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Sample records for wood cricket gryllus

  1. Convergent and divergent patterns of morphological differentiation provide more evidence for reproductive character displacement in a wood cricket Gryllus fultoni (Orthoptera: Gryllidae

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    Choe Jae

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In ecological character displacement, traits involved in reproductive isolation may not evolve in arbitrary directions when changes in these traits are by-products of adaptation to an ecological niche. In reproductive character displacement, however, selection acts directly on reproductive characters to enhance the degree of reproductive isolation between sympatric populations. Thus, the direction of change in reproductive characters may be arbitrary in relation to changes in other morphological characters. We characterized both tegminal characters and characters indicative of body size in sympatric and allopatric populations of Gryllus fultoni, a species displaying character displacement in its calling song characters in areas of sympatry with G. vernalis populations, to infer the nature and direction of selection acting on reproductive and morphological characters in sympatry. Results Except for mirror area, the number of teeth in a file, and ovipositor length of G. fultoni, all male and female morphological characters in G. fultoni and G. vernalis exhibited a uniform tendency to decrease in size with increasing latitude. There was no significant variation in female morphological characters between sympatric and allopatric G. fultoni populations. However, males of sympatric and allopatric G. fultoni populations significantly differed in head width, hind femur length, and mirror area even after controlling for clinal factors. Head width and hind femur length of G. fultoni were more similar to those of G. vernalis in sympatric populations than in allopatric populations, resulting in morphological convergence of G. fultoni and G. vernalis in sympatry. However, the mirror area of G. fultoni displayed the divergent pattern in relation to the sympatric G. vernalis populations. Conclusion Divergence-enhancing selection may be acting on mirror area as well as calling song characters, whereas local adaptation or clinal effects may

  2. Frequency tuning and directional sensitivity of tympanal vibrations in the field cricket Gryllus bimaculatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lankheet, Martin J.; Cerkvenik, Uroš; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2017-01-01

    Female field crickets use phonotaxis to locate males by their calling song. Male song production and female behavioural sensitivity form a pair of matched frequency filters, which in Gryllus bimaculatus are tuned to a frequency of about 4.7 kHz. Directional sensitivity is supported by an elaborat...

  3. Participation of segmentary octopaminergic neurons in modulation of processes of sensomotor integration in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikitin, SO; Lapitskii, VP

    2000-01-01

    The impulse responses of dorsal unpaired median neurons (DUMN) of the prothoracic ganglion of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus to acoustic and tactile sensory stimuli were studied. It has been established that among these cells there are mono- and bimodal neurons, some of them with the background

  4. Mating changes the female dietary preference in the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus

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    Yusuke eTsukamoto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Most insect species exhibit characteristic behavioral changes after mating. Typical post-mating behaviors in female insects include noticeable increases in food intake, elevated oviposition rates, lowered receptivity to courting males, and enhanced immune response. Although it has been reported that mated females of several insect species including the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster increase the amount of food intake and change their dietary preferences, the limited number of comparative studies prevent the formulation of generalities regarding post-mating behaviors in other insects in particular amongst orthopteran species. Here, we investigated whether females of the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, alter their feeding behavior after mating. Although significant differences in the amount of food intake after mating were not observed, all experimental data indicated a clear trend among crickets towards the ingestion of larger quantities of food. Geometric framework analyses revealed that the mated female crickets preferred food with higher protein content compared to virgin female crickets. This implies that this species required different nutritional demands after mating. These findings further expand our understanding of the behavioral and biological changes that are triggered in female insects post-mating, and highlight the potential for this species in investigating the molecular-based nutritional dependent activities that are linked to post-mating behaviors.

  5. Sickness behaviour in the cricket Gryllus texensis: Comparison with animals across phyla.

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    Sullivan, Ken; Fairn, Evan; Adamo, Shelley A

    2016-07-01

    Immune activation alters behaviour (i.e. sickness behaviour) in animals across phyla and is thought to aid recovery from infection. Hypotheses regarding the adaptive function of different sickness behaviours (e.g. decreased movement and appetite) include the energy conservation and predator avoidance hypotheses. These hypotheses were originally developed for mammals (e.g. Hart, 1988), however similar sickness behaviours are also observed in insects (e.g., crickets). We predicted that immune-challenged crickets (Gryllus texensis) would reduce feeding, grooming, and locomotion as well as increase shelter use, consistent with the energy conservation and predator avoidance hypotheses. We found evidence of illness-induced anorexia in adult and juvenile crickets, consistent with previous research (Adamo et al., 2010), but contrary to expectations, we found an increase in grooming, and no evidence that crickets decreased locomotion or increased shelter use in response to immune challenge. Therefore, our results do not support the energy conservation or predator avoidance hypotheses. The difference in sickness behaviour between insects and mammals is probably due, in part, to the lack of physiological fever in insects. We hypothesize that the lack of physiological fever reduces the need for energy conservation, decreasing the benefits of some sickness behaviours such as increased shelter use. These results, taken together with others in the literature, suggest that ectotherms and endotherms may differ significantly in the selective forces leading to the evolution of most sickness behaviours. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. How age influences phonotaxis in virgin female Jamaican field crickets (Gryllus assimilis

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    Karen Pacheco

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Female mating preference can be a dominant force shaping the evolution of sexual signals. However, females rarely have consistent mating preferences throughout their lives. Preference flexibility results from complex interactions of predation risk, social and sexual experience, and age. Because residual reproductive value should theoretically decline with age, older females should not be as choosy as younger females. We explored how age influences phonotaxis towards a standard mate attraction signal using a spherical treadmill (trackball and a no-choice experimental protocol. Female Jamaican field crickets, Gryllus assimilis, were highly variable in their phonotaxis; age explained up to 64% of this variation. Females 10 days post imaginal eclosion and older oriented toward the mate attraction signal, with 10- and 13-day females exhibiting the greatest movement in the direction of the signal. Our study suggests 10- and 13-day old females would be most responsive when quantifying the preference landscape for G. assimilis sexual signals.

  7. How age influences phonotaxis in virgin female Jamaican field crickets (Gryllus assimilis).

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    Pacheco, Karen; Dawson, Jeff W; Jutting, Michael; Bertram, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    Female mating preference can be a dominant force shaping the evolution of sexual signals. However, females rarely have consistent mating preferences throughout their lives. Preference flexibility results from complex interactions of predation risk, social and sexual experience, and age. Because residual reproductive value should theoretically decline with age, older females should not be as choosy as younger females. We explored how age influences phonotaxis towards a standard mate attraction signal using a spherical treadmill (trackball) and a no-choice experimental protocol. Female Jamaican field crickets, Gryllus assimilis, were highly variable in their phonotaxis; age explained up to 64% of this variation. Females 10 days post imaginal eclosion and older oriented toward the mate attraction signal, with 10- and 13-day females exhibiting the greatest movement in the direction of the signal. Our study suggests 10- and 13-day old females would be most responsive when quantifying the preference landscape for G. assimilis sexual signals.

  8. Temporal resolution for calling song signals by female crickets, Gryllus bimaculatus.

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    Schneider, E; Hennig, R M

    2012-03-01

    A behavioural gap detection paradigm was used to determine the temporal resolution for song patterns by female crickets, Gryllus bimaculatus. For stimuli with a modulation depth of 100% the critical gap duration was 6-8 ms. A reduction of the modulation depth of gaps to 50% led either to an increase or a decrease of the critical gap duration. In the latter case, the critical gap duration dropped to 3-4 ms indicating a higher sensitivity of auditory processing. The response curve for variation of pulse period was not limited by temporal resolution. However, the reduced response to stimuli with a high duty cycle, and thus short pause durations, was in accordance with the limits of temporal resolution. The critical duration of masking pulses inserted into pauses was 4-6 ms. An analysis of the songs of males revealed that gaps (5.8 ms) and masking pulses (6.9 ms) were at detectable time scales for the auditory pathway of female crickets. However, most of the observed temporal variation of song patterns was tolerated by females. Critical cues such as pulse period and pulse duty cycle provided little basis for inter-individual selection by females.

  9. Hyperacute directional hearing and phonotactic steering in the cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus deGeer).

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    Schöneich, Stefan; Hedwig, Berthold

    2010-12-08

    Auditory mate or prey localisation is central to the lifestyle of many animals and requires precise directional hearing. However, when the incident angle of sound approaches 0° azimuth, interaural time and intensity differences gradually vanish. This poses a demanding challenge to animals especially when interaural distances are small. To cope with these limitations imposed by the laws of acoustics, crickets employ a frequency tuned peripheral hearing system. Although this enhances auditory directionality the actual precision of directional hearing and phonotactic steering has never been studied in the behaviourally important frontal range. Here we analysed the directionality of phonotaxis in female crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus) walking on an open-loop trackball system by measuring their steering accuracy towards male calling song presented at frontal angles of incidence. Within the range of ±30°, females reliably discriminated the side of acoustic stimulation, even when the sound source deviated by only 1° from the animal's length axis. Moreover, for angles of sound incidence between 1° and 6° the females precisely walked towards the sound source. Measuring the tympanic membrane oscillations of the front leg ears with a laser vibrometer revealed between 0° and 30° a linear increasing function of interaural amplitude differences with a slope of 0.4 dB/°. Auditory nerve recordings closely reflected these bilateral differences in afferent response latency and intensity that provide the physiological basis for precise auditory steering. Our experiments demonstrate that an insect hearing system based on a frequency-tuned pressure difference receiver achieves directional hyperacuity which easily rivals best directional hearing in mammals and birds. Moreover, this directional accuracy of the cricket's hearing system is reflected in the animal's phonotactic motor response.

  10. Hyperacute directional hearing and phonotactic steering in the cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus deGeer.

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    Stefan Schöneich

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Auditory mate or prey localisation is central to the lifestyle of many animals and requires precise directional hearing. However, when the incident angle of sound approaches 0° azimuth, interaural time and intensity differences gradually vanish. This poses a demanding challenge to animals especially when interaural distances are small. To cope with these limitations imposed by the laws of acoustics, crickets employ a frequency tuned peripheral hearing system. Although this enhances auditory directionality the actual precision of directional hearing and phonotactic steering has never been studied in the behaviourally important frontal range.Here we analysed the directionality of phonotaxis in female crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus walking on an open-loop trackball system by measuring their steering accuracy towards male calling song presented at frontal angles of incidence. Within the range of ±30°, females reliably discriminated the side of acoustic stimulation, even when the sound source deviated by only 1° from the animal's length axis. Moreover, for angles of sound incidence between 1° and 6° the females precisely walked towards the sound source. Measuring the tympanic membrane oscillations of the front leg ears with a laser vibrometer revealed between 0° and 30° a linear increasing function of interaural amplitude differences with a slope of 0.4 dB/°. Auditory nerve recordings closely reflected these bilateral differences in afferent response latency and intensity that provide the physiological basis for precise auditory steering.Our experiments demonstrate that an insect hearing system based on a frequency-tuned pressure difference receiver achieves directional hyperacuity which easily rivals best directional hearing in mammals and birds. Moreover, this directional accuracy of the cricket's hearing system is reflected in the animal's phonotactic motor response.

  11. The transcriptional repressor Blimp-1 acts downstream of BMP signaling to generate primordial germ cells in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

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    Nakamura, Taro; Extavour, Cassandra G

    2016-01-15

    Segregation of the germ line from the soma is an essential event for transmission of genetic information across generations in all sexually reproducing animals. Although some well-studied systems such as Drosophila and Xenopus use maternally inherited germ determinants to specify germ cells, most animals, including mice, appear to utilize zygotic inductive cell signals to specify germ cells during later embryogenesis. Such inductive germ cell specification is thought to be an ancestral trait of Bilateria, but major questions remain as to the nature of an ancestral mechanism to induce germ cells, and how that mechanism evolved. We previously reported that BMP signaling-based germ cell induction is conserved in both the mouse Mus musculus and the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, which is an emerging model organism for functional studies of induction-based germ cell formation. In order to gain further insight into the functional evolution of germ cell specification, here we examined the Gryllus ortholog of the transcription factor Blimp-1 (also known as Prdm1), which is a widely conserved bilaterian gene known to play a crucial role in the specification of germ cells in mice. Our functional analyses of the Gryllus Blimp-1 ortholog revealed that it is essential for Gryllus primordial germ cell development, and is regulated by upstream input from the BMP signaling pathway. This functional conservation of the epistatic relationship between BMP signaling and Blimp-1 in inductive germ cell specification between mouse and cricket supports the hypothesis that this molecular mechanism regulated primordial germ cell specification in a last common bilaterian ancestor. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Phase shifts in binaural stimuli provide directional cues for sound localisation in the field cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

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    Seagraves, Kelly M; Hedwig, Berthold

    2014-07-01

    The cricket's auditory system is a highly directional pressure difference receiver whose function is hypothesised to depend on phase relationships between the sound waves propagating through the auditory trachea that connects the left and right hearing organs. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the effect of experimentally constructed phase shifts in acoustic stimuli on phonotactic behavior of Gryllus bimaculatus, the oscillatory response patterns of the tympanic membrane, and the activity of the auditory afferents. The same artificial calling song was played simultaneously at the left and right sides of the cricket, but one sound pattern was shifted in phase by 90 deg (carrier frequencies between 3.6 and 5.4 kHz). All three levels of auditory processing are sensitive to experimentally induced acoustic phase shifts, and the response characteristics are dependent on the carrier frequency of the sound stimulus. At lower frequencies, crickets steered away from the sound leading in phase, while tympanic membrane vibrations and auditory afferent responses were smaller when the ipsilateral sound was leading. In contrast, opposite responses were observed at higher frequencies in all three levels of auditory processing. Minimal responses occurred near the carrier frequency of the cricket's calling song, suggesting a stability at this frequency. Our results indicate that crickets may use directional cues arising from phase shifts in acoustic signals for sound localisation, and that the response properties of pressure difference receivers may be analysed with phase-shifted sound stimuli to further our understanding of how insect auditory systems are adapted for directional processing. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Responsiveness of the adult cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus and Acheta domesticus) retrocerebral complex to allatostatin-1 from a cockroach, Diploptera punctata.

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    Neuhüser, T; Sorge, D; Stay, B; Hoffmann, K H

    1994-01-01

    Brain-retrocerebral complexes of female crickets, Gryllus bimaculatus and Acheta domesticus, treated with antibody to allatostatin-1 from a cockroach, Diploptera punctata, show extensive immunoreactivity. The results suggest that allostatins or allatostatin-like molecules are produced in neurosecretory cells of the brain and are delivered to the corpora allata through nervous connections and/or via haemolymph. Radiochemical measurements of juvenile hormone III biosynthesis by isolated corpora cardiaca-corpora allata complexes from adult G. bimaculatus have been used to demonstrate an in vitro sensitivity of these glands to allatostatin-1 from D. punctata. Allatostatin-1 is a relatively potent inhibitor of juvenile hormone III biosynthesis in corpora allata of both young adult females and males. In glands taken from 3-day virgin females, 50% inhibition of hormone biosynthesis is reached at ca. 3 nmol.l-1 allatostatin-1. The inhibitory action of allatostatin-1 is rapid, dose-dependent and reversible. Addition of 200 mumol.l-1 farnesol to the incubation medium prevents inhibition of juvenile hormone III biosynthesis by allatostatin-1. Juvenile hormone III biosynthesis by isolated corpora allata of 3-day female house crickets, A. domesticus, is also susceptible to inhibition by 1 mumol.l-1 allatostatin-1.

  14. Mechanisms underlying phonotactic steering in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus revealed with a fast trackball system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hedwig, B; Poulet, J F A

    2005-01-01

    Phonotactic steering behaviour of the cricket G. bimaculatus was analysed with a new highly sensitive trackball system providing a spatial and temporal resolution of 127 microm and 0.3 ms, respectively...

  15. Developmental gene discovery in a hemimetabolous insect: de novo assembly and annotation of a transcriptome for the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

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    Victor Zeng

    Full Text Available Most genomic resources available for insects represent the Holometabola, which are insects that undergo complete metamorphosis like beetles and flies. In contrast, the Hemimetabola (direct developing insects, representing the basal branches of the insect tree, have very few genomic resources. We have therefore created a large and publicly available transcriptome for the hemimetabolous insect Gryllus bimaculatus (cricket, a well-developed laboratory model organism whose potential for functional genetic experiments is currently limited by the absence of genomic resources. cDNA was prepared using mRNA obtained from adult ovaries containing all stages of oogenesis, and from embryo samples on each day of embryogenesis. Using 454 Titanium pyrosequencing, we sequenced over four million raw reads, and assembled them into 21,512 isotigs (predicted transcripts and 120,805 singletons with an average coverage per base pair of 51.3. We annotated the transcriptome manually for over 400 conserved genes involved in embryonic patterning, gametogenesis, and signaling pathways. BLAST comparison of the transcriptome against the NCBI non-redundant protein database (nr identified significant similarity to nr sequences for 55.5% of transcriptome sequences, and suggested that the transcriptome may contain 19,874 unique transcripts. For predicted transcripts without significant similarity to known sequences, we assessed their similarity to other orthopteran sequences, and determined that these transcripts contain recognizable protein domains, largely of unknown function. We created a searchable, web-based database to allow public access to all raw, assembled and annotated data. This database is to our knowledge the largest de novo assembled and annotated transcriptome resource available for any hemimetabolous insect. We therefore anticipate that these data will contribute significantly to more effective and higher-throughput deployment of molecular analysis tools in

  16. Characterization of PDF-immunoreactive neurons in the optic lobe and cerebral lobe of the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.

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    Abdelsalam, Salaheldin; Uemura, Hiroyuki; Umezaki, Yujiro; Saifullah, A S M; Shimohigashi, Miki; Tomioka, Kenji

    2008-07-01

    Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) is a neuropeptide playing important roles in insect circadian systems. In this study, we morphologically and physiologically characterized PDF-immunoreactive neurons in the optic lobe and the brain of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. PDF-immunoreactivity was detected in cells located in the proximal medulla (PDFMe cells) and those in the dorsal and ventral regions of the outer chiasma (PDFLa cells). The PDFMe cells had varicose processes spread over the frontal surface of the medulla and the PDFLa cells had varicose mesh-like innervations in almost whole lamina, suggesting their modulatory role in the optic lobe. Some of PDFMe cells had a hairpin-shaped axonal process running toward the lamina then turning back to project into the brain where they terminated at various protocerebral areas. The PDFMe cells had a low frequency spontaneous spike activity that was higher during the night and was often slightly increased by light pulses. Six pairs of PDF-immunoreactive neurons were also found in the frontal ganglion. Competitive ELISA with anti-PDF antibodies revealed daily cycling of PDF both in the optic lobe and cerebral lobe with an increase during the night that persisted in constant darkness. The physiological role of PDF is discussed based on these results.

  17. Hyperacute directional hearing and phonotactic steering in the cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus deGeer).

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Schöneich; Berthold Hedwig

    2010-01-01

    Background Auditory mate or prey localisation is central to the lifestyle of many animals and requires precise directional hearing. However, when the incident angle of sound approaches 0? azimuth, interaural time and intensity differences gradually vanish. This poses a demanding challenge to animals especially when interaural distances are small. To cope with these limitations imposed by the laws of acoustics, crickets employ a frequency tuned peripheral hearing system. Although this enhances...

  18. Male responses to conspecific advertisement signals in the field cricket Gryllus rubens (Orthoptera: Gryllidae).

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    Jang, Yikweon

    2011-01-20

    In many species males aggregate and produce long-range advertisement signals to attract conspecific females. The majority of the receivers of these signals are probably other males most of the time, and male responses to competitors' signals can structure the spatial and temporal organization of the breeding aggregation and affect male mating tactics. I quantified male responses to a conspecific advertisement stimulus repeatedly over three age classes in Gryllus rubens (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) in order to estimate the type and frequency of male responses to the broadcast stimulus and to determine the factors affecting them. Factors tested included body size, wing dimorphism, age, and intensity of the broadcast stimulus. Overall, males employed acoustic response more often than positive phonotactic response. As males aged, the frequency of positive phonotactic response decreased but that of the acoustic response increased. That is, males may use positive phonotaxis in the early stages of their adult lives, possibly to find suitable calling sites or parasitize calling males, and then later in life switch to acoustic responses in response to conspecific advertisement signals. Males with smaller body size more frequently exhibited acoustic responses. This study suggests that individual variation, more than any factors measured, is critical for age-dependent male responses to conspecific advertisement signals.

  19. No Effect of Body Size on the Frequency of Calling and Courtship Song in the Two-Spotted Cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.

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    Atsushi Miyashita

    Full Text Available The relationship between body size and vocalization parameters has been studied in many animal species. In insect species, however, the effect of body size on song frequency has remained unclear. Here we analyzed the effect of body size on the frequency spectra of mating songs produced by the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. We recorded the calling songs and courtship songs of male crickets of different body sizes. The calling songs contained a frequency component that peaked at 5.7 kHz. On the other hand, courtship songs contained two frequency components that peaked at 5.8 and 14.7 kHz. The dominant frequency of each component in both the calling and courtship songs was constant regardless of body size. The size of the harp and mirror regions in the cricket forewings, which are the acoustic sources of the songs, correlated positively with body size. These findings suggest that the frequency contents of both the calling and courtship songs of the cricket are unaffected by whole body, harp, or mirror size.

  20. How male sound pressure level influences phonotaxis in virgin female Jamaican field crickets (Gryllus assimilis

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    Karen Pacheco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding female mate preference is important for determining the strength and direction of sexual trait evolution. The sound pressure level (SPL acoustic signalers use is often an important predictor of mating success because higher sound pressure levels are detectable at greater distances. If females are more attracted to signals produced at higher sound pressure levels, then the potential fitness impacts of signalling at higher sound pressure levels should be elevated beyond what would be expected from detection distance alone. Here we manipulated the sound pressure level of cricket mate attraction signals to determine how female phonotaxis was influenced. We examined female phonotaxis using two common experimental methods: spherical treadmills and open arenas. Both methods showed similar results, with females exhibiting greatest phonotaxis towards loud sound pressure levels relative to the standard signal (69 vs. 60 dB SPL but showing reduced phonotaxis towards very loud sound pressure level signals relative to the standard (77 vs. 60 dB SPL. Reduced female phonotaxis towards supernormal stimuli may signify an acoustic startle response, an absence of other required sensory cues, or perceived increases in predation risk.

  1. Danger detection and escape behaviour in wood crickets.

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    Dupuy, Fabienne; Casas, Jérôme; Body, Mélanie; Lazzari, Claudio R

    2011-07-01

    The wind-sensitive cercal system of Orthopteroid insects that mediates the detection of the approach of a predator is a very sensitive sensory system. It has been intensively analysed from a behavioural and neurobiological point of view, and constitutes a classical model system in neuroethology. The escape behaviour is triggered in orthopteroids by the detection of air-currents produced by approaching objects, allowing these insects to keep away from potential dangers. Nevertheless, escape behaviour has not been studied in terms of success. Moreover, an attacking predator is more than "air movement", it is also a visible moving entity. The sensory basis of predator detection is thus probably more complex than the perception of air movement by the cerci. We have used a piston mimicking an attacking running predator for a quantitative evaluation of the escape behaviour of wood crickets Nemobius sylvestris. The movement of the piston not only generates air movement, but it can be seen by the insect and can touch it as a natural predator. This procedure allowed us to study the escape behaviour in terms of detection and also in terms of success. Our results showed that 5-52% of crickets that detected the piston thrust were indeed touched. Crickets escaped to stimulation from behind better than to a stimulation from the front, even though they detected the approaching object similarly in both cases. After cerci ablation, 48% crickets were still able to detect a piston approaching from behind (compared with 79% of detection in intact insects) and 24% crickets escaped successfully (compared with 62% in the case of intact insects). So, cerci play a major role in the detection of an approaching object but other mechanoreceptors or sensory modalities are implicated in this detection. It is not possible to assure that other sensory modalities participate (in the case of intact animals) in the behaviour; rather, than in the absence of cerci other sensory modalities can

  2. Three-year lifecycle, large body, and very high threshold temperature in the cricket Gryllus argenteus for special adaptation to desiccation cycle in Malawi

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    Kosumi, Takuya; Takeda, Makio

    2017-10-01

    In temperate climates, the initiation and termination of diapause synchronize the stress-tolerant stage with the stressful season and reproduction with the non-stressful season in many insects. Synchronization is often regulated by photoperiodism. Voltinism and the ultimate size of adults are also important determinants for their lifecycle, and different diapause stages and voltinism patterns are known in crickets. Here, we investigated the life history of the African cricket Gryllus argenteus from Malawi, which is a typical arid tropical highland. The climate is characterized by alternating arid and wet seasons, each of which lasts for half a year, and where the available heat mass is much less than lowlands at the same latitude. We first measured the nymphal duration at each rearing temperature and calculated the lower developmental threshold ( t 0) to be 20.19 °C based on Ikemoto and Takai (2000) and 19.38 °C based on a conventional line-fitting method. These values are very high relative to many other insects. The local temperature in winter does not fall below 15 °C, but this is much higher than the lethal limit. This suggested that critical stress in this locality was not coldness but low precipitation in winter. We estimated, based both on local temperature change and the Ikemoto and Takai's t 0, that G. argenteus required 3 years to complete its lifecycle unlike wet lowland species, where univoltinism or multi-voltinism are commonplace. Photoperiodism was observed in this species, but due to a lag between annual cycles in photoperiod, temperature, and humidity, photoperiodism alone cannot atune their lifecycle with local conditions. Synchronization in this species was achieved by three different adaptations: photoperiodism, high t 0, and large body size, which give it a long lifecycle. Although the species cannot achieve a univoltine lifecycle because of its high t0 value, it can escape from dry season by entering diapause at moderate temperatures

  3. [A morphofunctional analysis of the hemocytes in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) normally and in acute microsporidiosis due to Nosema grylli].

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    Sokolova, Iu Ia; Tokarev, Iu S; Lozinskaia, Ia L; Glupov, V V

    2000-01-01

    Microsporidians (M) are supposed to be ancient eukaryotic parasites with a broad range of animal hosts, being especially abundant in Arthropoda. They are supposed to pass a long way of adaptation to parasitism, that usually means inhibiting or avoiding host immune reactions alongside with the reduction of pathogenicity. However M, unlike other eukaryotic obligate parasites, preserved a high pathogenicity, comparable with one of viruses, and thus they could be expected to possess a unique mode of interactions with their hosts. The goal of the present work is to assess how M influence the cellular immune response of an insect host. Experiments were performed on the host-parasite system Gryllus bimaculatus (Orthoptera, Gryllidae)--Nosema grylli (Microsporidia, Nosematidae); coccidia Adelina grylli--infected crickets were used to compare the host cellular response against two pathogens. Haemocytes (H) were observed using phase contrast and electron microscope. H smears were stained for a phenoloxidase (PO), esterase activities and "respiratory burst" reaction. Five H type can be distinguished in the cricket haemolymph. (1) Prohaemocytes, relatively small (13-30 microns) cells with large nuclei, are observed both in control and infected insects. (2) Plasmatocytes, round (30-35 microns in diameter) or fusiod (40-63 x 13-38 microns) cells, can hardly be distinguished from (1) ultrastructurally; during the coccidian infection of the cricket fat body these H infiltrate the infected organ and turn into amebocytes with laciniate nuclei, they usually contain electron dense granules, that release during the formation of a capsule around the coccidian oocytes. (3) Granulocytes (Gr, 20-33 microns in diameter) are cells with the extremely refractive cytoplasm when observed in phase contrast microscope, they contain vacuoles with typical crystal needle-like inclusions. The transitional forms between the mentioned above three cell types can be observed. The next two H types also

  4. Neural basis of stimulus-angle-dependent motor control of wind-elicited walking behavior in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

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    Momoko Oe

    Full Text Available Crickets exhibit oriented walking behavior in response to air-current stimuli. Because crickets move in the opposite direction from the stimulus source, this behavior is considered to represent 'escape behavior' from an approaching predator. However, details of the stimulus-angle-dependent control of locomotion during the immediate phase, and the neural basis underlying the directional motor control of this behavior remain unclear. In this study, we used a spherical-treadmill system to measure locomotory parameters including trajectory, turn angle and velocity during the immediate phase of responses to air-puff stimuli applied from various angles. Both walking direction and turn angle were correlated with stimulus angle, but their relationships followed different rules. A shorter stimulus also induced directionally-controlled walking, but reduced the yaw rotation in stimulus-angle-dependent turning. These results suggest that neural control of the turn angle requires different sensory information than that required for oriented walking. Hemi-severance of the ventral nerve cords containing descending axons from the cephalic to the prothoracic ganglion abolished stimulus-angle-dependent control, indicating that this control required descending signals from the brain. Furthermore, we selectively ablated identified ascending giant interneurons (GIs in vivo to examine their functional roles in wind-elicited walking. Ablation of GI8-1 diminished control of the turn angle and decreased walking distance in the initial response. Meanwhile, GI9-1b ablation had no discernible effect on stimulus-angle-dependent control or walking distance, but delayed the reaction time. These results suggest that the ascending signals conveyed by GI8-1 are required for turn-angle control and maintenance of walking behavior, and that GI9-1b is responsible for rapid initiation of walking. It is possible that individual types of GIs separately supply the sensory signals

  5. Purification and Characterization of Cytoplasmic NADP+-Isocitrate Dehydrogenase, and Amplification of the Nadp+-IDH Gene from the Wing-Dimorphic Sand Field Cricket, Gryllus firmus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zera, Anthony J.; Newman, Susan; Berkheim, David; Black, Christine; Klug, Lindsay; Crone, Erica

    2011-01-01

    Cytoplasmic NADP+-isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP+-IDH) has been purified and characterized, and its gene sequenced in many animal, plant, and yeast species. However, much less information is available on this enzyme-gene in insects. As a first step in investigating the biochemical and molecular mechanisms by which NADP+-IDH contributes to adaptations for flight vs. reproduction in insects, the enzyme was purified to homogeneity in the wing-dimorphic cricket, Gryllus firmus, characterized, and its corresponding gene sequenced. Using a combination of polyethylene glycol precipitation, Cibacron-Blue affinity chromatography, and hydrophobic interaction chromatography the enzyme was purified 291-fold (7% yield; specific activity = 15.8 µmol NADPH/min/mg protein). The purified enzyme exhibited a single band on SDS PAGE (46.3 kD), but consisted of two N-terminal amino acid sequences that differed in the first two amino acids. Purified enzyme exhibited standard Michaelis-Menten kinetics at pH 8.0 and 28° C (KM(NADP+) = 2.3 ± 0.4 µM; KM(Na+-Isocitrate) = 14.7 + 1.8 µM). Subunit molecular mass and KMS were similar to published values for NADP+-IDHs from a variety of vertebrate and two insect species. PCR amplification of an internal sequence using genomic DNA followed by 3′ and 5′ RACE yielded a nucleotide sequence of the mature protein and translated amino-acid sequences that exhibited high similarity (40–50% and 70–80%, respectively) to sequences from insect and vertebrate NADP+-IDHs. Two potential ATG start codons were identified. Both Nterminal amino-acid sequences matched the nucleotide sequence, consistent with both enzyme forms being transcribed from the same gene, although these variants could also be encoded by different genes. Bioinformatic analyses and differential centrifugation indicated that the majority, if not all, of the enzyme is cytoplasmic. The enzyme exhibited high specific activity in fat body, head and gut, and a single band on native PAGE

  6. CRICKET

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club has played 18 matches so far this season, winning 12 and losing 6, with 12 fixtures remaining before the end of the season. As match reports are too long to be included in the weekly bulletin, the full reports and the schedule, which includes a weekend trip to Milan at the end of September, can be found under “Matches (Fixtures, results, reports)” on the Cricket Club web site at http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/ Anyone interested in playing cricket is welcome to join us at net practice, which takes place on the Prévessin site each Thursday evening from 18:00 to around 19:30 (weather permitting).

  7. New Volvovirus Isolates from Acheta domesticus (Japan) and Gryllus assimilis (United States).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hanh T; Iwao, Hajime; Bergoin, Max; Tijssen, Peter

    2013-06-27

    A novel circular single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) virus, volvovirus, from the house cricket has been described recently. Here, we report the isolation of volvoviruses from Acheta domesticus in Japan and Gryllus assimilis in the United States. These Acheta domesticus volvovirus (AdVVV) isolates have genomes of 2,517 and 2,516 nucleotides (nt) and 4 large open reading frames (ORFs).

  8. New Volvovirus Isolates from Acheta domesticus (Japan) and Gryllus assimilis (United States)

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Hanh T.; Iwao, Hajime; Bergoin, Max; Tijssen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A novel circular single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) virus, volvovirus, from the house cricket has been described recently. Here, we report the isolation of volvoviruses from Acheta domesticus in Japan and Gryllus assimilis in the United States. These Acheta domesticus volvovirus (AdVVV) isolates have genomes of 2,517 and 2,516 nucleotides (nt) and 4 large open reading frames (ORFs).

  9. The morphology and fine structure of the giant interneurons of the wood cricket Nemobius sylvestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insausti, T C; Lazzari, C R; Casas, J

    2011-02-01

    The structural and ultrastructural characteristics of giant interneurons in the terminal abdominal ganglion of the cricket Nemobius sylvestris were investigated by means of cobalt and fluorescent dye backfilling and transmission electron microscopy. The projections of the 8 eight pairs of the biggest ascending interneurons (giant interneurons) are described in detail. The somata of all interneurons analyzed are located contralateral to their axons, which project to the posterior region of the terminal ganglion and arborise in the cercal glomerulus. Neuron 7-1a is an exception, because its arborisation is restricted to the anterior region of the ganglion. The fine structure of giant interneurons shows typical features of highly active cells. We observed striking indentations in the perineural layer, enabling the somata of the giant interneurons to be very close to the haemolymph. The cercal glomerulus exhibits a high diversity of synaptic contacts (i.e. axo-dendritic, axo-axonic, dendro-axonic, and dendro-dendritic), as well as areas of tight junctions. Electrical synapses seem to be present, as well as mixed synapses. The anatomical organization of the giant interneurons is finally discussed in terms of functional implications and on a comparative basis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2012-01-01

      The start of the 2012 Cricket season is only days away!  The CERN club is always looking for new players and newcomers will be made very welcome. Net practice takes place each Thursday evening from 19 April onwards, at the CERN Prévessin site (http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/CricketField.pdf), from 18:00 to around 19:30. The first practice match will be on Sunday, 22 April.  Information about the CERN Cricket Club and the current fixture list for 2012 can be found on the web at: http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/.

  11. Cricket club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket club

    2010-01-01

    The start of the Cricket season is upon us! Net practice takes place each Thursday evening from 15 April onwards, at the CERN Prévessin site, starting at 18:00 (http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/CricketField.pdf). All newcomers will be made very welcome. The first practice match will be on Sunday, 18 April. Information about the CERN Cricket Club and the current fixture list for 2010 can be found on the web at http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/  

  12. CRICKET CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    CRICKET CLUB

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club 2013 season begins soon! The club is always looking for new players and newcomers will be made very welcome. Anyone who is interested in joining the club should sign up on our web site: http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/ or turn up for net practice, which takes place each Thursday evening from April 18th until the end of September (starting at 18:00 to around 19:30) at the CERN Prévessin site: http://club-cricket.web.cern.ch/Club-Cricket/CERN-Ground.html The first match will be at home on Sunday, April 21st against Rhone CC from Lyon.

  13. Cricket club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket club

    2017-01-01

    Cern Cricket Club The CERN Cricket Club 2017 season begins soon, the first net practice is scheduled (weather permitting) for Thursday April 13th, at 18:00! The club is always looking for new players and newcomers will be made very welcome. Anyone who is interested in joining the club should sign up on our web site: http://cern.ch/cricket/. Or turn up for net practice, which takes place each Thursday evening (apart from CERN official holidays) until the end of September (starting at 18:00 to around 19:30) at the CERN Prévessin site: http://cern.ch/cricket/CERN-Ground.html.

  14. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club has had a good start to the season, winning five and losing two matches, with one cancelled due to torrential rain in the South of France. Reports of the matches can be found on the Cricket Club web site at http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/ under “Match reports”. The schedule of matches can be found under “Fixtures”. Anyone interested in playing cricket is welcome to join us at net practice, which takes place every week at 18:00 on the Prevessin site.

  15. Life cycle assessment of cricket farming in north-eastern Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Hanboonsong, Y; Roos, Nanna

    2017-01-01

    presents the first case of a life cycle assessment (LCA) performed on an existing production system of Gryllus bimaculatus De Geer (field cricket) and Acheta domesticus (house cricket) production in north-eastern Thailand and compares it with broiler production in the same region. The system boundaries...... of the production system considered the entire production cycle of edible crickets as well as processing. The study included two functional units (1 kg of edible mass and 1 kg of protein in edible mass). Irrespective of the functional unit, larger impacts were associated with broiler production. Major hotspots...... for cricket and broiler production were related to the production soybean meal and maize grain for feed. A scaled-up cricket farming system which was considered as a possible 'future' scenario demonstrated a reduction in overall environmental impacts when compared to current cricket production and industrial...

  16. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2016-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club 2016 season begins soon, the first net practice is scheduled (weather permitting) for Thursday April 14th, at 18:00!  The club is always looking for new players and newcomers will be made very welcome. Anyone who is interested in joining the club should sign up on our web site: http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/ or turn up for net practice, which takes place each Thursday evening (apart from CERN official holidays) until the end of September (starting at 18:00 to around 19:30) at the CERN Prévessin site: http://club-cricket.web.cern.ch/Club-Cricket/CERN-Ground.html There will be an indoor game at the Bout-du-Monde on April 3rd and the season starts with a match at home on Sunday, April 24th against Rhone CC from Lyon.

  17. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club has had a mixed first month of what has been the wettest and coldest start to a season ever, winning two and losing two matches, with one cancelled. Information about the club can be found on the Cricket Club web site at http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/ Reports of the matches can be found under “Matches (Fixtures, results, reports)” and the schedule, which includes weekend trips to the South of France, Bellingham (UK), and Milan, can be found under “Fixtures”. Anyone interested in playing cricket is welcome to join us at net practice, which takes place on the Prevessin site each Thursday evening from 18:00 to around 19:30 (weather permitting – several sessions have already been cancelled due to the inclement weather).

  18. Cricket club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket club

    2017-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club Annual General Meeting will be held on Thursday 30th November 2017 at 18:30 Restaurant No.1 (NOVAE) Draft Agenda Opening / Adoption of agenda/Apologies for absence Minutes of the 2016 AGM Captain's Report for 2017 Treasurer's Report for 2017 Groundsman's Report for 2017 Kit Report for 2017 Election of Officers for 2018 Cricket Switzerland  affairs and CERN Fixtures for 2018 CERN umpires New EU rules on personal data Any other business Close of meeting Offices up for election are: President, Vice-President, Secretary, Captain, Vice-Captain, Treasurer, Groundsman, coach, social convenor and match manager organiser. Any nominations should be sent to the Secretary in time for the Meeting. For more details on the CERN Cricket Club, see the web page http://cern.ch/cricket/.

  19. Cricket club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket club

    2017-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club Annual General Meeting will be held on Thursday 30th November 2017 at 18:30 Restaurant No.1 (NOVAE) Draft Agenda Opening/Adoption of agenda/Apologies for absence Minutes of the 2016 AGM Captain's Report for 2017 Treasurer's Report for 2017 Groundsman's Report for 2017 Kit Report for 2017 Election of Officers for 2018 Cricket Switzerland  affairs and CERN Fixtures for 2018 CERN umpires New EU rules on personal data Any other business Close of meeting Offices up for election are: President, Vice-President, Secretary, Captain, Vice-Captain, Treasurer, Groundsman, coach, social convenor and match manager organiser. Any nominations should be sent to the Secretary in time for the Meeting. For more details on the CERN Cricket Club, see the web page http://cern.ch/cricket/.

  20. Predation of warm-and cool-season grass seed by the common cricket (Acheta domesticus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In field experiments we noted that one of the main predators of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) seed was the field cricket (Gryllus sp.). To determine if there might be a seed predation preference among forage grasses a laboratory study was ...

  1. CRICKET CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2012-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club is now midway through the season and has had mixed fortunes, winning seven and losing five matches, with one drawn last weekend against the Fleet Street Strollers. Two wins were recorded against Trafford Solicitors in Bellingham in the north of England only days after the heaviest rainfall in the North East in living memory, read the detailed match report online to see what the grounds man had to say when we insisted on playing! Reports of all matches can be found on the Cricket Club web site at http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/ under “ Matches (Fixtures, results, reports) ”. The schedule of matches can be found under “Fixtures”. Upcoming fixtures include the Eifion Jones Single Wicket Competition on August 19th and away matches against Rhone CC in Lyon and against Milan and Euratom Cricket clubs in Settimo Milanese in September. Anyone interested in playing cricket is welcome to join us at net practice, which takes place on Thursday every week...

  2. Cricket Club

    CERN Document Server

    Cricket Club

    2012-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club Annual General Meeting will be held on Monday 26th November 2012 at 18:30 Restaurant No 1 (NOVAE) Draft Agenda Opening/Adoption of agenda/Apologies for absence Minutes of the 2011 AGM Captain's Report for 2012 Treasurer's Report for 2012 Groundsman's and Kit Report for 2012 Election of Officers for 2013 SCA affairs and CERN Fixtures for 2013 Any other business Close of meeting Offices up for election are: Secretary, Captain, Vice-captain, Treasurer and Groundsman. Any nominations should be sent to the Secretary in time for the Meeting. For more details on the CERN Cricket Club, see the web page http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/

  3. The Steppengrille (Gryllus spec./assimilis: selective filters and signal mismatch on two time scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Michael Rothbart

    Full Text Available In Europe, several species of crickets are available commercially as pet food. Here we investigated the calling song and phonotactic selectivity for sound patterns on the short and long time scales for one such a cricket, Gryllus spec., available as "Gryllus assimilis", the Steppengrille, originally from Ecuador. The calling song consisted of short chirps (2-3 pulses, carrier frequency: 5.0 kHz emitted with a pulse period of 30.2 ms and chirp rate of 0.43 per second. Females exhibited high selectivity on both time scales. The preference for pulse period peaked at 33 ms which was higher then the pulse period produced by males. Two consecutive pulses per chirp at the correct pulse period were already sufficient for positive phonotaxis. The preference for the chirp pattern was limited by selectivity for small chirp duty cycles and for chirp periods between 200 ms and 500 ms. The long chirp period of the songs of males was unattractive to females. On both time scales a mismatch between the song signal of the males and the preference of females was observed. The variability of song parameters as quantified by the coefficient of variation was below 50% for all temporal measures. Hence, there was not a strong indication for directional selection on song parameters by females which could account for the observed mismatch. The divergence of the chirp period and female preference may originate from a founder effect, when the Steppengrille was cultured. Alternatively the mismatch was a result of selection pressures exerted by commercial breeders on low singing activity, to satisfy customers with softly singing crickets. In the latter case the prominent divergence between male song and female preference was the result of domestication and may serve as an example of rapid evolution of song traits in acoustic communication systems.

  4. Body-enlarging effect of royal jelly in a non-holometabolous insect species, Gryllus bimaculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Miyashita

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Honeybee royal jelly is reported to have body-enlarging effects in holometabolous insects such as the honeybee, fly and silkmoth, but its effect in non-holometabolous insect species has not yet been examined. The present study confirmed the body-enlarging effect in silkmoths fed an artificial diet instead of mulberry leaves used in the previous literature. Administration of honeybee royal jelly to silkmoth from early larval stage increased the size of female pupae and adult moths, but not larvae (at the late larval stage or male pupae. We further examined the body-enlarging effect of royal jelly in a non-holometabolous species, the two-spotted cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, which belongs to the evolutionarily primitive group Polyneoptera. Administration of royal jelly to G. bimaculatus from its early nymph stage enlarged both males and females at the mid-nymph and adult stages. In the cricket, the body parts were uniformly enlarged in both males and females; whereas the enlarged female silkmoths had swollen abdomens. Administration of royal jelly increased the number, but not the size, of eggs loaded in the abdomen of silkmoth females. In addition, fat body cells were enlarged by royal jelly in the silkmoth, but not in the cricket. These findings suggest that the body-enlarging effect of royal jelly is common in non-holometabolous species, G. bimaculatus, but it acts in a different manner than in holometabolous species.

  5. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2015-01-01

    CERN Cricket Club celebrates its 50th anniversary this year, with a game involving some of the ex members (but unfortunately none of the founder members) followed by dinner on Saturday, September 5th. CERN started playing cricket on various football fields in the Geneva Canton, then on the Meyrin site next to where the Kindergarten is now situated, bowling from one end only. Later, net practice took place where building 40 is now, before moving over to the Prevessin site in the early 70s. Lots of work was done to prepare a strip onto which a mat was rolled and the strip was rolled before each match using a heavy roller which required a minimum of 6 to push! This pre-match training is no longer necessary as the club invested in an artificial wicket in 2001. CERN now has one of the best grounds in the region. Last year CERN made it to the Cricket Switzerland semi-final, losing a close match in the last over, but is hoping to go one better in this year’s semi-final on September 13th, which will be...

  6. CERN Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Cricket Club

    2010-01-01

    CERN Cricket Club Match Reports The cricket season is well under way, despite the weather, and several matches have been played. The match reporters have, however, found it too difficult to limit their reports to ¼ of a page, hence the reports have not appeared in the bulletin. All reports can be found at http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/reports/reports.html The list of forthcoming matches can be consulted at http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/fixtures.html Further information about the CERN Cricket Club can be found at http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/

  7. Behaviour in captivity predicts some aspects of natural behaviour, but not others, in a wild cricket population

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, David N.; James, Adèle; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Rolando; Tregenza, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Examining the relevance of ‘animal personality’ involves linking consistent among- and within-individual behavioural variation to fitness in the wild. Studies aiming to do this typically assay personality in captivity and rely on the assumption that measures of traits in the laboratory reflect their expression in nature. We examined this rarely tested assumption by comparing laboratory and field measurements of the behaviour of wild field crickets (Gryllus campestris) by continuously monitori...

  8. Susceptibility of North-American and European crickets to Acheta domesticus densovirus (AdDNV) and associated epizootics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelei, J; Woodring, J; Goettel, M S; Duke, G; Jousset, F-X; Liu, K Y; Zadori, Z; Li, Y; Styer, E; Boucias, D G; Kleespies, R G; Bergoin, M; Tijssen, P

    2011-03-01

    The European house cricket, Acheta domesticus L., is highly susceptible to A. domesticus densovirus (AdDNV). Commercial rearings of crickets in Europe are frequently decimated by this pathogen. Mortality was predominant in the last larval stage and young adults. Infected A. domesticus were smaller, less active, did not jump as high, and the adult females seldom lived more than 10-14 days. The most obvious pathological change was the completely empty digestive caecae. Infected tissues included adipose tissue, midgut, epidermis, and Malpighian tubules. Sudden AdDNV epizootics have decimated commercial mass rearings in widely separated parts of North America since the autumn of 2009. Facilities that are producing disease-free crickets have avoided the importation of crickets and other non-cricket species (or nonliving material). Five isolates from different areas in North America contained identical sequences as did AdDNV present in non-cricket species collected from these facilities. The North American AdDNVs differed slightly from sequences of European AdDNV isolates obtained in 1977, 2004, 2006, 2007 and 2009 and an American isolate from 1988. The substitution rate of the 1977 AdDNV 5kb genome was about two nucleotides per year, about half of the substitutions being synonymous. The American and European AdDNV strains are estimated to have diverged in 2006. The lepidopterans Spodoptera littoralis and Galleria mellonella could not be infected with AdDNV. The Jamaican cricket, Gryllus assimilis, and the European field cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, were also found to be resistant to AdDNV. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. CRICKET CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    CRICKET CLUB

    2010-01-01

    CERN CC VERSUS TRAFFORD SOLICITORS CC IN BELLINGHAN ON JUNE 26th/27th 2010 The CERN cricket club traveled to the North of England for their first tour of the season, playing two games over the course of the weekend of 26-27th June against Trafford Solicitors CC (TSCC).   The sunny weather was almost unprecedented in the history of this fixture.  The first game on Saturday saw the CERN team rewarded for their accurate bowling, as they restricted TSCC to 130 all out: T. Goodyear the pick of the bowlers with 4-7, with three wickets for Stucki.  Despite losing three wickets, the runs were comfortable chased down in 26 overs, with Elvin top scoring on 34, and K. Goodyear hitting the winning runs to finish on 32 not out. The second match saw TSCC setting a challenging target of 179 from their 30 overs, Hoburn scoring 61, and Barrett taking 3-40.  Osborne very narrowly failed to take a hat-trick in the final over.   CERN CC’s reply started w...

  10. Cricket club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket club

    2011-01-01

    CERN CC JOINS IN THREE DAYS OF GOODWILL FOR UK JOURNALISTS   22 24 July vs FLEET STREET STROLLERS Fleet Street Strollers Cricket Club, a 17-strong group of professional journalists and friends from the UK Home Counties, visited CERN for the first time on 22-24 July. On Friday 22 July, CERN's Visitor Centre provided their usual polished tour and information services.  Before the visit the Strollers had hoped to stroll underground to the Atlas detector.  Forewarned that this was not possible they hid any disappointment, judging by the acuteness and variety of the question-and-answer sessions.  And the cash register of the Visitor Shop was busy. On Saturday 23 July, Strollers won the toss and batted first in a 35-over game.  D'Mello and Campbell bowled tightly for CERN and Strollers were 13 for 2 after 6 overs.  CERN released the pressure with a few overs from L. Osborne and Curtis but, at the point where Strollers were looking...

  11. Adaptive plasticity in wild field cricket's acoustic signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M Bertram

    Full Text Available Phenotypic plasticity can be adaptive when phenotypes are closely matched to changes in the environment. In crickets, rhythmic fluctuations in the biotic and abiotic environment regularly result in diel rhythms in density of sexually active individuals. Given that density strongly influences the intensity of sexual selection, we asked whether crickets exhibit plasticity in signaling behavior that aligns with these rhythmic fluctuations in the socio-sexual environment. We quantified the acoustic mate signaling behavior of wild-caught males of two cricket species, Gryllus veletis and G. pennsylvanicus. Crickets exhibited phenotypically plastic mate signaling behavior, with most males signaling more often and more attractively during the times of day when mating activity is highest in the wild. Most male G. pennsylvanicus chirped more often and louder, with shorter interpulse durations, pulse periods, chirp durations, and interchirp durations, and at slightly higher carrier frequencies during the time of the day that mating activity is highest in the wild. Similarly, most male G. veletis chirped more often, with more pulses per chirp, longer interpulse durations, pulse periods, and chirp durations, shorter interchirp durations, and at lower carrier frequencies during the time of peak mating activity in the wild. Among-male variation in signaling plasticity was high, with some males signaling in an apparently maladaptive manner. Body size explained some of the among-male variation in G. pennsylvanicus plasticity but not G. veletis plasticity. Overall, our findings suggest that crickets exhibit phenotypically plastic mate attraction signals that closely match the fluctuating socio-sexual context they experience.

  12. Chemical cues mediate species recognition in field crickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances eTyler

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs are important in mate choice in many insects, and may be used for species recognition if CHC profiles differ between potentially hybridizing species. In the sibling field cricket species Gryllus campestris and G. bimaculatus, females of G. bimaculatus are tolerant towards G. campestris males and can mate with them. However, G. campestris females are highly aggressive towards heterospecific G. bimaculatus males, and matings between them never happen. We examined whether cricket females might use CHCs to determine the species identity of their potential mates. We firstly analyzed the cuticular chemical profile by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry to assess the potential of CHCs to be used for species recognition in these crickets. We then manipulated females’ ability to detect chemical cues by carrying out chemical ablation of the antennae, and measured changes in aggressive responses to heterospecific males. We show that there are significant interspecies differences in CHC expression for both sexes, and that females with chemically ablated antennae reduce aggressive behavior towards heterospecific males. Our findings support the prediction that cuticular semiochemicals can play a key role in reproductive isolation between closely related insect species.

  13. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of soil PCBs in crickets: Comparison of laboratory and field studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paine, J.M.; McKee, M.J.; Ryan, M.E. (Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Cooperative Wildlife Research Lab. and Dept. of Zoology)

    1993-11-01

    Laboratory and field studies were used to investigate toxicity and bioaccumulation of PCBs in crickets exposed to contaminated soil. A 14-d laboratory soil bioassay with the house cricket (Acheta domesticus) yielded an LC50 of 1,200 ppm Aroclor 1254. Mean whole-body concentrations of Aroclor 1254 in exposed crickets were 11, 48, 92, 149, and 144 ppm for soil test concentrations of 100, 250, 500, 1,000, and 2,000 ppm, respectively. A whole-body concentration of about 150 ppm appears to be a threshold concentration above which acute mortality will be observed. House crickets placed in cages on a PCB-contaminated landfill accumulated 1.6 and 0.9 ppm of PCBs after 3 and 7 d of exposure, respectively. Although this represents a rapid uptake of PCBs, whole-body concentrations remained considerably below levels expected to cause acute mortality. Abundance of another species, the field cricket (Gryllus pennsylvanicus), was investigated using pitfall traps placed at the PCB-contaminated landfill and a reference site. No adverse effect on abundance was observed at the contaminated site, nor was pitfall trap success correlated to soil PCB concentration. These data indicate that PCBs in soil can rapidly move into epigeic fauna but that the likelihood of acquiring sufficient body burdens to cause acute mortality is low.

