WorldWideScience

Sample records for women study design

  1. Study Design and Cohort Description of DEFIB-WOMEN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis; Riahi, Sam

    2016-01-01

    Disease: Clinical and Psychological outcomes in WOMEN) study to examine gender differences on (1) patient-reported outcomes (PROs), (2) procedure- and device-related complications, and (3) ventricular tachyarrhythmia and mortality. This presents the study design and baseline characteristics of the cohort....... METHODS: DEFIB-WOMEN is a national, multicenter, prospective, observational study. First-time implanted patients are asked to complete PROs at several time points. Information on baseline and follow-up characteristics are captured from patients' medical records, purpose-designed questions, and the Danish...

  2. Destined to Design? How and Why Australian Women Choose to Study Industrial Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Cathy; Miller, Evonne

    2016-01-01

    Despite over three decades of legislation and initiatives designed to tackle the traditional gender divide in the science, technology and design fields, only a quarter of the registered architects in Australia are women. There are no statistics available for other design disciplines, with little known about why women choose design as a career path…

  3. The Korean Study of Women's Health-Related Issues (K-Stori): Rationale and Study Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ha Na; Choi, Eunji; Seo, Da Hea; Suh, Mina; Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Park, Boyoung; Park, Sohee; Cho, Juhee; Kim, Sue; Park, Yeong-Ran; Lim, Joong-Yeon; Ahn, Younjihin; Park, Hyun-Young; Choi, Kui Son; Rhee, Yumie

    2017-06-29

    Measures to address gender-specific health issues are essential due to fundamental, biological differences between the sexes. Studies have increasingly stressed the importance of customizing approaches directed at women's health issues according to stages in the female life cycle. In Korea, however, gender-specific studies on issues affecting Korean women in relation to stages in their life cycle are lacking. Accordingly, the Korean Study of Women's Health-Related Issues (K-Stori) was designed to investigate life cycle-specific health issues among women, covering health status, awareness, and risk perceptions. K-Stori was conducted as a nationwide cross-sectional survey targeting Korean women aged 14-79 years. Per each stage in the female life cycle (adolescence, childbearing age, pregnancy & postpartum, menopause, and older adult stage), 3000 women (total 15,000) were recruited by stratified multistage random sampling for geographic area based on the 2010 Resident Registration Population in Korea. Specialized questionnaires per each stage (total of five) were developed in consultation with multidisciplinary experts and by reflecting upon current interests into health among the general population of women in Korea. This survey was conducted from April 1 to June 31, 2016, at which time investigators from a professional research agency went door-to-door to recruit residents and conducted in-person interviews. The study's findings may help with elucidating health issues and unmet needs specific to each stage in the life cycle of Korean women that have yet to be identified in present surveys.

  4. Rationale and Design of the Women and Inclusion in Academic Medicine Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Emorcia V; Wake, Michael; Carapinha, René; Normand, Sharon-Lise; Wolf, Robert E; Norris, Keith; Reede, Joan Y

    2016-04-21

    Women of color (WOC) (African American, Hispanic, Native American/Alaskan Native, and Asian American) faculty remain disproportionately underrepresented among medical school faculty and especially at senior ranks compared with White female faculty. The barriers or facilitators to the career advancement of WOC are poorly understood. The Women and Inclusion in Academic Medicine (WIAM) study was developed to characterize individual, institutional and sociocultural factors that influence the entry, progression and persistence, and advancement of women faculty in academic medical careers with a focus on WOC. Using a purposive sample of 13 academic medical institutions, we collected qualitative interview data from 21 WOC junior faculty and quantitative data from 3,127 (38.9% of 8,053 eligible women) respondents via an online survey. To gather institutional data, we used an online survey and conducted 23 key administrative informant interviews from the 13 institutions. Grounded theory methodology will be used to analyze qualitative data. Multivariable analysis including hierarchical linear modeling will be used to investigate outcomes, such as the inclusiveness of organizational gender climate and women faculty's intent to stay. We describe the design, methods, rationale and limitations of one of the largest and most comprehensive studies of women faculty in academic medicine with a focus on WOC. This study will enhance our understanding of challenges that face women, and, especially WOC, faculty in academic medicine and will provide solutions at both the individual and institutional levels.

  5. Study adaptation, design, and methods of a web-based PTSD intervention for women Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehavot, Keren; Litz, Brett; Millard, Steven P; Hamilton, Alison B; Sadler, Anne; Simpson, Tracy

    2017-02-01

    Women Veterans are a rapidly growing population with high risk of exposure to potentially traumatizing events and PTSD diagnoses. Despite the dissemination of evidence-based treatments for PTSD in the VA, most women Veteran VA users underutilize these treatments. Web-based PTSD treatment has the potential to reach and engage women Veterans with PTSD who do not receive treatment in VA settings. Our objective is to modify and evaluate Delivery of Self Training and Education for Stressful Situations (DESTRESSS), a web-based cognitive-behavioral intervention for PTSD, to target PTSD symptoms among women Veterans. The specific aims are to: (1) obtain feedback about DESTRESS, particularly on its relevance and sensitivity to women, using semi-structured interviews with expert clinicians and women Veterans with PTSD, and make modifications based on this feedback; (2) conduct a pilot study to finalize study procedures and make further refinements to the intervention; and (3) conduct a randomized clinical trial (RCT) evaluating a revised, telephone-assisted DESTRESS compared to telephone monitoring only. We describe the results from the first two aims, and the study design and procedures for the ongoing RCT. This line of research has the potential to result in a gender-sensitive, empirically-based, online treatment option for women Veterans with PTSD. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. The InterLACE study: Design, data harmonization and characteristics across 20 studies on women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Gita D; Chung, Hsin-Fang; Pandeya, Nirmala; Dobson, Annette J; Jones, Lee; Avis, Nancy E; Crawford, Sybil L; Gold, Ellen B; Brown, Daniel; Sievert, Lynette L; Brunner, Eric; Cade, Janet E; Burley, Victoria J; Greenwood, Darren C; Giles, Graham G; Bruinsma, Fiona; Goodman, Alissa; Hayashi, Kunihiko; Lee, Jung Su; Mizunuma, Hideki; Kuh, Diana; Cooper, Rachel; Hardy, Rebecca; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Lee, Kathryn A; Simonsen, Mette Kildevæld; Yoshizawa, Toyoko; Woods, Nancy F; Mitchell, Ellen S; Hamer, Mark; Demakakos, Panayotes; Sandin, Sven; Adami, Hans-Olov; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Anderson, Debra

    2016-10-01

    The International Collaboration for a Life Course Approach to Reproductive Health and Chronic Disease Events (InterLACE) project is a global research collaboration that aims to advance understanding of women's reproductive health in relation to chronic disease risk by pooling individual participant data from several cohort and cross-sectional studies. The aim of this paper is to describe the characteristics of contributing studies and to present the distribution of demographic and reproductive factors and chronic disease outcomes in InterLACE. InterLACE is an individual-level pooled study of 20 observational studies (12 of which are longitudinal) from ten countries. Variables were harmonized across studies to create a new and systematic synthesis of life-course data. Harmonized data were derived in three domains: 1) socio-demographic and lifestyle factors, 2) female reproductive characteristics, and 3) chronic disease outcomes (cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes). InterLACE pooled data from 229,054 mid-aged women. Overall, 76% of the women were Caucasian and 22% Japanese; other ethnicities (of 300 or more participants) included Hispanic/Latin American (0.2%), Chinese (0.2%), Middle Eastern (0.3%), African/black (0.5%), and Other (1.0%). The median age at baseline was 47 years (Inter-quartile range (IQR): 41-53), and that at the last follow-up was 56 years (IQR: 48-64). Regarding reproductive characteristics, half of the women (49.8%) had their first menstruation (menarche) at 12-13 years of age. The distribution of menopausal status and the prevalence of chronic disease varied considerably among studies. At baseline, most women (57%) were pre- or peri-menopausal, 20% reported a natural menopause (range 0.8-55.6%) and the remainder had surgery or were taking hormones. By the end of follow-up, the prevalence rates of CVD and diabetes were 7.2% (range 0.9-24.6%) and 5.1% (range 1.3-13.2%), respectively. The scale and heterogeneity of InterLACE data provide an

  7. Generating qualitative data by design: the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health qualitative data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavener, Meredith; Chojenta, Catherine; Loxton, Deborah

    2016-07-15

    Objectives and importance of study: The purpose of this study was to illustrate how qualitative free-text comments, collected within the context of a health survey, represent a rich data source for understanding specific phenomena. Work conducted with data from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) was used to demonstrate the breadth and depth of qualitative information that can be collected. The ALSWH has been collecting data on women's health since 1996, and represents a unique opportunity for understanding lived experiences across the lifecourse. A multiple case study design was used to demonstrate the techniques that researchers have used to manage free-text qualitative comments collected by the ALSWH. Eleven projects conducted using free-text comments are discussed according to the method of analysis. These methods include coding (both inductively and deductively), longitudinal analyses and software-based analyses. This work shows that free-text comments are a data resource in their own right, and have the potential to provide rich and valuable information about a wide variety of topics.

  8. Reproductive practices by patterns of marriage among Iranian women: study protocol for an explanatory sequential mixed methods design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Ziba; Vedadhir, Abouali; Behmanesh, Fereshteh; Ebadi, Abbas; Pourreza, Abulghasem; Abbasi-Shavazi, Mohammad Jalal

    2015-09-18

    Nowadays, nearly half of the world population lives in societies with low fertility or the below-replacement fertility. This potentially grounds the critical situation of reduction in the workforce and causes the aging of population due to an overall increase in life expectancy and standard of living. Hence, population and its transitions including the issue of fertility decline has become a topic of intense debate in the agenda-setting and policy-making processes in both the developed and developing countries. In this view, what can practically be done to respond to the fertility decline that entails effectively addressing the determinants of fertility change? In line with the literature, how people form their marriages or patterns of marriage is amongst influencing factors which potentially affect their reproductive practices as diverse societies recognize different conventions for marriage. This study is to examine women's reproductive practices by the various patterns of marriage using the explanatory sequential mixed methods design. This study has an explanatory sequential mixed methods design, the follow-up explanations variant model, with two strands. This design will be implemented in two distinct phases. In the first phase, a cross-sectional quantitative study will be done using a cluster sampling strategy on 850 married women 15-49 years old living in Babol city, Iran. In order to obtain a deeper understanding of the results of the quantitative phase, researchers will implement a qualitative research in the second phase of this study. This design will provide an explanation of the quantitative research results using the qualitative evidence. As patterns of marriage have implications for the status of women, their health and fertility, the result of this study can provide a rich source of information for the required health-related interventions and policies are required to put the demographic changes on the right track at micro and macro level and improve

  9. Contentious issues in research on trafficked women working in the sex industry: study design, ethics, and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwikel, Julie; Hoban, Elizabeth

    2005-11-01

    The trafficking of women and children for work in the globalized sex industry is a global social problem. Quality data is needed to provide a basis for legislation, policy, and programs, but first, numerous research design, ethical, and methodological problems must be addressed. Research design issues in studying women trafficked for sex work (WTSW) include how to (a) develop coalitions to fund and support research, (b) maintain a critical stance on prostitution, and therefore WTSW (c) use multiple paradigms and methods to accurately reflect WTSW's reality, (d) present the purpose of the study, and (e) protect respondents' identities. Ethical issues include (a) complications with informed consent procedures, (b) problematic access to WTSW (c) loss of WTSW to follow-up, (d) inability to intervene in illegal acts or human rights violations, and (e) the need to maintain trustworthiness as researchers. Methodological issues include (a) constructing representative samples, (b) managing media interest, and (c) handling incriminating materials about law enforcement and immigration.

  10. Diet and lifestyle interventions in postpartum women in China: study design and rationale of a multicenter randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Juan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background "Doing the month", or "sitting month", is a traditional practice for postpartum women in China and other Asian countries, which includes some taboos against well-accepted healthy diet and lifestyles in general population. Previous studies have shown this practice may be associated with higher prevalence of postpartum problems. The current multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT aims to evaluate outcomes of diet and lifestyle interventions in Chinese postpartum women. Methods/Design The current multicenter RCT will be conducted in three representative areas in China, Shandong province, Hubei province and Guangdong province, which locate in northern, central and southern parts of China, respectively. Women who attend routine pregnancy diagnosis in hospitals or maternal healthcare centers will be invited to take part in this study. At least 800 women who meet our eligibility criteria will be recruited and randomly assigned to the intervention group (n > = 400 and the control group (n > = 400. A three-dimension comprehensive intervention strategy, which incorporates intervention measures simultaneously to individual postpartum woman, their family members and community environment, will be utilized to maximize the effectiveness of intervention. Regular visiting and follow-up will be done in both group; nutrition and health-related measurements will be assessed both before and after the intervention. Discussion To our knowledge, this current study is the first and largest multicenter RCT which focus on the effectiveness of diet and lifestyle intervention on reducing the incidence rate of postpartum diseases and improving health status in postpartum women. We hypothesize that the intervention will reduce the incidence rates of postpartum diseases and improve nutrition and health status due to a balanced diet and reasonable lifestyle in comparison with the control condition. If so, the results of our study will provide

  11. A pragmatic cluster randomized clinical trial of diabetes prevention strategies for women with gestational diabetes: design and rationale of the Gestational Diabetes' Effects on Moms (GEM) study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferrara, Assiamira; Hedderson, Monique M; Albright, Cheryl L; Brown, Susan D; Ehrlich, Samantha F; Caan, Bette J; Sternfeld, Barbara; Gordon, Nancy P; Schmittdiel, Julie A; Gunderson, Erica P; Mevi, Ashley A; Tsai, Ai-Lin; Ching, Jenny; Crites, Yvonne; Quesenberry, Jr, Charles P

    2014-01-01

    .... In the Gestational Diabetes' Effects on Moms (GEM) study, we are evaluating the comparative effectiveness of diabetes prevention strategies for weight management designed for pregnant/postpartum women with GDM and delivered at the health system level...

  12. Resources for Women's Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridinger, Robert B.

    Over 120 bibliographies and other reference sources relevant to women's studies are identified in this annotated listing. Subjects include feminist scholarship, women in management, popular culture, autobiographies, other cultures and countries, history, lesbian women, women's education, the arts, politics, and rape. In addition to author, title,…

  13. Rationale, design, and methodology for the optimizing outcomes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus and their infants study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Diane C; Neal, Madeline; Hall, Emily G; Schwartz, Todd A; Verbiest, Sarah; Bonuck, Karen; Goodnight, William; Brody, Seth; Dorman, Karen F; Menard, Mary K; Stuebe, Alison M

    2013-10-10

    Women who are diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at increased risk for developing prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To date, there have been few interdisciplinary interventions that target predominantly ethnic minority low-income women diagnosed with GDM. This paper describes the rationale, design and methodology of a 2-year, randomized, controlled study being conducted in North Carolina. Using a two-group, repeated measures, experimental design, we will test a 14- week intensive intervention on the benefits of breastfeeding, understanding gestational diabetes and risk of progression to prediabetes and T2DM, nutrition and exercise education, coping skills training, physical activity (Phase I), educational and motivational text messaging and 3 months of continued monthly contact (Phase II). A total of 100 African American, non-Hispanic white, and bilingual Hispanic women between 22-36 weeks of pregnancy who are diagnosed with GDM and their infants will be randomized to either the experimental group or the wait-listed control group. The first aim of the study is to determine the feasibility of the intervention. The second aim of study is to test the effects of the intervention on maternal outcomes from baseline (22-36 weeks pregnant) to 10 months postpartum. Primary maternal outcomes will include fasting blood glucose and weight (BMI) from baseline to 10 months postpartum. Secondary maternal outcomes will include clinical, adiposity, health behaviors and self-efficacy outcomes from baseline to 10 months postpartum. The third aim of the study is to quantify the effects of the intervention on infant feeding and growth. Infant outcomes will include weight status and breastfeeding from birth through 10 months of age. Data analysis will include general linear mixed-effects models. Safety endpoints include adverse event reporting. Findings from this trial may lead to an effective intervention to assist women diagnosed with GDM to

  14. INNOVATIVE CLOTHING DESIGN FOR WOMEN DURING PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPESCU Georgeta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During pregnancy there is an evident change in the physical appearance of a woman's body. The most evident change is the substantial weight gain, increased abdominal region, torso and hip, and limbs thickening. Physical changes leads to the need of a wardrobe changing, especially in the fourth month of pregnancy. Given these factors the question arises is to identify the transformations of body conformation and ensure a maximum comfort in developing clothing products for this category. Because it is a continuous transformation, the products must be designed to be adjustable and versatile, ensuring their usability for a long period of the pregnancy and even after birth. The paper presents the specific algorithms for body conformations during pregnancy and the patterns designed based on these algorithms with the proper modifications. The principle of designing clothes for pregnant women refers to the introduction of pregnancy-related size changes in the standard method of pattern design. The research was conducted by INCDTP during the initial stage of a project, financed through national founds, consisting in a documentary study on morphologic indicators of women during the pregnancy period, the changes observe and their application in pattern design. Following the principles specific to the product group studied regarding comfort and style, INCDTP specialists have developed and produced a collection of clothing products for women during pregnancy. Key words: Pregnancy, algorithms, proportions, morphological indices, pattern design, clothing, changes

