through Fractal-Based Discrete Fractured Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendong Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In recent years, multi-stage hydraulic fracturing technologies have greatly facilitated the development of unconventional oil and gas resources. However, a quantitative description of the “complexity” of the fracture network created by the hydraulic fracturing is confronted with many unsolved challenges. Given the multiple scales and heterogeneity of the fracture system, this study proposes a “bifurcated fractal” model to quantitatively describe the distribution of induced hydraulic fracture networks. The construction theory is employed to generate hierarchical fracture patterns as a scaled numerical model. With the implementation of discrete fractal-fracture network modeling (DFFN, fluid flow characteristics in bifurcated fractal fracture networks are characterized. The effects of bifurcated fracture length, bifurcated tendency, and number of bifurcation stages are examined. A field example of the fractured horizontal well is introduced to calibrate the accuracy of the flow model. The proposed model can provide a more realistic representation of complex fracture networks around a fractured horizontal well, and offer the way to quantify the “complexity” of the fracture network in shale reservoirs. The simulation results indicate that the geometry of the bifurcated fractal fracture network model has a significant impact on production performance in the tight reservoir, and enhancing connectivity of each bifurcate fracture is the key to improve the stimulation performance. In practice, this work provides a novel and efficient workflow for complex fracture characterization and production prediction in naturally-fractured reservoirs of multi-stage fractured horizontal wells.

  14. The tectonic fracture modeling of an ultra-low permeability sandstone reservoir based on an outcrop analogy: A case study in the Wangyao Oilfield of Ordos Basin, China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhao Xiaoming Liu Li Hu Jialiang Zhou Xiaojun Li Min

    2014-01-01

    .... However, outcrop analogies can provide qualitative and quantitative information on a large number of fractures, based on which the accuracy of subsurface fracture characterization can be improved...

  15. Utilizing wood wastes as reinforcement in wood cement composite bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusirat Aderinsola Sadiku

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the research work undertaken to study the properties of Wood Cement Composite Bricks (WCCB from different wood wastes and cement / wood content. The WCBBs with nominal density of 1200 kg m-3 were produced from three tropical wood species and at varying cement and wood content of 2:1, 2.5:1 and 3:1 on a weight to weight basis. The properties evaluated were compressive strength, Ultra Pulse Velocity (UPV, water absorption (WA and thickness swelling (TS. The Compressive strength values ranged from 0.25 to 1.13 N mm-2 and UPV values ranged from 18753 to 49992 m s-1. The mean values of WA after 672 hours (28 days of water soaking of the WCCBs ranged from 9.50% to 47.13% where there were no noticeable change in the TS of the bricks. The observed density (OD ranged from 627 to 1159 kg m-3. A. zygia from the three wood/cement content were more dimensionally stable and better in compressive strength than the other two species where T. scleroxylon had the best performance in terms of UPV. All the properties improved with increasing cement content. WCCBs at 3.0:1 cement/wood content are suitable for structural application such as panelling, ceiling and partitioning

  16. Natural Protection of Wood with Antagonism Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba ZAREMSKI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological environments contain a certain number of microbial populations which, within a givenecological niche, display various relations ranging from symbiosis to parasitism. Researchers have beeninterested in these types of relations for around fifty years, especially in one very particular type ofrelationship: the antagonism exerted between individuals of the same microbial population.Today, the role played by biological agents, bringing into play inhibitive or destructive antibioticsubstances, reveals a certain potential for their use in controlling microorganisms associated with suchdegradation processes.The work undertaken by HydroQuébec and CIRAD involved two types of experiment: 1 in Petri dishes toassess and characterize the antagonistic capacity of Trichoderma against white rot and brown rot fungi; 2on pieces taken from untreated poles in order to study confrontation between the basidiomycete and theantagonistic strain in wood.This study investigated the antagonism of three ascomycetes of the genus Trichoderma against two whiterot basidiomycetes, Pycnoporus sanguineus and Coriolus versicolor, and two brown rot basidiomycetes,Antrodia sp. and Coniophora puteana, through direct confrontation in Petri dishes and in the wood ofHydroQuébec poles.The results obtained seemed to complete each other coherently. They revealed that the Trichodermagroup of fungi was not aggressive to wood and the results obtained after direct confrontation in Petri disheswere confirmed in wood.By directly exposing the different basidiomycetes and antagonists to each other in Petri dishes, two bytwo, we effectively revealed an antagonism effect for a large majority of the pairs. However, there wassubstantial variability in reactions from one pair to the next.

