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Sample records for wood decay fungus

  1. Visual cues for woodpeckers: light reflectance of decayed wood varies by decay fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Daniels, Sean T.; Kesler, Dylan C.; Mihail, Jeanne D.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Werner, Scott J.

    2018-01-01

    The appearance of wood substrates is likely relevant to bird species with life histories that require regular interactions with wood for food and shelter. Woodpeckers detect decayed wood for cavity placement or foraging, and some species may be capable of detecting trees decayed by specific fungi; however, a mechanism allowing for such specificity remains unidentified. We hypothesized that decay fungi associated with woodpecker cavity sites alter the substrate reflectance in a species-specific manner that is visually discriminable by woodpeckers. We grew 10 species of wood decay fungi from pure cultures on sterile wood substrates of 3 tree species. We then measured the relative reflectance spectra of decayed and control wood wafers and compared them using the receptor noise-limited (RNL) color discrimination model. The RNL model has been used in studies of feather coloration, egg shells, flowers, and fruit to model how the colors of objects appear to birds. Our analyses indicated 6 of 10 decayed substrate/control comparisons were above the threshold of discrimination (i.e., indicating differences discriminable by avian viewers), and 12 of 13 decayed substrate comparisons were also above threshold for a hypothetical woodpecker. We conclude that woodpeckers should be capable of visually detecting decayed wood on trees where bark is absent, and they should also be able to detect visually species-specific differences in wood substrates decayed by fungi used in this study. Our results provide evidence for a visual mechanism by which woodpeckers could identify and select substrates decayed by specific fungi, which has implications for understanding ecologically important woodpecker–fungus interactions.

  2. Gene Expression Analysis of Copper Tolerance and Wood Decay in the Brown Rot Fungus Fibroporia radiculosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. D. Tang; L. A. Parker; A. D. Perkins; T. S. Sonstegard; S. G. Schroeder; D. D. Nicholas; S. V. Diehl

    2013-01-01

    High-throughput transcriptomics was used to identify Fibroporia radiculosa genes that were differentially regulated during colonization of wood treated with a copper-based preservative. The transcriptome was profiled at two time points while the fungus was growing on wood treated with micronized copper quat (MCQ). A total of 917 transcripts were...

  3. Decay of oak Wood provoked by fungus Stereum hirsutum (Willd. ex Fr. S. F. Gray. and its' essential physiological requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirić Milenko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available White rot fungi usually decompose cell walls of attacked wood destroying tissue elements (i.e. parenchyma cells, wood fibres, tension wood, tracheas etc in different amount, depending to wood-species as well as to its' zones. Different fungi secrete specific enzymes that are responsible for certain damages. As consequence, the wood structure use to be significantly and unfixable decomposed and changed. Microscopical analyses that have been run provided clear and indicative information relating to effects of fungal activity on wood tissue. Physiological requirements of fungi are for shore of the highest importance in understanding of mechanism of decaying process in the wood. The most important factors as like temperature and concentration of H ions, as well as main nutrients as sources of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus can affect the behaviour of wood decaying fungi. The impacts of these factors on the growth and production on mycelial mass of Stereum hirsutum (Willd. ex Fr. S.F. Gray., have been investigated. This fungus is one of the most frequent appearing on the Sessile- and Pedunculate Oak weakened trees or felled logs, behaving as parasite as well as saprophyte. As a causer of Oak sapwood white rot S. hirsutum causes significant damages of wood at forest- as well as at industrial storages.

  4. Influence of Populus Genotype on Gene Expression by the Wood Decay Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill Gaskell; Amber Marty; Michael Mozuch; Philip J. Kersten; Sandra Splinter Bondurant; Grzegorz Sabat; Ali Azarpira; John Ralph; Oleksandr Skyba; Shawn D. Mansfield; Robert A. Blanchette; Dan Cullen

    2014-01-01

    We examined gene expression patterns in the lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium when it colonizes hybrid poplar (Populus alba tremula) and syringyl (S)-rich transgenic derivatives. Acombination ofmicroarrays and liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) allowed detection of a total of 9,959 transcripts and 793...

  5. Antagonistic evaluation of Trichodermaviride and Aspergillusflavus against wood-decay fungus Pleurotusostreatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin; Iskandar, E.; Husien, N.

    2018-04-01

    Pleurotusostreatus cultivation is often limited by the presence of antagonistic microorganisms that can also grow together on a variety of substrates that are used as growth media of P. ostreatus. As a preliminary study, this research aims to evaluate the antagonism of Trichodermaviride and Aspergillusflavus in interacting with the P.ostreatus fungus by in-vitro. An antagonism test using a dual culture method of these fungi with 1 month incubation time on Poteto Dextrose Agar (PDA) media was performed. Evaluation of the antagonistic properties of these fungi is conducted through macroscopic and microscopic observations. Macroscopically, the growth of T. viride and A. flavus mycelium showed that both colonies were more dominant than P. ostreatus colonies. Microscopically, hyphae of T. viride and A. flavus indicate the presence of very strong micoparasitic properties that characterized by attachment and convolution of both hyphae to P. ostreatus hyphae. It was concluded thatthe growth of T. viride and A. flavus fungi was more dominant and had potential as an inhibiting agent of P. ostreatus fungal growth, respectively, in dual culture on PDA media.

  6. Transcriptome and secretome analyses of the wood decay fungus Wolfiporia cocos support alternative mechanisms of lignocellulose conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill Gaskell; Robert A. Blanchette; Philip E. Stewart; Sandra Splinter BonDurant; Marie Adams; Grzegorz Sabat; Philip Kersten; Daniel Cullen

    2016-01-01

    Certain wood decay basidiomycetes, collectively referred to as brown rot fungi, rapidly depolymerize cellulose while leaving behind the bulk of cell wall lignin as a modified residue. The mechanism(s) employed is unclear, but considerable evidence implicates the involvement of diffusible oxidants generated via Fenton-like chemistry. Toward a better understanding of...

  7. Genome, transcriptome, and secretome analysis of wood decay fungus postia placenta supports unique mechanisms of lignocellulose conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Diego [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Challacombe, Jean F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Misra, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Xie, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brettin, Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morgenstern, Ingo [CLARK UNIV; Hibbett, David [CLARK UNIV.; Schmoll, Monika [UNIV WIEN; Kubicek, Christian P [UNIV WIEN; Ferreira, Patricia [CIB, CSIC, MADRID; Ruiz - Duenase, Francisco J [CIB, CSIC, MADRID; Martinez, Angel T [CIB, CSIC, MADRID; Kersten, Phil [FOREST PRODUCTS LAB; Hammel, Kenneth E [FOREST PRODUCTS LAB; Vanden Wymelenberg, Amber [U. WISCONSIN; Gaskell, Jill [FOREST PRODUCTS LAB; Lindquist, Erika [DOE JGI; Sabati, Grzegorz [U. WISCONSIN; Bondurant, Sandra S [U. WISCONSIN; Larrondo, Luis F [U. CATHOLICA DE CHILE; Canessa, Paulo [U. CATHOLICA DE CHILE; Vicunna, Rafael [U. CATHOLICA DE CHILE; Yadavk, Jagiit [U. CINCINATTI; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan [U. CINCINATTI; Subramaniank, Venkataramanan [U. CINCINATTI; Pisabarro, Antonio G [PUBLIC U. NAVARRE; Lavin, Jose L [PUBLIC U. NAVARRE; Oguiza, Jose A [PUBLIC U. NAVARRE; Master, Emma [U. TORONTO; Henrissat, Bernard [CNRS, MARSEILLE; Coutinho, Pedro M [CNRS, MARSEILLE; Harris, Paul [NOVOZYMES, INC.; Magnuson, Jon K [PNNL; Baker, Scott [PNNL; Bruno, Kenneth [PNNL; Kenealy, William [MASCOMA, INC.; Hoegger, Patrik J [GEORG-AUGUST-U.; Kues, Ursula [GEORG-AUGUST-U; Ramaiva, Preethi [NOVOZYMES, INC.; Lucas, Susan [DOE JGI; Salamov, Asaf [DOE JGI; Shapiro, Harris [DOE JGI; Tuh, Hank [DOE JGI; Chee, Christine L [UNM; Teter, Sarah [NOVOZYMES, INC.; Yaver, Debbie [NOVOZYMES, INC.; James, Tim [MCMASTER U.; Mokrejs, Martin [CHARLES U.; Pospisek, Martin [CHARLES U.; Grigoriev, Igor [DOE JGI; Rokhsar, Dan [DOE JGI; Berka, Randy [NOVOZYMES; Cullen, Dan [FOREST PRODUCTS LAB

    2008-01-01

    Brown-rot fungi such as Postia placenta are common inhabitants of forest ecosystems and are also largely responsible for the destructive decay of wooden structures. Rapid depolymerization of cellulose is a distinguishing feature of brown-rot, but the biochemical mechanisms and underlying genetics are poorly understood. Systematic examination of the P. placenta genome, transcriptome and secretome revealed unique extracellular enzyme systems, including an unusual repertoire of extracellular glycoside hydrolases. Genes encoding exocellobiohydrolases and cellulose-binding domains, typical of cellulolytic microbes, are absent in this efficient cellulose-degrading fungus. When P. placenta was grown in medium containing cellulose as sole carbon source, transcripts corresponding to many hemicellulases and to a single putative {beta}-1-4 endoglucanase were expressed at high levels relative to glucose grown cultures. These transcript profiles were confirmed by direct identification of peptides by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC{center_dot}MSIMS). Also upregulated during growth on cellulose medium were putative iron reductases, quinone reductase, and structurally divergent oxidases potentially involved in extracellular generation of Fe(II) and H202. These observations are consistent with a biodegradative role for Fenton chemistry in which Fe(II) and H202 react to form hydroxyl radicals, highly reactive oxidants capable of depolymerizing cellulose. The P. placenta genome resources provide unparalleled opportunities for investigating such unusual mechanisms of cellulose conversion. More broadly, the genome offers insight into the diversification of lignocellulose degrading mechanisms in fungi. Comparisons to the closely related white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium support an evolutionary shift from white-rot to brown-rot during which the capacity for efficient depolymerization of lignin was lost.

  8. Serpula lacrymans, the dry rot fungus and tolerance towards copper-based wood preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Christine Steenkjaer Hastrup; Frederick Green; Carol Clausen; Bo Jensen

    2005-01-01

    Serpula lacrymans (Wulfen : Fries) Schröter, the dry rot fungus, is considered the most economically important wood decay fungus in temperate regions of the world i.e. northern Europe, Japan and Australia. Previously copper based wood preservatives were the most commonly used preservatives for pressure treatment of wood for building constructions. Because of a...

  9. Strength loss in decayed wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Patricia K. Lebow

    2014-01-01

    Wood is a durable engineering material when used in an appropriate manner, but it is susceptible to biological decay when a log, sawn product, or final product is not stored, handled, or designed properly. Even before the biological decay of wood becomes visually apparent, the decay can cause the wood to become structurally unsound. The progression of decay to that...

  10. Application of molecular genetic methods for identification of wood-decaying fungi in wood constructions

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Bobeková; Michal Tomšovský; Petr Horáček

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to evaluate the utilization of molecular biology methods for detection of wood decaying fungi directly from decomposed wood using a commercial DNA extraction kit developed for soil substrates (PowerSoil™ DNA isolation kit). The experiment based on dry rot fungus (Serpula lacrymans) detection from inoculated wooden pieces under laboratory conditions was followed by field detection of wood-decaying fungi from wood structures on building constructions. Fungal DNA was ide...

  11. Cytochemical localization of cellulases in decayed and nondecayed wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murmanis, L.; Highley, T.L.; Palmer, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    Sawdust from undecayed western hemlock wood and from wood previously decayed by the brown-rot fungus Poria placenta or by the white-rot fungus Ganoderma applanatum was incubated with commercial cellulase from Trichoderma viride. Samples were treated cytochemically to locate cellulase activity and examined by TEM. Results showed that cellulase degraded undecayed wood extensively, with the attack starting on the outer border of a cell wall and progressing inside. Wood decayed by P. placenta, with or without cellulase incubation, and treated by the cytochemical test showed uniform distribution of electron dense particles throughout the cell walls. In wood decayed by G. applanatum, cellulase degradation was similar to that in undecayed wood. From measurements of particle diameter it is suggested that electron dense particles are cellulase. It is concluded that brown-rot and white-rot fungi have different effects on the microstructure of wood. The brown-rot fungus appears to open the wood microstructure so that cellulase can diffuse throughout the degraded tracheid wall.

  12. Application of molecular genetic methods for identification of wood-decaying fungi in wood constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bobeková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to evaluate the utilization of molecular biology methods for detection of wood decaying fungi directly from decomposed wood using a commercial DNA extraction kit developed for soil substrates (PowerSoil™ DNA isolation kit. The experiment based on dry rot fungus (Serpula lacrymans detection from inoculated wooden pieces under laboratory conditions was followed by field detection of wood-decaying fungi from wood structures on building constructions. Fungal DNA was identified using the PCR–based methods including species-specific PCR and sequencing of amplified ITS region of ribosomal DNA.

  13. Quantifying arthropod contributions to wood decay

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    Michael Ulyshen; Terry Wagner

    2013-01-01

    Termites carry large amounts of soil into dead wood, and this behaviour complicates efforts to measure their contributions to wood decay. A novel method for isolating termite soil by burning the wood is described, and some preliminary results are presented.

  14. Detecting decay in wood components

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.J. Ross; X. Wang; B.K. Brashaw

    2005-01-01

    This chapter presents a summary of the Wood and Timber Condition Assessment Manual. It focuses on current inspection techniques for decay detection and provides guidelines on the use of various non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods in locating and defining areas of deterioration in timber bridge components and other civil structures.

  15. Online resources for the identification of North American wood decay fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessie A. Glaeser

    2012-01-01

    The ability to identify wood decay fungi is an important skill for an arborist. Knowing which fungus is colonizing a tree can be used to better assess the type, amount, and position of decay in the tree, and its subsequent effects on wood strength. Distinguishing species of fungi that colonize sapwood, heartwood, or roots can provide information to improve the quality...

  16. Wood decay and the cleanup crew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Jessie A. Glaeser

    2017-01-01

    Arborists are encouraged to recognize the wood-decay process as an important factor in tree health and public safety. Technical experts who develop training materials to recognize wood-decay processes in living trees are frequently forest pathologists. Much of the history of forest pathology was to support production of sound, high-quality timber. That heritage is...

  17. Extracellular oxidative metabolism of wood decay fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Cullen

    2010-04-21

    Substantial progress has been made toward understanding the fundamental physiology and genetics of wood decay fungi, microbes that are capable of degrading all major components of plant cell walls. Efficient utilization of lignocellulosic biomass has been hampered in part by limitations in our understanding of enzymatic mechanisms of plant cell wall degradation. This is particularly true of woody substrates where accessibility and high lignin content substantially complicate enzymatic 'deconstruction'. The interdisciplinary research has illuminated enzymatic mechanisms essential for the conversion of lignocellulosics to simple carbohydrates and other small molecular weight products. Progress was in large part dependent on substantial collaborations with the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute (JGI) in Walnut Creek and Los Alamos, as well as the Catholic University, Santiago, Chile, the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, the University of Minnesota, St. Paul, and colleagues at the University of Wisconsin and the Forest Products Laboratory. Early accomplishments focused on the development of experimental tools (2, 7, 22, 24-26, 32) and characterization of individual genes and enzymes (1, 3-5, 8, 9, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 23, 27, 33). In 2004, the genome of the most intensively studied lignin-degrading fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, was published (21). This milestone lead to additional progress on this important model system (6, 10, 12, 13, 16, 28-31) and was further complemented by genome analysis of other important cellulose-degrading fungi (19, 20). These accomplishments have been highly cited and have paved the way for whole new research areas.

  18. Effect of Decay on Ultrasonic Velocity and Attenuation Measurements in Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megan McGovern; Adam Senalik; George Chen; Frank C. Beall; Henrique Reis

    2013-01-01

    The percentage mass loss of loblolly pine (pinus taeda) wood cube specimens exposed to Gloeophyllum fungus (Gloeophyllum trabeum) for increasing periods of time ranging from 1 to 12 weeks was recorded after being subjected to controlled decay following ASTM International standard ASTM D 1423-99. The specimens’ corresponding volume...

  19. Energy use of decayed wood; Lahopuun maeaerae, sisaeltoe ja hankintakustannukset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekelae, M; Lipponen, K [Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    A study of the quality, amounts and delivery costs of decayed wood available for possible energy use will be carried out in co-operation by Metsaeteho and Forest Research Institute. The work will consist of the following sub-studies: Quality of decayed wood available for possible energy use, quantities of decayed wood available for possible energy use by municipalities in Western and Southern Finland, harvesting, transport and chipping costs of decayed wood in different delivery alternatives and as a practical example, quantities of decayed wood available for possible energy use in two potential consumption municipalities. (orig.)

  20. Common wood decay fungi found in the Caribbean Basin

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    D. Jean. Lodge

    2016-01-01

    There are hundreds of wood-decay fungi in the Caribbean Basin, but relatively few of these are likely to grow on manmade structures built of wood or wood-composites. The wood-decay fungi of greatest concern are those that cause brown-rot, and especially brown-rot fungi that are resistant to copper-based wood preservatives. Some fungi that grow in the Caribbean and...

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF WOOD DECAY BY ROT FUNGI USING COLORIMETRY AND INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mírian de Almeida Costa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Wood samples of marupá (Simarouba amara and andiroba (Carapa guianenis were submitted to Trametes versicolor (white rot and Gloeophylum trabeum (brown rot fungi attack. Colorimetry was used to determine the color of the wood before and after wood decaying fungi. To evaluate the changes in chemical compounds levels in the wood samples, the diffuse reflectance medium infrared spectroscopy was used. Both wood were non resistant against white rot fungus, while with brown rot attack andiroba was resistant and marupá was not. After Gloeophyllum trabeum attack both woods changed to a darken color, and after Trametes versicolor attack andiroba changed to a lighter color and marupá darkened slightly, The analysis showed a reduction in the peak intensity of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, for both species, after Trametes versicolor attack and a reduction in the peak intensity of cellulose after Gloeophyllum trabeum attack.

  2. In vitro wood decay of teak (Tectona grandis by Rigidoporus cf. microporus (Meripiliaceae, Polyporales, Basidiomycota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sarmiento S

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of exotic species like teak for industry demands has increased over the last decades in Central America, however its vulnerability to decay by saprophytic fungi has not been well studied. Among these fungi, Rigidoporus spp. have been described as white rotters of dead hardwoods and conifers worldwide. In Costa Rica, R. microporus has been found growing on teak stumps. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of this white rot fungus on the chemical, mechanical and physical properties of teak wood from trees of different ages. Six and ten year old sapwood and heartwood samples were used in the assays. Severe anatomical damage and the highest weight and resistance losses were observed on 6 yr. old sapwood samples. There was an increase in the quantity of soluble materials in 1% NaOH (relative values and lignin content in all the samples analyzed, after 3 months exposure and up to the end of the experiment. Mass loss reduction and increased resistance of wood to compressive strength parallel to the grain were related to both the type of wood and the age of the tree. Knowledge of the potential damage that this fungus can cause to teak wood might help in a better selection of wood and developing more effective protection measures against decay in the field or in construction wood.

  3. Fungal decay resistance of wood reacted with phosphorus pentoxide-amine system

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    Hong-Lin Lee; George C. Chen; Roger M. Rowell

    2004-01-01

    Resistance of wood reacted in situ with phosphorus pentoxide-amine to the brown-rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum and white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor was examined. Wood reacted with either octyl, tribromo, or nitro derivatives were more resistant to both fungi. Threshold retention values of phosphoramide-reacted wood to white-rot fungus T. versicolor ranged from 2.9...

  4. Acidicapsa borealis gen. nov., sp. nov. and Acidicapsa ligni sp. nov., subdivision 1 Acidobacteria from Sphagnum peat and decaying wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulichevskaya, I.S.; Kostina, L.A.; Valášková, V.; Rijpstra, I.C.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; De Boer, W.; Dedysh, S.N.

    2012-01-01

    Two strains of subdivision 1 Acidobacteria, namely the pink-pigmented bacterium KA1T and the colorless isolate WH120T, were obtained from acidic Sphagnum peat and wood under decay by the white-rot fungus Hyploma fasciculare, respectively. Cells of these isolates are Gram-negative, non-motile, short

  5. Evolution of novel wood decay mechanisms in Agaricales revealed by the genome sequences of Fistulina hepatica and Cylindrobasidium torrendii

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    Floudas, Dimitrios; Held, Benjamin W.; Riley, Robert; Nagy, Laszlo G.; Koehler, Gage; Ransdell, Anthony S.; Younus, Hina; Chow, Julianna; Chiniquy, Jennifer; Lipzen, Anna; Tritt, Andrew; Sun, Hui; Haridas, Sajeet; LaButti, Kurt; Ohm, Robin A.; Kües, Ursula; Blanchette, Robert A.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Minto, Robert E.; Hibbett, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Wood decay mechanisms in Agaricomycotina have been traditionally separated in two categories termed white and brown rot. Recently the accuracy of such a dichotomy has been questioned. Here, we present the genome sequences of the white rot fungus Cylindrobasidium torrendii and the brown rot fungus Fistulina hepatica both members of Agaricales, combining comparative genomics and wood decay experiments. Cylindrobasidium torrendii is closely related to the white-rot root pathogen Armillaria mellea, while F. hepatica is related to Schizophyllum commune, which has been reported to cause white rot. Our results suggest that C. torrendii and S. commune are intermediate between white-rot and brown-rot fungi, but at the same time they show characteristics of decay that resembles soft rot. Both species cause weak wood decay and degrade all wood components but leave the middle lamella intact. Their gene content related to lignin degradation is reduced, similar to brown-rot fungi, but both have maintained a rich array of genes related to carbohydrate degradation, similar to white-rot fungi. These characteristics appear to have evolved from white-rot ancestors with stronger ligninolytic ability. Fistulina hepatica shows characteristics of brown rot both in terms of wood decay genes found in its genome and the decay that it causes. However, genes related to cellulose degradation are still present, which is a plesiomorphic characteristic shared with its white-rot ancestors. Four wood degradation-related genes, homologs of which are frequently lost in brown-rot fungi, show signs of pseudogenization in the genome of F. hepatica. These results suggest that transition towards a brown rot lifestyle could be an ongoing process in F. hepatica. Our results reinforce the idea that wood decay mechanisms are more diverse than initially thought and that the dichotomous separation of wood decay mechanisms in Agaricomycotina into white rot and brown rot should be revisited. PMID:25683379

  6. Ecology of coarse wood decomposition by the saprotrophic fungus Fomes fomentarius.

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    Větrovský, Tomáš; Voříšková, Jana; Snajdr, Jaroslav; Gabriel, Jiří; Baldrian, Petr

    2011-07-01

    Saprotrophic wood-inhabiting basidiomycetes are the most important decomposers of lignin and cellulose in dead wood and as such they attracted considerable attention. The aims of this work were to quantify the activity and spatial distribution of extracellular enzymes in coarse wood colonised by the white-rot basidiomycete Fomes fomentarius and in adjacent fruitbodies of the fungus and to analyse the diversity of the fungal and bacterial community in a fungus-colonised wood and its potential effect on enzyme production by F. fomentarius. Fungus-colonised wood and fruitbodies were collected in low management intensity forests in the Czech Republic. There were significant differences in enzyme production by F. fomentarius between Betula pendula and Fagus sylvatica wood, the activity of cellulose and xylan-degrading enzymes was significantly higher in beech wood than in birch wood. Spatial analysis of a sample B. pendula log segment proved that F. fomentarius was the single fungal representative found in the log. There was a high level of spatial variability in the amount of fungal biomass detected, but no effects on enzyme activities were observed. Samples from the fruiting body showed high β-glucosidase and chitinase activities compared to wood samples. Significantly higher levels of xylanase and cellobiohydrolase were found in samples located near the fruitbody (proximal), and higher laccase and Mn-peroxidase activities were found in the distal ones. The microbial community in wood was dominated by the fungus (fungal to bacterial DNA ratio of 62-111). Bacterial abundance composition was lower in proximal than distal parts of wood by a factor of 24. These results show a significant level of spatial heterogeneity in coarse wood. One of the explanations may be the successive colonization of wood by the fungus: due to differential enzyme production, the rates of biodegradation of coarse wood are also spatially inhomogeneous.

  7. Spatial Heterogeneity of SOM Concentrations Associated with White-rot Versus Brown-rot Wood Decay.

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    Bai, Zhen; Ma, Qiang; Dai, Yucheng; Yuan, Haisheng; Ye, Ji; Yu, Wantai

    2017-10-23

    White- and brown-rot fungal decay via distinct pathways imparts characteristic molecular imprints on decomposing wood. However, the effect that a specific wood-rotting type of fungus has on proximal soil organic matter (SOM) accumulation remains unexplored. We investigated the potential influence of white- and brown-rot fungi-decayed Abies nephrolepis logs on forest SOM stocks (i.e., soil total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N)) and the concentrations of amino sugars (microbial necromass) at different depths and horizontal distances from decaying woody debris. The brown-rot fungal wood decay resulted in higher concentrations of soil C and N and a greater increase in microbial necromass (i.e., 1.3- to 1.7-fold greater) than the white-rot fungal wood decay. The white-rot sets were accompanied by significant differences in the proportions of the bacterial residue index (muramic acid%) with soil depth; however, the brown-rot-associated soils showed complementary shifts, primarily in fungal necromass, across horizontal distances. Soil C and N concentrations were significantly correlated with fungal rather than bacterial necromass in the brown-rot systems. Our findings confirmed that the brown-rot fungi-dominated degradation of lignocellulosic residues resulted in a greater SOM buildup than the white-rot fungi-dominated degradation.

  8. Modeling decay rates of dead wood in a neotropical forest.

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    Hérault, Bruno; Beauchêne, Jacques; Muller, Félix; Wagner, Fabien; Baraloto, Christopher; Blanc, Lilian; Martin, Jean-Michel

    2010-09-01

    Variation of dead wood decay rates among tropical trees remains one source of uncertainty in global models of the carbon cycle. Taking advantage of a broad forest plot network surveyed for tree mortality over a 23-year period, we measured the remaining fraction of boles from 367 dead trees from 26 neotropical species widely varying in wood density (0.23-1.24 g cm(-3)) and tree circumference at death time (31.5-272.0 cm). We modeled decay rates within a Bayesian framework assuming a first order differential equation to model the decomposition process and tested for the effects of forest management (selective logging vs. unexploited), of mode of death (standing vs. downed) and of topographical levels (bottomlands vs. hillsides vs. hilltops) on wood decay rates. The general decay model predicts the observed remaining fraction of dead wood (R2 = 60%) with only two biological predictors: tree circumference at death time and wood specific density. Neither selective logging nor local topography had a differential effect on wood decay rates. Including the mode of death into the model revealed that standing dead trees decomposed faster than downed dead trees, but the gain of model accuracy remains rather marginal. Overall, these results suggest that the release of carbon from tropical dead trees to the atmosphere can be simply estimated using tree circumference at death time and wood density.

  9. Chapter 5: Organopollutant Degradation by Wood Decay Basidiomycetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yitzhak Hadar; Daniel Cullen

    2013-01-01

    Wood decay fungi are obligate aerobes, deriving nutrients from the biological ‘combustion’ of wood, using molecular oxygen as terminal electron acceptor (Kirk and Farrell 1987; Blanchette 1991). Non-specific extracellular enzymes are generally viewed as key components in lignin depolymerization. The major enzymes implicated in lignin degradation are lignin peroxidase (...

  10. Bacteria in decomposing wood and their interactions with wood-decay fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Sarah R; Boddy, Lynne; Weightman, Andrew J

    2016-11-01

    The fungal community within dead wood has received considerable study, but far less attention has been paid to bacteria in the same habitat. Bacteria have long been known to inhabit decomposing wood, but much remains underexplored about their identity and ecology. Bacteria within the dead wood environment must interact with wood-decay fungi, but again, very little is known about the form this takes; there are indications of both antagonistic and beneficial interactions within this fungal microbiome. Fungi are hypothesised to play an important role in shaping bacterial communities in wood, and conversely, bacteria may affect wood-decay fungi in a variety of ways. This minireview considers what is currently known about bacteria in wood and their interactions with fungi, and proposes possible associations based on examples from other habitats. It aims to identify key knowledge gaps and pressing questions for future research. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. How spectroscopy and microspectroscopy of degraded wood contribute to understand fungal wood decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fackler, Karin; Schwanninger, Manfred

    2012-11-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance, mid and near infrared, and ultra violet (UV) spectra of wood contain information on its chemistry and composition. When solid wood samples are analysed, information on the molecular structure of the lignocellulose complex of wood e.g. crystallinity of polysaccharides and the orientation of the polymers in wood cell walls can also be gained. UV and infrared spectroscopy allow also for spatially resolved spectroscopy, and state-of-the-art mapping and imaging systems have been able to provide local information on wood chemistry and structure at the level of wood cells (with IR) or cell wall layers (with UV). During the last decades, these methods have also proven useful to follow alterations of the composition, chemistry and physics of the substrate wood after fungi had grown on it as well as changes of the interactions between the wood polymers within the lignocellulose complex caused by decay fungi. This review provides an overview on how molecular spectroscopic methods could contribute to understand these degradation processes and were able to characterise and localise fungal wood decay in its various stages starting from the incipient and early ones even if the major share of research focussed on advanced decay. Practical issues such as requirements in terms of sample preparation and sample form and present examples of optimised data analysis will also be addressed to be able to detect and characterise the generally highly variable microbial degradation processes within their highly variable substrate wood.

  12. The effect of CaCl2 on growth rate, wood decay and oxalic acid accumulation in Serpula lacrymans and related brown-rot fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Christine Steenkjaer Hastrup; Bo Jensen; Carol Clausen; Frederick Green

    2006-01-01

    The dry rot fungus, Serpula lacrymans, is one of the most destructive copper-tolerant fungi causing timber decay in buildings in temperate regions. Calcium and oxalic acid have been shown to play important roles in the mechanism of wood decay. The effect of calcium on growth and decay was evaluated for 12 strains of S. lacrymans and compared to five brown-rot fungi....

  13. Decay resistance of wood-plastic composites reinforced with extracted or delignified wood flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Yao Chen; Nicole M. Stark; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Yongming Fan; Jianmin Gao

    2014-01-01

    The moisture and decay resistance of wood-plastic composites (WPCs) reinforced with extracted or delignified wood flour (WF) was investigated. Three different extractions were preformed: toluene/ethanol (TE), acetone/water (AW), and hot water (HW). Delignification (DL) was performed using a sodium chlorite/acetic acid solution. All WPCs specimens were made with 50% by...

  14. Competitive outcomes between wood-decaying fungi are altered in burnt wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edman, Mattias; Eriksson, Anna-Maria

    2016-06-01

    Fire is an important disturbance agent in boreal forests where it creates a wide variety of charred and other types of heat-modified dead wood substrates, yet how these substrates affect fungal community structure and development within wood is poorly understood. We allowed six species of wood-decaying basidiomycetes to compete in pairs in wood-discs that were experimentally burnt before fungal inoculation. The outcomes of interactions in burnt wood differed from those in unburnt control wood for two species:Antrodia sinuosanever lost on burnt wood and won over its competitor in 67% of the trials compared to 40% losses and 20% wins on unburnt wood. In contrast, Ischnoderma benzoinumwon all interactions on unburnt wood compared to 33% on burnt wood. However, the responses differed depending on the identity of the competing species, suggesting an interaction between competitor and substrate type. The observed shift in competitive balance between fungal species probably results from chemical changes in burnt wood, but the underlying mechanism needs further investigation. Nevertheless, the results indicate that forest fires indirectly structure fungal communities by modifying dead wood, and highlight the importance of fire-affected dead wood substrates in boreal forests. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Tolerance of Serpula lacrymans to copper-based wood preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Christine Steenkjaer Hastrup; Frederick Green; Carol A. Clausen; Bo Jensen

    2005-01-01

    Serpula lacrymans, the dry rot fungus, is considered the most economically important wood decay fungus in certain temperate regions of the world, namely northern Europe, Japan, and Australia. Previously, copper-based wood preservatives were commonly used for pressure treatment of wood for building construction, but some decay fungi are known to be copper tolerant. In...

  16. RNA extraction from decaying wood for (meta)transcriptomic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, Martino; Voyron, Samuele; Girlanda, Mariangela; Marmeisse, Roland

    2017-10-01

    Wood decomposition is a key step of the terrestrial carbon cycle and is of economic importance. It is essentially a microbiological process performed by fungi and to an unknown extent by bacteria. To gain access to the genes expressed by the diverse microbial communities participating in wood decay, we developed an RNA extraction protocol from this recalcitrant material rich in polysaccharides and phenolic compounds. This protocol was implemented on 22 wood samples representing as many tree species from 11 plant families in the Angiosperms and Gymnosperms. RNA was successfully extracted from all samples and converted into cDNAs from which were amplified both fungal and bacterial protein coding genes, including genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes participating in lignocellulose hydrolysis. This protocol applicable to a wide range of decomposing wood types represents a first step towards a metatranscriptomic analysis of wood degradation under natural conditions.

  17. Cellulolytic activities of wild type fungi isolated from decayed wood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mycological profile of decayed wood cuttings sourced from a saw mill located at Uwasota Road, Benin City was investigated using serial dilution and pour plate techniques. The mean fungal counts ranged from 0.9 ×106 cfu/g to 2.7 ×106 cfu/g respectively. Four fungal species were identified; Aspergillus niger, ...

  18. Decay and termite resistance, water absorption and swelling of thermally compressed wood panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oner Unsal; S. Nami Kartal; Zeki Candan; Rachel A. Arango; Carol A. Clausen; Frederick Green

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated decay and termite resistance of thermally compressed pine wood panels under pressure at either 5 or 7 MPa and either 120 or 150 °C for 1 h. Wood specimens from the panels were exposed to laboratory decay resistance by using the wood degrading fungi, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Trametes versicolor. The thermal compression process caused increases in...

  19. Controlling moisture content of wood samples using a modified soil-pan decay method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrold E. Winandy; Simon F. Curling; Patricia K. Lebow

    2005-01-01

    In wood, the threshold level below which decay cannot occur varies with species or type of wood product and other factors such as temperature, humidity, and propensity of exposure or service-use to allow rain-induced wetting and subsequent drying. The ability to control wood moisture content (MC) during laboratory decay testing could allow research on the moisture...

  20. Tracing nitrogen accumulation in decaying wood and examining its impact on wood decomposition rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, Katja T.; Rajala, Tiina; Peltoniemi, Krista; Chen, Janet; Smolander, Aino; Mäkipää, Raisa

    2016-04-01

    Decomposition of dead wood, which is controlled primarily by fungi is important for ecosystem carbon cycle and has potentially a significant role in nitrogen fixation via diazotrophs. Nitrogen content has been found to increase with advancing wood decay in several studies; however, the importance of this increase to decay rate and the sources of external nitrogen remain unclear. Improved knowledge of the temporal dynamics of wood decomposition rate and nitrogen accumulation in wood as well as the drivers of the two processes would be important for carbon and nitrogen models dealing with ecosystem responses to climate change. To tackle these questions we applied several analytical methods on Norway spruce logs from Lapinjärvi, Finland. We incubated wood samples (density classes from I to V, n=49) in different temperatures (from 8.5oC to 41oC, n=7). After a common seven day pre-incubation period at 14.5oC, the bottles were incubated six days in their designated temperature prior to CO2 flux measurements with GC to determine the decomposition rate. N2 fixation was measured with acetylene reduction assay after further 48 hour incubation. In addition, fungal DNA, (MiSeq Illumina) δ15N and N% composition of wood for samples incubated at 14.5oC were determined. Radiocarbon method was applied to obtain age distribution for the density classes. The asymbiotic N2 fixation rate was clearly dependent on the stage of wood decay and increased from stage I to stage IV but was substantially reduced in stage V. CO2 production was highest in the intermediate decay stage (classes II-IV). Both N2 fixation and CO2 production were highly temperature sensitive having optima in temperature 25oC and 31oC, respectively. We calculated the variation of annual levels of respiration and N2 fixation per hectare for the study site, and used the latter data together with the 14C results to determine the amount of N2 accumulated in wood in time. The proportion of total nitrogen in wood

  1. How to make a beetle out of wood: multi-elemental stoichiometry of wood decay, xylophagy and fungivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipiak, Michał; Weiner, January

    2014-01-01

    The majority of terrestrial biomass is wood, but the elemental composition of its potential consumers, xylophages, differs hugely from that of wood. This causes a severe nutritional imbalance. We studied the stoichiometric relationships of 11 elements (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Na) in three species of pine-xylem-feeding insects, Stictoleptura rubra, Arhopalus rusticus (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) and Chalcophora mariana (Coleoptera, Buprestidae), to elucidate their mechanisms of tissue growth and to match their life histories to their dietary constraints. These beetles do not differ from other Coleoptera in their absolute elemental compositions, which are approximately 1000 (N), 100 (P, Cu) and 50 (K, Na) times higher than in dead but undecayed pine wood. This discrepancy diminishes along the wood decay gradient, but the elemental concentrations remain higher by an order of magnitude in beetles than in highly decayed wood. Numerical simulation of the life history of S. rubra shows that feeding on nutrient-poor undecayed wood would extend its development time to implausible values, whereas feeding on highly decomposed wood (heavily infected with fungi) would barely balance its nutritional budget during the long development period of this species. The changes in stoichiometry indicate that the relative change in the nutrient levels in decaying wood cannot be attributed solely to carbon loss resulting from decomposer respiration: the action of fungi substantially enriches the decaying wood with nutritional elements imported from the outside of the system, making it a suitable food for wood-eating invertebrates.

  2. The decay of wood in landfills in contrasting climates in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ximenes, Fabiano, E-mail: fabiano.ximenes@dpi.nsw.gov.au [Forest Science, Agriculture NSW, New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Level 12, 10 Valentine Ave, Parramatta, NSW 2150 (Australia); Björdal, Charlotte [Department of Conservation, Gothenburg University, Guldhedsgatan 5A, Box 130, SE-405 30 Göteborg (Sweden); Cowie, Annette [NSW Department of Primary Industries, Beef Industry Centre, Trevenna Rd., University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351 (Australia); Barlaz, Morton [Dept. of Civil, Construction, & Environmental Eng., North Carolina State University, Box 7908, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • We examine decay in wood from landfills in contrasting environments in Australia. • Analysis is based on changes in chemical composition and microscopy. • Climate did not influence levels of decay observed. • Microscopy of retrieved samples revealed most of the decay was aerobic in nature. • Current default factors for wood decay in landfills overestimate methane emissions. - Abstract: Wood products in landfill are commonly assumed to decay within several decades, returning the carbon contained therein to the atmosphere, with about half the carbon released as methane. However, the rate and extent of decay is not well known, as very few studies have examined the decay of wood products in landfills. This study reports on the findings from landfill excavations conducted in the Australian cities of Sydney and Cairns located in temperate and tropical environments, respectively. The objective of this study was to determine whether burial of the wood in warmer, more tropical conditions in Cairns would result in greater levels of decay than occurs in the temperate environment of Sydney. Wood samples recovered after 16–44 years in landfill were examined through physical, chemical and microscopic analyses, and compared with control samples to determine the carbon loss. There was typically little or no decay in the wood samples analysed from the landfill in Sydney. Although there was significant decay in rainforest wood species excavated from Cairns, decay levels for wood types that were common to both Cairns and Sydney landfills were similar. The current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2006) default decay factor for organic materials in landfills is 50%. In contrast, the carbon loss determined for Pinus radiata recovered from Sydney and Cairns landfills was 7.9% and 4.4%, respectively, and 0% for Agathis sp. This suggests that climate did not influence decay, and that the more extensive levels of decay observed for some wood samples

  3. The decay of wood in landfills in contrasting climates in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ximenes, Fabiano; Björdal, Charlotte; Cowie, Annette; Barlaz, Morton

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We examine decay in wood from landfills in contrasting environments in Australia. • Analysis is based on changes in chemical composition and microscopy. • Climate did not influence levels of decay observed. • Microscopy of retrieved samples revealed most of the decay was aerobic in nature. • Current default factors for wood decay in landfills overestimate methane emissions. - Abstract: Wood products in landfill are commonly assumed to decay within several decades, returning the carbon contained therein to the atmosphere, with about half the carbon released as methane. However, the rate and extent of decay is not well known, as very few studies have examined the decay of wood products in landfills. This study reports on the findings from landfill excavations conducted in the Australian cities of Sydney and Cairns located in temperate and tropical environments, respectively. The objective of this study was to determine whether burial of the wood in warmer, more tropical conditions in Cairns would result in greater levels of decay than occurs in the temperate environment of Sydney. Wood samples recovered after 16–44 years in landfill were examined through physical, chemical and microscopic analyses, and compared with control samples to determine the carbon loss. There was typically little or no decay in the wood samples analysed from the landfill in Sydney. Although there was significant decay in rainforest wood species excavated from Cairns, decay levels for wood types that were common to both Cairns and Sydney landfills were similar. The current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2006) default decay factor for organic materials in landfills is 50%. In contrast, the carbon loss determined for Pinus radiata recovered from Sydney and Cairns landfills was 7.9% and 4.4%, respectively, and 0% for Agathis sp. This suggests that climate did not influence decay, and that the more extensive levels of decay observed for some wood samples

  4. Hexadecyl ammonium chloride amylose inclusion complex to emulsify cedarwood oil and treat wood against termites and wood-decay fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.J. Eller; W.T. Hay; G.T. Kirker; M.E. Mankowski; G.W. Sellling

    2018-01-01

    Cedarwood oil (CWO) has a wide range of bioactivities, including insect repellency and toxicity, as well as conferring resistance against termites and wood-decay fungi. In previous work examining pressure treatment of wood, ethanol was used as the diluent/carrier for CWO. However, it is preferable to use a water-based carrier for environmental, safety and cost...

  5. Insight into tradeoff between wood decay and parasitism from the genome of a fungal forest pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ake Olson; Andrea Aerts; Fred Asiegbu; Lassaad Belbahri; Ourdia Bouzid; Anders Broberg; Bjorn Canback; Pedro M. Coutinho; Dan Cullen; Kerstin Dalman; Giuliana Deflorio; Linda T.A. van Diepen; Christophe Dunand; Sebastien Duplessis; Mikael Durling; Paolo Gonthier; Jane Grimwood; Carl Gunnar Fossdal; David Hansson; Bernard Henrissat; Ari Hietala; Kajsa Himmelsrand; Dirk Hoffmeister; Nils Hogberg; Timothy Y. James; Magnus Karlsson; Annegret Kohler; Ursula Kues; Yong-Hwan Lee; Yao-Cheng Lin; Marten Lind; Erika Lindquist; Vincent Lombard; Susan Lucas; Karl Lunden; Emmanuelle Morin; Claude Murat; Jongsun Park; Tommaso Raffaello; Pierre Rouze; Asaf Salamov; Jeremy Schmutz; Halvor Solheim; Jerry Stahlberg; Heriberto Velez; Ronald P. deVries; Ad Wiebenga; Steve Woodward; Igor Yakovlev; Matteo Garbelotto; Francis Martin; Igor V. Grigoriev; Jan. Stenlid

    2012-01-01

    • Parasitism and saprotrophic wood decay are two fungal strategies fundamental for succession and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems. An opportunity to assess the trade-off between these strategies is provided by the forest pathogen and wood decayer Heterobasidion annosum sensu lato. • We report the annotated genome sequence and transcript...

  6. Detection of wood discoloration in a canker fungus-inoculated Japanese cedar by neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, T.; Aoki, Y.; Yamato, M.; Komatsu, M.; Kusumoto, D.; Suzuki, K.; Nakanishi, T.M.

    2005-01-01

    Neutron radiography (NRG) was applied to trace the development of discolored tissue in the wood of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) after being infected with a canker fungus. Japanese cedar seedlings were wound inoculated with a virulent and avirulent isolate of a canker fungus, Guignardia cryptomeriae. Three, 7, 13 and 22 days after the inoculation, the seedlings were irradiated with thermal neutrons. The image on the X-ray film showed that the whiteness in the image corresponded to the water content in the sample. Discolored tissue and surrounding dry zones induced by the fungal inoculation were detected as dark areas, indicating water deficiency with a high resolution. Through image analysis, the dry zones were detected as early as 3 days after inoculation. Neutron images also showed the difference in the size of water deficient parts due to the tissue damage among the treatments. The neutron beam dose used in this experiment had no effect on the growth rate of the fungus on a medium, showing that NRG is an effective method for pathological research of trees. (author)

  7. Serpula lacrymans, The Dry Rot Fungus and Tolerance Towards Copper-Based Wood Preservatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Jensen, Bo; Clausen, Carol

    2005-01-01

    -rot fungi is thought to be due in part to oxalic acid production and accumulation. Oxalic acid has been implicated in copper tolerance by the formation of copper oxalate crystals. Twelve isolates of the dry rot fungus, S. lacrymans and four other brown rot species were evaluated for weight loss on wood...

  8. Application of ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy to Compare the Cell Materials of Wood Decay Fungi with Wood Mould Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barun Shankar Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood fungi create vast damage among standing trees and all types of wood materials. The objectives of this study are to (a characterize the cell materials of two major wood decay fungi (Basidiomycota, namely, Trametes versicolor and Postia placenta, and (b compare the cell materials of decay fungi with four wood mould fungi (Ascomycota, namely, Aureobasidium pullulans, Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, and Ulocladium atrum. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy is used to characterize the microbial cellular materials. The results showed that the IR bands for the fatty acid at ∼2900 cm−1 were different for the two-decay-fungi genre. Postia placenta shows more absorbance peaks at the fatty acid region. Band ratio indices for amide I and amide II from protein amino acids were higher for the mould fungi (Ascomycota than the decay fungi (Basidiomycota. Similarly, the band ratio index calculated for the protein end methyl group was found to be higher for the mould fungi than the decay fungi. Mould fungi along with the decay fungi demonstrated a positive correlation (R2=0.75 between amide I and amide II indices. The three-component multivariate, principal component analysis showed a strong correlation of amide and protein band indices.

  9. Tree disease and wood decay as agents of environmental and social change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2018-01-01

    The breakdown or decay of wood is a prominent process in landscape health and disease. The bulk of the energy captured and stored by natural woodlands, orchards, and agroforestry operations is allocated to produce wood. The release of that stored energy and the cycling of the constituent mineral elements into environmental pools and other organisms is through processes...

  10. Wood decay by Chlorociboria aeruginascens (Nyl.) Kanouse (Helotiales, Leotiaceae) and associated basidiomycete fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana L. Richter; Jessie A. Glaeser

    2015-01-01

    Two isolates of Chlorociboria aeruginascens (Nyl.) Kanouse incubated axenically on aspen wood blocks resulted in 18% and 32% mass loss after 134 wks (2 yrs 8 mo). Aspen wood decayed by C. aeruginascens contained cavities in the S2 layer of the secondary cell wall, similar to Type I soft rot attack, as well as erosion troughs and...

  11. Understanding decay resistance, dimensional stability and strength changes in heat treated and acetylated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell; Rebecca E. Ibach; James McSweeny; Thomas Nilsson

    2009-01-01

    Reductions in hygroscopicity, increased dimensional stability and decay resistance of heat-treated wood depend on decomposition of a large portion of the hemicelluloses in the wood cell wall. In theory, these hemicelluloses are converted to small organic molecules, water and volatile furan-type intermediates that can polymerize in the cell wall. Reductions in...

  12. DecAID: a decaying wood advisory model for Oregon and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Mellen; Bruce G. Marcot; Janet L. Ohmann; Karen L. Waddell; Elizabeth A. Willhite; Bruce B. Hostetler; Susan A. Livingston; Cay. Ogden

    2002-01-01

    DecAID is a knowledge-based advisory model that provides guidance to managers in determining the size, amount, and distribution of dead and decaying wood (dead and partially dead trees and down wood) necessary to maintain wildlife habitat and ecosystem functions. The intent of the model is to update and replace existing snag-wildlife models in Washington and Oregon....

  13. Concepts in the development of new accelerated test methods for wood decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrel D. Nicholas; Douglas Crawford

    2003-01-01

    Efforts to develop new environmentally friendly wood preservatives are seriously handicapped by the extended time period required to carry out the evaluation needed to establish confidence in the long term performance of new preservative systems. Studies in our laboratory have shown that using strength loss as a measure of the extent of wood decay makes it possible to...

  14. Syringyl-Rich Lignin Renders Poplars More Resistant to Degradation by Wood Decay Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skyba, Oleksandr; Douglas, Carl J.