  15. Study of Women, Infant feeding, and Type 2 diabetes mellitus after GDM pregnancy (SWIFT, a prospective cohort study: methodology and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunderson Erica P

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women with history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM are at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes within 5 years after delivery. Evidence that lactation duration influences incident type 2 diabetes after GDM pregnancy is based on one retrospective study reporting a null association. The Study of Women, Infant Feeding and Type 2 Diabetes after GDM pregnancy (SWIFT is a prospective cohort study of postpartum women with recent GDM within the Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC integrated health care system. The primary goal of SWIFT is to assess whether prolonged, intensive lactation as compared to formula feeding reduces the 2-year incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus among women with GDM. The study also examines whether lactation intensity and duration have persistent favorable effects on blood glucose, insulin resistance, and adiposity during the 2-year postpartum period. This report describes the design and methods implemented for this study to obtain the clinical, biochemical, anthropometric, and behavioral measurements during the recruitment and follow-up phases. Methods SWIFT is a prospective, observational cohort study enrolling and following over 1, 000 postpartum women diagnosed with GDM during pregnancy within KPNC. The study enrolled women at 6-9 weeks postpartum (baseline who had been diagnosed by standard GDM criteria, aged 20-45 years, delivered a singleton, term (greater than or equal to 35 weeks gestation live birth, were not using medications affecting glucose tolerance, and not planning another pregnancy or moving out of the area within the next 2 years. Participants who are free of type 2 diabetes and other serious medical conditions at baseline are screened for type 2 diabetes annually within the first 2 years after delivery. Recruitment began in September 2008 and ends in December 2011. Data are being collected through pregnancy and early postpartum telephone interviews, self

  16. Readiness for diabetes prevention and barriers to lifestyle change in women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus: rationale and study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscombe, Lorraine L; Banerjee, Ananya Tina; McTavish, Sarah; Mukerji, Geetha; Lowe, Julia; Ray, Joel; Evans, Marilyn; Feig, Denice S

    2014-10-01

    Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have a high risk of future diabetes, which can be prevented with lifestyle modification. Prior diabetes prevention programmes in this population have been limited by lack of adherence. The aim of this study is to evaluate readiness for behaviour change at different time points after GDM diagnosis and identify barriers and facilitators, to inform a lifestyle modification programme specifically designed for this group. The objective of this paper is to present the rationale and methodological design of this study. The ongoing prospective cohort study has recruited a multi-ethnic cohort of 1353 women with GDM from 7 Ontario, Canada hospitals during their pregnancy. A questionnaire was developed to evaluate stage of readiness for behaviour change, and sociodemographic, psychosocial, and clinical predictors of healthy diet and physical activity. Thus far, 960 women (71%) have completed a baseline survey prior to delivery. Prospective postpartum follow-up is ongoing. We are surveying women at 2 time-points after delivery: 3-12 months postpartum, and 13-24 months postpartum. Survey data will be linked to health care administrative databases for long-term follow-up for diabetes. Qualitative interviews were conducted in a subset of women to gain a deeper understanding of barriers and facilitators to lifestyle change. Our study is a fundamental first step in effectively addressing diabetes prevention in women with GDM. Our findings will aid in the design of a diabetes prevention intervention specifically targeted to women with recent GDM, which can then be evaluated in a clinical trial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rationale and design of a long term follow-up study of women who did and did not receive HPV 16/18 vaccination in Guanacaste, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Paula; Hildesheim, Allan; Herrero, Rolando; Katki, Hormuzd; Wacholder, Sholom; Porras, Carolina; Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Jimenez, Silvia; Darragh, Teresa M; Cortes, Bernal; Befano, Brian; Schiffman, Mark; Carvajal, Loreto; Palefsky, Joel; Schiller, John; Ocampo, Rebeca; Schussler, John; Lowy, Douglas; Guillen, Diego; Stoler, Mark H; Quint, Wim; Morales, Jorge; Avila, Carlos; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Kreimer, Aimée R

    2015-04-27

    The Costa Rica Vaccine Trial (CVT) was a randomized clinical trial conducted between 2004 and 2010, which randomized 7466 women aged 18 to 25 to receive the bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine or control Hepatitis-A vaccine. Participants were followed for 4 years with cross-over vaccination at the study end. In 2010 the long term follow-up (LTFU) study was initiated to evaluate the 10-year impact of HPV-16/18 vaccination, determinants of the immune response, and HPV natural history in a vaccinated population. Herein, the rationale, design and methods of the LTFU study are described, which actively follows CVT participants in the HPV-arm 6 additional years at biennial intervals (3 additional study visits for 10 years of total follow-up), or more often if clinically indicated. According to the initial commitment, women in the Hepatitis-A arm were offered HPV vaccination at cross-over; they were followed 2 additional years and exited from the study. 92% of eligible CVT women accepted participation in LTFU. To provide underlying rates of HPV acquisition and cervical disease among unvaccinated women to compare with the HPV-arm during LTFU, a new unvaccinated control group (UCG) of women who are beyond the age generally recommended for routine vaccination was enrolled, and will be followed by cervical cancer screening over 6 years. To form the UCG, 5000 women were selected from a local census, of whom 2836 women (61% of eligible women) agreed to participate. Over 90% of participants complied with an interview, blood and cervical specimen collection. Evaluation of comparability between the original (Hepatitis-A arm of CVT) and new (UCG) control groups showed that women's characteristics, as well as their predicted future risk for cervical HPV acquisition, were similar, thus validating use of the UCG. LTFU is poised to comprehensively address many important questions related to long-term effects of prophylactic HPV vaccines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The role of Community Mobilization in maternal care provision for women in sub-Saharan Africa- A systematic review of studies using an experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzyamba, Choolwe; Groot, Wim; Tomini, Sonila M; Pavlova, Milena

    2017-08-29

    While the role of community mobilization in improving maternal health outcomes of HIV positive women in sub-Saharan Africa is continuously emphasized, little is known about how legitimate these claims are. The aim of this study is to systematically review the empirical evidence on this issue. A systematic search was conducted in PuBMed, Scopus, Web of Science, MEDLINE, COCHRANE, Allied Health Literature, and Cumulative Index to Nursing. Our search identified 14 publications on the role of community mobilization in maternal care provision in sub-Saharan Africa, including both HIV negative women and women with HIV, that have used experimental research designs. Regarding HIV negative women, literature has demonstrated that community mobilization is a useful strategy for promoting both positive maternal process results and maternal health outcomes. Most of the literature on women with HIV has focused only on demonstrating the causal link between community mobilization and process results. There has been very little focus on demonstrating the causal link between community mobilization and maternal outcomes for women living with HIV. Overall, the results show that while there is some empirical evidence on a causal link between community mobilization and maternal health outcomes for HIV negative women, this kind of evidence is still missing for HIV positive women. Moreover, as shown by the studies, community mobilization as a maternal health strategy is still in its infancy. Given the gaps identified in our review, we recommend further research with the aim of providing sound evidence on the role of community mobilization in improving maternal health outcomes of women with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa.

  19. Study protocol for Young & Strong: a cluster randomized design to increase attention to unique issues faced by young women with newly diagnosed breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaney, Mary L; Sprunck-Harrild, Kim; Ruddy, Kathryn J; Ligibel, Jennifer; Barry, William T; Baker, Emily; Meyer, Meghan; Emmons, Karen M; Partridge, Ann H

    2015-01-31

    Each year, approximately 11% of women diagnosed with breast cancer in the United States are 45 years of age or younger. These women have concerns specific to or accentuated by their age, including fertility-related concerns, and have higher rates of psychosocial distress than women diagnosed at older ages. Current guidelines recommend that fertility risks be considered early in all treatment plans; however, the extant research indicates that attention to fertility by the healthcare team is limited. Importantly, attention to fertility may be a proxy for whether or not other important issues warranting attention in younger women with breast cancer are addressed, including genetic risks, psychosocial distress, sexual functioning, and body image concerns. The Young & Strong study tests the efficacy of an intervention designed for young women recently diagnosed with breast cancer and their oncologists with the intention to: 1) increase attention to fertility as an important surrogate for other issues facing young women, 2) educate and support young women and their providers, and 3) reduce psychosocial distress among young women with breast cancer. The study employs a cluster randomized design including 14 academic institutions and 40 community sites across the U.S. assigned to either the study intervention arm or contact-time comparison intervention arm. Academic institutions enroll up to 15 patients per site while community sites enroll up to 10 patients. Patient eligibility requirements include: an initial diagnosis of stage I-III invasive breast cancer within three months prior, without a known recurrence or metastatic breast cancer; 18-45 years of age at diagnosis; ability to read and write in English. The primary outcome is oncologists' attention to fertility concerns as determined by medical record review. Secondary outcomes include differences in patient satisfaction with care and psychosocial distress between the two study arms. Study findings will provide

  20. Clinic-based nutrition and lifestyle counseling for Hispanic women delivered by community health workers: design of the California WISEWOMAN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Maureen A; Hayashi, Toshi; Loo, Ryan K; Rocha, David A; Sanders, Charlene; Hernandez, Marianne; Will, Julie C

    2009-05-01

    The Well-Integrated Screening and Evaluation for Women Across the Nation (WISEWOMAN) program in California, named Heart of the Family, implements and evaluates the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions to improve nutrition and physical activity while reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among low-income, uninsured or underinsured Hispanic women aged 40-64 who participate in the Cancer Detection Programs: Every Woman Counts (CDP:EWP). This paper reports the study design and baseline findings of the California WISEWOMAN program. Heart of the Family, a within-site randomized controlled study at four community health centers in Los Angeles and San Diego, featured a unique set of strategies meeting the state population in implementing a California WISEWOMAN program. The program exclusively targeted Hispanic women who are at risk of developing CVD, provided lifestyle intervention using a validated intervention material in Spanish and English to motivate behavioral changes, and used bilingual (English and Spanish) community health workers (CHWs) to provide individually based face-to-face counseling. Women meeting enrollment criteria were randomly assigned either to an enhanced intervention group (EIG), who received lifestyle intervention, or usual care group (UCG), who received the usual care for elevated blood pressure or cholesterol. A total of 1093 women enrolled between January 2006 and August 2006. Demographic and baseline CVD risk profiles are similar in both groups. Some notable characteristics of the California participants are lower smoking rate (5%), higher average body mass index (BMI) (31.9), and a significantly higher percentage with less than high school education (70%). With its unique study design and large number of enrolls, Heart of the Family will enable future public health efforts to better meet the health needs of Hispanic women by addressing education levels, economic considerations, and cultural and linguistic needs.

  1. A Yoga Strengthening Program Designed to Minimize the Knee Adduction Moment for Women with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Proof-Of-Principle Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Brenneman, Elora C.; Kuntz, Alexander B.; Wiebenga, Emily G.; Maly, Monica R

    2015-01-01

    People with knee osteoarthritis may benefit from exercise prescriptions that minimize knee loads in the frontal plane. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether a novel 12-week strengthening program designed to minimize exposure to the knee adduction moment (KAM) could improve symptoms and knee strength in women with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. A secondary objective was to determine whether the program could improve mobility and fitness, and decrease peak KAM during ga...

  2. The study of women, infant feeding and type 2 diabetes after GDM pregnancy and growth of their offspring (SWIFT Offspring study): prospective design, methodology and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Erica P; Hurston, Shanta R; Dewey, Kathryn G; Faith, Myles S; Charvat-Aguilar, Nancy; Khoury, Vicky C; Nguyen, Van T; Quesenberry, Charles P

    2015-07-17

    Breastfeeding is associated with reduced risk of becoming overweight or obese later in life. Breastfed babies grow more slowly during infancy than formula-fed babies. Among offspring exposed in utero to maternal glucose intolerance, prospective data on growth during infancy have been unavailable. Thus, scientific evidence is insufficient to conclude that breastfeeding reduces the risk of obesity among the offspring of diabetic mothers (ODM). To address this gap, we devised the Study of Women, Infant Feeding and Type 2 Diabetes after GDM Pregnancy and Growth of their Offspring, also known as the SWIFT Offspring Study. This prospective, longitudinal study recruited mother-infant pairs from the SWIFT Study, a prospective study of women with recent gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The goal of the SWIFT Offspring Study is to determine whether breastfeeding intensity and duration, compared with formula feeding, are related to slower growth of GDM offspring during the first year life. This article details the study design, participant eligibility, data collection, and methodologies. We also describe the baseline characteristics of the GDM mother-infant pairs. The study enrolled 466 mother-infant pairs among GDM deliveries in northern California from 2009-2011. Participants attended three in-person study exams at 6-9 weeks, 6 months and 12 months after delivery for infant anthropometry (head circumference, body weight, length, abdominal circumference and skinfold thicknesses), as well as maternal anthropometry (body weight, waist circumference and percent body fat). Mothers also completed questionnaires on health and lifestyle behaviors, including infant diet, sleep and temperament. Breastfeeding intensity and duration were assessed via several sources (diaries, telephone interviews, monthly mailings and in-person exams) from birth through the first year of life. Pregnancy course, clinical perinatal and newborn outcomes were obtained from health plan electronic

  3. Adequacy of nutritional intake from food and supplements in a cohort of pregnant women in Québec, Canada: the 3D Cohort Study (Design, Develop, Discover).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Lise; Diasparra, Maikol; Bédard, Brigitte; Colapinto, Cynthia K; Fontaine-Bisson, Bénédicte; Morisset, Anne-Sophie; Tremblay, Richard E; Fraser, William D

    2017-08-01

    Background: Assessments of the dietary intakes in various populations suggest that pregnant women have difficulty meeting all their nutritional requirements through diet alone. Few large-scale studies have considered both food sources and supplements in assessing the adequacy of nutritional intakes during pregnancy.Objective: Our study aimed to assess nutritional intakes during pregnancy by examining dietary sources and supplements. It then compared these findings with Dietary Reference Intakes.Design: We conducted a nutrition study in a large pregnancy cohort using a 3-d food record during the second trimester of pregnancy. Detailed information about supplement consumption was obtained by interview at each prenatal visit. We estimated the distribution of total usual intakes for energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients for 1533 pregnant women.Results: A third of the participants had total fat intakes that exceeded the Acceptable Micronutrient Distribution Range. A majority of women (85%) had sodium intakes above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). Median intakes for fiber and potassium were lower than Adequate Intakes. Dietary intakes of vitamin B-6, magnesium, and zinc were below the Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) for 10-15% of the women. A majority of the women had dietary intakes below the EARs for iron (97%), vitamin D (96%), and folate (70%). When we considered micronutrient intakes from both food and supplements, we found that the prevalence of inadequate intake was food alone remains low in the diets of pregnant women. Supplement use reduces the risk of inadequate intake for many micronutrients, but diet-related issues during pregnancy remain and deserve to be addressed in public health interventions. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03113331. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. A pragmatic cluster randomized clinical trial of diabetes prevention strategies for women with gestational diabetes: design and rationale of the Gestational Diabetes' Effects on Moms (GEM) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Assiamira; Hedderson, Monique M; Albright, Cheryl L; Brown, Susan D; Ehrlich, Samantha F; Caan, Bette J; Sternfeld, Barbara; Gordon, Nancy P; Schmittdiel, Julie A; Gunderson, Erica P; Mevi, Ashley A; Tsai, Ai-Lin; Ching, Jenny; Crites, Yvonne; Quesenberry, Charles P

    2014-01-15

    Women with gestational diabetes (GDM) are at high risk of developing diabetes later in life. After a GDM diagnosis, women receive prenatal care to control their blood glucose levels via diet, physical activity and medications. Continuing such lifestyle skills into early motherhood may reduce the risk of diabetes in this high risk population. In the Gestational Diabetes' Effects on Moms (GEM) study, we are evaluating the comparative effectiveness of diabetes prevention strategies for weight management designed for pregnant/postpartum women with GDM and delivered at the health system level. The GEM study is a pragmatic cluster randomized clinical trial of 44 medical facilities at Kaiser Permanente Northern California randomly assigned to either the intervention or usual care conditions, that includes 2,320 women with a GDM diagnosis between March 27, 2011 and March 30, 2012. A Diabetes Prevention Program-derived print/telephone lifestyle intervention of 13 telephonic sessions tailored to pregnant/postpartum women was developed. The effectiveness of this intervention added to usual care is to be compared to usual care practices alone, which includes two pages of printed lifestyle recommendations sent to postpartum women via mail. Primary outcomes include the proportion of women who reach a postpartum weight goal and total weight change. Secondary outcomes include postpartum glycemia, blood pressure, depression, percent of calories from fat, total caloric intake and physical activity levels. Data were collected through electronic medical records and surveys at baseline (soon after GDM diagnosis), 6 weeks (range 2 to 11 weeks), 6 months (range 12 to 34 weeks) and 12 months postpartum (range 35 to 64 weeks). There is a need for evidence regarding the effectiveness of lifestyle modification for the prevention of diabetes in women with GDM, as well as confirmation that a diabetes prevention program delivered at the health system level is able to successfully reach this