  17. Willow wood production on radionuclide polluted areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodkin Oleg I.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: One of the key environmental problems in Belarus is effective use of agricultural lands contaminated by radionuclide due to the Chernobyl disaster. The alternative method to traditional agricultural crops is fast growing willow cultivation. It is possible to use biomass of willow as renewable energy source. The goal of our investigation was the estimation of environmental aspects of willow wood production on polluted areas. The field study experiments (2007-2010 were conducted at Krichev district of Mogilev region in eastern Belarus. This region characterized by high level of Cs-137 contamination as well as high level of heavy metals pollution. In the first stage of experiments, the concentration of cesium-137 in different parts of willow biomass had been measured and transfer factor calculated. The measuring had been done for leaves, roots, and wood. To control cesium-137 accumulation in willow biomass we apply different types (nitrogen N, phosphorus P and potassium K and dose of fertilizer. The experiments show that potassium mineral fertilizer is the key factor for radionuclide accumulation control. The optimal dose of potassium is 90 kg per hectare. On the base of experimental results the model of cesium-137 accumulation in the wood for a 21 year has been developed. In accordance with calculation to the end of willow cultivation (21 year concentration of cesium-137 in wood will not be higher than permitted even with the level of cesium-137 contamination in the soil 1480 kBq/m2 (maximum 140 kqB/m2 with permitted level for firewood is 740 Bq/kg.. The concentration of cesium-137 in the roots increases gradually and get maximum in 21 year (3000 kqB/m2. Our results confirm that in the sum about 0.8 million hectares of radionuclide polluted arable lands partly excluded from agricultural practice in Belarus could be used for willow biomass production.

  18. Characteristics of bone fractures and usefulness of micro-computed tomography for fracture detection in rabbits: 210 cases (2007-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasai, Hiroshi; Fujita, Daisuke; Tagami, Yukari; Seto, Eiko; Denda, Yuki; Hamakita, Hideaki; Ichihashi, Tomonori; Okamura, Kensaku; Furuya, Masaru; Tani, Hiroyuki; Sasai, Kazumi; Yamate, Jyoji

    2015-06-15

    To characterize bone fractures and the usefulness of micro-CT for imaging fractures in pet rabbits. Retrospective case series. 210 client-owned rabbits with bone fractures. Medical records of rabbits evaluated for bone fractures from 2007 through 2013 were examined. Information was collected on signalment and nature of fractures, and radiographic and micro-CT images of fractures were reviewed. Almost half (n = 95 [47.7%]) of fractures were in rabbits fracture was the most common type of fracture with a nonneoplastic cause (n = 46 [23.2%]) and was most common in the L4-L7 region. The tibia was the most common site for limb fracture among all fractures with a nonneoplastic cause (45 [22.7%]). Twelve (5.7%) fractures had a neoplastic cause, and 7 of these were associated with metastatic uterine adenocarcinoma. Females were significantly more likely to have a fracture caused by neoplasia than were males. Compared with radiography, micro-CT provided more detailed fracture information, particularly for complicated fractures or structures (eg, skull, pelvic, vertebral, and comminuted limb fractures). Findings were useful for understanding the nature of fractures in pet rabbits and supported the use of micro-CT versus radiography for fracture detection and evaluation.