  14. Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2014-01-01

    is a renewable resource makes it predestinated for what is considered ´sustainable architecture´. But the reality is less linear and there are serious traps: In fact the lecture shows by examples that it is much easier to build very unsustainable buildings in wood than the other way round! Where does the wood...

  15. CERN Cricket club

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Cricket club

    2015-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club 2015 season begins soon, the first net practice is scheduled (weather permitting) for Thursday April 16th, at 18:00! The club is always looking for new players and newcomers will be made very welcome. Anyone who is interested in joining the club should sign up on our web site: http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/ or turn up for net practice, which takes place each Thursday evening from April 16th (apart from CERN official holidays) until the end of September (starting at 18:00 to around 19:30) at the CERN Prévessin site: http://club-cricket.web.cern.ch/Club-Cricket/CERN-Ground.html The first match will be at home on Sunday, April 19th against Rhone CC from Lyon.

  16. Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Robert H. White; Antoni TenWolde; William Simpson; Joseph Murphy; Robert J. Ross; Roland Hernandez; Stan T. Lebow

    2006-01-01

    Wood is a naturally formed organic material consisting essentially of elongated tubular elements called cells arranged in a parallel manner for the most part. These cells vary in dimensions and wall thickness with position in the tree, age, conditions of growth, and kind of tree. The walls of the cells are formed principally of chain molecules of cellulose, polymerized...

  17. Effects of Caffeine on Olfactory Learning in Crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimachi, Seigo; Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Mizunami, Makoto; Okada, Jiro

    2016-10-01

    Caffeine is a plant-derived alkaloid that is generally known as a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant. In order to examine the effects of caffeine on higher CNS functions in insects, we used an appetitive olfactory learning paradigm for the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. Crickets can form significant long-term memories (LTMs) after repetitive training sessions, during which they associate a conditioned stimulus (CS: odor) with an unconditioned stimulus (US: reward). Administration of hemolymphal injections of caffeine established LTM after only single-trial conditioning over a wide range of caffeine dosages (1.6 µµg/kg to 39 mg/kg). We investigated the physiological mechanisms underlying this enhancement of olfactory learning performance pharmacologically, focusing on three major physiological roles of caffeine: 1) inhibition of phosphodiesterase (PDE), 2) agonism of ryanodine receptors, and 3) antagonism of adenosine receptors. Application of drugs relevant to these actions resulted in significant effects on LTM formation. These results suggest that externally applied caffeine enhances LTM formation in insect olfactory learning via multiple cellular mechanisms.

  18. CERN Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    CERN CRICKET CLUB   The CERN Cricket Club 2014 season has been a good one so far with the team qualifying for the Swiss Cup semi-finals, with home advantage on the Prevessin ground on Sunday, August 24th. Their opponents will only be known the day before when the final game in the Eastern Division is played.  The CERN ground hasn’t quite recovered from the Bosons&More party last year, the wet weather making it impossible to roll the ground, but the new, wider strip is a big improvement. Net practice eventually started in late July, which is probably why the results at the beginning of the season weren’t so good. As match reports are too long to be included in the weekly bulletin, the full reports and the schedule can be found under “Matches (Fixtures, results, reports)” on the Cricket Club web site at http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/    Anyone interested in playing cricket is welcome to join us at net practice, which takes pla...

  19. Cricket related maxillofacial fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kai

    2012-06-01

    Cricket is a popular sport in New Zealand, enjoyed both at social and competitive level. Although it is a non-contact sport and there is in place good facial protection, injury to the head and neck region is still frequently seen in the emergency department. Data were collected from departmental records between 1996 and 2006. Variables examined included incidence, demographics, site of fracture and treatment method. Of the 561 patients with sports-related maxillofacial fractures during the study period, 40 were cricket-related. Male to female ratio was 36:1. 45% of patients were in the 16-30 year age group. 55% of injuries were due to impact from cricket ball. 70% of injuries occurred at midface level, while 30% at the mandible. 38% of patients required surgery and hospitalization. Maxillofacial fracture from cricket playing is a frequent injury in patients presenting with sports-related injuries. Cricket players need to be educated on the safety measures in playing the sport, including facial protection devices.

  20. Cern Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cern Cricket Club

    2014-01-01

      Cern Cricket Club The CERN Cricket Club 2014 season has started earlier than usual, with a game scheduled for the first time ever on Easter Sunday.  Due to repair work for the damage done to the ground because of the “Bosons&More” party at the end of September, all games until June have had to be scheduled away. Net practice, which normally takes place on the ground from mid-April, will not start until mid-June. The club is always looking for new players and newcomers will be made very welcome. Anyone who is interested in joining the club should sign up on our web site: http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/    

  1. Effects of Serotonergic and Opioidergic Drugs on Escape Behaviors and Social Status of Male Crickets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyakonova, V. E.; Schürmann, F.-W.; Sakharov, D. A.

    We examined the effects of selective serotonin depletion and opioid ligands on social rank and related escape behavior of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. Establishment of social rank in a pair of males affected their escape reactions. Losers showed a lower and dominants a higher percentage of jumps in response to tactile cercal stimulation than before a fight. The serotonin-depleting drug α-methyltryptophan (AMTP) caused an activation of the escape reactivity in socially naive crickets. AMTP-treated animals also showed a lower ability to become dominants. With an initial 51.6+/-3.6% of wins in the AMTP group, the percentage decreased to 26+/-1.6% on day 5 after injection. The opiate receptor antagonist naloxone affected fight and escape similarly as AMTP. In contrast to naloxone, the opioid agonist [d-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, Gly5-ol]-enkephalin decreased escape responsiveness to cercal stimulation in naive and subordinate crickets. We suggest that serotonergic and opioid systems are involved in the dominance induced depression of escape behavior.

  2. Motor program initiation and selection in crickets, with special reference to swimming and flying behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Tetsuya; Kanou, Masamichi; Yamaguchi, Tsuneo

    2002-01-01

    An air puff stimulus to the cerci of a cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) evokes flying when it is suspended in air, while the same stimulus evokes swimming when it is placed on the water surface. After bilateral dissection of the connectives between the suboesophageal and the prothoracic ganglia or between the brain and the suboesophageal ganglion, the air puff stimulus evokes flying even when the operated cricket is placed on the water surface. A touch stimulus on the body surface of crickets placed on the water surface elicits only flying when the connectives between suboesophageal and prothoracic ganglia are dissected, while the same stimulus elicits either swimming or flying when the connectives between the brain and the suboesophageal ganglion are dissected. These results suggest that certain neurons running through the ventral nerve cords between the brain and the suboesophageal ganglion or between the suboesophageal and the prothoracic ganglia play important but different roles in the initiation and/or switching of swimming and flying. In the suboesophageal ganglion, we physiologically and morphologically identified four types of "swimming initiating neurons". Depolarization of any one of these neurons resulted in synchronized activities of paired legs with a similar temporal sequence to that observed during swimming.

  3. Winning fights induces hyperaggression via the action of the biogenic amine octopamine in crickets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Rillich

    Full Text Available Winning an agonistic interaction against a conspecific is known to heighten aggressiveness, but the underlying events and mechanism are poorly understood. We quantified the effect of experiencing successive wins on aggression in adult male crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus by staging knockout tournaments and investigated its dependence on biogenic amines by treatment with amine receptor antagonists. For an inter-fight interval of 5 min, fights between winners escalated to higher levels of aggression and lasted significantly longer than the preceding round. This winner effect is transient, and no longer evident for an inter-fight interval of 20 min, indicating that it does not result from selecting individuals that were hyper-aggressive from the outset. A winner effect was also evident in crickets that experienced wins without physical exertion, or that engaged in fights that were interrupted before a win was experienced. Finally, the winner effect was abolished by prior treatment with epinastine, a highly selective octopamine receptor blocker, but not by propranolol, a ß-adrenergic receptor antagonist, nor by yohimbine, an insect tyramine receptor blocker nor by fluphenazine an insect dopamine-receptor blocker. Taken together our study in the cricket indicates that the physical exertion of fighting, together with some rewarding aspect of the actual winning experience, leads to a transient increase in aggressive motivation via activation of the octopaminergic system, the invertebrate equivalent to the adrenergic system of vertebrates.

  4. Bernoulli Runs Using 'Book Cricket'to Evaluate Cricketers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 5. Bernoulli Runs Using 'Book Cricket' to Evaluate Cricketers. Anand Ramalingam. General Article Volume 17 Issue 5 May 2012 pp 441-453. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  5. Bernoulli Runs Using 'Book Cricket' to Evaluate Cricketers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper proposes a simple method to evalu- ate batsmen and bowlers in cricket. The idea in this paper refines 'book cricket' and evaluates a batsman by answering the question: How many runs a team consisting of same player replicated eleven times will score? 1. Introduction. In the late 1980s and early 1990s to beat ...

  6. Identification of novel allergen in edible insect, Gryllus bimaculatus and its cross-reactivity with Macrobrachium spp. allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinroch, Chutima; Srisomsap, Chantragan; Chokchaichamnankit, Daranee; Punyarit, Phaibul; Phiriyangkul, Pharima

    2015-10-01

    Edible insects have recently been promoted as a source of protein and have a high nutrition value. Identification of allergens and cross-reactivity between Macrobrachium spp. and the field cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) is necessary for food safety control and to assist in the diagnosis and therapy of allergy symptoms. Denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used to separate proteins. Allergens were determined and identified by IgE-immunoblotting with pooled sera from prawn-allergic patients (n=16) and LC-MS/MS. Arginine kinase (AK) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were determined as the important allergens in muscle of Macrobrachium rosenbergii whereas, hemocyanin (HC) was identified as an allergen in Macrobrachium spp. The allergens in Macrobrachium lanchesteri were identified as AK and HC. In addition, hexamerin1B (HEX1B) was identified as a novel and specific allergen in G. bimaculatus. The important allergen in G. bimaculatus and Macrobrachium spp. is AK and was found to cross-react between both species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluating indices of body condition in two cricket species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Clint D; Tawes, Brittany R; Worthington, Amy M

    2014-01-01

    Body mass components (dry mass, lean dry mass, water mass, fat mass) in each sex correlate strongly with body mass and pronotum length in Gryllus texensis and Acheta domesticus. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression underestimates the scaling relationship between body mass and structural size (i.e., pronotum length) in both cricket species compared with standard major axis (SMA) regression. Standardized mass components correlate more strongly with scaled mass index () than with residual body mass (R i). R i represents the residuals from an OLS regression of log body mass against log pronotum length. Neither condition index predicts energy stores (i.e., fat content) in G. texensis. R i is not correlated with energy stores in A. domesticus whereas is negatively correlated. A comparison of condition index methods using published data showed that neither sex nor diet quality affected body condition at adulthood in G. texensis when using the scaled mass index. However, the residual index suggested that sex had a significant effect on body condition. Further, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) suggested that diet quality significantly affects body mass while statistically controlling for body size (i.e., body condition). We conclude that the statistical assumptions of condition index methods must be met prior to use and urge caution when using methods that are based on least squares in the y -plane (i.e., residual index ANCOVA). PMID:25512844

  8. Involuntary dehydration during cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, C J; Bourdon, P C; Woolford, S M; Pederson, D G

    1993-10-01

    The sweat rate, heart rate and core temperature as well as urinary volume, osmolarity, electrolyte concentration and pH of 20 cricketers were measured under cool, warm and hot conditions with wet bulb globe temperature indices of 22.1, 24.5 and 27.1, respectively. Simulated match conditions were used on the cool and warm days, while 3 bowlers were measured under actual match conditions on the hot day. The tendency for higher heart rate, sweat rate and renal conservation of water and sodium on the warm day compared with the cool day is consistent with increasing thermoregulatory stress under relatively moderate environmental conditions. The average dehydration of the three fast bowlers was -4.3% of initial body mass after only two sessions of play, on the hot day. This level of dehydration is sufficient to impair physical performance. These results suggest that the adverse effects of dehydration could be minimised if the rules of cricket were amended to allow players the opportunity to drink as desired when the environmental conditions are extreme.

  9. Crickets in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Eberhard; Böser, Sybille; Förster, Susanne; Riewe, Pascal; Sebastian, Claudia; Agricola, Hans

    2001-08-01

    "Crickets in Space" (CRISP) was a Neurolab experiment by which the balance between genetic programs and the gravitational environment for the development of a gravity sensitive neuronal system was studied. The model character of crickets was justified by their external gravity receptors, identified position-sensitive interneurons (PSI) and gravity-related compensatory head response, and by the specific relation of this behavior to neuronal activation systems. These advantages allowed us to study the impact of modified gravity on cellular processes in a complex organism. Eggs, 1 st, 4 th and 6 th stage larvae of Acheta domesticus were used. Post-flight experiments revealed a low susceptibility of the behavior to microgravity (μg) and hypergravity (hg) while the physiology of the PSI was significantly affected. Immunocytological investigations revealed a stage-dependent sensitivity of thoracic GABAergic motoneurons to 3g-conditions concerning their soma sizes but not their topographical arrangement. Peptidergic neurons from cerebral sensorimotor centers revealed no significant modifications by microgravity. The contrary physiological and behavioral results indicate a facilitation of 1g-readaptation by accessory gravity, proprioceptive and visual sense organs. Absence of anatomical modifications point to an effective time window of μg- or hg-exposure related to the period of neuronal proliferation.

  10. Effects of hedgerows on bats and bush crickets at different spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacoeuilhe, Aurélie; Machon, Nathalie; Julien, Jean-François; Kerbiriou, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Biodiversity is threatened by the loss and fragmentation of habitats. The role of hedgerows in maintaining biodiversity is well established, but few studies have addressed the importance for biodiversity of the intrinsic characteristics of hedgerows and the quality of hedgerow networks along a spatial scale. We examined three quality indices providing information at different territorial levels: density in the landscape, structural diversity and wood production. We performed an acoustic survey in a grassland to estimate the species abundance and community composition of bats (9 taxa) and bush crickets (11 species). Using an approach based on species and traits, we assessed how hedgerow quality influenced the activity of these taxa at different spatial scales (from 50 to 1000 m) and focused on three types of traits: bush cricket mobility ability, bat foraging strategy and habitat specialization. In general, our results showed the importance of hedgerow quality for bats and bush crickets, but the strength of the association between taxa and hedgerows varied substantially among the species and the spatial scales. Although it depends on the taxa, the production, density and structural diversity of hedgerows each had an overall positive effect. Our results suggested that these effects were generally more important at large scales. The scale effect of the production index is the best predictor of activity for bat and bush cricket taxa and traits. Our results showed the importance of hedgerow quality for the ecology of bat and bush cricket communities and could be used to improve conservation management.

  11. Cricket club looking for new players

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2016-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club, having lost several key players, has had a very difficult season so far and is desperately in need of new players. Having qualified for the Cricket Switzerland semi-finals for the last two years (unfortunately losing both), this year we are bottom of the Western Pool, having played the last two league matches with only 10 players. If you are interested in playing cricket please join us at net practice, which takes place on the Prevessin site each Thursday evening from 18:00 to around 20:00 (weather permitting) or send me an e-mail (see below). Please have a look at the Cricket Club web site for more information: http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/ Chris Onions, President of the CERN Cricket Club   (christopher.onions@gmail.com)

  12. Chronobiology of crickets: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Kenji

    2014-10-01

    Crickets provide a good model for the study of mechanisms underlying circadian rhythms and photoperiodic responses. They show clear circadian rhythms in their overt behavior and the sensitivity of the visual system. Classical neurobiological studies revealed that a pair of optic lobes is the locus of the circadian clock controlling these rhythms and that the compound eye is the major photoreceptor necessary for synchronization to environmental light cycles. The two optic lobe clocks are mutually coupled through a neural pathway and the coupling regulates an output circadian waveform and a free-running period. Recent molecular studies revealed that the cricket's clock consists of cyclic expression of so-called clock genes and that the clock mechanism is featured by both Drosophila-like and mammalian-like traits. Molecular oscillation is also observed in some extra-optic lobe tissues and depends on the optic lobe clock in a tissue dependent manner. Interestingly, the clock is also involved in adaptation to seasonally changing environment. It fits its waveform to a given photoperiod and may be an indispensable part of a photoperiodic time-measurement mechanism. With adoption of modern molecular technologies, the cricket becomes a much more important and promising model animal for the study of circadian and photoperiodic biology.

  13. Transformation in cricket: the black African experience

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The small number of black African (BA) cricket players progressing through the talent development pathways to the elite level has been a constant concern for Cricket South. Africa (CSA). Previous attempts to accelerate the development of. BA players have not produced the desired results. A description.

  14. Cricket Inspired Flow-Sensor Arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaganatharaja, R.K.

    2011-01-01

    Crickets, like many other arthropods, are evolved with an astonishing sensory system, which plays a vital role in their survival. Located at the rear-end of the crickets, are a pair of sensory appendages called cerci, carrying numerous mechano-receptive filiform hairs. These filiform hairs are

  15. Navigation of robotic system using cricket motes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Yogendra J.; Baine, Nicholas A.; Rattan, Kuldip S.

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a novel algorithm for self-mapping of the cricket motes that can be used for indoor navigation of autonomous robotic systems. The cricket system is a wireless sensor network that can provide indoor localization service to its user via acoustic ranging techniques. The behavior of the ultrasonic transducer on the cricket mote is studied and the regions where satisfactorily distance measurements can be obtained are recorded. Placing the motes in these regions results fine-grain mapping of the cricket motes. Trilateration is used to obtain a rigid coordinate system, but is insufficient if the network is to be used for navigation. A modified SLAM algorithm is applied to overcome the shortcomings of trilateration. Finally, the self-mapped cricket motes can be used for navigation of autonomous robotic systems in an indoor location.

  16. RAD/COMM Cricket Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiaro, PJ

    2003-08-28

    The Environmental Effects Laboratory of the Engineering Science and Technology Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory performed a series of tests to further evaluate and characterize the radiological response of a ''Cricket'' radiation detection system. The Cricket, manufactured by Rad/Comm Systems Corporation of Ontario, Canada, is designed to detect radioactive material that may be contained in scrap metal. The Cricket's detection unit is designed to be mounted to the base of a grappler, allowing it to monitor material while the material is being held by the grappler tines. The Cricket was tested for background stability, energy response, spherical response, surface uniformity, angular dependence, and alarm actuation. Some of these tests were repeated from a prior test of a Cricket at the Environmental Effects Laboratory as reported in ORNL/TM-2002/94. Routine environmental tests--normal temperature and relatively humidity--were also performed as part of this testing process. Overall, the Cricket performed well during the testing process. The design of the instrument and the inherent photon energy of the radionuclides had some affect on portions of the tests but do not detract from the value-added benefits of the Cricket's detection capabilities.

  17. Male crickets adjust their aggressive behavior when a female is present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montroy, Kaitlyn; Loranger, Michelle J; Bertram, Susan M

    2016-03-01

    Communication in nature often occurs within a broad social network, as signals can be perceived by other individuals beyond the primary intended receiver. Because signals often contain information about the signaller's quality, receivers other than the primary intended receiver may use this information in future interactions with the signaller. As a result, individuals who adjust their behavior depending on who is present may experience a selective advantage. The social environment can therefore have an important influence on the evolution of communication signals. We examined how the presence of a female audience influenced male aggressive behavior and post-contest victory displays in the Jamaican field cricket, Gryllus assimilis. We found a significant effect of female audience on aggressive interactions. When there was a female audience present, males were more likely to initiate and escalate fights, but they spent less time producing victory displays, compared to when there was no audience present. Our experiment suggests that the social environment is important in shaping the behavior of individuals during aggressive interactions. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Phenotypic covariance structure and its divergence for acoustic mate attraction signals among four cricket species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Susan M; Fitzsimmons, Lauren P; McAuley, Emily M; Rundle, Howard D; Gorelick, Root

    2012-01-01

    The phenotypic variance–covariance matrix (P) describes the multivariate distribution of a population in phenotypic space, providing direct insight into the appropriateness of measured traits within the context of multicollinearity (i.e., do they describe any significant variance that is independent of other traits), and whether trait covariances restrict the combinations of phenotypes available to selection. Given the importance of P, it is therefore surprising that phenotypic covariances are seldom jointly analyzed and that the dimensionality of P has rarely been investigated in a rigorous statistical framework. Here, we used a repeated measures approach to quantify P separately for populations of four cricket species using seven acoustic signaling traits thought to enhance mate attraction. P was of full or almost full dimensionality in all four species, indicating that all traits conveyed some information that was independent of the other traits, and that phenotypic trait covariances do not constrain the combinations of signaling traits available to selection. P also differed significantly among species, although the dominant axis of phenotypic variation (pmax) was largely shared among three of the species (Acheta domesticus, Gryllus assimilis, G. texensis), but different in the fourth (G. veletis). In G. veletis and A. domesticus, but not G. assimilis and G. texensis, pmax was correlated with body size, while pmax was not correlated with residual mass (a condition measure) in any of the species. This study reveals the importance of jointly analyzing phenotypic traits. PMID:22408735

  19. De novo transcriptome assembly from fat body and flight muscles transcripts to identify morph-specific gene expression profiles in Gryllus firmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanoth Vellichirammal, Neetha; Zera, Anthony J; Schilder, Rudolf J; Wehrkamp, Cody; Riethoven, Jean-Jack M; Brisson, Jennifer A

    2014-01-01

    Wing polymorphism is a powerful model for examining many aspects of adaptation. The wing dimorphic cricket species, Gryllus firmus, consists of a long-winged morph with functional flight muscles that is capable of flight, and two flightless morphs. One (obligately) flightless morph emerges as an adult with vestigial wings and vestigial flight muscles. The other (plastic) flightless morph emerges with fully-developed wings but later in adulthood histolyzes its flight muscles. Importantly both flightless morphs have substantially increased reproductive output relative to the flight-capable morph. Much is known about the physiological and biochemical differences between the morphs with respect to adaptations for flight versus reproduction. In contrast, little is known about the molecular genetic basis of these morph-specific adaptations. To address this issue, we assembled a de novo transcriptome of G. firmus using 141.5 million Illumina reads generated from flight muscles and fat body, two organs that play key roles in flight and reproduction. We used the resulting 34,411 transcripts as a reference transcriptome for differential gene expression analyses. A comparison of gene expression profiles from functional flight muscles in the flight-capable morph versus histolyzed flight muscles in the plastic flight incapable morph identified a suite of genes involved in respiration that were highly expressed in pink (functional) flight muscles and genes involved in proteolysis highly expressed in the white (histolyzed) flight muscles. A comparison of fat body transcripts from the obligately flightless versus the flight-capable morphs revealed differential expression of genes involved in triglyceride biosynthesis, lipid transport, immune function and reproduction. These data provide a valuable resource for future molecular genetics research in this and related species and provide insight on the role of gene expression in morph-specific adaptations for flight versus

  20. De novo transcriptome assembly from fat body and flight muscles transcripts to identify morph-specific gene expression profiles in Gryllus firmus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neetha Nanoth Vellichirammal

    Full Text Available Wing polymorphism is a powerful model for examining many aspects of adaptation. The wing dimorphic cricket species, Gryllus firmus, consists of a long-winged morph with functional flight muscles that is capable of flight, and two flightless morphs. One (obligately flightless morph emerges as an adult with vestigial wings and vestigial flight muscles. The other (plastic flightless morph emerges with fully-developed wings but later in adulthood histolyzes its flight muscles. Importantly both flightless morphs have substantially increased reproductive output relative to the flight-capable morph. Much is known about the physiological and biochemical differences between the morphs with respect to adaptations for flight versus reproduction. In contrast, little is known about the molecular genetic basis of these morph-specific adaptations. To address this issue, we assembled a de novo transcriptome of G. firmus using 141.5 million Illumina reads generated from flight muscles and fat body, two organs that play key roles in flight and reproduction. We used the resulting 34,411 transcripts as a reference transcriptome for differential gene expression analyses. A comparison of gene expression profiles from functional flight muscles in the flight-capable morph versus histolyzed flight muscles in the plastic flight incapable morph identified a suite of genes involved in respiration that were highly expressed in pink (functional flight muscles and genes involved in proteolysis highly expressed in the white (histolyzed flight muscles. A comparison of fat body transcripts from the obligately flightless versus the flight-capable morphs revealed differential expression of genes involved in triglyceride biosynthesis, lipid transport, immune function and reproduction. These data provide a valuable resource for future molecular genetics research in this and related species and provide insight on the role of gene expression in morph-specific adaptations for flight

  1. Quantifying Cricket Fast Bowling Skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feros, Simon A; Young, Warren B; O'Brien, Brendan J

    2017-09-27

    To evaluate the current evidence regarding the quantification of cricket fast bowling skill. Studies that assessed fast bowling skill (bowling speed and accuracy) were identified from searches in SPORTDiscus (EBSCO) in June 2017. The reference lists of identified papers were also examined for relevant investigations. Sixteen papers matched the inclusion criteria, and discrepancies in assessment procedures were evident. Differences in: test environment, pitch and cricket ball characteristics, the warm-up prior to test, test familiarisation procedures, permitted run-up lengths, bowling spell length, delivery sequence, test instructions, collection of bowling speed data, collection and reportage of bowling accuracy data were apparent throughout the literature. The reliability and sensitivity of fast bowling skill measures has rarely been reported across the literature. Only one study has attempted to assess the construct validity of their skill measures. There are several discrepancies in how fast bowling skill has been assessed and subsequently quantified in the literature to date. This is a problem, as comparisons between studies are often difficult. Therefore, a strong rationale exists for the creation of match-specific standardised fast bowling assessments that offer greater ecological validity while maintaining acceptable reliability and sensitivity of the skill measures. If prospective research can act on the proposed recommendations from this review, then coaches will be able to make more informed decisions surrounding player selection, talent identification, return to skill following injury, and the efficacy of short- and long-term training interventions for fast bowlers.

  2. A review of cricket fielding requirements

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of cricket fielding requirements. D MacDonald,1,2 MSc; J Cronin,1,2,3 PhD; J Mills,2 Grad Dip; M McGuigan,1,3 PhD; R Stretch,4 DPhil. 1 Sport Performance Research Institute, AUT University, Auckland, New Zealand. 2 New Zealand Cricket, Christchurch, New Zealand. 3 School of Exercise and Health Sciences, ...

  3. Male Weaponry in a Fighting Cricket: e3980

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kevin A Judge; Vanessa L Bonanno

    2008-01-01

      Sexually selected male weaponry is widespread in nature. Despite being model systems for the study of male aggression in Western science and for cricket fights in Chinese culture, field crickets...

  4. Effectiveness of the cricket transformation process in increasing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. This study investigates the effectiveness of the cricket transformation process in firstly increasing representation of black players and secondly improving performance of black players in the South African 4-day provincial competition between the 1996/1997 and 2007/2008 cricket seasons. Methods. Cricketers ...

  5. Seasonal incidence and nature of cricket injuries among elite South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Setting. The population consisted of 196 cricketers representing all provincial teams in the 2004 under-19 Coca- Cola Khaya Majola cricket week. Results. Sixty-seven injuries were sustained by 196 cricketers, with an incidence of 34.2% during the period under review. Injuries occurred during matches (71.6%), throughout

  6. Different tissue type categories of overuse injuries to cricket fast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    variation in severity and incidence of injury to different tissue types in cricket fast bowlers. Materials and methods. Cricket Australia conducts an annual ongoing injury survey recording injuries in contracted first-class players. Methods for this survey have been described previously.[14] The methods used for Cricket Australia.

  7. Behaviour in captivity predicts some aspects of natural behaviour, but not others, in a wild cricket population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, David N; James, Adèle; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Rolando; Tregenza, Tom

    2015-06-22

    Examining the relevance of 'animal personality' involves linking consistent among- and within-individual behavioural variation to fitness in the wild. Studies aiming to do this typically assay personality in captivity and rely on the assumption that measures of traits in the laboratory reflect their expression in nature. We examined this rarely tested assumption by comparing laboratory and field measurements of the behaviour of wild field crickets (Gryllus campestris) by continuously monitoring individual behaviour in nature, and repeatedly capturing the same individuals and measuring their behaviour in captivity. We focused on three traits that are frequently examined in personality studies: shyness, activity and exploration. All of them showed repeatability in the laboratory. Laboratory activity and exploration predicted the expression of their equivalent behaviours in the wild, but shyness did not. Traits in the wild were predictably influenced by environmental factors such as temperature and sunlight, but only activity showed appreciable within-individual repeatability. This suggests that some behaviours typically studied as personality traits can be accurately assayed in captivity, but the expression of others may be highly context-specific. Our results highlight the importance of validating the relevance of laboratory behavioural assays to analogous traits measured in the wild.

  8. Contrasting the Chromosomal Organization of Repetitive DNAs in Two Gryllidae Crickets with Highly Divergent Karyotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio M Palacios-Gimenez

    Full Text Available A large percentage of eukaryotic genomes consist of repetitive DNA that plays an important role in the organization, size and evolution. In the case of crickets, chromosomal variability has been found using classical cytogenetics, but almost no information concerning the organization of their repetitive DNAs is available. To better understand the chromosomal organization and diversification of repetitive DNAs in crickets, we studied the chromosomes of two Gryllidae species with highly divergent karyotypes, i.e., 2n(♂ = 29,X0 (Gryllus assimilis and 2n = 9, neo-X1X2Y (Eneoptera surinamensis. The analyses were performed using classical cytogenetic techniques, repetitive DNA mapping and genome-size estimation. Conserved characteristics were observed, such as the occurrence of a small number of clusters of rDNAs and U snDNAs, in contrast to the multiple clusters/dispersal of the H3 histone genes. The positions of U2 snDNA and 18S rDNA are also conserved, being intermingled within the largest autosome. The distribution and base-pair composition of the heterochromatin and repetitive DNA pools of these organisms differed, suggesting reorganization. Although the microsatellite arrays had a similar distribution pattern, being dispersed along entire chromosomes, as has been observed in some grasshopper species, a band-like pattern was also observed in the E. surinamensis chromosomes, putatively due to their amplification and clustering. In addition to these differences, the genome of E. surinamensis is approximately 2.5 times larger than that of G. assimilis, which we hypothesize is due to the amplification of repetitive DNAs. Finally, we discuss the possible involvement of repetitive DNAs in the differentiation of the neo-sex chromosomes of E. surinamensis, as has been reported in other eukaryotic groups. This study provided an opportunity to explore the evolutionary dynamics of repetitive DNAs in two non-model species and will contribute to the

  9. Elite Cricket Coach Education: A Bourdieusian Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Robert C.; Cushion, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    The social structures within coach education have been largely unexplored, undiscussed, and treated as unproblematic in contributing to coach learning, both in research and practice. The study used semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 11 elite cricket coaches to gather their perceptions of an elite coach education programme. In particular,…

  10. Cricket inspired flow-sensor arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Casas, J.

    2007-01-01

    We report current developments in biomimetic flow-sensors based on mechanoreceptive sensory hairs of crickets. These filiform hairs are highly perceptive to lowfrequency sound with energy sensitivities close to thermal threshold. In this work we describe hair-sensors fabricated by a combination of

  11. Imitating cricket mechanosensory hairs: dream or reality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Casas, Jerome

    2008-01-01

    MEMS offers exciting possibilities for bio-inspired mechanosensors. Over the last years we have been working on cricket inspired hair-sensors for flow observations. In stimulating interactions within EU consortia important insights have surfaced and MEMS sensors with demonstrated acoustic

  12. From micro- to macroevolution through quantitative genetic variation: positive evidence from field crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bégin, Mattieu; Roff, Derek A

    2004-10-01

    Quantitative genetics has been introduced to evolutionary biologists with the suggestion that microevolution could be directly linked to macroevolutionary patterns using, among other parameters, the additive genetic variance/ covariance matrix (G) which is a statistical representation of genetic constraints to evolution. However, little is known concerning the rate and pattern of evolution of G in nature, and it is uncertain whether the constraining effect of G is important over evolutionary time scales. To address these issues, seven species of field crickets from the genera Gryllus and Teleogryllus were reared in the laboratory, and quantitative genetic parameters for morphological traits were estimated from each of them using a nested full-sibling family design. We used three statistical approaches (T method, Flury hierarchy, and Mantel test) to compare G matrices or genetic correlation matrices in a phylogenetic framework. Results showed that G matrices were generally similar across species, with occasional differences between some species. We suggest that G has evolved at a low rate, a conclusion strengthened by the consideration that part of the observed across-species variation in G can be explained by the effect of a genotype by environment interaction. The observed pattern of G matrix variation between species could not be predicted by either morphological trait values or phylogeny. The constraint hypothesis was tested by comparing the multivariate orientation of the reconstructed ancestral G matrix to the orientation of the across-species divergence matrix (D matrix, based on mean trait values). The D matrix mainly revealed divergence in size and, to a much smaller extent, in a shape component related to the ovipositor length. This pattern of species divergence was found to be predictable from the ancestral G matrix in agreement with the expectation of the constraint hypothesis. Overall, these results suggest that the G matrix seems to have an influence

  13. The development of the edible cricket industry in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Roos, Nanna; Flore, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    additional themes in the development of the cricket industry in connection to the work of other scholars, as well as future considerations to maintain the positive impacts of the industry on rural economic development, entrepreneurship and employment. Eight types of actors in the cricket industry were...... opportunities and threats to the industry. Considering the edible cricket industry as a part of the rural entrepreneurship and development policy discourse may be beneficial to sustainable development.......Since cricket farming was introduced in Thailand in 1997, domestic, regional and international interest in the edible cricket industry has increased. This study aims to identify emerging themes related the development of the edible cricket industry over the past decades. It also discusses...

  14. A Novel Ambisense Densovirus, Acheta domesticus Mini Ambidensovirus, from Crickets

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Hanh T.; Yu, Qian; Bergoin, Max; Tijssen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The genome structure of Acheta domesticus mini ambidensovirus, isolated from crickets, resembled that of ambisense densoviruses from Lepidoptera but was 20% smaller. It had the highest (

  15. Wood flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig M. Clemons

    2010-01-01

    The term “wood flour” is somewhat ambiguous. Reineke states that the term wood flour “is applied somewhat loosely to wood reduced to finely divided particles approximating those of cereal flours in size, appearance, and texture.” Though its definition is imprecise, the term wood flour is in common use. Practically speaking, wood flour usually refers to wood particles...

  16. Wood flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig M. Clemons; Daniel F. Caufield

    2005-01-01

    The term “wood flour” is somewhat ambiguous. Reineke states that the term wood flour “is applied somewhat loosely to wood reduced to finely divided particles approximating those of cereal flours in size, appearance, and texture”. Though its definition is imprecise, the term wood flour is in common use. Practically speaking, wood flour usually refers to wood particles...

  17. RAD/COMM ''Cricket'' Test Report

    CERN Document Server

    Chiaro, P J

    2002-01-01

    A series of tests were performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate and characterize the radiological response of a ''Cricket'' radiation detection system. The ''Cricket'' is manufactured by RAD/COMM Systems Corp., which is located in Ontario, Canada. The system is designed to detect radioactive material that may be contained in scrap metal. The Cricket's detection unit is mounted to the base of a grappler and monitors material, while the grappler's tines hold the material. It can also be used to scan material in an attempt to isolate radioactive material if an alarm occurs. Testing was performed at the Environmental Effects Laboratory located at ORNL and operated by the Engineering Science and Technology Division. Tests performed included the following: (1) Background stability, (2) Energy response using sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am, sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs, and sup 6 sup 0 Co, (3) Surface uniformity, (4) Angular dependence, (5) Alarm actuation, (6) Alarm threshold vs. background, (7) Shielding, (8) Re...

  18. Physical activity in former elite cricketers and strategies for promoting physical activity after retirement from cricket: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, Nicholas; Jones, Mary E; Arden, Nigel K

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The health benefits of professional sport dissipate after retirement unless an active lifestyle is adopted, yet reasons for adopting an active or inactive lifestyle after retirement from sport are poorly understood. Elite cricket is all-encompassing, requiring a high volume of activity and unique physical demands. We aimed to identify influences on physical activity behaviours in active and insufficiently active former elite cricketers and provide practical strategies for promoting physical activity after cricket retirement. Design 18 audio-recorded semistructured telephone interviews were performed. An inductive thematic approach was used and coding was iterative and data-driven facilitated by NVivo software. Themes were compared between sufficiently active and insufficiently active participants. Setting All participants formerly played professional cricket in the UK. Participants Participants were male, mean age 57±11 (range 34–77) years, participated in professional cricket for 12±7 seasons and retired on average 23±9 years previously. Ten participants (56%) were classified as sufficiently active according to the UK Physical Activity Guidelines (moderate-intensity activity ≥150 min per week or vigorous-intensity activity ≥75 min per week). Eight participants did not meet these guidelines and were classified as insufficiently active. Results Key physical activity influences were time constraints, habit formation, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, physical activity preferences, pain/physical impairment and cricket coaching. Recommendations for optimising physical activity across the lifespan after cricket retirement included; prioritise physical activity, establish a physical activity plan prior to cricket retirement and don’t take a break from physical activity, evaluate sources of physical activity motivation and incorporate into a physical activity plan, find multiple forms of satisfying physical activity that can be adapted to

  19. Carrot supplementation does not affect house cricket performance (Acheta domesticus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenenbos, M.E.; Oonincx, D.G.A.B.

    2017-01-01

    The demand for house crickets as a source of food or feed is increasing. Meeting this demand will require efficient production systems. House crickets are often fed a combination of dry feed and fresh plant material. Supplying fresh plant material could improve growth and development, but also

  20. Seasonal incidence and nature of cricket injuries among elite South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The game of cricket can be dangerous, considering that the ball (156 g) can travel up to 160 kilometres per hour (km h-1). Serious injuries as a result of being struck on the head by a cricket ball, while not a daily occurrence, can result if the correct protective gear is not worn. The nature of the game is evolving: while ...

  1. Perceived Injury Risk among Junior Cricketers: A Cross Sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna J. Gamage

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how junior athletes perceive injury risks when participating in sport and the environment they play in is an important component of injury prevention. This study investigates how Sri Lankan junior cricketers (n = 365, aged 11–14 years, boys perceive injury risks associated with playing cricket. The study used a Sri Lankan modification of an Australian junior cricket injury risk perception survey that considered playing cricket versus other sports, different cricket playing positions and roles, and different ground conditions. The risk of playing cricket was considered to be greater than that for cycling, but lower than that for rugby and soccer. Fast-bowlers, batters facing fast-bowlers, fielding close in the field, and wicket-keeping without a helmet were perceived to pose greater risks of injury than other scenarios. Playing on hard, bumpy and/or wet ground conditions were perceived to have a high risk opposed to playing on a grass field. Fielding in the outfield and wicket-keeping to fast-bowlers whilst wearing a helmet were perceived as low risk actions. The risk perceptions of junior cricketers identified in this study, do not necessarily reflect the true injury risk in some instances. This information will inform the development of injury prevention education interventions to address these risk perceptions in junior cricketers.

  2. The relationship between mental skills and level of cricket participation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the mental-skills differences at participatory level among three progressive levels of cricket participation recognised by the Northerns Cricket Union (NCU) in the Pretoria Gauteng region of South Africa. The study sample included 39 junior academy players, 68 premier league ...

  3. Prevalence of cricket-related musculoskeletal pain among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. This study investigated the prevalence and nature of cricket-related musculoskeletal pain among male adolescent cricket players (n=234) residing in the Highway area of Durban over a 12-month period during all the seasons of the year. Methods. Data were collected from five secondary schools. Subjects ...

  4. Perceived Injury Risk among Junior Cricketers: A Cross Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, Prasanna J.; Fortington, Lauren V.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how junior athletes perceive injury risks when participating in sport and the environment they play in is an important component of injury prevention. This study investigates how Sri Lankan junior cricketers (n = 365, aged 11–14 years, boys) perceive injury risks associated with playing cricket. The study used a Sri Lankan modification of an Australian junior cricket injury risk perception survey that considered playing cricket versus other sports, different cricket playing positions and roles, and different ground conditions. The risk of playing cricket was considered to be greater than that for cycling, but lower than that for rugby and soccer. Fast-bowlers, batters facing fast-bowlers, fielding close in the field, and wicket-keeping without a helmet were perceived to pose greater risks of injury than other scenarios. Playing on hard, bumpy and/or wet ground conditions were perceived to have a high risk opposed to playing on a grass field. Fielding in the outfield and wicket-keeping to fast-bowlers whilst wearing a helmet were perceived as low risk actions. The risk perceptions of junior cricketers identified in this study, do not necessarily reflect the true injury risk in some instances. This information will inform the development of injury prevention education interventions to address these risk perceptions in junior cricketers. PMID:28829390

  5. Boards and governance in African national cricket organisations: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper will focus on the roles and structures of the boards of African national cricket organisations to enhance the understanding of board involvement in strategic planning and implementation. This study used a sequential mixed method design to gather empirical data from 23 cricket associations affiliated to the ...

  6. Transformation in cricket: The Black African experience | Dove ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The small number of black African (BA) cricket players progressing through the talent development pathways to the elite level has been a constant concern for Cricket South Africa (CSA). Previous attempts to accelerate the development of BA players have not produced the desired results. A description of the ...

  7. Methods for injury surveillance in international cricket | Orchard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Varying methods of cricket injury surveillance projects have made direct comparison of published studies in this field impossible. Methods. A consensus regarding definitions and methods to calculate injury rates in cricket was sought between researchers in this field. This was arrived at through a variety of ...

  8. Experience-based typology of spectators at an international cricket ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analysis was performed in three stages, two factor analyses, a cluster analysis and an analysis of significant differences between the experience-based clusters of the cricket-sixes spectators. Different cricket spectator segments were identified based on the factors that are regarded by the spectators as important for a ...

  9. Cricket farming as a livelihood strategy in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Roos, Nanna; Hanboonsong, Yupa

    2017-01-01

    While many important aspects of wild and farmed insects have been discussed by scholars, such as nutritional value, conservation and farming techniques, no study has addressed how insect farming contributes to rural livelihoods. Furthermore, the roles that interactions between insect farmers...... cricket farming contributes to rural livelihoods. This exploratory study investigates the following research questions: What are the characteristics of Thai cricket farmers and their farms? How do crickets contribute to the lives of rural farmers in Thailand? What role has social and human capital played......, their peers and institutions play in insect farming as a livelihood strategy are even less well understood. This paper presents a preliminary assessment of cricket farming as a livelihood strategy in Thailand. Fortynine cricket farmers participated in in-depth interviews designed to gain insight into how...

  10. Pink Cricket Balls May Be Visually Challenging at Sunset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M. Adie

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cricket is one of the world’s most popular sports, followed by hundreds of millions of people. It can be dangerous, played with a hard ball flying at great velocities, and accidents have occasionally been fatal. Traditionally, cricket has been played during the day, using a dark red ball. Since the late 1970s, a shorter form of one-day cricket has been played both during the day and at night under floodlights. To overcome visibility issues, one-day cricket uses a white ball, and players wear coloured clothing. There is now a desire to play a traditional form of cricket during the day and at night, using a ‘pink’ ball while players wear white clothing. Concerns regarding visibility, and player and umpire safety, have been raised in this context. Here, we report that these concerns have a sound basis.

  11. Phonotaxis in flying crickets. I. Attraction to the calling song and avoidance of bat-like ultrasound are discrete behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen, T G; Hoy, R R

    1986-10-01

    The steering responses of three species of field crickets, Teleogryllus oceanicus, T. commodus, and Gryllus bimaculatus, were characterized during tethered flight using single tone-pulses (rather than model calling song) presented at carrier frequencies from 3-100 kHz. This range of frequencies encompasses the natural songs of crickets (4-20 kHz, Fig. 1) as well as the echolocation cries of insectivorous bats (12-100 kHz). The single-pulse stimulus paradigm was necessary to assess the aversive nature of high carrier frequencies without introducing complications due to the attractive properties of repeated pulse stimuli such as model calling songs. Unlike the natural calling song, single tone-pulses were not attractive and did not elicit positive phonotactic steering even when presented at the calling song carrier frequency (Figs. 2, 3, and 9). In addition to temporal pattern, phonotactic steering was sensitive to carrier frequency as well as sound intensity. Three discrete flight steering behaviors positive phonotaxis, negative phonotaxis and evasion, were elicited by appropriate combinations of frequency, temporal pattern and sound intensity (Fig. 12). Positive phonotactic steering required a model calling song temporal pattern, was tuned to 5 kHz and was restricted to frequencies below 9 kHz. Negative phonotactic steering, similar to the 'early warning' bat-avoidance behavior of moths, was produced by low intensity (55 dB SPL) tone-pulses at frequencies between 12 and 100 kHz (Figs. 2, 3, and 9). In contrast to model calling song, single tone-pulses of high intensity 5-10 kHz elicited negative phonotactic steering; low intensity ultrasound (20-100 kHz) produced only negative phonotactic steering, regardless of pulse repetition pattern. 'Evasive', side-to-side steering, similar to the 'last-chance' bat-evasion behavior of moths was produced in response to high intensity (greater than 90 dB) ultrasound (20-100 kHz). Since the demonstration of negative phonotactic

  12. WOOD WELDING

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Theodoro Muller; Rafael Rodolfo de Melo; Diego Martins Stangerlin

    2010-01-01

    The term "wood welding" designates what can be defined as "welding of wood surfaces". This new process, that it provides the joint of wood pieces without the use of adhesives or any other additional material, provokes growing interest in the academic environment, although it is still in laboratorial state. Linear friction welding induced bymechanical vibration yields welded joints of flat wood surfaces. The phenomenon of the welding occurs in less time than 10 seconds, with the temperature in...

  13. Losing reduces maximum bite performance in house cricket contests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Condon, Catriona; Lailvaux, Simon P; Patek, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    ... of any change in underlying maximum performance capacity. To test the effect of fight experience on performance, we measured the maximum bite force of male Acheta domesticus crickets that were pitted against size...

  14. Acoustic synchrony: two mechanisms in the snowy tree cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, T J

    1969-11-14

    Snowy tree crickets synchronize their chirps by responding to the preceding chirp of their neighbors. If a neighbor's chirp precedes his own, a cricket shortens his chirp and the following interval. If it follows his own, he lengthens his chirp interval and sometimes the following chirp. A single response of the first type may advance his phase of chirping 160 degrees and one of the second type may retard it 200 degrees .

  15. The specificity of behavioral fever in the cricket Acheta domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, S A

    1998-06-01

    When infected, some insects can raise their body temperature by moving to warmer areas. This behavioral fever response can help the host overcome infection. However, not all parasites and pathogens are equally susceptible to increases in host temperature. Elevating the temperature of the cricket Acheta domesticus from room temperature (22 C) to 33 C did not reduce the survival of parasitoid flies or reduce the number of gregarine gut protozoans, and crickets infested with these parasites showed no increase in their temperature preference. Warmer temperatures (33 C) did not increase the survival of crickets infected with the bacterium Serratia marcescens, and infected crickets did not prefer warmer temperatures. However crickets infected with the intracellular parasite Rickettsiella grylli were more likely to survive when the host was exposed to warmer temperatures. Crickets infected with R. grylli increased their preferred temperature from 26 C to 32 C. In A. domesticus, behavioral fever may be a specific response induced by relatively few pathogens and parasites. Behavioral fever in insects may differ in this respect from fever in mammals that can be elicited by a wide variety of parasites and pathogens.

  16. "Neither cricketers nor ladies": towards a history of women and cricket in South Africa, 1860s-2000s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odendaal, André

    2011-01-01

    There is a dearth of research and writing on women's cricket in South Africa. In an attempt to enhance understanding of the nature and effects of women's involvement in the game of cricket over the past 200 years, this essay offers a chronological account of the sport and the role women played in it. It draws on readings from the international scholarship on women's early involvement in sport, the fragments that have existed to date about women's cricket in South Africa and some newly discovered primary material from the 1950s onwards. The essay aims to provide a historical context and open a window for historians and social analysts into an area few knew existed before. There is now a distinctive history and subculture of cricket with multiple social dimensions for scholars to explore; here I offer some preliminary insights.

  17. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MALAYSIAN NATIONAL CRICKET BATSMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zia Ul Haq

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the morphological characteristics and physical strength of the Malaysian cricket batsmen. Methods: Twenty four top order batsmen from the Malaysian senior, under-19s and under-16s cricket team were recruited for the study. Twenty six anthropometric, four somatotype and two physical strength variables were measured from all participants. Stature were measured by using stadiometer, calipers for skin-fold, non-stretch tape for girth, sliding caliper for segmental lengths and circumferences (breadths and dynamometers for hand grip and back strength. Cater and heath (1990 equation was used to find the somatotype variables of height-weight ratio, endomorph, mesomorph and ectomorph. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to analyses significant between group differences in the variables. Results: The senior batsmen were significantly higher than under-19s and under-16s in body mass, relax and flex arm girths, forearm girth, chest girth, waist girth, calf girth, bi-acromial breadth, transvers breadth and hand grip strength. Both senior and under-19s batsmen were significantly higher than under-16s batsmen in arm span, total arm length, humerus and femur breadths. The under-16s batsmen were also significantly lesser than senior in hip girths, hand lengths and bi-ilocrist breadth, and from under-19s in sitting height and total leg length. Conclusion: Senior batsmen were significantly higher in the anthropometric measurement of girths, breadth and lengths than U-16 because of 10 years age difference. Future research is essential to confirm the relationship between the anthropometric characteristics of batsmen with the batting technique and performance.

  18. Risk factors for hamstring injuries in Australian male professional cricket players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Orchard

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Fast bowlers suffer more hamstring injuries than other playing roles in cricket, particularly in First Class (multi-day cricket. Batsmen are more likely to get injured in 50-over (one day cricket. Playing in Australia (compared to overseas venues leads to increased risk of hamstring injury.

  19. Wood composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lars Berglund; Roger M. Rowell

    2005-01-01

    A composite can be defined as two or more elements held together by a matrix. By this definition, what we call “solid wood” is a composite. Solid wood is a three-dimensional composite composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin (with smaller amounts of inorganics and extractives), held together by a lignin matrix. The advantages of developing wood composites are (...

  20. Functional Wood

    OpenAIRE

    Cronhjort, Yrsa (ed.); Hughes, Mark (ed.); Paakkanen, Mikko (ed.); Sahi, Karola (ed.); Tukiainen, Pekka (ed.); Tulamo, Tomi (ed.); Vahtikari, Katja (ed.)

    2016-01-01

    Design has been recognized as a key discipline to bring ideas to the market. In addition to current research on human perceptions and the functional capacities of wood, this publication demonstrates the potential of wood in various applications. The designs are the results of three design courses, implemented during 2015 and 2016 at Aalto University in Finland. The Masters student courses included two Wood Studios at Aalto University’s School of Arts, Design and Architecture and the Integrate...

  1. Visual evoked potentials, reaction times and eye dominance in cricketers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, N G; Harden, L M; Rogers, G G

    2005-09-01

    Few studies have examined the physiology of cricket, including the difference in ability between batsmen to make controlled contact with a ball bowled at high speed. We therefore measured visual evoked potentials and choice reaction times with dominant eyes, non-dominant eyes, and both eyes together, in 15 elite batsmen and 10 elite bowlers (aged 20.9 SD 1.9 years) and 9 control subjects (aged 20.2 SD 1.5 years). The latency and amplitude of waves N70, P100 and N145 were determined for each visual evoked potential (VEP). In addition interpeak latencies and peak to peak amplitudes were measured. The subjects also completed a choice reaction test to a visual stimulus. We found that cricketers were not more likely to have crossed dominance (dominant eye contralateral to dominant hand) than controls. Cricketers had a faster latency for VEP wave N70 than controls (p=0.03). However reaction time was not different between cricketers and the control group. Across all subjects, in comparison to monocular testing, binocular testing led to a faster choice reaction time (p=0.02) and larger amplitudes of VEP wave N70 (p=0.01). Visual processing during the first 100(-1)50 ms of the balls flight together with binocular vision facilitates retinal activation in talented cricketers.

