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Sample records for wood based composite

  1. Wood-based composite materials : panel products, glued-laminated timber, structural composite lumber, and wood-nonwood composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole M. Stark; Zhiyong Cai; Charles Carll

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the general types and composition of wood-based composite products and the materials and processes used to manufacture them. It describes conventional wood-based composite panels and structural composite materials intended for general construction, interior use, or both. This chapter also describes wood–nonwood composites. Mechanical...

  2. Wood composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lars Berglund; Roger M. Rowell

    2005-01-01

    A composite can be defined as two or more elements held together by a matrix. By this definition, what we call “solid wood” is a composite. Solid wood is a three-dimensional composite composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin (with smaller amounts of inorganics and extractives), held together by a lignin matrix. The advantages of developing wood composites are (...

  3. Mechanical properties of wood-based composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiyong Cai; Robert J. Ross

    2010-01-01

    The term composite is used to describe any wood material bonded together with adhesives. The current product mix ranges from fiberboard to laminated beams and components. In this chapter, wood-based composite materials are classified into the following categories: panel products (plywood, oriented strandboard (OSB), particleboard, fiberboard, medium-density fiberboard...

  4. Enhancing durability of wood-based composites with nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol Clausen

    2012-01-01

    Wood protection systems are needed for engineered composite products that are susceptible to moisture and biodeterioration. Protection systems using nano-materials are being developed to enhance the durability of wood-based composites through improved resistance to biodeterioration, reduced environmental impact from chemical leaching, and improved resistance to...

  5. IMPREGNATION OF WOOD COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Derya Gezer

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The production of wood based structural panel and lumber composites become to increase since the wood supply is changing due to the limit of larger dimension solid sawn lumber and insufficient solid woods with enough high strength as well. As we substitute wood composites for solid wood in protected application, these composite must show resistance to wood-destroying organisms such as fungi and insects. Accordingly, the exterior structural composites is required to be treated with preservatives. This paper provides an understanding of preservative treated wood composites. The objectives of this paper includes studying how to add preservative to wood composites, examining additive effect on glue-line and evaluating the best method of manufacturing wood composites treated with preservatives.

  6. Predicting Plywood Properties with Wood-based Composite Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher Adam Senalik; Robert J. Ross

    2015-01-01

    Previous research revealed that stress wave nondestructive testing techniques could be used to evaluate the tensile and flexural properties of wood-based composite materials. Regression models were developed that related stress wave transmission characteristics (velocity and attenuation) to modulus of elasticity and strength. The developed regression models accounted...

  7. Ultrasonic plate waves in wood-based composite panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Brian James

    Two key shortcomings of current ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for plywood, medium density fiberboard (MDF), and oriented strandboard are the reliance on empirical correlations and the neglect of valuable waveform information. The research reported herein examined the feasibility of using fundamental physical relationships along with advanced signal analysis to evaluate material properties and locate defects in wood-based composite panels. Dispersion curves were constructed exhibiting the variation of ultrasonic flexural plate wave phase velocity with frequency. Based on shear deformation plate wave theory, flexural and transverse shear rigidity values for a variety of wood-based composite panels were obtained from the dispersion curves. Axial rigidity values were obtained directly from extensional plate wave phase velocity. Excellent agreement (within 5%) of flexural rigidity values was obtained between NDE and mechanical testing for thin panels (less than or equal to 6.4 mm). Transverse shear rigidity values were obtained from NDE, but no reliable mechanical results were obtained for comparison. Tensile and compressive axial rigidity values obtained from NDE were from 12% to 31% and from 22% to 41% higher than mechanical tension and compression test results, respectively. These differences between NDE and axial mechanical testing results are likely due to load-rate effects. Nondestructive rigidity results for thicker panels using the setup described herein were either unreliable or not interpretable due to highly attenuated signals and/or violation of plate wave assumptions. Shear deformation laminated plate theory was used to predict flexural and axial laminate rigidity values of wood-based laminates from NDE measurements to within 3% and 25%, respectively. Plate wave NDE was also used to successfully locate a 60-mm square delaminated area within a 6.4-mm thick MDF laminate. This fundamental research advances the state-of-the-art of wood-based

  8. COMPOSITES BASED ON SYNTHETIC POLYMERS AND WOOD WASTE

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    Lucia DUMITRESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the research dedicated to synthesis and characterization of some new, ecological composite materials based on an acrylic copolymer, lignin derivative iron and chromium lignosulfonate and Salix wood sawdust. The FT-IR analysis put into evidence the complex interactions, by esterification and etherification reactions, between the organic functional hydroxyl groups of lignosulfonate and Salix sawdust (the fillers with the organic functional groups (carboxyl, ester from the structure of acrylic copolymer (the matrix and explain the improved properties of the new composites. The proposed new composites are in agreement with the research in the field of recycling lignocellulosic waste to obtain new ecological, environmental friendly materials.

  9. A Nanocellulose Polypyrrole Composite Based on Microfibrillated Cellulose from Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    It is demonstrated that it is possible to coat the individual fibers of wood-based nanocellulose with polypyrrole using in situ chemical polymerization to obtain an electrically conducting continuous high-surface-area composite. The experimental results indicate that the high surface area of the water dispersed material, to a large extent, is maintained upon normal drying without the use of any solvent exchange. Thus, the employed chemical polymerization of polypyrrole on the microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) nanofibers in the hydrogel gives rise to a composite, the structure of which—unlike that of uncoated MFC paper—does not collapse upon drying. The dry composite has a surface area of ∼90 m2/g and a conductivity of ∼1.5 S/cm, is electrochemically active, and exhibits an ion-exchange capacity for chloride ions of 289 C/g corresponding to a specific capacity of 80 mAh/g. The straightforwardness of the fabrication of the present nanocellulose composites should significantly facilitate industrial manufacturing of highly porous, electroactive conductive paper materials for applications including ion-exchange and paper-based energy storage devices. PMID:20205378

  10. Wood-based Tri-Axial Sandwich Composite Materials: Design, Fabrication, Testing, Modeling and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinghao Li; John F. Hunt; Shaoqin Gong; Zhiyong Cai

    2014-01-01

    As the demand for sustainable materials increases, there are unique challenges and opportunities to develop light-weight green composites materials for a wide range of applications. Thus wood-based composite materials from renewable forests may provide options for some niche applications while helping to protect our environment. In this paper, the wood-based tri-axial...

  11. Wear Characteristics of Multilayer-Coated Cutting Tools in Milling Wood and Wood-Based Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fahrussiam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the characteristic of wear on the clearance face of newly multilayer-coated K10 cutting tools when cutting mersawa wood, fiberboard, particleboard, and glass reinforced concrete (GRC. The K10 cutting tools were coated with monolayer titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN, multilayer TiAlN/titanium silicon nitride (TiSiN, and TiAlN/titanium boron oxide nitride (TiBON. Cutting tests were performed on computer numeric control router at a high cutting speed of 17 m/s and a feed rate of 0.2 mm/rev to investigate the wear characteristics on the clearance face of these coated tools. Experimental results show that the coated tools experienced a smaller amount of clearance wear than the uncoated tool in cutting the mersawa wood, fiberboard, particleboard, and GRC. The GRC compared to the other work materials caused higher amount of clearance wear for both the uncoated and coated cutting tools. High content of silica and density were the reason for this phenomenon. The best coating among other coated cutting tools in this study was multilayer TiAlN/TiBON. The high hardness, low coefficient of friction, high resistance to oxidation, and high resistance to delamination wear of the multilayer-coated TiAlN/TiBON tool indicate a very promising applicability of this coating for high-speed cutting of abrasive woods and wood-based materials.

  12. The Fabrication and Properties Characterization of Wood-Based Flame Retardant Composites

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    Xia He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood-based flame retardant composites were fabricated based on vacuum-pressure impregnating method after high intensive microwave pretreatment. The effects of ammonium polyphosphate (APP and modified nano-zinc borate (nZB addition on flame-retardation and smoke-suppression properties of wood were investigated by cone calorimeter method (CONE and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The results show that the heat release rate (HRR, peak heat release rate (pk-HRR, and total heat release (THR of APP-treated woods decreased greatly with increasing concentration of APP. However, mean yield of CO (Mean COY of APP-treated wood was much higher (3.5 times than that of untreated wood. Compared with wood treated with APP at a concentration of 15%, the total smoke product (TSP, Mean COY, and pk-HRR decreased by 78.4%, 71.43%, and 31.23%, when wood was treated with APP and nZB (both concentrations were at 15%. APP and nZB have synergistic effects of flame-retardation and smoke-suppression. Nano-zinc borate combined with APP would be used in wood-based composites to efficiently retard flame, reduce fire intensity, and decrease noxious (CO/smoke release.

  13. Feasibility of Using Foamed Styrene Maleic Anhydride (SMA) Co-polymer in Wood Based Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Zor; Nurgul Tankut; Alper Kiziltas; Douglas Gardner; Hikmet Yazici

    2017-01-01

    Wood plastic composites (WPCs) have often been used in consumer applications, automotive industry and exterior construction. WPCs consist mostly of wood and thermoplastic polymer. WPCs can have superior outdoor durability and much lower maintenance costs than regular wood. WPCs can be used instead of wood. Styrene maleic anhydride (SMA) is used in plastic composites for the automotive industry and also in engineering applications. SMA wood composites, as one of the WPCs using wood fibers as r...

  14. Simulation based modeling of the elastic properties of structural wood based composite lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejo, Laszlo

    The importance of wood-based composite lumber is increasing in the US market for construction materials. Manufacturers of such composites strive to make their products more competitive by increasing their value. This dissertation describes the development of simulation models that can aid these efforts by estimating the elastic characteristics of composite lumber products. The study included the assessment of the orthotropic mechanical properties of the raw material, the effect of densification it experiences during the hot-pressing procedure, and the geometric structure of the composites. Using the results of these investigations, computer models were created based on principles of deterministic and stochastic simulations. Generated elastic parameters were validated against experimentally measured MOE values. Reasonably good agreement between the simulated and actual elastic constants confirmed the usefulness of the developed models. The simulations can be used to explore the characteristics of composite beams with innovative designs or containing new raw materials before they enter the prototype phase of their development.

  15. Characterization of composites based on expanded polystyrene wastes and wood flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletto, Matheus; Dettenborn, Juliane; Zeni, Mara; Zattera, Ademir J

    2011-04-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the potential for the use of recycled expanded polystyrene and wood flour as materials for the development of wood plastic composites. The effects of wood flour loading and coupling agent addition on the mechanical properties and morphology of wood thermoplastic composites were examined. In addition, a methodology for the thermo-mechanical recycling of expanded polystyrene waste was developed. The results show that the mechanical properties decreased as the wood flour loading increased. On the other hand, the use of poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride), SMA, as a coupling agent improved the compatibility between the wood flour and polystyrene matrix and the mechanical properties subsequently improved. A morphological study revealed the positive effect of the coupling agent on the interfacial bonding. The density values obtained for the composites were compared with the theoretical values and showed agreement with the rule of mixtures. Based on the findings of this work, it appears that both recycled materials can be used to manufacture composites with high mechanical properties and low density. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Acoustic emission and acousto-ultrasonic techniques for wood and wood-based composites: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumire Kawamoto; R. Sam Williams

    2002-01-01

    This review focuses on the feasibility of acoustic emission (AE) and acousto-ultrasonic (AU) techniques for monitoring defects in wood, particularly during drying. The advantages and disadvantages of AE and AU techniques are described. Particular emphasis is placed on the propagation and attenuation of ultrasonic waves in wood and the associated measurement problems....

  17. Mechanical and physical properties of wood fiber-reinforced, sulfur-based wood composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Yun Hse; Ben S. Bryant

    1993-01-01

    Sulfur-based composite was made from sulfur impregnated, oven dried, wet-formed fiber mats. The fiber mats consisted of a 50/50 mixture of recycled newsprint pulp and mechanical hardwood pulp from several species made from chips in a laboratory refiner. The thickness of the composites was 0.125 inch and the specific gravity of the unimpregnated fiber mat was 0.2. The...

  18. Wood Composite Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Bueso, Jose; Haupt, Robert

    The global environment, in which phenolic resins are being used for wood composite manufacture, has changed significantly during the last decade. This chapter reviews trends that are driving the use and consumption of phenolic resins around the world. The review begins with recent data on volume usage and regional trends, followed by an analysis of factors affecting global markets. In a section on environmental factors, the impact of recent formaldehyde emission regulations is discussed. The section on economics introduces wood composite production as it relates to the available adhesive systems, with special emphasis on the technical requirement to improve phenolic reactivity. Advances in composite process technology are introduced, especially in regard to the increased demands the improvements place upon adhesive system performance. The specific requirements for the various wood composite families are considered in the context of adhesive performance needs. The results of research into current chemistries are discussed, with a review of recent findings regarding the mechanisms of phenolic condensation and acceleration. Also, the work regarding alternate natural materials, such as carbohydrates, lignins, tannins, and proteinaceous materials, is presented. Finally, new developments in alternative adhesive technologies are reported.

  19. Fatigue behavior of wood-fiber-based tri-axial engineered sandwich composite panels (ESCP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinghao Li; John F. Hunt; Shaoqin Gong; Zhiyong Cai

    2015-01-01

    The static and fatigue bending behavior of wood-fiber-based tri-axial engineered sandwich composite panels (ESCP) has been investigated by four-point bending tests. Fatigue panels and weakened panels (wESCP) with an initial interface defect were manufactured for the fatigue tests. Stress σ vs. number of cycles curves (S-N) were recorded under the different stress...

  20. Wear Characteristics of Multilayer-Coated Cutting Tools in Milling Wood and Wood-Based Composites

    OpenAIRE

    F. Fahrussiam; I.A. Praja; W. Darmawan; I Wahyudi; D. Nandika; Usuki, H.; S. Koseki

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the characteristic of wear on the clearance face of newly multilayer-coated K10 cutting tools when cutting mersawa wood, fiberboard, particleboard, and glass reinforced concrete (GRC). The K10 cutting tools were coated with monolayer titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN), multilayer TiAlN/titanium silicon nitride (TiSiN), and TiAlN/titanium boron oxide nitride (TiBON). Cutting tests were performed on computer numeric control router at a high cutting speed of 17 m/s and a fee...

  1. Laminated composite based on polyester geotextile fibers and polyurethane resin for coating wood structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Andrey Olivato Assagra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available New environmental laws have restricted the use of hardwood trees in overhead power lines structures, such as, poles and cross-arms, leading companies to seek alternative materials. Reforested wood coated with polymeric resin has been proposed as an environmental friendly solution, with improved electrical properties and protection against external agents, e.g. moisture, ultraviolet radiation and fungi. However, the single thin layer of resin, normally applied on such structures reveal to be inefficient, due to be easily damage during handling. In this paper, we present a composite coating, based on geotextile fibers and polyurethane resin that is suitable for wooden structures. Results obtained from two different tree species (from managed and reforested areas coated with the composite reveal that the additional layer not only provided a stronger adhesion between wood and ccoating layer but also a further improvement in the electrical properties and better protection against abrasion and moisture.

  2. Biomass-based composites from poly(lactic acid) and wood flour by vapor-phase assisted surface polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Donghee; Andou, Yoshito; Shirai, Yoshihito; Nishida, Haruo

    2011-02-01

    To prepare biomass-based composites in an environmentally benign manner, vapor-phase assisted surface polymerization (VASP) was applied to prepare the composites from wood flour and poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) without solvent. VASP of l,l-lactide successfully proceeded on the wood flour surfaces, resulting in surface coverage by newly generated PLLA. For obtained PLLA/wood flour composites, it was clarified that grafting of PLLA on wood flour surfaces had occurred to form covalently bonded composites, with the accumulated PLLA layers having crystallized in situ during VASP. Resulting PLLA layers showed very high crystallinity of 79.2% and a high melting point close to the equilibrium melting point. Moreover, thermal degradation behavior of the composites suggested a cooperative degradation manner of the components.

  3. Composites from wood and plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Clemons

    2010-01-01

    Composites made from thermoplastics and fillers or reinforcements derived from wood or other natural fibers are a dynamic research area encompassing a wide variety of composite materials. For example, as the use of biopolymers grows, wood and other natural fiber sources are being investigated as renewable sources of fillers and reinforcements to modify performance....

  4. Some exploitation properties of wood plastic composites (WPC, based on high density polyethylene and timber industry waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    janis kajaks

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In this study, the influence of wood fiber content (40, 50 and 60 wt.% and coupling agent concentration (3 and 5 wt.% on the mechanical properties of wood-plastic composites (WPCs was investigated. Two types of plastic (high-density-polyethylene (HDPE and recycled high-density-polyethylene (rHDPE were used as polymer matrices for preparing WPC. As reinforcement, prior grinded (fiber length < 0.5 mm coniferous wood shavings were utilized. Overall trend showed, that by adding a wood fiber, flexural properties and microhardness of the composites significantly were enhanced. However, impact strength, water resistance, and fluidity of polymer melts decreased with increase in fiber content. The virgin HDPE-based composites as well as recycled HDPE-based composites, reinforced with fibers from coniferous wood, showed good mechanical properties. Based on the findings in this work, it appears that WPCs based on virgin HDPE, as well as on recycled HDPE, can be used to manufacture value-added panels. Optimal content of wood fibres were 50-60 wt.%.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.3.7283

  5. Properties of concretes and wood composites using a phosphate-based binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Luong Thanh

    Magnesium potassium phosphate ceramics are from the family of phosphate-based cements which can be used as alternatives to Portland cements. In this study, concretes and wood composites were produced using magnesium potassium phosphate ceramic binders and supplementary materials including fly ash, sand, silica fume and sawdust. Bentonite, Delvo Stabilizer and baking soda were used as additives to increase the workability and the setting time of the fresh mixutres and decrease the density of the hardened products. The materials were then reinforced with chopped glass-fibers or textile glass-fabrics to increase their hardened properties. At 50% fly ash by total mass of the binder, the concretes had compressive strength and density of 33 MPa and 2170 kg/m3, respectively, after 90 days of simple curing. At 20% fly ash by total mass of the binder, the wood composites had compressive strength and density of 13 MPa and 1320 kg/m3, respectively, after 90 days. The flexural strengths were about 10% to 47% of the corresponding cylinder compressive strengths for these mixes. Increases in both compressive and flexural strengths for these mixes were observed with the addition of chopped glass-fibers or textile glass-fabrics.

  6. Relationship of wood surface energy to surface composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feipeng P. Liu; Timothy G. Rials; John Simonsen

    1998-01-01

    The wood cell wall is composed of cellulose, lignin, hemicelluloses, and extractives. Thus, the surface energy of the wood material must be some combination of the surface energies of these components. The influence of extractives on wood surface chemistry can be important in diverse industrial applications, such as coating, pulping, and wood-based composites. In this...

  7. Advanced wood- and bio-composites : enhanced performance and sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrold E. Winandy

    2006-01-01

    Use of wood-based-composites technology to create value-added commodities and traditional construction materials is generally accepted worldwide. Engineered wood- and lignocellulosic-composite technologies allow users to add considerable value to a diverse number of wood- and lignocellulosic feedstocks including small-diameter timber, fast plantation-grown timber,...

  8. Bending efficiency through property gradients in bamboo, palm, and wood-based composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegst, Ulrike G K

    2011-07-01

    Nature, to a greater extent than engineering, takes advantage of hierarchical structures. These allow for optimization at each structural level to achieve mechanical efficiency, meaning mechanical performance per unit mass. Palms and bamboos do this exceptionally well; both are fibre-reinforced cellular materials in which the fibres are aligned parallel to the stem or culm, respectively. The distribution of these fibres is, however, not uniform: there is a density and modulus gradient across the section. This property gradient increases the flexural rigidity of the plants per unit mass, mass being a measure of metabolic investment made into an organism's construction. An analytical model is presented with which a 'gradient shape factor' can be calculated that describes by how much a plant's bending efficiency is increased through gradient structures. Combining the 'gradient shape factor' with a 'microstructural shape factor' that captures the efficiency gained through the cellular nature of the fibre composite's matrix, and a 'macroscopical shape factor' with which the tubular shape of bamboo can be described, for example, it is possible to explore how much each of these three structural levels of the hierarchy contributes to the overall bending performance of the stem or culm. In analogy, the bending efficiency of the commonly used wood-based composite medium-density fibreboard can be analysed; its property gradient is due to its manufacture by hot pressing. A few other engineered materials exist that emulate property gradients; new manufacturing routes to prepare them are currently being explored. It appears worthwhile to pursue these further. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. EVOLUTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT WOOD COMPOSITES

    OpenAIRE

    Marius C. BARBU

    2016-01-01

    Lightweight boards and beams in the wood-based construction and furniture industry are not a new topic. The density reduction of panels using sandwich structure with light cores was confirmed by users like doors or mobile homes more than three decades ago. Today many ways to attain a lighter wooden structure are on offer, partially in industrial application. The first one is the use of light-weight wood species like balsa, lime, pine from southern hemisphere plantations etc. limit...

  10. Raw materials for wood-polymer composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Clemons

    2008-01-01

    To understand wood-plastic composites (WPCs) adequately, we must first understand the two main constituents. Though both are polymer based, they are very different in origin, structure, and performance. Polymers are high molecular weight materials whose performance is largely determined by its molecular architecture. In WPCs, a polymer matrix forms the continuous phase...

  11. Cone calorimeter tests of wood composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. White; Kuma Sumathipala

    2013-01-01

    The cone calorimeter is widely used for the determination of the heat release rate (HRR) of building products and other materials. As part of an effort to increase the availability of cone calorimeter data on wood products, the U.S. Forest Products Laboratory and the American Wood Council conducted this study on composite wood products in cooperation with the Composite...

  12. Comparison of Wood Composite Properties Using Cantilever-Beam Bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houjiang Zhang; John F. Hunt; Lujing Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Wood-based composite panels generally are first tested out-of-plane in the primarypanel directionfollowed by the cross panel direction, but rarely edgewise. While most applications use wood-based composites in the flat-wise orientation and only need the out-of-plane properties, there are construction configurations where edgewise properties are needed for improved...

  13. Composite structure of wood cells in petrified wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Jakub [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Florek, Marek [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Kwiatek, Wojciech [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Lekki, Janusz [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Chevallier, Pierre [LPS, CEN Saclay et LURE, Universite Paris-Sud, Bat 209D, F-91405 Orsay (France); Zieba, Emil [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Mestres, Narcis [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB), Campus de la UAB, E-08193-Bellaterra (Spain); Dutkiewicz, E.M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Kuczumow, Andrzej [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland)

    2005-04-28

    Special kinds of petrified wood of complex structure were investigated. All the samples were composed of at least two different inorganic substances. The original cell structure was preserved in each case. The remnants of the original biological material were detected in some locations, especially in the cell walls. The complex inorganic structure was superimposed on the remnant organic network. The first inorganic component was located in the lumena (l.) of the cells while another one in the walls (w.) of the cells. The investigated arrangements were as follows: calcite (l.)-goethite-hematite (w.)-wood from Dunarobba, Italy; pyrite (l.)-calcite (w.)-wood from Lukow, Poland; goethite (l.)-silica (w.)-wood from Kwaczala, Poland. The inorganic composition was analysed and spatially located by the use of three spectral methods: electron microprobe, X-ray synchrotron-based microprobe, {mu}-PIXE microprobe. The accurate mappings presenting 2D distribution of the chemical species were presented for each case. Trace elements were detected and correlated with the distribution of the main elements. In addition, the identification of phases was done by the use of {mu}-Raman and {mu}-XRD techniques for selected and representative points. The possible mechanisms of the described arrangements are considered. The potential synthesis of similar structures and their possible applications are suggested.

  14. Green Composites Based on Blends of Polypropylene with Liquid Wood Reinforced with Hemp Fibers: Thermomechanical Properties and the Effect of Recycling Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicala, Gianluca; Tosto, Claudio; Latteri, Alberta; La Rosa, Angela Daniela; Blanco, Ignazio; Elsabbagh, Ahmed; Russo, Pietro; Ziegmann, Gerhard

    2017-08-26

    Green composites from polypropylene and lignin-based natural material were manufactured using a melt extrusion process. The lignin-based material used was the so called "liquid wood". The PP/"Liquid Wood" blends were extruded with "liquid wood" content varying from 20 wt % to 80 wt %. The blends were thoroughly characterized by flexural, impact, and dynamic mechanical testing. The addition of the Liquid Wood resulted in a great improvement in terms of both the flexural modulus and strength but, on the other hand, a reduction of the impact strength was observed. For one blend composition, the composites reinforced with hemp fibers were also studied. The addition of hemp allowed us to further improve the mechanical properties. The composite with 20 wt % of hemp, subjected to up to three recycling cycles, showed good mechanical property retention and thermal stability after recycling.

  15. Analysis of three-year Wisconsin temperature histories for roof systems using wood, wood-thermoplastic composite, and fiberglass shingles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrold E. Winandy; Cherilyn A. Hatfield

    2007-01-01

    Temperature histories for various types of roof shingles, wood roof sheathing, rafters, and nonventilated attics were monitored in outdoor attic structures using simulated North American light-framed construction. In this paper, 3-year thermal load histories for wood-based composite roof sheathing, wood rafters, and attics under western redcedar (WRC) shingles, wood-...

  16. Chapter 13:Wood/Nonwood Thermoplastic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig M. Clemons; Roger M. Rowell; David Plackett; B. Kristoffer Segerholm

    2013-01-01

    Composites made from wood, other biomass resources and polymers have existed for a long time but the nature of many of these composites has changed in recent decades. Wood-thermoset composites date to the early 1900s. "Thermosets" or thermosetting polymers are plastics that, once cured, cannot be remelted by heating. These include cured resins such as epoxies...

  17. Fast Curing of Composite Wood Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2006-04-26

    The overall objective of this program is to develop low temperature curing technologies for UF and PF resins. This will be accomplished by: • Identifying the rate limiting UF and PF curing reactions for current market resins; • Developing new catalysts to accelerate curing reactions at reduced press temperatures and times. In summary, these new curing technologies will improve the strength properties of the composite wood products and minimize the detrimental effects of wood extractives on the final product while significantly reducing energy costs for wood composites. This study is related to the accelerated curing of resins for wood composites such as medium density fiberboard (MDF), particle board (PB) and oriented strandboard (OSB). The latter is frequently manufactured with a phenol-formaldehyde resin whereas ureaformaldehyde (UF) resins are usually used in for the former two grades of composite wood products. One of the reasons that hinder wider use of these resins in the manufacturing of wood composites is the slow curing speed as well as inferior bondability of UF resin. The fast curing of UP and PF resins has been identified as an attractive process development that would allow wood to be bonded at higher moisture contents and at lower press temperatures that currently employed. Several differing additives have been developed to enhance cure rates of PF resins including the use of organic esters, lactones and organic carbonates. A model compound study by Conner, Lorenz and Hirth (2002) employed 2- and 4-hydroxymethylphenol with organic esters to examine the chemical basis for the reported enhanced reactivity. Their studies suggested that the enhance curing in the presence of esters could be due to enhanced quinone methide formation or enhanced intermolecular SN2 reactions. In either case the esters do not function as true catalysts as they are consumed in the reaction and were not found to be incorporated in the polymerized resin product. An

  18. Physical and mechanical properties of bio-composites from wood particles and liquefied wood resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui Pan; Todd F. Shupe; Chung-Yun Hse

    2009-01-01

    Compression molded composites were made from wood particles and a liquefied wood/phenol/formaldehyde co-condensed resin. Based on our previous research, a phenol to wood (P/W) ratio of 2/1 was chosen for this study. The two experimental variables selected were: 1) liquefaction temperature (150o and 180oC) and 2) cooking method (atmospheric and sealed). Panels were...

  19. EVOLUTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT WOOD COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius C. BARBU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight boards and beams in the wood-based construction and furniture industry are not a new topic. The density reduction of panels using sandwich structure with light cores was confirmed by users like doors or mobile homes more than three decades ago. Today many ways to attain a lighter wooden structure are on offer, partially in industrial application. The first one is the use of light-weight wood species like balsa, lime, pine from southern hemisphere plantations etc. limited by the availability, strength properties, gluability and so on. A second one is the sandwich structure made from hard faces like thick veneer, thin plywood, particleboard or high density thin fiberboard and cores made from honeycomb paper, very light wood species or foams like the polystyrene one. A third way to produce a light structure is to reduce the core drastically, using predesigned skeletons with special shapes and connections to the faces. The engines for these developments are on the one hand the fast growing market of knockdown furniture and on the other hand the increasing costs for energy and raw materials. Additional factors that make weight saving a primary economical objective for most producers are transportation costs, easier handling and higher acceptance among the end users. Moreover, customers demand more for ergonomical solutions regarding packaging. Many patents were generated by researchers and developers for new one-stage production processes for sandwich panels with wood- and impregnated paper-based facings made from veneers, particles or fibres and a core consisting of expandable foams, particles or embedded hard skeletons. These ideas or prototypes could be integrated in existing continuous pressing lines for wood based panels keeping some of the advantages of the continuous production technique in matters of efficiency. Some of the challenges of the light weight wooden structure are the connection in half or final parts, resistance to

  20. Wood-plastic composites utilizing wood flours derived from fast- growing trees common to the midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are several non- or under-utilized hardwood trees common to the Midwestern states. Wood flour (WF) derived from fast-growing Midwest trees (Osage orange, Black Locust and Red Mulberry) were evaluated as a source of bio-based fiber reinforcements. Wood plastic composites (WPC) of high density p...

  1. Structure and Photocatalytic Properties of Mn-Doped TiO₂ Loaded on Wood-Based Activated Carbon Fiber Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaojun; Zhou, Wanru; Chen, Yin

    2017-06-09

    Mn-doped TiO₂ loaded on wood-based activated carbon fiber (Mn/TiO₂-WACF) was prepared by sol-gel and impregnation method using MnSO₄·H₂O as manganese source. The structure of Mn/TiO₂-WACF was characterized by SEM, XRD, FTIR, N₂ adsorption and UV-Vis, and its photocatalytic activity for methylene blue degradation was investigated. Results show that Mn-doped TiO₂ were loaded on the surface of wood-based activated carbon fiber with high-development pore structures. The crystallite sizes of Mn-doped TiO₂ in composites were smaller than that of the undoped samples. With an increase of Mn doping content, Ti-O bending vibration intensity of Mn/TiO₂-WACF increased and then decreased. Moreover, Ti-O-Ti and Ti-O-Mn absorption peaks increased upon doping of Mn. Mn/TiO₂-WACF with low specific surface area, and pore volume was improved at 3.5-6.0 nm of mesopore distributions due to the Mn-doped TiO₂ load. In addition, the UV-Vis showed that Mn/TiO₂-WACF (photodegradation rate of 96%) has higher photocatalytic activity than the undoped samples for methylene blue degradation under visible light irradiation.

  2. Utilizing wood wastes as reinforcement in wood cement composite bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusirat Aderinsola Sadiku

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the research work undertaken to study the properties of Wood Cement Composite Bricks (WCCB from different wood wastes and cement / wood content. The WCBBs with nominal density of 1200 kg m-3 were produced from three tropical wood species and at varying cement and wood content of 2:1, 2.5:1 and 3:1 on a weight to weight basis. The properties evaluated were compressive strength, Ultra Pulse Velocity (UPV, water absorption (WA and thickness swelling (TS. The Compressive strength values ranged from 0.25 to 1.13 N mm-2 and UPV values ranged from 18753 to 49992 m s-1. The mean values of WA after 672 hours (28 days of water soaking of the WCCBs ranged from 9.50% to 47.13% where there were no noticeable change in the TS of the bricks. The observed density (OD ranged from 627 to 1159 kg m-3. A. zygia from the three wood/cement content were more dimensionally stable and better in compressive strength than the other two species where T. scleroxylon had the best performance in terms of UPV. All the properties improved with increasing cement content. WCCBs at 3.0:1 cement/wood content are suitable for structural application such as panelling, ceiling and partitioning

  3. The influence of irradiated wood filler on some properties of polypropylene - wood composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Điporović-Momčilović Milanka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of compatibility between the wood filler and thermoplastic matrix is of essential importance in composite production. Numerous methods have been developed for increasing this compatibility, which is still representing a challenging objective of composite research throughout the world. The research into these methods is primarily directed towards their efficiency from the viewpoint of the composite performance and their economical acceptability. The latter is of particular importance for the composite production in the developing countries with respect to the shortage of the corresponding funds. With this respect, the utilization of ionizing radiation might have considerable advantages. In this research, the beech wood flour was irradiated by a dose of 10 kGy of 60Co gamma rays for purpose of provoking the changes by the ionizing effect. The effects of ionizing radiation upon the properties of wood particles have been examined by IR spectroscopy and by determination of contents of hydroxyl groups in wood by acetylating as an indirect method. All these methods have been expected to reveal the chemical effects of the applied radiation treatment. The irradiated and the control wood flour were used in order to produce the samples of composite with polypropylene. The polypropylene-wood flour (PP-WF composites were produced with 40% of wood particles having fraction size 0.3 mm. The melt-blended composites were modified with amido-acrylic acid (AMACA as a new coupling agent synthesized for this propose in amount of 6 wt.% (based on wood filler and successively with 0.05 wt.% (based on PP of organic peroxide during mixing step. The composites containing coupling agents showed superior mechanical properties, compared to the untreated one. The highest extent of improvement of tensile was achieved in PP-WFl composites modified with AMACA coupling agent.

  4. COMPOSITES FROM RECYCLED WOOD AND PLASTICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of this research was to develop technology to convert recycled wood fiber and plastics into durable products that are recyclable and otherwise environmentally friendly. Two processing technologies were used to prepare wood-plastic composites: air-laying and melt...

  5. Interfacial Structure and Properties of Wood/Polypropylene Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy G. Rials; Michael P. Wolcott; Suzhow Yin

    2000-01-01

    Composite wood products have traditionally relied on thermosetting polymers like phenol-formaldehyde and urea-formaldehyde resins as binders. The continuing need to effectively utilize lignocellulosic fiber from low-quality hardwoods and from recycling streams has prompted consideration of new composites based on thermoplastic polymers [1,2]. Much of the development...

  6. Ductile Cement-Based Composites with Wood Fibres - material design and experimental approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierra-Beltran, M.G.

    2011-01-01

    In order to turn a brittle cement matrix into a ductile composite different types of man-made fibres such as steel, glass and polyvinyl alcohol are currently used as reinforcement, as well as some natural fibres. Compared to synthetic fibres, natural fibres are more easily available worldwide and

  7. A Study on Tensile Behavior and Water Uptake of Wood Powder-Composites Based on Epoxy and Unsaturated Polyester Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir hossein Pirayeshfar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two kinds of epoxy resins (i.e. high-viscosity and low-viscosity as well as one polyester resin (orthophthalic grade were selected and examined as pure resins and also as a polymeric matrix for producing wood-composites. In this study, tensile properties, water uptake, and degradation of samples in water were also investigated. The results show that addition of wood particles to the thermoset resins strongly impresses on their tensile behavior and water uptake. Tensile studies show that addition of wood powder improves the tensile properties of polyester resin as compared with viscosity epoxy one, although its modulus value is relatively less than that of low viscosity epoxy resin. Water uptake measurements also revealed that pure polyester resin and its related composites possess minimum water uptake and less degradation in water as compared with corresponding epoxy specimens and from which the lowest extent of materials is extracted and migrated to the water even after 50 days immersion in water.

  8. Possibility of Using Wood Pulp in the Preparation of Cement Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kidalova Lucia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable building materials are based on the use of renewable materials instead of non-renewable. Large group of renewable materials composes of plant fibres having high tensile strength are used as fillers into building material with reinforcement function of composite. This study aimed to establish the mechanical and physical properties of cement composites with organic fillers, such as wood pulp. Wood pulp cellulose is very interesting material as reinforcement in cement which contributes to a reduction of pollutants. Varying the producing technology (wood pulp and cement ratio in mixture it is possible to obtain composites with density from 940 to 1260 kgm-3 and with compressive strength from 1.02 to 5.44 MPa after 28 days of hardening. Based on the experimental results, cement composites with using unbleached wood pulp reach higher values than composites based on bleached wood pulp. Volume ratio of unbleached wood pulp in composites influences water absorbability of cement composites

  9. Fatigue testing of wood-concrete composite beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Currently, wood-concrete composite structural members are usually applied in building structures. There are a relatively small number (in the low 100s) of known bridge applications involving wood-concrete composites. A problem with using these novel ...

  10. Effects of wood fiber characteristics on mechanical properties of wood/polypropylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole M. Stark; Robert E. Rowlands

    2003-01-01

    Commercial wood flour, the most common wood-derived filler for thermoplastics, is produced in a mixture of particle sizes and generally has a lower aspect ratio than wood and other natural fibers. To understand how wood flour and fiber characteristics influence the mechanical properties of polypropylene composites, we first investigated the effect of different sizes of...

  11. Effects of UV-accelerated weathering and natural weathering conditions on anti-fungal efficacy of wood/PVC composites doped with propylene glycol-based HPQM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Srimalanon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the mechanical, physical and weathering properties and anti-fungal efficacy of polyvinyl chloride(PVC and wood flour/polyvinyl chloride composites(WPVC. 2-hydroxypropyl-3-piperazinyl-quinoline carboxylic acid methacrylate (HPQM in propylene glycol was used as an anti-fungal agent. Propylene glycol-based HPQM was doped in neat PVC and in WPVC containing 50 and 100 pph wood (WPVC-50 and WPVC-100. The flexural properties of PVC decreased when propylene glycol-based HPQM was added. However, adding this component did not affect the flexural properties of WPVC. Fungal growth inhibition test and dry weight technique were used for evaluation of anti-fungal effectiveness. Aspergillus niger was used as a testing fungus. Adding propylene glycol-based HPQM to WPVC-100 led to the most effective anti-fungal performance. Wood flour acted as an anti-fungal promoter for the WPVC composites. The optimal dosages of propylene glycol-based HPQM in PVC, WPVC-50, and WPVC-100 were 50000, 15000, and 10000 ppm, respectively. UV-accelerated weathering aging and natural weathering conditions were found to affect the flexural properties of PVC and WPVC. The change in the anti-microbial performance of WPVC under natural weathering were slower than those under UV-accelerated weathering aging. The anti-microbial evaluation indicated that the samples doped with less than 20000 ppm propylene glycol-based HPQM had a more pronounced effect than the ones doped with higher dosages.

  12. Silane Crosslinked Wood-Thermoplastic Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Bengtsson, Magnus

    2005-01-01

    Wood-thermoplastic composites are a more environmental friendly alternative for pressure-treated lumber but can also replace engineering plastic products. These composites have been on the market for more than ten years now and have mainly been used in building and automotive applications. The use of these materials has shown that long-term properties, durability, and toughness are the main problems. The aim of this study was to investigate if silane crosslinking could be one way of solving t...

  13. Green Composites Based on Blends of Polypropylene with Liquid Wood Reinforced with Hemp Fibers: Thermomechanical Properties and the Effect of Recycling Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latteri, Alberta; La Rosa, Angela Daniela; Elsabbagh, Ahmed; Ziegmann, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Green composites from polypropylene and lignin-based natural material were manufactured using a melt extrusion process. The lignin-based material used was the so called “liquid wood”. The PP/“Liquid Wood” blends were extruded with “liquid wood” content varying from 20 wt % to 80 wt %. The blends were thoroughly characterized by flexural, impact, and dynamic mechanical testing. The addition of the Liquid Wood resulted in a great improvement in terms of both the flexural modulus and strength but, on the other hand, a reduction of the impact strength was observed. For one blend composition, the composites reinforced with hemp fibers were also studied. The addition of hemp allowed us to further improve the mechanical properties. The composite with 20 wt % of hemp, subjected to up to three recycling cycles, showed good mechanical property retention and thermal stability after recycling. PMID:28846607

  14. An index of forest management intensity based on assessment of harvested tree volume, tree species composition and dead wood origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiemo Kahl

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Forest management intensity often affects biodiversity, ecosystem processes and ecosystem services. To assess the influence of past management intensity on current ecosystem properties, management intensity must be quantified in a meaningful and reproducible approach. Here we developed the simple yet effective Forest Management Intensity index (ForMI, which is based only on inventory data of the living stand, stumps and dead wood. The ForMI is the sum of three components taking into account: 1. the proportion of harvested tree volume (Iharv, 2. the proportion of tree species that are not part of the natural forest community (Inonat and 3. the proportion of dead wood showing signs of saw cuts (Idwcut. Each component ranges between 0 (no sign of management and 1 (intensive management. Our analysis suggests that the ForMI can be used to assess management intensity in Central European forests for the last 30 to 40 years, depending on decay rates of stumps and dead wood. Our approach was tested using data of 148 forest plots of 1 ha in size in Germany. We found a significant distinction between plots that were previously described as managed and unmanaged as well as between plots comprising trees species of the natural forest community and those with additional, introduced coniferous tree species. We conclude that the index is applicable to a wide range of forest management types, but should not be misinterpreted as an index for old-growth structure.

  15. FLEXURAL TESTING OF WOOD-CONCRETE COMPOSITE BEAM MADE FROM KAMPER AND BANGKIRAI WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengky Satria Yoresta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Certain wood has a tensile strength that almost equal with steel rebar in reinforced concrete beams. This research aims to understand the capacity and flexural behavior of concrete beams reinforced by wood (wood-concrete composite beam. Two different types of beams based on placement positions of wood layers are proposed in this study. Two kinds of wood used are consisted of Bangkirai (Shorea laevifolia and Kamper (Cinnamomum camphora, meanwhile the concrete mix ratio for all beams is 1 cement : 2 fine aggregates : 3 coarse aggregates. Bending test is conducted by using one-point loading method. The results show that composite beam using Bangkirai wood is stronger than beams using Kamper wood. More thicker wood layer in tensile area will increase the flexural strength of beams. Crack patterns identified could be classified into flexural cracks, shear cracks, and split on wood layer   Beberapa jenis kayu tertentu memiliki kekuatan tarik yang hampir sama dengan tulangan baja pada balok beton bertulang. Penelitian ini bertujuan memahami kapasitas dan perilaku lentur balok beton bertulang yang diperkuat menggunakan kayu (balok komposit beton-kayu. Dua tipe balok yang berbeda berdasarkan posisi penempatan kayu digunakan dalam penelitian ini. Dua jenis kayu yang digunakan adalah kayu Bangkirai (Shorea laevifolia and Kamper (Cinnamomum camphora, sementara itu rasio campuran beton untuk semua balok menggunakan perbandingan 1 semen : 2 agregat halus : 3 agregat kasar. Pengujian lentur dilakukan menggunakan metode one-point loading. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa balok komposit dengan kayu Bangkirai lebih kuat dibandingkan balok dengan kayu Kamper. Semakin tebal lapisan kayu yang berada di daerah tarik akan meningkatkan kekuatan lentur balok. Pola kerusakan yang teridentifikasi dapat diklasifikasikan menjadi retak lentur, retak geser, dan pecah pada kayu REFERENCES Boen T. (2010. Retrofitting Simple Buildings Damaged by Earthquakes. World Seismic

  16. Considerations in recycling of wood-plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.E. Winandy; N.M. Stark; C.M. Clemons

    2004-01-01

    Wood-plastic composite decking has made major advances in material performance, processing and user acceptance. The growth of wood-plastic composite decking in North America has grown from less than 1 % in mid- 0's to over 10% today with growth projected by several studies to reach +20% before the end of this decade (2010). Preservative-treated wood decking...

  17. SiC/C composites prepared from wood-based carbons by pulse current sintering with SiO2 : Electrical and thermal properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fujisawa, M; Hata, T; Bronsveld, P; Castro, [No Value; Tanaka, F; Kikuchi, H; Furuno, T; Imamura, Y

    2004-01-01

    A powder mix of wood charcoal and SiO2 was sintered into a SiC/C composite. The heat treatment temperatures were 1400-1800 degreesC, the SiO2 concentration 0, 10, 30 and 50 wt.% with respect to the dry weight of wood charcoal. The microstructure, electrical resistance and thermal conductivity were

  18. Assemblage composition of fungal wood-decay species has a major influence on how climate and wood quality modify decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Parvathy; Junninen, Kaisa; Edman, Mattias; Kouki, Jari

    2017-03-01

    The interactions among saprotrophic fungal species, as well as their interactions with environmental factors, may have a major influence on wood decay and carbon release in ecosystems. We studied the effect that decomposer diversity (species richness and assemblage composition) has on wood decomposition when the climatic variables and substrate quality vary simultaneously. We used two temperatures (16 and 21°C) and two humidity levels (70% and 90%) with two wood qualities (wood from managed and old-growth forests) of Pinus sylvestris. In a 9-month experiment, the effects of fungal diversity were tested using four wood-decaying fungi (Antrodia xantha, Dichomitus squalens, Fomitopsis pinicola and Gloeophyllum protractum) at assemblage levels of one, two and four species. Wood quality and assemblage composition affected the influence of climatic factors on decomposition rates. Fungal assemblage composition was found to be more important than fungal species richness, indicating that species-specific fungal traits are of paramount importance in driving decomposition. We conclude that models containing fungal wood-decay species (and wood-based carbon) need to take into account species-specific and assemblage composition-specific properties to improve predictive capacity in regard to decomposition-related carbon dynamics. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Mechanical properties: wood lumber versus plastic lumber and thermoplastic composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Zandomenico Dias

    Full Text Available Abstract Plastic lumber and thermoplastic composites are sold as alternatives to wood products. However, many technical standards and scientific studies state that the two materials cannot be considered to have the same structural behaviour and strength. Moreover, there are many compositions of thermoplastic-based products and plenty of wood species. How different are their mechanical properties? This study compares the modulus of elasticity and the flexural, compressive, tensile and shear strengths of such materials, as well as the materials' specific mechanical properties. It analyses the properties of wood from the coniferae and dicotyledon species and those of commercialized and experimental thermoplastic-based product formulations. The data were collected from books, scientific papers and manufacturers' websites and technical data sheets, and subsequently compiled and presented in Ashby plots and bar graphs. The high values of the compressive strength and specific compressive and tensile strengths perpendicular to the grain (width direction shown by the experimental thermoplastic composites compared to wood reveal their great potential for use in compressed elements and in functions where components are compressed or tensioned perpendicularly to the grain. However, the low specific flexural modulus and high density of thermoplastic materials limit their usage in certain civil engineering and building applications.

  20. Theoretical modeling and experimental analyses of laminated wood composite poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Todd F. Shupe; Vijaya Gopu; Chung Y. Hse

    2005-01-01

    Wood laminated composite poles consist of trapezoid-shaped wood strips bonded with synthetic resin. The thick-walled hollow poles had adequate strength and stiffness properties and were a promising substitute for solid wood poles. It was necessary to develop theoretical models to facilitate the manufacture and future installation and maintenance of this novel...

  1. Impregnation mode in wood plastic composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffar Husain, M.; Khan, Mubarak A.; Azam Ali, M.; Idriss Ali, K. M.; Mustafa, A. I.

    1996-12-01

    Bulk monomer MMA was impregnated into simul, a fuel wood of Bangladesh, under vacuum and under normal temperature and pressure conditions in order to compare the mode of impregnation and its effect on various characteristic parameters of wood plastic composites. Methanol (MeOH) was used as the swelling solvent with methylmethacrylate (MMA) at MMA: MeOH = 70:30, v/v. Impregnation of the bulk monomer was very high under vacuum compared to that at normal condition; but the difference of grafting of MMA to the wood cellulose under these two impregnating conditions was much lower as compared to that of the uptakes of impregnating solution MMA + MeOH under these two modes of impregnation. Incorporation of additives to MMA + MeOH has substantially enhanced grafting, tensile strength, bending strength and compression strength of thcomposite of such an extent that there is virtually very little difference between vacuum impregnation and normal impregnation. Considering the available data it is suggested that the impregnation under normal condition is preferable beacuse different substrates of various sizes and shapes can be suitably impregnated under normal condition while vacuum impregnation has several limitations in this respect.

  2. Thermal load histories for North American roof assembles using various cladding materials including wood-thermoplastic composite shingles

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. E. Winandy

    2006-01-01

    Since 1991, thermal load histories for various roof cladding types have been monitored in outdoor attic structures that simulate classic North American light-framed construction. In this paper, the 2005 thermal loads for wood-based composite roof sheathing, wood rafters, and attics under wood-plastic composite shingles are compared to common North American roof...

  3. Control of formaldehyde and TVOC emission from wood-based flooring composites at various manufacturing processes by surface finishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sumin

    2010-04-15

    This paper assesses the reproducibility of testing formaldehyde and TVOC emission behavior from wood flooring composites bonded by urea-formaldehyde resin at various manufacturing steps for surface finishing materials. The surface adhesion step of laminate flooring for this research was divided into two steps; HDF only and HDF with LPMs. In the case of engineered flooring, the manufacturing steps were divided into three steps; plywood only, fancy veneer bonded on plywood and UV coated on fancy veneer with plywood. Formaldehyde and VOCs emission decreased at the process of final surface finishing materials; LPMs were applied on the surface of HDF for laminate flooring. Although emissions increased when fancy veneer was bonded onto plywood in the case of engineered flooring, emission was dramatically reduced up to similar level with plywood only when final surface finishing; UV-curable coating was applied on fancy veneer. This study suggests that formaldehyde and VOCs emission from floorings can be controlled at manufacturing steps for surface finishing. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Long term durability of wood-plastic composites made with chemically modified wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Craig M. Clemons

    2017-01-01

    Wood-plastic composites (WPCs) have slower moisture sorption than solid wood, but over time moisture can impact the strength, stiffness, and decay of the composite. These changes will become increasingly important if WPCs are used in more challenging environments such as in ground-contact applications. There are several options for mitigating the moisture sorption of...

  5. Filling behaviour of wood plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duretek, I.; Lucyshyn, T.; Holzer, C.

    2017-01-01

    Wood plastic composites (WPC) are a young generation of composites with rapidly growing usage within the plastics industry. The advantages are the availability and low price of the wood particles, the possibility of partially substituting the polymer in the mixture and sustainable use of the earth’s resources. The current WPC products on the market are to a large extent limited to extruded products. Nowadays there is a great interest in the market for consumer products in more use of WPC as an alternative to pure thermoplastics in injection moulding processes. This work presents the results of numerical simulation and experimental visualisation of the mould filling process in injection moulding of WPC. The 3D injection moulding simulations were done with the commercial software package Autodesk® Moldflow® Insight 2016 (AMI). The mould filling experiments were conducted with a box-shaped test part. In contrast to unfilled polymers the WPC has reduced melt elasticity so that the fountain flow often does not develop. This results in irregular flow front shapes in the moulded part, especially at high filler content.

  6. A Phenomenological Thermal-Mechanical Viscoelastic Constitutive Modeling for Polypropylene Wood Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiongqi Peng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a phenomenological thermal-mechanical viscoelastic constitutive modeling for polypropylene wood composites. Polypropylene (PP wood composite specimens are compressed at strain rates from 10−4 to 10−2 s−1 and at temperature of , , and , respectively. The mechanical responses are shown to be sensitive both to strain rate and to temperature. Based on the Maxwell viscoelastic model, a nonlinear thermal-mechanical viscoelastic constitutive model is developed for the PP wood composite by decoupling the effect of temperature with that of the strain rate. Corresponding viscoelastic parameters are obtained through curve fitting with experimental data. Then the model is used to simulate thermal compression of the PP wood composite. The predicted theoretical results coincide quite well with experimental data. The proposed constitutive model is then applied to the thermoforming simulation of an automobile interior part with the PP wood composites.

  7. Gene expression patterns of wood decay fungi Postia placenta and Phanerochaete chrysosporium are influenced by wood substrate composition during degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleksandr Skyba; Daniel Cullen; Carl J. Douglas; Shawn D. Mansfield

    2016-01-01

    Identification of the specific genes and enzymes involved in the fungal degradation of lignocellulosic biomass derived from feedstocks with various compositions is essential to the development of improved bioenergy processes. In order to elucidate the effect of substrate composition on gene expression in wood-rotting fungi, we employed microarrays based on the...