    2013-01-01

    In order to elucidate the effects of lignin composition on the resistance of wood to degradation by decay fungi, wood specimens from two transgenic poplar lines expressing an Arabidopsis gene encoding ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H) driven by the cinnimate-4-hydroxylase promoter (C4H::F5H) that increased syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G) monolignol ratios relative to those in the untransformed control wood were incubated with six different wood decay fungi. Alterations in wood weight and chemical composition were monitored over the incubation period. The results showed that transgenic poplar lines extremely rich in syringyl lignin exhibited a drastically improved resistance to degradation by all decay fungi evaluated. Lignin monomer composition and its distribution among cell types and within different cell layers were the sole wood chemistry parameters determining wood durability. Since transgenic poplars with exceedingly high syringyl contents were recalcitrant to degradation, where wood durability is a critical factor, these genotypes may offer improved performance. PMID:23396333

  15. Controls on coarse wood decay in temperate tree species: birth of the LOGLIFE experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Sass-Klaassen, Ute; Poorter, Lourens; van Geffen, Koert; van Logtestijn, Richard S P; van Hal, Jurgen; Goudzwaard, Leo; Sterck, Frank J; Klaassen, René K W M; Freschet, Grégoire T; van der Wal, Annemieke; Eshuis, Henk; Zuo, Juan; de Boer, Wietse; Lamers, Teun; Weemstra, Monique; Cretin, Vincent; Martin, Rozan; Ouden, Jan den; Berg, Matty P; Aerts, Rien; Mohren, Godefridus M J; Hefting, Mariet M

    2012-01-01

    Dead wood provides a huge terrestrial carbon stock and a habitat to wide-ranging organisms during its decay. Our brief review highlights that, in order to understand environmental change impacts on these functions, we need to quantify the contributions of different interacting biotic and abiotic drivers to wood decomposition. LOGLIFE is a new long-term 'common-garden' experiment to disentangle the effects of species' wood traits and site-related environmental drivers on wood decomposition dynamics and its associated diversity of microbial and invertebrate communities. This experiment is firmly rooted in pioneering experiments under the directorship of Terry Callaghan at Abisko Research Station, Sweden. LOGLIFE features two contrasting forest sites in the Netherlands, each hosting a similar set of coarse logs and branches of 10 tree species. LOGLIFE welcomes other researchers to test further questions concerning coarse wood decay that will also help to optimise forest management in view of carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation.

  16. The effect of CaCl2 on growth rate, wood decay and oxalic acid accumulation in Serpula lacrymans and related brown-rot fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Jensen, Bo; Clausen, Carol. A.

    2006-01-01

    The dry rot fungus, Serpula lacrymans, is one of the most destructive copper-tolerant fungi causing timber decay in buildings in temperate regions. Calcium and oxalic acid have been shown to play important roles in the mechanism of wood decay. The effect of calcium on growth and decay was evaluated...... for 12 strains of S. lacrymans and compared to five brown-rot fungi. This was done by treating copper citrate (CC)-treated Southern yellow pine (SYP) wood with a CaCl2 solution and estimating the decay rate and amount of soluble oxalic acid in an ASTM soil block test. Decay by S. lacrymans was found....... In summary, a marked decrease was observed in the decay capacity of S. lacrymans in pine treated with CC+CaCl2. The amount of soluble oxalic acid was measured in CC-treated blocks and blocks also treated with CaCl2. Of the comparative brown-rot fungi, both Antrodia vaillantii (TFFH 294) and Postia placenta...

  17. Micronized Copper Wood Preservatives: Efficacy of Ion, Nano, and Bulk Copper against the Brown Rot Fungus Rhodonia placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civardi, Chiara; Schubert, Mark; Fey, Angelika; Wick, Peter; Schwarze, Francis W M R

    2015-01-01

    Recently introduced micronized copper (MC) formulations, consisting of a nanosized fraction of basic copper (Cu) carbonate (CuCO3·Cu(OH)2) nanoparticles (NPs), were introduced to the market for wood protection. Cu NPs may presumably be more effective against wood-destroying fungi than bulk or ionic Cu compounds. In particular, Cu- tolerant wood-destroying fungi may not recognize NPs, which may penetrate into fungal cell walls and membranes and exert their impact. The objective of this study was to assess if MC wood preservative formulations have a superior efficacy against Cu-tolerant wood-destroying fungi due to nano effects than conventional Cu biocides. After screening a range of wood-destroying fungi for their resistance to Cu, we investigated fungal growth of the Cu-tolerant fungus Rhodonia placenta in solid and liquid media and on wood treated with MC azole (MCA). In liquid cultures we evaluated the fungal response to ion, nano and bulk Cu distinguishing the ionic and particle effects by means of the Cu2+ chelator ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (TTM) and measuring fungal biomass, oxalic acid production and laccase activity of R. placenta. Our results do not support the presence of particular nano effects of MCA against R. placenta that would account for an increased antifungal efficacy, but provide evidence that attribute the main effectiveness of MCA to azoles.

  18. Interactions between soil- and dead wood-inhabiting fungal communities during the decay of Norway spruce logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkipää, Raisa; Rajala, Tiina; Schigel, Dmitry; Rinne, Katja T; Pennanen, Taina; Abrego, Nerea; Ovaskainen, Otso

    2017-09-01

    We investigated the interaction between fungal communities of soil and dead wood substrates. For this, we applied molecular species identification and stable isotope tracking to both soil and decaying wood in an unmanaged boreal Norway spruce-dominated stand. Altogether, we recorded 1990 operational taxonomic units, out of which more than 600 were shared by both substrates and 589 were found to exclusively inhabit wood. On average the soil was more species-rich than the decaying wood, but the species richness in dead wood increased monotonically along the decay gradient, reaching the same species richness and community composition as soil in the late stages. Decaying logs at all decay stages locally influenced the fungal communities from soil, some fungal species occurring in soil only under decaying wood. Stable isotope analyses suggest that mycorrhizal species colonising dead wood in the late decay stages actively transfer nitrogen and carbon between soil and host plants. Most importantly, Piloderma sphaerosporum and Tylospora sp. mycorrhizal species were highly abundant in decayed wood. Soil- and wood-inhabiting fungal communities interact at all decay phases of wood that has important implications in fungal community dynamics and thus nutrient transportation.

  19. Wood utilization is dependent on catalase activities in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Bourdais

    Full Text Available Catalases are enzymes that play critical roles in protecting cells against the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide. They are implicated in various physiological and pathological conditions but some of their functions remain unclear. In order to decipher the role(s of catalases during the life cycle of Podospora anserina, we analyzed the role of the four monofunctional catalases and one bifunctional catalase-peroxidase genes present in its genome. The five genes were deleted and the phenotypes of each single and all multiple mutants were investigated. Intriguingly, although the genes are differently expressed during the life cycle, catalase activity is dispensable during both vegetative growth and sexual reproduction in laboratory conditions. Catalases are also not essential for cellulose or fatty acid assimilation. In contrast, they are strictly required for efficient utilization of more complex biomass like wood shavings by allowing growth in the presence of lignin. The secreted CATB and cytosolic CAT2 are the major catalases implicated in peroxide resistance, while CAT2 is the major player during complex biomass assimilation. Our results suggest that P. anserina produces external H(2O(2 to assimilate complex biomass and that catalases are necessary to protect the cells during this process. In addition, the phenotypes of strains lacking only one catalase gene suggest that a decrease of catalase activity improves the capacity of the fungus to degrade complex biomass.

  20. Wood utilization is dependent on catalase activities in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdais, Anne; Bidard, Frederique; Zickler, Denise; Berteaux-Lecellier, Veronique; Silar, Philippe; Espagne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Catalases are enzymes that play critical roles in protecting cells against the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide. They are implicated in various physiological and pathological conditions but some of their functions remain unclear. In order to decipher the role(s) of catalases during the life cycle of Podospora anserina, we analyzed the role of the four monofunctional catalases and one bifunctional catalase-peroxidase genes present in its genome. The five genes were deleted and the phenotypes of each single and all multiple mutants were investigated. Intriguingly, although the genes are differently expressed during the life cycle, catalase activity is dispensable during both vegetative growth and sexual reproduction in laboratory conditions. Catalases are also not essential for cellulose or fatty acid assimilation. In contrast, they are strictly required for efficient utilization of more complex biomass like wood shavings by allowing growth in the presence of lignin. The secreted CATB and cytosolic CAT2 are the major catalases implicated in peroxide resistance, while CAT2 is the major player during complex biomass assimilation. Our results suggest that P. anserina produces external H(2)O(2) to assimilate complex biomass and that catalases are necessary to protect the cells during this process. In addition, the phenotypes of strains lacking only one catalase gene suggest that a decrease of catalase activity improves the capacity of the fungus to degrade complex biomass.

  1. Wood Utilization Is Dependent on Catalase Activities in the Filamentous Fungus Podospora anserina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdais, Anne; Bidard, Frederique; Zickler, Denise; Berteaux-Lecellier, Veronique; Silar, Philippe; Espagne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Catalases are enzymes that play critical roles in protecting cells against the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide. They are implicated in various physiological and pathological conditions but some of their functions remain unclear. In order to decipher the role(s) of catalases during the life cycle of Podospora anserina, we analyzed the role of the four monofunctional catalases and one bifunctional catalase-peroxidase genes present in its genome. The five genes were deleted and the phenotypes of each single and all multiple mutants were investigated. Intriguingly, although the genes are differently expressed during the life cycle, catalase activity is dispensable during both vegetative growth and sexual reproduction in laboratory conditions. Catalases are also not essential for cellulose or fatty acid assimilation. In contrast, they are strictly required for efficient utilization of more complex biomass like wood shavings by allowing growth in the presence of lignin. The secreted CATB and cytosolic CAT2 are the major catalases implicated in peroxide resistance, while CAT2 is the major player during complex biomass assimilation. Our results suggest that P. anserina produces external H2O2 to assimilate complex biomass and that catalases are necessary to protect the cells during this process. In addition, the phenotypes of strains lacking only one catalase gene suggest that a decrease of catalase activity improves the capacity of the fungus to degrade complex biomass. PMID:22558065

  2. Fungal accumulation of metals from building materials during brown rot wood decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Jensen, Bo; Jellison, Jody

    2014-08-01

    This study analyzes the accumulation and translocation of metal ions in wood during the degradation performed by one strain of each of the three brown rot fungi; Serpula lacrymans, Meruliporia incrassata and Coniophora puteana. These fungi species are inhabitants of the built environment where the prevention and understanding of fungal decay is of high priority. This study focuses on the influence of various building materials in relation to fungal growth and metal uptake. Changes in the concentration of iron, manganese, calcium and copper ions in the decayed wood were analyzed by induced coupled plasma spectroscopy and related to wood weight loss and oxalic acid accumulation. Metal transport into the fungal inoculated wood was found to be dependent on the individual strain/species. The S. lacrymans strain caused a significant increase in total iron whereas the concentration of copper ions in the wood appeared decreased after 10 weeks of decay. Wood inoculated with the M. incrassata isolate showed the contrary tendency with high copper accumulation and low iron increase despite similar weight losses for the two strains. However, significantly lower oxalic acid accumulation was recorded in M. incrassata degraded wood. The addition of a building material resulted in increased weight loss in wood degraded by C. puteana in the soil-block test; however, this could not be directly linked specifically to the accumulation of any of the four metals recorded. The accumulation of oxalic acid seemed to influence the iron uptake. The study assessing the influence of the presence of soil and glass in the soil-block test revealed that soil contributed the majority of the metals for uptake by the fungi and contributed to increased weight loss. The varying uptake observed among the three brown rot fungi strains toward the four metals analyzed may be related to the specific non-enzymatic and enzymatic properties including bio-chelators employed by each of the species during wood

  3. Influence of humic substances and wood decay products on the valency state of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, A.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of dissolved natural substances on the oxidation state of iron and uranium. The ongoing remediation of uranium mining areas in Saxony and Thuringia involves flooding of extended pits, submerging and subjecting to microbial decay considerable amounts of pit timber in the process. This gives rise to the problem whether the reductive environment which develops as a result of wood decay in the pit water is capable of reducing the uranium (VI) and iron (III) contained in the flood water. Measurements of the valency state of uranium and iron following their interaction with natural decay products were performed by means of electrochemical, photometric and laser spectroscopic methods. This was followed by sorption experiments with a view to collecting phenomenological data on the binding behaviour of uranium species with respect to the rock bed of the Western Erz Hills and the sediments of the Elbe valley under different redox potential conditions. The study was concluded with redox potential calculations aimed at describing the state of pit waters as well as characterising analogous natural waters. The study was performed using humic acids for alkaline brown coal extract, high moor humic substances originating from natural microbial wood decay for wood decay products, and products from hydrothermal wood decomposition as well as lignin for a methanolic wood extract [de

  4. Biodegradation of Hevea brasiliensis wood by Rigidoporus lignosus and Phellinus noxius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, J.P.; Rio, B.; Nicole, M.; Nandris, D.

    1986-01-01

    In vitro wood slats degradation assays reveal that both the white root rot fungus R. lignosus and the brown root rot fungus P. noxius cause a white rot of wood. In vivo (infected tap roots) they cause the same type of decay. Nevertheless lignin determination show the rubber-tree ability to react against the parasite aggression by increased lignification of tissues.

  5. Transfer soil-wood of radionuclides of uranium decay series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deus, P.; Petschat, U.; Schmidt, P.

    1998-01-01

    The radionuclide transfer soil-plant is an essential feature for radioecological characterisation of the biosphere. Beside of plants used only for nutrition purposes also plants have to be investigated which are used otherwise intensively or over long periods by humans. This e.g. comes true in the case of wood which as timber or furniture in buildings could be the reason of radiation expositions of inhabitants. In this work by means of experimental investigations for 226 Ra, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 238 U and 227 Ac transfer factors of wood grown on areas used formerly by uranium mining are estimated. The dependence of transfer factors on specific activity in soil is determined. It is shown that in the case of higher soil activities transfer factors of wood are comparable with factors published for other vegetation. As a rule no linear dependence of plant activity on soil activity has been found. As known from other radionuclides saturations take place which result in an upper level of activity in the plants. An effective dose estimation in the case of typical applications shows as a rule no remarkable radioecological risk due to wood grown on mining areas with the exception of processes including radionuclide enrichment. In latter cases and for wood grown on areas with soil activities >1 000 Bq/kg with respect to a general radiation protection precaution duty and aspects of licence problems, however, a case-to-case decision is recommended. (orig.) [de

  6. Network analysis reveals ecological links between N-fixing bacteria and wood-decaying fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Björn; Kahl, Tiemo; Karasch, Peter; Wubet, Tesfaye; Bauhus, Jürgen; Buscot, François; Krüger, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen availability in dead wood is highly restricted and associations with N-fixing bacteria are thought to enable wood-decaying fungi to meet their nitrogen requirements for vegetative and generative growth. We assessed the diversity of nifH (dinitrogenase reductase) genes in dead wood of the common temperate tree species Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies from differently managed forest plots in Germany using molecular tools. By incorporating these genes into a large compilation of published nifH sequences and subsequent phylogenetic analyses of deduced proteins we verified the presence of diverse pools corresponding to functional nifH, almost all of which are new to science. The distribution of nifH genes strongly correlated with tree species and decay class, but not with forest management, while higher fungal fructification was correlated with decreasing nitrogen content of the dead wood and positively correlated with nifH diversity, especially during the intermediate stage of wood decay. Network analyses based on non-random species co-occurrence patterns revealed interactions among fungi and N-fixing bacteria in the dead wood and strongly indicate the occurrence of at least commensal relationships between these taxa.

  7. Network analysis reveals ecological links between N-fixing bacteria and wood-decaying fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Hoppe

    Full Text Available Nitrogen availability in dead wood is highly restricted and associations with N-fixing bacteria are thought to enable wood-decaying fungi to meet their nitrogen requirements for vegetative and generative growth. We assessed the diversity of nifH (dinitrogenase reductase genes in dead wood of the common temperate tree species Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies from differently managed forest plots in Germany using molecular tools. By incorporating these genes into a large compilation of published nifH sequences and subsequent phylogenetic analyses of deduced proteins we verified the presence of diverse pools corresponding to functional nifH, almost all of which are new to science. The distribution of nifH genes strongly correlated with tree species and decay class, but not with forest management, while higher fungal fructification was correlated with decreasing nitrogen content of the dead wood and positively correlated with nifH diversity, especially during the intermediate stage of wood decay. Network analyses based on non-random species co-occurrence patterns revealed interactions among fungi and N-fixing bacteria in the dead wood and strongly indicate the occurrence of at least commensal relationships between these taxa.

  8. Development of wood decay in wound-initiated discolored wood of eastern red cedar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter C. Shortle; Kenneth R. Dudzik; Kevin T. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Logs of eastern red cedar, Juniperus virginiana L., with well-developed bands of light-colored wood ("included sapwood") within heartwood can be unsuitable for sawn wood products. This finding is in contrast to published information that the "included sapwood" is (1) a heartwood anomaly rather than sapwood and (2) its occurrence...

  9. Field and Laboratory Decay Evaluations of wood-plastic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Marek Gnatowski; Grace Sun

    2013-01-01

    Experimental wood–plastic composites (WPCs) were made so that they matched the manufacturing process, dimensions, and water absorption of some commercial decking boards. WPC samples from selected formulations were divided into two identical groups. The first group was exposed in exterior conditions in Vancouver, British Columbia, and Hilo, Hawaii, at sun and shadow...

  10. Efficacy of copper borax preservative against wood decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Abbott; Bessie Woodward; Michael West

    2001-01-01

    In this study, a wood preservative containing active ingredients of 43.5% borax and 3.1% copper hydroxide was evaluated in soil-block tests in accordance with AWPA E10. Results suggested thatthe copper hydroxide was not contributing to fungal toxicity at preservative threshold levels. Thresholds determined for this preservative were very close to those previously...

  11. Use of sonic tomography to detect and quantify wood decay in living trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Gregory S; Ballesteros, Javier O; Barrios-Rodriguez, Cesar A; Bonadies, Ernesto F; Cedeño-Sánchez, Marjorie L; Fossatti-Caballero, Nohely J; Trejos-Rodríguez, Mariam M; Pérez-Suñiga, José Moises; Holub-Young, Katharine S; Henn, Laura A W; Thompson, Jennifer B; García-López, Cesar G; Romo, Amanda C; Johnston, Daniel C; Barrick, Pablo P; Jordan, Fulvia A; Hershcovich, Shiran; Russo, Natalie; Sánchez, Juan David; Fábrega, Juan Pablo; Lumpkin, Raleigh; McWilliams, Hunter A; Chester, Kathleen N; Burgos, Alana C; Wong, E Beatriz; Diab, Jonathan H; Renteria, Sonia A; Harrower, Jennifer T; Hooton, Douglas A; Glenn, Travis C; Faircloth, Brant C; Hubbell, Stephen P

    2016-12-01

    Field methodology and image analysis protocols using acoustic tomography were developed and evaluated as a tool to estimate the amount of internal decay and damage of living trees, with special attention to tropical rainforest trees with irregular trunk shapes. Living trunks of a diversity of tree species in tropical rainforests in the Republic of Panama were scanned using an Argus Electronic PiCUS 3 Sonic Tomograph and evaluated for the amount and patterns of internal decay. A protocol using ImageJ analysis software was used to quantify the proportions of intact and compromised wood. The protocols provide replicable estimates of internal decay and cavities for trees of varying shapes, wood density, and bark thickness. Sonic tomography, coupled with image analysis, provides an efficient, noninvasive approach to evaluate decay patterns and structural integrity of even irregularly shaped living trees.

  12. Use of sonic tomography to detect and quantify wood decay in living trees1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Gregory S.; Ballesteros, Javier O.; Barrios-Rodriguez, Cesar A.; Bonadies, Ernesto F.; Cedeño-Sánchez, Marjorie L.; Fossatti-Caballero, Nohely J.; Trejos-Rodríguez, Mariam M.; Pérez-Suñiga, José Moises; Holub-Young, Katharine S.; Henn, Laura A. W.; Thompson, Jennifer B.; García-López, Cesar G.; Romo, Amanda C.; Johnston, Daniel C.; Barrick, Pablo P.; Jordan, Fulvia A.; Hershcovich, Shiran; Russo, Natalie; Sánchez, Juan David; Fábrega, Juan Pablo; Lumpkin, Raleigh; McWilliams, Hunter A.; Chester, Kathleen N.; Burgos, Alana C.; Wong, E. Beatriz; Diab, Jonathan H.; Renteria, Sonia A.; Harrower, Jennifer T.; Hooton, Douglas A.; Glenn, Travis C.; Faircloth, Brant C.; Hubbell, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Field methodology and image analysis protocols using acoustic tomography were developed and evaluated as a tool to estimate the amount of internal decay and damage of living trees, with special attention to tropical rainforest trees with irregular trunk shapes. Methods and Results: Living trunks of a diversity of tree species in tropical rainforests in the Republic of Panama were scanned using an Argus Electronic PiCUS 3 Sonic Tomograph and evaluated for the amount and patterns of internal decay. A protocol using ImageJ analysis software was used to quantify the proportions of intact and compromised wood. The protocols provide replicable estimates of internal decay and cavities for trees of varying shapes, wood density, and bark thickness. Conclusions: Sonic tomography, coupled with image analysis, provides an efficient, noninvasive approach to evaluate decay patterns and structural integrity of even irregularly shaped living trees. PMID:28101433

  13. Wood decay by brown-rot fungi : changes in pore structure and cell wall volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas S. Flournoy; T. Kent Kirk; T.L. Highley

    1991-01-01

    Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) wood blocks were decayed by Postia (= Poria) placenta in soilblock cultures. Decay was terminated at various weight losses, and the pore volumes available to four low molecular weight molecules, (water, 4 Å,; glucose, 8 Å,; maltose, 10 Å; and raffinose, 128,) and three dextrans (Mr 6,000, 38 Å; 11,200, 51 Å; nd 17,500, 61 Å) were...

  14. Extensive sampling of basidiomycete genomes demonstrates inadequacy of the white rot/brown rot paradigm for wood decay fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) make up 32% of the described fungi and include most wood decaying species, as well as pathogens and mutualistic symbionts. Wood-decaying basidiomycetes have typically been classified as either white rot or brown rot, based on the ability (in white rot only) to degrade ...

  15. Extensive sampling of basidiomycete genomes demonstrates inadequacy of the white-rot/brown-rot paradigm for wood decay fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Riley; Asaf A. Salamov; Daren W. Brown; Laszlo G. Nagy; Dimitrios Floudas; Benjamin W. Held; Anthony Levasseur; Vincent Lombard; Emmanuelle Morin; Robert Otillar; Erika A. Lindquist; Hui Sun; Kurt M. LaButti; Jeremy Schmutz; Dina Jabbour; Hong Luo; Scott E. Baker; Antonio G. Pisabarro; Jonathan D. Walton; Robert A. Blanchette; Bernard Henrissat; Francis Martin; Daniel Cullen; David S. Hibbett; Igor V. Grigoriev

    2014-01-01

    Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) make up 32% of the described fungi and include most wood-decaying species, as well as pathogens and mutualistic symbionts. Wood-decaying basidiomycetes have typically been classified as either white rot or brown rot, based on the ability (in white rot only) to degrade lignin along with cellulose and hemicellulose. Prior genomic...

  16. Comparative transcriptome and secretome analysis of wood decay fungi Postia placenta and Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amber J. Vanden Wymelenberg; Jill Gaskell; Michael Mozuch; Grzegorz Sabat; John Ralph; Oleksandr Skyba; Shawn D Mansfield; Robert A. Blanchette; Diego Martinez; Igor Grigoriev; Philip J Kersten; Daniel Cullen

    2010-01-01

    Cellulose degradation by brown rot fungi, such as Postia placenta, is poorly understood relative to the phylogenetically related white rot basidiomycete, Phanerochaete chrysosporium. To elucidate the number, structure, and regulation of genes involved in lignocellulosic cell wall attack, secretome and transcriptome analyses were performed on both wood decay fungi...

  17. A non-destructive approach for assessing decay in preservative treated wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machek, L.; Edlund, M.L.; Sierra-Alvarez, R.; Militz, H.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the suitability of the non-destructive vibration-impulse excitation technique to assess the attack of preservative-treated wood in contact with the ground. Small stakes (10×5×100 mm3) of treated and untreated Scots pine sapwood were exposed to decay in laboratory-scale

  18. Conservation experiments applying radiation-curable impregnating agents to intact and artifically decayed wood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaudy, R.; Slais, E.

    1983-02-01

    Conservation experiments have been performed applying 10 selected impregnating agents to intact and chemically as well as biologically decayed wood samples. The quality of the radiation-curable impregnating agents could be valued by determination of the monomer uptake, the alteration of dimensions and volume and the deformation of the samples. The results are to be discussed. (Author) [de

  19. Copper radical oxidases and related extracellular oxidoreductases of wood-decay Agaricomycetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phil Kersten; Dan Cullen

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular peroxide generation, a key component of oxidative lignocellulose degradation, has been attributed to various enzymes including the copper radical oxidases. Encoded by a family of structurally related sequences, the genes are widely distributed among wood decay fungi including three recently completed polypore genomes. In all cases, core catalytic residues...

  20. Exterior Decay of Wood-Plastic Composite Boards: Characterization and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca Ibach; Grace Sun; Marek Gnatowski; Jessie Glaeser; Mathew Leung; John Haight

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to evaluate free water content and distribution in wood-plastic composite (WPC) materials decayed during exterior exposure near Hilo, Hawaii. Two segments of the same board blend were selected from 6 commercial decking boards that had fungal fruiting bodies. One of the two board segments was exposed in sun, the other in shadow...

  1. Tolerance of Serpula lacrymans to copper-based wood preservatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Green, Frederick; Clausen, Carol A.

    2005-01-01

    construction, but some decay fungi are known to be copper tolerant. In this study, soil-block tests were undertaken to clarify the effect of copper, copper citrate, and alkaline copper quaternary-type D (ACQ-D) on the decay capabilities of S. lacrymans compared with an alternative wood preservative......Serpula lacrymans, the dry rot fungus, is considered the most economically important wood decay fungus in certain temperate regions of the world, namely northern Europe, Japan, and Australia. Previously, copper-based wood preservatives were commonly used for pressure treatment of wood for building...... not containing copper. Twelve isolates of the dry rot fungus S. lacrymans and four other brown-rot species were evaluated for weight loss on wood treated with 1.2% copper citrate, 0.5% ACQ-D, and 0.5% naphthaloylhydroxylamine (NHA). Eleven out of 12 isolates of S. lacrymans were shown to be tolerant towards...

  2. Elevated tropospheric CO2 and O3 may not alter initial wood decomposition rate or wood-decaying fungal community composition of Northern hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel Ebanyenle; Andrew J. Burton; Andrew J. Storer; Dana L. Richter; Jessie A. Glaeser

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of elevated CO2 and/or O3 on the wood-decaying basidiomycete fungal community and wood decomposition rates at the Aspen Free-Air CO2 and O3 Enrichment (Aspen FACE) project. Mass loss rates were determined after one year of log decomposition on the soil...

  3. Bioprospecting metagenomics of decaying wood: mining for new glycoside hydrolases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Luen-Luen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To efficiently deconstruct recalcitrant plant biomass to fermentable sugars in industrial processes, biocatalysts of higher performance and lower cost are required. The genetic diversity found in the metagenomes of natural microbial biomass decay communities may harbor such enzymes. Our goal was to discover and characterize new glycoside hydrolases (GHases from microbial biomass decay communities, especially those from unknown or never previously cultivated microorganisms. Results From the metagenome sequences of an anaerobic microbial community actively decaying poplar biomass, we identified approximately 4,000 GHase homologs. Based on homology to GHase families/activities of interest and the quality of the sequences, candidates were selected for full-length cloning and subsequent expression. As an alternative strategy, a metagenome expression library was constructed and screened for GHase activities. These combined efforts resulted in the cloning of four novel GHases that could be successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. Further characterization showed that two enzymes showed significant activity on p-nitrophenyl-α-L-arabinofuranoside, one enzyme had significant activity against p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, and one enzyme showed significant activity against p-nitrophenyl-β-D-xylopyranoside. Enzymes were also tested in the presence of ionic liquids. Conclusions Metagenomics provides a good resource for mining novel biomass degrading enzymes and for screening of cellulolytic enzyme activities. The four GHases that were cloned may have potential application for deconstruction of biomass pretreated with ionic liquids, as they remain active in the presence of up to 20% ionic liquid (except for 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate. Alternatively, ionic liquids might be used to immobilize or stabilize these enzymes for minimal solvent processing of biomass.

  4. Extraordinary Genetic Diversity in a Wood Decay Mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranova, Maria A; Logacheva, Maria D; Penin, Aleksey A; Seplyarskiy, Vladimir B; Safonova, Yana Y; Naumenko, Sergey A; Klepikova, Anna V; Gerasimov, Evgeny S; Bazykin, Georgii A; James, Timothy Y; Kondrashov, Alexey S

    2015-10-01

    Populations of different species vary in the amounts of genetic diversity they possess. Nucleotide diversity π, the fraction of nucleotides that are different between two randomly chosen genotypes, has been known to range in eukaryotes between 0.0001 in Lynx lynx and 0.16 in Caenorhabditis brenneri. Here, we report the results of a comparative analysis of 24 haploid genotypes (12 from the United States and 12 from European Russia) of a split-gill fungus Schizophyllum commune. The diversity at synonymous sites is 0.20 in the American population of S. commune and 0.13 in the Russian population. This exceptionally high level of nucleotide diversity also leads to extreme amino acid diversity of protein-coding genes. Using whole-genome resequencing of 2 parental and 17 offspring haploid genotypes, we estimate that the mutation rate in S. commune is high, at 2.0 × 10(-8) (95% CI: 1.1 × 10(-8) to 4.1 × 10(-8)) per nucleotide per generation. Therefore, the high diversity of S. commune is primarily determined by its elevated mutation rate, although high effective population size likely also plays a role. Small genome size, ease of cultivation and completion of the life cycle in the laboratory, free-living haploid life stages and exceptionally high variability of S. commune make it a promising model organism for population, quantitative, and evolutionary genetics. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  5. A preliminary report on decay and canker of Acacia richii caused by Inonotus rickii in China

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cui, B.K.; Zhao, C.L.; Vlasák, Josef; Dai, Y.C.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2014), s. 82-84 ISSN 1437-4781 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : wood-decaying fungus * Inonotus rickii * Acacia richii Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 1.373, year: 2014

  6. Elementary budget of stag beetle larvae associated with selective utilization of nitrogen in decaying wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanahashi, Masahiko; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Kubota, Kôhei

    2018-05-03

    Wood degradation by insects plays important roles for the forest matter cycling. Since wood is deficient in nitrogen compared to the insect body, wood-feeding insects need to assimilate the nitrogen selectively and discard an excess carbon. Such a stoichiometric imbalance between food and body will cause high metabolic cost; therefore, wood-feeding insects may somehow alleviate the stoichiometric imbalance. Here, we investigated the carbon and nitrogen budgets of the larvae of stag beetle, Dorcus rectus, which feed on decaying wood. Assimilation efficiency of ingested wood was 22%, and those values based on the carbon and nitrogen were 27 and 45%, respectively, suggesting the selective digestion of nitrogen in wood. Element-based gross growth efficiency was much higher for nitrogen (45%) than for carbon (3%). As a result, the larvae released 24% of the ingested carbon as volatile, whereas almost no gaseous exchange was observed for nitrogen. Moreover, solubility-based elementary analysis revealed that the larvae mainly utilized alkaline-soluble-water-insoluble fraction of wood, which is rich in nitrogen. Actually, the midgut of the larvae was highly alkaline (pH 10.3). Stag beetle larvae are known to exhibit coprophagy, and here we also confirmed that alkaline-soluble-water-insoluble nitrogen increased again from fresh feces to old feces in the field. Stable isotope analysis suggested the utilization of aerial nitrogen by larvae; however, its actual contribution is still disputable. Those results suggest that D. rectus larvae selectively utilize alkaline-soluble nitrogenous substrates by using their highly alkaline midgut, and perhaps associate with microbes that enhance the nitrogen recycling in feces.

  7. Elementary budget of stag beetle larvae associated with selective utilization of nitrogen in decaying wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanahashi, Masahiko; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Kubota, Kôhei

    2018-06-01

    Wood degradation by insects plays important roles for the forest matter cycling. Since wood is deficient in nitrogen compared to the insect body, wood-feeding insects need to assimilate the nitrogen selectively and discard an excess carbon. Such a stoichiometric imbalance between food and body will cause high metabolic cost; therefore, wood-feeding insects may somehow alleviate the stoichiometric imbalance. Here, we investigated the carbon and nitrogen budgets of the larvae of stag beetle, Dorcus rectus, which feed on decaying wood. Assimilation efficiency of ingested wood was 22%, and those values based on the carbon and nitrogen were 27 and 45%, respectively, suggesting the selective digestion of nitrogen in wood. Element-based gross growth efficiency was much higher for nitrogen (45%) than for carbon (3%). As a result, the larvae released 24% of the ingested carbon as volatile, whereas almost no gaseous exchange was observed for nitrogen. Moreover, solubility-based elementary analysis revealed that the larvae mainly utilized alkaline-soluble-water-insoluble fraction of wood, which is rich in nitrogen. Actually, the midgut of the larvae was highly alkaline (pH 10.3). Stag beetle larvae are known to exhibit coprophagy, and here we also confirmed that alkaline-soluble-water-insoluble nitrogen increased again from fresh feces to old feces in the field. Stable isotope analysis suggested the utilization of aerial nitrogen by larvae; however, its actual contribution is still disputable. Those results suggest that D. rectus larvae selectively utilize alkaline-soluble nitrogenous substrates by using their highly alkaline midgut, and perhaps associate with microbes that enhance the nitrogen recycling in feces.

  8. Catalase-Aminotriazole Assay, an Invalid Method for Measurement of Hydrogen Peroxide Production by Wood Decay Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Highley, Terry L.

    1981-01-01

    The catalase-aminotriazole assay for determination of hydrogen peroxide apparently cannot be used for measuring hydrogen peroxide production in crude preparations from wood decay fungi because of materials in the crude preparations that interfere with the test.

  9. Systematic gene deletions evidences that laccases are involved in several stages of wood degradation in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ning; Chapeland-Leclerc, Florence; Silar, Philippe; Ruprich-Robert, Gwenaël

    2014-01-01

    Transformation of plant biomass into biofuels may supply environmentally friendly alternative biological sources of energy. Laccases are supposed to be involved in the lysis of lignin, a prerequisite step for efficient breakdown of cellulose into fermentable sugars. The role in development and plant biomass degradation of the nine canonical laccases belonging to three different subfamilies and one related multicopper oxidase of the Ascomycota fungus Podospora anserina was investigated by targeted gene deletion. The 10 genes were inactivated singly, and multiple mutants were constructed by genetic crosses. lac6(Δ), lac8(Δ) and mco(Δ) mutants were significantly reduced in their ability to grow on lignin-containing materials, but also on cellulose and plastic. Furthermore, lac8(Δ), lac7(Δ), mco(Δ) and lac6(Δ) mutants were defective towards resistance to phenolic substrates and H2 O2 , which may also impact lignocellulose breakdown. Double and multiple mutants were generally more affected than single mutants, evidencing redundancy of function among laccases. Our study provides the first genetic evidences that laccases are major actors of wood utilization in a fungus and that they have multiple roles during this process apart from participation in lignin lysis. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Fourier Transform Infrared Radiation Spectroscopy Applied for Wood Rot Decay and Mould Fungi Growth Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Petter Jelle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Material characterization may be carried out by the attenuated total reflectance (ATR Fourier transform infrared (FTIR radiation spectroscopical technique, which represents a powerful experimental tool. The ATR technique may be applied on both solid state materials, liquids, and gases with none or only minor sample preparations, also including materials which are nontransparent to IR radiation. This facilitation is made possible by pressing the sample directly onto various crystals, for example, diamond, with high refractive indices, in a special reflectance setup. Thus ATR saves time and enables the study of materials in a pristine condition, that is, the comprehensive sample preparation by pressing thin KBr pellets in traditional FTIR transmittance spectroscopy is hence avoided. Materials and their ageing processes, both ageing by natural and accelerated climate exposure, decomposition and formation of chemical bonds and products, may be studied in an ATR-FTIR analysis. In this work, the ATR-FTIR technique is utilized to detect wood rot decay and mould fungi growth on various building material substrates. An experimental challenge and aim is to be able to detect the wood rot decay and mould fungi growth at early stages when it is barely visible to the naked eye. Another goal is to be able to distinguish between various species of fungi and wood rot.

  11. Concentration of "1"3"7Cs from water using a modified sorbent of wood decaying fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petercova, S.; Dulanska, S.; Matel, L.

    2016-01-01

    Wood-destroying fungus - tinder fungus (Fomes fomentarius) was used to prepare the modified biosorbent and tested for the possibility of concentrating of "1"3"7Cs from aqueous solution. Biosorbent was modified with help of ferric chloride, copper sulfate and potassium ferrocyanide. Cesium sorption kinetics, the effect of pH, weight carrier Cs"+, competing ions, ionic strength and the possibility of desorption was tested in the paper. The method will be applied to the "1"3"7Cs-concentration in aqueous solutions.

  12. Concentration of "1"3"7Cs from water using a modified sorbent of wood decaying fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petercova, S.; Dulanska, S.; Matel, L.

    2016-01-01

    Wood-destroying fungus - tinder fungus (Fomes fomentarius) was used to prepare the modified biosorbent and tested for the possibility of concentrating of "1"3"7Cs from aqueous solution. Biosorbent was modified with help of ferric chloride, copper sulfate and potassium ferrocyanide. Cesium sorption kinetics, the effect of pH, weight carrier Cs"+, competing ions, ionic strength and the possibility of desorption was tested in this work. The method will be applied to the "1"3"7Cs-concentration in aqueous solutions.

  13. [Bacterium Arthrobacter agilis UMCV2 and diverse amines inhibit in vitro growth of wood-decay fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Mosqueda, M Del Carmen; Valencia-Cantero, Eduardo; López-Albarrán, Pablo; Martínez-Pacheco, Mauro; Velázquez-Becerra, Crisanto

    2015-01-01

    The kingdom Fungi is represented by a large number of organisms, including pathogens that deteriorate the main structural components of wood, such as cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. The aim of our work was to characterize the antifungal activity in Arthrobacter agilis UMCV2 and diverse amines against wood-decaying fungi. Four fungal organisms (designated as UMTM) were isolated from decaying wood samples obtained from a forest in Cuanajo-Michoacán, México. Two of them showed a clear enzymatic activity of cellulases, xylanases and oxido-reducing enzymes and were identified as Hypocrea (UMTM3 isolate) and Fusarium (UMTM13 isolate). In vitro, the amines showed inhibitory effect against UMTM growth and one of the amines, dimethylhexadecylamine (DMA16), exhibited strong potential as wood preventive treatment, against the attack of decaying fungi. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Draft genome sequence of a monokaryotic model brown-rot fungus Postia (Rhodonia) placenta SB12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill Gaskell; Phil Kersten; Luis F. Larrondo; Paulo Canessa; Diego Martinez; David Hibbett; Monika Schmoll; Christian P. Kubicek; Angel T. Martinez; Jagjit Yadav; Emma Master; Jon Karl Magnuson; Debbie Yaver; Randy Berka; Kathleen Lail; Cindy Chen; Kurt LaButti; Matt Nolan; Anna Lipzen; Andrea Aerts; Robert Riley; Kerrie Barry; Bernard Henrissat; Robert Blanchette; Igor V. Grigoriev; Dan Cullen

    2017-01-01

    We report the genome of Postia (Rhodonia) placenta MAD-SB12, a homokaryotic wood decay fungus (Basidiomycota, Polyporales). Intensively studied as a representative brown rot decayer, the gene complement is consistent with the rapid depolymerization of cellulose but not lignin.

  15. Physical, Chemical, and Biological Properties of Soil under Decaying Wood in a Tropical Wet Forest in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcela Zalamea; Grizelle Gonzalez; D. Jean Lodge

    2016-01-01

    Decaying wood is related to nutrient cycling through its role as either a sink or source of nutrients. However, at micro scales, what is the effect of decaying logs on the physical, chemical,and biotic characteristics of the soil underneath? We took samples from a 0 to 5 cm depth under and a 50 cm distance away from decaying logs (Dacryodes excelsa and Swietenia...

  16. The most significant fungi: Agents of wood decay in oak forests of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijašević Tanja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The most widely distributed oak species in Serbia are Q. petrea (sessile oak, Q. cerris (Turkey oak and Q. frainetto (Hungarian oak and Quercus robur (common oak, and lignicolous fungi are the major agents of wood decay in natural and coppice oak forests. In this research, 33 species of fungi were identified. Eleven species were described, among which the most significant are: Armillaria mellea, Fomes fomentarius, Hypoxylon deustum Laetiporus sulphureus, Lenzites quercina and Phellinus robustus. This paper presents the morphological characteristics of the most significant identified fungi, their distribution, host plants and significance.

  17. Acidicapsa borealis gen. nov., sp. nov. and Acidicapsa ligni sp. nov., subdivision 1 Acidobacteria from Sphagnum peat and decaying wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulichevskaya, Irina S; Kostina, Lilia A; Valásková, Vendula; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe; de Boer, Wietse; Dedysh, Svetlana N

    2012-07-01

    Two strains of subdivision 1 Acidobacteria, a pink-pigmented bacterium KA1(T) and a colourless isolate WH120(T), were obtained from acidic Sphagnum peat and wood under decay by the white-rot fungus Hyploma fasciculare, respectively. Cells of these isolates were Gram-negative-staining, non-motile, short rods, which were covered by large polysaccharide capsules and occurred singly, in pairs, or in short chains. Strains KA1(T) and WH120(T) were strictly aerobic mesophiles that grew between 10 and 33 °C, with an optimum at 22-28 °C. Both isolates developed under acidic conditions, but strain WH120(T) was more acidophilic (pH growth range 3.5-6.4; optimum, 4.0-4.5) than strain KA1(T) (pH growth range 3.5-7.3; optimum , 5.0-5.5). The preferred growth substrates were sugars. In addition, the wood-derived isolate WH120(T) grew on oxalate, lactate and xylan, while the peat-inhabiting acidobacterium strain KA1(T) utilized galacturonate, glucuronate and pectin. The major fatty acids were iso-C(15:0) and iso-C(17:1)ω8c; the cells also contained significant amounts of 13,16-dimethyl octacosanedioic acid. The quinone was MK-8. The DNA G+C contents of strains KA1(T) and WH120(T) were 54.1 and 51.7 mol%, respectively. Strains KA1(T) and WH120(T) displayed 97.8% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to each other. The closest recognized relatives were Acidobacterium capsulatum and Telmatobacter bradus (93.4-94.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). These species differed from strains KA1(T) and WH120(T) by their ability to grow under anoxic conditions, the absence of capsules, presence of cell motility and differing fatty acid composition. Based on these differences, the two new isolates are proposed as representing a novel genus, Acidicapsa gen. nov., and two novel species. Acidicapsa borealis gen. nov., sp. nov. is the type species for the new genus with strain KA1(T) (=DSM 23886(T)=LMG 25897(T)=VKM B-2678(T)) as the type strain. The name Acidicapsa ligni sp. nov. is proposed for

  18. Modification of growth conditions by mm-waves of wood-decaying mushrooms cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avagyan, I.A.

    2016-01-01

    Basidial macromycetes are not only value food, but can be used as source of such biological active compounds as the genistein, β -glucans, glioxal-oxidase et al. In this work we used different frequencies of extremely high frequency of electromagnetic irradiation (EHF EMI) with the aim of obtaining mushroom cultures with increased fermentative activity by the modulation of its growth conditions during growth on the peptone media. We investigated the influence of the non-thermal extremely high frequency electromagnetic waves in the interval of 45-53 GHz on β-glucosidase activities of two species of wood-decaying mushroom. In this study we examined the most popular edible wood-decaying mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus, which is wide-spread in the forests and commercial mushroom Lentinula edodes, under influence of such an abiotic factor as the extremely high frequency waves in the interval of 45 GHz - 53 GHz during 20 and 40 min on the 7th day of mycelial culture's growth. After the treatment of cultures we continued their growth and on the 3th day we examined the influence of these waves on fermentative activity of mycelial extracts. The some conditions of such treatment led to significant rising of β-glucosidase activities in the extracts of mycelial cultures

  19. When a tree falls: Controls on wood decay predict standing dead tree fall and new risks in changing forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Brad; Ogle, Kiona; Zanne, Amy E; Woodall, Christopher W

    2018-01-01

    When standing dead trees (snags) fall, they have major impacts on forest ecosystems. Snag fall can redistribute wildlife habitat and impact public safety, while governing important carbon (C) cycle consequences of tree mortality because ground contact accelerates C emissions during deadwood decay. Managing the consequences of altered snag dynamics in changing forests requires predicting when snags fall as wood decay erodes mechanical resistance to breaking forces. Previous studies have pointed to common predictors, such as stem size, degree of decay and species identity, but few have assessed the relative strength of underlying mechanisms driving snag fall across biomes. Here, we analyze nearly 100,000 repeated snag observations from boreal to subtropical forests across the eastern United States to show that wood decay controls snag fall in ways that could generate previously unrecognized forest-climate feedback. Warmer locations where wood decays quickly had much faster rates of snag fall. The effect of temperature on snag fall was so strong that in a simple forest C model, anticipated warming by mid-century reduced snag C by 22%. Furthermore, species-level differences in wood decay resistance (durability) accurately predicted the timing of snag fall. Differences in half-life for standing dead trees were similar to expected differences in the service lifetimes of wooden structures built from their timber. Strong effects of temperature and wood durability imply future forests where dying trees fall and decay faster than at present, reducing terrestrial C storage and snag-dependent wildlife habitat. These results can improve the representation of forest C cycling and assist forest managers by helping predict when a dead tree may fall.

  20. Extensive sampling of basidiomycete genomes demonstrates inadequacy of the white rot/ brown rot paradigm for wood decay fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Brown, Daren W.; Nagy, Laszlo G.; Floudas, Dimitris; Held, Benjamin; Levasseur, Anthony; Lombard, Vincent; Morin, Emmanuelle; Otillar, Robert; Lindquist, Erika; Sun, Hui; LaButti, Kurt; Schmutz, Jeremy; Jabbour, Dina; Luo, Hong; Baker, Scott E.; Pisabarro, Antonio; Walton, Jonathan D.; Blanchette, Robert; Henrissat, Bernard; Martin, Francis; Cullen, Dan; Hibbett, David; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2014-03-14

    Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) make up 32percent of the described fungi and include most wood decaying species, as well as pathogens and mutualistic symbionts. Wood-decaying basidiomycetes have typically been classified as either white rot or brown rot, based on the ability (in white rot only) to degrade lignin along with cellulose and hemicellulose. Prior genomic comparisons suggested that the two decay modes can be distinguished based on the presence or absence of ligninolytic class II peroxidases (PODs), as well as the abundance of enzymes acting directly on crystalline cellulose (reduced in brown rot). To assess the generality of the white rot/brown rot classification paradigm we compared the genomes of 33 basidiomycetes, including four newly sequenced wood decayers, and performed phylogenetically-informed Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of a broad range of gene families encoding plant biomass-degrading enzymes. The newly sequenced Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea genomes lack PODs, but possess diverse enzymes acting on crystalline cellulose, and they group close to the model white rot species Phanerochaete chrysosporium in the PCA. Furthermore, laboratory assays showed that both B. botryosum and J. argillacea can degrade all polymeric components of woody plant cell walls, a characteristic of white rot. We also found expansions in reducing polyketide synthase genes specific to the brown rot fungi. Our results suggest a continuum rather than a dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay. A more nuanced categorization of rot types is needed, based on an improved understanding of the genomics and biochemistry of wood decay.

  1. Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship of Cinnamaldehyde Compounds against Wood-Decaying Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Yang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamaldehyde, of the genius Cinnamomum, is a major constituent of the bark of the cinnamon tree and possesses broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. In this study, we used best multiple linear regression (BMLR to develop quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR models for cinnamaldehyde derivatives against wood-decaying fungi Trametes versicolor and Gloeophyllun trabeum. Based on the two optimal QSAR models, we then designed and synthesized two novel cinnamaldehyde compounds. The QSAR models exhibited good correlation coefficients: R2Tv = 0.910 for Trametes versicolor and R2Gt = 0.926 for Gloeophyllun trabeum. Small errors between the experimental and calculated values of two designed compounds indicated that these two QSAR models have strong predictability and stability.