  2. Wood preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach

    1999-01-01

    When left untreated in many outdoor applications, wood becomes subject to degradation by a variety of natural causes. Although some trees possess naturally occurring resistance to decay (Ch. 3, Decay Resistance), many are in short supply or are not grown in ready proximity to markets. Because most commonly used wood species, such as Southern Pine, ponderosa pine, and...

  3. Bursting neurons and ultrasound avoidance in crickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary eMarsat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Decision making in invertebrates often relies on simple neural circuits composed of only a few identified neurons. The relative simplicity of these circuits makes it possible to identify the key computation and neural properties underlying decisions. In this review, we summarize recent research on the neural basis of ultrasound avoidance in crickets, a response that allows escape from echolocating bats. The key neural property shaping behavioral output is high-frequency bursting of an identified interneuron, AN2, which carries information about ultrasound stimuli from receptor neurons to the brain. AN2's spike train consists of clusters of spikes –bursts– that may be interspersed with isolated, non-burst spikes. AN2 firing is necessary and sufficient to trigger avoidance steering but only high-rate firing, such as occurs in bursts, evokes this response. AN2 bursts are therefore at the core of the computation involved in deciding whether or not to steer away from ultrasound. Bursts in AN2 are triggered by synaptic input from nearly synchronous bursts in ultrasound receptors. Thus the population response at the very first stage of sensory processing –the auditory receptor- already differentiates the features of the stimulus that will trigger a behavioral response from those that will not. Adaptation, both intrinsic to AN2 and within ultrasound receptors, scales the burst-generating features according to the stimulus statistics, thus filtering out background noise and ensuring that bursts occur selectively in response to salient peaks in ultrasound intensity. Furthermore AN2’s sensitivity to ultrasound varies adaptively with predation pressure, through both developmental and evolutionary mechanisms. We discuss how this key relationship between bursting and the triggering of avoidance behavior is also observed in other invertebrate systems such as the avoidance of looming visual stimuli in locusts or heat avoidance in beetles.

  4. Physical and performance measures of university cricket players ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in the fourth team. In conclusion, this study found that various physical characteristics such as age and body fat percentage significantly influenced throwing velocity, while body mass, hip circumference and total arm length had a significant influence on peak torque. Keywords: Cricket, throwing velocity, muscle strength ...

  5. A measure for the batting performance of cricket players : research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The same procedure will be used to find a formula for batting performance and a classification table for Test players. Keywords: Batting performance, Consistency, Cricket, Present form of a batsman, Rating of batsmen. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation Vol.26(1) 2004: 55-64 ...

  6. Batting related experiences of South African universities cricketers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation ... The five most strongly supported batting related experiences of the SAU cricketers were: playing of each delivery on its merit; feeling a sudden rush of nervousness when having to bat; expecting to be perfect in their batting; using a ...

  7. Selecting a limited overs cricket squad using an integer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An integer programming model was developed to select an one day international (ODI) cricket squad of 15 players. To develop the method, batting, bowling and fielding ability, which are measured differently, had to be placed onto the same scale, so an ability-indexing technique was used. This paper describes the ...

  8. Different tissue type categories of overuse injuries to cricket fast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Cricket fast bowlers have a high incidence of injury and have been the subject of previous research investigating the effects of previous injury, workload and technique. Bone stress injuries are of particular concern as they lead to prolonged absences from the game, with younger bowlers appearing to be at ...

  9. Effects of temperature on chirp rates of tree crickets (Orthoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-10-02

    Oct 2, 1991 ... Surprisingly little is known about the effects of temperature on rates within poikilothenn nervous systems (Walker. 1975). Since poikilothenn metabolic rates generally increase with temperature, pulse rates and chirp rates of the calling songs of crickets generally increase with temperature. Since songs that ...

  10. Thought sampling of cricketers during batting | Slogrove | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Researchers and practitioners have expressed the need for the use of qualitative methodological techniques in sports psychology research. In response to this challenge, the s applied a multiple-case study research strategy and in-depth interviews to identify the experiences of three potentially elite, top-order cricket ...

  11. Sport-specific factors predicting player retention in junior cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpey, Scott; Croucher, Tom; Bani Mustafa, Ahmed; Finch, Caroline F

    2017-04-01

    Understanding factors that motivate young athletes to continue participation in sport can help key stakeholders cultivate an environment that fosters long-term participation. This investigation sought to determine the performance and participation factors that influenced continued participation in junior cricket. Administration-level data were collected each annual season across a seven-year period by a community-level junior cricket association in Australia and analysed to identify the performance and participation-based predictors of player retention. All players were males aged <16 years. Players were categorised according to whether they remained in (or departed from) the association at the end of each playing season. A multivariate logistic regression model with a stepwise variable selection was employed to identify significant independent predictors of player retention. The number of innings batted and overs bowled were significant participation-related contributors to junior cricket player retention. Performance factors such as the number of wickets taken and the number of runs scored also significantly influenced player retention. Finally, team age group, the number of previous seasons played and age were also significant factors in player retention. This demonstrates that sufficient opportunity for children to participate in the game and expression of skills competence are key factors for retention in cricket.

  12. Performance measures for wicket-keepers in cricket

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hoffiel

    Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Navorsing in Sport, Liggaamlike Opvoedkunde en Ontspanning, 2011, 33(3): 89-102. ISBN: 0379-9069. 89. PERFORMANCE MEASURES FOR WICKET KEEPERS IN CRICKET. Hermanus H. LEMMER. Department of Statistics, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, Republic of South.

  13. The 5th Umpire: Automating Cricket's Edge Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rock

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The game of cricket and the use of technology in the sport have grown rapidly over the past decade. However, technology-based systems introduced to adjudicate decisions such as run outs, stumpings, boundary infringements and close catches are still prone to human error, and thus their acceptance has not been fully embraced by cricketing administrators. In particular, technology is not employed for bat-pad decisions. Although the snickometer may assist in adjudicating such decisions it depends heavily on human interpretation. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of Wavelets in developing an edgedetection adjudication system for the game of cricket. Artificial Intelligence (AI tools, namely Neural Networks, will be employed to automate this edge detection process. Live audio samples of ball-on-bat and ball-on-pad events from a cricket match will be recorded. DSP analysis, feature extraction and neural network classification will then be employed on these samples. Results will show the ability of the neural network to differentiate between these key events. This is crucial to developing a fully automated edge detection system.

  14. Prevalence of cricket-related musculoskeletal pain among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ensure that their bodies are kept fit and strong.1-3 There are three unique aspects of the game (bowling, batting and ... cricket: a player being struck by a ball or bat, rapid rotational movements, sliding and diving, ... their muscle strength, endurance, agility and fitness on the field may not always be adequate for the game of ...

  15. Prevalence of cricket-related musculoskeletal pain among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Cricket is a dynamic sport that involves many abstract skills and movements. To enhance these skills and movements, many players ensure that their bodies are kept fit and strong.1-3 There are three unique aspects of the game (bowling, batting and fielding) which are associated with risk of injury.2,3 Currently ...

  16. The cricket and the ant : organizational tradeoffs in changing environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Péli, G.

    2001-01-01

    Organizations face tradeoffs when they adopt strategies in changing resource environments. The type of tradeoff depends on the type of resource change. The paper gives an organizational tradeoff model for quantitative change. I call that the "Cricket and Ant" (CA), because the pertaining strategies

  17. Media exposure and sponsor recall: Cricket World Cup 2003 | Van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on a study into the relationship between media exposure and sponsor recall relating to an international event, namely the Cricket World Cup 2003 (CWC 2003). The application of sponsorship as a communication construct and recall as a media vehicle effect is investigated. Recall has been widely ...

  18. More winged females of the cricket Gryllodes supplicans (Walker ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cosmotropical cricket Gryllodes supplicans occurs in two forms, a common micropterous form and a rare micropterous form. The unusual macropterous form occurs naturally in Sri Lanka and Bermuda, but has also been produced by laboratory manipulation of environmental conditions. This article is a preliminary report ...

  19. A review of cricket Fielding requirements | MacDonald | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, there is a paucity of literature on fielding compared with that on batting and bowling. We review the available literature in terms of technical, mental, physiological and physical factors important to fielding, to identify knowledge gaps and better understand the performance requirements of fielding in cricket.

  20. Agonistic behavior enhances adult neurogenesis in male Acheta domesticus crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Kaushik; Gupta, Mohit; Killian, Kathleen A

    2009-07-01

    We examined the effect of agonistic behavior on cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the central nervous system (CNS) of adult male Acheta domesticus crickets. We combined 5-bromo,2'deoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeling of dividing cells with immunocytochemical detection of the neuronal marker horseradish peroxidase to examine the proliferation of progenitor cells and the survival of newborn neurons. In crickets, the mushroom bodies of the brain contain clusters of proliferative cells that divide and generate new neurons in adulthood. Pairs of male crickets were allowed to fight and establish social rank and were then injected with BrdU. Proliferation of mushroom body neurogenic cluster cells was unaffected by agonistic interactions; 24 h after a fight, the number of BrdU positive cells in fought and un-fought males did not significantly differ. However, agonistic interactions did influence cell survival. Two weeks after an agonistic interaction, fought males had more newborn neurons than males that did not fight. There was also a rank-specific effect because dominant males had significantly more new neurons than subordinates. We also report for the first time that neurogenesis in adult crickets can occur in other regions of the brain and in other CNS ganglia, including the terminal abdominal ganglion (TAG). Agonistic interactions enhanced the proliferation of these distributed precursor cells but did not increase the survival of the newborn neurons generated by these cells.

  1. A Novel Ambisense Densovirus, Acheta domesticus Mini Ambidensovirus, from Crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hanh T; Yu, Qian; Bergoin, Max; Tijssen, Peter

    2013-11-07

    The genome structure of Acheta domesticus mini ambidensovirus, isolated from crickets, resembled that of ambisense densoviruses from Lepidoptera but was 20% smaller. It had the highest (<25%) protein sequence identity with the nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of Iteravirus and VP of Densovirus members (both with 25% coverage) and smaller (0.2- versus 0.55-kb) Y-shaped inverted terminal repeats.

  2. Wood handbook : wood as an engineering material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest Products Laboratory

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes information on wood as an engineering material. Presents properties of wood and wood-based products of particular concern to the architect and engineer. Includes discussion of designing with wood and wood-based products along with some pertinent uses.

  3. A 3-year prospective study on ocular injuries with tennis or cricket ball while playing cricket: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Mahapatra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to study the clinical features, visual outcome, management, and ocular complications of ocular injury, following trauma with tennis or cricket ball. Methods: A prospective, noncomparative case study of patients having injury with tennis/cricket ball while playing cricket was conducted between January 2013 and April 2016. Seventy-six eyes of 76 patients were studied. Presenting vision, age, gender, time since injury, general and ocular examination, intraocular pressure, indirect ophthalmoscopy, B scan, and X-ray/computed tomography scan findings were noted. Patients were managed medically or surgically as per the need and followed up at least for 6 months. Results: Seventy-six eyes of 76 patients were studied. All cases were male, except two. Majority (80.2% were <25 years. Median presenting visual acuity (VA was 6/36 and median final VA was 6/18. Significant findings in the decreasing order of frequency were sphincter tear (26.3%, retinal detachment (23.6%, angle recession (18.4%, choroidal rupture (17.1%, and Berlin's edema (15.7%. Most of the cases (69.7% were managed medically. Only 30.2% cases needed surgical intervention. Final visual outcome in our study was depended on initial VA (P = 0.000. It was also correlating with presenting clinical feature (P = 0.010 and type of intervention (medical/surgical (P = 0.001. Conclusion: Cricket-related ocular injury generally has a poor prognosis with most cases being closed globe injury; retinal detachment is the most common vision-threatening presentation. In spite of being a common event, cricket-related injury is sparingly documented and hence needs further studies for proper documentation, prognostication, and formulation of definitive management plan.

  4. Wood as an adherend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan H. River; Charles B. Vick; Robert H. Gillespie

    1991-01-01

    Wood is a porous, permeable, hygroscopic, orthotropic, biological composite material of extreme chemical diversity and physical intricacy. Table 1.1 provides an overview of the may variables, including wood variables, that bear on the bonding and performance of wood in wood joints and wood-based materials. Of particular note is the fact that wood properties vary...

  5. Aggregation of Cricket Activity in Response to Resource Addition Increases Local Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neucir Szinwelski

    Full Text Available Crickets are often found feeding on fallen fruits among forest litter. Fruits and other sugar-rich resources are not homogeneously distributed, nor are they always available. We therefore expect that crickets dwelling in forest litter have a limited supply of sugar-rich resource, and will perceive this and displace towards resource-supplemented sites. Here we evaluate how sugar availability affects cricket species richness and abundance in old-growth Atlantic forest by spraying sugarcane syrup on leaf litter, simulating increasing availability, and collecting crickets via pitfall trapping. We found an asymptotic positive association between resource addition and species richness, and an interaction between resource addition and species identity on cricket abundance, which indicates differential effects of resource addition among cricket species. Our results indicate that 12 of the 13 cricket species present in forest litter are maintained at low densities by resource scarcity; this highlights sugar-rich resource as a short-term driver of litter cricket community structure in tropical forests. When resource was experimentally increased, species richness increased due to behavioral displacement. We present evidence that the density of many species is limited by resource scarcity and, when resources are added, behavioral displacement promotes increased species packing and alters species composition. Further, our findings have technical applicability for increasing sampling efficiency of local cricket diversity in studies aiming to estimate species richness, but with no regard to local environmental drivers or species-abundance characteristics.

  6. EFFECTIVENESS OF SWISS BALL VS FLOOR EXERCISES ON CORE MUSCLE STRENGTH IN ELITE CRICKETERS

    OpenAIRE

    K. Sai sudha; Dr. A. Viswanath Reddy; Dr. K. Madhavi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cricket is one of the most popular game in India played by men and women of all ages. The increased physical demands on the players may be associated with an increased risk of injuries. Core muscle strength is important to prevent risk of injuries in elite cricketers. The beginners in the cricket must have enough strength of core muscles, as core is the bridge between upper and lower limbs. So, it should be strong enough to prevent low back and lower limb injuries in cricketers. T...

  7. Wood Availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelhaas, M.; Layos Mayr, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Estimation of the amount of wood that could potentially be harvested in a country can be accomplished using several approaches. A simple indicator is the balance between annual fellings and Net Annual Increment. However, this indicator does not take into account the actual age-class distribution of

  8. A model of filiform hair distribution on the cricket cercus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey J Heys

    Full Text Available Crickets and other orthopteran insects sense air currents with a pair of abdominal appendages resembling antennae, called cerci. Each cercus in the common house cricket Acheta domesticus is covered with between 500 to 750 filiform mechanosensory hairs. The distribution of the hairs on the cerci, as well as the global patterns of their movement axes, are very stereotypical across different animals in this species, and the development of this system has been studied extensively. Although hypotheses regarding the mechanisms underlying pattern development of the hair array have been proposed in previous studies, no quantitative modeling studies have been published that test these hypotheses. We demonstrate that several aspects of the global pattern of mechanosensory hairs can be predicted with considerable accuracy using a simple model based on two independent morphogen systems. One system constrains inter-hair spacing, and the second system determines the directional movement axes of the hairs.

  9. A Model of Filiform Hair Distribution on the Cricket Cercus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heys, Jeffrey J.; Rajaraman, Prathish K.; Gedeon, Tomas; Miller, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Crickets and other orthopteran insects sense air currents with a pair of abdominal appendages resembling antennae, called cerci. Each cercus in the common house cricket Acheta domesticus is covered with between 500 to 750 filiform mechanosensory hairs. The distribution of the hairs on the cerci, as well as the global patterns of their movement axes, are very stereotypical across different animals in this species, and the development of this system has been studied extensively. Although hypotheses regarding the mechanisms underlying pattern development of the hair array have been proposed in previous studies, no quantitative modeling studies have been published that test these hypotheses. We demonstrate that several aspects of the global pattern of mechanosensory hairs can be predicted with considerable accuracy using a simple model based on two independent morphogen systems. One system constrains inter-hair spacing, and the second system determines the directional movement axes of the hairs. PMID:23056357

  10. Calling Behavior of Male Acheta domesticus Crickets Infected with Paragordius varius (Nematomorpha: Gordiida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquin, A; McGehee, B; Sedam, R T; Gordy, W L; Hanelt, B; de Valdez, M R Wise

    2015-08-01

    It is well established that parasites in the phylum Nematomorpha induce suicide behavior of their insect hosts to bring adult worms to the appropriate habitat for emergence. It is not well established, however, whether other nematomorph-induced behavioral alterations occur before worm emergence. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of the nematomorph Paragordius varius on the calling behavior of the male house cricket Acheta domesticus . We hypothesized that cricket calling, an energetically expensive and risky behavior, would be a potential target for nematomorph-induced behavioral alterations. We assessed if and how infection with P. varius affects A. domesticus calling behavior and whether the presence of wings at time of exposure to P. varius influenced changes in calling behavior. We recorded the calling behavior of male A. domesticus over the course of their infection after exposure to P. various before or after wing development. Additionally, we assessed whether winged crickets were "callers" or "noncallers" before exposure. We found that regardless of cricket developmental stage (or age) at time of infection, infected crickets spent significantly less time calling than their uninfected counterparts but only during the later stages of infection. Developmental stage at infection did affect whether crickets became callers: when infected before wing development significantly more uninfected crickets initiated calling; there was no difference between infected and uninfected crickets when infected as winged adults. Infection was a factor in whether callers stopped calling, with more infected crickets ceasing to call than uninfected crickets. This is the first study to show that infection with nematomorphs affects calling behavior of their insect host. Cricket calling behavior is immensely complex and although it was difficult to elucidate the adaptive nature of these parasite-induced behavioral changes, this study lays the groundwork for future

  11. The seasonal incidence and nature of injuries in schoolboy cricketers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seasonal incidence of cricket injuries in this group was thus 49,0%. As reported in other studies",·,11". the most common sites of injury were back and trunk (33,3%), upper limbs (24,6%), lower limbs (22,8%) and head, neck and face (19,3%) (fable I). The back and trunk injuries were predominantly muscle and ligament ...

  12. Cricket’s Contribution to India’s National Solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    entire writing process. Finally, to my editor-in-chief, best friend, Punjabi music dance partner, and loving wife Lisa, thank you for being my...of cricket’s solidification effects. The annual Ranji tournament served two key roles. First, it provided a yearly cricket ritual at the local... healing those wounds. It’s a lesson to politicians that Iraqis can be one. We are all supporting our team; none of us was saying this player is a

  13. Sex-specific interactions of microbial symbioses on cricket dietary selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nutrients found in prey and non-prey foods, and relative digestibility of these foods, has a major influence on diet selection by omnivorous insects. Many insects have developed symbiotic relationships with gut bacteria to help with extracting nutrition from non-prey diets. Gryllus pennsylvanicu...

  14. The cultural bond? Cricket and the imperial mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Owen

    2010-01-01

    Cricket tours provide an excellent insight into the relationship between the colonies and England during the Imperial era. New Zealand has never had much of a cricketing legacy, but the game was still cherished and English tours were enthusiastically followed because they provided a link with 'home'. Two English cricket teams visited New Zealand in the Edwardian age, the Lord Hawke XI in 1902-03 and the MCC in 1906-07. These tours were intended to be a panacea for a struggling local game while providing an extension of the cultural bonds of Empire. Both tours were rich in Imperial code and ceremony but their impact was lost in translation. The Lord Hawke XI, although all conquering, failed to win the hearts and minds of the New Zealand public because of a series of on-field moments of poor sportsmanship, and the public response to the treatment of the professionals in the team. The MCC team provided a fair challenge to New Zealand team, but lacked the star appeal of the Lord Hawke team, leaving the public somewhat underwhelmed. Both tours exemplify the difficulty in balancing the ideals inherent in the game with the realities of colonial sporting expectation.

  15. Upper body muscle strength and batting performance in cricket batsmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliep, Mogammad S; Prim, Sebastian K; Gray, Janine

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if upper body muscle strength (as measured by the 1 repetition maximum bench press) was associated with cricket batting performance. Cricket batting performance was defined by the maximum hitting distance during a batting task and batting average and strike rate during 1-Day and Twenty/20 (T/20) matches. Eighteen, provincial level, elite cricket batsmen participated in the study. Upper body muscle strength was found to be positively correlated with maximum hitting distance (p = 0.0052). There were no significant correlations between upper body strength, batting average, and strike rate for both the 1-Day and T/20 matches. The results of this study have implications for coaches choosing a particular batting line-up. Batsmen who have stronger upper bodies could be favored to bat when a match situation requires them to hit powerful strokes resulting in boundaries. However, coaches cannot use upper body strength as a predictor of overall batting performance in 1-Day or T/20 matches.

  16. The Cricket Cercal System Implements Delay-Line Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder-Rosi, Jonas; Cummins, Graham I.

    2010-01-01

    The cercal sensory system of crickets mediates sensitivity to low-amplitude air currents. The sense organ for this system is a pair of antenna-like abdominal appendages called cerci, each of which is about 1 cm long in normal adult crickets. Although this system has been used extensively as a model system for studying the mechanisms underlying neural coding at the cellular and system levels, no previous studies have considered the functional significance of the physical dimensions of cerci. We show that the differential conduction characteristics of the receptor array in Acheta domesticus crickets are of substantial significance. All filiform sensory afferent axons we examined had the same propagation speeds to within a small variance, resulting in a significant and systematic differential propagation time for spikes from sensory receptors at different locations along the structure. Thus the sensory structures operate as delay lines. The delay-line structure supports neural computations in many of the projecting cercal interneurons (INs) that yield substantial differential sensitivity to the direction and velocity of naturalistic stimuli. Several INs show delay-line-derived sensitivities that are equivalent, in an engineering sense, to “notch filtering,” through which background noise is selectively eliminated by the delay-line-based processing. PMID:20107118

  17. Significance of wood extractives for wood bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffael, Edmone

    2016-02-01

    Wood contains primary extractives, which are present in all woods, and secondary extractives, which are confined in certain wood species. Extractives in wood play a major role in wood-bonding processes, as they can contribute to or determine the bonding relevant properties of wood such as acidity and wettability. Therefore, extractives play an immanent role in bonding of wood chips and wood fibres with common synthetic adhesives such as urea-formaldehyde-resins (UF-resins) and phenol-formaldehyde-resins (PF-resins). Extractives of high acidity accelerate the curing of acid curing UF-resins and decelerate bonding with alkaline hardening PF-resins. Water-soluble extractives like free sugars are detrimental for bonding of wood with cement. Polyphenolic extractives (tannins) can be used as a binder in the wood-based industry. Additionally, extractives in wood can react with formaldehyde and reduce the formaldehyde emission of wood-based panels. Moreover, some wood extractives are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and insofar also relevant to the emission of VOC from wood and wood-based panels.

  18. Biomimetic flow-sensor arrays based on the filiform hairs on the cerci of crickets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerink, Remco J.; Floris, J.; Jaganatharaja, R.K.; Izadi, N.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we report on the latest developments in biomimetic flow-sensors based on the flow sensitive mechano-sensors of crickets. Crickets have one form of acoustic sensing evolved in the form of mechanoreceptive sensory hairs. These filiform hairs are highly perceptive to low-frequency sound

  19. Cricket: Nature and incidence of fast-bowling injuries at an elite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To compile an injury profile of 46 fast bowlers aged 11 - 18 years, and to identify the associated risk factors for injury during one academy cricket season. Methods. The fast bowlers selected were tested and observed for one academy cricket season (March - November). Subjects were grouped into injury ...

  20. A review of cricket injuries and the effectiveness of strategies to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. This review evaluates the scientific research on cricket injuries, including long-term injury surveillance studies, the consensus statement paper for injury surveillance, specific counter-measures to reduce the risk of cricket injuries and finally identifies areas of future concern. Results. The literature shows that three ...

  1. The effectiveness of visual simulation training in improving inner circle fielding performance in cricket

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopwood, M.; Mann, D.L.; Farrow, D.; Neilsen, T.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of visual-perceptual training for improving fielding performance in cricket. Twelve highly-skilled cricket players completed a video-based decision-making test and an in-situ fielding test before and after a six-week training intervention. During this period,

  2. The dynamic behaviour of the cricket ear predicted from first principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Johan L; Michelsen, Axel; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2008-01-01

    for long distance calls by crickets) and 15 kHz (used for close-range courtship calls). These predictions correspond very closely to sensitivity measurements with laser vibrometry that show that the cricket hearing systems is tuned to the predominant calling frequencies. Thus, we have derived the dynamics...... of the system from first principles....

  3. Acceleration Kinematics in Cricketers: Implications for Performance in the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lockie Robert

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cricket fielding often involves maximal acceleration to retrieve the ball. There has been no analysis of acceleration specific to cricketers, or for players who field primarily in the infield (closer to the pitch or outfield (closer to the boundary. This study analyzed the first two steps of a 10-m sprint in experienced cricketers. Eighteen males (age = 24.06 ± 4.87 years; height = 1.81 ± 0.06 m; mass = 79.67 ± 10.37 kg were defined as primarily infielders (n = 10 or outfielders (n = 8. Timing lights recorded 0-5 and 0-10 m time. Motion capture measured first and second step kinematics, including: step length; step frequency; contact time; shoulder motion; lead and rear arm elbow angle; drive leg hip and knee extension, and ankle plantar flexion; swing leg hip and knee flexion, and ankle dorsi flexion. A one-way analysis of variance (p < 0.05 determined between-group differences. Data was pooled for a Pearson’s correlation analysis (p < 0.05 to analyze kinematic relationships. There were no differences in sprint times, and few variables differentiated infielders and outfielders. Left shoulder range of motion related to second step length (r = 0.471. First step hip flexion correlated with both step lengths (r = 0.570-0.598, and frequencies (r = -0.504--0.606. First step knee flexion related to both step lengths (r = 0.528-0.682, and first step frequency (r = -0.669. First step ankle plantar flexion correlated with second step length (r = -0.692 and frequency (r = 0.726. Greater joint motion ranges related to longer steps. Cricketers display similar sprint kinematics regardless of fielding position, likely because players may field in the infield or outfield depending on match situation. Due to relationships with shoulder and leg motion, and the importance and trainability of step length, cricketers should target this variable to enhance acceleration.

  4. The Impact of Cricket Farming on Rural Livelihoods, Nutrition and the Environment in Thailand and Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz

    not only food for their households but also employment and income. This development has resulted in the subsequent promotion of small- and medium-scale insect farming systems in rural communities in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), such as Kenya. However, the policy environment for cricket farming......, the social and environmental impacts in Thailand and the adoption of cricket farming in Kenya is not well understood. There is therefore a critical need for more research into the impacts of cricket farming on nutrition, rural livelihoods and the environment. My thesis addresses this research gap......, such as quantifying greenhouse gas emissions from farmed insect species. In Paper III, a LCA was carried out to compare the environmental impacts of commercial cricket farming and broiler chicken farming. The LCA found that commercial cricket farming has fewer environmental impacts when compared to medium...

  5. Enhancing cricket batting skill: implications for biomechanics and skill acquisition research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portus, Marc R; Farrow, Damian

    2011-11-01

    This review synthesises the biomechanical and skill acquisition/sport expertise literature focused on the skill of cricket batting. The literature is briefly reviewed and the major limitations, challenges, and suggested future research directions are outlined. This is designed to stimulate researchers to enhance the understanding of cricket batting biomechanics and skill acquisition and in turn assist cricket coaches develop efficacious batting skill development programmes. An interdisciplinary approach between biomechanists and skill acquisition specialists is advocated to further knowledge of the underlying processes and mechanisms of cricket batting expertise. Issues such as skill measurement, practice design, ball machines, skill transfer, the impact of Twenty/20 cricket, video simulation, and skill decomposition are discussed. The ProBatter ball machine systems are introduced along with suggestions for best practice approaches for coaches when designing batting skill development programmes.

  6. Genetic and morphological divergences in the cosmopolitan deep-sea amphipod Eurythenes gryllus reveal a diverse abyss and a bipolar species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Havermans

    Full Text Available Eurythenes gryllus is one of the most widespread amphipod species, occurring in every ocean with a depth range covering the bathyal, abyssal and hadal zones. Previous studies, however, indicated the existence of several genetically and morphologically divergent lineages, questioning the assumption of its cosmopolitan and eurybathic distribution. For the first time, its genetic diversity was explored at the global scale (Arctic, Atlantic, Pacific and Southern oceans by analyzing nuclear (28S rDNA and mitochondrial (COI, 16S rDNA sequence data using various species delimitation methods in a phylogeographic context. Nine putative species-level clades were identified within E. gryllus. A clear distinction was observed between samples collected at bathyal versus abyssal depths, with a genetic break occurring around 3,000 m. Two bathyal and two abyssal lineages showed a widespread distribution, while five other abyssal lineages each seemed to be restricted to a single ocean basin. The observed higher diversity in the abyss compared to the bathyal zone stands in contrast to the depth-differentiation hypothesis. Our results indicate that, despite the more uniform environment of the abyss and its presumed lack of obvious isolating barriers, abyssal populations might be more likely to show population differentiation and undergo speciation events than previously assumed. Potential factors influencing species' origins and distributions, such as hydrostatic pressure, are discussed. In addition, morphological findings coincided with the molecular clades. Of all specimens available for examination, those of the bipolar bathyal clade seemed the most similar to the 'true' E. gryllus. We present the first molecular evidence for a bipolar distribution in a macro-benthic deep-sea organism.

  7. Incidence and prevalence of elite male cricket injuries using updated consensus definitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orchard JW

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available John W Orchard, Alex Kountouris, Kevin Sims National Cricket Centre, Cricket Australia, Brisbane, Australia Background: T20 (Twenty20 or 20 over cricket has emerged in the last decade as the most popular form of cricket (in terms of spectator attendances. International consensus cricket definitions, first published in 2005, were updated in 2016 to better reflect the rise to prominence of T20 cricket.  Methods: Injury incidence and prevalence rates were calculated using the new international methods and units for elite senior male Australian cricketers over the past decade (season 2006–2007 to season 2015–2016 inclusive.  Results: Over the past 10 seasons, average match injury incidence, for match time-loss injuries, was 155 injuries/1,000 days of play, with the highest daily rates in 50-over cricket, followed by 20-over cricket and First-Class matches. Annual injury incidence was 64 injuries/100 players per season, and average annual injury prevalence was 12.5% (although fast bowlers averaged 20.6%, much higher than other positions. The most common injury was the hamstring strain (seasonal incidence 8.7 injuries/100 players per season. The most prevalent injury was lumbar stress fractures (1.9% of players unavailable at all times owing to these injuries, which represents 15% of all missed playing time.  Discussion: The hamstring strain has emerged from being one of the many common injuries in elite cricket a decade ago to being clearly the most common injury in the sport at the elite level. This is presumably in association with increased T20 cricket. Lumbar stress fractures in fast bowlers are still the most prevalent injury in the sport of cricket at the elite level, although these injuries are more associated with high workloads arising from the longer forms of the game. Domestic and international matches have very similar match injury incidence rates across the formats, but injury prevalence is higher in international players as

  8. Cricket antennae shorten when bending (Acheta domesticus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudon, Catherine; Bustamante, Jorge; Kellogg, Derek W

    2014-01-01

    Insect antennae are important mechanosensory and chemosensory organs. Insect appendages, such as antennae, are encased in a cuticular exoskeleton and are thought to bend only between segments or subsegments where the cuticle is thinner, more flexible, or bent into a fold. There is a growing appreciation of the dominating influence of folds in the mechanical behavior of a structure, and the bending of cricket antennae was considered in this context. Antennae will bend or deflect in response to forces, and the resulting bending behavior will affect the sensory input of the antennae. In some cricket antennae, such as in those of Acheta domesticus, there are a large number (>100) of subsegments (flagellomeres) that vary in their length. We evaluated whether these antennae bend only at the joints between flagellomeres, which has always been assumed but not tested. In addition we questioned whether an antenna undergoes a length change as it bends, which would result from some patterns of joint deformation. Measurements using light microscopy and SEM were conducted on both male and female adult crickets (Acheta domesticus) with bending in four different directions: dorsal, ventral, medial, and lateral. Bending occurred only at the joints between flagellomeres, and antennae shortened a comparable amount during bending, regardless of sex or bending direction. The cuticular folds separating antennal flagellomeres are not very deep, and therefore as an antenna bends, the convex side (in tension) does not have a lot of slack cuticle to "unfold" and does not lengthen during bending. Simultaneously on the other side of the antenna, on the concave side in compression, there is an increasing overlap in the folded cuticle of the joints during bending. Antennal shortening during bending would prevent stretching of antennal nerves and may promote hemolymph exchange between the antenna and head.

  9. Cricket antennae shorten when bending (Acheta domesticus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eLoudon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Insect antennae are important mechanosensory and chemosensory organs. Insect appendages, such as antennae, are encased in a cuticular exoskeleton and are thought to bend only between segments or subsegments where the cuticle is thinner, more flexible, or bent into a fold. There is a growing appreciation of the dominating influence of folds in the mechanical behavior of a structure, and the bending of cricket antennae was considered in this context. Antennae will bend or deflect in response to forces, and the resulting bending behavior will affect the sensory input of the antennae. In some cricket antennae, such as in those of Acheta domesticus, there are a large number (>100 of subsegments (flagellomeres that vary in their length. We evaluated whether these antennae bend only at the joints between flagellomeres, which has always been assumed but not tested. In addition we questioned whether an antenna undergoes a length change as it bends, which would result from some patterns of joint deformation. Measurements using light microscopy and SEM were conducted on both male and female adult crickets (Acheta domesticus with bending in four different directions: dorsal, ventral, medial and lateral. Bending occurred only at the joints between flagellomeres, and antennae shortened a comparable amount during bending, regardless of sex or bending direction. The cuticular folds separating antennal flagellomeres are not very deep, and therefore as an antenna bends, the convex side (in tension does not have a lot of slack cuticle to unfold and does not lengthen during bending. Simultaneously on the other side of the antenna, on the concave side in compression, there is an increasing overlap in the folded cuticle of the joints during bending. Antennal shortening during bending would prevent stretching of antennal nerves and may promote hemolymph exchange between the antenna and head.

  10. EFFECTIVENESS OF SWISS BALL VS FLOOR EXERCISES ON CORE MUSCLE STRENGTH IN ELITE CRICKETERS

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    K. Sai sudha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cricket is one of the most popular game in India played by men and women of all ages. The increased physical demands on the players may be associated with an increased risk of injuries. Core muscle strength is important to prevent risk of injuries in elite cricketers. The beginners in the cricket must have enough strength of core muscles, as core is the bridge between upper and lower limbs. So, it should be strong enough to prevent low back and lower limb injuries in cricketers. The aim is to determine the effectiveness of swiss ball exercises versus floor exercises on core muscle strength in elite cricketers. The objective is to study and compare the effectiveness of swiss ball exercises and floor exercises in elite cricketers in terms of back strength. Method: The total number of students in this study were 30 eilte cricketers between 16-25 years out of which 15 subjects were included each in floor exercise(n=15 and swiss ball group(n=15. Back strength was measured before and after the intervention of 6 weeks using isokinetic analyser. Results: After the analysis, the results revealed significant improvement of back strength in both the groups(p< 0.00. The swiss ball group showed significant results when compared with floor exercise group. Conclusion: Although the study showed beneficial results in both the groups, the results reflected that swiss ball group had better improvement of core muscle strength than the floor exercise group.

  11. Nature and incidence of upper limb injuries in professional cricket players a prospective observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhillon Mandeep S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cricket is the most popular sport in India, and is gaining in importance in all south-east Asian countries. The purpose of this study was to prospectively investigate the incidence, nature, and site of acute upper limb injuries sustained by professional cricketers of north India over a period of one year. Material & methods 95 cricket players (mean age 18.9 years were prospectively evaluated for nature and incidence of upper limb injuries from 1st November 2008 to 31st October 2009. For the purpose of comparison the calculated injury incidence included injuries sustained during match as well as practice. Injuries were also grouped according to the type of cricket activities such as batting or fielding. Results Out of 95 players evaluated, 24 were bowlers, 19 were batsmen, 8 were wicket keepers and the other 44 cricketers declared themselves as all rounders. There were a total of 16 upper limb injuries in 16 (16.8% players. The majority of injuries (10/16 occurred while fielding. Out of 16 injuries, 11 were seen in hand, 3 were observed in elbow, while 2 patients suffered from shoulder problem. Twelve were acute injuries while 4 were classified as repetitive stress injuries (RSI. Conclusion The incidence of upper limb injuries in cricketers at the professional and semi-professional level is significant, causing them to miss matches or practice for a significant number of days. This is the first study of Indian cricketers which documents the high incidence of upper limb injuries. The study highlights the importance of injury surveillance for Indian cricket. It is a concern which needs to be addressed by the players, coaches, teachers, administrators and medical personnel involved with cricket.

  12. Forest litter crickets prefer higher substrate moisture for oviposition: Evidence from field and lab experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperber, Carlos Frankl; Albeny-Simões, Daniel; Breaux, Jennifer Ann; Fianco, Marcos; Szinwelski, Neucir

    2017-01-01

    For insects, choosing a favorable oviposition site is a type of parental care, as far as it increases the fitness of its offspring. Niche theory predicts that crickets should show a bell-shaped oviposition response to substrate moisture. However, lab experiments with mole crickets showed a linear oviposition response to substrate moisture. Studies with the house cricket Acheta domesticus also showed a linear juvenile body growth response to water availability, thus adult ovipositing females should respond positively to substrate moisture. We used a field experiment to evaluate the relationship between oviposition preference and substrate moisture in forest litter-dwelling cricket species. We also evaluated oviposition responses to substrate moisture level in Ubiquepuella telytokous, the most abundant litter cricket species in our study area, using a laboratory study. We offered cotton substrate for oviposition which varied in substrate moisture level from zero (i.e., dry) to maximum water absorption capacity. We used two complementary metrics to evaluate oviposition preference: (i) presence or absence of eggs in each sampling unit as binary response variable, and (ii) number of eggs oviposited per sampling unit as count response variable. To test for non-linear responses, we adjusted generalized additive models (GAMM) with mixed effects. We found that both cricket oviposition probability and effort (i.e., number of eggs laid) increased linearly with substrate moisture in the field experiment, and for U. telytokous in the lab experiment. We discarded any non-linear responses. Our results demonstrate the importance of substrate moisture as an ecological niche dimension for litter crickets. This work bolsters knowledge of litter cricket life history association with moisture, and suggests that litter crickets may be particularly threatened by changes in climate that favor habitat drying. PMID:28977023

  13. Forest litter crickets prefer higher substrate moisture for oviposition: Evidence from field and lab experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando de Farias-Martins

    Full Text Available For insects, choosing a favorable oviposition site is a type of parental care, as far as it increases the fitness of its offspring. Niche theory predicts that crickets should show a bell-shaped oviposition response to substrate moisture. However, lab experiments with mole crickets showed a linear oviposition response to substrate moisture. Studies with the house cricket Acheta domesticus also showed a linear juvenile body growth response to water availability, thus adult ovipositing females should respond positively to substrate moisture. We used a field experiment to evaluate the relationship between oviposition preference and substrate moisture in forest litter-dwelling cricket species. We also evaluated oviposition responses to substrate moisture level in Ubiquepuella telytokous, the most abundant litter cricket species in our study area, using a laboratory study. We offered cotton substrate for oviposition which varied in substrate moisture level from zero (i.e., dry to maximum water absorption capacity. We used two complementary metrics to evaluate oviposition preference: (i presence or absence of eggs in each sampling unit as binary response variable, and (ii number of eggs oviposited per sampling unit as count response variable. To test for non-linear responses, we adjusted generalized additive models (GAMM with mixed effects. We found that both cricket oviposition probability and effort (i.e., number of eggs laid increased linearly with substrate moisture in the field experiment, and for U. telytokous in the lab experiment. We discarded any non-linear responses. Our results demonstrate the importance of substrate moisture as an ecological niche dimension for litter crickets. This work bolsters knowledge of litter cricket life history association with moisture, and suggests that litter crickets may be particularly threatened by changes in climate that favor habitat drying.

  14. Exploring the potential for changing gender norms among cricket coaches and athletes in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth; Das, Madhumita; Verma, Ravi; O'Connor, Brian; Ghosh, Sancheeta; Jaime, Maria Catrina D; McCauley, Heather L

    2015-02-01

    This study explored gender norms with cricket coaches and athletes in India to adapt a coach-delivered gender violence prevention program from the United States for the urban Indian context. Interviews and focus groups conducted among coaches and adolescent cricketers highlight the extent to which coaches and athletes articulate prevailing inequitable notions about gender and recognition of the power coaches wield. Adapting a violence prevention program that emphasizes gender norms change may be feasible with Indian cricket coaches but is likely to require attention to defining gender equity and challenging cultural assumptions with coaches prior to implementing the program with athletes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. An analysis of the efficiency of player performance at the 2011 Cricket World Cup

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    T Gweshe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In limited overs cricket, efficiency plays a significant role in team success. Batsmen especially are under pressure to score quickly rather than in large quantities because only 50 overs are available per innings. This paper uses data envelopment analysis (DEA and stochastic multicriteria acceptability analysis (SMAA to assess the efficiency with which players at the 2011 Cricket World Cup converted inputs (balls faced or bowled into performance outputs. The effect that non-discretionary variables like the cricketing resources available to a player have on his efficiency is controlled for, allowing for a fairer assessment across players from different countries.

  16. Extraordinary multilocus genetic organization in mole crickets, Gryllotalpidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, E; Beiles, A; Korol, A B; Robin, Y I; Pavlicek, T; Hamilton, W

    2000-04-01

    Allozymic diversity at 21 loci was analyzed in 470 individuals of three species of mole cricket superspecies, Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa (two new chromosomal species, G. tali and G. marismortui) and G. africana in Israel, which are distributed along a southward transect of increasing aridity. Two outstanding findings emerged in G. tali and G. marismortui: (1) genetic polymorphism was high but heterozygosity very low, indicating significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg expectations; and (2) significant linkage disequilibria at an unprecedented level for outbreeders and remarkable intersite differences. The results may characterize subterranean gryllotalpids worldwide because a single sample of Neocurtilla hexadactyla from Tefé, Amazonia, shows the same features. Significant variation of heterozygote paucity among loci, combined with the biology of the species, rejects the simple explanation of inbreeding or any other single explanatory model. Likewise, direct selection against heterozygotes or specific multilocus associations can explain, but is not necessary nor likely to explain, the observed results in mole crickets. To explain these results, we developed a multiple-factor mathematical model combining niche viability selection, niche choice, and positive assortative mating. This model involves a special case of Wahlund effect and inbreeding. Simulations based on this model showed that a combination of these three mechanisms may produce the observed distribution of alleles, via selection on a few loci, to affect the entire genome organization.

  17. Big Hitters: Important Factors Characterizing Team Effectiveness in Professional Cricket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Leonie V.; Hardy, James; Hardy, Lew

    2017-01-01

    While organizational psychology attests to the multidimensional nature of team effectiveness, insight regarding the most important factors contributing to the effectiveness of sports teams, especially elite teams, is lacking. An abductive method of qualitative enquiry was adopted to capture participants' construal of team effectiveness, drawing on the extant literature in both sport and organizational psychology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 players, coaches, and psychologists involved in elite cricket, with resultant data analyzed inductively initially, before being reanalyzed deductively. Although, the narratives endorsed the value of many of the deductively derived factors, other constructs more prominent in organizational psychology (e.g., trust and intra-group conflict) appeared to be more important than traditional sport psychology group factors. The results revealed six broad themes; culture and environment, values, communication, understanding, leadership, and unique individuals, with some gender differences apparent throughout. Based on our elite sample's construal of team effectiveness, we propose a new model representing a practical, parsimonious, and novel conceptualization of the most important attributes of team effectiveness in cricket, with conceivable transferability to other team sports. PMID:28744235

  18. Dynamic Characterization of Cercal Mechanosensory Hairs of Crickets

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    Joel M. Book

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous dynamic characterizations of the cercal mechanosensory hairs of crickets have generally been limited to the first resonant frequency and associated deflection shape. A more complete description of the mechanical dynamics of these structures could be obtained by an experimental modal analysis. This paper describes a method by which a full experimental modal analysis, giving natural frequency, mode shape, and modal damping ratio, of these sense organs can be performed. Results of this analysis, employing an unmeasured moving-air excitation and non-contact vibration measurement with an output-only identification method are presented. Two distinct types of behaviour were observed, one of which was a good match for the behaviour expected based on the literature, and one of which was quite different. These two behaviours had distinct patterns of modal parameters. The method described in this paper has been shown to be able to estimate the modal parameters, including natural frequency, modal damping ratio, and normalized mode shape, for the first mode of cercal mechanosensory hairs of crickets. The method could practically be extended to higher modes and a wide variety of other sound and vibration sense organs with the selection of appropriate excitation and specimen supports.

  19. Big Hitters: Important Factors Characterizing Team Effectiveness in Professional Cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Leonie V; Hardy, James; Hardy, Lew

    2017-01-01

    While organizational psychology attests to the multidimensional nature of team effectiveness, insight regarding the most important factors contributing to the effectiveness of sports teams, especially elite teams, is lacking. An abductive method of qualitative enquiry was adopted to capture participants' construal of team effectiveness, drawing on the extant literature in both sport and organizational psychology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 players, coaches, and psychologists involved in elite cricket, with resultant data analyzed inductively initially, before being reanalyzed deductively. Although, the narratives endorsed the value of many of the deductively derived factors, other constructs more prominent in organizational psychology (e.g., trust and intra-group conflict) appeared to be more important than traditional sport psychology group factors. The results revealed six broad themes; culture and environment, values, communication, understanding, leadership, and unique individuals, with some gender differences apparent throughout. Based on our elite sample's construal of team effectiveness, we propose a new model representing a practical, parsimonious, and novel conceptualization of the most important attributes of team effectiveness in cricket, with conceivable transferability to other team sports.

  20. Big Hitters: Important Factors Characterizing Team Effectiveness in Professional Cricket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie V. Webster

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available While organizational psychology attests to the multidimensional nature of team effectiveness, insight regarding the most important factors contributing to the effectiveness of sports teams, especially elite teams, is lacking. An abductive method of qualitative enquiry was adopted to capture participants' construal of team effectiveness, drawing on the extant literature in both sport and organizational psychology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 players, coaches, and psychologists involved in elite cricket, with resultant data analyzed inductively initially, before being reanalyzed deductively. Although, the narratives endorsed the value of many of the deductively derived factors, other constructs more prominent in organizational psychology (e.g., trust and intra-group conflict appeared to be more important than traditional sport psychology group factors. The results revealed six broad themes; culture and environment, values, communication, understanding, leadership, and unique individuals, with some gender differences apparent throughout. Based on our elite sample's construal of team effectiveness, we propose a new model representing a practical, parsimonious, and novel conceptualization of the most important attributes of team effectiveness in cricket, with conceivable transferability to other team sports.

  1. Cricket: notching up runs for food and alcohol companies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherriff, Jill; Griffiths, Denise; Daube, Mike

    2010-02-01

    To analyse sports sponsorship by food and alcohol companies by quantifying the proportion of time that the main sponsor's logo was seen during each of three cricket telecasts, the extent of paid advertising during the telecast and the contribution by the main sponsor to this, and to describe the associated ground advertising. DVD recordings of the three telecasts were analysed for visibility of the main sponsor's logo during actual playing time and for each sponsor's proportion of the advertising time during breaks in telecast. The main sponsor's logo was visible on a range of equipment and clothing that resulted in it being clearly identifiable from 44% to 74% of the game time. The proportion of paid advertising time in these three telecasts varied from 3% to 20%, reflecting the difference in advertising content of paid television versus free-to-air. While television food advertising to children is under review, sporting telecasts also reach children and, until recently, have avoided scrutiny. This content analysis of three recent cricket telecasts reveals an unacceptable level of exposure to food and alcohol marketing, particularly in the form of the main sponsor's logo. Sponsorship is not covered by the voluntary codes of practice that address some forms of advertising. A new system of regulation is required to reduce this unacceptable level of exposure. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 Public Health Association of Australia.

  2. The effects of mental fatigue on cricket-relevant performance among elite players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veness, Darren; Patterson, Stephen David; Jeffries, Owen; Waldron, Mark

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of a mentally fatiguing test on physical tasks among elite cricketers. In a cross-over design, 10 elite male cricket players from a professional club performed a cricket run-two test, a Batak Lite reaction time test and a Yo-Yo-Intermittent Recovery Level 1 (Yo-Yo-IR1) test, providing a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) after completing a 30-min Stroop test (mental fatigue condition) or 30-min control condition. Perceived fatigue was assessed before and after the two conditions and motivation was measured before testing. There were post-treatment differences in the perception of mental fatigue (P Batak Lite test was not affected (P = 0.137), yet a moderate (d = 0.41, 95% CIs = -0.05-0.87) change was likely. Mental fatigue, induced by an app-based Stroop test, negatively affected cricket-relevant performance.

  3. An analysis of the eciency of player performance at the 2011 Cricket ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An analysis of the eciency of player performance at the 2011 Cricket World ... analysis (DEA) and stochastic multicriteria acceptability analysis (SMAA) to ... Key words: Performance evaluation, data envelopment analysis, simulation modelling, ...

  4. Temperature and the energetics of development in the house cricket (Acheta domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, David T; Kiddell, Kirsty

    2007-09-01

    The influence of rearing temperature on the energetics of development was investigated in house crickets (Acheta domesticus). Crickets raised at 25 degrees C grew slower (0.51 mg d(-1), dry mass basis) and took longer to develop (119 d) but obtained a greater adult body mass (61 mg, dry mass) than crickets reared at 28 degrees C (0.99 mg d(-1), 49 d, 48 mg). Total metabolic energy consumed during development at 25 degrees C (1351 J) was twice that at 28 degrees C (580 J) primarily because of the longer development period, and as a consequence the specific net cost of growth was much greater for crickets reared at 25 degrees C (22.1 kJ g(-1)) than 28 degrees C (11.9 kJ g(-1)).

  5. Vision and Visual History in Elite/Near-Elite-Level Cricketers and Rugby-League Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Brendan T; Flavell, Jonathan C; Bennett, Simon J; Cruickshank, Alice G; Mankowska, Alex; Harris, Julie M; Buckley, John G

    2017-11-10

    The importance of optimal and/or superior vision for participation in high-level sports remains the subject of considerable clinical research interest. Here, we examine the vision and visual history of elite/near-elite cricketers and rugby-league players. Stereoacuity (TNO), colour vision, and distance (with/without pinhole) and near visual acuity (VA) were measured in two cricket squads (elite/international-level, female, n = 16; near-elite, male, n = 23) and one professional rugby-league squad (male, n = 20). Refractive error was determined, and details of any correction worn and visual history were recorded. Overall, 63% had their last eye examination within 2 years. However, some had not had an eye examination for 5 years or had never had one (near-elite cricketers 30%; rugby-league players 15%; elite cricketers 6%). Comparing our results for all participants to published data for young, optimally corrected, non-sporting adults, distance VA was ~ 1 line of letters worse than expected. Adopting α = 0.01, the deficit in distance VA was significant, but only for elite cricketers (p elite cricketers, p = 0.02; rugby-league players, p = 0.03). Near VA did not differ between subgroups or relative to published norms for young adults (p > 0.02 for all comparisons). On average, near stereoacuity was better than in young adults, but only in elite cricketers (p elite cricketers; p = 0.47, rugby-league players). On-field visual issues were present in 27% of participants and mostly (in 75% of cases) comprised uncorrected ametropia. Some cricketers (near-elite 17.4%; elite 38%) wore refractive correction during play, but no rugby-league player did. Some individuals with prescribed correction choose not to wear it when playing. Aside from near stereoacuity in elite cricketers, the basic visual abilities we measured were not better than equivalent, published data for optimally corrected adults; 20-25% exhibited sub-optimal vision, suggesting that the

  6. The Decision to Fight or Flee – Insights into Underlying Mechanism in Crickets

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Anthony eStevenson; Jan eRillich

    2012-01-01

    Ritualized fighting between conspecifics is an inherently dangerous behavioral strategy, optimized to secure limited resources at minimal cost and risk. To be adaptive, potential rewards, and costs of aggression must be assessed to decide when it would be more opportune to fight or flee. We summarize insights into the proximate mechanisms underlying this decision-making process in field crickets. As in other animals, cricket aggression is enhanced dramatically by motor activity, winning, and ...

  7. The effects of spinal manipulative therapy on reaction and response time of cricket players

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    M. Tech. Method The purpose of this study was to determine whether spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) of the cervical spinal segments would have any influence on the reaction and response time of a cricket player. It has been suggested that a dysfunctional vertebral subluxation complex can cause a decrease in visual performance. The decreased visual performance may be due to decreased blood flow to the visual centers of the brain. Thirty six participants (3 cricket teams) participated in th...