  8. The use of new, aqueous chemical wood modifications to improve the durability of wood-plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Craig M. Clemons; George C. Chen

    2017-01-01

    The wood flour used in wood-plastic composites (WPCs) can biologically deteriorate and thus the overall mechanical performance of WPCs decrease when exposed to moisture and fungal decay. Protecting the wood flour by chemical modification can improve the durability of the wood in a nontoxic way so it is not harmful to the environment. WPCs were made with modified wood...

  9. Resistance of radiation-induced tropical wood-polymer composites to fungal degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chia, L.H.L.; Lim, V.S.L.; Yap, M.G.S.

    1987-01-01

    The resistance of six tropical hardwoods to fungal degradation by two wild-type strains of Phanerochaete chrysosporium Burdsall was investigated using vermiculite burial and wood-block weight loss techniques. Radiation-induced wood-polymer composites (WPC), based on two hardwoods Ramin and Rubberwood with methyl methacrylate, were prepared, and samples were also exposed to the wood-rotting fungus. A significant improvement in resistance to fungal decay was observed in the WPC. Scanning-electron micrographs of the two woods and their composites after fungal degradation are presented and discussed.

  10. Wood Properties and Kinds; A Base Syllabus on Wood Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastern Kentucky Univ., Richmond.

    Prepared by participants in the 1968 National Defense Education Act Institute on Wood Technology, this syllabus is one of a series of basic outlines designed to aid college level industrial arts instructors in improving and broadening the scope and content of their programs. This booklet is concerned largely with the physical composition and…

  11. Heat release rate of wood-plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. M. Stark; R. H. White; C. M. Clemons

    1997-01-01

    Wood-plastic composites are becoming more important as a material that fulfills recycling needs. In this study, fire performance tests were conducted on several compositions of wood and plastic materials using the Ohio State University rate of heat release apparatus. Test results included five-minute average heat release rate in kW/m2 (HRR avg) and maximum heat release...

  12. 78 FR 34820 - Formaldehyde Emissions Standards for Composite Wood Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 770 RIN 2070-AJ92 Formaldehyde Emissions Standards for Composite Wood Products AGENCY... the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite Wood Products Act, or Title VI of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). These proposed requirements are designed to implement the statutory formaldehyde...

  13. Optimization of composite wood structural components : processing and design choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore L. Laufenberg

    1985-01-01

    Decreasing size and quality of the world's forest resources are responsible for interest in producing composite wood structural components. Process and design optimization methods are offered in this paper. Processing concepts for wood composite structural products are reviewed to illustrate manufacturing boundaries and areas of high potential. Structural...

  14. Structure and Photocatalytic Properties of Mn-Doped TiO2 Loaded on Wood-Based Activated Carbon Fiber Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Ma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mn-doped TiO2 loaded on wood-based activated carbon fiber (Mn/TiO2-WACF was prepared by sol–gel and impregnation method using MnSO4·H2O as manganese source. The structure of Mn/TiO2–WACF was characterized by SEM, XRD, FTIR, N2 adsorption and UV–Vis, and its photocatalytic activity for methylene blue degradation was investigated. Results show that Mn-doped TiO2 were loaded on the surface of wood-based activated carbon fiber with high-development pore structures. The crystallite sizes of Mn-doped TiO2 in composites were smaller than that of the undoped samples. With an increase of Mn doping content, Ti–O bending vibration intensity of Mn/TiO2–WACF increased and then decreased. Moreover, Ti–O–Ti and Ti–O–Mn absorption peaks increased upon doping of Mn. Mn/TiO2–WACF with low specific surface area, and pore volume was improved at 3.5–6.0 nm of mesopore distributions due to the Mn-doped TiO2 load. In addition, the UV–Vis showed that Mn/TiO2–WACF (photodegradation rate of 96% has higher photocatalytic activity than the undoped samples for methylene blue degradation under visible light irradiation.

  15. Model for the compression failure of an irradiated tropical wood-polymer composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boey, F. Y. C.; Chia, L. H. L.; Teoh, S. H.

    Using a gamma irradiation method, some tropical wood-polymer composites were produced which exhibited a significant improvement in uniaxial compressive strength. Although compression failure models have been established for normal uniaxial fiber reinforced composites, for both direct compression failure and by microbuckling compression failure, the unique structure of wood-polymer composite does not allow these same models to adequately describe its compression failure. Experimental results indicated that the failure criterion in a uniaxial compression test for the wood-polymer composite was based on the buckling failure of the wood fiber and impregnated polymer along a shear band. Using this buckling failure criterion, a model was proposed that took into account the stiffening effect of the impregnated polymer on the wood cell wall.

  16. Weathering Characteristics of Wood Plastic Composites Reinforced with Extracted or Delignified Wood Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated weathering performance of an HDPE wood plastic composite reinforced with extracted or delignified wood flour (WF. The wood flour was pre-extracted with three different solvents, toluene/ethanol (TE, acetone/water (AW, and hot water (HW, or sodium chlorite/acetic acid. The spectral properties of the composites before and after artificial weathering under accelerated conditions were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, the surface color parameters were analyzed using colorimetry, and the mechanical properties were determined by a flexural test. Weathering of WPC resulted in a surface lightening and a decrease in wood index (wood/HDPE and flexural strength. WPCs that were reinforced with delignified wood flour showed higher ΔL* and ΔE* values, together with lower MOE and MOR retention ratios upon weathering when compared to those with non-extracted control and extracted WF.

  17. Wood ash induced pH changes strongly affect soil bacterial numbers and community composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Andreasen, Toke; Nielsen, Jeppe T.; Voriskova, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Recirculation of wood ash from energy production to forest soil improves the sustainability of this energy production form as recycled wood ash contains nutrients that otherwise would be lost at harvest. In addition, wood-ash is beneficial to many soils due to its inherent acid......-neutralizing capabilities. However, wood ash has several ecosystem-perturbing effects like increased soil pH and pore water electrical conductivity both known to strongly impact soil bacterial numbers and community composition. Studies investigating soil bacterial community responses to wood ash application remain sparse...... and the available results are ambiguous and remain at a general taxonomic level. Here we investigate the response of bacterial communities in a spruce forest soil to wood ash addition corresponding to 0, 5, 22, and 167 t wood ash ha(-1). We used culture-based enumerations of general bacteria, Pseudomonas...

  18. Wood as an adherend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan H. River; Charles B. Vick; Robert H. Gillespie

    1991-01-01

    Wood is a porous, permeable, hygroscopic, orthotropic, biological composite material of extreme chemical diversity and physical intricacy. Table 1.1 provides an overview of the may variables, including wood variables, that bear on the bonding and performance of wood in wood joints and wood-based materials. Of particular note is the fact that wood properties vary...

  19. A review of wood thermal pretreatments to improve wood composite properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel Raul Pelaez-Samaniego; Vikram Yadama; Eini Lowell; Raul. Espinoza-Herrera

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to review the published literature on improving properties of wood composites through thermal pretreatment of wood. Thermal pretreatment has been conducted in moist environments using hot water or steam at temperatures up to 180 and 230 ˚C, respectively, or in dry environments using inert gases at temperatures up to 240 ...

  20. Properties of wood-plastic composites (WPCs) reinforced with extracted and delignified wood flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao Chen; Nicole M. Stark; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Jianmin Gao; Yongming Fan

    2014-01-01

    The water sorption and mechanical properties of wood-plastic composites (WPCs) made of extracted and delignified wood flour (WF) has been investigated. WF was prepared by extraction with the solvent systems toluene/ethanol (TE), acetone/water (AW), and hot water (HW), and its delignification was conducted by means of sodium chlorite/acetic acid (AA) solution. A 2 4...

  1. Decay resistance of wood-plastic composites reinforced with extracted or delignified wood flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Yao Chen; Nicole M. Stark; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Yongming Fan; Jianmin Gao

    2014-01-01

    The moisture and decay resistance of wood-plastic composites (WPCs) reinforced with extracted or delignified wood flour (WF) was investigated. Three different extractions were preformed: toluene/ethanol (TE), acetone/water (AW), and hot water (HW). Delignification (DL) was performed using a sodium chlorite/acetic acid solution. All WPCs specimens were made with 50% by...

  2. Substitution potentials of recycled HDPE and wood particles from post-consumer packaging waste in Wood-Plastic Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerhuber, Philipp F; Welling, Johannes; Krause, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    The market share of Wood-Plastic Composites (WPC) is small but expected to grow sharply in Europe. This raises some concerns about suitable wood particles needed in the wood-based panels industry in Europe. Concerns are stimulated by the competition between the promotion of wooden products through the European Bioeconomy Strategy and wood as an energy carrier through the Renewable Energy Directive. Cascade use of resources and valorisation of waste are potential strategies to overcome resource scarcity. Under experimental design conditions, WPC made from post-consumer recycled wood and plastic (HDPE) were compared to WPC made from virgin resources. Wood content in the polymer matrix was raised in two steps from 0% to 30% and 60%. Mechanical and physical properties and colour differences were characterized. The feasibility of using cascaded resources for WPC is discussed. Results indicate the technical and economic feasibility of using recycled HDPE from packaging waste for WPC. Based on technical properties, 30% recycled wood content for WPC is feasible, but economic and political barriers of efficient cascading of biomass need to be overcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Laboratory tests on fungal resistance of wood filled polyethylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig M. Clemons; Rebecca E. Ibach

    2002-01-01

    A standard method for determining the durability of structural wood was modified for testing the fungal resistance of composites made from high density polyethylene filled with 50% wood flour. Moisture content, mechanical properties, and weight loss were measured over 12 weeks exposure to brown-and white-rot fungi. Mechanical properties were decreased, but irreversible...

  4. Evaluation of Paulownia elongata wood polyethylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulownia wood flour (PWF), a byproduct of milling lumber, was employed as a bio-filler and blended with high density polyethylene (HDPE) via extrusion. Paulownia wood (PW) shavings were milled through a 1-mm screen then separated via shaking into various particle fractions using sieves (#30 - #2...

  5. Effect of Modified Red Pottery Clay on the Moisture Absorption Behavior and Weatherability of Polyethylene-Based Wood-Plastic Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingde; Gao, Xun; Cheng, Wanli; Han, Guangping

    2017-01-26

    Red pottery clay (RPC) was modified using a silane coupling agent, and the modified RPC (mRPC) was then used to enhance the performance of high-density polyethylene-based wood-plastic composites. The effect of the mRPC content on the performances of the composites was investigated through Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, differential mechanical analysis (DMA) and ultraviolet (UV)-accelerated aging tests. After adding the mRPC, a moisture adsorption hysteresis was observed. The DMA results indicated that the mRPC effectively enhanced the rigidity and elasticity of the composites. The mRPC affected the thermal gravimetric, leading to a reduction of the thermal degradation rate and a right-shift of the thermal degradation peak; the initial thermal degradation temperature was increased. After 3000 h of UV-accelerated aging, the flexural strength and impact strength both declined. For aging time between 0 and 1000 h, the increase in amplitude of ΔL* (luminescence) and ΔE* (color) reached a maximum; the surface fading did not became obvious. ΔL* and ΔE* increased more significantly between 1000 and 2000 h. These characterization results indicate that the chromophores of the mRPC became briefly active. However, when the aging times were higher than 2000 h, the photo-degradation reaction was effectively prevented by adding the mRPC. The best overall enhancement was observed for an mRPC mass percentage of 5%, with a storage modulus of 3264 MPa and an increase in loss modulus by 16.8%, the best anti-aging performance and the lowest degree of color fading.

  6. Structure and property of nano-SiO2-PMMA/Wood composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfeng; Liu, Yixing; Wang, Fenghu; Wang, Xiangming

    2009-07-01

    A new wood-based composite, nano-SiO2-PMMA/Wood, with high mechanical properties including modulus of rupture (MOR), compression strength and hardness, and multifunctional properties involving decay resistance, dimensional stability and thermal stability, was prepared by impregnating a vinyl monomer, methyl methacrylate (MMA), and AIBN as an initiator, and a few modified nano-SiO2 particles with unsaturated double bonds (C=C) into the cellular structure of wood material; and further initiating them for in situ copolymerization through a catalyst-heat process. Its structure was characterized with SEM, FTIR and XRD. And the performance of the composite was also determined. The analysis results with SEM, FTIR and XRD show that MMA fully polymerized in the porous structure of wood by its double bond, and the resultant polymer chemically bonded to wood cell walls, which mainly existed in an amorphous form. The nano- SiO2 particles dispersed uniformly in the polymer filling in the porous structure of wood, which might chemically bond to the polymer, as evidenced by SEM-EDAX and FTIR, respectively. The XRD pattern shows that after adding nano- SiO2 particles into the monomers, a slightly higher peak appears at 2θ=39.5° in nano-SiO2-PMMA/Wood compared with that of PMMA/Wood and untreated wood, which indicates that the adding of nano-SiO2 slightly improves the degree of order of PMMA in wood. The testing results of comprehensive performances indicate that after adding polymeric monomers and nano-SiO2 particles into the wood porous structure, the mechanical properties, dimensional stability, decay resistance and thermal stability of wood were remarkably improved, which could endow it with a wide application in the fields of architecture and traffic.

  7. A Review of Wood Plastic Composites effect on the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Taifor Azeez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Wood Plastic Composites (WPCs are environmentally friend materials with a wide range of applications in the field of constructions, comprising high mechanical and physical properties with low cost raw materials as plastic wastes and different carpentry process wood reminder. The effects of wood, plastic waste and additives on various properties of the material such as mechanical (modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture, physical (moisture absorption and fire retardancy have been investigated in order to push the output functions of the products to the limits of work conditions requirements. This study, overviews the importance of Wood Plastic Composites in conserving the environment by depletion post consume plastics from landfills, and the impact of these composites in developing the economic via opening new flourished markets for modern products. Both the ecological and economical requirements oblige the Iraqi government to replace the negatively healthy effects formaldehyde wood composites (medium density fiberboard MDF which are widely consumed in Iraqi markets with Wood Plastic Composites. a long-term strategy plan in which the researchers and the capitals meet under supervision of the government is very necessary and recommended in this paper to establish and develop WPCs industry in Iraq.

  8. Study on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Wood flour / ABS Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Najafi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is study on physical and mechanical properties of wood flour/ Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS based on effect of SMA as coupling agent (0, 4 phc and wood flour filler loading (30,40, 50% of total weight and virgin and recycled ABS. Samples of composites were made by injection molding method and physical tests including long term water absorption and thickness swelling and mechanical tests containing hardness and tensile strength and modulus of them were performed according to ASTM standards method. The results showed that by increasing the amount of wood flour water absorption, water absorption coefficient, thickness swelling, hygroscopic thickness swelling rate, hardness, tensile strength and modulus of composites were increased. Using of virgin ABS in making of composites increased the tensile properties, hardness composites and decreased water absorption, thickness swelling and parameters of them, in long term immersion. Using of SMA in composites decreased hardness of composites.

  9. Evaluation of bolted connections in wood-plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnandha, Yudhi; Satyarno, Iman; Awaludin, Ali; Irawati, Inggar Septia; Ihsan, Muhamad; Wijanarko, Felyx Biondy; William, Mahdinur, Fardhani, Arfiati

    2017-03-01

    Wood-plastic composite (WPC) is a relatively new material that consists of sawdust and plastic polymer using the extrusion process. Due to its attributes such as low water content, low maintenance, UV durability and being fungi and termite resistant. Nowadays, WPC has already been produced in Indonesia using sawdust from local wood such as Albizia (Paraserianthes falcataria) and Teak (Tectona grandis). Moreover preliminary studies about the physical and mechanical WPC board from Albizia sawdust and HDPE plastic have been carried out. Based on these studies, WPC has a high shear strength around 25-30 MPa higher than its original wood shear strength. This paper was a part of the research in evaluating WPC as potential sheathing in a shear wall system. Since still little is known about connection behavior in WPC using Indonesian local wood, this study evaluated the connection for both of these two types of wood-plastic composite. WPC board from Albizia sawdust will be projected as shear wall sheathing and WPC stud from Teak sawdust projected to be shear wall frame. For this study, the embedding strength for both WPC was determined according to ASTM D 5764 standard, using two types of bolts (stainless bolt and standard bolt) with several diameters as variation (6 mm, 8 mm, 10 and 12 mm). Hence, dowel-bearing test under fastened condition conducted accordance to ASTM D5652, hereby the yield strength then compared with the prediction yield strength from European Yield Model (EYM). According to both single and double shear connection, it can be concluded that yield strength from the EYM method tended to under-predict the 5% diameter offset yield than the actual yield strength from the test. The yield strength itself increase with the increase of bolt diameter. For single shear connection, the highest yield strength was 12 mm standard bolt around 9732 N, slightly higher than stainless bolt around 9393 N. Whereby for double shear connection, the highest yield strength was

  10. Finite element analyses of wood laminated composite poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Todd F. Shupe; R.C. Tang; Chung Y. Hse

    2005-01-01

    Finite element analyses using ANSYS were conducted on orthotropic, polygonal, wood laminated composite poles subjected to a body force and a concentrated load at the free end. Deflections and stress distributions of small-scale and full-size composite poles were analyzed and compared to the results obtained in an experimental study. The predicted deflection for both...

  11. Variations in the monoterpene composition of ponderosa pine wood oleoresin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard H. Smith

    1964-01-01

    A wide range in quantitative composition of the wood oleoresin monoterpenes was found among 64 ponderosa pines in the central Sierra Nevada by gas chromatographic analysis. An inverse relationship was found in the amount of β-pinene and Δ3-carene. Practically no difference in composition could be associated with (a) type of...

  12. The effect of chemical treatment of wood flour on some of properties of wood plastic composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Ismaeilimoghadam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate the effect of chemical treatment of wood flour on some of physical, mechanical and morphological properties of wood plastic composite. Chemical treatment of wood flour at 7 levels without treatment, acetylation, benzoylation, mercerization, magnesium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide and warm water treatment were considered as variable factors. For evaluate reaction of wood flour with chemical materials, weight percent gain (WPG were calculated. After chemical treatment, Wood flour and polypropylene with weight ratio of 60 to 40 and 4 per hundred compound (phc of coupling agent mixed in the extruder device and then the specimens were fabricated by injection molding method. Then mechanical tests Included tensile, flexural and impact strength and physical examination, including water absorption and thickness swelling was performed on specimens according to (ASTM standard. Also to study the morphology of the composites, scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used. The results showed that by chemical treatment the mechanical strength increased and physical properties such as water absorption and thickness swelling decreased. Also the highest chemical treatments of wood flour was related to the banzylation treatment. As well as obtained results of scanning electron microscopy was indicate improve in cross linking between fibers and polymeric matrix on effect of chemical treatment, so that in treatment samples exiting of fibers into the matrix not observed.

  13. Properties of high density polyethylene – Paulownia wood flour composites via injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulownia wood (PW) flour is evaluated as a bio-based fiber reinforcement. Composites of high density polyethylene (HDPE), 25% by weight of PW, and either 0% or 5% by weight of maleated polyethylene (MAPE) were produced by twin screw compounding followed by injection molding. Molded test composite...

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF WOOD-BASED PRODUCTS WORLDWIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius C. BARBU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The tendency in recent decades for manufacturing plants of semi-finished products such as composite panels, has been to invest in order to achieve high production capacities (>2,000 m³/day for panels and >3,000 t/day for paper with one line. The trend of concentrating the primary processing capacities and manufacturing wood-based panels will continue for the next few years not only in Europe but in North and South America as well. The ten largest panel manufacturers had a combined manufacturing capacity that exceeded a third of the worldwide production capacity. The financial crisis that started in 2008 has caused the closure of a large number of factories especially in North America and Central Europe. Small- and medium-sized producers will only survive if they will continue to specialize in the manufacture of panel types and sizes (niche products that are “unprofitable” for mega-groups. The installed production capacity worldwide of all wood-based composite panels combined (includes PY, PB, MDF, OSB rose by more than 2.5 times between 1980 and 2005 (225 mil.m³, and continues to increase despite the crises reaching approx. 300 mil.m³ in 2013. The forecast for the coming years varies greatly from continent to continent. In North America and Central Europe, both a consolidation of the available production capacities and the closure of less efficient older lines are expected. The lowest point of the effect of the financial crisis on the building industry seems to have been overcome. The furniture production companies will continue to move from one continent and region to another.

  15. OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOOD PLASTIC COMPOSITE PRODUCTS IN THE U.S. HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Knowles; Eric N Hansen; Derek W Thompson; Lech Muszynski

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine the market potential for wood plastic composite (WPC) products in the highway construction sector in place of non-renewable materials (e.g. virgin plastic and steel) and preservative-based products (treated wood). State-level transportation officials indicate that the majority of highway construction purchases are conducted by highway construction contractors. Results from a mail survey of highway contractors in eight western U.S. states indicate that a ...

  16. Wood-plastic composites as promising green-composites for automotive industries!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashori, Alireza

    2008-07-01

    Wood-plastic composite (WPC) is a very promising and sustainable green material to achieve durability without using toxic chemicals. The term WPCs refers to any composites that contain plant fiber and thermosets or thermoplastics. In comparison to other fibrous materials, plant fibers are in general suitable to reinforce plastics due to relative high strength and stiffness, low cost, low density, low CO2 emission, biodegradability and annually renewable. Plant fibers as fillers and reinforcements for polymers are currently the fastest-growing type of polymer additives. Since automakers are aiming to make every part either recyclable or biodegradable, there still seems to be some scope for green-composites based on biodegradable polymers and plant fibers. From a technical point of view, these bio-based composites will enhance mechanical strength and acoustic performance, reduce material weight and fuel consumption, lower production cost, improve passenger safety and shatterproof performance under extreme temperature changes, and improve biodegradability for the auto interior parts.

  17. Thermochemical pretreatment of underutilized woody biomass for manufacturing wood composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaez Samaniego, Manuel Raul

    Prescribed fires, one method for reducing hazardous fuel loads from forest lands in the US, are limited by geographical, environmental, and social impacts. Mechanical operations are an alternative type of fuel treatment but these processes are constrained by the difficulty of economically harvesting and/or using large amounts of low-value woody biomass. Adoption and integration of new technologies into existing wood composite facilities offer better utilization of this material. A pretreatment that enables integration of technologies in a typical composite facility will aid with diversification of product portfolio (e.g. wood composites, fuel pellets, liquid fuels, chemicals). Hot water extraction (HWE) is an option for wood pretreatment. This work provides a fundamental understanding of the physicochemical changes to wood resulting from HWE, and how these changes impact processing and performance of composites. Specific objectives were to: 1) review literature on studies related to the manufacture of composites produced with thermally pretreated wood, 2) manufacture wood plastic composites (WPC) and particleboard using HWE wood and evaluate the impacts of pretreatment on product properties, 3) develop an understanding of the effect of HWE on lignin properties, specifically lignin at the cells surface level after migration from cell walls and middle lamella, 4) discern the influence of lignin on the fiber surface on processing WPCs, and, 5) investigate the effect of changing the pretreatment environment (inert gas instead of water) on lignin behavior. Results show that HWE enhances the resistance of both WPCs and particleboard to water with positive or no effect on mechanical properties. Reduction of hemicelluloses and lignin property changes are suggested as the main reasons for enhancing interaction between wood fiber and resins during composite processing. Lignin on the surface of particles after HWE interacts with thermoplastics during WPCs compounding, thus

  18. Wood plastic composites from modified wood. Part 3. Durability of WPCs with bioderived matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westin, M.; Larsson-Brelid, P.; Segerholm, B.K.; Oever, van den M.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    The decay resistance of fully bio-derived wood plastic composites, WPCs, was tested in both laboratory and field tests. The laboratory tests were performed according to modified versions of AWPA E10 (soil-block test) and ENV 807 (tests in three un-sterile soils) and the field tests according to EN

  19. Analysis of composite structure and primordial wood remains in petrified wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, J; Nowak, D; Chevallier, P; Lekki, J; Van Grieken, R; Kuczumow, A

    2007-08-01

    Among all the fossils, petrified wood belongs to the most impressive and most common of materials. Still, its study has not exceeded the purely phenomenological level. The recognition of the conserved structure of petrified wood seems to be of meaning for understanding the geological past, the complete carbon cycle inside the Earth, and the structure of potential new materials. The first ever published spatial distributions of the remains of the primordial organic material (lignin, cellulose, pectins) in the cells of permineralized wood, from Dunarobba (Central Italy), are presented here. They were collected using micro-Raman spectrometry. The composite nature of the petrified material (calcite located in the lumena of cells and goethite located in the cell walls) was confirmed by electron, proton, and X-ray microprobes. The structure of the cell walls was well preserved. The mineralization process was induced by the tracheidal water flow and was stopped after formation of pipe-like goethite shielding of the cell walls on the cellulose scaffolds. The chemical (Eh and pH ranges) and probable microbial conditions for such a pattern of mineralization were determined. We estimate that substantial amounts of the primordial organic matter were preserved in bodies of petrified wood on a global scale. The wood petrifaction process, if well understood, can be a basis for the production of "everlasting" organic-inorganic composite compounds.

  20. Wood versus Plant Fibers: Similarities and Differences in Composite Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Madsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The work on cellulose fiber composites is typically strictly divided into two separated research fields depending on the fiber origin, that is, from wood and from annual plants, representing the two different industries of forest and agriculture, respectively. The present paper evaluates in parallel wood fibers and plant fibers to highlight their similarities and differences regarding their use as reinforcement in composites and to enable mutual transfer of knowledge and technology between the two research fields. The paper gives an introduction to the morphology, chemistry, and ultrastructure of the fibers, the modeling of the mechanical properties of the fibers, the fiber preforms available for manufacturing of composites, the typical mechanical properties of the composites, the modeling of the mechanical properties with focus on composites having a random fiber orientation and a non-negligible porosity content, and finally, the moisture sensitivity of the composites. The performance of wood and plant fiber composites is compared to the synthetic glass and carbon fibers conventionally used for composites, and advantages and disadvantages of the different fibers are discussed.

  1. 78 FR 51695 - Formaldehyde Emissions Standards for Composite Wood Products; Extension of Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 770 RIN 2070-AJ92 Formaldehyde Emissions Standards for Composite Wood Products..., concerning formaldehyde emissions standards for composite wood products. After receiving requests for an... CFR Part 770 Environmental protection, Formaldehyde, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Toxic...

  2. Field and Laboratory Decay Evaluations of wood-plastic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Marek Gnatowski; Grace Sun

    2013-01-01

    Experimental wood–plastic composites (WPCs) were made so that they matched the manufacturing process, dimensions, and water absorption of some commercial decking boards. WPC samples from selected formulations were divided into two identical groups. The first group was exposed in exterior conditions in Vancouver, British Columbia, and Hilo, Hawaii, at sun and shadow...

  3. Characterizing wood-plastic composites via data-driven methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    John G. Michopoulos; John C. Hermanson; Robert Badaliance

    2007-01-01

    The recent increase of wood-plastic composite materials in various application areas has underlined the need for an efficient and robust methodology to characterize their nonlinear anisotropic constitutive behavior. In addition, the multiplicity of various loading conditions in structures utilizing these materials further increases the need for a characterization...

  4. Tension and Compression Creep Apparatus for wood-Plastic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott E. Hamel; John C. Hermanson; Steven M. Cramer

    2011-01-01

    Design of structural members made of wood-plastic composites (WPC) is not possible without accurate test data for tension and compression. The viscoelastic behavior of these materials means that these data are required for both the quasi-static stress-strain response, and the long-term creep response. Their relative incompressibility causes inherent difficulties in...

  5. Mechanical properties evaluation of extruded wood polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaini, A. S. Syah M.; Rus, Anika Zafiah M.; Rahman, Norherman Abdul; Jais, Farhana Hazwanee M.; Fauzan, M. Zarif; Sufian, N. Afiqah

    2017-09-01

    The rapidly expanding of interest in the manufacture of composite materials from waste industrial and agricultural materials is due to high demand for environmentally friendly materials. Wood polymer composite (WPC) are being used in many type of applications such as in the automobile, electronic, aerospace industry and construction. Therefore, this research study is to determine the mechanical properties behaviour of WPC after an extended Ultra Violet (UV) irradiation exposure. The fabricated sample has been used and to be compared in this research is consists of rice husk, waste fibre and polypropylene (PP) with 4 different types of WPC which are wood block waste (WBW), wood block virgin (WBV), wood sheet (WS) and wood sheet waste (WSW). The extruded specimens were tested for mechanical properties such as strength under compression, puncture strength and impact resistance, and density. In addition, the specimen has been irradiated with the UV exposure at 5000 hours, 10000 hours and 15000 hours. Generally, the mechanical properties the WPC which made from the recycled material were lower than the WPC from virgin material but the density was comparable between the two products after UV irradiation exposure.

  6. Influence of moisture absorption on mechanical properties of wood flour- polypropylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole Stark

    2001-09-01

    Wood-plastic composites are being examined for a greater number of structural-type applications that may be exposed to different environments, some of them adverse. This paper discusses the influence of moisture absorption on the mechanical proper-ties of wood flour-polypropylene composites. Composites filled with 20% or 40% wood flour (by weight) were placed in...

  7. Wood versus plant fibers: Similarities and differences in composite applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Gamstedt, E. Kristofer

    2013-01-01

    The work on cellulose fiber composites is typically strictly divided into two separated research fields depending on the fiber origin, that is, from wood and from annual plants, representing the two different industries of forest and agriculture, respectively. The present paper evaluates in paral......The work on cellulose fiber composites is typically strictly divided into two separated research fields depending on the fiber origin, that is, from wood and from annual plants, representing the two different industries of forest and agriculture, respectively. The present paper evaluates...... in parallel wood fibers and plant fibers to highlight their similarities and differences regarding their use as reinforcement in composites and to enable mutual transfer of knowledge and technology between the two research fields. The paper gives an introduction to the morphology, chemistry......, and ultrastructure of the fibers, the modeling of the mechanical properties of the fibers, the fiber preforms available for manufacturing of composites, the typical mechanical properties of the composites, the modeling of the mechanical properties with focus on composites having a random fiber orientation and a non...

  8. Composites from maleated polyolefin-grafted wood particles produced via reactive extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlborn, Karana

    This study examined the concept of using a reactive extrusion process to develop a new, formaldehyde-free binding system for wood composite products. The surfaces of wood particles were modified by grafting maleated polyethylene (MAPE) and maleated polypropylene (MAPP) compounds through a continuous reactive extrusion process. MAPE content was varied to study the effect of material composition on grafting efficiency, while extruder barrel temperatures and rotational screw speeds were varied to evaluate the effects of processing conditions on the modification of wood particles. Polymer molecular weight effects were followed using MAPP with different molecular weights. Efficiency of the modification was assessed using FTIR. 13C NMR and XPS surface analysis techniques, along with a titrimetric analysis to verify the esterification reaction between the wood particles and maleated polyolefins. Composite panels were made from wood particles modified with MAPE and MAPP binding agents under two different manufacturing methods. Specific contrasts of (i) base resin type, PE vs. PP, (ii) molecular weight/maleic anhydride content in MAPP binding agents, and (iii) the manufacturing methods (reactive extrusion vs. hot press) were investigated to determine the effects of these factors on the physico-mechanical properties of the composites. Finally, a response surface method using a Box-Behnken design was constructed to statistically model and optimize the material compositions-processing conditions-mechanical property relationships of formaldehyde-free wood composite panels. FTIR, 13C NMR, XPS and titration data confirmed the grafting of maleated polyolefins onto wood particles through an esterification reaction, while the level of grafting of MAPE onto wood particles was determined to be a function of the MAPE concentration. However, there was no significant difference in grafting efficiency at different extrusion processing conditions; rather all of the conditions resulted in

  9. Structure and Mechanical Behaviour of Wood-Fibre Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Joffre, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Wood fibres have several advantages compared to man-made synthetic fibres: they have high specific stiffness, are renewable, relatively inexpensive, available in industrial quantities and biodegradable. However, to increase and diversify their utilisation, it is necessary to increase the understanding on what controls their mechanical properties. In this work, the hygroelastic behaviour of isolated wood fibres has been investigated using an analytical model and a finite element model based on...

  10. In situ polymerized wood polymer composite: effect of additives and nanoclay on the thermal, mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devi, Rashmi R; Maji, Tarun K., E-mail: tkm@tezu.ernet.in [Department of Chemical Sciences, Tezpur University, Assam, (India)

    2013-11-01

    This study concerns the preparation and characterization of wood polymer nanocomposites based on impregnation of styrene acrylonitrile co-polymer-nanoclay intercalating system in presence of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), a cross linking agent, and vinyl trichloro silane (VTCS) as additives into Simul (Bombex ceiba, L.), a soft wood. The effect of nanoclay and VTCS on the properties of the resultant wood polymer nanocomposites (WPNC) has been evaluated. FTIR spectroscopy shows the interaction among wood, polymers, GMA, nanoclay and VTCS. The penetration of polymer and nanoclay into the wood cell wall is supported by SEM study. The distribution of nanoclay in the SAN polymer matrix present within the wood cell wall has been evidenced by TEM study. TGA results show an improvement in the thermostability of the resultant composites. The inclusion of VTCS enhances the self extinguishing behaviour of the WPNC as revealed by limiting oxygen index (LOI) test. Due to treatment, the resultant WPNC exhibits an improvement in all the properties like water repellency, dimensional stability, hardness, flexural, tensile and thermal stability compared to untreated wood. (author)

  11. In situ polymerized wood polymer composite: effect of additives and nanoclay on the thermal, mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi R Devi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns the preparation and characterization of wood polymer nanocomposites based on impregnation of styrene acrylonitrile co-polymer-nanoclay intercalating system in presence of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA, a cross linking agent, and vinyl trichloro silane (VTCS as additives into Simul (Bombex ceiba, L., a soft wood. The effect of nanoclay and VTCS on the properties of the resultant wood polymer nanocomposites (WPNC has been evaluated. FTIR spectroscopy shows the interaction among wood, polymers, GMA, nanoclay and VTCS. The penetration of polymer and nanoclay into the wood cell wall is supported by SEM study. The distribution of nanoclay in the SAN polymer matrix present within the wood cell wall has been evidenced by TEM study. TGA results show an improvement in the thermostability of the resultant composites. The inclusion of VTCS enhances the self extinguishing behaviour of the WPNC as revealed by limiting oxygen index (LOI test. Due to treatment, the resultant WPNC exhibits an improvement in all the properties like water repellancy, dimensional stability, hardness, flexural, tensile and thermal stability compared to untreated wood.

  12. Laboratory and exterior decay of wood plastic composite boards: voids analysis and computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace Sun; Rebecca E. Ibach; Meghan Faillace; Marek Gnatowski; Jessie A. Glaeser; John Haight

    2016-01-01

    After exposure in the field and laboratory soil block culture testing, the void content of wood–plastic composite (WPC) decking boards was compared to unexposed samples. A void volume analysis was conducted based on calculations of sample density and from micro-computed tomography (microCT) data. It was found that reference WPC contains voids of different sizes from...

  13. Influence of Water on Tribological Properties of Wood-Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysiukiewicz, Olga; Sterzyński, Tomasz

    2017-08-01

    Utilization of ecological materials for appliances and products is one of the ways to achieve the goal of sustainability.Wood-polymer composites as a cheap, lightweight, durable and esthetic material has gained attention of scientists, engineers and consumers alike. Different kinds of polymeric matrices, plants used as the fillers, chemical of physical modifiers and processing technologies have already been widely studied. Nonetheless, surprisingly few information on Wood-Polymer Composites' tribology can be found. This paper is an attempt to fill this gap. Polypropylene-and poly(lactic acid)-based composites with varying wood flour content have been analyzed. The Brinell's hardness and coefficient of friction of the samples have been determined. In order to evaluate the influence of the moisture content on the tribological and mechanical properties of the composites, the samples have also been aged in water. The investigation revealed that polymeric composites filled with wood flour can present favorable coefficient of friction, compared to the neat resins. The results of our study can establish a good starting point for further investigation.

  14. Wood-Based Nanocomposite Derived by in Situ Formation of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Polymer within Wood via a Sol-Gel Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoying; Zhuo, Xiao; Wei, Jie; Zhang, Gang; Li, Yongfeng

    2017-03-15

    Solid wood materials and wood-plastic composites as two kinds of lightweight materials are attracting great interest from academia and industry due to their green and recycling nature. However, the relatively lower specific strength limits their wider applications. In particular, solid wood is vulnerable to moisture and decay fungi in nature, resulting in its poor durability for effectively long-term utilization. Inspired from the porous structure of wood, we propose a new design to build a wood-based nanocomposite with higher specific strength and satisfactory durability by in situ generation of organic-inorganic hybrid polymer within wood via a sol-gel method. The derived composite has 50-1200% improvement of impact toughness, 56-192% improvement of tensile strength, and 110-291% improvement of flexural strength over those of typical wood-plastic composites, respectively; and even 34% improvement of specific tensile strength than that of 36A steel; 208% enhancement of hardness; and 156% enhancement of compression strength than those of compared solid wood, respectively; as well as significantly improved dimensional stability and decay resistance over those of untreated natural wood. Such materials could be potentially utilized as lightweight and high-strength materials for applications in construction and automotive industries. This method could be extended to constitute other inorganic nanomaterials for novel organic-inorganic hybrid polymer within wood.

  15. Effects of material parameters on the diffusion and sorption properties of wood-flour/polypropylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera Steckel; Craig Merrill Clemons; Heiko Thoemen

    2007-01-01

    Composites of wood in a thermoplastic matrix (wood–plastic composites) are considered a low maintenance solution to using wood in outdoor applications. Knowledge of moisture uptake and transport properties would be useful in estimating moisture-related effects such as fungal attack and loss of mechanical strength. Our objectives were to determine how material...

  16. 78 FR 44089 - Formaldehyde Emissions Standards for Composite Wood Products; Extension of Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 770 RIN 2070-AJ92 Formaldehyde Emissions Standards for Composite Wood Products..., concerning formaldehyde emissions standards for composite wood products. This document extends the comment..., Formaldehyde, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Toxic substances, Wood. Dated: July 17, 2013. James...

  17. Evaluation of the mechanical and thermal properties of coffee tree wood flour - polypropylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbian coffee trees are subject to frequent replacement plantings due to disease and local climate changes which makes them an ideal source of wood fibers for wood plastic composites (WPC). Composites of polypropylene (PP) consisting of 25% and 40% by weight of coffee wood flour (CF) and 0% or 5%...

  18. Effect of processing method on accelerated weathering of wood-flour/HDPE composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole M. Stark; Laurent M. Matuana; Craig M. Clemons

    2003-01-01

    Wood-plastic lumber is promoted as a low maintenance high-durability product. When exposed to accelerated weathering, however, wood-plastic composites may experience a color change and/or loss in mechanical properties. Different methods of manufacturing wood-plastic composites lead to different surface characteristics, which can influence weathering, In this study, 50...

  19. Changes in wood flour/HDPE composites after accelerated weathering with and without water spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole M. Stark

    2005-01-01

    Wood-plastic lumber is promoted as a low-maintenance high-durability product. After weathering, however, wood-plasticcomposites (WPCs) often fide and lose mechanical properties. In the first part ofthis study, 50%wood-flour-filled high-density polyethylene (HDPE) composite samples were injection molded or extruded. Composites were exposed to two accelerated weathering...

  20. The fungal composition of natural biofinishes on oil-treated wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, Elke J; Houbraken, Jos A M P; Punt, Peter J; Roeselers, Guus; Adan, Olaf C G; Samson, Robert A

    2017-01-01

    Biofinished wood is considered to be a decorative and protective material for outdoor constructions, showing advantages compared to traditional treated wood in terms of sustainability and self-repair. Natural dark wood staining fungi are essential to biofinish formation on wood. Although all sorts of outdoor situated timber are subjected to fungal staining, the homogenous dark staining called biofinish has only been detected on specific vegetable oil-treated substrates. Revealing the fungal composition of various natural biofinishes on wood is a first step to understand and control biofinish formation for industrial application. A culture-based survey of fungi in natural biofinishes on oil-treated wood samples showed the common wood stain fungus Aureobasidium and the recently described genus Superstratomyces to be predominant constituents. A culture-independent approach, based on amplification of the internal transcribed spacer regions, cloning and Sanger sequencing, resulted in clone libraries of two types of biofinishes. Aureobasidium was present in both biofinish types, but was only predominant in biofinishes on pine sapwood treated with raw linseed oil. Most cloned sequences of the other biofinish type (pine sapwood treated with olive oil) could not be identified. In addition, a more in-depth overview of the fungal composition of biofinishes was obtained with Illumina amplicon sequencing that targeted the internal transcribed spacer region 1. All investigated samples, that varied in wood species, (oil) treatments and exposure times, contained Aureobasidium and this genus was predominant in the biofinishes on pine sapwood treated with raw linseed oil. Lapidomyces was the predominant genus in most of the other biofinishes and present in all other samples. Surprisingly, Superstratomyces, which was predominantly detected by the cultivation-based approach, could not be found with the Illumina sequencing approach, while Lapidomyces was not detected in the culture-based

  1. Using small diameter trees for wood fiber-plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phil T. Archuletta

    2008-01-01

    (Please note, this is an extended abstract only) P&M Plastics, Inc. ("P&M" or the "Company" began operation in 1998 as a result of efforts within P&M Signs, a sister company, to develop a new composite material to be used for external signage-one more rugged than wood. The result of these efforts is a 40% woody biomass and a 60% plastic...

  2. Use of recycled plastics in wood plastic composites - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi Najafi, Saeed

    2013-09-01

    The use of recycled and waste thermoplastics has been recently considered for producing wood plastic composites (WPCs). They have great potential for WPCs manufacturing according to results of some limited researches. This paper presents a detailed review about some essential properties of waste and recycled plastics, important for WPCs production, and of research published on the effect of recycled plastics on the physical and mechanical properties of WPCs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Composite Action on the Strength of Wood Roofs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan A. Campos Varela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Engineering certification for the installation of solar photovoltaic modules on wood roofs is often denied because existing wood roofs do not meet current building codes. Rather than requiring expensive structural retrofits, we desire to show that many roofs are actually sufficiently strong if the effect of composite action produced by joist-sheathing interaction is considered. In a series of laboratory experiments using a limited number of two-by-four wood joists with and without sheathing panels, conventionally sheathed stud-grade joists, surprisingly, exhibited between 18% and 63% higher nominal strength than similar bare joists. To explain this strength increase, a simple model was developed to predict the strengths of the nailed partially composite sections, but the model only justifies a 1.4% to 3.8% increase in bending strength of joists with an allowable bending strength of 1000 psi. More testing is indicated to resolve this discrepancy between laboratory results and analytical modeling results. In addition to elucidating nonlinear partial composite behavior of existing roof systems, this paper shows that, with minor changes in roof framing practices, strength increases of 70% or more are achievable, compared to the strengths of conventionally sheathed joists.

  4. Preparation of Desirable Porous Cell Structure Polylactide/Wood Flour Composite Foams Assisted by Chain Extender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youyong Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Polylactide (PLA/wood flour composite foam were prepared through a batch foaming process. The effect of the chain extender on the crystallization behavior and dynamic rheological properties of the PLA/wood flour composites were investigated as well as the crystal structure and cell morphology of the composite foams. The incorporation of the chain extender enhanced the complex viscosity and storage modulus of PLA/wood flour composites, indicating the improved melt elasticity. The chain extender also led to a decreased crystallization rate and final crystallinity of PLA/wood flour composites. With an increasing chain extender content, a finer and more uniform cell structure was formed, and the expansion ratio of PLA/wood flour composite foams was much higher than without the chain extender. Compared to the unfoamed composites, the crystallinity of the foamed PLA/wood flour composites was improved and the crystal was loosely packed. However, the new crystalline form was not evident.

  5. Preparation of Desirable Porous Cell Structure Polylactide/Wood Flour Composite Foams Assisted by Chain Extender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youyong; Song, Yongming; Du, Jun; Xi, Zhenhao; Wang, Qingwen

    2017-08-26

    Polylactide (PLA)/wood flour composite foam were prepared through a batch foaming process. The effect of the chain extender on the crystallization behavior and dynamic rheological properties of the PLA/wood flour composites were investigated as well as the crystal structure and cell morphology of the composite foams. The incorporation of the chain extender enhanced the complex viscosity and storage modulus of PLA/wood flour composites, indicating the improved melt elasticity. The chain extender also led to a decreased crystallization rate and final crystallinity of PLA/wood flour composites. With an increasing chain extender content, a finer and more uniform cell structure was formed, and the expansion ratio of PLA/wood flour composite foams was much higher than without the chain extender. Compared to the unfoamed composites, the crystallinity of the foamed PLA/wood flour composites was improved and the crystal was loosely packed. However, the new crystalline form was not evident.

  6. Integrated control of wood destroying basidiomycetes combining Cu-based wood preservatives and Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribera, Javier; Fink, Siegfried; Bas, Maria Del Carmen; Schwarze, Francis W M R

    2017-01-01

    The production of new generation of wood preservatives (without addition of a co-biocide) in combination with an exchange of wood poles on identical sites with high fungal inoculum, has resulted in an increase of premature failures of wood utility poles in the last decades. Wood destroying basidiomycetes inhabiting sites where poles have been installed, have developed resistance against wood preservatives. The objective of the in vitro studies was to identify a Trichoderma spp. with a highly antagonistic potential against wood destroying basidiomycetes that is capable of colonizing Cu-rich environments. For this purpose, the activity of five Trichoderma spp. on Cu-rich medium was evaluated according to its growth and sporulation rates. The influence of the selected Trichoderma spp. on wood colonization and degradation by five wood destroying basidiomycetes was quantitatively analyzed by means of dry weight loss of wood specimens. Furthermore, the preventative effect of the selected Trichoderma spp. in combination with four Cu-based preservatives was also examined by mass loss and histological changes in the wood specimens. Trichoderma harzianum (T-720) was considered the biocontrol agent with higher antagonistic potential to colonize Cu-rich environments (up to 0.1% CuSO4 amended medium). T. harzianum demonstrated significant preventative effect on wood specimens against four wood destroying basidiomycetes. The combined effect of T. harzianum and Cu-based wood preservatives demonstrated that after 9 months incubation with two wood destroying basidiomycetes, wood specimens treated with 3.8 kg m-3 copper-chromium had weight losses between 55-65%, whereas containers previously treated with T. harzianum had significantly lower weight losses (0-25%). Histological studies on one of the wood destroying basidiomycetes revealed typical decomposition of wood cells by brown-rot fungi in Cu-impregnated samples, that were notably absent in wood specimens previously exposed to T

  7. Surface chemistry changes of weathered HDPE/wood-flour composites studied by XPS and FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole M. Stark; Laurent M. Matuana

    2004-01-01

    The use of wood-derived fillers by the thermoplastic industry has been growing, fueled in part by the use of wood-fiber–thermoplastic composites by the construction industry. As a result, the durability of wood-fiber– thermoplastic composites after ultraviolet exposure has become a concern. Samples of 100% high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and HDPE filled with 50% wood-...

  8. Influence of Water on Tribological Properties of Wood-Polymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mysiukiewicz Olga

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of ecological materials for appliances and products is one of the ways to achieve the goal of sustainability.Wood-polymer composites as a cheap, lightweight, durable and esthetic material has gained attention of scientists, engineers and consumers alike. Different kinds of polymeric matrices, plants used as the fillers, chemical of physical modifiers and processing technologies have already been widely studied. Nonetheless, surprisingly few information on Wood-Polymer Composites’ tribology can be found. This paper is an attempt to fill this gap. Polypropylene-and poly(lactic acid-based composites with varying wood flour content have been analyzed. The Brinell’s hardness and coefficient of friction of the samples have been determined. In order to evaluate the influence of the moisture content on the tribological and mechanical properties of the composites, the samples have also been aged in water. The investigation revealed that polymeric composites filled with wood flour can present favorable coefficient of friction, compared to the neat resins. The results of our study can establish a good starting point for further investigation.

  9. Mechanical, Thermomechanical and Reprocessing Behavior of Green Composites from Biodegradable Polymer and Wood Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreale, Marco; Liga, Antonio; Mistretta, Maria Chiara; Ascione, Laura; Mantia, Francesco Paolo La

    2015-11-11

    The rising concerns in terms of environmental protection and the search for more versatile polymer-based materials have led to an increasing interest in the use of polymer composites filled with natural organic fillers (biodegradable and/or coming from renewable resources) as a replacement for traditional mineral inorganic fillers. At the same time, the recycling of polymers is still of fundamental importance in order to optimize the utilization of available resources, reducing the environmental impact related to the life cycle of polymer-based items. Green composites from biopolymer matrix and wood flour were prepared and the investigation focused on several issues, such as the effect of reprocessing on the matrix properties, wood flour loading effects on virgin and reprocessed biopolymer, and wood flour effects on material reprocessability. Tensile, Dynamic-mechanical thermal (DMTA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and creep tests were performed, pointing out that wood flour leads to an improvement of rigidity and creep resistance in comparison to the pristine polymer, without compromising other properties such as the tensile strength. The biopolymer also showed a good resistance to multiple reprocessing; the latter even allowed for improving some properties of the obtained green composites.

  10. Mechanical, Thermomechanical and Reprocessing Behavior of Green Composites from Biodegradable Polymer and Wood Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Morreale

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The rising concerns in terms of environmental protection and the search for more versatile polymer-based materials have led to an increasing interest in the use of polymer composites filled with natural organic fillers (biodegradable and/or coming from renewable resources as a replacement for traditional mineral inorganic fillers. At the same time, the recycling of polymers is still of fundamental importance in order to optimize the utilization of available resources, reducing the environmental impact related to the life cycle of polymer-based items. Green composites from biopolymer matrix and wood flour were prepared and the investigation focused on several issues, such as the effect of reprocessing on the matrix properties, wood flour loading effects on virgin and reprocessed biopolymer, and wood flour effects on material reprocessability. Tensile, Dynamic-mechanical thermal (DMTA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and creep tests were performed, pointing out that wood flour leads to an improvement of rigidity and creep resistance in comparison to the pristine polymer, without compromising other properties such as the tensile strength. The biopolymer also showed a good resistance to multiple reprocessing; the latter even allowed for improving some properties of the obtained green composites.

  11. Fabrication of Wood-Rubber Composites Using Rubber Compound as a Bonding Agent Instead of Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongwei Shao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Differing from the hot-pressing method in the manufacturing of traditional wood-rubber composites (WRCs, this study was aimed at fabricating WRCs using rubber processing to improve water resistance and mechanical properties. Three steps were used to make WRCs, namely, fiber-rubber mixing, tabletting, and the vulcanization molding process. Ninety-six WRC panels were made with wood fiber contents of 0%–50% at rotor rotational speeds of 15–45 rpm and filled coefficients of 0.55–0.75. Four regression equations, i.e., the tensile strength (Ts, elongation at break (Eb, hardness (Ha and rebound resilience (Rr as functions of fiber contents, rotational speed and filled coefficient, were derived and a nonlinear programming model were developed to obtain the optimum composite properties. Although the Ts, Eb and Rr of the panels were reduced, Ha was considerably increased by 17%–58% because of the wood fiber addition. Scanning electron microscope images indicated that fibers were well embedded in rubber matrix. The 24 h water absorption was only 1%–3%, which was much lower than commercial wood-based composites.