  19. Chemical structure of wood charcoal by infrared spectroscopy and multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbé, Nicole; Harper, David; Rials, Timothy; Elder, Thomas

    2006-05-17

    In this work, the effect of temperature on charcoal structure and chemical composition is investigated for four tree species. Wood charcoal carbonized at various temperatures is analyzed by mid infrared spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis and by thermogravimetric analysis to characterize the chemical composition during the carbonization process. The multivariate models of charcoal were able to distinguish between species and wood thermal treatments, revealing that the characteristics of the wood charcoal depend not only on the wood species, but also on the carbonization temperature. This work demonstrates the potential of mid infrared spectroscopy in the whiskey industry, from the identification and classification of the wood species for the mellowing process to the chemical characterization of the barrels after the toasting and charring process.

  20. Fractures in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Jensen, K

    1991-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 299 MS patients 22 have had fractures and of these 17 after onset of MS. The fractures most frequently involved the femoral neck and trochanter (41%). Three patients had had more than one fracture. Only 1 patient had osteoporosis. The percentage of fractures increase...

  1. Influence of summer biogeography on wood warbler stopover abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey F. Kelly; Rob Smith; Deborah M. Finch; Frank R. Moore; Wang Yong

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of summer biogeography of migrant wood warblers (Parulidae) on their stopover abundance. To characterize abundance patterns, we used mist-net capture data from spring and fall migration in the Middle Rio Grande Valley, New Mexico, spring migration on the Gulf Coast of Louisiana, and fall migration on the Gulf Coast of Alabama. To describe the...

  2. Burning rates of wood cribs with implications for wildland fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara McAllister; Mark Finney

    2016-01-01

    Wood cribs are often used as ignition sources for room fire tests and the well characterized burning rates may also have applications to wildland fires. The burning rate of wildland fuel structures, whether the needle layer on the ground or trees and shrubs themselves, is not addressed in any operational fire model and no simple model exists. Several relations...

  3. Adsorption mechanism of cadmium on juniper bark and wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun Woo Shin; K. G. Karthikeyan; Mandla A. Tshabalala

    2007-01-01

    In this study the capacity of sorbents prepared from juniper wood (JW) and bark (JB) to adsorb cadmium (Cd) from aqueous solutions at different pH values was compared. Adsorption behavior was characterized through adsorption kinetics, adsorption isotherms, and adsorption edge experiments. Results from kinetics and isotherm experiments showed that JB (76.3–91.6 lmol Cd...

  4. Oblique Axis Body Fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takai, Hirokazu; Konstantinidis, Lukas; Schmal, Hagen

    2016-01-01

    Anderson type III fractures with a characteristic fracture pattern that we refer to as "oblique type axis body fracture." Results. The female patients aged 90 and 72 years, respectively, were both diagnosed with minimally displaced Anderson type III fractures. Both fractures had a characteristic "oblique...... was uneventful. Conclusions. Oblique type axis body fractures resemble a highly unstable subtype of Anderson type III fractures with the potential of severe secondary deformity following conservative treatment, irrespective of initial grade of displacement. The authors therefore warrant a high index of suspicion...

  5. Assessment of fracture risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanis, John A. [WHO Collaborating Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Sheffield Medical School, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield S10 2RX (United Kingdom)], E-mail: w.j.pontefract@sheffield.ac.uk; Johansson, Helena; Oden, Anders [WHO Collaborating Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Sheffield Medical School, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield S10 2RX (United Kingdom); McCloskey, Eugene V. [WHO Collaborating Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Sheffield Medical School, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield S10 2RX (United Kingdom); Osteoporosis Centre, Northern General Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    Fractures are a common complication of osteoporosis. Although osteoporosis is defined by bone mineral density at the femoral neck, other sites and validated techniques can be used for fracture prediction. Several clinical risk factors contribute to fracture risk independently of BMD. These include age, prior fragility fracture, smoking, excess alcohol, family history of hip fracture, rheumatoid arthritis and the use of oral glucocorticoids. These risk factors in conjunction with BMD can be integrated to provide estimates of fracture probability using the FRAX tool. Fracture probability rather than BMD alone can be used to fashion strategies for the assessment and treatment of osteoporosis.