  8. IMPREGNATION OF WOOD COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Derya Gezer

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The production of wood based structural panel and lumber composites become to increase since the wood supply is changing due to the limit of larger dimension solid sawn lumber and insufficient solid woods with enough high strength as well. As we substitute wood composites for solid wood in protected application, these composite must show resistance to wood-destroying organisms such as fungi and insects. Accordingly, the exterior structural composites is required to be treated with preservatives. This paper provides an understanding of preservative treated wood composites. The objectives of this paper includes studying how to add preservative to wood composites, examining additive effect on glue-line and evaluating the best method of manufacturing wood composites treated with preservatives.

  9. The relationship between developmental experiences and mental toughness in adolescent cricketers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucciardi, Daniel F

    2011-06-01

    The present study investigated the contribution of positive and negative youth sport experiences (i.e., processes or experiences that occur in a particular activity or setting) to self-reported mental toughness among youth-aged cricketers. A sample of 308 male cricketers aged between 13 and 18 years self-reported mental toughness using the Cricket Mental Toughness Inventory (CMTI; Gucciardi & Gordon, 2009), with 187 of these cricketers also documenting their exposure to a variety of positive and negative developmental experiences. Confirmatory factor and internal reliability analyses supported the hypothesized mental toughness measurement model. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that a variety of developmental experiences were related to various mental toughness components, with initiative experiences evidencing the strongest overall relationship with mental toughness followed by negative peer influences. The number of years playing experience and hours per week training evidenced largely insignificant relationships with the exception of desire to achieve and attentional control components of mental toughness, as well as its global factor. Collectively, these findings lend support for the validity of the CMTI as a valid measure among adolescent cricketers, and highlight the importance of initiative and interpersonal experiences for mental toughness in cricket.

  10. A MATHEMATICAL MODELLING APPROACH TO ONE-DAY CRICKET BATTING ORDERS

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    Matthews Ovens1

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available While scoring strategies and player performance in cricket have been studied, there has been little published work about the influence of batting order with respect to One-Day cricket. We apply a mathematical modelling approach to compute efficiently the expected performance (runs distribution of a cricket batting order in an innings. Among other applications, our method enables one to solve for the probability of one team beating another or to find the optimal batting order for a set of 11 players. The influence of defence and bowling ability can be taken into account in a straightforward manner. In this presentation, we outline how we develop our Markov Chain approach to studying the progress of runs for a batting order of non- identical players along the lines of work in baseball modelling by Bukiet et al., 1997. We describe the issues that arise in applying such methods to cricket, discuss ideas for addressing these difficulties and note limitations on modelling batting order for One-Day cricket. By performing our analysis on a selected subset of the possible batting orders, we apply the model to quantify the influence of batting order in a game of One Day cricket using available real-world data for current players

  11. Programmed Cell Death in Flight Muscle Histolysis of the House Cricket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Rush H.; Albury, Acchia N.J.; Mousseau, Timothy A.

    2007-01-01

    We have characterized the process of flight muscle histolysis in the female house cricket, Acheta domesticus, through analysis of alterations of tissue wet weight, total protein content, and percent shortening of the dorsal longitudinal flight muscles (DLMs). Our objectives were to (1) define the normal course of histolysis in the cricket, (2) analyze the effects of juvenile hormone (JH) removal and replacement, (3) determine the effects of cycloheximide treatment, and (4) examine patterns of protein expression during histolysis. Our results suggest that flight muscle histolysis in the house cricket is an example of an active, developmentally regulated cell death program induced by an endocrine signal. Initial declines of total protein in DLMs indicated the JH signal that induced histolysis occurred by Day 2 and that histolysis was essentially complete by Day 3. Significant reductions in tissue weight and percent muscle shortening were observed in DLMs from Day 3 crickets. Cervical ligation of Day 1 crickets prevented histolysis but this inhibition could be reversed by continual topical treatments with methoprene (an active JH analog) although ligation of Day 2 crickets did not prevent histolysis. A requirement for active protein expression was demonstrated by analysis of synthesis block by cycloheximide and short-term incorporation of 35S-methionine. Treatment with cycloheximide prevented histolysis. Autofluorographic imaging of DLM proteins separated by electrophoresis revealed apparent coordinated regulation of protein expression. PMID:17118399

  12. Antennal pointing at a looming object in the cricket Acheta domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamawaki, Yoshifumi; Ishibashi, Wakako

    2014-01-01

    Antennal pointing responses to approaching objects were observed in the house cricket Acheta domesticus. In response to a ball approaching from the lateral side, crickets oriented the antenna ipsilateral to the ball towards it. In response to a ball approaching from the front, crickets oriented both antennae forward. Response rates of antennal pointing were higher when the ball was approaching from the front than from behind. The antennal angle ipsilateral to the approaching ball was positively correlated with approaching angle of the ball. Obstructing the cricket's sight decreased the response rate of antennal pointing, suggesting that this response was elicited mainly by visual stimuli. Although the response rates of antennal pointing decreased when the object ceased its approach at a great distance from the cricket, antennal pointing appeared to be resistant to habituation and was not substantially affected by the velocity, size and trajectory of an approaching ball. When presented with computer-generated visual stimuli, crickets frequently showed the antennal pointing response to a darkening stimulus as well as looming and linearly-expanding stimuli. Drifting gratings rarely elicited the antennal pointing. These results suggest that luminance change is sufficient to elicit antennal pointing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Acoustic comunication systems and sounds in three species of crickets from central Italy: musical instruments for a three-voices composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monacchi, David; Valentini, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Natural soundscape has always constituted a reference in cognitive and emotional processes. The imitation of natural sounds contributed to the origin of the verbal language, which has been then subjected to an even more refined process of abstraction throughout history. The musical language also evolved along the same path of imitation. Among the many sonic elements of a natural environment, the stridulation of crickets is one of the most consistent for its timbre, articulation, diffusion and intrinsic emotional power. More than 900 species of crickets, in fact, have been described. They can be found in all parts of the world with the exception of cold regions at latitudes higher than 55° North and South. Among the many species we're working on (Order Orthoptera and Suborder Ensifera), we refer here of a comparison between the morphology of the acoustic emission systems and the corresponding waveforms/spectral patterns of sound in three widespread species from central Italy: Gryllus Bimaculatus, Acheta Domesticus (Gryllidae), and Ruspolia Nitidula (Conocephalidae). The samples of the acoustic apparatus of the target individuals, stored in ethanol, were observed under a Field Emission Gun Environmental Electron Scanning Microscope (FEG-ESEM, Quanta 200, FEI, The Netherlands). The use of this type of microscope allowed to analyze the samples without any kind of manipulation (dehydration and/or metallization), while maintaining the morphological features of the fragile acoustic apparatus. The observations were made with different sensors (SE: secondary-electron sensor and BSE: backscattered-electron sensor), and performed at low-medium vacuum with energies varying from c.ca 10 to 30kV. Male individuals have an acoustic apparatus consisting in two cuticular structures (tegmina) positioned above wings, while both male and females have receiving organs (tympanum) in forelegs. Stridulation mechanism is produced when the file and the scraper (plectrum) scrub one another

  14. Integrating sensory evaluations in incentivized discrete choice experiments to assess consumer demand for cricket flour buns in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Mohammed Hussen; Olsen, Søren Bøye; Vedel, Suzanne Elizabeth

    is that it uses an incentivized discrete choice experiment method integrated with sensory experiments intended to reduce any hypothetical bias and to allow participants to acquire experience in terms of tasting the different buns before they make their choices in the choice tasks. We find significant and positive...... preferences for the buns which contain cricket flour. Interestingly, the bun products with medium amounts of cricket flour are preferred to no or high amount of cricket flour. Finally, we show in a simulated market that the cricket flour based buns are likely to obtain a greater market shares than...

  15. Mechanics of Wood Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Csanády, Etele

    2013-01-01

    Wood is one of the most valuable materials for mankind, and since our earliest days wood materials have been widely used. Today we have modern woodworking machine and tools; however, the raw wood materials available are continuously declining. Therefore we are forced to use this precious material more economically, reducing waste wherever possible. This new textbook on the “Mechanics of Wood Machining” combines the quantitative, mathematical analysis of the mechanisms of wood processing with practical recommendations and solutions. Bringing together materials from many sources, the book contains new theoretical and experimental approaches and offers a clear and systematic overview of the theory of wood cutting, thermal loading in wood-cutting tools, dynamic behaviour of tool and work piece, optimum choice of operational parameters and energy consumption, the wear process of the tools, and the general regularities of wood surface roughness. Diagrams are provided for the quick estimation of various process ...

  16. Request for wood samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1977-01-01

    In recent years the wood collection at the Rijksherbarium was greatly expanded following a renewed interest in wood anatomy as an aid for solving classification problems. Staff members of the Rijksherbarium added to the collection by taking interesting wood samples with them from their expeditions

  17. Iron Stain on Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Iron stain, an unsightly blue–black or gray discoloration, can occur on nearly all woods. Oak, redwood, cypress, and cedar are particularly prone to iron stain because these woods contain large amounts of tannin-like extractives. The discoloration is caused by a chemical reaction between extractives in the wood and iron in steel products, such as nails, screws, and...

  18. Energy from wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.I. Zerbe

    2004-01-01

    In most developing countries wood and charcoal are the predominant fuels for preparation of food to maintain the quality of life that encompasses the majority of citizens. In many developing countries wood fuels are also important for small and medium size industries. Moreover, energy from wood continues to be important in industrial countries. In the USA biomass...

  19. Wood Formation in Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanie Mauriat; Gregoire Le Provost; Phillippe Rozenberg; Sylvain Delzon; Nathalie Breda; Bruno Clair; Catherine Coutand; Jean-Christoph Domec; Thierry Fourcaud; Jacqueline Grima-Pettenati; Raul Herrera; Jean-Charles Leple; Nicolas Richet; Jean-Francois Trontin; Christophe Plomion

    2014-01-01

    Among the ecosystem services provided by forests, wood provisioning takes a central position. Wood and derived products have played a critical role in the evolution of human kind and demand for raw material is increasing in a foreseeable future. Wood is used for energy production, construction and a wide variety of products for which different properties are required....

  20. Acceptability of biscuits containing 10% cricket (Acheta domesticus) compared to milk biscuits among 5-10-year-old Kenyan schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homann, A M; Ayieko, M A; Konyole, S O

    2017-01-01

    protein, unsaturated fatty acids, vitamin A and B12, iron, and zinc. Furthermore, cricket powder can be an economically better substitute for milk powder and can create revenue for the local population. Including crickets in products for school feeding could optimise growth and learning. The objective...... properties were rated above average for cricket biscuits but lower than milk biscuits in most aspects....

  1. Quantifying individual performance in Cricket — A network analysis of batsmen and bowlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Satyam

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying individual performance in the game of Cricket is critical for team selection in International matches. The number of runs scored by batsmen and wickets taken by bowlers serves as a natural way of quantifying the performance of a cricketer. Traditionally the batsmen and bowlers are rated on their batting or bowling average respectively. However, in a game like Cricket it is always important the manner in which one scores the runs or claims a wicket. Scoring runs against a strong bowling line-up or delivering a brilliant performance against a team with a strong batting line-up deserves more credit. A player’s average is not able to capture this aspect of the game. In this paper we present a refined method to quantify the ‘quality’ of runs scored by a batsman or wickets taken by a bowler. We explore the application of Social Network Analysis (SNA) to rate the players in a team performance. We generate a directed and weighted network of batsmen-bowlers using the player-vs-player information available for Test cricket and ODI cricket. Additionally we generate a network of batsmen and bowlers based on the dismissal record of batsmen in the history of cricket-Test (1877-2011) and ODI (1971-2011). Our results show that M. Muralitharan is the most successful bowler in the history of Cricket. Our approach could potentially be applied in domestic matches to judge a player’s performance which in turn paves the way for a balanced team selection for International matches.

  2. Knockout crickets for the study of learning and memory: Dopamine receptor Dop1 mediates aversive but not appetitive reinforcement in crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awata, Hiroko; Watanabe, Takahito; Hamanaka, Yoshitaka; Mito, Taro; Noji, Sumihare; Mizunami, Makoto

    2015-11-02

    Elucidation of reinforcement mechanisms in associative learning is an important subject in neuroscience. In mammals, dopamine neurons are thought to play critical roles in mediating both appetitive and aversive reinforcement. Our pharmacological studies suggested that octopamine and dopamine neurons mediate reward and punishment, respectively, in crickets, but recent studies in fruit-flies concluded that dopamine neurons mediates both reward and punishment, via the type 1 dopamine receptor Dop1. To resolve the discrepancy between studies in different insect species, we produced Dop1 knockout crickets using the CRISPR/Cas9 system and found that they are defective in aversive learning with sodium chloride punishment but not appetitive learning with water or sucrose reward. The results suggest that dopamine and octopamine neurons mediate aversive and appetitive reinforcement, respectively, in crickets. We suggest unexpected diversity in neurotransmitters mediating appetitive reinforcement between crickets and fruit-flies, although the neurotransmitter mediating aversive reinforcement is conserved. This study demonstrates usefulness of the CRISPR/Cas9 system for producing knockout animals for the study of learning and memory.

  3. Wood frame systems for wood homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Molina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of constructive systems that combine strength, speed, with competitive differential techniques and mainly, compromising with the environment, is becoming more popular in Brazil. The constructive system in wood frame for houses of up to five stories is very interesting, because it is a light system, structured in reforested treated wood which allows the combination of several materials, besides allowing speed in the construction and total control of the expenses already in the project phase for being industrialized. The structural behavior of the wood frame is superior to the structural masonry in strength, thermal and acoustic comfort. However, in Brazil, the wood frame is still little known and used, due to lack of technical knowledge about the system, prejudice associated the bad use of the wood as construction material, or still, in some cases, lack of normalization. The aim of this manuscript consists of presenting the main technical characteristics and advantages of the constructive system in wood frame homes, approaching the main stages of the constructive process through examples, showing the materials used in the construction, in addition the main international normative recommendations of the project. Thus, this manuscript also hopes to contribute to the popularization of the wood frame system in Brazil, since it is a competitive, fast and ecologically correct system. Moreover, nowadays, an enormous effort of the technical, commercial and industrial section has been accomplished for the development of this system in the country.

  4. Estimation of squeeze film damping in artificial hair-sensor towards the detection-limit of crickets' hairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dagamseh, A.M.K.

    2014-01-01

    The filliform hairs of crickets are among the most sensitive flow sensing elements in nature. The high sensitivity of these hairs enables crickets in perceiving tiny air-movements which are only just distinguishable from noise. This forms our source of inspiration to design highly-sensitive array

  5. Wood production, wood technology, and biotechnological impacts.

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    In the year 2001, Prof. Dr. Ursula Kües was appointed at the Faculty of Forest Sciences and Forest Ecology of the Georg-August-University Göttingen to the chair Molecular Wood Biotechnology endowed by the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU). Her group studies higher fungi in basic and applied research. Research foci are on mushroom development and on fungal enzymes degrading wood and their applications in wood biotechnology. This book has been edited to thank the DBU for all support given to...

  6. Cluster randomised control trial for cricket injury prevention programme (CIPP): a protocol paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soomro, Najeebullah; Chua, Nina; Freeston, Jonathan; Ferdinands, Rene E D; Sanders, Ross

    2017-09-28

    Injury prevention programmes (IPPs) are effective in reducing injuries among adolescent team sports. However, there is no validated cricket-specific IPP despite the high incidence of musculoskeletal injuries among amateur cricketers. To evaluate whether a cricket injury prevention programme (CIPP) as a pretraining warm-up or post-training cool-down can reduce injury rates in amateur cricket players. CIPP is a cluster randomised controlled trial which includes 36 male amateur club teams having cricket players aged 14-40 years to be randomly assigned to three study arms: warm-up, cool-down and control (n=12 teams, 136 players in each arm). The intervention groups will perform 15 min CIPP either as a pretraining warm-up or a post-training cool-down. The primary outcome measure will be injury incidence per 1000 player hours and the secondary outcome measures will be whether IPP as a warm-up is better than IPP as a cool-down, and the adherence to the intervention. ACTRN 1261700047039. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Effects of Forest Regeneration on Crickets: Evaluating Environmental Drivers in a 300-Year Chronosequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neucir Szinwelski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the relation of cricket species richness and composition with forest regeneration time, evaluating canopy and litter depth as environmental drivers. Effects of forest patch area, nearest distance to the 300-year patch, cricket abundance, sampling sufficiency, and nestedness were also evaluated. We collected 1174 individuals (five families, 19 species. Species richness increased asymptotically with regeneration time and linearly with canopy cover and litter depth. Canopy cover increased linearly, while litter depth increased asymptotically. Richness was not affected by patch area and nearest distance to the 300-year patch. Richness increased with cricket abundance, and this explanation could not be distinguished from regeneration time, evidencing collinearity of these two explanatory variables. Rarefaction curve slopes increased with regeneration time. Species composition differed among patches, with no nested pattern. We suggest that regeneration and consequent increases in canopy and litter promote recovery of cricket biodiversity, abundance, and changes in species composition. We conclude that the recovery of cricket diversity involves an increase along the spatial scale of complementarity, together with a change in species composition.

  8. Effect of a strong, DC-induced magnetic field on circadian singing activity of the house cricket (orthoptera:gryllidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, K.C.; Bitzer, R.J.; Galliart, L. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    We investigated the effect of a strong, DC-induced electromagnetic field (EMF) on the circadian singing activity of the house cricket, Acheta domesticus (L.). Groups of 10 crickets were exposed to strong, DC-induced EMFs under two light regimes, 12:12 (L:D) h and 0:24 (L:D) h. Exposure to the strong EMF resulted in an increase in mean time per hour during which one or more crickets were singing and in number of crickets singing per hour. Correcting for phase shift during O:24 (L:D) h, the daily pattern of singing was apparently unaffected by any treatment. The greatest percentage of singing and number of crickets singing per hour occurred during actual or expected scotophase. This is the first report of an increase in insect activity during exposure to a strong DC-induced EMF.

  9. A STUDY ON GOAL ORIENTATION BETWEEN INDIAN AND AUSTRALIAN WOMEN CRICKET PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Navaneethan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Nicholl’s motivation conceptual framework pertaining to achievement goals was used to study the relationship between two implicit goal orientation and achievement cognitions and beliefs about the competitive team sport experience. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in goal orientation between Indian and Australian women cricketers. The sample was consisted of 35 Indian women cricketers and 35 Australian women cricketers, age 16 to 24 years (M=20.35. Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire(TEOSQ was administered to these subjects. The results showed that significant differences in both task orientation and ego orientation between the two country players. From these results it appears that the Australian players were more task oriented than the Indian players.

  10. Factors Affecting the Result of Matches in the One Day Format of Cricket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananda Bandulasiri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Factors contributing to winning games are imperative, as the ultimate objective in a game is victory. The aim of this study was to identify the factors that characterize the game of cricket, and to investigate the factors that truly influence the result of a game using the data collected from the Champions Trophy cricket tournament. According to the results, this cricket tournament can be characterized using the factors of batting, bowling, and decision-making. Further investigation suggests that the rank of the team and the number of runs they score have the most significant influence on the result of games. As far as the effectiveness of assigning bowlers is concerned, the Australian team has done a fabulous job compared to the rest of the teams. (original abstract

  11. Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, G.

    1998-11-20

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris.

  12. Structure and function of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Regis B. Miller

    2005-01-01

    Despite the many human uses to which various woods are suited, at a fundamental level wood is a complex biological structure, itself a composite of many chemistries and cell types acting together to serve the needs of the plant. Although humans have striven to understand wood in the context of wood technology, we have often overlooked the key and basic fact that wood...

  13. Computational mechanisms of mechanosensory processing in the cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Gwen A; Miller, John P; Aldworth, Zane

    2008-06-01

    Crickets and many other orthopteran insects face the challenge of gathering sensory information from the environment from a set of multi-modal sensory organs and transforming these stimuli into patterns of neural activity that can encode behaviorally relevant stimuli. The cercal mechanosensory system transduces low frequency air movements near the animal's body and is involved in many behaviors including escape from predators, orientation with respect to gravity, flight steering, aggression and mating behaviors. Three populations of neurons are sensitive to both the direction and dynamics of air currents: an array of mechanoreceptor-coupled sensory neurons, identified local interneurons and identified projection interneurons. The sensory neurons form a functional map of air current direction within the central nervous system that represents the direction of air currents as three-dimensional spatio-temporal activity patterns. These dynamic activity patterns provide excitatory input to interneurons whose sensitivity and spiking output depend on the location of the neuronal arbors within the sensory map and the biophysical and electronic properties of the cell structure. Sets of bilaterally symmetric interneurons can encode the direction of an air current stimulus by their ensemble activity patterns, functioning much like a Cartesian coordinate system. These interneurons are capable of responding to specific dynamic stimuli with precise temporal patterns of action potentials that may encode these stimuli using temporal encoding schemes. Thus, a relatively simple mechanosensory system employs a variety of complex computational mechanisms to provide the animal with relevant information about its environment.

  14. The scolopidial accessory organ in the Jerusalem cricket (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauß, Johannes

    2017-03-01

    Multiple mechanosensory organs form the subgenual organ complex in orthopteroid insects, located in the proximal tibia. In several Ensifera (Orthoptera), a small chordotonal organ, the so-called accessory organ, is the most posterior part of this sensory complex. In order to document the presence of this accessory organ among the Ensifera, the chordotonal sensilla and their innervation in the posterior tibia of two species of Jerusalem crickets (Stenopelmatidae: Stenopelmatus) is described. The sensory structures were stained by axonal tracing. Scolopidial sensilla occur in the posterior subgenual organ and the accessory organ in all leg pairs. The accessory organ contains 10-17 scolopidial sensilla. Both groups of sensilla are commonly spatially separated. However, in few cases neuronal fibres occurred between both organs. The two sensillum groups are considered as separate organs by the general spatial separation and innervation by different nerve branches. A functional role for mechanoreception is considered: since the accessory organ is located closely under the cuticle, sensilla may be suited to detect vibrations transferred over the leg's surface. This study extends the known taxa with an accessory organ, which occurs in several taxa of Ensifera. Comparative neuroanatomy thus suggests that the accessory organ may be conserved at least in Tettigoniidea. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Common attributes in retired professional cricketers that may enhance or hinder quality of life after retirement: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filbay, Stephanie R; Bishop, Felicity; Peirce, Nicholas; Jones, Mary E; Arden, Nigel K

    2017-07-26

    Retired professional cricketers shared unique experiences and may possess specific psychological attributes with potential to influence quality of life (QOL). Additionally, pain and osteoarthritis can be common in retired athletes which may negatively impact QOL. However, QOL in retired athletes is poorly understood. This study explores the following questions from the personal perspective of retired cricketers: How do retired cricketers perceive and experience musculoskeletal pain and function in daily life? Are there any psychological attributes that might enhance or hinder retired cricketers' QOL? A qualitative study using semistructured interviews, which were subject to inductive, thematic analysis. A data-driven, iterative approach to data coding was employed. All participants had lived and played professional cricket in the UK and were living in the UK or abroad at the time of interview. Eighteen male participants, aged a mean 57±11 (range 34-77) years had played professional cricket for a mean 12±7 seasons and had been retired from professional cricket on average 23±9 years. Fifteen participants reported pain or joint difficulties and all but one was satisfied with their QOL. Most retired cricketers reflected on experiences during their cricket career that may be associated with the psychological attributes that these individuals shared, including resilience and a positive attitude. Additional attributes included a high sense of body awareness, an ability to self-manage pain and adapt lifestyle choices to accommodate physical limitations. Participants felt fortunate and proud to have played professional cricket, which may have further contributed to the high QOL in this group of retired cricketers. Most retired cricketers in this study were living with pain or joint difficulties. Despite this, all but one was satisfied or very satisfied with their QOL. This may be partly explained by the positive psychological attributes that these retired cricketers

  16. Chapter 9: Wood Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco X. Aguilar; Karen Abt; Branko Glavonjic; Eugene Lopatin; Warren  Mabee

    2016-01-01

    The availabilty of information on wood energy continues to improve, particularly for commoditized woodfuels.  Wood energy consumption and production vary in the UNECE region because demand is strngly affected by weather and the prices of competing energy sources.  There has been an increase in wood energy in the power-and-heat sector in the EU28 and North American...

  17. Use of the cricket embryo (Acheta domesticus) as an invertebrate teratology model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, B.T.

    1982-01-01

    Embryos of the cricket Acheta domesticus (L.) have been shown by bioassay to develop gross morphological abnormalities after exposure to a number of complex organic mixtures as well as to display a critical period of teratogen sensitivity and an ability to metabolize xenobiotics during development. Because the assay is simple, inexpensive, short-term (less than two weeks), and objective, it could be useful as an in vivo screen in an hierarchical approach to teratogen detection. Further investigation of cricket embryo responses to known teratogens is needed to establish the predictive value of this assay. 25 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  18. Too big to be noticed: cryptic invasion of Asian camel crickets in North American houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Mary Jane; Menninger, Holly L; LaSala, Nathan; Dunn, Robert R

    2014-01-01

    Despite the rapid expansion of the built environment, we know little about the biology of species living in human-constructed habitats. Camel crickets (Rhaphidophoridae) are commonly observed in North American houses and include a range of native taxa as well as the Asian Diestrammena asynamora (Adelung), a species occasionally reported from houses though considered to be established only in greenhouses. We launched a continental-scale citizen science campaign to better understand the relative distributions and frequency of native and nonnative camel crickets in human homes across North America. Participants contributed survey data about the presence or absence of camel crickets in homes, as well as photographs and specimens of camel crickets allowing us to identify the major genera and/or species in and around houses. Together, these data offer insight into the geographical distribution of camel crickets as a presence in homes, as well as the relative frequency and distribution of native and nonnative camel crickets encountered in houses. In so doing, we show that the exotic Diestrammena asynamora not only has become a common presence in eastern houses, but is found in these environments far more frequently than native camel crickets. Supplemental pitfall trapping along transects in 10 urban yards in Raleigh, NC revealed that D. asynamora can be extremely abundant locally around some homes, with as many as 52 individuals collected from pitfalls in a single yard over two days of sampling. The number of D. asynamora individuals present in a trap was negatively correlated with the trap's distance from a house, suggesting that these insects may be preferentially associated with houses but also are present outside. In addition, we report the establishment in the northeastern United States of a second exotic species, putatively Diestrammena japanica Blatchley, which was previously undocumented in the literature. Our results offer new insight into the relative frequency

  19. Moisture Transport in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, T.; Hansen, K. K.; Hoffmeyer, P.

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of moisture transport in wood is of great importance as most mechanical and physical properties of wood depend on moisture content. Moisture transport in porous materials is often described by Ficks second law, but several observations indicate that this does not apply very well to wood....... Recently at the Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering, a new model for moisture transport in wood has been developed. The model divides the transport into two phases, namely water vapour in the cell lumens and bound water in the cell walls....

  20. Unique 16S rRNA sequences of Eurythenes gryllus (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Lysianassidae from the Gulf of Mexico abyssal plain Secuencias únicas 16SrRNA de Eurythenes gryllus (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Lysianassidae de la planicie abisal del Golfo de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elva Escobar-Briones

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Amphipods of the species Eurythenes gryllus were collected at 2 locations on the abyssal plain (~3 400 m of the Gulf of Mexico in order to test whether or not these scavenger amphipods are isolated in this peripheral sea or show connectivity by their predominant swimming behavior, moving horizontally along the abyssal water masses in the region. Partial sequences of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene from 2 individuals of E. gryllus were determined and showed small differences when compared to sequences of other amphipods of the same species from the Atlantic Ocean (3.6 to 3.9% and Pacific Ocean (4.0 to 4.1% and increasing (4.2 to 9.5% when compared to sequences of specimens from sites of less than 500 m. The largest differences (18% were observed when the sequences were compared to that of Eurythenes from the Tongue of the Ocean in spite of its closer geographical distance in the region. Isolation in the deep Gulf of Mexico could be attributed to limited genetic exchange with the western tropical Atlantic through the Caribbean over the 2 040 m deep sill and inexistent at abyssal depth through the Florida Straits.Se recolectaron ejemplares de los anfípodos de la especie Eurythenes gryllus en 2 localidades de la planicie abisal (~3 400 m en el golfo de México con el objeto de evaluar si estos carroñeros se encuentran aislados en el mar marginal o presentan cierta conectividad por su conducta natatoria, desplazándose horizontalmente en las masas de agua que caracterizan la región. Las secuencias parciales del gen mitocondrial 16S rRNA que se obtuvieron de 2 individuos de E. gryllus mostraron diferencias ligeras al compararse con las secuencias de otros anfípodos de la misma especie procedentes de otras zonas del Atlántico (3.6 a 3.9% y del Pacífico (4.0 a 4.1%, incrementándose (4.2 a 9.5% al compararse con secuencias de organismos de aguas someras (<500 m. Las diferencias mayores (18% se observan en la comparación de ejemplares de

  1. Heat sterilization of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang

    2010-01-01

    Two important questions should be considered in heat sterilizing solid wood materials: First, what temperature–time regime is required to kill a particular pest? Second, how much time is required to heat the center of any wood configuration to the kill temperature? The entomology research on the first question has facilitated the development of international standards...

  2. Wood supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; David B. McKeever

    2011-01-01

    At times in history, there have been concerns that demand for wood (timber) would be greater than the ability to supply it, but that concern has recently dissipated. The wood supply and demand situation has changed because of market transitions, economic downturns, and continued forest growth. This article provides a concise overview of this change as it relates to the...

  3. Complex geometries in wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Riiber Nielsen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust parame...... parametric model and a generic design language a later explored the possibilities to construct complex shaped geometries with self registering joints on modern wood crafting machines. The research was carried out as collaboration with industrial partners.......The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust...

  4. Functional relevance of acoustic tracheal design in directional hearing in crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Arne K D; Römer, Heiner

    2016-10-15

    Internally coupled ears (ICEs) allow small animals to reliably determine the direction of a sound source. ICEs are found in a variety of taxa, but crickets have evolved the most complex arrangement of coupled ears: an acoustic tracheal system composed of a large cross-body trachea that connects two entry points for sound in the thorax with the leg trachea of both ears. The key structure that allows for the tuned directionality of the ear is a tracheal inflation (acoustic vesicle) in the midline of the cross-body trachea holding a thin membrane (septum). Crickets are known to display a wide variety of acoustic tracheal morphologies, most importantly with respect to the presence of a single or double acoustic vesicle. However, the functional relevance of this variation is still not known. In this study, we investigated the peripheral directionality of three co-occurring, closely related cricket species of the subfamily Gryllinae. No support could be found for the hypothesis that a double vesicle should be regarded as an evolutionary innovation to (1) increase interaural directional cues, (2) increase the selectivity of the directional filter or (3) provide a better match between directional and sensitivity tuning. Nonetheless, by manipulating the double acoustic vesicle in the rainforest cricket Paroecanthus podagrosus, selectively eliminating the sound-transmitting pathways, we revealed that these pathways contribute almost equally to the total amount of interaural intensity differences, emphasizing their functional relevance in the system. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Monitoring Changes In Power, Speed, Agility And Endurance In Elite Cricketers During The Off-Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Chris; Herridge, Ross; Turner, Anthony

    2017-06-22

    The purpose of this study was to monitor changes in power, speed, agility and endurance in elite cricketers during the 20-week off-season period. Fourteen elite male cricketers (age 26.2 ± 5.3years; height 180.8 ± 8.5cm; mass 83.5 ± 6.7kg) conducted a physical testing battery in week 1 and week 18 of the off-season period. The testing included a yoyo intermittent recovery test (yoyo IRT), bilateral and unilateral countermovement jumps (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), broad jump (BJ), drop jump (to calculate reactive strength index - [RSI]), pro agility and 5, 10, 20m sprint tests. Results showed significant improvements (p < 0.05) in all fitness tests except for the pro-agility test (p = 0.076), with effect sizes ranging from 0.26-2.8 across the test battery. The results of this study show the off-season in cricket allows adequate time for significant improvements of physical qualities needed for the demanding in-season schedule of the sport and provide normative values for an elite cricket population.

  6. The role of visual skills and its impact on skill performance of cricket ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The programme included sports vision activities, speed and agility activities and ball skills activities. The pre-training and post-training values of the cricket players were recorded and significance of difference was determined by using the Wilcoxon signed-ranks test. Data revealed that the visual skills programme had a ...

  7. Valgus extension overload syndrome of the elbow in a test cricket ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elbow injury in sports is dependent on the nature of the game. Well- defined injury patterns like the valgus hyperextension syndrome have been reported in throwers, in racquet sports and in baseball. The demands of throwing in cricket theoretically do not involve sig- nificant stress on the elbow. We report for the first time a ...

  8. First record of the ant cricket Myrmecophilus (Myrmecophilina) americanus (Orthoptera: Myrmecophilidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Morales, Aldo I; Rodríguez, Quetzaly K Siller; Garza-Hernández, Javier A; Adeniran, Adebiyi A; Hernández-Triana, Luis M; Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A

    2017-04-27

    In September 2004, the New World ant cricket, Myrmecophilus americanus Saussure, 1877, was collected in association with longhorn crazy ants, Paratrechina longicornis (Latreille. 1802), in the state of Coahuila, Mexico. We are reporting the DNA barcode using the mitochrondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I for this first record of M. americanus in Mexico.

  9. A 3-year investigation into the incidence and nature of cricket ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Injury surveillance is fundamental for preventing and reducing the risk of injury. As a result injuries in adult cricketers have been well researched over the years with long-term injury surveillance being carried out in Australia,1 England2 and South Africa.3 The findings of these studies report that bowlers were at ...

  10. A new species of Gryllotalpa mole cricket (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae: Gryllotalpinae) from Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ming Kai; Kamaruddin, Khairul Nizam

    2016-01-19

    A new species of Gryllotalpa mole cricket (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) is described from Bukit Larut, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia: Gryllotalpa permai sp. n. Acoustic analysis of the male calling songs were also provided for Gryllotalpa permai sp. n. and the morphologically similar Gryllotalpa fulvipes.

  11. Cercal sensory regulation of ganglionic protein metabolism in the field cricket, Gryllotalpa africana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, V; Dayanand, Y; Madhusudhuna, L; Srinivasulu, Y; Reddy, G R

    1991-07-01

    The effect of cercal deafferentation (cercectomy) on the ganglionic protein metabolism of the cricket, Gryllotalpa africana was studied. Significant changes in the activities of the enzymes acetylcholinesterase, glutamate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were observed in the terminal ganglion following unilateral and bilateral cercectomy.

  12. Valgus extension overload syndrome of the elbow in a test cricket ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of valgus hyperextension syndrome in an international cricket fast bowler. The mechanism of trauma seems to ... programme designed to strengthen his forearm flexor-pronator and triceps group of muscles. He resumed ... elbow extension produce tensile stresses on medial compartment restraints (ulnar collateral ligament, ...

  13. Analysis of patient load data for teams competing in the 2003 cricket ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent years findings on seasonal cricket injuries have been well documented in South Africa,10-16 Australia5 and England.3. Variation in injury definitions and methods of data collection have limited the ability to draw comparisons relating to injury rate. However, the recently published consensus statement.

  14. Analysis of patient load data from the 2003 Cricket World Cup in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the patient presentation data for spectators attending the opening ceremony and all the 2003 Cricket World Cup matches played in South Africa in order to provide organisers with the basis of a sound medical care plan for mass gatherings of a similar nature. Methods.

  15. Evaluating individual performance in team sports : A network analysis of Batsmen and Bowlers in Cricket

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Satyam

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying individual performance in team activity is critical in team selection in international sports. We explore the application of Social Network Analysis (SNA) to rate individuals in an team activity. We choose the game of Cricket as an example. The number runs scored by batsmen and wickets taken by bowlers serves as a natural way of quantifying the performance of a cricketer. Traditionally the batsmen and bowlers are rated on their batting or bowling average respectively. However in a game like cricket it is always important the manner in which one scores the runs or takes a wicket. Scoring runs against a strong bowling line-up or delivering a brilliant performance against a team with strong batting line-up deserves more credit. A player's average is not able to capture this aspect of the game. In this paper we present a refined method to quantify the `quality' of runs scored by a batsman or wickets taken by a bowler. We apply tools of Social Network Analysis (SNA) to judge a cricketer's performance. ...

  16. The cricket and the ant : Organizational trade-offs in changing environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peli, Gabor; Bruggeman, Jeroen

    2007-01-01

    Organizations face trade-offs when they adopt strategies in changing resource environments. The type of trade-off depends on the type of resource change. This paper offers an organizational trade-off model for quantitative resource changes. We call it the "Cricket and Ant" (CA) model, because the

  17. Imitating the cricket cercal system: The beauty of the beast with a twist of the engineer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Droogendijk, H.; Dagamseh, A.M.K.; Jaganatharaja, R.K.; Casas, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    MEMS offers exciting possibilities for the fabrication of bioinspired mechanosensors. Over the last years we have been working on cricket inspired hair-sensor arrays for spatio-temporal flow- field observations (i.e flow-camera) and source localization. Whereas making flow-sensors as energy

  18. Hair-based flow-sensing inspired by the cricket cercal system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Droogendijk, H.; Steinmann, T.; Dagamseh, A.M.K.; Jaganatharaja, R.K.; Casas, J.

    2014-01-01

    Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) offer exciting possibilities for the fabri­cation of bioinspired mechanosensors. Over the last years we have been working on cricket inspired hair-sensor arrays for spatio-temporal flow-field observations (i.e., flow-cameras) and source localization. Whereas

  19. Cricket pace bowling: The trade-off between optimising knee angle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The cricket pace bowler utilises various strategies, including a more extended front knee angle, to achieve optimal performance benefits. At times this is done to the detriment of injury prevention. Objective. To investigate the relationship between three-dimensional (3D) knee kinematics during pace bowling ...

  20. "In Loco Parentis"? Public-School Authority, Cricket and Manly Character, 1855-62

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddice, Rob

    2009-01-01

    This article considers the responsibility for schoolboys' behaviour and character when in liminal spaces between home and school, in an historical account of the annual cricket matches in London between Eton, Harrow and Winchester in the late 1850s. The episode is situated in the context of the Clarendon Commission's discussions on school sports,…

  1. Acheta domesticus Volvovirus, a Novel Single-Stranded Circular DNA Virus of the House Cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hanh T; Bergoin, Max; Tijssen, Peter

    2013-03-14

    The genome of a novel virus of the house cricket consists of a 2,517-nucleotide (nt) circular single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecule with 4 open reading frames (ORFs). One ORF had a low identity to circovirus nucleotide sequences (NS). The unique properties of this volvovirus suggested that it belongs to a new virus family or genus.

  2. Fate of neuroblast progeny during postembryonic development of mushroom bodies in the house cricket, Acheta domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayre, M; Malaterre, J; Charpin, P; Strambi, C; Strambi, A

    2000-03-01

    Mushroom bodies represent the main sensory integrative center of the insect brain and probably play a major role in the adaptation of behavioral responses to the environment. Taking into account the continuous neurogenesis of cricket mushroom bodies, we investigated ontogenesis of this brain structure. Using BrdU labeling, we examined the fate of neuroblast progeny during the postembryonic development. Preimaginal Kenyon cells survived throughout larval and imaginal moults and persisted during adulthood. Our results indicate that the location of labelled Kenyon cells in the cortex of the adult cricket mainly depends upon the period when they were produced during development. The present data demonstrate that cricket mushroom bodies grow from the inside out and that, at any developmental stage, the center of the cortex contains the youngest Kenyon cells. This study also allowed us to observe the occurrence of quiescent neuroblasts. Kenyon cell death during postembryonic and adult life seems to be reduced. Although preimaginal Kenyon cells largely contribute to adult mushroom body structure, a permanent remodeling of the mushroom body occurs throughout the whole insect life due to the persistence of neurogenesis in the house cricket. Further studies are needed to understand the functional significance of these findings.

  3. Acheta domesticus Volvovirus, a Novel Single-Stranded Circular DNA Virus of the House Cricket

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Hanh T.; Bergoin, Max; Tijssen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The genome of a novel virus of the house cricket consists of a 2,517-nucleotide (nt) circular single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecule with 4 open reading frames (ORFs). One ORF had a low identity to circovirus nucleotide sequences (NS). The unique properties of this volvovirus suggested that it belongs to a new virus family or genus.

  4. Preferential predation of cool season grass seed by the common cricket (Acheta domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine if there might be a seed predation preference among forage grasses a laboratory study was conducted using the common cricket (Acheta domesticus L.). Six cool-season grasses were selected and feeding studies were conducted over a three day period. The study was designed as a randomized ...

  5. Immune challenge and pre- and post-copulatory female choice in the cricket Teleogryllus commodus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drayton, Jean M.; Boeke, J. E. Kobus; Jennions, Michael D.

    Life history theory predicts a trade off between the expression of male sexual traits and the immune system. To test for this trade off, male crickets Teleogryllus commodus were injected with bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to induce an immune response and their subsequent pre- and

  6. Cord Wood Testing in a Non-Catalytic Wood Stove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trojanowski, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wei, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-06-30

    EPA Method 28 and the current wood stove regulations have been in-place since 1988. Recently, EPA proposed an update to the existing NSPS for wood stove regulations which includes a plan to transition from the current crib wood fuel to cord wood fuel for certification testing. Cord wood is seen as generally more representative of field conditions while the crib wood is seen as more repeatable. In any change of certification test fuel, there are questions about the impact on measured results and the correlation between tests with the two different fuels. The purpose of the work reported here is to provide data on the performance of a noncatalytic stove with cord wood. The stove selected has previously been certified with crib wood which provides a basis for comparison with cord wood. Overall, particulate emissions were found to be considerably higher with cord wood.

  7. Chapter 6: Wood energy and competing wood product markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth E. Skog; Robert C. Abt; Karen Abt

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effect of expanding wood energy markets is important to all wood-dependent industries and to policymakers debating the implementation of public programs to support the expansion of wood energy generation. A key factor in determining the feasibility of wood energy projects (e.g. wood boiler or pellet plant) is the long-term (i.e. 20-30year) supply...

  8. Assessment of a cricket, Acheta domesticus, bioassay for Chequa Iflavirus and bunya-like virus from redclaw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuna, Kitikarn; Elliman, Jennifer; Owens, Leigh

    2017-11-01

    Chequa iflavirus and a bunya-like virus infect redclaw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) and they may cause mortality reaching 20-40% after about three weeks after a stress event. To complete River's postulates for viruses, virus-free animals are needed. Due to a lack of chequa iflavirus and bunya-like virus-free crayfish (testing shows>85% infection rate) coupled with the facts that iflavirus and bunyaviruses are found in insects and that crickets had been successful alternate hosts for crustacean viruses before, Acheta domesticus was trialled asa bioassay animal. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in mortality rates between uninfected control crickets and infected crickets. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for both viruses failed to find any trace of the RNA viruses in fed or inoculated crickets after 30days. The search for an alternative bioassay host will have to be widened. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Structure and Function of Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2012-01-01

    Wood is a complex biological structure, a composite of many cell types and chemistries acting together to serve the needs of living plant. Attempting to understand wood inthe context of wood technology, we have often overlooked the basic fact that wood evolved over the course of millions of years to serve three main functions in plants-conduction of water from the...

  10. Fatigue Damage in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Fatigue failure is found to depend both on the total time under load and on the number of cycles.Recent accelerated fatigue research on wood is reviewed, and a discrepancy between...... to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation between stiffness reduction...

  11. Egg Load Decreases Mobility and Increases Predation Risk in Female Black-Horned Tree Crickets (Oecanthus nigricornis)

    OpenAIRE

    Ercit, Kyla; Martinez-Novoa, Andrew; Gwynne, Darryl T.

    2014-01-01

    Female-biased predation is an uncommon phenomenon in nature since males of many species take on riskier behaviours to gain more mates. Several species of sphecid wasps have been observed taking more female than male prey, and it is not fully understood why. The solitary sphecid Isodontia mexicana catches more adult female tree cricket (Oecanthus nigricornis) prey. Previous work has shown that, although female tree crickets are larger and thus likely to be more valuable as prey than males, bod...

  12. Wood construction under cold climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Hagman, Olle; Sundqvist, Bror

    2014-01-01

    As wood constructions increasingly use engineered wood products worldwide, concerns arise about the integrity of the wood and adhesives system. The glueline stability is a crucial issue for engineered wood application, especially under cold climate. In this study, Norway spruce (Picea abies...... specimens need to be tested in further work to more completely present the issue. The EN 301 and EN 302 may need to be specified based on wood species....

  13. Adenocarcinoma and wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraub, S; Belon-Leneutre, M; Mercier, M; Bourgeois, P

    1989-12-01

    The relation of adenocarcinoma of the facial sinuses and exposure to wood dust has been recognized for 20 years. As the tracheobronchial mucosa is similar to that lining the sinuses, a link between bronchial adenocarcinoma and wood dust exposure has been postulated. To test this hypothesis, a case-control study was conducted, based on all the histologically proven cases of adenocarcinoma of the lung reported to the tumor registry of the Doubs region of France from 1978 to 1985 and random population controls matched for age and residence. A questionnaire on occupational exposure and tobacco consumption was completed by 53 cases and 160 controls. Exposure to wood was similar for both groups, the crude relative risk (odds ratio) being 1.06; adjustment for tobacco consumption did not modify this value. Exposure to wood dust does not seem to be an occupational risk factor in the genesis of bronchial adenocarcinoma.

  14. Wood - a carbon depot

    OpenAIRE

    Lipušček, Igor; Tišler, Vesna

    2003-01-01

    The article examines the global movement of carbon dioxide, the most important greenhouse gas due to its large quantities. We studied the carbon cycle with possibilities of its extension, and analysed the mechanisms that remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and bind it into solid substances for a longer period of time. The focus was on carbon dioxide sink into biomass and carbon deposit in wood. On the basis of wood component data and chemical analysis of the components, we calculated th...

  15. An analysis of the horizontal burrow morphology of the oriental mole cricket (Gryllotalpa orientalis) and the distribution pattern of surface vegetation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Endo, C

    2008-01-01

    .... The burrowing patterns of the oriental mole cricket (Gryllotalpa orientalis Brumeister, 1838) (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) were investigated based on analyses of the relation between burrow morphology and plant distribution...

  16. Effect of House Cricket (Acheta domesticus) Flour Addition on Physicochemical and Textural Properties of Meat Emulsion Under Various Formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Setyabrata, Derico; Lee, YongJae; Jones, Owen G; Kim, Yuan H Brad

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of house cricket (Acheta domesticus) flour addition on physicochemical and textural properties of meat emulsion under various formulations. As an initial marker of functionality, protein solubility, water absorption, emulsifying capacity, and gel formation ability of house cricket flour were determined at pH (2 to 10) and NaCl concentrations (0 to 2.10 M). Control emulsion was formulated with 60% lean pork, 20% back fat, and 20% ice. Six treatment emulsions were prepared with replacement of lean pork and/or back fat portions with spray-dried house cricket flour at 5% and 10% levels, based on a total sample weight. The protein solubility of house cricket flour (67 g protein/100 g) was significantly altered depending upon pH (P 0.05). The replacement of lean meat/fat portion with house cricket flour within 10% level could fortify protein and some micronutrients (phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium) in meat emulsion, without negative impacts on cooking yield and textural properties. Our results suggest that house cricket flour can be used as an effective nonmeat functional ingredient to manufacture emulsified meat products. To better utilize house cricket flour as a food ingredient in wide application, understanding its technological properties in various pH, and ionic strength conditions is a pivotal step. Protein solubility of house cricket flour would be considerably affected by the varying pH and NaCl concentrations of applied conventional foods. In the case of meat emulsion, within 10% lean meat and/or fat portions could be successfully substituted with house cricket flour without detectable adverse impacts on technological properties associated with cooking yield and instrumental analysis of texture. Thus, our findings suggest that house cricket flour possess the necessary physical properties to be used as an alternative nonmeat ingredient for incorporation within emulsified meat products, which could be

  17. Wood for the trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Garbutt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Our paper focuses on the materiality, cultural history and cultural relations of selected artworks in the exhibition Wood for the trees (Lismore Regional Gallery, New South Wales, Australia, 10 June – 17 July 2011. The title of the exhibition, intentionally misreading the aphorism “Can’t see the wood for the trees”, by reading the wood for the resource rather than the collective wood[s], implies conservation, preservation, and the need for sustaining the originating resource. These ideas have particular resonance on the NSW far north coast, a region once rich in rainforest. While the Indigenous population had sustainable practices of forest and land management, the colonists deployed felling and harvesting in order to convert the value of the local, abundant rainforest trees into high-value timber. By the late twentieth century, however, a new wave of settlers launched a protest movements against the proposed logging of remnant rainforest at Terania Creek and elsewhere in the region. Wood for the trees, curated by Gallery Director Brett Adlington, plays on this dynamic relationship between wood, trees and people. We discuss the way selected artworks give expression to the themes or concepts of productive labour, nature and culture, conservation and sustainability, and memory. The artworks include Watjinbuy Marrawilil’s (1980 Carved ancestral figure ceremonial pole, Elizabeth Stops’ (2009/10 Explorations into colonisation, Hossein Valamanesh’s (2008 Memory stick, and AñA Wojak’s (2008 Unread book (in a forgotten language. Our art writing on the works, a practice informed by Bal (2002, Muecke (2008 and Papastergiadis (2004, becomes a conversation between the works and the themes or concepts. As a form of material excess of the most productive kind (Grosz, 2008, p. 7, art seeds a response to that which is in the air waiting to be said of the past, present and future.

  18. Morphological and molecular characterization of Gordius, a horse hairworm recovered from cricket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Patra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the morphological and molecular characterization of a newly isolated Gordius spp. from of the northeastern states of India. Methods: Identification of the parasite was based on light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. For molecular identification a partial sequence of ITS2 region was amplified. The product was cloned in cloning vector and subsequently phylogenetic analysis was done. Results: Based on the morphological and molecular analysis, the nematode infesting cricket was confirmed to be Gordius species. Grossly the length of those nematodes ranged between 15.1 and 35.5 cm. The present study also described the light microscopy and fine structural morphological study of the isolated species. Molecular amplification targeting ITS2 region of Gordius was found to be approximately 1 048 bp. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Gordius species is a close relative (100% to Malaysian species. Conclusions: Occurrence of Gordius species in Indian cricket has been confirmed and found 100% similarity with Malaysian species.

  19. Structure of the afferent terminals in terminal ganglion of a cricket and persistent homology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Brown

    Full Text Available We use topological data analysis to investigate the three dimensional spatial structure of the locus of afferent neuron terminals in crickets Acheta domesticus. Each afferent neuron innervates a filiform hair positioned on a cercus: a protruding appendage at the rear of the animal. The hairs transduce air motion to the neuron signal that is used by a cricket to respond to the environment. We stratify the hairs (and the corresponding afferent terminals into classes depending on hair length, along with position. Our analysis uncovers significant structure in the relative position of these terminal classes and suggests the functional relevance of this structure. Our method is very robust to the presence of significant experimental and developmental noise. It can be used to analyze a wide range of other point cloud data sets.

  20. Structure of the Afferent Terminals in Terminal Ganglion of a Cricket and Persistent Homology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jacob; Gedeon, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    We use topological data analysis to investigate the three dimensional spatial structure of the locus of afferent neuron terminals in crickets Acheta domesticus. Each afferent neuron innervates a filiform hair positioned on a cercus: a protruding appendage at the rear of the animal. The hairs transduce air motion to the neuron signal that is used by a cricket to respond to the environment. We stratify the hairs (and the corresponding afferent terminals) into classes depending on hair length, along with position. Our analysis uncovers significant structure in the relative position of these terminal classes and suggests the functional relevance of this structure. Our method is very robust to the presence of significant experimental and developmental noise. It can be used to analyze a wide range of other point cloud data sets. PMID:22649516

  1. The effects of hydration on growth of the house cricket, Acheta domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluney, Kevin E; Date, Rishabh C

    2008-01-01

    Maintenance of biochemical gradients, membrane fluidity, and sustained periods of activity are key physiological and behavioral functions of water for animals living in desiccating environments. Water stress may reduce the organism's ability to maintain these functions and as such, may reduce an organism's growth. However, few studies have examined this potential effect. The effects of altered hydration state of the house cricket, Acheta domesticus L. (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) on individual growth were studied under laboratory conditions. Crickets were permitted access to water for three different durations each day, resulting in significant differences in hydration state (32% greater hydration for maximum than minimum duration of water availability). Growth was 59% and 72% greater in dry mass and length, respectively, between the lowest and highest hydration state treatments. These findings may be representative for a variety of animal species and environments and could have important ecological implications.