  12. WOOD - PLASTIC COMPOSITES FROM WASTE MATERIALS RESULTED IN THE FURNITURE MANUFACTURING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia COŞEREANU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the application of waste materials resulted in the furniture manufacturing process as components for wood-plastic composites. The composites are produced from industrial byproducts, such as shavings and ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, without coupling agent. The two components are derived from industrial processes of furniture manufacturing: the first one consists of wood residues resulted from planing machine as planer shavings, and the second one from ABS edge banding operation. A wide array of mixtures varying from 100% ABS to 50% ABS: 50% shavings were used to produce eight variants of boards. Density was determined for each board and the method for the determination of ABS particle size distribution by oscillating screen method using sieve apertures up to 4mm was also applied, in order to establish the particle fractions and the distribution of their sizes. Based on ABS properties, several technologies of manufacturing wood-plastic composites from the waste materials were tested and one of them was selected. The results of the first stage analysis, when the physical integrity and the compactness of the panels’ structures were tested, have shown that a maximum proportion of 30% of wood shavings is accepted in the mixture. On the other hand, the low density of the boards and their porous structure recommend further investigations for thermal and sound insulation applications

  13. Wood-plastic composites using thermomechanical pulp made from oxalic acid-pretreated red pine chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.E. Winandy; N.M. Stark; E. Horn

    2008-01-01

    The characteristics and properties of wood fiber is one of many factors of critical importance to the performance of wood-plastic composites. In commercial thermo-mechanical pulping (TMP) of wood chips to produce fibers, high temperatures (>100°C) are used to separate the fibers during TMP refining. These mechanical pressures and temperatures are usually modulated...

  14. Effects of processing method and moisture history on laboratory fungal resistance of wood-HDPE composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig M. Clemons; Rebecca E. Ibach

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of composite processing and moisture sorption on laboratory fungal resistance of wood-plastic composites. A 2-week water soaking or cyclic boiling-drying procedure was used to infuse moisture into composites made from high-density polyethylene filled with 50 percent wood flour and processed by extrusion, compression...

  15. Tolerance of Serpula lacrymans to copper-based wood preservatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Green, Frederick; Clausen, Carol A.

    2005-01-01

    Serpula lacrymans, the dry rot fungus, is considered the most economically important wood decay fungus in certain temperate regions of the world, namely northern Europe, Japan, and Australia. Previously, copper-based wood preservatives were commonly used for pressure treatment of wood for buildin...

  16. Tolerance of Serpula lacrymans to copper-based wood preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Christine Steenkjaer Hastrup; Frederick Green; Carol A. Clausen; Bo Jensen

    2005-01-01

    Serpula lacrymans, the dry rot fungus, is considered the most economically important wood decay fungus in certain temperate regions of the world, namely northern Europe, Japan, and Australia. Previously, copper-based wood preservatives were commonly used for pressure treatment of wood for building construction, but some decay fungi are known to be copper tolerant. In...

  17. Cone calorimeter tests of wood-based decking materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. White; Mark A. Dietenberger; Nicole M. Stark

    2007-01-01

    New technologies in building materials have resulted in the use of a wide variety of materials in decks. As part of our effort to address fire concerns in the wildland-urban interface, the Forest Products Laboratory has been examining the fire performance of decking products. In addition to preservative-treated wood, decking products include wood-plastic composites and...

  18. POLYMER COMPOSITES MODIFIED BY WASTE MATERIALS CONTAINING WOOD FIBRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardeta Dębska

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the idea of sustainable development has become one of the most important require-ments of civilization. Development of sustainable construction involves the need for the introduction of innovative technologies and solutions that will combine beneficial economic effects with taking care of the health and comfort of users, reducing the negative impact of the materials on the environment. Composites obtained from the use of waste materials are part of these assumptions. These include modified epoxy mortar containing waste wood fibres, described in this article. The modification consists in the substitution of sand by crushed waste boards, previously used as underlays for panels, in quantities of 0%, 10%, 20%, 35% and 50% by weight, respectively. Composites containing up to 20% of the modifier which were characterized by low water absorption, and good mechanical properties, also retained them after the process of cyclic freezing and thawing.

  19. LCA-based optimization of wood utilization under special consideration of a cascading use of wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglmeier, Karin; Steubing, Bernhard; Weber-Blaschke, Gabriele; Richter, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    Cascading, the use of the same unit of a resource in multiple successional applications, is considered as a viable means to improve the efficiency of resource utilization and to decrease environmental impacts. Wood, as a regrowing but nevertheless limited and increasingly in demand resource, can be used in cascades, thereby increasing the potential efficiency per unit of wood. This study aims to assess the influence of cascading wood utilization on optimizing the overall environmental impact of wood utilization. By combining a material flow model of existing wood applications - both for materials provision and energy production - with an algebraic optimization tool, the effects of the use of wood in cascades can be modelled and quantified based on life cycle impact assessment results for all production processes. To identify the most efficient wood allocation, the effects of a potential substitution of non-wood products were taken into account in a part of the model runs. The considered environmental indicators were global warming potential, particulate matter formation, land occupation and an aggregated single score indicator. We found that optimizing either the overall global warming potential or the value of the single score indicator of the system leads to a simultaneous relative decrease of all other considered environmental impacts. The relative differences between the impacts of the model run with and without the possibility of a cascading use of wood were 7% for global warming potential and the single score indicator, despite cascading only influencing a small part of the overall system, namely wood panel production. Cascading led to savings of up to 14% of the annual primary wood supply of the study area. We conclude that cascading can improve the overall performance of a wood utilization system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fracture mechanics and statistical modeling of ternary blends of polylactide/ethylene-acrylate copolymer /wood-flour composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrifah, Kojo Agyapong

    This study examined the mechanisms of toughening the brittle bio-based poly(lactic acid) (PLA) with a biodegradable rubbery impact modifier to develop biodegradable and cost effective PLA/wood-flour composites with improved impact strength, toughness, high ductility, and flexibility. Semicrystalline and amorphous PLA grades were impact modified by melt blending with an ethylene-acrylate copolymer (EAC) impact modifier. EAC content was varied to study the effectiveness and efficiency of the impact modifier in toughening the semicrystalline and amorphous grades of the PLA. Impact strength was used to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of the EAC in toughening the blends, whereas the toughening mechanisms were determined with the phase morphologies and the miscibilities of the blends. Subsequent tensile property analyses were performed on the most efficiently toughened PLA grade. Composites were made from PLA, wood flour of various particle sizes, and EAC. Using two-level factorial design the interaction between wood flour content, wood flour particle size, and EAC content and its effect on the mechanical properties of the PLA/wood-flour composites was statistically studied. Numerical optimization was also performed to statistically model and optimize material compositions to attain mechanical properties for the PLA/wood-flour composites equivalent to at least those of unfilled PLA. The J-integral method of fracture mechanics was applied to assess the crack initiation (Jin) and complete fracture (J f) energies of the composites to account for imperfections in the composites and generate data useful for engineering designs. Morphologies of the fractured surfaces of the composites were analyzed to elucidate the failure and toughening mechanisms of the composites. The EAC impact modifier effectively improved the impact strength of the PLA/EAC blends, regardless of the PLA type. However, the EAC was more efficient in the semicrystalline grades of PLA compared to the

  1. Composite Buildings for Military Bases,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    Campbell Design Group for the mobilization buildings at Fort Leonard Wood, Mis- souri. The author thanks Herbert Ueda and LTC Robert Hixson, both of...improved by treat- fire and life safety: ment M-design 50 50 = neutral Composite 100 25 = negatively utilitarian Hybrid 75 0 = oppressive. 16 The open...scale basing in dining area, applied instructional bays, an audi - Alaska that requires new construction. torium-chapel and storage-utility areas. These

  2. Preparation and thermal behaviour of a series of liquid wood-polypropylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Ignazio; Cicala, Gianluca; Latteri, Alberta; Saccullo, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    Liquid Wood (a mixture of cellulose, hemp, fax and lignin) was used to prepare, by mechanical mixing followed by thermal extrusion, blends of various Polypropylene (PP)/Liquid Wood ratios. To verify if and how much the composition of the obtained composites affects their thermal properties Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) experiments were carried out.

  3. Elastomer modified polypropylene–polyethylene blends as matrices for wood flour–plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Clemons

    2010-01-01

    Blends of polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) could potentially be used as matrices for wood–plastic composites (WPCs). The mechanical performance and morphology of both the unfilled blends and wood-filled composites with various elastomers and coupling agents were investigated. Blending of the plastics resulted in either small domains of the minor phase in a...

  4. Finite element modeling of small-scale tapered wood-laminated composite poles with biomimicry features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Todd F. Shupe; R.C. Tang; Chung Y. Hse

    2008-01-01

    Tapered composite poles with biomimicry features as in bamboo are a new generation of wood laminated composite poles that may some day be considered as an alternative to solid wood poles that are widely used in the transmission and telecommunication fields. Five finite element models were developed with ANSYS to predict and assess the performance of five types of...

  5. Determining shear modulus of thin wood composite materials using a cantilever beam vibration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Guan; Houjiang Zhang; John F. Hunt; Haicheng Yan

    2016-01-01

    Shear modulus (G) of thin wood composite materials is one of several important indicators that characterizes mechanical properties. However, there is not an easy method to obtain this value. This study presents the use of a newly developed cantilever beam free vibration test apparatus to detect in-plane G of thin wood composite...

  6. Effect of particle size, coupling agent and DDGS additions on Paulownia wood polypropylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mechanical, flexural, thermal, and physical characteristics of wood plastic composites employing Paulownia wood (PP) flour derived from 36-mo-old trees blended with polypropylene (PP) were analyzed. Composites of 25% and 40% w/w of PW and 0-10% by weight of maleated polypropylene (MAPP) were pr...

  7. Evaluation of various fire retardants for use in wood flour--polyethylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole M. Stark; Robert H. White; Scott A. Mueller; Tim A. Osswald

    2010-01-01

    Wood-plastic composites represent a growing class of materials used by the residential construction industry and the furniture industry. For some applications in these industries, the fire performance of the material must be known, and in some cases improved. However, the fire performance of wood-plastic composites is not well understood, and there is little...

  8. Wood-plastic composites in the United States : the interfacing of two industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Clemons

    2002-01-01

    The term wood-plastic composites refers to any composites that contain wood (of any form) and thermosets or thermoplastics. Thermosets are plastics that, once cured, cannot be melted by reheating. These include resins such as epoxies and phenolics, plastics with which the forest products industry is most familiar. Thermoplastics are plastics that can be repeatedly...

  9. Mechanical properties of small-scale laminated wood composite poles: effects of taper and webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Todd F. Shupe; R.C. Tang; Chung Y. Hse

    2006-01-01

    Laminated hollow wood composite poles represent an efficient utilization of the timber resource and a promising alternative for solid poles that are commonly used in the power transmission and telecommunication lines. The objective of this study was to improve the performance of composite poles by introducing the bio-mimicry concept into the design of hollow wood...

  10. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, and Antibacterial Activity of Wood Vinegar from Litchi chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh-Ferng Yang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and antibacterial activities of wood vinegar from Litchi chinensis, and its components have been studied. The chemical compositions of wood vinegar were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. A total of 17 chemical compounds were identified, representing 83.96% of the compositions in the wood vinegar. Three major components, included 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (syringol, 29.54%, 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol, 12.36%, and 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxytoluene (11.07%, were found in the wood vinegar. Antioxidant activities of the acids were investigated from the aspects of 1,1-Diphyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radicals scavenging capacity, superoxide anion radical scavenging capacity, and reducing power. The pyroligneous acid exhibited high antioxidant activity which was comparable to the reference standards (vitamin C and butylated hydroxyl toluene at the same dose with IC50 values of 36.5 ppm calculated by the DPPH radical scavenging assay, 38.38 g Trolox equivalent/100 g DW by the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC assay, and 67.9 by the reducing power analysis. Antibacterial activity was evaluated using the disc diffusion and microdilution methods against a group of clinically antibiotic resistant isolates. The major components exhibited broad spectrum inhibition against all the bacterial strains with a range of disc inhibition zoon between 15–19 mm. The minimum inhibition concentration and minimum bactericide concentration against the test strains was ranging in 0.95–3.80 μL/100 μL and 1.90–3.80 μL/100 μL, respectively. Most of the antibiotic resistant strains were more susceptible to the wood vinegar than the non-antibiotic resistant strain except the strain of ornithine resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Based on the chemical profile, it was considered that the strongest antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Litchi chinensis wood vinegar was due to its highly phenolic compositions. This study revealed

  11. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, and Antibacterial Activity of Wood Vinegar from Litchi chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jyh-Ferng; Yang, Cheng-Hong; Liang, Ming-Tsai; Gao, Zi-Jie; Wu, Yuh-Wern; Chuang, Li-Yeh

    2016-08-30

    The antioxidant and antibacterial activities of wood vinegar from Litchi chinensis, and its components have been studied. The chemical compositions of wood vinegar were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 17 chemical compounds were identified, representing 83.96% of the compositions in the wood vinegar. Three major components, included 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (syringol, 29.54%), 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol, 12.36%), and 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxytoluene (11.07%), were found in the wood vinegar. Antioxidant activities of the acids were investigated from the aspects of 1,1-Diphyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals scavenging capacity, superoxide anion radical scavenging capacity, and reducing power. The pyroligneous acid exhibited high antioxidant activity which was comparable to the reference standards (vitamin C and butylated hydroxyl toluene) at the same dose with IC50 values of 36.5 ppm calculated by the DPPH radical scavenging assay, 38.38 g Trolox equivalent/100 g DW by the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay, and 67.9 by the reducing power analysis. Antibacterial activity was evaluated using the disc diffusion and microdilution methods against a group of clinically antibiotic resistant isolates. The major components exhibited broad spectrum inhibition against all the bacterial strains with a range of disc inhibition zoon between 15-19 mm. The minimum inhibition concentration and minimum bactericide concentration against the test strains was ranging in 0.95-3.80 μL/100 μL and 1.90-3.80 μL/100 μL, respectively. Most of the antibiotic resistant strains were more susceptible to the wood vinegar than the non-antibiotic resistant strain except the strain of ornithine resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Based on the chemical profile, it was considered that the strongest antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Litchi chinensis wood vinegar was due to its highly phenolic compositions. This study revealed that the Litchi

  12. Influence of nanoclay on properties of HDPE/wood composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong Lei; Qinglin Wu; Craig M. Clemons; Fei Yao; Yanjun Xu

    2007-01-01

    Composites based on high density polyethylene (HDPE), pine flour, and organic clay were made by melt compounding and then injection molding. The influence of clay on crystallization behavior, mechanical properties, water absorption, and thermal stability of HDPE/pine composites was investigated. The HDPE/pine composites containing exfoliated clay were made by a two-...

  13. Wood-polymer composite: physical and mechanical properties of some wood species impregnated with styrene and methyl methacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Ortigosa Stolf

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining wood-polymer composites (WPC displaying a performance superior to that of untreated wood from reforested genera. To this end, wood samples of Pine (Pinus caribaea and Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus grandis, whose density is compatible with this process, were impregnated with the polymeric monomers styrene and methyl methacrylate, using benzoyl peroxide to initiate the polymerization process forming free radicals. The vacuum-pressure method was used to impregnate the samples with monomer-initiator solution. The results indicated a significant improvement of all the properties investigated, including dimensional stability, for the Pine-WPC, while Eucalyptus-WPC, owing to the wood's low permeability, showed only increased values of hardness parallel and perpendicular to grain.

  14. Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2014-01-01

    is a renewable resource makes it predestinated for what is considered ´sustainable architecture´. But the reality is less linear and there are serious traps: In fact the lecture shows by examples that it is much easier to build very unsustainable buildings in wood than the other way round! Where does the wood...

  15. Ethanol production from acid hydrolysates based on the construction and demolition wood waste using Pichia stipitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Dae Haeng; Shin, Soo-Jeong; Bae, Yangwon; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Yong Hwan

    2011-03-01

    The feasibility of ethanol production from the construction and demolition (C&D) wood waste acid hydrolysates was investigated. The chemical compositions of the classified C&D wood waste were analyzed. Concentrated sulfuric acid hydrolysis was used to obtain the saccharide hydrolysates and the inhibitors in the hydrolysates were also analyzed. The C&D wood waste composed of lumber, plywood, particleboard, and medium density fiberboard (MDF) had polysaccharide (cellulose, xylan, and glucomannan) fractions of 60.7-67.9%. The sugar composition (glucose, xylose, and mannose) of the C&D wood wastes varied according to the type of wood. The additives used in the wood processing did not appear to be released into the saccharide solution under acid hydrolysis. Although some fermentation inhibitors were detected in the hydrolysates, they did not affect the ethanol production by Pichia stipitis. The hexose sugar-based ethanol yield and ethanol yield efficiency were 0.42-0.46 g ethanol/g substrate and 84.7-90.7%, respectively. Therefore, the C&D wood wastes dumped in landfill sites could be used as a raw material feedstock for the production of bioethanol. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Single and Multisite Impact Response of S2-Glass/Epoxy Balsa Wood Core Sandwich Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Uday K.; Deka, Lakshya J.

    Impact damage reduces the structural integrity and load bearing capacity of a composite structure. Most studies on high velocity impact damage have been limited to single-site impacts, with little consideration given to the effect of cumulative damage from multiple impacts. In this study, the impact damage response of S2-glass/epoxy balsa wood core sandwich composite is evaluated experimentally and supported by finite element modeling for single-site and multi-site impacts from 0.30 and 0.50 caliber spherical projectiles. During high velocity impact, a composite laminate undergoes progressive damage;hence a progressive failure model based on Hashin's criteria is used to predict failure. When subjected to multi-site impact loading, a sandwich composite structure exhibits synergistic and cumulative damage causing extensive fiber breakage, matrix cracking and delamination. An excellent correlation between experimental and numerical results is obtained.

  17. Some Properties of Composite Panels Made from Wood Flour and Recycled Polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Mengeloglu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of board type (unmodified vs. MAPE modified on the surface quality and thickness swelling-water absorption properties of recycled high density polyethylene (HDPE based wood plastic composites. Additionally, two commercially available coatings (cellulosic coating and polyurethane lacquer coating were also applied to composite surfaces and their adhesion strength, abrasion and scratch resistance, and gloss values were determined. This study showed that modification of the composites with MAPE coupling agent increased the surface smoothness and reduced the water absorption and thickness swelling of the panels. Abrasion resistance of the composites was also improved through MAPE modification. Regardless of board type, higher scratch resistance and gloss values were observed for polyurethane lacquer coated samples compared to those of cellulosic varnish coated ones. Improvement of adhesion strength was also seen on SEM micrographs.

  18. Neglected role of fungal community composition in explaining variation in wood decay rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der Annemieke; Ottosson, E.G.B.; Boer, de W.

    2015-01-01

    Decomposition of wood is an important component of global carbon cycling. Most wood decomposition models are based on tree characteristics and environmental conditions; however, they do not include community dynamics of fungi which are the major wood decomposers. We examined the factors explaining

  19. Development of Wood-Plastic Composite at Dedan Kimathi University of Technology, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Madaraka F. Mwema; Ngugi J. Mburu

    2015-01-01

    Disposal of plastics and other solid wastes has been a major problem in Kenya. Most of these wastes can be recycled through various ways and methods to produce new products. Plastics can be combined with sawdust to develop composite materials for applications such as in building. In this project, a wood-plastic composite (WPC) was developed from sawdust and plastic solid wastes. The composite bore the advantages of both wood and plastics which can be applied in various sectors inc...

  20. Image-based characterization of cement pore structure using Wood`s metal intrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willis, K.L.; Abell, A.B.; Lange, D.A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1998-12-01

    Mercury intrusion porosimetry is a widely used technique for characterization of the pore size distribution of cement-based materials. However, the technique has several limitations, among which are the ink bottle effect and a cylindrical pore geometry assumption that lead to inaccurate pore size distribution curves. By substituting Wood`s metal for mercury as the intruding liquid, scanning electron microscopy and imaging techniques can be applied to the sample after intrusion. The molten Wood`s metal solidifies within the pore structure of the sample, which allows it to be sectioned and observed in the scanning electron microscopy. From here, the sample can be analyzed both qualitatively, by observing the changes in the appearance of the sample as the intrusion process progresses, and quantitatively, by applying image analysis techniques. This study provides insight for better interpretation of mercury intrusion porosimetry results and the possibility for quantitative characterization of the spatial geometry of pores in cement-based materials.

  1. Effect of Impact Modifier Type on Water Absorption and Thickness Swelling Parameters of Wood Flour- Recycled Polypropylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Ghahri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the effect of impact modifier type on water diffusion coefficient, maximum water absorption and thickness swelling parameters of wood flour- recycled polypropylene composites were evaluated. For this purpose, a virgin PP was thermo-mechanically degraded by two times extrusion under controlled conditions in a twin-screw extruder at a rotor speed of 100 rpm and a temperature of 1900C. The virgin and recycled PP in 2nd stage, compatibilizer (0, 2 % w/w and wood flour were compounded at 50% weight sawdust loading in a counter-rotating twin-screw extruder in presence different type of impact modifiers (0, 6 % w/w. Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA, ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS were used as impact modifiers. The analysis of diffusion mechanism and thickness swelling rate were done based on Fick’s theory and swelling model for wood flour- recycled polypropylene composites. The composites containing two times recycled PP exhibited lower moisture diffusion coefficients, swelling rate parameter, maximum water absorption, thickness swelling. Also results showed that moisture diffusion coefficients and thickness swelling parameters of composites containing EVA are lower than composites containing EPDM and ABS. The use of compatibilizer decreased the moisture diffusion coefficients and thickness swelling parameters of the wood flour- recycled polypropylene composites

  2. Identification of elasticity modulus by vibratory analysis (Application to a natural composite: Aleppo pine wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAOUI Abdelhakim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a method for the determination of the elasticity modulus in the vibratory domain of materials. This approach is based on research and interpretation of the spectrum of natural frequencies resulting from natural vibrations based on the theory of elastic beams. The tests consist of classical tests of longitudinal vibrations of natural composite beams (Aleppo pine wood, long enough to observe some natural frequencies. This identification method showed a good correlation between the theoretical and experimental values, notably the evaluation of the modal parameter for the case of the resonant frequencies and the identification of the modulus of elasticity of the materials used.

  3. Effects of wood fiber surface chemistry on strength of wood-plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migneault, Sébastien; Koubaa, Ahmed; Perré, Patrick; Riedl, Bernard

    2015-07-01

    Because wood-plastic composites (WPC) strength relies on fiber-matrix interaction at fiber surface, it is likely that fiber surface chemistry plays an important role in WPC strength development. The objective of the present study is to investigate the relationships between fiber surface chemical characteristics and WPC mechanical properties. Different fibers were selected and characterized for surface chemical characteristics using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). WPC samples were manufactured at 40% fiber content and with six different fibers. High density polyethylene was used as matrix and maleated polyethylene (MAPE) was used as compatibility agent. WPC samples were tested for mechanical properties and fiber-matrix interface was observed with scanning electron microscope. It was found WPC strength decreases as the amount of unoxidized carbon (assigned to lignin and extractives) measured with XPS on fiber surface increases. In the opposite case, WPC strength increases with increasing level of oxidized carbon (assigned to carbohydrates) on fiber surface. The same conclusions were found with FTIR where WPC strength decreases as lignin peaks intensity increases. Esterification reaction of fibers with MAPE occurs on polar sites of carbohydrates, such as hydroxyls (Osbnd H). Thus, fibers with carbohydrates-rich surface, such as cellulose pulp, produced stronger WPC samples. Other factors such as mechanical interlocking and fiber morphology interfered with the effects of fiber surface chemistry.

  4. Properties of flat-pressed wood plastic composites containing fire retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadir Ayrilmis; Jan. T. Benthien; Heiko Thoemen; Robert H. White

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated physical, mechanical, and fire properties of the flat-pressed wood plastic composites (WPCs) incorporated with various fire retardants (FRs) [5 or 15% by weight (wt)] at 50 wt % of the wood flour (WF). The WPC panels were made from dry-blended WF, polypropylene (PP) with maleic anhydride grafted PP (2 wt %), and FR powder formulations using a...

  5. Wood Ash Induced pH Changes Strongly Affect Soil Bacterial Numbers and Community Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Andreasen, Toke; Nielsen, Jeppe T.; Voriskova, Jana

    2017-01-01

    -neutralizing capabilities. However, wood ash has several ecosystem-perturbing effects like increased soil pH and pore water electrical conductivity both known to strongly impact soil bacterial numbers and community composition. Studies investigating soil bacterial community responses to wood ash application remain sparse...

  6. The effects of different silane crosslinking approaches on composites of polyethylene blends and wood flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig M. Clemons; Ronald C. Sabo; Kolby C. Hirth

    2011-01-01

    Though silane chemistry has been used to crosslink unfilled polyethylene for many years, such crosslinking has only been recently applied to wood plastic composites to improve properties such as creep resistance. However, the presence of wood significantly changes the silane chemistry and a greater understanding is necessary for optimal processing and performance. We...

  7. Cell Walls of Wood, Composition, Structure and a few Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Adriana Cziple

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to investigate the effect between the chemical composition, molecular architecture and structure cell walls of wood and the mechanical properties of wood. Cell walls function as the major mechanical restraint that determines plant cell size and morphology.

  8. Wood chemical composition in species of Cactaceae: the relationship between lignification and stem morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Reyes-Rivera

    Full Text Available In Cactaceae, wood anatomy is related to stem morphology in terms of the conferred support. In species of cacti with dimorphic wood, a unique process occurs in which the cambium stops producing wide-band tracheids (WBTs and produces fibers; this is associated with the aging of individuals and increases in size. Stem support and lignification have only been studied in fibrous tree-like species, and studies in species with WBTs or dimorphic wood are lacking. In this study, we approach this process with a chemical focus, emphasizing the role of wood lignification. We hypothesized that the degree of wood lignification in Cactaceae increases with height of the species and that its chemical composition varies with wood anatomy. To test this, we studied the chemical composition (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin content in 13 species (2 WBTs wood, 3 dimorphic, and 8 fibrous with contrasting growth forms. We also analyzed lignification in dimorphic and fibrous species to determine the chemical features of WBTs and fibers and their relationship with stem support. The lignin contents were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. We found that 11 species have a higher percentage (>35% of lignin in their wood than other angiosperms or gymnosperms. The lignin chemical composition in fibrous species is similar to that of other dicots, but it is markedly heterogeneous in non-fibrous species where WBTs are abundant. The lignification in WBTs is associated with the resistance to high water pressure within cells rather than the contribution to mechanical support. Dimorphic wood species are usually richer in syringyl lignin, and tree-like species with lignified rays have more guaiacyl lignin. The results suggest that wood anatomy and lignin distribution play an important role in the chemical composition of wood, and further research is needed at the cellular level.

  9. Wood and Wood-Based Materials as Sensors—A Review of the Piezoelectric Effect in Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Ross; Jiangming Kan; Xiping Wang; Julie Blankenburg; Janet I. Stockhausen; Roy F. Pellerin

    2012-01-01

    A variety of techniques have been investigated for use in assessing the physical and mechanical properties of wood products and structures. Ultrasound, transverse vibration, and stress-wave based methods are all techniques that have shown promise for many nondestructive evaluation applications. These techniques and others rely on the use of measurement systems to...

  10. STUDY OF THE JOINT WORK OF WOOD COMPOSITE PROLONGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тагир Альмирович Зиннуров

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In wooden structures, there is a need for composite elements, caused by limitations in the size of the timber materials. For example, in compound wooden runs, individual logs and bars are connected by means of rigid or flexible joints. In fact, the compliance of the connections worsens the work of the composite element, reduces its bearing capacity and increases deformability. To date, there are several approaches for determining the compliance of joints, to achieve simplicity, a number of factors can be used to reduce the resistance of composite elements to bending. Based on the theoretical base and experimental work, compliance was estimated.

  11. Effect of the Addition of Carbon Nanomaterials on Electrical and Mechanical Properties of Wood Plastic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingli Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Wood Plastic Composites (WPCs are a new generation of green composites that could optimize the use of harvested trees and increase the entire value chain. In this study, the electrical and mechanical properties of WPCs containing carbon blacks (CB, flake graphite (FG and carbon nanotubes (CNTs have been investigated. The electrical property of WPCs is improved significantly owing to the introduction of these carbon nanomaterial fillers. The volume and surface resistivity values of the investigated composites all obviously decreased with the increase in filler content, especially CNTs, which displayed the most satisfactory results. Based on a series of laboratory experiments carried out to investigate the mechanical performance, it can be concluded that the addition of the carbon nanomaterial fillers decreases the mechanical properties of WPCs slightly with the increase in filler content because of the weak interfacial interactions between the fillers and polymer matrix.

  12. Statistical reliability analyses of two wood plastic composite extrusion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crookston, Kevin A., E-mail: kevincrookston@gmail.co [Department of Statistics, Operations, and Management Science, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-0532 (United States); Mark Young, Timothy, E-mail: tmyoung1@utk.ed [Forest Products Center, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-4570 (United States); Harper, David, E-mail: dharper4@utk.ed [Forest Products Center, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-4570 (United States); Guess, Frank M., E-mail: fguess@utk.ed [Department of Statistics, Operations, and Management Science, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-0532 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Estimates of the reliability of wood plastic composites (WPC) are explored for two industrial extrusion lines. The goal of the paper is to use parametric and non-parametric analyses to examine potential differences in the WPC metrics of reliability for the two extrusion lines that may be helpful for use by the practitioner. A parametric analysis of the extrusion lines reveals some similarities and disparities in the best models; however, a non-parametric analysis reveals unique and insightful differences between Kaplan-Meier survival curves for the modulus of elasticity (MOE) and modulus of rupture (MOR) of the WPC industrial data. The distinctive non-parametric comparisons indicate the source of the differences in strength between the 10.2% and 48.0% fractiles [3,183-3,517 MPa] for MOE and for MOR between the 2.0% and 95.1% fractiles [18.9-25.7 MPa]. Distribution fitting as related to selection of the proper statistical methods is discussed with relevance to estimating the reliability of WPC. The ability to detect statistical differences in the product reliability of WPC between extrusion processes may benefit WPC producers in improving product reliability and safety of this widely used house-decking product. The approach can be applied to many other safety and complex system lifetime comparisons.

  13. PCM/wood composite to store thermal energy in passive building envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreneche, C.; Vecstaudza, J.; Bajare, D.; Fernandez, A. I.

    2017-10-01

    The development of new materials to store thermal energy in a passive building system is a must to improve the thermal efficiency by thermal-regulating the indoor temperatures. This fact will deal with the reduction of the gap between energy supply and energy demand to achieve thermal comfort in building indoors. The aim of this work was to test properties of novel PCM/wood composite materials developed at Riga Technical University. Impregnation of PCM (phase change material) in wood increases its thermal mass and regulates temperature fluctuations during day and night. The PCM used are paraffin waxes (RT-21 and RT-27 from Rubitherm) and the wood used was black alder, the most common wood in Latvia. The PCM distribution inside wood sample has been studied as well as its thermophysical, mechanical and fire reaction properties. Developed composite materials are promising in the field of energy saving in buildings.

  14. [Preparation and characterization of wood/methylolurea composite with in-situ polymerization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guo-Feng; Lang, Qian; Chen, He-Yu; Jiang, Yi-Fei; Pu, Jun-Wen

    2011-11-01

    Wood/methylolurea composite was prepared with the in-situ polymerization. The green timber with high moisture content was impregnated by a pulse-dipping machine and then was dried in a hot-press drying kiln. The cross-linking reaction was taken under the heat treatment between the wood modifier and the wood composition, including cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin. The chemical composition was analyzed according to the Chinese standard, including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDXA). The changes in chemical composition of modified wood and carbon and nitrogen element were disused in the research The results showed that the content of water extraction and benzene alcohol extraction increased 187.43% and 230.87% respectively compared with the natural wood, while the lignin and holocellulose decreased 26.55% and 26.39% respectively. XPS showed that the concentrations of O and C atoms increased 9.4% and N element content increased 137.2%. 13C-NMR analysis showed that chemical reaction of the hydroxyl methyl urea with the hydroxyl in timber structure took place, with the reduction of hydroxyl content and increase in ether bond content. EDXA showed that the processing method can get impregnated modification wood and nitrogen element is evenly distributed in wood cell walls and intercellular space.

  15. Characterization of wood-based molding bonded with citric acid

    OpenAIRE

    Umemura, Kenji; Ueda, Tomohide; Kawai, Shuichi

    2012-01-01

    The wood-based moldings were fabricated by using only citric acid as an adhesive. The mechanical properties, water resistances, thermal properties and chemical structure were investigated. Wood powder obtained from Acacia mangium was mixed with citric acid under certain weight ratios (0-40 wt%), and each powder mixture was molded using two types of metal molds at 200 °C and 4MPa for 10 min. The modulus of rupture (MOR) and the modulus of elasticity (MOE) values of the wood-based molding conta...

  16. Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Robert H. White; Antoni TenWolde; William Simpson; Joseph Murphy; Robert J. Ross; Roland Hernandez; Stan T. Lebow

    2006-01-01

    Wood is a naturally formed organic material consisting essentially of elongated tubular elements called cells arranged in a parallel manner for the most part. These cells vary in dimensions and wall thickness with position in the tree, age, conditions of growth, and kind of tree. The walls of the cells are formed principally of chain molecules of cellulose, polymerized...

  17. Theoretical Study of Wood Microwave Pretreatment in Rectangular Cavity for Fabricating Wood-Based Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfeng Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modifying wood by high intensive microwave pretreatment method is widely researched for the fabrication of wood-based nanocomposites, but the temperature uniformity and energy efficiency of microwave pretreatment have not reached the ideal state. In this study, the pretreated wood in rectangular cavity by high intensive microwave is theoretically studied by the finite element method based on the Maxwell electromagnetic field equations and the heat and mass transfer theory. The results show that the temperature uniformity and energy efficiency are related to the microwave feeding modes. Compared with the single-port and the two-port feeding mode, the four-port feeding mode is the best case on temperature uniformity and energy efficiency. The optimized parameters of cavity to pretreatment wood are achieved, which are that the height of cavities is between 0.08 m and 0.11 m in the four-port feeding mode when the thickness of wood is 0.06 m.

  18. Wood working elective course promotion by project based activity day

    OpenAIRE

    Jelinčič, Špela

    2014-01-01

    Thesis proposal is intended to provide the lesson plans, which will promote elective subject treatment of materials-wood. As a means to carry out the lesson plans we have chosen an activity day, based on project based teaching. The definition and organization of activity day is given and followed by a review of elective design and technology subjects, where the wood treatment subject is also described in detail. Different inductive teaching methods are described. Here we compare them and choo...

  19. Tensile and impact properties of three-component PP/wood/elastomer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Pukanszky

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Polypropylene (PP was reinforced with wood flour and impact modified with elastomers to increase stiffness and impact resistance simultaneously. Elastomer content changed in four (0, 5, 10 and 20 wt%, while that of wood content in seven steps, the latter from 0 to 60 wt% in 10 wt% steps. Structure and adhesion were controlled by the addition of functionalized (maleated polymers. Composites were homogenized in a twin-screw extruder and then injection molded to tensile bars. Fracture resistance was characterized by standard and instrumented impact tests. The results showed that the components are dispersed independently of each other even when a functionalized elastomer is used for impact modification, at least under the conditions of this study. Impact resistance does not change much as a function of wood content in PP/wood composites, but decreases drastically from the very high level of the PP/elastomer blend to almost the same value obtained without impact modifier in the three-component materials. Increasing stiffness and fiber related local deformation processes led to small fracture toughness at large wood content. Micromechanical deformation processes depend mainly on the strength of PP/wood interaction; debonding and pull-out take place at poor adhesion, while fiber fracture dominates when adhesion is strong. Composites with sufficiently large impact resistance cannot be prepared in the usual range of wood contents (50–60 wt%.

  20. REUSE OF WOOD BASED SOLID WASTE IN PANEL PRODUCTION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenk Demirkır

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Wood, a material with high value and useful, is used in many areas. Therefore, wood based waste has a high ratio in total waste in terms of quantity and variety. Increasing demand on the raw material parallel to the rise of wood usage area has cause to decrease in the forest area of the world. Therefore, raw material for wood panel industries is being more serious problem. When the contribution in environment is taken into consideration, recycling researches of wood wastes among the raw materials alternatives for particleboard and fibreboard production is attracted attention. It is generally agreed that the landfill of wood waste materials is not the best option both from a socio-political and environmental viewpoint. This is the primary reasoning behind countries introducing a landfill tax to discourage this option.This study was focused on the studies related to the recycling methods towards the usage of wood based waste materials in panel production sector to resolve environmental and raw material problems.

  1. Treatments of non-wood plant fibres used as reinforcement in composite materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Ange Arsène

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a summary of the knowledge on fibres and pulps of non wood tropical plants used as reinforcement in cementitious composites accumulated during the recent years by Guadeloupean and Brazilian teams participating in collaborative work. Vegetable fibres represent a good alternative as non-conventional materials for the construction of ecological and sustainable buildings. The use of such renewable resources contributes to the development of sustainable technologies. The main objective of the paper is to emphasize the use of agricultural wastes in the production of cement based composites. The botanical, chemical, physical, morphological and mechanical properties of fibres from various plants are described. The effects of different treatments on physical, chemical and mechanical properties of fibres are presented. The most effective treatments in influencing the mechanical and physical properties are pyrolysis and alkaline ones, according to the type of plant. The final choice will have to consider fibre availability, and treatment costs.

  2. Biomaterial based novel polyurethane adhesives for wood to wood and metal to metal bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitesh Ramanlal Patel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyurethane adhesives made from synthetic chemicals are non-biodegradable, costly and difficult to find raw materials from local market. To avoid solid pollution problem, cost effectiveness and easy availability of raw materials, biomaterials based polyurethane adhesives are used in current industrial interest. Direct use of castor oil in polyurethane adhesive gives limited hardness. Modification on active sites of castor oil to utilize double bond of unsaturated fatty acid and carboxyl group yields new modified or activated polyols, which can be utilized for polyurethane adhesive formulation. In view of this, we have synthesized polyurethane adhesives from polyester polyols, castor oil based polyols and epoxy based polyols with Isocyanate adducts based on castor oil and trimethylolpropane. To study the effects of polyurethane adhesive strength (i.e. lap shear strength on wood-to-wood and metal-to-metal bonding through various types of polyols, cross-linking density, isocyanate adducts and also to compare adhesive strength between wood to wood and metal to metal surface. These polyols and polyurethanes were characterized through GPC, NMR and IR-spectroscopy, gel and surface drying time. Thermal stability of PU adhesives was determined under the effect of cross-linking density (NCO/OH ratio. The NCO/OH ratio (1.5 was optimized for adhesives as the higher NCO/OH ratio (2.0 increasing cross-linking density and decreases adhesion. Lower NCO/OH ratio (1.0 provideslow cross-linking density and low strength of adhesives.

  3. A novel approach in organic waste utilization through biochar addition in wood/polypropylene composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Oisik [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Sarmah, Ajit K., E-mail: a.sarmah@auckland.ac.nz [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Bhattacharyya, Debes [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Center for Advanced Composite Materials, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Biochar made from waste wood was added with wood polypropylene composites. • 24% biochar gave the best mechanical properties. • 6% biochar had no effect on physico-mechanical properties of composites. • Coupling agent remained unreacted in composites having higher amount of biochar. - Abstract: In an attempt to concurrently address the issues related to landfill gas emission and utilization of organic wastes, a relatively novel idea is introduced to develop biocomposites where biochar made from pyrolysis of waste wood (Pinus radiata) is added with the same wood, plastic/polymer (polypropylene) and maleated anhydride polypropylene (MAPP). Experiments were conducted by manufacturing wood and polypropylene composites (WPCs) mixed with 6 wt%, 12 wt%, 18 wt%, 24 wt%, and 30 wt% biochar. Though 6 wt% addition had similar properties to that of the control (composite without biochar), increasing biochar content to 24 wt% improved the composite’s tensile/flexural strengths and moduli. The biochar, having high surface area due to fine particles and being highly carbonised, acted as reinforcing filler in the biocomposite. Composites having 12 wt% and 18 wt% of biochar were found to be the most ductile and thermally stable, respectively. This study demonstrates that, WPCs added with biochar has good potential to mitigate wastes while simultaneously producing biocomposites having properties that might be suited for various end applications.

  4. Application of laboratory fungal resistance tests to solid wood and wood-plastic composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Merrill Clemons; Rebecca E. Ibach

    2003-01-01

    The fungal resistance of high density polyethylene filled with 50% wood flour was investigated using laboratory soil block tests. Modifications to standard test methods were made to increase initial moisture content, increase exposure surface area, and track moisture content, mechanical properties, and weight loss over the exposure period. Mechanical properties...

  5. WATER RESISTANCE OF WOOD - PLASTIC COMPOSITES MADE FROM WASTE MATERIALS RESULTED IN THE FURNITURE MANUFACTURING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia COŞEREANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present innovative wood-plastic composites made from waste materials such as ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene and wood shavings resulted in the furniture manufacturing process. From previous investigations (with regard to physical integrity and compactness of the panels, only mixtures ranging from a ratio of 100% ABS: 0% shavings to 80% ABS: 20% shavings were selected for water resistance testing. Swelling in thickness and water absorption for 2h and 24h were determined for the proposed wood-plastic composites. The results have shown that only a participation of up to 10% of wood shavings in the tested panels conducted to a good performance

  6. Potassium methyl siliconate-treated pulp fibers and their effects on wood plastic composites: Water sorption and dimensional stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Zhiyong Cai; Nicole M. Stark; Charles J. Monlezun

    2013-01-01

    Potassium methyl siliconate (PMS) was investigated as a new nano modifier of wood fiber and wood flour to improve the compatibility between the fiber/flour and the plastic matrix in fiber reinforced plastic composites. Before injection molding, bleached and brown pulp fibers and mixed species wood flour were pretreated in PMS solutions. The morphology of the treated...

  7. Electrical Conductivity of SiC/Si Composites Obtained from Wood Preforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béjar, Marco Antonio; Mena, Rodrigo; Toro, Juan Esteban

    2011-02-01

    Biomorphic SiC/Si composites were produced from pine and beech wood, and the corresponding electrical conductivity was determined as a function of the temperature. Firstly, wood preforms were pyrolized at 1050 °C in nitrogen. Then, the pyrolized preforms were impregnated with liquid silicon and kept at 1600 °C for 2 h in vacuum. The SiC/Si composites were obtained due to the produced carbothermal reaction. As expected, the resulting electrical conductivity of these composites increased with the temperature and with the silicon content.

  8. Relation between geometry of fracture surfaces and impact work of wood composite materials

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Přemyslovská; Petr Koňas

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work is description of geometry of fracture surfaces of wood composite materials (cement-bonded particleboard, gypsum-bonded fibreboard and wood particleboard) using fractal analysis and exploration relation between fractal dimension and impact work. Fractal dimension determinated by filtration, volumetric and robust Box-Counting methods and Richardson method is different considering type of material and method. Proportional relationship between fractal dimension (computed by ...

  9. Thermoelectric properties of SiC/C composites from wood charcoal by pulse current sintering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fujisawa, M; Hata, T; Bronsveld, P; Castro, [No Value; Tanaka, F; Kikuchi, H; Imamura, Y

    2005-01-01

    SiC/C composites were investigated by sintering a mix of wood charcoal and SiO2 powder (32-45 mu m) at 1400, 1600 and 1800 degrees C under N-2 atmosphere with a pulse current sintering method. Thermoelectric properties of SiC/C composites were investigated by measuring the Seebeck coefficient and

  10. Ultraviolet weathering of HDPE/wood-flour composites coextruded with a clear HDPE cap layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent M. Matuana; Shan Jin; Nicole M. Stark

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect coextruding a clear HDPE cap layer onto HDPE/wood-flour composites has on the discoloration of coextruded composites exposed to accelerated UV tests. Chroma meter, FTIRATR, XPS, SEM, and UV vis measurements accounted for the analysis of discoloration, functional groups, and degree of oxidation of both uncapped (control) and coextruded...

  11. Ageing tests study on wood-based sandwich panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateo, Raquel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Composite lightweight wood panels are being increasingly used in construction in Spain. Their growing use should be accompanied by necessary guarantees based on studies of their properties. As it is prescriptive and in addition to others tests, in the present work is examinated the durability of these panels when exposed to the climatic conditions, a characteristic of great importance for wood products, according to Guide ETAG 016, the current standard defining the ageing tests to be used. However, due to the use class of this material, there are indications that the testing outlined in this Guide is inappropriate for assessing the ageing of wood-based sandwich panels. Alternative tests are here proposed that recreate rather better the real conditions under which these products are used. Covering the samples in a waterproof sheeting permeable to the outward movement of water vapour, which is in fact used in the installation, provided the best procedure for testing these panels.

    Los paneles sándwich de madera son un producto de creciente aplicación en la edificación de nuestro país. Este ascendente uso del material debe estar acompañado de las garantías necesarias avaladas por un estudio previo de sus prestaciones. Como es preceptivo y entre otros, se evalúa su durabilidad frente a las condiciones climatológicas, clave en los productos derivados de la madera, acorde a la normativa actual definida con tal fin, la Guía ETAG 016. Sin embargo, debido a la clase de uso del material, se ha detectado que dicha normativa tal y como está concebida no es capaz de valorar su envejecimiento adecuadamente. En este trabajo se proponen ensayos alternativos al establecido tras exhaustivos análisis que recrean las condiciones reales de uso y más acordes a los productos de madera. Se concluye que la incorporación de una lámina impermeable pero permeable al vapor de agua hacia el exterior, como las utilizadas en el montaje, aportan el mejor

  12. Final Report: Development of Renewable Microbial Polyesters for Cost Effective and Energy- Efficient Wood-Plastic Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, David N.; Emerick, Robert W.; England, Alfred B.; Flanders, James P.; Loge, Frank J.; Wiedeman, Katherine A.; Wolcott, Michael P.

    2010-03-31

    In this project, we proposed to produce wood fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites (WFRTCs) using microbial thermoplastic polyesters in place of petroleum-derived plastic. WFRTCs are a rapidly growing product area, averaging a 38% growth rate since 1997. Their production is dependent on substantial quantities of petroleum based thermoplastics, increasing their overall energy costs by over 230% when compared to traditional Engineered Wood Products (EWP). Utilizing bio-based thermoplastics for these materials can reduce our dependence on foreign petroleum. We have demonstrated that biopolymers (polyhydroxyalkanoates, PHA) can be successfully produced from wood pulping waste streams and that viable wood fiber reinforced thermoplastic composite products can be produced from these materials. The results show that microbial polyester (PHB in this study) can be extruded together with wastewater-derived cell mass and wood flour into deck products having performance properties comparable to existing commercial HDPE/WF composite products. This study has thus proven the underlying concept that the microbial polyesters produced from waste effluents can be used to make cost-effective and energy-efficient wood-plastic composites. The cost of purified microbial polyesters is about 5-20 times that of HDPE depending on the cost of crude oil, due to high purification (40%), carbon substrate (40%) and sterilized fermentation (20%) costs for the PHB. Hence, the ability to produce competitive and functional composites with unpurified PHA-biomass mixtures from waste carbon sources in unsterile systems—without cell debris removal—is a significant step forward in producing competitive value-added structural composites from forest products residuals using a biorefinery approach. As demonstrated in the energy and waste analysis for the project, significant energy savings and waste reductions can also be realized using this approach. We recommend that the next step for development of

  13. Development and Application of Wood Flour-Filled Polylactic Acid Composite Filament for 3D Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yubo; Wang, Honglei; Li, Zelong; Li, Peng; Shi, Sheldon Q

    2017-03-24

    This paper presents the development of wood flour (WF)-filled polylactic acid (PLA) composite filaments for a fused deposition modeling (FDM) process with the aim of application to 3D printing. The composite filament consists of wood flour (5 wt %) in a PLA matrix. The detailed formulation and characterization of the composite filament were investigated experimentally, including tensile properties, microstructure, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The feedstock filaments of this composite were produced and used successfully in an assembled FDM 3D printer. The research concludes that compared with pure PLA filament, adding WF changed the microstructure of material fracture surface, the initial deformation resistance of the composite was enhanced, the starting thermal degradation temperature of the composite decreased slightly, and there were no effects on the melting temperature. The WF/PLA composite filament is suitable to be printed by the FDM process.

  14. Gadolinium chloride as a contrast agent for imaging wood composite components by magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Chi-Leung So; Andrea Protti; Po-Wah So

    2009-01-01

    Although paramagnetic contrast agents have an established track record in medical uses of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), only recently has a contrast agent been used for enhancing MRI images of solid wood specimens. Expanding on this concept, wood veneers were treated with a gadolinium-based contrast agent and used in a model system comprising three-ply plywood...

  15. Corrosion of metals in treated wood examined by synchrotron based xanes and XFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Joseph E. Jakes; Grant T. Kirker; Leandro Passarini; Barry Lai

    2016-01-01

    Copper based waterborne wood preservatives are frequently used to extend the service life of wood products used in outdoor environments. While these copper based treatments protect the wood from fungal decay and insect attack, they increase the corrosion of metals embedded or in contact with the treated wood. Over the past ten years, several studies have looked at the...

  16. Urea modified cottonseed protein adhesive for wood composite products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottonseed protein has the potential to be used as renewable and environmentally friendly adhesives in wood products industry. However, the industry application was limited by its low mechanical properties, low water resistance and viscosity. In this work, urea modified cottonseed protein adhesive w...

  17. Dynamic determination of modulus of elasticity of full-size wood composite panels using a vibration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Guan; Houjiang Zhang; Lujing Zhou; Xiping Wang

    2015-01-01

    A vibration testing method based on free vibration theory in a ‘‘free–free” support condition was investigated for evaluating the modulus of elasticity (MOE) of full-size wood composite panels (WCPs). Vibration experiments were conducted on three types of WCPs (medium density fibreboard, particleboard, and plywood) to determine the dynamic MOE of the panels. Static...

  18. Effects of nano-clay on biological resistance of wood-plastic composite against five wood-deteriorating fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Bari,E; Taghiyari,H. R; Schmidt, O.; A Ghorbani; Aghababaei, H.

    2015-01-01

    Effects of nano-clay on weight loss of wood-plastic composites (WPC) by five fungi were studied. Nanoclay particles of 20 to 50 nm size were applied at 2, 4, and 6% WPC of 0,90 g/cm³ density. The white-rot fungi Physisporinus vitreus, Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor as well as the brown-rot species Antrodia vaillantii and Coniophora puteana were used. Mass loss tests were conducted according to the European standard. The highest (3,2%) and lowest (0,2%) mass losses were produced b...

  19. Development of Wood-Plastic Composite at Dedan Kimathi University of Technology, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madaraka F. Mwema

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Disposal of plastics and other solid wastes has been a major problem in Kenya. Most of these wastes can be recycled through various ways and methods to produce new products. Plastics can be combined with sawdust to develop composite materials for applications such as in building. In this project, a wood-plastic composite (WPC was developed from sawdust and plastic solid wastes. The composite bore the advantages of both wood and plastics which can be applied in various sectors including interior design work and in automotive among others, thereby curbing the problem of garbage accumulation in the environment. The project provides eco-friendly solutions by making best use of the available resources (wood and plastic resins thus, finding sustainable solutions to the problem of limited waste dumping sites and deforestation in the country. The composites were made from PP and HDPE thermoplastics and mahogany sawdust obtained from our wood workshop in Dedan Kimathi University. From the tests carried out and results obtained, it was found that, the composite has more advantages than the individual constituent materials. Water absorption test revealed that all the samples took up water though not as much pronounced as for plain sawdust. Additionally, the rate of water reduction was found to be excellent. They took less time to release the absorbed water to the environment meaning that they can be applied in humid or wet environ. The composite samples were easy to machine since they were easily shaped using a handsaw.

  20. Thermophysical properties of composite fuel based on T grade coal (Alardinskoe deposit) and timber industry wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankovsky, S. A.; Tolokolnikov, A. A.; Gubin, V. E.; Slyusarskiy, K. V.; Zenkov, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    Results of experimental studies of composite fuel thermal decomposition processes based on T grade coal (Alardinskoe deposit) and timber industry wastes (fine wood) are presented. C, H, N, S weight percentage of each component of composite fuel was determined experimentally. It has been established that with an increase in wood concentration up to 50% in composite fuel, its energy characteristics decrease by less than 3.6%, while the yield of fly ash is 39.7%. An effective composite fuel composition has been defined as 50%/50%. Results of performed experimental studies suggest that it is possible to use composite fuels based on coal and wood at thermal power plants.