  6. Self-adapting washer system for lag screw fixation of mandibular fractures. Part II: In vitro mechanical characterization of 2.3 and 2.7 mm lag screw prototypes and in vivo removal torque after healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terheyden, H; Mühlendyck, C; Sprengel, M; Ludwig, K; Härle, F

    1999-08-01

    The aim of this study was to mechanically characterize self-tapping 2.3 and 2.7 mm titanium lag screw prototypes which are part of the newly developed 'self-adapting washer' maxillofacial lag screw osteosynthesis system. In vitro in a screw testing machine the insertion torque, maximum locking torque and axial force and the ultimate torsional strength were assessed. In vivo in six miniature pigs using a mandibular symphyseal fracture model, the removal torques after 3 and 6 months of healing were measured. Additionally the bone-metal contact (BMC) of the screws was assessed histometrically. The maximum insertion torque (0.185 Nm) was far below the mechanical limits of the screws (2.3 mm = 0.96 Nm, 2.7 mm = 1.6 Nm). A tightening of the 2.7 mm screw with an axial force of 1000 N and of the 2.3 mm screw with 500-550 N leaves a safety margin of approximately one-third on the ultimate torsional strength. Clinically these values permit the use of two 2.3 mm lag screws or one 2.7 mm lag screw in mandibular symphysis fractures since 1000 N tensile axial force are required in this indication. During screw removal after 6 months healing, torque levels close to the mechanical limits of the screws were recorded and screw failures were observed. This failure rate may have been due to the BMC of 49.8% which was in the range of titanium dental implants. Accordingly the screw heads were reinforced to prevent fractures.

  7. Fluid-driven fracture propagation in heterogeneous media: Probability distributions of fracture trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillán, David; Mosquera, Juan-Carlos; Cueto-Felgueroso, Luis

    2017-11-01

    Hydraulic fracture trajectories in rocks and other materials are highly affected by spatial heterogeneity in their mechanical properties. Understanding the complexity and structure of fluid-driven fractures and their deviation from the predictions of homogenized theories is a practical problem in engineering and geoscience. We conduct a Monte Carlo simulation study to characterize the influence of heterogeneous mechanical properties on the trajectories of hydraulic fractures propagating in elastic media. We generate a large number of random fields of mechanical properties and simulate pressure-driven fracture propagation using a phase-field model. We model the mechanical response of the material as that of an elastic isotropic material with heterogeneous Young modulus and Griffith energy release rate, assuming that fractures propagate in the toughness-dominated regime. Our study shows that the variance and the spatial covariance of the mechanical properties are controlling factors in the tortuousness of the fracture paths. We characterize the deviation of fracture paths from the homogenous case statistically, and conclude that the maximum deviation grows linearly with the distance from the injection point. Additionally, fracture path deviations seem to be normally distributed, suggesting that fracture propagation in the toughness-dominated regime may be described as a random walk.

  8. Non_standard Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin

    . Using parametric design tools and computer controlled production facilities Copenhagens Centre for IT and Architecture undertook a practice based research into performance based non-standard element design and mass customization techniques. In close cooperation with wood construction software......Non-Standard elements in architecture bear the promise of a better more specific performance (Oosterhuis 2003). A new understanding of design evolves, which is focusing on open ended approaches, able to negotiate between shifting requirements and to integrate knowledge on process and material......- and machine industry we fabricated a 1:1 demonstrator show casing the potential for performance due to digital fabrication in this sustainable material. The production of a custom made design tool helped not only to explore design variations while keeping up the link to digital production machinery...

  9. Cooling of wood briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adžić Miroljub M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the experimental research of surface temperature of wood briquettes during cooling phase along the cooling line. The cooling phase is an important part of the briquette production technology. It should be performed with care, otherwise the quality of briquettes could deteriorate and possible changes of combustion characteristics of briquettes could happen. The briquette surface temperature was measured with an IR camera and a surface temperature probe at 42 sections. It was found that the temperature of briquette surface dropped from 68 to 34°C after 7 minutes spent at the cooling line. The temperature at the center of briquette, during the 6 hour storage, decreased to 38°C.