  2. Excretion in the house cricket (Acheta domesticus): ultrastructure of the ampulla and ureter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, J H; Parker, S W; Hazelton, S R

    1988-01-01

    An ultrastructural analysis of the ampulla and ureter of the cricket, Acheta domesticus, is presented. The excretory system of the cricket is unusual in that the 112 Malpighian tubules do not attach directly to the gut, but fuse to form a bladder-like ampulla which is joined to the colon by a muscular ureter. The ampulla consists of two cell types, primary and regenerative. Primary cells secrete large numbers of membrane-bound vesicles into the lumen and also appear to be involved in fluid reabsorption. Regenerative cells are very small and form a layer just beneath the basal lamina of the ampulla. They are believed to differentiate and replace sloughed off primary cells. The ureter is a muscular tube lined with cuticle which connects the ampulla (endoderm) with the colon (ectoderm). The probable origin and significance of the morphological modifications of the excretory system are discussed.

  3. Clavicular stress fracture in a cricket fast bowler: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Read Jeremy AF

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Whilst rare, stress fractures of the clavicle have been described in other sports. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a stress fracture of the clavicle occurring in a cricket fast bowler. Case presentation A 23-year-old professional cricket fast bowler presented with activity related shoulder pain. Imaging demonstrated a stress fracture of the lateral third of the clavicle. This healed with rest and rehabilitation allowing a full return to professional sport. Conclusion This injury is treated with activity modification and technique adaptation. In a professional sportsman, this needs to be recognised early so that return to play can be as quick as possible.

  4. Release from bats: genetic distance and sensoribehavioural regression in the Pacific field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullard, James H; ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Ratcliffe, John M; Pollack, Gerald S; Brigidi, Gian S; Tinghitella, Robin M; Zuk, Marlene

    2010-01-01

    The auditory thresholds of the AN2 interneuron and the behavioural thresholds of the anti-bat flight-steering responses that this cell evokes are less sensitive in female Pacific field crickets that live where bats have never existed (Moorea) compared with individuals subjected to intense levels of bat predation (Australia). In contrast, the sensitivity of the auditory interneuron, ON1 which participates in the processing of both social signals and bat calls, and the thresholds for flight orientation to a model of the calling song of male crickets show few differences between the two populations. Genetic analyses confirm that the two populations are significantly distinct, and we conclude that the absence of bats has caused partial regression in the nervous control of a defensive behaviour in this insect. This study represents the first examination of natural evolutionary regression in the neural basis of a behaviour along a selection gradient within a single species.

  5. Developing Leadership Skills in Sport: A Case Study of Elite Cricketers.

    OpenAIRE

    Cotterill, Stewart

    2016-01-01

    Effective leadership in sport at the elite level can make the difference between success and failure. However, while the importance of leadership is acknowledged there is little published evidence regarding how the required skills could or should be developed. The current case study reports the implementation of a leadership development program with elite professional cricketers. The intervention itself was focused at three levels: (1) captaincy development, (2) leadership skill development, ...

  6. Preservation Methods Alter Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotope Values in Crickets (Orthoptera: Grylloidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Fabiene Maria; Pereira, Marcelo Ribeiro; Rosa, Cassiano Sousa; Moreira, Marcelo Zacharias; Sperber, Carlos Frankl

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis (SIA) is an important tool for investigation of animal dietary habits for determination of feeding niche. Ideally, fresh samples should be used for isotopic analysis, but logistics frequently demands preservation of organisms for analysis at a later time. The goal of this study was to establish the best methodology for preserving forest litter-dwelling crickets for later SIA analysis without altering results. We collected two cricket species, Phoremia sp. and Mellopsis doucasae, from which we prepared 70 samples per species, divided among seven treatments: (i) freshly processed (control); preserved in fuel ethanol for (ii) 15 and (iii) 60 days; preserved in commercial ethanol for (iv) 15 and (v) 60 days; fresh material frozen for (vi) 15 and (vii) 60 days. After oven drying, samples were analyzed for δ15N, δ13C values, N(%), C(%) and C/N atomic values using continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry. All preservation methods tested, significantly impacted δ13C and δ15N and C/N atomic values. Chemical preservatives caused δ13C enrichment as great as 1.5‰, and δ15N enrichment as great as 0.9‰; the one exception was M. doucasae stored in ethanol for 15 days, which had δ15N depletion up to 1.8‰. Freezing depleted δ13C and δ15N by up to 0.7 and 2.2‰, respectively. C/N atomic values decreased when stored in ethanol, and increased when frozen for 60 days for both cricket species. Our results indicate that all preservation methods tested in this study altered at least one of the tested isotope values when compared to fresh material (controls). We conclude that only freshly processed material provides adequate SIA results for litter-dwelling crickets. PMID:26390400

  7. Preservation Methods Alter Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotope Values in Crickets (Orthoptera: Grylloidea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiene Maria Jesus

    Full Text Available Stable isotope analysis (SIA is an important tool for investigation of animal dietary habits for determination of feeding niche. Ideally, fresh samples should be used for isotopic analysis, but logistics frequently demands preservation of organisms for analysis at a later time. The goal of this study was to establish the best methodology for preserving forest litter-dwelling crickets for later SIA analysis without altering results. We collected two cricket species, Phoremia sp. and Mellopsis doucasae, from which we prepared 70 samples per species, divided among seven treatments: (i freshly processed (control; preserved in fuel ethanol for (ii 15 and (iii 60 days; preserved in commercial ethanol for (iv 15 and (v 60 days; fresh material frozen for (vi 15 and (vii 60 days. After oven drying, samples were analyzed for δ15N, δ13C values, N(%, C(% and C/N atomic values using continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry. All preservation methods tested, significantly impacted δ13C and δ15N and C/N atomic values. Chemical preservatives caused δ13C enrichment as great as 1.5‰, and δ15N enrichment as great as 0.9‰; the one exception was M. doucasae stored in ethanol for 15 days, which had δ15N depletion up to 1.8‰. Freezing depleted δ13C and δ15N by up to 0.7 and 2.2‰, respectively. C/N atomic values decreased when stored in ethanol, and increased when frozen for 60 days for both cricket species. Our results indicate that all preservation methods tested in this study altered at least one of the tested isotope values when compared to fresh material (controls. We conclude that only freshly processed material provides adequate SIA results for litter-dwelling crickets.

  8. Cricket pace bowling: The trade-off between optimising knee angle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S Afr J Sports Med 2015;27(3):76-81. DOI:10.7196/SAJSM.8111. Cricket pace bowling: The trade-off between optimising knee angle for performance advantages v. injury prevention. B Olivier,1 PhD; A V Stewart,1 PhD; A C Green,2 MSc (Physiol); W McKinon,2 PhD. 1 Department of Physiotherapy, School of Therapeutic ...

  9. The decision to fight or flee - insights into underlying mechanism in crickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Anthony eStevenson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ritualized fighting between conspecifics is an inherently dangerous behavioral strategy, optimized to secure limited resources at minimal cost and risk. To be adaptive, potential rewards and costs of aggression must be assessed to decide when it would be more opportune to fight or flee. We summarize insights into the proximate mechanisms underlying this decision-making process in field crickets. As in other animals, cricket aggression is enhanced dramatically by motor activity, winning and the possession of resources. Pharmacological manipulations provide evidence that these cases of experience-dependent enhancement of aggression are each mediated by octopamine, the invertebrate counterpart to adrenaline/noradrenaline. The data suggest that both physical exertion and rewarding aspects of experiences can activate the octopaminergic system, which increases the propensity to fight. Octopamine thus represents the motivational component of aggression in insects. For the decision to flee, animals are thought to assess information from agonistic signals exchanged during fighting. Cricket fights conform to the cumulative assessment model, in that they persist in fighting until the sum of their opponent’s actions accumulates to some threshold at which they withdraw. We discuss evidence that serotonin, nitric oxide and some neuropeptides may promote an insect’s tendency to flee. We propose that the decision to fight or flee in crickets is controlled simply by relative behavioral thresholds. Rewarding experiences increase the propensity to fight to a level determined by the modulatory action of octopamine. The animal will then flee only when the accumulated sum of the opponent’s actions surpasses this level; serotonin and nitric oxide may be involved in this process. This concept is in line with the roles proposed for noradrenaline, serotonin and nitric oxide in mammals and suggests that basic mechanisms of aggressive modulation may be conserved in

  10. The decision to fight or flee - insights into underlying mechanism in crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Paul A; Rillich, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Ritualized fighting between conspecifics is an inherently dangerous behavioral strategy, optimized to secure limited resources at minimal cost and risk. To be adaptive, potential rewards, and costs of aggression must be assessed to decide when it would be more opportune to fight or flee. We summarize insights into the proximate mechanisms underlying this decision-making process in field crickets. As in other animals, cricket aggression is enhanced dramatically by motor activity, winning, and the possession of resources. Pharmacological manipulations provide evidence that these cases of experience dependent enhancement of aggression are each mediated by octopamine, the invertebrate counterpart to adrenaline/noradrenaline. The data suggest that both physical exertion and rewarding aspects of experiences can activate the octopaminergic system, which increases the propensity to fight. Octopamine thus represents the motivational component of aggression in insects. For the decision to flee, animals are thought to assess information from agonistic signals exchanged during fighting. Cricket fights conform to the cumulative assessment model, in that they persist in fighting until the sum of their opponent's actions accumulates to some threshold at which they withdraw. We discuss evidence that serotonin, nitric oxide, and some neuropeptides may promote an insect's tendency to flee. We propose that the decision to fight or flee in crickets is controlled simply by relative behavioral thresholds. Rewarding experiences increase the propensity to fight to a level determined by the modulatory action of octopamine. The animal will then flee only when the accumulated sum of the opponent's actions surpasses this level; serotonin and nitric oxide may be involved in this process. This concept is in line with the roles proposed for noradrenaline, serotonin, and nitric oxide in mammals and suggests that basic mechanisms of aggressive modulation may be conserved in phylogeny.

  11. The Decision to Fight or Flee – Insights into Underlying Mechanism in Crickets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Paul A.; Rillich, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Ritualized fighting between conspecifics is an inherently dangerous behavioral strategy, optimized to secure limited resources at minimal cost and risk. To be adaptive, potential rewards, and costs of aggression must be assessed to decide when it would be more opportune to fight or flee. We summarize insights into the proximate mechanisms underlying this decision-making process in field crickets. As in other animals, cricket aggression is enhanced dramatically by motor activity, winning, and the possession of resources. Pharmacological manipulations provide evidence that these cases of experience dependent enhancement of aggression are each mediated by octopamine, the invertebrate counterpart to adrenaline/noradrenaline. The data suggest that both physical exertion and rewarding aspects of experiences can activate the octopaminergic system, which increases the propensity to fight. Octopamine thus represents the motivational component of aggression in insects. For the decision to flee, animals are thought to assess information from agonistic signals exchanged during fighting. Cricket fights conform to the cumulative assessment model, in that they persist in fighting until the sum of their opponent’s actions accumulates to some threshold at which they withdraw. We discuss evidence that serotonin, nitric oxide, and some neuropeptides may promote an insect’s tendency to flee. We propose that the decision to fight or flee in crickets is controlled simply by relative behavioral thresholds. Rewarding experiences increase the propensity to fight to a level determined by the modulatory action of octopamine. The animal will then flee only when the accumulated sum of the opponent’s actions surpasses this level; serotonin and nitric oxide may be involved in this process. This concept is in line with the roles proposed for noradrenaline, serotonin, and nitric oxide in mammals and suggests that basic mechanisms of aggressive modulation may be conserved in phylogeny. PMID

  12. Timing of Environmental Enrichment Affects Memory in the House Cricket, Acheta domesticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather S Mallory

    Full Text Available Learning appears to be ubiquitous among animals, as it plays a key role in many behaviors including foraging and reproduction. Although there is some genetic basis for differences in learning ability and memory retention, environment also plays an important role, as it does for any other trait. For example, adult animals maintained in enriched housing conditions learn faster and remember tasks for longer than animals maintained in impoverished conditions. Such plasticity in adult learning ability has often been linked to plasticity in the brain, and studies aimed at understanding the mechanisms, stimuli, and consequences of adult behavioral and brain plasticity are numerous. However, the role of experiences during post-embryonic development in shaping plasticity in adult learning ability and memory retention remain relatively unexplored. Using the house cricket (Acheta domesticus as a model organism, we developed a protocol to allow the odor preference of a large number of crickets to be tested in a short period of time. We then used this new protocol to examine how enrichment or impoverishment at two developmental stages (either the last nymphal instar or young adult affected adult memory. Our results show that regardless of nymphal rearing conditions, crickets that experienced an enriched rearing condition as young adults performed better on a memory task than individuals that experienced an impoverished condition. Older adult crickets (more than 1 week post adult molt did not demonstrate differences in memory of the odor task, regardless of rearing condition as a young adult. Our results suggest that environmentally-induced plasticity in memory may be restricted to the young adult stage.

  13. Timing of Environmental Enrichment Affects Memory in the House Cricket, Acheta domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallory, Heather S; Howard, Aaron F; Weiss, Martha R

    2016-01-01

    Learning appears to be ubiquitous among animals, as it plays a key role in many behaviors including foraging and reproduction. Although there is some genetic basis for differences in learning ability and memory retention, environment also plays an important role, as it does for any other trait. For example, adult animals maintained in enriched housing conditions learn faster and remember tasks for longer than animals maintained in impoverished conditions. Such plasticity in adult learning ability has often been linked to plasticity in the brain, and studies aimed at understanding the mechanisms, stimuli, and consequences of adult behavioral and brain plasticity are numerous. However, the role of experiences during post-embryonic development in shaping plasticity in adult learning ability and memory retention remain relatively unexplored. Using the house cricket (Acheta domesticus) as a model organism, we developed a protocol to allow the odor preference of a large number of crickets to be tested in a short period of time. We then used this new protocol to examine how enrichment or impoverishment at two developmental stages (either the last nymphal instar or young adult) affected adult memory. Our results show that regardless of nymphal rearing conditions, crickets that experienced an enriched rearing condition as young adults performed better on a memory task than individuals that experienced an impoverished condition. Older adult crickets (more than 1 week post adult molt) did not demonstrate differences in memory of the odor task, regardless of rearing condition as a young adult. Our results suggest that environmentally-induced plasticity in memory may be restricted to the young adult stage.

  14. Network centrality based team formation: A case study on T-20 cricket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramita Dey

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes and evaluates the novel utilization of small world network properties for the formation of team of players with both best performances and best belongingness within the team network. To verify this concept, this methodology is applied to T-20 cricket teams. The players are treated as nodes of the network, whereas the number of interactions between team members is denoted as the edges between those nodes. All intra country networks form the cricket network for this case study. Analysis of the networks depicts that T-20 cricket network inherits all characteristics of small world network. Making a quantitative measure for an individual performance in the team sports is important with respect to the fact that for team selection of an International match, from pool of best players, only eleven players can be selected for the team. The statistical record of each player considered as a traditional way of quantifying the performance of a player. But the other criteria such as performing against a strong opponent or performance as an effective team member such as fielding, running between the wickets, good partnership deserves more credential. In this paper a revised method based on social networking is presented to quantify the quality of team belongingness and efficiency of each player. The application of Social Network Analysis (SNA is explored to measure performances and the rank of the players. A bidirectional weighted network of players is generated using the information collected from T-20 cricket (2014–2016 and used for network analysis. Thus team was formed based on that ranking and compared with their IPL (Indian Premier League performances of 2016.

  15. Photodegradation of thermally modified wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Kavyashree; Pandey, Krishna K

    2012-12-05

    Natural wood, being biological material, undergoes rapid degradation by ultraviolet (UV) radiations and other environmental factors under outdoor exposure. In order to protect wood from such degradation, the chemical structure of wood is altered by chemical modification or heat treatment. In the present study, heat treated specimens of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) were exposed to xenon light source in a weather-o-meter for different periods up to 300 h. Photostability of modified and unmodified wood was evaluated in terms of colour and chemical changes. Light coloured untreated wood became dark upon UV irradiation whereas, dark colour of heat treated wood lightened on UV exposure. CIE lightness parameter (L(*)) decreased for untreated wood whereas its value increased for heat treated wood upon irradiation. Other colour coordinates a(*) and b(*) increased with exposure duration for both untreated and heat treated wood. The overall colour change (ΔE(*)) increased for both untreated and heat treated wood. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies revealed severe lignin degradation of heat treated wood due to UV light exposure. Colour changes and FTIR measurements indicate that thermal modification of wood was ineffective in restricting light induced colour changes and photodegradation of wood polymers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Identifying the greatest team and captain—A complex network approach to cricket matches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Satyam

    2012-12-01

    We consider all Test matches played between 1877 and 2010 and One Day International (ODI) matches played between 1971 and 2010. We form directed and weighted networks of teams and also of their captains. The success of a team (or captain) is determined by the ‘quality’ of the wins, not simply by the number of wins. We apply the diffusion-based PageRank algorithm to the networks to assess the importance of the wins, and rank the respective teams and captains. Our analysis identifies Australia as the best team in both forms of cricket, Test and ODI. Steve Waugh is identified as the best captain in Test cricket and Ricky Ponting is the best captain in the ODI format. We also compare our ranking scheme with an existing ranking scheme, the Reliance ICC ranking. Our method does not depend on ‘external’ criteria in the ranking of teams (captains). The purpose of this paper is to introduce a revised ranking of cricket teams and to quantify the success of the captains.

  17. Constant illumination reduces circulating melatonin and impairs immune function in the cricket Teleogryllus commodus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Durrant

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to constant light has a range of negative effects on behaviour and physiology, including reduced immune function in both vertebrates and invertebrates. It is proposed that the associated suppression of melatonin (a ubiquitous hormone and powerful antioxidant in response to the presence of light at night could be an underlying mechanistic link driving the changes to immune function. Here, we investigated the relationship between constant illumination, melatonin and immune function, using a model invertebrate species, the Australian black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus. Crickets were reared under either a 12 h light: 12 h dark regimen or a constant 24 h light regimen. Circulating melatonin concentration and immune function (haemocyte concentration, lytic activity and phenoloxidase (PO activity were assessed in individual adult crickets through the analysis of haemolymph. Constant illumination reduced melatonin and had a negative impact on haemocyte concentrations and lytic activity, but its effect on PO activity was less apparent. Our data provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, of a link between exposure to constant illumination and variation in haemocyte concentration in an invertebrate model, while also highlighting the potential complexity of the immune response following exposure to constant illumination. This study provides insight into the possible negative effect of artificial night-time lighting on the physiology of invertebrates, but whether lower and potentially more ecologically relevant levels of light at night produce comparable results, as has been reported in several vertebrate taxa, remains to be tested.

  18. Understanding the link between sexual selection, sexual conflict and aging using crickets as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, C Ruth; Hunt, John

    2015-11-01

    Aging evolved because the strength of natural selection declines over the lifetime of most organisms. Weak natural selection late in life allows the accumulation of deleterious mutations and may favor alleles that have positive effects on fitness early in life, but costly pleiotropic effects expressed later on. While this decline in natural selection is central to longstanding evolutionary explanations for aging, a role for sexual selection and sexual conflict in the evolution of lifespan and aging has only been identified recently. Testing how sexual selection and sexual conflict affect lifespan and aging is challenging as it requires quantifying male age-dependent reproductive success. This is difficult in the invertebrate model organisms traditionally used in aging research. Research using crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllidae), where reproductive investment can be easily measured in both sexes, has offered exciting and novel insights into how sexual selection and sexual conflict affect the evolution of aging, both in the laboratory and in the wild. Here we discuss how sexual selection and sexual conflict can be integrated alongside evolutionary and mechanistic theories of aging using crickets as a model. We then highlight the potential for research using crickets to further advance our understanding of lifespan and aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The social context of cannibalism in migratory bands of the Mormon cricket.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Bazazi

    Full Text Available Cannibalism has been shown to be important to the collective motion of mass migratory bands of insects, such as locusts and Mormon crickets. These mobile groups consist of millions of individuals and are highly destructive to vegetation. Individuals move in response to attacks from approaching conspecifics and bite those ahead, resulting in further movement and encounters with others. Despite the importance of cannibalism, the way in which individuals make attack decisions and how the social context affects these cannibalistic interactions is unknown. This can be understood by examining the decisions made by individuals in response to others. We performed a field investigation which shows that adult Mormon crickets were more likely to approach and attack a stationary cricket that was side-on to the flow than either head- or abdomen-on, suggesting that individuals could reduce their risk of an attack by aligning with neighbours. We found strong social effects on cannibalistic behaviour: encounters lasted longer, were more likely to result in an attack, and attacks were more likely to be successful if other individuals were present around a stationary individual. This local aggregation appears to be driven by positive feedback whereby the presence of individuals attracts others, which can lead to further crowding. This work improves our understanding of the local social dynamics driving migratory band formation, maintenance and movement at the population level.

  20. Infective Juveniles of the Entomopathogenic Nematode Steinernema scapterisci Are Preferentially Activated by Cricket Tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dihong Lu

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic nematodes are a subgroup of insect-parasitic nematodes that are used in biological control as alternatives or supplements to chemical pesticides. Steinernema scapterisci is an unusual member of the entomopathogenic nematode guild for many reasons including that it is promiscuous in its association with bacteria, it can reproduce in the absence of its described bacterial symbiont, and it is known to have a narrow host range. It is a powerful comparative model within the species and could be used to elucidate parasite specialization. Here we describe a new method of efficiently producing large numbers of S. scapterisci infective juveniles (IJs in house crickets and for quantifying parasitic activation of the IJs upon exposure to host tissue using morphological features. We found that parasite activation is a temporal process with more IJs activating over time. Furthermore, we found that activated IJs secrete a complex mixture of proteins and that S. scapterisci IJs preferentially activate upon exposure to cricket tissue, reaffirming the description of S. scapterisci as a cricket specialist.

  1. In situ measurement of calling metabolic rate in an Australian mole cricket, Gryllotalpa monanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Craig R; Matthews, Philip G D; Seymour, Roger S

    2008-06-01

    Examination of the energetics of sound production usually requires measurement of species that will produce normal calls under unnatural circumstances. Such measurements are potentially compromised by stress-related changes in calling input (through a reduction in calling effort) or output (through forced use of sub-optimal singing burrows). To determine if such measurements are indeed affected by abstraction from a natural setting, we measured the energetics of song production in undisturbed mole crickets Gryllotalpa monanka and employed a new approach where the animal's singing chamber replaces the respirometry chamber normally used in studies of this type. It was therefore possible to measure metabolic rate (MR) of calling crickets in situ for animals within self-constructed burrows under natural conditions. Calling MR measured under these conditions averaged 13.5-fold higher than standard MR and 2.2-fold higher than MR measured during burrowing in the lab. The calling MR of G. monanka was similar to that measured for other calling insects, and to endothermic insects, but was only 10% of that allometrically predicted for a similarly sized insect (0.89 g) during flight. A male mole cricket is estimated to consume 5.9 ml of oxygen during construction of a calling burrow and a 1-h calling bout; by comparison, a flying female would consume a similar volume in less than 6 min.

  2. The influence of elbow joint kinematics on wrist speed in cricket fast bowling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Kane Jytte; Alderson, Jacqueline Anne; Elliott, Bruce Clifford; Mills, Peter Michael

    2015-01-01

    This modelling study sought to describe the relationships between elbow joint kinematics and wrist joint linear velocity in cricket fast bowlers, and to assess the sensitivity of wrist velocity to systematic manipulations of empirical joint kinematic profiles. A 12-camera Vicon motion analysis system operating at 250 Hz recorded the bowling actions of 12 high performance fast bowlers. Empirical elbow joint kinematic data were entered into a cricket bowling specific "Forward Kinematic Model" and then subsequently underwent fixed angle, angular offset and angle amplification manipulations. A combination of 20° flexion and 20° abduction at the elbow was shown to maximise wrist velocity within the experimental limits. An increased elbow flexion offset manipulation elicited an increase in wrist velocity. Amplification of elbow joint flexion-extension angular displacement indicated that, contrary to previous research, elbow extension range of motion and angular velocity at the time of ball release were negatively related to wrist velocity. Some relationships between manipulated joint angular waveforms and wrist velocity were non-linear, supporting the use of a model that accounts for the non-linear relationships between execution and outcome variables in assessing the relationships between elbow joint kinematics and wrist joint velocity in cricket fast bowlers.

  3. RAD/COMM ''Cricket'' Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiaro, P.J.

    2002-05-20

    A series of tests were performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate and characterize the radiological response of a ''Cricket'' radiation detection system. The ''Cricket'' is manufactured by RAD/COMM Systems Corp., which is located in Ontario, Canada. The system is designed to detect radioactive material that may be contained in scrap metal. The Cricket's detection unit is mounted to the base of a grappler and monitors material, while the grappler's tines hold the material. It can also be used to scan material in an attempt to isolate radioactive material if an alarm occurs. Testing was performed at the Environmental Effects Laboratory located at ORNL and operated by the Engineering Science and Technology Division. Tests performed included the following: (1) Background stability, (2) Energy response using {sup 241}Am, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 60}Co, (3) Surface uniformity, (4) Angular dependence, (5) Alarm actuation, (6) Alarm threshold vs. background, (7) Shielding, (8) Response to {sup 235}U, (9) Response to neutrons using unmoderated {sup 252}Cf, and (10) Response to transient radiation. This report presents a summary of the test results. Background measurements were obtained prior to the performance of each individual test.

  4. Effect of Ball Weight on Speed, Accuracy, and Mechanics in Cricket Fast Bowling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine L. Wickington

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were: (1 to quantify the acute effects of ball weight on ball release speed, accuracy, and mechanics in cricket fast bowling; and (2 to test whether a period of sustained training with underweight and overweight balls is effective in increasing a player’s ball release speed. Ten well-trained adult male cricket players performed maximum-effort deliveries using balls ranging in weight from 46% to 137% of the standard ball weight (156 g. A radar gun, bowling target, and 2D video analysis were used to obtain measures of ball speed, accuracy, and mechanics. The participants were assigned to either an intervention group, who trained with underweight and overweight balls, or to a control group, who trained with standard-weight balls. We found that ball speed decreased at a rate of about 1.1 m/s per 100 g increase in ball weight. Accuracy and bowling mechanics were not adversely affected by changes in ball weight. There was evidence that training with underweight and overweight balls might have produced a practically meaningful increase in bowling speed (>1.5 m/s in some players without compromising accuracy or increasing their risk of injury through inducing poor bowling mechanics. In cricket fast bowling, a wide range of ball weight might be necessary to produce an effective modified-implement training program.

  5. Crickets in space: morphological, physiological and behavioral alterations induced by space flight and hypergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, E.; Agricola, H.; Böser, S.; Förster, S.; Kämper, G.; Riewe, P.; Sebastian, C.

    "Crickets in Space" was a Neurolab experiment by which the balance between genetic programs and the gravitational environment for the development of a gravity sensitive neuronal system was studied. The model character of crickets was justified by their external gravity receptors, identified position-sensitive interneurons (PSI) and gravity-related compensatory head response, and by the specific relation of this behavior to neuronal arousal systems activated by locomotion. These advantages allowed to study the impact of modified gravity on cellular processes in a complex organism. Eggs, 1st, 4th and 6th stage larvae of Acheta domesticus were used. Post-flight experiments revealed a low susceptibility of the behavior to micro- and hypergravity while the physiology of the PSI was significantly affected. Immunocytological investigations revealed a stage-dependent sensitivity of thoracic GABAergic motoneurons to 3g-conditions concerning their soma sizes but not their topographical arrangement. The morphology of neuromuscular junctions was not affected by 3g-hypergravity. Peptidergic neurons from cerebral sensorimotor centers revealed no significant modifications by microgravity (μg). The contrary physiological and behavioral results indicate a facilitation of 1g-readaptation originating from accessory gravity, proprioceptive and visual sense organs. Absence of anatomical modifications point to an effective time window of μg- or 3g-expo-sure related to the period of neuronal proliferation. The analysis of basic mechanisms of how animals and man adapt to altered gravitational conditions will profit from a continuation of the project "Crickets in Space".

  6. The Social Context of Cannibalism in Migratory Bands of the Mormon Cricket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazazi, Sepideh; Ioannou, Christos C.; Simpson, Stephen J.; Sword, Gregory A.; Torney, Colin J.; Lorch, Patrick D.; Couzin, Iain D.

    2010-01-01

    Cannibalism has been shown to be important to the collective motion of mass migratory bands of insects, such as locusts and Mormon crickets. These mobile groups consist of millions of individuals and are highly destructive to vegetation. Individuals move in response to attacks from approaching conspecifics and bite those ahead, resulting in further movement and encounters with others. Despite the importance of cannibalism, the way in which individuals make attack decisions and how the social context affects these cannibalistic interactions is unknown. This can be understood by examining the decisions made by individuals in response to others. We performed a field investigation which shows that adult Mormon crickets were more likely to approach and attack a stationary cricket that was side-on to the flow than either head- or abdomen-on, suggesting that individuals could reduce their risk of an attack by aligning with neighbours. We found strong social effects on cannibalistic behaviour: encounters lasted longer, were more likely to result in an attack, and attacks were more likely to be successful if other individuals were present around a stationary individual. This local aggregation appears to be driven by positive feedback whereby the presence of individuals attracts others, which can lead to further crowding. This work improves our understanding of the local social dynamics driving migratory band formation, maintenance and movement at the population level. PMID:21179402

  7. WOOD PROPERTIES AND EFFECT OF WOOD PROPERTIES ON THE WOOD FINISHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkadir Malkoçoğlu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Wood is basic raw material for furniture and joinery industries with wood structures. Wood is a biological material that has widely different properties depending on species, geographic area where the tree grew, the growth condition, size of the tree at harvest, sawing, and other manufacturing processes. Wood properties have been characterized within two groups as natural and manufacturing factors that effects finishing performance. Grow rate, density, knots, moisture content, extractives and juvenile wood are natural characteristics. Grain orientation, texture, drying and performance expectations are manufacturing characteristics. In this review, the effects of natural and manufacturing characteristics are discussed on the surface finishing performance of wood.

  8. Precision wood particle feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30

    Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

  9. Wood energy-commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    Wood energy is being widely investigated in many areas of the country because of the many obvious benefits of wood fuel such as the low price per million Btus relative to coal, oil, and gas; the wide availability of noncommercial wood and the proven ability to harvest it; established technology which is reliable and free of pollution; renewable resources; better conservation for harvested land; and the potential for jobs creation. The Southeastern United States has a specific leadership role in wood energy based on its established forest products industry experience and the potential application of wood energy to other industries and institutions. Significant questions about the widespread usage of wood energy are being answered in demonstrations around the country as well as the Southeast in areas of wood storage and bulk handling; high capitalization costs for harvesting and combustion equipment; long term supply and demand contracts; and the economic feasibility of wood energy outside the forest products industry.

  10. Variation in root wood anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  11. Methane from wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, T. F.; Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S.; Stucki, S

    2005-07-15

    The role of wood-based energy technologies in the Swiss energy system in the long-term is examined using the energy-system Swiss MARKAL model. The Swiss MARKAL model is a 'bottom-up' energy-systems optimization model that allows a detailed representation of energy technologies. The model has been developed as a joint effort between the Energy Economics Group (EEG) at Paul Scherrer Institute PSI) and the University of Geneva and is currently used at PSI-EEG. Using the Swiss MARKAL model, this study examines the conditions under which wood-based energy technologies could play a role in the Swiss energy system, the most attractive pathways for their use and the policy measures that could support them. Given the involvement of PSI in the ECOGAS project, especial emphasis is put on the production of bio-SNG from wood via gasification and methanation of syngas and on hydrothermal gasification of woody biomass. Of specific interest as weIl is the fraction of fuel used in passenger cars that could be produced by locally harvested wood. The report is organized as follows: Section 2 presents a brief description of the MARKAL model. Section 3 describes the results of the base case scenario, which represents a plausible, 'middle-of-the-road' development of the Swiss energy system. Section 4 discusses results illustrating the conditions under which the wood-based methanation technology could become competitive in the Swiss energy market, the role of oil and gas prices, subsidies to methanation technologies and the introduction of a competing technology, namely the wood-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. FinaIly, section 5 outlines some conclusions from this analysis. (author)

  12. TCP HolyWood

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Núñez Mori

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a new end-to-end, sender side Transport Control Protocol called TCP HolyWood or in short TCP-HW. In a simulated wired environment, TCP HolyWood outperforms in average throughput, three of the more important TCP protocols ever made, we are talking about TCP Reno, TCP Westwood, and TCP Vegas; and in average jitter to TCP Reno and TCP Vegas too. In addition, according to Jain’s index, our proposal is as fair as TCP Reno, the Standard. Apresentamos um novo Protocolo de Controle de...

  13. Compressive Fatigue in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Small clear specimens of spruce are taken to failure in square wave formed fatigue loading at a stress excitation level corresponding to 80% of the short term strength. Four...... frequencies ranging from 0.01 Hz to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation...

  14. Structure and function of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex Wiedenhoeft

    2010-01-01

    Wood is a complex biological structure, a composite of many chemistries and cell types acting together to serve the needs of a living plant. Attempting to understand wood in the context of wood technology, we have often overlooked the key and basic fact that wood evolved over the course of millions of years to serve three main functions in plants― conduction of water...

  15. The Asian Wood Pellet Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph A. Roos; Allen Brackley

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the three major wood pellet markets in Asia: China, Japan, and South Korea. In contrast to the United States, where most wood pellets are used for residential heating with pellet stoves, a majority of the wood pellets in Asia are used for co-firing at coal-fired power plants. Our analysis indicated that Japan is the largest importer of wood pellets...

  16. Classroom Demonstrations of Wood Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulger, A. N.

    Presented in this manual are 20 activities selected to show some of the properties of wood and how these properties relate to the cellular structure of wood. Each activity includes stated objectives, indicates materials needed, and explains procedures. Illustrations related to the activities, glossary of terms, and photographs of wood structure…

  17. Macrophotographic wood atlas of Annonaceae.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Westra, L.I.T.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a general description of the microscopic wood anatomy of Annonaceae is given. We provide a description of the wood anatomical features of the family and of all subfamilies and tribes, all from material in the Utrecht Wood collection. Hand-lens images can be an important help in

  18. Ovalbumin as a Wood Adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart; Holly Satori; Zhu Rongxian; Michael J. Birkeland

    2014-01-01

    Use of proteins to bond wood dominated industrial production until the middle of the 20th century (1). The ensuing creation of the plywood and glulam beam industries allowed for more efficient use of wood resources than is possible with solid wood products. Many protein sources have been used as adhesives, including plant (soybean) and animal (blood, fish scales,...

  19. Wood construction and magnetic characteristics of impregnated type magnetic wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Hideo; Hojo, Atsushi; Seki, Kyoushiro; Takashiba, Toshio

    2002-02-01

    The results of experiments involving the AC and DC magnetic characteristics of impregnated type magnetic wood were studied by taking into consideration the wood construction and fiber direction. The experimental results show that the sufficient amount of impregnated magnetic fluid varies depending on the fiber direction and length, and the grain face of the wood material. The impregnated type magnetic wood sample that is fully impregnated by magnetic fluid has a 60% saturation magnetization compared to the saturation magnetization of magnetic fluid. Samples for which the wood fiber direction was the same as the direction of the magnetic path had a higher magnetization intensity and permeability.

  20. Biochemical and histological changes in the brain of the cricket Nemobius sylvestris infected by the manipulative parasite Paragordius tricuspidatus (Nematomorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, F; Ulitsky, P; Augier, R; Dusticier, N; Samuel, D; Strambi, C; Biron, D G; Cayre, M

    2003-04-01

    Hairworms (nematomorpha) alter the behaviour of their insect hosts, making them commit 'suicide' by jumping into an aquatic environment required by the adult parasite for the continuation of its life cycle. To explore the physiological and neuronal basis of this behavioural manipulation, we first performed a biochemical study to quantify different neurotransmitters or neuromodulators (monoamines and amino acids) in the brain of crickets (Nemobius sylvestris) uninfected and infected by the hairworm Paragordius tricuspidatus. We also analysed several polyamines and amino-acids having no known neuromodulatory function. The presence/absence of the parasite explained the largest part of the variation in compound concentrations, with infected individuals displaying on average lower concentrations than uninfected individuals. However, for three amino acids (taurine, valine and tyrosine), a significant part of the variation was also correlated with the manipulative process. In order to compare neurogenesis between infected and uninfected crickets, we also performed a histological study on mushroom bodies in the cricket's brain. The mitotic index exhibited a two-fold increase in infected crickets as compared with uninfected crickets. This is the first study to document changes in the brain of insects infected by nematomorphs.

  1. Gleaning bat echolocation calls do not elicit antipredator behaviour in the Pacific field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus (Orthoptera: Gryllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Killow, Joanne; Fullard, James H

    2009-08-01

    Bats that glean prey (capture them from surfaces) produce relatively inconspicuous echolocation calls compared to aerially foraging bats and could therefore be difficult predators to detect, even for insects with ultrasound sensitive ears. In the cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus, an auditory interneuron (AN2) responsive to ultrasound is known to elicit turning behaviour, but only when the cricket is in flight. Turning would not save a cricket from a gleaning bat so we tested the hypothesis that AN2 elicits more appropriate antipredator behaviours when crickets are on the ground. The echolocation calls of Nyctophilus geoffroyi, a sympatric gleaning bat, were broadcast to singing male and walking female T. oceanicus. Males did not cease singing and females did not pause walking more than usual in response to the bat calls up to intensities of 82 dB peSPL. Extracellular recordings from the cervical connective revealed that the echolocation calls elicited AN2 action potentials at high firing rates, indicating that the crickets could hear these stimuli. AN2 appears to elicit antipredator behaviour only in flight, and we discuss possible reasons for this context-dependent function.

  2. Identification of coniferous woods

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Francis Kukachka

    1960-01-01

    The identification of coniferous woods is generally regarded as being more difficult than for the hardwood species. This is due to the fact that conifers are more elemental in their structure and, as a consequence, the number of diagnostic features that may he employed is proportionately smaller. Instructions are given here in the sequential use of primary diagnostic...

  3. Grant Wood: "American Gothic."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Diane M.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which exposes students in grades 10-12 to the visual symbols and historical references contained in Grant Wood's "American Gothic." Includes background information on the artist and the painting, instructional strategies, a studio activity, and evaluation criteria. (GEA)

  4. Chapter 3: Wood Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Cullen

    2014-01-01

    A significant portion of global carbon is sequestered in forest systems. Specialized fungi have evolved to efficiently deconstruct woody plant cell walls. These important decay processes generate litter, soil bound humic substances, or carbon dioxide and water. This chapter reviews the enzymology and molecular genetics of wood decay fungi, most of which are members of...

  5. Wood waste in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, O.; Ribeiro, R. [Biomass Centre for Energy - CBE, Miranda do Corvo (Portugal)

    1997-12-31

    The energy policy of the EC, as well as most of member states points to a sizeable increase of energy production based on renewable energy sources, wood, wood residues, agricultural residues, energy crops including SRF, organic sludges, solid residues, etc. Most recent goals indicate a desirable duplication of today`s percentage by 2010. The reasons for this interest, besides diversification of sources, less dependence on imported fuels, use of endogenous resources, expected decrease of fossil fuel reserves, use of available land, additional employment and income for rural communities, etc., are related to important environmental benefits namely in terms of emissions of hot house gases. Wood waste, resulting from forest operations, cleaning, cultural and final cuttings, and from wood based industries, constitute a special important resource by reason of quality and availability. In addition to this they do not require additional land use and the removal is beneficial. In the run-up to the becoming December`s 1997 `Climate Change Summit` in Kioto, there is mounting pressure on companies to plan on carbon cuts. (author) 6 refs., 1 tab.

  6. Tannins in tropical woods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doat, J.

    1978-01-01

    A preliminary study was made of the chemistry of pyrogallol- and catecholtannins, their general properties and methods of extraction and determination. Three methods of estimation - Lowenthal, powdered hide and spectrophotometry - were compared using two control solutions, four samples of wood and one of bark. Using the empirical powdered hide method, tannins of both types were estimated in wood and bark of various tropical species (some separately and some as a mixture), Moroccan oaks (Quercus suber and Q. ilex), and European oak 9Q. petraea). Further tests were made on the wood and bark of the two mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle and R. racemosa, by subjecting them to successive extraction with a range of solvents. None of the woods tested had as much as the 10% of tannins considered necessary in economic sources. The bark of the two mangroves, of Eucalyptus urophylla and of Prosopis africana had tannin contents over 10% and the latter two species had very favorable tannin/non-tannin ratios. All the tropical species, with the probable exception of E. urophylla, had only catecholtannins. Only the oaks and E. urophylla bark gave positive results when tested for gallotannins.

  7. History of wood machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Koch

    1967-01-01

    The history of wood machining is closely tied to advanced in metallurgy and power sources. It has been strongly and continuously shaped by prevailing economic forces and the rise and decline of other contemporary industries. This paper sketches a few of the highlights, with emphasis on developments in North America.

  8. Harvesting wood for energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger A. Arola; Edwin W. Miyata

    1981-01-01

    Illustrates the potential of harvesting wood for industrial energy, based on the results of five harvesting studies. Presents information on harvesting operations, equipment costs, and productivity. Discusses mechanized thinning of hardwoods, clearcutting of low-value stands and recovery of hardwood tops and limbs. Also includes basic information on the physical and...

  9. Nematomorph parasites indirectly alter the food web and ecosystem function of streams through behavioural manipulation of their cricket hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T.; Egusa, T.; Fukushima, K.; Oda, T.; Ohte, N.; Tokuchi, Naoko; Watanabe, Katsutoshi; Kanaiwa, Minoru; Murakami, Isaya; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2012-01-01

    Nematomorph parasites manipulate crickets to enter streams where the parasites reproduce. These manipulated crickets become a substantial food subsidy for stream fishes. We used a field experiment to investigate how this subsidy affects the stream community and ecosystem function. When crickets were available, predatory fish ate fewer benthic invertebrates. The resulting release of the benthic invertebrate community from fish predation indirectly decreased the biomass of benthic algae and slightly increased leaf break-down rate. This is the first experimental demonstration that host manipulation by a parasite can reorganise a community and alter ecosystem function. Nematomorphs are common, and many other parasites have dramatic effects on host phenotypes, suggesting that similar effects of parasites on ecosystems might be widespread.

  10. Cyclic guanosine 3'-5'-monphosphate. High levels in the male accessory gland of Acheta domesticus and related crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, A M; Wyatt, G R

    1975-12-05

    Guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic GMP) was found in the accessory gland of reproductively mature male house crickets (Acheta domesticus (L.)) up to the exceptionally high level of 500 pmol/mg protein (10(-4) mol/kg wet weight). The identity of cricket cyclic GMP was confirmed by enzymatic and spectral analysis. A survey of 10 closely related species of Orthoptera indicated that high levels of cyclic GMP in the accessory gland occur in the subfamily Gryllinae, to which A. domesticus belongs. In these crickets, cyclic GMP in the accessory gland increases together with protein content during two weeks after the final molt. Levels are not augmented by dissection, and are independent of the presence of sperm in the seminal vesicles and of the production of spermatophores by the gland. The function of cyclic GMP in the accessory gland is not yet understood.

  11. Effect of stabilization training on multifidus muscle cross-sectional area among young elite cricketers with low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hides, Julie A; Stanton, Warren R; McMahon, Shaun; Sims, Kevin; Richardson, Carolyn A

    2008-03-01

    A single-blinded, pretreatment-posttreatment assessment. To investigate, using ultrasound imaging, the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the lumbar multifidus muscle at 4 vertebral levels (L2, L3, L4, L5) in elite cricketers with and without low back pain (LBP) and (2) to document the effect of a staged stabilization training program on multifidus muscle CSA. Despite high fitness levels and often intensive strength training programs, athletes still suffer LBP. The incidence of LBP among Australian cricketers is 8% and as high as 14% among fast bowlers. Previous researchers have found that the multifidus muscle contributes to segmental stability of the lumbopelvic region; however, the CSA of this muscle has not been previously assessed in elite cricketers. CSAs of the multifidus muscles were assessed at rest on the left and right sides for 4 vertebral levels at the start and completion of a 13-week cricket training camp. Participants who reported current or previous LBP were placed in a rehabilitation group. The stabilization program involved voluntary contraction of the multifidus, transversus abdominis, and pelvic floor muscles, with real-time feedback from rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI), progressed from non-weight-bearing to weight-bearing positions and movement training. Pain scores (using a visual analogue scale) were also collected from those with LBP. The CSAs of the multifidus muscles at the L5 vertebral level increased for the 7 cricketers with LBP who received the stabilization training, compared with the 14 cricketers without LBP who did not receive rehabilitation (P = .004). In addition, the amount of muscle asymmetry among those with LBP significantly decreased (P = .029) and became comparable to cricketers without LBP. These effects were not evident for the L2, L3, and L4 vertebral levels. There was also a 50% decrease in the mean reported pain level among the cricketers with LBP. Multifidus muscle atrophy can exist in highly active, elite

  12. Lignin‐Retaining Transparent Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiliang; Rojas, Ramiro; Yan, Min; Lawoko, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Optically transparent wood, combining optical and mechanical performance, is an emerging new material for light‐transmitting structures in buildings with the aim of reducing energy consumption. One of the main obstacles for transparent wood fabrication is delignification, where around 30 wt % of wood tissue is removed to reduce light absorption and refractive index mismatch. This step is time consuming and not environmentally benign. Moreover, lignin removal weakens the wood structure, limiting the fabrication of large structures. A green and industrially feasible method has now been developed to prepare transparent wood. Up to 80 wt % of lignin is preserved, leading to a stronger wood template compared to the delignified alternative. After polymer infiltration, a high‐lignin‐content transparent wood with transmittance of 83 %, haze of 75 %, thermal conductivity of 0.23 W mK−1, and work‐tofracture of 1.2 MJ m−3 (a magnitude higher than glass) was obtained. This transparent wood preparation method is efficient and applicable to various wood species. The transparent wood obtained shows potential for application in energy‐saving buildings. PMID:28719095

  13. Lump wood combustion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubesa, Petr; Horák, Jiří; Branc, Michal; Krpec, Kamil; Hopan, František; Koloničný, Jan; Ochodek, Tadeáš; Drastichová, Vendula; Martiník, Lubomír; Malcho, Milan

    2014-08-01

    The article deals with the combustion process for lump wood in low-power fireplaces (units to dozens of kW). Such a combustion process is cyclical in its nature, and what combustion facility users are most interested in is the frequency, at which fuel needs to be stoked to the fireplace. The paper defines the basic terms such as burnout curve and burning rate curve, which are closely related to the stocking frequency. The fuel burning rate is directly dependent on the immediate thermal power of the fireplace. This is also related to the temperature achieved in the fireplace, magnitude of flue gas losses and the ability to generate conditions favouring the full burnout of the fuel's combustible component, which, at once ensures the minimum production of combustible pollutants. Another part of the paper describes experiments conducted in traditional fireplaces with a grate, at which well-dried lump wood was combusted.

  14. Mechanical properties of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Jerrold E. Winandy; David E. Kretschmann

    1999-01-01

    The mechanical properties presented in this chapter were obtained from tests of small pieces of wood termed “clear” and “straight grained” because they did not contain characteristics such as knots, cross grain, checks, and splits. These test pieces did have anatomical characteristics such as growth rings that occurred in consistent patterns within each piece. Clear...

  15. A fighter's comeback: dopamine is necessary for recovery of aggression after social defeat in crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillich, Jan; Stevenson, Paul A

    2014-09-01

    Social defeat, i.e. losing an agonistic dispute with a conspecific, is followed by a period of suppressed aggressiveness in many animal species, and is generally regarded as a major stressor, which may play a role in psychiatric disorders such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Despite numerous animal models, the mechanisms underlying loser depression and subsequent recovery are largely unknown. This study on crickets is the first to show that a neuromodulator, dopamine (DA), is necessary for recovery of aggression after social defeat. Crickets avoid any conspecific male just after defeat, but regain their aggressiveness over 3 h. This recovery was prohibited after depleting nervous stores of DA and octopamine (OA, the invertebrate analogue of noradrenaline) with α-methyl-tyrosine (AMT). Loser recovery was also prohibited by the insect DA-receptor (DAR) antagonist fluphenazine, but not the OA-receptor (OAR) blocker epinastine, or yohimbine, which blocks receptors for OA's precursor tyramine. Conversely, aggression was restored prematurely in both untreated and amine depleted losers given either chlordimeform (CDM), a tissue permeable OAR-agonist, or the DA-metabolite homovanillyl alcohol (HVA), a component of the honeybee queen mandibular pheromone. As in honeybees, HVA acts in crickets as a DAR-agonist since its aggression promoting effect on losers was selectively blocked by the DAR-antagonist, but not by the OAR-antagonist. Conversely, CDM's aggression promoting effect was selectively blocked by the OAR-antagonist, but not the DAR-antagonist. Hence, only DA is necessary for recovery of aggressiveness after social defeat, although OA can promote loser aggression independently to enable experience dependent adaptive responses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Do Fast Bowlers Fatigue in Cricket? A Paradox Between Player Anecdotes and Quantitative Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maunder, Ed; Kilding, Andrew E; Cairns, Simeon P

    2017-07-01

    The manifestations of fatigue during fast bowling in cricket were systematically evaluated using subjective reports by cricket experts and quantitative data published from scientific studies. Narratives by international players and team physiotherapists were sourced from the Internet using criteria for opinion-based evidence. Research articles were evaluated for high-level fast bowlers who delivered 5- to 12-over spells with at least 1 quantitative fatigue measure. Anecdotes indicate that a long-term loss of bowling speed, tiredness, mental fatigue, and soreness occur. Scientific research shows that ball-release speed, bowling accuracy, bowling action (technique), run-up speed, and leg-muscle power are generally well maintained during bowling simulations. However, bowlers displaying excessive shoulder counterrotation toward the end of a spell also show a fall in accuracy. A single notable study involving bowling on 2 successive days in the heat showed reduced ball-release speed (-4.4 km/h), run-up speed (-1.3 km/h), and accuracy. Moderate to high ratings of perceived exertion transpire with simulations and match play (6.5-7.5 Borg CR-10 scale). Changes of blood lactate, pH, glucose, and core temperature appear insufficient to impair muscle function, although several potential physiological fatigue factors have not been investigated. The limited empirical evidence for bowling-induced fatigue appears to oppose player viewpoints and indicates a paradox. However, this may not be the case since bowling simulations resemble the shorter formats of the game but not multiday (test match) cricket or the influence of an arduous season, and comments of tiredness, mental fatigue, and soreness signify phenomena different from what scientists measure as fatigue.

  17. Effects of temperature and moisture on Mormon cricket reproduction with implications for responses to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srygley, Robert B

    2014-06-01

    During the last decade, populations of flightless Mormon crickets Anabrus simplex (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) increased suddenly over vast areas of the Western United States, suggesting that climate is an important factor driving outbreaks. Moreover summer temperatures are predicted to increase and precipitation is expected to decrease in most areas of the U.S. Great Basin, but little is known of the response of Mormon crickets to changes in temperature and soil moisture. In a laboratory study, we varied ambient temperature and lighting and measured the propensity of mating pairs to mate, and the proportion of eggs that developed into embryos. We found that reproduction was optimal when ambient temperature reached 30°C and the insects were beneath broad-spectrum lights such that maternal body and soil temperatures reached 35°C. Fewer eggs that developed fully were laid when maternal body and soil temperatures reached 30°C or 37-39°C. We also varied initial soil moisture from 0% to 100% saturated and found that more eggs reached embryonic diapause when initial soil moisture was 25% or 50% of saturated volume. However more of the developed eggs hatched when treated in summer soils with 0-25% of saturated moisture. We conclude that small changes in temperature had large effects on reproduction, whereas large changes in moisture had very small effects on reproduction. This is the first report of Mormon crickets mating in a laboratory setting and laying eggs that hatched, facilitating further research on the role of maternal and embryonic environments in changes in population size. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Wood Composite Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Bueso, Jose; Haupt, Robert

    The global environment, in which phenolic resins are being used for wood composite manufacture, has changed significantly during the last decade. This chapter reviews trends that are driving the use and consumption of phenolic resins around the world. The review begins with recent data on volume usage and regional trends, followed by an analysis of factors affecting global markets. In a section on environmental factors, the impact of recent formaldehyde emission regulations is discussed. The section on economics introduces wood composite production as it relates to the available adhesive systems, with special emphasis on the technical requirement to improve phenolic reactivity. Advances in composite process technology are introduced, especially in regard to the increased demands the improvements place upon adhesive system performance. The specific requirements for the various wood composite families are considered in the context of adhesive performance needs. The results of research into current chemistries are discussed, with a review of recent findings regarding the mechanisms of phenolic condensation and acceleration. Also, the work regarding alternate natural materials, such as carbohydrates, lignins, tannins, and proteinaceous materials, is presented. Finally, new developments in alternative adhesive technologies are reported.