  1. Fabrication of low-cost Mod-0A wood-composite wind-turbine blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lark, R.F.; Gougeon, M.; Thomas, G.; Zuteck, M.

    1983-02-01

    A contract was awarded to Gougeon Brothers, Inc., by NASA Lewis Research Center, under Department of Energy sponsorship, for the development and fabrication of two 60-foot, low-cost wood composite blades for service on a 200-kW Mod-0A wind turbine machine. The contractural effort consisted of blade design and analysis and fabrication phases. This report provides a brief summary of the design and analysis phase, and an indepth review of the blade fabrication phase. The wood composite blades were fabricated by using epoxy resin-bonded laminates of Douglas fir veneers for the leading edge spar sections and honeycomb-cored birch plywood panels for the blade trailing edge or afterbody sections. The blade was joined to the wind turbine hub assembly by epoxy resin-bonded steel load takeoff studs. The wood composite blades were installed in the newest Mod-0A wind turbine test facility at Kukuku, Hawaii called Makini Huila (wind wheel) by the Hawaiians. The wood composite blades have successfully completed high power (average of 150 kW) operations for an 18-month period (nearly 8000 h) prior to replacement with another set of wood composite blades. The original set of blades were taken out of service because of the failure of the shank on one stud. An inspection of the blades at NASA Lewis showed that the shank failure was caused by a high stress concentration at a corrosion pit on the shank fillet radius which resulted in fatigue stresses in excess of the endurance limit. The remainder of the blade, including the embedded portion of the fractured stud, and the entire wood structure was found to be in excellent condition. All of the remaining studs, with the exception of four studs that showed an onset of corrosion, were also in excellent condition. The failed stud, as well as four of the corroded studs were successfully replaced with new studs. The blade is currently in a service-ready condition.

  2. Effect of Filler Loading on Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Wood Apple Shell Reinforced Epoxy Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojha Shakuntala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last century, natural fibers and particulates are used as reinforcement in polymer composite that has been continuously growing in the composite industry. This polymer matrix composite has wide range of applications in hostile environment where they are exposed to external attacks such as solid particle erosion. Also, the mechanical properties of different polymer composites show the best alternate to replace the metal material. In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to improve the mechanical and tribological behaviour of polymer matrix composite using wood apple shell particles as a filler material in polymer matrix. Also the temperature variation of the dynamic-mechanical parameters of epoxy matrix composites incorporated with 5, 10, 15, and 20 wt% of wood apple shell particles was investigated by DMA test. It is clearly observed that the incorporation of wood apple shell particles tends to increase the tensile strength, flexural strength, erosive wear resistance, and viscoelastic stiffness of the polymer composite. To validate the results, SEM of the polymer matrix composite has been studied.

  3. Optimising and standardising the fatigue design of commercial wood composite wind turbine blades: v. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, I.P.; Hacker, C.L.; Ansell, M.P.

    1996-07-01

    The three major objective of the work were to: (a) assess the fatigue performance of wood composite turbine blades incorporating design features which reduce cost, weight and production time by using cheaper and thicker veneers, cheaper resin systems and rapid fabrication techniques; (b) the verification of fatigue design rules using real load spectra from wind farm sites with different wind speeds and turbulence levels, extending damage analysis to new wood species and to commercial joint configurations including scarf and finger joints; (c) incorporate information on the selection and performance of wood composites into type approval procedures and standards for wind turbines. Overall the aim was to contribute to the commercial success of British wind turbines. (Author)

  4. Adhesive Through-Reinforcement Improves the Fracture Toughness of a Laminated Birch Wood Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchang He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we test the hypothesis that adhesive through-reinforcement in combination with glass-fibre reinforcement of adhesive bond lines will significantly improve the fracture toughness of a laminated birch wood composite. We test this hypothesis using a model composite consisting of perforated veneer that allowed a polyurethane adhesive to penetrate and reinforce veneers within the composite. Model composite specimens were tested for mode I fracture properties, and scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the microstructure of fracture surfaces. Our results clearly show that through-reinforcement, and also reinforcing adhesive bond lines with glass-fibre, significantly improved fracture toughness of the birch wood composite. Our results also indicate that improvements in fracture toughness depended on the level of reinforcement. Improvements in fracture toughness were related to the ability of the reinforcement to arrest crack development during fracture testing and the fibre bridging effect of glass-fibre in adhesive bond lines. We conclude that through-reinforcement is an effective way of improving the fracture toughness of laminated wood composites, but further research is needed to develop practical ways of creating such reinforcement in composites that more closely resemble commercial products.

  5. Phylogenetic composition and properties of bacteria coexisting with the fungus Hypholoma fasciculare in decaying wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valášková, V.; De Boer, W.; Klein Gunnewiek, P.J.A.; Pospíšek, M.; Baldrian, P.

    2009-01-01

    White-rot fungi are major degraders of woody materials in terrestrial environments because of their ability to decompose lignin. However, little is known on the possible associations of white-rot fungi with other microorganisms during wood decay. We investigated the numbers, community composition

  6. Chemical compositions, infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffractometry study on brown-rotted woods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai-Yun Li; Luo-Hua Huang; Chung Hse; Te-Fu Qin

    2011-01-01

    The effect of brown-rot decay on the chemical composition and crystallinity of Masson pine was studied by exposing it to Wolfiporia cocos (Schwein.) Ryvarden and Gilbn. for durations of up to 15 weeks in the field. The holocellulose content, α-cellulose content, and wood crystallinity decreased slowly in the initial stage, followed by a significant reduction...

  7. Effect of Wood Aging on Wine Mineral Composition and 87Sr/86Sr Isotopic Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ayse D; Bruno de Sousa, Raúl; Curvelo-Garcia, António S; Ricardo-da-Silva, Jorge M; Catarino, Sofia

    2017-06-14

    The evolution of mineral composition and wine strontium isotopic ratio 87Sr/86Sr (Sr IR) during wood aging were investigated. A red wine was aged in stainless steel tanks with French oak staves (Quercus sessiliflora Salisb.), with three industrial scale replicates. Sampling was carried out after 30, 60, and 90 days of aging, and the wines were evaluated in terms of general analysis, phenolic composition, total polysaccharides, multielement composition, and Sr IR. Li, Be, Mg, Al, Sc, Ti, V, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Mo, Sb, Cs, Ba, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, Lu, Tl, and Pb elements and 87Sr/86Sr were determined by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Q-ICP-MS) and Na, K, Ca, and Fe by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Two-way ANOVA was applied to assess wood aging and time effect on Sr IR and mineral composition. Wood aging resulted in significantly higher concentrations of Mg, V, Co, Ni, and Sr. At the end of the aging period, wine exhibited statistically identical Sr IR compared to control. Study suggests that wood aging does not affect 87Sr/86Sr, not precluding the use of this parameter for wine traceability purposes.

  8. Exterior Decay of Wood-Plastic Composite Boards: Characterization and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca Ibach; Grace Sun; Marek Gnatowski; Jessie Glaeser; Mathew Leung; John Haight

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to evaluate free water content and distribution in wood-plastic composite (WPC) materials decayed during exterior exposure near Hilo, Hawaii. Two segments of the same board blend were selected from 6 commercial decking boards that had fungal fruiting bodies. One of the two board segments was exposed in sun, the other in shadow...

  9. Modern Instrumental Methods to Investigate the Mechanism of Biological Decay in Wood Plastic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace Sun; Rebecca Ibach; Marek Gnatowski; Jessie Glaeser; Mathew Leung; John. Haight

    2014-01-01

    Various instrumental techniques were used to study the fungal decay process in wood plastic composite (WPC) boards. Commercial boards exposed near Hilo, Hawaii (HI) for eight years in both sun and shadow locations were inspected and tested periodically. After eight years of exposure, both boards were evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), while a selected...

  10. Effect of Boron and Phosphate compounds on Thermal and Fire Properties of wood/HDPE composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgay Akbulut; Nadir Ayrilmis; Turker Dundar; Ali Durmus; Robert H. White; Murat Teker

    2011-01-01

    Melting and non-isothermal crystallization behaviors, oxidative induction time, and fire performance of the injection-molded wood flour-high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites (WPCs) incorporated with different levels (4, 8, or 12 wt %) of boron compounds [borax/boric acid (BX/BA) (0.5:0.5 wt %), zinc borate (ZB)] and phosphorus compounds [mono- and di-ammonium...

  11. Mechanical and time-dependent behavior of wood-plastic composites subjected to tension and compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott E. Hamel; John C. Hermanson; Steven M. Cramer

    2012-01-01

    The thermoplastics within wood—plastic composites (WPCs) are known to experience significant time-dependent deformation or creep. In some formulations, creep deformation can be twice as much as the initial quasi-static strain in as little as 4 days. While extensive work has been done on the creep behavior of pure polymers, little information is available on the...

  12. Measurement of Dynamic Viscoelasticity of Full-Size Wood Composite Panels Using a Vibration Testing Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Guan; Houjiang Zhang; John F. Hunt; Lujing Zhou; Dan Feng

    2016-01-01

    The dynamic viscoelasticity of full-size wood composite panels (WCPs) under the free-free vibrational state were determined by a vibration testing method. Vibration detection tests were performed on 194 pieces of three types of full-size WCPs (particleboard, medium density fiberboard, and plywood (PW)). The dynamic viscoelasticity from smaller specimens cut from the...

  13. Lateral-Torsional Buckling Instability Caused by Individuals Walking on Wood Composite I-Joists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasenor Aguilar, Jose Maria

    Recent research has shown that a significant number of the falls from elevation occur when laborers are working on unfinished structures. Workers walking on wood I-joists on roofs and floors are prone to fall hazards. Wood I-joists have been replacing dimension lumber for many floor systems and a substantial number of roof systems in light-frame construction. Wood I-joists are designed to resist axial stresses on the flanges and shear stresses on the web while minimizing material used. However, wood I-joists have poor resistance to applied lateral and torsional loads and are susceptible to lateral-torsional buckling instability. Workers walking on unbraced or partially braced wood I-joists can induce axial and lateral forces as well as twist. Experimental testing demonstrated that workers cause lateral-torsional buckling instability in wood I-joists. However, no research was found related to the lateral-torsional buckling instability induced by individuals walking on the wood I-joists. Furthermore, no research was found considering the effects of the supported end conditions and partial bracing in the lateral-torsional buckling instability of wood I-joists. The goal of this research was to derive mathematical models to predict the dynamic lateral-torsional buckling instability of wood composite I-joists loaded by individuals walking considering different supported end conditions and bracing system configurations. The dynamic lateral-torsional buckling instability was analyzed by linearly combining the static lateral-torsional buckling instability with the lateral bending motion of the wood Ijoists. Mathematical models were derived to calculate the static critical loads for the simply supported end condition and four wood I-joist hanger supported end conditions. Additionally, mathematical models were derived to calculate the dynamic maximum lateral displacements and positions of the individual walking on the wood Ijoists for the same five different supported end

  14. All-cellulose and all-wood composites by partial dissolution of cotton fabric and wood in ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Mitsuhiro; Teramoto, Naozumi; Nakamura, Taro; Saitoh, Yoshinobu

    2013-11-06

    After cotton fabric (CF) and hinoki lumber (HL) were dipped in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) at 100 °C, the BMIMCl-impregnated CF and HL were hot-pressed to give CF-BMIMCl and HL-BMIMCl composites, respectively. The BMIMCl contained in the composites was removed by Soxhlet extraction, and subsequently annealed to produce all-cellulose and all-wood composites (CF-A and HL-A). The SEM analyses revealed that cellulose fibers combined together for CF-A and the surface of HL-A became smooth, respectively. The XRD measurements indicated that the crystallinity index of cellulose component decreased by the hot press, increased by the extraction, and further increased by the annealing for both the composites. The tensile modulus of CF-A increased with increasing pressure of hot-press. Although tensile strength of HL-A was a little lower than that of original HL, tensile modulus of the former was much higher than that of the latter. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Relation between geometry of fracture surfaces and impact work of wood composite materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Přemyslovská

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is description of geometry of fracture surfaces of wood composite materials (cement-bonded particleboard, gypsum-bonded fibreboard and wood particleboard using fractal analysis and exploration relation between fractal dimension and impact work. Fractal dimension determinated by filtration, volumetric and robust Box-Counting methods and Richardson method is different considering type of material and method. Proportional relationship between fractal dimension (computed by robust BC method and impact work of mentioned materials was found in other cases non-proportional relationships were founded.

  16. Determination of thermal properties and morphology of eucalyptus wood residue filled high density polyethylene composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengeloglu, Fatih; Kabakci, Ayse

    2008-02-01

    Thermal behaviors of eucalyptus wood residue (EWR) filled recycled high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites have been measured applying the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Morphology of the materials was also studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Addition of the EWR into the recycled HDPE matrix reduced the starting of degradation temperature. EWR filled recycled HDPE had two main decomposition peaks, one for EWR around 350 degrees C and one for recycled HDPE around 460 degrees C. Addition of EWR did not affect the melting temperature of the recycled HDPE. Morphological study showed that addition of coupling agent improved the compatibility between wood residue and recycled HDPE.

  17. The Effect of Methylation and Anti-Oxidant on Discoloration of Weathered Wood Plastic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peivand Darabi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As the outdoor application of Wood Plastic Composites (WPCs become more widespread, the resistance of these products against weathering, particularly ultraviolet (UV light becomes more important. When WPCs are exposed to outdoor ultraviolet light, rain, snow and atmosphere pollution, they will be degraded which can be indicated by color fade. To investigate the effects of methylation and Anti-Oxidant separately and together on discoloration of weathered wood plastic composites, composites of poplar wood flour and high density polyethylene.Were made according to the ASTMD 2565, samples were placed in Atlas Xenon apparatus for 250 and 2000 hours. Discoloration and FT-IR spectra of the samples were measured and compared. The results have shown that methylation in short term and long term can relatively reduce the discoloration of weathered samples and also in short term can hinder the photodegradation. FT-IR spectra showed that, in long term, neither of the treatments could protect lignin from irradiation within wood flour. But methylation limited the depth of penetration of weathering. The Antioxidant did not have an influence on color change in a long period of time, but was able to relatively decrease it in short term.

  18. Solutions for wood-based bio-energy price discovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teraes, Timo [FOEX Indexes Ltd., Helsinki (Finland)], e-mail: timo@foex.fi

    2012-11-01

    Energy prices are highly volatile. This volatility can have serious ill-effects on the profitability of companies engaged in the energy business. There are, however, a number of price risk management tools which can be used to reduce the problems caused by price volatility. International trade of wood pellets and wood chips is rapidly growing. A good price transparency helps in developing the trade further. In order to meet the renewable energy targets within the EU, further growth of volumes is needed, at least within Europe and from overseas supply sources to the European markets. Reliable price indices are a central element in price risk management and in general price discovery. Exchanges have provided, in the past, the most widely known price discovery systems. Since 1990's, an increasing number of price risk management tools has been based on cash settlement concept. Cash settlement requires high quality benchmark price indices. These have been developed by the exchanges themselves, by trade press and by independent price benchmark provider companies. The best known of these benchmarks in forest industry and now also in wood-based bioenergy products are the PIX indices, provided by FOEX Indexes Ltd. This presentation discusses the key requirements for a good price index and the different ways of using the indices. Price relationships between wood chip prices and pellet prices are also discussed as will be the outlook for the future volume growth and trade flows in woodchips and pellets mainly from the European perspective.

  19. Investigation of bio-composites using Novolac type liquefied wood resin: effects of liquefaction and fabrication conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui Pan; Chung-Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2009-01-01

    Wood liquefaction using an organic solvent and an acid catalyst has long been studied as a novel technique to utilize biomass as an alternative to petroleum-based products. Oxalic acid is a weaker organic acid than a mineral acid and wood liquefaction with oxalic acid as a catalyst will result in a higher amount of wood residue than that with a mineral acid....

  20. Determination of thermal conductivity of pine wood dust filled epoxy composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohapatra Ramesh Chandra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation the Thermal conductivity in particulate filler filled (Pine wood dust epoxy composites at different volume fractions (6.5%, 11.3%,26.8% and 35.9% have been determined experimentally by using Forced Convection apparatus. The composites of pine wood dust particles of 150 micron size have been prepared by using hand-lay-up technique. The experimental results show that the incorporation of pine wood dust results in reduction of thermal conductivity of epoxy resin and there by improves its thermal insulation capability. From the experiments it is also observed that the composite with 35.9% volume fraction of pine wood dust exhibited lowest thermal conductivity i.e 0.246 W/m-0K on comparison to 6.5%,11.3% and26.8% volume fractions. Therefore the composite with 35.9% wood dust may be more suitable for insulation application. Experimental results (22mm pipe diameter are also compared with theoretical models such as Rule of mixture model, Maxwell model, Russell model and Baschirow & Selenew model to describe the variation of thermal conductivity versus the volume fraction of the filler. All these models exhibited results close to each other at low dust filler content. On comparison, It has been found that the errors associated with experimental (26mm Dia. along with all the above four models with respect to experimental ones (22mm Dia. lie in the range of 19.60 to 44.10%, 0.76 to 12.10%, 1.86 to 5.12% and 8.24 to 19.68% respectively.

  1. Effect of biochar on mechanical and flame retardant properties of wood - Plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingfa; Cai, Hongzhen; Yang, Keyan; Yi, Weiming

    Biochar/wood/plastic composites were prepared with different biochar content by the extrusion method, and the mechanical properties and flame retardant properties were tested. The study indicated that: with the increase of biochar content, the mechanical properties of the composites tended to rise at first and then fell. This suggested that the appropriate amount of biochar can promote the mechanical properties of the biochar/wood/plastic composites. Though both Mg(OH)2 and Al(OH)3 could improve the Flame retardant properties of the material evidently, Mg(OH)2 obtained a better effect than Al(OH)3. In particular, when the adding amount of Mg(OH)2 is 40 wt%, the flame retardant effect is the best. Al(OH)3 can reduce the mechanical properties of the material, while Mg(OH)2 could evidently promote the tensile strength and impact resistance strength of the material.

  2. Corn gluten meal as a biodegradable matrix material in wood fibre reinforced composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beg, M.D.H. [Department of Materials and Process Engineering, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton (New Zealand); Pickering, K.L. [Department of Materials and Process Engineering, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton (New Zealand)]. E-mail: klp@waikato.ac.nz; Weal, S.J. [Department of Materials and Process Engineering, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    2005-12-05

    This study was undertaken to investigate corn gluten meal (CGM) as a biodegradable matrix material for wood fibre reinforced composites. CGM was used alone, as well as hybridized with polypropylene, and reinforced with radiata pine (Pinus Radiata) fibre using a twin-screw extruder followed by injection moulding. Tensile testing, scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry were carried out to assess the composites. For composites from CGM and wood fibres, extrusion was carried out with the aid of the following plasticizers: octanoic acid, glycerol, polyethylene glycol and water. Windows of processability for the different plasticizers were obtained for all plasticizers. These were found to lie between 20 and 50 wt.% of plasticizer with a maximum of approximately 20% wood fibre reinforcement. The best mechanical properties were obtained with a matrix containing 10 wt.% octanoic acid and 30 wt.% water, which gave a tensile strength and Young's modulus of 18.7 MPa and 4 GPa, respectively. Hybrid matrix composites were compounded with a maleated polypropylene coupling agent and benzoyl peroxide as a cross-linking agent. The highest tensile strength and Young's modulus obtained from hybrid matrix composites were 36.9 MPa and 5.8 GPa with 50 wt.% fibre.

  3. Economic feasibility study of a wood gasification-based methanol plant: A subcontract report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-04-01

    This report presents an economic feasibility study for a wood-gasification-based methanol plant. The objectives were to evaluate the current commercial potential of a small-scale, wood-fed methanol plant using the SERI oxygen-blown, pressurized, down-draft gasifier technology and to identify areas requiring further R and D. The gasifier gas composition and material balance were based on a computer model of the SERI gasifier since acceptable test data were not available. The estimated capital cost was based on the Nth plant constructed. Given the small size and commercial nature of most of the equipment, N was assumed to be between 5 and 10. Only large discrepancies in gasifier output would result in significant charges in capital costs. 47 figs., 55 tabs.

  4. Comparative analysis of volatile and phenolic composition of alternative wood chips from cherry, acacia and oak for potential use in enology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordão António M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present work was to investigate the phenolic and volatile composition of cherry, acacia, and oak (from different species wood chips. By the use of HPLC-DAD 18 different phenolic compounds were detected and quantified while for volatile composition, 33 different compounds were detected by GC-MS. In general, wood samples from oak species showed the higher number of phenolic compounds detected, while cherry wood samples showed the lowest levels. In addition, some individual phenolic compounds were detected, specifically in some wood samples, such as robinetin in acacia woods and naringenin in cherry wood. For volatile composition, cherry wood chips samples showed the lowest volatile composition followed by increasing order by acacia, French, Portuguese and American wood chip samples. Oak wood chip samples from American species showed the highest volatile content, as a result of high levels of several specific compounds (furfural, 5-methyfurfural, β-methyl-γ-octalactones, guaiacol, vanillin and siringaldehyde.

  5. Effect of gas saturation conditions on the expansion ratio of microcellular poly(lactic acid/wood-flour composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Poly(lactic acid or PLA and PLA/wood-flour composites were microcellular foamed with CO2 through a batch foaming process. Specifically, the gas saturation pressure and time varied during processing to produce PLA foams with a high expansion ratio. A ten fold expansion ratio resulted in microcellular foamed PLA over unfoamed counterpart. The foaming conditions associated with such a high expansion ratio involved a lower gas saturation pressure up to 2.76 MPa, which corresponds to a critical gas concentration of approximately 9.4%. Beyond this critical value, foam expansion decreased significantly. Investigations also studied the effect of incorporating wood flour on the foamability of the resulting PLA/wood-flour composites. The addition of wood flour into the PLA matrix significantly affected the expansion ratio of PLA/wood-flour composite foams.

  6. A wooded riparian strip set up for nitrogen removal can affect the water flux microbial composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizanur Md. Rahman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This research is part of a project aimed at verifying the potential of a specifically assessed wooded riparian zone in removing excess of combined nitrogen from the Zero river flow for the reduction of nutrient input into Venice Lagoon. Specific objectives were pursued to determine seasonal fluctuations of the microbial populations from the input water to a drainage ditch, conveying back the flux into the river after passing through the soil of the wooded riparian strip. The bacterial communities were determined by combined approaches involving cultivation, microscopic methods and DNA based techniques to determine both culturable and total microbial community in water. The results indicate that the size of the bacterial population, including the culturable fraction, increases from the river to the drainage ditch especially on the warm season. The multiple approach here adopted enabled also to demonstrate that the special condition created in the buffer strip supports the development and the metabolism of the microbial community. The nature of the bacterial population, in terms of phylotypes distribution, was investigated by 16S rDNA analysis indicating that the most represented genera belong to Gamma-proteobacteria, which is known to include an exceeding number of important pathogens. In spring, the effect of the buffer strip seems to significantly reduce such a sub-population. The changes observed for the total bacterial community composition become much evident in summer, as revealed by both denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis cluster analysis and by the diversity index calculation. The hydraulic management coupled to the suspension of farming practices and the development of the woody and herbaceous vegetation resulted in a condition suitable for the containment of undesired microbiota (mainly during the spring season while continuing to support denitrification activity (especially throughout the summer as verified by the total nitrogen

  7. Two-year Wisconsin thermal loads for roof assemblies and wood, wood–plastic composite, and fiberglass shingles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrold E. Winandy; Michael Grambsch; Cherilyn Hatfield

    2005-01-01

    Temperature histories for various types of roof shingles, wood roof sheathing, roof rafters, and non-ventilated attics are being monitored in outdoor attic structures using simulated North American light-framed construction. This report presents 2-year data histories for annual thermal loads for western redcedar, wood–thermoplastic composite, and fiberglass shingles...

  8. The effects of wood storage on the chemical composition and indigenous microflora of eucalyptus species used in the pulping industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramnath, L

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available eucalypt species [Eucalyptus nitens, E. grandis, and E. dunnii (of different site qualities)] wood and generated pulp was performed. This study aimed at determining the effects of wood storage at -20°C (for 6 months), by examining their chemical composition...

  9. Evaluation of the Acoustic Properties of Wood-Plastic-Chalk Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Daeipour

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Wood-plastic composites are a new group of materials that can be used in construction instead of wood and plastic. They are used in various industries due to features such as sound and water absorption, among others. This article aims to study the acoustic properties of wood-plastic composites made of wood flour, low-density polyethylene, and chalk. In this study, 6 combinations were made with different material percentages. Acoustic tests were performed for frequency ranges of 125, 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 Hz. The results of this study showed that the maximum amount of sound absorption was observed at a frequency of 2000 onwards. At the frequency of 25 to 2000, no remarkable change in sound absorption was recorded. At the 2000 to upper frequencies, one of the samples displayed the maximum amount of sound absorption. In terms of water absorption, a significant variation was reported in three samples with passing time (2, 24, 48 and 72 hours.

  10. Mechanical Behavior of Dowel-Type Joints Made of Wood Scrimber Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Minjuan; Tao, Duo; Li, Zheng; Li, Maolin

    2016-01-01

    As a renewable building material with low embodied energy characteristics, wood has gained more and more attention in the green and sustainable building industry. In terms of material resource and physical properties, scrimber composite not only makes full use of fast-growing wood species, but also has better mechanical performance and less inherent variability than natural wood material. In this study, the mechanical behavior of bolted beam-to-column joints built with a kind of scrimber composite was investigated both experimentally and numerically. Two groups of specimens were tested under monotonic and low frequency cyclic loading protocols. The experimental results showed that the bolted joints built with scrimber composite performed well in initial stiffness, ductility, and energy dissipation. A three-dimensional (3D) non-linear finite element model (FEM) for the bolted beam-to-column joints was then developed and validated by experimental results. The validated model was further used to investigate the failure mechanism of the bolted joints through stress analysis. This study can contribute to the application of the proposed scrimber composite in structural engineering, and the developed FEM can serve as a useful tool to evaluate the mechanical behavior of such bolted beam-to-column joints with different configurations in future research. PMID:28773703

  11. Orthogonal model and experimental data for analyzing wood-fiber-based tri-axial ribbed structural panels in bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinghao Li; John F. Hunt; Shaoqin Gong; Zhiyong Cai

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of 3-dimensional engineered structural panels (3DESP) made from wood-fiber-based laminated paper composites. Since the existing models for calculating the mechanical behavior of core configurations within sandwich panels are very complex, a new simplified orthogonal model (SOM) using an equivalent element has been developed. This model...

  12. Wood-based panels : supply, trade and consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry Spelter

    2000-01-01

    Preliminary figures of wood-based panels consumption in Europe show a small increase in 1999 to 52.1 million m3 a new record level. However, according to the European Panel Federation (EPF), real consumption taking into account particle board stock changes, was higher due to the recovery of markets in the second half of 1999. Particle board is the main panel in Europe...

  13. Stiff, Thermally Stable and Highly Anisotropic Wood-Derived Carbon Composite Monoliths for Electromagnetic Interference Shielding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ye; Sun, Xianxian; Yang, Minglong; Xu, Fan; Lin, Zaishan; Zhao, Xu; Ding, Yujie; Li, Jianjun; Yin, Weilong; Peng, Qingyu; He, Xiaodong; Li, Yibin

    2017-06-28

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding materials for electronic devices in aviation and aerospace not only need lightweight and high shielding effectiveness, but also should withstand harsh environments. Traditional EMI shielding materials often show heavy weight, poor thermal stability, short lifetime, poor tolerance to chemicals, and are hard-to-manufacture. Searching for high-efficiency EMI shielding materials overcoming the above weaknesses is still a great challenge. Herein, inspired by the unique structure of natural wood, lightweight and highly anisotropic wood-derived carbon composite EMI shielding materials have been prepared which possess not only high EMI shielding performance and mechanical stable characteristics, but also possess thermally stable properties, outperforming those metals, conductive polymers, and their composites. The newly developed low-cost materials are promising for specific applications in aerospace electronic devices, especially regarding extreme temperatures.

  14. Effect of boron compounds on physical, mechanical, and fire properties of injection molded wood plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadir Ayrilmis; Turgay Akbulut; Turker Dundar; Robert H. White; Fatih Mengeloglu; Zeki Candan; Umit Buyuksari; Erkan Avci

    2011-01-01

    Physical, mechanical, and fire properties of the injection-molded wood flour/polypropylene composites (WPCs) incorporated with different levels of boron compounds, borax/boric acid (BX/BA) (0.5:0.5 wt %) and zinc borate (ZB) (4, 8, or 12 wt %) were investigated. The effect of the coupling agent loading (2, 4, or 6 wt %), maleic anhydride-grafted PP (MAPP), on the...

  15. Experimental and theoretical modal analysis of full-sized wood composite panels supported on four nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Guan; Houjiang Zhang; Xiping Wang; Hu Miao; Lujing Zhou; Fenglu Liu

    2017-01-01

    Key elastic properties of full-sized wood composite panels (WCPs) must be accurately determined not only for safety, but also serviceability demands. In this study, the modal parameters of full-sized WCPs supported on four nodes were analyzed for determining the modulus of elasticity (E) in both major and minor axes, as well as the in-plane shear modulus of panels by...

  16. Mechanical and time-dependent behavior of wood-plastic composites subjected to bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. E. Hamel; John Hermanson; S. M. Cramer

    2015-01-01

    The most popular use of wood–plastic composite (WPC) members in the United States has been as outdoor decking material in residential construction. If the use of these products expands into more structural applications, such as beams and joists, it is imperative that the material’s mechanical behavior be understood. Since most of the potential structural uses of this...

  17. Turning of wood plastic composites by water jet and abrasive water jet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hutyrová, Z.; Ščučka, Jiří; Hloch, Sergej; Hlaváček, Petr; Zeleňák, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 84, 5-8 (2016), s. 1615-1623 ISSN 0268-3768 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : wood plastic composite * water jet * turning * traverse speed * size of abrasive particles Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 2.209, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00170-015-7831-6

  18. Turning of wood plastic composites by water jet and abrasive water jet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hutyrová, Z.; Ščučka, Jiří; Hloch, Sergej; Hlaváček, Petr; Zeleňák, Michal

    -, September 2015 (2015), s. 1-9 ISSN 0268-3768 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : wood plastic composite * water jet * size of abrasive particles * surface quality * traverse speed Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 1.568, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00170-015-7831-6

  19. Logistics Significance of Wood Product Manufacturing on Competitiveness Based Management

    OpenAIRE

    Fedotova, K; Geipele, I; Geipele, S

    2012-01-01

    Topicality is associated with the important contribution of wood products manufacturing in Latvian economy. Important role in development of wood products manufacturing has improvement of wood products manufacturing that includes acceptance of strategic management decisions and solutions for wwod resource flow optimization throughout wood products added value chain, as well as an interference with related industries.

  20. Fatty acid-based formulations for wood protection against mold and sapstain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol A. Clausen; Robert D. Coleman; Vina W. Yang

    2010-01-01

    Safer, highly effective biocides providing long-term protection of mold growth on wood-based materials is of interest to the wood protection industry. Moldicide formulations containing synergistic combinations of ingredients derived from natural sources are commonly recognized as a promising approach for the next generation of wood protectants. Although fatty acid (FA...

  1. Serpula lacrymans, the dry rot fungus and tolerance towards copper-based wood preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Christine Steenkjaer Hastrup; Frederick Green; Carol Clausen; Bo Jensen

    2005-01-01

    Serpula lacrymans (Wulfen : Fries) Schröter, the dry rot fungus, is considered the most economically important wood decay fungus in temperate regions of the world i.e. northern Europe, Japan and Australia. Previously copper based wood preservatives were the most commonly used preservatives for pressure treatment of wood for building constructions. Because of a...

  2. Construction of low-cost, Mod-0A wood-composite wind-turbine blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lark, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    The construction of two sixty-foot, low-cost, wood composite blades for service on 200 kW Mod-0A wind turbines is described. The blades were constructed of epoxy resin-bonded Douglas fir veneers for the leading edge sections, and paper honeycomb-cored, birch plywood faced panels for the afterbody sections. The blades were joined to the wind turbine hub by epoxy resin-bonded steel load take-off studs embedded into the root end of the blades. The blades were installed on the 200 kW Mod-0A wind turbine facility at Kahuku, Hawaii. The blades have completed nearly 8000 hours of operation over an 18 month period at an average power of 150 kW prior to replacement with another set of wood composite blades. The blades were replaced because of a corrosion failure of the steel shank on one stud. Inspections at NASA-Lewis showed that the wood composite structure remains in excellent condition.

  3. Effect of compatibilization and reprocessing on the isothermal crystallization kinetics of polypropylene/wood flour composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arieny Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have focused on polymer mixtures aimed at the potential applications of these materials. This work analyzed the effect of polymer reprocessing and the type and concentration of compatibilizer on the isothermal crystallization kinetics of polypropylene/wood flour composites. The composites, which were polypropylene grafted with acrylic acid (PP-g-AA and maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA, were processed in a twin screw extruder with and without compatibilizer. Reprocessed polypropylene reached complete crystallization in less time than the composites with virgin polypropylene. The addition of wood flour to the composites did not change the kinetics significantly compared to that of the pure polymers, but the compatibilizers did, particularly PP-g-AA. The nucleation exponent (n and crystallization rate (K were calculated from Avrami plots. The values of n ranged from 2 to 3, indicating instantaneous to sporadic nucleation. The crystallization half-time of reprocessed polypropylene was shorter than that of virgin polypropylene and of the compositions containing PP-g-AA compatibilizer. The activation energy of crystallization and the equilibrium melting temperature were calculated, respectively, from Arrhenius and Hoffman-Weeks plots. Both of these parameters showed lower values in the composites, particularly in the ones containing compatibilizers.

  4. REST based service composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grönvall, Erik; Ingstrup, Mads; Pløger, Morten

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an ongoing work developing and testing a Service Composition framework based upon the REST architecture named SECREST. A minimalistic approach have been favored instead of a creating a complete infrastructure. One focus has been on the system's interaction model. Indeed, an aim...... is to allow users in different healthcare scenarios to experiment with service composition to support highly individual and changing needs....

  5. Damage of Wood-Concrete Composite subjected to variable hygrometric conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bornert M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the factors influencing the durability of glued assemblies of wood and cementitious material under variable hygrometric conditions. The composite specimens are composed of cement paste connected to plywood using epoxy glue. The cement paste is subjected to autogeneous shrinkage and the wood is subjected to imbibition test. Plywood is used so that the swelling deformations due to the imbibition process are parallel to the connection plane. Swelling strains in wood are related to the water content measured by gammadensimetry technique. Global strains above and below the glue interface have been measured and have been compared to the free strains. We showed that there are restrained deformations at the glue interface and that the cement paste is damaged. Local strains have been characterized by means of the digital image correlation technique. We showed in particular that the deformations in wood are related to the microstructure of the layers of plywood and that the restrained deformations at the glue interface lead to a bending of the cement paste. In the case of strong adhesion properties, this bending induces cracking in cement paste.

  6. Remilling of salvaged wood siding coated with lead-based paint. Part 2, Wood product yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    John J. Janowiak; Robert H. Falk; Brian W. Beakler; Richard G. Lampo; Thomas R. Napier

    2005-01-01

    Many U.S. military buildings being targeted for removal contain large quantities of potentially reusable wood materials. In this study, we evaluated approximately 2180 m (7,152 ft) of painted Douglas-fir siding salvaged from U.S. Army barracks. Utilizing a conventional woodworking molder, we evaluated the feasibility of producing several standardized wood product...

  7. Chapter 6: Above Ground Deterioration of Wood and Wood-Based Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant Kirker; Jerrold Winandy

    2014-01-01

    Wood as a material has unique properties that make it ideal for above ground exposure in a wide range of structural and non-strucutral applications. However, no material is without limitations. Wood is a bio-polymer which is subject to degradative processes, both abiotic and biotic. This chapter is a general summary of the abiotic and biotic factors that impact service...

  8. Parameters determining the carbon isotopic composition of coal and fossil wood in the Early Miocene Oberdorf lignite seam (Styrian Basin, Austria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel, A.; Sachsenhofer, R.F.; Gratzer, R.; Lucke, A.; Puttmann, W. [University of Leoben, Leoben (Austria)

    2002-07-01

    Petrographical and geochemical data of gelified and ungelified fossil wood from the Early Miocene Oberdorf lignite seam (Styrian Basin, Austria) provide evidence that the early diagenetic, aerobic degradation of wood by fungi may be followed by further decomposition under reducing conditions by the activity of anaerobic bacteria. Based on the molecular compositions of terpenoid hydrocarbons, the wood fragments in the lignite are identified as gymnosperms. The mean carbon isotope values found for gymnosperms and coals (-24.2 parts per thousand and -24.7 parts per thousand, respectively) confirm the results from biomarker analyses indicating that the peat-forming vegetation of the Oberdorf seam was dominated by gymnosperm taxa. The results obtained from the Early Miocene Oberdorf lignite indicate that the carbon isotope ratios of the coals are primarily affected by varying contributions of different parts of whole-plant tissue, due to their different isotopic and molecular compositions (e.g. epicuticular leaf waxes, resins, wood) and their different decay-resistance against the early diagenetic changes involved in organic matter decomposition. Carbon cycling during anoxic decomposition of plant-derived organic matter is assumed to affect the {delta}-{sup 13}C values of coal. {delta}-{sup 13}C Values of wood and extracted cellulose are affected only to a minor extent.

  9. Modeling the Effect of Helical Fiber Structure on Wood Fiber Composite Elastic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklund, Erik; Varna, Janis

    2009-08-01

    The effect of the helical wood fiber structure on in-plane composite properties has been analyzed. The used analytical concentric cylinder model is valid for an arbitrary number of phases with monoclinic material properties in a global coordinate system. The wood fiber was modeled as a three concentric cylinder assembly with lumen in the middle followed by the S3, S2 and S1 layers. Due to its helical structure the fiber tends to rotate upon loading in axial direction. In most studies on the mechanical behavior of wood fiber composites this extension-twist coupling is overlooked since it is assumed that the fiber will be restricted from rotation within the composite. Therefore, two extreme cases, first modeling fiber then modeling composite were examined: (i) free rotation and (ii) no rotation of the cylinder assembly. It was found that longitudinal fiber modulus depending on the microfibril angle in S2 layer is very sensitive with respect to restrictions for fiber rotation. In-plane Poisson’s ratio was also shown to be greatly influenced. The results were compared to a model representing the fiber by its cell wall and using classical laminate theory to model the fiber. It was found that longitudinal fiber modulus correlates quite well with results obtained with the concentric cylinder model, whereas Poisson’s ratio gave unsatisfactory matching. Finally using typical thermoset resin properties the longitudinal modulus and Poisson’s ratio of an aligned softwood fiber composite with varying fiber content were calculated for various microfibril angles in the S2 layer.

  10. Wood products and green chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Pizzi, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Key message Green chemistry for and from wood has developed numerous industrial products, namely biosourced, green wood adhesives and preservatives, foams, composite matrices, laminates, hard and flexible plastics, flexible films, and abrasive grinding discs, and their number is still growing.IntroductionThis review addresses (1) the elimination of toxic aldehydes from the most common wood panel adhesive, the one based on urea, itself a natural product, (2) biosourced ...

  11. Influence of wood species on properties of injection mould natural flour-HDPE composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanawilai, Thanate; Leeyoa, Massalan; Tiptong, Yoawanat

    2016-05-01

    Four combinations of wood flour, HDPE, and maleic anhydride (MA) include; (1) rubberwood:HDPE (30:70), (2) rubberwood: HDPE:MA (30:67:3), (3) palm oil:HDPE (30:70), and (4) palm oil:HDPE:MA (30:67:3) were studied. The injection moulding machine was used to produce wood plastic composites (WPCs). Maleic anhydride is an ingredient in bonding agents used to manufacture wood plastic composites. Extrusion molding process was conducted to prefabricate WPCs. Consequently, the effect of temperature and pressure ranging from 180, 190, 200°C and 2300, 2400, 2500 bar on injection molding was evaluated. Mechanical properties were tested including flexural testing and tensile testing according to ASTM D790 and D638, respectively. Hardness testing according to ASTM D2240 and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were also performed. Five replications were done on each test. The result showed that rubberwood:HDPE (30:70) gave a highest strength. The values of ultimate tensile strength, flexural strength, and hardness are 24.9 MPa, 33.3 MPa and 67.2 shore D, respectively. Finally, the uniform distribution of particle in WPCs, examined through SEM was achieved.

  12. Flexural behavior of sandwich panels with cellular wood, plywood stiffener/foam and thermoplastic composite core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labans, E.; Kalnins, Kaspars

    2017-01-01

    A series of experimental tests have been carried out on three types of novel sandwich panels mainly designed for application in lightweight mobile housing. Two types of the panels are manufactured entirely from wood-based materials while the third one presents a combination of plywood for surfaces

  13. Innovative use of wood-plastic-composites (WPC) as a core material in the sandwich injection molding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritzer, Elmar; Martin, Yannick

    2016-03-01

    The demand for materials based on renewable raw materials has risen steadily in recent years. With society's increasing interest for climate protection and sustainability, natural-based materials such as wood-plastic-composites (WPC) have gained market share thanks to their positive reputation. Due to advantages over unreinforced plastics such as cost reduction and weight savings it is possible to use WPC in a wide area of application. Additionally, an increase in mechanical properties such as rigidity and strength is achieved by the fibers compared to unreinforced polymers. The combination of plastic and wood combines the positive properties of both components in an innovative material. Despite the many positive properties of wood-plastic-composite, there are also negative characteristics that prevent the use of WPC in many product areas, such as automotive interiors. In particular, increased water intake, which may result in swelling of near-surface particles, increased odor emissions, poor surface textures and distortion of the components are unacceptable for many applications. The sandwich injection molding process can improve this situation by eliminating the negative properties of WPC by enclosing it with a pure polymer. In this case, a layered structure of skin and core material is produced, wherein the core component is completely enclosed by the skin component. The suitability of WPC as the core component in the sandwich injection molding has not yet been investigated. In this study the possibilities and limitations of the use of WPC are presented. The consideration of different fiber types, fiber contents, skin materials and its effect on the filling behavior are the focus of the presented analysis.

  14. Investigation on the Effect of Chemical Foaming agent and Wood Flour content on Mechanical Properties, Density and Cell morphology of HDPE/EVA/ Wood Flour Hybrid Foamed Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Pourabbasi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the effects of chemical foaming agent and wood flour content on cell morphology, density and mechanical properties of HDPE/EVA/ Wood Flour hybrid foamed composites were investigated. For this aim, composites were prepared via melt mixing in an internal mixer, then foamed using single-stage batch foaming method. Then mechanical properties such as flexural strength, flexural and tensile modulus and density were measured. Morphology of the samples was also evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results of this study have indicated that the flexural strength, flexural and tensile modulus and density increases with the increase of wood flour content. However, with addition of chemical foaming agent content and EVA content, mechanical properties and density of foamed composites decreased. Moreover, wood fiber acted as nucleating agents that substantially reduced cell size and increased cell density. In addition, EVA plays an important role in foaming process by increasing the melt viscosity of the polymer matrix, in a way that samples with higher content of EVA have the highest cell density and the lowest cell size.

  15. Determination of Thermal Properties and Morphology of Eucalyptus Wood Residue Filled High Density Polyethylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Kabakci

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Thermal behaviors of eucalyptus wood residue (EWR filled recycled high density polyethylene (HDPE composites have been measured applying the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Morphology of the materials was also studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM. Addition of the EWR into the recycled HDPE matrix reduced the starting of degradation temperature. EWR filled recycled HDPE had two main decomposition peaks, one for EWR around 350 °C and one for recycled HDPE around 460 °C. Addition of EWR did not affect the melting temperature of the recycled HDPE. Morphological study showed that addition of coupling agent improved the compatibility between wood residue and recycled HDPE.

  16. Common wood decay fungi found in the Caribbean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Jean. Lodge

    2016-01-01

    There are hundreds of wood-decay fungi in the Caribbean Basin, but relatively few of these are likely to grow on manmade structures built of wood or wood-composites. The wood-decay fungi of greatest concern are those that cause brown-rot, and especially brown-rot fungi that are resistant to copper-based wood preservatives. Some fungi that grow in the Caribbean and...

  17. Influence of static and cyclic climate condition on bending properties of wood plastic composites (WPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Wood and natural fiber reinforced plastic composites are established for several fields like decking, transportation and automotive applications. In the last decade, extensive researches were conducted to improve the mechanical properties, such as incorporating additives like maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (MAH-PP. The major challenge is to keep the properties in face of the environmental influence the parts are exposed to. Therefore it’s necessary to find the hardest impact factor concerning the mechanical properties. Water absorption (static and cyclic of the composites was examined at two different temperatures (23, 50°C. A correlation between duration, kind of conditioning, temperature and modification was established. The results indicate that the coupling agent MAH-PP improved significantly the water resistance of the wood plastic composites under climatic conditions and higher temperature accelerated the rate of water absorption of the composites. The decrease of mechanical properties related to cyclic conditions is partially reversible and therefore the cyclic exposition shows less effects compared to static conditions.

  18. Before you install exterior wood-based siding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark T. Knaebe

    1995-01-01

    Moisture accumulation and extreme fluctuations in moisture levels can adversely affect the service life of components, such as wood siding and windows. Adverse moisture conditions can induce checking, warping, paint failure, and in severe cases, rotting of the wood.

  19. Synchrotron based x-ray fluorescence microscopy confirms copper in the corrosion products of metals in contact with treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Joseph E. Jakes; Grant T. Kirker; David Vine; Stefan Vogt

    2017-01-01

    Copper based waterborne wood preservatives are frequently used to extend the service life of wood products when subjected to frequent moisture exposure. While these copper based treatments protect the wood from fungal decay and insect attack, they increase the corrosion of metals embedded or in contact with the treated wood. Previous research has shown the most...

  20. Flavanoid biocides: Wood preservatives based on condensed tannins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Laks; Peggy A. McKaig; Richard W. Hemingway

    1988-01-01

    The condensed tannins are natural wood preservatives found in high concentrations in the bark and wood of some tree species. Condensed tannin-containing bark extracts from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) were evaluated as wood preservatives using standard methods. Bark extracts by themselves did not cause any reduction in weight loss of pressure-treated...

  1. Comparison of three dielectric barrier discharges regarding their physical characteristics and influence on the adhesion properties on maple, high density fiberboards and wood plastic composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, F.; Hünnekens, B.; Wieneke, S.; Militz, H.; Ohms, G.; Viöl, W.

    2017-11-01

    In this study, three different dielectric barrier discharges, based on the same setup and run with the same power supply, are characterized by emission spectroscopy with regards to the reduced electrical field strength, and the rotational, vibrational and electron temperature. To compare discharges common for the treatment on wood, a coplanar surface barrier discharge, a direct dielectric barrier discharge and a jet system/remote plasma are chosen. To minimize influences due to the setups or power, the discharges are realized with the same electrodes and power supply and normalized to the same power. To evaluate the efficiency of the different discharges and the influence on treated materials, the surface free energy is determined on a maple wood, high density fiberboard and wood plastic composite. The influence is measured depending on the treatment time, with the highest impact in the time of 5 s.

  2. Wood handbook : wood as an engineering material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest Products Laboratory

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes information on wood as an engineering material. Presents properties of wood and wood-based products of particular concern to the architect and engineer. Includes discussion of designing with wood and wood-based products along with some pertinent uses.

  3. Impact of white-rot fungi on numbers and community composition of bacteria colonizing beech wood from forest soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folman, Larissa B; Klein Gunnewiek, Paulien J A; Boddy, Lynne; de Boer, Wietse

    2008-02-01

    White-rot fungi are important wood-decomposing organisms in forest ecosystems. Their ability to colonize and decompose woody resources may be strongly influenced by wood-inhabiting bacteria that grow on easily utilizable compounds e.g. oligomers of wood-polymers released by fungal enzymes. However, so far, it is not known how white-rot fungi deal with the presence of potential competing bacteria. Here, the effects of two white-rot fungi, Hypholoma fasciculare and Resinicium bicolor, on the numbers and composition of bacteria colonizing sterile beech wood blocks from forest soil are reported. Both total numbers (microscopic counts) and the numbers of cultivable wood-inhabiting bacteria were considerably lower in wood blocks that became colonized by the white-rot fungi than in control blocks. This points to the fungi out-competing the opportunistic bacteria. The presence of white-rot fungi resulted in a change in the relative abundance of families of cultivable bacteria in wood and also in a change of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis patterns of directly amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments. Analysis of the bacterial community structure in soil adhering to exploratory mycelium (cords) indicated that fungal species-specific effects on bacterial community composition were also apparent in this fungal growth phase.

  4. Chemical composition and sensory properties of non-wooded and wooded Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) wine as affected by vineyard row orientation and grape ripeness level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jacobus J; Volschenk, Cornelis G

    2017-10-27

    The study aimed to unravel vineyard row orientation (NS, EW, NE-SW, NW-SE) and grape ripeness level (23, 25, 27 °Balling) implications for grape and wine composition and sensory properties/style (non-wooded/wooded wines) of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz (rootstock 101-14 Mgt). Soluble solid/titratable acidity ratios were lowest for EW, whereas warmer canopy sides (NW, N, NE) advanced grape ripening. Skin anthocyanins and phenolics generally decreased with ripening. NW-SE rows and S, SE, E and NE canopy sides showed highest skin total anthocyanins and phenolics. Wine total anthocyanins and phenolics increased with grape ripening; EW had lower values. Wine phenolic contents differed between canopy sides; N, NE, E and SE tended higher. Wine sensory profiles increased with grape ripening. For non-wooded wines, NW-SE and NE-SW row orientations generally resulted in highest scores, followed by NS. For EW rows, the N side presented better wines. Wood addition enhanced specific sensory descriptor perceptions. A large collection of wine styles surfaced in the same vineyard and terroir, increasing options to contribute positively to sustainable products. The study generated globally applicable, novel information vital for unlocking and valorising terroir/site potential for grape and wine chemical composition and wine sensory/style properties. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. THE RESISTANCE OF WOOD PLASTIC COMPOSITE TO THE DRY-WOOD TERMITE Cryptotermes cynocephalus Light. AND THE SUBTERRANEAN TERMITE Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren INFESTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasni Jasni

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Wood  plastic  composites   (WPC were made  by impregnating  monomer   and  vinyl acetate monomer  with addition  of  terbutyl peroxide  catalyst. This laboratory  scale experiment  aimed at looking into  the durability of  WPC polymerized  at varying mixture  ratios between  styrene and vinyl acetate monomers,  compared  to the natural   durability of  the corresponding   wood  treated with impralit CKB.  In this  regard,  wood  samples were dried until 10 % moisture  content,   and then  they were put in the tank under  20 mm Hg vacuum was being released.   Styrene  monomer with vinyl acetate  addition was flown to the tank, and the wood  samples were immersed  in the monomer   for  24 hours.   Furthermore,   the wood  samples  were taken  out,  and  wrapped  with aluminum  foil, and then were   put in the oven for 24 hours at 60° C. The  wraps were opened, and the samples were  conditioned.   The  samples were tested  to dry wood  termite  (Cryptotermes cynocephalus Light.,  and the Subterranean  termite (Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren..  Investigated factors were (i wood species consisting of sengon, pine, and rubber wood, and (ii ratio of styrene to vinyl acetate. i.e.  90/10;  80/20;  70/30;  and 60/40.   For comparison,  each wood samples  treated with  Impralit  CKB  3% and untreated   (unpolymerized    wood  samples  (a control  were  also prepared.  The  results showed  that polymer  loadings  in the  sengon, pine and rubber  wood were 118 %, 72 % and  44%  respectively. Increasing  of  vinyl acetate  to styrene  tended  to decrease polymer loading,  the addition  of  10% gave 96% polymer  loading,  20% gave 108%,  30% gave 71 %, and 30% gave 38 % respectively.  It appeared that treatment  of styrene with low vinyl acetate additions  (60:40 had resulted  in consecutively  95.67%  and 97.75 % mortality  of  the dry

  6. Release to the Gas Phase of Inorganic Elements during Wood Combustion. Part 2: Influence of Fuel Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Lith, Simone Cornelia; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    Combustion of wood for heat and power production may cause problems such as ash deposition, corrosion, and harmful emissions of gases and particulate matter. These problems are all directly related to the release of inorganic elements (in particular Cl, S, K, Na, Zn, and Pb) from the fuel...... to the gas phase. The aims of this study are to obtain quantitative data on the release of inorganic elements during wood combustion and to investigate the influence of fuel composition. Quantitative release data were obtained by pyrolyzing and subsequently combusting small samples of wood (~30 g) at various...