  5. Mechanism of action study to evaluate the effect of rosiglitazone on bone in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: rationale, study design and baseline characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Lorraine A.; Bilezikian, John P.; Wooddell, Margaret; Paul, Gitanjali; Kolatkar, Nikheel S.; Nino, Antonio J.; Miller, Colin G.; Bogado, Cesar E.; Arnaud, Claude D.; Cobitz, Alexander R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Post-hoc analyses have shown an increase incidence of fractures among type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients treated with thiazolidinediones (TZDs). The mechanisms by which TZDs may be associated with increased fracture risk is not well understood. This article describes the study design and baseline characteristics for a prospective, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled trial to evaluate the effects of rosiglitazone on changes in measures of skeletal structure, surrogates of bone strength and metabolism. Methods Postmenopausal women without osteoporosis and diagnosed with T2DM were randomized in a double-blind design to either rosiglitazone or metformin for 52 weeks, then all subjects received open-label metformin for 24 weeks. Study endpoints included changes in bone mineral density (BMD), quantitative computed tomography (QCT), digitized hip radiography (HXR) and high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (hrMRI). Serum markers of bone metabolism and indices of glycemic control were assessed within and between treatment groups. Results A total of 226 subjects were randomized. Baseline characteristics included: age 63.8 ± 6.5 years; years postmenopausal 16.9 ± 8.4; duration of diabetes 3.5 (1.8–7.8) years; body mass index (BMI) 31.4 ± 5.9 kg/m2; and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) 6.4 ± 0.65%. At baseline, mean T-scores were −0.95 ± 0.91 at the femoral neck, −0.02 ± 0.97 at the total hip and −0.55 ± 1.25 at the total spine. Since there are no well recognized techniques to determine bone mass and structure at the distal limbs (cortical bone sites where fractures were reported in RSG subjects), using the femoral neck as a surrogate for these areas may be a potential limitation of the study. Conclusion This is the first randomized trial utilizing multiple techniques to evaluate bone mass, structure, serum markers of bone remodeling, and potential reversibility of changes after discontinuation of rosiglitazone. This

  6. Mechanism of action study to evaluate the effect of rosiglitazone on bone in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: rationale, study design and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Lorraine A; Bilezikian, John P; Wooddell, Margaret; Paul, Gitanjali; Kolatkar, Nikheel S; Nino, Antonio J; Miller, Colin G; Bogado, Cesar E; Arnaud, Claude D; Cobitz, Alexander R

    2012-01-01

    Post-hoc analyses have shown an increase incidence of fractures among type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients treated with thiazolidinediones (TZDs). The mechanisms by which TZDs may be associated with increased fracture risk is not well understood. This article describes the study design and baseline characteristics for a prospective, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled trial to evaluate the effects of rosiglitazone on changes in measures of skeletal structure, surrogates of bone strength and metabolism. Postmenopausal women without osteoporosis and diagnosed with T2DM were randomized in a double-blind design to either rosiglitazone or metformin for 52 weeks, then all subjects received open-label metformin for 24 weeks. Study endpoints included changes in bone mineral density (BMD), quantitative computed tomography (QCT), digitized hip radiography (HXR) and high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (hrMRI). Serum markers of bone metabolism and indices of glycemic control were assessed within and between treatment groups. A total of 226 subjects were randomized. Baseline characteristics included: age 63.8 ± 6.5 years; years postmenopausal 16.9 ± 8.4; duration of diabetes 3.5 (1.8-7.8) years; body mass index (BMI) 31.4 ± 5.9 kg/m(2); and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) 6.4 ± 0.65%. At baseline, mean T-scores were -0.95 ± 0.91 at the femoral neck, -0.02 ± 0.97 at the total hip and -0.55 ± 1.25 at the total spine. Since there are no well recognized techniques to determine bone mass and structure at the distal limbs (cortical bone sites where fractures were reported in RSG subjects), using the femoral neck as a surrogate for these areas may be a potential limitation of the study. This is the first randomized trial utilizing multiple techniques to evaluate bone mass, structure, serum markers of bone remodeling, and potential reversibility of changes after discontinuation of rosiglitazone. This study will provide information about RSG

  7. Mindfulness based stress reduction study design of a longitudinal randomized controlled complementary intervention in women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenne Sarenmalm, Elisabeth; Mårtensson, Lena B; Holmberg, Stig B; Andersson, Bengt A; Odén, Anders; Bergh, Ingrid

    2013-10-02

    The stress of a breast cancer diagnosis and its treatment can produce a variety of psychosocial sequelae including impaired immune responses. Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is a structured complementary program that incorporates meditation, yoga and mind-body exercises. Despite promising empirical evidence for the efficacy of MBSR, there is a need for randomized controlled trials (RCT). There is also a need for RCTs investigating the efficacy of psychosocial interventions on mood disorder and immune response in women with breast cancer. Therefore, the overall aim is to determine the efficacy of a Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) intervention on well-being and immune response in women with breast cancer. In this RCT, patients diagnosed with breast cancer, will consecutively be recruited to participate. Participants will be randomized into one of three groups: MBSR Intervention I (weekly group sessions + self-instructing program), MBSR Intervention II (self-instructing program), and Controls (non-MBSR). Data will be collected before start of intervention, and 3, 6, and 12 months and thereafter yearly up to 5 years. This study may contribute to evidence-based knowledge concerning the efficacy of MBSR to support patient empowerment to regain health in breast cancer disease. The present study may contribute to evidence-based knowledge concerning the efficacy of mindfulness training to support patient empowerment to regain health in a breast cancer disease. If MBSR is effective for symptom relief and quality of life, the method will have significant clinical relevance that may generate standard of care for patients with breast cancer. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01591915.

  8. MRI screening for breast cancer in women with familial or genetic predisposition : design of the Dutch National Study (MRISC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kriege, M; Brekelmans, C T; Boetes, C; Rutgers, E J; Oosterwijk, J C; Tollenaar, R A; Manoliu, R A; Holland, R; de Koning, H J; Klijn, J G

    2001-01-01

    Mammography screening of women aged 50-70 years for breast cancer has proven to be effective in reducing breast cancer mortality. There is no consensus about the value of breast cancer screening in women aged 40-49 years. Five to ten per cent of all breast cancers are hereditary. One of the options

  9. Associations between quality of life, physical activity, worry, depression and insomnia: A cross-sectional designed study in healthy pregnant women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Danielle Mourady; Sami Richa; Rita Karam; Tatiana Papazian; Fabienne Hajj Moussa; Nada El Osta; Assaad Kesrouani; Joseph Azouri; Hicham Jabbour; Aline Hajj; Lydia Rabbaa Khabbaz

    2017-01-01

    ...), insomnia, depression and worry are insufficiently investigated among pregnant women. The aim of this study was to evaluate QOL and PA patterns among healthy pregnant women, and to examine how QOL might correlate to PA, sleep, worry and depression...

  10. Diabetes in pregnancy among indigenous women in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States: a method for systematic review of studies with different designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamberlain Catherine

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes in pregnancy, which includes gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, is associated with poor outcomes for both mother and infant during pregnancy, at birth and in the longer term. Recent international guidelines recommend changes to the current GDM screening criteria. While some controversy remains, there appears to be consensus that women at high risk of T2DM, including indigenous women, should be offered screening for GDM early in pregnancy, rather than waiting until 24-28 weeks as is current practice. A range of criteria should be considered before changing screening practice in a population sub-group, including: prevalence, current practice, acceptability and whether adequate treatment pathways and follow-up systems are available. There are also specific issues related to screening in pregnancy and indigenous populations. The evidence that these criteria are met for indigenous populations is yet to be reported. A range of study designs can be considered to generate relevant evidence for these issues, including epidemiological, observational, qualitative, and intervention studies, which are not usually included within a single systematic review. The aim of this paper is to describe the methods we used to systematically review studies of different designs and present the evidence in a pragmatic format for policy discussion. Methods/Design The inclusion criteria will be broad to ensure inclusion of the critical perspectives of indigenous women. Abstracts of the search results will be reviewed by two persons; the full texts of all potentially eligible papers will be reviewed by one person, and 10% will be checked by a second person for validation. Data extraction will be standardised, using existing tools to identify risks for bias in intervention, measurement, qualitative studies and reviews; and adapting criteria for appraising risk for bias in descriptive studies. External validity

  11. Thermogenic effect of meltdown RTD™ energy drink in young healthy women: a double blind, cross-over design study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faigenbaum Avery D

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine the acute metabolic effects of a high-energy drink in healthy, physically-active women. Methods Ten women (20.4 ± 0.70 y; 166.9 ± 7.2 cm; 67.0 ± 7.0 kg; 29.6 ± 6.5% body fat underwent two testing sessions administered in a randomized and double-blind fashion. Subjects reported to the laboratory in a 3-hr post-absorptive state and were provided either 140 ml of the high-energy drink (SUP; commercially marketed as Meltdown RTD™ or placebo (P. Subjects consumed two 70 ml doses of SUP or P, separated by 30 min and rested in a semi-recumbent position for 3 hours. Resting oxygen consumption (VO2 and heart rate (HR were determined every 5 min during the first 30 min and every 10 min during the next 150 min. Blood pressure (BP was determined every 15 min during the first 30 min and every 30 min thereafter. Area under the curve (AUC analysis was computed for VO2, whereas a 3-hour average and hourly averages were calculated for respiratory quotient (RQ, total kcal, HR, BP, and profile of mood states (POMS. Results AUC analysis revealed a 10.8% difference (p = 0.03 in VO2 between SUP and P. No difference in VO2 was seen between the groups in the first hour, but VO2 in SUP was significantly greater than P in the second (13.9%, p = 0.01 and third hours (11.9%, p = 0.03. A difference (p = 0.03 in energy expenditure was seen between SUP (1.09 ± 0.10 kcal·min-1 and P (0.99 ± 0.09 kcal·min-1 for the 3-hour period. Although no difference in energy expenditure was seen in the first hour, significant differences between SUP and P were observed in the second (1.10 ± 0.11 kcal·min-1 and 0.99 ± 0.09 kcal·min-1, respectively; p = 0.02 and third hour (1.08 ± 0.11 kcal·min-1 and 0.99 ± 0.09 kcal·min-1, respectively; p = 0.05. Average systolic BP was significantly higher (p = 0.007 for SUP (110.0 ± 3.9 mmHg compared to P (107.3 ± 4.4 mmHg. No differences were seen in HR, diastolic BP, or POMS

  12. Enhancing Mother Infant Interactions through Video Feedback Enabled Interventions in Women with Schizophrenia: A Single Subject Research Design Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Pashapu Dharma; Desai, Geehta; Hamza, Ameer; Karthik, Sheshachala; Ananthanpillai, Supraja Thirumalai; Chandra, Prabha S

    2014-10-01

    It has been shown that mother infant interactions are often impaired in mothers with schizophrenia. Contributory factors include psychotic symptoms, negative symptoms and surrogate parenting by others. This study describes the effectiveness of video feedback in enhancing mother-infant interaction in mothers with schizophrenia who have impaired interaction with their infant. Two women with schizophrenia who were admitted for persistent psychotic symptoms and poor mothering skills, participated in the intervention. Pre intervention parenting assessment was done using video recording of mother infant interaction. Six sessions of mothering intervention were provided using video feedback and a repeat recording was done. Pre-and post-intervention videos were subsequently rated in a blind fashion by an independent expert in perinatal psychiatry using the pediatric infant parent exam (PIPE) scale. Pre and post intervention comparison of PIPE scores indicating significant improvement in several areas of mothering. Video feedback is a simple and inexpensive tool which can be used for improving mothering skills among mothers with postpartum psychosis or schizophrenia even in low resource settings.

  13. Female Studies: No. 4. Teaching About Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showalter, Elaine, Ed.; Ohmann, Carol, Ed.

    This document on women's studies presents essays on the subject, a review of the special collections on women, and an annotated bibliography of materials dealing with women's studies and women's liberation. The essays presented include such topics as teaching about women, women in education, all male students and women's liberation, the feminist…

  14. HPTN 068: A Randomized Control Trial of a Conditional Cash Transfer to Reduce HIV Infection in Young Women in South Africa-Study Design and Baseline Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettifor, Audrey; MacPhail, Catherine; Selin, Amanda; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier; Rosenberg, Molly; Wagner, Ryan G; Mabuza, Wonderful; Hughes, James P; Suchindran, Chirayath; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Wang, Jing; Twine, Rhian; Daniel, Tamu; Andrew, Philip; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Agyei, Yaw; Tollman, Stephen; Kahn, Kathleen

    2016-09-01

    Young women in South Africa are at high risk for HIV infection. Cash transfers offer promise to reduce HIV risk. We present the design and baseline results from HPTN 068, a phase III, individually randomized trial to assess the effect of a conditional cash transfer on HIV acquisition among South African young women. A total of 2533 young women were randomized to receive a monthly cash transfer conditional on school attendance or to a control group. A number of individual-, partner-, household- and school-level factors were associated with HIV and HSV-2 infection. After adjusting for age, all levels were associated with an increased odds of HIV infection with partner-level factors conveying the strongest association (aOR 3.05 95 % CI 1.84-5.06). Interventions like cash transfers that address structural factors such as schooling and poverty have the potential to reduce HIV risk in young women in South Africa.

  15. The 'Women's Lifestyle Study', 2-year randomized controlled trial of physical activity counselling in primary health care: rationale and study design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dowell Anthony C

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity is an independent risk factor for diabetes and heart disease. There is evidence that increasing physical activity can reduce the risk of developing these chronic diseases, but less evidence about effective ways to increase adherence to physical activity. Interventions are therefore needed that produce sustained increases in adherence to physical activity, are cost-effective and improve clinical endpoints. Methods The Women's Lifestyle Study is a two year randomized controlled trial involving a nurse-led intervention to increase physical activity in 40–74 year old physically inactive women recruited from primary care. Baseline measures were assessed in a face-to-face interview with a primary care nurse. The intervention involved delivery of a 'Lifestyle script' by a primary care nurse followed by telephone counselling for nine months and a face-to-face nurse visit at six months. Outcome measurements are assessed at 12 and 24 months. The primary outcome is physical activity measured using a validated physical activity questionnaire. Secondary outcomes include blood pressure, weight, waist circumference, physical fitness (step test, serum HbA1c, fasting glucose, lipids, insulin, and quality of life (SF36. Costs were measured prospectively to allow a subsequent cost-effectiveness evaluation if the trial is positive. Discussion Due to report in 2008, the Women's Lifestyle Study tests the effectiveness of an enhanced low-cost, evidence-based intervention in increasing physical activity, and improving cardiovascular and diabetes risk indicators over two years. If successful in demonstrating improvements in health outcomes, this randomized controlled trial will be the first to demonstrate long-term cardiovascular and diabetes risk health benefit, in addition to improvements in physical activity, from a sustainable physical activity intervention based in primary care. Trial Registration Australian Clinical Trials

  16. Routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis in women who are Rh(D negative: meta-analyses adjusted for differences in study design and quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M Turner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To estimate the effectiveness of routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis for preventing sensitisation in pregnant Rhesus negative women, and to explore whether this depends on the treatment regimen adopted. METHODS: Ten studies identified in a previous systematic literature search were included. Potential sources of bias were systematically identified using bias checklists, and their impact and uncertainty were quantified using expert opinion. Study results were adjusted for biases and combined, first in a random-effects meta-analysis and then in a random-effects meta-regression analysis. RESULTS: In a conventional meta-analysis, the pooled odds ratio for sensitisation was estimated as 0.25 (95% CI 0.18, 0.36, comparing routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis to control, with some heterogeneity (I²  =  19%. However, this naïve analysis ignores substantial differences in study quality and design. After adjusting for these, the pooled odds ratio for sensitisation was estimated as 0.31 (95% CI 0.17, 0.56, with no evidence of heterogeneity (I²  =  0%. A meta-regression analysis was performed, which used the data available from the ten anti-D prophylaxis studies to inform us about the relative effectiveness of three licensed treatments. This gave an 83% probability that a dose of 1250 IU at 28 and 34 weeks is most effective and a 76% probability that a single dose of 1500 IU at 28-30 weeks is least effective. CONCLUSION: There is strong evidence for the effectiveness of routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis for prevention of sensitisation, in support of the policy of offering routine prophylaxis to all non-sensitised pregnant Rhesus negative women. All three licensed dose regimens are expected to be effective.

  17. Design of a long-term follow-up effectiveness, immunogenicity and safety study of women who received the 9-valent human papillomavirus vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luxembourg, Alain; Kjaer, Susanne K; Nygard, Mari

    2017-01-01

    . Control chart methods which were developed in industrial and manufacturing settings for process and production monitoring, can be used to monitor disease incidence in real-time and promptly detect a decrease in vaccine effectiveness. Experience from this innovative study design may be applicable to other......The 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) (9vHPV) vaccine targets four HPV types (6/11/16/18) also covered by the quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccine and five additional types (31/33/45/52/58). Vaccine efficacy to prevent HPV infection and disease was established in a Phase III clinical study in women 16......-26years of age. A long-term follow-up (LTFU) study has been initiated as an extension of the Phase III clinical study to assess effectiveness of the 9vHPV vaccine up to at least 14years after the start of vaccination. It includes participants from Denmark, Norway and Sweden and uses national health...