  19. The Relationship Between Morphological Symmetry and Immune Response in Wild-Caught Adult Bush-Crickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Berggren

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite interest in the relationship between fluctuating asymmetry (FA, immune response and ecological factors in insects, little data are available from wild populations. In this study we measured FA and immune response in 370 wild-caught male bush-crickets, Metrioptera roeseli, from 20 experimentally introduced populations in southern-central Sweden. Individuals with more-symmetric wings had a higher immune response as measured by the cellular encapsulation of a surgically-implanted nylon monofilament. However, we found no relationship between measures of FA in other organs (i.e. tibia and maxillary palp and immune response, suggesting that this pattern may reflect differing selection pressures.

  20. The effect of some ions on the muscle fibre resting potential in the cricket Acheta domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiszewski, L; Olszewska, E; Borkowska, M J

    1976-01-01

    Experiments were carried out on the skeletal muscle fibres of the cricket Acheta domesticus using conventional microelectrode methods. Both potassium and ammonium ions depolarized the fibres but with a considerable divergance from the slope of 58 mV. Calcium ions hyperpolarized the fibres. High concentrations of magnesium ions or dramatic increase in the osmotic pressure of the bathing medium exerted no influence on the resting potential. It seems likely that skeletal muscle fibres of Acheta domesticus at rest are multionic electrodes, but the role played by various ions needs further studies.

  1. LOCALIZATION OF RIBOSOMAL DNA WITHIN OOCYTES OF THE HOUSE CRICKET, ACHETA DOMESTICUS (ORTHOPTERA: GRYLLIDAE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cave, Mac Donald

    1972-01-01

    A large DNA-containing body is present in addition to the chromosomes in oocytes of the house cricket Acheta domesticus. Large masses of nucleolar material accumulate at the periphery of the DNA body during the diplotene stage of meiotic prophase I. RNA-DNA hybridization analysis demonstrates that the genes which code for 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA are amplified in the ovary. In situ hybridization indicates that the amplified genes are localized within the DNA body of early prophase cells. As the cells proceed through diplotene the DNA which hybridizes with ribosomal RNA is gradually incorporated into the developing nucleolar mass. PMID:5076778

  2. Cajal bodies (coiled bodies) in the nuclei of the house cricket (Acheta domesticus) oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filek, K; Jarek, E; Biliński, S M

    2002-01-01

    The morphology and fine structure of Cajal bodies (coiled bodies, CB) in the germinal vesicles (oocyte nuclei) of the house cricket, Acheta domesticus have been analyzed. It is shown that in the studied species CBs arise as early as in the youngest previtellogenic oocytes, and are located next to or within aggregations of multiple nucleoli. Surprisingly, two morphological types of CBs have been found in the analyzed specimens. On the basis of EM studies we suggest that they represent subsequent developmental stages of CB morphogenesis.

  3. Interaction of copper wood preservatives and adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2003-01-01

    Compared to other substrates, wood is generally easy to bond. However, adhesion is diminished when the wood surface is covered by chemicals, whether natural oils and resins or added chemicals. Among the chemicals added to wood are fire retardants and wood preservatives. Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) has been widely used to protect wood against rot and termites, but...

  4. Controlling mold on wood Pallets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol A. Clausen

    2012-01-01

    THE WOOD PALLET AND CONTAINER INDUSTRY CONSUMES 4.5 billion board feet (BBF) of hardwoods and 1.8 BBF of softwoods for the annual production of 400-500 million solid wood pallets. While alternative materials such as plastic, corrugated paperboard and metal have entered the market, solid wood remains the material of choice for a majority of pallets on the market (more...

  5. Chapter 1: Wood and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisopher D. Risbrudt

    2013-01-01

    Forests, and the wood they produce, have played an important role in human activity since before recorded history. Indeed, one of the first major innovations was utilizing fire, fueled by wood, for cooking and heating. It is very likely that early hominids used wood fires for cooking, as long as 1.5 million years ago (Clark and Harris 1985). Clear evidence of this use...

  6. Wood products and green chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Pizzi, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Key message Green chemistry for and from wood has developed numerous industrial products, namely biosourced, green wood adhesives and preservatives, foams, composite matrices, laminates, hard and flexible plastics, flexible films, and abrasive grinding discs, and their number is still growing.IntroductionThis review addresses (1) the elimination of toxic aldehydes from the most common wood panel adhesive, the one based on urea, itself a natural product, (2) biosourced ...

  7. Invertebrates of The H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Western Cascades, Oregon: III. The Orthoptera (Grasshoppers and Crickets).

    Science.gov (United States)

    David C. Lightfoot

    1986-01-01

    An inventory of Orthoptera (grasshoppers and crickets) at the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, near Blue River, Oregon, was conducted to determine the species present and ecological relationships. A key for identification and an annotated list are presented. From qualitative assessments of successional habitat relationships, generalized species associations of forest...

  8. Colony growth of two species of Solenopsis fire ants(Hymenoptera: Formicidae) reared with crickets and beef liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most diets for rearing fire ants and other ants contain insects such as crickets or mealworms. Unfortunately, insect diets are expensive, especially for large rearing operations, and are not always easily available. This study was designed to examine colony growth of Solenopsis fire ants on beef liv...

  9. Effect of prey and predictor density on prediction of rice leaffolder eggs by the cricket Metioche vittaticollis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraker, de J.; Huis, van A.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Heong, K.L.; Rabbinge, R.

    2001-01-01

    Cage experiments were conducted to quantify the predation rate of the cricket Metioche vittaticollis (Sta˚l) on the eggs of rice leaffolder Marasmia patnalis Bradley. Egg predation by adult females was measured in response to changes in egg density, predator density and leaf area per cage.

  10. The effect of motor control training on abdominal muscle contraction during simulated weight bearing in elite cricketers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hides, Julie A; Endicott, Timothy; Mendis, M Dilani; Stanton, Warren R

    2016-07-01

    To investigate whether motor control training alters automatic contraction of abdominal muscles in elite cricketers with low back pain (LBP) during performance of a simulated unilateral weight-bearing task. Clinical trial. 26 male elite-cricketers attended a 13-week cricket training camp. Prior to the camp, participants were allocated to a LBP or asymptomatic group. Real-time ultrasound imaging was used to assess automatic abdominal muscle response to axial loading. During the camp, the LBP group performed a staged motor control training program. Following the camp, the automatic response of the abdominal muscles was re-assessed. At pre-camp assessment, when participants were axially loaded with 25% of their own bodyweight, the LBP group showed a 15.5% thicker internal oblique (IO) muscle compared to the asymptomatic group (p = 0.009). The post-camp assessment showed that participants in the LBP group demonstrated less contraction of the IO muscle in response to axial loading compared with the asymptomatic group. A trend was found in the automatic recruitment pattern of the transversus abdominis (p = 0.08). Motor control training normalized excessive contraction of abdominal muscles in response to a low load task. This may be a useful strategy for rehabilitation of cricketers with LBP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. No Detectable Trade-Offs Among Immune Function, Fecundity, and Survival via a Juvenile Hormone Analog in the House Cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava-Sánchez, A; Munguía-Steyer, R; Córdoba-Aguilar, A

    2014-08-01

    Hormones are key regulators of resource allocation among functions and thus play an important role in resource-based trade-offs. The juvenile hormone (JH) is an insect hormone that mediates resource allocation between immunity and life history components. Here, we have tested whether this is the case using the house cricket. We investigated whether increased levels of JH (using methoprene, a JH analog) enable an enhanced survival and fecundity (via egg number) at the cost of reduced hemocyte number (a trait that is associated with immune response in insects) in the house cricket, Acheta domesticus L. We had three groups of adult crickets of both sexes: experimental (methoprene and acetone), positive control (methoprene), and negative control (no manipulation). Prior to and after experimental treatments, we counted the number of hemocytes (for the case of both sexes) and recorded the number of eggs laid and survival of females after the manipulation. There was no difference in hemocyte number, egg number, and survival. These results do not support a JH-mediated trade-off among immune ability, survival, and fecundity. We provide arguments to explain the lack of JH-mediated trade-offs in the house cricket.

  12. How dietary phosphorus availability during development influences condition and life history traits of the cricket, Acheta domesticas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visanuvimol, Laksanavadee; Bertram, Susan M

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus is extremely limited in the environment, often being 10-20 times lower in plants than what invertebrate herbivores require. This mismatch between resource availability and resource need can profoundly influence herbivore life history traits and fitness. This study investigated how dietary phosphorus availability influenced invertebrate growth, development time, consumption, condition, and lifespan using juvenile European house crickets, Acheta domesticus L. (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). Crickets reared on high phosphorus diets ate more food, gained more weight, were in better condition at maturity, and contained more phosphorus, nitrogen, and carbon in their bodies at death than crickets reared on low phosphorus diets. There was also a trend for crickets reared on high phosphorus diets to become larger adults (interaction with weight prior to the start of the experiment). These findings can be added to the small but growing number of studies that reveal the importance of phosphorus to insect life history traits. Future research should explore the importance of dietary phosphorus availability relative to protein, lipid, and carbohydrate availability.

  13. Aggregation of larvae of the house cricket,Acheta domesticus (L.), by propionic acid present in the excreta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, I E; Steeves, E; Alli, I

    1983-09-01

    Acetic, propionic, butyric, isobutyric, valeric, and isovaleric acids have been identified in extracts of the excreta of the house cricket,Acheta domesticus (L.), by gas-liquid chromatography. Solutions of propionic acid applied to filter paper aggregated 1- to 2-week-old larvae, while solutions of acetic, butyric, valeric, and isovaleric acids were without effect.

  14. Influence of two methods of dietary restriction on life history features and aging of the cricket Acheta domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyn, Janice Christina; Naikkhwah, Wida; Aksenov, Vadim; Rollo, C David

    2011-12-01

    Studying aging is constrained using vertebrates by their longevity, size, ethical restrictions, and expense. The key insect model, Drosophila melanogaster, is holometabolous. Larvae feed on yeast in moist media and adults sponge food. Most aging studies are restricted to adults. Another key model, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, feeds on bacteria in moist media. For either invertebrate refreshing test materials, preventing degradation and obtaining accurate dosing are difficult even with synthetic media. The cricket Acheta domesticus has a short lifespan (∼120 days at 30°C) and is omnivorous. Age-matched cohorts are easily obtained from eggs. The life cycle is hemimetabolous and nymphs eat the same foods as adults. Growth is easily monitored, gender can be differentiated before maturity, and maturation is indicated by wings and mature genitalia. Crickets can be reared in large numbers at low cost. Test materials can be mixed into food and ingestion rates or mass budgets easily assessed. Here, we validate the cricket as a model of aging by testing two fundamental methods of restricting food intake: time-restricted access to food and dietary dilution. Growth, maturation, survivorship, and longevity varied with treatments and genders. Intermittent feeding (which is ineffective in flies) significantly extended longevity of crickets. Dietary dilution also extended longevity via remarkable prolongation of the juvenile period.

  15. Survival, growth, wood basic density and wood biomass of seven ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A performance comparison of seven-year-old individuals of 13 Casuarina species/provenances in terms of survival, growth (diameter, height and volume), wood basic density and wood biomass was undertaken at Kongowe, Kibaha, Tanzania. The trial was laid out using a randomised complete block design with four ...

  16. Corrosion of Fasteners in Wood Treated with Newer Wood Preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka

    2013-01-01

    This document compiles recent research findings related to corrosion of metals in preservative treated wood into a single report on corrosion of metals in wood. The research was conducted as part of the Research, Technology and Education portion of the National Historic Covered Bridge Preservation (NHCBP) Program administered by the Federal Highway Administration. The...

  17. Effect of Wood Preservatives on Surface Properties of Coated Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgay Ozdemir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of wood preservatives (waterborne and organicborne on the performance of surface finishing properties is investigated. Sapwood of scots pine, (Pinus sylvestris L., oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky, and chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. specimens (300 × 100 × 15 mm along the grain were impregnated with aqueous solution of 2% CCA, 2% Tanalith E, 1% boric acid, and Immersol aqua. Surface roughness, dry film thickness, adhesion strength, gloss measurement, scratch, and abrasion resistance were determined according to related standards for treated and untreated samples. The results indicated that surface roughness and adhesion strength depended on wood species and the chemical composition of preservatives. Generally, waterborne wood preservatives increased the surface roughness of wood while the organic-based wood preservatives decreased it. The organic-based wood preservatives decreased adhesion but they increased gloss value. Wood preservatives did not affect the scratch resistance which was found to depend on properties of the coating. All the wood preservatives increased abrasion resistance.

  18. Social Network Analysis as a tool to analyze interaction of Batsmen and Bowlers in Cricket

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Satyam

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the far reaching applications of network methods for understanding interaction within members of sport teams. Although a popular sport in the erstwhile English colonies, cricket has not received much attention from scientific community even though there is no dearth of statistics. This paper presents a network based approach to analyze the interaction of batsmen and bowlers in International cricket matches. First we consider the network of interaction between bowlers and batsmen. If two batsmen faced the same bowler they are connected by an unweighted link. Similarly if two bowlers bowled to the same batsman, they are connected. In this way a network of batsmen and bowlers is generated. We determine the exact values of clustering coefficient, average degree, average shortest path length of the networks and compare them with the Erd\\text{\\"{o}}s-R\\text{\\'{e}}nyi model and the configuration model. We also study an alternate version of the network in which two batsmen are connected if they a...

  19. The benefits and limitations of using cricket as a sport for development tool in Samoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Khoo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates benefits and challenges associated with the use of sport – in this case cricket – as a community development tool in Samoa. This Pacific Island nation, like others in the region, has been the focus of various development programs in the post-colonial era, with developed economy neighbours like Australia and New Zealand providing aid funding. Some of that has involved sport as a development tool, underpinned either by funding from the national government, foreign aid agencies, or a combination of both. The present paper, by focusing on a cricket for development (CFD program in Samoa, aims to explore outcomes and limitations associated with the use of sport as a community engagement tool. The paper pursues that goal by examining the activities of relevant sport and government organisations, and – most crucially – it interviews key stakeholders involved in the CFD process in Samoa. In short, the prime purpose of this paper is to identify and interpret – from the perspective of locals – whether the CFD program has brought benefits to Samoan communities, and the challenges and limitations they see thus far. This is important because, to date, there has been an absence of qualitative inquiry into the efficacy of sport for development (SFD programs in Samoa, and very limited research in a Pacific Islands context.

  20. Responses of male cricket frogs (Acris crepitans) to attenuated and degraded advertisement calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venator, Kurt R; Ryan, Michael J; Wilczynski, Walter

    2017-05-01

    We examined the vocal and non-vocal responses of male cricket frogs (Acris crepitans) to conspecific advertisement calls that had been attenuated or degraded by reducing the depth of amplitude modulation (AM). Both are characteristic of changes to the call as it is transmitted through natural habitats. As stimulus calls became more intense or less degraded, male cricket frogs gradually decreased their call rate and increased the number of call groups and pulse groups in their calls, changes indicative of increased aggressive interactions. At the higher intensities and lower degradation levels, the probability that males would shift to one of two non-vocal behavioral responses, attacking the perceived intruder or ceasing calling and abandoning the call site, gradually increased. The results show that differences in signal attenuation and AM degradation levels are perceived by males and trigger both vocal and non-vocal behavioral responses consistent with their use in evaluating the distance to a challenging male. Furthermore, the results indicate that the male responses are graded, increasing as intensity rises and degradation falls, and hierarchical, with vocal responses preceding behavioral responses over the range of intensities and degradation levels presented.

  1. Challenges with effective nutrient supplementation for amphibians: A review of cricket studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Shannon; Lavin, Shana R; Sullivan, Kathleen; Attard, Lydia; Valdes, Eduardo V

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, numerous studies have investigated the impact of insect supplementation on insect nutrient content. In light of recent nutrition related challenges with regards to zoo amphibians fed an insect based diet, this review attempts to comprehensively compile both anecdotal and published data in the context of practical application on this topic. Insects, primarily crickets, used for amphibian diets historically demonstrate low concentrations of key nutrients including calcium and vitamin A. Commonly used practices for supplementation involving powder dusting or gut loading have been shown to improve delivery of calcium and vitamin A, though often not reaching desired nutrient concentrations. The large variety of factors influencing insect nutrient content are difficult to control, making study design, and results often inconsistent. Formulation and availability of more effective gut loading diets, combined with a standardized protocol for insect husbandry and dietary management may be the most effective way to supplement insects for use in amphibian feeding programs. Ideally, the nutritional improvement of feeder insects would begin at the breeder level; however, until this becomes a viable choice, we confirm that supplementation of crickets through both gut-loading and dusting appear necessary to support the nutritional health of amphibians and other insectivores in managed collections. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The role of a vertical reference point in changing gait regulation in cricket run-ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Daniel; Davids, Keith; Renshaw, Ian

    2016-10-01

    The need to identify information sources which facilitate a functional coupling of perception and action in representative practice contexts is an important challenge for sport scientists and coaches. The current study investigated the role of visual information in regulating athlete gait behaviours during a locomotor pointing task in cricket. Integration of experiential knowledge of elite coaches and theoretical understanding from previous empirical research led us to investigate whether the presence of an umpire would act as a vertical informational constraint that could constrain the emergent coordination tendencies of cricket bowlers' run-up patterns. To test this idea, umpire presence was manipulated during run-ups of 10 elite medium-fast bowlers. As hypothesised, removal of the umpire from the performance environment did not result in an inability to regulate gait to intercept a target, however, the absence of this informational constraint resulted in the emergence of different movement patterns in participant run-ups. Significantly lower standard deviation values of heel-to-crease distances were observed in the umpire condition at multiple steps, compared to performance in the no-umpire condition. Manipulation of this informational constraint altered gait regulation of participants, offering a mechanism to understand how perception-action couplings can be varied during performance in locomotor pointing tasks in sport.

  3. Sequential Filtering Processes Shape Feature Detection in Crickets: A Framework for Song Pattern Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedwig, Berthold G

    2016-01-01

    Intraspecific acoustic communication requires filtering processes and feature detectors in the auditory pathway of the receiver for the recognition of species-specific signals. Insects like acoustically communicating crickets allow describing and analysing the mechanisms underlying auditory processing at the behavioral and neural level. Female crickets approach male calling song, their phonotactic behavior is tuned to the characteristic features of the song, such as the carrier frequency and the temporal pattern of sound pulses. Data from behavioral experiments and from neural recordings at different stages of processing in the auditory pathway lead to a concept of serially arranged filtering mechanisms. These encompass a filter for the carrier frequency at the level of the hearing organ, and the pulse duration through phasic onset responses of afferents and reciprocal inhibition of thoracic interneurons. Further, processing by a delay line and coincidence detector circuit in the brain leads to feature detecting neurons that specifically respond to the species-specific pulse rate, and match the characteristics of the phonotactic response. This same circuit may also control the response to the species-specific chirp pattern. Based on these serial filters and the feature detecting mechanism, female phonotactic behavior is shaped and tuned to the characteristic properties of male calling song.

  4. Acute toxicity of Headline® fungicide to Blanchard's cricket frogs (Acris blanchardi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusaac, J Patrick W; Morrison, Shane A; Belden, Jason B; Smith, Loren M; McMurry, Scott T

    2016-04-01

    Previous laboratory studies have suggested that pyraclostrobin-containing fungicide formulations are toxic to amphibians at environmentally relevant concentrations. However, it is unknown if all pyraclostrobin formulations have similar toxicity and if toxicity occurs in different amphibian species. We investigated the acute toxicity of two formulations, Headline(®) fungicide and Headline AMP(®) fungicide, to Blanchard's cricket frogs (Acris blanchardi) based on a direct overspray scenario. In addition, we examined body residues of fungicide active ingredients in A. blanchardi following direct exposure to Headline AMP fungicide. Headline fungicide and Headline AMP fungicide had similar toxicity to A. blanchardi with calculated median lethal doses of 2.1 and 1.7 µg pyraclostrobin/cm(2), respectively, which are similar to the suggested maximum label rate in North American corn (2.2 and 1.52 µg pyraclostrobin/cm(2), respectively). Tissue concentrations of pyraclostrobin were lower than predicted based on full uptake of a direct dose, and did not drop during the first 24 h after exposure. Headline fungicides at corn application rates are acutely toxic to cricket frogs, but acute toxicity in the field will depend on worst-case exposure.

  5. Test Report for Cricket Radiation Detection System Used In EPA Port Installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shourbaji, AA

    2004-08-11

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted field radiological measurements at two port locations at the request of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The radiological measurements were performed on five radiation detection systems at the port of Darrow, Louisiana and three systems at the port of Charleston, South Carolina. Darrow was visited on January 20-23, 2004 and Charleston on May 25, 2004. All tested systems are designed to detect radioactive material that might be present in scrap metals as the scrap is being unloaded from ships. All eight systems are commercially known as the Cricket and manufactured by RAD/COMM Systems. Each radiation detection system consists of a detector with two channels and a wireless transmitter, both mounted on the grapple, and a controller located in the crane cab. The cranes at both locations are operated by the Cooper T. Smith Company. The purpose of the radiological measurements was to evaluate the performance of the radiation detection systems in terms of their ability to detect elevated radiation levels, and to develop a routine testing method for all EPA Cricket systems.

  6. The role of cercal sensory feedback during spermatophore transfer in the cricket, Acheta domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell; Killian

    2000-06-01

    The role of the cerci in the spermatophore transfer behavior of the cricket Acheta domesticus was examined. During transfer, the male cerci were held close to the female abdomen where they produced small flicking movements. Male cercal ablation significantly decreased mating success by reducing both the ability of the male to hook the epiphallus on to the female subgenital plate and to transfer the spermatophore. During spermatophore transfer, the male must thread the spermatophore tube into the female genital papilla and attach the spermatophore, via its attachment plate, to the base of the ovipositor. Extracellular recordings from the male genital nerve revealed that a centrally driven, rhythmic bursting activity of genital efferents produced the rhythmic contractions of the five pairs of genital muscles responsible for spermatophore threading. Tactile stimulation of campaniform sensilla on the medial aspect of each cercus inhibited the activity of those motor units responsible for advancing the spermatophore tube during threading, while simultaneously activating the motor units responsible for adjusting the position of the epiphallus. We conclude that mechanosensory neurons on the cerci of the male cricket supply important information on female position to the motor program responsible for spermatophore threading and transfer.

  7. Molecular cloning and function expression of a diuretic hormone receptor from the house cricket, Acheta domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, J D

    1996-01-01

    Insect diuretic hormones regulate fluid and ion secretion and the receptors with which they interact are attractive targets for new insect control agents. Recently, a diuretic hormone receptor from the moth Manduca sexta was isolated by expression cloning and found to be a member of the calcitonin/secretin/corticotropin releasing factor family of G-protein coupled receptors [Reagan J. D. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 9-12]. Degenerate oligonucleotides were designed based upon conserved regions in this receptor family and used to isolate a diuretic hormone receptor from the house cricket, Acheta domesticus. The complementary DNA isolated encodes a protein consisting of 441 amino acids with seven putative membrane spanning regions. Interestingly, unlike the M. sexta diuretic hormone receptor, the cricket diuretic hormone receptor contains a putative signal sequence. The receptor shares 53% and 38% sequence identity with the M. sexta diuretic hormone and human corticotropin releasing factor receptors respectively. When expressed in COS-7 cells, the receptor binds A. domesticus diuretic hormone with high affinity and stimulates adenylate cyclase with high potency. Four other insect diuretic hormones are considerably less effective at stimulating adenylate cyclase in COS-7 cells transfected with the receptor. This is in contrast to the M. sexta diuretic hormone receptor which is stimulated by all five insect diuretic hormones with high potency.

  8. Wood pole overhead lines

    CERN Document Server

    Wareing, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This new book concentrates on the mechanical aspects of distribution wood pole lines, including live line working, environmental influences, climate change and international standards. Other topics include statutory requirements, safety, profiling, traditional and probabilistic design, weather loads, bare and covered conductors, different types of overhead systems, conductor choice, construction and maintenance. A section has also been devoted to the topic of lightning, which is one of the major sources of faults on overhead lines. The book focuses on the effects of this problem and the strate

  9. Acoustic evolution in crickets: need for phylogenetic study and a reappraisal of signal effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Desutter-Grandcolas

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Cricket stridulums and calls are highly stereotyped, except those with greatly modified tegmina and/or vena-tion, or ''unusual'' frequency, duration and/or intensity. This acoustic diversity remained unsuspected until recently, and current models of acoustic evolution in crickets erroneously consider this clade homogeneous for acoustic features. The few phylogenetic studies analyzing acoustic evolution in crickets demonstrated that acoustic behavior could be particularly labile in some clades. The ensuing pattern for cricket evolution is consequently extremely complex. We argue that: (1 phylogeny should always be considered when analyzing acoustic evolution, whatever characters are considered (signals, stridulums or behaviors. Consequently, future studies should be devoted to entire clades, and not consider isolated taxa; character and character state definitions should allow significant reconstructions of character evolutionary transformations; and homologies should be carefully defined for all characters, including behavior. (2 The factors responsible for song effectiveness should be reconsidered and hypotheses on their potential influence on signal evolution tested jointly by phylogenies (for example, to assess correlated transformations of acoustic and ecological features, and population studies (for example, to correlate call range and population structure, or test the predation risk associated with a signal structure. Better understanding these points should help clarifying acoustic evolution in crickets.Os aparelhos estridulatórios e os chamados dos grilos são altamente estereotipados, exceto aqueles com áreas e/ou venação tegminais fortemente modificadas ou com freqüência, duração e/ou intensidade fora do ''normal''. Esta diversidade acústica ficou insuspeita até recentemente, e os modelos correntes de evolução acústica em grilos consideram erroneamente este clado como homogêneo para as características acústicas. Os

  10. Vibratory interneurons in the non-hearing cave cricket indicate evolutionary origin of sound processing elements in Ensifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stritih, Natasa; Stumpner, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Tympanal hearing organs in the front tibiae of ensiferan insects supposedly evolved from vibration-sensitive tibial organs (TO), like those in the cave cricket Troglophilus neglectus (Rhaphidophoridae). If this is true, one expects to find interneurons in the cave cricket that are homologous to auditory neurons from hearing Ensifera. Therefore, we examined the central projections of the foreleg TO of the cave cricket, as well as morphology and response properties of interneurons responding to foreleg vibration. Sensory axons of the TO adjoined to the "tympanal nerve" terminate in the equivalent portion of the ring tract neuropile in the prothoracic ganglion as corresponding receptors of crickets and weta. We found nine putatively homologous elements to sound- and/or vibration-sensitive interneurons of Ensifera--one local neuron (unpaired median, DUM), three T-fibres (TN), three descending (DN) and two ascending neurons (AN). Presumable first-order interneurons arborising in the ring tract correspond to a local auditory DUM cell of bush crickets and to TN1, DN1 and AN2 of various Ensifera, respectively. Homologues of some prominent auditory cells, the "omega" neuron(s) and the ascending neuron 1 (AN1), however, were not found. We conclude that (a) T. neglectus interneurons are morphologically primitive with respect to those of hearing taxa, (b) significant changes in the dendritic structure/synaptic connectivity have taken place during the evolution of the most specialised first-order auditory interneurons of Ensifera, (c) the data do not contradict independent evolution of hearing in Grylloidea and Tettigonoidea. Other interneurons appear morpho-physiologically conserved across hearing and non-hearing species, possibly as a part of a multimodal "alert" system.

  11. Comparisons of eccentric knee flexor strength and asymmetries across elite, sub-elite and school level cricket players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalker, Wade J.; Shield, Anthony J.; Opar, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. There has been a continual increase in injury rates in cricket, with hamstring strain injuries (HSIs) being the most prominent. Eccentric knee flexor weakness and bilateral asymmetries are major modifiable risk factors for future HSIs. However, there is a lack of data relating to eccentric hamstring strength in cricket at any skill level. The objective of this study was to compare eccentric knee flexor strength and bilateral asymmetries in elite, sub-elite and school level cricket players; and to determine if playing position and limb role influenced these eccentric knee flexor strength indices. Methods. Seventy four male cricket players of three distinct skill levels performed three repetitions of the Nordic hamstring exercise on the experimental device. Strength was assessed as the absolute and relative mean peak force output for both limbs, with bilateral asymmetries. Differences in mean peak force outputs between skill level and playing positions were measured. Results. There were no significant differences between elite, sub-elite and school level athletes for mean peak force and bilateral asymmetries of the knee flexors. There were no significant differences observed between bowler’s and batter’s mean peak force and bilateral asymmetries. There were no significant differences between front and back limb mean peak force outputs. Discussion. Skill level, playing position and limb role appeared to have no significant effect on eccentric knee flexor strength and bilateral asymmetries. Future research should seek to determine whether eccentric knee flexor strength thresholds are predictive of HSIs in cricket and if specific eccentric knee flexor strengthening can reduce these injuries. PMID:26925310

  12. Properties of seven Colombian woods

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. A. Bendtsen; M. Chudnoff

    1981-01-01

    Woods from abroad are an important raw material to the forest products industries in the United States. A major concern in effective utilization of this resource is the lack of technical information on many species. This report presents the results of an evaluation of the mechanical properties of small, clear specimens of seven Colombian woods. These results are...

  13. The wood of Merovingian weaponry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tegel, W.; Muigg, B.; Büntgen, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, JAN (2016), s. 148-153 ISSN 0305-4403 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Early Middle Ages * Merovingian weaponry * Mineralised wood * Wood anatomy Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.602, year: 2016

  14. Wood anatomy of the Rhizophoraceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van G.J.C.M.

    1976-01-01

    The wood anatomy of 127 samples of 65 species of all 18 genera of the Rhizophoraceae is described in detail; features not observed here, but recorded in the literature are added. Wood anatomically several groups can be recognized. Three distinct groups are very homogeneous, coinciding with the

  15. Public opinion and wood energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah Hitchner; John Schelhas; Teppo Hujala; J. Peter Brosius

    2014-01-01

    As wood-based bioenergy continues to develop around the world, it will utilize forestlands in new ways and will have different effects on a number of stakeholders, including forest landowners, local communities, extant industries, policymakers, investors, and others. As more stakeholders become involved in the wood energy web, and as the general public becomes more...

  16. Preservation of forest wood chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofman, P.D.; Thomsen, I.M.; Ohlsson, C.; Leer, E.; Ravn Schmidt, E.; Soerensen, M.; Knudsen, P.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Danish Energy Research Programme on biomass utilisation for energy production (EFP), this project concerns problems connected to the handling and storing of wood chips. In this project, the possibility of preserving wood chips of the Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) is addressed, and the potential improvements by anaerobic storage are tested. Preservation of wood chips aims at reducing dry matter losses from extensive heating during storage and to reduce production of fungal spores. Fungal spores pose a health hazards to workers handling the chips. Further the producers of wood chips are interested in such a method since it would enable them to give a guarantee for the delivery of homogeneous wood chips also during the winter period. Three different types of wood chips were stored airtight and further one of these was stored in accordance with normal practise and use as reference. The results showed that airtight storage had a beneficial impact on the quality of the chips: no redistribution of moisture, low dry matter losses, unfavourable conditions for microbial activity of most fungi, and the promotion of yeasts instead of fungi with airborne spores. Likewise the firing tests showed that no combustion problems, and no increased risk to the environment or to the health of staff is caused by anaerobic storage of wood chips. In all, the tests of the anaerobic storage method of forest wood chips were a success and a large-scale test of the method will be carried out in 1999. (au)

  17. WOOD CELLULOSE ACETATE MEMBRANE 179

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... permeability, swellability in organic liquids and organic liquid separation potentials. The ... currently employed to deal with some of these wastes, ... a waste. This is because the wood has poor mechanical strength and cannot be used as structural support in most buildings. Although used as fuel(fire wood) ...

  18. Metal bats more like wood

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gardiner, Andy

    2011-01-01

    ... Coefficient of Resolution (BBCOR), which brings bats even closer to duplicating the properties of wood. "I would have preferred to go more slowly," said Mark Marquess, who has two national championships during his 35 years as Stanford's coach. "Everyone likes the idea of becoming more like wood, but let's say all our games were 2-1 and our attendanc...

  19. Composites from wood and plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Clemons

    2010-01-01

    Composites made from thermoplastics and fillers or reinforcements derived from wood or other natural fibers are a dynamic research area encompassing a wide variety of composite materials. For example, as the use of biopolymers grows, wood and other natural fiber sources are being investigated as renewable sources of fillers and reinforcements to modify performance....

  20. Characterisation of wood combustion ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto

    for their composition and leaching properties. Despite the relatively large variations in the contents of nutrients and trace metals, the overall levels were comparable to typical ranges reported in the literature for other wood combustion ashes, as well as with regards to leaching. In general, the composition......The combustion of wood chips and wood pellets for the production of renewable energy in Denmark increased from 5.7 PJ to 16 PJ during the period 2000-2015, and further increases are expected to occur within the coming years. In 2012, about 22,300 tonnes of wood ashes were generated in Denmark....... Currently, these ashes are mainly landfilled, despite Danish legislation allowing their application onto forest and agricultural soils for fertilising and/or liming purposes. During this PhD work, 16 wood ash samples generated at ten different Danish combustion plants were collected and characterised...

  1. Origin of Petrified Wood Color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Mustoe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fossil forests have world-wide distribution, commonly preserving mineralized wood that displays vivid hues and complex color patterns. However, the origin of petrified color has received little scientific attention. Color of silicified wood may be influenced by the presence of relict organic matter, but the most significant contribution comes from trace metals. This study reports quantitative analysis of trace metals in 35 silicified wood samples, determined using LA-ICP-MS spectrometry. The most important of these metals is Fe, which can produce a rainbow of hues depending on its abundance and oxidation state. Cr is the dominant colorant for bright green fossil wood from Arizona, USA and Zimbabwe, Africa. Complex color patterns result from the progressive nature of the fossilization process, which causes wood to have varying degrees of permeability during successive episodes of permineralization. These processes include simple diffusion, chromatographic separation, infiltration of groundwater along fractures and void spaces, and oxidation/reduction.

  2. Pace bowlers in cricket with history of lumbar stress fracture have increased risk of lower limb muscle strains, particularly calf strains

    OpenAIRE

    Orchard, John

    2010-01-01

    John Orchard1, Patrick Farhart2, Alex Kountouris3, Trefor James3, Marc Portus31School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Australia; 2Punjab Kings XI team, Indian Premier League, India; 3Cricket Australia, Melbourne, AustraliaObjective: To assess whether a history of lumbar stress fracture in pace bowlers in cricket is a risk factor for lower limb muscle strains.Methods: This was a prospective cohort risk factor study, conducted using injury data from contracted first class pace bowlers i...

  3. Utilizing wood wastes as reinforcement in wood cement composite bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusirat Aderinsola Sadiku

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the research work undertaken to study the properties of Wood Cement Composite Bricks (WCCB from different wood wastes and cement / wood content. The WCBBs with nominal density of 1200 kg m-3 were produced from three tropical wood species and at varying cement and wood content of 2:1, 2.5:1 and 3:1 on a weight to weight basis. The properties evaluated were compressive strength, Ultra Pulse Velocity (UPV, water absorption (WA and thickness swelling (TS. The Compressive strength values ranged from 0.25 to 1.13 N mm-2 and UPV values ranged from 18753 to 49992 m s-1. The mean values of WA after 672 hours (28 days of water soaking of the WCCBs ranged from 9.50% to 47.13% where there were no noticeable change in the TS of the bricks. The observed density (OD ranged from 627 to 1159 kg m-3. A. zygia from the three wood/cement content were more dimensionally stable and better in compressive strength than the other two species where T. scleroxylon had the best performance in terms of UPV. All the properties improved with increasing cement content. WCCBs at 3.0:1 cement/wood content are suitable for structural application such as panelling, ceiling and partitioning

  4. THE EFFECTS OF ACHETA DIURETIC PEPTIDE ON ISOLATED MALPIGHIAN TUBULES FROM THE HOUSE CRICKET ACHETA DOMESTICUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coast; Kay

    1994-02-01

    Acheta diuretic peptide (Acheta-DP) is a corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-related peptide found in head extracts of the house cricket Acheta domesticus. The peptide causes a dose-dependent increase in fluid secretion by cricket Malpighian tubules isolated in vitro, and the apparent EC50 is 1.3 nmol l-1, which is within the physiological range for a peptide hormone. The CRF antagonist alpha-helical CRF(9-41) blocks the action of Acheta-DP in a dose-dependent manner, and the IC50 is estimated to be in the micromolar range. Addition of Acheta-DP to isolated Malpighian tubules is followed by a rapid and marked increase in the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. This precedes any change in voltage or fluid secretion, which strongly suggests that cyclic AMP is the intracellular mediator of Acheta-DP activity. Consistent with this, diuretic activity is potentiated by the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, and there is a close relationship between the dose­response curves for cyclic AMP production and for fluid secretion. However, exogenous 8-bromo-cyclic AMP does not mimic all the effects of Acheta-DP, and the peptide may have a dual action on isolated tubules. Fluid secretion by tubules dosed repeatedly with Acheta-DP returns to near basal levels after 3­5 h. This cannot be explained by degradation of the peptide, but might be due in part to oxygen and/or metabolite deficiency. However, tubules that are refractory to Acheta-DP can be stimulated by forskolin, 8-bromo-cyclic AMP and extracts of corpora cardiaca, which is indicative of a homologous desensitization of membrane receptors for the diuretic peptide. Differences in the rate of secretion by morphologically distinct regions of cricket Malpighian tubules have been assessed. In unstimulated tubules, the rate of secretion per unit length by the short distal segment is about twice that of the main tubule. However, diuretic peptides (Acheta-DP and achetakinin-I) have little effect on distal

  5. Non_standard Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin

    . Using parametric design tools and computer controlled production facilities Copenhagens Centre for IT and Architecture undertook a practice based research into performance based non-standard element design and mass customization techniques. In close cooperation with wood construction software......Non-Standard elements in architecture bear the promise of a better more specific performance (Oosterhuis 2003). A new understanding of design evolves, which is focusing on open ended approaches, able to negotiate between shifting requirements and to integrate knowledge on process and material......- and machine industry we fabricated a 1:1 demonstrator show casing the potential for performance due to digital fabrication in this sustainable material. The production of a custom made design tool helped not only to explore design variations while keeping up the link to digital production machinery...

  6. Cooling of wood briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adžić Miroljub M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the experimental research of surface temperature of wood briquettes during cooling phase along the cooling line. The cooling phase is an important part of the briquette production technology. It should be performed with care, otherwise the quality of briquettes could deteriorate and possible changes of combustion characteristics of briquettes could happen. The briquette surface temperature was measured with an IR camera and a surface temperature probe at 42 sections. It was found that the temperature of briquette surface dropped from 68 to 34°C after 7 minutes spent at the cooling line. The temperature at the center of briquette, during the 6 hour storage, decreased to 38°C.

  7. Treatments that enhance physical properties of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell; Peggy Konkol

    1987-01-01

    This paper was prepared for anyone who wants to know more about enhancing wood’s physical properties, from the amateur wood carver to the president of a forest products company. The authors describe chemical and physical treatments of wood that enhance the strength, stiffness, water repellency, and stability of wood. Five types of treatments are described: 1. water-...

  8. Physical properties and moisture relations of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Simpson; Anton TenWolde

    1999-01-01

    The versatility of wood is demonstrated by a wide variety of products. This variety is a result of a spectrum of desirable physical characteristics or properties among the many species of wood. In many cases, more than one property of wood is important to the end product. For example, to select a wood species for a product, the value of appearance- type properties,...

  9. Moisture relations and physical properties of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel V. Glass; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2010-01-01

    Wood, like many natural materials, is hygroscopic; it takes on moisture from the surrounding environment. Moisture exchange between wood and air depends on the relative humidity and temperature of the air and the current amount of water in the wood. This moisture relationship has an important influence on wood properties and performance. Many of the challenges of using...

  10. Wood Condition Assessment Manual: Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Ross; Robert H. White

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes information on condition assessment of in-service wood, including visual inspection of wood and timbers, use of ultrasound and probing/boring techniques for inspection, and assessment of wood and timbers that have been exposed to fire. The report also includes information on assigning allowable design values for in-service wood.

  11. The challenge of bonding treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2004-01-01

    Wood products are quite durable if exposure to moisture is minimized; however, most uses of wood involve considerable exposure to moisture. To preserve the wood, chemicals are used to minimize moisture pickup, to prevent insect attack, and/or to resist microbial growth. The chemicals used as preservatives can interfere with adhesive bonds to wood. Given the many...

  12. Fire resistance of exposed wood members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. White

    2004-01-01

    Fire resistance data on exposed wood beams and columns are plentiful, but few studies have been done on exposed wood members in tension and in decks. To provide data to verify the application of a new calculation procedure, a limited series of fire resistance tests were conducted on wood members loaded in tension and on exposed wood decks.

  13. Wood Flour Moulding Technology: Implications for Technical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-04-19

    Apr 19, 2011 ... Collect wood flour or chips from the lathe or table saw or vertical sander from other machines that produce the desired wood particles/ sawdust. If it is possible grind appropriate dry wood for use. Note: Wood flour or chips from cherry, maple (temperate trees) mahogany, teak and walnut (ekom in Ibibio ...

  14. Wood Technology: Techniques, Processes, and Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oatman, Olan

    1975-01-01

    Seven areas of wood technology illustrates applicable techniques, processes, and products for an industrial arts woodworking curriculum. They are: wood lamination; PEG (polyethylene glycol) diffusion processes; wood flour and/or particle molding; production product of industry; WPC (wood-plastic-composition) process; residential construction; and…

  15. Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2006-01-01

    Lecture Notes on Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures including charring of wood and load bearing capacity of beams, columns, and connections.......Lecture Notes on Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures including charring of wood and load bearing capacity of beams, columns, and connections....

  16. The Carbon Impacts of Wood Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Bergman; Maureen Puettmann; Adam Taylor; Kenneth E. Skog

    2014-01-01

    Wood products have many environmental advantages over nonwood alternatives. Documenting and publicizing these merits helps the future competitiveness of wood when climate change impacts are being considered. The manufacture of wood products requires less fossil fuel than nonwood alternative building materials such as concrete, metals, or plastics. By nature, wood is...

  17. Bioprocessing preservative-treated waste wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Illman; Vina W. Yang; Les. Ferge

    2000-01-01

    Disposal of preservative-treated waste wood is a growing problem worldwide. Bioprocessing the treated wood offers one approach to waste management under certain conditions. One goal is to use wood decay fungi to reduce the volume of waste with an easily managed system in a cost-effective manner. Wood decay fungi were obtained from culture collections in the Mycology...

  18. Oxalate analysis methodology for decayed wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol A. Clausen; William Kenealy; Patricia K. Lebow

    2008-01-01

    Oxalate from partially decayed southern pine wood was analyzed by HPLC or colorimetric assay. Oxalate extraction efficiency, assessed by comparing analysis of whole wood cubes with ground wood, showed that both wood geometries could be extracted with comparable efficiency. To differentiate soluble oxalate from total oxalate, three extraction methods were assessed,...

  19. Potential wood protection strategies using physiological requirements of wood degrading fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sailer, M.F.; Etten, B.D. van

    2004-01-01

    Due to the increasing restrictions in the use of wood preserving biocides a number of potential biocide free wood preserving alternatives are currently assessed. Wood degrading fungi require certain conditions in the wood in order to be able to use wood as a food source. This paper discusses the

  20. Wood Scrap Project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beachy, D.

    1983-01-01

    This study investigated Utah's sawmill residue, logging residue and pinyon-juniper resource for use as an energy resource to replace supplement conventional fuels now in use. This was accomplished by analyzing existing and future supplies of wood suitable for energy use on a renewable basis and the cost effectiveness of using wood as compared to coal, natural gas, and propane. The promotion of the use and development of wood as a renewable resource to reduce Utah's dependency for selected residential, institutional, commercial, and industrial markets for conventional non-renewable forms of energy is also considered. 84 references, 21 figures, 32 tables.

  1. USANS study of wood structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garvey, Christopher J. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)]. E-mail: Chris.Garvey@ansto.gov.au; Knott, Robert B. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia); Searson, Matthew [Centre for Horticulture and Plant Sciences, Hawkesbury Campus, University of Western Sydney (Australia); Conroy, Jann P. [Centre for Horticulture and Plant Sciences, Hawkesbury Campus, University of Western Sydney (Australia)

    2006-11-15

    Wood performs a vascular and structural function in trees. In this study we used the double-crystal diffractometer BT5 at the NIST Center for Neutron Scattering (Gaithersburg, USA) to study the pore structure inside wood sections. The slit-smeared intensity of scattered neutrons was measured from wood sections in directions parallel, orthogonal and transverse to the tree's trunk axis over a scattering vector range 0.00004-0.002 A{sup -1}. The interpretation of the data in terms of a reductionist model consisting of infinitely long cylinders (cell lumens) is discussed.

  2. COMBUSTION PROPERTIES OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın ÖRS

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the combustion properties of some impregnation materials (abiotic and biotic factors used for eucalyptus wood in interior or exterior environments were investigated. The experimental samples were prepared from Eucalyptus wood based on ASTM-D-1413-76 Tanalith-CBC, boric acid, borax, vacsol-WR, immersol-WR, polyethylen glycole-400 and ammonium sulphate were used as an impregnation material. The results indicated that, vacuum treatment on Eucalyptus gave the lowest retention value of salts. Compounds containing boron+salt increased fire resistance however water repellents decreased the wood flammability.

  3. Fiddler on the tree--a bush-cricket species with unusual stridulatory organs and song.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus-Gerhard Heller

    Full Text Available Insects of the order Orthoptera are well-known for their acoustic communication. The structures used for this purpose show a high diversity which obviously relates to differences in song parameters and to the physics of sound production. Here we describe song and morphology of the sound producing organs of a tropical bush-cricket, Ectomoptera nepicauda, from East Africa. It has a very unusual calling song consisting of frequency-modulated, pure-tone sounds in the high ultrasonic range of 80 to 120 kHz and produced by extremely fast wing movements. Concerning morphology, it represents the most extreme state in the degree of left-right fore-wing differentiation found among Orthoptera: the acoustic parts of the left fore-wing consist exclusively of the stridulatory file, comparable in function to the bow of a violin, while the right wing carries only the plectrum ( =  string and mirror ( =  soundbox.

  4. Measuring sexual selection on females in sex-role-reversed Mormon crickets (Anabrus simplex, Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, L J; Gwynne, D T

    2010-07-01

    Although many studies examine the form of sexual selection in males, studies characterizing this selection in females remain sparse. Sexual selection on females is predicted for sex-role-reversed Mormon crickets, Anabrus simplex, where males are choosy of mates and nutrient-deprived females compete for matings and nutritious nuptial gifts. We used selection analyses to describe the strength and form of sexual selection on female morphology. There was no positive linear sexual selection on the female body size traits predicted to be associated with male preferences and female competition. Instead, we detected selection for decreasing head width and mandible length, with stabilizing selection as the dominant form of nonlinear selection. Additionally, we tested the validity of a commonly used instantaneous measure of mating success by comparing selection results with those determined using cumulative mating rate. The two fitness measures yielded similar patterns of selection, supporting the common sampling method comparing mated and unmated fractions.

  5. An advantage for young sperm in the house cricket Acheta domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Klaus; Siva-Jothy, Michael T

    2005-06-01

    We show that males of the house cricket Acheta domesticus regularly expel sperm packages (spermatophores) independently of copulation and at a rate that is not affected by the presence of females. We then show for the first time that the age of sperm affects their likelihood of being stored by females after copulation; younger sperm were overrepresented in the female sperm storage organ and therefore in the sperm population used for fertilization. Our results suggest that the reproductive success of males may increase if they deliver ejaculates with young sperm, and the results may explain why the males of several species are regularly observed to discard ejaculates. Our results also suggest that phenomena such as female multiple mating, paternity bias, and/or exaggerated ejaculate sizes may be related to the advantage both genders gain by using young sperm.

  6. Maturation of the immune system of the male house cricket, Acheta domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñera, Angelica V; Charles, Heather M; Dinh, Tracy A; Killian, Kathleen A

    2013-08-01

    The immune system functions to counteract the wide range of pathogens an insect may encounter during its lifespan, ultimately maintaining fitness and increasing the likelihood of survival to reproductive maturity. In this study, we describe the maturation of the innate immune system of the male house cricket Acheta domesticus during the last two nymphal stages, and during early and late adulthood. Total hemolymph phenoloxidase enzyme activity, lysozyme-like enzyme activity, the number of circulating hemocytes, and encapsulation ability were all determined for each developmental stage or age examined. The number of circulating hemocytes and lysozyme-like enzyme activity were similar for all developmental stages examined. Nymphs and newly molted adult males, however, had significantly lower total phenoloxidase activity than later adult stages, yet nymphs were able to encapsulate a nylon thread just as well as adults. Encapsulation ability would thus appear to be independent of total phenoloxidase activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ultrastructure of the corpus cardiacum and corpus allatum of the house cricket Acheta domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, J T; Edwards, J S

    1979-05-18

    The ultrastructure of the corpus cardiacum (CC) and corpus allatum (CA) of the house cricket, Acheta domesticus, is described. Axon profiles within the CC contain neurosecretory granules 160-350 nm in diameter which are indistinguishable from those found in type I neurosecretory cells of the pars intercerebralis and in the nervus corporis cardiaci I. The CC itself contains two cell types: intrinsic neurosecretory cells and glial cells. Intrinsic NSC cytoplasm contains Golgi bodies and electron dense neurosecretory granules 160-350 nm in diameter. Synaptoid configurations with 20-50 nm diameter electron lucent vesicles were observed within axon profiles of the CC. The structure of the CA is relatively uniform with one cell type predominating. Typical CA cells possess large nucleoli, active Golgi complexes, numerous mitochondria, and occassional microtubules. Groups of dark staining cells scattered throughout the CA of some animals were interpreted as evidence of cellular death.

  8. Female house crickets, Acheta domesticus, prefer the chirps of large males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray

    1997-12-01

    This study demonstrates that invertebrate acoustic signals can provide information about male phenotypic attributes, and that females can use this acoustic information in mate choice to select a phenotypically superior mate. I investigated the relationships between a male acoustic sexual signal, the phenotype of the signaller, and the female response to signal variation. I recorded and analysed the calling songs of male house crickets, Acheta domesticus. The analyses showed that chirps convey information about male size. With the exception of amplitude, the mean number of pulses per chirp was the best predictor of male size. I performed a laboratory tape-playback experiment to determine female preference during phonotaxis. Females preferred tapes playing the chirps of large males, specifically chirps with a greater number of pulses per chirp. Selection on the female preference is discussed.Copyright 1997 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour

  9. The effect of central contracts on the stability and performance of the England Test cricket team. [El efecto de contratos centrales sobre la estabilidad y el desempeño del equipo inglés de Test cricket].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Bullough

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1999 the England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB decided to implement central contracts for elite player management to give them control over a group of players to represent the England national team in Test cricket. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact that this change in policy has had on the stability and performance of the England Test team, and discuss implications thereof. Using a sample of 13 seasons pre-central contracts (1987-1999 and 13 seasons post-central contracts (2000-2012, the results, from secondary analysis of England’s Test match scorecards from both sample periods, allowed investigation of team performance and stability. To gain a greater understanding of how central contracts impacted on the England Test side, eight interviews were also organised with key stakeholders in English cricket. The results showed that both the stability and performance of the England Test side improved considerably in the sample period post-central contracts (2000-2012 with a much greater consistency of selection (fewer changes per match alongside an improvement in England’s on-field performance (better win ratio and points per match. The paper identifies two key challenges facing the current player management system in England from domestic and external sources. Resumen En 1999 El Consejo de Cricket en Inglaterra y Gales (ECB – England and Wales Cricket Board decidió implementar contratos centrales para la dirección de jugadores de élite, con el fin de darle control sobre el grupo de jugadores que representan el equipo nacional de Inglaterra de Test cricket. El objetivo de este artículo es investigar el impacto que este cambio ha tenido sobre la estabilidad y el desempeño del equipo inglés de Test cricket y considerar sus implicaciones. Tras emplear una muestra de 13 temporadas antes de la firma de los contratos centrales (entre 1987 y 1999 y otras 13 temporadas después de su implementación (entre 2000 y 2012, los

  10. Roles of aminergic neurons in formation and recall of associative memory in crickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Mizunami

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We review recent progress in the study of roles of octopaminergic (OA-ergic and dopaminergic (DA-ergic signaling in insect classical conditioning, focusing on our studies on crickets. Studies on olfactory learning in honey bees and fruit-flies have suggested that OA-ergic and DA-ergic neurons convey reinforcing signals of appetitive unconditioned stimulus (US and aversive US, respectively. Our work suggested that this is applicable to olfactory, visual pattern and color learning in crickets, indicating that this feature is ubiquitous in learning of various sensory stimuli. We also showed that aversive memory decayed much faster than did appetitive memory, and we proposed that this feature is common in insects and humans. Our study also suggested that activation of OA- or DA-ergic neurons is needed for appetitive or aversive memory recall, respectively. To account for this finding, we proposed a model in which it is assumed that two types of synaptic connections are strengthened by conditioning and are activated during memory recall, one type being connections from neurons representing conditioned stimulus (CS to neurons inducing conditioned response and the other being connections from neurons representing CS to OA- or DA-ergic neurons representing appetitive or aversive US, respectively. The former is called stimulus-response (S-R connection and the latter is called stimulus-stimulus (S-S connection by theorists studying classical conditioning in vertebrates. Results of our studies using a second-order conditioning procedure supported our model. We propose that insect classical conditioning involves the formation of S-S connection and its activation for memory recall, which are often called cognitive processes.