  7. Enhancing anti-microbial properties of wood-plastic composites produced from timber and plastic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Chen, Season S; Tsang, Daniel C W; Poon, Chi Sun; Ok, Yong Sik

    2017-05-01

    Considering the resource waste and environmental burden for timber and plastic materials ending up at landfills, this study proposed upcycling wood and plastic waste into value-added wood-plastic composites (WPCs), complying with the standard requirements of flexural strength, thickness swelling, water absorption and thermal insulation. Biological deterioration is a major concern of WPCs. Bacterial survival, fungal attack and algal growth of bactericide-treated WPCs were holistically analysed. Melamine resin was adopted for impregnating anti-microbial agents on the surface. All the agents showed excellent bactericidal rate (Escherichia coli), yet poly-diallyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride (PolyDADMAC) and silver had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations. In terms of weight loss and strength reduction due to fungal decay (Coriolus versicolor), PolyDADMAC, silver and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) imparted the highest resistance on the WPCs. Moreover, PolyDADMAC and copper provided the most protection against algal growth (Chlorella vulgaris), and the former presented durable inhibitory effect. This study presents a value-added solution to wood/plastic waste recycling.

  8. Wood plastic composite produced by nonmetals from pulverized waste printed circuit boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jie; Tang, Yinen; Xu, Zhenming

    2010-01-01

    Nonmetals reclaimed from waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) are used to replace wood flour in the production of wood plastic composite (WPC). To evaluate property durability against weather exposure, the effects of accelerated aging process on the properties of WPC are investigated. The results show that filling of nonmetals in WPC improves the flexural strength and tensile strength, and reduces screw withdrawal strength. Before hollow WPC with 15% nonmetals (H-15-WPC) underwent aging process, H-15-WPC had a flexural strength of 25.8 MPa, a tensile strength of 9.8 MPa, a charpy impact strength of 3.4 kJ/m(2), and face/edge screw withdrawal strength of 121/115 N/mm. It is found that flexural strength of H-15-WPC decreases linearly with the increase of accelerated aging cycles, and the effects of aging test on tensile and impact strength of H-15-WPC are minor. For solid WPC, the accelerated aging test decreases screw withdrawal strength slightly. All the results indicate that nonmetals of waste PCBs can be reused as an alternative for wood flour in WPC products rather than resorting to their landfill or combustion.

  9. Wood-Reinforced Polyphthalamide Resins: MultiFunctional Composite Coating for Metal Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barletta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Protective layers were deposited on aluminum substrates by dipping them inside a fluidized bed (FB of wood and polyphthalamide powders. The experimental investigation looked into the influence of the main process parameters (number and composition of superimposed layers, heating temperature, and dipping time on the visual appearance, scratch adhesion, wear resistance, and thermal insulation of the resulting coatings. Micromechanical and tribological responses of the coatings were significantly improved by the effect of the wooden particles dispersed inside the polyphthalamide binder. An improvement of the thermal insulation was also achieved whatever the setting of the process parameters. Further, the coatings displayed good adhesion to the substrate and wear endurance.

  10. Effect of environmental conditions on the mechanical properties and fungal degradation of polycaprolactone/microcrystalline cellulose/wood flour composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald Sabo; Liwei Jin; Nicole Stark; Rebecca E. Ibach

    2013-01-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL) filled with microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), wood flour (WF), or both were characterized before and after exposure to various environmental conditions for 60 days. PCL/WF composites had the greatest tensile strength and modulus compared to neat PCL or PCL composites containing MCC. Electron microscopy indicated better adhesion between WF...

  11. EVALUATION OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND LIGNIN STRUCTURAL FEATURES OF SIMAROUBA VERSICOLOR WOOD ON ITS PULPING PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Cristina F. Silva,; José Lívio Gomide; Ricardo Balleirini Santos

    2012-01-01

    Simarouba versicolor wood was evaluated relative to its kraft pulping ability and compared with Eucalyptus urograndis wood. Comprehensive chemical analysis of wood and milled wood lignin (MWL) was performed, aiming to correlate wood and lignin structural features with kraft pulping response. Wood characterization of S. versicolor revealed higher lignin content (37.3%) and lower cellulose content (45.1%) than E. urograndis. 13C NMR spectroscopy was performed to characterize MWL, and the result...

  12. Wood formation from the base to the crown in Pinus radiata: gradients of tracheid wall thickness, wood density, radial growth rate and gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheree Cato; Lisa McMillan; Lloyd Donaldson; Thomas Richardson; Craig Echt; Richard Gardner

    2006-01-01

    Wood formation was investigated at five heights along the bole for two unrelated trees of Pinus radiataBoth trees showed clear gradients in wood properties from the base to the crown. Cambial cells at the base of the tree were dividing 3.3-fold slower than those at the crown, while the average thickness of cell walls in wood was highest at the base....

  13. Effects of Heat-Treated Wood Particles on the Physico-Mechanical Properties and Extended Creep Behavior of Wood/Recycled-HDPE Composites Using the Time–Temperature Superposition Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng-Chun Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effectiveness of heat-treated wood particles for improving the physico-mechanical properties and creep performance of wood/recycled-HDPE composites. The results reveal that the composites with heat-treated wood particles had significantly decreased moisture content, water absorption, and thickness swelling, while no improvements of the flexural properties or the wood screw holding strength were observed, except for the internal bond strength. Additionally, creep tests were conducted at a series of elevated temperatures using the time–temperature superposition principle (TTSP, and the TTSP-predicted creep compliance curves fit well with the experimental data. The creep resistance values of composites with heat-treated wood particles were greater than those having untreated wood particles due to the hydrophobic character of the treated wood particles and improved interfacial compatibility between the wood particles and polymer matrix. At a reference temperature of 20 °C, the improvement of creep resistance (ICR of composites with heat-treated wood particles reached approximately 30% over a 30-year period, and it increased significantly with increasing reference temperature.

  14. Effects of Heat-Treated Wood Particles on the Physico-Mechanical Properties and Extended Creep Behavior of Wood/Recycled-HDPE Composites Using the Time-Temperature Superposition Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Teng-Chun; Chien, Yi-Chi; Wu, Tung-Lin; Hung, Ke-Chang; Wu, Jyh-Horng

    2017-03-30

    This study investigated the effectiveness of heat-treated wood particles for improving the physico-mechanical properties and creep performance of wood/recycled-HDPE composites. The results reveal that the composites with heat-treated wood particles had significantly decreased moisture content, water absorption, and thickness swelling, while no improvements of the flexural properties or the wood screw holding strength were observed, except for the internal bond strength. Additionally, creep tests were conducted at a series of elevated temperatures using the time-temperature superposition principle (TTSP), and the TTSP-predicted creep compliance curves fit well with the experimental data. The creep resistance values of composites with heat-treated wood particles were greater than those having untreated wood particles due to the hydrophobic character of the treated wood particles and improved interfacial compatibility between the wood particles and polymer matrix. At a reference temperature of 20 °C, the improvement of creep resistance ( ICR ) of composites with heat-treated wood particles reached approximately 30% over a 30-year period, and it increased significantly with increasing reference temperature.

  15. An Experimental Study on the Thermal Performance of Phase-Change Material and Wood-Plastic Composites for Building Roofs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Hee Chung

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the usefulness of phase-change material (PCM-based thermal plates fabricated from wood-plastic composites (WPCs in mitigating the urban heat island effect. The thermal performance of plates containing PCMs with two different melting temperatures and with two different albedo levels was evaluated. The results showed that the PCM with a melting temperature of 44 °C maintained lower surface and inner temperatures than the PCM with a melting temperature of 25 °C. Moreover, a higher surface albedo resulted in a lower surface temperature. However, the thermal performance of PCMs with different melting temperatures but the same surface albedo did not differ. Using PCM-based materials in roof finishing materials can reduce surface temperatures and improve thermal comfort.

  16. High-Temperature Hot Air/Silane Coupling Modification of Wood Fiber and Its Effect on Properties of Wood Fiber/HDPE Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Han, Guangping; Li, Qingde; Gao, Xun; Cheng, Wanli

    2017-01-01

    The surfaces of poplar wood fibers were modified using high-temperature hot air (HTHA) treatment and silane coupling agent. The single factor test was then used to investigate the performances (e.g., the change of functional groups, polarity, cellulose crystallinity, and thermal stability) of modified poplar wood fibers (mPWF) through Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and thermo-gravimetric analysis for the subsequent preparation of wood-plastic composites (WPCs). The effect of HTHA treatment conditions—such as temperature, inlet air velocity, and feed rate—on the performances of WPCs was also investigated by scanning electron microscopy and dynamic mechanical analysis. The main findings indicated that HTHA treatment could promote the hydration of mPWF and improve the mechanical properties of WPCs. Treatment temperature strongly affected the mechanical properties and moisture adsorption characteristics of the prepared composites. With the increase of treated temperature and feed rate, the number of hydroxyl groups, holocellulose content, and the pH of mPWF decreased. The degree of crystallinity and thermal stability and the storage modulus of the prepared composites of mPWF increased. However, dimensional stability and water absorption of WPCs significantly reduced. The best mechanical properties enhancement was observed with treatment temperature at 220 °C. This study demonstrated the feasibility for the application of an HTHA treatment in the WPC production industry. PMID:28772646

  17. High-Temperature Hot Air/Silane Coupling Modification of Wood Fiber and Its Effect on Properties of Wood Fiber/HDPE Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The surfaces of poplar wood fibers were modified using high-temperature hot air (HTHA treatment and silane coupling agent. The single factor test was then used to investigate the performances (e.g., the change of functional groups, polarity, cellulose crystallinity, and thermal stability of modified poplar wood fibers (mPWF through Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and thermo-gravimetric analysis for the subsequent preparation of wood-plastic composites (WPCs. The effect of HTHA treatment conditions—such as temperature, inlet air velocity, and feed rate—on the performances of WPCs was also investigated by scanning electron microscopy and dynamic mechanical analysis. The main findings indicated that HTHA treatment could promote the hydration of mPWF and improve the mechanical properties of WPCs. Treatment temperature strongly affected the mechanical properties and moisture adsorption characteristics of the prepared composites. With the increase of treated temperature and feed rate, the number of hydroxyl groups, holocellulose content, and the pH of mPWF decreased. The degree of crystallinity and thermal stability and the storage modulus of the prepared composites of mPWF increased. However, dimensional stability and water absorption of WPCs significantly reduced. The best mechanical properties enhancement was observed with treatment temperature at 220 °C. This study demonstrated the feasibility for the application of an HTHA treatment in the WPC production industry.

  18. Potential of Using Recycled Low-Density Polyethylene in Wood Composites Board

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Igboanugo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of using recycled low density polyethylene (RLDPE in wood board manufacturing. The composite board was produced by compressive moulding by increasing the percentage LDPE from 30 to 50wt% with interval of 10wt% at a temperatures of 140 and 180oC, pressure of 30-40 Kg/cm2 and pressing time 7-13minutes. The microstructure and mechanical properties: modulus of rupture (MOR, modulus of elasticity (MOE, Tensile strength, impact strength properties of boards were determined. The results showed that high modulus of rupture of 20.31N/mm2and MOE of 1363N/mm2 were obtained from board produced at 140oC, 60/40wt% wood particles/LDPE content. The uniform distribution of the particles and the recycled LDPE in the microstructure of the composites board is the major factor responsible for the improvement in the mechanical properties. The results showed that the MOE, MOR meets the minimum requirements of the European standards, for general purpose. The boards produced had tensile strength that is within the requirement. Hence this LDPE can be used in board production for general purpose applications.

  19. Modelling the effects of a radiation induced polymer impregnation on the moisture of wood-polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boey, Freddy Y. C.; Chia, Lawrence H. L.

    The adverse effect of moisture diffusion on the properties of wood has been one of the main weaknesses of wood. Using a gamma irradiation method, wood-polymer composites have been produced which exhibit significant improvement in mechanical properties like compression, creep deformation and creep rupture particularly at high humidity. It has been thought that the impregnation of polymer into the wood has affected the moisture diffusion in the wood, so that its adverse effects on the mechanical properties has been reduced. In this report the apparent diffusion coefficients of a Ramin wood impregnated with varying amounts of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) were determined using a Fick's law approach. An initial linear relationship was found for impregnation of up to 70% PMMA, after which the diffusion coefficient levels off to a maximum value, for the three environmental relative humidity levels of 40, 60 and 90(±5)%. The phenomenon could be explained by means of a cylindrical model with the polymer added as an internal layer onto the wood cell wall. The average maximum reduction in the value of the diffusion coefficient was about 60%.

  20. Performance of copper-based wood preservatives in soil bed exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan T. Lebow; Thomas Nilsson; Jeffrey J. Morrell

    Copper-based biocides are widely used to protect wood from biological attack in a variety of environments. Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) is the dominant copper-based preservative for wood protection (J. T. MICKLEWRIGHT, 1989). First developed in India in the 1930s, CCA contains a very effective combination of materials. Copper provides protection against most...

  1. Influence of Maleic Anhydride/Glycidyl Methacrylate Cografted Polylactic Acid on Properties of Wood Flour/PLA Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DU Jun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Graft copolymers of PLA-g-MAH, PLA-g-GMA and PLA-co-MAH/GMA were prepared by means of melt grafting. The structure of the graft copolymers were characterized by FTIR.Wood flour/PLA composites were prepared by injection molding with three kinds of graft copolymers as compatibilizers, and the fractured morphology of composites was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM. Results show that there is no obvious phase interface between wood flour and PLA,which indicating the interfacial compatibility of wood flour/PLA composites is improved after adding different graft copolymers. The determination results of mechanical properties, processing flowability and dynamic rheological property of composites prepared with different graft copolymers reveal that, compared to the composite without compatibilizer, the tensile strength and impact strength of wood flour/PLA composites are increased by 9.54% and 7.23% respectively, and the equilibrium torque, shear heat, storage modulus and complex viscosity are all increased after adding maleic anhydride/glycidyl methacrylate cografted polylactic acid.

  2. Formation of silicon carbide nanorods from wood-based carbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hata, T; Castro, [No Value; Fujisawa, M; Imamura, Y; Bonnamy, S; Bronsveld, P; Kikuchi, H

    2005-01-01

    Man-made ceramic wood similar to petrified wood found in nature can be used at high temperature as the high oxidation rate of carbon above 500 degrees C is suppressed by a mu m thin SiC coating similar to the shuttle's heat shield. Possible applications are in the field of energy production, e.g.,

  3. WATER VAPOUR PERMEABILITY PROPERTIES OF CELLULAR WOOD MATERIAL AND CONDENSATION RISK OF COMPOSITE PANEL WALLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis IEJAVS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Invention of light weight cellular wood material (CWM with a trade mark of Dendrolight is one of innovations in wood industry of the last decade. The aim of the research was to define the water vapour permeability properties of CWM and to analyse the condensation risk of various wall envelopes where solid wood cellular material is used. To determine the water vapour permeability of CWM, test samples were produced in the factory using routine production technology and tested according to the standard EN 12086:2014. Water vapour permeability factor (μ and other properties of six different configurations of CWM samples were determined. Using the experimental data the indicative influence of geometrical parameters such as lamella thickness, number of lamellas and material direction were investigated and evaluated. To study the condensation risk within the wall envelope containing CWM calculation method given in LVS EN ISO 13788:2012 was used. To ease the calculation process previously developed JavaScript calculation software that had only capability to calculate thermal transmittance was extended so that condensation risk in multi-layer composite walls can be analysed. Water vapour permeability factor in CWM is highly direction dependant. If parallel and perpendicular direction of CWM is compared the value of water vapour permeability factor can differentiate more than two times. Another significant factor for condensation risk analysis is overall thickness of CWM since it directly influences the equivalent air layer thickness. The influence of other factors such as lamella thickness, or groove depth is minor when water vapour permeability properties are compared. From the analysis of CWM performance in building envelope it can be concluded that uninsulated CWM panels used during winter months will pose the risk of condensation damage to structure, but the risk can be reduced or prevented if insulation layer is applied to the CWM panel wall

  4. Urban Wood-Based Bio-Energy Systems in Seattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stan Gent, Seattle Steam Company

    2010-10-25

    Seattle Steam Company provides thermal energy service (steam) to the majority of buildings and facilities in downtown Seattle, including major hospitals (Swedish and Virginia Mason) and The Northwest (Level I) Regional Trauma Center. Seattle Steam has been heating downtown businesses for 117 years, with an average length of service to its customers of 40 years. In 2008 and 2009 Seattle Steam developed a biomass-fueled renewable energy (bio-energy) system to replace one of its gas-fired boilers that will reduce greenhouse gases, pollutants and the amount of waste sent to landfills. This work in this sub-project included several distinct tasks associated with the biomass project development as follows: a. Engineering and Architecture: Engineering focused on development of system control strategies, development of manuals for start up and commissioning. b. Training: The project developer will train its current operating staff to operate equipment and facilities. c. Flue Gas Clean-Up Equipment Concept Design: The concept development of acid gas emissions control system strategies associated with the supply wood to the project. d. Fuel Supply Management Plan: Development of plans and specifications for the supply of wood. It will include potential fuel sampling analysis and development of contracts for delivery and management of fuel suppliers and handlers. e. Integrated Fuel Management System Development: Seattle Steam requires a biomass Fuel Management System to track and manage the delivery, testing, processing and invoicing of delivered fuel. This application will be web-based and accessed from a password-protected URL, restricting data access and privileges by user-level.

  5. Wood-based panel plant locations and timber availability in selected U.S. states

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. McKeever; H. N. Spelter

    1998-01-01

    This report lists wood-based panel industry plant locations, production capacities, timber inventories, and wood costs for 24 U.S. states. Industry sectors covered include medium-density fiberboard, particleboard, softwood plywood, and oriented strandboard. Maps of major forest producing states show plant locations and the underlying density of timber stocking by...

  6. Micronized copper wood preservatives: an efficiency and potential health risk assessment for copper-based nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civardi, Chiara; Schwarze, Francis W M R; Wick, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential biocide for wood protection, but fails to protect wood against Cu-tolerant wood-destroying fungi. Recently Cu particles (size range: 1 nm-25 μm) were introduced to the wood preservation market. The new generation of preservatives with Cu-based nanoparticles (Cu-based NPs) is reputedly more efficient against wood-destroying fungi than conventional formulations. Therefore, it has the potential to become one of the largest end uses for wood products worldwide. However, during decomposition of treated wood Cu-based NPs and/or their derivate may accumulate in the mycelium of Cu-tolerant fungi and end up in their spores that are dispersed into the environment. Inhaled Cu-loaded spores can cause harm and could become a potential risk for human health. We collected evidence and discuss the implications of the release of Cu-based NPs by wood-destroying fungi and highlight the exposure pathways and subsequent magnitude of health impact. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of wood filler treatment and EBAGMA compatibilizer on morphology and mechanical properties of low density polyethylene/olive husk flour composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with plastic-wood composites based on low density polyethylene (LDPE and olive husk flour (OHF. The problem of incompatibility between the hydrophilic wood filler and the LDPE hydrophobic matrix was treated by two methods: a chemical modification of the olive husk flour with maleic anhydride to esterify the free hydroxyl groups of the wood components and the use of a compatibilizer agent, i.e. an ethylene-butyl acrylate-glycidyl methacrylate (EBAGMA terpolymer. The changes in the structure, the morphology, and the properties resulting from these treatments were followed by various techniques, especially FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, tensile measurements and water absorption. The experimental results indicated that both methods, i.e. the chemical treatment of the olive husk flour with maleic anhydride and the inclusion of EBAGMA terpolymer, improved the interactions between the two composite components and promoted better dispersion of the filler in the matrix. Moreover, ultimate tensile properties were also increased. However, the use of EBAGMA terpolymer as compatibilizer produced better enhancement of the properties of LDPE/OHF composites compared to those treated with maleic anhydride.

  8. Waste wood as bioenergy feedstock. Climate change impacts and related emission uncertainties from waste wood based energy systems in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röder, Mirjam; Thornley, Patricia

    2017-12-01

    Considering the urgent need to shift to low carbon energy carriers, waste wood resources could provide an alternative energy feedstock and at the same time reduce emissions from landfill. This research examines the climate change impacts and related emission uncertainties of waste wood based energy. For this, different grades of waste wood and energy application have been investigated using lifecycle assessment. Sensitivity analysis has then been applied for supply chain processes and feedstock properties for the main emission contributing categories: transport, processing, pelletizing, urea resin fraction and related N 2 O formation. The results show, depending on the waste wood grade, the conversion option, scale and the related reference case, that emission reductions of up to 91% are possible for non-treated wood waste. Compared to this, energy from treated wood waste with low contamination can achieve up to 83% emission savings, similar to untreated waste wood pellets, but in some cases emissions from waste wood based energy can exceed the ones of the fossil fuel reference - in the worst case by 126%. Emission reductions from highly contaminated feedstocks are largest when replacing electricity from large-scale coal and landfill. The highest emission uncertainties are related to the wood's resin fraction and N 2 O formation during combustion and, pelletizing. Comparing wood processing with diesel and electricity powered equipment also generated high variations in the results, while emission variations related to transport are relatively small. Using treated waste wood as a bioenergy feedstock can be a valid option to reduce emissions from energy production but this is only realisable if coal and landfill gas are replaced. To achieve meaningful emission reduction in line with national and international climate change targets, pre-treatment of waste wood would be required to reduce components that form N 2 O during the energy conversion. Copyright © 2017

  9. Application of a CCA-treated wood waste decontamination process to other copper-based preservative-treated wood after disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janin, Amelie, E-mail: amelie.janin@ete.inrs.ca [University of Toronto, Faculty of Forestry, 33, Willcocks St., Toronto, ON, M5S 3B3 (Canada); Coudert, Lucie, E-mail: lucie.coudert@ete.inrs.ca [Institut national de la recherche scientifique (Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement), Universite du Quebec, 490 rue de la Couronne, Quebec, QC, G1K 9A9 (Canada); Riche, Pauline, E-mail: pauline.riche@ete.inrs.ca [Institut national de la recherche scientifique (Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement), Universite du Quebec, 490 rue de la Couronne, Quebec, QC, G1K 9A9 (Canada); Mercier, Guy, E-mail: guy_mercier@ete.inrs.ca [Institut national de la recherche scientifique (Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement), Universite du Quebec, 490 rue de la Couronne, Quebec, QC, G1K 9A9 (Canada); Cooper, Paul, E-mail: p.cooper@utoronto.ca [University of Toronto, Faculty of Forestry, 33, Willcocks St., Toronto, ON, M5S 3B3 (Canada); Blais, Jean-Francois, E-mail: blaisjf@ete.inrs.ca [Institut national de la recherche scientifique (Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement), Universite du Quebec, 490 rue de la Couronne, Quebec, QC, G1K 9A9 (Canada)

    2011-02-28

    Research highlights: {yields} This paper describes a process for the metal removal from treated (CA-, ACQ- or MCQ-) wood wastes. {yields} This sulfuric acid leaching process is simple and economic. {yields} The remediated wood could be recycled in the industry. - Abstract: Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood was widely used until 2004 for residential and industrial applications. Since 2004, CCA was replaced by alternative copper preservatives such as alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ), copper azole (CA) and micronized copper quaternary (MCQ), for residential applications due to health concerns. Treated wood waste disposal is becoming an issue. Previous studies identified a chemical process for decontaminating CCA-treated wood waste based on sulfuric acid leaching. The potential application of this process to wood treated with the copper-based preservatives (alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ), copper azole (CA) and micronized copper quaternary (MCQ)) is investigated here. Three consecutive leaching steps with 0.1 M sulfuric acid at 75 deg, C for 2 h were successful for all the types of treated wood and achieved more than 98% copper solubilisation. The different acidic leachates produced were successively treated by coagulation using ferric chloride and precipitation (pH = 7) using sodium hydroxide. Between 94 and 99% of copper in leachates could be recovered by electrodeposition after 90 min using 2 A electrical current. Thus, the process previously developed for CCA-treated wood waste decontamination could be efficiently applied for CA-, ACQ- or MCQ-treated wood.

  10. Compósitos termoplásticos com madeira Wood-plastic composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Correa

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Dentre muitas fibras naturais de interesse tecnológico, o resíduo de madeira substitui com vantagens as cargas e reforços tradicionalmente empregados em compostos e compósitos poliméricos, particularmente os de origem mineral, tais como talco, CaCO3 e fibra de vidro. A tecnologia dos chamados Wood-Plastic Composites (WPC´s envolve conceitos de compatibilidade e processabilidade e apresenta grandes desafios tecnológicos para a formulação e estabilização da mistura devido a baixa estabilidade térmica da celulose. Muitos dos avanços tecnológicos em WPC’s dependem de uma análise criteriosa das características físicas de seus componentes e das condições de processamento do sistema, particularmente aspectos relacionados a sua compatibilização. No presente trabalho são apresentados estudos sobre a reatividade do polipropileno modificado com anidrido maleico (PP-MAH utilizado como compatibilizante em compósitos termoplásticos de polipropileno com farinha de madeira. A influência da carga celulósica e a eficiência do compatibilizante nas propriedades reológicas, térmicas, mecânicas e morfológicas do sistema foi avaliada através de medidas de rigidez, grau de cristalinidade, temperatura de cristalização e fusão cristalina levando-se em conta as características da resina, a distribuição granulométrica e o teor de umidade da farinha de madeira. Observou-se que os compósitos compatibilizados com PP-MAH apresentaram ganhos significativos de rigidez em relação aos compósitos não-modificados, independente do tipo de farinha de madeira empregada enquanto as propriedades térmicas do polímero mostraram-se sensíveis à distribuição granulométrica e algumas composições apresentaram tendência ao escurecimento e a elevação da temperatura de cristalização do polímero na presença do reforço celulósico. Imagens obtidas por microscopia eletrônica de varredura ilustram o molhamento da fibra celulósica pela

  11. Bioplastic composite foam prepared from poly(lactic acid) and natural wood flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwannakas, Pokkes; Petrchwattana, Nawadon; Covavisaruch, Sirijutaratana

    2016-03-01

    The major drawbacks of Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) bioplastic are its cost and brittleness. This study aims to reduce the cost by foaming PLA reinforced with wood flour. A series of PLA/ natural fiber (WF) composite was prepared by using WF of selected conifers up to 5 wt%; each composite formulation was then foamed using 2 wt% of Azodicarbonamide (ADC) as chemical foaming agent. ADC effectively reduced the density of PLA and the PLA/WF composite foam by about 45% to 0.64 g/cm3 from 1.24 g/cm3 of neat PLA and 1.26 g/cm3 of PLA/WF composites when 2 wt% ADC was applied. Mechanical behaviors in terms of compressive and impact properties were investigated. With the presence of WF, the compressive stress increased with the WF content due to the good interfacial adhesion between the PLA matrix and the WF. This was verified by microscopic observation, leading to efficient stress transfer at the interface between PLA matrix and the WF. The presence of WF raised the specific compressive modulus and strength of PLA/WF composites to around 0.94 GPa.cm3/g and 2.65 MPa.cm3/g but foaming the PLA or the PLA/WF composites led to a dramatic reduction of the compressive modulus to 0.2-0.4 GPa.cm3/g, implying that the PLA and the PLA/WF foams had become softened. This was evidently observed in the significant reduction of hardness coupled with the vast drop of stress required to compressively deform the foams.

  12. Effect of carbon dioxide injection on production of wood cement composites from waste medium density fiberboard (MDF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, H; Cooper, P A; Wan, H

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of recycling waste medium density fiberboard (MDF) into wood-cement composites was evaluated. Both new fibers and recycled steam exploded MDF fibers had poor compatibility with cement if no treatment was applied, due to interference of the hydration process by the water soluble components of the fiber. However, this issue was resolved when a rapid hardening process with carbon dioxide injection was adopted. It appears that the rapid carbonation allowed the board to develop considerable strength before the adverse effects of the wood extractives could take effect. After 3-5 min of carbon dioxide injection, the composites reached 22-27% of total carbonation and developed 50-70% of their final (28-day) strength. Composites containing recycled MDF fibers had slightly lower splitting tensile strength and lower tensile toughness properties than those containing new fibers especially at a high fiber/cement ratio. Composites containing recycled MDF fibers also showed lower values of water absorption. Unlike composites cured conventionally, composites cured under CO(2) injection developed higher strength and toughness with increased fiber content. Incorporation of recycled MDF fibers into wood cement composites with CO(2) injection during the production stage presents a viable option for recycling of this difficult to manage waste material.

  13. Fatty Acid Composition of Fourteen Wood-decaying Basidiomycete Species Growing in Permafrost Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniil N. Olennikov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid (FA compositions of 14 wild wood-decaying basidiomycete species (Bjerkandera adusta, Daedaleopsis septentrionalis, Dichomitus squalens, Inonotus hispidus, I.radiatus, Irpex lacteus, Fomitopsis cajanderi, F.pinicola, F. rosea, Gloeophyllum protractum, Lenzites betulina, Phellinus pini, Trametes gibbosa, T. ochracea growing in permafrost conditions in Katanga region (Russian Federation were investigated using GC-MS. Generally, C18:2 ω 6 (linoleic acid, C18:1 ω 9 (oleic acid, C16:0 (palmitic acid and C20:0 (arachinic acid were found to be the major FA in fungal species. Data about chemical components of Daedaleopsis septentrionalis , Fomitopsis cajanderi and Gloeophyllum protractum were obtained at the first time. Increased level of degree of FA unsaturation was probably a result of extreme environmental conditions.

  14. Optimization of processing variables in wood-rubber composite panel manufacturing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Zhao; Xiang-Ming, Wang; Jian-Min, Chang; Kai, Zheng

    2008-05-01

    The feasibility of manufacturing wood-rubber functional composite panels with a polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (PMDI) and urea-formaldehyde (UF) combination binder system was investigated. Mechanisms of interacted independent variables (board density, pressing time and pressing temperature) for effect on board properties were opened out. The board performance was evaluated by measuring internal bond (IB) strength, modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE). The test results were statistically analyzed by using response surface method (RSM) of Design-Expert software to determine the significant independent variables that influenced board properties. A mathematical simulation or response surface models were developed to predict the board properties (MOR, MOE and IB). The results showed that board density and some interactions between the experimental variables were significant factors that influenced board mechanical properties. The suggested optimal board manufacturing conditions were about 170 degrees C, for pressing temperature, 300 s for pressing time, and 1000 g cm(-3) for board density.

  15. The Effect of Carbon Nanotubes on the Mechanical Properties of Wood Plastic Composites by Selective Laser Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhe Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wood-plastic composites (WPCs made by selective laser sintering (SLS approach of 3D printing offer many advantages over single polymer materials, such as low cost, sustainability, and better sintering accuracy. However, WPCs made via SLS are too weak to have widespread applications. In order to increase the mechanical properties of WPCs, a novel type of WPCs containing 0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15 wt % carbon nanotubes (CNT, 14 wt % wood fibers, 86 wt % polyether sulfone (PES was manufactured via SLS. The experimental results showed that the addition of small amount of CNTs can significantly increase the mechanical properties of the wood/PES composite material. The tensile strength, bending strength, and elasticity modulus were 76.3%, 227.9%, and 128.7% higher with 0.1 wt % CNTs than those without CNTs. The mechanical properties of specimens first increased and then decreased with the addition of CNTs. The SEM results of the specimens’ fracture morphology indicate that the preferable bonding interfaces between wood flour grains and PES grains were achieved by adding CNTs to the composites. There are two reasons why the composites possessed superior mechanical properties: CNTs facilitate the laser sintering process of WPCs due to their thermal conductivities, and CNTs directly reinforce WPCs.

  16. Changes in SOM composition and stability to microbial degradation over time in response to wood chip ash fertilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Saarsalmi, Anna; Peltre, Clement

    2016-01-01

    Recirculation of nutrients from wood chip combustion by ash fertilisation of forest systems can be used to re-introduce nutrients that are otherwise lost, counteracting nutrient depletion due to whole tree harvesting. However, the effects of ash application on soil organic matter (SOM) composition...

  17. Effect of particle size on the composition of lignin derived oligomers obtained by fast pyrolysis of beech wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Shuai; Garcia-Perez, Manuel; Pecha, Brennan; McDonald, Armando G.; Westerhof, Roel Johannes Maria

    2014-01-01

    The effect of particle size on the yield and composition of lignin derived oligomers (also known as pyrolytic lignin (PL)) was studied in a fluidized bed reactor. Milled beech wood particles of sizes between 0.3 and 0.55 and cylinders of 3–14 mm were pyrolyzed at 500 °C. The lignin oligomers were

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging used for the evaluation of water presence in wood plastic composite boards exposed to exterior conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek Gnatowski; Rebecca Ibach; Mathew Leung; Grace Sun

    2014-01-01

    Two wood plastic composite (WPC) boards, one experimental and one commercial, were exposed to exterior conditions and evaluated non-destructively using a clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) unit for moisture content (MC) and distribution. The experimental board was exposed in Vancouver, British Columbia, for more than 8 years, and the commercial board was exposed...

  19. Source emission and model evaluation of formaldehyde from composite and solid wood furniture in a full-scale chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper describes the measurement and model evaluation of formaldehyde source emissions from composite and solid wood furniture in a full-scale chamber under dynamic conditions using ASTM D 6670-01 (2007). Four brands of the same type furniture product were tested. The data we...

  20. Effect of boron and phosphate compounds on physical, mechanical, and fire properties of wood-polypropylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadir Ayrilmis; Turgay Akbulut; Turker Dundar; Robert H. White; Fatih Mengeloglu; Umit Buyuksari; Zeki Candan; Erkan Avci

    2012-01-01

    Physical, mechanical, and fire properties of the injection-molded wood flour/polypropylene composites incorporated with different contents of boron compounds; borax/boric acid and zinc borate, and phosphate compounds; mono and diammonium phosphates were investigated. The effect of the coupling agent content, maleic anhydride-grafted polypropylene, on the properties of...

  1. Effects of silane on the properties of wood-plastic composites with polyethylene-polypropylene blends as matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig M. Clemons; Ronald C. Sabo; Michael L. Kaland; Kolby C. Hirth

    2011-01-01

    The influence of 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate and benzoyl peroxide on gel content, crystallinity, and mechanical performance of unfilled PP-PE blends, and their composites with wood was investigated. All materials were compounded in a twin screw extruder and then injection molded. Specimens were then exposed to high-humidity and elevated temperature in a...

  2. Flammability properties and radiant fraction of FRT wood plastic composites using mass loss calorimeter under HRR hood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Dietenberger; Charles R. Boardman; Nicole Stark

    2017-01-01

    A special test arrangement was used to assess the flammability of 4 different wood plastic composites (WPC), most with fire retardants, all of which has a tendency to high smoke production leading to high radiant energy losses to the apparatus walls. The mass loss calorimeter (MLC) was modified to include a thermopile on the exhaust pipe stack to compensate for radiant...

  3. Biological degradation of wood-plastic composites (WPC) and strategies for improving the resistance of WPC against biological decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anke Schirp; Rebecca E. Ibach; David E. Pendleton; Michael P. Wolcott

    2008-01-01

    Much of the research on wood-plastic composites (WPC) has focused on formulation development and processing while high biological durability of the material was assumed. The gap between assumption and knowledge in biodeterioration of WPC needs to be reduced. Although some information on the short-term resistance of WPC against biological degradation is available, long-...

  4. Wood production response to climate change will depend critically on forest composition and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coomes, David A; Flores, Olivier; Holdaway, Robert; Jucker, Tommaso; Lines, Emily R; Vanderwel, Mark C

    2014-12-01

    Established forests currently function as a major carbon sink, sequestering as woody biomass about 26% of global fossil fuel emissions. Whether forests continue to act as a global sink will depend on many factors, including the response of aboveground wood production (AWP; MgC ha(-1 ) yr(-1) ) to climate change. Here, we explore how AWP in New Zealand's natural forests is likely to change. We start by statistically modelling the present-day growth of 97 199 individual trees within 1070 permanently marked inventory plots as a function of tree size, competitive neighbourhood and climate. We then use these growth models to identify the factors that most influence present-day AWP and to predict responses to medium-term climate change under different assumptions. We find that if the composition and structure of New Zealand's forests were to remain unchanged over the next 30 years, then AWP would increase by 6-23%, primarily as a result of physiological responses to warmer temperatures (with no appreciable effect of changing rainfall). However, if warmth-requiring trees were able to migrate into currently cooler areas and if denser canopies were able to form, then a different AWP response is likely: forests growing in the cool mountain environments would show a 30% increase in AWP, while those in the lowland would hardly respond (on average, -3% when mean annual temperature exceeds 8.0 °C). We conclude that response of wood production to anthropogenic climate change is not only dependent on the physiological responses of individual trees, but is highly contingent on whether forests adjust in composition and structure. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Influence of different degrees of acetylation in the physical and mechanical properties of particleboards and wood-cement composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical modified wood particles used to particleboards manufacture may, at the same time, improve the dimensional stability and damage the internal bond. The aim of this research was find the optimal point of acetylation for particleboards. Pinus taeda particles with different degrees of acetylation, 8, 15 and 20% of weight percentage gain (WGP, were used in the production of particleboards with urea-formaldehyde resin and wood-cement composites produced by mechanical and vibratory compaction. It was evaluated the water absorption, thickness swelling and internal bind of the particleboards according to the European standards EN 317 and EN 319. Particleboards produced with 15 WPG showed the lowest water absorption and thickness swelling values. However, the use of chemically modified wood had a negative influence in the internal bind of the boards. This phenomenon can be explain due to the similar behavior between resin and water, that way, the high degree acetylation stops the adhesive and adherent bind. In the case of wood-cement composites, the internal bind improves as the acetylation degrees get higher. Nevertheless the inhibition of acetylated wood particles to the cement hydration got higher when the WPG was higher than 8%.

  6. Effect of silicone oil heat treatment on the chemical composition, cellulose crystalline structure and contact angle of Chinese parasol wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okon, Kufre Edet; Lin, Fengcai; Chen, Yandan; Huang, Biao

    2017-05-15

    The effect of silicone oil heat treatment (SOTH) on the chemical composition, cellulose crystalline structure, thermal degradation and contact angle of Chinese parasol wood were examined in this study. Samples were heated at 150°C, 180°C and 210°C for 2h and 8h, after SOHT chemical composition, fourier transformed infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) of the treated samples were evaluated. Results showed that the chemical components of the wood were affected after SOHT particularly when treated at 210°C for 8h. Changes in the chemical components was due to the degradation of biopolymer components of the wood during SOHT. The crystallinity index of cellulose and contact angle of the SOHT samples was increased. The findings demonstrate the potential of SOHT for modification of wood. Thus an economical and eco-friendly approach to thermally modified wood was achieved in this study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Computational multi-scale constitutive model for wood cell wall and its application to the design of bio-inspired composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra Flores, E. I.; Murugan, M. S.; Friswell, M. I.; de Souza Neto, E. A.

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents a fully coupled multi-scale finite element model for the description of the dissipative mechanical response of wood cell walls under large strains. Results show the ability of the present model to capture the main phenomenological responses found typically in wood at the microscopic scale. In addition, the structural and mechanical concepts involved in wood cells are exploited further in order to design new wood inspired composites. Numerical tests are conducted in prototypes of bio-inspired composites and demonstrate substantial gains in terms of resistance to failure and in the control of the overall flexibility/stiffness balance in the material.

  8. Eco-friendly wood-based solid-state flexible supercapacitors from wood transverse section slice and reduced graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shaoyi; Fu, Feng; Wang, Siqun; Huang, Jingda; Hu, La

    2015-07-01

    An interesting wood-based all-solid-state supercapacitor is produced using reduced graphene oxide (RGO) coated on wood transverse section slice (WTSS) as electrode material by means of a low-cost, eco-friendly, and simple method for the first time. The RGO-coated WTSS electrode has a porous 3D honeycomb framework due to the hierarchical cellular structure of the WTSS substrate and can function as an electrolyte reservoir. This special construction endows this novel electrode with good areal capacitance (102 mF cm-2) and excellent cyclic stability (capacitance retention of 98.9% after 5000 cycles). In addition, the supercapacitors exhibit good mechanical flexibility and preserve almost constant capacitive behavior under different bending conditions. Our study introduces a new and eco-friendly material design for electrodes in future flexible energy storage devices that closely resemble natural materials. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. Morphology and properties of polypropylene/ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer/wood powder blend composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Polypropylene (PP was blended with ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA to form PP/EVA polymer blends. Wood powder (WP was mixed into these blends at different weight fractions (50/50/0, 45/45/10, 40/40/20, 35/35/30 w/w PP/EVA/WP to form PP/EVA/WP blend composites. The morphology, as well as thermal and mechanical properties, of these composites were investigated. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC results confirm the immiscibility of EVA and PP in the blends, and show that WP is primarily concentrated in the EVA phase. DSC results further show that the EVA crystallization behaviour is significantly influenced by the presence of WP. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA results confirm immiscibility of PP and EVA, as well as an interaction between EVA and WP. Interaction between EVA and WP was further confirmed by Fourier-Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. TGA results show that the blend composite degradation was also influenced by the presence of WP.

  10. Minimizing hot-press time in the manufacturing process of wood plastic composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Motie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the reduction in the hot press time using high thermally conductive fillers and the influenceof these fillers on physical and mechanical properties of end products was investigated. Variable factors in these treatments were type and content of fillers. Press time and other factors such as the amount of wood flour, board density, and other conditions of press were fixed. Composites were prepared from Beech (Fagus orientalis flour, Polypropylene, MAPP, and conductive fillers such as flake and powder graphite (carbonic fillers, and Alumina (ceramic filler. Fillers with contents of 5 and 10% in 15 and 20 minutes for press time were utilized. A thermocouple was utilized to measure the temperature in the core of composite and to determine the time being panel core as the same temperature as the hot press surface. It showed that fillers reduce press time as 2-4 minutes. Mechanical tests including tension, bending, impact and hardness were performed. Fillers except of flake graphite had no restriction in mechanical properties. Water uptake and swelling as physical properties were also measured and fillers didn’t have a significant effect on these tests. To validate the experimental results, thermal conductivity of composites was determined and the increase in this property was evaluated. The increase in samples contain flake and powder graphite was more remarkable than those contain Alumina.

  11. Changes in SOM composition and stability to microbial degradation over time in response to wood chip ash fertilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Mette; Saarsalmi, Anna; Peltre, Clément

    2017-04-01

    Recirculation of nutrients from wood chip combustion by ash fertilisation of forest systems can be used to re-introduce nutrients that are otherwise lost, counteracting nutrient depletion due to whole tree harvesting. However, the effects of ash application on soil organic matter (SOM) composition, turnover and stability are unknown. The aim of the study was to investigate how ash fertilisation of forest soils affects SOM composition and stability to microbial degradation over time. O-horizon and 0-5 cm mineral soil samples were collected from two coniferous forest sites, one in Finland and one in Denmark, where ash had been spread at different times. Changes in SOM biodegradability were estimated based on an incubation experiment, expressed as percentage of initial carbon. Changes in SOM composition were characterised using thermal analysis and Fourier transform mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) analysis of bulk soil samples. Ash fertilisation of forest soils affected SOM composition in the O-horizon, but not in the top 5 cm of the mineral soil. The pH and biodegradability of SOM were increased in the O-horizon. The changes in SOM composition consisted of enrichment of Fe- and Al-oxides/ hydroxides, depletion of carboxylic and aromatic groups and lower thermal stability in soils with older and greater ash application. Ash fertilisation increased soil pH, either right after ash application or through a buffering effect of the ash on acidification caused by decomposing needles over time. The increased pH due to ash fertilisation together with the nutrient inputs from the ash most likely stimulated SOM turnover. This in turn increased the labile fraction of SOM, whereby the thermal stability of SOM decreased as simpler compounds were formed.

  12. Wood Shakes and Shingles for Roof Applications: Tips for Longer Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark T. Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Many wood shakes and shingles have been replaced by composition or asphalt-based shingles. Nevertheless, wood shakes and shingles are still widely used on commercial structures and residential houses.

  13. Preparation and Testing of Plant Seed Meal-based Wood Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhongqi; Chapital, Dorselyn C.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the interest in plant seed meal-based products as wood adhesives has steadily increased, as these plant raw materials are considered renewable and environment-friendly. These natural products may serve as alternatives to petroleum-based adhesives to ease environmental and sustainability concerns. This work demonstrates the preparation and testing of the plant seed-based wood adhesives using cottonseed and soy meal as raw materials. In addition to untreated meals, water washed meals and protein isolates are prepared and tested. Adhesive slurries are prepared by mixing a freeze-dried meal product with deionized water (3:25 w/w) for 2 hr. Each adhesive preparation is applied to one end of 2 wood veneer strips using a brush. The tacky adhesive coated areas of the wood veneer strips are lapped and glued by hot-pressing. Adhesive strength is reported as the shear strength of the bonded wood specimen at break. Water resistance of the adhesives is measured by the change in shear strength of the bonded wood specimens at break after water soaking. This protocol allows one to assess plant seed-based agricultural products as suitable candidates for substitution of synthetic-based wood adhesives. Adjustments to the adhesive formulation with or without additives and bonding conditions could optimize their adhesive properties for various practical applications. PMID:25867092

  14. Testing and evaluation of a slot and tab construction technique for light-weight wood-fiber-based structural panels under bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinghao Li; John F. Hunt; Shaoqin Gong; Zhiyong Cai

    2015-01-01

    This paper presented construction and strain distributions for light-weight wood-fiber-based structural panels with tri-grid core made from phenolic impregnated laminated paper composites under bending. A new fastening configuration of slots in the faces and tabs on the core was applied to the face/core interfaces of the sandwich panel in addition to epoxy resin. Both...

  15. Effect of Weathering Time on the Physical - Mechanical Properties and Color Change in Wood Flour/HDPE Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Kord

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effect of weathering time on the physical and mechanical properties and color change in composite made of wood flour and high density polyethylene (HDPE. For this purpose, wood flour and polyethylene at a weight ratio of 60:40 with coupling agent were compounded in an internal mixer, and the samples were made in injection molding. Then, the weathering process by ultraviolet irradiation and water spray was done on the samples at different times of 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 hours in accelerated weathering apparatus. Finally, the physical and mechanical properties and color measurement of samples were tested, and compared with control samples. Results indicated that the flexural strength, flexural modulus, tensile strength and tensile modulus decreased with an increase in weathering time; however, the water absorption increased. Also, the yellowness of wood plastic samples decreased with an increase in weathering time and due to the lightness and color change increased.

  16. Micromechanical modelling of mechanical behaviour and strength of wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon; Qing, Hai

    2008-01-01

    An overview of the micromechanical theoretical and numerical models of wood is presented. Different methods of analysis of the effects of wood microstructures at different scale levels on the mechanical behaviour, deformation and strength of wood are discussed and compared. Micromechanical models...... of deformation and strength of wood are divided into three groups: cellular models (applied most often to the mesoscale or cell scale analysis of the wood deformation), continuum micromechanics and homogenization based methods, models which consider wood as a composite and are applied mainly to the analysis...... of wood at the microscale (cell wall scale) level and multiscale models. Lattice and composite models, which are used to analyze the damage and fracture of wood, are considered in a separate section. The areas of applicability and strong sides of each approach are discussed. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All...

  17. Preparation and Characterization of Cellulose Nanofibril Films from Wood Fibre and Their Thermoplastic Polycarbonate Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Panthapulakkal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop cellulose-nanofibril-film-reinforced polycarbonate composites by compression molding. Nano fibres were prepared from wood pulp fibres by mechanical defibrillation, and diameter distribution of the fibres produced was in the range of 1–100 nm. Nanofibre films were prepared from the nanofibre suspensions and were characterized in terms of strength properties, crystallinity, and thermal properties. Strength and modulus of the nano fibre films prepared were 240 MPa and 11 GPa, respectively. Thermal properties of the sheets demonstrated the suitability of processing fibre sheets at high temperature. Tensile properties of the films subjected to composite-processing conditions demonstrated the thermal stability of the fibre films during the compression molding process. Nanocomposites of different fibre loads were prepared by press-molding nano fibre sheets with different thickness in between polycarbonate sheet at 205°C under pressure. The tensile modulus and strength of the polycarbonate increased with the incorporation of the fibres. The strength of the thermoplastic increased 24% with 10% of the fibres and is increased up to 30% with 18% of the fibres. Tensile modulus of the polycarbonate demonstrated significant enhancement (about 100%.

  18. NON-WOOD FOREST PRODUCTS BASED ENTERPRISES' COOPERATION AND BUSINESS NETWORKING FORMS IN CENTRAL SERBIA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jelena Nedeljkovic; Dragan Nonic; Nenad Rankovic; Nada Dragovic

    2014-01-01

      The aim of the paper was to study the forms of cooperation between non-wood forest products based small and medium enterprises, as well as to determine the attitudes of their representatives towards...

  19. Non-wood forest products based enterprises’ cooperation and business networking forms in central Serbia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nedeljković Jelena; Nonić Dragan; Ranković Nenad; Dragović Nada

    2014-01-01

    .... The aim of the paper was to study the forms of cooperation between non-wood forest products based small and medium enterprises, as well as to determine the attitudes of their representatives towards...

  20. Chemical characterization and stable carbon isotopic composition of particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons issued from combustion of 10 Mediterranean woods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Guillon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to characterize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from particulate matter emitted during wood combustion and to determine, for the first time, the isotopic signature of PAHs from nine wood species and Moroccan coal from the Mediterranean Basin. In order to differentiate sources of particulate-PAHs, molecular and isotopic measurements of PAHs were performed on the set of wood samples for a large panel of compounds. Molecular profiles and diagnostic ratios were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS and molecular isotopic compositions (δ13C of particulate-PAHs were determined by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS. Wood species present similar molecular profiles with benz(aanthracene and chrysene as dominant PAHs, whereas levels of concentrations range from 1.8 to 11.4 mg g−1 OC (sum of PAHs. Diagnostic ratios are consistent with reference ratios from literature but are not sufficient to differentiate the species of woods. Concerning isotopic methodology, PAH molecular isotopic compositions are specific for each species and contrary to molecular fingerprints, significant variations of δ13C are observed for the panel of PAHs. This work allows differentiating wood combustion (with δ13CPAH = −28.7 to −26.6‰ from others origins of particulate matter (like vehicular exhaust using isotopic measurements but also confirms the necessity to investigate source characterisation at the emission in order to help and complete source assessment models. These first results on woodburnings will be useful for the isotopic approach to source tracking.