  2. Fatty Acid Composition of Fourteen Wood-decaying Basidiomycete Species Growing in Permafrost Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniil N. Olennikov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid (FA compositions of 14 wild wood-decaying basidiomycete species (Bjerkandera adusta, Daedaleopsis septentrionalis, Dichomitus squalens, Inonotus hispidus, I.radiatus, Irpex lacteus, Fomitopsis cajanderi, F.pinicola, F. rosea, Gloeophyllum protractum, Lenzites betulina, Phellinus pini, Trametes gibbosa, T. ochracea growing in permafrost conditions in Katanga region (Russian Federation were investigated using GC-MS. Generally, C18:2 ω 6 (linoleic acid, C18:1 ω 9 (oleic acid, C16:0 (palmitic acid and C20:0 (arachinic acid were found to be the major FA in fungal species. Data about chemical components of Daedaleopsis septentrionalis , Fomitopsis cajanderi and Gloeophyllum protractum were obtained at the first time. Increased level of degree of FA unsaturation was probably a result of extreme environmental conditions.

  3. Insight into trade-off between wood decay and parasitism from the genome of a fungal forest pathogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Ake; Aerts, Andrea; Asiegbu, Fred; Belbahri, Lassaad; Bouzid, Ourdia; Broberg, Anders; Canback, Bjorn; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Cullen, Dan; Dalman, Kerstin; Deflorio, Giuliana; van Diepen, Linda T. A.; Dunand, Christophe; Duplessis, Sebastien; Durling, Mikael; Gonthier, Paolo; Grimwood, Jane; Fossdal, Carl Gunnar; Hansson, David; Henrissat, Bernard; Hietala, Ari; Himmelstrand, Kajsa; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Hogberg, Nils; James, Timothy Y.; Karlsson, Magnus; Kohler, Annegret; Lucas, Susan; Lunden, Karl; Morin, Emmanuelle; Murat, Claude; Park, Jongsun; Raffaello, Tommaso; Rouze, Pierre; Salamov, Asaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Solheim, Halvor; Stahlberg, Jerry; Velez, Heriberto; de Vries, Ronald P.; Wiebenga, Ad; Woodward, Steve; Yakovlev, Igor; Garbelotto, Matteo; Martin, Francis; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Stenlid, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Parasitism and saprotrophic wood decay are two fungal strategies fundamental for succession and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems. An opportunity to assess the trade-off between these strategies is provided by the forest pathogen and wood decayer Heterobasidion annosum sensu lato. We report the annotated genome sequence and transcript profiling, as well as the quantitative trait loci mapping, of one member of the species complex: H. irregulare. Quantitative trait loci critical for pathogenicity, and rich in transposable elements, orphan and secreted genes, were identified. A wide range of cellulose-degrading enzymes are expressed during wood decay. By contrast, pathogenic interaction between H. irregulare and pine engages fewer carbohydrate-active enzymes, but involves an increase in pectinolytic enzymes, transcription modules for oxidative stress and secondary metabolite production. Our results show a trade-off in terms of constrained carbohydrate decomposition and membrane transport capacity during interaction with living hosts. Our findings establish that saprotrophic wood decay and necrotrophic parasitism involve two distinct, yet overlapping, processes.

  4. Extensive sampling of basidiomycete genomes demonstrates inadequacy of the white-rot/brown-rot paradigm for wood decay fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) make up some 37% of the described fungi and are important in forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes symbionts, pathogens, and saprotrophs including the majority of wood decaying and ectomycorrhizal species. To b...

  5. Significant alteration of gene expression in wood decay fungi Postia placenta and Phanerochaete chrysosporium by plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amber Vanden Wymelenberg; Jill Gaskell; Michael Mozuch; Sandra Splinter BonDurant; Grzegorz Sabat; John Ralph; Oleksandr Skyba; Shawn D. Mansfield; Robert A. Blanchette; Igor Grigoriev; Philip J. Kersten; Daniel Cullen

    2011-01-01

    Identification of specific genes and enzymes involved in conversion of lignocellulosics from an expanding number of potential feedstocks is of growing interest to bioenergy process development. The basidiomycetous wood decay fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Postia placenta are promising in this regard because they are able to utilize a wide range of simple and...

  6. DecAID advisor: a tool for managing snags, down wood and wood decay in PNW forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce G. Marcot; Grant Gunderson; Kim Mellen; Janet L. Ohmann

    2004-01-01

    Past tools for modeling and setting guidelines for snag and down wood management have been based on theory, professional judgment, models of wildlife species use as habitat and empirical data. However, recent studies reveal that guidelines for amounts of snags and down wood on national forests of Washington and Oregon may have been lower than the new field data on use...

  7. Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2014-01-01

    come from? How is it harvested? How is it manufactured and treated ? How are the buildings detailed and protected against weather during construction to keep them dry and make them long-life ? In a period of climate change, forests are the last lungs of the planet to sequestrate CO2. Their global size......Wood – a sustainable building material ? For thousands of years and all over the planet, wood has been used as a building material and exciting architecture has been created in wood. The fantastic structural, physical and aesthetic properties of the material as well as the fact that wood...

  8. Radiographic testing of wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterloh, K.; Zscherpel, U.; Raedel, C.; Weidemann, G.; Meinel, D.; Goebbels, J.; Ewert, U.; Hasenstab, A.; Buecherl, T.

    2007-01-01

    Wood is an old and established consumption and construction material. It is still the most common material for constructing furniture, roofs, playgrounds and mine supports. In contrast to steel and concrete, wood warns of extreme loads by creaking. Its mechanical stability is more influenced by decay than by peripheral cracks. While external cracks are visible, internal decay by fungus growth is undetectable from outside. This may be a safety problem in supporting structures. The best analysis of the internal structure is provided by computed tomography, but this is also the most complex method, much more so than simple radiographic testing. However, the latter is made inaccurate by scattered radiation resulting from internal moisture. With the image processing options of digital radiographic techniques, the structural information can be separated effectively from noise. In contrast to X-ray and gamma radiography, neutron radiography provides information on the spatial distribution of moisture. In healthy wood, water is conducted in the sapwood while the hardwood is dry. Moisture in hardwood is caused by infestations, e.g. fungus growth. The contribution presents a comparative analysis of the available radiographic methods. (orig.)

  9. Gene expression patterns of wood decay fungi Postia placenta and Phanerochaete chrysosporium are influenced by wood substrate composition during degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleksandr Skyba; Daniel Cullen; Carl J. Douglas; Shawn D. Mansfield

    2016-01-01

    Identification of the specific genes and enzymes involved in the fungal degradation of lignocellulosic biomass derived from feedstocks with various compositions is essential to the development of improved bioenergy processes. In order to elucidate the effect of substrate composition on gene expression in wood-rotting fungi, we employed microarrays based on the...

  10. Dual protection of wood surface treated with melamine-modified urea-formaldehyde resin mixed with ammonium polyphosphate against both fire and decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing-xia Ma; Grant T. Kirker; Ming-liang Jiang; Yu-zhang Wu

    2016-01-01

    Surface coatings of melamine-modified urea-formaldehyde resins (MUFs) containing ammonium polyphosphate (APP) have been shown to significantly improve the fire retardancy of wood by prolonging the ignition time and reducing the heat release rate, total heat released, and mass loss rate. Dual protection of wood against both decay and fire has been proposed for remedial...

  11. Trichoderma species occurring on wood with decay symptoms in mountain forests in Central Europe: genetic and enzymatic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczyk, Lidia; Strakowska, Judyta; Chełkowski, Jerzy; Gąbka-Buszek, Agnieszka; Kaczmarek, Joanna

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the species diversity of Trichoderma obtained from samples of wood collected in the forests of the Gorce Mountains (location A), Karkonosze Mountains (location B) and Tatra Mountains (location C) in Central Europe and to examine the cellulolytic and xylanolytic activity of these species as an expression of their probable role in wood decay processes. The present study has led to the identification of the following species and species complex: Trichoderma atroviride P. Karst., Trichoderma citrinoviride Bissett, Trichoderma cremeum P. Chaverri & Samuels, Trichoderma gamsii Samuels & Druzhin., Trichoderma harzianum complex, Trichoderma koningii Oudem., Trichoderma koningiopsis Samuels, C. Suárez & H.C. Evans, Trichoderma longibrachiatum Rifai, Trichoderma longipile Bissett, Trichoderma sp. (Hypocrea parapilulifera B.S. Lu, Druzhin. & Samuels), Trichoderma viride Schumach. and Trichoderma viridescens complex. Among them, T. viride was observed as the most abundant species (53 % of all isolates) in all the investigated locations. The Shannon's biodiversity index (H), evenness (E), and the Simpson's biodiversity index (D) calculations for each location showed that the highest species diversity and evenness were recorded for location A-Gorce Mountains (H' = 1.71, E = 0.82, D = 0.79). The preliminary screening of 119 Trichoderma strains for cellulolytic and xylanolytic activity showed the real potential of all Trichoderma species originating from wood with decay symptoms to produce cellulases and xylanases-the key enzymes in plant cell wall degradation.

  12. Consumer willingness to pay for a naturally decay-resistant wood product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey Donovan; Hayley. Hesseln

    2004-01-01

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) is the most widely used chemical wood preservative in the United States. Concerns about the safety of CCA led to an agreement between the Environmental Protection Agency and the wood treatment industry to withdraw CCA for nonindustrial uses by the end of 2003. In light of the publicity surrounding the withdrawal of CCA, this article...

  13. Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Robert H. White; Antoni TenWolde; William Simpson; Joseph Murphy; Robert J. Ross; Roland Hernandez; Stan T. Lebow

    2006-01-01

    Wood is a naturally formed organic material consisting essentially of elongated tubular elements called cells arranged in a parallel manner for the most part. These cells vary in dimensions and wall thickness with position in the tree, age, conditions of growth, and kind of tree. The walls of the cells are formed principally of chain molecules of cellulose, polymerized...

  14. Species associations overwhelm abiotic conditions to dictate the structure and function of wood-decay fungal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Daniel S; Covey, Kristofer R; Crowther, Thomas W; Sokol, Noah W; Morrison, Eric W; Frey, Serita D; van Diepen, Linda T A; Bradford, Mark A

    2018-04-01

    Environmental conditions exert strong controls on the activity of saprotrophic microbes, yet abiotic factors often fail to adequately predict wood decomposition rates across broad spatial scales. Given that species interactions can have significant positive and negative effects on wood-decay fungal activity, one possibility is that biotic processes serve as the primary controls on community function, with abiotic controls emerging only after species associations are accounted for. Here we explore this hypothesis in a factorial field warming- and nitrogen-addition experiment by examining relationships among wood decomposition rates, fungal activity, and fungal community structure. We show that functional outcomes and community structure are largely unrelated to abiotic conditions, with microsite and plot-level abiotic variables explaining at most 19% of the total variability in decomposition and fungal activity, and 2% of the variability in richness and evenness. In contrast, taxonomic richness, evenness, and species associations (i.e., co-occurrence patterns) exhibited strong relationships with community function, accounting for 52% of the variation in decomposition rates and 73% in fungal activity. A greater proportion of positive vs. negative species associations in a community was linked to strong declines in decomposition rates and richness. Evenness emerged as a key mediator between richness and function, with highly even communities exhibiting a positive richness-function relationship and uneven communities exhibiting a negative or null response. These results suggest that community-assembly processes and species interactions are important controls on the function of wood-decay fungal communities, ultimately overwhelming substantial differences in abiotic conditions. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.

  15. Oxalate-metabolising genes of the white-rot fungus Dichomitus squalens are differentially induced on wood and at high proton concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miia R Mäkelä

    Full Text Available Oxalic acid is a prevalent fungal metabolite with versatile roles in growth and nutrition, including degradation of plant biomass. However, the toxicity of oxalic acid makes regulation of its intra- and extracellular concentration crucial. To increase the knowledge of fungal oxalate metabolism, a transcriptional level study on oxalate-catabolising genes was performed with an effective lignin-degrading white-rot fungus Dichomitus squalens, which has demonstrated particular abilities in production and degradation of oxalic acid. The expression of oxalic-acid decomposing oxalate decarboxylase (ODC and formic-acid decomposing formate dehydrogenase (FDH encoding genes was followed during the growth of D. squalens on its natural spruce wood substrate. The effect of high proton concentration on the regulation of the oxalate-catabolising genes was determined after addition of organic acid (oxalic acid and inorganic acid (hydrochloric acid to the liquid cultures of D. squalens. In order to evaluate the co-expression of oxalate-catabolising and manganese peroxidase (MnP encoding genes, the expression of one MnP encoding gene, mnp1, of D. squalens was also surveyed in the solid state and liquid cultures. Sequential action of ODC and FDH encoding genes was detected in the studied cultivations. The odc1, fdh2 and fdh3 genes of D. squalens showed constitutive expression, whereas ODC2 and FHD1 most likely are the main responsible enzymes for detoxification of high concentrations of oxalic and formic acids. The results also confirmed the central role of ODC1 when D. squalens grows on coniferous wood. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that fungal ODCs have evolved from at least two gene copies whereas FDHs have a single ancestral gene. As a conclusion, the multiplicity of oxalate-catabolising genes and their differential regulation on wood and in acid-amended cultures of D. squalens point to divergent physiological roles for the corresponding enzymes.

  16. Wood preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach

    1999-01-01

    When left untreated in many outdoor applications, wood becomes subject to degradation by a variety of natural causes. Although some trees possess naturally occurring resistance to decay (Ch. 3, Decay Resistance), many are in short supply or are not grown in ready proximity to markets. Because most commonly used wood species, such as Southern Pine, ponderosa pine, and...

  17. Techniques for the detection of pathogenic Cryptococcus species in wood decay substrata and the evaluation of viability in stored samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Alvarez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated several techniques for the detection of the yeast form of Cryptococcus in decaying wood and measured the viability of these fungi in environmental samples stored in the laboratory. Samples were collected from a tree known to be positive for Cryptococcus and were each inoculated on 10 Niger seed agar (NSA plates. The conventional technique (CT yielded a greater number of positive samples and indicated a higher fungal density [in colony forming units per gram of wood (CFU.g-1] compared to the humid swab technique (ST. However, the difference in positive and false negative results between the CT-ST was not significant. The threshold of detection for the CT was 0.05.10³ CFU.g-1, while the threshold for the ST was greater than 0.1.10³ CFU-1. No colonies were recovered using the dry swab technique. We also determined the viability of Cryptococcus in wood samples stored for 45 days at 25ºC using the CT and ST and found that samples not only continued to yield a positive response, but also exhibited an increase in CFU.g-1, suggesting that Cryptococcus is able to grow in stored environmental samples. The ST.1, in which samples collected with swabs were immediately plated on NSA medium, was more efficient and less laborious than either the CT or ST and required approximately 10 min to perform; however, additional studies are needed to validate this technique.

  18. Decay extent evaluation of wood degraded by a fungal community using NIRS: application for ecological engineering structures used for natural hazard mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptiste Barré, Jean; Bourrier, Franck; Bertrand, David; Rey, Freddy

    2015-04-01

    Ecological engineering corresponds to the design of efficient solutions for protection against natural hazards such as shallow landslides and soil erosion. In particular, bioengineering structures can be composed of a living part, made of plants, cuttings or seeds, and an inert part, a timber logs structure. As wood is not treated by preservatives, fungal degradation can occur from the start of the construction. It results in wood strength loss, which practitioners try to evaluate with non-destructive tools (NDT). Classical NDT are mainly based on density measurements. However, the fungal activity reduces the mechanical properties (modulus of elasticity - MOE) well before well before a density change could be measured. In this context, it would be useful to provide a tool for assessing the residual mechanical strength at different decay stages due to a fungal community. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can be used for that purpose, as it can allow evaluating wood mechanical properties as well as wood chemical changes due to brown and white rots. We monitored 160 silver fir samples (30x30x6000mm) from green state to different levels of decay. The degradation process took place in a greenhouse and samples were inoculated with silver fir decayed debris in order to accelerate the process. For each sample, we calculated the normalized bending modulus of elasticity loss (Dw moe) and defined it as decay extent. Near infrared spectra collected from both green and decayed ground samples were corrected by the subtraction of baseline offset. Spectra of green samples were averaged into one mean spectrum and decayed spectra were subtracted from the mean spectrum to calculate the absorption loss. Partial least square regression (PLSR) has been performed between the normalized MOE loss Dw moe (0 wood decay extent in the context of ecological engineering structures used for natural hazard mitigation.

  19. Laboratory and exterior decay of wood plastic composite boards: voids analysis and computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace Sun; Rebecca E. Ibach; Meghan Faillace; Marek Gnatowski; Jessie A. Glaeser; John Haight

    2016-01-01

    After exposure in the field and laboratory soil block culture testing, the void content of wood–plastic composite (WPC) decking boards was compared to unexposed samples. A void volume analysis was conducted based on calculations of sample density and from micro-computed tomography (microCT) data. It was found that reference WPC contains voids of different sizes from...

  20. Fungal trunk pathogens associated with wood decay of almond trees on Mallorca (Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gramaje, D.; Agustí-Brisach, C.; Pérez-Sierra, A.; Moralejo, E.; Olmo, D.; Mostert, L.; Damm, U.; Armengol, J.

    2012-01-01

    Severe decline of almond trees has recently been observed in several orchards on the island of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean Sea). However, the identity of the causal agents has not yet been investigated. Between August 2008 and June 2010, wood samples from branches of almond

  1. Soil-wood interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der Annemieke; klein Gunnewiek, Paulien; Boer, de Wietse

    2017-01-01

    Wood-inhabiting fungi may affect soil fungal communities directly underneath decaying wood via their exploratory hyphae. In addition, differences in wood leachates between decaying tree species may influence soil fungal communities. We determined the composition of fungi in 4-yr old decaying logs

  2. Genomewide analysis of polysaccharides degrading enzymes in 11 white- and brown-rot Polyporales provides insight into mechanisms of wood decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaki Hori; Jill Gaskell; Kiyohiko Igarashi; Masahiro Samejima; David Hibbett; Bernard Henrissat; Dan Cullen

    2013-01-01

    To degrade the polysaccharides, wood-decay fungi secrete a variety of glycoside hydrolases (GHs) and carbohydrate esterases (CEs) classified into various sequence-based families of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZys) and their appended carbohydrate-binding modules (CBM). Oxidative enzymes, such as cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase (...

  3. Seasonal dynamics of saproxylic beetles (Coleoptera occurring in decaying birch (Betula spp. wood in the Kampinos National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawoniewicz Michał

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to identify the seasonal changes in the number of saproxylic beetles connected with birch in the Kampinos National Park. The research was conducted for 12 consecutive months in research areas representing 10 different site types. The beetles were collected from wood using photoeclectors. The largest number of species was collected in April and the lowest in January. An increase in number occurred during spring and summer months for species associated only with rotting wood, fructifications of tree fungi, the subcortical environment and hollows. In the same period the number of species not associated or potentially associated with decaying trees and wood decreased. During winter months, the differences in the number of trapped specimens were the smallest. The proportion of zoophagous species amongst the collected specimen increased in autumn and winter. The share of saprophagous species was the highest during the summer-autumn period and the share of mycetophages (jointly with myxomycophages was the highest during spring and summer. We distinguished two separate groups of Coleoptera with the first one (‘summer group’ including species trapped during late-spring and summer months, while the second one (‘winter group’ includes species found in autumn, winter and early-spring months. In the ‘summer group’, an average of 55.8 species was trapped each month with 331.2 specimen of Coleoptera, while in the ʻwinter group’ an average of 56.1 species with 228.4 Coleoptera specimen were caught.

  4. Wood-inhabiting fungi in southern Italy forest stands: morphogroups, vegetation types and decay classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Vito Mario; Lunghini, Dario; Maggi, Oriana; Persiani, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    The authors conducted an ecological study of forests subjected to varying management. The aim of the study was to extend and integrate, within a multivariate context, knowledge of how saproxylic fungal communities behave along altitudinal/vegetational gradients in response to the varying features and quality of coarse woody debris (CWD). The intra-annual seasonal monitoring of saproxylic fungi, based on sporocarp inventories, was used to investigate saproxylic fungi in relation to vegetation types and management categories. We analyzed fungal species occurrence, recorded according to the presence/absence and frequency of sporocarps, on the basis of the harvest season, of coarse woody debris decay classes as well as other environmental and ecological variables. Two-way cluster analysis, DCA and Spearman's rank correlations, for indirect gradient analysis, were performed to identify any patterns of seasonality and decay. Most of the species were found on CWD in an intermediate decay stage. The first DCA axis revealed the vegetational/microclimate gradient as the main driver of fungal community composition, while the second axis corresponded to a strong gradient of CWD decay classes. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  5. First insight into dead wood protistan diversity: a molecular sampling of bright-spored Myxomycetes (Amoebozoa, slime-moulds) in decaying beech logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clissmann, Fionn; Fiore-Donno, Anna Maria; Hoppe, Björn; Krüger, Dirk; Kahl, Tiemo; Unterseher, Martin; Schnittler, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Decaying wood hosts a large diversity of seldom investigated protists. Environmental sequencing offers novel insights into communities, but has rarely been applied to saproxylic protists. We investigated the diversity of bright-spored wood-inhabiting Myxomycetes by environmental sequencing. Myxomycetes have a complex life cycle culminating in the formation of mainly macroscopic fruiting bodies, highly variable in shape and colour that are often found on decaying logs. Our hypothesis was that diversity of bright-spored Myxomycetes would increase with decay. DNA was extracted from wood chips collected from 17 beech logs of varying decay stages from the Hainich-Dün region in Central Germany. We obtained 260 partial small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences of bright-spored Myxomycetes that were assembled into 29 OTUs, of which 65% were less than 98% similar to those in the existing database. The OTU richness revealed by molecular analysis surpassed that of a parallel inventory of fruiting bodies. We tested several environmental variables and identified pH, rather than decay stage, as the main structuring factor of myxomycete distribution. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Effect of tin oxide nano particles and heat treatment on decay resistance and physical properties of beech wood (Fagus orientalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ghorbani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to investigate the effect of Tin oxide nanoparticles and heat treatment on decay resistance and physical properties of beech wood. Biological and physical test samples were prepared according to EN-113 and ASTM-D4446-05 standards respectively. Samples were classified into 4 groups: control, impregnation with Tin oxide nanoparticles, heat treatment and nano-heat treatment. Impregnation with Tin oxide nano at 5000ppm concentration was carried out in the cylinder according to Bethell method. Then, samples were heated at 140, 160 and 185˚C for 2 and 4 hours. According to results, decay resistance improved with increasing time and temperature of heat treatment. Least weight loss showed 46.39% reduction in nano-heat samples treated at 180˚C for 4 hours in comparison with control at highest weight loss. Nano-heat treated samples demonstrated the maximum amount of water absorption without significant difference with control and nanoparticles treated samples. Increase in heat treatment temperature reduced water absorption so that it is revealed 47.8% reduction in heat treated samples at 180°C for 4h after 24h immersion in water. In nano-heat treated samples at 180˚C for 2h was measured least volume swelling. Volume swelling in nano-treated samples decreased 8.7 and 22.76% after 2 and 24 h immersion in comparison with the control samples respectively.

  7. Penetration and Effectiveness of Micronized Copper in Refractory Wood Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civardi, Chiara; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Schubert, Mark; Michel, Elisabeth; Butron, Maria Isabel; Boone, Matthieu N; Dierick, Manuel; Van Acker, Joris; Wick, Peter; Schwarze, Francis W M R

    2016-01-01

    The North American wood decking market mostly relies on easily treatable Southern yellow pine (SYP), which is being impregnated with micronized copper (MC) wood preservatives since 2006. These formulations are composed of copper (Cu) carbonate particles (CuCO3·Cu(OH)2), with sizes ranging from 1 nm to 250 μm, according to manufacturers. MC-treated SYP wood is protected against decay by solubilized Cu2+ ions and unreacted CuCO3·Cu(OH)2 particles that successively release Cu2+ ions (reservoir effect). The wood species used for the European wood decking market differ from the North American SYP. One of the most common species is Norway spruce wood, which is poorly treatable i.e. refractory due to the anatomical properties, like pore size and structure, and chemical composition, like pit membrane components or presence of wood extractives. Therefore, MC formulations may not suitable for refractory wood species common in the European market, despite their good performance in SYP. We evaluated the penetration effectiveness of MC azole (MCA) in easily treatable Scots pine and in refractory Norway spruce wood. We assessed the effectiveness against the Cu-tolerant wood-destroying fungus Rhodonia placenta. Our findings show that MCA cannot easily penetrate refractory wood species and could not confirm the presence of a reservoir effect.

  8. Myco-phytoremediation of arsenic- and lead-contaminated soils by Helianthus annuus and wood rot fungi, Trichoderma sp. isolated from decayed wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govarthanan, M; Mythili, R; Selvankumar, T; Kamala-Kannan, S; Kim, H

    2018-04-30

    In the present study, Helianthus annuus grown in arsenic- (As) and lead- (Pb) contaminated soil were treated with plant-growth promoting fungi Trichoderma sp. MG isolated from decayed wood and assessed for their phytoremediation efficiency. The isolate MG exhibited a high tolerance to As (650mg/L) and Pb (500mg/L), and could remove > 70% of metals in aqueous solution with an initial concentration of 100mg/L each. In addition, the isolate MG was screened for plant-growth-promoting factors such as siderophores, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase, indole acetic acid (IAA) synthesis, and phosphate solubilisation. Phytoremediation studies indicated that treatment of H. annuus with the isolate MG had the maximum metal-accumulation in shoots (As; 67%, Pb; 59%). Furthermore, a significant increase in the soil extracellular enzyme-activities was observed in myco-phytoremediated soils. The activities of phosphatase (35 U/g dry soil), dehydrogenase (41mg TPF/g soil), cellulase (37.2mg glucose/g/2h), urease (55.4mgN/g soil/2h), amylase (49.3mg glucose/g/2h) and invertase (45.3mg glucose/g/2h) significantly increased by 12%, 14%, 12%, 22%, 19% and 14% in As contaminated soil, respectively. Similarly, the activities of phosphatase (31.4U/g dry soil), dehydrogenase (39.3mg TPF/g soil), cellulase (37.1mg glucose/g/2h), urease (49.8mgN/g soil/2h), amylase (46.3mg glucose/g/2h), and invertase (42.1mg glucose/g/2h) significantly increased by 11%, 15%, 11%, 18%, 20% and 14% in Pb contaminated soil, respectively. Obtained results indicate that the isolate MG could be a potential strain for myco-phytoremediation of As and Pb contaminated soil. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Fungal trunk pathogens associated with wood decay of pistachio trees in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, H.; Sarcheshmehpour, M.; Mafi, E.

    2015-07-01

    Over the growing seasons of 2011–2013, various pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) cv. Fandoghi, and wild pistachio (P. atlantica Desf. subsp. mutica) trees were inspected in Iran to determine the aetiology of trunk diseases with specific reference to species of Phaeoacremonium and Botryosphaeriaceae spp. Samples were collected from branches of trees exhibiting yellowing, defoliation, canker and dieback, as well as wood discoloration in cross sections. Fungal trunk pathogens were identified using morphological and cultural characteristics as well as comparisons of DNA sequence data of the ITS and TEF-1α (for Botryosphaeriaceae species) and β-tubulin gene (for Phaeoacremonium species) regions. Phaeoacremonium parasiticum was the dominant species followed by Phaeoacremonium aleophilum, Botryosphaeria dothidea, Neofusicoccum parvum, Phaeoacremonium cinereum, Phaeoacremonium viticola and Dothiorella viticola. Pathogenicity tests were undertaken to determine the role of these species on pistachio under field conditions. Neofusicoccum parvum and Pm. aleophilum caused the longest and smallest lesions respectively. This study represents the first report on the occurrence and pathogenicity of Phaeoacremonium species on P. vera cv. Fandoghi. This also represents the first report of Pleurostomophora sp. on pistachio and Pm. parasiticum and D. viticola on wild pistachio. (Author)

  10. FTIR spectroscopy and reflectance of modern charcoals and fungal decayed woods: implications for studies of inertinite in coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Y.; Bustin, R.M. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Ocean Sciences

    1998-09-01

    The chemical and physical characteristics of laboratory produced charcoals, natural charcoals, fungal decayed woods and inertinite from a variety of Western Canadian coals were investigated using FTIR and standard petrologic techniques. The studies confirm and extend earlier work in showing that almost all inertinite macerals can be attributed to wildfire in peat swamps, and that variation in the petrological characteristics of inertinite are a product of temperature, duration of heating and the nature of the initial plant material. The relationships between reflectance and temperature, as well as heating duration of charcoal formation are established as a reference for the examination of inertinite, and the probable temperature of inertinite precursor (fossil charcoal) formation in paleo-widlfire. Fungi do not directly contribute to the formation of charcoal and inertinite apart from the fungal bodies themselves (funginite: sclerotia and hyphae) and perhaps by increasing the extent of shrinkage and cracking (increasing surface area) of the plant materials and thus susceptibility to charring. Evidence of fungal activity progressively decreases with increasing degree of charing in response to duration of heating or increased charing temperature. The reflectance values and FTIR spectral characteristics of inertinites in Western Canadian coal suggest that most inertinite formed by wildfires at temperatures over 400{degree}C. The great abundance of semifusinite in Western Canadian coal may reflect frequent but short duration wildfires in precursor peat swamps. 44 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Comparison of performance of wood extractives as preservatives in field tests against termites and decay in the USA and Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar Hassan; Sohail Ahmed; Mark Mankowski; Grant Kirker

    2017-01-01

    Increasing environmental regulations have limited the use of certain broad spectrum synthetic pesticides as wood preservatives creating a need for more environmentally benign wood preservative systems. Biocidal compounds from natural products have been proposed as alternatives to commercial wood preservatives, but field data from long term performance testing is...

  12. Diversity of macro-detritivores in dead wood is influenced by tree species, decay stage and environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuo, Juan; Fonck, Myrthe; van Hal, Jurgen; Cornelissen, J. Hans C.; Berg, Matty P.

    Diplopoda (millipedes) and Isopoda (woodlice) are among the most abundant macro-detritivores in temperate forests. These key regulators of plant litter decomposition are influenced by habitat and substrate quality, including that of dead wood. Dead wood provides shelter and resources to

  13. Diversity of macro-detritivores in dead wood is influenced by tree species, decay stage and environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuo, J.; Fonck, M.; van Hal, J.R.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Berg, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    Diplopoda (millipedes) and Isopoda (woodlice) are among the most abundant macro-detritivores in temperate forests. These key regulators of plant litter decomposition are influenced by habitat and substrate quality, including that of dead wood. Dead wood provides shelter and resources to

  14. INVASIVE ALIEN PLANTS ON DECAYING WOOD AND ON TREE-FALL DISTURBANCES IN FORESTS IN THE KARKONOSZE MTS (SUDETEN, SW POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Staniaszek-Kik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Three invasive anthropophytes, i.e. two vascular plants Digitalis purpurea L. and Impatiens parviflora DC. as well as one moss Orthodontium lineare Schwägr, were recorded on decaying wood and tree-fall disturbances (pit-mound-root plate complex. It contributes only 1.9% to the flora of analyzed habitats (1.1% of moss flora, 2.9% of vascular plant flora and 3.5% of neophytes known in Sudeten Mts. They grew, sporadically and with a low frequency, on 3.5% of studied objects (on 3.1% of decaying logs and stumps and 5.6% of tree-fall disturbances in all types of forest communities in the area of Karkonosze National Park and in the vicinity. Nowadays, invasive neophytes do not pose a threat to diversity of endangered epixylic flora. Described habitats seem to be resistant to penetration by anthropophytes.

  15. Genetic bases of fungal white rot wood decay predicted by phylogenomic analysis of correlated gene-phenotype evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    László G. Nagy; Robert Riley; Philip J. Bergmann; Krisztina Krizsán; Francis M. Martin; Igor V. Grigoriev; Dan Cullen; David S. Hibbett

    2016-01-01

    Fungal decomposition of plant cell walls (PCW) is a complex process that has diverse industrial applications and huge impacts on the carbon cycle. White rot (WR) is a powerful mode of PCW decay in which lignin and carbohydrates are both degraded. Mechanistic studies of decay coupled with comparative genomic analyses have provided clues to the enzymatic components of WR...

  16. Biomimetic studies of wood decay: Simulating the effect of low molecular weight compounds and fungal enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Howell, Caitlin; Jellison, Jody

    The effect of FeCl3 (Fe3+), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a low molecular weight compound (2,3- Dihydroxybenzoic acid), and oxalic acid on wood were tested in a study designed to mimic wood degradation by brown rot fungi. Previous studies suggest that these components are involved in the early stages...... 50 ml of 40 mM acetate buffer (pH 4.5), white pine wood powder and varying combinations of the chemicals previously mentioned. Changes in cellulose crystallinity were analyzed by X-ray diffraction using a ¿-2¿ scan. Findings suggest that iron, H2O2, chelators and oxalic acid may affect over all...

  17. The fungus that came in from the cold: dry rot's pre-adapted ability to invade buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasundaram, S V; Hess, J; Durling, M B; Moody, S C; Thorbek, L; Progida, C; LaButti, K; Aerts, A; Barry, K; Grigoriev, I V; Boddy, L; Högberg, N; Kauserud, H; Eastwood, D C; Skrede, I

    2018-03-01

    Many organisms benefit from being pre-adapted to niches shaped by human activity, and have successfully invaded man-made habitats. One such species is the dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans, which has a wide distribution in buildings in temperate and boreal regions, where it decomposes coniferous construction wood. Comparative genomic analyses and growth experiments using this species and its wild relatives revealed that S. lacrymans evolved a very effective brown rot decay compared to its wild relatives, enabling an extremely rapid decay in buildings under suitable conditions. Adaptations in intracellular transport machineries promoting hyphal growth, and nutrient and water transport may explain why it is has become a successful invader of timber in houses. Further, we demonstrate that S. lacrymans has poor combative ability in our experimental setup, compared to other brown rot fungi. In sheltered indoor conditions, the dry rot fungus may have limited encounters with other wood decay fungi compared to its wild relatives. Overall, our analyses indicate that the dry rot fungus is an ecological specialist with poor combative ability against other fungi.

  18. Selective ligninolysis of wheat straw and wood chips by the white-rot fungus Lentinula edodes and its influence on in vitro rumen degradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van S.J.A.; Rio, del José C.; Rencoret, Jorge; Gutiérrez, Ana; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Hendriks, W.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present work investigated the influence of lignin content and composition in the fungal
    treatment of lignocellulosic biomass in order to improve rumen degradability. Wheat straw and wood chips,
    differing in lignin composition, were treated with Lentinula edodes for 0, 2, 4, 8

  19. Temporal Alterations in the Secretome of the Selective Ligninolytic Fungus Ceriporipsis subvermispora during growth on Aspen Wood Reveal this Organism's Strategy for Degrading Lighnocellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaki Hori; Jill Gaskell; Kiyohiko Igarashi; Phil Kersten; Michael Mozuch; Masahiro Samejima; Dan Cullen

    2014-01-01

    The white-rot basidiomycetes efficiently degrade all wood cell wall polymers. Generally, these fungi simultaneously degrade cellulose and lignin, but certain organisms, such as Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, selectively remove lignin in advance of cellulose degradation. However, relatively little is known about themechanismof selective ligninolysis. To...

  20. Biological degradation of wood-plastic composites (WPC) and strategies for improving the resistance of WPC against biological decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anke Schirp; Rebecca E. Ibach; David E. Pendleton; Michael P. Wolcott

    2008-01-01

    Much of the research on wood-plastic composites (WPC) has focused on formulation development and processing while high biological durability of the material was assumed. The gap between assumption and knowledge in biodeterioration of WPC needs to be reduced. Although some information on the short-term resistance of WPC against biological degradation is available, long-...

  1. Selective ligninolysis of wheat straw and wood chips by the white-rot fungus Lentinula edodes and its influence on in vitro rumen degradability

    OpenAIRE

    Kuijk, van, S.J.A.; Rio, del, José C.; Rencoret, Jorge; Gutiérrez, Ana; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Hendriks, W.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present work investigated the influence of lignin content and composition in the fungaltreatment of lignocellulosic biomass in order to improve rumen degradability. Wheat straw and wood chips,differing in lignin composition, were treated with Lentinula edodes for 0, 2, 4, 8 and 12 wk and the changesoccurring during fungal degradation were analyzed using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometryand detergent fiber analysis.Results: L. edodes preferentially degraded lignin,...

  2. When a tree falls: Controls on wood decay predict standing dead tree fall and new risks in changing forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brad Oberle; Kiona Ogle; Amy E. Zanne; Christopher W. Woodall

    2018-01-01

    When standing dead trees (snags) fall, they have major impacts on forest ecosystems. Snag fall can redistribute wildlife habitat and impact public safety, while governing important carbon (C) cycle consequences of tree mortality because ground contact accelerates C emissions during deadwood decay. Managing the consequences of altered snag dynamics in changing forests...

  3. The Ecological Genomics of Fungi: Repeated Elements in Filamentous Fungi with a Focus on Wood-Decay Fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murat, Claude [INRA, Nancy, France; Payen, Thibaut [INRA, Nancy, France; Petitpierre, Denis [INRA, Nancy, France; Labbe, Jessy L [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, the genome of several dozen filamentous fungi have been sequenced. Interestingly, vast diversity in genome size was observed (Fig. 2.1) with 14-fold differences between the 9 Mb of the human pathogenic dandruff fungus (Malassezia globosa; Xu, Saunders, et al., 2007) and the 125 Mb of the ectomycorrhizal black truffle of P rigord (Tuber melanosporum; Martin, Kohler, et al., 2010). Recently, Raffaele and Kamoun (2012) highlighted that the genomes of several lineages of filamentous plant pathogens have been shaped by repeat-driven expansion. Indeed, repeated elements are ubiquitous in all prokaryote and eukaryote genomes; however, their frequencies can vary from just a minor percentage of the genome to more that 60 percent of the genome. Repeated elements can be classified in two major types: satellites DNA and transposable elements. In this chapter, the different types of repeated elements and how these elements can impact genome and gene repertoire will be described. Also, an intriguing link between the transposable elements richness and diversity and the ecological niche will be highlighted.

  4. Wood : adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.H. Conner

    2001-01-01

    This chapter on wood adhesives includes: 1) Classification of wood adhesives 2) Thermosetting wood adhesives 3) Thermoplastic adhesives, 4) Wood adhesives based on natural sources 5) Nonconventional bonding of wood 6) Wood bonding.

  5. Build Green: Wood Can Last for Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol A. Clausen; Samuel V. Glass

    2012-01-01

    This report updates and revises information from the 1976 Forest Service publication by Rodney C. DeGroot, “Your Wood Can Last for Centuries.” It explains why wood decays, alerts the homeowner to conditions that can result in decay in buildings, and describes measures to prevent moisture-related damage to wood.

  6. Eficiência do CCB na resistência da madeira de algaroba (Prosopis juliflora (Sw. D.C. em ensaio de apodrecimento acelerado Efficiency of CCB on resistance of Prosopis juliflora (Sw. D.C. wood in accelerated laboratory test decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildefonso Egydio Coutinho Ramos

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo da pesquisa foi avaliar o efeito do preservativo "Osmose CCB" na resistência da madeira de algaroba (Prosopis juliflora (Sw D.C. ao fungo Postia placenta, em condições de laboratório. Peças roliças de algaroba foram tratadas pelo método de substituição da seiva por transpiração radial, em soluções de 1, 2 e 3% de ingredientes ativos de CCB, durante 3, 6, 9, 12 e 15 dias. Das peças tratadas foram retirados discos em três posições (50 cm da base, meio do comprimento e topo da peça, em que foram analisadas a penetração e retenção do CCB, bem como a resistência ao fungo Postia placenta. Observou-se melhor penetração e retenção nas peças submetidas a 2% de ingredientes ativos. A penetração e retenção do CCB, assim como a resistência conferida à madeira, de modo geral, decresceram da base para o topo das peças. O tratamento preservativo conferiu às peças de algaroba uma alta resistência ao fungo P. placenta. Isso não ocorreu apenas nas amostras provenientes do topo (submetidas a 1% de CCB e 15 dias de tratamento; 2% e 9 dias; 3% e 3, 12 e 15 dias e meio das peças (3% de CCB e 3 e 12 dias de tratamento, que foram classificadas como resistentes.The objective of research was to analyze the "Osmose CCB" preservative efficiency to improve the wood Prosopis juliflora (Sw D.C. resistance to Postia placenta fungus. In order to meet the objectives proposed, round pieces of P. juliflora were treated by sap displaced method in 1; 2 and 3% of active ingredients of CCB solutions, by 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days. Wood disks were obtained at three positions (50 cm from the base, middle and top of the treated pieces. CCB penetration and retention were analyzed at these positions, as well as the resistance to P. placenta fungus (accelerated laboratory test decay It was found better penetration and retention in pieces submitted to 2% of CCB solutions. The CCB penetration and retention, as well as the resistance of treated

  7. Health aspects of wood particles in fugitive emission during professional exposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlckova, H.; Schwarz, M.; Lalik, V.

    2008-01-01

    Fugitive emission of wood dust can constitute serious menace to health of worker in wood industry. Present paper describes not only influence of unaccompanied wood which develops allergic reactions, respire diseases, dermatosis, cancer etc., but also additional effects of natural wood components as endotoxins, microbial spores, amoebas, fungus, animal and proteins, volatile components wood resins, respectively. (authors)

  8. Protecting wood fences for yard and garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. C. De Groot; W. C. Feist; W. E. Eslyn; L. R. Gjovik

    For maximum protection against wood decay and termites, use posts that have an in-depth preservative treatment, preferably a pressure treatment for below ground use. When selecting posts of naturally decay-resistant woods, choose posts with mostly heartwood. Horizontal rails require more protection from decay than do vertical boards. In regions of high and moderate...

  9. Dureza Rockwell da madeira de três espécies amazônicas submetidas a ensaios de apodrecimento acelerado Rockwell hardness of the wood of three Amazon species submitted to decay accelerated tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Martins Stangerlin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o emprego de ensaios de dureza Rockwell na caracterização da biodeterioração das madeiras de Simarouba amara (marupá, Cariniana micrantha (jequitibá e Dipteryx odorata (cumaru, submetidas ao ataque dos fungos apodrecedores Trametes versicolor (podridão branca e Gloeophyllum trabeum (podridão parda. Para tanto, corpos de prova de cada espécie amazônica foram submetidos a ensaios de apodrecimento acelerado, de acordo com a ASTM D2017 (2005, durante 20 semanas. A caracterização da dureza Rockwell foi realizada semanalmente até a 4ª semana e, posteriormente, a cada duas semanas, até a 20ª semana. Adicionalmente, foram determinadas as perdas de massa, conforme critérios estabelecidos pela ASTM D2017 (2005. Quanto aos resultados, destaca-se que a dureza Rockwell pode ser empregada como ferramenta principal na caracterização da biodeterioração da madeira, sendo sensível na predição dos estágios iniciais. Dentre as madeiras amazônicas, o cumaru apresentou a maior resistência natural aos fungos apodrecedores. Com relação aos fungos, a podridão parda atacou mais intensamente as três madeiras amazônicas.This study aimed to evaluate the use of Rockwell hardness in the characterization of the biodeterioration of Simarouba amara (marupá, Cariniana micrantha (jequitibá e Dipteryx odorata (cumaru woods, which were submitted to decay fungi Trametes versicolor (white rot and Gloeophyllum trabeum (brown rot. For this purpose, specimens of each Amazon species were submitted to decay fungi, according to ASTM D2017 (2005. The characterization of the Rockwell hardness was performed weekly until the fourth week, and then every two weeks until the twentieth week. Additionally, it was determined the mass loss, according to criteria established by ASTM D2017 (2005. The results indicated that the Rockwell hardness can be used as a primary tool in the characterization of the biodeterioration of wood, being sensitive in

  10. Influence of xylem ray integrity and degree of polymerization on bending strength of beech wood decayed by Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan Bari; Reza Oladi; Olaf Schmidt; Carol A. Clausen; Katie Ohno; Darrel D. Nicholas; Mehrdad Ghodskhah Daryaei; Maryam Karim

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this research was to evaluate the influence of xylem ray (XR) and degree of polymerization (DP) of holocellulose in Oriental beech wood (Fagus orientalis Lipsky.) on impact bending strength against two white-rot fungi. Beech wood specimens, exposed to Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor, were evaluated for...

  11. Adhesives for Achieving Durable Bonds with Acetylated Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles Frihart; Rishawn Brandon; James Beecher; Rebecca Ibach

    2017-01-01

    Acetylation of wood imparts moisture durability, decay resistance, and dimensional stability to wood; however, making durable adhesive bonds with acetylated wood can be more difficult than with unmodified wood. The usual explanation is that the acetylated surface has fewer hydroxyl groups, resulting in a harder-to-wet surface and in fewer hydrogen bonds between wood...

  12. ( Azadirachta Indica ) Leaf Extracts on the Rot Fungus ( Fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The storage lifespan of kola nuts is challenged by the problem of decay of nuts in storage as a result of the attack by the rot fungus (Fusarium spp). The effect of the neem leaf (Azadirachta indica) extracts on the rot fungus was investigated in order to aid extended kola nuts storage. The aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of ...

  13. The use of new, aqueous chemical wood modifications to improve the durability of wood-plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Craig M. Clemons; George C. Chen

    2017-01-01

    The wood flour used in wood-plastic composites (WPCs) can biologically deteriorate and thus the overall mechanical performance of WPCs decrease when exposed to moisture and fungal decay. Protecting the wood flour by chemical modification can improve the durability of the wood in a nontoxic way so it is not harmful to the environment. WPCs were made with modified wood...

  14. Moisture transport in coated wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meel, P.A. van; Erich, S.J.F.; Huinink, H.P.; Kopinga, K.; Jong, J. DE; Adan, O.C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Moisture accumulation inside wood causes favorable conditions for decay. Application of a coating alters the moisture sorption of wood and prevents accumulation of moisture. This paper presents the results of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study on the influence of a coating on the moisture

  15. Bioremediation of treated wood with fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Illman; Vina W. Yang

    2006-01-01

    The authors have developed technologies for fungal bioremediation of waste wood treated with oilborne or metal-based preservatives. The technologies are based on specially formulated inoculum of wood-decay fungi, obtained through strain selection to obtain preservative-tolerant fungi. This waste management approach provides a product with reduced wood volume and the...

  16. Nest sanitation through defecation: antifungal properties of wood cockroach feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengaus, Rebeca B.; Mead, Kerry; Du Comb, William S.; Benson, Ryan W.; Godoy, Veronica G.

    2013-11-01

    The wood cockroach Cryptocercus punctulatus nests as family units inside decayed wood, a substrate known for its high microbial load. We tested the hypothesis that defecation within their nests, a common occurrence in this species, reduces the probability of fungal development. Conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae, were incubated with crushed feces and subsequently plated on potato dextrose agar. Relative to controls, the viability of fungal conidia was significantly reduced following incubation with feces and was negatively correlated with incubation time. Although the cockroach's hindgut contained abundant β-1,3-glucanase activity, its feces had no detectable enzymatic function. Hence, these enzymes are unlikely the source of the fungistasis. Instead, the antifungal compound(s) of the feces involved heat-sensitive factor(s) of potential microbial origin. When feces were boiled or when they were subjected to ultraviolet radiation and subsequently incubated with conidia, viability was "rescued" and germination rates were similar to those of controls. Filtration experiments indicate that the fungistatic activity of feces results from chemical interference. Because Cryptocercidae cockroaches have been considered appropriate models to make inferences about the factors fostering the evolution of termite sociality, we suggest that nesting in microbe-rich environments likely selected for the coupling of intranest defecation and feces fungistasis in the common ancestor of wood cockroaches and termites. This might in turn have served as a preadaptation that prevented mycosis as these phylogenetically related taxa diverged and evolved respectively into subsocial and eusocial organizations.

  17. Factors that influence the speed of bacterial wood degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, R.K.W.M.; Overeem, van B.S.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial wood decay is a serious threat to the many wooden foundation piles in the Netherlands. In order to learn more about the factors that influence the process of decay, approx. 2000 wood samples taken from Amsterdam piles heads were analysed on type and degree of decay and for 59 extracted

  18. Wood burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, H

    1955-01-01

    Discussed are the use of wood as a fuel, the technique of wood combustion and the operation of wood-burning stoves for cooking and heating. In addition, there is a section which reviews the use of wood stoves in various countries and lists manufacturers of stoves, central heating furnaces and in some cases sawdust burners.

  19. Bacterial Community Succession in Pine-Wood Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielak, Anna M; Scheublin, Tanja R; Mendes, Lucas W; van Veen, Johannes A; Kuramae, Eiko E

    2016-01-01

    Though bacteria and fungi are common inhabitants of decaying wood, little is known about the relationship between bacterial and fungal community dynamics during natural wood decay. Based on previous studies involving inoculated wood blocks, strong fungal selection on bacteria abundance and community composition was expected to occur during natural wood decay. Here, we focused on bacterial and fungal community compositions in pine wood samples collected from dead trees in different stages of decomposition. We showed that bacterial communities undergo less drastic changes than fungal communities during wood decay. Furthermore, we found that bacterial community assembly was a stochastic process at initial stage of wood decay and became more deterministic in later stages, likely due to environmental factors. Moreover, composition of bacterial communities did not respond to the changes in the major fungal species present in the wood but rather to the stage of decay reflected by the wood density. We concluded that the shifts in the bacterial communities were a result of the changes in wood properties during decomposition and largely independent of the composition of the wood-decaying fungal communities.