  18. A Yoga Strengthening Program Designed to Minimize the Knee Adduction Moment for Women with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Proof-Of-Principle Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elora C Brenneman

    Full Text Available People with knee osteoarthritis may benefit from exercise prescriptions that minimize knee loads in the frontal plane. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether a novel 12-week strengthening program designed to minimize exposure to the knee adduction moment (KAM could improve symptoms and knee strength in women with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. A secondary objective was to determine whether the program could improve mobility and fitness, and decrease peak KAM during gait. The tertiary objective was to evaluate the biomechanical characteristics of this yoga program. In particular, we compared the peak KAM during gait with that during yoga postures at baseline. We also compared lower limb normalized mean electromyography (EMG amplitudes during yoga postures between baseline and follow-up. Primary measures included self-reported pain and physical function (Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score and knee strength (extensor and flexor torques. Secondary measures included mobility (six-minute walk, 30-second chair stand, stair climbing, fitness (submaximal cycle ergometer test, and clinical gait analysis using motion capture synchronized with electromyography and force measurement. Also, KAM and normalized mean EMG amplitudes were collected during yoga postures. Forty-five women over age 50 with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis, consistent with the American College of Rheumatology criteria, enrolled in our 12-week (3 sessions per week program. Data from 38 were analyzed (six drop-outs; one lost to co-intervention. Participants experienced reduced pain (mean improvement 10.1–20.1 normalized to 100; p<0.001, increased knee extensor strength (mean improvement 0.01 Nm/kg; p = 0.004, and increased flexor strength (mean improvement 0.01 Nm/kg; p = 0.001 at follow-up compared to baseline. Participants improved mobility on the six-minute walk (mean improvement 37.7 m; p<0.001 and 30-second chair stand (mean improvement 1.3; p = 0

  19. A Yoga Strengthening Program Designed to Minimize the Knee Adduction Moment for Women with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Proof-Of-Principle Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    People with knee osteoarthritis may benefit from exercise prescriptions that minimize knee loads in the frontal plane. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether a novel 12-week strengthening program designed to minimize exposure to the knee adduction moment (KAM) could improve symptoms and knee strength in women with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. A secondary objective was to determine whether the program could improve mobility and fitness, and decrease peak KAM during gait. The tertiary objective was to evaluate the biomechanical characteristics of this yoga program. In particular, we compared the peak KAM during gait with that during yoga postures at baseline. We also compared lower limb normalized mean electromyography (EMG) amplitudes during yoga postures between baseline and follow-up. Primary measures included self-reported pain and physical function (Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score) and knee strength (extensor and flexor torques). Secondary measures included mobility (six-minute walk, 30-second chair stand, stair climbing), fitness (submaximal cycle ergometer test), and clinical gait analysis using motion capture synchronized with electromyography and force measurement. Also, KAM and normalized mean EMG amplitudes were collected during yoga postures. Forty-five women over age 50 with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis, consistent with the American College of Rheumatology criteria, enrolled in our 12-week (3 sessions per week) program. Data from 38 were analyzed (six drop-outs; one lost to co-intervention). Participants experienced reduced pain (mean improvement 10.1–20.1 normalized to 100; p<0.001), increased knee extensor strength (mean improvement 0.01 Nm/kg; p = 0.004), and increased flexor strength (mean improvement 0.01 Nm/kg; p = 0.001) at follow-up compared to baseline. Participants improved mobility on the six-minute walk (mean improvement 37.7 m; p<0.001) and 30-second chair stand (mean improvement 1.3; p = 0.006) at

  20. Rationale, design, and method of the Diabetes & Women's Health study – a study of long-term health implications of glucose intolerance in pregnancy and their determinants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Cuilin; Hu, Frank B; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2014-01-01

    data for the creation of a new database inclusive of genetic, epigenetic and environmental data. Findings from the study are critical for the development of targeted and more effective strategies to prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications in this high-risk population.......Women who develop gestational diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance during pregnancy are at substantially increased risk for type 2 diabetes and comorbidities after pregnancy. Little is known about the role of genetic factors and their interactions with environmental factors...... for an additional 2 years to collect updated information on major clinical and environmental factors that may predict type 2 diabetes mellitus risk as well as with biospecimens to measure genetic and biochemical markers implicated in glucose metabolism. Newly collected data will be appended to the relevant existing...

  1. Effects of Women's Studies Courses on Women's Attitudes and Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canty, Eileen M.

    Significant changes in attitudes towards women, their vocational and educational roles, and marital relationships were found in two groups of women's college students after exposure to women's studies courses in adolescent psychology and the psychology of women. Both experimental groups indicated more liberal plans for combining marriage and…

  2. Rationale and design of a multicenter prospective cohort study for the eVALuation and monitoring of HPV infections and relATEd cervical diseases in high-risk women (VALHIDATE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Giovanna

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pap screening, an effective method for cervical cancer prevention, is now supported by molecular human papillomavirus (HPV testing. Recently commercialised preventive vaccines also provide new tools for the primary prevention of cervical cancer. To determine appropriate prevention strategies, the Health General Direction, Lombardy Region, funded a project that aims to characterize and monitor HPV infections and related cervical diseases in high-risk women. Methods/design VALHIDATE is a 5-year multicentre open prospective cohort study. It will recruit 7000 consenting women aged 13–65 years to provide information about the local biomolecular epidemiology of HPV infection and cervical diseases in high-risk women recruited from nine clinical centres and one faith-based organisation. The study will estimate the overall and type-specific prevalence of HPV infection and cervical abnormalities. It also aims to compare standard Pap screening with biomolecular screening, and to assist in the design of targeted regional prevention programs directed specifically at high-risk groups. Three groups of high-risk women: 1000 HIV-infected women (aged 26–65 years, 1000 recent migrant women (aged 26–65 years and 3000 young women (aged 13–26 years and 1 control group: 2000 women (aged 26–45 years attending a spontaneous screening program, will be recruited. Sample sizes will be revised after the first year. Adult participants will undergo conventional cervical cytology, HPV DNA screening and genotyping. Paediatric participants will undergo HPV DNA testing and genotyping of urine samples. HPV DNA, cytological abnormalities and HPV types will be analysed according to demographic, epidemiological, behavioural, and clinical data collected in an electronic case report form. Overall and stratified prevalences will be estimated to analyse the associations between HPV infection and selected characteristics. Logistic regression models

  3. American Women and American Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmaj, Betty E.

    The American Studies Association (ASA) is an interprofessional group, representing a cross-section of persons from American literature, American history, the social sciences, philosophy, archeology, Black Studies, Urban Studies, American Studies, and others. This document by the ASA Commission on the Status of Women includes: (1) a report of the…

  4. The Women and Their Children's Health (WaTCH) study: methods and design of a prospective cohort study in Louisiana to examine the health effects from the BP oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Edward S; Rung, Ariane L; Bronson, Megan H; Brashear, Meghan M; Peres, Lauren C; Gaston, Symielle; Sullivan, Samaah M; Peak, Kate; Abramson, David M; Fontham, Elizabeth T H; Harrington, Daniel; Oral, Evrim; Trapido, Edward J

    2017-07-10

    The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill is the largest marine oil spill in US history. Few studies have evaluated the potential health effects of this spill on the Gulf Coast community. The Women and Their Children's Health (WaTCH) study is a prospective cohort designed to investigate the midterm to long-term physical, mental and behavioural health effects of exposure to the oil spill. Women were recruited by telephone from pre-existing lists of individuals and households using an address-based sampling frame between 2012 and 2014. Baseline interviews obtained information on oil spill exposure, demographics, physical and mental health, and health behaviours. Women were also asked to provide a household roster, from which a child between 10 and 17 years was randomly selected and recruited into a child substudy. Telephone respondents were invited to participate in a home visit in which blood samples, anthropometrics and neighbourhood characteristics were measured. A follow-up interview was completed between 2014 and 2016. 2852 women completed the baseline interview, 1231 of whom participated in the home visit, and 628 children participated in the child's health substudy. The follow-up interview successfully reinterviewed 2030 women and 454 children. WaTCH continues to conduct follow-up surveys, with a third wave of interviews planned in 2017. Also, we are looking to enhance the collection of spatially related environmental data to facilitate assessment of health risks in the study population. In addition, opportunities to participate in behavioural interventions for subsets of the cohort have been initiated. There are ongoing studies that examine the relationship between genetic and immunological markers with mental health. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Associations between quality of life, physical activity, worry, depression and insomnia: A cross-sectional designed study in healthy pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Mourady

    Full Text Available Health-related quality of life (QOL is reported to be reduced during pregnancy. Associations between QOL, physical activity (PA, insomnia, depression and worry are insufficiently investigated among pregnant women. The aim of this study was to evaluate QOL and PA patterns among healthy pregnant women, and to examine how QOL might correlate to PA, sleep, worry and depression. This is an observational cross-sectional study, conducted among a convenient sample of 141 healthy pregnant women using five questionnaires: WHOQOL-brief (WHO quality of life questionnaire, brief version, ISI (Insomnia Severity Index, PSWQ (Penn State Worry Questionnaire, ZSRDS (Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, and Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ. Pre-gestational BMI was inversely correlated to overall health while education was positively correlated to psychological health, social relationships and environment domains. Smoking before and during pregnancy significantly impacted the general health and psychological health. Total and light PA were positively correlated to psychological health and social relationships. Sports/exercise showed positive correlations with several QOL domains. Insomnia and depression were significantly associated with a decrease in all domains of QOL, while worries were associated with a decrease in physical, psychological and environmental domains. There were significant negative correlations between ZSRDS scores and total activity. PA, worries, depression and insomnia affected QOL during pregnancy. Furthermore, pregnant women presenting depression had a reduced total PA. Sleep and mental health as well as encouraging PA during pregnancy are necessary to improve the quality of life of pregnant women.

  6. Effectiveness of Oral Nutritional Supplementation for Older Women after a Fracture: Rationale, Design and Study of the Feasibility of a Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lockwood Keri A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition is a problem for many older people recovering from a hip and other major fractures. Oral supplementation with high calorie high protein nutrients is a simple intervention that may help older people with fractures to improve their recovery in terms of rehabilitation time, length of hospital stay and mortality. This paper reports a pilot study to test the feasibility of a trial initiated in a hospital setting with an oral supplement to older people with recent fractures. Method A randomized controlled trial with 44 undernourished participants admitted to a hospital following a fracture. The intervention group (n = 23 received a high calorie high protein supplement for forty days in addition to their diet of choice. The control group (n = 21 received high protein milk during their hospital stay in addition to their diet of choice and their usual diet when discharged from hospital. Results All participants were women and their mean age was 85.3 (± 6.1 years. Twenty nine (65% participants had a hip fracture. At baseline no differences were measured between the two groups regarding their nutritional status, their cognitive ability or their abilities in activities of daily living. There were no significant differences between the intervention and control group with reference to nutritional or functional parameters at 40 day and 4 month follow-ups. Median length of stay in hospital was 18.0 days, with 12 participants being readmitted for a median of 7.0 days. Conclusion It is feasible to perform a randomised trial in a hospital and community setting to test the effect of an oral high energy high protein supplement for older people. Due to the limited number of participants and incomplete adherence with use of the supplements no conclusion can be drawn about the efficacy or effectiveness of this intervention.

  7. Design of the FemCure study: prospective multicentre study on the transmission of genital and extra-genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in women receiving routine care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H. T. M.; Wolffs, Petra F. G.; Eppings, Lisanne; Götz, Hannelore M.; Bruisten, Sylvia M.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Janssen, Kevin; Lucchesi, Mayk; Heijman, Titia; van Benthem, Birgit H.; van Bergen, Jan E.; Morre, Servaas A.; Herbergs, Jos; Kok, Gerjo; Steenbakkers, Mieke; Hogewoning, Arjan A.; de Vries, Henry J.; Hoebe, Christian J. P. A.

    2016-01-01

    In women, anorectal infections with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) are about as common as genital CT, yet the anorectal site remains largely untested in routine care. Anorectal CT frequently co-occurs with genital CT and may thus often be treated co-incidentally. Nevertheless, post-treatment detection

  8. Design and rationale of a large, international, prospective cohort study to evaluate the occurrence of malformations and perinatal/neonatal death using insulin detemir in pregnant women with diabetes in comparison with other long-acting insulins

    OpenAIRE

    Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Andersen, Henning; Sofia I I Kring; Damm, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Background There are a lack of data regarding the effect of basal insulin analogues on rates of events like congenital malformation and perinatal mortality in diabetic pregnancy. Methods The present study is a prospective, non-interventional, multicentre cohort study conducted in seven countries, designed to assess the safety of insulin detemir during pregnancy, and to monitor the health status of resulting infants (exposed in utero) up to 1?year of age. The study population includes women wi...

  9. The role of Community Mobilization in maternal care provision for women in sub-Saharan Africa- A systematic review of studies using an experimental design

    OpenAIRE

    Muzyamba, Choolwe; Groot, Wim; Tomini, Sonila M.; Pavlova, Milena

    2017-01-01

    Background While the role of community mobilization in improving maternal health outcomes of HIV positive women in sub-Saharan Africa is continuously emphasized, little is known about how legitimate these claims are. The aim of this study is to systematically review the empirical evidence on this issue. Methods A systematic search was conducted in PuBMed, Scopus, Web of Science, MEDLINE, COCHRANE, Allied Health Literature, and Cumulative Index to Nursing. Results Our search identified 14 publ...

  10. Designing satisfaction studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kai; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær

    2007-01-01

    In the effect sampling method, presentation of researcher, the intro text, the order of questions in the questionnaire along with the number of categories in the rating scale is tested in relation to the design of satisfaction studies. Based on the analyses specific recommendations for designing...

  11. Training Needs Assessment to Design Empowerment Programs for Preventing Domestic Violence Against Iranian Married Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Kianfard

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The World Health Organization declared violence against women a top priority for health and emphasized the importance of the world's attention to the prevention and control programs. This study was conducted aimed to identify the training needs of married women referring to health centers in Ahvaz with the objective of enabling the design of a program to prevent violence. Methodology: This sectional study consisted of two qualitative and quantitative studies. In qualitative study, the opinions of 30 married women residing in Ahvaz were collected and analyzed in four focus group discussions. using a validated and reliable questionnaire, the knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy and performance of 320 married women in area of domestic violence were identified Findings: 79% of the women surveyed had adequate awareness about violence against women. 34% of the target group in the field of domestic violence against women has had the right attitude and more than 80% of them stated that violence by men is considered inevitable and natural. 89% of the target group expressed lack of efficacy for the prevention of domestic violence against women. The findings also suggest that there is significant relationship between education and early marriage with violent behavior. Conclusion: providing proper education and awareness to women and group discussion and clarification in order to change attitudes and increase efficacy in abused women against domestic violence are the necessary strategies which result in changing attitudes of women and increasing empowerment of women against domestic violence.

  12. Women and the Study of Folklore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Rosan A.; De Caro, F. A.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a critical overview of academic writing on women and folklore, organized in three categories: (1) literature on images of women in verbal folklore, and the role of negative images in shaping attitudes; (2) research on womens' oral genres and performance and female use of folklore; and (3) studies of women as folk performers and artists.…

  13. Women and Technology: A case study of Famagusta, TRNC

    OpenAIRE

    Özad, Bahire Efe; Arsoy, Aysu

    2011-01-01

    It has been observed that men have always had more access to technology. Currently, increased educational opportunities for the women proved that women can be very successful not only in the use but also in the design of technology. The present study explores the attitude of a variety of forms of feminism to technology and presents the findings of a descriptive study carried out in Famagusta, TRNC about the domestic instruments owned, used, used with all the functions, and repaired by women.

  14. Design and data analysis 1 study design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik Suresh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended to give the reader guidance in evaluating different study designs used in medical research for better scientific quality, reliability and validity of their research. This article explains three main types of study designs with understanding examples. Care and caution with skills and experience needed to design suitable studies and appropriate design coupled with reliable sampling techniques and appropriate statistical analysis, supported by clear objectives with decent communication of the findings, are essential for good research.

  15. Psychological empowerment of NGO women in Iran: Designing a tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshi, Fataneh; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Sadeghi, Roya; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein; Laverack, Glenn

    2017-09-01

    As the core of health promotion, proper assessment of empowerment is a base for planning for a process that increases people's control on their decisions, lifestyle, and effective activities for their health. To design and develop a special tool to assess the empowerment of NGO women in Iran. This successive exploratory study of combinational type was conducted in 2015 in two steps. In the first step, using comments of participants and the help of authentic texts related to this field, dimensions of psychological empowerment were developed. In the second step, psychometric properties of the scale or tool were determined using formal content, and structural validity and reliability were determined using internal consistency and stability via SPSS version 21. In the first step, the initial tool including 58 items was developed in the form of eight domains. In the second step, based on exploratory factor analysis (EFA), the number of items was reduced to 37. Considering the eigenvalues of higher than one, items were classified into eight factors. KMO index was 0.896 in this study. Reliability of the tool was 0.81 using Cronbach's alpha. This tool is able to predict 66.1% of total changes in psychological empowerment. A questionnaire with relevant reliability and validity, including eight domains of participation, motivation, cognitive thinking, critical thinking, self-efficacy, intention, perceived control and social support was developed to measure psychological empowerment of NGO women in Iran.