  11. EVALUATION OF VIRULENCE OF STEINERNEMA CARPOCAPSAE TO EUROPEAN MOLE CRICKET GRYLLOTALPA GRYLOTALPA L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanovska, T; Pisdlisnyuk, V

    2014-01-01

    Common European mole cricket (CEML) Grillotalpa grillotalpa L causes damage to field, vegetable crops, and small fruits growing at commercial plantations and nurseries. Chemical control if insecticides are used in poison bates, soil application or seedling/bulbs treatment is not environmentally friendly. Inundative and innoculative release of CTVL biocontrol agents, in particularly, Entomopathogenic nematode is a reliable alternative to chemical control. At the laboratory study the comparison of the ability of commercial strain (Nemastar) and local Ukrainian isolate of Steinernema carpocapsae in various concentrations to parasite in last instar nymph and adults of G. grillotalpa was investigated. Grillotalpa grillotalpa was found as a susceptible host for both commercial and local strains of S. carpocapsae. The life cycle of S. carpocapsae both strains in the adults of G. grillotapla with concentration 50 IJs per larva has been completed 12-15 days at t=25 C. Two generations of S. carpocapsae were able to develop in mole cricket for both strains. Two strains of S. carpocapsae nematode species tested were pathogenic to adults of G. grillotalpa. The mortalities of G. grillotapla last last instars' larva caused by S. carpocapsae were recorded in every concentration tested at least 20 to 150 IJs per larva. Mean larval mortality ranged from 48% to 95% depending upon nematode strain and rate of application. Larval mortality generally increased with increasing of nematode rates. It was significant for both S. carpocapsae strains (Ukr. Isolate F = 26 > 2,86) and commercial strain (Nemastar F = 102,95 > 2,86). Ukrainian local isolate caused a greater percentage of mortality of G. grillotapla adult than commercial strain of S. carpocapsae tested but interactions between nematode strains, application rates were not significant. This study presents new data on effect of S. carpocapsae isolated for Ukraine to key agricultural polyphagous pest G. grillotalpa susceptibility

  12. Frequency processing at consecutive levels in the auditory system of bush crickets (tettigoniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Tim Daniel; Stumpner, Andreas

    2010-08-01

    We asked how processing of male signals in the auditory pathway of the bush cricket Ancistrura nigrovittata (Phaneropterinae, Tettigoniidae) changes from the ear to the brain. From 37 sensory neurons in the crista acustica single elements (cells 8 or 9) have frequency tuning corresponding closely to the behavioral tuning of the females. Nevertheless, one-quarter of sensory neurons (approximately cells 9 to 18) excite the ascending neuron 1 (AN1), which is best tuned to the male's song carrier frequency. AN1 receives frequency-dependent inhibition, reducing sensitivity especially in the ultrasound. When recorded in the brain, AN1 shows slightly lower overall activity than when recorded in the prothoracic ganglion close to the spike-generating zone. This difference is significant in the ultrasonic range. The first identified local brain neuron in a bush cricket (LBN1) is described. Its dendrites overlap with some of AN1-terminations in the brain. Its frequency tuning and intensity dependence strongly suggest a direct postsynaptic connection to AN1. Spiking in LBN1 is only elicited after summation of excitatory postsynaptic potentials evoked by individual AN1-action potentials. This serves a filtering mechanism that reduces the sensitivity of LBN1 and also its responsiveness to ultrasound as compared to AN1. Consequently, spike latencies of LBN1 are long (>30 ms) despite its being a second-order interneuron. Additionally, LBN1 receives frequency-specific inhibition, most likely further reducing its responses to ultrasound. This demonstrates that frequency-specific inhibition is redundant in two directly connected interneurons on subsequent levels in the auditory system. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Neurohormones as putative circadian clock output signals in the central nervous system of two cricket species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehadová, H; Shao, Q-M; Sehnal, F; Takeda, M

    2007-04-01

    Antisera to the neuropeptides corazonin (Crz) and crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) and to the diapause hormone (DH) react with small sets of neurones in the cephalic ganglia of the crickets Dianemobius nigrofasciatus and Allonemobius allardi. The distribution of their immunoreactivities is similar in the two species and overlaps with the locations of presumed circadian clock components in the optic lobes, protocerebrum, tritocerebrum, suboesophageal ganglion (SOG) and frontal ganglion. D. nigrofasciatus contains two Crz-immunoreactive (Crz-ir) cells in each optic lobe, six cell groups in the protocerebrum, four in the tritocerebrum, and one in SOG, whereas A. allardi harbours only five Crz-ir groups in the protocerebrum and four in the tritocerebrum. CCAP immunoreactivity occurs in both species in four protocerebrum cell clusters, four tritocerebrum cell clusters, four SOG cell clusters, one frontal ganglion cell cluster, and two optic lobe cell clusters; D. nigrofasciatus possesses two additional cells with unique links to the lamina in the optic lobe. DH-related antigens are present in four cell clusters in the optic lobe, six (D. nigrofasciatus) or eight (A. allardi) in the protocerebrum, four in the tritocerebrum, and three (A. allardi) or five (D. nigrofasciatus) in the SOG. Some of the detected cells also react with antibody to the clock protein Period (PER) or lie close to PER-ir cells. Crickets reared at two different photoperiods do not differ in the distribution and intensity of immunoreactivities. No changes have been detected during the course of diurnal light/dark cycles, possibly because the antisera react with persistent prohormones, whereas circadian fluctuations may occur at the level of their processing or of hormone release. The projection of immunoreactive fibres to several brain regions, the stomatogastric nervous system and the neurohaemal organs indicates multiple functions of the respective hormones.

  14. Quantitative characterization of the filiform mechanosensory hair array on the cricket cercus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Miller

    Full Text Available Crickets and other orthopteran insects sense air currents with a pair of abdominal appendages resembling antennae, called cerci. Each cercus in the common house cricket Acheta domesticus is approximately 1 cm long, and is covered with 500 to 750 filiform mechanosensory hairs. The distribution of the hairs on the cerci, as well as the global patterns of their movement vectors, have been characterized semi-quantitatively in studies over the last 40 years, and have been shown to be very stereotypical across different animals in this species. Although the cercal sensory system has been the focus of many studies in the areas of neuroethology, development, biomechanics, sensory function and neural coding, there has not yet been a quantitative study of the functional morphology of the receptor array of this important model system.We present a quantitative characterization of the structural characteristics and functional morphology of the cercal filiform hair array. We demonstrate that the excitatory direction along each hair's movement plane can be identified by features of its socket that are visible at the light-microscopic level, and that the length of the hair associated with each socket can also be estimated accurately from a structural parameter of the socket. We characterize the length and directionality of all hairs on the basal half of a sample of three cerci, and present statistical analyses of the distributions.The inter-animal variation of several global organizational features is low, consistent with constraints imposed by functional effectiveness and/or developmental processes. Contrary to previous reports, however, we show that the filiform hairs are not re-identifiable in the strict sense.

  15. Quantitative Characterization of the Filiform Mechanosensory Hair Array on the Cricket Cercus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John P.; Krueger, Susan; Heys, Jeffrey J.; Gedeon, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Background Crickets and other orthopteran insects sense air currents with a pair of abdominal appendages resembling antennae, called cerci. Each cercus in the common house cricket Acheta domesticus is approximately 1 cm long, and is covered with 500 to 750 filiform mechanosensory hairs. The distribution of the hairs on the cerci, as well as the global patterns of their movement vectors, have been characterized semi-quantitatively in studies over the last 40 years, and have been shown to be very stereotypical across different animals in this species. Although the cercal sensory system has been the focus of many studies in the areas of neuroethology, development, biomechanics, sensory function and neural coding, there has not yet been a quantitative study of the functional morphology of the receptor array of this important model system. Methodology/Principal Findings We present a quantitative characterization of the structural characteristics and functional morphology of the cercal filiform hair array. We demonstrate that the excitatory direction along each hair's movement plane can be identified by features of its socket that are visible at the light-microscopic level, and that the length of the hair associated with each socket can also be estimated accurately from a structural parameter of the socket. We characterize the length and directionality of all hairs on the basal half of a sample of three cerci, and present statistical analyses of the distributions. Conclusions/Significance The inter-animal variation of several global organizational features is low, consistent with constraints imposed by functional effectiveness and/or developmental processes. Contrary to previous reports, however, we show that the filiform hairs are not re-identifiable in the strict sense. PMID:22132155

  16. Cellular aspects of wood formation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fromm, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    With today's ever growing economic and ecological problems, wood as a raw material takes on increasing significance as the most important renewable source of energy and as industrial feedstock for numerous products...

  17. On Erdos–Wood's conjecture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Woods conjecture with = 2 is at least /(log ) for some positive constant > 2. ... Institute of Mathematical Sciences, C.I.T. Campus, 4th Cross Street, Taramani, Chennai 600 113, India; Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, ...

  18. Wood-pastures of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Hartel, Tibor; Martín-López, Berta

    2015-01-01

    Wood-pastures are archetypes of High Nature Value Farmlands in Europe and hold exceptional ecological, social, and cultural values. Yet, wood-pastures have been through a sharp decline all over Europe, mainly due to processes of agricultural intensification and abandonment. Recently, wood......-pastures have found increasing attention from conservation science and policy across Europe. In this paper we (i) perform the first pan-European assessment of wood-pastures, considering individual countries and biogeographic regions, (ii) present the ecological and social-cultural values of a wide diversity......). They are distributed across all biogeographical regions, but more abundantly in the Mediterranean and Eastern European countries. Substantial ecological values are revealed in terms of landscape level biodiversity, ecosystem dynamics, and genetic resources. Social-cultural values are related to aesthetic values...

  19. Wood and Paper Manufacturing Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find EPA regulatory information for the wood product and paper manufacturing sectors, including paper, pulp and lumber. Information includes NESHAPs and effluent guidelines for pulp and paper rulemaking, and compliance guidelines

  20. Wood siding : installing, finishing, maintaining

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.C. Feist; A.E. Oviatt

    1983-01-01

    Wood siding is put on houses for many good reasons. One reason is that it will keep the bright new “face” of any home attractive for many years to come. In fact, given reasonable care, wood siding will retain its beauty for centuries, as has been amply proved by its performance on houses that date back to early colonial times. It also has great versatility; and the...

  1. EVOLUTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT WOOD COMPOSITES

    OpenAIRE

    Marius C. BARBU

    2016-01-01

    Lightweight boards and beams in the wood-based construction and furniture industry are not a new topic. The density reduction of panels using sandwich structure with light cores was confirmed by users like doors or mobile homes more than three decades ago. Today many ways to attain a lighter wooden structure are on offer, partially in industrial application. The first one is the use of light-weight wood species like balsa, lime, pine from southern hemisphere plantations etc. limit...

  2. HAEMOLYMPH AND TISSUE TITRES OF ACHETAKININS IN THE HOUSE CRICKET ACHETA DOMESTICUS: EFFECT OF STARVATION AND DEHYDRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung; Goldsworthy; Coast

    1994-08-01

    Achetakinin-like immunoreactive material in tissues and haemolymph of adult male crickets was quantified by radioimmunoassay. Achetakinin-like material was found in the brain, suboesophageal ganglia and the thoracic and abdominal ganglia, but the largest amount was within the retrocerebral complex. A Ca2+-dependent release of achetakinin-like immunoreactive material was demonstrated from retrocerebral complexes incubated in vitro in saline containing a high concentration of K+. The concentration of achetakinin-like material in haemolymph from fed crickets was estimated to be 2.8 nmol l-1 and increased more than 10-fold in insects starved for 48 h without access to water. The presence of achetakinin-like material in haemolymph suggests that these peptides are released in vivo and function as circulating neurohormones.

  3. Life cycle environmental impacts of different construction wood waste and wood packaging waste processing methods

    OpenAIRE

    Manninen, Kaisa; Judl, Jáchym; Myllymaa, Tuuli

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the life cycle environmental impacts of different wood waste processing methods in three impact categories: climate impact, acidification impacts and eutrophication impacts. The wood waste recovery methods examined were the use of wood waste in terrace boards made out of wood composite which replace impregnated terrace boards, incineration of wood waste in a multi-fuel boiler instead of peat and the use of wood waste in the production of particleboard in either Finland or ...

  4. Limited plasticity in the phenotypic variance-covariance matrix for male advertisement calls in the black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchers, W R; Brooks, R; Jennions, M D; Tregenza, T; Dworkin, I; Hunt, J

    2013-05-01

    Phenotypic integration and plasticity are central to our understanding of how complex phenotypic traits evolve. Evolutionary change in complex quantitative traits can be predicted using the multivariate breeders' equation, but such predictions are only accurate if the matrices involved are stable over evolutionary time. Recent study, however, suggests that these matrices are temporally plastic, spatially variable and themselves evolvable. The data available on phenotypic variance-covariance matrix (P) stability are sparse, and largely focused on morphological traits. Here, we compared P for the structure of the complex sexual advertisement call of six divergent allopatric populations of the Australian black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus. We measured a subset of calls from wild-caught crickets from each of the populations and then a second subset after rearing crickets under common-garden conditions for three generations. In a second experiment, crickets from each population were reared in the laboratory on high- and low-nutrient diets and their calls recorded. In both experiments, we estimated P for call traits and used multiple methods to compare them statistically (Flury hierarchy, geometric subspace comparisons and random skewers). Despite considerable variation in means and variances of individual call traits, the structure of P was largely conserved among populations, across generations and between our rearing diets. Our finding that P remains largely stable, among populations and between environmental conditions, suggests that selection has preserved the structure of call traits in order that they can function as an integrated unit. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  5. The Association Between Internal and External Measures of Training Load in Batsmen and Medium-Fast Bowlers During Net-Based Cricket Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickery, Will; Dascombe, Ben; Duffield, Rob

    2017-02-01

    To examine the relationship between session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) and measures of internal and external training load (TL) in cricket batsmen and medium-fast bowlers during net-based training sessions. The internal (heart rate), external (movement demands, PlayerLoad), and technical (cricket-specific skills) loads of 30 male cricket players (age 21.2 ± 3.8 y, height 1.82 ± 0.07 m, body mass 79.0 ± 8.7 kg) were determined from net-based cricket-training sessions (n = 118). The relationships between sRPE and measures of TL were quantified using Pearson product-moment correlations respective to playing position. Stepwise multiple-regression techniques provided key internal- and external-load determinants of sRPE in cricket players. Significant correlations were evident (r = -.34 to .87, P < .05) between internal and external measures of TL and sRPE, with the strongest correlations (r ≥ .62) for GPS-derived measures for both playing positions. In batsmen, stepwise multiple-regression analysis revealed that 67.8% of the adjusted variance in sRPE could be explained by PlayerLoad and high-intensity distance (y = 27.43 + 0.81 PlayerLoad + 0.29 high-intensity distance). For medium-fast bowlers, 76.3% of the adjusted variance could be explained by total distance and mean heart rate (y = 101.82 + total distance 0.05 + HR mean - 0.48). These results suggest that sRPE is a valid method of reporting TL among cricket batsmen and medium-fast bowlers. Position-specific responses are evident and should be considered when monitoring the TL of cricket players.

  6. Effect of extracts from the Chinese and European mole cricket on wound epithelialization and neovascularization: in vivo studies in the hairless mouse ear wound model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Markus M; Frank, Johannes; Barker, John H; Becker, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Until the end of World War II, oily extracts from the European mole cricket, Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa Linné, were used for treating nonhealing wounds and burns. In traditional Chinese medicine, extracts from the Chinese mole cricket, Gryllotalpa africana Beauvois, have been used to treat boils, abscesses, and ulcers successfully for over two centuries and are still being used today. The aim of this study was twofold: first, to measure the effect mole cricket extracts have on wound epithelialization and neovascularization, and second, to identify the active compounds in the Chinese and German mole cricket extracts. For the first aim, the hairless mouse ear wound model was used. The findings showed that wounds treated with the mole cricket extracts epithelialized significantly faster than control wounds 12.7+/-0.9 and 13.2+/-1.4 days vs. 16.3+/-2.2 days (mean+/-SD, p<0.05), respectively. While the rate of wound neovascularization was significantly increased in the first 3 days postwounding from that point on, the rate in treated wounds was the same as in controls. To identify the active compounds in the mole cricket extracts, the extracts were fractionated and tested in a foreskin basal keratinocyte cell culture assay. In this assay, the migration of keratinocytes is similar to skin cell migration or reepithelialization in a healing wound. Using this method, we found the active compound in the mole cricket extracts to be linoleic acid methyl ester. All other fatty acid structures that were isolated were found to be inactive.

  7. Serotonin has kinin-like activity in stimulating secretion by Malpighian tubules of the house cricket Acheta domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coast, Geoffrey

    2011-03-01

    Serotonin stimulates secretion by Malpighian tubules (MT) of a number of insects, and functions as a diuretic hormone in Rhodnius prolixus and in larval Aedes aegypti. Serotonin is here shown to be a potent stimulant of secretion by MT of the house cricket, Acheta domesticus, with an apparent EC(50) of 9.4 nmol L(-1), although its diuretic activity is just 25% of the maximum achievable with either the native CRF-related peptide, Achdo-DH, or a crude extract of the corpora cardiaca. In this respect, the diuretic activity of serotonin is similar to that of the cricket kinin Achdo-KI, and when tested together their actions are not additive, which suggests they target the same transport process. Consistent with this suggestion, the activity of serotonin is chloride-dependent and is associated with a non-selective stimulation of NaCl and KCl transport. In common with Achdo-KI, serotonin has no effect on cAMP production by isolated MT, and both act synergistically with exogenous 8bromo-cAMP in stimulating fluid secretion, most likely by promoting the release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores. A number of serotonin agonists and antagonists were tested to determine the pharmacological profile of receptors on cricket MT. The results are consistent with the diuretic activity of serotonin being mediated through a 5-HT(2)-like receptor. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Egg load decreases mobility and increases predation risk in female black-horned tree crickets (Oecanthus nigricornis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyla Ercit

    Full Text Available Female-biased predation is an uncommon phenomenon in nature since males of many species take on riskier behaviours to gain more mates. Several species of sphecid wasps have been observed taking more female than male prey, and it is not fully understood why. The solitary sphecid Isodontia mexicana catches more adult female tree cricket (Oecanthus nigricornis prey. Previous work has shown that, although female tree crickets are larger and thus likely to be more valuable as prey than males, body size alone cannot fully explain why wasps take more females. We tested the hypothesis that wasps catch adult female tree crickets more often because bearing eggs impedes a female's ability to escape predation. We compared female survivors to prey of I. mexicana, and found that females carrying more eggs were significantly more likely to be caught by wasps, regardless of their body size and jumping leg mass. We also conducted laboratory experiments where females' jumping responses to a simulated attack were measured and compared to her egg load and morphology. We found a significant negative relationship between egg load and jumping ability, and a positive relationship between body size and jumping ability. These findings support the hypothesis that ovarian eggs are a physical handicap that contributes to female-biased predation in this system. Predation on the most fecund females may have ecological-evolutionary consequences such as collapse of prey populations or selection for alternate life history strategies and behaviours.

  9. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2011-01-01

    The Eifion Jones Single Wicket Competition at Prevessin on 28.8.2011 Fourteen players turned out for this knock-out competition, which first took place 20 years ago. In each game, 2 overs are bowled by each player. Players under 18, and those over 50, benefit from one extra run per year of age difference up to a maximum of 10 runs. Two previous winners, Elvin and Ahmed, had the luck of the draw and had byes in the first round, with Ahmed sure to bat second in each round. The first round saw a shock result, young Irsalan Ahmed, 8 years old and benefitting from 10 extra runs, beating Muzaffar, dismissing him twice in consecutive balls (each dismissal costs 6 runs). In the second round, new boy Chaudhuri beat Elvin and Ahmed beat Onions (with 10 extra runs). Other games went as expected. Chaudhuri and Ahmed both won their semi-finals to meet in the 3 over final. Chaudhuri started well but then a drive to mid-on was brilliantly caught one-handed by Muzaffar to turn the match in Ahmed’s favour, especia...

  10. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2010-01-01

    CERN CC v Geneva XI Stars CC (Friendly) at CERN on July 25th, 2010 On a very sunny and pleasant day, Captain Bolton won the toss and elected to bat. Ahmed and Keigwin opened the innings, Keigwin departing early after offering a dolly catch. Wickets kept falling till Anand joined Ahmed. Both started building the CERN innings with brilliant hitting by Ahmed all around the ground. After the drinks break, Anand and Ahmed both got out with Ahmed on 74 runs (6 sixes and 7 fours) being the top scorer of CERN’s innings. Onions kept CERN’s innings ticking over until the end, scoring 35. CERN CC was eventually all out for 204 runs in the last over. A healthy lunch break with tables full of fruit, Aloo Parathas and sandwiches was served to both the teams. The response from XI Stars was explosive, with 60 runs on the board in just 6 overs. Bolton had to retire injured and stand-in captain Onions kept trying different options, changing bowlers to try to control the game but nothing succeeded and ...

  11. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2012-01-01

    Bern CC V CERN CC in Bern on Sunday 6th May 2012 The storm clouds gathered over Switzerland this weekend as a CERN XI travelled more in hope than expectation to Bern for our first league game of the season. Despite the gloomy weather forecast the sun shone and Captain Elvin won the toss and put Bern into bat on a damp, soft and tricky wicket. Early success came as D'Mello had the Bern captain caught by D. Ahmed in his second over. This was to prove the only success in the first 20 overs as BERN made light of the pitch and the CERN attack to go into the drinks break on 108-1. CERN came storming out after the break with Elvin making the breakthrough to dismiss the Bern number 2 for 74. D'Mello then came back into the attack and ended up with 4-34 as CERN held their catches and fielded well. Chauduri was in fine form and stormed in to take 3-27. Elvin was tight and economical until he went for 23 in his final over but D. Ahmed mopped up the tail with 2-16 in a fine 4 over spell. CERN...

  12. Cricket club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket club

    2011-01-01

    CERN CC – Bellingham Tour 2011 – 2nd / 3rd July vs Trafford Solicitors CC The annual pilgrimage to Bellingham was met with unusually fine weather and a strong assembly of pilgrims to compete with the Mancunian legal team and co-defendants. On day 1 CERN won the toss and put the opposition in. The Trafford left-handed opener Horsford was missed off a sharp return catch and he went on to make 82 on his tour debut for Trafford, who eventually reached a total of 200. Elvin (95) and John Osborne (52) in a third wicket stand of 120 put CERN in control but when Elvin’s innings ended, shortly followed by Osborne, CERN rapidly collapsed and were all out for 195, thus losing by 5 runs. On day 2 Trafford won the toss and elected to bat first. The story of the Trafford innings was once more written with the bat of Horsford, who had scored 70 not out by the end of the innings out of a total of 152. The CERN reply after lunch never really got started. No batsman until Wall at No.5 got ...

  13. Not cricket?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Jo Lucassen; Remco van den Dool; Janine van Kalmthout

    2008-01-01

    Original title: Weinig over de schreef. For many Dutch people, sport is an enjoyable way of spending their leisure time. Many people are themselves active participants in sport or attend matches. Top-level matches attract a great deal of media attention. A smaller but no less enthusiastic

  14. CRICKET CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2010-01-01

    CERN CC in the 20/20 Tournament at the Bout-du-Monde on 11th/12th September CERN played Nestlé in the first semi-final on Saturday. Nestlé were bowled out for 82 in the 20th over, thanks to excellent bowling by Campbell (4 overs, 3 for 9), D’Mello (4 overs, 2 for 14, including a beautiful C&B), Onions (4 overs, 2 for 20), Elvin (4 overs, 1 for 29) and Ahmed (4 overs, 1 for 16). Campbell (44 no) and Osborne (25no) made short work of the total, ably assisted by any number of wides, reaching the target in the 9th over. On Sunday, CERN played GICC in the final. This time batting first, CERN made 196 for 7 thanks mainly to a partnership of 124 runs between D’Mello and McNaught (whose two previous scores were ducks) that ran into the 16th over. D’Mello hit a superb and quick-fire 69 in 47 balls, including 8 fours and 3 sixes. It included sumptuous straight sixes from both ends. (Anything which ends up in the adjoining football fields or tennis courts...

  15. CRICKET CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    CRICKET CLUB

    2010-01-01

    CERN CC v Cossonay CC at CERN on Sunday, August 22nd, 2010   On a hot sunny August afternoon, CERN entertained Cossonay in a friendly match at CERN. Skipper Elvin won the toss and elected to bat, thus ignoring groundsman Osborne’s suggestion to bat second due to residual dew dampening the outfield. CERN started and were fortunate not to lose a wicket in the opening couple of overs, however this luck would soon run out as Osborne, going for a typical lofted drive was well caught at mid-on. CERN soon found themselves in trouble at 30-4 after 9 overs, but the introduction of Ahmed would demonstrate that boundary scoring was possible as he powered his way to 54, ably helped by Elvin (25), before informing his partner he was tired, and a shot that looked to be bound for another 6 was caught at wide long on from the last ball of the over. Crook (14) would then face the next delivery, and in typical fashion, he told his new partner S. Kumar that there was plenty of time and that the big shots ...

  16. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2011-01-01

    CERN CC vs SWISS COLTS on Sunday 31st July 2011 Swiss Colts were the visitors for CERN’s final league outing of the season. On a fine summer’s day, visiting captain George won the toss and elected to bat. Opening bowlers Campbell and D’Mello took an early wicket apiece as the Colts slumped to 3-2. George and Greenhalgh led a recovery with some aggressive shots before Paul snared them both, Crook holding onto a fine catch on the boundary. Ahmed then shed the wicketkeeping gloves and destroyed the remainder of the batting order with a fine spell, taking 5 wickets at a personal cost of only 4 runs. Swiss Colts finished on 103 all out. CERN openers Bolton and Osborne then reached 54 without loss when Bolton was run out, D’Mello and Phillips soon following as CERN reached 61 for 3. After Osborne was dismissed by Gaillet, Campbell saw CERN safely home to a 6 wicket victory. Special mention should be made of the wicket keeping prowess of Heggie. Rarely can a visiting kee...

  17. CRICKET CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    CRICKET CLUB

    2010-01-01

    GICC v CERN CC at Bout-du-Monde on August 1st, 2010 On a beautiful summer’s day, Captain Bolton won the toss and elected to bat. Osborne and Chatoo opened the innings. Batting on a new GICC turf was made to look simple by Osborne and Chatoo hitting quick boundaries and sixes. Just when they looked like they were getting into a rhythm, Osborne mis-hit and was caught, bringing McNaught at the crease. The steady partnership for 30 runs was broken when Chatoo was caught by the wicket keeper for a quick fire 20. Captain Bolton was next. Bolton and McNaught then steadied the ship displaying good batting skills. After drinks McNaught reached his half century which included 6 fours and 2 sixes. Some good bowling by Suri got McNaught frustrated and eventually out for a good 57 runs. Bolton was next to go after a watchful 44 runs and a sore rib cage. Bolton’s departure gave way to the famous known-to-all CERN middle order collapse. The next 6 batsmen managed a mere 60 runs. CERN was all out in th...

  18. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2011-01-01

    Rhone CC v CERN CC at Parc de Parilly, Lyon on Sunday 11th September 2011 CERN travelled to Lyon to play our old friends Rhone at their new ground in the pretty and busy Parilly Parc. With no traffic problems CERN were at the ground in good time and even had time for a pre game kick around before skipper Elvin won the toss and decided to bowl. Onions and Chaudhuri opened the bowling and were penalized by some strict wide calling from the Rhone umpires. Onions finally made the breakthrough with the help of a brilliant running catch from the athletic Price. Chaudhuri then picked up 2 more Rhone wickets in a fiery opening spell as CERN took control. Rhone then rallied and Shiva made 50 before S. Ahmed had him trapped LBW. Skipper Elvin then turned to McFayden and the evergreen I. Ahmed to try and wrestle control back and McFayden was unlucky not to have Bala caught behind when the only person who did not think he had edged it was the umpire! Price again took another stunning catch in the deep to give I. Ahmed ...

  19. A guide to residential wood heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Wood heating has a long history in Canada. Currently over three million Canadian households use wood-burning appliances for heating, or just to enjoy the ambience of a wood fire. This guide is one of a series of guides on renewable energy systems for residential use, compiled to assist Canadian householders to make informed decisions on renewable energy. This particular guide focuses on such matters as how to maintain the safety and efficiency of a wood heating system; how to purchase and store fuel wood; how to use fire management techniques for cleaner, virtually smokeless fires; and provides tips on what to ask when consulting wood-heating professionals. tabs., figs.

  20. Ballistic movements of jumping legs implemented as variable components of cricket behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustert, R; Baldus, M

    2010-12-01

    Ballistic accelerations of a limb or the whole body require special joint mechanisms in many animals. Specialized joints can be moved by stereotypic or variable motor control during motor patterns with and without ballistic components. As a model of variable motor control, the specialized femur-tibia (knee) joints of cricket (Acheta domesticus) hindlegs were studied during ballistic kicking, jumping and swimming and in non-ballistic walking. In this joint the tendons of the antagonistic flexor and the extensor muscles attach at different distances from the pivot and the opposed lever arms form an angle of 120 deg. A 10:1 ratio of their effective lever arms at full knee flexion helps to prepare for most ballistic extensions: the tension of the extensor can reach its peak while it is restrained by flexor co-contraction. In kicks, preparatory flexion is rapid and the co-contraction terminates just before knee extensions. Therefore, mainly the stored tension of the extensor muscle accelerates the small mass of the tibia. Jumps are prepared with slower extensor-flexor co-contractions that flex both knees simultaneously and then halt to rotate both legs outward to a near horizontal level. From there, catapult extension of both knees accelerates the body, supported by continued high frequency motor activity to their tibia extensor muscles during the ongoing push-off from the substrate. Premature extension of one knee instantly takes load from the lagging leg that extends and catches up, which finally results in a straight jump. In swimming, synchronous ballistic power strokes of both hindlegs drive the tibiae on a ventral-to-posterior trajectory through the water, well coordinated with the swimming patterns of all legs. In walking, running and climbing the steps of the hindlegs range between 45 deg flexion and 125 deg extension and use non-ballistic, alternating activity of knee flexor and extensor muscles. Steep climbing requires longer bursts from the extensor tibiae

  1. Are inertial forces ever of significance in cricket, golf and other sports?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Garry; Robinson, Ian

    2017-04-01

    In previous papers we investigated the motion of a spherical projectile rotating about an arbitrary axis, subject to a drag force, a lift or Magnus force, and in the presence of a wind. The aim was to determine the motion of balls used in sporting games, primarily cricket. Newton’s laws of motion apply in an inertial (unaccelerated) coordinate system, but the rotating Earth is not an inertial system. In such a non-inertial system two additional forces are present, the Coriolis force which produces a side-ways movement, and the centrifugal force. Generally these two inertial forces produce noticeable effects only on the large scale, when either the time of travel and/or the path length is large. In this paper we have added both of these forces to the equations of motion. In addition, we have also included a ground friction force in order to simulate a ball rolling over a surface or, more generally, a body moving through a resistive medium such as water. Here we quantitatively investigate the magnitude and direction of the effect of the inertial forces in a number of cases. It is found that, as expected, the effects of the inertial forces are generally small for ball games. In cricket the side-ways movement is ≲1 cm for a throw from the boundary and ≲1 mm for a slow bowler’s delivery, and for a long drive in golf it is ≲10 cm. In lawn bowls the side-ways movement can be ∼2.8 cm, which may be significant, given the nature of this sport. The inertial forces are also potentially of relevance in sporting events not employing spherical projectiles. For example, in Olympic rowing we find that the side-ways movement can be more than 40 m for a 2 km race if it is not compensated for, and nearly 20 m for a 4 min mile event in athletics. The effect is also of significance in events such as swimming and horse racing. The importance of this is that athletes may not be aware of the effect and, in the case of rowing for example, may attribute it to side-ways currents

  2. Roles of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II in long-term memory formation in crickets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Mizunami

    Full Text Available Ca(2+/calmodulin (CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII is a key molecule in many systems of learning and memory in vertebrates, but roles of CaMKII in invertebrates have not been characterized in detail. We have suggested that serial activation of NO/cGMP signaling, cyclic nucleotide-gated channel, Ca(2+/CaM and cAMP signaling participates in long-term memory (LTM formation in olfactory conditioning in crickets, and here we show participation of CaMKII in LTM formation and propose its site of action in the biochemical cascades. Crickets subjected to 3-trial conditioning to associate an odor with reward exhibited memory that lasts for a few days, which is characterized as protein synthesis-dependent LTM. In contrast, animals subjected to 1-trial conditioning exhibited memory that lasts for only several hours (mid-term memory, MTM. Injection of a CaMKII inhibitor prior to 3-trial conditioning impaired 1-day memory retention but not 1-hour memory retention, suggesting that CaMKII participates in LTM formation but not in MTM formation. Animals injected with a cGMP analogue, calcium ionophore or cAMP analogue prior to 1-trial conditioning exhibited 1-day retention, and co-injection of a CaMKII inhibitor impaired induction of LTM by the cGMP analogue or that by the calcium ionophore but not that by the cAMP analogue, suggesting that CaMKII is downstream of cGMP production and Ca(2+ influx and upstream of cAMP production in biochemical cascades for LTM formation. Animals injected with an adenylyl cyclase (AC activator prior to 1-trial conditioning exhibited 1-day retention. Interestingly, a CaMKII inhibitor impaired LTM induction by the AC activator, although AC is expected to be a downstream target of CaMKII. The results suggest that CaMKII interacts with AC to facilitate cAMP production for LTM formation. We propose that CaMKII serves as a key molecule for interplay between Ca(2+ signaling and cAMP signaling for LTM formation, a new role of Ca

  3. Reactivity and burnout of wood fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall'Ora, Michelangelo

    of different aspects relevant to wood combustion, including wood structure and composition, wood pyrolysis, wood char properties and wood char oxidation. The full scale campaign, which is the subject of Chapter 3, included sampling of wood fuel before and after milling and sampling of gas and particles...... at the top of the combustion chamber. The collected samples and data are used to obtain an evaluation of the mills in operation at the power plant, the particle size distribution of the wood fuel, as well as the char conversion attained in the furnace. In Chapter 4 an experimental investigation...... reactivity. Char yield from fast pyrolysis (104 – 105 K/s) was as low as 1 to 6 % on a dry ash free basis, whereas it was about 15-17 % for slow pyrolysis (10 - 20 K/min); char yield decreased as pyrolysis temperature increased. During fast pyrolysis wood particles underwent melting, yet to different extents...

  4. Ergonomics and safety in secondary wood processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rado Gazo; James D. McGlothlin; Yuehwern, Wiedenbeck, Jan Yih; Yuehwern Yih

    2002-01-01

    The main goal of the project was to initiate a pilot program in ergonomics for the secondary wood products industry. Case studies were conducted at three Midwest secondary wood product companies in 2000 and 2001.

  5. Strange Creatures: An Additive Wood Sculpture Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project where students create strange creatures using scraps of wood. Discusses how the students use the wood and other materials. Explains that the students also write about the habitat characteristics of their creatures. Includes learning objectives. (CMK)

  6. Three Construction Projects with Wood Scraps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Elizabeth

    1977-01-01

    Wood, a natural material, appeals to children of all ages. Wood construction allows children the flexibility of moving parts of their work around until they are satisfied with the arrangement. Three projects are described. (Author/RK)

  7. SYNERGISTIC WOOD PRESERVATIVES FOR REPLACEMENT OF CCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the potential synergistic combinations of environmentally-safe biocides as wood preservatives. These wood preservatives could be potential replacements for the heavy-metal based CCA.Didecyldimethylammonium chloride [DDAC] was...

  8. Wood: a construction material for tall buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmers, Guido

    2017-12-01

    Wood has great potential as a building material, because it is strong and lightweight, environmentally friendly and can be used in prefabricated buildings. However, only changes in building codes will make wood competitive with steel and concrete.

  9. Effects of wood fiber characteristics on mechanical properties of wood/polypropylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole M. Stark; Robert E. Rowlands

    2003-01-01

    Commercial wood flour, the most common wood-derived filler for thermoplastics, is produced in a mixture of particle sizes and generally has a lower aspect ratio than wood and other natural fibers. To understand how wood flour and fiber characteristics influence the mechanical properties of polypropylene composites, we first investigated the effect of different sizes of...

  10. Wood preservatives and pressure-treated wood: considerations for historic-preservation projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald W. Anthony; Stan T. Lebow

    2015-01-01

    Wood, an abundant resource throughout most of the world, has been used as a building material for thousands of years. Many historic buildings have been built primarily of wood, and masonry and stone buildings generally have wood elements, both structural and architectural. As a biological material, wood is both remarkably complex and yet quite durable if well...

  11. Wood-burning stoves worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo

    More than any time in our history, the wood-burning stove continues to be the most popular technology used for cooking and heating worldwide. According to the World Health Organization and recent scientific studies, the inefficient use of solid-fuels in traditional stoves constitutes the major...... systems, improved efficient retrofits and advanced stove innovations. In chapter 3, four popular wood-burning practices found in five countries were singled-out to be examined closely in four case studies: “cooking in Brazil”, “cooking and heating in Peru”, “heating in Portugal” and “recreational heat...

  12. Fuel wood symposium; Symposium Energieholz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wild, C.; Wauer, A. (comps.)

    2001-07-01

    The Bavarian State Institute of Forestry (LWF) organised a 'Fuel Wood Symposium' in Freising-Weihenstephan on 17.11.2000. The purpose of this specialist conference was to give an overview of the use of biomass, especially wood, as an source of energy. (orig.) [German] Die Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Wald und Forstwirtschaft richtete am 17.11.2000 in Freising-Weihenstephan das 'Symposium Energieholz' aus. Ziel der Fachtagung war es, einen Ueberblick ueber die energetische Nutzung von Biomasse, insbesondere Holz, zu geben. (orig.)

  13. Selected mechanical properties of modified beech wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Holan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This thesis deals with an examination of mechanical properties of ammonia treated beach wood with a trademark Lignamon. For determination mechanical properties were used procedures especially based on ČSN. From the results is noticeable increased density of wood by 22% in comparison with untreated beach wood, which makes considerable increase of the most mechanical wood properties. Considering failure strength was raised by 32% and modulus of elasticity was raised at average about 46%.

  14. Wood fuel markets in Northern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Olle

    2012-01-01

    High fossil fuel prices and ambitions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions have increased demand for renewable energy and are changing wood fuel market structures. Wood fuels are to a rapidly growing degree used in industrial proportions and traded in commercial markets. Wood fuels are seen as a key component to achieve policy goals related to climate change, especially in the EU. In the six papers that form the basis for this thesis, prices of wood fuels in Northern Europe are analyzed by mea...

  15. Wood Properties and Kinds; A Base Syllabus on Wood Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastern Kentucky Univ., Richmond.

    Prepared by participants in the 1968 National Defense Education Act Institute on Wood Technology, this syllabus is one of a series of basic outlines designed to aid college level industrial arts instructors in improving and broadening the scope and content of their programs. This booklet is concerned largely with the physical composition and…

  16. Composite structure of wood cells in petrified wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Jakub [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Florek, Marek [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Kwiatek, Wojciech [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Lekki, Janusz [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Chevallier, Pierre [LPS, CEN Saclay et LURE, Universite Paris-Sud, Bat 209D, F-91405 Orsay (France); Zieba, Emil [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Mestres, Narcis [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB), Campus de la UAB, E-08193-Bellaterra (Spain); Dutkiewicz, E.M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Kuczumow, Andrzej [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland)

    2005-04-28

    Special kinds of petrified wood of complex structure were investigated. All the samples were composed of at least two different inorganic substances. The original cell structure was preserved in each case. The remnants of the original biological material were detected in some locations, especially in the cell walls. The complex inorganic structure was superimposed on the remnant organic network. The first inorganic component was located in the lumena (l.) of the cells while another one in the walls (w.) of the cells. The investigated arrangements were as follows: calcite (l.)-goethite-hematite (w.)-wood from Dunarobba, Italy; pyrite (l.)-calcite (w.)-wood from Lukow, Poland; goethite (l.)-silica (w.)-wood from Kwaczala, Poland. The inorganic composition was analysed and spatially located by the use of three spectral methods: electron microprobe, X-ray synchrotron-based microprobe, {mu}-PIXE microprobe. The accurate mappings presenting 2D distribution of the chemical species were presented for each case. Trace elements were detected and correlated with the distribution of the main elements. In addition, the identification of phases was done by the use of {mu}-Raman and {mu}-XRD techniques for selected and representative points. The possible mechanisms of the described arrangements are considered. The potential synthesis of similar structures and their possible applications are suggested.

  17. Wood properties affecting finish service life

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam. Williams; Charles. Jourdain; George I. Daisey; Robert W. Springate

    2000-01-01

    Wood is a biological material that has widely different properties depending on species, geographic area where the tree grew, the growth conditions, size of the tree at harvest, sawing, and other manufacturing processes. Some of the more important wood properties as they relate to wood finishing are discussed, e.g., growth rate, density, knots, extractives, juvenile...

  18. Sustainable wood waste management in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owoyemi Jacob Mayowa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Wood industries produce large volumes of residues which must be utilized, marketed or properly disposed of. Heaps of wood residues are common features in wood industries throughout the year. In Nigeria, this residue is generally regarded as waste and this has led to open burning practices, dumping in water bodies or dumping in an open area which constitutes environmental pollution. Sawmills in Nigeria generated over 1,000,000 m3 of wood waste in 2010 while about 5000 m3 of waste was generated in plywood mills. Nigeria generates about 1.8 million tons of sawdust annually and 5.2 million tons of wood wastes. The impact of improper disposal of waste wood on the environment affects both the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Also burning of waste wood releases greenhouse gases into the atmosphere causing various health issues. Reuse/recycling of these wood residues in Nigeria will reduce the pressure on our ever decreasing forests, reduce environmental pollution, create wealth and employment. The literature available on this subject was reviewed and this article, therefore, focuses on the various methods of wood waste disposal and its utilization in Nigerian wood industries, the effects of wood waste on the environment as well as on human health and the benefits of proper wood waste management practices.

  19. Using a wood stove to heat greenhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloria Whitefeather-Spears

    2009-01-01

    The Red Lake Tribal Forestry Greenhouse in Red Lake, MN, utilizes four types of outdoor furnaces for heating through the fall, winter, and spring. The WoodMaster® is a highly efficient, wood-fired furnace that provides forced-air heat to the greenhouse. The HeatmorTM furnace is an economical wood-fired alternative that can provide lower...

  20. Effects of phosphoramides on wood dimensional stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong-Lin. Lee; George C. Chen; Roger M. Rowell

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the dimensional stability of phosphoramide-reacted wood, wood was reacted with a mixture which was derived from compounding phosphorus pentoxide and each of 12 amines including alkyl, halophenyl, and phenyl amines in N,N-dimethylformamide. Dimensional stability of such reacted wood was analyzed by antishrink efficiency (ASE) using the water-soak method....

  1. Use of wood in buildings and bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell C. Moody; Anton TenWolde

    1999-01-01

    In North America, most housing and commercial structures built prior to the 20th century used wood as the major structural material. The abundant wood resource formed the basic structure for most houses, commercial buildings, bridges, and utility poles. Today, houses and many light commercial and industrial buildings are made using modern wood structural materials....

  2. Balsa wood as an energy dissipator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoell, A. C.

    1973-01-01

    Studies have been undertaken to determine response of balsa wood in variety of environmental conditions. Response is dependent upon state of balsa wood as well as environment to which it is exposed, but certain combinations of conditions serve to increase significantly energy-dissipating capacity of wood relative to its normal capacity.

  3. Build Green: Wood Can Last for Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol A. Clausen; Samuel V. Glass

    2012-01-01

    This report updates and revises information from the 1976 Forest Service publication by Rodney C. DeGroot, “Your Wood Can Last for Centuries.” It explains why wood decays, alerts the homeowner to conditions that can result in decay in buildings, and describes measures to prevent moisture-related damage to wood.

  4. Bioremediation of treated wood with fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Illman; Vina W. Yang

    2006-01-01

    The authors have developed technologies for fungal bioremediation of waste wood treated with oilborne or metal-based preservatives. The technologies are based on specially formulated inoculum of wood-decay fungi, obtained through strain selection to obtain preservative-tolerant fungi. This waste management approach provides a product with reduced wood volume and the...

  5. Effects of Acid Deposition on Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Since acid deposition increases the rate of deterioration of unpainted wood, it can also affect the performance of paint applied to this weathered wood. In tests conducted near Madison, Wisconsin, smooth-planed wood was allowed to weather before painting. Exposure for as little as 2 weeks shortened the service life of the subsequently applied paint. The paint bond was...

  6. Cone calorimeter tests of wood composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. White; Kuma Sumathipala

    2013-01-01

    The cone calorimeter is widely used for the determination of the heat release rate (HRR) of building products and other materials. As part of an effort to increase the availability of cone calorimeter data on wood products, the U.S. Forest Products Laboratory and the American Wood Council conducted this study on composite wood products in cooperation with the Composite...

  7. Wood structure and adhesive bond strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2006-01-01

    Much of the literature on the bonding of wood and other lignocellulosic materials has concentrated on traditional adhesion theories. This has led to misconceptions because wood is a porous material on both the macroscopic and microscopic levels. A better understanding of wood bonding can be developed by investigating the theories of adhesion and bond strength, taking...

  8. Reusing remediated CCA-treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol A. Clausen

    2003-01-01

    Options for recycling and reusing chromated-copper-arsenate- (CCA) treated material include dimensional lumber and round wood size reduction, composites, and remediation. Size reduction by remilling, shaving, or resawing CCA-treated wood reduces the volume of landfilled waste material and provides many options for reusing used treated wood. Manufacturing composite...

  9. Mechanical Behaviour of the Wood Masonry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazia FOUCHAL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the walls wood masonry behaviour. First, we propose a regulatory validation of the walls wood masonry behaviour subjected to vertical and horizontal loads according to Eurocode 5. Then we present the numerical application on the wall wood supported two floors level.

  10. Giant wood spider Nephila pilipes alters silk protein in response to prey variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, I-Min; Wu, Hsuan-Chen; Hwang, In-Ru

    2005-03-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that orb-weaving spiders may alter web structures, foraging localities or silk output in response to prey variations. In this study we conducted field surveys and food manipulations to examine whether orb-weaving spiders may also adjust the protein of silk to prey variations. A comparison of dragline silks collected from nine giant wood spider Nephila pilipes populations in Taiwan showed a spatial variation. The percentage of all amino acids (except alanine and glycine) exhibited significant differences among populations. A survey of prey composition also revealed a significant spatial variation among N. pilipes populations. To determine whether prey variation was responsible for silk protein variation, we fed N. pilipes with different types of prey (dipteran vs orthopteran) then compared the percentage of five major dragline amino acids and secondary structures. The results showed that dragline of N. pilipes fed with orthopteran prey contained significantly higher proline and glutamine but lower alanine. Congruent with this result were those from FTIR spectroscopy, which showed that dragline of N. pilipes fed with crickets exhibited significantly higher percentage of proline- and glutamine-containing beta turns, and lower percentage of alanine-containing beta sheet structures. Since the results of feeding manipulations showed that diet significantly affected the compositions of dragline silks, the observed spatial variation seemed to reflect the different types of prey these spiders had consumed. Results of this study thus indicated that orb-weaving spiders can alter dragline protein in response to prey variations.

  11. Inbreeding and advertisement calling in the cricket Teleogryllus commodus: laboratory and field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drayton, Jean M; Milner, Richard N C; Hunt, John; Jennions, Michael D

    2010-10-01

    If sexually selected traits reveal a male's heterozygosity or condition to females, then such traits should exhibit declines with inbreeding. We tested this by examining the effect of inbreeding on advertisement calling in male crickets Teleogryllus commodus. We investigated the effect of one generation of full-sibling mating on calling effort and fine-scale call structure. Inbreeding reduced calling effort but had no effect on call structure. We then compared the attractiveness of inbred and outbred calls in the field by monitoring how many wild females were attracted to each call type. From the field data, we conducted a selection analysis to identify the major axes of linear and nonlinear multivariate sexual selection on call structure. A comparison of multivariate attractiveness of inbred and outbred calls along each major axis of selection revealed no difference in attractiveness. Our results suggest that inbred male calls have a fine-scale structure that is no less attractive to females than that of outbred calls. However, because inbred males call less often, and female T. commodus prefer males with a higher calling effort, inbred males will suffer reductions in mating success. Females who base mate choice on call rate are therefore using a signal correlated with male heterozygosity and/or condition. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  12. The Relationship Between Variables in Wearable Microtechnology Devices and Cricket Fast-Bowling Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Dean J; Gabbett, Tim J; Blanch, Peter; Kelly, Luke

    2018-02-13

    To date, the monitoring of fast-bowling workloads across training and competition environments has been limited to counting total balls bowled. However, bowling at faster velocities is likely to require greater effort while also placing greater load on the bowler. This study investigated the relationship between prescribed effort and microtechnology outputs in fast bowlers to ascertain whether the technology could provide a more refined measure of workload. Twelve high-performing fast bowlers (mean ± SD age 20.3 ± 2.2 y) participated in the study. Each bowler bowled 6 balls at prescribed bowling intensities of 60%, 70%, 85%, and 100%. The relationships between microtechnology outputs, prescribed intensity, and ball velocity were determined using polynomial regression. Very large relationships were observed between prescribed effort and ball velocity for peak PlayerLoad™ (R = .83 ± .19 and .82 ± .20). The PlayerLoad across lower ranges of prescribed effort exhibited a higher coefficient of variation (CV) (60% = 19.0% [17.0-23.0%]), while the CV at higher ranges of prescribed effort was lower (100% = 7.3% [6.4-8.5%]). Routinely used wearable microtechnology devices offer opportunities to examine workload and intensity in cricket fast bowlers outside the normal metrics reported. They offer a useful tool for prescribing and monitoring bowling intensity and workload in elite fast bowlers.

  13. Sexual selection on cuticular hydrocarbons of male sagebrush crickets in the wild

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, Sandra; Ower, Geoffrey D.; Stökl, Johannes; Mitchell, Christopher; Hunt, John; Sakaluk, Scott K.