  20. Bacterial community succession in pine-wood decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eKielak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Though bacteria and fungi are common inhabitants of decaying wood, little is known about the relationship between bacterial and fungal community dynamics during natural wood decay. Based on previous studies involving inoculated wood blocks, strong fungal selection on bacteria abundance and community composition was expected to occur during natural wood decay. Here we focused on bacterial and fungal community compositions in pine wood samples collected from dead trees in different stages of decomposition. We showed that bacterial communities undergo less drastic changes than fungal communities during wood decay. Furthermore, we found that bacterial community assembly was a stochastic process at initial stage of wood decay and became more deterministic in later stages, likely due to environmental factors. Moreover, composition of bacterial communities did not respond to the changes in the major fungal species present in the wood but rather to the stage of decay reflected by the wood density. We concluded that the shifts in the bacterial communities were a result of the changes in wood properties during decomposition and largely independent of the composition of the wood-decaying fungal communities.

  1. Biodegrading effects of some rot fungi on Pinus caribaea wood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... species of white-rot fungi; Corioliopsis polyzona and Pleurotus squarrosulus, and two species of brown- rot fungi; Lentinus ... The results indicated that biodegradation by rot fungi differs in intensity according to the fungus ..... wood of coast red wood Sequoia Sempervirens (D. Don). For. Prod. J. 33(5): 15-20 ...

  2. Wood Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about wood dust, which can raise the risk of cancers of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. High amounts of wood dust are produced in sawmills, and in the furniture-making, cabinet-making, and carpentry industries.

  3. Wood Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoke is made up of a complex mixture of gases and fine, microscopic particles produced when wood and other organic matter burn. The biggest health threat from wood smoke comes from fine particles (also called particulate matter).

  4. The effects of α-cellulose extraction and blue-stain fungus on retrospective studies of carbon and oxygen isotope variation in live and dead trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Nathan B; McDowell, Nate G; Allen, Craig D; Mora, Claudia

    2011-10-30

    Tree-ring carbon and oxygen isotope ratios from live and recently dead trees may reveal important mechanisms of tree mortality. However, wood decay in dead trees may alter the δ(13)C and δ(18)O values of whole wood obscuring the isotopic signal associated with factors leading up to and including physiological death. We examined whole sapwood and α-cellulose from live and dead specimens of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), one-seed juniper (Juniperous monosperma), piñon pine (Pinus edulis) and white fir (Abies concolor), including those with fungal growth and beetle frass in the wood, to determine if α-cellulose extraction is necessary for the accurate interpretation of isotopic compositions in the dead trees. We found that the offset between the δ(13)C or δ(18)O values of α-cellulose and whole wood was the same for both live and dead trees across a large range of inter-annual and regional climate differences. The method of α-cellulose extraction, whether Leavitt-Danzer or Standard Brendel modified for small samples, imparts significant differences in the δ(13)C (up to 0.4‰) and δ(18) O (up to 1.2‰) of α-cellulose, as reported by other studies. There was no effect of beetle frass or blue-stain fungus (Ophiostoma) on the δ(13)C and δ(18)O of whole wood or α-cellulose. The relationships between whole wood and α-cellulose δ(13)C for ponderosa, piñon and juniper yielded slopes of ~1, while the relationship between δ(18)O of whole wood and α-cellulose was less clear. We conclude that there are few analytical or sampling obstacles to retrospective studies of isotopic patterns of tree mortality in forests of the western United States. Published in 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. The effects of α-cellulose extraction and blue-stain fungus on retrospective studies of carbon and oxygen isotope variation in live and dead trees†

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, N.B.; McDowell, N.G.; Allen, Craig D.; Mora, C.

    2011-01-01

    Tree-ring carbon and oxygen isotope ratios from live and recently dead trees may reveal important mechanisms of tree mortality. However, wood decay in dead trees may alter the δ13C and δ18O values of whole wood obscuring the isotopic signal associated with factors leading up to and including physiological death. We examined whole sapwood and α-cellulose from live and dead specimens of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), one-seed juniper (Juniperous monosperma), piñon pine (Pinus edulis) and white fir (Abies concolor), including those with fungal growth and beetle frass in the wood, to determine if α-cellulose extraction is necessary for the accurate interpretation of isotopic compositions in the dead trees. We found that the offset between the δ13C or δ18O values of α-cellulose and whole wood was the same for both live and dead trees across a large range of inter-annual and regional climate differences. The method of α-cellulose extraction, whether Leavitt-Danzer or Standard Brendel modified for small samples, imparts significant differences in the δ13C (up to 0.4‰) and δ18O (up to 1.2‰) of α-cellulose, as reported by other studies. There was no effect of beetle frass or blue-stain fungus (Ophiostoma) on the δ13C and δ18O of whole wood or α-cellulose. The relationships between whole wood and α-cellulose δ13C for ponderosa, piñon and juniper yielded slopes of ~1, while the relationship between δ18O of whole wood and α-cellulose was less clear. We conclude that there are few analytical or sampling obstacles to retrospective studies of isotopic patterns of tree mortality in forests of the western United States.

  6. Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Fine Licht Henrik H

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae, wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent microbial enzymes support fungus farming in ambrosia beetles is unknown. Here we measure (i 13 plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in the fungus garden microbial consortium of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii, including its primary fungal symbionts, in three compartments of laboratory maintained nests, at different time points after gallery foundation and (ii four specific enzymes that may be either insect or microbially derived in X. saxesenii adult and larval individuals. Results We discovered that the activity of cellulases in ambrosia fungus gardens is relatively small compared to the activities of other cellulolytic enzymes. Enzyme activity in all compartments of the garden was mainly directed towards hemicellulose carbohydrates such as xylan, glucomannan and callose. Hemicellulolytic enzyme activity within the brood chamber increased with gallery age, whereas irrespective of the age of the gallery, the highest overall enzyme activity were detected in the gallery dump material expelled by the beetles. Interestingly endo-β-1,3(4-glucanase activity capable of callose degradation was identified in whole-body extracts of both larvae and adult X. saxesenii, whereas endo-β-1,4-xylanase activity was exclusively detected in larvae. Conclusion Similar to closely related fungi associated with bark beetles in phloem, the microbial symbionts of ambrosia beetles hardly degrade cellulose. Instead, their enzyme activity is directed mainly towards comparatively more easily

  7. Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Biedermann, Peter H W

    2012-06-06

    In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae), wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow) and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent microbial enzymes support fungus farming in ambrosia beetles is unknown. Here we measure (i) 13 plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in the fungus garden microbial consortium of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii, including its primary fungal symbionts, in three compartments of laboratory maintained nests, at different time points after gallery foundation and (ii) four specific enzymes that may be either insect or microbially derived in X. saxesenii adult and larval individuals. We discovered that the activity of cellulases in ambrosia fungus gardens is relatively small compared to the activities of other cellulolytic enzymes. Enzyme activity in all compartments of the garden was mainly directed towards hemicellulose carbohydrates such as xylan, glucomannan and callose. Hemicellulolytic enzyme activity within the brood chamber increased with gallery age, whereas irrespective of the age of the gallery, the highest overall enzyme activity were detected in the gallery dump material expelled by the beetles. Interestingly endo-β-1,3(4)-glucanase activity capable of callose degradation was identified in whole-body extracts of both larvae and adult X. saxesenii, whereas endo-β-1,4-xylanase activity was exclusively detected in larvae. Similar to closely related fungi associated with bark beetles in phloem, the microbial symbionts of ambrosia beetles hardly degrade cellulose. Instead, their enzyme activity is directed mainly towards comparatively more easily accessible hemicellulose components of the ray

  8. Fungicidal values of bio-oils and their lignin-rich fractions obtained from wood/bark fast pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Dinesh; Shi, Jenny; Nicholas, Darrel D; Pittman, Charles U; Steele, Philip H; Cooper, Jerome E

    2008-03-01

    Pine wood, pine bark, oak wood and oak bark were pyrolyzed in an auger reactor. A total of 16 bio-oils or pyrolytic oils were generated at different temperatures and residence times. Two additional pine bio-oils were produced at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in a fluidized-bed reactor at different temperatures. All these bio-oils were fractionated to obtain lignin-rich fractions which consist mainly of phenols and neutrals. The pyrolytic lignin-rich fractions were obtained by liquid-liquid extraction. Whole bio-oils and their lignin-rich fractions were studied as potential environmentally benign wood preservatives to replace metal-based CCA and copper systems that have raised environmental concerns. Each bio-oil and several lignin-rich fractions were tested for antifungal properties. Soil block tests were conducted using one brown-rot fungus (Gloeophyllum trabeum) and one white-rot fungus (Trametes versicolor). The lignin-rich fractions showed greater fungal inhibition than whole bio-oils for a impregnation solution 10% concentration level. Water repellence tests were also performed to study wood wafer swelling behavior before and after bio-oil and lignin-rich fraction treatments. In this case, bio-oil fractions did not exhibit higher water repellency than whole bio-oils. Comparison of raw bio-oils in soil block tests, with unleached wafers, at 10% and 25% bio-oil impregnation solution concentration levels showed excellent wood preservation properties at the 25% level. The good performance of raw bio-oils at higher loading levels suggests that fractionation to generate lignin-rich fractions is unnecessary. At this more effective 25% loading level in general, the raw bio-oils performed similarly. Prevention of leaching is critically important for both raw bio-oils and their fractions to provide decay resistance. Initial tests of a polymerization chemical to prevent leaching showed some success.

  9. Understanding wood chemistry changes during biopulping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Hunt; William Kenealy; Carl Houtman

    2003-01-01

    Biopulping is the process of pretreating chips with fungus before mechanical pulping, resulting in significant energy savings and sheet strength improvements. This work presents sugar analysis, methylene blue adsorption, and titration data suggesting an increase in acid group content in wood is common with biopulping treatment. Some discussion of possible mechanisms of...

  10. Wood composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lars Berglund; Roger M. Rowell

    2005-01-01

    A composite can be defined as two or more elements held together by a matrix. By this definition, what we call “solid wood” is a composite. Solid wood is a three-dimensional composite composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin (with smaller amounts of inorganics and extractives), held together by a lignin matrix. The advantages of developing wood composites are (...

  11. 21 CFR 178.3800 - Preservatives for wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Preservatives for wood. 178.3800 Section 178.3800... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3800 Preservatives for wood. Preservatives may be safely used... to accomplish the technical effect of protecting the wood from decay, mildew, and water absorption...

  12. Charring does not affect wood infestation by subterranean termites

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.J. Peterson; P.D. Gerard; T.L. Wagner

    2007-01-01

    Fire is an important part of forest ecosystems, as is the insect fauna. Changes in wood brought aboutby fire may alter the ability of termites to use the wood, interrupting the decay cycle of woody debris.The ability of termites to find, infest, and feed upon wood after it had been charred was evaluated in

  13. Gravimetric screening method for fungal decay of paper: inoculation with Trametes versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Råberg, Ulrika; Hafrén, Jonas

    2009-10-01

    The European standard test EN 113 for fungal degradation of solid wood has been adapted for degradation of paper by white rot fungus (Trametes versicolor). Fungal degradation of paper sheets may potentially be used for screening different wood preservatives on paper instead of solid wood. The paper samples showed higher relative mass losses compared to wood, and samples pretreated with boric acid, copper sulfate and polymerized linseed oil were successfully tested for biodegradation using the paper sheet method. The results on paper degradation were compared with wood, both as wood blocks (according to standard test) and wood cut in sections forming layered structures mimicking paper layers.

  14. Preliminary investigation of biological resistance, water absorption and swelling of thermally compressed pine wood panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oner Unsal; S. Nami Kartal; Zeki Candan; Rachel Arango; Carol A. Clausen; Frederick Green

    2008-01-01

    Wood can be modified by compressive, thermal and chemical treatments. Compression of wood under thermal conditions is resulted in densification of wood. This study evaluated decay and termite resistance of thermally compressed pine wood panels at either 5 or 7 MPa and at either 120 or 150°C for one hour. The process caused increases in density and decreases in...

  15. Corrosion of metals in treated wood examined by synchrotron based xanes and XFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Joseph E. Jakes; Grant T. Kirker; Leandro Passarini; Barry Lai

    2016-01-01

    Copper based waterborne wood preservatives are frequently used to extend the service life of wood products used in outdoor environments. While these copper based treatments protect the wood from fungal decay and insect attack, they increase the corrosion of metals embedded or in contact with the treated wood. Over the past ten years, several studies have looked at the...

  16. Long term durability of wood-plastic composites made with chemically modified wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Craig M. Clemons

    2017-01-01

    Wood-plastic composites (WPCs) have slower moisture sorption than solid wood, but over time moisture can impact the strength, stiffness, and decay of the composite. These changes will become increasingly important if WPCs are used in more challenging environments such as in ground-contact applications. There are several options for mitigating the moisture sorption of...

  17. Antibiotic Resistance and Fungus

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-02-28

    Dr. David Denning, President of the Global Action Fund for Fungal Infections and an infectious diseases clinician, discusses antimicrobial resistance and fungus.  Created: 2/28/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/28/2017.

  18. Decay under basementless houses prevented by soil covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse D. Diller

    1954-01-01

    Sills and joists of basementless houses on wet sites are subject to decay. Moisture vapor rising from the soil will condense on wood during cold weather (fig. 1). If the wood stays wet, fungi attack it and ultimately cause decay and possibly structural failure.

  19. Wood preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin Archer; Stan Lebow

    2006-01-01

    Wood preservation can be interpreted to mean protection from fire, chemical degradation, mechanical wear, weathering, as well as biological attack. In this chapter, the term preservation is applied more restrictively to protection from biological hazards.

  20. Kraft pulping and ECF bleaching of Eucalyptus globulus pretreated by the white-rot fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i3.12410

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Salazar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus globulus wood chips were decayed by the lignin-degrading fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora as a pretreatment step before kraft pulping. Weight and component losses of wood after the biotreatment were the following: weight (5%, glucans (1.5%, xylans (4.3%, lignin (5.7% and extractives (57.5%. The residual amount of lignin (expressed by the kappa number in pulps from biotreated wood chips was lower than that of pulps from the undecayed control. Depending on the delignification degree, kraft biopulps presented similar or up to 4% increase in pulp yield and 20% less hexenuronic acids (HexA than control pulps. The extended delignification with O2 decreases approximately 50% of the kappa number of the pulps and increases brightness, but had no effect in HexA reduction. The bleaching steps with chlorine dioxide (D0ED1 sequence decreased the kappa number up to 97%, increased pulp brightness up to 84% ISO and decreased HexA amount up to 91%. The use of C. subvermispora in biopulping of E. globulus generated important benefits during the production of kraft pulps that are reflected in a high pulp yield, low residual lignin content, low HexA amount, high brightness and viscosity of the biopulps as compared with pulps produced from untreated wood chips.

  1. Accelerated detection of brown-rot decay : comparison of soil block test, chemical analysis, mechanical properties, and immunodetection

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. A. Clausen; S. N. Kartal

    2003-01-01

    Early detection of wood decay is critical because decay fungi can cause rapid structural failure. The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity of different methods purported to detect brown-rot decay in the early stages of development. The immunodiagnostic wood decay (IWD)test, soil block test/cake pan test, mechanical property tests, and chemical...

  2. Fungal hydroquinones contribute to brown rot of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melissa R. Suzuki; Christopher G. Hunt; Carl J. Houtman; Zachary D. Dalebroux; Kenneth E. Hammel

    2006-01-01

    The fungi that cause brown rot of wood initiate lignocellulose breakdown with an extracellular Fenton system in which Fe2+ and H2O2 react to produce hydroxyl radicals (•OH), which then oxidize and cleave the wood holocellulose. One such fungus, Gloeophyllum trabeum, drives Fenton chemistry on defined media by reducing Fe3+ and O2 with two extracellular hydroquinones,...

  3. Wood handbook : wood as an engineering material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Ross; Forest Products Laboratory. USDA Forest Service.

    2010-01-01

    Summarizes information on wood as an engineering material. Presents properties of wood and wood-based products of particular concern to the architect and engineer. Includes discussion of designing with wood and wood-based products along with some pertinent uses.

  4. Estimates of downed woody debris decay class transitions for forests across the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew B. Russell; Christopher W. Woodall; Shawn Fraver; Anthony W. D' Amato

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale inventories of downed woody debris (DWD; downed dead wood of a minimum size) often record decay status by assigning pieces to classes of decay according to their visual/structural attributes (e.g., presence of branches, log shape, and texture and color of wood). DWD decay classes are not only essential for estimating current DWD biomass and carbon stocks,...

  5. Decay fungi associated with oaks and other hardwoods in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessie A. Glaeser; Kevin T. Smith

    2010-01-01

    An assessment of the presence and extent of the wood decay process should be part of any hazard tree analysis. Identification of the fungi responsible for decay improves both the prediction of the consequences of wood decay and the prescription of management options including tree pruning or removal. Until the outbreak of Sudden Oak Death (SOD), foresters in the...

  6. Content of Chemical Elements in Wood-Destroying Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strapáč I.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the content of chemical elements in the dried fruiting bodies of edible wood decaying fungi such as Honey mushrooms (Armillaria mellea, Shiitakes (Lentinus edodes and Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus. Powdered samples of fungi were mineralized in a microwave digestion. Twenty-one (21 chemical elements were detected in the plasma of the device ICP-MS AGILENT 7500c by accredited methods with the aid of calibration curves. The content of individual elements varied within a considerable range. The highest contents of K, Mn, Cu and Cd were found in the fruiting bodies of Honey mushrooms (Armillaria mellea. Shiitakes (Lentinus edodes had the highest content of B and Mo. Significant differences were found in the content of elements in the Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus from Slovakia, Hungary and China. The highest content of Al was found in the Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus from Hungary. The Chinese oysters had a maximum contents of Ca, Mg, Co, Pb, As and U. The Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus from Lemešany (Slovakia had the highest contents of Na, Zn, Fe, Se, Ag, Hg and Cr. The difference of chemical element content could be influenced by the genotype of the fungus and by the composition of substrate on which mushroom grow up.

  7. Draft genome sequence of the white-rot fungus Obba rivulosa 3A-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto Miettinen; Robert Riley; Kerrie Barry; Daniel Cullen; Ronald P. de Vries; Matthieu Hainaut; Annele Hatakka; Bernard Henrissat; Kristiina Hilden; Rita Kuo; Kurt LaButti; Anna Lipzen; Miia R. Makela; Laura Sandor; Joseph W. Spatafora; Igor V. Grigoriev; David S. Hibbett

    2016-01-01

    We report here the first genome sequence of the white-rot fungus Obba rivulsa (Polyporales, Basidiomycota), a polypore known for its lignin-decomposing ability. The genome is based on the homokaryon 3A-2 originating in Finland. The genome is typical in size and carbohydrate active enzyme (CAZy) content for wood-decomposing basidiomycetes.

  8. Synchrotron based x-ray fluorescence microscopy confirms copper in the corrosion products of metals in contact with treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Joseph E. Jakes; Grant T. Kirker; David Vine; Stefan Vogt

    2017-01-01

    Copper based waterborne wood preservatives are frequently used to extend the service life of wood products when subjected to frequent moisture exposure. While these copper based treatments protect the wood from fungal decay and insect attack, they increase the corrosion of metals embedded or in contact with the treated wood. Previous research has shown the most...

  9. Coal and wood fuel for electricity production: An environmentally sound solution for waste and demolition wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penninks, F.W.M. [EPON, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    Waste wood from primary wood processing and demolition presents both a problem and a potential. If disposed in landfills, it consumes large volumes and decays, producing CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases. As an energy source used in a coal fired power plant it reduces the consumption of fossil fuels reducing the greenhouse effect significantly. Additional advantages are a reduction of the ash volume and the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. The waste wood requires collection, storage, processing and burning. This paper describes a unique project which is carried out in the Netherlands at EPON`s Gelderland Power Plant (635 MW{sub e}) where 60 000 tonnes of waste and demolition wood will be used annually. Special emphasis is given to the processing of the powdered wood fuel. Therefore, most waste and demolition wood can be converted from an environmental liability to an environmental and economic asset. (author)

  10. Coal and wood fuel for electricity production: An environmentally sound solution for waste and demolition wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penninks, F W.M. [EPON, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    1998-12-31

    Waste wood from primary wood processing and demolition presents both a problem and a potential. If disposed in landfills, it consumes large volumes and decays, producing CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases. As an energy source used in a coal fired power plant it reduces the consumption of fossil fuels reducing the greenhouse effect significantly. Additional advantages are a reduction of the ash volume and the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. The waste wood requires collection, storage, processing and burning. This paper describes a unique project which is carried out in the Netherlands at EPON`s Gelderland Power Plant (635 MW{sub e}) where 60 000 tonnes of waste and demolition wood will be used annually. Special emphasis is given to the processing of the powdered wood fuel. Therefore, most waste and demolition wood can be converted from an environmental liability to an environmental and economic asset. (author)

  11. Strong air pollution from old wood stoves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    According to this article, wood-firing is the major source of suspended dust in Norway. Old stoves emit about six times as much as new stoves. Only seven percent of the wood-firing takes place in modern, clean-burning stoves. In Oslo, where replacement of old stoves has been publicly supported, this fraction is even less. The emission of carbon dioxide from burning wood does not count as climate gas emission since the amount of CO 2 released from a burning tree equals the amount that was fixed in the growing tree, and it would have been released anyhow by the decaying tree if not burned

  12. Significance of wood extractives for wood bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffael, Edmone

    2016-02-01

    Wood contains primary extractives, which are present in all woods, and secondary extractives, which are confined in certain wood species. Extractives in wood play a major role in wood-bonding processes, as they can contribute to or determine the bonding relevant properties of wood such as acidity and wettability. Therefore, extractives play an immanent role in bonding of wood chips and wood fibres with common synthetic adhesives such as urea-formaldehyde-resins (UF-resins) and phenol-formaldehyde-resins (PF-resins). Extractives of high acidity accelerate the curing of acid curing UF-resins and decelerate bonding with alkaline hardening PF-resins. Water-soluble extractives like free sugars are detrimental for bonding of wood with cement. Polyphenolic extractives (tannins) can be used as a binder in the wood-based industry. Additionally, extractives in wood can react with formaldehyde and reduce the formaldehyde emission of wood-based panels. Moreover, some wood extractives are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and insofar also relevant to the emission of VOC from wood and wood-based panels.

  13. Radioactive Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radioactive decay is the emission of energy in the form of ionizing radiation. Example decay chains illustrate how radioactive atoms can go through many transformations as they become stable and no longer radioactive.

  14. Biomass Determination Using Wood Specific Gravity from Increment Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael C. Wiemann; G. Bruce Williamson

    2013-01-01

    Wood specific gravity (SG) is one of the most important variables used to determine biomass. Measurement of SG is problematic because it requires tedious, and often difficult, sampling of wood from standing trees. Sampling is complicated because the SG usually varies nonrandomly within trees, resulting in systematic errors. Off-center pith and hollow or decayed stems...

  15. Weak decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcicki, S.

    1978-11-01

    Lectures are given on weak decays from a phenomenological point of view, emphasizing new results and ideas and the relation of recent results to the new standard theoretical model. The general framework within which the weak decay is viewed and relevant fundamental questions, weak decays of noncharmed hadrons, decays of muons and the tau, and the decays of charmed particles are covered. Limitation is made to the discussion of those topics that either have received recent experimental attention or are relevant to the new physics. (JFP) 178 references

  16. Laboratory evaluations of woods from Pakistan and their extractives against Postia placenta and Trametes versicolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Mankowski; Barbar Hassan; Amy Blodgett; Grant T. Kirker

    2016-01-01

    Natural durable wood species are those which exhibit innate tolerance to wood decay organisms such as fungi and termites. The goal of this study was to evaluate 4 wood species (Dalbergia sissoo, Cedrus deodara, Morus alba and Pinus roxburghii) from Pakistan in order to determine their resistance to both a model brown (

  17. A two end-member model of wood dynamics in headwater neotropical rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen Wohl; Susan Bolton; Daniel Cadol; Francesco Comiti; Jaime R. Goode; Luca Mao

    2012-01-01

    Geomorphic and ecological effects of instream wood have been documented primarily along rivers in the temperate zones. Instream wood loads in tropical rivers might be expected to differ from those in analogous temperate rivers because of the higher transport capacity and higher rates of wood decay in the tropics. We use data from four field sites in Costa Rica and...

  18. Wood decomposition as influenced by invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyshen, Michael D

    2016-02-01

    The diversity and habitat requirements of invertebrates associated with dead wood have been the subjects of hundreds of studies in recent years but we still know very little about the ecological or economic importance of these organisms. The purpose of this review is to examine whether, how and to what extent invertebrates affect wood decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems. Three broad conclusions can be reached from the available literature. First, wood decomposition is largely driven by microbial activity but invertebrates also play a significant role in both temperate and tropical environments. Primary mechanisms include enzymatic digestion (involving both endogenous enzymes and those produced by endo- and ectosymbionts), substrate alteration (tunnelling and fragmentation), biotic interactions and nitrogen fertilization (i.e. promoting nitrogen fixation by endosymbiotic and free-living bacteria). Second, the effects of individual invertebrate taxa or functional groups can be accelerative or inhibitory but the cumulative effect of the entire community is generally to accelerate wood decomposition, at least during the early stages of the process (most studies are limited to the first 2-3 years). Although methodological differences and design limitations preclude meta-analysis, studies aimed at quantifying the contributions of invertebrates to wood decomposition commonly attribute 10-20% of wood loss to these organisms. Finally, some taxa appear to be particularly influential with respect to promoting wood decomposition. These include large wood-boring beetles (Coleoptera) and termites (Termitoidae), especially fungus-farming macrotermitines. The presence or absence of these species may be more consequential than species richness and the influence of invertebrates is likely to vary biogeographically. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. Synchrotron applications in wood preservation and deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Illman

    2003-01-01

    Several non-intrusive synchrotron techniques are being used to detect and study wood decay. The techniques use high intensity synchrotron-generated X-rays to determine the atomic structure of materials with imaging, diffraction, and absorption. Some of the techniques are X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XFS), X-ray...

  20. Chapter 5:Biological Properties of Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach

    2013-01-01

    There are numerous biological degradations that wood is exposed to in various environments. Biological damage occurs when a log, sawn product, or final product is not stored, handled, or designed properly. Biological organisms such as bacteria, mold, stain, decay fungi, insects, and marine borers depend heavily on temperature and moisture conditions to grow. Figure 5.1...

  1. Choosing Wood Burning Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information to assist consumers in choosing a wood burning appliance, including types of appliances, the differences between certified and non-certified appliances, and alternative wood heating options.

  2. Effect of Trichoderma-enriched organic charcoal in the integrated wood protection strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ribera

    Full Text Available The gradual elimination of chromium from wood preservative formulations results in higher Cu leaching and increased susceptibility to wood decay fungi. Finding a sustainable strategy in wood protection has become of great interest among researchers. The objective of these in vitro studies was to demonstrate the effect of T-720-enriched organic charcoal (biochar against five wood decay basidiomycetes isolated from strongly damaged poles. For this purpose, the antagonistic potential of Trichoderma harzianum (strain T-720 was confirmed among other four Trichoderma spp. against five brown-rot basidiomycetes in dual culture tests. T-720 was genetically transformed and tagged with the green fluorescent protein (GFP in order to study its antagonistic mechanism against wood decay basidiomycetes. It was also demonstrated that T-720 inhibits the oxalic acid production by basidiomycetes, a well-known mechanism used by brown-rot fungi to detoxify Cu from impregnated wood. Additionally, this study evaluated the effect of biochar, alone or in combination with T-720, on Cu leaching by different preservatives, pH stabilization and prevention of wood decay caused by five basidiomycetes. Addition of biochar resulted in a significant Cu binding released from impregnated wood specimens. T-720-enriched biochar showed a significant reduction of wood decay caused by four basidiomycetes. The addition of T-720-enriched biochar to the soil into which utility poles are placed may improve the efficiency of Cr-free wood preservatives.

  3. Tau decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golutvin, A.

    1994-09-01

    The most recent experimental results of τ physics are reviewed. The covered topics include precision measurements of semihadronic τ decay and their impact on tau branching ratio budget, the current status of the tau consistency test, a determination of Michel parameters and τ neutrino helicity, and upper limits on lepton-number violating τ decays. (orig.)

  4. Finishing of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam Williams

    1999-01-01

    The primary function of any wood finish (paint, varnish, and stain, for example) is to protect the wood surface, help maintain a certain appearance, and provide a cleanable surface. Although wood can be used both outdoors and indoors without finishing, unfinished wood surfaces exposed to the weather change color, are roughened by photodegradation and surface checking,...

  5. Decay tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Seiichi; Tagishi, Akinori; Sakata, Yuji; Kontani, Koji; Sudo, Yukio; Kaminaga, Masanori; Kameyama, Iwao; Ando, Koei; Ishiki, Masahiko.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns an decay tank for decaying a radioactivity concentration of a fluid containing radioactive material. The inside of an decay tank body is partitioned by partitioning plates to form a flow channel. A porous plate is attached at the portion above the end of the partitioning plate, that is, a portion where the flow is just turned. A part of the porous plate has a slit-like opening on the side close to the partitioning plate, that is, the inner side of the flow at the turning portion thereof. Accordingly, the primary coolants passed through the pool type nuclear reactor and flown into the decay tank are flow caused to uniformly over the entire part of the tank without causing swirling. Since a distribution in a staying time is thus decreased, the effect of decaying 16 N as radioactive nuclides in the primary coolants is increased even in a limited volume of the tank. (I.N.)

  6. Protection of Wood from Microorganisms by Laccase-Catalyzed Iodination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, J.; Thöny-Meyer, L.; Schwarze, F. W. M. R.; Ihssen, J.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, Norway spruce wood (Picea abies L.) was reacted with a commercial Trametes versicolor laccase in the presence of potassium iodide salt or the phenolic compounds thymol and isoeugenol to impart an antimicrobial property to the wood surface. In order to assess the efficacy of the wood treatment, a leaching of the iodinated and polymerized wood and two biotests including bacteria, a yeast, blue stain fungi, and wood decay fungi were performed. After laccase-catalyzed oxidation of the phenols, the antimicrobial effect was significantly reduced. In contrast, the enzymatic oxidation of iodide (I−) to iodine (I2) in the presence of wood led to an enhanced resistance of the wood surface against all microorganisms, even after exposure to leaching. The efficiency of the enzymatic wood iodination was comparable to that of a chemical wood preservative, VP 7/260a. The modification of the lignocellulose by the laccase-catalyzed iodination was assessed by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) technique. The intensities of the selected lignin-associated bands and carbohydrate reference bands were analyzed, and the results indicated a structural change in the lignin matrix. The results suggest that the laccase-catalyzed iodination of the wood surface presents an efficient and ecofriendly method for wood protection. PMID:22865075

  7. X-ray initiated polymerization of wood impregnants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, Marshall R.; Galloway, Richard A. [IBA Industrial, Inc., Edgewood, NY (United States); Berejka, Anthony J. [Ionicorp, Huntington, NY 11743 (United States)], E-mail: berejka@msn.com; Montoney, Daniel [Strathmore Products, Syracuse, NY (United States); Driscoll, Mark; Smith, Leonard; Scott Larsen, L. [State University of New York, SUNY-ESF, Syracuse, NY (United States)

    2009-07-15

    X-rays, derived from a high energy, high-current electron beam (EB), initiated in-situ polymerization of a unique class of monomers that were found to penetrate the cell walls of wood. X-rays initiated an auto-catalytic acrylic polymerization and penetrated through thick pieces of wood. The final cured product having the polymerizate, a polymer, both in the wood cell lumens and in the cell walls is called wood impregnated with a wood-polymer penetrant (WPP). The controlled lower dose rate of X-rays overcame disproportionation encountered when using higher dose-rate electron beam initiation. With X-rays, the in-situ polymerization took place in one exposure of modest dose. With EB, multiple passes were needed to avoid excessive heat build-up and monomer volatilization. Having entered the cell walls of the wood and then being polymerized within the cell walls, these radiation-cured unique monomers imparted outstanding dimensional stability upon exposure of the impregnated wood to humidity cycling. The preferred monomer system was also chemically modified prior to impregnation with agents that would remain in the wood and prevent the growth of fungi and other microbials. This technique differs from historic uses of monomers that merely filled the lumens of the wood (historic wood-polymer composites), which are only suitable for indoor use. The WPP impregnated wood that was either X-ray cured or EB cured demonstrated enhanced structural properties, dimensional stability, and decay resistance.

  8. X-ray initiated polymerization of wood impregnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, Marshall R.; Galloway, Richard A.; Berejka, Anthony J.; Montoney, Daniel; Driscoll, Mark; Smith, Leonard; Scott Larsen, L.

    2009-01-01

    X-rays, derived from a high energy, high-current electron beam (EB), initiated in-situ polymerization of a unique class of monomers that were found to penetrate the cell walls of wood. X-rays initiated an auto-catalytic acrylic polymerization and penetrated through thick pieces of wood. The final cured product having the polymerizate, a polymer, both in the wood cell lumens and in the cell walls is called wood impregnated with a wood-polymer penetrant (WPP). The controlled lower dose rate of X-rays overcame disproportionation encountered when using higher dose-rate electron beam initiation. With X-rays, the in-situ polymerization took place in one exposure of modest dose. With EB, multiple passes were needed to avoid excessive heat build-up and monomer volatilization. Having entered the cell walls of the wood and then being polymerized within the cell walls, these radiation-cured unique monomers imparted outstanding dimensional stability upon exposure of the impregnated wood to humidity cycling. The preferred monomer system was also chemically modified prior to impregnation with agents that would remain in the wood and prevent the growth of fungi and other microbials. This technique differs from historic uses of monomers that merely filled the lumens of the wood (historic wood-polymer composites), which are only suitable for indoor use. The WPP impregnated wood that was either X-ray cured or EB cured demonstrated enhanced structural properties, dimensional stability, and decay resistance.

  9. Who's Counting Dead Wood ?

    OpenAIRE

    Woodall, C. W.; Verkerk, H.; Rondeux, Jacques; Ståhl, G.

    2009-01-01

    Dead wood in forests is a critical component of biodiversity, carbon and nutrient cycles, stand structure, and fuel loadings. Until recently, very few countries have conducted systematic inventories of dead wood resources across their forest lands. This may be changing as an increasing number of countries implement dead wood inventories. A recent survey looks at the status and attributes of forest dead wood inventories in over 60 countries. About 13 percent of countries inventory dead wood gl...

  10. Wood plastic composites from modified wood. Part 3. Durability of WPCs with bioderived matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westin, M.; Larsson-Brelid, P.; Segerholm, B.K.; Oever, van den M.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    The decay resistance of fully bio-derived wood plastic composites, WPCs, was tested in both laboratory and field tests. The laboratory tests were performed according to modified versions of AWPA E10 (soil-block test) and ENV 807 (tests in three un-sterile soils) and the field tests according to EN

  11. Communities of fungi in decomposed wood of oak and pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwaśna Hanna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The abundance and diversity of wood decomposing fungi were investigated by isolating and cultivating filamentous fungi from wood and by detection of fruit bodies of ascomycetous and basidiomycetous fungi. The objective was to study the impact of forest management on fungi in 100-year-old oak and 87-year-old Scots pine forests in Northern Poland. Fungi were found on coarse woody debris of decayed stumps and fallen logs, boughs and branches in each of the three (managed and unmanaged examined stands. In total, 226 species of Oomycota and fungi were recorded. Oak wood was colonized by one species of Oomycota and 141 species of fungi including Zygomycota (19 species, Ascomycota (103 species and Basidiomycota (19 species. Scots pine wood was also colonized by one species of Oomycota and 138 species of fungi including Zygomycota (19 species, Ascomycota (90 species and Basidiomycota (29 species. In the first, second and third stages of decomposition, the oak wood was colonized by 101, 89 and 56 species of fungi respectively and pine wood was colonized by 82, 103 and 47 species respectively. Eighty three of the observed species (37% occurred on both types of wood, while the other species displayed nutritional preferences. A decrease in the number of species with advancing decay indicates the necessity for a continuous supply of dead wood to the forest ecosystem.

  12. Wood-plastic combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaudy, R.

    1978-02-01

    A review on wood-plastic combinations is given including the production (wood and plastic component, radiation hardening, curing), the obtained properties, present applications and prospects for the future of these materials. (author)

  13. Mechanics of Wood Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Csanády, Etele

    2013-01-01

    Wood is one of the most valuable materials for mankind, and since our earliest days wood materials have been widely used. Today we have modern woodworking machine and tools; however, the raw wood materials available are continuously declining. Therefore we are forced to use this precious material more economically, reducing waste wherever possible. This new textbook on the “Mechanics of Wood Machining” combines the quantitative, mathematical analysis of the mechanisms of wood processing with practical recommendations and solutions. Bringing together materials from many sources, the book contains new theoretical and experimental approaches and offers a clear and systematic overview of the theory of wood cutting, thermal loading in wood-cutting tools, dynamic behaviour of tool and work piece, optimum choice of operational parameters and energy consumption, the wear process of the tools, and the general regularities of wood surface roughness. Diagrams are provided for the quick estimation of various process ...

  14. Wood's lamp examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003386.htm Wood lamp examination To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A Wood lamp examination is a test that uses ultraviolet ( ...

  15. Wood's lamp illumination (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Wood's lamp emits ultraviolet light and can be a diagnostic aid in determining if someone has a fungal ... is an infection on the area where the Wood's lamp is illuminating, the area will fluoresce. Normally ...

  16. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Search How We Work Our Focus Areas About RWJF Search Menu How We Work Grants ... Learn more For Grantees and Grantseekers The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation funds a wide array of programs ...

  17. Non_standard Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin

    . Using parametric design tools and computer controlled production facilities Copenhagens Centre for IT and Architecture undertook a practice based research into performance based non-standard element design and mass customization techniques. In close cooperation with wood construction software......, but the integration of traditional wood craft techniques. The extensive use of self adjusting, load bearing wood-wood joints contributed to ease in production and assembly of a performance based architecture....

  18. Adhesive interactions with wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2004-01-01

    While the chemistry for the polymerization of wood adhesives has been studied systematically and extensively, the critical aspects of the interaction of adhesives with wood are less clearly understood. General theories of bond formation need to be modified to take into account the porosity of wood and the ability of chemicals to be absorbed into the cell wall....

  19. Iron Stain on Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Iron stain, an unsightly blue–black or gray discoloration, can occur on nearly all woods. Oak, redwood, cypress, and cedar are particularly prone to iron stain because these woods contain large amounts of tannin-like extractives. The discoloration is caused by a chemical reaction between extractives in the wood and iron in steel products, such as nails, screws, and...

  20. Wood preservative testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca Ibach; Stan T. Lebow

    2012-01-01

    Most wood species used in commercial and residential construction have little natural biological durability and will suffer from biodeterioration when exposed to moisture. Historically, this problem has been overcome by treating wood for outdoor use with toxic wood preservatives. As societal acceptance of chemical use changes, there is continual pressure to develop and...

  1. Wood thermoplastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel F. Caulfield; Craig Clemons; Roger M. Rowell

    2010-01-01

    The wood industry can expand into new sustainable markets with the formation of a new class of composites with the marriage of the wood industry and the plastics industry. The wood component, usually a flour or fiber, is combined with a thermoplastic to form an extrudable, injectable or thermoformable composite that can be used in many non-structural applications....

  2. Request for wood samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1977-01-01

    In recent years the wood collection at the Rijksherbarium was greatly expanded following a renewed interest in wood anatomy as an aid for solving classification problems. Staff members of the Rijksherbarium added to the collection by taking interesting wood samples with them from their expeditions

  3. B decays

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, Sheldon

    1992-01-01

    The study of b quarks has now reached a stage where it is useful to review what has been learned so far and also to look at the implications of future studies. The most important observations thus far - measurement of the "B" lifetime, B 0 - B 0 mixing, and the observation of b? u transitions, as well as more mundane results on hadronic and semileptonic transitions - are described in detail by experimentalists who have been closely involved with the measurements. Theoretical progress in understanding b quark decays, including the mechanisms of hadronic and semileptonic decays, are described. S

  4. B decays

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, Sheldon

    1994-01-01

    This book reviews the study of b quarks and also looks at the implications of future studies. The most important observations thus far - including measurement of the ""B"" lifetime and observations of b -> u transitions - as well as the more mundane results of hadronic and semileptonic transitions are described in detail by experimentalists who have been closely involved with the measurements. Theoretical progress in understanding b quark decays, including the mechanisms of hadronic and semileptonic decays, are described. Synthesizing the experimental and theoretical information, the authors d

  5. Woody debris volume depletion through decay: Implications for biomass and carbon accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawn Fraver; Amy M. Milo; John B. Bradford; Anthony W. D’Amato; Laura Kenefic; Brian J. Palik; Christopher W. Woodall; John Brissette

    2013-01-01

    Woody debris decay rates have recently received much attention because of the need to quantify temporal changes in forest carbon stocks. Published decay rates, available for many species, are commonly used to characterize deadwood biomass and carbon depletion. However, decay rates are often derived from reductions in wood density through time, which when used to model...

  6. Applicability of Vegetable Oils as a Wood Preservative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eylem Dizman Tomak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional heavy duty wood preservatives have been banned or restricted for some applications due to their mammalian toxicity and their adverse effect on the environment. New, eco-friendly, but nevertheless still effective protection systems, is needed to protect wood in outdoors. Non-toxic vegetable oils can form of a protective layer on the surface of the wood cells which decrease water uptake of wood. For that reason, oils have a good potential as being a wood preservative. However, impregnation with vegetable oils is insufficient to impart adequate biological decay and termite resistance, and indeed the treatment may increase wood’s propensity to burn. In addition, a high level of oil absorption required for good protection make the process impractical and uneconomic to use. The efficiency of the treatment can be improved with using the biocides and oils together. Beside this, usage of modified oils can decrease the retention levels in wood. In this study, applicability of vegetable oils being one of the environment-friendly, biodegradable water repellents on wood treatments was reported. Furthermore, problems related to the use of oils for wood protection, and possible solutions for the problems were discussed.In this study, applicability of vegetable oils as one of the environment-friendly, biodegradable water repellents was reported. Furthermore, problems related to the use of oils for wood protection and possible solutions for the problems were discussed

  7. Wood frame systems for wood homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Molina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of constructive systems that combine strength, speed, with competitive differential techniques and mainly, compromising with the environment, is becoming more popular in Brazil. The constructive system in wood frame for houses of up to five stories is very interesting, because it is a light system, structured in reforested treated wood which allows the combination of several materials, besides allowing speed in the construction and total control of the expenses already in the project phase for being industrialized. The structural behavior of the wood frame is superior to the structural masonry in strength, thermal and acoustic comfort. However, in Brazil, the wood frame is still little known and used, due to lack of technical knowledge about the system, prejudice associated the bad use of the wood as construction material, or still, in some cases, lack of normalization. The aim of this manuscript consists of presenting the main technical characteristics and advantages of the constructive system in wood frame homes, approaching the main stages of the constructive process through examples, showing the materials used in the construction, in addition the main international normative recommendations of the project. Thus, this manuscript also hopes to contribute to the popularization of the wood frame system in Brazil, since it is a competitive, fast and ecologically correct system. Moreover, nowadays, an enormous effort of the technical, commercial and industrial section has been accomplished for the development of this system in the country.

  8. Climate effects of wood used for bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros, Jan P.M.; Van Minnen, Jelle G. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Arets, Eric J.M.M. [Alterra, Wageningen University WUR, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2013-08-15

    Wood growth and natural decay both take time, and this is an important aspect of sustainability assessments of wood used for energy. Wood taken from forests is a carbon-neutral energy source in the long term, but there are many examples of potential sources of wood used for bioenergy for which net emission reductions are not achieved in 10 to 40 years - the time frame for most climate policy mitigation targets. This is caused by two factors. The first factor relates to the fact that the carbon cycles of wood have a long time span. After final felling, CO2 fixation rates are initially relatively low, but increase again as forests regrow. This regrowth takes many years, sometimes more than a century. Wood residues can either be used or left in the forest. By using them, the emissions from the otherwise decaying residues (taking 2 to 30 years) would be avoided. The second factor concerns the fact that, if the wood is used for bioenergy, then fossil energy emissions are being avoided. However, the direct emission levels from bioenergy are higher than those related to the fossil energy it replaces. These additional emissions also have to be compensated. The carbon debt caused by both factors has to be paid back first, before actual emission reductions can be realised. For wood residues (from harvesting or thinning) that are used to replace coal or oil products, these payback times are relatively short, of the order of 5 to 25 years, mainly depending on location and type of residue (longer if they replace gas). This is also the case when using wood from salvage logging. In most cases, when using wood from final felling directly for energy production, payback times could be many decades to more than a century, with substantial increases in net CO2 emissions, in the meantime. This is especially the case for many forests in Europe, because they are currently an effective carbon sink. Additional felling reduces average growth rates in these forests and thus the sequestration

  9. Evaluating the impact of water flotation and the state of the wood in archaeological wood charcoal remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otaegui, Amaia Arranz

    2016-01-01

    . The aim of this work is to evaluate the assemblage and to determine the factors that conditioned the preservation or disintegration of wood charcoal remains. In particular, attention is paid to the distribution of the alterations (e.g. vitrification, decayed wood) by taxa, and the proportions with which...... they are present before and after flotation. To test some of the patterns observed in the archaeological material a small-scale experiment on modern wood charcoal remains is carried out. The results enable a critic reconstruction of the type of vegetation and firewood gathering strategies at Tell Qarassa North...

  10. Limited transfer of nitrogen between wood decomposing and ectomycorrhizal mycelia when studied in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallander, Håkan; Lindahl, Björn D.; Nilsson, Lars Ola

    2006-01-01

    was compared to the amount of 15N released from the wood-decomposing mycelia into the soil solution as 15N-NH4. The study was performed in peat-filled plastic containers placed in forest soil in the field. The wood-decomposing mycelium was growing from an inoculated wood piece and the ectomycorrhizal mycelium...... from an introduced root from a mature tree. The containers were harvested after 41 weeks when physical contact between the two foraging mycelia was established. At harvest, 15N content was analyzed in the peat (total N and 15NH4+) and in the mycorrhizal roots. A limited amount of 15N was transferred...... to the ectomycorrhizal fungus and this transfer could be explained by 15NH4+ released from the wooddecomposing fungus without involving any antagonistic interactions between the two mycelia. Using our approach, it was possible to study nutritional interactions between basidiomycete mycelia under field conditions...

  11. Changes in down dead wood volume across a chronosequence of silvicultural openings in southern Indiana forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Jenkins; George R. Parker

    1997-01-01

    The volume and decay stages of down dead wood were evaluated across a chronosequence of 46 silvicultural openings and 10 uncut control stands to determine how down dead wood volume changes with stand development. Openings ranged in age from 8 to 26 years and were divided into three age groups: (1) 16 years. Individual logs...

  12. Inoculation Technique for Fungus Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaro, Ramon M.

    1972-01-01

    A plastic straw and wood applicator stick serve as a simple, inexpensive, and disposable inoculation unit for fungal studies. The method gives a uniform and intact inoculum. The technique is especially useful because a large number of agar plates can be inoculated rapidly. Images PMID:5059618

  13. Proton decay theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    Topics include minimal SU(5) predictions, gauge boson mediated proton decay, uncertainties in tau/sub p/, Higgs scalar effects, proton decay via Higgs scalars, supersymmetric SU(5), dimension 5 operators and proton decay, and Higgs scalars and proton decay

  14. Many Roles of Wood Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2014-01-01

    Although wood bonding is one of the oldest applications of adhesives, going back to early recorded history (1), some aspects of wood bonds are still not fully understood. Most books in the general area of adhesives and adhesion do not cover wood bonding. However, a clearer understanding of wood bonding and wood adhesives can lead to improved products. This is important...

  15. Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, G.

    1998-11-20

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris.