  16. [Phenomenological study of infertile women with obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arranz-Lara, Lilia; Martínez-Lemus, Hugo; Ruíz-Ornelas, Jaime; Sauceda-González, Luciano; Pimentel, Elizabeth; Anguiano, Norma; Sondón, Zoé; Cedillo, Javier; Chávez, Alvaro; Regalado, Miguel Angel; Moreno, Daniel

    2010-10-01

    Obesity is a condition strongly associated with polycystic ovary and other conditions that interfere with or complicate the treatment of assisted reproduction. To examine, from a phenomenological point of view, the perception of infertile women obesity problem before undergoing assisted reproduction treatment. This analysis should help to design a psychotherapeutic strategy focused on this problem. One hundred patients with infertility, with a BMI equal to or greater than 30, candidates for assisted reproductive treatments in the service of Human Reproduction, Centro Médico Nacional 20 de Noviembre, ISSSTE. The phenomenological qualitative analysis was performed in 72 women who agreed to be interviewed in depth. The phenomenon is to study obesity in infertile women candidates for assisted reproduction treatment. Obese infertile women subject to assisted reproduction treatment perceive their difficulty losing weight is closely associated with infertility. Most patients had social feelings of worthlessness, sadness, worthlessness, and family rejection. The inability to obtain a steady weight loss is regarded as a minor frustration that sterility. It is very important to perform intensive, multidisciplinary labor, which is focused on concepts associated with psychological distress, such as: management of depression by sterility, control of anxiety and stress, control of social pressures and management of the illusion of motherhood. Also rely on specialists of eating habits and exercise.

  17. Disseminating maternal health information to rural women: a user centered design framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Vikram

    2010-11-13

    The delivery of primary health information to rural women is a considerable challenge for government and private sectors in rural India. This paper illustrates how by applying the proposed user centered framework dissemination of maternal health information to rural women can be improved. First, the paper presents baseline study to obtain existing knowledge level of women and design requirements for a Primary Health Information System (PHIS). Second, the paper presents a brief description of the PHIS system which was deployed in a village for sixteen months in rural India. Third, the paper explains longitudinal study conducted post intervention of PHIS to measure the impact of PHIS on the knowledge level and health behaviour of rural women in comparison to the baseline study. The results indicate that by following the proposed user centered approach to design the PHIS, a significant improvement in knowledge level of rural women and positive changes in health practices are achieved.

  18. Rationale and design of a multi-center, open-label, randomised clinical trial comparing HIV incidence and contraceptive benefits in women using three commonly-used contraceptive methods (the ECHO study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeyr, G Justus; Morrison, Charles S; Baeten, Jared M; Chipato, Tsungai; Donnell, Deborah; Gichangi, Peter; Mugo, Nelly; Nanda, Kavita; Rees, Helen; Steyn, Petrus; Taylor, Douglas

    2017-12-29

    In vitro, animal, biological and observational clinical studies suggest that some hormonal methods, particularly depot medroxyprogesterone acetate - DMPA, may increase women's risk of HIV acquisition. DMPA is the most common contraceptive used in many countries worst affected by the HIV epidemic. To provide robust evidence for contraceptive decision-making among women, clinicians and planners, we are conducting the Evidence for Contraceptive Options and HIV Outcomes (ECHO) study in four countries with high HIV incidence and DMPA use: Kenya, South Africa, Swaziland, and Zambia (Clinical Trials.gov identifier NCT02550067). We randomized HIV negative, sexually active women 16-35 years old requesting effective contraception and agreeing to participate to either DMPA, the copper T 380A intrauterine device or levonorgestrel implant. Participants attend a contraception support visit after 1 month and quarterly visits thereafter for 12 to 18 months. Participants receive a standard HIV prevention package and contraceptive side-effect management at each visit. The primary outcome is HIV seroconversion. Secondary outcomes include pregnancy, serious adverse events and method discontinuation. The sample size of 7800 women provides 80% power to detect a 50% difference in HIV risk between any of the three method pairs, assuming 250 incident infections per comparison. Ethical considerations: Several WHO consultations have concluded that current evidence on HIV risk associated with DMPA is inconclusive and that a randomized trial is needed to guide policy, counselling and choice. Previous studies suggest that women without a specific contraceptive preference are willing to accept randomization to different contraceptive methods. Stringent performance standards are monitored by an independent data and safety monitoring board approximately every 6 months. The study has been conducted with extensive stakeholder engagement. The ECHO study is designed to provide robust evidence on the

  19. Women Political Leaders and the Design of Campaign Portrait Posters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    This essay addresses the representation of women political leaders on campaign posters, which are an increasingly important visual means of communication. Selected examples from the 1960s until today serve to compare the representational agency of visual design elements across different continents:

  20. DESIGN AND PILOT STUDY OF AN ADVENTURE VIDEO GAME AS A TOOL IN PSYCHOTHERAPEUTIC PROCESSES OF ADOLESCENT WOMEN WITH SYMPTOMS OF DEPRESSION

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco Guzmán, Alvaro Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Technology and the internet are new platforms to deliver information, to interconnect people and to offer interactive media. The potential of technology has been explored, in promising ways, for the treatment and prevention of different psychological disorders. Also, since several decades ago, the potential of video games for the treatment and prevention of psychological disorders has been explored with positive results. The main goals of this study were two: a) to design an online adven...

  1. A Yoga Strengthening Program Designed to Minimize the Knee Adduction Moment for Women with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Proof-Of-Principle Cohort Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brenneman, Elora C; Kuntz, Alexander B; Wiebenga, Emily G; Maly, Monica R

    2015-01-01

    ...) could improve symptoms and knee strength in women with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. A secondary objective was to determine whether the program could improve mobility and fitness, and decrease peak KAM during gait...

  2. A Yoga Strengthening Program Designed to Minimize the Knee Adduction Moment for Women with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Proof-Of-Principle Cohort Study: e0136854

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elora C Brenneman; Alexander B Kuntz; Emily G Wiebenga; Monica R Maly

    2015-01-01

    ...) could improve symptoms and knee strength in women with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. A secondary objective was to determine whether the program could improve mobility and fitness, and decrease peak KAM during gait...

  3. Application of the Putting Women First protocol in a study on violence against immigrant women in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrubiano-Domínguez, Jordi; Vives-Cases, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe our experience of using the Putting Women First protocol in the design and implementation of a cross-sectional study on violence against women (VAW) among 1607 immigrant women from Morocco, Ecuador and Romania living in Spain in 2011. The Putting Women First protocol is an ethical guideline for VAW research, which includes recommendations to ensure the safety of the women involved in studies on this subject. The response rate in this study was 59.3%. The prevalence of VAW cases last year was 11.7%, of which 15.6% corresponded to Ecuadorian women, 10.9% to Moroccan women and 8.6% to Romanian women. We consider that the most important goal for future research is the use of VAW scales validated in different languages, which would help to overcome the language barriers encountered in this study. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. The Treatment of Obese Pregnant Women (TOP) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renault, Kristina M; Nørgaard, Kirsten; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess physical activity intervention assessed by a pedometer with or without dietary intervention on gestational weight gain (GWG) in obese pregnant women by comparing with a control group. STUDY DESIGN: This study was a randomized controlled trial...... of 425 obese pregnant women comparing 3 groups: (1) PA plus D, physical activity and dietary intervention (n = 142); (2) PA, physical activity intervention (n = 142); and (3) C, a control group receiving standard care (n = 141). All participants routinely in gestational weeks 11-14 had an initial dietary......-up reduced GWG compared with controls in obese pregnant women....

  5. ATW neutronics design studies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, D. C.; Yang, W. S.; Khalil, H.

    2000-11-10

    The Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) concept has been proposed as a transuranics (TRU) (and long-lived fission product) incinerator for processing the 87,000 metric tonnes of Light Water Reactor used fuel which will have been generated by the time the currently deployed fleet of commercial reactors in the US reach the end of their licensed lifetime. The ATW is proposed to separate the uranium from the transuranics and fission products in the LWR used fuel, to fission the transuranics, to send the LWR and ATW generated fission products to the geologic repository and to send the uranium to either a low level waste disposal site or to save it for future use. The heat liberated in fissioning the transuranics would be converted to electricity and sold to partially offset the cost of ATW construction and operations. Options for incineration of long-lived fission products are under evaluation. A six-year science-based program of ATW trade and system studies was initiated in the US FY 2000 to achieve two main purposes: (1) ''to evaluate ATW within the framework of nonproliferation, waste management, and economic considerations,'' and (2) ''to evaluate the efficacy of the numerous technical options for ATW system configuration.'' This paper summarizes the results from neutronics and thermal/hydraulics trade studies which were completed at Argonne National Laboratory during the first year of the program. Core designs were developed for Pb-Bi cooled and Na cooled 840 MW{sub th} fast spectrum transmuter designs employing recycle. Additionally, neutronics analyses were performed at Argonne for a He cooled 600 MW{sub th} hybrid thermal and fast core design proposed by General Atomics Co. which runs critical for 3/4 and subcritical for 1/4 of its four year once-thin burn cycle. The mass flows and the ultimate loss of transuranic isotopes to the waste stream per unit of heat generated during transmutation have been calculated on a

  6. THE WOMEN REPRESENTATION IN DETERGENT PRODUCT PACKAGING DESIGNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dinda aryani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gender representation in media often portrays stereotypes such as women  representations  constructed  by  culture  and  society  often portraying   women’s code of conduct. Seeing the issue, the study aims  to  reveal    women    representation  in  detergent  packaging designs  and  its  ideology  behind  it.  The  data  collection  is  in  the form  of  visual  images.  Kress  and  van  Leeuwen’s    (2006  Social Semiotics  theory  on  Reading  Images    is  applied  to  reveal  women representation.  Meanwhile,  ideology  is  investigated  with  Barthes’ signification  order.  The  results  show  that  the  women  are  mostly represented to be feminine, tender, motherly, mature, independent, warm,  loving,  caring,  beautiful,  attractive,  friendly,  and  happy. The ideology constructed is femininity ideology conveyed through several  ways:  mass  media  codes,  fashion,  color  and  non-verbal codes. (118Representasi  gender  di  media  sering  memotret  sterotype  seperti representasi  wanita  bentukan  oleh  budaya  dan  masyarakat  yang sering  menggambarkan  etiket  kaum  wanita.  Melihat  isu  ini, penelitian    bertujuan  untuk  mengungkap  representasi  wanita  di desain  kemasan  detergen  dan  ideologi  di  baliknya.    Data dikumpulkan dalam bentuk gambar-gambar. Teori Semiotik Sosial tentang  Membaca  Gambar  oleh  Kress  dan  van  Leeuwen  (2006 digunakan  untuk  mengungkap  representasi  wanita.  Sementara, ideologi  dilacak dengan  menggunakan  teori    ‘significance  order  ‘ oleh  Barthes.  Hasil  penelitian  menunjukkan  bahwa  wanita sebagian besar digambarkan sebagai kaum  yang feminin,  lembut, keibuan,  dewasa,  mandiri,  hangat,  penuh  kasih,  peduli,  cantik, menarik,  ramah,  dan  bahagia.  Ideologi  yang  terbentuk  adalah ideologi  feminitas

  7. Design and rationale of a large, international, prospective cohort study to evaluate the occurrence of malformations and perinatal/neonatal death using insulin detemir in pregnant women with diabetes in comparison with other long-acting insulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Andersen, Henning; Kring, Sofia I I; Damm, Peter

    2017-01-18

    There are a lack of data regarding the effect of basal insulin analogues on rates of events like congenital malformation and perinatal mortality in diabetic pregnancy. The present study is a prospective, non-interventional, multicentre cohort study conducted in seven countries, designed to assess the safety of insulin detemir during pregnancy, and to monitor the health status of resulting infants (exposed in utero) up to 1 year of age. The study population includes women with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, who are pregnant and being treated with insulin. Data will be collected in the context of routine practice. The primary endpoint is the proportion of pregnancies in women treated with insulin detemir, compared with other basal insulin regimens, which do not result in any of the following events: major congenital malformations, perinatal death or neonatal death. A sample size of 3075 pregnancies was calculated to provide an 80% power to detect a difference of 3.5% between groups in the primary endpoint at a 5% level. The study will also examine other important maternal endpoints (e.g., incidences of severe hypoglycaemia and pre-eclampsia) and perinatal outcomes such as overweight neonates, as well as infant outcomes at 1 year of age. It has a fixed recruitment period from 2013 to 2018, enrolling all eligible patients, and is expected to inform future prescribing with basal insulins in diabetic pregnancy. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01892319 (date registered: 27.06.2013).

  8. Alternative treatments for menopausal symptoms. Qualitative study of women's experiences.

    OpenAIRE

    Seidl, M. M.; Stewart, D. E.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe women's experiences with alternative treatments for symptoms attributed to menopause. DESIGN: Descriptive qualitative study. SETTING: Personal interviews and focus groups were conducted in private rooms at the Toronto Hospital; telephone interviews were conducted at mutually convenient times. PARTICIPANTS: Thirteen perimenopausal women with a mean age of 52.6 +/- 2.6 years who were experiencing symptoms attributed to menopause and were using alternative therapies partic...

  9. Designing Inclusion - The development of ICT products to include women in the Information Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommes, E.W.M.; van Slooten, I.A.; van Slooten, Irma; van Oost, Elizabeth C.J.; Oudshoorn, Nelly E.J.

    2004-01-01

    This report is the result of a major two-year research project in which initiatives to attract and include women in the design and use of information and communication technology (ICT) was studied. Fourty-eight case studies were conducted in five European countries, based on experiences of 500

  10. The Women's Studies Experience: Personal and Professional Gains for Women and Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stake, Jayne E.; Gerner, Margaret A.

    1987-01-01

    Women and men students from women's studies and non-women's studies classes, the latter students having a woman teacher and an interest in women's studies, completed the Performance Self-Esteem Scale (PSES) and measures of their educational and job certainty and motivation. Women's studies students showed greater gains in PSES scores, job…

  11. Studies in Interior Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environ Planning Design, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Floor plans and photographs illustrate a description of the Samuel C. Williams Library at Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N.J. The unusual interior design allows students to take full advantage of the library's resources. (JW)

  12. Women's Views About Domestic Violence: A Qualitative Study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Mohsen; Kianfard, Leila; Parhizkar, Saadat; Mousavizadeh, Ali

    2017-05-01

    Violence against women is an urgent health priority in Iran. Designing effective programs for preventing and controlling the problem necessitates a thorough understanding of Iranian women and their perspectives regarding domestic violence. This study was aimed at exploring the domestic violence-related views of married women who were referred to health care facilities in Ahvaz, Iran. In this qualitative research, data were collected through four focus group discussions with 30 married women. All the discussions were recorded and transcribed, after which the data were classified separately. The main themes and subthemes were then manually derived from the data and analyzed. The five main themes identified were domestic violence against women in Ahvaz, behavioral influencing factors, nonbehavioral influencing factors, the necessity to empower women to prevent domestic violence, and recommendations for developing special training programs for Ahvazi women. Most of the participants were aware that domestic violence against women is a common occurrence in Iran. They were well aware of the definition of violence and expressed a belief that behavioral factors exert an important effect on the occurrence of the problem. They recommended the development of appropriate training programs that empower women to prevent the problem, the use of mass media to educate citizens about domestic violence, and the involvement of opinion leaders in eliminating the taboo against considering such violence a crime against Iranian women. Considering the views and ideas of women as consumers of educational services is a principle used to develop effective programs for preventing and controlling domestic violence. As indicated by the findings, the participants believe that empowering women must be treated as a priority in the Iranian health care system. However, they recommended differing approaches and methods of empowerment on the basis of their individual views and concerns.

  13. Architecture as Design Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Heta

    1989-01-01

    Explores the use of analogies in architectural design, the importance of Gestalt theory and aesthetic cannons in understanding and being sensitive to architecture. Emphasizes the variation between public and professional appreciation of architecture. Notes that an understanding of architectural process enables students to improve the aesthetic…

  14. Recruitment of pregnant women to an exercise-intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, R E; Emery, S J; Rassi, D; Uzun, O; Lewis, M J

    2016-01-01

    We share here our experience of recruiting pregnant women into an exercise intervention study. Recruitment challenges were anticipated owing to the study design, which required four hospital visits for cardiovascular assessment, a long-term (nine-month) commitment, and adherence to a 20-week exercise programme. Fifty-three women were assigned to one of three groups (no-exercise, land exercise or water exercise) using a 2 × 2 × 2 flexible randomisation design. Seven hundred forty-four women were screened at an antenatal clinic, of whom 501 were eligible to participate in the study. One hundred forty-five women were subsequently approached: 46 (32%) of whom agreed to participate, 42 (29%) were interested but then declined and 57 (39%) declined outright. Our study design helped recruit pregnant women as it allowed them some choice of group membership. We also noted that the participant-researcher relationship is important in reducing attrition. Our experience provides indications of likely recruitment and attrition rates for future randomised controlled trials of this type.