  1. Investigation of tension wood formation and 2,6-dichlorbenzonitrile application in short rotation coppice willow composition and enzymatic saccharification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Michael J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short rotation coppice willow is a potential lignocellulosic feedstock in the United Kingdom and elsewhere; however, research on optimising willow specifically for bioethanol production has started developing only recently. We have used the feedstock Salix viminalis × Salix schwerinii cultivar 'Olof' in a three-month pot experiment with the aim of modifying cell wall composition and structure within the stem to the benefit of bioethanol production. Trees were treated for 26 or 43 days with tension wood induction and/or with an application of the cellulose synthesis inhibitor 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile that is specific to secondary cell walls. Reaction wood (tension and opposite wood was isolated from material that had received the 43-day tension wood induction treatment. Results Glucan content, lignin content and enzymatically released glucose were assayed. All measured parameters were altered without loss of total stem biomass yield, indicating that enzymatic saccharification yield can be enhanced by both alterations to cell wall structure and alterations to absolute contents of either glucan or lignin. Conclusions Final glucose yields can be improved by the induction of tension wood without a detrimental impact on biomass yield. The increase in glucan accessibility to cell wall degrading enzymes could help contribute to reducing the energy and environmental impacts of the lignocellulosic bioethanol production process.

  2. Investigation of tension wood formation and 2,6-dichlorbenzonitrile application in short rotation coppice willow composition and enzymatic saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brereton, Nicholas Jb; Pitre, Frederic E; Ray, Michael J; Karp, Angela; Murphy, Richard J

    2011-05-24

    Short rotation coppice willow is a potential lignocellulosic feedstock in the United Kingdom and elsewhere; however, research on optimising willow specifically for bioethanol production has started developing only recently. We have used the feedstock Salix viminalis × Salix schwerinii cultivar 'Olof' in a three-month pot experiment with the aim of modifying cell wall composition and structure within the stem to the benefit of bioethanol production. Trees were treated for 26 or 43 days with tension wood induction and/or with an application of the cellulose synthesis inhibitor 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile that is specific to secondary cell walls. Reaction wood (tension and opposite wood) was isolated from material that had received the 43-day tension wood induction treatment. Glucan content, lignin content and enzymatically released glucose were assayed. All measured parameters were altered without loss of total stem biomass yield, indicating that enzymatic saccharification yield can be enhanced by both alterations to cell wall structure and alterations to absolute contents of either glucan or lignin. Final glucose yields can be improved by the induction of tension wood without a detrimental impact on biomass yield. The increase in glucan accessibility to cell wall degrading enzymes could help contribute to reducing the energy and environmental impacts of the lignocellulosic bioethanol production process.

  3. Wolfiporia cocos : a potential agent for composting of bioprocessing Douglas-fir wood treated with copper-based preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney. De Groot; Bessie. Woodward

    1998-01-01

    In laboratory experiments, Douglas-fir wood blocks that were treated with copper- based wood preservatives were challenged with two wood decay fungi known to be tolerant of copper. Factors influencing the amount of decay, as determined by loss of weight in the test blocks, were preservative, then fungus. Within those combinations, the relative importance of...

  4. Structure and function of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Regis B. Miller

    2005-01-01

    Despite the many human uses to which various woods are suited, at a fundamental level wood is a complex biological structure, itself a composite of many chemistries and cell types acting together to serve the needs of the plant. Although humans have striven to understand wood in the context of wood technology, we have often overlooked the key and basic fact that wood...

  5. Influence of wood barrels classified by NIRS on the ellagitannin content/composition and on the organoleptic properties of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Julien; Jourdes, Michael; Le Floch, Alexandra; Giordanengo, Thomas; Mourey, Nicolas; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2013-11-20

    Ellagitannins are extracted from oak wood during wine aging in oak barrels. This research is based on the NIRS (Oakscan) oak wood classification according to their index polyphenolic (IP) (between 21.07 and 70.15). Their level in wood is very variable (between 5.95 and 32.91 mg/g dry wood) and influenced their concentration in red wine (between 2.30 and 32.56 mg/L after 24 months of aging) and thus their impact on wine organoleptic properties. The results show a good correlation between the NIRS classification and the chemical analysis (HPLC-UV-MS and acidic hydrolysis procedure) and with the wood ellagitannin level, the ellagitannin extraction kinetic, and the ellagitannins evolution in red wine (Cabernet Sauvignon). Moreover, a correlation between the NIRS classification and the increasing intensity of some wood aromas (woody, spicy, vanilla, and smoked/toasted), flavors (bitterness and astringency), and a decreasing intensity of fruitiness was also observed.

  6. Correlating off-axis tension tests to shear modulus of wood-based panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmond P. Saliklis; Robert H. Falk

    2000-01-01

    The weakness of existing relationships correlating off-axis modulus of elasticity E q to shear modulus G 12 for wood composite panels is demonstrated through presentation of extensive experimental data. A new relationship is proposed that performs better than existing equations found in the literature. This relationship can be manipulated to calculate the shear modulus...

  7. Dimensional stability of wood-plastic composites reinforced with potassium methyl siliconate modified fiber and sawdust made from beetle-killed trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Zhiyong Cai; Nicole M. Stark; Charles J. Montezun

    2014-01-01

    Wood fromtwovarieties of beetle-killed trees was used to fabricate wood–plastic composites. Loblolly pine and lodgepole pine beetle-killed trees were defibrated mechanically and thermomechanically, respectively, into fiber. Fiber and sawdust produced from the trees were modified with potassium methyl siliconate (PMS) and injection-molded into fiber/sawdust reinforced...

  8. Coupling effect of waste automotive engine oil in the preparation of wood reinforced LDPE plastic composites for panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maame Adwoa Bentumah Animpong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated the formulation of wood plastic composite (WPC materials with flexural strength of 13.69 ± 0.09 MPa for applications in outdoor fencing using municipal waste precursors like low density polyethylene (LDPE plastics (54.0 wt. %, sawn wood dust with particle size between 64 and 500 μm derived from variable hardwood species (36.0 wt. % and used automotive engine oil (10 wt. %. The WPC panels were prepared by pre-compounding, extruding at a screw auger torque of 79.8 Nm and pressing through a rectangular mould of dimension 132 mm × 37 mm × 5 mm at temperature 150 °C. The efficacy of black waste oil, as a coupling agent, was demonstrated by the absence of voids and pull-outs on microscopic examination using scanning electron microscopy. No hazardous substances were exhaled during thermo-gravimetric mass spectrometry analysis. The percentage crystallinity of the LDPE in the as-prepared material determined by differential scanning calorimetry was 11.3%. Keywords: Wood plastic composites, Low density polyethylene, Wood dust, Physical, Thermal and mechanical properties

  9. Effect of Wood Preservatives on Surface Properties of Coated Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgay Ozdemir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of wood preservatives (waterborne and organicborne on the performance of surface finishing properties is investigated. Sapwood of scots pine, (Pinus sylvestris L., oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky, and chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. specimens (300 × 100 × 15 mm along the grain were impregnated with aqueous solution of 2% CCA, 2% Tanalith E, 1% boric acid, and Immersol aqua. Surface roughness, dry film thickness, adhesion strength, gloss measurement, scratch, and abrasion resistance were determined according to related standards for treated and untreated samples. The results indicated that surface roughness and adhesion strength depended on wood species and the chemical composition of preservatives. Generally, waterborne wood preservatives increased the surface roughness of wood while the organic-based wood preservatives decreased it. The organic-based wood preservatives decreased adhesion but they increased gloss value. Wood preservatives did not affect the scratch resistance which was found to depend on properties of the coating. All the wood preservatives increased abrasion resistance.

  10. Effects of raw materials on the properties of wood fiber-polyethylene composites--part 3: effect of a compatibilizer and wood adhesive on the interfacial adhesion of wood/plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin-yin Hwang; Chung-yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of maleated polypropylene compatabilizer on the interfacial properties of wood and polyolefins. Birch wood dowels containing an adhesive applied on the surface were embedded in molten plastic matrices using specially designed jigs. The three plastics investigated included low density polyethylene (LFPE), linear low...

  11. Evaluating the Environmental Performance of Wood-Based Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce Lippke; Richard Bergman; Adam Taylor; Maureen E. Puettmann

    2012-01-01

    The nonprofit Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials (CORRIM) has been developing comprehensive environmental performance information on wood building materials consistent with life-cycle standards (http://www.corrim.org/). The articles published in this Special Issue of the Forest Products Journal extend the research by the...

  12. Lumber and Related Products; A Base Syllabus on Wood Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastern Kentucky Univ., Richmond.

    Prepared by participants in the 1968 National Defense Education Act Institute on Wood Technology, this syllabus is one of a series of basic outlines designed to aid college level industrial arts instructors in improving and broadening the scope and content of their programs. The primary objective of this course outline is to point out the…

  13. Reclamation of Wood Materials Coated with Lead-Based Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    capture nails and painted wood debris) and saw horses . An air compressor powered the Nail Kicker denailing tool. Boards with nails were handed to the...deconstruction workers are current in their tetanus immunizations and to require that shoes with steel insoles be worn at all times on the work site. 15

  14. Application of a CCA-treated wood waste decontamination process to other copper-based preservative-treated wood after disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janin, Amélie; Coudert, Lucie; Riche, Pauline; Mercier, Guy; Cooper, Paul; Blais, Jean-François

    2011-02-28

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood was widely used until 2004 for residential and industrial applications. Since 2004, CCA was replaced by alternative copper preservatives such as alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ), copper azole (CA) and micronized copper quaternary (MCQ), for residential applications due to health concerns. Treated wood waste disposal is becoming an issue. Previous studies identified a chemical process for decontaminating CCA-treated wood waste based on sulfuric acid leaching. The potential application of this process to wood treated with the copper-based preservatives (alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ), copper azole (CA) and micronized copper quaternary (MCQ)) is investigated here. Three consecutive leaching steps with 0.1 M sulfuric acid at 75°C for 2 h were successful for all the types of treated wood and achieved more than 98% copper solubilisation. The different acidic leachates produced were successively treated by coagulation using ferric chloride and precipitation (pH=7) using sodium hydroxide. Between 94 and 99% of copper in leachates could be recovered by electrodeposition after 90 min using 2 A electrical current. Thus, the process previously developed for CCA-treated wood waste decontamination could be efficiently applied for CA-, ACQ- or MCQ-treated wood. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cement composites with limestone dust and different grades of wood sawdust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turgut, Paki [Department of Civil Engineering, Harran University, Osmanbey Campus, Sanliurfa (Turkey)

    2007-11-15

    This paper presents a parametric experimental study which investigates the potential use of limestone powder wastes (LPW) and wood sawdust wastes (WSW) combination for producing a lightweight composite as a building material. Some of the physical and mechanical properties of brick materials having various levels of LPW and WSW with different particle sizes are investigated. The obtained compressive strength, flexural strength, unit weight, ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) and water absorption values satisfy the relevant international standards. The results show the effect of high level replacement of WSW with LPW does not exhibit a sudden brittle fracture even beyond the failure loads, indicates high energy absorption capacity, reduce the unit weight dramatically and introduce a smoother surface compared to the current bricks in the market. It shows a potential to be used for walls, wooden board substitute, alternative to the concrete blocks, ceiling panels, sound barrier panels, absorption materials, etc. Recycling of unmanaged WSW and LPW as new brick material supplements appears to be viable solution not only to the environmental problem but also to the problem of the economic design of buildings. (author)

  16. Antioxidant activity and chemical composition of Juniperus excelsa ssp. polycarpos wood extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinihashemi, S K; Dadpour, A; Lashgari, A

    2017-03-01

    Extracts from the wood of Juniperus excelsa ssp. polycarpos were analysed for their antioxidant activity using the DPPH method and compared with ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene. The most active extracts were analysed for their chemical composition using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Acetone extract was found to be moderately active as an antioxidant agent at 58.38%, which was lower than the value of vitamin C (98.56%) at the concentration of 14.20 mg/mL. The major components identified in the acetone extract as trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives were pimaric acid TMS (24.56%), followed by α-d-glucopyranoside,1,3,4,6-tetrakis-O-(TMS)-β-d-fructofuranosyl 2,3,4,6-tetrakis-O-(TMS) (21.39%), triflouromethyl-bis-(TMS)methyl ketone (9.32%), and cedrol (0.72%). The dissolved water:methanol (1:1 v/v) partitioned from acetone extract afforded 12 fractions; among them, the F9 fraction was found to have good antioxidant activity (88.49%) at the concentration of 14.20 mg/mL. The major compounds identified in F9 fraction were α-d-glucopyranoside, 1,3,4,6-tetrakis-O-(TMS) (20.22%) and trifluoromethyl-bis-(TMS)methyl ketone (5.10%).

  17. Application of time-temperature-stress superposition on creep of wood-plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Feng-Cheng; Lam, Frank; Kadla, John F.

    2013-08-01

    Time-temperature-stress superposition principle (TTSSP) was widely applied in studies of viscoelastic properties of materials. It involves shifting curves at various conditions to construct master curves. To extend the application of this principle, a temperature-stress hybrid shift factor and a modified Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) equation that incorporated variables of stress and temperature for the shift factor fitting were studied. A wood-plastic composite (WPC) was selected as the test subject to conduct a series of short-term creep tests. The results indicate that the WPC were rheologically simple materials and merely a horizontal shift was needed for the time-temperature superposition, whereas vertical shifting would be needed for time-stress superposition. The shift factor was independent of the stress for horizontal shifts in time-temperature superposition. In addition, the temperature- and stress-shift factors used to construct master curves were well fitted with the WLF equation. Furthermore, the parameters of the modified WLF equation were also successfully calibrated. The application of this method and equation can be extended to curve shifting that involves the effects of both temperature and stress simultaneously.

  18. The Effect of Ultrafine Magnesium Hydroxide on the Tensile Properties and Flame Retardancy of Wood Plastic Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Zhiping; Hu, Na; Wu, Yiqiang; Wu, Shuyun; Qin, Zu

    2014-01-01

    The effect of ultrafine magnesium hydroxide (UMH) and ordinary magnesium hydroxide (OMH) on the tensile properties and flame retardancy of wood plastic composites (WPC) were investigated by tensile test, oxygen index tester, cone calorimeter test, and thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed that ultrafine magnesium hydroxide possesses strengthening and toughening effect of WPC. Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of fracture section of samples provided the positive evidence that the ten...

  19. On-Line analysis of gas-phase composition in the combustion chamber and particle emission characteristics during combustion of wood and waste in a small batch reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Ferge, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    On-Line analysis of gas-phase composition in the combustion chamber and particle emission characteristics during combustion of wood and waste in a small batch reactor / R. Zimmermann ... - In: Environmental science & technology. 39. 2005. S. 1393-1402

  20. Significance of wood extractives for wood bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffael, Edmone

    2016-02-01

    Wood contains primary extractives, which are present in all woods, and secondary extractives, which are confined in certain wood species. Extractives in wood play a major role in wood-bonding processes, as they can contribute to or determine the bonding relevant properties of wood such as acidity and wettability. Therefore, extractives play an immanent role in bonding of wood chips and wood fibres with common synthetic adhesives such as urea-formaldehyde-resins (UF-resins) and phenol-formaldehyde-resins (PF-resins). Extractives of high acidity accelerate the curing of acid curing UF-resins and decelerate bonding with alkaline hardening PF-resins. Water-soluble extractives like free sugars are detrimental for bonding of wood with cement. Polyphenolic extractives (tannins) can be used as a binder in the wood-based industry. Additionally, extractives in wood can react with formaldehyde and reduce the formaldehyde emission of wood-based panels. Moreover, some wood extractives are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and insofar also relevant to the emission of VOC from wood and wood-based panels.

  1. RECYCLING RECOVERED WOOD-BASED MATERIALS. FLATNESS, MOR AND MOE OF PANELS MADE FROM RECOVERED WOODEN BASED MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea DEÁK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to study the mechanical properties of recovered solid wood and wood-based materials, to create new panels made of strips of recovered oak and spruce wood, particleboards and blockboards and to study their mechanical properties, feasibility and use. Flatness, MOR and MOE were determined for the solid wood and wood-based materials recovered from construction and demolition sites. Four types of experimental panels (PL1, PL2, PALL1 and PALL2 were manufactured from solid wood strips alternating with either particleboard or blockboard strips glued edge to edge. Some of their physical and mechanical properties were investigated. All new panels made from recovered materials fell within allowable limits specified in European standard requirements for panel flatness. Panels type PL2, PALL1 and PALL2 show better values for MoR and MoE parallel to the grain when compared to the respective values for the recovered wood-based materials of which they are made, but panels type PL1 show no change. Panels type PALL2 are preferable to panels type PALL1 due to better mechanical properties. Panels type PL1 and PL2 show no such differences in their structure. The results also show that these new panels can be used successfully in furniture production, provided panels type PL1, PL2 ad PALL1 do not bear loads perpendicular to the grain or receive reinforcing elements.

  2. Improvements in processing characteristics and engineering properties of wood flour-filled high density polyethylene composite sheeting in the presence of hollow glass microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baris Yalcin; Steve E Amos; Andrew S D Souza; Craig M Clemons; I Sedat Gunes; Troy K Ista

    2012-01-01

    Hollow glass microspheres were introduced into wood flour/high density polyethylene composites by melt compounding in a twin-screw extruder. The prepared composites were subsequently converted to extruded profiles in order to obtain composite sheeting. The presence of hollow glass microspheres highly reduced the density of the extruded sheets down to 0.9 g/cc, while...

  3. Wood Polymer Composites Technology Supporting the Recovery and Protection of Tropical Forests: The Amazonian Phoenix Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio D. Nobre

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon Rain Forest has attracted worldwide attention due its large scale services to climate and also due to the green house gas emissions arising from deforestation. Contributing to the later and detrimental to the former, timber logging in the region has very low efficiency (only 16% in the production chain. Such timber extraction, often referred to as selective logging, has been claimed as a sustainable extractive industry, because the forest is said to restore itself through regenerative growth. But forest regeneration in the Amazon occurs naturally only in a very limited scale, resulting that large scale, low efficiency logging poses a big treat to the functional integrity of the biome, supplying to the market only a fraction of what it could if done differently. So, instead of extracting big centennial logs from the forests, the Amazonian Phoenix project proposes that large expanses of degraded lands be reforested using pioneer plants species from the forest itself. These plants have the capacity to heal gaps in the canopy, being able to grow and produce woody biomass in very extreme conditions. The idea is to mimic the regenerative dynamics of the natural ecosystem in short cycle agrosilvicultural production areas, utilizing a variety of technologies to transform raw fibers from these fast growth native plants into a variety of materials with high aggregated value. This communication presents the research on natural fibers by the Polymeric Composites Group within the Amazonian Phoenix Project. Sustainable technologies employing materials with good and responsible ecological footprints are important and necessary stimulus for a change in the destructive economical activities present in the Amazon frontiers. The relatively well established wood polymer composites technology, for example, is a good candidate solution. Two research and development fields are proposed: the first one considers production systems with simple and cheap

  4. Weathering Performance of Montmorillonite/Wood Flour-Based Polypropylene Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kord, B.; Malekian, B.; Ayrilmis, N.

    2017-05-01

    The effects of weathering on the physical and mechanical properties of polypropylene (PP)/wood flour (WF) composites with and without nanoclay were investigated. The composites were placed in a xenon-arc weatherometer chamber, and then their color changes, flexural strength (MOR) and modulus (MOE), and water uptake were evaluated during 1800 h of their accelerated weathering. The study showed that the water uptake and thickness swelling of the composite increased and their MOR and MOE decreased with weathering time, but the addition of nanoclay diminished these effects.

  5. A Survey on biodegradation, hardness and dimensional stability of a hybrid composite of wood flour / polypropylene / glass fiber in different circumstances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abdollah Hosseinzadeh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of cellar fungus (brown rot fungus conophora cerabella on biodegradability, hardness and dimensional stability of wood flour/polypropylene/glass fiber hybride composites after suffering ambient conditions (immersion in water were studied. So, the samples by 40 to 60, 50 to 50 and 60 to 40 percent of wood flour / PP weight ratios respectively and three levels of glass fibers 0,10 and 15 weight percent were made. The Samples, immersed in water at 25 and 40°c, sea water and pool water for 1608 hours and then exposed to the cellar fungus for 6 weeks. The results showed, by increasing the wood flour weight ratio and Adding glass fiber to composite samples, those weight loss due to fungal attack, increased and decreased respectively. Overall, after immersion in water compared to control, the samples had greater weight loss and the samples that immersed in pool water and hot water of 40°c, compared to others, showed greater amounts of weight loss. With the increase of wood flour weight ratio and adding the glass fiber in hybrid composite, the samples hardness were increased. Overall, after soaking in water, compared to controls, the test samples showed lower hardness. By increasing the wood flour ratio in composites, the water absorption and thickness swelling amount, were increased. Adding glass fiber to composites in all ratios of wood flour, caused to reduction and controlling of water absorption and thickness swelling.

  6. Influence of fiber type, fiber mat orientation, and process time on the properties of a wood fiber/polymer composite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plackett, David; Torgilsson, R.; Løgstrup Andersen, T.

    2002-01-01

    A rapid press consolidation technique was used to produce composites from two types of air-laid wood fiber mat, incorporating either mechanically refined or bleached chemi-thermomechanically refined Norway Spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst] and a bicomponent polymer fiber. The manufacturing technique...... involved pre-compression, contact heating to the process temperature under vacuum and then rapid transfer to the press for consolidation and cooling. Composites were tested to determine response to water or water vapor, porosity, fiber volume fraction and tensile properties. The composites absorbed water...... by the polymer matrix had been maximized within a five-minute heating time. Results also indicated that had been maximized within a five-minute heating time. Results also indicated that porosity was not the key determinant of tensile properties in the composites....

  7. Effects of Modifier Type on Properties of in Situ Organo-Montmorillonite Modified Wood Flour/Poly(lactic acid) Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ru; Chen, Yu; Cao, Jinzhen

    2016-01-13

    Wood flour (WF) was modified with sodium-montmorillonite (Na-MMT) and two types of surfactant modifiers, namely, didecyl dimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) and sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS) though a two-step process inside WF. The thus-modified WFs were characterized, and the effects of MMT type on physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of their composites with poly(lactic acid) (PLA) were investigated. The results showed: (1) either DDAC or SDS could modified Na-MMT into OMMT, and then uniformly distributed in WF cell walls; (2) OMMT improved the physical properties, most mechanical properties, and thermal properties of the composites except for the impact strength; and (3) compared with SDS, DDAC seemed to perform better in properties of composites. However, DDAC showed some negative effect on the early stage of composite thermal decomposition.

  8. Experimental and Theoretical Modal Analysis of Full-Sized Wood Composite Panels Supported on Four Nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Cheng; Zhang, Houjiang; Wang, Xiping; Miao, Hu; Zhou, Lujing; Liu, Fenglu

    2017-06-21

    Key elastic properties of full-sized wood composite panels (WCPs) must be accurately determined not only for safety, but also serviceability demands. In this study, the modal parameters of full-sized WCPs supported on four nodes were analyzed for determining the modulus of elasticity (E) in both major and minor axes, as well as the in-plane shear modulus of panels by using a vibration testing method. The experimental modal analysis was conducted on three full-sized medium-density fiberboard (MDF) and three full-sized particleboard (PB) panels of three different thicknesses (12, 15, and 18 mm). The natural frequencies and mode shapes of the first nine modes of vibration were determined. Results from experimental modal testing were compared with the results of a theoretical modal analysis. A sensitivity analysis was performed to identify the sensitive modes for calculating E (major axis: Ex and minor axis: Ey) and the in-plane shear modulus (Gxy) of the panels. Mode shapes of the MDF and PB panels obtained from modal testing are in a good agreement with those from theoretical modal analyses. A strong linear relationship exists between the measured natural frequencies and the calculated frequencies. The frequencies of modes (2, 0), (0, 2), and (2, 1) under the four-node support condition were determined as the characteristic frequencies for calculation of Ex, Ey, and Gxy of full-sized WCPs. The results of this study indicate that the four-node support can be used in free vibration test to determine the elastic properties of full-sized WCPs.

  9. [Preparation and properties of wood/modified UF prepolymer composite materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guo-Feng; Jiang, Yi-Fei; Song, Shu-Ping; Qu, Ping; Yao, Sheng; Pu, Jun-Wen

    2011-04-01

    In the present research, the urea-formaldehyde prepolymer and multilayer hot-press drying were used to modify poplar plantation. The prepolymer was impregnated into cell lumen space by pulse-dipping machine. Then the timbers were compressed and dried by the multilayer hot-press drying kiln. The results showed that the physical and chemical properties of poplar were changed in this investigation. The basic density of modified wood increased 1.06 times compared with the natural wood, and the bending strength increased 33% for modified wood, compressive strength parallel to grain increased 74%, the water absorption decreased to 97% from 104%. The crystallinity decreased slightly from 39.65 to 36.89 because of the modifier impregnated. TGA analysis showed that the heat resistance of modified wood increased, the three exothermic peaks in DTA curve of modified wood were 280, 360 and 485 degrees C which were higher than natural wood in the corresponding position FTIR analysis showed that the hydroxyl modified material has a good association phenomenon, and carbonyl content decreased. The SEM spectrum showed the distribution of the prepolymer in the modified timber.

  10. Chemical composition of particles from traditional burning of Pakistani wood species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Imran; Kistler, Magdalena; Mukhtar, Azam; Ramirez-Santa Cruz, Carlos; Bauer, Heidi; Puxbaum, Hans

    2015-11-01

    Total particulate matter (TPM) emitted during burning of three types of Pakistani wood (eucalyptus camaldulensis, local name Safeeda; acacia nilotica, local name Kikar, Babul; dalbergia sissoo, Shisham, Tali) in a traditional brick stove were collected and analyzed for anhydrosugars, sugar alcohols, trace metals, soluble ions and carbonaceous species. This is a first study reporting anhydrosugars in wood smoke particles emitted during traditional burning of common wood types in Pakistan. Carbonaceous species showed the highest contribution to the particulate matter. Although the total carbon (TC) contribution was similar for all burnings (64.8-70.2%), the EC/OC ratio varied significantly, from 0.2 to 0.3 for Accacia and Dalbergia to 0.7-0.8 for Eucalyptus and Wood-mix. Among inorganic constituents potassium chloride and silicon were found at levels higher than 1%. The levoglucosan concentrations ranged from 3.0 to 6.6% (average 5.6%) with the highest value for Accacia and lowest value for the wood-mix. The high levoglucosan/mannosan ratios of 20-28 were typical for hardwood. The ratio between levoglucosan and galactosan varied stronger and was found to be around 13-20 for Accacia, Eucalyptus and Wood mix, and 43 for Dalbergia. The determined levoglucosan concentrations allowed assessing the conversion factor for calculation of biomass smoke contribution to ambient particulate matter levels in Pakistan.

  11. Transcriptional profiles of hybrid Eucalyptus genotypes with contrasting lignin content reveal that monolignol biosynthesis-related genes regulate wood composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomotaka eShinya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus species constitutes the most widely planted hardwood trees in temperate and subtropical regions. In this study, we compared the transcript levels of genes involved in lignocellulose formation such as cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin biosynthesis in two selected three-year old hybrid Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis genotypes (AM063 and AM380 that have different lignin content. AM063 and AM380 had 20.2 and 35.5% of Klason lignin content and 59.0% and 48.2%, -cellulose contents, respectively. We investigated the correlation between wood properties and transcript levels of wood formation-related genes using RNA-seq with total RNAs extracted from developing xylem tissues at a breast height. Transcript levels of cell wall construction genes such as cellulose synthase (CesA and sucrose synthase (SUSY were almost the same in both genotypes. However, AM063 exhibited higher transcript levels of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGP and xyloglucan endotransglucoxylase (XTH than those in AM380. Most monolignol biosynthesis- related isozyme genes showed higher transcript levels in AM380. These results indicate monolignol biosynthesis-related genes may regulate wood composition in Eucalyptus. Flavonoids contents were also observed at much higher levels in AM380 as a result of the elevated transcript levels of common phenylpropanoid pathway genes, phenylalanine ammonium lyase (PAL, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL. Secondary plant cell wall formation is regulated by many transcription factors. We analyzed genes encoding NAC, WRKY, AP2/ERF and KNOX transcription factors and found higher transcript levels of these genes in AM380. We also observed increased transcription of some MYB and LIM domain transcription factors in AM380 compared to AM063. All these results show that genes related to monolignol biosynthesis may regulate the wood composition and help maintain the ratio of cellulose and lignin contents

  12. Phosphate-bonded ceramic–wood composites : R&D project overview and invitation to participate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore L. Laufenberg; Matt Aro

    2004-01-01

    We are developing chemically bonded ceramic phosphate binders for the production of biofiber-based composite materials. These binders promise to have better processing and properties than some current cement and polymer resin binder systems. The ceramic phosphate binders (termed Ceramicrete), if used in place of cement and polymers, will significantly reduce the...

  13. Effect of biochar on mechanical and flame retardant properties of wood – Plastic composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingfa Zhang

    Full Text Available Biochar/wood/plastic composites were prepared with different biochar content by the extrusion method, and the mechanical properties and flame retardant properties were tested. The study indicated that: with the increase of biochar content, the mechanical properties of the composites tended to rise at first and then fell. This suggested that the appropriate amount of biochar can promote the mechanical properties of the biochar/wood/plastic composites. Though both Mg(OH2 and Al(OH3 could improve the Flame retardant properties of the material evidently, Mg(OH2 obtained a better effect than Al(OH3. In particular, when the adding amount of Mg(OH2 is 40 wt%, the flame retardant effect is the best. Al(OH3 can reduce the mechanical properties of the material, while Mg(OH2 could evidently promote the tensile strength and impact resistance strength of the material. Keywords: Biochar, Composites, Mechanical properties, Flame retardant properties

  14. Fibreglass as an alternative to wood poles : Transmission and distribution poles and crossarms : use of fiber reinforced composite materials for overhead electric utility lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiles, J.R. [Shakespeare Composites and Electronics, Newberry, SC (United States)

    2002-07-01

    For over thirty years, Shakespeare Composites and Electronics has manufactured fiberglass composite lighting and utility poles, as well as being the number one maker of composite crossarms. Composite poles have a few advantages, such as being lightweight, they do no rust, are woodpecker and termite resistant, use no harmful chemicals, and have long life. A chart displaying the comparative pole weights is presented. The key design factors of fiberglass composite utility poles are: pole diameter, fiberglass type and wind angle, layers (thickness) of fiberglass, resin type and formulation, resin mix consistency, cure cycle and maximum curing temperature, and others. Two charts were also displayed presenting 40 feet class 4 pole bending strengths and 40 feet class 2 pole bending strengths. The author indicated that composite poles have a better strength consistency than wood, while being as consistent as steel and prestressed concrete. The design is based on an overload factor of safety of 2.5 for numerous installations. Some of the analytical methods used include mechanical testing, finite element modeling, and thermal analysis. The author describes in detail the concerns associated with attachments. Coating consists of a system of ultra violet blockers in the resin followed by an added resin rich polyester veil outer surface. In addition, there is a proprietary coating process with additional ultra violet blockers. Quality control is effected at the plant. The weathering system lasts 80 years. figs.

  15. On-line analysis of gas-phase composition in the combustion chamber and particle emission characteristics during combustion of wood and waste in a small batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferge, T; Maguhn, J; Hafner, K; Mühlberger, F; Davidovic, M; Warnecke, R; Zimmermann, R

    2005-03-15

    The emission of particulate matter and gaseous compounds during combustion of wood and refuse-derived fuel in a small batch reactor is investigated by laser mass-spectrometric on-line measurement techniques for gas-phase analysis and simultaneous registration of physical aerosol properties (number size distribution). The gas-phase composition is addressed by a laser-based mass spectrometric method, namely, vacuum-UV single-photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (VUV-SPI-TOFMS). Particle-size distributions are measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer. Furthermore, a photoelectric aerosol sensor is applied for detection of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The different phases of wood combustion are distinguishable by both the chemical profiles of gas-phase components (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAH) and the particle-size distribution. Furthermore, short disturbances of the combustion process due to air supply shortages are investigated regarding their effect on particle-size distribution and gas-phase composition, respectively. It is shown that the combustion conditions strongly influence the particle-size distribution as well as on the emission of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  16. Wood-based composite building materials | Ocloo | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Applied Science and Technology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 1, No 1 (1996) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  17. Investigation adding of Nano clay particles and compatibilizer on the properties of composite made of polypropylene- Haloxylon wood flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    afsaneh shahraki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study, with aim of investigation the effect of Nano clay particles and amount of compatibilizer on the physical and mechanical properties of wood-plastic composites from the polypropylene- Haloxylon wood flour was done. For this purpose, Haloxylon wood flour with 50% weight ratio with polypropylene were mixed. Maleic anhydride modified polypropylene maple to compatibilizer at two levels and Nano clay at three levels to filler were used. Mixed process of materials in extruding machine was done and test specimens were fabricated by using the injection molding machine. Then, the mechanical tests include bending, tension and impact and physical tests include water absorption and thickness swelling according to the ASTM standards was done on the samples. For investigation to how operation of compatibilizer from Fourier Transfer Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR was used. Morphological study of Nano composites with X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM was done. The result showed that with addition of the amount of Nano clay particles to 4 percent, physical and mechanical properties were improved, but impact strength decreased. Also by adding the compatibilizer, physical and mechanical properties were improved. The results of Infrared spectroscopy showed that the amount of hydroxyl groups (OH Due to linkage with Maleic Anhydride and the formation of ester groups decreased with adding the compatibilizer. Also, investigation the morphology of Nano composite by X-ray diffraction showed that the distribution of clay nanoparticles in polymeric matrix was intercalation and with adding of the amount Nano clay the distance between layers increases. The results of scanning electron microscopy was also showed improvement in the interface between the fibers and the polymer matrix with adding the compatibilizer.

  18. Characterisation of Flax Fibres and Flax Fibre Composites. Being cellulose based sources of materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslan, Mustafa

    a growing interest among composite manufacturers for such low-cost and low-weight cellulosic fibre composites. In addition, wood and plant fibre based composites with thermoplastic polymeric matrices are recyclable, and they are cost attractive alternatives to oil based fibre reinforced polymer composites...... is on the relationship between the complex microstructure and the tensile properties of flax fibres and their composites, based on textile flax yarn and a thermoplastic polymeric matrix. Single flax fibres were isolated from flax fibre bundles which have been processed in two differentnsteps of natural treatments...... of composites, the effect of consolidation pressure on the tensile properties of flax fibre composites was investigated. A porosity corrected rule of mixtures model, and a volumetric composition model for composites were used to model the experimental data. Flax fibre yarns and thermoplastic low...

  19. Structure and Function of Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2012-01-01

    Wood is a complex biological structure, a composite of many cell types and chemistries acting together to serve the needs of living plant. Attempting to understand wood inthe context of wood technology, we have often overlooked the basic fact that wood evolved over the course of millions of years to serve three main functions in plants-conduction of water from the...

  20. INFLUENCE OF CLONE HARVESTING AGE OF Eucalyptus grandis AND HYBRIDS OF Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla IN THE WOOD CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND IN KRAFT PULPABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Henrique Damasceno de Morais; Dalton Longue Júnior; Jorge Luiz Colodette; Elisa Helena da Costa Morais; Carolina Marangon Jardim

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The recent efforts on the quality of the wood used in pulp and paper mills has focused in many points, among them the influence of the raw material chemical characteristics in the production process and final product quality. Considering the current demand for younger trees, the effect of the wood harvesting age in the chemical composition and in the process variables becomes a very important fact for the industries of this sector. So, the objective of this study was to characterize ...

  1. IMAGING WOOD PLASTIC COMPOSITES (WPCs): X-RAY COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY, A FEW OTHER PROMISING TECHNIQUES, AND WHY WE SHOULD PAY ATTENTION

    OpenAIRE

    Lech Muszyński

    2009-01-01

    Wood plastic composites are complex, anisotropic, and heterogeneous materials. A key to increasing the share of the WPC materials in the market is developing stronger, highly engineered WPCs characterized by greater structural performance and increased durability. These are achieved by enhanced manufacturing processes, more efficient profile designs, and new formulations providing better interaction between the wood particles and the plastic matrix. Significant progress in this area is hard t...

  2. Influence of oak wood on the aromatic composition and quality of wines with different tannin contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Plaza, Eva María; Reyero, Juań Ramoń; Pardo, Francisco; Alonso, Gonzalo L; Salinas, M Rosario

    2002-04-24

    The aromatic compounds associated with aging in wood have been studied in Monastrell wines containing different quantities of tannin. Analyses were carried out before and after a six month period in wooden barrels (225 L) of American and French (Allier) medium-toasted oak. Three classes of wine were made: one from a free-run must; one to which enological tannin was added; and one to which was added the wine obtained by pressing the grape pomaces. The aromas were determined by GC-MS, and the quality was evaluated by a group of expert tasters. The aromatic compounds, some of which came from the wines themselves and others which came from the wood, all increased in concentration by the end of the aging process. The ratio between cis- and trans-whiskylactone contents in wines reflected the different types of oak wood used. The note "vanilla" used by the tasters is probably not totally due to the presence of vanillin. The wines of best quality were those with a natural tannin content which had been aged in American oak, whereas the wines to which enological tannin had been added but aged in the same wood were considered the worst. An equalizing effect on the sensorial wines qualities was seen to result from the use of French oak. The furfural, eugenol, and cis-, and in some cases trans-, whiskylactone contents identified the wines from the different classes of wood. The wood from which the barrels were made had a greater effect on wines differentiation than the tannin content.

  3. Compositional based testing with ioco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Bijl, H.M.; Rensink, Arend; Tretmans, G.J.; Petrenko, A.; Ulrich, A.

    2004-01-01

    Compositional testing concerns the testing of systems that consist of communicating components which can also be tested in isolation. Examples are component based testing and interoperability testing. We show that, with certain restrictions, the ioco-test theory for conformance testing is suitable

  4. Properties of a Laminated Wood Composite Produced with Thermomechanically Treated Veneers

    OpenAIRE

    Arruda,Larissa M; Del Menezzi,Cláudio H. S

    2016-01-01

    The paper aimed at evaluating the properties of plywood made from thermomechanically treated wood veneers. Veneers from Amescla (Trattinnickia burseraefolia) wood were treated in a hydraulic press with electric resistance heating. Two temperature levels were applied, 140°C and 180°C, for 1 and 2 minutes with 2.7 N/mm2 of pressure. A total of 30 plywood boards were produced, including six boards produced from untreated veneers. The results showed that the thermomechanical treatment did not hav...

  5. Variation in Wood Quality in White Spruce (Picea Glauca (Moench Voss. Part I. Defining the Juvenile–Mature Wood Transition Based on Tracheid Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyriac Serge Mvolo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimations of transition age (TA and juvenile wood proportion (JWP are important for wood industries due to their impact on end-product quality. However, the relationships between analytical determination of TA based on tracheid length (TL and recognized thresholds for adequate end products have not yet been established. In this study, we used three different statistical models to estimate TA in white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench Voss based on TL radial variation. We compared the results with technological maturity. A two-millimeter threshold, previously suggested for good paper tear strength, was used. Tracheid length increased from pith to bark and from breast height to upper height. Juvenile wood (JW was conical with the three models. At breast height, TA ranged from 11 to 27 years and JWP ranged from 15.3% to 47.5% across the three models. The linear mixed model produced more conservative estimates than the maximum-quadratic-linear (M_Q_L model. Both the linear mixed model and the M_Q_L model produced more conservative TA estimates than the piecewise model. TA estimates by the MIXED model, and to a lesser extent by the M_Q_L model, were equivalent to those for real mature wood, whereas TA estimates by the piecewise model were considerably lower, falling into the transition wood area.

  6. Remilling of salvaged wood siding coated with lead-based paint. Part 1, Lead exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. Falk; John J. Janowiak; Stephen D. Cosper; Susan A. Drozdz

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that the lead contained in lead-based paint (LBP) can pose a serious human health risk if ingested. In our nation’s building infrastructure, millions of meters of high quality salvageable lumber have been coated with LBP. The study presented in this and a companion paper investigated the feasibility of producing several standardized wood product...

  7. The Assessment of the Character Profile of Wood-based House Users in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Lenoch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the years 2012–2014 the authors carried out an extensive marketing research among users of wood-based buildings in the Czech Republic. The questionnaire survey had 1,000 respondents – Czech households using a wood-based house. The survey was conducted separately in each region of the Czech Republic (40–100 questionnaires per region. The results were evaluated separately for each region and for the Czech Republic as a whole. Questionnaires consisted of four thematic groups of questions. This paper deals with processing and evaluation of results of the first group of questions. This group addresses characteristics of people using wood-based family houses. The results are evaluated for individual regions and for the whole Czech Republic. The evaluation covers seven characteristics of adults using the surveyed buildings: age of users, type of the buildings’ ownership, educational attainment, sector of employment, profession, type of previous housing, and the size of municipality of the previous housing. The aim of the paper is to create profile of a “common user” of wood-based buildings. The results of the marketing research can be used to enhance competitiveness of companies in the woodworking and construction sector.

  8. Catalytic flash pyrolysis of oil-impregnated-wood and jatropha cake using sodium based catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali Imran, A.; Bramer, Eduard A.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Brem, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of wood with impregnated vegetable oil was investigated and compared with catalytic pyrolysis of jatropha cake making use of sodium based catalysts to produce a high quality bio-oil. The catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in two modes: in-situ catalytic pyrolysis and post

  9. Improved fatigue performance for wood-based structural panels using slot and tab construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinghao Li; John F. Hunt; Shaoqin Gong; Zhiyong Cai

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents static and fatigue bending behavior for a wood-based structural panel having a slot and tab (S/T) construction technique. Comparisons were made with similarly fabricated panels without the S/T construction technique. Experimental results showed that both types of panels had similar bending properties in the static tests. However, the panels with S/T...

  10. High Strength Wood-based Sandwich Panels reinforced with fiberglass and foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinghao Li; John F. Hunt; Shaoqin Gong; Zhiyong Cai

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical analysis is presented for new high-strengthsandwich panels made from wood-based phenolic impregnated laminated paper assembled with an interlocking tri-axial ribbed core. Four different panel configurations were tested, including panels with fiberglass fabric bonded to both outside faces with self-expanding urethane foam used to fill the ribbed core. The...

  11. Chemical composition and structural features of the macromolecular components of plantation Acacia mangium wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Paula C; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Pascoal Neto, Carlos

    2005-10-05

    The wood of Acacia mangium, a prominent fast-growing plantation species used in the pulp-and-paper industry and, so far, poorly investigated for its chemical structure, was submitted to a detailed characterization of its main macromolecular components. Lignin (28% wood weight) isolated by mild acidolysis and characterized by permanganate oxidation, 1H and 13C NMR, and GPC, showed a very low content of syringylpropane-derived units (S:G:H of 48:49:3), a high degree of condensation, a low content of beta-O-4 ( approximately 0.40-0.43 per C6) structures, and a Mw of 2230. Glucuronoxylan (14% wood weight) isolated by alkaline (KOH) or by dimethyl sulfoxide extraction was characterized by methylation analysis, 1H NMR, and GPC. About 10% of the xylopyranose (Xylp) units constituting the linear backbone were substituted at O-2 with 4-O-methylglucuronic acid residues. Almost half of the Xylp units (45%) were O-2 (18%), O-3 (24%) or O-2,3 (3%) acetylated. X-ray diffraction analysis of cellulose (46% wood weight), isolated according to the Kürschner-Hoffer method, showed a degree of crystallinity of 67.6%.

  12. Properties of plasticized composite films prepared from nanofibrillated cellulose and birch wood xylan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Natanya Majbritt Louie; Blomfeldt, Thomas O. J.; Hedenqvist, Mikael S.

    2012-01-01

    Xylans, an important sub-class of hemicelluloses, represent a largely untapped resource for new renewable materials derived from biomass. As with other carbohydrates, nanocellulose reinforcement of xylans is interesting as a route to new bio-materials. With this in mind, birch wood xylan...

  13. Preparation and Characterization of Wood Plastic Composite Made Up of Durian Husk Fiber and Recycled Polystyrene Foam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koay Seong Chun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Polystyrene foam is one of the major plastic waste that hardly to recycle. The present research is aims to recycle polystyrene foam as raw material to produce wood plastic composites (WPC. The WPC was produced from recycled polystyrene (rPS and durian husk fiber (DHF using melt compound and compression moulding processes. This paper is focus on effect of fiber content on tensile and thermal properties of rPS/DHF composite. The results found the tensile strength modulus of this WPC increased at higher fiber content, but elongation at break was reduced. However, this composites exhibited an early thermal degradation when subjected to high temperature and this was commonly found among WPC. The thermal degradation of rPS/DHF composites yielded high percentage of char residue due to char formation of DHF. Overall, the rPS/DHF composites with 60 phr fiber content able to achieved strength slight above 16 MPa without any chemical treatment additives. This indicates the rPS/DHF composites can be a potential WPC if further modify with to improve its strength.

  14. Enhancement of the Mechanical Properties of Basalt Fiber-Wood-Plastic Composites via Maleic Anhydride Grafted High-Density Polyethylene (MAPE Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Lu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the mechanisms, using microscopy and strength testing approaches, by which the addition of maleic anhydride grafted high-density polyethylene (MAPE enhances the mechanical properties of basalt fiber-wood-plastic composites (BF-WPCs. The maximum values of the specific tensile and flexural strengths are achieved at a MAPE content of 5%–8%. The elongation increases rapidly at first and then continues slowly. The nearly complete integration of the wood fiber with the high-density polyethylene upon MAPE addition to WPC is examined, and two models of interfacial behavior are proposed. We examined the physical significance of both interfacial models and their ability to accurately describe the effects of MAPE addition. The mechanism of formation of the Model I interface and the integrated matrix is outlined based on the chemical reactions that may occur between the various components as a result of hydrogen bond formation or based on the principle of compatibility, resulting from similar polarity. The Model I fracture occurred on the outer surface of the interfacial layer, visually demonstrating the compatibilization effect of MAPE addition.

  15. Elevated tropospheric CO2 and O3 may not alter initial wood decomposition rate or wood-decaying fungal community composition of Northern hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel Ebanyenle; Andrew J. Burton; Andrew J. Storer; Dana L. Richter; Jessie A. Glaeser

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of elevated CO2 and/or O3 on the wood-decaying basidiomycete fungal community and wood decomposition rates at the Aspen Free-Air CO2 and O3 Enrichment (Aspen FACE) project. Mass loss rates were determined after one year of log decomposition on the soil...

  16. On the Effect of Unit-Cell Parameters in Predicting the Elastic Response of Wood-Plastic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Alavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the effect of unit-cell geometrical parameters in predicting elastic properties of a typical wood plastic composite (WPC. The ultimate goal was obtaining the optimal values of representative volume element (RVE parameters to accurately predict the mechanical behavior of the WPC. For each unit cell, defined by a given combination of the above geometrical parameters, finite element simulation in ABAQUS was carried out, and the corresponding stress-strain curve was obtained. A uniaxial test according to ASTM D638-02a type V was performed on the composite specimen. Modulus of elasticity was determined using hyperbolic tangent function, and the results were compared to the sets of finite element analyses. Main effects of RVE parameters and their interactions were demonstrated and discussed, specially regarding the inclusion of two adjacent wood particles within one unit cell of the material. Regression analysis was performed to mathematically model the RVE parameter effects and their interactions over the modulus of elasticity response. The model was finally employed in an optimization analysis to arrive at an optimal set of RVE parameters that minimizes the difference between the predicted and experimental moduli of elasticity.

  17. Bio-based rigid polyurethane foam from liquefied products of wood in the presence of polyhydric alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhifeng Zheng; Hui Pan; Yuanbo Huang; Chung Y. Hse

    2011-01-01

    Rigid polyurethane foams were prepared from the liquefied wood polyols, which was obtained by the liquefaction of southern pine wood in the presence of polyhydric alcohols with sulfuric acid catalyst by using microwave-assistant as an energy source. The properties of liquefied biomass-based polyols and the rigid polyurethane foams were investigated. The results...

  18. Performance of Northeastern United States wood species treated with copper based preservatives: 10 year above-ground decking evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. T. Lebow; S. A. Halverson

    2015-01-01

    Research was conducted to evaluate the decking performance of northeastern United States wood species treated with copper based preservatives. Decking specimens were treated with one of four wood preservatives and exposed near Madison, Wisconsin. Specimens were evaluated for biological attack and dimensional stability. After 10 years, none of the preservative treated...

  19. The use of urban wood waste as an energy resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudyakova, G. I.; Danilova, D. A.; Khasanov, R. R.

    2017-06-01

    The capabilities use of wood waste in the Ekaterinburg city, generated during the felling of trees and sanitation in the care of green plantations in the streets, parks, squares, forest parks was investigated in this study. In the cities at the moment, all the wood, that is removed from city streets turns into waste completely. Wood waste is brought to the landfill of solid household waste, and moreover sorting and evaluation of the quantitative composition of wood waste is not carried out. Several technical solutions that are used in different countries have been proposed for the energy use of wood waste: heat and electrical energy generation, liquid and solid biofuel production. An estimation of the energy potential of the city wood waste was made, for total and for produced heat and electrical energy based on modern engineering developments. According to our estimates total energy potential of wood waste in the city measure up more 340 thousand GJ per year.

  20. Thorough chemical modification of wood-based lignocellulosic materials in ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Haibo; King, Alistair; Kilpelainen, Ilkka; Granstrom, Mari; Argyropoulos, Dimitris S

    2007-12-01

    Homogenous acylation and carbanilation reactions of wood-based lignocellulosic materials have been investigated in ionic liquids. We have found that highly substituted lignocellulosic esters can be obtained under mild conditions (2 h, 70 degrees C) by reacting wood dissolved in ionic liquids with acetyl chloride, benzoyl chloride, and acetic anhydride in the presence of pyridine. In the absence of pyridine, extensive degradation of the wood components was found to occur. Highly substituted carbanilated lignocellulosic material was also obtained in the absence of base in ionic liquid. These chemical modifications were confirmed by infrared spectroscopy, (1)H NMR, and quantitative (31)P NMR of the resulting derivatives. The latter technique permitted the degrees of substitution to be determined, which were found to vary between 81% and 95% for acetylation, benzoylation, and carbanilation, accompanied by similarly high gains in weight percent values. Thermogravimetric measurements showed that the resulting materials exhibit different thermal stabilities from those of the starting wood, while differential scanning calorimetry showed discrete new thermal transitions for these derivatives. Scanning electron microscopy showed the complete absence of fibrous characteristics for these derivatives, but instead, a homogeneous porous, powdery appearance was apparent. A number of our reactions were also carried out in completely recycled ionic liquids, verifying their utility for potential applications beyond the laboratory bench.

  1. Fire performance, mechanical strength and dimensional stability of wood flour–polyethylene composites under the influence of different fire retardants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Roohani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Flammability is one of the most important parameters that often limit the application range of wood plastic composites. Therefore, the improvements of retardancy performance of these products have a considerable impact. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of expandable graphite (EG and its combination with aluminum tirhydroxide (ATH, inorganic phosphate (IP and melamine borate (MB on the flammability of wood flour–polyethylene composites. Composites were prepared by the melt compounding method and cone calorimetry as well as limited oxygen index (LOI tests was employed to study their flammability properties. Also, the effect of different fire retardants on the mechanical strength and water uptake of samples were investigated. Cone calorimetry characterization indicated that with incorporation of fire retardans heat release rate and burning rate decrease and char residual as well as the time to ignition increase. These findings ascribed to formation of char layer by fire retardants. The combination of EG and other fire retardants yielded better improvements in flame retardancy in comparison to the sample that has just EG as flame retardant. The LOI test was used to determine the lowest concentration of oxygen at which a material will maintain combustion in a flowing mixture of oxygen and nitrogen. The results showed that inclusion of fire retardants improve the LOI of sample. Furthermore, the presence of fire retardants decreased the tensile and flexural resistance (strength and modules and impact strength of samples, and increased the water absorption as well as thickness swelling. Generally, among the different treatments examined, the EG–ATH retardancy system showed highest potential in flame retardancy of composites.