    2013-01-01

    Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) play an essential role in mate recognition in insects but the form and intensity of sexual selection on CHCs has only been evaluated in a handful of studies, and never in a natural population. We quantified sexual selection operating on CHCs in a wild population of sagebrush crickets, a species in which nuptial feeding by females imposes an unambiguous phenotypic marker on males. Multivariate selection analysis revealed a saddle-shaped fitness surface, suggesting a complex interplay between the total abundance of CHCs and specific CHC combinations in their influence on female choice. The fitness surface resulting from two axes of disruptive selection reflected a trade-off between short- and long-chained CHCs, suggesting that males may be sacrificing some level of desiccation resistance in favour of increased attractiveness. There was a significant correlation between male body size and total CHC abundance, suggesting that male CHCs provide females with a reliable cue for maximizing benefits obtained from males. Notwithstanding the conspicuousness of males’ acoustic signals, our results suggest that selection imposed on males via female mating preferences may be far more complex than previously appreciated and operating in multiple sensory modalities. PMID:24197415

  14. Molecular cloning and characterization of ATX1 cDNA from the mole cricket, Gryllotalpa orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Iksoo; Lee, Kwang Sik; Hwang, Jae Sam; Ahn, Mi Young; Yun, Eun Young; Li, Jian Hong; Sohn, Hung Dae; Jin, Byung Rae

    2006-04-01

    To search for an insect homologue of antioxidant protein 1 (ATX1), a mole cricket, Gryllotalpa orientalis, cDNA library was screened and a cDNA clone, which encodes a 73 amino acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 8.0 kDa and pI of 5.68, was isolated. The G. orientalis ATX1 (GoATX1) cDNA features both a MTCXXC copper-binding site in the N-terminus and a KTGK lysine-rich region in the C-terminus. The deduced amino acid sequence of the GoATX1 cDNA showed 63% identity to Drosophila melanogaster ATX1 and 55% to Ixodes pacificus ATX1. Northern blot analysis revealed the presence of GoATX1 transcripts in midgut, fat body, and epidermis. When H2O2 was injected into the body cavity of G. orientalis adult, GoATX1 mRNA expression was up-regulated in the fat body tissue. Fat body expression level of GoATX1 mRNA in the fat body was increased following exposure to low (4 degrees C) and high (37 degrees C) temperatures, suggesting that GoATX1 plays a protective role against oxidative stress caused by temperature shock. This is the first report about a functional role of insect ATX1 in antioxidant defense. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Sounds, behaviour, and auditory receptors of the armoured ground cricket, Acanthoplus longipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Kerstin; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    The auditory sensory system of the taxon Hetrodinae has not been studied previously. Males of the African armoured ground cricket, Acanthoplus longipes (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Hetrodinae) produce a calling song that lasts for minutes and consists of verses with two pulses. About three impulses are in the first pulse and about five impulses are in the second pulse. In contrast, the disturbance stridulation consists of verses with about 14 impulses that are not separated in pulses. Furthermore, the inter-impulse intervals of both types of sounds are different, whereas verses have similar durations. This indicates that the neuronal networks for sound generation are not identical. The frequency spectrum peaks at about 15 kHz in both types of sounds, whereas the hearing threshold has the greatest sensitivity between 4 and 10 kHz. The auditory afferents project into the prothoracic ganglion. The foreleg contains about 27 sensory neurons in the crista acustica; the midleg has 18 sensory neurons, and the hindleg has 14. The auditory system is similar to those of other Tettigoniidae.

  16. Is radon emission in caves causing deletions in satellite DNA sequences of cave-dwelling crickets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegrucci, Giuliana; Sbordoni, Valerio; Cesaroni, Donatella

    2015-01-01

    The most stable isotope of radon, 222Rn, represents the major source of natural radioactivity in confined environments such as mines, caves and houses. In this study, we explored the possible radon-related effects on the genome of Dolichopoda cave crickets (Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae) sampled in caves with different concentrations of radon. We analyzed specimens from ten populations belonging to two genetically closely related species, D. geniculata and D. laetitiae, and explored the possible association between the radioactivity dose and the level of genetic polymorphism in a specific family of satellite DNA (pDo500 satDNA). Radon concentration in the analyzed caves ranged from 221 to 26,000 Bq/m3. Specimens coming from caves with the highest radon concentration showed also the highest variability estimates in both species, and the increased sequence heterogeneity at pDo500 satDNA level can be explained as an effect of the mutation pressure induced by radon in cave. We discovered a specific category of nuclear DNA, the highly repetitive satellite DNA, where the effects of the exposure at high levels of radon-related ionizing radiation are detectable, suggesting that the satDNA sequences might be a valuable tool to disclose harmful effects also in other organisms exposed to high levels of radon concentration.

  17. Juvenile pathogen exposure affects the presence of personality in adult field crickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas eDiRienzo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the ever increasing interest in animal personalities, i.e. among-individual variation in behavior, there are still several gaps in our understanding of how experiences during ontogeny influence the expression of behavior in adulthood. Immune challenges during ontogeny have been proposed to drive feedback loops between investment in immune function and personality type. In this study we investigate the effects of an early immune challenge, in the form of an introduced bacterial pathogen, on the development of personality in field crickets. Our results indicate that early pathogen exposure does not influence life history characteristics, immune response, or mean level of boldness behavior. Instead, early immune challenge affects the presence of personality later in the adult stage. Specifically, immune challenged individuals lack repeatability in some aspects of boldness behavior, indicating that among-individual variation is not present, while non-immune challenged individuals remain repeatable in their boldness behavior. This study joins a slowly growing body of literature indicating that experiences during ontogeny can have large influences on the among-individual differences in behaviors, thus affecting the presence of personality as adults.

  18. Quantitative genetics of shape in cricket wings: developmental integration in a functional structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingenberg, Christian Peter; Debat, Vincent; Roff, Derek A

    2010-10-01

    The role of developmental and genetic integration for evolution is contentious. One hypothesis states that integration acts as a constraint on evolution, whereas an alternative is that developmental and genetic systems evolve to match the functional modularity of organisms. This study examined a morphological structure, the cricket wing, where developmental and functional modules are discordant, making it possible to distinguish the two alternatives. Wing shape was characterized with geometric morphometrics, quantitative genetic information was extracted using a full-sibling breeding design, and patterns of developmental integration were inferred from fluctuating asymmetry of wing shape. The patterns of genetic, phenotypic, and developmental integration were clearly similar, but not identical. Heritabilities for different shape variables varied widely, but no shape variables were devoid of genetic variation. Simulated selection for specific shape changes produced predicted responses with marked deflections due to the genetic covariance structure. Three hypotheses of modularity according to the wing structures involved in sound production were inconsistent with the genetic, phenotypic, or developmental covariance structure. Instead, there appears to be strong integration throughout the wing. The hypothesis that genetic and developmental integration evolve to match functional modularity can therefore be rejected for this example. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. No intra-locus sexual conflict over reproductive fitness or ageing in field crickets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Zajitschek

    Full Text Available Differences in the ways in which males and females maximize evolutionary fitness can lead to intra-locus sexual conflict in which genes delivering fitness benefits to one sex are costly when expressed in the other. Trade-offs between current reproductive effort and future reproduction and survival are fundamental to the evolutionary biology of ageing. This leads to the prediction that sex differences in the optimization of age-dependent reproductive effort may generate intra-locus sexual conflict over ageing rates. Here we test for intra-locus sexual conflict over age-dependent reproductive effort and longevity in the black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus. Using a half-sib breeding design, we show that the most important components of male and female reproductive effort (male calling effort and the number of eggs laid by females were positively genetically correlated, especially in early adulthood. However, the genetic relationships between longevity and reproductive effort were different for males and females, leading to low genetic covariation between male and female longevity. The apparent absence of intra-locus sexual conflict over ageing suggests that male and female longevity can evolve largely independently of one another.

  20. A new species of ant-loving cricket from Mallorca, Balearic Islands, Spain (Orthoptera, Myrmecophilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stalling, T.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of ant-loving cricket, Myrmecophilus fuscus sp. n., is described and illustrated, based on individuals collected on the Balearic island of Mallorca, Spain. Lasius lasioides (Emery, 1869 was the host ant species. The habitat was evergreen oak forest. The holotype specimen was deposited in the collection of the Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Genève. The species is closely related to Myrmecophilus acervorum (Panzer, [1799] and belongs to the subgenus Myrmecophilus Berthold, 1827.Se describe e ilustra una nueva especie de grillo mirmecófilo, Myrmecophilus fuscus sp. n., procedente de la isla de Mallorca (islas Baleares, España. Lasius lasioides (Emery, 1869 es la especie hospedadora y su hábitat es el bosque perenne de roble. El holotipo se ha depositado en la colección del Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Ginebra. La nueva especie está estrechamente relacionada con Myrmecophilus acervorum (Panzer, [1799] y pertenece al subgénero Myrmecophilus Berthold, 1827.

  1. The ribosomal DNA transcription unit of the house cricket, Acheta domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, J L; Sharp, Z D; Cave, M D

    1987-06-01

    A composite map representing a single ribosomal DNA repeat unit of the house cricket, Acheta domesticus, was constructed from overlapping cloned fragments. Sites in the repeat unit for nine restriction enzymes were mapped. R-loop mapping of sequences coding for 18 S and 28 S RNA demonstrates that the 58-kb ribosomal DNA repeat unit contains a novel-sized internal transcribed spacer of 8.4 kb. The existence of this large spacer was confirmed in genomic DNA, most if not all of the genomic repeat units containing such a spacer. A 15- to 17-kb ribosomal RNA precursor transcript is synthesized as predicted on the basis of the size of the internal transcribed spacer. The 5.8 S RNA gene is localized to a 1-kb sequence immediately 5' to the 28 S gene. The coding regions examined contain no intervening sequences analogous to those described within ribosomal DNA of other eukaryotes. Only 11% of the repeat unit codes for mature ribosomal RNA, while the remainder is nontranscribed (71%) and transcribed (18%) spacer DNA.

  2. Amino acid composition of sperm histones in the house cricket Acheta domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallotta, D; Tessier, A

    1976-01-01

    Histones were isolated from late spermatids and spermatozoa of the house cricket Acheta domesticus, and the individual histone fractions were separated by electrophoresis on polyacrylamide-urea gels. The stained gels were cut so as to isolate the different histone fractions, and the amino acid compositions were determined using the technique of Houston (Houston, L.L.: Anal. Biochem. 44, 81-88 (1971). Five of the histones had amino acid compositions resembling those for the histones of calf thymus and were thus identified as fractions F1, F3, F2a2, F2b, and F2al. Another protein (SH) located exclusively in the late spermatids and spermatozoa was found to be basic and histone-like. It is a protein containing relatively high amounts of arginine (12.6%) and low amounts of lysine (7.6%), and, as a result, it has a low ratio of lysine-arginine (0.6). Other noteworthy features are its high contents of serine, glutamic acid, and glycine. It is arginine rich histone and in this regard resembles other such proteins, but it does contain unique features which distinguish it from all previously described histones.

  3. Nanomechanical properties of wing membrane layers in the house cricket (Acheta domesticus Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sample, Caitlin S; Xu, Alan K; Swartz, Sharon M; Gibson, Lorna J

    2015-03-01

    Many insect wings change shape dynamically during the wingbeat cycle, and these deformations have the potential to confer energetic and aerodynamic benefits during flight. Due to the lack of musculature within the wing itself, the changing form of the wing is determined primarily by its passive response to inertial and aerodynamic forces. This response is in part controlled by the wing's mechanical properties, which vary across the membrane to produce regions of differing stiffness. Previous studies of wing mechanical properties have largely focused on surface or bulk measurements, but this ignores the layered nature of the wing. In our work, we investigated the mechanical properties of the wings of the house cricket (Acheta domesticus) with the aim of determining differences between layers within the wing. Nanoindentation was performed on both the surface and the interior layers of cross-sectioned samples of the wing to measure the Young's modulus and hardness of the outer- and innermost layers. The results demonstrate that the interior of the wing is stiffer than the surface, and both properties vary across the wing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Functional organisation of the metathoracic femoral chordotonal organ in the cricket Acheta domesticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowel; Shelton; Stephen

    1995-01-01

    The metathoracic chordotonal organ of the cricket Acheta domesticus (Gryllidae) consists of two closely associated scoloparia situated proximally within the femur with their distal ends connected by a pair of ligaments to an apodeme arising from the tibia. The smaller scoloparium is associated with the dorsal ligament, which arises from the dorsal surface of the apodeme 150 µm from its proximal end. The larger scoloparium is attached directly to the proximal end of the apodeme by a larger ventral ligament. Both ligaments are composed of bundles of attachment cells containing densely packed microtubules. Longitudinally orientated, Acid-Fuchsin-staining fibrils are found in an extracellular matrix surrounding the individual attachment cells. Similar fibrils occur in the sheath surrounding each ligament. The fibrils are thickest and most densely packed in the sheath surrounding the ventral ligament. They are thinner and more sparsely distributed in the sheath of the dorsal ligament. The finest fibrils are found in the extracellular matrix surrounding individual attachment cells. Staining with phosphotungstic acid provides the first evidence that they are elastic. The ventral ligament also contains a spring-like cuticular core arising as a proximal extension of the apodeme. As femoro-tibial angle changes, the cuticular core changes in length, shortening with tibial extension and lengthening with flexion. Ventral ligament attachment cells terminate at different levels along the cuticular core. This arrangement provides a new possible mechanism for differential sensitivity of the sensory neurones associated with the attachment cells.

  5. Mechanisms of calcium sequestration by isolated Malpighian tubules of the house cricket Acheta domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Austin; O'Donnell, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    Hemolymph calcium homeostasis in insects is achieved by the Malpighian tubules, primarily by sequestering excess Ca 2+ within internal calcium stores (Ca-rich granules) most often located within type I (principal) tubule cells. Using both the scanning ion-selective electrode technique and the Ramsay secretion assay this study provides the first measurements of basolateral and transepithelial Ca 2+ fluxes across the Malpighian tubules of an Orthopteran insect, the house cricket Acheta domesticus. Ca 2+ transport was specific to midtubule segments, where 97% of the Ca 2+ entering the tubule is sequestered within intracellular calcium stores and the remaining 3% is secreted into the lumen. Antagonists of voltage-gated (L-type) calcium channels decreased Ca 2+ influx ≥fivefold in adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)-stimulated tubules, suggesting basolateral Ca 2+ influx is facilitated by voltage-gated Ca 2+ channels. Increasing fluid secretion through manipulation of intracellular levels of cAMP or Ca 2+ had opposite effects on tubule Ca 2+ transport. The adenylyl cyclase-cAMP-PKA pathway promotes Ca 2+ sequestration whereas both 5-hydroxytryptamine and thapsigargin inhibited sequestration. Our results suggest that the midtubules of Acheta domesticus are dynamic calcium stores, which maintain hemolymph calcium concentration by manipulating rates of Ca 2+ sequestration through stimulatory (cAMP) and inhibitory (Ca 2+ ) regulatory pathways. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Biochemical and molecular characterizaton of house cricket (Acheta domesticus, Orthoptera: Gryllidae) Delta9 desaturase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddervold, M H; Tittiger, C; Blomquist, G J; Borgeson, C E

    2002-12-01

    Studies of insect fatty acyl-CoA desaturases have heretofore concentrated on the Diptera and Lepidoptera. We report here the isolation and characterization of a fatty acyl-CoA Delta9 desaturase from the house cricket, Acheta domesticus (Orthoptera). Two desaturase cDNAs were isolated from a library, one of which contained two intron sequences. The clones were identical in their respective coding regions, but had divergent 5' and 3' untranslated regions. The cDNAs encode a 359 amino acid desaturase enzyme that could rescue a fatty acyl-CoA desaturase auxotrophic phenotype when expressed in yeast. Biochemical analysis of lipids from transformed yeast cells confirmed that the enzyme is a Delta9 desaturase with activity on both palmitic and stearic acid substrates. Southern blotting indicated multiple Delta9 desaturase genes within the genome. A single message that was up-regulated in fed insects vs. starved insects was observed on northern blots, indicating transcriptional regulation in response to diet.

  7. Pharmacodynamic behavior of (/sup 14/C)acridine in the cricket Acheta domesticus (L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, B.T.; Maggart, E.F. Jr.

    1981-11-01

    Cuticular and gastrointestinal penetration, in vivo metabolism, and excretion of (/sup 14/C)acridine were investigated in the nymphal cricket Acheta domesticus (L.) to find a pharmacodynamic basis for this insect's differential susceptibility to acridine at different life stages. Topically applied (/sup 14/C)acridine readily penetrated the cuticular exoskeleton of nymphs (half-time of penetration, 48 min). Radiolabeled compounds appeared in the hemolymph within 0.5 h after ingestion of (/sup 14/C)acridine and continued to move across the gut wall for 7.5 h. The biological half-time was 18 h and the rate constant for elimination was 0.039 h/sup -1/ after ingestion. Within 5 d after dosing, 97% of the dose was excreted. Several metabolites were present in the feces of nymphs fed (/sup 14/C)acridine, and less than 13% of the extractable radioactivity was parent compound. The cuticule and the gastrointestinal tract proved to be ineffective barriers to acridine entry in A. domesticus. However, the ability to readily metabolize and excrete acridine probably contributes to the higher acridine tolerance observed in the nymphs and adults than in the eggs, which are susceptible to toxic effects. Acridine is found in many coal and synthetic fuel by-products.

  8. Immune investment impairs growth, female reproduction and survival in the house cricket, Acheta domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascuñán-García, Ana Priscila; Lara, Carlos; Córdoba-Aguilar, Alex

    2010-02-01

    We investigated whether an immune response is associated with growth, female reproduction and survival costs in the house cricket. Using different intensities of challenge immune (implantation of one piece of nylon (1N) and two nylons (2N), with their respective sham-challenge and control groups) with body size and exoskeleton thickness as response variables, growth costs were determined for both sexes. A similar methodology was followed for reproduction costs, in which egg number and size, and female survival were measured as response variables. It was also determined whether mated and virgin females showed different immune responses. Body size decreased with immune challenge but only in the 2N treatment. Exoskeleton thickness increased in both sham-challenge groups and the 1N group but decreased in the 2N group. Egg number decreased more in the sham-challenge groups followed by the 1N and 2N groups. The 2N group showed the largest egg size at the end of the experiment. In these females, 2N group died first followed by the 1N, two nylon sham and one nylon sham groups. Finally, mated females showed a lower immune response than virgin females. These results are consistent with ecological immunity theory. The discovery of exoskeleton-related costs of immunity and injury may have important implications for experimental design in studies of the cost of immunity. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pharmacodynamic behavior of [14C]acridine in the cricket Acheta domesticus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, B T; Maggart, E F

    1981-01-01

    Cuticular and gastrointestinal penetration, in vivo metabolism, and excretion of [14C]acridine were investigated in the nymphal cricket Acheta domesticus (L.) to find a pharmacodynamic basis for this insect's differential susceptibility to acridine at different life stages. Topically applied [14C]acridine readily penetrated the cuticular exoskeleton of nymphs (half-time of penetration, 48 min). Radiolabeled compounds appeared in the hemolymph within 0.5 h after ingestion of [14C]acridine and continued to move across the gut wall for 7.5 h. The biological half-time was 18 h and the rate constant for elimination was 0.039 h-1 after ingestion. Within 5 d after dosing, 97% of the dose was excreted. Several metabolites were present in the feces of nymphs fed [14C]acridine, and less than 13% of the extractable radioactivity was parent compound. The cuticle and the gastrointestinal tract proved to be ineffective barriers to acridine entry in A, domesticus. However, the ability to readily metabolize and excrete acridine probably contributes to the higher acridine tolerance observed in the nymphs and adults than in the eggs, which are susceptible to toxic effects.

  10. Decision making and preferences for acoustic signals in choice situations by female crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Eileen; Kuntze, Janine; Hennig, R Matthias

    2015-08-01

    Multiple attributes usually have to be assessed when choosing a mate. Efficient choice of the best mate is complicated if the available cues are not positively correlated, as is often the case during acoustic communication. Because of varying distances of signalers, a female may be confronted with signals of diverse quality at different intensities. Here, we examined how available cues are weighted for a decision by female crickets. Two songs with different temporal patterns and/or sound intensities were presented in a choice paradigm and compared with female responses from a no-choice test. When both patterns were presented at equal intensity, preference functions became wider in choice situations compared with a no-choice paradigm. When the stimuli in two-choice tests were presented at different intensities, this effect was counteracted as preference functions became narrower compared with choice tests using stimuli of equal intensity. The weighting of intensity differences depended on pattern quality and was therefore non-linear. A simple computational model based on pattern and intensity cues reliably predicted female decisions. A comparison of processing schemes suggested that the computations for pattern recognition and directionality are performed in a network with parallel topology. However, the computational flow of information corresponded to serial processing. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Development rate rather than social environment influences cognitive performance in Australian black field crickets, Teleogryllus commodus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin L. Anderson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive functioning is vital for enabling animals of all taxa to optimise their chances of survival and reproductive success. Learning and memory in particular are drivers of many evolutionary processes. In this study, we examine how developmental plasticity can affect cognitive ability by exploring the role the early social environment has on problem solving ability and learning of female black field crickets, Teleogryllus commodus. We used two learning paradigms, an analog of the Morris water maze and a novel linear maze, to examine cognitive differences between individuals reared in two acoustic treatments: silence or calling. Although there was no evidence of learning or memory, individuals that took longer to mature solved the Morris water maze more quickly. Our results suggest that increased investment into cognitive development is likely associated with increased development time during immature stages. Inconsistent individual performance and motivation during the novel linear maze task highlights the difficulties of designing ecologically relevant learning tasks within a lab setting. The role of experimental design in understanding cognitive ability and learning in more natural circumstances is discussed.

  12. Effects of landscape structure on movement patterns of the flightless bush cricket Pholidoptera griseoaptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekötter, Tim; Speelmans, Marjan; Dusoulier, François; Van Wingerden, Walter K R E; Malfait, Jean-Pierre; Crist, Thomas O; Edwards, Peter J; Dietz, Hansjörg

    2007-02-01

    Because the viability of a population may depend on whether individuals can disperse, it is important for conservation planning to understand how landscape structure affects movement behavior. Some species occur in a wide range of landscapes differing greatly in structure, and the question arises of whether these species are particularly versatile in their dispersal or whether they are composed of genetically distinct populations adapted to contrasting landscapes. We performed a capture-mark-resight experiment to study movement patterns of the flightless bush cricket Pholidoptera griseoaptera (De Geer 1773) in two contrasting agricultural landscapes in France and Switzerland. The mean daily movement of P. griseoaptera was significantly higher in the landscape with patchily distributed habitat (Switzerland) than in the landscape with greater habitat connectivity (France). Net displacement rate did not differ between the two landscapes, which we attributed to the presence of more linear elements in the connected landscape, resulting in a more directed pattern of movement by P. griseoaptera. Significant differences in the movement patterns between landscapes with contrasting structure suggest important effects of landscape structure on movement and dispersal success. The possibility of varying dispersal ability within the same species needs to be studied in more detail because this may provide important information for sustainable landscape planning aimed at maintaining viable metapopulations, especially in formerly well-connected landscapes.

  13. PREDICTING THE MATCH OUTCOME IN ONE DAY INTERNATIONAL CRICKET MATCHES, WHILE THE GAME IS IN PROGRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bailey

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Millions of dollars are wagered on the outcome of one day international (ODI cricket matches, with a large percentage of bets occurring after the game has commenced. Using match information gathered from all 2200 ODI matches played prior to January 2005, a range of variables that could independently explain statistically significant proportions of variation associated with the predicted run totals and match outcomes were created. Such variables include home ground advantage, past performances, match experience, performance at the specific venue, performance against the specific opposition, experience at the specific venue and current form. Using a multiple linear regression model, prediction variables were numerically weighted according to statistical significance and used to predict the match outcome. With the use of the Duckworth-Lewis method to determine resources remaining, at the end of each completed over, the predicted run total of the batting team could be updated to provide a more accurate prediction of the match outcome. By applying this prediction approach to a holdout sample of matches, the efficiency of the "in the run" wagering market could be assessed. Preliminary results suggest that the market is prone to overreact to events occurring throughout the course of the match, thus creating brief inefficiencies in the wagering market

  14. Wood decomposing abilities of diverse lignicolous fungi on nondecayed and decayed beech wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukasawa, Yu; Osono, Takashi; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    We tested the decay abilities of 28 isolates from 28 lignicolous fungal species (Basidiomycota, Ascomycota and Zygomycota) with the pure culture test. We used beech wood powder in varying moisture conditions and decay stages (nondecayed, intermediately decayed and well decayed) as substrates. The weight loss in wood powder was -0.2-17.8%. Five isolates of Basidiomycota (Bjerkandera adusta, Mycena haematopus, Omphalotus guepiniformis, Trametes hirsuta, Trametes versicolor) caused high weight losses in nondecayed wood. We detected significant effects of decay stage on weight loss in wood in most isolates tested, whereas moisture content rarely had an effect on weight loss. Among Basidiomycota and Xylariaceae in Ascomycota weight loss was greater for nondecayed wood than for intermediately and well decayed wood. In contrast four isolates in Ascomycota (Scytalidium lignicola, Trichoderma hamatum, T. harzianum, T. koningii) caused substantial weight loss in intermediately and well decayed wood, although they rarely caused weight loss in nondecayed wood. Zygomycota caused low weight loss in wood. Wood decay stages also affected decomposition of wood chemical components. Acid-unhydrolyzable residue (AUR) decomposition was reduced, whereas holocellulose decomposition was stimulated by some strains of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota in well decayed wood. T. harzianum in particular caused significant weight loss of holocellulose in well decayed wood, although this fungus caused negligible weight loss of both AUR and holocellulose in nondecayed wood. We discuss these changes in the decay patterns of AUR and holocellulose with varying wood decay stages in relation to the role of fungal decomposition of woody debris in forests.

  15. Body of Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Michon

    2014-12-01

    not only a defrocked friar with the guys or on the street; he donned the silk babouches when he went home too. He dispossessed himself of the Seine that rolled on before his eyes; the small girl who lived on her feet, whom he puts to death in all his books, he hardly saw her; the loveliest girls of his day, the finest too for sure, who wanted him, so that he happened to come – he dispossessed himself of them, whether he came or opted to come no more, which amounted to the same thing; no apples from Norman orchards, no trees deep in the woods, no unlaced Louise Colet, no lilies, no young laughter, no Louise Colet weeping at his door, he kissed it all off, laughed over it and kissed it off, cried about it and kissed it off, he was not there. In fact he had nothing, he was deprived of everything, since it was in his head.

  16. China: changing wood products markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daowei Zhang; Junchang Liu; James Granskog; Jianbang Gan

    1998-01-01

    In the 1980's, China emerged as the world's second largest importer of forest products and the second largest importer of U.S. forest products. However, U.S. wood products exports to China declined nearly 93 percent from 1988 to 1996, from >/=448 million to >/=33 million. Little is known about the reasons that caused this decline. Less is probably known...

  17. Microwave drying of wood strands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanben Du; Siqun Wang; Zhiyong Cai

    2005-01-01

    Characteristics of microwave drying of wood strands with different initial moisture contents and geometries were investigated using a commercial small microwave oven under different power inputs. Temperature and moisture changes along with the drying efficiency were examined at different drying scenarios. Extractives were analyzed using gas chromatography=mass...

  18. Adhesive bonding of wood materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles B. Vick

    1999-01-01

    Adhesive bonding of wood components has played an essential role in the development and growth of the forest products industry and has been a key factor in the efficient utilization of our timber resource. The largest use of adhesives is in the construction industry. By far, the largest amounts of adhesives are used to manufacture building materials, such as plywood,...

  19. Wood anatomy of the Combretaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van G.J.C.M.

    1979-01-01

    The wood anatomy of all genera of the Combretaceae (Meiostemon excepted) is described in detail on the basis of 120 samples representing 90 species from 19 genera. Additional data from the literature are added. The structural variation of the vestured pits is described and classified. There are two

  20. Wood quality of white willow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Leclercq

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Based upon an exhaustive work made by Sacré (1974 and a review of the literature sine 1960, the author gathered together the anatomical, physical and mechanical characteristics, the machining behaviour (industrial sawing, planing, surfacing, shaping, mortising and nailing and wood end-uses of white willow.

  1. Biosynthesis and biodegradation of wood components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, T. (ed.)

    1985-01-01

    A textbook containing 22 chapters by various authors covers the structure of wood, the localization of polysaccharides and lignins in wood cell walls, metabolism and synthetic function of cambial tissue, cell organelles and their function in the biosynthesis of cell wall components, biosynthesis of plant cell wall polysaccharides, lignin, cutin, suberin and associated waxes, phenolic acids and monolignols, quinones, flavonoids, tannins, stilbenes and terpenoid wood extractives, the occurrence of extractives, the metabolism of phenolic acids, wood degradation by micro-organisms and fungi, and biodegradation of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, and aromatic extractives of wood. An index is included.

  2. Kinetic investigation of wood pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurner, F.; Mann, U.; Beck, S. R.

    1980-06-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the kinetics of the primary reactions of wood pyrolysis. A new experimental method was developed which enabled us to measure the rate of gas, tar, and char production while taking into account the temperature variations during the wood heating up. The experimental method developed did not require any sophisticated instruments. It facilitated the collection of gas, tar and residue (unreacted wood and char) as well as accurate measurement of the temperature inside the wood sample. Expressions relating the kinetic parameters to the measured variables were derived. The pyrolysis kinetics was investigated in the range of 300 to 400/sup 0/C at atmospheric pressure and under nitrogen atmosphere. Reaction temperature and mass fractions of gas, tar, and residue were measured as a function of time. Assuming first-order reactions, the kinetic parameters were determined using differential method. The measured activation energies of wood pyrolysis to gas, tar, and char were 88.6, 112.7, and 106.5 kJ/mole, respectively. These kinetic data were then used to predict the yield of the various pyrolysis products. It was found that the best prediction was obtained when an integral-mean temperature obtained from the temperature-time curve was used as reaction temperature. The pyrolysis products were analyzed to investigate the influence of the pyrolysis conditions on the composition. The gas consisted mainly of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and C/sub 3//sup +/-compounds. The gas composition depended on reaction time as well as reactor temperature. The tar analysis indicated that the tar consisted of about seven compounds. Its major compound was believed to be levoglucosan. Elemental analysis for the char showed that the carbon content increased with increasing temperature.

  3. Spatial Structure of the Mormon Cricket Gut Microbiome and its Predicted Contribution to Nutrition and Immune Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Chad C; Srygley, Robert B; Healy, Frank; Swaminath, Karthikeyan; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2017-01-01

    The gut microbiome of insects plays an important role in their ecology and evolution, participating in nutrient acquisition, immunity, and behavior. Microbial community structure within the gut is heavily influenced by differences among gut regions in morphology and physiology, which determine the niches available for microbes to colonize. We present a high-resolution analysis of the structure of the gut microbiome in the Mormon cricket Anabrus simplex , an insect known for its periodic outbreaks in the western United States and nutrition-dependent mating system. The Mormon cricket microbiome was dominated by 11 taxa from the Lactobacillaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Streptococcaceae. While most of these were represented in all gut regions, there were marked differences in their relative abundance, with lactic-acid bacteria (Lactobacillaceae) more common in the foregut and midgut and enteric (Enterobacteriaceae) bacteria more common in the hindgut. Differences in community structure were driven by variation in the relative prevalence of three groups: a Lactobacillus in the foregut, Pediococcus lactic-acid bacteria in the midgut, and Pantoea agglomerans , an enteric bacterium, in the hindgut. These taxa have been shown to have beneficial effects on their hosts in insects and other animals by improving nutrition, increasing resistance to pathogens, and modulating social behavior. Using PICRUSt to predict gene content from our 16S rRNA sequences, we found enzymes that participate in carbohydrate metabolism and pathogen defense in other orthopterans. These were predominately represented in the hindgut and midgut, the most important sites for nutrition and pathogen defense. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences from cultured isolates indicated low levels of divergence from sequences derived from plants and other insects, suggesting that these bacteria are likely to be exchanged between Mormon crickets and the environment. Our study shows strong spatial variation

  4. Accelerometery and Heart Rate Responses of Professional Fast-Medium Bowlers in One-Day and Multi-Day Cricket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, James A.; Hughes, Gerwyn; Mitchell, Andrew C.; Ford, Paul A.; Watson, Tim; Duffield, Rob; Gordon, Dan; Roberts, Justin D.; Garrett, Andrew T.

    2017-01-01

    The physical demands of fast-medium bowling are increasingly being recognised, yet comparative exploration of the differing demands between competitive formats (i.e. one-day [OD] versus multi-day [MD] matches) remain minimal. The aim of this study was to describe in-match physiological profiles of professional fast-medium bowlers from England across different versions of competitive matches using a multivariable wearable monitoring device. Seven professional cricket fast-medium bowlers wore the BioharnessTM monitoring device during matches, over three seasons (>80 hours in-match). Heart Rate (HR) and Acceleromety (ACC) was compared across match types (OD, MD) and different in-match activity states (Bowling, Between over bowling, Fielding). Peak acceleration during OD bowling was significantly higher in comparison to MD cricket ([OD vs. MD] 234.1 ± 57.9 vs 226.6 ± 32.9 ct·episode-1, p technology and the findings provided give a valuable appreciation of the differences in match loads, and thus required physiological preparation and recovery in fast-medium bowlers. Key points One Day cricket has a greater overall physical strain on fast-medium bowlers providing shorter time for recovery between bowling episodes in comparison to Multi Day format. Wearable physiological monitoring technology can provide enhanced in-match workload monitoring replacing the need for simulated match-play environments. Adopting a standard global approach when defining bowling and between over episodes has been provided permitting comparative analysis to occur between teams/players enhancing coaches understanding of performance. PMID:28912647

  5. Predicting Where a Radiation Will Occur: Acoustic and Molecular Surveys Reveal Overlooked Diversity in Indian Ocean Island Crickets (Mogoplistinae: Ornebius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben H Warren

    Full Text Available Recent theory suggests that the geographic location of island radiations (local accumulation of species diversity due to cladogenesis can be predicted based on island area and isolation. Crickets are a suitable group for testing these predictions, as they show both the ability to reach some of the most isolated islands in the world, and to speciate at small spatial scales. Despite substantial song variation between closely related species in many island cricket lineages worldwide, to date this characteristic has not received attention in the western Indian Ocean islands; existing species descriptions are based on morphology alone. Here we use a combination of acoustics and DNA sequencing to survey these islands for Ornebius crickets. We uncover a small but previously unknown radiation in the Mascarenes, constituting a three-fold increase in the Ornebius species diversity of this archipelago (from two to six species. A further new species is detected in the Comoros. Although double archipelago colonisation is the best explanation for species diversity in the Seychelles, in situ cladogenesis is the best explanation for the six species in the Mascarenes and two species of the Comoros. Whether the radiation of Mascarene Ornebius results from intra- or purely inter- island speciation cannot be determined on the basis of the phylogenetic data alone. However, the existence of genetic, song and ecological divergence at the intra-island scale is suggestive of an intra-island speciation scenario in which ecological and mating traits diverge hand-in-hand. Our results suggest that the geographic location of Ornebius radiations is partially but not fully explained by island area and isolation. A notable anomaly is Madagascar, where our surveys are consistent with existing accounts in finding no Ornebius species present. Possible explanations are discussed, invoking ecological differences between species and differences in environmental history between

  6. THE EFFECTS OF WOOD RAW MATERIAL PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES ON WOOD QUALITY CLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliha Ünver

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Wood raw material production without barked round is 3.5 billion m3 in the world. According to their amounts, industrial wood products set out log, fiber chip and pulp wood respectively in. Wood raw material produced in Turkey is not enough for market demand, so 9% of industrial wood demand has been imported. For this reason, the quality loses are as important as the quantity loses, which can be occurred during wood raw material production. Both preserving of continuity of forest sources and saving of addition to country economy are important during wood raw material production. To reduce the quality losses on the wood raw material is possible with the usage of developed techniques, taking into consideration sector demand, storing of wood raw material by suitable conditions and being worked the experienced worker.

  7. Multiple differences in calling songs and other traits between solitary and gregarious Mormon crickets from allopatric mtDNA clades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey William V

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In acoustic species, traits such as male calling song are likely to diverge quickly between allopatric populations due to sexual selection, and divergence in parameters such as carrier frequency, chirp structure, and other important song characters can influence sexual isolation. Here we make use of two forms of Mormon crickets to examine differences in a broad suite of traits that have the potential to influence speciation via sexual isolation. Mormon crickets in "gregarious" populations aggregate into dense migratory bands, and females are the sexually competitive sex (sex-role reversal. There is also a non-outbreak "solitary" form. These two forms are largely but not perfectly correlated with a significant mtDNA subdivision within the species that is thought to have arisen in allopatry. Combined information about multiple, independently evolving traits, such as morphology and structural and behavioural differences in calling song, provides greater resolution of the overall differences between these allopatric populations, and allows us to assess their stage of divergence. We test two predictions, first that the forms differ in song and second that gregarious males are more reluctant to sing than solitary males due to sex role reversal. We also tested for a difference in the relationship between the size of the forewing resonator, the mirror, and carrier frequency, as most models of sound production in crickets indicate that mirror size should predict carrier frequency. Results Multivariate analyses showed that solitary and gregarious individuals from different populations representing the two mtDNA clades had almost non-overlapping distributions based on multiple song and morphological measurements. Carrier frequency differed between the two, and gregarious males were more reluctant to sing overall. Mirror size predicted carrier frequency; however, the relationship between mirror size and surface area varied between

  8. Influence of wood structure on wood properties of tropical species

    OpenAIRE

    Baar, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The presented thesis is focused on aesthetical and acoustic properties of tropical wood. The discussed tropical species are utilized in Europe mainly for their unusual appearance and colour in joinery and furniture production. The irreplacable acoustic properties like low internal friction predestine specific species for production of musical instruments. The colour of six selected tropical species - jatoba (Hymenea courbaril L.), massaranduba (Manilkara bidentata A. Chev.), muiracatiara (Ast...

  9. O ethos inglês e a identidade local: o cricket e o golfe em Cabo Verde The English ethos and the local identity: the cricket and the golf in Cape Verde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Andrade de Melo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Em Cabo Verde, podemos identificar que precocemente se estabeleceram as bases da organização do campo esportivo: foi significativo o número de agremiações fundadas entre o quartel final do século XIX e as décadas iniciais do século XX. Partindo do princípio de que a experiência do arquipélago constitui-se em tema interessante para refletir sobre a difusão do esporte pelo mundo, esse artigo tem por objetivo discutir a conformação do campo esportivo em Cabo Verde, especificamente do cricket e do golfe, relacionando-os tanto à influência estrangeira/britânica quanto a movimentos identitários locais.In Cape Verde, we can identify early the organization of the sports field: there was a significant number of associations founded between the end of 19th century and 20th century beginning. Assuming that the experience of the archipelago is an interesting topic to think about spreading the sport around the world, this article aims to discuss the conformation of the sports field in Cape Verde, especially cricket and golf, relating it both to foreign/British influence as the local identity movements.

  10. WOOD BIOMASS FOR ENERGY IN MONTENEGRO

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    Gradimir Danon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood biomass has got its place in the energy balance of Montenegro. A little more than 6% of the total energy consumption is obtained by burning wood. Along with the appropriate state measures, it is economically and environmentally justified to expect Montenegro to more than double the utilization of the existing renewable energy sources including wood biomass, in the near future. For the purpose of achieving this goal, ‘Commercial Utilisation of the Wood Residue as a Resource for Economic Development in the North of Montenegro' project was carried out in 2007. The results of this project were included in the plan of the necessary interventions of the Government and its Agencies, associations or clusters, non-government organisations and interested enterprises. The plan was made on the basis of the wood residue at disposal and the attitude of individual subjects to produce and/or use solid bio-fuels and consists of a proposal of collection and utilisation of the wood residue for each individual district in the north of Montenegro. The basic factors of sustainability of future commercialisation of the wood residue were: availability of the wood raw material, and thereby the wood residue; the development of wood-based fuel markets, and the size of the profit.

  11. What's in the Gift? Towards a Molecular Dissection of Nuptial Feeding in a Cricket.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Pauchet

    Full Text Available Nuptial gifts produced by males and transferred to females during copulation are common in insects. Yet, their precise composition and subsequent physiological effects on the female recipient remain unresolved. Male decorated crickets Gryllodes sigillatus transfer a spermatophore to the female during copulation that is composed of an edible gift, the spermatophylax, and the ampulla that contains the ejaculate. After transfer of the spermatophore, the female detaches the spermatophylax and starts to eat it while sperm from the ampulla are evacuated into the female reproductive tract. When the female has finished consuming the spermatophylax, she detaches the ampulla and terminates sperm transfer. Hence, one simple function of the spermatophylax is to ensure complete sperm transfer by distracting the female from prematurely removing the ampulla. However, the majority of orally active components of the spermatophylax itself and their subsequent effects on female behavior have not been identified. Here, we report the first analysis of the proteome of the G. sigillatus spermatophylax and the transcriptome of the male accessory glands that make these proteins. The accessory gland transcriptome was assembled into 17,691 transcripts whilst about 30 proteins were detected within the mature spermatophylax itself. Of these 30 proteins, 18 were encoded by accessory gland encoded messages. Most spermatophylax proteins show no similarity to proteins with known biological functions and are therefore largely novel. A spermatophylax protein shows similarity to protease inhibitors suggesting that it may protect the biologically active components from digestion within the gut of the female recipient. Another protein shares similarity with previously characterized insect polypeptide growth factors suggesting that it may play a role in altering female reproductive physiology concurrent with fertilization. Characterization of the spermatophylax proteome provides the

  12. Molecular cloning and characterization of a peroxiredoxin gene from the mole cricket, Gryllotalpa orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Iksoo; Lee, Kwang Sik; Hwang, Jae Sam; Ahn, Mi Young; Li, Jianhong; Sohn, Hung Dae; Jin, Byun Rae

    2005-04-01

    We report the cloning, expression and characterization of a cDNA encoding the antioxidant enzyme peroxiredoxin (Prx) from the mole cricket, Gryllotalpa orientalis. The G. orientalis Prx (GoPrx) cDNA contains an open reading frame of 660 bp encoding 220 amino acid residues and possesses one cysteine residue that is characteristic of the 1-Cys subgroup of the peroxiredoxin family. The deduced amino acid sequence of the GoPrx cDNA showed 69% identity to Drosophila melanogaster DPx-2540, 50% to D. melanogaster DPx-6005, and 47% to Glossina morsitans morsitans Prx. Phylogenetic analysis further confirmed a closer relationship of the deduced amino acid sequences of the GoPrx gene to the DPx-2540 within the 1-Cys Prx cluster. The cDNA encoding GoPrx was expressed as a 27-kDa polypeptide in baculovirus-infected insect Sf9 cells. The purified recombinant GoPrx was shown to reduce H(2)O(2) in the presence of electrons donated by dithiothreitol, but did not show the activity in the presence of thioredoxin as electron donor. Northern blot analysis revealed the presence of GoPrx transcripts in all tissues examined. When H(2)O(2) was injected into the body cavity of G. orientalis adult, GoPrx mRNA expression was up-regulated in the fat body tissues. Furthermore, the expression levels of GoPrx mRNA in the fat body were particularly high when G. orientalis adult was exposed at low (4 degrees C) and high (37 degrees C) temperatures, suggesting that the GoPrx seems to play a protective role against oxidative stress caused by temperature shock.

  13. Risk Factors of Tendo-Achilles Injury in Football, Cricket and Badminton Players at Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M J; Giasuddin, A S M; Khalil, M I

    2015-04-01

    Achilles tendon is the tendon connecting the heel with the calf muscles. Tendo-achilles injury (TAI) in players is common in games. The frequency of TAI is unknown and aetiology is controversial: The present descriptive cross-sectional study was done to determine the prevalence of TAI and associated factors contributing to it in football, cricket and badminton. From January to June 2012, male players (n = 131), age -17-35 years, were selected by purposive sampling technique from renowned sporting clubs at Dhaka, Bangladesh. TAI was diagnosed through structured questionnaire and interviewing the respondents. The analysis by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) programme revealed that 11.5% players suffered from TAI, i.e. prevalence was 115 per 1000 respondents. Most injuries (70/131; 53.4%) occurred in the playground and (59/131; 45.3%) happened in practice field. Injuries among the players of third division were higher, i.e. about 36% (p = 0.000). TAI was significantly dependent on occupation (p = 0.046), BMI (p = 0.008), divisional status (p = 0.023), game type (p = 0.043), ground condition (p = 0.05) and injury severity (p = 0.000). The injured players referred for treatment to the physiotherapist was highest (9/15, i.e. 60%) followed by the physicians (5/15, i.e. 33%) (p = 0.000). The associations of TAI with various factors were discussed suggesting effective measures be taken and treatment, particularly physiotherapy, be given to injured players. However, there is a need of team work with sports medicine specialist also to enable the injured players to continue their professional games.

  14. Cricket fast bowling workload patterns as risk factors for tendon, muscle, bone and joint injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, John W; Blanch, Peter; Paoloni, Justin; Kountouris, Alex; Sims, Kevin; Orchard, Jessica J; Brukner, Peter

    2015-08-01

    To assess workload-related risk factors for injuries to particular tissue types in cricket fast bowlers. 235 fast bowlers who bowled in 14600 player innings over a period of 15 years were followed in a prospective cohort risk factor study to compare overs bowled in each match (including preceding workload patterns) and injury risk in the 3-4 weeks subsequent to the match. Injuries were categorised according to the affected tissue type as either: bone stress, tendon injuries, muscle strain or joint injuries. Workload risk factors were examined using binomial logistic regression multivariate analysis, with a forward stepwise procedure requiring a significance of injuries, but high medium term (3-month workload) was protective. For bone stress injuries, high medium term workload and low career workload were risk factors. For joint injuries, high previous season and career workload were risk factors. There was little relationship between muscle injury and workload although high previous season workload was slightly protective. The level of injury risk for some tissue types varies in response to preceding fast bowling workload, with tendon injuries most affected by workload patterns. Workload planning may need to be individualised, depending on individual susceptibility to various injury types. This study supports the theory that tendons are at lowest risk with consistent workloads and susceptible to injury with sudden upgrades in workload. Gradual upgrades are recommended, particularly at the start of a bowler's career to reduce the risk of bone stress injury. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Differential threshold effects of habitat fragmentation on gene flow in two widespread species of bush crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Rebecca; Durka, Walter; Holzhauer, Stephanie I J; Wolters, Volkmar; Diekötter, Tim

    2010-11-01

    Effects of habitat fragmentation on genetic diversity vary among species. This may be attributed to the interacting effects of species traits and landscape structure. While widely distributed and abundant species are often considered less susceptible to fragmentation, this may be different if they are small sized and show limited dispersal. Under intensive land use, habitat fragmentation may reach thresholds at which gene flow among populations of small-sized and dispersal-limited species becomes disrupted. Here, we studied the genetic diversity of two abundant and widespread bush crickets along a gradient of habitat fragmentation in an agricultural landscape. We applied traditional (G(ST), θ) and recently developed (G'ST', D) estimators of genetic differentiation on microsatellite data from each of twelve populations of the grassland species Metrioptera roeselii and the forest-edge species Pholidoptera griseoaptera to identify thresholds of habitat fragmentation below which genetic population structure is affected. Whereas the grassland species exhibited a uniform genetic structuring (G(ST) = 0.020-0.033; D = 0.085-0.149) along the whole fragmentation gradient, the forest-edge species' genetic differentiation increased significantly from D habitat dropped below a threshold of 20% and its proximity decreased substantially at the landscape scale. The influence of fragmentation on genetic differentiation was qualitatively unaffected by the choice of estimators of genetic differentiation but quantitatively underestimated by the traditional estimators. These results indicate that even for widespread species in modern agricultural landscapes fragmentation thresholds exist at which gene flow among suitable habitat patches becomes restricted. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Erwinia teleogrylli sp. nov., a Bacterial Isolate Associated with a Chinese Cricket.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liu

    Full Text Available A bacterial isolate (SCU-B244T was obtained in China from crickets (Teleogryllus occipitalis living in cropland deserted for approximately 10 years. The isolated bacteria were Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, oxidase-negative rods. A preliminary analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the strain belongs to either the genus Erwinia or Pantoea. Analysis of multilocus sequence typing based on concatenated partial atpD, gyrB and infB gene sequences and physiological and biochemical characteristics indicated that the strain belonged to the genus Erwinia, as member of a new species as it was distinct from other known Erwinia species. Further analysis of the 16S rRNA gene showed SCU-B244T to have 94.71% identity to the closest species of that genus, Erwinia oleae (DSM 23398T, which is below the threshold of 97% used to discriminate bacterial species. DNA-DNA hybridization results (5.78±2.52% between SCU-B244T and Erwinia oleae (DSM 23398T confirmed that SCU-B244T and Erwinia oleae (DSM 23398T represent different species combined with average nucleotide identity values which range from 72.42% to 74.41. The DNA G+C content of SCU-B244T was 55.32 mol%, which also differs from that of Erwinia oleae (54.7 to 54.9 mol%. The polyphasic taxonomic approach used here confirmed that the strain belongs to the Erwinia group and represents a novel species. The name Erwinia teleogrylli sp. nov. is proposed for this novel taxon, for which the type strain is SCU-B244T (= CGMCC 1.12772T = DSM 28222T = KCTC 42022T.

  17. Anatomy and physiology of neurons composing the commissural ring nerve of the cricket, Acheta domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killian, K A; Bollins, J P; Govind, C K

    2000-03-01

    The commissural ring nerve (RN) of the cricket Acheta domesticus links together the two cercal motor nerves of the terminal abdominal ganglion. It contains the axons of almost 100 neurons including two bilateral clusters of eight to 13 ventrolateral neurons and approximately 75 neurons with midline somata within the terminal abdominal ganglion. The ventrolateral neurons have an ipsilateral dendritic arborization within the dorsal neuropil of the ganglion and their axons use the RN as a commissure in order to enter the contralateral nerves of the tenth ganglionic neuromere. In contrast, most midline neurons have bifurcating axons projecting bilaterally into the neuropil of the ganglion as well as into the RN where they often branch extensively before entering the contralateral tenth nerves. Most RN neurons have small, non-spiking somata with spike initiation zones distant from the soma. Many midline neurons also produce double-peaked spikes in their somata, indicative of multiple spike initiation zones. Spontaneous neuronal activity recorded extracellularly from the RN reveals several units, some with variable firing patterns, but none responding to sensory stimuli. The RN is primarily composed of small (50 nm diameter) axon profiles with a few large (0.5-1 microm diameter) profiles. Occasionally, profiles of nerve terminals containing primarily small clear vesicles and a few large dense vesicles are observed. These vesicles can sometimes be clustered about an active zone. We conclude that the primary function of the RN is to serve as a peripheral nerve commissure and that its role as a neurohemal organ is negligible. J. Exp. Zool. 286:350-366, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Specificity of the fluorescein transport process in Malpighian tubules of the cricket Acheta domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Douglas S G; Kauffman, Ross; Kurtz, Zachary

    2005-06-01

    We demonstrate the presence of an efficient, multispecific transport system for excretion of organic anions in the Malpighian tubules of the cricket Acheta domesticus using fluorescein (FL) as a model substrate. Malpighian tubules rapidly accumulated FL via a high affinity process (Km = 7.75 micromol l(-1)); uptake was completely eliminated by the prototypical organic anion transport inhibitor probenecid (1 mmol l(-1)), but not by p-aminohippuric acid (3 mmol l(-1)). FL uptake was inhibited by monocarboxylic acids at a high concentration (3 mmol l(-1)), and inhibition was more effective with an increase in the carbon chain of the monocarboxylic acid (37% inhibition by 5-carbon valeric acid, and 89% inhibition by 7-carbon caprylic acid). Likewise, tests using a series of aliphatic glutathione conjugates indicated that only the compound with the longest side-chain (decyl-glutathione) significantly inhibited FL uptake (81% inhibition). FL uptake was inhibited by a number of xenobiotics, including a plant alkaloid (quinine), herbicides (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-butyric acid), and the insecticide metabolites malathion monocarboxylic acid (MMA) and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (PBA), suggesting that this transport system plays an active role in excretion of xenobiotics from Acheta by Malpighian tubules. HPLC quantification of MMA and PBA accumulation into Malpighian tubules verified that MMA accumulation was via a mediated transport process, but suggested that PBA accumulation was by nonspecific binding. The presence of a transport system in Malpighian tubules that handles at least one pesticide metabolite (MMA) suggests that transport processes could be a mechanism conferring resistance to xenobiotic exposure in insects.

  19. Serpula lacrymans, Wood and Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkinson, S C; Eastwood, D C

    2012-01-01

    Serpula lacrymans, the causative agent of dry rot timber decay in buildings, is a Basidiomycete fungus in the Boletales clade. It owes its destructiveness to a uniquely well-developed capacity to colonize by rapid mycelial spread from sites of initial spore infection, coupled with aggressive degradation of wood cellulose. Genomic methods have recently elucidated the evolution and enzymic repertoire of the fungus, suggesting that it has a distinctive mode of brown rot wood decay. Using novel methods to image nutrient translocation, its mycelium has been modeled as a highly responsive resource-supply network. Dry rot is preventable by keeping timber dry. However, in established outbreaks, further mycelial spread can be arrested by inhibitors of translocation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Carbon Sequestration via Wood Burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, N.

    2007-12-01

    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which forest dead wood or old trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It was estimated that the carbon sequestration potential of forest wood harvest and burial is 10GtC y-1 with an uncertainty range of 5-15 GtC y-1. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost was crudely estimated at $50/tC, significantly lower than the cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage, a carbon sequestration technique currently under most serious consideration. The low cost is largely because the CO2 capture is achieved at little cost by the natural process of photosynthesis. The technique is low tech, distributed, safe and can be stopped or reversed at any time. The relatively low cost may soon be competitive enough for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon trading market. In tropical regions with ongoing deforestation, wood burial instead of burning will immediately reduce that portion of the anthropogenic CO2 emission.