  15. What is the potential for interventions designed to prevent violence against women to reduce children's exposure to violence? Findings from the SASA! study, Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyegombe, Nambusi; Abramsky, Tanya; Devries, Karen M; Michau, Lori; Nakuti, Janet; Starmann, Elizabeth; Musuya, Tina; Heise, Lori; Watts, Charlotte

    2015-12-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) and child maltreatment often co-occur in households and lead to negative outcomes for children. This article explores the extent to which SASA!, an intervention to prevent violence against women, impacted children's exposure to violence. Between 2007 and 2012 a cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted in Kampala, Uganda. An adjusted cluster-level intention to treat analysis, compares secondary outcomes in intervention and control communities at follow-up. Under the qualitative evaluation, 82 in-depth interviews were audio recorded at follow-up, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using thematic analysis complemented by constant comparative methods. This mixed-methods article draws mainly on the qualitative data. The findings suggest that SASA! impacted on children's experience of violence in three main ways. First, quantitative data suggest that children's exposure to IPV was reduced. We estimate that reductions in IPV combined with reduced witnessing by children when IPV did occur, led to a 64% reduction in prevalence of children witnessing IPV in their home (aRR 0.36, 95% CI 0.06-2.20). Second, among couples who experienced reduced IPV, qualitative data suggests parenting and discipline practices sometimes also changed-improving parent-child relationships and for a few parents, resulting in the complete rejection of corporal punishment as a disciplinary method. Third, some participants reported intervening to prevent violence against children. The findings suggest that interventions to prevent IPV may also impact on children's exposure to violence, and improve parent-child relationships. They also point to potential synergies for violence prevention, an area meriting further exploration. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Using Participatory Design to design and develop mHealth for women with osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Pernille; Kock Wiil, Uffe; Søndergaard, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Research and Public Health. 2013; 10: 5541-5564 4. Clemensen J, Larsen SB, Kyng M, Kirkevold M. Participatory design in health sciences: Using cooperative experimental methods in developing health services and computer technology. Qualitative Health Research. 2007; 17: 122-30 Keywords: participatory design......, to ensure that these technologies meet the needs of the users (4). PURPOSE Design and development of mHealth to increase self-care and self-management among postmenopausal women newly diagnosed with osteoporosis. We combine user driven innovation and research in a participatory design process. METHODS...... The design and development of mHealth is based on a participatory design process. In the first phase, needs among the users are identified using qualitative methods as participant observations (10 hours), semi structured interviews (n=17) and focus groups (n=3). In the second phase, ideas and concepts...

  17. Asymptomatic bacteriuria may be considered a complication in women with diabetes. Diabetes Mellitus Women Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Utrecht Study Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, S. E.; Stolk, R. P.; Camps, M. J.; Netten, P. M.; Hoekstra, J. B.; Bouter, K. P.; Bravenboer, B.; Collet, J. T.; Jansz, A. R.; Hoepelman, A. I.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of and risk factors for asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in women with and without diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 636 nonpregnant women with diabetes (type 1 and type 2) who were 18-75 years of age and had no abnormalities of the urinary tract, and

  18. HYPER system design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won S.; Han, Seok J.; Song, Tae Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    KAERI is developing ADS, named HYPER for the transmutation of nuclear waste. HYPER is designed to produce 1000 MWth with the subcriticality of 0.97. HYPER adopts a hollow cylinder type metal fuel and require 1.0GeV, 16mA proton beams. Pb-Bi is used as coolant and the inlet and outlet temperatures are 340 deg C, 510 deg C, respectively. In addition, Pb-Bi coolant is used as spallation target also. HYPER is expected to incinerate about 380 kg of TRU a year, which is corresponding to the support ratio 5 {approx} 6. 23 refs., 50 figs., 31 tabs. (Author)

  19. Women's ICT Career Choices: Four Cross-Cultural Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadou, Elli; Abu-Hassan, Norihan; Siakas, Kerstin Viola; Wang, Xueming; Ross, Margaret; Anandan, Prem Anand

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to consider the under-representation of women in computing, information technology (IT) and information systems in most Western countries. This under-representation can only be detrimental to society. Design/methodology/approach: The authors discuss recently published studies on the under-representation of…

  20. Advanced turbocharger design study program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culy, D. G.; Heldenbrand, R. W.; Richardson, N. R.

    1984-01-01

    The advanced Turbocharger Design Study consisted of: (1) the evaluation of three advanced engine designs to determine their turbocharging requirements, and of technologies applicable to advanced turbocharger designs; (2) trade-off studies to define a turbocharger conceptual design and select the engine with the most representative requirements for turbocharging; (3) the preparation of a turbocharger conceptual design for the Curtiss Wright RC2-32 engine selected in the trade-off studies; and (4) the assessment of market impact and the preparation of a technology demonstration plan for the advanced turbocharger.

  1. Analytical considerations for study design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry R. Noon; William M. Block

    1990-01-01

    Studies of the foraging behaviors of birds have been largely descriptive and comparative. One might then expect studies with similar objectives to have similar study designs but that is not the case. Papers in this symposium that focused specifically on study design contain a diversity of biological perspectives. Similarly, there is no accord among statisticians on...

  2. Understanding older women's health care concerns: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Cara B; Nasmith, Louise; Mayo, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    Older women often have different physical and psychological health priorities compared to men, and health systems must strive to extend and improve health care delivery to meet older women's specific health care needs. The goal of this study was to obtain information from older women on how to improve health care services to best support their efforts to age successfully and receive optimal quality health care in later life. Focus groups were conducted among women aged 65 or older recruited from the community in the Montreal, Quebec, area. A total of 36 women participated. The focus group sessions were audiotaped, and the transcripts of each session were analyzed for issues and themes emerging from the text. Content analysis using the framework approach was used to explore and understand the experience of the focus group participants. The data from the text were then coded according to the relevant and emergent ideas and concepts. Participants felt that their physical health care needs were being met, but that a number of issues relating to psychological health were inadequately addressed by health care professionals. The importance of feeling validated as active participants in a health care relationship, recognition of fears and anxieties associated with aging, and the need for information-sharing and education were all viewed as important health care priorities for older women. Time and accessibility were identified as the most significant barriers towards receiving optimal health care in later life. The current health care system does not meet the global health care needs of older women. Health care leaders must recognize that success in program development and delivery for older women will require designing clinical programs that address both the physiological and psychosocial requirements of women. Only when women feel that they are being cared for in a comprehensive manner, one that includes attention to physical, psychological and emotional health, are we

  3. Women's Studies: A Model for a Specialty in Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Sue V.

    1993-01-01

    A five-phase model for integrating women's issues into the traditional college curriculum is outlined, with examples from five disciplines. The model is then applied to the medical curriculum, as a means of creating a curriculum for a specialty in women's health or including women's health in general medicine/medical specialties. (MSE)

  4. Biomarker Profiles in Women with PCOS and PCOS Offspring; A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, Nadine M P; Koster, Maria P H; de Wilde, Marlieke A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413993809; Dalmeijer, Gerdien W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/343075881; Evelein, Annemieke M V; Fauser, Bart C J M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071281932; de Jager, Wilco|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304816906

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study metabolic/inflammatory biomarker risk profiles in women with PCOS and PCOS offspring. DESIGN: Cross-sectional comparison of serum biomarkers. SETTING: University Medical Center Utrecht. PATIENTS: Hyperandrogenic PCOS women (HA-PCOS, n = 34), normoandrogenic PCOS women (NA-PCOS, n

  5. Program Design for Healthy Weight in Lesbian and Bisexual Women: A Ten-City Prevention Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Sarah C; McElroy, Jane A; Garbers, Samantha; McDonnell, Cheryl; Brooks, Jacquetta; Eliason, Michele J; Ingraham, Natalie; Osborn, Ann; Rayyes, Nada; Redman, Sarah Davis; Wood, Susan F; Haynes, Suzanne G

    2016-07-07

    Adult lesbian and bisexual (LB) women are more likely to be obese than adult heterosexual women. To address weight- and fitness-related health disparities among older LB women using culturally appropriate interventions, the Office on Women's Health (OWH) provided funding for the program, Healthy Weight in Lesbian and Bisexual Women (HWLB): Striving for a Healthy Community. This paper provides a description of the interventions that were implemented. Five research organizations partnered with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community organizations to implement healthy weight interventions addressing the needs of LB women 40 years and older. The interventions incorporated evidence-based recommendations related to physical activity and nutrition. Each group intervention developed site-specific primary objectives related to the overall goal of improving the health of LB women and included weight and waist circumference reduction as secondary objectives. A 57-item core health survey was administered across the five sites. At a minimum, each program obtained pre- and post-program assessments. Each program included the OWH-required common elements of exercise, social support, and education on nutrition and physical activity, but adopted a unique approach to deliver intervention content. This is the first time a multisite intervention has been conducted to promote healthy weight in older LB women. Core measurements across the HWLB programs will allow for pooled analyses, and differences in study design will permit analysis of site-specific elements. The documentation and analysis of the effectiveness of these five projects will provide guidance for model programs and future research on LB populations. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. All rights reserved.

  6. Integrative health care model for climacteric stage women: design of the intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Cuevas Ricardo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Climacteric stage women experience significant biological, psychological and social changes. With demographic changes being observed in the growing number of climacteric stage women in Mexico, it is important to improve their knowledge about the climacteric stage and its potential associated problems, encourage their participation in screening programs, and promote the acquisition of healthy lifestyles. At Mexican health care institutions the predominant health care model for climacteric stage women has a biomedical perspective. Medical doctors provide mostly curative services and have limited support from other health professionals. This study aims to design an integrative health care model (IHCM: bio-psycho-social, multidisciplinary and women-centered applicable in primary care services aimed at climacteric stage women. Methods/Design We present the design, inclusion criteria and detailed description of an IHCM. The IHCM consists of collaborative and coordinated provision of services by a health team, which is involves a family doctor, nurse, psychologist, and the woman herself. The health team promotes the empowerment of women through individual and group counseling on the climacteric stage and health related self-care. The intervention lasts three months followed by a three-month follow-up period to evaluate the effectiveness of the model. The effectiveness of the model will be evaluated through the following aspects: health-related quality of life (HR-QoL, empowerment, self-efficacy and knowledge regarding the climacteric stage and health-related self-care activities, use of screening services, and improvement in lifestyles (regular leisure time physical activity and healthy diet. Discussion Participation in preventive activities should be encouraged among women in Mexico. Designing and evaluating the effectiveness of an integrative health care model for women at the climacteric stage, based on the empowerment approach

  7. Contraception in diabetic women: an Italian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, A; Colatrella, A; Botta, R; Di Cianni, G; Fresa, R; Gamba, S; Italia, S; Mannino, D; Piva, I; Suraci, C; Tonutti, L; Torlone, E; Tortul, C; Lapolla, A

    2005-03-01

    Over 1 year, a survey on contraception and obstetric history was performed on a cohort of 667 Caucasian fertile diabetic women (446, type 1 and 201, type 2) living in Italy. Of these women, 30.4% used hormonal contraceptives, 12.0% intra-uterine device (IUD), 10.7% declared they used no contraception, 47.0% only utilised barrier and/or natural methods. However, irrespective of their previous contraceptive strategy, 7.2% of all the studied population was surgically sterilized during caesarean section. Of these women, 60.4% was prescribed by a gynaecologist, 11.2% by a diabetologist, 15% by both of them and 13.4% by others. The proportion using oral contraception was similar among types 1 and 2 women (29.4% versus 27.8%, chi(2) = ns). Of women taking hormonal contraception, 30.0% were smokers. University graduates (37.1%), high school leaves (32.2%), secondary school (28.2%) and primary school leaves (15.5%) used oral contraceptives (OC). The mean number of deliveries was 1.14 +/- 1.1, of miscarriages was 1.3 +/- 0.7 and of induced abortions 0.17 +/- 0.5. Planning of at least one pregnancy was reported in 29.4% of patients.

  8. Doctoral Women: Managing Emotions, Managing Doctoral Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitchison, Claire; Mowbray, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the experiences of women doctoral students and the role of emotion during doctoral candidature. The paper draws on the concept of emotional labour to examine the two sites of emotional investment students experienced and managed during their studies: writing and family relationships. Emotion is perceived by many dominant…

  9. Gendering English Studies: Masculinity and Women' Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Diana

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the silences and anxieties provoked by the gendering of English Studies as a subject taught by men to women. I reflect on my own experience as a female student and lecturer within a subject that has been "professionalized" by males. The geographical and social context within which I teach--the South Wales Valleys,…

  10. Women and the Choice to Study Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Tisha L. N.; McGoldrick, KimMarie; Mumford, Kevin J.

    2012-01-01

    Underrepresentation of women in economics is documented in many studies. Investigation of its sources at the undergraduate level is examined through students' decisions to persist in economics, either beyond an introductory course or in their major choices. The authors add to the literature by analyzing students' decisions to take their first…

  11. Women's orgasm obstacles: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekoolaltak, Maryam; Keshavarz, Zohreh; Simbar, Masoumeh; Nazari, Ali Mohammad; Baghestani, Ahmad Reza

    2017-08-01

    Woman's orgasm plays a vital role in sexual compatibility and marital satisfaction. Orgasm in women is a learnable phenomenon that is influenced by several factors. The aim of this study is exploring obstacles to orgasm in Iranian married women. This qualitative study with directed content analysis approach was conducted in 2015-2016, on 20 Iranian married women who were individually interviewed at two medical clinics in Tehran, Iran. Orgasm obstacles were explored in one category, 4 subcategories, and 25 codes. The main category was "Multidimensionality of women's orgasm obstacles". Subcategories and some codes included: Physical obstacles (wife's or husband's boredom, vaginal infection, insufficient vaginal lubrication), psychological obstacles (lack of sexual knowledge, shame, lack of concentration on sex due to household and children problems), relational obstacles (husband's hurry, having a dispute and annoyance with spouse) and contextual obstacles (Irregular sleep hours, lack of privacy and inability to separate children's bedroom from their parents, lack of peace at home). For prevention or treatment of female orgasm disorders, attention to physical factors is not enough. Obtaining a comprehensive history about physical, psychological, relational and contextual dimensions of woman's life is necessary.

  12. Study designs may influence results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Christoffer; Schüz, Joachim; Andreasen, Anne-Marie Serena

    2017-01-01

    for establishing cause-and-effect for diseases such as glioma. We suggest that a state-of-the-art case-control study should, as a minimum, be accompanied by extensive validation of the exposure assessment methods and the representativeness of the study sample with regard to the exposures of interest. Otherwise......Glioma is a rare brain tumour with a very poor prognosis and the search for modifiable factors is intense. We reviewed the literature concerning risk factors for glioma obtained in case-control designed epidemiological studies in order to discuss the influence of this methodology on the observed...... appeared to show an inverse association, whereas nested case-control and cohort studies showed no association. For allergies, the inverse association was observed irrespective of study design. We recommend that the questionnaire-based case-control design be placed lower in the hierarchy of studies...

  13. Study Designs in Clinical Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, Marlies; Dekker, Friedo W.; Zoccali, Carmine; Jager, Kitty J.

    2009-01-01

    In nephrology research, both observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are commonly applied. Clinicians using the evidence from epidemiological studies should be aware of the specific qualities and limitations of each study design. The purpose of the article is therefore to

  14. Evidence for Cognitive Aging in Midlife Women: Study of Women's Health Across the Nation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun S Karlamangla

    Full Text Available Although cross-sectional studies suggest that cognitive aging starts in midlife, few longitudinal studies have documented within-individual declines in cognitive performance before the seventh decade. Learning from repeat testing, or practice effects, can mask the decline in younger cohorts. In women, the menopause transition also affects test performance and can confound estimates of underlying decline. We designed this study to determine if, after controlling for practice effects, the menopause transition, and the symptoms associated with it, there is evidence of cognitive aging in midlife women. We used data from a longitudinal observational study in 2,124 participants from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Outcomes examined were scores on annual tests of processing speed, verbal episodic memory (immediate and delayed, and working memory. To reduce the impact of practice effects and of the menopause transition, we used the third cognition testing visit as the baseline. Average age at this baseline was 54 years, and the majority of the women were postmenopausal; half the cohort was 2 or more years beyond the final menstrual period. There were 7,185 cognition assessments with median follow-up time of 6.5 years. In mixed effects regression, adjusted for practice effects, retention, menopause symtoms (depressive, anxiety, vasomotor, and sleep disturbance, and covariates, scores on 2 of 4 cognition tests declined. Mean decline in cognitive speed was 0.28 per year (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.20 to 0.36 or 4.9% in 10 years, and mean decline in verbal episodic memory (delayed testing was 0.02 per year (95% CI: 0.00 to 0.03 or 2% in 10 years. Our results provide strong, longitudinal evidence of cognitive aging in midlife women, with substantial within-woman declines in processing speed and memory. Further research is needed to identify factors that influence decline rates and to develop interventions that slow cognitive aging.