  16. Controversy. The wood war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, O.

    2010-01-01

    The author comments the conflict emerging in France between industries exploiting wood for construction and those exploiting it as a heating material for power generation. The first ones accuse the others to steal their raw material, to pull the prices up, and to destabilize the sector. This conflict takes place notably around sawmill wastes which are used either by wood panel fabricators or by wood pellets producers. Both sectors are claiming they are creating more jobs than the other. The French forest indeed offers good opportunities for both sectors, but other countries which are lacking forest surfaces, are buying wood in France. Several issues are matter of discussion: burning wood seems to go against the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, subsidies awarded to big heater projects. The situation of the wood sector in Austria, Finland and Poland is briefly presented

  17. Chapter 9: Wood Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco X. Aguilar; Karen Abt; Branko Glavonjic; Eugene Lopatin; Warren  Mabee

    2016-01-01

    The availabilty of information on wood energy continues to improve, particularly for commoditized woodfuels.  Wood energy consumption and production vary in the UNECE region because demand is strngly affected by weather and the prices of competing energy sources.  There has been an increase in wood energy in the power-and-heat sector in the EU28 and North American...

  18. Complex geometries in wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Riiber Nielsen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust...... parametric model and a generic design language a later explored the possibilities to construct complex shaped geometries with self registering joints on modern wood crafting machines. The research was carried out as collaboration with industrial partners....

  19. Moisture Transport in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of moisture transport in wood is of great importance as most mechanical and physical properties of wood depend on moisture content. Moisture transport in porous materials is often described by Ficks second law, but several observations indicate that this does not apply very well to wood....... Recently at the Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering, a new model for moisture transport in wood has been developed. The model divides the transport into two phases, namely water vapour in the cell lumens and bound water in the cell walls....

  20. Wood pellet seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarniala, M.; Puhakka, A.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the wood pellet seminar, arranged by OPET Finland and North Karelia Polytechnic, was to deliver information on wood pellets, pellet burners and boilers, heating systems and building, as well as on the activities of wood energy advisors. The first day of the seminar consisted of presentations of equipment and products, and of advisory desks for builders. The second day of the seminar consisted of presentations held by wood pellet experts. Pellet markets, the economy and production, the development of the pellet markets and their problems (in Austria), the economy of heating of real estates by different fuel alternatives, the production, delivery and marketing of wood pellets, the utilization of wood pellet in different utilization sites, the use of wood pellets in detached houses, pellet burners and fireplaces, and conversion of communal real estate houses to use wood pellets were discussed in the presentations. The presentations held in the third day discussed the utilization of wood pellets in power plants, the regional promotion of the production and the use of pellets. The seminar consisted also of visits to pellet manufacturing plant and two pellet burning heating plants

  1. Biochemical Characterization of Fungus Isolated during In vitro Propagation of Bambusa balcooa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Bhawna; Tewari, Salil; Dubey, Ashutosh

    2018-01-01

    Bambusa balcooa ( Poaceae: Bambusoideae ) is a multipurpose bamboo species, which is native of the Indian subcontinent. B. balcooa is regarded as one of the best species for scaffolding and building purposes because of its strong culm. Other uses include paper pulp, handicrafts, and products of the wood chip industry. Due to these various uses in industries, this species has been identified as one of the priority bamboos by the National Bamboo Mission. This study is designed to analyze the identification of fungus and develop the strategy to eliminate the contamination during in vitro establishment of B. balcooa through nodal part. Fungus contamination is a problem which is encountered during in vitro establishment of B. balcooa cultures. In the present study, fungus contamination from in vitro cultured plant has been isolated and subjected to partial sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene to identify the fungus strain. Experiments were designed to develop a strategy for removal of the fungus contamination with the help of antifungal compounds and commercial antimicrobial supplement supplied by HiMedia. Fusarium equiseti was identified as endophytic fungus. It was observed that antimicrobial supplement at concentration of 500 μl/l was more effective concentration to remove fungus contamination and not showed any detrimental effect on growth parameters of shoot. This experiment would help in identification and to get rid of fungal contamination and improve the in vitro establishment of B. balcooa cultures for large-scale propagation. Endogenous fungus was isolated from contaminated culture of B. balcooa , and it was identified as Fusarium equiseti and submitted to NCBI under accession no. KP274872. The endophytic fungus had shown substantial production of amylase, cellulase, and protease media. Gibberellic acid (GA 3 ) production by F. equiseti was maximum on the 7 th day on inoculation. Abbreviations used: B. balcooa : Bambusa balcooa , F. equiseti : Fusarium

  2. Pre-Cretaceous Agaricomycetes yet to be discovered: Reinvestigation of a putative Triassic bracket fungus from southern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Kiecksee

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Agaricomycetes are major components of extant terrestrial ecosystems; however, their fruiting bodies are exceedingly rare as fossils. Reinvestigation of a peculiar fossil from Late Triassic sediments of southern Germany interpreted as a bracket fungus revealed that this fossil in fact represents a wood abnormality, resulting from injury to the cambium and subsequent callus growth in a Baieroxylon -like ginkgoalean wood. As a result, the fossil record of the Agaricomycetes does not yet pre-date the Early Cretaceous, suggesting a late diversification of basidiomycetes possessing large fruiting bodies. doi:10.1002/mmng.201200006

  3. Assessment and management of dead-wood habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagar, Joan

    2007-01-01

    Oregon and Washington, approximately 150 species of wildlife are reported to use dead wood in forests (O’Neil et al., 2001). Forty-seven sensitive and special-status species are associated with dead wood (Appendix A). These are key species for management consideration because concern over small or declining populations is often related to loss of suitable dead-wood habitat (Marshall et al., 1996). Primary excavators (woodpeckers) also are often the focus of dead-wood management, because they perform keystone functions in forest ecosystems by creating cavities for secondary cavity-nesters (Martin and Eadie, 1999; Aubry and Raley, 2002). A diverse guild of secondary cavity-users (including swallows, bluebirds, several species of ducks and owls, ash-throated flycatcher, flying squirrel, bats, and many other species) is unable to excavate dead wood, and therefore relies on cavities created by woodpeckers for nesting sites. Suitable nest cavities are essential for reproduction, and their availability limits population size (Newton, 1994). Thus, populations of secondary cavity-nesters are tightly linked to the habitat requirements of primary excavators. Although managers often focus on decaying wood as habitat for wildlife, the integral role dead wood plays in ecological processes is an equally important consideration for management. Rose et al. (2001) provide a thorough review of the ecological functions of dead wood in Pacific Northwest forests, briefly summarized here. Decaying wood functions in: soil development and productivity, nutrient cycling, nitrogen fixation, and carbon storage. From ridge tops, to headwater streams, to estuaries and coastal marine ecosystems, decaying wood is fundamental to diverse terrestrial and aquatic food webs. Wildlife species that use dead wood for cover or feeding are linked to these ecosystem processes through a broad array of functional roles, including facilitation of decay and trophic interactions with other organisms (Marcot, 2002

  4. Dead wood inventory and assessment in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong-Su Yim; Rae Hyun Kim; Sun-Jeong Lee; Yeongmo. Son

    2015-01-01

    Dead wood (DW) plays a critical role not only in maintaining biodiversity but also in stocking carbon under UNFCCC. From the 5th national forest inventory (NFI5; 2006-2010) in South Korea, field data relevant to the DW including standing and downed dead trees by four decay class, etc. were collected. Based on the NFI5 data,...

  5. Preliminary data on growth and enzymatic abilities of soil fungus Humicolopsis cephalosporioides at different incubation temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elíades, Lorena Alejandra; Cabello, Marta N; Pancotto, Verónica; Moretto, Alicia; Rago, María Melisa; Saparrat, Mario C N

    2015-01-01

    Nothofagus pumilio (Poepp & Endl.) Krasser, known as "lenga" is the most important timber wood species in southernmost Patagonia (Argentina). Humicolopsis cephalosporioides Cabral & Marchand is a soil fungus associated with Nothofagus pumilio forests, which has outstanding cellulolytic activity. However, there is no information about the ability of this fungus to use organic substrates other than cellulose, and its ability to produce different enzyme systems, as well as its response to temperature. The aim of this study was to examine the role of H. cephalosporioides in degradation processes in N. pumilio forests in detail by evaluating the in vitro ability of four isolates of this fungus to grow and produce different lytic enzyme systems, and their response to incubation temperature. The ability of the fungi to grow and produce enzyme systems was estimated by inoculating them on agar media with specific substrates, and the cultures were incubated at three temperatures. A differential behavior of each strain in levels of growth and enzyme activity was found according to the medium type and/or incubation temperature. A intra-specific variability was found in H. cephalosporioides. Likewise a possible link between the saprotrophic role of this fungus in N. pumilio forests and the degradation of organic matter under stress conditions, such as those from frosty environments, was also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Patterns of natural fungal community assembly during initial decay of coniferous and broadleaf tree logs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, A.; Klein Gunnewiek, P.J.A.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Crowther, T.W.; de Boer, W..

    2016-01-01

    Community assembly processes do not only influence community structure, but can also affect ecosystem processes. To understand the effect of initial community development on ecosystem processes, we studied natural fungal community dynamics during initial wood decay. We hypothesize that fungal

  7. The wood, renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, C.

    2006-12-01

    This document evaluates the french forest situation and its future. Indeed, the wood energy constitutes in France the first renewable energy after the hydraulic. It presents the today situation of the french forest providing statistical data, evaluation of the energy estimation, the carbon fixation, the resources, the perspectives wood energy for 2050, the biofuels and an economic analysis. (A.L.B.)

  8. Heat sterilization of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang

    2010-01-01

    Two important questions should be considered in heat sterilizing solid wood materials: First, what temperature–time regime is required to kill a particular pest? Second, how much time is required to heat the center of any wood configuration to the kill temperature? The entomology research on the first question has facilitated the development of international standards...

  9. Wood thermoplastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel F. Caulfield; Craig Clemons; Rodney E. Jacobson; Roger M. Rowell

    2005-01-01

    The term “wood-plastic composites” refers to any number of composites that contain wood (of any form) and either thermoset or thermoplastic polymers. Thermosets or thermoset polymers are plastics that, once cured, cannot be remelted by heating. These include cured resins, such as epoxies and phenolics, plastics with which the forest products industry is most familiar (...

  10. Wood supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; David B. McKeever

    2011-01-01

    At times in history, there have been concerns that demand for wood (timber) would be greater than the ability to supply it, but that concern has recently dissipated. The wood supply and demand situation has changed because of market transitions, economic downturns, and continued forest growth. This article provides a concise overview of this change as it relates to the...

  11. Economy of wood supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imponen, V.

    1993-01-01

    Research and development of wood fuels production was vigorous in the beginning of the 1980's. Techniques and working methods used in combined harvesting and transportation of energy and merchantable wood were developed in addition to separate energy wood delivery. After a ten year silent period the research on this field was started again. At present the underutilization of forest supplies and the environmental effects of energy production based on fossil fuels caused the rebeginning of the research. One alternative for reduction of the price of wood fuels at the utilization site is the integration of energy and merchantable wood deliveries together. Hence the harvesting and transportation devices can be operated effectively, and the organizational costs are decreased as well. The wood delivery costs consist of the stumpage price, the harvesting and transportation costs, and of general expenses. The stumpage price form the largest cost category (over 50 %) of the industrial merchantable wood delivery, and the harvesting and transportation costs in the case of thinningwood delivery. Forest transportation is the largest part of the delivery costs of logging residues. The general expenses, consisting of the management costs and the interest costs of the capital bound to the storages, form a remarkable cost category in delivery of low-rank wood for energy or conversion purposes. The costs caused by the harvesting of thinningwood, the logging residues, chipping and crushing, the lorry transportation are reviewed in this presentation

  12. How James Wood Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Evan R., Comp.

    2008-01-01

    Reading through news-media clippings about James Wood, one might reasonably conclude that "pre-eminent critic" is his official job title. In fact, Wood is a staff writer for "The New Yorker" and a professor of the practice of literary criticism at Harvard University. But at a time when there is much hand-wringing about the death of the…

  13. Method of stabilizing wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesek, M.; Jarkovsky, J.

    1973-01-01

    Wood is impregnated with a mixture of a vinyl or an allyl monomer (20 - 90 wt. %) and unsaturated polyester resins. The impregnated wood is then exposed to ionizing radiation at doses of 0.1 to 20 Mrad at a temperature of 60 to 180 degC. (B.S.)

  14. Chemical modification of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell

    2007-01-01

    After millions of years of evolution, wood was designed to perform in a wet environment, and nature is programmed to recycle it, in a timely way, back to the basic building blocks of carbon dioxide and water through biological, thermal, aqueous, photochemical, chemical, and mechanical degradation. The properties of wood are, for the most part, a result of the chemistry...

  15. Control of decay in bolts and logs of northern hardwoods during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore C. Scheffer; T. W. Jones

    1953-01-01

    Many wood-using plants in the Northeast store large quantities of hardwood logs for rather long periods. Sometimes a large volume of the wood is spoiled by decay during the storage period. A number of people have asked: "How can we prevent this loss?"

  16. Activity of two strobilurin fungicides against three species of decay fungi in agar plate tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliet D. Tang; Tina Ciaramitaro; Maria Tomaso-Peterson; Susan V. Diehl

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the toxicity of strobilurin fungicides against wood decay fungi in order to assess their potential to act as a co-biocide for copper-based wood protection. Two strobilurin fungicides, Heritage (50% azoxystrobin active ingredient) and Insignia (20% pyraclostrobin active ingredients), and copper sulfate pentahydrate were tested...

  17. Wood adhesives : vital for producing most wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2011-01-01

    A main route for the efficient utilization of wood resources is to reduce wood to small pieces and then bond them together (Frihart and Hunt 2010). Although humankind has been bonding wood since early Egyptian civilizations, the quality and quantity of bonded wood products has increased dramatically over the past 100 years with the development of new adhesives and...

  18. Cord Wood Testing in a Non-Catalytic Wood Stove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trojanowski, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wei, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-06-30

    EPA Method 28 and the current wood stove regulations have been in-place since 1988. Recently, EPA proposed an update to the existing NSPS for wood stove regulations which includes a plan to transition from the current crib wood fuel to cord wood fuel for certification testing. Cord wood is seen as generally more representative of field conditions while the crib wood is seen as more repeatable. In any change of certification test fuel, there are questions about the impact on measured results and the correlation between tests with the two different fuels. The purpose of the work reported here is to provide data on the performance of a noncatalytic stove with cord wood. The stove selected has previously been certified with crib wood which provides a basis for comparison with cord wood. Overall, particulate emissions were found to be considerably higher with cord wood.

  19. Microsatellite Primers for Fungus-Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen Fredsted, Palle; Gertsch, Pia J.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan (Koos)

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  20. Microsatellite primers for fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Gertsch, P J; Boomsma, JJ

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  1. Chapter 6: Wood energy and competing wood product markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth E. Skog; Robert C. Abt; Karen Abt

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effect of expanding wood energy markets is important to all wood-dependent industries and to policymakers debating the implementation of public programs to support the expansion of wood energy generation. A key factor in determining the feasibility of wood energy projects (e.g. wood boiler or pellet plant) is the long-term (i.e. 20-30year) supply...

  2. Fatigue Damage in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Fatigue failure is found to depend both on the total time under load and on the number of cycles.Recent accelerated fatigue research on wood is reviewed, and a discrepancy between...... to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation between stiffness reduction...

  3. Wood wastes: Uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cipro, A.

    1993-01-01

    The 1,500 industrial firms manufacturing furniture in the Italian Province of Treviso can generate up to 190,000 tonnes of wood wastes annually. In line with the energy conservation-environmental protection measures contained in Italian Law No. 475/88, this paper indicates convenient uses for these wood wastes - as a raw material for fibreboards or as a fuel to be used in the furniture manufacturing plants themselves and in kilns producing lime. Reference is made to the wood wastes gasification/power generation system being developed by ENEA (the Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment)

  4. Mycoremediation of wood and soil from an old sawmill area contaminated for decades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentín, Lara; Oesch-Kuisma, Hanna; Steffen, Kari T.; Kähkönen, Mika A.; Hatakka, Annele; Tuomela, Marja, E-mail: marja.tuomela@helsinki.fi

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • We performed experiments with non-sterile soil and wood with aged contamination. • We isolated fungal strains from a saw mill site with chlorophenols contamination. •Fungal strains were screened for tolerance to native microbes and contamination. • The best fungi degraded chlorophenols and chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans. -- Abstract: We investigated the potential of white-rot and litter-decomposing fungi for the treatment of soil and wood from a sawmill area contaminated with aged chlorinated phenols, dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/F). Eight screening assays with emphasis on application of non-sterile conditions were carried out in order to select the strains with capability to withstand indigenous microbes and contamination. Nine fungi were then selected for degrading pentachlorophenol (PCP), and 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol (2,3,4,6-TeCP) and mineralizing radiolabelled pentachlorophenol ({sup 14}C-PCP) in non-sterile soil or wood during 15 weeks of incubation. Soil indigenous microbes and fungal inoculated soil (fungal inoculum + indigenous microbes) achieved similar degradation of PCP and 2,3,4,6-TeCP and mineralization of {sup 14}C-PCP. However, the mineralization rate of {sup 14}C-PCP by indigenous microbes was much slower than that boosted by fungal inoculum. The litter-decomposing fungus (LDF) Stropharia rugosoannulata proved to be a suitable fungus for soil treatment. This fungus mineralized 26% of {sup 14}C-PCP and degraded 43% of 2,3,4,6-TeCP and 73% of PCP. Furthermore, S. rugosoannulata attained 13% degradation of PCDD/F (expressed as WHO-Toxic Equivalent). In wood, white-rot fungi grew and degraded chlorophenols better than LDF. No efficient indigenous degraders were present in wood. Interestingly, production of toxic chlorinated organic metabolites (anisoles and veratroles) by LDF in wood was negligible.

  5. Mycoremediation of wood and soil from an old sawmill area contaminated for decades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentín, Lara; Oesch-Kuisma, Hanna; Steffen, Kari T.; Kähkönen, Mika A.; Hatakka, Annele; Tuomela, Marja

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We performed experiments with non-sterile soil and wood with aged contamination. • We isolated fungal strains from a saw mill site with chlorophenols contamination. •Fungal strains were screened for tolerance to native microbes and contamination. • The best fungi degraded chlorophenols and chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans. -- Abstract: We investigated the potential of white-rot and litter-decomposing fungi for the treatment of soil and wood from a sawmill area contaminated with aged chlorinated phenols, dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/F). Eight screening assays with emphasis on application of non-sterile conditions were carried out in order to select the strains with capability to withstand indigenous microbes and contamination. Nine fungi were then selected for degrading pentachlorophenol (PCP), and 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol (2,3,4,6-TeCP) and mineralizing radiolabelled pentachlorophenol ( 14 C-PCP) in non-sterile soil or wood during 15 weeks of incubation. Soil indigenous microbes and fungal inoculated soil (fungal inoculum + indigenous microbes) achieved similar degradation of PCP and 2,3,4,6-TeCP and mineralization of 14 C-PCP. However, the mineralization rate of 14 C-PCP by indigenous microbes was much slower than that boosted by fungal inoculum. The litter-decomposing fungus (LDF) Stropharia rugosoannulata proved to be a suitable fungus for soil treatment. This fungus mineralized 26% of 14 C-PCP and degraded 43% of 2,3,4,6-TeCP and 73% of PCP. Furthermore, S. rugosoannulata attained 13% degradation of PCDD/F (expressed as WHO-Toxic Equivalent). In wood, white-rot fungi grew and degraded chlorophenols better than LDF. No efficient indigenous degraders were present in wood. Interestingly, production of toxic chlorinated organic metabolites (anisoles and veratroles) by LDF in wood was negligible

  6. Metabolites from marine fungus Aspergillus sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; Rajmanickam, R.; DeSouza, L.

    Chemical examination of a methanolic extract of the marine fungus, Aspergillus sp., isolated from marine grass environment, yielded a steroid, ergosterol peroxide (1), and a mixture of known glyceride esters (2,3) of unsaturated fatty acids...

  7. U.S. National Fungus Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture — The U.S. National Fungus Collections (BPI) are the “Smithsonian for fungi” and are the repository for over one million fungal specimens worldwide - the largest such...

  8. Geosmithia-Ophiostoma: a New Fungus-Fungus Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepori, Alessia L; Bettini, Priscilla P; Comparini, Cecilia; Sarrocco, Sabrina; Bonini, Anna; Frascella, Arcangela; Ghelardini, Luisa; Scala, Aniello; Vannacci, Giovanni; Santini, Alberto

    2018-04-01

    In Europe as in North America, elms are devastated by Dutch elm disease (DED), caused by the alien ascomycete Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. Pathogen dispersal and transmission are ensured by local species of bark beetles, which established a novel association with the fungus. Elm bark beetles also transport the Geosmithia fungi genus that is found in scolytids' galleries colonized by O. novo-ulmi. Widespread horizontal gene transfer between O. novo-ulmi and Geosmithia was recently observed. In order to define the relation between these two fungi in the DED pathosystem, O. novo-ulmi and Geosmithia species from elm, including a GFP-tagged strain, were grown in dual culture and mycelial interactions were observed by light and fluorescence microscopy. Growth and sporulation of O. novo-ulmi in the absence or presence of Geosmithia were compared. The impact of Geosmithia on DED severity was tested in vivo by co-inoculating Geosmithia and O. novo-ulmi in elms. A close and stable relation was observed between the two fungi, which may be classified as mycoparasitism by Geosmithia on O. novo-ulmi. These results prove the existence of a new component in the complex of organisms involved in DED, which might be capable of reducing the disease impact.

  9. Deadwood Decay in a Burnt Mediterranean Pine Reforestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. Molinas-González

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dead wood remaining after wildfires represents a biological legacy for forest regeneration, and its decay is both cause and consequence of a large set of ecological processes. However, the rate of wood decomposition after fires is still poorly understood, particularly for Mediterranean-type ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed deadwood decomposition following a wildfire in a Mediterranean pine plantation in the Sierra Nevada Natural and National Park (southeast Spain. Three plots were established over an elevational/species gradient spanning from 1477 to 2053 m above sea level, in which burnt logs of three species of pines were experimentally laid out and wood densities were estimated five times over ten years. The logs lost an overall 23% of their density, although this value ranged from an average 11% at the highest-elevation plot (dominated by Pinus sylvestris to 32% at an intermediate elevation (with P. nigra. Contrary to studies in other climates, large-diameter logs decomposed faster than small-diameter logs. Our results provide one of the longest time series for wood decomposition in Mediterranean ecosystems and suggest that this process provides spatial variability in the post-fire ecosystem at the scale of stands due to variable speeds of decay. Common management practices such as salvage logging diminish burnt wood and influence the rich ecological processes related to its decay.

  10. Corrosion of Embedded Metals in Wood: An Overview of Recent Research with Implications for building moisture design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka

    2013-01-01

    ASHRAE Standard 160, Criteria for Moisture-Control Design Analysis in Buildings, specifies moisture design criteria in buildings to prevent moisture damage such as fungal activity and corrosion. While there has been much research on mold and decay fungi in wood buildings, it is often overlooked that wet wood is corrosive to the metal screws...

  11. Establishment of ectomycorrhizal fungal community on isolated Nothofagus cunninghamii seedlings regenerating on dead wood in Australian wet temperate forests: does fruit-body type matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedersoo, Leho; Gates, Genevieve; Dunk, Chris W; Lebel, Teresa; May, Tom W; Kõljalg, Urmas; Jairus, Teele

    2009-08-01

    Decaying wood provides an important habitat for animals and forms a seed bed for many shade-intolerant, small-seeded plants, particularly Nothofagus. Using morphotyping and rDNA sequence analysis, we compared the ectomycorrhizal fungal community of isolated N. cunninghamii seedlings regenerating in decayed wood against that of mature tree roots in the forest floor soil. The /cortinarius, /russula-lactarius, and /laccaria were the most species-rich and abundant lineages in forest floor soil in Australian sites at Yarra, Victoria and Warra, Tasmania. On root tips of seedlings in dead wood, a subset of the forest floor taxa were prevalent among them species of /laccaria, /tomentella-thelephora, and /descolea, but other forest floor dominants were rare. Statistical analyses suggested that the fungal community differs between forest floor soil and dead wood at the level of both species and phylogenetic lineage. The fungal species colonizing isolated seedlings on decayed wood in austral forests were taxonomically dissimilar to the species dominating in similar habitats in Europe. We conclude that formation of a resupinate fruit body type on the underside of decayed wood is not necessarily related to preferential root colonization in decayed wood. Rather, biogeographic factors as well as differential dispersal and competitive abilities of fungal taxa are likely to play a key role in structuring the ectomycorrhizal fungal community on isolated seedlings in decaying wood.

  12. Nondestructive evaluation of oriented strand board exposed to decay fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Illman; Vina W. Yang; Robert J. Ross; William J. Nelson

    2002-01-01

    Stress wave nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies are being used in our laboratory to evaluate the performance properties of engineered wood. These techniques have proven useful in the inspection of timber structures to locate internal voids and decayed or deteriorated areas in large timbers. But no information exists concerning NDE and important properties of...

  13. Effects of copper amine treatments on mechanical, biological and surface/interphase properties of poly (vinyl chloride)/wood composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haihong

    2005-11-01

    The copper ethanolamine (CuEA) complex was used as a wood surface modifier and a coupling agent for wood-PVC composites. Mechanical properties of composites, such as unnotched impact strength, flexural strength and flexural toughness, were significantly increased, and fungal decay weight loss was dramatically decreased by wood surface copper amine treatments. It is evident that copper amine was a very effective coupling agent and decay inhibitor for PVC/wood flour composites, especially in high wood flour loading level. A DSC study showed that the heat capacity differences (DeltaCp) of composites before and after PVC glass transition were reduced by adding wood particles. A DMA study revealed that the movements of PVC chain segments during glass transition were limited and obstructed by the presence of wood molecule chains. This restriction effect became stronger by increasing wood flour content and by using Cu-treated wood flour. Wood flour particles acted as "physical cross-linking points" inside the PVC matrix, resulting in the absence of the rubbery plateau of PVC and higher E', E'' above Tg, and smaller tan delta peaks. Enhanced mechanical performances were attributed to the improved wetting condition between PVC melts and wood surfaces, and the formation of a stronger interphase strengthened by chemical interactions between Cu-treated wood flour and the PVC matrix. Contact angles of PVC solution drops on Cu-treated wood surfaces were decreased dramatically compared to those on the untreated surfaces. Acid-base (polar), gammaAB, electron-acceptor (acid) (gamma +), electron-donor (base) (gamma-) surface energy components and the total surface energies increased after wood surface Cu-treatments, indicating a strong tendency toward acid-base or polar interactions. Improved interphase and interfacial adhesion were further confirmed by measuring interfacial shear strength between wood and the PVC matrix.

  14. Changes in structural and chemical components of wood delignified by fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchette, R.A.; Otjen, L.; Effland, M.J.; Eslyn, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    Cerrena unicolor, Ganoderma applanatum, Ischnoderma resinosum and Poria medulla-panis were associated with birch (Betula papyrifera) wood that had been selectively delignified in the forest. Preferential lignin degradation was not uniformly distributed throughout the decayed wood. A typical white rot causing a simultaneous removal of all cell wall components was also present. In the delignified wood, 95 to 98% of the lignin was removed as well as substantial amounts of hemicelluloses. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to identify the micromorphological and ultrastructural changes that occurred in the cells during degradation. In delignified areas the compound middle lamella was extensively degraded causing a defibration of cells. The secondary wall, especially the S2 layer, remained relatively unaltered. In simultaneously white-rotted wood all cell wall layers were progressively removed from the lumen toward the middle lamella causing erosion troughs or holes to form. Large voids filled with fungal mycelia resulted from a coalition of degraded areas. Birch wood decayed in laboratory soil-block tests was also intermittently delignified, selective delignification, sparsely distributed throughout the wood, and a simultaneous rot resulting in the removal of all cell wall components were evident. SEM appears to be an appropriate technique for examining selectively delignified decayed wood. 30 references.

  15. Instream wood in a steep headwater channel: geomorphic significance of large and small wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galia, Tomáš; Šilhán, Karel; Ruiz-Villanueva, Virginia; Tichavský, Radek

    2016-04-01

    Besides the well-known significance of large wood (LW), also small woody pieces (SW; here defined as pieces with dimensions at least 0.5 m length and 0.05 m diameter), can play an important role in steep narrow headwaters. We inventoried instream wood in the 0.4 km long Mazák headwater channel, Moravskoslezské Beskydy Mts, Czech Republic (2pieces were European beeches (Fagus sylvatica L.); only two pieces were Norway spruces (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). First results showed an increase in the number of LWs in channel-reaches confined by the steepest adjacent hillslopes (especially at 0.15-0.20 km). Increasing downstream amount of SW most likely reflected transport processes in the stream, and the later deposition of SWs on the lowest channel gradients. Also LWs and SWs in the downstream channel-reaches were more decayed than wood presented in the upper reaches. The orientation of instream wood was connected with its length and stability, and LWs longer than 5 m were usually attached to adjacent hillslopes. Pieces longer than 2 m, which were unattached or were somehow stabilized in the channel bed, had often orientation of 0° or 337°. LWs were mostly unattached in the upstream channel-reaches, while often stabilized by adjacent hillslopes in the middle part. At 0.05-0.10 km, there were also many logs stabilized by bed sediments. By contrast, SWs were mostly unattached in the whole longitudinal profile. We observed higher % of influenced channel width by SWs than LWs. Also, SWs were usually entirely located in the channel, which was significantly different when compared to LWs. Nine small steps (step height ~0.5 m) were created by instream wood; six of them were formed by SWs. Dendrogeomorphic cross dating supported the observed decay status for LW/SW within the longitudinal profile: at the lowest channel gradients with wider higher active channels, the potential for storage of instream wood increased. In these downstream reaches we observed older LW and SW, with

  16. Wood for the trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Garbutt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Our paper focuses on the materiality, cultural history and cultural relations of selected artworks in the exhibition Wood for the trees (Lismore Regional Gallery, New South Wales, Australia, 10 June – 17 July 2011. The title of the exhibition, intentionally misreading the aphorism “Can’t see the wood for the trees”, by reading the wood for the resource rather than the collective wood[s], implies conservation, preservation, and the need for sustaining the originating resource. These ideas have particular resonance on the NSW far north coast, a region once rich in rainforest. While the Indigenous population had sustainable practices of forest and land management, the colonists deployed felling and harvesting in order to convert the value of the local, abundant rainforest trees into high-value timber. By the late twentieth century, however, a new wave of settlers launched a protest movements against the proposed logging of remnant rainforest at Terania Creek and elsewhere in the region. Wood for the trees, curated by Gallery Director Brett Adlington, plays on this dynamic relationship between wood, trees and people. We discuss the way selected artworks give expression to the themes or concepts of productive labour, nature and culture, conservation and sustainability, and memory. The artworks include Watjinbuy Marrawilil’s (1980 Carved ancestral figure ceremonial pole, Elizabeth Stops’ (2009/10 Explorations into colonisation, Hossein Valamanesh’s (2008 Memory stick, and AñA Wojak’s (2008 Unread book (in a forgotten language. Our art writing on the works, a practice informed by Bal (2002, Muecke (2008 and Papastergiadis (2004, becomes a conversation between the works and the themes or concepts. As a form of material excess of the most productive kind (Grosz, 2008, p. 7, art seeds a response to that which is in the air waiting to be said of the past, present and future.

  17. Occurrence of indoor wood decay basidiomycetes in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gabriel, Jiří; Švec, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 4 (2017), s. 212-217 ISSN 1749-4613 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-05497S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Basidiomycetes * Fungi * Serpula lacrymans Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 3.231, year: 2016

  18. Cellulolytic activities of wild type fungi isolated from decayed wood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    amongst the fungal isolates while M. mucedo had the least cellulolytic ... across plant taxa, high cellulose content; typically in the range of ... antibiotic mixture made up of distilled water, 50 ml and Erythromycin: 500mg was .... cellulases including β-glucosidase were produced from Penicillium, Aspergillus and Trichoderma ...

  19. Pseudacris triseriata (western chorus frog) and Rana sylvatica (wood frog) chytridiomycosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittman, S.E.; Muths, E.; Green, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a known pathogen of anuran amphibians, and has been correlated with amphibian die-offs worldwide (Daszak et. al. 1999. Emerging Infectious Diseases 5:735-748). In Colorado, B. dendrobatidis has infected Boreal toads (Bufo boreas) (Muths et. al., in review) and has been identified on museum specimens of northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) (Carey et. al. 1999. Develop. Comp. Immunol. 23:459-472). We report the first verified case of chytrid fungus in chorus frogs (Pseudacris triseriata) and wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) in the United States. We collected seven P. triseriata, and two adult and two juvenile R. sylvatica in the Kawuneeche Valley in Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) during June 2001. These animals were submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) as part of an amphibian health evaluation in RMNP. Chorus frogs were shipped in one container. Wood frog adults and juveniles were shipped in two separate containers. Histological examinations of all chorus frogs and 3 of 4 wood frogs were positive for chytrid fungus infection. The fourth (adult) wood frog was too decomposed for meaningful histology. Histological findings consisted of multifocally mild to diffusely severe infections of the epidermis of the ventrum and hindlimb digital skin. Chytrid thalli were confined to the thickened epidermis (hyperkeratosis), were spherical to oval, and occasional thalli contained characteristic discharge pores or zoospores (Green and Kagarise Sherman 1999. J. Herpetol 35:92-103; Fellers et al. 2001. Copeia 2001:945-953). We cannot confirm that all specimens carried the fungus at collection, because infection may have spread from one individual to all other individuals in each container during transport. Further sampling of amphibians in Kawuneeche Valley is warranted to determine the rate of infection and mortality in these populations.

  20. Wood fuel and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to try and demonstrate the role that the use of Wood as a Fuel can play in our environment. The term ''Wood Fuel'', for the purposes of these proceedings, refers to the use of wood obtained from the forest or the farm. It does not refer to waste wood from for example buildings. The role of wood fuel in the environment can be assessed at many different levels. In this paper three different scales of ''Environment'' and the role of wood fuel in each, will be considered. These three scales are namely the global environment, the local environment, and the National (community) environment. (Author)

  1. Bridging the gaps: An overview of wood across time and space in diverse rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2017-02-01

    Nearly 50 years of research focused on large wood (LW) in rivers provide a basis for understanding how wood enters rivers; how wood decays, breaks, and is transported downstream; and how at least temporarily stable wood influences channel geometry, fluxes of water, sediment, and organic matter, and the abundance and diversity of aquatic and riparian organisms. Field-based studies have led to qualitative conceptual models and to numerical stimulations of river processes involving wood. Numerous important gaps remain, however, in our understanding of wood dynamics. The majority of research on wood in rivers focuses on small- to medium-sized rivers, defined using the ratio of wood piece size to channel width as channels narrower than the locally typical wood-piece length (small) and slightly narrower than the longer wood pieces present (medium). Although diverse geographic regions and biomes are represented by one or a few studies in each region, the majority of research comes from perennial rivers draining temperate conifer forests. Regional syntheses most commonly focus on the Pacific Northwest region of North America where most of these studies originate. Consequently, significant gaps in our understanding include lack of knowledge of wood-related processes in large rivers, dryland rivers, and rivers of the high and low latitudes. Using a wood budget as an organizing framework, this paper identifies other gaps related to wood recruitment, transport, storage, and how beavers influence LW dynamics. With respect to wood recruitment, we lack information on the relative importance of mass tree mortality and transport of buried or surficial downed wood from the floodplain into the channel in diverse settings. Knowledge gaps related to wood transport include transport distances of LW and thresholds for LW mobility in small to medium rivers. With respect to wood storage, we have limited data on longitudinal trends in LW loads within unaltered large and great rivers and on

  2. Wood plastic combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunanan, S.A.; Bonoan, L.S.; Verceluz, F.P.; Azucena, E.A.

    1976-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to improve the physical and mechaniproperties of local inferior quality wood species by radiation-induced graft polymerization with plastic monomers. The process involves the following: 1) Preparation of sample; 2) Impregnation of sample with the monomers; 3) Irradiation of the impregnated sample with the use of 20,000 curie Co-60 as gamma-source; 4) Drying of irradiated sample to remove the unpolymerized monomer. Experimentation on different wood species were undertaken and the results given. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that the monomers systems MMA, MMA-USP, and styrene-USP are suitable for graft polymerization with the wood species almon, apitong, bagtikan, mayapis, red lauan, and tanguile. This is shown by their maximum conversion value which range from 86% to 96% with the optimum dose range of 1 to 2 Mrads. However, in the application of WPC process, properties that are required in a given wood product must be considered, thus aid in the selection of the monomer system to be used with a particular wood species. Some promising applications of WPC is in the manufacture of picker sticks, shuttles, and bobbins for the textile industry. However, there is a need for a pilot plant scale study so that an economic assessment of the commercial feasibility of this process can be made

  3. Bioconversion of dieldrin by wood-rotting fungi and metabolite detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, Ichiro; Takagi, Kazuhiro; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2010-08-01

    Dieldrin is one of the most persistent organochlorine pesticides, listed as one of the 12 persistent organic pollutants in the Stockholm Convention. Although microbial degradation is an effective way to remediate environmental pollutants, reports on aerobic microbial degradation of dieldrin are limited. Wood-rotting fungi can degrade a wide spectrum of recalcitrant organopollutants, and an attempt has been made to select wood-rotting fungi that can degrade dieldrin, and to identify the metabolite. Thirty-four isolates of wood-rotting fungi were investigated for their ability to degrade dieldrin. Strain YK543 degraded 39.1 +/- 8.8% of dieldrin during 30 days of incubation. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that strain YK543 was closely related to the fungus Phlebia brevispora Nakasone TMIC33929, which has been reported as a fungus that can degrade chlorinated dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. 9-Hydroxydieldrin was detected as a metabolite in the cultures of strain YK543. It is important to select the microorganisms that degrade organic pollutants, and to identify the metabolic pathway for the development of bioremediation methods. Strain YK543 was selected as a fungus capable of degrading dieldrin. The metabolic pathway includes 9-hydroxylation reported in rat's metabolism catalysed by liver microsomal monooxygenase. This is the first report of transformation of dieldrin to 9-hydroxydieldrin by a microorganism. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Risico voor fruitbomen en inheemse bomen na bestrijding van Amerikaanse vogelkers (Prunus serotina) met loodglansschimmel (Chondrostereum purpureum) = [Risk to fruit trees and native trees due to control of black cherry (Prunus serotina) by silverleaf fungus (Chondrostereum purpureum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de M.D.

    1988-01-01

    The shrub Prunus serotina , introduced from North America, became a forest pest in the Netherlands. Biological control was considered using the fungus Chondrostereum purpureum , commonly present as a saprophyte and parasite in wood. C. purpureum can cause

  5. Turning wood residues into wood revenues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.G.; Kravetz, Don

    1996-01-01

    Ensyn is a profitable commercial company which derives its revenues from the conversion of wood residues into liquid biofuel and chemicals. The technology, Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP (TM) )is based on extremely fast ''cracking'' of biomass which results in light liquid yields exceeding 70% by weight, from wood. Whether producing chemicals or liquid biofuel, the RTP plant is configured identically and operated essentially in the same mode. Chemicals production simply allows economical production to occur at a lower plant capacity, as low as 2 tonnes/day, than is feasible for a dedicated fuel plant (typically greater than 100 tonnes/day). Ensyn has developed the commercialisation of RTP TM from bench to industrial scale in 10 years. A variety of crative funding initiatives in the early years allowed for capital to be raised for R and D without the loss of intellectual property (IP). The transition years of technology demonstration, prior to full commercialisation, were funded by a blend of revenues from venture capital and public sources, and by quickly tapping into a niche market for RTP TM . The utilisation of the technology at the niche market scale opened the doors to the larger fuel and commodity markets. Once, again, both IP and control of the company were maintained during these years. Flexibility, creativity and expertise are necessary to understand the significance of various financing options (private investments, commercial banking and bond issues) and to integrate these options with various renewable energy, recycling and tax incentives. Understanding these options with various renewable energy, recycling and tax incentives is necessary. Understanding both the core and peripheral needs of the customer are essential in successfully advancing a commercial wood energy venture. Ensyn's experience in these areas is the focus of the paper. (Author)

  6. Energy from wood - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussbaumer, T.

    2000-01-01

    The present publication is the introduction to a series of papers on fundamentals and applications of wood energy. It summarizes figures and data of the actual situation of fuel wood utilization in Switzerland and its potential for the future. Further, the advantages of bio-energy are discussed and the possibilities of funding for bio-energy in Switzerland are described. Wood contributes with 2.5% to the total energy demand in Switzerland nowadays. However, the utilization of wood energy can be more than doubled, which is one of the targets of the Swiss energy policy. The supply chains for the different types of fuel wood are described and specifications and prices of log wood, forestry wood chips and wood residues are presented. The main applications of wood energy are residential heating with manually operated wood boilers and stoves, on the one hand, and heat production with automatic wood furnaces in industry and communities, on the other hand. Automatic furnaces have been promoted in the past ten years and hence they contribute nowadays with more than 50% to the energy supply from wood with a further growing share. As an assistance for further information, a list of institutions and addresses in the field of wood energy in Switzerland is given in the paper. (author)

  7. Changes in mass and nutrient content of wood during decomposition in a south Florida mangrove forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, L.M.; Smith, T. J.; Fourqurean, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    1 Large pools of dead wood in mangrove forests following disturbances such as hurricanes may influence nutrient fluxes. We hypothesized that decomposition of wood of mangroves from Florida, USA (Avicennia germinans, Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle), and the consequent nutrient dynamics, would depend on species, location in the forest relative to freshwater and marine influences and whether the wood was standing, lying on the sediment surface or buried. 2 Wood disks (8-10 cm diameter, 1 cm thick) from each species were set to decompose at sites along the Shark River, either buried in the sediment, on the soil surface or in the air (above both the soil surface and high tide elevation). 3 A simple exponential model described the decay of wood in the air, and neither species nor site had any effect on the decay coefficient during the first 13 months of decomposition. 4 Over 28 months of decomposition, buried and surface disks decomposed following a two-component model, with labile and refractory components. Avicennia germinans had the largest labile component (18 ?? 2% of dry weight), while Laguncularia racemosa had the lowest (10 ?? 2%). Labile components decayed at rates of 0.37-23.71% month -1, while refractory components decayed at rates of 0.001-0.033% month-1. Disks decomposing on the soil surface had higher decay rates than buried disks, but both were higher than disks in the air. All species had similar decay rates of the labile and refractory components, but A. germinans exhibited faster overall decay because of a higher proportion of labile components. 5 Nitrogen content generally increased in buried and surface disks, but there was little change in N content of disks in the air over the 2-year study. Between 17% and 68% of total phosphorus in wood leached out during the first 2 months of decomposition, with buried disks having the greater losses, P remaining constant or increasing slightly thereafter. 6 Newly deposited wood from living trees was

  8. WOOD PROPERTIES AND EFFECT OF WOOD PROPERTIES ON THE WOOD FINISHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkadir Malkoçoğlu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Wood is basic raw material for furniture and joinery industries with wood structures. Wood is a biological material that has widely different properties depending on species, geographic area where the tree grew, the growth condition, size of the tree at harvest, sawing, and other manufacturing processes. Wood properties have been characterized within two groups as natural and manufacturing factors that effects finishing performance. Grow rate, density, knots, moisture content, extractives and juvenile wood are natural characteristics. Grain orientation, texture, drying and performance expectations are manufacturing characteristics. In this review, the effects of natural and manufacturing characteristics are discussed on the surface finishing performance of wood.

  9. Wood for sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegst, Ulrike G K

    2006-10-01

    The unique mechanical and acoustical properties of wood and its aesthetic appeal still make it the material of choice for musical instruments and the interior of concert halls. Worldwide, several hundred wood species are available for making wind, string, or percussion instruments. Over generations, first by trial and error and more recently by scientific approach, the most appropriate species were found for each instrument and application. Using material property charts on which acoustic properties such as the speed of sound, the characteristic impedance, the sound radiation coefficient, and the loss coefficient are plotted against one another for woods. We analyze and explain why spruce is the preferred choice for soundboards, why tropical species are favored for xylophone bars and woodwind instruments, why violinists still prefer pernambuco over other species as a bow material, and why hornbeam and birch are used in piano actions.

  10. Wood for fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaton, D

    1986-01-01

    Growing wood for energy could contribute three million tonnes of coal equivalent per year by the end of the century. Research programmes in the UK involved with energy forestry are reported. Three systems of wood energy, modified conventional forestry, single stem timber cropping and short rotation coppicing are being investigated. The short rotation coppicing requires inputs similar to those of agricultural crops and the machinery geared towards agricultural operations is compatible with it. Single stem forestry has a medium rotation period of 20 years. The production of coppice wood fuels is discussed in further detail for different parts of the UK with recommendations for species selection and adaption of existing farming practices. A coppice willow harvester has been developed for harvesting during November - February. Weed control and fertilizer application are also briefly mentioned.

  11. Precision wood particle feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30

    Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

  12. Fungus-insect gall of Phlebopus portentosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Xia; He, Ming-Xia; Cao, Yang; Liu, Jing; Gao, Feng; Wang, Wen-Bing; Ji, Kai-Ping; Shao, Shi-Cheng; Wang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Phlebopus portentosus is a popular edible wild mushroom found in the tropical Yunnan, China, and northern Thailand. In its natural habitats, a gall often has been found on some plant roots, around which fungal fruiting bodies are produced. The galls are different from common insect galls in that their cavity walls are not made from plant tissue but rather from the hyphae of P. portentosus. Therefore we have termed this phenomenon "fungus-insect gall". Thus far six root mealy bug species in the family Pseudococcidae that form fungus-insect galls with P. portentosus have been identified: Formicococcus polysperes, Geococcus satellitum, Planococcus minor, Pseudococcus cryptus, Paraputo banzigeri and Rastrococcus invadens. Fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of more than 21 plant species, including Delonix regia, Citrus maxima, Coffea arabica and Artocarpus heterophyllus. Greenhouse inoculation trials showed that fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of A. heterophyllus 1 mo after inoculation. The galls were subglobose to globose, fulvous when young and became dark brown at maturation. Each gall harbored one or more mealy bugs and had a chimney-like vent for ventilation and access to the gall. The cavity wall had three layers. Various shaped mealy bug wax deposits were found inside the wall. Fungal hyphae invaded the epidermis of plant roots and sometimes even the cortical cells during the late stage of gall development. The identity of the fungus inside the cavity was confirmed by molecular methods. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  13. Methane from wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, T. F.; Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S.; Stucki, S

    2005-07-15

    The role of wood-based energy technologies in the Swiss energy system in the long-term is examined using the energy-system Swiss MARKAL model. The Swiss MARKAL model is a 'bottom-up' energy-systems optimization model that allows a detailed representation of energy technologies. The model has been developed as a joint effort between the Energy Economics Group (EEG) at Paul Scherrer Institute PSI) and the University of Geneva and is currently used at PSI-EEG. Using the Swiss MARKAL model, this study examines the conditions under which wood-based energy technologies could play a role in the Swiss energy system, the most attractive pathways for their use and the policy measures that could support them. Given the involvement of PSI in the ECOGAS project, especial emphasis is put on the production of bio-SNG from wood via gasification and methanation of syngas and on hydrothermal gasification of woody biomass. Of specific interest as weIl is the fraction of fuel used in passenger cars that could be produced by locally harvested wood. The report is organized as follows: Section 2 presents a brief description of the MARKAL model. Section 3 describes the results of the base case scenario, which represents a plausible, 'middle-of-the-road' development of the Swiss energy system. Section 4 discusses results illustrating the conditions under which the wood-based methanation technology could become competitive in the Swiss energy market, the role of oil and gas prices, subsidies to methanation technologies and the introduction of a competing technology, namely the wood-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. FinaIly, section 5 outlines some conclusions from this analysis. (author)

  14. Methane from wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, T. F.; Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S.; Stucki, S.

    2005-07-01

    The role of wood-based energy technologies in the Swiss energy system in the long-term is examined using the energy-system Swiss MARKAL model. The Swiss MARKAL model is a 'bottom-up' energy-systems optimization model that allows a detailed representation of energy technologies. The model has been developed as a joint effort between the Energy Economics Group (EEG) at Paul Scherrer Institute PSI) and the University of Geneva and is currently used at PSI-EEG. Using the Swiss MARKAL model, this study examines the conditions under which wood-based energy technologies could play a role in the Swiss energy system, the most attractive pathways for their use and the policy measures that could support them. Given the involvement of PSI in the ECOGAS project, especial emphasis is put on the production of bio-SNG from wood via gasification and methanation of syngas and on hydrothermal gasification of woody biomass. Of specific interest as weIl is the fraction of fuel used in passenger cars that could be produced by locally harvested wood. The report is organized as follows: Section 2 presents a brief description of the MARKAL model. Section 3 describes the results of the base case scenario, which represents a plausible, 'middle-of-the-road' development of the Swiss energy system. Section 4 discusses results illustrating the conditions under which the wood-based methanation technology could become competitive in the Swiss energy market, the role of oil and gas prices, subsidies to methanation technologies and the introduction of a competing technology, namely the wood-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. FinaIly, section 5 outlines some conclusions from this analysis. (author)

  15. Wood energy-commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    Wood energy is being widely investigated in many areas of the country because of the many obvious benefits of wood fuel such as the low price per million Btus relative to coal, oil, and gas; the wide availability of noncommercial wood and the proven ability to harvest it; established technology which is reliable and free of pollution; renewable resources; better conservation for harvested land; and the potential for jobs creation. The Southeastern United States has a specific leadership role in wood energy based on its established forest products industry experience and the potential application of wood energy to other industries and institutions. Significant questions about the widespread usage of wood energy are being answered in demonstrations around the country as well as the Southeast in areas of wood storage and bulk handling; high capitalization costs for harvesting and combustion equipment; long term supply and demand contracts; and the economic feasibility of wood energy outside the forest products industry.