  2. Development and application of wood adhesives in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiyou Gu; Zhiyong Cai

    2010-01-01

    Rapid economic development and growth in China has resulted in a substantial increase in the demand for utilization of bio-based composites. This provides a unique opportunity for developing wood adhesives. This study reviews research development and major accomplishments in wood adhesives and technology in China over the last 50 years. It also discusses the...

  3. Evaluation of the Structure and Acid-Base Properties of Bulk Wood by FT-Raman Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen; Rahiala; Rosenholm

    1998-10-15

    The structure of pine wood (Pinus silvestris L.) has been analyzed by FT-Raman spectroscopy, taking birch wood and the wood components cellulose, hemicellulose (xylan), and lignin as well as previously characterized wood resins as references. The acid-base properties of bulk pine wood were evaluated by comparing the spectra recorded before and after the treatment with various solvents. After the treatment with the probe liquids having only a Lifshitz-van der Waals (LW) component, it was found that the LW interactions in pine wood take place without changing the main structure. After treatment with Lewis acid-base active probe liquids, the spectra indicate that, e.g., the intense peak located at approximately 2936 cm-1 (CH2 stretch) seems to disappear, suggesting that this peak may be related to Lewis acidity. In addition, after treatment with a Lewis acid, it was found that the intense peak located at approximately 1657 cm-1 (C&dbond;C) is shifted, relating to Lewis basicity. With the ratio approximately 2936/ approximately 1657 cm-1 as a measure of the acid-base properties of bulk wood, a value of about 2.00 indicates that the bulk pine wood is largely acidic. The pH determined supports the evaluation made by FT-Raman spectroscopy. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  4. Evaluation of the structure and acid-base properties of bulk wood by FT-Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Q.; Rahiala, H.; Rosenholm, J.B. [Aabo Akademi Univ, Turku (Finland). Dept. of Physical Chemistry

    1998-10-15

    The structure of pine wood (Pinus silvestris L.) has been analyzed by FT-Raman spectroscopy, taking birch wood and the wood components cellulose, hemicellulose (xylan), and lignin as well as previously characterized wood resins as references. The acid-base properties of bulk pine wood were evaluated by comparing the spectra recorded before and after the treatment with various solvents. After the treatment with the probe liquids having only a Lifshitz-van der Waals (LW) component, it was found that the LW interactions in pine wood take place without changing the main structure. After treatment with Lewis acid-base active probe liquids, the spectra indicate that, e.g., the intense peak located at {approximately}2936 cm{sup {minus}1} (CH{sub 2} stretch) seems to disappear, suggesting that this peak may be related to Lewis acidity. In addition, after treatment with a Lewis acid, it was found that the intense peak located at {approximately}1657 cm{sup {minus}1} (C{double_bond}C) is shifted, relating to Lewis basicity. With the ratio {approximately}2936/{approximately}1657 cm{sup {minus}1} as a measure of the acid-base properties of bulk wood, a value of about 2.00 indicates that the bulk pine wood is largely acidic. The pH determined supports the evaluation made by FT-Raman spectroscopy.

  5. Properties of a Laminated Wood Composite Produced with Thermomechanically Treated Veneers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa M. Arruda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed at evaluating the properties of plywood made from thermomechanically treated wood veneers. Veneers from Amescla (Trattinnickia burseraefolia wood were treated in a hydraulic press with electric resistance heating. Two temperature levels were applied, 140°C and 180°C, for 1 and 2 minutes with 2.7 N/mm2 of pressure. A total of 30 plywood boards were produced, including six boards produced from untreated veneers. The results showed that the thermomechanical treatment did not have any deleterious effect on glue line strength and most of the mechanical properties of plywood made from treated veneers were improved. On the other hand, plywood made from untreated veneers presented better dimensional stability. Dimensional stability properties were most affected by the temperature of the treatment, while mechanical stability, represented by the glue line shear strength, was positively affected by temperature and duration of the treatment.

  6. Pilot-scale investigation of the robustness and efficiency of a copper-based treated wood wastes recycling process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coudert, Lucie [INRS-ETE (Canada); Blais, Jean-François, E-mail: blaisjf@ete.inrs.ca [INRS-ETE (Canada); Mercier, Guy [INRS-ETE (Canada); Cooper, Paul [University of Toronto (Canada); Gastonguay, Louis [IREQ (Canada); Morris, Paul [FPInnovations (Canada); Janin, Amélie; Reynier, Nicolas [INRS-ETE (Canada)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • A leaching process was studied for metals removal from CCA-treated wood wastes. • This decontamination process was studied at pilot scale (130-L reactor). • Removals up to 98% of As, 88% of Cr, and 96% of Cu were obtained from wood wastes. • The produced leachates can be treated by chemical precipitation. -- Abstract: The disposal of metal-bearing treated wood wastes is becoming an environmental challenge. An efficient recycling process based on sulfuric acid leaching has been developed to remove metals from copper-based treated wood chips (0 < x < 12 mm). The present study explored the performance and the robustness of this technology in removing metals from copper-based treated wood wastes at a pilot plant scale (130-L reactor tank). After 3× 2 h leaching steps followed by 3× 7 min rinsing steps, up to 97.5% of As, 87.9% of Cr, and 96.1% of Cu were removed from CCA-treated wood wastes with different initial metal loading (>7.3 kg m{sup −3}) and more than 94.5% of Cu was removed from ACQ-, CA- and MCQ-treated wood. The treatment of effluents by precipitation–coagulation was highly efficient; allowing removals more than 93% for the As, Cr, and Cu contained in the effluent. The economic analysis included operating costs, indirect costs and revenues related to remediated wood sales. The economic analysis concluded that CCA-treated wood wastes remediation can lead to a benefit of 53.7 US$ t{sup −1} or a cost of 35.5 US$ t{sup −1} and that ACQ-, CA- and MCQ-treated wood wastes recycling led to benefits ranging from 9.3 to 21.2 US$ t{sup −1}.

  7. Transparent Wood Smart Windows: Polymer Electrochromic Devices Based on Poly(3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene):Poly(Styrene Sulfonate) Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Augustus W; Li, Yuanyuan; De Keersmaecker, Michel; Shen, D Eric; Österholm, Anna M; Berglund, Lars; Reynolds, John R

    2018-02-01

    Transparent wood composites, with their high strength and toughness, thermal insulation, and excellent transmissivity, offer a route to replace glass for diffusely transmitting windows. Here, conjugated-polymer-based electrochromic devices (ECDs) that switch on-demand are demonstrated using transparent wood coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as a transparent conducting electrode. These ECDs exhibit a vibrant magenta-to-clear color change that results from a remarkably colorless bleached state. Furthermore, they require low energy and power inputs of 3 mWh m-2 at 2 W m-2 to switch due to a high coloration efficiency (590 cm2  C-1 ) and low driving voltage (0.8 V). Each device component is processed with high-throughput methods, which highlights the opportunity to apply this approach to fabricate mechanically robust, energy-efficient smart windows on a large scale. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Phenolic composition of vinegars over an accelerated aging process using different wood species (acacia, cherry, chestnut, and oak): effect of wood toasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezo, Ana B; Álvarez-Fernández, M Antonia; Hornedo-Ortega, Ruth; Troncoso, Ana M; García-Parrilla, M Carmen

    2014-05-14

    Wood shavings are widely employed in vinegar making to reduce aging time. Accordingly, this study aims to evaluate the effects of using shavings from different wood species (acacia, cherry, chestnut, and oak) and of toasting on the release of phenolic compounds into vinegar during the aging process. The study involved aging vinegars using previously toasted shavings and untoasted ones, at 0.5% and 1% (w/v), and collecting samples at 15 and 30 days. The phenolic compounds were analyzed by LC-DAD during the aging process. As a result, wood markers naringenin and kaempferol (cherry), robinetin and fustin (acacia), and isovanillin (oak) were identified for the first time in vinegars. The results also showed that toasting wood shavings decreases the concentration of most flavonoid wood markers (e.g., (+)-taxifolin, naringenin, and fustin) in vinegar, but that it is essential for the highest releases of aldehyde compounds (syringaldehyde, protocatechualdehyde, and vanillin). Remarkably, 15 days was sufficient to obtain the highest increases of most polyphenol compounds in the vinegar. Statistical analysis (linear discriminant analysis) proved that the phenolic compounds identified in vinegars are useful for discriminating vinegars regarding the wood species of the shavings used to accelerate aging.

  9. Silicon-based nanoenergetic composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asay, Blaine [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Son, Steven [PURDUE UNIV; Mason, Aaron [PURDUE UNIV; Yarrington, Cole [PURDUE UNIV; Cho, K Y [PURDUE UNIV; Gesner, J [PSU; Yetter, R A [PSU

    2009-01-01

    Fundamental combustion properties of silicon-based nano-energetic composites was studied by performing equilibrium calculations, 'flame tests', and instrumented burn-tube tests. That the nominal maximum flame temperature and for many Si-oxidizer systems is about 3000 K, with exceptions. Some of these exceptions are Si-metal oxides with temperatures ranging from 2282 to 2978 K. Theoretical maximum gas production of the Si composites ranged from 350-6500 cm{sup 3}/g of reactant with NH{sub 4}ClO{sub 4} - Si producing the most gas at 6500 cm{sup 3}/g and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} producing the least. Of the composites tested NH{sub 4}ClO{sub 4} - Si showed the fastest burning rates with the fastest at 2.1 km/s. The Si metal oxide burning rates where on the order of 0.03-75 mls the slowest of which was nFe{sub 2}O{sub 3} - Si.

  10. Prediction of the elastic modulus of wood flour/kenaf fibre/polypropylene hybrid composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal Mirbagheri; Mehdi Tajvidi; Ismaeil Ghasemi; John C. Hermanson

    2007-01-01

    The prediction of the elastic modulus of short natural fibre hybrid composites has been investigated by using the properties of the pure composites through the rule of hybrid mixtures (RoHM) equation. In this equation, a hybrid natural fibre composite assumed as a system consisting of two separate single systems, namely particle/polymer and short-fibre/polymer systems...

  11. Bio-based adhesives for the wood industry:an opportunity for the future?

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmilä, Venla; Trischler, Johann; Sandberg, Dick

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the use of some of the new technologies that may be implemented in bio-based adhesives, e.g. carbohydrate polymers, proteins, tannins, lignins, and vegetable oils. In order to take a part of the market share, an adhesive should have low production costs, fulfil the environmental and health standards and give better properties than conventional synthetic adhesives. For large-volume wood products such as chipboard, it is essential to develop adhesives that enable the product ...

  12. Impact of hydration on the micromechanical properties of the polymer composite structure of wood investigated with atomistic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulasinski, Karol; Derome, Dominique; Carmeliet, Jan

    2017-06-01

    A model of the secondary layer of wood cell wall consisting of crystalline cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin is constructed and investigated with molecular dynamics simulations in the full range of hydration: from dry to saturated state. The model is considered a composite with the cellulose fibrils embedded in hemicellulose and lignin, forming a soft amorphous matrix. Its complex structure leads to nonlinear and anisotropic swelling and mechanical weakening. The water diffusivity through the pores is affected by an interplay between stiff cellulose fibers and weakening amorphous polymers. The formation and breaking of hydrogen bonds within the polymers and at the interfaces is found to be the underlying mechanism of adsorption-induced mechanical softening. The model is tested for adsorption isotherm, mechanical moduli, hydrogen bonds, and water diffusivity that all undergo a substantial change as the hydration increases. The determined physical and mechanical properties, changing with hydration, agree qualitatively with experimental measurements.

  13. The Effect of Ultrafine Magnesium Hydroxide on the Tensile Properties and Flame Retardancy of Wood Plastic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiping Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ultrafine magnesium hydroxide (UMH and ordinary magnesium hydroxide (OMH on the tensile properties and flame retardancy of wood plastic composites (WPC were investigated by tensile test, oxygen index tester, cone calorimeter test, and thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed that ultrafine magnesium hydroxide possesses strengthening and toughening effect of WPC. Scanning electron micrograph (SEM of fracture section of samples provided the positive evidence that the tensile properties of UMH/WPC are superior to that of WPC and OMH/WPC. The limited oxygen index (LOI and cone calorimeter test illustrated that ultrafine magnesium hydroxide has stronger flame retardancy and smoke suppression effect of WPC compared to that of ordinary magnesium hydroxide. The results of thermogravimetric analysis implied that ultrafine magnesium hydroxide can improve the char structure which plays an important role in reducing the degradation speed of the inner matrix during combustion process and increases the char residue at high temperature.

  14. Predicting the flexure response of wood-plastic composites from uni-axial and shear data using a finite-element model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott E. Hamel; John C. Hermanson; Steven M. Cramer

    2014-01-01

    Wood-plastic composites (WPCs), commonly used in residential decks and railings, exhibit mechanical behavior that is bimodal, anisotropic, and nonlinear viscoelastic. They exhibit different stress-strain responses to tension and compression, both of which are nonlinear. Their mechanical properties vary with respect to extrusion direction, their deformation under...

  15. Relation between combustion heat and chemical wood composition during white and brown rot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobry, J.; Dziurzynski, A.; Rypacek, V.

    1986-01-01

    Samples of beech and spruce wood were incubated with the white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinus tigrinus and the brown rot fungi Fomitopsis pinicola and Serpula lacrymans (S. lacrimans) for four months. Decomposition (expressed as percent weight loss) and amounts of holocellulose, lignin, humic acids (HU), hymatomelanic acids (HY) and fulvo acids (FU) were determined and expressed in weight percent. Combustion heat of holocellulose and lignin was determined in healthy wood and in specimens where decomposition was greater than 50%. During white rot decomposition, combustion heat was unchanged even at high decomposition and the relative amounts of holocellulose and lignin remained the same. Total amounts of HU, HY and FU increased during the initial stages and stabilized at 20%. The content of HU plus HY was negligible even at the highest degree of decomposition. During brown rot decomposition, combustion heat was unchanged only in the initial stages, it increased continously with increasing rot. Lignin content was unchanged in the initial stages and increased after 30% weight loss. Total amounts of HU, HY and FU increased continuously, reaching higher values than in white rot decomposition; there were differences between the two species. Biosynthesis of HU plus HY began when weight loss reached 30%; there were differences in absolute and relative amounts between species. 24 references.

  16. Ultrasonic-Based Nondestructive Evaluation Methods for Wood: A Primer and Historical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam C. Senalik; Greg Schueneman; Robert J. Ross

    2014-01-01

    The authors conducted a review of ultrasonic testing and evaluation of wood and wood products, starting with a description of basic ultrasonic inspection setups and commonly used equations. The literature review primarily covered wood research presented between 1965 and 2013 in the Proceedings of the Nondestructive Testing of Wood Symposiums. A table that lists the...

  17. Bond quality of phenol-based adhesives containing liquefied creosote-treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Yun Hse; Feng Fu; Hui Pan

    2009-01-01

    Liquefaction of spent creosote-treated wood was studied to determine the technological practicability of its application in converting treated wood waste into resin adhesives. A total of 144 plywood panels were fabricated with experimental variables included 2 phenol to wood (P/W) ratios in liquefaction, 6 resin formulations (3 formaldehyde/liquefied wood (F/...

  18. Preliminary study on chicken feather protein-based wood adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehui Jiang; Daochun Qin; Chung-Yun Hse; Monlin Kuo; Zhaohui Luo; Ge Wang; Yan Yu

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to partially replace phenol in the synthesis of phenol-formaldehyde resin with feather protein. Feather protein–based resins, which contained one part feather protein and two parts phenol, were formulated under the conditions of two feather protein hydrolysis methods (with and without presence of phenol during...

  19. Organisation of the programme-based academy | Wood | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In particular it advocates a certain accommodation between academic and financial planning. These various recommendations are, however, made in the light of certain critiques of the idea of programme-based higher education that have already appeared since the SAQA Act (1995) and the Education White Paper: A ...

  20. Influence of Concentration of Compatibilizer on Long- term Water Absorption and Thickness Swelling Behavior of Polypropylene, Wood Flour/Glass Fiber Hybrid Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Ghotbifar; Saeid Kazemi najafi; Rabi Behrooz ashkiki

    2011-01-01

    The influence of concentration (2, 3 and 5%) of Maleic Anhydride Grafted Polypropylene (MAPP) on long term water absorption and thickness swelling of wood flour/E-glass fiber Hybrid polypropylene composites were studied. The samples (strips with 10 mm thickness and 70 mm width) were made using a laboratory twin-screw extruder. Long term water absorption and thickness swelling kinetics of manufactured hybrid composites were evaluated by immersing them in water at room temperature for several w...

  1. Impact of white-rot fungi on numbers and community composition of bacteria colonizing beech wood from forest soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folman, L.B.; Klein Gunnewiek, P.J.A.; Boddy, L.; De Boer, W.

    2008-01-01

    White-rot fungi are important wood-decomposing organisms in forest ecosystems. Their ability to colonize and decompose woody resources may be strongly influenced by wood-inhabiting bacteria that grow on easily utilizable compounds e.g. oligomers of wood-polymers released by fungal enzymes. However,

  2. Experimental Study of the Flexural and Compression Performance of an Innovative Pultruded Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Polymer-Wood Composite Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yujun; Xiong, Wei; Liu, Weiqing; Fang, Hai; Lu, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    The plate of a pultruded fiber-reinforced polymer or fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) profile produced via a pultrusion process is likely to undergo local buckling and cracking along the fiber direction under an external load. In this study, we constructed a pultruded glass-fiber-reinforced polymer-light wood composite (PGWC) profile to explore its mechanical performance. A rectangular cross-sectional PGWC profile was fabricated with a paulownia wood core, alkali-free glass fiber filaments, and unsaturated phthalate resin. Three-point bending and short column axial compression tests were conducted. Then, the stress calculation for the PGWC profile in the bending and axial compression tests was performed using the Timoshenko beam theory and the composite component analysis method to derive the flexural and axial compression rigidity of the profile during the elastic stress stage. The flexural capacity for this type of PGWC profile is 3.3-fold the sum of the flexural capacities of the wood core and the glass-fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) shell. The equivalent flexural rigidity is 1.5-fold the summed flexural rigidity of the wood core and GFRP shell. The maximum axial compressive bearing capacity for this type of PGWC profile can reach 1.79-fold the sum of those of the wood core and GFRP shell, and its elastic flexural rigidity is 1.2-fold the sum of their rigidities. These results indicate that in PGWC profiles, GFRP and wood materials have a positive combined effect. This study produced a pultruded composite material product with excellent mechanical performance for application in structures that require a large bearing capacity. PMID:26485431

  3. A Survey on biodegradation, hardness and dimensional stability of a hybrid composite of wood flour / polypropylene / glass fiber in different circumstances

    OpenAIRE

    abdollah Hosseinzadeh; amirmohsen farajpour kordasiabi; vahid tazakor rezaei

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the effect of cellar fungus (brown rot fungus) conophora cerabella on biodegradability, hardness and dimensional stability of wood flour/polypropylene/glass fiber hybride composites after suffering ambient conditions (immersion in water) were studied. So, the samples by 40 to 60, 50 to 50 and 60 to 40 percent of wood flour / PP weight ratios respectively and three levels of glass fibers 0,10 and 15 weight percent were made. The Samples, immersed in water at 25 and 40°c, sea wat...

  4. INFLUENCE OF CLONE HARVESTING AGE OF Eucalyptus grandis AND HYBRIDS OF Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla IN THE WOOD CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND IN KRAFT PULPABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Damasceno de Morais

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent efforts on the quality of the wood used in pulp and paper mills has focused in many points, among them the influence of the raw material chemical characteristics in the production process and final product quality. Considering the current demand for younger trees, the effect of the wood harvesting age in the chemical composition and in the process variables becomes a very important fact for the industries of this sector. So, the objective of this study was to characterize Brazilian eucalypt clones, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urograndis, both in different harvesting ages (1 to 8 years-old, for their chemical composition and kraft pulping parameters. Both chemical compositions of wood samples showed significant statistical variations due to the alteration of their harvesting ages. The glucan content, as well as cellulose content, basic density, and extractives tended to rise with the increase of harvesting age; while xylan and the other carbohydrate contents that compose the hemicelluloses tended to decline with the increase of the harvesting age, as well as uronic acids, acetyl groups, lignin, ashes, and S:G ratio. The 5 year-old wood samples showed the greatest pulping yield results for kappa number 17, and the yield at kappa number 17 showed strong correlation with glucan content.

  5. Not Just Lumber—Using Wood in the Sustainable Future of Materials, Chemicals, and Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakes, Joseph E.; Arzola, Xavier; Bergman, Rick; Ciesielski, Peter; Hunt, Christopher G.; Rahbar, Nima; Tshabalala, Mandla; Wiedenhoeft, Alex C.; Zelinka, Samuel L.

    2016-09-01

    Forest-derived biomaterials can play an integral role in a sustainable and renewable future. Research across a range of disciplines is required to develop the knowledge necessary to overcome the challenges of incorporating more renewable forest resources in materials, chemicals, and fuels. We focus on wood specifically because in our view, better characterization of wood as a raw material and as a feedstock will lead to its increased utilization. We first give an overview of wood structure and chemical composition and then highlight current topics in forest products research, including (1) industrial chemicals, biofuels, and energy from woody materials; (2) wood-based activated carbon and carbon nanostructures; (3) development of improved wood protection treatments; (4) massive timber construction; (5) wood as a bioinspiring material; and (6) atomic simulations of wood polymers. We conclude with a discussion of the sustainability of wood as a renewable forest resource.

  6. Not Just Lumber—Using Wood in the Sustainable Future of Materials, Chemicals, and Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakes, Joseph E.; Arzola, Xavier; Bergman, Rick; Ciesielski, Peter; Hunt, Christopher G.; Rahbar, Nima; Tshabalala, Mandla; Wiedenhoeft, Alex C.; Zelinka, Samuel L.

    2016-07-21

    Forest-derived biomaterials can play an integral role in a sustainable and renewable future. Research across a range of disciplines is required to develop the knowledge necessary to overcome the challenges of incorporating more renewable forest resources in materials, chemicals, and fuels. We focus on wood specifically because in our view, better characterization of wood as a raw material and as a feedstock will lead to its increased utilization. We first give an overview of wood structure and chemical composition and then highlight current topics in forest products research, including (1) industrial chemicals, biofuels, and energy from woody materials; (2) wood-based activated carbon and carbon nanostructures; (3) development of improved wood protection treatments; (4) massive timber construction; (5) wood as a bioinspiring material; and (6) atomic simulations of wood polymers. We conclude with a discussion of the sustainability of wood as a renewable forest resource.

  7. Glueability and fire resistance of wood-mineral composites using the water glass-boron compound system; Mizu garasu-hoso kagobutsukei ni yoru mukishitsu fukugotai no secchakusei to nannensei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuno, T.; Tadokoro, R.; Uehara, T. [Shimane Univ., Shimane (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1995-03-15

    Wood-mineral composites have been fabricated by impregnating a water glass (sodium silicate)- boron compound into wood and its glueability and fire resistance have been examined. In other words, using buna veneers, inorganic composite wood veneers have been prepared by a double diffusion treatment and a single treatment of boron compound only. Then using a phenol-resorcinol resin adhesive, two-ply plywoods have been prepared, its adhesion strength has been obtained by a tensile-shearing test, and a combustion test has been conducted with a microburner. As a result, the glue-joint strength of the wood-mineral composites has been reduced by either the single or double treatments above in comparison with the untreated wood, and regarding the double treated veneer, its value has been 44% to 65% of that of the untreated wood. As a result of the contact angle measurement, the wood-mineral composites have become more wettable, as cos {theta} has increased, the adhesion strength has shown a trend of declining, and the wettability has had no relationship with the improvement of the glue-joint strength. Also as a result of the combustion test, a wood-mineral composite plywood using a boron compound has shown an inhibiting effect over heat and flaming. 9 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Chemical responses to modified lignin composition in tension wood of hybrid poplar (Populus tremula x Populus alba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haddad, Jameel M; Kang, Kyu-Young; Mansfield, Shawn D; Telewski, Frank W

    2013-04-01

    The effect of altering the expression level of the F5H gene was investigated in three wood tissues (normal, opposite and tension wood) in 1-year-old hybrid poplar clone 717 (Populus tremula × Populus alba L.), containing the F5H gene under the control of the C4H promoter. Elevated expression of the F5H gene in poplar has been previously reported to increase the percent syringyl content of lignin. The wild-type and three transgenic lines were inclined 45° for 3 months to induce tension wood formation. Tension and opposite wood from inclined trees, along with normal wood from control trees, were analyzed separately for carbohydrates, lignin, cellulose crystallinity and microfibril angle (MFA). In the wild-type poplar, the lignin in tension wood contained a significantly higher percentage of syringyl than normal wood or opposite wood. However, there was no significant difference in the percent syringyl content of the three wood types within each of the transgenic lines. Increasing the F5H gene expression caused an increase in the percent syringyl content and a slight decrease in the total lignin in normal wood. In tension wood, the addition of a gelatinous layer in the fiber walls resulted in a consistently lower percentage of total lignin in the tissue. Acid-soluble lignin was observed to increase by up to 2.3-fold in the transgenic lines. Compared with normal wood and opposite wood, cell wall crystallinity in tension wood was higher and the MFA was smaller, as expected, with no evidence of an effect from modifying the syringyl monomer ratio. Tension wood in all the lines contained consistently higher total sugar and glucose percentages when compared with normal wood within the respective lines. However, both sugar and glucose percentages were lower in the tension wood of transgenic lines when compared with the tension wood of wild-type trees. Evaluating the response of trees with altered syringyl content to gravity will improve our understanding of the changes

  9. Fabrication of a Nano-ZnO/Polyethylene/Wood-Fiber Composite with Enhanced Microwave Absorption and Photocatalytic Activity via a Facile Hot-Press Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baokang Dang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A polyethylene/wood-fiber composite loaded with nano-ZnO was prepared by a facile hot-press method and was used for the photocatalytic degradation of organic compounds as well as for microwave absorption. ZnO nanoparticles with an average size of 29 nm and polyethylene (PE powders were dispersed on the wood fibers’ surface through a viscous cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM solution. The reflection loss (RL value of the resulting composite was −21 dB, with a thickness of 3.5 mm in the frequency of 17.17 GHz. The PE/ZnO/wood-fiber (PZW composite exhibited superior photocatalytic activity (84% methyl orange degradation within 300 min under UV light irradiation. ZnO nanoparticels (NPs increased the storage modulus of the PZW composite, and the damping factor was transferred to the higher temperature region. The PZW composite exhibited the maximum flexural strength of 58 MPa and a modulus of elasticity (MOE of 9625 MPa. Meanwhile, it also displayed dimensional stability (thickness swelling value of 9%.

  10. Possible Futures towards a Wood-Based Bioeconomy: A Scenario Analysis for Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Hagemann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Driven by the growing awareness of the finite nature of fossil raw materials and the need for sustainable pathways of industrial production, the bio-based economy is expected to expand worldwide. Policy strategies such as the European Union Bioeconomy Strategy and national bioeconomy strategies foster this process. Besides the advantages promised by a transition towards a sustainable bioeconomy, these processes have to cope with significant uncertainties as many influencing factors play a role, such as climate change, technological and economic development, sustainability risks, dynamic consumption patterns and policy and governance issues. Based on a literature review and an expert survey, we identify influence factors for the future development of a wood-based bioeconomy in Germany. Four scenarios are generated based on different assumptions about the development of relevant influence factors. We discuss what developments in politics, industry and society have a central impact on shaping alternative futures. As such, the paper provides a knowledge base and orientation for decision makers and practitioners, and contributes to the scientific discussion on how the bioeconomy could develop. We conclude that the wood-based bioeconomy has a certain potential to develop further, if adequate political framework conditions are implemented and meet voter support, if consumers exhibit an enhanced willingness to pay for bio-based products, and if among companies, a chance-oriented advocacy coalition of bioeconomy supporters dominates over proponents of fossil pathways.

  11. Distribution and oxidation state of copper in the cell walls of treated wood examined by synchrotron based XANES and XFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Grant T. Kirker; Joseph E. Jakes; Leandro Passarini; Barry Lai

    2016-01-01

    Recently, synchrotron based X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) were used to examine the metal fastener corrosion in copper-treated wood. XFM is able to map the copper concentration in the wood with a spatial resolution of 0.5 µm and is able to quantify the copper concentration to within 0.05 µg cm-3...

  12. Optimization of High Temperature and Pressurized Steam Modified Wood Fibers for High-Density Polyethylene Matrix Composites Using the Orthogonal Design Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Gao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The orthogonal design method was used to determine the optimum conditions for modifying poplar fibers through a high temperature and pressurized steam treatment for the subsequent preparation of wood fiber/high-density polyethylene (HDPE composites. The extreme difference, variance, and significance analyses were performed to reveal the effect of the modification parameters on the mechanical properties of the prepared composites, and they yielded consistent results. The main findings indicated that the modification temperature most strongly affected the mechanical properties of the prepared composites, followed by the steam pressure. A temperature of 170 °C, a steam pressure of 0.8 MPa, and a processing time of 20 min were determined as the optimum parameters for fiber modification. Compared to the composites prepared from untreated fibers, the tensile, flexural, and impact strength of the composites prepared from modified fibers increased by 20.17%, 18.5%, and 19.3%, respectively. The effect on the properties of the composites was also investigated by scanning electron microscopy and dynamic mechanical analysis. When the temperature, steam pressure, and processing time reached the highest values, the composites exhibited the best mechanical properties, which were also well in agreement with the results of the extreme difference, variance, and significance analyses. Moreover, the crystallinity and thermal stability of the fibers and the storage modulus of the prepared composites improved; however, the hollocellulose content and the pH of the wood fibers decreased.

  13. Structure and function of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex Wiedenhoeft

    2010-01-01

    Wood is a complex biological structure, a composite of many chemistries and cell types acting together to serve the needs of a living plant. Attempting to understand wood in the context of wood technology, we have often overlooked the key and basic fact that wood evolved over the course of millions of years to serve three main functions in plants― conduction of water...

  14. Electron-beam-initiated polymerization of poly(ethylene glycol)-based wood impregnants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trey, Stacy M; Netrval, Julia; Berglund, Lars; Johansson, Mats

    2010-11-01

    The current study demonstrates that methacrylate and acrylate poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) functional oligomers can be effectively impregnated into wood blocks, and cured efficiently to high conversions without catalyst by e-beam radiation, allowing for less susceptibility to leaching, and favorable properties including higher Brinell hardness values. PEG based monomers were chosen because there is a long history of this water-soluble monomer being able to penetrate the cell wall, thus bulking it and decreasing the uptake of water which further protects the wood from fungal attack. Diacrylate, dimethacrylate, and dihydroxyl functional PEG of M(w) 550-575, of concentrations 0, 30, 60, and 100 wt % in water, were vacuum pressure impregnated into Scots Pine blocks of 15 × 25 × 50 mm in an effort to bulk the cell wall. The samples were then irradiated and compared with nonirradiated samples. It was shown by IR, DSC that the acrylate polymers were fully cured to much higher conversions than can be reached with conventional methods. Leaching studies indicated a much lower amount of oligomer loss from the cured vinyl functional PEG chains in comparison to hydroxyl functional PEG indicating a high degree of fastening of the polymer in the wood. The Brinell hardness indicated a significant increase in hardness to hardwood levels in the modified samples compared to the samples of hydroxyl functional PEG and uncured vinyl PEG samples, which actually became softer than the untreated Scots Pine. By monitoring the dimensions of the sample it was found by weight percent gain calculations (WPG %) that water helps to swell the wood structure and allow better access of the oligomers into the cell wall. Further, the cure shrinkage of the wood samples demonstrated infiltration of the oligomers into the cell wall as this was not observed for methyl methacrylate which is well-documented to remain in the lumen. However, dimensional stability of the vinyl polymer modified blocks when

  15. Characterization of wood plastic composites made from landfill-derived plastic and sawdust: Volatile compounds and olfactometric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Félix, Juliana S., E-mail: jfelix@unizar.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, I3A, EINA, University of Zaragoza (UNIZAR), Zaragoza 50018 (Spain); Domeño, Celia, E-mail: cdomeno@unizar.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, I3A, EINA, University of Zaragoza (UNIZAR), Zaragoza 50018 (Spain); Nerín, Cristina, E-mail: cnerin@unizar.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, I3A, EINA, University of Zaragoza (UNIZAR), Zaragoza 50018 (Spain)

    2013-03-15

    Graphical abstract: This work details the characterization of VOCs of WPC, produced from residual materials which would have landfills as current destination, and evaluates their odor profile. Highlights: ► More than 140 volatile compounds were identified in raw materials and WPC products. ► Markers were related to the thermal degradation, sawdust or coupling agents. ► WPC prototype showed a characteristic odor profile of burnt, sweet and wax-like. ► Aldehydes, carboxylic acids, ketones and phenols were odor descriptors of WPC. - Abstract: Application of wood plastic composites (WPCs) obtained from recycled materials initially intended for landfill is usually limited by their composition, mainly focused on release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which could affect quality or human safety. The study of the VOCs released by a material is a requirement for new composite materials. Characterization and quantification of VOCs of several WPC produced with low density polyethylene (LDPE) and polyethylene/ethylene vinyl acetate (PE/EVA) films and sawdust were carried out, in each stage of production, by solid phase microextraction in headspace mode (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). An odor profile was also obtained by HS-SPME and GC–MS coupled with olfactometry analysis. More than 140 compounds were observed in the raw materials and WPC samples. Some quantified compounds were considered WPC markers such as furfural, 2-methoxyphenol, N-methylphthalimide and 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol. Hexanoic acid, acetic acid, 2-methoxyphenol, acetylfuran, diacetyl, and aldehydes were the most important odorants. None of the VOCs were found to affect human safety for use of the WPC.

  16. Identification of PCR-base markers linked to wood splitting in Eucalyptus Grandis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barros, E

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Wood splitting is a defect in eucalyptus which results in considerable losses when converting logs to solid wood products. Commonly in forestry, molecular markers are identified through studying pedigrees from a single cross. This limits...

  17. Wood flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig M. Clemons

    2010-01-01

    The term “wood flour” is somewhat ambiguous. Reineke states that the term wood flour “is applied somewhat loosely to wood reduced to finely divided particles approximating those of cereal flours in size, appearance, and texture.” Though its definition is imprecise, the term wood flour is in common use. Practically speaking, wood flour usually refers to wood particles...

  18. Wood flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig M. Clemons; Daniel F. Caufield

    2005-01-01

    The term “wood flour” is somewhat ambiguous. Reineke states that the term wood flour “is applied somewhat loosely to wood reduced to finely divided particles approximating those of cereal flours in size, appearance, and texture”. Though its definition is imprecise, the term wood flour is in common use. Practically speaking, wood flour usually refers to wood particles...

  19. Wood construction under cold climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Hagman, Olle; Sundqvist, Bror

    2014-01-01

    As wood constructions increasingly use engineered wood products worldwide, concerns arise about the integrity of the wood and adhesives system. The glueline stability is a crucial issue for engineered wood application, especially under cold climate. In this study, Norway spruce (Picea abies...... specimens need to be tested in further work to more completely present the issue. The EN 301 and EN 302 may need to be specified based on wood species....

  20. Characterization of Wood-Plastic Composites Made with Different Lignocellulosic Materials that Vary in Their Morphology, Chemical Composition and Thermal Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Chang Hung

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four kinds of lignocellulosic fibers (LFs, namely, those from Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata, Taiwan red pine (Pinus taiwanensis, India-charcoal trema (Trema orientalis and makino bamboo (Phyllostachys makinoi, were selected as reinforcements and incorporated into high-density polyethylene (HDPE to manufacture wood-plastic composites (WPCs by a flat platen pressing process. In addition to comparing the differences in the physico-mechanical properties of these composites, their chemical compositions were evaluated and their thermal decomposition kinetics were analyzed to investigate the effects of the lignocellulosic species on the properties of the WPCs. The results showed that the WPC made with Chinese fir displayed a typical M-shaped vertical density profile due to the high aspect ratio of its LFs, while a flat vertical density profile was observed for the WPCs made with other LFs. Thus, the WPC made with Chinese fir exhibited higher flexural properties and lower internal bond strength (IB than other WPCs. In addition, the Taiwan red pine contained the lowest holocellulose content and the highest extractives and α-cellulose contents, which gave the resulting WPC lower water absorption and flexural properties. On the other hand, consistent with the flexural properties, the results of thermal decomposition kinetic analysis showed that the activation energy of the LFs at 10% of the conversion rate increased in the order of Taiwan red pine (146–161 kJ/mol, makino bamboo (158–175 kJ/mol, India-charcoal trema (185–194 kJ/mol and Chinese fir (194–202 kJ/mol. These results indicate that the morphology, chemical composition and thermal stability of the LFs can have a substantial impact on the physico-mechanical properties of the resulting WPCs.

  1. Effects of nano-zinc oxide based paint on weathering performance of coated wood

    OpenAIRE

    Can, Ahmet; Sivrikaya, Hüseyin

    2014-01-01

    Nano-sized zinc oxide (ZnO) was chosen as a suitable candidate for the UV-protection of coatings. The accelerated weathering performances of Scots pine coated with wood paint mixed with nano- ZnO were investigated. Uncoated specimens, specimens coated with only nano-ZnO and nano-zinc oxide based paint were used as references. This work describes the effect of the nanoparticles and paint performance on accelerated weathering performance of coated specimens. 1 ml and 3 ml nano-zinc oxide is add...

  2. Home grown power plants - the case for wood-based energy systems in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapadia, K. [University of California, Berkeley (United States). Energy and Resources Group

    2002-12-01

    The article is essentially an overview of the case for wood-based energy systems for Sri Lanka. Such systems are attractive in terms of being local, low-cost, and sustainable. However, development of such systems is hampered by insufficient political support, and concern over deforestation and waste in the context of the proposed large-scale biomass gasification. The article discusses benefits of the system, how it works, costs and economics and biomass potential. Other renewable energy systems discussed include solar, wind and hydro.

  3. A new attempt at discrimination between Quercus petraea and Quercus robur based on wood anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Feuillat, François; Dupouey, Jean-Luc; Sciama, Delphine; Keller, René

    1997-01-01

    The interspecific variability of wood anatomy between the two major oak species Quercus robur L. and Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. is still largely unknown. However, anatomy strongly influences the technological properties of wood and the ecophysiological functioning of trees. Moreover, identification of oak wood species is a long-standing challenge and important for many purposes. In the Cîteaux Forest (Burgundy), 58 oaks from 14 mixed stands were sampled for wood anatomy characterization. ...

  4. Superheater fouling in a BFB boiler firing wood-based fuel blends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, A.F.; Haasnoot, K.; Brem, Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    Four different fuel blends have been fired in a 28 MWel BFB. Wood pellets (test 0) were not problematic for about ten years, contrary to a mixture of demolition wood, wood cuttings, compost overflow, paper sludge and roadside grass (test 1) which caused excessive fouling at a superheater bundle

  5. Wood Technology: Techniques, Processes, and Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oatman, Olan

    1975-01-01

    Seven areas of wood technology illustrates applicable techniques, processes, and products for an industrial arts woodworking curriculum. They are: wood lamination; PEG (polyethylene glycol) diffusion processes; wood flour and/or particle molding; production product of industry; WPC (wood-plastic-composition) process; residential construction; and…

  6. Monitoring the Error Rate of Modern Methods of Construction Based on Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švajlenka, Jozef; Kozlovská, Mária

    2017-06-01

    A range of new and innovative construction systems, currently developed, represent modern methods of construction (MMC), which has the ambition to improve the performance parameters of buildings throughout their life cycle. Regarding the implementation modern methods of construction in Slovakia, assembled buildings based on wood seem to be the most preferred construction system. In the study, presented in the paper, were searched already built and lived-in wood based family houses. The residents' attitudes to such type of buildings in the context with declared designing and qualitative parameters of efficiency and sustainability are overlooked. The methodology of the research study is based on the socio-economic survey carried out during the years 2015 - 2017 within the Slovak Republic. Due to the large extent of data collected through questionnaire, only selected parts of the survey results are evaluated and discussed in the paper. This paper is aimed at evaluating the quality of buildings expressed in a view of users of existing wooden buildings. Research indicates some defects, which can be eliminated in the next production process. Research indicates, that some defects occur, so the production process quality should be improved in the future development.

  7. Visible-light activate Ag/WO3 films based on wood with enhanced negative oxygen ions production properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Likun; Gan, Wentao; Cao, Guoliang; Zhan, Xianxu; Qiang, Tiangang; Li, Jian

    2017-12-01

    The Ag/WO3-wood was fabricated through a hydrothermal method and a silver mirror reaction. The system of visible-light activate Ag/WO3-wood was used to produce negative oxygen ions, and the effect of Ag nanoparticles on negative oxygen ions production was investigated. From the results of negative oxygen ions production tests, it can be observed that the sample doped with Ag nanoparticles, the concentration of negative oxygen ions is up to 1660 ions/cm3 after 60 min visible light irradiation. Moreover, for the Ag/WO3-wood, even after 60 min without irradiation, the concentration of negative oxygen ions could keep more than 1000 ions/cm3, which is up to the standard of the fresh air. Moreover, due to the porous structure of wood, the wood acted as substrate could promote the nucleation of nanoparticles, prevent the agglomeration of the particles, and thus lead the improvement of photocatalytic properties. And such wood-based functional materials with the property of negative oxygen ions production could be one of the most promising materials in the application of indoor decoration materials, which would meet people's pursuit of healthy, environment-friendly life.

  8. Composite desiccant material "CaCl2/Vermiculite/Saw wood": a new material for fresh water production from atmospheric air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Yadav, Avadhesh

    2017-09-01

    In this study a novel composite desiccant material "CaCl2/Vermiculite/Saw wood" have been synthesized and tested for the water generation from atmospheric air. The vermiculite- saw wood used as a host matrix and CaCl2 as a hygroscopic salt. A solar glass desiccant box type system with a collector area of 0.36 m2 has been used. Design parameters for water generation are height of glass from the desiccant material bed as 0.22 m, inclination in angle as 30º, the effective thickness of glass as 3 mm and number of glazing as single. It has been found that the concentration of calcium chloride is the most influencing factor for fresh water generation from atmospheric air. The maximum amount of water produced by using novel composite desiccant material is 195 ml/kg/day.

  9. Evaluation of Binding Effects in Wood Flour Board Containing Ligno-Cellulose Nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Yoichi; Isa, Akiko; Kobori, Hikaru; Suzuki, Shigehiko; Ito, Hirokazu; Makise, Rie; Okamoto, Masaki

    2014-09-22

    Wood-based materials are used extensively in residual construction worldwide. Most of the adhesives used in wood-based materials are derived from fossil resources, and some are not environmentally friendly. This study explores nanofiber technology as an alternative to such adhesives. Previous studies have shown that the three-dimensional binding effects of cellulose nanofiber (CNF), when mixed with wood flour, can significantly improve the physical and mechanical properties of wood flour board. In this study, ligno-cellulose nanofibers (LCNF) were fabricated by wet disk milling of wood flour. Composite boards of wood flour and LCNF were produced to investigate the binding effect(s) of LCNF. The fabrication of LCNF by disk milling was simple and effective, and its incorporation into wood flour board significantly enhanced the physical and mechanical properties of the board.

  10. Verification of the thermal insulation properties and determination the optimal position of the reflective thermal insulation layer in the wood based envelope

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin Labovský; Martin Lopušniak

    2016-01-01

    To achieve thinner wood based envelope is necessary look for an alternative thermal insulation material, which will have the best possible thermal insulation properties while maintaining affordability...

  11. Wear Characteristics of Polymer -Based Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Y.; Mirzayev, H.

    2015-11-01

    The dry wear of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-based composites, including bronze-filled composites (B60), glass-filled composites (G15), and carbon-filled composites (C25), produced by the mold casting method were investigated under different sliding conditions. The Taguchi L27 method and the analysis of variance were used to identify the effect of process parameters on the wear of tested materials. Experimental results showed that the wear resistance of G15 polymer composites was better than those of C25 and B60 ones. The specific wear rate decreased with increasing sliding distance and load, but partly decreased with increasing tensile strength.

  12. Effect of Ammonium Polyphosphate to Aluminum Hydroxide Mass Ratio on the Properties of Wood-Flour/Polypropylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Two halogen-free inorganic flame retardants, ammonium polyphosphate (APP and aluminum hydroxide (ATH were added to wood-flour/polypropylene composites (WPCs at different APP to ATH mass ratios (APP/ATH ratios, with a constant total loading of 30 wt % (30% by mass. Water soaking tests indicated a low hygroscopicity and/or solubility of ATH as compared to APP. Mechanical property tests showed that the flexural properties were not significantly affected by the APP/ATH ratio, while the impact strength appeared to increase with the increasing ATH/APP ratio. Cone calorimetry indicated that APP appeared to be more effective than ATH in reducing the peak of heat release rate (PHRR. However, when compared to the neat WPCs, total smoke release decreased with the addition of ATH but increased with the addition of APP. Noticeably, WPCs containing the combination of 20 wt % APP and 10 wt % ATH (WPC/APP-20/ATH-10 showed the lowest PHRR and total heat release in all of the formulations. WPCs combustion residues were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, laser Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Thermogravimetric analysis coupled with FTIR spectroscopy was used to identify the organic volatiles that were produced during the thermal decomposition of WPCs. WPC/APP-20/ATH-10 showed the most compact carbonaceous residue with the highest degree of graphitization.

  13. Porous nano-cerium oxide wood chip biochar composites for aqueous levofloxacin removal and sorption mechanism insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Shengze; Sun, Yuanyuan; Hu, Xin; Xu, Hongxia; Gao, Bin; Wu, Jichun

    2017-01-14

    The adsorption removal of levofloxacin (LEV), a widely used fluoroquinolone antibiotic, by using the biochars derived from the pyrolysis of pine wood chip pretreated with cerium trichloride was investigated through batch sorption experiments and multiple characterization techniques. The differences in the basic physicochemical properties between Ce-impregnated biochars and the pristine biochars were confirmed by the analysis of elemental compositions, specific surface areas, energy dispersive spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and thermo-gravimetry. FT-IR spectra of the pre- and post-sorption biochars confirmed the chemical adsorption for LEV sorption onto the biochars. Large shifts in the binding energy of Ce3d, O1s, C1s, and N1s regions on the pre- and post-sorption biochars indicated the surface complexation of LEV molecule onto the biochars. The binding species of Ce4+ and Ce3+ identified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reflect the role of Ce oxides during sorption. Batch adsorption showed the significant enhancement of adsorption capacity for LEV after the Ce modification. Batch adsorption kinetic data fitted well with the pseudo-second-order model. Both the Langmuir and the Freundlich models reproduced the isotherm data well. Findings from this work indicated that Ce-impregnated biochars can be effective for the removal of aqueous LEV.

  14. Catalytic flash pyrolysis of oil-impregnated-wood and jatropha cake using sodium based catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Imran, Ali

    2015-11-24

    Catalytic pyrolysis of wood with impregnated vegetable oil was investigated and compared with catalytic pyrolysis of jatropha cake making use of sodium based catalysts to produce a high quality bio-oil. The catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in two modes: in-situ catalytic pyrolysis and post treatment of the pyrolysis vapors. The in-situ catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in an entrained flow reactor system using a premixed feedstock of Na2CO3 and biomass and post treatment of biomass pyrolysis vapor was conducted in a downstream fixed bed reactor of Na2CO3/γ-Al2O3. Results have shown that both Na2CO3 and Na2CO3/γ-Al2O3 can be used for the production of a high quality bio-oil from catalytic pyrolysis of oil-impregnated-wood and jatropha cake. The catalytic bio-oil had very low oxygen content, water content as low as 1wt.%, a neutral pH, and a high calorific value upto 41.8MJ/kg. The bio-oil consisted of high value chemical compounds mainly hydrocarbons and undesired compounds in the bio-oil were either completely removed or considerably reduced. Increasing the triglycerides content (vegetable oil) in the wood enhanced the formation of hydrocarbons in the bio-oil. Post treatment of the pyrolysis vapor over a fixed bed of Na2CO3/γ-Al2O3 produced superior quality bio-oil compared to in-situ catalytic pyrolysis with Na2CO3. This high quality bio-oil may be used as a precursor in a fractionating process for the production of alternative fuels. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Sample preparation issues in NMR-based plant metabolomics: optimisation for Vitis wood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halabalaki, Maria; Bertrand, Samuel; Stefanou, Anna; Gindro, Katia; Kostidis, Sarantos; Mikros, Emmanuel; Skaltsounis, Leandros A; Wolfender, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is one of the most commonly used analytical techniques in plant metabolomics. Although this technique is very reproducible and simple to implement, sample preparation procedures have a great impact on the quality of the metabolomics data. Investigation of different sample preparation methods and establishment of an optimised protocol for untargeted NMR-based metabolomics of Vitis vinifera L. wood samples. Wood samples from two different cultivars of V. vinifera with well-defined phenotypes (Gamaret and 2091) were selected as reference materials. Different extraction solvents (successively, dichloromethane, methanol and water, as well as ethyl acetate and 7:3 methanol-water (v/v)) and deuterated solvents (methanol-d4, 7:3 chloroform-d-methanol-d4 (v/v), dimethylsulphoxide-d6 and 9:1 dimethylsulphoxide-d6-water-d2 (v/v)) were evaluated for NMR acquisition, and the spectral quality was compared. The optimal extract concentration, chemical shift stability and peak area repeatability were also investigated. Ethyl acetate was found to be the most satisfactory solvent for the extraction of all representative chemical classes of secondary metabolites in V. vinifera wood. The optimal concentration of dried extract was 10 mg/mL and 7:3 chloroform-d-methanol-d4 (v/v) was the most suitable solvent system for NMR analysis. Multivariate data analysis was used to estimate the biological variation and clustering between different cultivars. Close attention should be paid to all required procedures before NMR analysis, especially to the selection of an extraction solvent and a deuterated solvent system to perform an extensive metabolomic survey of the specific matrix. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Life cycle environmental impacts of different construction wood waste and wood packaging waste processing methods

    OpenAIRE

    Manninen, Kaisa; Judl, Jáchym; Myllymaa, Tuuli

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the life cycle environmental impacts of different wood waste processing methods in three impact categories: climate impact, acidification impacts and eutrophication impacts. The wood waste recovery methods examined were the use of wood waste in terrace boards made out of wood composite which replace impregnated terrace boards, incineration of wood waste in a multi-fuel boiler instead of peat and the use of wood waste in the production of particleboard in either Finland or ...

  17. Textile composites based on natural fibers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Li, Yan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available composites based on natural fibers are investigated, which includes the manufacuring techniques, fracture and mechanical properties and other behaviours. Consolidation and permeability of the textiles based on natural fibers are specially addressed...

  18. Wood chip moisture on-line measurement system based on the combination of the different methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaervinen, T. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)); Teppola, P.; Siikanen, S. (VTT Technical Research Centreof Finland, Kuopio (Finland)); Malinen, J.; Hietala, E. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Oulu (Finland)); Tiitta, M.; Tomppo, L. (Univ. of Kuopio, Dept. of Physics (Finland)), email: markku.tiitta@uku.fi

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the project is to develop wood chip moisture on-line measurement system based on the combination of different methods based on use of nir-, impedance- and radiometric devices. All the measurements were installed in PDU-scale conveyor facility, which can be used for development and testing fuel and bulk material quality and property measurement technology and devices. The system enables to achieve accurate reference moisture content data within sufficient wide range of moisture content variation in full-scale. The usability and accuracy of the separate measurement methods were studied by testing in variable conditions. As a result, the best combination of different methods for each purpose is proposed. The actual system will be implemented in a separate new project under preparation. Good usability and wide range of applicability is prerequisite for the combination system to be used in variable ambient conditions for different types of wood chip like chips for pulping and logging residue chips and even to other biomass materials. (orig.)