  15. Surfacing the Structures of Patriarchy: Teaching and Learning Threshold Concepts in Women's Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassel, Holly; Reddinger, Amy; van Slooten, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Patriarchy is a threshold concept in women's studies--a significant, defining concept that transforms students' understanding of the discipline. This article reviews our design, implementation, and findings of a lesson study crafted to teach women's studies students the complex idea of patriarchy as a social system. We analyze the lesson using…

  16. Studying entrepreneurial occupations in the Terman women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt-Rodermund, Eva; Schröder, Elke; Obschonka, Martin

    2017-07-16

    To achieve a better understanding of entrepreneurship development in women, longitudinal data on 672 individuals collected from 1922 to 1959 were analysed in a secondary investigation of the Terman Longitudinal Study. Women's reports on their occupations during 10 different years were assigned to one of two categories: work for pay (0/1), and work allowing for self-employment (0/1) in the respective year. Structural equation modelling supported earlier results concerning male entrepreneurial activity. Personality and aspects of the parenting context the women had experienced by the average age of 12 predicted early entrepreneurial competencies (inventions, leadership) and occupational interests by age 13, which related to an entrepreneurship-related career goal in 1936, when the participants were about 27 years of age on average. Such a career goal in turn predicted a higher number of occasions of entrepreneurship-prone work. Surprisingly, we also found a relationship to divorce. Women who had experienced the failure of a marriage were in occupations with a potential for entrepreneurship more often. Reasons are discussed against a backdrop of historical timing and current findings to identify general aspects of entrepreneurship development. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  17. Design of FitFor2 study: the effects of an exercise program on insulin sensitivity and plasma glucose levels in pregnant women at high risk for gestational diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostdam, E.W.M.; Poppel, van M.N.M.; Eekhoff, E.M.W.; Wouters, M.G.A.J.; Mechelen, van W.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is a period in the life of women that is often associated with decreased daily physical activity and/or exercise. However, maintaining adequate levels of daily physical activity during pregnancy is important for mother and child. Studies suggest that moderate daily

  18. The Energy Balance Study: The Design and Baseline Results for a Longitudinal Study of Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Gregory A.; Shook, Robin P.; Paluch, Amanda E.; Baruth, Meghan; Crowley, E. Patrick; Jaggers, Jason R.; Prasad, Vivek K.; Hurley, Thomas G.; Hebert, James R.; O'Connor, Daniel P.; Archer, Edward; Burgess, Stephanie; Blair, Steven N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The Energy Balance Study (EBS) was a comprehensive study designed to determine over a period of 12 months the associations of caloric intake and energy expenditure on changes in body weight and composition in a population of healthy men and women. Method: EBS recruited men and women aged 21 to 35 years with a body mass index between 20…

  19. Visual Design Principles: An Empirical Study of Design Lore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Miles A.

    2013-01-01

    Many books, designers, and design educators talk about visual design principles such as balance, contrast, and alignment, but with little consistency. This study uses empirical methods to explore the lore surrounding design principles. The study took the form of two stages: a quantitative literature review to determine what design principles are…

  20. Optimal design of pharmacokinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Leon; Ogungbenro, Kayode

    2010-03-01

    Experimental design is fundamental to successful scientific investigation. Poorly designed experiments lead to the loss of information, which is costly and potentially unethical. Experiments can be designed in an optimal fashion to maximize the amount of information they provide. Optimal design theory uses prior information about the model and parameter estimates to optimize a function of the Fisher information matrix to obtain the best combination of the design factors. In the case of population pharmacokinetic experiments, this involves the selection and a careful balance of a number of design factors, including the number and location of measurement times and the number of subjects to include in the study. It is expected that as the awareness about the benefits of this approach increases, more people will embrace it and ultimately will lead to more efficient population pharmacokinetic experiments and can also help to reduce both cost and time during drug development. This MiniReview provides an introduction to optimal design using examples taken from different pharmacokinetic experiments.

  1. Phenomenological Study of Empowering Women Senior Leaders in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cselenszky, Mila P.

    2012-01-01

    The number of women in senior administrative and leadership roles in higher education is minimal compared to the number of women in higher education jobs in general. This phenomenological study explored pathways women took to advance in their careers and barriers that prevent more women from gaining senior administrative and leadership roles.…

  2. Retaining Men in Nursing Programs Designed for Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Marilyn S.; Sherrod, Dennis R.

    2003-01-01

    A literature review suggested differences in men's and women's ways of knowing that may influence recruitment of male nursing students. Retention strategies include critical thinking, gender-neutral classrooms, learning styles, role models, and counseling. (Contains 30 references.) (SK)

  3. Kurdish women's preference for mode of birth: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahoei, Roonak; Rezaei, Masomeh; Ranaei, Fariba; Khosravy, Farangis; Zaheri, Farzaneh

    2014-06-01

    Choosing between a normal delivery and Caesarean section is a matter of critical importance for a pregnant woman. The third trimester is the time for her to think about methods of delivery. The study aims to gain insight into Kurdish pregnant women's birth preference and their perception of factors influencing this choice. In this qualitative study, 22 pregnant Kurdish women were interviewed during the third trimester of their pregnancies. The setting for the study included three public health-care centres of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences in Sanandaj, a centre of the Kurdistan province at the western part of Iran. Study participants were recruited from maternity units of health-care centres. A purposive sample was used initially and then theoretical sampling was used towards the end of the data analysis. Sample size was not predetermined but was determined when interviewing reached saturation, that is, when no new data emerged about categories. The sample size was restricted to 22, as no new data were generated after the 20th interview. The criteria required for inclusion in the study were being Kurdish women, being in the third trimester of pregnancy, no physical disability, no history of Caesarean section and interest in the study. A qualitative design was chosen, as it is particularly suited to studying complex phenomena or processes that are less understood. This study revealed that of the 22 participants, 18 preferred vaginal delivery and only four preferred Caesarean section. The reasons for choosing the vaginal delivery method were grouped into four categories: safety of baby, fear, previous experience and social support. This finding does not support the rate of Caesarean section among Kurdish women in Sanandaj. It might reflect the effect of other factors such as social, institutional, professional and quality of care on women's choice for delivery method. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Women physicians as healthcare leaders: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Virginia R; Theriault, Anne; Clement, Chris; Worthington, Jim

    2016-06-20

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore the under-representation of women physicians in clinical leadership by examining the issue from their perspective. Design/methodology/approach - The authors used large group engagement methods to explore the experiences and perceptions of women physicians. In order to capture common themes across this group as a whole, participants were selected using purposeful sampling. Data were analysed using a structured thematic analysis procedure. Findings - This paper provides empirical insights into the influences affecting women physicians' decision to participate in leadership. The authors found that they often exclude themselves because the costs of leadership outweigh the benefits. Potential barriers unique to healthcare include the undervaluing of leadership by physician peers and perceived lack of support by nursing. Research limitations/implications - This study provides an in-depth examination of why women physicians are under-represented in clinical leadership from the perspective of those directly involved. Further studies are needed to confirm the generalizability of these findings and potential differences between demographic groups of physicians. Practical implications - Healthcare organizations seeking to increase the participation of women physicians in leadership should focus on modifying the perceived costs of leadership and highlighting the potential benefits. Large group engagement methods can be an effective approach to engage physicians on specific issues and mobilize grass-roots support for change. Originality/value - This exploratory study provides insights on the barriers and enablers to leadership specific to women physicians in the clinical setting. It provides a reference for healthcare organizations seeking to develop and diversify their leadership talent.

  5. Come Closer to Feminism: Gratitude as Activist Encounter in Women's and Gender Studies 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Katie

    2014-01-01

    Many teachers of introductory women's and gender studies find themselves in the position of introducing bad news to an already hostile audience. To deal directly with this dilemma, author Katie Hogan has approached student resistance to women's and gender studies (WGST) with carefully constructed syllabi designed to encourage…

  6. Practice and Pattern of Antenatal and Postnatal Exercise among Nigerian Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chidozie Emmanuel Mbada; Olubukayomi EbunOluwa Adebayo; Taofeek Oluwole Awotidebe; Funmilola Adenike Faremi; Monisola Omoyemi Oginni; Abiola Oladele Ogundele; Anne Antonette I. Emechete

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The African culture seems to play a major prohibiting role in physical exercise during pregnancy and immediate postpartum. This study was designed to assess practice and pattern of antenatal and postnatal exercise among Nigerian women. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and sixty-five women (189 pregnant women and 179 nursing mothers) from six selected hospitals in south-west Nigeria participated in this cross-sectional study. Data were obtained on socio-demographic and obste...

  7. The Role of Women's/Gender Studies in the Changing Lives of British Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkup, Gill; Whitelegg, Liz; Rowbotham, Iris

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the role played by part-time Women's/Gender Studies (WGS) courses in women's lives in the UK through interviews with 35 women who were among 8000 students who studied one of the UK Open University's undergraduate interdisciplinary WGS courses between 1983 and 1999. A thematic analysis of these interviews shows how these mainly…

  8. a prospectively designed pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Camerer, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the preservation of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (M. SCM) after modified radical neck dissection (MRND). To evaluate postoperative functional outcome and life quality, clinical data of patients after neck dissection level I-V were analyzed and compared: 20 patients with preservation of the M. SCM to 20 patients without preservation of the M. SCM. Matched-Pairs-design was performed previously to gain homogenization within the compared study groups. F...

  9. Design of acute neuroprotection studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawryluk, Gregory W J; Bullock, M Ross

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a substantial public health problem. The discovery of progressive, ongoing damage to the brain by means of complex molecular mechanisms which follow the initial injury has raised the possibility of targeted therapeutic intervention. Despite a substantial investment in trials testing dozens of therapeutics in humans, however, to date none has demonstrated robust efficacy. Deficiencies in the design of human clinical trials is likely to explain many translational failures, at least in part. Here we review secondary injury mediators and key trials which have targeted them. We provide a thorough discussion of putative reasons why trials thus far have failed and suggestions for the design of future clinical studies. Important insights from the IMPACT study are also presented in detail; in addition to providing critical insights for future trial design and analysis it suggests that reanalysis of completed studies may reveal inappropriately discarded treatments. Unfortunately limited resources are available for translational research and it is difficult to procure funds needed for well-resourced, large and definitive studies. History suggests, however, that investing in studies that are unlikely to provide a definitive answer only serves to increase required investment as they tend to mandate further study. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Design of FitFor2 study: the effects of an exercise program on insulin sensitivity and plasma glucose levels in pregnant women at high risk for gestational diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eekhoff Elisabeth MW

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy is a period in the life of women that is often associated with decreased daily physical activity and/or exercise. However, maintaining adequate levels of daily physical activity during pregnancy is important for mother and child. Studies suggest that moderate daily physical activity and exercise during pregnancy are associated with reductions in the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. However, at present, physical activity is not routinely advised to pregnant women at risk for gestational diabetes in the Netherlands. In FitFor2-study we aim to assess whether an exercise program can improve insulin sensitivity and fasting plasma glucose levels of women at high risk for gestational diabetes, assuming that this will lower their risk of gestational diabetes. Methods The FitFor2-study is a randomised controlled trial. Women who visit one of the participating hospitals or midwifery practices and who are at risk for gestational diabetes are eligible to participate. After baseline measurement they are randomly allocated to in the intervention or control group. The intervention group receives an exercise program twice a week in addition to usual care. The exercise program consist of aerobic and strength exercises and takes place under close supervision of a physiotherapist. Data are collected at 15, 24 and 32 weeks of pregnancy and 12 weeks after delivery. Primary maternal outcome measures are fasting plasma glucose and relative increase in insulin resistance. Primary neonatal outcome is birth weight. Secondary outcome measures are: maternal serum triglycerides, HDL, cholesterol, HbA1c, maternal weight gain during pregnancy, maternal physical activity level, foetal growth. Discussion If the FitFor2 intervention program proves to be effective, obstetricians and midwives should refer women at risk for GDM to a special exercise program. Exercise programs for pregnant women under supervision of an experienced trainer are

  11. Design and National Dissemination of the StrongWomen Community Strength Training Program

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca A. Seguin, MS; Christina D. Economos, PhD; Raymond Hyatt, PhD; Ruth Palombo, PhD; Peter N.T. Reed, MPH; Miriam E. Nelson, PhD

    2007-01-01

    Background Physical activity is essential for maintaining health and function with age, especially among women. Strength training exercises combat weakness and frailty and mitigate the development of chronic disease. Community-based programs offer accessible opportunities for strength training. Program Design The StrongWomen Program is an evidence-informed, community-based strength training program developed and disseminated to enable women aged 40 or older to maintain their strength, functio...

  12. Sexual Violence Among Foreign Women Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Şevki Sözen; Birgül Tüzün; Şebnem Korur Fincancı; Halis Dokgöz

    1999-01-01

    The quickly increasing number of foreign women, with various reasons, moving to Istanbul, where the socio-cultural changes are dense, is parallel to the upwards trend of sexually related violence. In this study, 32 foreign women’s autopsies performed at the Morgue Department of the Council of Forensic Medicine in 1996 are investigated. Sexual violence cases are defined, and 2 of them are presented. Multiple injuries due to blunt traumas are found in both cases which are classified in 25-35 ag...

  13. Instructional designers at work: A study of how designers design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Dicks

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Instructional design (ID in its short life has been dominated by behaviourist approaches despite critique focusing on issues of practice as well as theory. Nonetheless, little research has addressed two fundamental questions: “What constitutes good instructional design?” and “How do instructional designers create good design?” We have begun a search for answers by asking a sample of eight instructional designers to reconstruct how they helped faculty members deal with challenging design problems as they adopted a Learning Management System and other web-based technologies in support of their teaching. From audio-recordings we derived response categories consistently recurring within and across interviews, then validated our analysis with the sampled group of instructional designers. Our analysis suggests that instructional designers employ a set of social skills and cognitive tools that enable them to act as a pedagogical “conscience” in the design process. We interpret these skills in terms of “theory of mind” in the context of instructional design. Résumé : Durant sa courte existence, le domaine de la conception pédagogique a été dominé par les approches comportementales malgré la critique qui met l’accent sur les questions pratiques aussi bien que théoriques. Néanmoins, peu de recherches ont abordé deux questions fondamentales : « Qu’est-ce qu’une bonne conception pédagogique ? » et « Comment les concepteurs pédagogiques élaborent-ils un bon concept ? ». Nous avons commencé notre recherche de réponses en demandant à un échantillon de huit concepteurs pédagogiques de reconstruire la manière dont ils ont aidé les professeurs à composer avec des problèmes de conception particulièrement difficiles tandis que ces derniers procédaient à l’implantation d’un système de gestion de l’apprentissage et d’autres technologies Web comme soutien à l’enseignement. À partir des

  14. Validation of physical activity instruments: Black Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Nolan, Pamela L; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L; Makambi, Kepher; Lewis, Shantell; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have reported on the validity of physical activity measures in African Americans. The present study was designed to determine the validity of a self-administered physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) that was used in a large prospective study of African American women in the United States against an accelerometer (actigraph), an objective assessment of movement, and a seven-day activity diary. The study was conducted among 101 women enrolled in the Black Women's Health Study (BWHS) cohort who resided in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area, representing 11.2% (101/900) of this sample. Physical activity levels were obtained from the parent BWHS PAQ (eg, 1997 and 1999) and repeated in the present study. This information entailed hours per week of participation in walking for exercise, hours per week of moderate activity (eg, housework, gardening, and bowling), and hours per week of strenuous activity (eg, basketball, swimming, running, and aerobics) during the previous year. The participants were required to wear actigraphs for seven days and then record their physical activities in their diaries (seven-day physical activity diary) during this time. The diaries were used to record the amount and pattern of daily energy expenditure. Significant positive correlations were seen between the BWHS PAQ and the actigraph for total activity, r=.28; walking, r=.26; and vigorous activity, r=.40, Presearch.

  15. Urinary incontinence in Moroccan and Turkish women: a qualitative study on impact and preferences for treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijsenbergh, M.E.T.C. van den; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2006-01-01

    Aim:To gain insight into the impact of urinary incontinence on the daily lives of Moroccan and Turkish women and their preferences for treatment.Design of study:A qualitative analysis of data from semi-structured in depth interviews with 30 Moroccan and Turkish migrant women with urinary

  16. The effects of alcohol on mood induced by an emotional film. A study among women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tilburg, M.A.L.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the effects of alcohol on women's reactions to a negative mood-inducing stimulus. It is hypothesized that, like in men, alcohol also reduces tension or induces positive mood in women. In addition, we explored whether different mood states were

  17. Women Organize : A Study of four European Women's Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Pincus, Sonja M

    2008-01-01

    Women organize in women’s organizations for various causes across Europe and across the globe today as they have for the past 150 years. The European Women’s Lobby (EWL) is the largest platform for non-governmental women’s organizations in the EU and on their website they state that they have more than 4000 member organizations. It is therefore reasonable to assume that there is a great deal more women’s organizations in the EU, which may not be registered at the EWL, and even more when all t...