  16. Variation in root wood anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  17. Compressive Fatigue in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Small clear specimens of spruce are taken to failure in square wave formed fatigue loading at a stress excitation level corresponding to 80% of the short term strength. Four...... frequencies ranging from 0.01 Hz to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation...

  18. Power generation from waste wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitsche, H

    1980-04-18

    Since the energy crisis, power generation from waste wood has become increasingly important. The most profitable way to use waste wood in woodworking plants with an annual production of 100 to 150,000 m/sup 3/ solid measure of wood chips and bark is by combustion and thermal energy recovery. In plants with an annual production of 10,000 m/sup 3/ solid measure of wood chips and bark, electric power generation is a suitable application.

  19. Structure and function of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex Wiedenhoeft

    2010-01-01

    Wood is a complex biological structure, a composite of many chemistries and cell types acting together to serve the needs of a living plant. Attempting to understand wood in the context of wood technology, we have often overlooked the key and basic fact that wood evolved over the course of millions of years to serve three main functions in plants― conduction of water...

  20. Ethanol Production from Lignocellulose by the Dimorphic Fungus Mucor Indicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lennartsson, P.R.; Taherzadeh, M.J. (School of Engineering, Univ. of Boraas, SE-50190, Boraas (Sweden)). e-mail: Patrik.Lennartsson@hb.se; Karimi, K. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan Univ. of Technology, 84156-83111, Isfahan (IR)); Edebo, L. (Dept. of Clinical Bacteriology, Univ. of Goeteborg, SE-41346, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2008-10-15

    Ethanol production from dilute-acid lignocellulosic hydrolyzate by the dimorphic fungus Mucor indicus was investigated. A mixture of different forest wood chips dominated by spruce was hydrolyzed with 0.5 g/L sulfuric acid at 15 bar for 10 min, yielding different sugars including galactose, glucose, mannose, and xylose, but also different fermentation inhibitors such as acetic acid, furfural, hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF), and phenolic compounds. We induced different morphological growth of M. indicus from purely filamentous, mostly filamentous, mostly yeast-like to purely yeast-like. The different forms were then used to ferment the hydrolyzate. They tolerated the presence of the inhibitors under anaerobic batch cultivation well and the ethanol yield was 430-440 g/kg consumed sugars. The ethanol productivity depended on the morphology. Judging from these results, we conclude that M. indicus, is useful for ethanol production from toxic substrates independent of its morphology. Keywords: bio-ethanol, lignocellulosic materials, dilute acid hydrolysis, Mucor indicus, dimorphic fungi

  1. Wood Flour Moulding Technology: Implications for Technical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intent of this article is to demonstrate how wood waste called sawdust or wood flour can be transformed by plastic moulding machine into items of economic value. Wood flour is wood reduced to very fine particle form. It can be waste product from saw mills, wood working plants or produced from selected dry wood by ...

  2. Status of wood energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerbe, J.I.

    1991-01-01

    In this address, the potential of wood and wood residues to supply future energy needs is examined. In addition, the possible environmental impact of the use of wood fuels on global climate change is discussed. Technologies for the development of new fuels are described

  3. Macrophotographic wood atlas of Annonaceae.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Westra, L.I.T.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a general description of the microscopic wood anatomy of Annonaceae is given. We provide a description of the wood anatomical features of the family and of all subfamilies and tribes, all from material in the Utrecht Wood collection. Hand-lens images can be an important help in

  4. Wood construction and magnetic characteristics of impregnated type magnetic wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Hideo; Hojo, Atsushi; Seki, Kyoushiro; Takashiba, Toshio

    2002-01-01

    The results of experiments involving the AC and DC magnetic characteristics of impregnated type magnetic wood were studied by taking into consideration the wood construction and fiber direction. The experimental results show that the sufficient amount of impregnated magnetic fluid varies depending on the fiber direction and length, and the grain face of the wood material. The impregnated type magnetic wood sample that is fully impregnated by magnetic fluid has a 60% saturation magnetization compared to the saturation magnetization of magnetic fluid. Samples for which the wood fiber direction was the same as the direction of the magnetic path had a higher magnetization intensity and permeability

  5. Weathering kinetics of thin wood veneers assessed with near infrared spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Sandak, Anna; Sandak, Jakub; Burud, Ingunn; Gobakken, Lone Ross

    2016-01-01

    Wooden elements may be subjected to mechanical, environmental or biological alterations during their service life. The most susceptible parts of wood structural members are the exposed surfaces since they are subjected to ageing, weathering and/or decay. Knowledge of the influence of weathering factors and polymer degradation mechanisms is essential for understanding the weathering process of wood. The goal of this study was to investigate the degradation of thin wooden samples exposed to sho...

  6. Simulated nitrogen deposition affects wood decomposition by cord-forming fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebber, Daniel P; Watkinson, Sarah C; Boddy, Lynne; Darrah, Peter R

    2011-12-01

    Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition affects many natural processes, including forest litter decomposition. Saprotrophic fungi are the only organisms capable of completely decomposing lignocellulosic (woody) litter in temperate ecosystems, and therefore the responses of fungi to N deposition are critical in understanding the effects of global change on the forest carbon cycle. Plant litter decomposition under elevated N has been intensively studied, with varying results. The complexity of forest floor biota and variability in litter quality have obscured N-elevation effects on decomposers. Field experiments often utilize standardized substrates and N-levels, but few studies have controlled the decay organisms. Decomposition of beech (Fagus sylvatica) blocks inoculated with two cord-forming basidiomycete fungi, Hypholoma fasciculare and Phanerochaete velutina, was compared experimentally under realistic levels of simulated N deposition at Wytham Wood, Oxfordshire, UK. Mass loss was greater with P. velutina than with H. fasciculare, and with N treatment than in the control. Decomposition was accompanied by growth of the fungal mycelium and increasing N concentration in the remaining wood. We attribute the N effect on wood decay to the response of cord-forming wood decay fungi to N availability. Previous studies demonstrated the capacity of these fungi to scavenge and import N to decaying wood via a translocating network of mycelium. This study shows that small increases in N availability can increase wood decomposition by these organisms. Dead wood is an important carbon store and habitat. The responses of wood decomposers to anthropogenic N deposition should be considered in models of forest carbon dynamics.

  7. Tannins in tropical woods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doat, J

    1978-01-01

    A preliminary study was made of the chemistry of pyrogallol- and catecholtannins, their general properties and methods of extraction and determination. Three methods of estimation - Lowenthal, powdered hide and spectrophotometry - were compared using two control solutions, four samples of wood and one of bark. Using the empirical powdered hide method, tannins of both types were estimated in wood and bark of various tropical species (some separately and some as a mixture), Moroccan oaks (Quercus suber and Q. ilex), and European oak 9Q. petraea). Further tests were made on the wood and bark of the two mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle and R. racemosa, by subjecting them to successive extraction with a range of solvents. None of the woods tested had as much as the 10% of tannins considered necessary in economic sources. The bark of the two mangroves, of Eucalyptus urophylla and of Prosopis africana had tannin contents over 10% and the latter two species had very favorable tannin/non-tannin ratios. All the tropical species, with the probable exception of E. urophylla, had only catecholtannins. Only the oaks and E. urophylla bark gave positive results when tested for gallotannins.

  8. Grant Wood: "American Gothic."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Diane M.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which exposes students in grades 10-12 to the visual symbols and historical references contained in Grant Wood's "American Gothic." Includes background information on the artist and the painting, instructional strategies, a studio activity, and evaluation criteria. (GEA)

  9. Dark Dark Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    2017 student Bachelor film. Synopsis: Young princess Maria has had about enough of her royal life – it’s all lesson, responsibilities and duties on top of each other, every hour of every day. Overwhelmed Maria is swept away on an adventure into the monster-filled dark, dark woods. During 2017...

  10. Wood waste in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, O; Ribeiro, R [Biomass Centre for Energy - CBE, Miranda do Corvo (Portugal)

    1998-12-31

    The energy policy of the EC, as well as most of member states points to a sizeable increase of energy production based on renewable energy sources, wood, wood residues, agricultural residues, energy crops including SRF, organic sludges, solid residues, etc. Most recent goals indicate a desirable duplication of today`s percentage by 2010. The reasons for this interest, besides diversification of sources, less dependence on imported fuels, use of endogenous resources, expected decrease of fossil fuel reserves, use of available land, additional employment and income for rural communities, etc., are related to important environmental benefits namely in terms of emissions of hot house gases. Wood waste, resulting from forest operations, cleaning, cultural and final cuttings, and from wood based industries, constitute a special important resource by reason of quality and availability. In addition to this they do not require additional land use and the removal is beneficial. In the run-up to the becoming December`s 1997 `Climate Change Summit` in Kioto, there is mounting pressure on companies to plan on carbon cuts. (author) 6 refs., 1 tab.

  11. Sweetgum - an American wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. B. Briscoe

    1973-01-01

    Sweetgum grows throughout most of the eastern United States and sporadically throughout Mexico and Central America. The wood is moderately heavy, even-textured, and it machines moderately well. It is used for a variety of purposes, with furniture, plywood, containers, and pulp absorbing the most volume. Growth is good, but supplies are slowly diminishing because the...

  12. Wood waste in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, O.; Ribeiro, R. [Biomass Centre for Energy - CBE, Miranda do Corvo (Portugal)

    1997-12-31

    The energy policy of the EC, as well as most of member states points to a sizeable increase of energy production based on renewable energy sources, wood, wood residues, agricultural residues, energy crops including SRF, organic sludges, solid residues, etc. Most recent goals indicate a desirable duplication of today`s percentage by 2010. The reasons for this interest, besides diversification of sources, less dependence on imported fuels, use of endogenous resources, expected decrease of fossil fuel reserves, use of available land, additional employment and income for rural communities, etc., are related to important environmental benefits namely in terms of emissions of hot house gases. Wood waste, resulting from forest operations, cleaning, cultural and final cuttings, and from wood based industries, constitute a special important resource by reason of quality and availability. In addition to this they do not require additional land use and the removal is beneficial. In the run-up to the becoming December`s 1997 `Climate Change Summit` in Kioto, there is mounting pressure on companies to plan on carbon cuts. (author) 6 refs., 1 tab.

  13. Handling wood shavings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-09-18

    Details of bulk handling equipment suitable for collection and compressing wood waste from commercial joinery works are discussed. The Redler Bin Discharger ensures free flow of chips from storage silo discharge prior to compression into briquettes for use as fuel or processing into chipboard.

  14. Diversity and decay ability of basidiomycetes isolated from lodgepole pines killed by the mountain pine beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, E; Kim, J-J; Lim, Y W; Au-Yeung, T T; Yang, C Y H; Breuil, C

    2011-01-01

    When lodgepole pines (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Louden var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Watson) that are killed by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and its fungal associates are not harvested, fungal decay can affect wood and fibre properties. Ophiostomatoids stain sapwood but do not affect the structural properties of wood. In contrast, white or brown decay basidiomycetes degrade wood. We isolated both staining and decay fungi from 300 lodgepole pine trees killed by mountain pine beetle at green, red, and grey stages at 10 sites across British Columbia. We retained 224 basidiomycete isolates that we classified into 34 species using morphological and physiological characteristics and rDNA large subunit sequences. The number of basidiomycete species varied from 4 to 14 species per site. We assessed the ability of these fungi to degrade both pine sapwood and heartwood using the soil jar decay test. The highest wood mass losses for both sapwood and heartwood were measured for the brown rot species Fomitopsis pinicola and the white rot Metulodontia and Ganoderma species. The sap rot species Trichaptum abietinum was more damaging for sapwood than for heartwood. A number of species caused more than 50% wood mass losses after 12 weeks at room temperature, suggesting that beetle-killed trees can rapidly lose market value due to degradation of wood structural components.

  15. White-Nose Syndrome Fungus (Geomyces destructans) in Bat, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puechmaille, Sébastien J.; Verdeyroux, Pascal; Fuller, Hubert; Gouilh, Meriadeg Ar; Bekaert, Michaël

    2010-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is caused by the fungus Geomyces destructans and is responsible for the deaths of >1,000,000 bats since 2006. This disease and fungus had been restricted to the northeastern United States. We detected this fungus in a bat in France and assessed the implications of this finding. PMID:20113562

  16. Dentigerumycin: a bacterial mediator of an ant-fungus symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oh, Dong-Chan; Poulsen, Michael; Currie, Cameron R

    2009-01-01

    Fungus-growing ants engage in mutualistic associations with both the fungus they cultivate for food and actinobacteria (Pseudonocardia spp.) that produce selective antibiotics to defend that fungus from specialized fungal parasites. We have analyzed one such system at the molecular level and found...

  17. Dental Caries (Tooth Decay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Materials Contact Us Home Research Data & Statistics Dental Caries (Tooth Decay) Dental caries (tooth decay) remains the most prevalent chronic disease ... adults, even though it is largely preventable. Although caries has significantly decreased for most Americans over the ...

  18. Dental Caries (Tooth Decay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us Home Research Data & Statistics Share Dental Caries (Tooth Decay) Dental caries (tooth decay) remains the most prevalent chronic disease ... adults, even though it is largely preventable. Although caries has significantly decreased for most Americans over the ...

  19. Wood construction under cold climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Hagman, Olle; Sundqvist, Bror

    2014-01-01

    As wood constructions increasingly use engineered wood products worldwide, concerns arise about the integrity of the wood and adhesives system. The glueline stability is a crucial issue for engineered wood application, especially under cold climate. In this study, Norway spruce (Picea abies...... affected shear strength of wood joints. As temperature decreased, the shear strength decreased. PUR resin resulted in the strongest shear strength at all temperatures tested. MF resin responded to temperature changes in a similar ways as the PUR resin. The shear strength of wood joints with EPI resins...... specimens need to be tested in further work to more completely present the issue. The EN 301 and EN 302 may need to be specified based on wood species....

  20. MODEL RADIOACTIVE RADON DECAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.I. Parovik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In a model of radioactive decay of radon in the sample (222Rn. The model assumes that the probability of the decay of radon and its half-life depends on the fractal properties of the geological environment. The dependencies of the decay parameters of the fractal dimension of the medium.

  1. Spread of Rare Fungus from Vancouver Island

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-12-20

    Cryptococcus gattii, a rare fungus normally found in the tropics, has infected people and animals on Vancouver Island, Canada. Dr. David Warnock, Director, Division of Foodborne, Bacterial, and Mycotic Diseases, CDC, discusses public health concerns about further spread of this organism.  Created: 12/20/2006 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 12/29/2006.

  2. Entomology: A Bee Farming a Fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldroyd, Benjamin P; Aanen, Duur K

    2015-11-16

    Farming is done not only by humans, but also by some ant, beetle and termite species. With the discovery of a stingless bee farming a fungus that provides benefits to its larvae, bees can be added to this list. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Death from Fungus in the Soil

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-12-17

    Dr. Shira Shafir, Assistant Professor of Epidemiology at the UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, discusses her study about fungus found in soil.  Created: 12/17/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/18/2012.

  4. Spread of Rare Fungus from Vancouver Island

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Cryptococcus gattii, a rare fungus normally found in the tropics, has infected people and animals on Vancouver Island, Canada. Dr. David Warnock, Director, Division of Foodborne, Bacterial, and Mycotic Diseases, CDC, discusses public health concerns about further spread of this organism

  5. Botrallin from the endophytic fungus Hyalodendriella sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude methanol extract of the mycelia from the endophytic fungus. Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12, associated with the hybrid 'Neva' of Populus deltoides Marsh × P. nigra L., led to the isolation of one compound coded as P12-1 which was identified as botrallin (1,7-.

  6. EXTRACELLULAR PROTEINS PRODUCED BY DIFFERENT SPECIES OF THE FUNGUS TRICHODERMA ON SECONDARY PAPER MILL SLUDGE SUBSTRATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Vaskova,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Kraft pulping is the most commonly used pulping process in the pulp and paper industry. In this process wood chips are chemically delignified using sodium sulfide and sodium hydroxide. Delignification is usually followed by mechanical fiberization and a bleaching process of the resulting wood pulp. In addition to lignin-free wood pulp, this process also produces waste that contains residues of used chemicals, lignin, cellulose, hemicelluloses, and small amounts of other wood components. Because of the worldwide large-scale production of paper, the sludge from paper mills contributes significantly to environmental pollution. Although there have been great efforts being made to utilize this lignin-rich material, sludge is mostly disposed in landfills or incinerated in a boiler. This research project used secondary sludge as a substrate for 7 wood-decay fungi taxonomically belonging to the genus Trichoderma. The examined fungi expressed the capability of consuming sludge components as a carbon source to produce extracellular proteins. The proteins were separated by gel electrophoresis. Before and after fungi cultivation, the sludge was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR.

  7. Large wood in the Snowy River estuary, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinwood, Jon B.; McLean, Errol J.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we report on 8 years of data collection and interpretation of large wood in the Snowy River estuary in southeastern Australia, providing quantitative data on the amount, sources, transport, decay, and geomorphic actions. No prior census data for an estuary is known to the authors despite their environmental and economic importance and the significant differences between a fluvial channel and an estuarine channel. Southeastern Australian estuaries contain a significant quantity of large wood that is derived from many sources, including river flood flows, local bank erosion, and anthropogenic sources. Wind and tide are shown to be as important as river flow in transporting and stranding large wood. Tidal action facilitates trapping of large wood on intertidal bars and shoals; but channels are wider and generally deeper, so log jams are less likely than in rivers. Estuarine large wood contributes to localised scour and accretion and hence to the modification of estuarine habitat, but in the study area it did not have large-scale impacts on the hydraulic gradients nor the geomorphology.

  8. A new shock wave assisted wood preservative injection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K. S.; Ravikumar, G.; Lai, Ram; Jagadeesh, G.

    Preservative treatment of many tropical hard woods and bamboo pose severe problem. A number of wood preservatives (chemical formulations toxic to wood decay/ destroying organisms like fungi, wood destroying termites, marine borers etc.) and wood impregnating techniques are currently in use for improving bio resistance of timber and bamboo and thereby enhancing service life for different end uses. How ever, some species of tropical hardwoods and many species of bamboo are difficult to treat, posing technical problems. In this paper we report preliminary results of treatment of bamboo with a novel Shockwave assisted injection treatment. Samples (30×2.5×1.00 cm) of an Indian species of bamboo Dendrocalamus strictus prepared from defect free culms of dry bamboo are placed in the driven section of a vertical shock tube filled with the 4Coppepr-Chrome-Arsenic(CCA) preservative solution.The bamboo samples are subjected to repeated shock wave loading (3 shots) with typical over pressures of 30 bar. The results from the study indicate excellent penetration and retention of CCA preservative in bamboo samples. The method itself is much faster compared to the conventional methods like pressure treatment or hot and cold process.

  9. NATURAL RESISTANCE OF SEVEN WOODS TO XYLOPHOGOUS FUNGI AND TERMITES UNDER LABORATORY CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed at evaluating the natural resistance of seven woods to xylophogous fungi and subterranean termites under laboratory assay. The studied woods were Leucaena leucocephala, Cordia trichotoma, Mimosa tenuiflora, Croton sonderianus, Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, Azadirachta indica and Tectona grandis. Test samples measuring 2.54 x 2.00 x 1.00 cm (fungi and 2.54 x 2.00 x 0.64 cm (termites, with larger dimensions in fiber direction were obtained in four positions in pith-to-bark direction. The samples were submitted by 98 days to action of Postia placenta and Polyporus fumosus fungi or 28 days to the termite Nasutitermes corniger action. To fungi, the Mimosa tenuiflora and Mimosa caesalpiniifolia woods were the more resistant and those of Azadirachta indica and Croton sonderianus the less resistant. The fungus Postia placenta attacked more severely the tested woods. To termites, the Mimosa tenuiflora, Cordia trichotoma, and Mimosa caesalpiniifolia were the most resistant and the Leucaena leucocephala the less resistant. The coming wood of external section of log were the more attacked. To fungi, there was an inverse relationship between the density and the loss of mass. Already for the termites, there was not relationship between the resistance and the density of the wood.

  10. Priority effects of early successional insects influence late successional fungi in dead wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Rannveig Margrete; Birkemoe, Tone; Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne

    2015-11-01

    Community assembly is an integral process in all ecosystems, producing patterns of species distributions, biodiversity, and ecosystem functioning. Environmental filters and colonization history govern the assembly process, but their relative importance varies depending on the study system. Dead wood decomposition is a slow process, allowing decomposer communities to develop within a slowly changing substrate for decades. Despite this, there are few long-term studies of priority effects from colonization history in this ecosystem. In this study, we investigate the importance of insects in early succession of dead wood on the fungal community present one decade later. Sixty aspen trees were killed in two study landscapes, each tree producing one aspen high stump and log. Insects were sampled with flight interception traps during the first 4 years after tree death, and fungal fruiting bodies were registered in year twelve. We found positive priority effects of two fungivorous beetles, the sap beetle Glischrochilus quadripunctatus and the round fungus beetle Agathidium nigripenne, on the Artist's bracket (Ganoderma applanatum) and a positive priority effect of wood-boring beetles on the ascomycete Yellow fairy cup (Bisporella citrina). The Aspen bracket (Phellinus tremulae) did not respond to insects in early succession of the dead wood. Our results suggest that early successional insects can have significant, long-lasting effects on the late successional fungal community in dead wood. Also, the effect can be specific, with one fungus species depending on one or a few fungivorous beetle species. This has implications for decomposition and biodiversity in dead wood, as loss of early colonizing beetles may also affect the successional pathways they seem to initiate.

  11. Ectomycorrhizal community structure and function in relation to forest residue harvesting and wood ash applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, Shahid

    2000-05-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi form symbiotic associations with tree roots and assist in nutrient-uptake and -cycling in forest ecosystems, thereby constituting a most significant part of the microbial community. The aims of the studies described in this thesis were to evaluate the potential of DNA-based molecular methods in below-ground ectomycorrhizal community studies and to investigate changes in ectomycorrhizal communities on spruce roots in sites with different N deposition, and in sites subjected to harvesting of forest residues or application of wood ash. The ability of selected ectomycorrhizal fungi to mobilise nutrients from wood ash and to colonise root systems in the presence and absence of ash was also studied. In total 39 ectomycorrhizal species were detected in the experimental forests located in southern Sweden. At each site five to six species colonised around 60% of the root tips. The dominant species, common to the sites, were Tylospora fibrillosa, Thelephora terrestris and Cenococcum geophilum. Differences between two sites with differing levels of N deposition suggested that community structure may be influenced by N deposition, although site history, location and degree of isolation may also influence species composition. Repeated harvesting of forest residues reduced numbers of mycorrhizal roots in the humus layer to approximately 50% of that in control plots but no shift in the ectomycorrhizal community could be detected. At another site, application of granulated wood ash induced a shift in ectomycorrhizal community structure and three ectomycorrhizal fungi ('ash fungi') were found to colonise ash granules. Two 'ash fungi' showed a superior ability to solubilise stabilised wood ash in laboratory experiments compared to other ectomycorrhizal isolates from the same site. In laboratory microcosms containing intact mycorrhizal mycelia, colonisation of wood ash patches by one 'ash fungus' was good whereas colonisation by Piloderma croceum was poor. In a

  12. Lump wood combustion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubesa, Petr; Horák, Jiří; Branc, Michal; Krpec, Kamil; Hopan, František; Koloničný, Jan; Ochodek, Tadeáš; Drastichová, Vendula; Martiník, Lubomír; Malcho, Milan

    2014-08-01

    The article deals with the combustion process for lump wood in low-power fireplaces (units to dozens of kW). Such a combustion process is cyclical in its nature, and what combustion facility users are most interested in is the frequency, at which fuel needs to be stoked to the fireplace. The paper defines the basic terms such as burnout curve and burning rate curve, which are closely related to the stocking frequency. The fuel burning rate is directly dependent on the immediate thermal power of the fireplace. This is also related to the temperature achieved in the fireplace, magnitude of flue gas losses and the ability to generate conditions favouring the full burnout of the fuel's combustible component, which, at once ensures the minimum production of combustible pollutants. Another part of the paper describes experiments conducted in traditional fireplaces with a grate, at which well-dried lump wood was combusted.

  13. Lignin-Retaining Transparent Wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Fu, Qiliang; Rojas, Ramiro; Yan, Min; Lawoko, Martin; Berglund, Lars

    2017-09-11

    Optically transparent wood, combining optical and mechanical performance, is an emerging new material for light-transmitting structures in buildings with the aim of reducing energy consumption. One of the main obstacles for transparent wood fabrication is delignification, where around 30 wt % of wood tissue is removed to reduce light absorption and refractive index mismatch. This step is time consuming and not environmentally benign. Moreover, lignin removal weakens the wood structure, limiting the fabrication of large structures. A green and industrially feasible method has now been developed to prepare transparent wood. Up to 80 wt % of lignin is preserved, leading to a stronger wood template compared to the delignified alternative. After polymer infiltration, a high-lignin-content transparent wood with transmittance of 83 %, haze of 75 %, thermal conductivity of 0.23 W mK -1 , and work-tofracture of 1.2 MJ m -3 (a magnitude higher than glass) was obtained. This transparent wood preparation method is efficient and applicable to various wood species. The transparent wood obtained shows potential for application in energy-saving buildings. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  14. Radioactivity of Wood and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hus, M.; Kosutic, K.; Lulic, S.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear experiments in the atmosphere and nuclear accidents caused global deposition of artificial radionuclides in the soil of Earth's northern hemisphere, the territory of the Republic of Croatia included. Soil contamination by radionuclides resulted in their deposition in plants growing on the contaminated soil as well as in the trees. Large area of the Republic of Croatia is covered with wood, which is exploited in manufacture of industrial wood and for firewood. From approximately 3 million cubic metres of wood exploited annually, nearly one third serves for firewood. In the process of burning a smaller portion of radionuclides deposited in the wood evaporates and goes to atmosphere while a larger portion is retained in the ash. In this paper are presented the results of natural radionuclides 4 0K , 2 32T h and 2 38U as well as of artificial radionuclide 1 37C s content determination in the wood, wood briquette, charcoal and in ash remained after burning the wood, wood briquette and charcoal. The obtained results are discussed from wood radiocontamination aspect and from the aspect of potential environmental radiocontamination by the products from wood burning process. (author)

  15. Radioactivity of wood ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.; Moring, M.

    2000-01-01

    STUK (Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) has investigated natural and artificial radioactivity in wood ash and radiation exposure from radionuclides in ash since 1996. The aim was to consider both handling of ash and different ways of using ash. In all 87 ash samples were collected from 22 plants using entirely or partially wood for their energy production in 1996-1997. The sites studied represented mostly chemical forest industry, sawmills or district heat production. Most plants used fluidised bed combustion technique. Samples of both fly ash and bottom ash were studied. The activity concentrations of radionuclides in samples of, e.g., dried fly ash from fuel containing more than 80% wood were determined. The means ranged from 2000 to less than 50 Bq kg -1 , in decreasing order: 137 Cs, 40 K, 90 Sr, 210 Pb, 226 Ra, 232 Th, 134 Cs, 235 U. In bott radionuclide contents decreased in the same order as in fly ash, but were smaller, and 210 Pb was hardly detectable. The NH 4 Ac extractable fractions of activities for isotopes of alkaline elements (K, Cs) in bottom ash were lower than in fly ash, whereas solubility of heavier isotopes was low. Safety requirements defined by STUK in ST-guide 12.2 for handling of peat ash were fulfilled at each of the sites. Use of ash for land-filling and construction of streets was minimal during the sampling period. Increasing this type of ash use had often needed further investigations, as description of the use of additional materials that attenuate radiation. Fertilisation of forests with wood ash adds slightly to the external irradiation in forests, but will mostly decrease doses received through use of timber, berries, mushrooms and game meat. (orig.)

  16. Method of stabilizing wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesek, M.; Dedek, V.; Plander, E.

    1975-01-01

    Wood is impregnated with vinyl monomers in a solution of organic solvents and in the presence of a swelling agent. The impregnation mixture contains a diolefinic hydrocarbon and/or a solid chlorinated or bromated compound with the melting point exceeding 30 degC and less than 10 % of an organosilicon compound. Polymerization is effected by ionizing radiation and a subsequent action of temperature in a range of 40 to 150 JegC. (B.S.)

  17. Wood Composite Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Bueso, Jose; Haupt, Robert

    The global environment, in which phenolic resins are being used for wood composite manufacture, has changed significantly during the last decade. This chapter reviews trends that are driving the use and consumption of phenolic resins around the world. The review begins with recent data on volume usage and regional trends, followed by an analysis of factors affecting global markets. In a section on environmental factors, the impact of recent formaldehyde emission regulations is discussed. The section on economics introduces wood composite production as it relates to the available adhesive systems, with special emphasis on the technical requirement to improve phenolic reactivity. Advances in composite process technology are introduced, especially in regard to the increased demands the improvements place upon adhesive system performance. The specific requirements for the various wood composite families are considered in the context of adhesive performance needs. The results of research into current chemistries are discussed, with a review of recent findings regarding the mechanisms of phenolic condensation and acceleration. Also, the work regarding alternate natural materials, such as carbohydrates, lignins, tannins, and proteinaceous materials, is presented. Finally, new developments in alternative adhesive technologies are reported.

  18. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from aqueous media by the marine fungus NIOCC 312: Involvement of lignin-degrading enzymes and exopolysaccharides

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Shailaja, M.S.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Singh, S.K.

    (Shimadzu, Model RF 1501, Japan). The fungal biomass was extracted in a Soxhlet apparatus in 20 volumes of alkaline methanol (by addition of 1% KOH) twice, each for 3 h, pooled, concentrated, dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 and the residual... of the lignin- degrading enzymes, lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP) and laccase in a marine isolate of the white-rot fungus, NIOCC #312 obtained from decaying seagrass in a coral lagoon. This fungus efficiently decolorized bleach plant...

  19. The use of gas-sensor arrays in the detection of bole and root decays in living trees: development of a new non-invasive method of sampling and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuela Baietto; Sofia Aquaro; Dan Wilson; Letizia Pozzi; Danieli Bassi

    2015-01-01

    Wood rot is a serious fungal disease of trees. Wood decay fungi penetrate and gain entry into trees through pruning cuts or open wounds using extracellular digestive enzymes to attack all components of the cell wall, leading to the destruction of sapwood which compromises wood strength and stability. On living trees, it is often difficult to diagnose wood rot disease,...

  20. Wood fuels utilization in Central Europe - the wood fuels consumption and the targets of utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alakangas, E.

    1999-01-01

    Following subjects are discussed in this presentation: The share of bioenergy of the total energy consumption in EU region; the wood fuels consumption in EU region in 1995; the division of bioenergy utilization (households, wood- based district heating, wood consumption in industry, power generation from wood and residues, biofuels, biogas and sludges); wood fuels consumption in households in EU countries in 1995; wood consumption in France; the additional wood fuel consumption potential in France; Blan bois - wood energy program; French wood energy markets; German wood energy markets; energy consumption in Germany; wood consumption in Bavaria; the wood fuels potential in Bavaria; wood fuels consumption in households in Bavaria; wood fuels consumption for district heating in Bavaria; fuel prices in Bavaria; Environmental regulations in Germany; small boiler markets in Germany; Energy consumption in Austria; small-scale utilization of wood fuels; utilization of wood energy. (Slides, additional information from the author)

  1. Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiltsee, G.

    1998-01-01

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris

  2. European wood-fuel trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, B.; Vinterbaeck, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses research carried out during the l990s on European wood fuel trade at the Department of Forest Management and Products, SLU, in Sweden. Utilisation of wood-fuels and other biofuels increased very rapidly in some regions during that period. Biofuels are replacing fossil fuels which is an effective way to reduce the future influence of green house gases on the climate. The results indicate a rapid increase in wood-fuel trade in Europe from low levels and with a limited number of countries involved. The chief products traded are wood pellets, wood chips and recycled wood. The main trading countries are, for export, Germany and the Baltic states and, for import, Sweden, Denmark and to some extent the Netherlands. In the future, the increased use of biofuel in European countries is expected to intensify activity in this trade. (orig.)

  3. Production of liquid transport fuel from cellulose material (wood). III Laboratory preparation of wood sugars and fermentation to ethanol and yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitworth, D A; Harwood, V D

    1977-10-25

    A laboratory procedure is described for hydrolyzing cellulose material to sugars by the use of hot sulfuric acid. The procedure has been used routinely for assessing raw materials. Raw materials used were radiata pine (fresh wood and decayed thinnings), pine needles, sawdust from old dumps, newspaper, cardboard, beech wood, and coconut wood. The neutralized sugar-liquors produced, supplemented with fertilizer grade nutrients, were fermented with bakers' yeast and gave near optimal conversion of hexoses to ethanol and of pentoses to protein biomass. From 100 g radiata pine (wood: bark mix 85:15) 25 ml (20 g) of ethanol and 2 g yeast biomass were routinely produced, although fermentation rates were lower than with pure sugars. The results, however, clearly showed that, by a hot dilute sulfure acid hydrolysis followed by a yeast fermentation process, cellulose resources avaliable in New Zealand are suitable for conversion to ethanol. 5 table, 1 figure.

  4. Inoculation Expedition of Agar wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, C.S.; Mohd Fajri Osman; Rusli Zakaria

    2015-01-01

    Inoculation expedition of agar wood is a main field works for researcher in Nuclear Malaysia to prove the real inoculation of agar wood in real jungle. These expeditions was conducted fourth times in the jungles of Malaysia including Gunung Tebu in Terengganu, Murum in Belaga, Sarawak, Kampung Timbang in Kota Belud, Sabah and Nuclear Malaysia itself. This expedition starts from preparation of samples and equipment, transportation into the jungle, searching and recognition of agar wood and lastly, inoculation of the agar wood. Safety aspects precedence set out in the preparation and implementation of this expedition. (author)

  5. The wood energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douard, F.; Oremus, Y.; Garsault-Fabbi, A.

    2007-01-01

    The program law fixing the energy policy (POPE Law of the 13 july 2005) fixes an objective of 50% of growth for the renewable heat. As this renewable heat is today generated by the biomass, it seems necessary to adjust all the efforts on this sector. This document proposes to takes stock on the wood energy in France. It presents the wood fuels, an evaluation of the Wood-Energy Plan decided by the ADEME in 2000, the wood heat networks, and some example of installations. (A.L.B.)

  6. SYMPOSIUM: Rare decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1989-04-15

    Late last year, a symposium entitled 'Rare Decays' attracted 115 participants to a hotel in Vancouver, Canada. These participants were particle physicists interested in checking conventional selection rules to look for clues of possible new behaviour outside today's accepted 'Standard Model'. For physicists, 'rare decays' include processes that have so far not been seen, explicitly forbidden by the rules of the Standard Model, or processes highly suppressed because the decay is dominated by an easier route, or includes processes resulting from multiple transitions.

  7. Effective Majorana neutrino decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Lucia [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ingenieria,Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay); Romero, Ismael; Peressutti, Javier; Sampayo, Oscar A. [Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Departamento de Fisica, Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR) CONICET, UNMDP, Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2016-08-15

    We study the decay of heavy sterile Majorana neutrinos according to the interactions obtained from an effective general theory. We describe the two- and three-body decays for a wide range of neutrino masses. The results obtained and presented in this work could be useful for the study of the production and detection of these particles in a variety of high energy physics experiments and astrophysical observations. We show in different figures the dominant branching ratios and the total decay width. (orig.)

  8. Axigluon decays of toponium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faustov, R.N.; Vasilevskaya, I.G.

    1990-01-01

    Chiral-colour model predicts the existence of axigluons which is an octet of massive axial-vector gauge bosons. In this respect toponium decays into axigluons and gluons are of interest. The following toponium decays are considered: θ → Ag, θ → AAg, θ → ggg → AAg. The width of toponium S-state decays is calculated under various possible values of axigluon mass

  9. Decay of 143La

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blachot, J.; Dousson, S.; Monnand, E.; Schussler, F.

    1976-01-01

    The decay of 143 La has been investigated. Sources have been obtained from 2 isotope separators (ISERE, OSIRIS). 12 gamma rays, with the most intense at 620keV representing only 1.4% of decay, have been attributed to the 143 La decay. A level scheme has been found and compared with the one deduced from (d,p) and (n,γ) reactions on 142 Ce [fr

  10. Dead wood biomass and turnover time, measured by radiocarbon, along a subalpine elevation gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueppers, Lara M; Southon, John; Baer, Paul; Harte, John

    2004-12-01

    Dead wood biomass can be a substantial fraction of stored carbon in forest ecosystems, and coarse woody debris (CWD) decay rates may be sensitive to climate warming. We used an elevation gradient in Colorado Rocky Mountain subalpine forest to examine climate and species effects on dead wood biomass, and on CWD decay rate. Using a new radiocarbon approach, we determined that the turnover time of lodgepole pine CWD (340+/-130 years) was roughly half as long in a site with 2.5-3 degrees C warmer air temperature, as that of pine (630+/-400 years) or Engelmann spruce CWD (800+/-960 and 650+/-410 years) in cooler sites. Across all sites and both species, CWD age ranged from 2 to 600 years, and turnover time was 580+/-180 years. Total standing and fallen dead wood biomass ranged from 4.7+/-0.2 to 54+/-1 Mg ha(-1), and from 2.8 to 60% of aboveground live tree biomass. Dead wood biomass increased 75 kg ha(-1) per meter gain in elevation and decreased 13 Mg ha(-1) for every degree C increase in mean air temperature. Differences in biomass and decay rates along the elevation gradient suggest that climate warming will lead to a loss of dead wood carbon from subalpine forest.

  11. Corrosion of Fasteners in Wood Treated with Newer Wood Preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka

    2013-01-01

    This document compiles recent research findings related to corrosion of metals in preservative treated wood into a single report on corrosion of metals in wood. The research was conducted as part of the Research, Technology and Education portion of the National Historic Covered Bridge Preservation (NHCBP) Program administered by the Federal Highway Administration. The...

  12. Survival, growth, wood basic density and wood biomass of seven ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A performance comparison of seven-year-old individuals of 13 Casuarina species/provenances in terms of survival, growth (diameter, height and volume), wood basic density and wood biomass was undertaken at Kongowe, Kibaha, Tanzania. The trial was laid out using a randomised complete block design with four ...

  13. Resistência natural da madeira de Corymbia maculata (Hook. K.D.Hill & L.A.S. Johnson a fungos e cupins xilófagos, em condições de laboratório Wood natural resistance of Corymbia maculata (Hook. K.D.Hill & L.A.S Johnson to wood destroying fungi and termites, under laboratory tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2002-11-01

    , with the smallest measure in tangential direction (fungi assay and measuring 2.45 x 2.00 x 0.64 cm; with the largerst measure fiberwise (termite assay, in four positions from pith to bark. The samples were submitted to fungi Postia placenta, Neolentinus lepideus and Polyporus fumosus action for 12 weeks or to Nasutitermes sp. action for 30 days. Wood decay resistance was found to be dependent on the position pith to bark and on the fungus. The wood samples in the most external positions were more deteriorated. Inside of each position, the fungi caused similar deterioration, except for the most external position (sapwood where the P. fumosus caused less deterioration than other tested fungi. In general, C. maculata wood was highly resistant (internal positions or resistant (external positions to the fungi. Just for the Neolentinus lepideus, the external position was classified as moderately resistante. The tested wood to termite resistance was not affected by position in the pith to bark direction and showed weight loss for allanalyzed positions. Besides, it was affected only superficially and the termites died during the assay. The C. maculata wood was classified as resistant to the termites assayed.

  14. Wood pole overhead lines

    CERN Document Server

    Wareing, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This new book concentrates on the mechanical aspects of distribution wood pole lines, including live line working, environmental influences, climate change and international standards. Other topics include statutory requirements, safety, profiling, traditional and probabilistic design, weather loads, bare and covered conductors, different types of overhead systems, conductor choice, construction and maintenance. A section has also been devoted to the topic of lightning, which is one of the major sources of faults on overhead lines. The book focuses on the effects of this problem and the strate

  15. DIVERSITY AND ECOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS OF DEAD WOOD FUNGI IN TREE NATURAL RESERVES OF BROAD LEAVED FORESTS FROM SUCEAVA COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian BÎRSAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dead wood fungi have a major importance for forests biodiversity as they produce wood degradation in forest habitats. In this paper are presented some aspects related to the diversity of dead wood fungi in tree deciduous forest types from tree natural reserves (Crujana, Dragomirna and Zamostea from Suceava County and the effect of some ecological factors (host tree, diameter and decomposition degree of the dead wood and some microclimatic characteristics of sites on their occurrence and diversity. Investigations carried out in 2013 resulted in the identification of 44 lignicolous fungi species. Analysis of similarities between lingnicolous fungi species from the investigated natural reserves (by hierarchical clustering shows a separation of three fungi groups, depending on the host-trees species. The effect of the tree host species was highlighted also by detrended correspondence analysis, which, in addition presented the existence of an altitudinal gradient and a weaker effect of site conditions (slope and aspect and microclimatic variables (solar radiation on dead wood fungi occurrence. The effect of diameter and decomposition degree of fallen trunks and branches on dead wood fungi species was investigated using the redundancy analysis showing that wood debris with large surfaces are more easily colonized by the fungi species developing large sporocarps compared to small branches with low diameters colonized only by few or a single fungus species.

  16. Influence of corn steep liquor and glucose on colonization of control and CCB (Cu/Cr/B)-treated wood by brown rot fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humar, Miha; Amartey, Sam A.; Pohleven, Franc

    2006-01-01

    There are increasing problems with regard to the disposal of treated wood waste. Due to heavy metals or arsenic in impregnated wood waste, burning and landfill disposal options are not considered to be environmentally friendly solutions for dealing with this problem. Extraction of the heavy metals and recycling of the preservatives from the wood waste is a much more promising and environmentally friendly solution. In order to study the scale up of this process, copper/chromium/boron-treated wood specimens were exposed to copper tolerant (Antrodia vaillantii and Leucogyrophana pinastri) and copper sensitive wood decay fungi (Gloeophyllum trabeum and Poria monticola). Afterwards, the ability of fungal hyphae to penetrate and overgrow the wood specimens was investigated. The fungal growths were stimulated by immersing the specimens into aqueous solution of glucose or corn steep liquor prior to exposure to the fungi. The fastest colonization of the impregnated wood was by the copper tolerant A. vaillantii. Addition of glucose onto the surface of the wood specimens increased the fungi colonization of the specimens; however, immersion of the specimens into the solution of corn steep liquor did not have the same positive influence. These results are important in elucidating copper toxicity in wood decay fungi and for using these fungi for bioremediation of treated wood wastes

  17. Enzymatic oxalic acid regulation correlated with wood degradation in four brown-rot fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Christine Steenkjær Hastrup; Frederick Green III; Patricia K. Lebow; Bo Jensen

    2012-01-01

    Oxalic acid is a key component in the initiation of brown-rot decay and it has been suggested that it plays multiple roles during the degradation process. Oxalic acid is accumulated to varying degrees among brown-rot fungi; however, details on active regulation are scarce. The accumulation of oxalic acid was measured in this study from wood degraded by the four brown-...

  18. Wood-related occupations, wood dust exposure, and sinonasal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, R B; Gerin, M; Raatgever, J W; de Bruyn, A

    1986-10-01

    A case-control study was conducted to examine the relations between type of woodworking and the extent of wood dust exposure to the risks for specific histologic types of sinonasal cancer. In cooperation with the major treatment centers in the Netherlands, 116 male patients newly diagnosed between 1978 and 1981 with primary malignancies of epithelial origin of this site were identified for study. Living controls were selected from the municipal registries, and deceased controls were selected from the national death registry. Interviews were completed for 91 (78%) cases and 195 (75%) controls. Job histories were coded by industry and occupation. An index of exposure was developed to classify the extent of occupational exposure to wood dust. When necessary, adjustment was made for age and usual cigarette use. The risk for nasal adenocarcinoma was elevated by industry for the wood and paper industry (odds ratio (OR) = 11.9) and by occupation for those employed in furniture and cabinet making (OR = 139.8), in factory joinery and carpentry work (OR = 16.3), and in association with high-level wood dust exposure (OR = 26.3). Other types of nasal cancer were not found to be associated with wood-related industries or occupations. A moderate excess in risk for squamous cell cancer (OR = 2.5) was associated with low-level wood dust exposure; however, no dose-response relation was evident. The association between wood dust and adenocarcinoma was strongest for those employed in wood dust-related occupations between 1930 and 1941. The risk of adenocarcinoma did not appear to decrease for at least 15 years after termination of exposure to wood dust. No cases of nasal adenocarcinoma were observed in men whose first exposure to wood dust occurred after 1941.

  19. Ecology of coarse wood decomposition by the saprotrophic fungus Fomes fomentarius

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Větrovský, Tomáš; Voříšková, Jana; Šnajdr, Jaroslav; Gabriel, Jiří; Baldrian, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 4 (2011), s. 709-718 ISSN 0923-9820 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 155; GA MŠk(CZ) ME10152; GA MŠk(CZ) LA10001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Microbial ecology * Cellulose * Lignin Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.017, year: 2011

  20. Liquid-phase separation of reactive dye by wood-rotting fungus: a biotechnological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binupriya, Arthur R; Sathishkumar, Muthuswamy; Dhamodaran, Kavitha; Jayabalan, Rasu; Swaminathan, Krishnaswamy; Yun, Sei Eok

    2007-08-01

    The live and pretreated mycelial pellets/biomass of Trametes versicolor was used for the biosorption of a textile dye, reactive blue MR (RBMR) from aqueous solution. The parameters that affect the biosorption of RBMR, such as contact time, concentration of dye and pH, on the extent of RBMR adsorption were investigated. To develop an effective and accurate design model for removal of dye, adsorption kinetics and equilibrium data are essential basic requirements. Lagergren first-order, second-order and Bangham's model were used to fit the experimental data. Results of the kinetic studies showed that the second order kinetic model fitted well for the present experimental data. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin adsorption models were used for the mathematical description of the biosorption equilibrium. The biosorption equilibrium data obeyed well for Langmuir isotherm and the maximum adsorption capacities were found to be 49.8, 51.6, 47.4 and 46.7 mg/g for live, autoclaved, acid- and alkali-pretreated biomass. The dye uptake capacity order of the fungal biomass was found as autoclaved > live > acid-treated > alkali-pretreated. The Freundlich and Temkin models were also able to describe the biosorption equilibrium on RBMR on live and pretreated fungal biomass. Acidic pH was favorable for the adsorption of dye. Studies on pH effect and desorption show that chemisorption seems to play a major role in the adsorption process. On comparison with fixed bed adsorption, batch mode adsorption was more efficient in adsorption of RBMR.

  1. Aquatic wood -- an insect perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter S. Cranston; Brendan McKie

    2006-01-01

    Immersed wood provides refugia and substrate for a diverse array of macroinvertebrates, and food for a more restricted genuinely xylophagous fauna. Worldwide, xylophages are found across aquatic insect orders, including Coleoptera, Diptera, Trichoptera and Plecoptera. Xylophages often are specialised, feeding on the wood surface or mining deep within. Many feed...

  2. The wood of Merovingian weaponry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tegel, W.; Muigg, B.; Büntgen, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, JAN (2016), s. 148-153 ISSN 0305-4403 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Early Middle Ages * Merovingian weaponry * Mineralised wood * Wood anatomy Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.602, year: 2016

  3. Assessing potential sustainable wood yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Powers

    2001-01-01

    Society is making unprecedented demands on world forests to produce and sustain many values. Chief among them is wood supply, and concerns are rising globally about the ability of forests to meet increasing needs. Assessing this is not easy. It requires a basic understanding of the principles governing forest productivity: how wood yield varies with tree and stand...