  19. Enhancing the performance of starch-based wood adhesive by silane coupling agent(KH570).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Wang, Yajie; Zia-Ud-Din; Fei, Peng; Jin, Wensi; Xiong, Hanguo; Wang, Zhenjiong

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the improved performance of silane coupling agents on starch-based wood adhesive, we prepared adhesive samples using γ-Methacryloxypropyl trimethoxy silane(KH570) as a cross-linking agent.The results found that the addition of KH570 resulted in enhanced shear strength and storage stability. The addition of KH570 also promoted the thermal stability due to increase the number of covalent bonds.Furthermore, the KH570 enhanced the shear-thinning property and weakened the pseudoplastic behavior of the adhesive. The characterization of copolymers was carried out via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and thermal analysis. The performing XPS analysis and morphological structures of adhesive were evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In conclusion, 6% KH570 (KH570:starch, w;w) could be used to prepare starch-based wood adhesives with superior performance and stability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of starch-based wood adhesive quality by confocal Raman microscopic detection of reaction homogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Panjun; Cheng, Li; Gu, Zhengbiao; Li, Zhaofeng; Hong, Yan

    2015-10-20

    Confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) was used to detect the reaction homogeneity of vinyl acetate grafted on starch granules and help to assess the quality of high solid content starch-based wood adhesive (HSSWA). Primarily, four experimental starch samples were investigated, and by analysis of band area ratio (carbonyl/carbohydrate) of each granule, information about reaction homogeneity was collected. The results showed that reaction extent and homogeneity were inconsistent for samples with different G values, and the distribution of ester groups on blend samples was much less uniform than grafted starch samples with the same G value, confirming that CRM was useful for determining the homogeneity of chemical modification. Afterwards, the technique was applied to research HSSWA prepared by two-stage seeded polymerization and traditional process. The distribution of ester groups was more uniform among starch granules prepared by former method, resulted in adhesive with much better performance, indicating that uniformity of polymerization was an important factor related to properties of starch-based wood adhesive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Impacts of traditional architecture on the use of wood as an element of facade covering in Serbian contemporary architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović-Šekularac Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The world trend of re-use of wood and wood products as materials for construction and covering of architectural structures is present not only because of the need to meet the aesthetic, artistic and formal requirements or to seek inspiration in the return to the tradition and nature, but also because of its ecological, economic and energetic feasibility. Furthermore, the use of wood fits into contemporary trends of sustainable development and application of modern technical and technological solutions in the production of materials, in order to maintain a connection to nature, environment and tradition. In this study the author focuses on wood and wood products as an element of facade covering on buildings in our country, in order to extend knowledge about possibilities and limitations of their use and create a base for their greater and correct application. The subject of this research is to examine the application of wood and wood products as an element covering the exterior in combination with other materials applied in our traditional and contemporary homes with the emphasis on functional, representational art and the various possibilities of wood. In this study all the factors that affect the application of wood and wood products have been analyzed and the conclusions have been drawn about the manner of their implementation and the types of wood and wood products protection. The development of modern technological solutions in wood processing led to the production of composite materials based on wood that are highly resistant, stable and much longer lasting than wood. Those materials have maintained in an aesthetic sense all the characteristics of wood that make it unique and inimitable. This is why modern facade coating based on wood should be applied as a facade covering in the exterior of modern architectural buildings in Serbia, and the use wood reduced to a minimum.

  2. Effects of wood fiber surface chemistry on strength of wood–plastic composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migneault, Sébastien, E-mail: sebastien.migneault@uqat.ca [University of Quebec in Abitibi-Temiscamingue (UQAT), 445 boulevard de l’Université, Rouyn-Noranda, Québec J9X 5E4 (Canada); Koubaa, Ahmed, E-mail: ahmed.koubaa@uqat.ca [UQAT (Canada); Perré, Patrick, E-mail: patrick.perre@ecp.fr [École centrale de Paris, Grande Voie des Vignes, F-92 295 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Riedl, Bernard, E-mail: Bernard.Riedl@sbf.ulaval.ca [Université Laval, 2425 rue de la Terrasse, Québec City, Québec G1V 0A6 (Canada)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses showed variations of surface chemical characteristics according to fiber origin. • Surface chemical characteristics of fibers could partly explain the differences in mechanical properties of the wood–plastic composites. • Fibers with carbohydrate rich surface led to stronger wood–plastic composites because the coupling between the matrix and fibers using coupling agent is achieved with polar sites mostly available on carbohydrates. • Conversely, lignin or extractives rich surface do not have oxidized functions for the esterification reaction with coupling agent and thus led to wood–plastic composites with lower mechanical properties. • Other factors such as mechanical interlocking and fiber morphology interfere with the effects of fiber surface chemistry. - Abstract: Because wood–plastic composites (WPC) strength relies on fiber-matrix interaction at fiber surface, it is likely that fiber surface chemistry plays an important role in WPC strength development. The objective of the present study is to investigate the relationships between fiber surface chemical characteristics and WPC mechanical properties. Different fibers were selected and characterized for surface chemical characteristics using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). WPC samples were manufactured at 40% fiber content and with six different fibers. High density polyethylene was used as matrix and maleated polyethylene (MAPE) was used as compatibility agent. WPC samples were tested for mechanical properties and fiber-matrix interface was observed with scanning electron microscope. It was found WPC strength decreases as the amount of unoxidized carbon (assigned to lignin and extractives) measured with XPS on fiber surface increases. In the opposite case, WPC strength increases with increasing level of oxidized carbon (assigned to carbohydrates) on fiber surface. The same

  3. Determination of native (wood derived) formaldehyde by the desiccator method in particleboards generated during panel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Birkeland; Linda Lorenz; James M. Wescott; Charles R. Frihart

    2010-01-01

    Hot-pressing wood, particularly in the production of wood composites, generates significant ‘‘native’’ (wood-based) formaldehyde (FA), even in the absence of adhesive. The level of native FA relates directly to the time and temperature of hot-pressing. This native FA dissipates in a relatively short time and is not part of the long-term FA emission issue commonly...

  4. Elemental composition of ectomycorrhizal mycelia identified by PCR-RFLP analysis and grown in contact with apatite or wood ash in forest soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallander, Håkan; Mahmood, Shahid; Hagerberg, David; Johansson, Leif; Pallon, Jan

    2003-05-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to identify ectomycorrhizal species with a potential to release elements from apatite and wood ash and accumulate them in the mycelia. Fungal rhizomorphs and mycelia were sampled from sand-filled mesh bags with or without amendment of apatite or wood ash. The mesh bags were buried in forest soil in the field for 13 or 24 months. Elemental composition of the samples was analyzed with particle-induced X-ray emission and the fungus was identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the ITS-region of ribosomal DNA. The majority of rhizomorphs and mycelia collected from the mesh bags were of mycorrhizal origin with Paxillus involutus being the most common species (31%). Other identified species were Thelephora terrestris, Suillus granulatus and Tylospora fibillosa. S. granulatus contained 3-15 times more K (3 mg g(-1)) than the other species and had large calcium-rich crystals deposited on the surface of rhizomorphs when grown in contact with apatite. P. involutus contained the largest amount of Ca (2-7 mg g(-1)). Wood ash addition increased the amount of Ti, Mn and Pb in the rhizomorphs while apatite addition increased the amount of Ca in the rhizomorphs. The high concentration of K in S. granulatus rhizomorphs suggests that this fungus is a good accumulator of K while P. involutus appeared to accumulate heavy metals originating from wood ash.

  5. Private forest landowner willingness, community impacts and concerns, and the development of a wood-based biofuels industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Eric C.

    The technical/economic aspects of using wood-based biomass as an alternative source of fuel have been well represented in current academic literature. However, currently very few studies have examined the concerns of private forest landowners (PFLs) and communities toward increased harvesting rates to support a wood-based biofuels industry. Further, few studies have tried to study or to determine what factors might impact such willingness. The absence of studies that focus on understanding PFLs and community concerns as well as PFLs willingness to participate in harvesting biofuels for energy is in part traceable to two basic, but untested, assumptions regarding communities and forest landowners: (1) PFLs are able and willing to participate in the production of raw materials with few obstacles; and (2) they will make the transition because of the opportunity to increase profits. While the technical/economic aspects are clearly important, little attention has been paid to those social and cultural factors that may impact the viability of such activity. To address this issue, the present study focused on three questions. (1) What are the opportunities and concerns of PFLs, communities, residents, and existing wood-based industries regarding the development of a wood-based biofuel industry? (2) Will PFLs be willing to harvest raw materials for a wood-based biofuel industry? (2a) What sociocultural and sociodemographic dimensions influence PFLs' willingness to harvest raw materials for a wood-based biofuel industry? Data was collected using a mixed methods approach including using secondary data, key informant interviews and a phone survey of both the general public and PFLs in the Eastern forest region.

  6. Displacement based seismic design of symmetric single-storey wood-frame buildings with the aid of N2 method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis eMergos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new methodology for the displacement-based seismic design of symmetric single-storey wood-frame buildings. Previous displacement-based design efforts were based on the direct displacement-based design (DDBD approach, which uses a substitute linear system with an appropriate stiffness and viscous damping combination. Despite the fact that this method has shown to produce promising results for wood structures, it does not fit into the framework of the Eurocode 8 (EC8 provisions. The methodology presented herein is based on the N2 method, which is incorporated in EC8 and combines the non-linear pushover analysis with the response spectrum method. The N2 method has been mostly applied to reinforced concrete and steel structures. In order to properly implement the N2 method for the case of wood-frame buildings new behavior factor – displacement ductility relationships are proposed. These relationships were derived from inelastic time history analyses of 35 SDOF systems subjected to 80 different ground motion records. Furthermore, the validity of the N2 method is examined for the case of a timber shear wall tested on a shake table and satisfactory predictions are obtained. Last, the proposed design methodology is applied to the displacement-based seismic design of a realistic symmetric single-storey wood-frame building in order to meet the performance objectives of EC8. It is concluded that the simplicity and computational efficiency of the adopted methodology make it a valuable tool for the seismic design of this category of wood-frame buildings, while the need for extending the method to more complex wood-frame buildings is also highlighted.

  7. Comparative economic and environmental assessment of four beech wood based biorefinery concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzinski, Maik; Nitzsche, Roy

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze four conceptual beech wood based biorefineries generated during process design in terms of environmental and economic criteria. Biorefinery 1 annually converts 400,000 dry metric tons of beech wood into the primary products 41,600t/yr polymer-grade ethylene and 58,520tDM/yr organosolv lignin and the fuels 90,800tDM/yr hydrolysis lignin and 38,400t/yr biomethane. Biorefinery 2 is extended by the product of 58,400t/yr liquid "food-grade" carbon dioxide. Biorefinery 3 produces 69,600t/yr anhydrous ethanol instead of ethylene. Compared to biorefinery 3, biorefinery 4 additionally provides carbon dioxide as product. Biorefinery 3 and 4 seem most promising, since under basic assumptions both criteria, (i) economic effectiveness and (ii) reduction of potential environmental impacts, can be fulfilled. All four alternatives may reduce potential environmental impacts compared to reference systems using the ReCiPe methodology. Economic feasibilities of the analyzed biorefineries are highly sensitive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effects of CaCO3 Coated Wood Free Paper Usage as Filler on Water Absorption, Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Cellulose-High Density Polyethylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah PEŞMAN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study some physical, mechanical and thermal characteristics of high density polyethylene (HDPE and CaCO3 coated/pigmented wood free paper fiber composites were investigated. The fillers used in this study were uncoated cellulose, 5.8 %, 11.5 %, 16.5 % and 23.1 % CaCO3 coated wood free paper fibers. Each filler type was mixed with HDPE at 40% by weight fiber loading. In this case, the ratio of CaCO3 in plastic composites were calculated as 0 %, 2.3 %, 4.6 %, 6.6 % and 9.2 % respectively. Increased CaCO3 ratio improved the moisture resistant, flexural and tensile strength of cellulose-HDPE composites. However, the density of the cellulose-HDPE composites increased with CaCO3 addition. Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy on Scanning Electron Microscope analysis demonstrated the uniform distribution of CaCO3 and cellulose fiber in plastic matrix. In addition, the thermal properties of fiber plastic composites were investigated. The results of Differential scanning calorimetry analysis revealed that the crystallinity of the samples decreased with increasing CaCO3 content. Consequently, this work showed that CaCO3 coated waste paper fibers could be used as reinforcing filler against water absorption in thermoplastic matrix.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.4.14222

  9. Reusing remediated CCA-treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol A. Clausen

    2003-01-01

    Options for recycling and reusing chromated-copper-arsenate- (CCA) treated material include dimensional lumber and round wood size reduction, composites, and remediation. Size reduction by remilling, shaving, or resawing CCA-treated wood reduces the volume of landfilled waste material and provides many options for reusing used treated wood. Manufacturing composite...

  10. Raman imaging to investigate ultrastructure and composition of plant cell walls : distribution of lignin and cellulose in black spruce wood (Picea mariana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal

    2006-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the structural organization of the cell wall of vascular plants is important from both the perspectives of plant biology and chemistry and of commercial utilization. A state-of-the-art 633-nm laser-based confocal Raman microscope was used to determine the distribution of cell wall components in the cross section of black spruce wood in situ...

  11. Synchrotron-based X-ray Fluorescence Microscopy in Conjunction with Nanoindentation to Study Molecular-Scale Interactions of Phenol–Formaldehyde in Wood Cell Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph E. Jakes; Christopher G. Hunt; Daniel J. Yelle; Linda Lorenz; Kolby Hirth; Sophie-Charlotte Gleber; Stefan Vogt; Warren Grigsby; Charles R. Frihart

    2015-01-01

    Understanding and controlling molecular-scale interactions between adhesives and wood polymers are critical to accelerate the development of improved adhesives for advanced wood-based materials. The submicrometer resolution of synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) was found capable of mapping and quantifying infiltration of Br-labeled phenol−...

  12. Verification of the thermal insulation properties and determination the optimal position of the reflective thermal insulation layer in the wood based envelope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labovský Martin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To achieve thinner wood based envelope is necessary look for an alternative thermal insulation material, which will have the best possible thermal insulation properties while maintaining affordability. One such material is also reflective thermal insulation layer, but it is necessary to verify the thermal insulation properties and determine the optimal position in the wood based envelope.

  13. Probability-based design of wood transmission line structures electrical power research institute project RP 1352-1; A status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderbilt, M.O.; Criswell, M.E.; Folse, M.D.; Landers, P.G.

    1982-08-01

    New analysis and probability-based procedures are developed for single pole transmission line structures. Results of research on strength and stiffness of wood poles are presented. A summary of preexisting data for wood pole properties is given. The probability-based procedure is illustrated by example designs. Needs for additional and improved load and material property data are discussed.

  14. Chemical composition and speciation of particulate organic matter from modern residential small-scale wood combustion appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, Hendryk; Miersch, Toni; Orasche, Jürgen; Abbaszade, Gülcin; Sippula, Olli; Tissari, Jarkko; Michalke, Bernhard; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Streibel, Thorsten; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2018-01-15

    Combustion technologies of small-scale wood combustion appliances are continuously developed decrease emissions of various pollutants and increase energy conversion. One strategy to reduce emissions is the implementation of air staging technology in secondary air supply, which became an established technique for modern wood combustion appliances. On that account, emissions from a modern masonry heater fuelled with three types of common logwood (beech, birch and spruce) and a modern pellet boiler fuelled with commercial softwood pellets were investigated, which refer to representative combustion appliances in northern Europe In particular, emphasis was put on the organic constituents of PM2.5, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) and phenolic species, by targeted and non-targeted mass spectrometric analysis techniques. Compared to conventional wood stoves and pellet boilers, organic emissions from the modern appliances were reduced by at least one order of magnitude, but to a different extent for single species. Hence, characteristic ratios of emission constituents and emission profiles for wood combustion identification and speciation do not hold for this type of advanced combustion technology. Additionally, an overall substantial reduction of typical wood combustion markers, such as phenolic species and anhydrous sugars, were observed. Finally, it was found that slow ignition of log woods changes the distribution of characteristic resin acids and phytosterols as well as their thermal alteration products, which are used as markers for specific wood types. Our results should be considered for wood combustion identification in positive matrix factorisation or chemical mass balance in northern Europe. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Fermentation based carbon nanotube multifunctional bionic composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valentini, Luca; Bon, Silvia Bittolo; Signetti, Stefano; Tripathi, Manoj; Iacob, Erica; Pugno, Nicola M

    2016-01-01

    .... Based on bread fermentation, a bionic composite made of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and a single-cell fungi, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast extract, was prepared by fermentation of such microorganisms at room temperature...

  16. Ketahanan Komposit Kayu Plastik Polistirena terhadap Serangan Jamur Pelapuk Coklat Tyromyces palustris (Decay Resistance of Wood Polymer Composite (WPC Against Brown Rot Fungi Tyromyces palustris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G.K. Tapa Darma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood specimens, 50 x 25 x 15 mm were impregnated in styrene and vinil acetate solutions at four concentration levels, using tertbutyl hydroperoxide as acatalyst. The specimens were dried at 60OC for 48 hours after which the solution was polymerized in situ. All specimens, including untreated specimens as control and specimens impregnated with Impralit CKB, were exposed to monoculture a brown rot fungus Tyromyces palustris, a brown rot fungus for 3 months. All wood polymer composite (WPC specimens obviously showed higher resistance compared with the control. At four concentration levels, WPC of tusam showed excellent result with weight loss value less than specimens treated with Impralit CKB. WPC of karet (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg and sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria showed good resistance at high styrene concentration level.

  17. A new physical method to assess handle properties of fabrics made from wood-based fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Rous, M.; Liftinger, E.; Innerlohinger, J.; Malengier, B.; Vasile, S.

    2017-10-01

    In this work, the handfeel of fabrics made of wood-based fibers such as viscose, modal and Lyocell was investigated in relation to cotton fabrics applying the Tissue Softness Analyzer (TSA) method in comparison to other classical methods. Two different construction groups of textile were investigated. The validity of TSA in assessing textile softness of these constructions was tested. TSA results were compared to human hand evaluation as well as to classical physical measurements like drape coefficient, ring pull-through and Handle-o-meter, as well as a newer device, the Fabric Touch Tester (FTT). Physical methods as well as human hand assessments mostly agreed on the softest and smoothest range, but showed different rankings in the harder/rougher side fabrics. TSA ranking of softness and smoothness corresponded to the rankings by other physical methods as well as with human hand feel for the basic textile constructions.

  18. Serpula lacrymans, The Dry Rot Fungus and Tolerance Towards Copper-Based Wood Preservatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Jensen, Bo; Clausen, Carol

    2005-01-01

    Serpula lacrymans (Wulfen : Fries) Schröter, the dry rot fungus, is considered the most (Wulfen : Fries) Schröterthe dry rot fungus, is considered the most economically important wood decay fungus in temperate regions of the world i.e. northern Europe, Japan and Australia. Previously copper based...

  19. Comparison of the Heat Release Rate from the Mass Loss Calorimeter to the Cone Calorimeter for Wood-based Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura E. Hasburgh; Robert H. White; Mark A. Dietenberger; Charles R. Boardman

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing demand for material properties to be used as inputs in fi re behavior models designed to address building fire safety. This comparative study evaluates using the mass loss calorimeter as an alternative to the cone calorimeter for obtaining heat release rates of wood-based materials. For this study, a modified mass loss calorimeter utilized an...

  20. The compression of wood/thermoplastic fiber mats during consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl R. Englund; Michael P. Wolcott; John C. Hermanson

    2004-01-01

    Secondary processing of non-woven wood and wood/thermoplastic fiber mats is generally performed using compression molding, where heated platens or dies form the final product. Although the study and use of wood-fiber composites is widespread, few research efforts have explicitly described the fundamentals of mat consolidation. In contrast, the wood composite literature...

  1. WOOD WELDING

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Theodoro Muller; Rafael Rodolfo de Melo; Diego Martins Stangerlin

    2010-01-01

    The term "wood welding" designates what can be defined as "welding of wood surfaces". This new process, that it provides the joint of wood pieces without the use of adhesives or any other additional material, provokes growing interest in the academic environment, although it is still in laboratorial state. Linear friction welding induced bymechanical vibration yields welded joints of flat wood surfaces. The phenomenon of the welding occurs in less time than 10 seconds, with the temperature in...

  2. Tantalum-Based Ceramics for Refractory Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David A.; Leiser, Daniel; DiFiore, Robert; Kalvala, Victor

    2006-01-01

    A family of tantalum-based ceramics has been invented as ingredients of high-temperature composite insulating tiles. These materials are suitable for coating and/or permeating the outer layers of rigid porous (foam-like or fibrous) ceramic substrates to (1) render the resulting composite ceramic tiles impervious to hot gases and (2) enable the tiles to survive high heat fluxes at temperatures that can exceed 3,000 F ( 1,600 C).

  3. Production and characterization of carbon structures derived from wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xinfeng

    The objective of this research was to produce structural carbon materials from wood, a renewable biomaterial, for advanced material application. A broad range of materials were produced for study including carbonized wood, resin infused carbon composites made from carbonized wood, and carbon nanotubes from wood fibers. The effect of slow heating on the properties of carbonized wood was studied and important carbonized wood properties were found to be produced over a range of heating rates and peak temperatures. Slow heating rates promoted the formation and growth of graphene sheets in turbostratic crystallites, which had a significant influence on the electrical resistivity and Young's modulus of the carbonized wood. A reduction in the rate of heating may be beneficial with respect to carbon properties and the prevention of crack production during the manufacture of large monolithic carbon specimens from wood and wood-based materials. Investigation of selected physical and mechanical properties of resin-infused porous carbon composites made from medium density fiberboard demonstrated that the infused material can be used in specific applications, where high mechanical strength is not required but high dimensional stability at elevated-use temperatures, fire safety, or static dissipation and shielding is required. A unique cyclic heating process has been developed to produce carbon nanotubes directly from wood fibers. Study on the oxidative behavior of carbons derived from cellulose and lignin showed that cellulose carbon ablates faster at a lower temperature in air than lignin carbon when they were prepared at temperatures lower than 500°C due to cellulose carbon's lower content of aromatic structures. It is hypothesized that the formation of carbon nanotubes during the cyclic heating process occurred via template synthesis, with the nanochannels formed from the ablation of cellulose fibrils functioning as a template. Evidence of formation of nanochannels has been

  4. Complex geometries in wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Riiber Nielsen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust parame...... parametric model and a generic design language a later explored the possibilities to construct complex shaped geometries with self registering joints on modern wood crafting machines. The research was carried out as collaboration with industrial partners.......The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust...

  5. Laser machining wood composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimir Barnekov; Henry A. Huber; Charles W. McMillin

    1989-01-01

    This practical, nonstatistical experiment using commercial equipment demonstrated that nominal 3/4-inch compositep anelsf or furniture consisting of a particleboard core,h igh density melamine crossbands, and walnut veneer face plies can be cut with a carbon dioxide/airjet-assisted laser to produce surfaces with minimal nonparallelism and char compared to previous...

  6. Development of Tungsten Based Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-01

    CONTENTS Section Title Page 1 INTRODUCTION & SUMMARY .............................. 1 2 MATERIAL SELECTION .................................. 3 3...Metallographic Examination .. 41 - iv - 1. INTRODUCTION & SUMMARY This is the. Final Report on a Phase I SBIR Program entitled "Development of Tungsten Based...m = - -𔃺 S (l- 1- =11 = (t) 011CU ’a . 4) woj .- :2 01w c L .0 u .-. 0C 0 goa - L 0d MCDM . 3 -X - z 1 m- L. S.1 MCDM -z3-2: S - m 1 o. 01 In 0,10Lnw

  7. Wood energy-commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    Wood energy is being widely investigated in many areas of the country because of the many obvious benefits of wood fuel such as the low price per million Btus relative to coal, oil, and gas; the wide availability of noncommercial wood and the proven ability to harvest it; established technology which is reliable and free of pollution; renewable resources; better conservation for harvested land; and the potential for jobs creation. The Southeastern United States has a specific leadership role in wood energy based on its established forest products industry experience and the potential application of wood energy to other industries and institutions. Significant questions about the widespread usage of wood energy are being answered in demonstrations around the country as well as the Southeast in areas of wood storage and bulk handling; high capitalization costs for harvesting and combustion equipment; long term supply and demand contracts; and the economic feasibility of wood energy outside the forest products industry.

  8. Acoustic-Based Non-Destructive Estimation of Wood Quality Attributes within Standing Red Pine Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter F. Newton

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between acoustic velocity (vd and the dynamic modulus of elasticity (me, wood density (wd, microfibril angle, tracheid wall thickness (wt,, radial and tangential diameters, fibre coarseness (co and specific surface area (sa, within standing red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait. trees, was investigated. The data acquisition phase involved 3 basic steps: (1 random selection of 54 sample trees from 2 intensively-managed 80-year-old plantations in central Canada; (2 attainment of cardinal-based vd measurements transecting the breast-height position on each sample tree; and (3 felling, sectioning and obtaining cross-sectional samples from the first 5.3 m sawlog from which Silviscan-based area-weighted mean attribute estimates were determined. The data analysis phase consisted of applying graphical and correlation analyses to specify regression models for each of the 8 attribute-acoustic velocity relationships. Results indicated that viable relationships were obtained for me, wd, wt, co and sa based on a set of statistical measures: goodness-of-fit (42%, 14%, 45%, 27% and 43% of the variability explained, respectively, lack-of-fit (unbiasedness and predictive precision (±12%, ±8%, ±7%, ±8% and ±6% error tolerance intervals, respectively. Non-destructive approaches for estimating the prerequisite wd value when deploying the analytical framework were also empirically evaluated. Collectively, the proposed approach and associated results provide the foundation for the development of a comprehensive and precise end-product segregation strategy for use in red pine management.

  9. Evaluation of Thermal and Thermomechanical Behaviour of Bio-Based Polyamide 11 Based Composites Reinforced with Lignocellulosic Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Oliver-Ortega

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, polyamide 11 (PA11 and stone ground wood fibres (SGW were used, as an alternative to non-bio-based polymer matrices and reinforcements, to obtain short fibre reinforced composites. The impact of the reinforcement on the thermal degradation, thermal transitions and microstructure of PA11-based composites were studied. Natural fibres have lower degradation temperatures than PA11, thus, composites showed lower onset degradation temperatures than PA11, as well. The thermal transition and the semi-crystalline structure of the composites were similar to PA11. On the other hand, when SGW was submitted to an annealing treatment, the composites prepared with these fibres increased its crystallinity, with increasing fibre contents, compared to PA11. The differences between the glass transition temperatures of annealed and untreated composites decreased with the fibre contents. Thus, the fibres had a higher impact in the composites mechanical behaviour than on the mobility of the amorphous phase. The crystalline structure of PA11 and PA11-SGW composites, after annealing, was transformed to α’ more stable phase, without any negative impact on the properties of the fibres.

  10. Composites Similarity Analysis Method Based on Knowledge Set in Composites Quality Control

    OpenAIRE

    Li Haifeng

    2016-01-01

    Composites similarity analysis is an important link of composites review, it can not only to declare composites review rechecking, still help composites applicants promptly have the research content relevant progress and avoid duplication. This paper mainly studies the composites similarity model in composites review. With the actual experience of composites management, based on the author’s knowledge set theory, paper analyzes deeply knowledge set representation of composites knowledge, impr...

  11. Chemical composition and pulping of date palm rachis and Posidonia oceanica--a comparison with other wood and non-wood fibre sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiari, R; Mhenni, M F; Belgacem, M N; Mauret, E

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper, the valorisation of two residues: Posidonia oceanica and date palm rachis was investigated. First, their chemical composition was studied and showed that they present amounts of holocellulose, lignin and cellulose similar to those encountered in softwood and hardwood. Extractives in different solvents and ash contents are relatively high. Moreover, ash composition assessment showed that silicon is the major component (17.7%) for P. oceanica. The high ash quantity and the low DP (about 370) may be considered as serious disadvantages of P. oceanica, in the pulping and papermaking context. Oppositely, the properties of rachis date palm and those of the ensuing pulp, obtained from a classical soda-anthraquinone cooking, demonstrated the suitability of this agricultural by-product for papermaking. Preliminary tests conducted on unrefined pulp suspensions and handsheets from date palm rachis in terms of freeness, Water Retention Value and mechanical properties allowed confirming the good quality of date palm rachis fibres.

  12. Abatement cost of GHG emissions for wood-based electricity and ethanol at production and consumption levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Dwivedi

    Full Text Available Woody feedstocks will play a critical role in meeting the demand for biomass-based energy products in the US. We developed an integrated model using comparable system boundaries and common set of assumptions to ascertain unit cost and greenhouse gas (GHG intensity of electricity and ethanol derived from slash pine (Pinus elliottii at the production and consumption levels by considering existing automobile technologies. We also calculated abatement cost of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions with respect to comparable energy products derived from fossil fuels. The production cost of electricity derived using wood chips was at least cheaper by 1 ¢ MJ-1 over electricity derived from wood pellets. The production cost of ethanol without any income from cogenerated electricity was costlier by about 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than ethanol with income from cogenerated electricity. The production cost of electricity derived from wood chips was cheaper by at least 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than the energy equivalent cost of ethanol produced in presence of cogenerated electricity. The cost of using ethanol as a fuel in a flex-fuel vehicle was at least higher by 6 ¢ km-1 than a comparable electric vehicle. The GHG intensity of per km distance traveled in a flex-fuel vehicle was greater or lower than an electric vehicle running on electricity derived from wood chips depending on presence and absence of GHG credits related with co-generated electricity. A carbon tax of at least $7 Mg CO2e-1 and $30 Mg CO2e-1 is needed to promote wood-based electricity and ethanol production in the US, respectively. The range of abatement cost of GHG emissions is significantly dependent on the harvest age and selected baseline especially for electricity generation.

  13. Plasma enhanced modification of TMP fiber and its effect on tensile strength of wood fiber/PP composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangyeob Lee; Todd F. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse

    2009-01-01

    Plasma-assisted surface treatment on thermomechanical pulp (TMP) fiber and polypropylene (PP) film was investigated to obtain interfacial adhesion at the wood fiber and PP interface. A metal plate between electrodes prevented thermal damage to the TMP fiber handsheets and PP film. Oxygen-plasma treatment provided better surface activation on the TMP fiber and...

  14. Comparison of wood based energy related policies in Russia and Finland: Case study of the Republic of Karelia and North Karelia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, I.; Goltsev, V.

    2012-11-01

    The present analysis reports on key policy documents regarding wood based energy in Russia and Finland and their development in regional plans. A comparison of key policy and legislative documents regarding wood based energy is developed. Furthermore, the study highlights the impact of climate and energy policies developed at international and community level on the selected countries' performances. The results suggest that international and community treaties have had a positive effect on wood based energy policies in both countries. However, the measures adopted at national level are developing at a different pace. While Finland has a wide variety of policy documents promoting wood based energy, more specific policies and measures are needed on the Russian side. Regarding regional policies' performance, wood based energy is gaining importance. The development of renewable energy from wood is seen as positive in both the Republic of Karelia (Russia) and the province of North Karelia (Finland). Nevertheless, in Russia, more supportive measures from the State and attracting investors are crucial to strengthen the wood based energy sector within the Republic of Karelia. (orig.)

  15. Catalytic pyrolysis of wood biomass in an auger reactor using calcium-based catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veses, A; Aznar, M; Martínez, I; Martínez, J D; López, J M; Navarro, M V; Callén, M S; Murillo, R; García, T

    2014-06-01

    Wood catalytic pyrolysis using calcium-based materials was studied in an auger reactor at 450°C. Two different catalysts, CaO and CaO·MgO were evaluated and upgraded bio-oils were obtained in both cases. Whilst acidity and oxygen content remarkable decrease, both pH and calorific value increase with respect to the non-catalytic test. Upgrading process was linked to the fact that calcium-based materials could not only fix the CO2-like compounds but also promoted the dehydration reactions. In addition, process simulation demonstrated that the addition of these catalysts, especially CaO, could favour the energetic integration since a lowest circulation of heat carrier between combustor and auger reactor should be needed. An energy self-sustained system was obtained where thermal energy required for biomass drying and for pyrolysis reaction was supplied by non-condensable gas and char combustion, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Growth of Aspergillus Niger on a Wood Based Material with 4 Types of Wall Finishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramaniam Menega

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Buildings are a vital component in a human’s daily life. It provides shelter from the environment, weather and animals. Mold growth within the building might be caused by the moisture problems which directly act on it such as water leaks or indirect factor such as high humidity levels. This growth causes esthetic problems and deterioration of its wall coatings. Spores from the fungi also cause health problems to humans. The fungus species studied in this research is Aspergillus niger. The material is made of wood and its finishing is thick wallpaper, thin wallpaper, acrylic paint and glycerol based paint. ASTMD5590-00 standard was used to evaluate fungal growth and to determine if non antifungal agent was effective in inhibiting the amount of fungal growth on four types of wall finishing used on wooden walls. This research was conducted without using any antifungal agent. Highest percentage of growth of the fungi was found on acrylic paint, followed by glycerol based paint and thin wallpaper. Thick wall paper shows the least growth of fungi. The maximum growth is visible on day 12 which is more than 60% by all the wall finishing.

  17. Juniper wood structure under the microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogolitsyn, Konstantin G; Zubov, Ivan N; Gusakova, Maria A; Chukhchin, Dmitry G; Krasikova, Anna A

    2015-05-01

    The investigations confirm the physicochemical nature of the structure and self-assembly of wood substance and endorse its application in plant species. The characteristic morphological features, ultra-microstructure, and submolecular structure of coniferous wood matrix using junipers as the representative tree were investigated by scanning electron (SEM) and atomic-force microscopy (AFM). Novel results on the specific composition and cell wall structure features of the common juniper (Juniperus Communis L.) were obtained. These data confirm the possibility of considering the wood substance as a nanobiocomposite. The cellulose nanofibrils (20-50 nm) and globular-shaped lignin-carbohydrate structures (diameter of 5-60 nm) form the base of such a nanobiocomposite.

  18. The Statistics of wood assays for preservative retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia K. Lebow; Scott W. Conklin

    2011-01-01

    This paper covers general statistical concepts that apply to interpreting wood assay retention values. In particular, since wood assays are typically obtained from a single composited sample, the statistical aspects, including advantages and disadvantages, of simple compositing are covered.

  19. Performance Characteristics of a Wood By-Product as Base Friction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Material mix and composition as well as detailed production processes using saw-dust as base friction lining material have been studied. The resulting friction brake lining materials were additionally subjected to thermal cycles and associated baking and curing. The final products were thereafter subjected to laboratory and ...

  20. Eco-friendly materials for large area piezoelectronics: self-oriented Rochelle salt in wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, E.; Ayela, C.; Atli, A.

    2018-02-01

    Upgraded biodegradable piezoelectric composite materials elaborated by incorporation of Rochelle salt (RS, Sodium potassium tartrate tetrahydrate) in wood were reported. RS crystals, known as the first discovered piezoelectric material, were grown in the micro-cavities of wood, having naturally a tubular structure, by soaking the wood into RS saturated water. Since most of the cavities in wood are oriented in the same direction, the piezoelectric effect was improved when the cavities were filled by RS crystals. The mechanical, structural and piezoelectric properties of RS incorporated wood composite samples were characterized. Both direct and converse piezoelectric effects are illustrated. The wood-base composite exhibits an effective piezoelectric constant d 33 of 11 pC N‑1. Also, the flexural strength and modulus of elasticity were enhanced by inserting RS into the wood, nevertheless the samples became more brittle. The wood-based piezoelectric samples prepared in this work can be used as actuators, sensors or energy harvesters. The process developed here permits us to manufacture large area piezoelectric devices which are environmentally and economically unsurpassed.

  1. Deviation from the Kadowaki-Woods relation in Yb-based intermediate-valence systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tsujii, N; Kosuge, K

    2003-01-01

    The T sup 2 -coefficient of the electrical resistivity, A, is compared with the electronic specific heat coefficient, gamma, for a number of Yb-based compounds. It is revealed that many systems, including YbCuAl, YbInCu sub 4 , YbAl sub 3 , and YbCu sub 5 , show A/gamma sup 2 values close to 0.4 x 10 sup - sup 6 mu OMEGA cm mol sup 2 K sup 2 mJ sup - sup 2 , which are remarkably small compared to those obtained from an expression known as the Kadowaki-Woods relation: A/gamma sup 2 = 1.0 x 10 sup - sup 5 mu OMEGA cm mol sup 2 K sup 2 mJ sup - sup 2. Empirically, the compounds with the smaller A/gamma sup 2 values appear to show weak intersite magnetic correlation and/or to have almost fully degenerate (J = 5/2 or 7/2) ground states.

  2. Assessing wood-based synthetic natural gas technologies using the SWISS-MARKAL model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Thorsten F.; Barreto, Leonardo; Kypreos, Socrates [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI (Switzerland). Energy Economics Group; Stucki, Samuel [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI (Switzerland). General Energy

    2007-10-15

    In future, new biomass technologies can gain significant importance in the Swiss energy sector. Therefore, this paper assesses the economic conditions under which new biomass technologies become competitive. The focus of this assessment is on the production of synthetic natural gas (bio-SNG) from wood in a methanation plant. The assessment is conducted with the cost-optimization model SWISS-MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation). SWISS-MARKAL projects future technology investments and provides an integrated analysis of primary, secondary, final and end-use energy in Switzerland. In addition to a reference scenario, the effects of increasing oil and gas prices, the effects of allocating subsidies to the methanation plant and the effects of competition between the methanation plant and a biomass-based Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis are evaluated. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis is performed by varying investment costs of the methanation plant. The results are in favour of bio-SNG in the transportation sector where the synergetic use of bio-SNG and natural gas reduces the dependence on oil imports and the level of CO{sub 2} emissions. (author)

  3. Test methods and reduction of organic pollutant compound emissions from wood-based building and furniture materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sumin; Choi, Yoon-Ki; Park, Kyung-Won; Kim, Jeong Tai

    2010-08-01

    This paper reviews different methods for the analysis of formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from wood-based panel materials for furniture and building interiors and highlights research on reduction of emission from wood-based panels that can adversely affect indoor air quality. In Korea, standard test methods have been developed to determine formaldehyde and VOC emissions from building products, and the Ministry of Environment regulates the use of building materials with pollutant emissions. Desiccator and perforator methods are being used for formaldehyde and the chamber and field and laboratory emission cell (FLEC) methods for VOC and formaldehyde emissions. The VOC analyzer is a suitable pre-test method for application as a total VOC (TVOC) emission test and bake-out is a useful method to reduce TVOC and formaldehyde emissions from furniture materials in indoor environments. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Taxonomic turnover and abundance in Cretaceous to Tertiary wood floras of Antarctica: implications for changes in forest ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cantrill, David J.; Poole, I.J.

    2004-01-01

    Based on the temporal distribution, abundance, and taxonomic composition of wood floras, four phases of vegetation development are recognized through the Cretaceous to Early Tertiary of the Antarctic Peninsula: (1) Aptian to Albian communities dominated by podocarpaceous, araucarian, and minor

  5. Capacity, production, and manufacturing of wood-based panels in north America. Forest Service general technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spelter, H.

    1994-10-01

    This report is an informational report about four wood-based panel industries particleboard, oriented strandboard, medium density fiberboard, and Southern Pine plywood. Items highlighted are trends in manufacturing and new plant costs, industry manufacturing capacity, and location. Recent data show the greatest amount of growth taking place in the oriented strandboard sector. Modest rates of growth are occuring in the Southern Pine Plywood, particleboard, and medium density fiberboard sectors.

  6. Functional Wood

    OpenAIRE

    Cronhjort, Yrsa (ed.); Hughes, Mark (ed.); Paakkanen, Mikko (ed.); Sahi, Karola (ed.); Tukiainen, Pekka (ed.); Tulamo, Tomi (ed.); Vahtikari, Katja (ed.)

    2016-01-01

    Design has been recognized as a key discipline to bring ideas to the market. In addition to current research on human perceptions and the functional capacities of wood, this publication demonstrates the potential of wood in various applications. The designs are the results of three design courses, implemented during 2015 and 2016 at Aalto University in Finland. The Masters student courses included two Wood Studios at Aalto University’s School of Arts, Design and Architecture and the Integrate...

  7. Characterisation of wood combustion ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto

    for their composition and leaching properties. Despite the relatively large variations in the contents of nutrients and trace metals, the overall levels were comparable to typical ranges reported in the literature for other wood combustion ashes, as well as with regards to leaching. In general, the composition......The combustion of wood chips and wood pellets for the production of renewable energy in Denmark increased from 5.7 PJ to 16 PJ during the period 2000-2015, and further increases are expected to occur within the coming years. In 2012, about 22,300 tonnes of wood ashes were generated in Denmark....... Currently, these ashes are mainly landfilled, despite Danish legislation allowing their application onto forest and agricultural soils for fertilising and/or liming purposes. During this PhD work, 16 wood ash samples generated at ten different Danish combustion plants were collected and characterised...

  8. Challenges and Opportunities in the Use of Marketing Tools and the Promotion of Non Wood Forest Products-Based Small and Medium Enterprises in the South East Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stojanovska, Makedonka; Nonić, Dragan; Baumgartner, Jana; Nedeljković, Jelena; Stojanovski, Vladimir; Nedanovska, Vaska; Posavec, Stjepan

    2015-01-01

    ...) dealing with non-wood forest products (NWFPs) in SEE region. The research on this subject in the SEE region is scarce despite the rich biodiversity as a solid base for establishing eco-businesses...

  9. Geographic information system-based identification of suitable cultivation sites for wood-cultivated ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beon, Mu Sup; Park, Jun Ho; Kang, Hag Mo; Cho, Sung Jong; Kim, Hyun

    2013-10-01

    Wood-cultivated ginseng, including roots in its dried form, is produced in forest land without using artificial facilities such as light barriers. To identify suitable sites for the propagation of wood-cultivated ginseng, factor combination technique (FCT) and linear combination technique (LCT) were used with geographic information system and the results were superimposed onto an actual wood-cultivated ginseng plantation. The LCT more extensively searched for suitable sites of cultivation than that by the FCT; further, the LCT probed wide areas considering the predominance of precipitous mountains in Korea. In addition, the LCT showed the much higher degree of overlap with the actual cultivation sites; therefore, the LCT more comprehensively reflects the cultivator's intention for site selection. On the other hand, the inclusion of additional factors for the selection of suitable cultivation sites and experts' opinions may enhance the effectiveness and accuracy of the LCT for site application.

  10. Zein-based composites in biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Merve; Ramos-Rivera, Laura; Silva, Raquel; Nazhat, Showan N; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2017-06-01

    Considerable research efforts have been devoted to zein-based biomaterials for tissue engineering and other biomedical applications over the past decade. The attention given to zein-based polymers is primarily attributed to their biocompatibility and biodegradability. However, due to the relatively low mechanical properties of these polymers, numerous inorganic compounds (e.g., hydroxyapatite, calcium phosphate, bioactive glasses, natural clays) have been considered in combination with zein to create composite materials in an attempt to enhance zein mechanical properties. Inorganic phases also positively impact on the hydrophilic properties of zein matrices inducing a suitable environment for cell attachment, spreading, and proliferation. This review covers available literature on zein and zein-based composite materials, with focus on the combination of zein with commonly used inorganic fillers for tissue engineering and drug delivery applications. An overview of the most recent advances in fabrication techniques for zein-based composites is presented and key applications areas and future developments in the field are highlighted. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1656-1665, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Wood preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach

    1999-01-01

    When left untreated in many outdoor applications, wood becomes subject to degradation by a variety of natural causes. Although some trees possess naturally occurring resistance to decay (Ch. 3, Decay Resistance), many are in short supply or are not grown in ready proximity to markets. Because most commonly used wood species, such as Southern Pine, ponderosa pine, and...

  12. BROMINATION OF 4-VINYLCYCLOHEXANE AND APPLYING THE RESULTING PRODUCT TO IMPROVE THE FLAME RETARDANT PROPERTIES OF WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Nikulina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the demand for timber is increasing. Wood and products on its basis are considered to be the most popular in the construction industry, furniture industry, as building materials and other However, along with the positive features of this material there are also negative factors, which include low resistance to biological degradation, high temperature, resistance. Wood and materials based on it are the most flammable, and fire safety is characterized by the velocity of propagation of fire on the wooden structure. He is able to destroy it in a matter of minutes. So the wooden house elements must be protected from fire. It was therefore necessary for the fire protection of wood. It is in the handling of wood with flame retardants. Basic fire fighting methods is the impregnation of wood antipyrene composition, painting fire paint and constructive ways - insulation of timber, non-combustible compositions which can resist the fire. In the work of brominated 4-vinylcyclohexane formed as a by-product in the petrochemical industry, in chloroform synthesized compound with bromine 62-64 % and the possibility of using this product to get antiferromag composition. It is established that the application for the protective treatment of wood synthesized flame retardant has shown that this product can be used for the protective treatment of natural wood to make it flame retardant properties. Use as antiperiodic compositions bromodomain based products 4-vinylcyclohexane allows to obtain images of wood first group of flame retardant efficiency.

  13. DEPICTIONS ON WOOD: ACCEPTATION AND INTERNALIZATION OF WOOD, WHICH IS AN INTERCULTURAL INTERACTION TOOL, AS “A VALUABLE OBJECT” (WOOD IS VALUABLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlker Usta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Wood has been used in all the societies since the beginning of the world in the same or similar manners thanks to the benefits it has provided to humans in terms of elimination of the various requirements relating to everyday life as a paraphernalia or application or as a tool. In this scope, wood, a natural fibrous and porous natural material obtained from trees, has served for the entire humanity by means of being used directly or indirectly as included into construction partially or completely, in terms of fulfillment of the requirements and needs. In this sense, existence of wood in the daily life directly or indirectly will continue in the future as in the past. The fact that wood has a significant role in our lives as a tool or paraphernalia or a manner of application and that it has been a significant intercultural instrument of communication that ensures the transmission of culture among the generations and cultures demonstrate the indispensability of wood; in other words, its characteristic of being a very valuable material that is used passionately. In summary, wood, a natural and organic material, is a very important existence in our lives and a very valuable material for us thanks to its benefits it provides to us. The reason for wood for being such a valuable material for us is its unique properties with its anatomic structure and chemical compounds as well as its physical and mechanical properties. In this essay,  the phenomenon of acknowledging wood that is an intercultural tool of interaction as a “valuable object” was depicted through unique compositions created in a different manner and structure as much as possible with 3 original descriptions that were prepared in line with the subjective mentality based on the idea that “Wood is Valuable.”

  14. Fermentation based carbon nanotube bionic functional composites

    OpenAIRE

    Valentini, Luca; Bon, Silvia Bittolo; Signetti, Stefano; Tripathi, Manoj; Iacob, Erica; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2016-01-01

    The exploitation of the processes used by microorganisms to digest nutrients for their growth can be a viable method for the formation of a wide range of so called biogenic materials that have unique mechanical and physical properties that are not produced by abiotic processes. Based on grape must and bread fermentation, a bionic composite made of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and single-cell fungi, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast extract, was prepared by fermentation of such microorganisms at r...

  15. Development of palm oil-based UV-curable epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins for wood coating application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajau, Rida; Ibrahim, Mohammad Izzat; Yunus, Nurulhuda Mohd; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi; Salleh, Mek Zah; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik

    2014-02-01

    The trend of using renewable sources such as palm oil as raw material in radiation curing is growing due to the demand from the market to produce a more environmental friendly product. In this study, the radiation curable process was done using epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins which are known as epoxidised palm olein acrylate (EPOLA) and palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA), respectively. The purpose of the study was to investigate curing properties and the application of this UV-curable palm oil resins for wood coating. Furthermore, the properties of palm oil based coatings are compared with the petrochemical-based compound such as ebecryl (EB) i.e. EB264 and EB830. From the experiment done, the resins from petrochemical-based compounds resulted higher degree of crosslinking (up to 80%) than the palm oil based compounds (up to 70%), where the different is around 10-15%. The hardness property from this two type coatings can reached until 50% at the lower percentage of the oligomer. However, the coatings from petrochemical-based have a high scratch resistance as it can withstand at least up to 3.0 Newtons (N) compared to the palm oil-based compounds which are difficult to withstand the load up to 1.0 N. Finally, the test on the rubber wood substrate showed that the coatings containing benzophenone photoinitiator give higher adhesion property and their also showed a higher glosiness property on the glass substrate compared to the coatings containing irgacure-819 photoinitiator. This study showed that the palm oil coatings can be a suitable for the replacement of petrochemicals compound for wood coating. The palm oil coatings can be more competitive in the market if the problems of using high percentage palm oil oligomer can be overcome as the palm oil price is cheap enough.

  16. Perception of the material properties of wood based on vision, audition, and touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaki, Waka; Tokita, Midori; Kariya, Kenji

    2015-04-01

    Most research on the multimodal perception of material properties has investigated the perception of material properties of two modalities such as vision-touch, vision-audition, audition-touch, and vision-action. Here, we investigated whether the same affective classifications of materials can be found in three different modalities of vision, audition, and touch, using wood as the target object. Fifty participants took part in an experiment involving the three modalities of vision, audition, and touch, in isolation. Twenty-two different wood types including genuine, processed, and fake were perceptually evaluated using a questionnaire consisting of twenty-three items (12 perceptual and 11 affective). The results demonstrated that evaluations of the affective properties of wood were similar in all three modalities. The elements of "expensiveness, sturdiness, rareness, interestingness, and sophisticatedness" and "pleasantness, relaxed feelings, and liked-disliked" were separately grouped for all three senses. Our results suggest that the affective material properties of wood are at least partly represented in a supramodal fashion. Our results also suggest an association between perceptual and affective properties, which will be a useful tool not only in science, but also in applied fields. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Geographic information system-based spatial analysis of sawmill wood procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathaniel M. Anderson; Rene H. Germain; Eddie Bevilacqua

    2011-01-01

    In the sawmill sector of the forest products industry, the clustering of mills and wide variation in forest stocking and ownership result in sawlog markets that are complex and spatially differentiated. Despite the inherent spatial attributes of markets for stumpage and logs, few studies have used geospatial methods to examine wood procurement in detail across...

  18. Review of wood-based panel sector in United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. N. Spelter; D. B. McKeever; I. Durbak

    1997-01-01

    Structural and nonstructural panels have been the fastest growing sector among wood products for the past two decades. The recent spate of plant construction and drop in product prices indicate slower growth and consolidation in the next 2 years. Growth in demand is unlikely to catch up with projected capacities until the next century, unless attrition of some existing...

  19. Anatomy of a field trial: Wood-based biochar and compost influences a Pacific Northwest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar land application research in elevated rainfall areas (980 millimeters of annual rainfall) of the U.S. Pacific Northwest is lacking. A proof-of-concept field study examined the effects of spruce-pine-fir wood chip biochar (slow pyrolysis; 450-500 degrees Celsius; 35 megagrams per hectare), d...

  20. Radial variations in cation exchange capacity and base saturation rate in the wood of pedunculate oak and European beech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbauts, J.; Penninckx, V.; Gruber, W.; Meerts, P. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Laboratoire de genetique et d' ecologie vegetales, Brussels (Belgium)

    2002-10-01

    Visual observation of pedunculate oak trees and European beech trees in a mixed forest stand in the Belgian Ardennes revealed decreasing cation concentration profiles in wood. In order to determine whether these profiles are attributable to endogenous factors or to decreased availability of cations in the soil, radial profiles of water-soluble, exchangeable and total cations were investigated. Cation exchange capacity of wood was also determined. Results showed wood cation exchange capacity to decrease from pith to bark in European beech and from pith to outer heartwood in pedunculate oak. Decreasing profiles of exchangeable calcium and magnesium in peduncular oak and exchangeable calcium in European beech were found to be strongly constrained by cation exchange capacity, and thus not related to environmental change. Base cation saturation rate showed no consistent radial change in either species. It was concluded that the results did not provide convincing evidence to attribute the decrease in divalent cation concentration in pedunculate oak and European beech in this location to be due to atmospheric pollution. 42 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.