  10. Treatments that enhance physical properties of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell; Peggy Konkol

    1987-01-01

    This paper was prepared for anyone who wants to know more about enhancing wood’s physical properties, from the amateur wood carver to the president of a forest products company. The authors describe chemical and physical treatments of wood that enhance the strength, stiffness, water repellency, and stability of wood. Five types of treatments are described: 1. water-...

  11. Physical properties and moisture relations of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Simpson; Anton TenWolde

    1999-01-01

    The versatility of wood is demonstrated by a wide variety of products. This variety is a result of a spectrum of desirable physical characteristics or properties among the many species of wood. In many cases, more than one property of wood is important to the end product. For example, to select a wood species for a product, the value of appearance- type properties,...

  12. Moisture relations and physical properties of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel V. Glass; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2010-01-01

    Wood, like many natural materials, is hygroscopic; it takes on moisture from the surrounding environment. Moisture exchange between wood and air depends on the relative humidity and temperature of the air and the current amount of water in the wood. This moisture relationship has an important influence on wood properties and performance. Many of the challenges of using...

  13. Wood Condition Assessment Manual: Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Ross; Robert H. White

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes information on condition assessment of in-service wood, including visual inspection of wood and timbers, use of ultrasound and probing/boring techniques for inspection, and assessment of wood and timbers that have been exposed to fire. The report also includes information on assigning allowable design values for in-service wood.

  14. The challenge of bonding treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2004-01-01

    Wood products are quite durable if exposure to moisture is minimized; however, most uses of wood involve considerable exposure to moisture. To preserve the wood, chemicals are used to minimize moisture pickup, to prevent insect attack, and/or to resist microbial growth. The chemicals used as preservatives can interfere with adhesive bonds to wood. Given the many...

  15. Fire resistance of exposed wood members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. White

    2004-01-01

    Fire resistance data on exposed wood beams and columns are plentiful, but few studies have been done on exposed wood members in tension and in decks. To provide data to verify the application of a new calculation procedure, a limited series of fire resistance tests were conducted on wood members loaded in tension and on exposed wood decks.

  16. Wood Flour Moulding Technology: Implications for Technical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-04-19

    Apr 19, 2011 ... Collect wood flour or chips from the lathe or table saw or vertical sander from other machines that produce the desired wood particles/ sawdust. If it is possible grind appropriate dry wood for use. Note: Wood flour or chips from cherry, maple (temperate trees) mahogany, teak and walnut (ekom in Ibibio ...

  17. Wood Technology: Techniques, Processes, and Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oatman, Olan

    1975-01-01

    Seven areas of wood technology illustrates applicable techniques, processes, and products for an industrial arts woodworking curriculum. They are: wood lamination; PEG (polyethylene glycol) diffusion processes; wood flour and/or particle molding; production product of industry; WPC (wood-plastic-composition) process; residential construction; and…

  18. Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2006-01-01

    Lecture Notes on Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures including charring of wood and load bearing capacity of beams, columns, and connections.......Lecture Notes on Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures including charring of wood and load bearing capacity of beams, columns, and connections....

  19. The Carbon Impacts of Wood Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Bergman; Maureen Puettmann; Adam Taylor; Kenneth E. Skog

    2014-01-01

    Wood products have many environmental advantages over nonwood alternatives. Documenting and publicizing these merits helps the future competitiveness of wood when climate change impacts are being considered. The manufacture of wood products requires less fossil fuel than nonwood alternative building materials such as concrete, metals, or plastics. By nature, wood is...

  20. Bioprocessing preservative-treated waste wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Illman; Vina W. Yang; Les. Ferge

    2000-01-01

    Disposal of preservative-treated waste wood is a growing problem worldwide. Bioprocessing the treated wood offers one approach to waste management under certain conditions. One goal is to use wood decay fungi to reduce the volume of waste with an easily managed system in a cost-effective manner. Wood decay fungi were obtained from culture collections in the Mycology...