  4. Preservation of forest wood chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofman, P.D.; Thomsen, I.M.; Ohlsson, C.; Leer, E.; Ravn Schmidt, E.; Soerensen, M.; Knudsen, P.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Danish Energy Research Programme on biomass utilisation for energy production (EFP), this project concerns problems connected to the handling and storing of wood chips. In this project, the possibility of preserving wood chips of the Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) is addressed, and the potential improvements by anaerobic storage are tested. Preservation of wood chips aims at reducing dry matter losses from extensive heating during storage and to reduce production of fungal spores. Fungal spores pose a health hazards to workers handling the chips. Further the producers of wood chips are interested in such a method since it would enable them to give a guarantee for the delivery of homogeneous wood chips also during the winter period. Three different types of wood chips were stored airtight and further one of these was stored in accordance with normal practise and use as reference. The results showed that airtight storage had a beneficial impact on the quality of the chips: no redistribution of moisture, low dry matter losses, unfavourable conditions for microbial activity of most fungi, and the promotion of yeasts instead of fungi with airborne spores. Likewise the firing tests showed that no combustion problems, and no increased risk to the environment or to the health of staff is caused by anaerobic storage of wood chips. In all, the tests of the anaerobic storage method of forest wood chips were a success and a large-scale test of the method will be carried out in 1999. (au)

  5. The sustainable wood production initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert. Deal

    2004-01-01

    To address concerns about sustainable forestry in the region, the Focused Science Delivery Program is sponsoring a three year Sustainable Wood Production Initiative. The Pacific Northwest is one of the world's major timber producing regions, and the ability of this region to produce wood on a sustained yield basis is widely recognized. Concerns relating to the...

  6. Composites from wood and plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Clemons

    2010-01-01

    Composites made from thermoplastics and fillers or reinforcements derived from wood or other natural fibers are a dynamic research area encompassing a wide variety of composite materials. For example, as the use of biopolymers grows, wood and other natural fiber sources are being investigated as renewable sources of fillers and reinforcements to modify performance....

  7. Holistic approach to wood protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell

    2006-01-01

    When untreated wood is exposed to adverse outdoor conditions, nature has a series of chemistries to degrade it to its original building blocks of carbon dioxide and water. Fungi, termites, heat, moisture, ultraviolet (UV) energy, and chemicals take their toll on the performance properties of wood. We tend to study each of these degradation chemistries as individual...

  8. Measuring wood specific gravity, correctly

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Bruce Williamson; Michael C. Wiemann

    2010-01-01

    The specific gravity (SG) of wood is a measure of the amount of structural material a tree species allocates to support and strength. In recent years, wood specific gravity, traditionally a forester’s variable, has become the domain of ecologists exploring the universality of plant functional traits and conservationists estimating global carbon stocks. While these...

  9. Public opinion and wood energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah Hitchner; John Schelhas; Teppo Hujala; J. Peter Brosius

    2014-01-01

    As wood-based bioenergy continues to develop around the world, it will utilize forestlands in new ways and will have different effects on a number of stakeholders, including forest landowners, local communities, extant industries, policymakers, investors, and others. As more stakeholders become involved in the wood energy web, and as the general public becomes more...

  10. On Erdos–Wood's conjecture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this article, we prove that infinite number of integers satsify Erdős–Woods conjecture. Moreover, it follows that the number of natural numbers ≤ satisfies Erdős–Woods conjecture with = 2 is at least /(log ) for some positive constant > 2.

  11. Induced nuclear beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss, H.R.

    1986-01-01

    Certain nuclear beta decay transitions normally inhibited by angular momentum or parity considerations can be induced to occur by the application of an electromagnetic field. Such decays can be useful in the controlled production of power, and in fission waste disposal

  12. B decays to baryons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We note that two-body decays to baryons are suppressed relative to three- and four-body decays. In most of these analyses, the invariant baryon–antibaryon mass shows an enhancement near the threshold. We propose a phenomenological interpretation of this quite common feature of hadronization to baryons.

  13. Multiple preequilibrium decay processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blann, M.

    1987-11-01

    Several treatments of multiple preequilibrium decay are reviewed with emphasis on the exciton and hybrid models. We show the expected behavior of this decay mode as a function of incident nucleon energy. The algorithms used in the hybrid model treatment are reviewed, and comparisons are made between predictions of the hybrid model and a broad range of experimental results. 24 refs., 20 figs

  14. Aspects of B decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faller, Sven

    2011-01-01

    B-meson decays are a good probe for testing the flavour sector of the standard model of particle physics. The standard model describes at present all experimental data satisfactorily, although some ''tensions'' exist, i.e. two to three sigma deviations from the predictions, in particular in B decays. The arguments against the standard model are thus purely theoretical. These tensions between experimental data and theoretical predictions provide an extension of the standard model by new physics contributions. Within the flavour sector main theoretical uncertainties are related to the hadronic matrix elements. For exclusive semileptonic anti B → D (*) l anti ν decays QCD sum rule techniques, which are suitable for studying hadronic matrix elements, however, with substantial, but estimable hadronic uncertainties, are used. The exploration of new physics effects in B-meson decays is done in an twofold way. In exclusive semileptonic anti B → D (*) l anti ν decays the effect of additional right-handed vector as well as left- and right-handed scalar and tensor hadronic current structures in the decay rates and the form factors are studied at the non-recoil point. As a second approach one studied the non-leptonic B 0 s →J/ψφ and B 0 →J/ψK S,L decays discussing CP violating effects in the time-dependent decay amplitudes by considering new physics phase in the B 0 - anti B 0 mixing phase. (orig.)

  15. The Swedish wood fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, Bengt

    1999-01-01

    In Sweden, wood fuels are traditionally used in the Swedish forest products industry and for heating of single-family houses. More recently they are also become established as an energy source for district heating and electricity production. Energy policy, especially the energy taxation system, has favoured wood fuels and other biofuels, mainly for environmental reasons. There is now an established commercial market for wood fuels in the district heating sector, which amounts to 45 PJ and is growing 20 per cent annually. Price levels have been stable in current prices for a decade, mainly because of good access to wood fuels. Price levels are dominated by production costs on a market that is largely governed by the buyer. It is expected that the use of wood fuels will increased in Sweden in the future, which will push a further development of this section on the market and bring about technological changes in the area. (Author)

  16. Characterisation of wood combustion ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto

    The combustion of wood chips and wood pellets for the production of renewable energy in Denmark increased from 5.7 PJ to 16 PJ during the period 2000-2015, and further increases are expected to occur within the coming years. In 2012, about 22,300 tonnes of wood ashes were generated in Denmark....... Currently, these ashes are mainly landfilled, despite Danish legislation allowing their application onto forest and agricultural soils for fertilising and/or liming purposes. During this PhD work, 16 wood ash samples generated at ten different Danish combustion plants were collected and characterised...... for their composition and leaching properties. Despite the relatively large variations in the contents of nutrients and trace metals, the overall levels were comparable to typical ranges reported in the literature for other wood combustion ashes, as well as with regards to leaching. In general, the composition...

  17. Pandora formicae, a specialist ant pathogenic fungus: New insights into biology and taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małagocka, Joanna; Jensen, Annette Bruun; Eilenberg, Jørgen

    2017-02-01

    Among fungi from the order Entomophthorales (Entomophthoromycota), there are many specialized, obligatory insect-killing pathogens. Pandora formicae (Humber & Bałazy) Humber is a rare example of an entomophthoralean fungus adapted to exclusively infect social insects: wood ants from the genus Formica. There is limited information available on P. formicae; many important aspects of this host-pathogen system remain hitherto unknown, and the taxonomical status of the fungus is unclear. Our study fills out some main gaps in the life history of P. formicae, such as seasonal prevalence and overwintering strategy. Field studies of infection prevalence show a disease peak in late summer and early autumn. Typical thick-walled entomophthoralean resting spores of P. formicae are documented and described for the first time. The proportion of cadavers with resting spores increased from late summer throughout autumn, suggesting that these spores are the main overwintering fungal structures. In addition, the phylogenetic status of Pandora formicae is outlined. Finally, we review the available taxonomical literature and conclude that the name P. formicae should be used rather than the name P. myrmecophaga for ant-infecting fungi displaying described morphological features. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Decay of hypernuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bando, H.

    1985-01-01

    The pionic and non-mesonic decays of hypernuclei are discussed. In the first part, various decay processes which could be useful to obtain information of hypernuclear structure are discussed. The experimental data concerning the pionic and non-mesonic decays are discussed in the second part. As the experimental data, there are only few lifetime data and some crude data on the non-mesonic to π decay ratio. In the third and the fourth parts, some theoretical analyses are made on the pionic and the nonmesonic decays. DDHF calculation was performed for Λ and N systems by using Skyrme type ΛN and NN effective interactions. A suppression factor of the order of 10 -3 for A nearly equal 100 was obtained. (Aoki, K.)

  19. Rare Decays at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Belyaev, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    Rare loop-induced decays are sensitive to New Physics in many Standard Model extensions. In this paper we discuss the reconstruction of the radiative penguin decays $B^0_d \\to K^{*0} \\gamma, B^0_s \\to \\phi \\gamma , B^0_d \\to \\omega \\gamma, \\Lambda_b \\to \\Lambda \\gamma$, the electroweak penguin decays $B^0_d \\to K^{*0} \\mu^+ \\mu^-, B^+_u \\to K^+ \\mu^+ \\mu^-$, the gluonic penguin decays $B^0_d \\to \\phi K^0_S, B^0_s \\to \\phi \\phi$, and the decay $B^0_s \\to \\mu^+\\mu^-$ at LHCb. The selection criteria, evaluated efficiencies, expected annual yields and $B/S$ estimates are presented.

  20. High-Throughput DNA sequencing of ancient wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Stefanie; Lagane, Frédéric; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Schubert, Mikkel; Leroy, Thibault; Guichoux, Erwan; Chancerel, Emilie; Bech-Hebelstrup, Inger; Bernard, Vincent; Billard, Cyrille; Billaud, Yves; Bolliger, Matthias; Croutsch, Christophe; Čufar, Katarina; Eynaud, Frédérique; Heussner, Karl Uwe; Köninger, Joachim; Langenegger, Fabien; Leroy, Frédéric; Lima, Christine; Martinelli, Nicoletta; Momber, Garry; Billamboz, André; Nelle, Oliver; Palomo, Antoni; Piqué, Raquel; Ramstein, Marianne; Schweichel, Roswitha; Stäuble, Harald; Tegel, Willy; Terradas, Xavier; Verdin, Florence; Plomion, Christophe; Kremer, Antoine; Orlando, Ludovic

    2018-03-01

    Reconstructing the colonization and demographic dynamics that gave rise to extant forests is essential to forecasts of forest responses to environmental changes. Classical approaches to map how population of trees changed through space and time largely rely on pollen distribution patterns, with only a limited number of studies exploiting DNA molecules preserved in wooden tree archaeological and subfossil remains. Here, we advance such analyses by applying high-throughput (HTS) DNA sequencing to wood archaeological and subfossil material for the first time, using a comprehensive sample of 167 European white oak waterlogged remains spanning a large temporal (from 550 to 9,800 years) and geographical range across Europe. The successful characterization of the endogenous DNA and exogenous microbial DNA of 140 (~83%) samples helped the identification of environmental conditions favouring long-term DNA preservation in wood remains, and started to unveil the first trends in the DNA decay process in wood material. Additionally, the maternally inherited chloroplast haplotypes of 21 samples from three periods of forest human-induced use (Neolithic, Bronze Age and Middle Ages) were found to be consistent with those of modern populations growing in the same geographic areas. Our work paves the way for further studies aiming at using ancient DNA preserved in wood to reconstruct the micro-evolutionary response of trees to climate change and human forest management. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Projected wood energy impact on US forest wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skog, K.E. [USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The USDA Forest Service has developed long-term projections of wood energy use as part of a 1993 assessment of demand for and supply of resources from forest and range lands in the United States. To assess the impact of wood energy demand on timber resources, a market equilibrium model based on linear programming was developed to project residential, industrial, commercial, and utility wood energy use from various wood energy sources: roundwood from various land sources, primary wood products mill residue, other wood residue, and black liquor. Baseline projections are driven by projected price of fossil fuels compared to price of wood fuels and the projected increase in total energy use in various end uses. Wood energy use is projected to increase from 2.67 quad in 1986 to 3.5 quad in 2030 and 3.7 quad in 2040. This is less than the DOE National Energy Strategy projection of 5.5 quad in 2030. Wood energy from forest sources (roundwood) is projected to increase from 3.1 billion (10{sup 9}) ft{sup 3} in 1986 to 4.4. billion ft{sup 3} in 2030 and 4.8 billion ft{sup 3} in 2040 (88, 124 and 136 million m{sup 3}, respectively). This rate of increase of roundwood use for fuel -- 0.8 percent per year -- is virtually the same as the projected increase rate for roundwood for pulpwood. Pulpwood roundwood is projected to increase from 4.2 billion ft{sup 3} in 1986 to 6.0 billion ft{sup 3} in 2030 and 6.4 billion ft{sup 3} in 2040 (119, 170 and 183 million m{sup 3}, respectively).

  2. Flexural properties of four fast-growing eucalypts woods deteriorated by three different field tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Avila Delucis

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Durability is a wood characteristic determined by several factors, making it difficult to investigate the service life of pieces designated for outdoor use. In this study, the decaying of juvenile and adult woods of four fast-growing eucalypts from southern Brazil subjected to three different exposure environments was monitored through mechanical properties (flexural test. The study material was obtained from adult trees of Eucalyptus botryoides, Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus paniculata and Eucalyptus tereticornis. Field tests were conducted in the city of Piratini, southern Brazil, and samplings were carried out during 540 days of experiment. Comparing the four eucalypts, the decreasing order of biological resistance was: Eucalyptus tereticornis, Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus paniculata and Eucalyptus botryoides. The mature wood showed greater and more stable physical-mechanical properties than juvenile wood.

  3. Cooling of wood briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adžić Miroljub M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the experimental research of surface temperature of wood briquettes during cooling phase along the cooling line. The cooling phase is an important part of the briquette production technology. It should be performed with care, otherwise the quality of briquettes could deteriorate and possible changes of combustion characteristics of briquettes could happen. The briquette surface temperature was measured with an IR camera and a surface temperature probe at 42 sections. It was found that the temperature of briquette surface dropped from 68 to 34°C after 7 minutes spent at the cooling line. The temperature at the center of briquette, during the 6 hour storage, decreased to 38°C.

  4. Charm Decays at BABAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, M.

    2004-01-01

    The results of several studies of charmed mesons and baryons at BABAR are presented. First, searches for the rare decays D 0 → l + l - are presented and new upper limits on these processes are established. Second, a measurement of the branching fraction of the isospin-violating hadronic decay D* s (2112) + → D s + π 0 relative to the radiative decay D* s (2112) + → D s + γ is made. Third, the decays of D* sJ (2317) + and D sJ (2460) + mesons are studied and ratios of branching fractions are measured. Fourth, Cabibbo-suppressed decays of the Λ c + are examined and their branching fractions measured relative to Cabibbo-allowed modes. Fifth, the Χ c 0 is studied through its decays to Χ - π + and (Omega) - K + ; in addition to measuring the ratio of branching fractions for Χ c 0 produced from the c(bar c) continuum, the uncorrected momentum spectrum is measured, providing clear confirmation of Χ c 0 production in B decays

  5. Iconic decay in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Britta; Kappenman, Emily S; Robinson, Benjamin M; Fuller, Rebecca L; Luck, Steven J; Gold, James M

    2011-09-01

    Working memory impairment is considered a core deficit in schizophrenia, but the precise nature of this deficit has not been determined. Multiple lines of evidence implicate deficits at the encoding stage. During encoding, information is held in a precategorical sensory store termed iconic memory, a literal image of the stimulus with high capacity but rapid decay. Pathologically increased iconic decay could reduce the number of items that can be transferred into working memory before the information is lost and could thus contribute to the working memory deficit seen in the illness. The current study used a partial report procedure to test the hypothesis that patients with schizophrenia (n = 37) display faster iconic memory decay than matched healthy control participants (n = 28). Six letters, arranged in a circle, were presented for 50 ms. Following a variable delay of 0-1000 ms, a central arrow cue indicated the item to be reported. In both patients and control subjects, recall accuracy decreased with increasing cue delay, reflecting decay of the iconic representation of the stimulus array. Patients displayed impaired memory performance across all cue delays, consistent with an impairment in working memory, but the rate of iconic memory decay did not differ between patients and controls. This provides clear evidence against faster loss of iconic memory representations in schizophrenia, ruling out iconic decay as an underlying source of the working memory impairment in this population. Thus, iconic decay rate can be added to a growing list of unimpaired cognitive building blocks in schizophrenia.

  6. A multiplex PCR-based method for the detection and early identification of wood rotting fungi in standing trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmo, F; Bergemann, S E; Gonthier, P; Nicolotti, G; Garbelotto, M

    2007-11-01

    The goal of this research was the development of a PCR-based assay to identify important decay fungi from wood of hardwood tree species in northern temperate regions. Eleven taxon-specific primers were designed for PCR amplification of either nuclear or mitochondrial ribosomal DNA regions of Armillaria spp., Ganoderma spp., Hericium spp., Hypoxylon thouarsianum var. thouarsianum, Inonotus/Phellinus-group, Laetiporus spp., Perenniporia fraxinea, Pleurotus spp., Schizophyllum spp., Stereum spp. and Trametes spp. Multiplex PCR reactions were developed and optimized to detect fungal DNA and identify each taxon with a sensitivity of at least 1 pg of target DNA in the template. This assay correctly identified the agents of decay in 82% of tested wood samples. The development and optimization of multiplex PCRs allowed for reliable identification of wood rotting fungi directly from wood. Early detection of wood decay fungi is crucial for assessment of tree stability in urban landscapes. Furthermore, this method may prove useful for prediction of the severity and the evolution of decay in standing trees.

  7. Environmentally friendly wood preservatives formulated with enzymatic-hydrolyzed okara, copper and/or boron salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Sye Hee; Oh, Sei Chang; Choi, In-gyu; Han, Gyu-seong; Jeong, Han-seob; Kim, Ki-woo; Yoon, Young-ho; Yang, In

    2010-01-01

    Novel biocides, such as copper azole (CuAz) and ammoniacal copper quaternary (ACQ), are extensively used as substitutes for chromate copper arsenate (CCA) in wood preservation. However, the expense of these biocides has necessitated the development of cost-effective and environmentally friendly wood preservatives. This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness against decaying fungi of the preservatives formulated with enzymatic-hydrolyzed okara (OK), which is an organic waste produced from the manufacture of tofu, CuCl 2 (CC) and/or Na 2 B 4 O 7 .10H 2 O (B). With the addition of NH 4 OH as a dissociating agent, the addition of OK facilitated the target retention of most of the OK/CC and OK/CC/B preservative formulations in wood blocks. The OK-based wood preservatives (OK-WPs) were stable against hot-water leaching. When compared with control and CC-treated wood blocks, the leached wood blocks treated with OK/CC and OK/CC/B formulations showed excellent decay resistance against both Postia placenta and Gloeophyllum trabeum, especially when OK was hydrolyzed by Celluclast at a loading level of 0.1 ml/g. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and SEM-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) spectrometry analyses demonstrated that preservative complexes, such as OK-CC and OK-CC-B, existed in the wood blocks treated with OK/CC and OK/CC/B formulations. This study results support the potential application of OK-WPs as environmentally friendly wood preservatives capable of replacing CuAz and ACQ.

  8. Environmentally friendly wood preservatives formulated with enzymatic-hydrolyzed okara, copper and/or boron salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Sye Hee; Oh, Sei Chang [Department of Forest Resources, Daegu University, Gyeongsan 712-714 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, In-gyu [Department of Forest Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Gyu-seong [Department of Wood and Paper Sciences, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Han-seob [Department of Forest Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki-woo [National Instrumentation Center for Environmental Management, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Young-ho [KCI Co. Ltd., Seosan, Chungcheongnam-do 356-874 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, In, E-mail: dahadad2000@yahoo.com [Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, San 56-1 Sillim-Dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Novel biocides, such as copper azole (CuAz) and ammoniacal copper quaternary (ACQ), are extensively used as substitutes for chromate copper arsenate (CCA) in wood preservation. However, the expense of these biocides has necessitated the development of cost-effective and environmentally friendly wood preservatives. This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness against decaying fungi of the preservatives formulated with enzymatic-hydrolyzed okara (OK), which is an organic waste produced from the manufacture of tofu, CuCl{sub 2} (CC) and/or Na{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}.10H{sub 2}O (B). With the addition of NH{sub 4}OH as a dissociating agent, the addition of OK facilitated the target retention of most of the OK/CC and OK/CC/B preservative formulations in wood blocks. The OK-based wood preservatives (OK-WPs) were stable against hot-water leaching. When compared with control and CC-treated wood blocks, the leached wood blocks treated with OK/CC and OK/CC/B formulations showed excellent decay resistance against both Postia placenta and Gloeophyllum trabeum, especially when OK was hydrolyzed by Celluclast at a loading level of 0.1 ml/g. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and SEM-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) spectrometry analyses demonstrated that preservative complexes, such as OK-CC and OK-CC-B, existed in the wood blocks treated with OK/CC and OK/CC/B formulations. This study results support the potential application of OK-WPs as environmentally friendly wood preservatives capable of replacing CuAz and ACQ.

  9. Wood power in North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, J.G.; Guessous, L. [Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    North Carolina (NC) is one of the most forested states, and supports a major wood products industry. The NC Department of Natural Resources sponsored a study by Research Triangle Institute to examine new, productive uses of the State`s wood resources, especially electric power generation by co-firing with coal. This paper summarizes our research of the main factors influencing wood power generation opportunities, i.e., (1) electricity demand; (2) initiative and experience of developers; (3) available fuel resources; (4) incentives for alternate fuels; and (5) power plant technology and economics. The results cover NC forests, short rotation woody crops, existing wood energy facilities, electrical power requirements, and environmental regulations/incentives. Quantitative assessments are based on the interests of government agencies, utilities, electric cooperatives, developers and independent power producers, forest products industries, and the general public. Several specific, new opportunities for wood-to-electricity in the State are identified and described. Comparisons are made with nationwide resources and wood energy operations. Preferred approaches in NC are co-generation in existing or modified boilers and in dedicated wood power plants in forest industry regions. Co-firing is mainly an option for supplementing unreliable primary fuel supplies to existing boilers.

  10. Wood would burn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swithenbank, Jim; Chen, Qun; Zhang, Xiaohui; Sharifi, Vida; Pourkashanian, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Absract: In view of the world-wide problem of energy sustainability and greenhouse gas production (carbon dioxide), it is timely to review the issues involved in generating heat and power from all fuels and especially new (to the UK) solid fuels, including high moisture fuels such as wood, SRF, oil shale, tar sands and brown coal, which will become major international fuels as oil and gas become depleted. The combustion properties of some of these materials are significantly different from traditional coal, oil and gas fuels, however the technology proposed herein is also applicable to these conventional fuels. This paper presents some innovative combustion system options and the associated technical factors that must be considered for their implementation. For clarity of understanding, the novel concepts will be largely presented in terms of a currently developing solid fuel market; biomass wood chips. One of the most important characteristics of many solid fuels to be used in the future (including oil shale and brown coal) is their high moisture content of up to 60%. This could be removed by utilising low grade waste heat that is widely available in industry to dry the fuel and thus reduce transport costs. Burning such dried wood for power generation also increases the energy available from combustion and thus acts as a thermal transformer by upgrading the low grade heat to heat available at combustion temperatures. The alternative approach presented here is to recover the latent heat by condensing the extrinsic moisture and the water formed during combustion. For atmospheric combustion, the temperature of the condensed combustion products is below the dew point at about 55-65 o C and is only suitable for recovery in an efficient district heating system. However, in order to generate power from the latent heat, the condensation temperature must be increased to the level where the heat can be used in the thermodynamic power cycle. This can be achieved by

  11. Metagenomic insights into metabolic capacities of the gut microbiota in a fungus-cultivating termite (Odontotermes yunnanensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Liu

    Full Text Available Macrotermitinae (fungus-cultivating termites are major decomposers in tropical and subtropical areas of Asia and Africa. They have specifically evolved mutualistic associations with both a Termitomyces fungi on the nest and a gut microbiota, providing a model system for probing host-microbe interactions. Yet the symbiotic roles of gut microbes residing in its major feeding caste remain largely undefined. Here, by pyrosequencing the whole gut metagenome of adult workers of a fungus-cultivating termite (Odontotermes yunnanensis, we showed that it did harbor a broad set of genes or gene modules encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes relevant to plant fiber degradation, particularly debranching enzymes and oligosaccharide-processing enzymes. Besides, it also contained a considerable number of genes encoding chitinases and glycoprotein oligosaccharide-processing enzymes for fungal cell wall degradation. To investigate the metabolic divergence of higher termites of different feeding guilds, a SEED subsystem-based gene-centric comparative analysis of the data with that of a previously sequenced wood-feeding Nasutitermes hindgut microbiome was also attempted, revealing that SEED classifications of nitrogen metabolism, and motility and chemotaxis were significantly overrepresented in the wood-feeder hindgut metagenome, while Bacteroidales conjugative transposons and subsystems related to central aromatic compounds metabolism were apparently overrepresented here. This work fills up our gaps in understanding the functional capacities of fungus-cultivating termite gut microbiota, especially their roles in the symbiotic digestion of lignocelluloses and utilization of fungal biomass, both of which greatly add to existing understandings of this peculiar symbiosis.

  12. Weak radiative hyperon decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, B.L.; Booth, E.C.; Gall, K.P.; McIntyre, E.K.; Miller, J.P.; Whitehouse, D.A.; Bassalleck, B.; Hall, J.R.; Larson, K.D.; Wolfe, D.M.; Fickinger, W.J.; Robinson, D.K.; Hallin, A.L.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Measday, D.F.; Noble, A.J.; Waltham, C.E.; Hessey, N.P.; Lowe, J.; Horvath, D.; Salomon, M.

    1990-01-01

    New measurements of the Σ + and Λ weak radiative decays are discussed. The hyperons were produced at rest by the reaction K - p → Yπ where Y = Σ + or Λ. The monoenergetic pion was used to tag the hyperon production, and the branching ratios were determined from the relative amplitudes of Σ + → pγ to Σ + → pπ 0 and Λ → nγ to Λ → nπ 0 . The photons from weak radiative decays and from π 0 decays were detected with modular NaI arrays. (orig.)

  13. SYMPOSIUM: Rare decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Late last year, a symposium entitled 'Rare Decays' attracted 115 participants to a hotel in Vancouver, Canada. These participants were particle physicists interested in checking conventional selection rules to look for clues of possible new behaviour outside today's accepted 'Standard Model'. For physicists, 'rare decays' include processes that have so far not been seen, explicitly forbidden by the rules of the Standard Model, or processes highly suppressed because the decay is dominated by an easier route, or includes processes resulting from multiple transitions

  14. Interspecific interactions between wood-inhabiting basidiomycetes in boreal forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmer, L.

    1996-05-01

    Studies of competition and succession in communities of wood-decomposing fungi were carried out using laboratory tests with different approaches. Based on results of these tests, an attempt to biologically control Heterobasidion annosum was made in field. Competitive interactions between six species of wood decay fungi were studied using a system of preinoculated wood blocks in unsterilized soil. Two of the species were root-rotting pathogens with a primary resource capture strategy, and four were primarily saprotrophic cord-forming species assumed to use secondary resource capture strategy. Of the species tested, Resinicium bicolor was the most successful in spreading through the soil, and it replaced other species, including the pathogens. When R. bicolor was absent other cord-forming species were able to expand their domain. A new system for measuring competitive success was developed. `Pie slices` were cut from round wood-discs, and after preinoculation, the pieces were paired in all possible combinations on water agar. In this way, inoculum size could be varied while the size of the contact area remained the same. Large mycelia had more competitive success than did smaller ones when paired with the same species. In a pilot study, R. bicolor was most successful in replacing the opposing species and H. annosum had the least success. In general, species found late in the succession were strong competitors, while earlier colonizers had less success. Species acting as selective replacers of primary decay species were found to be more competitive than the latter. 134 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab

  15. COMBUSTION PROPERTIES OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın ÖRS

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the combustion properties of some impregnation materials (abiotic and biotic factors used for eucalyptus wood in interior or exterior environments were investigated. The experimental samples were prepared from Eucalyptus wood based on ASTM-D-1413-76 Tanalith-CBC, boric acid, borax, vacsol-WR, immersol-WR, polyethylen glycole-400 and ammonium sulphate were used as an impregnation material. The results indicated that, vacuum treatment on Eucalyptus gave the lowest retention value of salts. Compounds containing boron+salt increased fire resistance however water repellents decreased the wood flammability.

  16. Wood fuels sources and markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koopmans, Auke

    2003-01-01

    Biomass energy is an important source of energy in most Asian countries. Households and industries use substantial amounts of fuel wood, charcoal and other biomass energy, such as agricultural residues, dung, leaves and sawmill residues. The main household applications are cooking and heating whereas industrial applications range widely. This paper provides an overview of estimates on the production and trade of biomass fuels in the South-east Asia region. The flows and channels used in the supply of wood fuels in different countries were analysed. This paper may help in identifying policy gaps with regards to the supply and consumption of wood fuels from both forest and non-forest sources. (Author)

  17. Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2006-01-01

    Lecture Notes on Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures including charring of wood and load bearing capacity of beams, columns, and connections.......Lecture Notes on Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures including charring of wood and load bearing capacity of beams, columns, and connections....

  18. Moisture relations and physical properties of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel V. Glass; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2010-01-01

    Wood, like many natural materials, is hygroscopic; it takes on moisture from the surrounding environment. Moisture exchange between wood and air depends on the relative humidity and temperature of the air and the current amount of water in the wood. This moisture relationship has an important influence on wood properties and performance. Many of the challenges of using...

  19. The challenge of bonding treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2004-01-01

    Wood products are quite durable if exposure to moisture is minimized; however, most uses of wood involve considerable exposure to moisture. To preserve the wood, chemicals are used to minimize moisture pickup, to prevent insect attack, and/or to resist microbial growth. The chemicals used as preservatives can interfere with adhesive bonds to wood. Given the many...

  20. FIRE INSURANCE AND WOOD SCHOOL BUILDINGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PURCELL, FRANK X.

    A COMPARISON OF FIRE INSURANCE COSTS OF WOOD, MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE STRUCTURES SHOWS FIRE INSURANCE PREMIMUMS ON WOOD STRUCTURES TEND TO BE HIGHER THAN PREMIUMS ON MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE BUILDINGS, HOWEVER, THE INITIAL COST OF THE WOOD BUILDINGS IS LOWER. DATA SHOW THAT THE SAVINGS ACHIEVED IN THE INITIAL COST OF WOOD STRUCTURES OFFSET…

  1. The Carbon Impacts of Wood Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Bergman; Maureen Puettmann; Adam Taylor; Kenneth E. Skog

    2014-01-01

    Wood products have many environmental advantages over nonwood alternatives. Documenting and publicizing these merits helps the future competitiveness of wood when climate change impacts are being considered. The manufacture of wood products requires less fossil fuel than nonwood alternative building materials such as concrete, metals, or plastics. By nature, wood is...

  2. Potential wood protection strategies using physiological requirements of wood degrading fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sailer, M.F.; Etten, B.D. van

    2004-01-01

    Due to the increasing restrictions in the use of wood preserving biocides a number of potential biocide free wood preserving alternatives are currently assessed. Wood degrading fungi require certain conditions in the wood in order to be able to use wood as a food source. This paper discusses the

  3. Proteomics investigation reveals cell death-associated proteins of basidiomycete fungus Trametes versicolor treated with Ferruginol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Han; Yeh, Ting-Feng; Chu, Fang-Hua; Hsu, Fu-Lan; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2015-01-14

    Ferruginol has antifungal activity against wood-rot fungi (basidiomycetes). However, specific research on the antifungal mechanisms of ferruginol is scarce. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and fluorescent image analysis were employed to evaluate the differential protein expression of wood-rot fungus Trametes versicolor treated with or without ferruginol. Results from protein identification of tryptic peptides via liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC–ESI-MS/MS) analyses revealed 17 protein assignments with differential expression. Downregulation of cytoskeleton β-tubulin 3 indicates that ferruginol has potential to be used as a microtubule-disrupting agent. Downregulation of major facilitator superfamily (MFS)–multiple drug resistance (MDR) transporter and peroxiredoxin TSA1 were observed, suggesting reduction in self-defensive capabilities of T. versicolor. In addition, the proteins involved in polypeptide sorting and DNA repair were also downregulated, while heat shock proteins and autophagy-related protein 7 were upregulated. These observations reveal that such cellular dysfunction and damage caused by ferruginol lead to growth inhibition and autophagic cell death of fungi.

  4. Ethanol from wood. Cellulase enzyme production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szengyel, Zsolt

    2000-03-01

    Conversion of biomass to liquid fuels, such as ethanol, has been investigated during the past decades. First due to the oil crisis of the 1970s and lately because of concerns about greenhouse effect, ethanol has been found to be a suitable substitute for gasoline in transportation. Although ethanol is produced in large quantities from corn starch, the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol is rather problematic. However, cellulosic raw materials are important as they are available in large quantities from agriculture and forestry. One of the most extensively investigated processes is the enzymatic process, in which fungal cellulolytic enzymes are used to convert the cellulose content of the biomass to glucose, which is then fermented to ethanol. In order to make the raw material accessible to biological attack, it has to be pretreated first. The most successful method, which has been evaluated for various lignocellulosic materials, is the steam pretreatment. In this thesis the utilization of steam pretreated willow (hardwood) and spruce (softwood) was examined for enzyme production using a filamentous fungus T. reesei RUT C30. Various carbon sources originating from the steam pretreated materials have been investigated. The replacement of the solid carbon source with a liquid carbon source, as well as the effect of pH, was studied. The effect of toxic compounds generated during pretreatment was also examined. Comparative study of softwood and hardwood showed that steam pretreated hardwood is a better carbon source than softwood. The hydrolytic potential of enzyme solutions produced on wood derived carbon sources was better compared to commercial cellulases. Also enzyme solutions produced on steam pretreated spruce showed less sensitivity towards toxic compounds formed during steam pretreatment.

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF AN ANAEROBIC FUNGUS FROM LLAMA FECES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MARVINSIKKEMA, FD; LAHPOR, GA; KRAAK, MN; GOTTSCHAL, JC; PRINS, RA

    1992-01-01

    An anaerobic fungus was isolated from Hama faeces. Based on its morphological characteristics, polyflagellated zoospores, extensive rhizoid system and the formation of monocentric colonies, the fungus is assigned to the genus Neocallimastix. Neocallimastix sp. L2 is able to grow on several poly-,

  6. Phomalactone from a phytopathogenic fungus infecting Zinnia elegans (Asteraceae) leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinnia elegans plants are infected by a fungus that causes necrosis with dark red spots particularly in late spring to the middle of summer in the Mid-South part of the United States. This fungal disease when untreated causes the leaves to wilt and eventually kills the plant. The fungus was isolated...

  7. Microbial transformation of (-)-isolongifolol by plant pathogenic fungus Glomerella cingulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Sakata, Kazuki; Ueda, Masashi

    2010-01-01

    The biotransformation of terpenoids using the plant pathogenic fungus as a biocatalyst to produce useful novel organic compounds was investigated. The biotransformation of sesquiterpen alcohol, (-)-isolongifolol (1) was investigated using plant pathogenic fungus Glomerella cingulata as a biocatalyst. Compound 1 was converted to (-)-(3R)-3-hydroxy-isolongifolol and (-)-(9R)-9-hydroxy-isolongifolol by G. cingulata.

  8. Metacridamides A and B from the biocontrol fungus metarhizium acridum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metarhizium acridum, an entomopathogenic fungus, has been commercialized and used successfully for biocontrol of grasshopper pests in Africa and Australia. As part of an effort to catalog the secondary metabolites of this fungus we discovered that its conidia produce two novel 17-membered macrocycl...

  9. Reciprocal genomic evolution in the ant-fungus agricultural symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Sanne; Hu, Haofu; Li, Cai

    2016-01-01

    The attine ant-fungus agricultural symbiosis evolved over tens of millions of years, producing complex societies with industrial-scale farming analogous to that of humans. Here we document reciprocal shifts in the genomes and transcriptomes of seven fungus-farming ant species and their fungal...

  10. Teleportation via decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    therefore normally plays a negative role in quantum information processing [1]. ... of a decay be used in a fruitful way for quantum information process- ing? ..... The model independent portions of the analysis of communication through a noisy.

  11. Decay of Hoyle state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-11-02

    Nov 2, 2014 ... T K RANA, C BHATTACHARYA, S KUNDU, ... of various direct 3α decay mechanisms of the Hoyle state. ... Pramana – J. Phys., Vol. ... FMD predicts a compact triangle shape and LEFT predicts a bent arm chain structure,.

  12. RARE KAON DECAYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LITTENBERG, L.

    2005-01-01

    Lepton flavor violation (LFV) experiments have probed sensitivities corresponding to mass scales of well over 100 TeV, making life difficult for models predicting accessible LFV in kaon decay and discouraging new dedicated experiments of this type

  13. Neutrinoless double beta decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-06

    Oct 6, 2012 ... Anyhow, the 'multi-isotope' ansatz is needed to compensate for matrix element ... The neccessary half-life requirement to touch this ... site energy depositions (like double beta decay) and multiple site interactions (most of.

  14. Cavities/Tooth Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... milk, ice cream, honey, sugar, soda, dried fruit, cake, cookies, hard candy and mints, dry cereal, and ... teeth can wear down and gums may recede, making teeth more vulnerable to root decay. Older adults ...

  15. Inflaton decay in supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, M.; Takahashi, F. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Yanagida, T.T. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics]|[Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Research Center for the Early Universe

    2007-06-15

    We discuss inflaton decay in supergravity, taking account of the gravitational effects. It is shown that, if the inflaton has a nonzero vacuum expectation value, it generically couples to any matter fields that appear in the superpotential at the tree level, and to any gauge sectors through anomalies in the supergravity. Through these processes, the inflaton generically decays into the supersymmetry breaking sector, producing many gravitinos. The inflaton also directly decays into a pair of the gravitinos. We derive constraints on both inflation models and supersymmetry breaking scenarios for avoiding overproduction of the gravitinos. Furthermore, the inflaton naturally decays into the visible sector via the top Yukawa coupling and SU(3){sub C} gauge interactions. (orig.)

  16. Inflaton decay in supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, M.; Takahashi, F.; Yanagida, T.T.; Tokyo Univ.

    2007-06-01

    We discuss inflaton decay in supergravity, taking account of the gravitational effects. It is shown that, if the inflaton has a nonzero vacuum expectation value, it generically couples to any matter fields that appear in the superpotential at the tree level, and to any gauge sectors through anomalies in the supergravity. Through these processes, the inflaton generically decays into the supersymmetry breaking sector, producing many gravitinos. The inflaton also directly decays into a pair of the gravitinos. We derive constraints on both inflation models and supersymmetry breaking scenarios for avoiding overproduction of the gravitinos. Furthermore, the inflaton naturally decays into the visible sector via the top Yukawa coupling and SU(3) C gauge interactions. (orig.)

  17. Double beta decay: experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorini, Ettore

    2006-01-01

    The results obtained so far and those of the running experiments on neutrinoless double beta decay are reviewed. The plans for second generation experiments, the techniques to be adopted and the expected sensitivities are compared and discussed

  18. Streamer chamber: pion decay

    CERN Multimedia

    1992-01-01

    The real particles produced in the decay of a positive pion can be seen in this image from a streamer chamber. Streamer chambers consist of a gas chamber through which a strong pulsed electric field is passed, creating sparks as a charged particle passes through it. A magnetic field is added to cause the decay products to follow curved paths so that their charge and momentum can be measured.

  19. Aspects of B decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faller, Sven

    2011-03-04

    B-meson decays are a good probe for testing the flavour sector of the standard model of particle physics. The standard model describes at present all experimental data satisfactorily, although some ''tensions'' exist, i.e. two to three sigma deviations from the predictions, in particular in B decays. The arguments against the standard model are thus purely theoretical. These tensions between experimental data and theoretical predictions provide an extension of the standard model by new physics contributions. Within the flavour sector main theoretical uncertainties are related to the hadronic matrix elements. For exclusive semileptonic anti B {yields} D{sup (*)}l anti {nu} decays QCD sum rule techniques, which are suitable for studying hadronic matrix elements, however, with substantial, but estimable hadronic uncertainties, are used. The exploration of new physics effects in B-meson decays is done in an twofold way. In exclusive semileptonic anti B {yields} D{sup (*)}l anti {nu} decays the effect of additional right-handed vector as well as left- and right-handed scalar and tensor hadronic current structures in the decay rates and the form factors are studied at the non-recoil point. As a second approach one studied the non-leptonic B{sup 0}{sub s}{yields}J/{psi}{phi} and B{sup 0}{yields}J/{psi}K{sub S,L} decays discussing CP violating effects in the time-dependent decay amplitudes by considering new physics phase in the B{sup 0}- anti B{sup 0} mixing phase. (orig.)

  20. Tau decays into kaons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkemeier, M.; Mirkes, E.

    1995-04-01

    Predictions for semi-leptonic decay rates of the τ lepton into two meson final states and three meson final states are derived. The hadronic matrix elements are expressed in terms of form factors, which can be predicted by chiral Lagrangians supplemented by informations about all possible low-lying resonances in the different channels. Isospin symmetry relations among the different final states are carefully taken into account. The calculated brancing ratios are compared with measured decay rates where data are available

  1. Iconic Decay in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Britta; Kappenman, Emily S.; Robinson, Benjamin M.; Fuller, Rebecca L.; Luck, Steven J.; Gold, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Working memory impairment is considered a core deficit in schizophrenia, but the precise nature of this deficit has not been determined. Multiple lines of evidence implicate deficits at the encoding stage. During encoding, information is held in a precategorical sensory store termed iconic memory, a literal image of the stimulus with high capacity but rapid decay. Pathologically increased iconic decay could reduce the number of items that can be transferred into working memory before the info...

  2. Annihilation decays of bottomonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Antony Prakash; Bhat, Manjunath; D'Souza, Praveen P.; Vijaya Kumar, K.B.

    2016-01-01

    The bound state of a bottom quark b and its anti quark b-bar known as bottomonium was first seen in the spectrum of μμ"- pairs produced in 400 GeV proton-nucleus collisions at Fermilab. It was discovered as spin triplet states ϒ(1S), ϒ(2S) and ϒ(3S) by E288 collaboration at Fermilab. We have calculated annihilation decay widths of bottomonium states. The calculated decay widths are presented

  3. Medical image of the week: fungus ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosen S

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 69 year-old Asian woman living in Arizona with a past medical history of nephrotic syndrome on high-dose steroids had worsening pulmonary symptoms. A computed tomography (CT of the chest (Figure 1 showed a 4.7 cm thin walled cavitary lesion in the right middle lobe compatible with mycetoma. She underwent thoracotomy for mycetoma resection. Surgical pathology confirmed an epithelial-lined cavity containing dense mycelia (Figure 2. Given the patient lived in an endemic area; the cavity was thought to be likely due to coccidioidomycosis. However, the mycetoma was of unclear etiology. No spherules were noted on GMS stain and tissue culture was negative. While of unclear clinical significance which fungus colonizes a pre-existing cavity, a Coccidioides PCR was performed and no Coccidioides genes were amplified making a Coccidioides mycetoma very unlikely. Pulmonary mycetoma or “fungus ball” consists of dense fungal elements and amorphous cellular material within a pre-existing pulmonary cavity. Classically ...

  4. The Blast Fungus Decoded: Genomes in Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Langner

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant disease outbreaks caused by fungi are a chronic threat to global food security. A prime case is blast disease, which is caused by the ascomycete fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (syn. Pyricularia oryzae, which is infamous as the most destructive disease of the staple crop rice. However, despite its Linnaean binomial name, M. oryzae is a multihost pathogen that infects more than 50 species of grasses. A timely study by P. Gladieux and colleagues (mBio 9:e01219-17, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01219-17 reports the most extensive population genomic analysis of the blast fungus thus far. M. oryzae consists of an assemblage of differentiated lineages that tend to be associated with particular host genera. Nonetheless, there is clear evidence of gene flow between lineages consistent with maintaining M. oryzae as a single species. Here, we discuss these findings with an emphasis on the ecologic and genetic mechanisms underpinning gene flow. This work also bears practical implications for diagnostics, surveillance, and management of blast diseases.

  5. Antimicrobial chemical constituents from endophytic fungus Phomasp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hidayat Hussain; Siegfried Draeger; Barbara Schulz; Karsten Krohn; Ines Kock; Ahmed Al-Harrasi; Ahmed Al-Rawahi; Ghulam Abbas; Ivan R Green; Afzal Shah; Amin Badshah; Muhammad Saleem

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antimicrobial potential of different extracts of the endophytic fungus Phomasp. and the tentative identification of their active constituents.Methods:The extract and compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity using theAgarWellDiffusionMethod. Four compounds were purified using column chromatography and their structures were assigned using1H and13CNMR spectra,DEPT,2DCOSY,HMQC andHMBC experiments.Results:The ethyl acetate fraction ofPhomasp. showed good antifungal, antibacterial, and algicidal properties.One new dihydrofuran derivative, named phomafuranol(1), together with three known compounds, phomalacton(2),(3R)-5-hydroxymellein(3) and emodin(4) were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction ofPhomasp.Preliminary studies indicated that phomalacton(2) displayed strong antibacterial, good antifungal and antialgal activities.Similarly(3R)-5-hydroxymellein (3) and emodin(4) showed good antifungal, antibacterial and algicidal properties.Conclusions:Antimicrobial activities of the ethyl acetate fraction of the endophytic fungusPhomasp. and isolated compounds clearly demonstrate thatPhomasp. and its active compounds represent a great potential for the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  6. Ribonucleic acids in different tea fungus beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In human nutrition, nucleic acids have to be balanced and limited up to 2 g/day because purines are degraded to urate, and excessive production of urate is a cause of gout which primarily affects adult males. Tea fungus beverage is a well known drink with high nutritional value and certain curative effects. Its benefits have been proved in a number of studies but it is still necessary to examine some potential harmful effects of this beverage. The aim of this paper was to investigate content of ribonucleic acids (RNA produced during tea fungus fermentation on a usual substrate sweetened black tea, and on Jerusalem artichoke tubers (J.A.T extract using method by Munro and Fleck (1966. pH, ribonucleic acids and also the production of proteins that affect purity of nucleic acids preparations were monitored. A higher value of RNA has been noticed in J.A.T. beverage (0.57 mg/ml and with observation of usual daily dose of the beverage it is completely safe and useful one.

  7. The Blast Fungus Decoded: Genomes in Flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, Thorsten; Białas, Aleksandra; Kamoun, Sophien

    2018-04-17

    Plant disease outbreaks caused by fungi are a chronic threat to global food security. A prime case is blast disease, which is caused by the ascomycete fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (syn. Pyricularia oryzae ), which is infamous as the most destructive disease of the staple crop rice. However, despite its Linnaean binomial name, M. oryzae is a multihost pathogen that infects more than 50 species of grasses. A timely study by P. Gladieux and colleagues (mBio 9:e01219-17, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01219-17) reports the most extensive population genomic analysis of the blast fungus thus far. M. oryzae consists of an assemblage of differentiated lineages that tend to be associated with particular host genera. Nonetheless, there is clear evidence of gene flow between lineages consistent with maintaining M. oryzae as a single species. Here, we discuss these findings with an emphasis on the ecologic and genetic mechanisms underpinning gene flow. This work also bears practical implications for diagnostics, surveillance, and management of blast diseases. Copyright © 2018 Langner et al.

  8. Rare psi decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, R.

    1986-01-01

    Slightly more than ten years have passed since the psi was discovered, yet the study of psi decays continues to be an active and fruitful area of research. One reason for such longevity is that each successive experiment has increased their sensitivity over previous experiments either by improving detection efficiency or by increasing statistics. This has allowed the observation and, in some cases, detailed studies of rare psi decays. Branching ratios of ≅10-/sup 4/ are now routinely studied, while certain decay channels are beginning to show interesting effects at the 10-/sup 5/ level. Future experiments at the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC) have the potential for increasing sensitivities by one or two orders of magnitude, thus enabling many interesting studies impossible with current data samples. The author first examines the extent to which psi decays can be used to study electroweak phenomena. The remainder of this work is devoted to the more traditional task of using the psi to study quarks, gluons, and the properties of the strong interaction. Of particular interest is the study of radioactive psi decays, where a number of new particles have been discovered. Recent results regarding two of these particles, the θ(1700) and iota(1450), are discussed, as well as a study of the quark content of the eta and eta' using decays of the psi to vector-pseudoscalar final states

  9. Decays of supernova neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, Manfred; Ohlsson, Tommy; Winter, Walter

    2002-01-01

    Supernova neutrinos could be well-suited for probing neutrino decay, since decay may be observed even for very small decay rates or coupling constants. We will introduce an effective operator framework for the combined description of neutrino decay and neutrino oscillations for supernova neutrinos, which can especially take into account two properties: one is the radially symmetric neutrino flux, allowing a decay product to be re-directed towards the observer even if the parent neutrino had a different original direction of propagation. The other is decoherence because of the long baselines for coherently produced neutrinos. We will demonstrate how to use this effective theory to calculate the time-dependent fluxes at the detector. In addition, we will show the implications of a Majoron-like decay model. As a result, we will demonstrate that for certain parameter values one may observe some effects which could also mimic signals similar to the ones expected from supernova models, making it in general harder to separate neutrino and supernova properties

  10. Rare and forbidden decays

    CERN Document Server

    Trampetic, Josip

    2002-01-01

    In these lectures I first cover radiative and semileptonic B decays, including the QCD corrections for the quark subprocesses. The exclusive modes and the evaluation of the hadronic matrix elements, i.e. the relevant hadronic form factors, are the second step. Small effects due to the long-distance, spectator contributions, etc. are discussed next. The second section we started with non-leptonic decays, typically $B \\to \\pi\\pi, K\\pi, \\rho\\pi,...$ We describe in more detail our prediction for decays dominated by the $b\\to s \\eta_c$ transition. Reports on the most recent experimental results are given at the end of each subsection. In the second part of the lectures I discuss decays forbidden by the Lorentz and gauge invariance, and due to the violation of the angular moment conservation, generally called the Standard Model-forbiden decays. However, the non-commutative QED and/or non-commutative Standard Model (NCSM), developed in a series of works in the last few years allow some of those decay modes. These ar...

  11. Women's work... in wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice K. Wiedenbeck

    1998-01-01

    Women have opportunities galore in the 1990s in wood products research, education, extension, consulting,manufacturing, marketing, and associations in North America. In the 1980s the same statement could not have been made.

  12. Slavic Forest, Norwegian Wood (models)

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Rudolf; Žabokrtský, Zdeněk; Zeman, Daniel; Mareček, David

    2017-01-01

    Trained models for UDPipe used to produce our final submission to VarDial 2017 shared task (https://bitbucket.org/hy-crossNLP/vardial2017) and described in a paper by the same authors titled Slavic Forest, Norwegian Wood.

  13. Wood and Paper Manufacturing Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find EPA regulatory information for the wood product and paper manufacturing sectors, including paper, pulp and lumber. Information includes NESHAPs and effluent guidelines for pulp and paper rulemaking, and compliance guidelines

  14. Rethinking wood dust safety standards

    OpenAIRE

    Ratnasingam, Jega; Wai, Lim Tau; Ramasamy, Geetha; Ioras, Florin; Tadin, Ishak; Universiti Putra Malaysia; Buckinghamshire New University; Centre for Occupational Safety and Health Singapore

    2015-01-01

    The current universal work safety and health standards pertaining to wood dust in factories lack the localisation required. As a study has shown, there is a urgent need to reevaluate the current guidelines and practices.

  15. Patterns of natural fungal community assembly during initial decay of coniferous and broadleaf tree logs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der Annemieke; Klein Gunnewiek, P.J.A.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Crowther, Thomas W.; Boer, de Wietse

    2016-01-01

    Community assembly processes do not only influence community structure, but can also affect ecosystem processes. To understand the effect of initial community development on ecosystem processes, we studied natural fungal community dynamics during initial wood decay. We hypothesize that fungal

  16. Decay hazard (Scheffer) index values calculated from 1971-2000 climate normal data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles G. Carll

    2009-01-01

    Climate index values for estimating decay hazard to wood exposed outdoors above ground (commonly known as Scheffer index values) were calculated for 280 locations in the United States (270 locations in the conterminous United States) using the most current climate normal data available from the National Climatic Data Center. These were data for the period 1971–2000. In...

  17. Bacteria associated with decomposing dead wood in a natural temperate forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tláskal, Vojtech; Zrustová, Petra; Vrška, Tomáš; Baldrian, Petr

    2017-12-01

    Dead wood represents an important pool of organic matter in forests and is one of the sources of soil formation. It has been shown to harbour diverse communities of bacteria, but their roles in this habitat are still poorly understood. Here, we describe the bacterial communities in the dead wood of Abies alba, Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica in a temperate natural forest in Central Europe. An analysis of environmental factors showed that decomposing time along with pH and water content was the strongest drivers of community composition. Bacterial biomass positively correlated with N content and increased with decomposition along with the concurrent decrease in the fungal/bacterial biomass ratio. Rhizobiales and Acidobacteriales were abundant bacterial orders throughout the whole decay process, but many bacterial taxa were specific either for young (<15 years) or old dead wood. During early decomposition, bacterial genera able to fix N2 and to use simple C1 compounds (e.g. Yersinia and Methylomonas) were frequent, while wood in advanced decay was rich in taxa typical of forest soils (e.g. Bradyrhizobium and Rhodoplanes). Although the bacterial contribution to dead wood turnover remains unclear, the community composition appears to reflect the changing conditions of the substrate and suggests broad metabolic capacities of its members. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Neutron decay, semileptonic hyperon decay and the Cabibbo model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebert, H.W.

    1989-01-01

    The decay rates and formfactor ratios of neutron decay and semileptonic hyperon decays are compared in the framework of the Cabibbo model. The results indicate SU(3) symmetry breaking. The Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix element V us determined from these decays is in good agreement with the value determined from K→πeν decays, and with unitarity of the KM-matrix. (orig.)

  19. The ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus converts organic matter in plant litter using a trimmed brown-rot mechanism involving Fenton chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rineau, Francois; Roth, Doris; Shah, Firoz

    2012-01-01

    chemistry similar to that of brown-rot fungi. The set of enzymes expressed by Pa. involutus during the degradation of the organic matter was similar to the set of enzymes involved in the oxidative degradation of wood by brown-rot fungi. However, Pa. involutus lacked transcripts encoding extracellular...... the mycorrhizal fungi. To capture the nitrogen, the fungi must at least partly disrupt the recalcitrant organic matterprotein complexes within which the nitrogen is embedded. This disruption process is poorly characterized. We used spectroscopic analyses and transcriptome profiling to examine the mechanism...... by which the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus degrades organic matter when acquiring nitrogen from plant litter. The fungus partially degraded polysaccharides and modified the structure of polyphenols. The observed chemical changes were consistent with a hydroxyl radical attack, involving Fenton...

  20. Edge effects on moisture reduce wood decomposition rate in a temperate forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockatt, Martha E; Bebber, Daniel P

    2015-02-01

    Forests around the world are increasingly fragmented, and edge effects on forest microclimates have the potential to affect ecosystem functions such as carbon and nutrient cycling. Edges tend to be drier and warmer due to the effects of insolation, wind, and evapotranspiration and these gradients can penetrate hundreds of metres into the forest. Litter decomposition is a key component of the carbon cycle, which is largely controlled by saprotrophic fungi that respond to variation in temperature and moisture. However, the impact of forest fragmentation on litter decay is poorly understood. Here, we investigate edge effects on the decay of wood in a temperate forest using an experimental approach, whereby mass loss in wood blocks placed along 100 m transects from the forest edge to core was monitored over 2 years. Decomposition rate increased with distance from the edge, and was correlated with increasing humidity and moisture content of the decaying wood, such that the decay constant at 100 m was nearly twice that at the edge. Mean air temperature decreased slightly with distance from the edge. The variation in decay constant due to edge effects was larger than that expected from any reasonable estimates of climatic variation, based on a published regional model. We modelled the influence of edge effects on the decay constant at the landscape scale using functions for forest area within different distances from edge across the UK. We found that taking edge effects into account would decrease the decay rate by nearly one quarter, compared with estimates that assumed no edge effect. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. CP violation in B decay

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Hitoshi

    2001-01-01

    We review the physics of CP violation in B decays. After introducing the CKM matrix and how it causes CP violation, we cover three types of CP violation that can occur in B decays: CP violation in mixing, CP violation by mixing-decay interference, and CP violation in decay.

  2. Radioactive decay and labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter on radioactive decay and labeled compounds has numerous intext equations and worked, sample problems. Topics covered include the following: terms and mathematics of radioactive decay; examples of calculations; graphs of decay equations; radioactivity or activity; activity measurements; activity decay; half-life determinations; labeled compounds. A 20 problem set is also included. 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab

  3. Life cycle environmental impacts of different construction wood waste and wood packaging waste processing methods

    OpenAIRE

    Manninen, Kaisa; Judl, Jáchym; Myllymaa, Tuuli

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the life cycle environmental impacts of different wood waste processing methods in three impact categories: climate impact, acidification impacts and eutrophication impacts. The wood waste recovery methods examined were the use of wood waste in terrace boards made out of wood composite which replace impregnated terrace boards, incineration of wood waste in a multi-fuel boiler instead of peat and the use of wood waste in the production of particleboard in either Finland or ...

  4. Occurrence patterns of dead wood and wood-dependent lichens in managed boreal forest landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Måns

    2013-01-01

    Dead wood is a key resource for biodiversity, on which thousands of forest organisms are dependent. Because of current forest management, there has been a large-scale change in dead wood amounts and qualities, and consequently, many wood-dependent species are threatened. The general aim of this thesis is to increase our understanding of habitat requirements and occurrence patterns of wood-dependent lichens in managed, boreal forest landscapes. We surveyed dead wood and wood-dependent lichens ...

  5. Effect of cement/wood ratios and wood storage conditions on hydration temperature, hydration time, and compressive strength of wood-cement mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andy W.C. Lee; Zhongli Hong; Douglas R. Phillips; Chung-Yun Hse

    1987-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of cement/wood ratios and wood storage conditions on hydration temperature, hydration time, and compressive strength of wood-cement mixtures made from six wood species: southern pine, white oak, southern red oak, yellow-poplar, sweetgum, and hickory. Cement/wood ratios varied from 13/1 to 4/1. Wood storage conditions consisted of air-...

  6. Robert Williams Wood: pioneer of invisible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shruti; Sharma, Amit

    2016-03-01

    The Wood's lamp aids in the diagnosis of multiple infectious, inflammatory and neoplastic dermatologic conditions. Although the Wood's lamp has many applications, which have improved both the diagnosis and management of disease, the man credited for its invention is relatively unknown in medicine. Robert Williams Wood, a prominent physicist of the early 20th century, is credited for the invention of the Wood's lamp. Wood was the father of infrared and ultraviolet photography and made significant contributions to other areas in optics and spectroscopy. Wood's work encompassed the formative years of American Physics; he published over 200 original papers over his lifetime. A few years after the invention of the Wood's lamp for ultraviolet photography, physicians in Europe adopted the Wood's lamp for dermatologic applications. Wood's lamp remains popular in clinics globally, given its ease of use and ability to improve diagnostic precision. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Reactivity and burnout of wood fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall'Ora, Michelangelo

    This thesis deals with the combustion of wood in pulverised fuel power plants. In this type of boiler, the slowest step in the wood conversion process is char combustion, which is one of the factors that not only determine the degree of fuel burnout, but also affect the heat release profile...... of different aspects relevant to wood combustion, including wood structure and composition, wood pyrolysis, wood char properties and wood char oxidation. The full scale campaign, which is the subject of Chapter 3, included sampling of wood fuel before and after milling and sampling of gas and particles...... at the top of the combustion chamber. The collected samples and data are used to obtain an evaluation of the mills in operation at the power plant, the particle size distribution of the wood fuel, as well as the char conversion attained in the furnace. In Chapter 4 an experimental investigation...

  8. Sigma beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, D.E.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experiment to measure beta decays of the sigma particle. Sigmas produced by stopping a K - beam in a liquid hydrogen target decayed in the following reactions: Kp → Σπ; Σ → Neν. The electron and pion were detected by wire spark chambers in a magnetic spectrometer and by plastic scintillators, and were differentiated by a threshold gas Cherenkov counter. The neutron was detected by liquid scintillation counters. The data (n = 3) shell electrons or the highly excited electrons decay first. Instead, it is suggested that when there are two to five electrons in highly excited states immediately after a heavy ion--atom collision the first transitions to occur will be among highly excited Rydberg states in a cascade down to the 4s, 4p, and 3d-subshells. If one of the long lived states becomes occupied by electrons promoted during the collision or by electrons falling from higher levels, it will not decay until after the valence shell decays. LMM rates calculated to test the methods used are compared to previous works. The mixing coefficients are given in terms of the states 4s4p, 45sp+-, and 5s5p. The applicability of Cooper, Fano, and Prats' discussion of the energies and transition rates of doubly excited states is considered

  9. Acoustic and adsorption properties of submerged wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilde, Calvin Patrick

    Wood is a common material for the manufacture of many products. Submerged wood, in particular, is used in niche markets, such as the creation of musical instruments. An initial study performed on submerged wood from Ootsa Lake, British Columbia, provided results that showed that the wood was not suitable for musical instruments. This thesis re-examined the submerged wood samples. After allowing the wood to age unabated in a laboratory setting, the wood was retested under the hypothesis that the physical acoustic characteristics would improve. It was shown, however, that the acoustic properties became less adequate after being left to sit. The adsorption properties of the submerged wood were examined to show that the submerged wood had a larger accessible area of wood than that of control wood samples. This implied a lower amount of crystalline area within the submerged wood. From the combined adsorption and acoustic data for the submerged wood, relationships between the moisture content and speed of sound were created and combined with previous research to create a proposed model to describe how the speed of sound varies with temperature, moisture content and the moisture content corresponding to complete hydration of sorption sites within the wood.

  10. Chemical composition of metapleural gland secretions of fungus-growing and non-fungus-growing ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alexsandro S; Morgan, E David; Drijfhout, Falko P; Camargo-Mathias, Maria I

    2012-10-01

    The metapleural gland is exclusive to ants, and unusual among exocrine glands in having no mechanism for closure and retention of secretion. As yet, no clear conclusion has been reached as to the function of metapleural gland secretion. Metapleural gland secretions were investigated for fungus-growing ants representing the derived attines Trachymyrmex fuscus, Atta laevigata, and Acromyrmex coronatus, the basal attines Apterostigma pilosum and Mycetarotes parallelus, and non-fungus-growing ants of the tribes Ectatommini (Ectatomma brunneum) and Myrmicini (Pogonomyrmex naegeli). Our results showed that the secretions of leaf-cutting ants (A. laevigata and A. coronatus) and the derived attine, T. fuscus, contain a greater variety and larger quantities of volatile compounds than those of myrmicine and ectatommine ants. The most abundant compounds found in the metapleural glands of A. laevigata and A. coronatus were hydroxyacids, and phenylacetic acid (only in A. laevigata). Indole was present in all groups examined, while skatole was found in large quantities only in attines. Ketones and aldehydes are present in the secretion of some attines. Esters are present in the metapleural gland secretion of all species examined, although mainly in A. laevigata, A. coronatus, and T. fuscus. Compared with basal attines and non-fungus-growing ants, the metapleural glands of leaf-cutting ants produce more acidic compounds that may have an antibiotic or antifungal function.

  11. Bioactive Triterpenes from the Fungus Piptoporus betulinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyad Alresly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the fruiting bodies from the basidiomycete Piptoporus betulinus led to the isolation of a new bioactive lanostane triterpene identified as 3 b -acetoxy-16-hydroxy-24-oxo-5α-lanosta-8- ene-21-oic acid (1. In addition, ten known triterpenes, polyporenic acid A (5, polyporenic acid C (4, three derivatives of polyporenic acid A (8, 10, 11, betulinic acid (3, betulin (2, ergosterol peroxide (6, 9,11-dehydroergosterol peroxide (7, and fomefficinic acid (9, were also isolated from the fungus. All isolated compounds were tested for antimicrobial activity against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as against a fungal strain. The new triterpene and some of the other compounds showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria.

  12. wood burns down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Bukh

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available To relax the local authorities and to receive the guests of high rank «with no tie» the so-called «Fisherman's House» was built at the source of Angara-river, near Lake Baikal. Vladimir Ivanov, a young architect, was noticed by his skillful performa nee of exclusive orders and became the author of this house. At the time of ferroconcrete boom the proposal to build a wooden guest house turned out to be unexpectedly to the point and was graciously approved. The economic department was entrusted to select the men good for carpenter's work, and the forestry department was entrusted to provide thick round timber. And the work started. But, as it usually happens, the workers did not take the trouble and made the first eight rims of the current timber with an inappropriate diameter.And when Pavlov insisted on demolishing the construction and replacing the logs by the logs with the necessary diameter, the building work obeyed to his will and was finished suecessfully.The architecture of the house is not the derived action of the saw and the fret-saw. It is a technology of the axe. It is natural, convincing and original. It is no use to look for the local sources in it. It grew up in the area of timber and cold winter. And this clear and efficient action kept the construction from the annoying vulgarity and provided Siberian exotics easily penetrating into one's soul, refined as it may be.One of the eminent guests said with admiration: «Even if Pavlov had created nothing more, he would have justified his professional choice with this single house.» Why not to say it as a good toast. However, this is a suitable case to add: style is an absence of style. It is a taste.After the Fisherman's House Irkutsk architects were attracted by wood. They followed the strictness in wood and, as much as they could, created a couple of successful remakes, until the cylinder logs and ... new

  13. Beta and muon decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galindo, A.; Pascual, P.

    1967-01-01

    These notes represent a series of lectures delivered by the authors in the Junta de Energia Nuclear, during the Spring term of 1965. They were devoted to graduate students interested in the Theory of Elementary Particles. Special emphasis was focussed into the computational problems. Chapter I is a review of basic principles (Dirac equation, transition probabilities, final state interactions.) which will be needed later. In Chapter II the four-fermion punctual Interaction is discussed, Chapter III is devoted to the study of beta-decay; the main emphasis is given to the deduction of the formulae corresponding to electron-antineutrino correlation, electron energy spectrum, lifetimes, asymmetry of electrons emitted from polarized nuclei, electron and neutrino polarization and time reversal invariance in beta decay. In Chapter IV we deal with the decay of polarized muons with radiative corrections. Chapter V is devoted to an introduction to C.V.C. theory. (Author)

  14. Decay of superdeformed bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, M.P.; Khoo, T.L.; Lauritsen, T.

    1995-01-01

    One of the major challenges in the study of superdeformation is to directly connect the large number of superdeformed bands now known to the yrast states. In this way, excitation energies, spins and parities can be assigned to the levels in the second well which is essential to establish the collective and single-particle components of these bands. This paper will review some of the progress which has been made to understand the decay of superdeformed bands using the new arrays including the measurement of the total decay spectrum and the establishment of direct one-step decays from the superdeformed band to the yrast line in 194 Hg. 42 refs., 5 figs

  15. Beta and muon decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo, A; Pascual, P

    1967-07-01

    These notes represent a series of lectures delivered by the authors in the Junta de Energia Nuclear, during the Spring term of 1965. They were devoted to graduate students interested in the Theory of Elementary Particles. Special emphasis was focussed into the computational problems. Chapter I is a review of basic principles (Dirac equation, transition probabilities, final state interactions.) which will be needed later. In Chapter II the four-fermion punctual Interaction is discussed, Chapter III is devoted to the study of beta-decay; the main emphasis is given to the deduction of the formulae corresponding to electron-antineutrino correlation, electron energy spectrum, lifetimes, asymmetry of electrons emitted from polarized nuclei, electron and neutrino polarization and time reversal invariance in beta decay. In Chapter IV we deal with the decay of polarized muons with radiative corrections. Chapter V is devoted to an introduction to C.V.C. theory. (Author)

  16. Suppressed Charmed B Decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snoek, Hella Leonie [Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-06-02

    This thesis describes the measurement of the branching fractions of the suppressed charmed B0 → D*- a0+ decays and the non-resonant B0 → D*- ηπ+ decays in approximately 230 million Υ(4S) → B$\\bar{B}$ events. The data have been collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in California. Theoretical predictions of the branching fraction of the B0 → D*- a{sub 0}+ decays show large QCD model dependent uncertainties. Non-factorizing terms, in the naive factorization model, that can be calculated by QCD factorizing models have a large impact on the branching fraction of these decay modes. The predictions of the branching fractions are of the order of 10-6. The measurement of the branching fraction gives more insight into the theoretical models. In general a better understanding of QCD models will be necessary to conduct weak interaction physics at the next level. The presence of CP violation in electroweak interactions allows the differentiation between matter and antimatter in the laws of physics. In the Standard Model, CP violation is incorporated in the CKM matrix that describes the weak interaction between quarks. Relations amongst the CKM matrix elements are used to present the two relevant parameters as the apex of a triangle (Unitarity Triangle) in a complex plane. The over-constraining of the CKM triangle by experimental measurements is an important test of the Standard Model. At this moment no stringent direct measurements of the CKM angle γ, one of the interior angles of the Unitarity Triangle, are available. The measurement of the angle γ can be performed using the decays of neutral B mesons. The B0 → D*- a0+ decay is sensitive to the angle γ and, in comparison to the current decays that are being employed, could significantly

  17. Weak interactions: muon decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, A.M.; Sirlin, A.

    1975-01-01

    The traditional theory of the dominant mode of muon decay is presented, a survey of the experiments which have measured the observable features of the decay is given, and those things which can be learned about the parameters and nature of the theory from the experimental results are indicated. The following aspects of the theory of muon decay are presented first: general four-fermion theory, two-component theory of the neutrino, V--A theory, two-component and V--A theories vs general four-fermion theory, intermediate-boson hypothesis, radiative corrections, radiative corrections in the intermediate-boson theory, and endpoint singularities and corrections of order α 2 . Experiments on muon lifetime, isotropic electron spectrum, total asymmetry and energy dependence of asymmetry of electrons from polarized muons, and electron polarization are described, and a summary of experimental results is given. 7 figures, 2 tables, 109 references

  18. Refraction and absorption of microwaves in wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziherl, Saša; Bajc, Jurij; Čepič, Mojca

    2013-01-01

    A demonstration experiment for physics students showing the dependence of the refractive index and absorption coefficient of wood on the direction of microwaves is presented. Wood and microwaves enable study of anisotropic properties, which are typically found in crystals. Wood is used as the persuasive representative of uniaxial anisotropic materials due to its visible structure and its consequent anisotropic properties. Wood can be cut in a general direction and wooden plates a few centimetres thick with well-defined fibre orientation are easily prepared. Microwaves are used because wood is transparent for microwaves and their centimetre-scale wavelength is comparable to the wood structure. (paper)

  19. Comparative studies of the secretome of fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Tore; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Schiøtt, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Leafcutter ants of the species Acromyrmex echinatior live in symbiosis with the fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. The ants harvest fragments of leaves and carry them to the nest where they place the material on the fungal colony. The fungus secretes a wide array of proteins to degrade the leaves...... into nutrients that the ants can feed on. The focus of this study is to discover, characterize and compare the secreted proteins. In order to do so cDNA libraries are constructed from mRNA extracted from the fungus material. The most efficient technology to screen cDNA libraries selectively for secreted...

  20. Sequential decay of Reggeons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Toshihiro

    1981-01-01

    Probabilities of meson production in the sequential decay of Reggeons, which are formed from the projectile and the target in the hadron-hadron to Reggeon-Reggeon processes, are investigated. It is assumed that pair creation of heavy quarks and simultaneous creation of two antiquark-quark pairs are negligible. The leading-order terms with respect to ratio of creation probabilities of anti s s to anti u u (anti d d) are calculated. The production cross sections in the target fragmentation region are given in terms of probabilities in the initial decay of the Reggeons and an effect of manyparticle production. (author)

  1. Do protons decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litchfield, P.J.

    1984-09-01

    The experimental status of proton decay is reviewed after the Leipzig International conference, July 1984. A brief comparative description of the currently active experiments is given. From the overall samples of contained events it can be concluded that the experiments are working well and broadly agree with each other. The candidates for proton decay from each experiment are examined. Although several experiments report candidates at a higher rate than expected from background calculations, the validity of these calculations is still open to doubt. (author)

  2. 103Pd decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyavenko, V.S.; Borozenets, G.P.; Vishnevskij, I.N.; Zheltonozhskij, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    103 Pd decay in different chemical states has been investigated. The change of the partial half-life period equal to 0.67±0.15% has been detected. The γ-spectrum has been measured to a high precision. The new data have been obtained on population probabilities of 103 Rh excited states and the total energy of decay for 103 Pd has been determined to a high precision (543.0±0.8). The values of log ft have been determined

  3. Decay of 99Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickens, J.K.; Love, T.A.

    1976-01-01

    Relative intensities for K x-rays and gamma rays emanating from 99 Mo in equilibrium with its 99 Tc* daughter have been measured using several Ge photon detectors. Combining these intensities with an evaluated set of electron-conversion coefficients has provided a set of absolute intensities for the observed gamma rays. The absolute intensity for the dominant 140.5-keV gamma ray in 99 Tc was determined to be 90.7 +- 0.6/100 99 Mo disintegrations for 99 Mo decay in equilibrium with decay of the 99 Tc* daughter

  4. Supersymmetry in Z' decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corcella, G.

    2014-01-01

    I study the phenomenology of new heavy neutral gauge bosons Z', predicted by Grand Unification Theories-driven U(1)' gauge groups and by the sequential standard model. BSM (Beyond Standard Model) decays into supersymmetric final states are accounted for, besides the SM (Standard Model) modes usually investigated. I give an estimate of the number of supersymmetric events in Z' decays possibly expected at LHC, as well as of the product of the Z' cross section times the branching fraction into electron and muon pairs. (author)

  5. Shellac/nanoparticles dispersions as protective materials for wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weththimuni, Maduka L.; Capsoni, Doretta; Malagodi, Marco; Milanese, Chiara; Licchelli, Maurizio

    2016-12-01

    Wood is a natural material that finds numerous and widespread applications, but is subject to different decay processes. Surface coating is the most common method used to protect wood against deterioration and to improve and stabilize its distinctive appearance. Shellac is a natural resin that has been widely used as a protective material for wooden artefacts (e.g. furniture, musical instruments), due to its excellent properties. Nevertheless, diffusion of shellac-based varnishes has significantly declined during the last decades, because of some limitations such as the softness of the coating, photo-degradation, and sensitivity to alcoholic solvents and to pH variations. In the present study, different inorganic nanoparticles were dispersed into dewaxed natural shellac and the resulting materials were investigated even after application on wood specimens in order to assess variations of the coating properties. Analyses performed by a variety of experimental techniques have shown that dispersed nanoparticles do not significantly affect some distinctive and desirable features of the shellac varnish such as chromatic aspect, film-forming ability, water repellence, and adhesion. On the other hand, the obtained results suggested that some weak points of the coating, such as low hardness and poor resistance to UV-induced ageing, can be improved by adding ZrO2 and ZnO nanoparticles, respectively.

  6. A comparison of wood preservatives in posts in southern Mississippi : results from a half-decade of testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mike H. Freeman; Douglas Crawford; Patricia Lebow; James A. Brient

    2005-01-01

    Wood preservatives extend the useful service life of all wooden commodities used above ground and in ground contact, Over SO years ago, the USDA-Forest Products Lab established tests in a high decay and high termite hazard zone in southern Mississippi. During the last five decades, periodic reports have been issued by researchers located at the USDA-FPL, in Madison, WI...

  7. Liquefaction of aspen poplar wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eager, R L; Mathews, J F; Pepper, J M

    1982-01-01

    Dried and green aspen poplar wood suspended in water containing alkali catalysts was converted completely to an oil, water-soluble chemical, and gases by heating for 1 hour in the presence of CO in a rocking batch reactor. Within the ranges of parameters studied: temperature of 593-633 K; nominal reaction times of less than or equal to 1 hour; water-to-wood ratio of 0.5:1-5:1; Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, and NaOH catalysts; amount of catalyst 7.0-12.5%; and initial H-CO ratios of 2:1-0:1, the water-to-wood ratio was most important. Oil yields of approximately 50% with a C plus H content of approximately 80% and representing a C recovery of approximately 66% were obtained. The higher heats of combustion were 32.2-36.0 MJ/kg.

  8. Thermopower of beech wood biocarbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, I. A.; Smirnov, B. I.; Orlova, T. S.; Sulkovski, Cz.; Misiorek, H.; Jezowski, A.; Muha, J.

    2011-11-01

    This paper reports on measurements of the thermopower S of high-porosity samples of beech wood biocarbon with micron-sized sap pores aligned with the tree growth direction. The measurements have been performed in the temperature range 5-300 K. The samples have been fabricated by pyrolysis of beech wood in an argon flow at different carbonization temperatures ( T carb). The thermopower S has been measured both along and across the sap pores, thus offering a possibility of assessing its anisotropy. The curves S( T carb) have revealed a noticeable increase of S for T carb biocarbons, which suggests that for T carb ˜ 1000°C they undergo a phase transition of the insulator-(at T carb 1000°C) type. The existence of this transition is attested also by the character of the temperature dependences S( T) of beech wood biocarbon samples prepared at T carb above and below 1000°C.

  9. Wood-burning stoves worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo

    global environmental health risk, since these sources are important contributors to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the ambient air that increase climate and health risks. This thesis explores the social-technical dimensions of both the use of wood-burning stoves (WBSs) and transition to the use......More than any time in our history, the wood-burning stove continues to be the most popular technology used for cooking and heating worldwide. According to the World Health Organization and recent scientific studies, the inefficient use of solid-fuels in traditional stoves constitutes the major...... systems, improved efficient retrofits and advanced stove innovations. In chapter 3, four popular wood-burning practices found in five countries were singled-out to be examined closely in four case studies: “cooking in Brazil”, “cooking and heating in Peru”, “heating in Portugal” and “recreational heat...

  10. Triton beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, T.Y.; Wu, Y.; Ishikawa, S.; Sasakawa, T.

    1990-01-01

    Triton β-decay has been calculated using wave functions for 3 He and 3 H obtained from (Coulomb-modified) Faddeev equations for various interactions. We get a value for the Gamow-Teller matrix element of √3 (0.962±0.002) without regards to two- or three-nucleon inteactions. This value agrees with the experimental value. (orig.)

  11. Unparticles and muon decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, Debajyoti; Ghosh, Dilip Kumar; Mamta

    2008-01-01

    Recently Georgi has discussed the possible existence of 'Unparticles' describable by operators having non-integral scaling dimensions. With the interaction of these with the Standard Model particles being constrained only by gauge and Lorentz symmetries, it affords a new source for lepton flavour violation. Current and future muon decay experiments are shown to be very sensitive to such scenarios

  12. Unparticles and muon decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, Debajyoti [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007 (India); Ghosh, Dilip Kumar [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007 (India)], E-mail: dkghosh@physics.du.ac.in; Mamta [Department of Physics, S.G.T.B. Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007 (India)

    2008-01-03

    Recently Georgi has discussed the possible existence of 'Unparticles' describable by operators having non-integral scaling dimensions. With the interaction of these with the Standard Model particles being constrained only by gauge and Lorentz symmetries, it affords a new source for lepton flavour violation. Current and future muon decay experiments are shown to be very sensitive to such scenarios.

  13. Gluons in quarkonium decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koller, K.; Walsh, T.

    1978-03-01

    We discuss what can be learned of the 3 S 1 quarkonium decay QantiQ → 3 gluoans QantiQ → γ + 2 gluons. The former is a way to find gluon jets and test QCD. The latter also allows us to measure gluoan + gluon → hadrons and look for pure gluonic resonances (glueballs). (orig.) [de

  14. Symmetry violating kaon decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herczeg, P.

    1979-01-01

    An analysis of the muon number violating decay modes of the K-mesons is given. Subsequently, some new developments in the field of CP-violation are reviewed and the question of time-reversal invariance and the status of CPT-invariance are briefly considered. 42 references

  15. Double Beta Decay Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepke, A.

    2005-01-01

    The experimental observation of neutrino oscillations and thus neutrino mass and mixing gives a first hint at new particle physics. The absolute values of the neutrino mass and the properties of neutrinos under CP-conjugation remain unknown. The experimental investigation of the nuclear double beta decay is one of the key techniques for solving these open problems

  16. On the proton decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonda, L.; Ghirardi, G.C.; Weber, T.

    1983-07-01

    The problem of the proton decay is considered taking into account that in actual experiments there is an interaction of the proton with its environment which could imply an increase of its theoretical lifetime. It is seen that, by application of the time-energy uncertainty relation, no prolongation of the lifetime is obtained in this case. (author)

  17. Cosmology with decaying particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.

    1984-09-01

    We consider a cosmological model in which an unstable massive relic particle species (denoted by X) has an initial mass density relative to baryons β -1 identically equal rho/sub X//rho/sub B/ >> 1, and then decays recently (redshift z less than or equal to 1000) into particles which are still relativistic today (denoted by R). We write down and solve the coupled equations for the cosmic scale factor a(t), the energy density in the various components (rho/sub X/, rho/sub R/, rho/sub B/), and the growth of linear density perturbations (delta rho/rho). The solutions form a one parameter (β) family of solutions; physically β -1 approx. = (Ω/sub R//Ω/sub NR/) x (1 + z/sub D/) = (ratio today of energy density of relativistic to nonrelativistic particles) x (1 + redshift of (decay)). We discuss the observational implications of such a cosmological model and compare our results to earlier results computed in the simultaneous decay approximation. In an appendix we briefly consider the case where one of the decay products of the X is massive and becomes nonrelativistic by the present epoch. 21 references

  18. Cosmology with decaying particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, M.S.

    1984-09-01

    We consider a cosmological model in which an unstable massive relic particle species (denoted by X) has an initial mass density relative to baryons ..beta../sup -1/ identically equal rho/sub X//rho/sub B/ >> 1, and then decays recently (redshift z less than or equal to 1000) into particles which are still relativistic today (denoted by R). We write down and solve the coupled equations for the cosmic scale factor a(t), the energy density in the various components (rho/sub X/, rho/sub R/, rho/sub B/), and the growth of linear density perturbations (delta rho/rho). The solutions form a one parameter (..beta..) family of solutions; physically ..beta../sup -1/ approx. = (..cap omega../sub R//..cap omega../sub NR/) x (1 + z/sub D/) = (ratio today of energy density of relativistic to nonrelativistic particles) x (1 + redshift of (decay)). We discuss the observational implications of such a cosmological model and compare our results to earlier results computed in the simultaneous decay approximation. In an appendix we briefly consider the case where one of the decay products of the X is massive and becomes nonrelativistic by the present epoch. 21 references.

  19. The effects of habitat degradation on metacommunity structure of wood-inhabiting fungi in European beech forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halme, Panu; Ódor, Péter; Christensen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Intensive forest management creates habitat degradation by reducing the variation of forest stands in general, and by removing old trees and dead wood in particular. Non-intervention forest reserves are commonly believed to be the most efficient tool to counteract the negative effects...... with different management histories. For this purpose, we used a large data set of wood-inhabiting fungi collected from dead beech trees in European beech-dominated forest reserves. The structure of fungal assemblages showed high beta diversity, while nestedness and similarity was low. During the decomposition...... extirpated specialized species from the local species pools in managed sites, and resulted in more homogeneous communities in managed sites. It is alarming that community structure is affected the most in the latest decay stages where the decay process turns the dead wood into litter, and which is thus...

  20. Assessment of the wood waste resource and its position in the wood / wood-energy sector - Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinard, Ludovic; Deroubaix, Gerard; Roux, Marie-Lise; Levet, Anne-Laure; Quint, Vincent

    2015-04-01

    The first objective of this study is to obtain a better knowledge of the 'wood wastes' issue, to propose a photography of the wood waste sector (productions, trades, consumptions), and then to elaborate different prospective scenarios on the use of wood waste volumes while taking into account possible evolutions on the medium or short term of the regulation and market of the wood/wood energy sector. The considered wastes come from industrial production, from the use of wood-based products, and from the end of life of products potentially containing wood. The authors present bibliographical sources and the adopted methodology, briefly describe the 'wood waste' system with its actors, and then report their assessment of wood wastes. They propose a global assessment as well as detailed assessments with respect to waste origins: wood trade and distribution, industries, craft, households and communities, building sector, public and private tertiary sector, packaging. They also address the collection and management of wood wastes by public services, and present the different types of valorisation (panel fabrication, energy, and others). They discuss exports, and then present different scenarios: a trend-based scenario, and two prospective scenarios with a priority to energetic valorisation or to material valorisation of wood wastes. These scenarios are compared

  1. Ectomycorrhizal community structure and function in relation to forest residue harvesting and wood ash applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmood, Shahid

    2000-05-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi form symbiotic associations with tree roots and assist in nutrient-uptake and -cycling in forest ecosystems, thereby constituting a most significant part of the microbial community. The aims of the studies described in this thesis were to evaluate the potential of DNA-based molecular methods in below-ground ectomycorrhizal community studies and to investigate changes in ectomycorrhizal communities on spruce roots in sites with different N deposition, and in sites subjected to harvesting of forest residues or application of wood ash. The ability of selected ectomycorrhizal fungi to mobilise nutrients from wood ash and to colonise root systems in the presence and absence of ash was also studied. In total 39 ectomycorrhizal species were detected in the experimental forests located in southern Sweden. At each site five to six species colonised around 60% of the root tips. The dominant species, common to the sites, were Tylospora fibrillosa, Thelephora terrestris and Cenococcum geophilum. Differences between two sites with differing levels of N deposition suggested that community structure may be influenced by N deposition, although site history, location and degree of isolation may also influence species composition. Repeated harvesting of forest residues reduced numbers of mycorrhizal roots in the humus layer to approximately 50% of that in control plots but no shift in the ectomycorrhizal community could be detected. At another site, application of granulated wood ash induced a shift in ectomycorrhizal community structure and three ectomycorrhizal fungi ('ash fungi') were found to colonise ash granules. Two 'ash fungi' showed a superior ability to solubilise stabilised wood ash in laboratory experiments compared to other ectomycorrhizal isolates from the same site. In laboratory microcosms containing intact mycorrhizal mycelia, colonisation of wood ash patches by one 'ash fungus' was good whereas colonisation by

  2. Classification of decays involving variable decay chains with convolutional architectures

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    Vidyo contribution We present a technique to perform classification of decays that exhibit decay chains involving a variable number of particles, which include a broad class of $B$ meson decays sensitive to new physics. The utility of such decays as a probe of the Standard Model is dependent upon accurate determination of the decay rate, which is challenged by the combinatorial background arising in high-multiplicity decay modes. In our model, each particle in the decay event is represented as a fixed-dimensional vector of feature attributes, forming an $n \\times k$ representation of the event, where $n$ is the number of particles in the event and $k$ is the dimensionality of the feature vector. A convolutional architecture is used to capture dependencies between the embedded particle representations and perform the final classification. The proposed model performs outperforms standard machine learning approaches based on Monte Carlo studies across a range of variable final-state decays with the Belle II det...

  3. Wood Protection Research Council: Research Priorities 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol A Clausen; Frederick Green III; Grant T. Kirker; Stan T. Lebow

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes presentations and comments from the inaugural Wood Protection Research Council meeting. Research needs for the wood protection industry were identified and prioritized. Methods for successfully addressing research needs were discussed by industry, academia, and association representatives.

  4. Wood: a construction material for tall buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmers, Guido

    2017-12-01

    Wood has great potential as a building material, because it is strong and lightweight, environmentally friendly and can be used in prefabricated buildings. However, only changes in building codes will make wood competitive with steel and concrete.

  5. Three Construction Projects with Wood Scraps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Elizabeth

    1977-01-01

    Wood, a natural material, appeals to children of all ages. Wood construction allows children the flexibility of moving parts of their work around until they are satisfied with the arrangement. Three projects are described. (Author/RK)

  6. The environmental assessment of the wood combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinca, Cristian; Badea, Adrian; Apostol, Tiberiu

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the authors analysed the emissions from residential boilers burning wood logs, bark pellets, wood briquettes and wood pellets. Three boilers, selected with respect to age, design, connection to heat storage tank, and type of biofuel, were included in the study. The emissions captured comprised carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), oxygen (O 2 ), total organic carbons (TOC), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAC) and 33 volatile organic compounds (VOC). We have used the Life Cycle Inventory method in order to identify the main stressors generated by the wood combustion stage. In this purpose, we have analysed one type of old boiler, one type of modern boiler and a multi-fuel boiler, which can burn wood logs, bark pellets, wood briquettes and wood pellets. In this article, we selected only the wood combustion stage because it is the most important according to the emissions produced. (authors)

  7. Photodegradation of wood and depth profile analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Photochemical degradation is a key process of the weathering that occurs when wood is exposed outdoors. It is also a major cause of the discoloration of wood in indoor applications. The effects of sunlight on the chemical composition of wood are superficial in nature, but estimates of the depth at which photodegradation occurs in wood vary greatly from 80 microm to as much as 2540 mic rom. Better understanding of the photodegradation of wood through depth profile analysis is desirable because it would allow the development of more effective photo-protective treatments that target the surface layers of wood most susceptible to photodegradation. This paper briefly describes fundamental aspects of photodegradation of wood and reviews progress made in the field of depth profile study on the photodegradation of wood. (author)

  8. Ergonomics and safety in secondary wood processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rado Gazo; James D. McGlothlin; Yuehwern, Wiedenbeck, Jan Yih; Yuehwern Yih

    2002-01-01

    The main goal of the project was to initiate a pilot program in ergonomics for the secondary wood products industry. Case studies were conducted at three Midwest secondary wood product companies in 2000 and 2001.

  9. A new taxol-producing fungus ( Pestalotiopsis malicola ) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new taxol-producing fungus ( Pestalotiopsis malicola ) and evidence for taxol as a transient product in the culture. ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives.

  10. Evolutionary patterns of proteinase activity in attine ant fungus gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semenova, Tatyana; Hughes, David Peter; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2011-01-01

    hypothesized that fungal proteinase activity may have been under selection for efficiency and that different classes of proteinases might be involved. Results: We determined proteinase activity profiles across a wide pH range for fungus gardens of 14 Panamanian species of fungus-growing ants, representing...... classes. Remarkably, the single symbiont that is shared by species of the crown group of Atta and Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants mostly showed metalloproteinase activity, suggesting that recurrent changes in enzyme production may have occurred throughout the domestication history of fungus-garden symbionts......Background: Attine ants live in symbiosis with a basidiomycetous fungus that they rear on a substrate of plant material. This indirect herbivory implies that the symbiosis is likely to be nitrogen deprived, so that specific mechanisms may have evolved to enhance protein availability. We therefore...

  11. Contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus to red kidney and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... fungus to red kidney and wheat plants tolerance grown in heavy metal-polluted soil. ... artificially contaminated with high oncentrations of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium. ... strategies of remediation of highly heavy metal contaminated soils.

  12. Various Stages of Pink Fungus (Upasia salmonicolor in Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambarwati Harsojo Tjokrosoedarmo

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Pink fungus in Java is classified as Upasia salmonicolor (Basidiomycetes: Corticiaceae and its anamorph is Necator decretus. This fungus is a serious pathogen which attacks many woody plants. The pink fungus in Java exhibits five developmental stages on the surface of the host bark: I. An initial cobweb stage as thin, white, cobweb-like hyphal layer, which creeps over the surface of the bark, during which penetration of the host occurs; II. Pseudonodular stage, as conical white pustules occurring only on lenticels or cracks, and only on shady side of branches; III. Teleomorph, occurs as pink incrustation and pink pustules on shady side of branches; IV. Nodular stages, as globose white pustules occurring chiefly on intact bark, but also on the lenticels or cracks, on exposed side of branches; V. Anamorph, as small orange-red sporodochium, on exposed side of branches. Key words: pink fungus, Corticiaceae, Basidiomycetes, Necator

  13. Mucormycosis (Mucor fungus ball) of the maxillary sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hang Sun; Yang, Hoon Shik; Kim, Kyung Soo

    2014-01-01

    A fungus ball is an extramucosal fungal proliferation that completely fills one or more paranasal sinuses and usually occurs as a unilateral infection. It is mainly caused by Aspergillus spp in an immunocompetent host, but some cases of paranasal fungal balls reportedly have been caused by Mucor spp. A Mucor fungus ball is usually found in the maxillary sinus and/or the sphenoid sinus and may be black in color. Patients with mucormycosis, or a Mucor fungal ball infection, usually present with facial pain or headache. On computed tomography, there are no pathognomonic findings that are conclusive for a diagnosis of mucormycosis. In this article we report a case of mucormycosis in a 56-year-old woman and provide a comprehensive review of the literature on the "Mucor fungus ball." To the best of our knowledge, 5 case reports (8 patients) have been published in which the fungus ball was thought to be caused by Mucor spp.

  14. Screening of potent anticancer drug taxol from Entophytic fungus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muthumary

    2011-02-21

    Feb 21, 2011 ... Isolation and detection of taxol, an anticancer drug produced from ... cancer cell line, taxol produced by the test fungus in MID culture medium was isolated for its .... then plotted on a graph. RESULTS AND ... Wavelength (nm).

  15. Forest industry wood fuel supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The potential for wood fired energy production in the UK is significant. Large scale developments are currently underway which could utilise over 100,000 green tonnes of forest residues. The fuel supply chain is likely to be complicated and there are perceived risks in its organisation and security. This report sets out to address some of these perceived risks and suggest suitable measures to reduce it. Six areas of the fuel supply chain have been studied, namely; Extraction, Comminution, Transport, Assessment and payment of wood fuel; Environmental impact; Nutrient recycling (ash disposal). (author)

  16. Fuel wood symposium; Symposium Energieholz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wild, C.; Wauer, A. (comps.)

    2001-07-01

    The Bavarian State Institute of Forestry (LWF) organised a 'Fuel Wood Symposium' in Freising-Weihenstephan on 17.11.2000. The purpose of this specialist conference was to give an overview of the use of biomass, especially wood, as an source of energy. (orig.) [German] Die Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Wald und Forstwirtschaft richtete am 17.11.2000 in Freising-Weihenstephan das 'Symposium Energieholz' aus. Ziel der Fachtagung war es, einen Ueberblick ueber die energetische Nutzung von Biomasse, insbesondere Holz, zu geben. (orig.)

  17. Wood fuelled boiler operating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandars, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report is a management study into the operating costs of wood-fired boilers. Data obtained from existing wood-fired plant has been analysed and interpreted using the principles of machinery management and the science that underlies the key differences between this fuel and any other. A set of budgeting principles has been developed for the key areas of labour requirement, insurance, maintenance and repair and electricity consumption. Other lesser cost centres such as the provision of shelter and the effects of neglect and accidents have also been considered, and a model constructed. (author)

  18. Preparation of coloured wood plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, V.T.; Filippova, T.G.; Rajchuk, F.Z.

    1977-01-01

    A study has been made into the possibility of using fat, as well as alcohol- and water-soluble dyes for radiation-chemical dying of polymers and plastics filled with wood. The use of fat-soluble azo and anthraquinone dyes permits obtaining intensely colored wood-plastic materials based on methyl methacrylate by way of gamma radiation with doses of up to 3 Mrad. At a dose above 5 Mrad, a marked tarnishing of the dye or a change in color and stains are observed. Dyes in styrene withstand higher radiation doses without any significant destruction

  19. Wood pellets for stoker burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nykaenen, S.

    2000-01-01

    The author of this article has had a stoker for several years. Wood chips and sod peat has been used as fuels in the stoker, either separately or mixed. Last winter there occurred problems with the sod peat due to poor quality. Wood pellets, delivered by Vapo Oy were tested in the stoker. The price of the pellets seemed to be a little high 400 FIM/500 kg large sack. If the sack is returned in good condition 50 FIM deposit will be repaid to the customer. However, Vapo Oy informed that the calorific value of wood pellets is three times higher than that of sod peat so it should not be more expensive than sod peat. When testing the wood pellets in the stoker, the silo of the stoker was filled with wood pellets. The adjustments were first left to position used for sod peat. However, after the fire had ignited well, the adjustments had to be decreased. The content of the silo was combusted totally. The combustion of the content of the 400 litter silo took 4 days and 22 hours. Respectively combustion of 400 l silo of good quality sod peat took 2 days. The water temperature with wood pellets remained at 80 deg C, while with sod peat it dropped to 70 deg C. The main disadvantage of peat with small loads is the unhomogenous composition of the peat. The results of this test showed that wood pellets will give better efficiency than peat, especially when using small burner heads. The utilization of them is easier, and the amount of ash formed in combustion is significantly smaller than with peat. Wood pellets are always homogenous and dry if you do not spoil it with unproper storage. Pellets do not require large storages, the storage volume needed being less than a half of the volume needed for sod peat. When using large sacks the amount needed can even be transported at the trunk of a passenger car. Depending on the area to be heated, a large sack is sufficient for heating for 2-3 weeks. Filling of stoker every 2-5 day is not an enormous task

  20. Wood preservatives and pressure-treated wood: considerations for historic-preservation projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald W. Anthony; Stan T. Lebow

    2015-01-01

    Wood, an abundant resource throughout most of the world, has been used as a building material for thousands of years. Many historic buildings have been built primarily of wood, and masonry and stone buildings generally have wood elements, both structural and architectural. As a biological material, wood is both remarkably complex and yet quite durable if well...