  18. Towards a Methodology of Women's Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Mies (Maria)

    1979-01-01

    textabstractAfter more than a decade of mobilization, consciousness-raising and struggles around issues like equal rights, abortion laws, rape and violence against women, the women's movement is still gaining momentum, drawing more and more women into its vortex.

  19. High School Womens' Studies: A Working Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Iris

    1976-01-01

    Discusses several difficulties in bringing the womens' movement into the high schools, noting a strong resistance to feminism by the students themselves. The authors course began with discussions on what it meant to be a girl, daughter, and female student; focused on women and the media; examined women in other cultures; and finally discussed…

  20. Lunar astronomical observatories - Design studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stewart W.; Burns, Jack O.; Chua, Koon Meng; Duric, Nebojsa; Gerstle, Walter H.

    1990-01-01

    The best location in the inner solar system for the grand observatories of the 21st century may be the moon. A multidisciplinary team including university students and faculty in engineering, astronomy, physics, and geology, and engineers from industry is investigating the moon as a site for astronomical observatories and is doing conceptual and preliminary designs for these future observatories. Studies encompass lunar facilities for radio astronomy and astronomy at optical, ultraviolet, and infrared wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. Although there are significant engineering challenges in design and construction on the moon, the rewards for astronomy can be great, such as detection and study of earth-like planets orbiting nearby stars, and the task for engineers promises to stimulate advances in analysis and design, materials and structures, automation and robotics, foundations, and controls. Fabricating structures in the reduced-gravity environment of the moon will be easier than in the zero-gravity environment of earth orbit, as Apollo and space-shuttle missions have revealed. Construction of observatories on the moon can be adapted from techniques developed on the earth, with the advantage that the moon's weaker gravitational pull makes it possible to build larger devices than are practical on earth.

  1. Women's Studies in Japan: Origin and Current Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Machiko

    1995-01-01

    Explores the impact of the second feminist wave in Japan on the development of women's studies in community women's centers and in academia. Although the original radical spirit has been lost, women's studies are gaining ground despite institutional and cultural problems due to the proliferation of Western feminist theories, the inclusion of…

  2. Dietary flavonoid intake and risk of cancer in postmenopausal women: The Iowa Women's Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gretchen J. Cutler; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Ross, Julie A.; Harnack, Lisa J.; David R Jacobs; Scrafford, Carolyn G.; Barraj, Leila M; Mink, Pamela J; Robien, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Flavonoids, which are found in certain plant foods, are thought to lower cancer risk through their antioxidant, antiestrogenic and antiproliferative properties. We examined the association of intake of total flavonoids and 7 flavonoid subclasses with risk of lung, colorectal, breast, pancreatic and upper aerodigestive cancer among women in a large prospective cohort study. Study participants were 34,708 postmenopausal women in the Iowa Women's Health Study who completed a food frequency quest...

  3. Women's Ways of Collaboration: A Case Study in Proposal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterly, Debra

    2008-01-01

    Research has shown that women may perform actions such as leading, communicating, or working on a team differently than men perform them. For example, female leaders may have a more inclusive rather than authoritarian style. The American university is an institution designed by men for men. Women are increasingly represented as students and…

  4. Studies of Korean and Japanese Women: An Analytical Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Hesung Chun, Comp.; And Others

    This is the first English language, book-length bibliography on Korean and Japanese women. The primary aim of the guide is to facilitate a wide variety of research, either descriptive or comparative, on Asian American women. The guide was designed with on-line interactive data retrieval in mind. Work toward this goal is now underway at the…

  5. AEROSOL PARTICLE COLLECTOR DESIGN STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

    2007-09-27

    A computational evaluation of a particle collector design was performed to evaluate the behavior of aerosol particles in a fast flowing gas stream. The objective of the work was to improve the collection efficiency of the device while maintaining a minimum specified air throughput, nominal collector size, and minimal power requirements. The impact of a range of parameters was considered subject to constraints on gas flow rate, overall collector dimensions, and power limitations. Potential improvements were identified, some of which have already been implemented. Other more complex changes were identified and are described here for further consideration. In addition, fruitful areas for further study are proposed.

  6. Dioxins and endometriosis: cohort study of women in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diliberto, J.; Birnbaum, L. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NHEERL, ETD, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Staats, D.A. [West Virginia Dept. of Environmental Protection, Charleston, WV (United States); Staats, D.A.; Becker, J.; Jude, D.; Chouinard, S.C.; Smith, T. [Marshall Univ. Medical Center, Huntington, WV (United States); Sirinek, L. [West Virginia Dept. of Environmental Protection, Wheeling, WV (United States); Clark, G. [Xenobiotic Detection Systems Inc., Durham, NC (United States); Landy, R. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 3, ESC, Ft. Meade, MD (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The women in this endometriosis/dioxin health study reside in the Kanawha/Ohio River Valley area of West Virginia and comprise a potential cluster (cohort) of individuals who have been exposed to dioxins (dioxin and dioxin-like chemicals) at background levels higher than those seen in other areas of the United States. The emissions from an unique constellation of chemical industries appear to have led to high levels of environmental dioxin contaminants. In addition, this area has a high incidence of endometriosis. Previous animal studies, both in nonhuman primates and rodents, have demonstrated a correlation between dioxin exposure and endometriosis. Human epidemiology studies have suggested an association but have not demonstrated a statistically significant correlation, possibly due to limitations in study design such as insufficient numbers, measurement of only TCDD rather than total equivalents to TCDD (TEQs), and/or lack of surgical ascertainment of endometriosis. The present study is addressing these issues. Thus, we have the unusual congruence of identified emission sources and high background levels of dioxins and a potentially related elevation of endometriosis. Endometriosis is a condition suffered by women in which the endometrial tissue, that usually lines the uterus, migrates to other areas. Most commonly it is found in the abdomen, bladder, ovaries or bowel. Patients with endometriosis experience pelvic pain, irregular bleeding, infertility and other problems. Immune suppression has been associated with severe endometriosis. This debilitating condition is a poorly understood disease. In the United States, this condition affects millions of women in their reproductive years and is showing up more frequently in very young women. Endometriosis will seriously impact future fertility and health care utilization. Data suggest that the rate of endometriosis in the Kanawha and Ohio River valleys is higher than is seen in other regions of the United States.

  7. Tai Chi for osteopenic women: design and rationale of a pragmatic randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Mary

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-menopausal osteopenic women are at increased risk for skeletal fractures. Current osteopenia treatment guidelines include exercise, however, optimal exercise regimens for attenuating bone mineral density (BMD loss, or for addressing other fracture-related risk factors (e.g. poor balance, decreased muscle strength are not well-defined. Tai Chi is an increasingly popular weight bearing mind-body exercise that has been reported to positively impact BMD dynamics and improve postural control, however, current evidence is inconclusive. This study will determine the effectiveness of Tai Chi in reducing rates of bone turnover in post-menopausal osteopenic women, compared with standard care, and will preliminarily explore biomechanical processes that might inform how Tai Chi impacts BMD and associated fracture risks. Methods/Design A total of 86 post-menopausal women, aged 45-70y, T-score of the hip and/or spine -1.0 and -2.5, have been recruited from primary care clinics of a large healthcare system based in Boston. They have been randomized to a group-based 9-month Tai Chi program plus standard care or to standard care only. A unique aspect of this trial is its pragmatic design, which allows participants randomized to Tai Chi to choose from a pre-screened list of community-based Tai Chi programs. Interviewers masked to participants' treatment group assess outcomes at baseline and 3 and 9 months after randomization. Primary outcomes are serum markers of bone resorption (C-terminal cross linking telopeptide of type I collagen, bone formation (osteocalcin, and BMD of the lumbar spine and proximal femur (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Secondary outcomes include health-related quality-of-life, exercise behavior, and psychological well-being. In addition, kinetic and kinematic characterization of gait, standing, and rising from a chair are assessed in subset of participants (n = 16 to explore the feasibility of modeling skeletal

  8. Design Issues in Transgender Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, James P; Emel, Lynda; Hanscom, Brett; Zangeneh, Sahar

    2016-08-15

    Transgender individuals constitute an important focus for HIV prevention, but studies in this population present some unique methodologic and operational challenges. We consider issues related to sampling, sample size, number of sites, and trial cost. We discuss relevant design issues for evaluating interventions in both HIV-negative and HIV-infected transgender populations, as well as a method for assessing the impact of an intervention on population HIV incidence. We find that HIV-endpoint studies of transgender individuals will likely require fewer participants but more sites and have higher operational costs than HIV prevention trials in other populations. Because any intervention targeted to transgender individuals will likely include antiretroviral drugs, small scale studies looking at potential interactions between antiretroviral therapy and hormone therapy are recommended. Finally, assessing the impact of an intervention targeted to transgender individuals will require better information on the contribution of such individuals to the population HIV incidence.

  9. The role of menstruation in women's objectification: a questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveinsdóttir, Herdís

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the concepts of objectification and self-objectification among young women in the context of attitudes towards menstruation, menstrual suppression, menstrual and menarche experiences, disorder eating and exercise habits and to detect predictors of objectification and self-objectification. The negative effects of objectification are well founded. Considering the central role menstruation plays in female biology, it comes as quite a surprise that so little attention is given to the subject in the research on objectification. Cross-sectional explorative survey design. A questionnaire that included the Self-Objectification Questionnaire, the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale, the Belief and Attitudes Towards Menstruation Questionnaire and the Suppress Menstruation subscale of the Attitudes Towards Menstrual Suppression Questionnaire was administered at the end of 2013 to 319 Icelandic women who represented the population by age. A stepwise multiple linear regression model was employed to calculate significant predictors of objectification and self-objectification. Four models of objectification are presented: the self-objectification model, the body surveillance model, the body shame model and the control belief model. Taken together, the strongest predictors of these models were related to eating habits. However, the findings also support the proposition that menstrual-related experiences influence women's objectification, particularly in terms of age at menarche, of belief in the prescriptive role of menstruation and of use of pain medication for menstrual pain. Healthcare providers in general and nurses in particular could and should assist girls and women in developing a positive view of their body and its reproductive functions by discussing the body and menstruation based on women's concerns. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Health-related quality of life and the predictive role of sense of coherence, spirituality and religious coping in a sample of Iranian women with breast cancer: a prospective study with comparative design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohani, Camelia; Abedi, Heidar-Ali; Omranipour, Ramesh; Langius-Eklöf, Ann

    2015-03-28

    There is disagreement among studies of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) changes in breast cancer patients over time. Reportedly, assessment of HRQoL prior to diagnosis may be crucial to provide a clear point of comparison for later measurements. The aims of this study were (1) to investigate changes in HRQoL, sense of coherence (SOC), spirituality and religious coping in a group of women with breast cancer from the pre-diagnosis phase to 6 months later in comparison with a control group, and (2) to explore the predictor role of SOC, spirituality, and religious coping within the breast cancer group at the 6-month follow-up. A sample of women with breast cancer (n = 162) and a matched control group (n = 210) responded to the following instruments on both occasions: the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30, the SOC Scale, the Spiritual Perspective Scale and the Brief Religious Coping Scale. A series of General Linear Model (GLM) Repeated Measures was used to determine changes between the groups over time. Also, Multiple Linear Regression analyses were applied to each of the HRQoL dimensions, as dependent variable at the 6 months follow-up. Physical and role function, fatigue, and financial difficulties were rated worse by the women with breast cancer during the first 6 months in comparison to the controls, which was both a statistically (p spirituality and religious coping.

  11. Development of an mHealth Application for Women Newly Diagnosed with Osteoporosis without Preceding Fractures: A Participatory Design Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravn Jakobsen, Pernille; Hermann, Anne Pernille; Søndergaard, Jens; Wiil, Uffe Kock; Clemensen, Jane

    2018-02-13

    mHealth is a useful tool to improve health outcome within chronic disease management. However, mHealth is not implemented in the field of postmenopausal osteoporosis even though it is a major worldwide health challenge. Therefore, this study aims to design and develop an mHealth app to support women in self-management of osteoporosis when they are diagnosed without preceding fractures. Participatory design is conducted in three phases. Based on identified needs in the first phase, a prototype is designed and developed in an iterative process in the second phase before the mHealth app is tested in the third phase. This paper focuses on the user activities in phase two and describes how a team of researchers, women, physicians, healthcare professionals, and app designers are involved in the participatory design process. The study shows that participatory design is a viable approach when developing an mHealth app for women with asymptomatic osteoporosis. Results obtained from the workshops and laboratory tests demonstrate the importance of feedback from users in the iterative process, as well as the participation of users and app designers in workshops and laboratory tests to enable mutual learning when developing new mHealth solutions. The regular member-checks and involvement of users helped to identify challenges associated with providing healthcare services through an app.

  12. HIV-prevention studies: Educate smarter, boost women's earning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    start of the study, Herpes Simplex Virus 2. (HSV-2) infections were reduced by a third in men and women and men's perpetration of IPV was reduced by 38%. However,. Stepping Stones alone did not reduce women's exposure to violence. The researchers hypothesised that women need to be economically empowered to.

  13. Students' Lived Experiences in Women's College Classrooms: A Phenomenological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Read, Katherine Cox

    2017-01-01

    Several positive student academic outcomes are associated with women's college attendance, yet little is known about how women's college students make meaning of classroom practices, experiences, and interactions. The purpose of this study, a qualitative research endeavor in the hermeneutic phenomenological tradition, was to achieve a better understanding of the nature of the lived classroom experience at a women's college and the meaning women's college students made from their everyday liv...

  14. Design and rationale of a large, international, prospective cohort study to evaluate the occurrence of malformations and perinatal/neonatal death using insulin detemir in pregnant women with diabetes in comparison with other long-acting insulins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Elisabeth R.; Andersen, Henning; Kring, Sofia I.I.

    2017-01-01

    in the context of routine practice. The primary endpoint is the proportion of pregnancies in women treated with insulin detemir, compared with other basal insulin regimens, which do not result in any of the following events: major congenital malformations, perinatal death or neonatal death. A sample size of 3075......Background: There are a lack of data regarding the effect of basal insulin analogues on rates of events like congenital malformation and perinatal mortality in diabetic pregnancy. Methods: The present study is a prospective, non-interventional, multicentre cohort study conducted in seven countries...... pregnancies was calculated to provide an 80% power to detect a difference of 3.5% between groups in the primary endpoint at a 5% level. Discussion: The study will also examine other important maternal endpoints (e.g., incidences of severe hypoglycaemia and pre-eclampsia) and perinatal outcomes...

  15. Design and rationale of a large, international, prospective cohort study to evaluate the occurrence of malformations and perinatal/neonatal death using insulin detemir in pregnant women with diabetes in comparison with other long-acting insulins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Andersen, Henning; Kring, Sofia I I

    2017-01-01

    in the context of routine practice. The primary endpoint is the proportion of pregnancies in women treated with insulin detemir, compared with other basal insulin regimens, which do not result in any of the following events: major congenital malformations, perinatal death or neonatal death. A sample size of 3075......BACKGROUND: There are a lack of data regarding the effect of basal insulin analogues on rates of events like congenital malformation and perinatal mortality in diabetic pregnancy. METHODS: The present study is a prospective, non-interventional, multicentre cohort study conducted in seven countries...... pregnancies was calculated to provide an 80% power to detect a difference of 3.5% between groups in the primary endpoint at a 5% level. DISCUSSION: The study will also examine other important maternal endpoints (e.g., incidences of severe hypoglycaemia and pre-eclampsia) and perinatal outcomes...

  16. Partnering with women collectives for delivering essential women's nutrition interventions in tribal areas of eastern India: a scoping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Vani; Bhanot, Arti; Bhalla, Surbhi; Bhattacharjee, Sourav; Daniel, Abner; Sharma, Deepika Mehrish; Gope, Rajkumar; Mebrahtu, Saba

    2017-05-22

    We examined the feasibility of engaging women collectives in delivering a package of women's nutrition messages/services as a funded stakeholder in three tribal-dominated districts of Odisha, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh States, in eastern India. These districts have high prevalence of child stunting and poor government service outreach. Conducted between July 2014 and March 2015, an exploratory mix-methods design was adopted (review of coverage data and government reports, field interviews and focus group discussion with multiple stakeholders and intended communities) to assess coverage of women's nutrition services. A capacity assessment tool was developed to map all types of community collectives and assess their awareness, institutional and programme capacity as a funded stakeholder for delivering women's nutrition services/behaviour promotion. Limited targeting of pre-pregnancy period, delays in first trimester registration of pregnant women, and low micronutrient supplementation supply and awareness issues emerged as key bottlenecks in improving women's nutrition in these districts. Amongst the 18 different types of community collectives mapped, Self Help Groups (SHGs) and their federations (tier 2 and tier 3), with total membership of over 650,000, emerged as the most promising community collective due to their vast network, governance structure, bank linkage, and regular interface. Nearly 400,000 (or 20% of women) in these districts can be reached through the mapped 31,919 SHGs. SHGs with organisational readiness for receiving and managing grants for income generation and community development activities varied from 41 to 94% across study districts. Stakeholders perceived that SHGs federations managing grants from government and be engaged for nutrition promotion and service delivery and SHG weekly meetings can serve as community interface for discussing/resolving local issues impeding access to services. Women SHGs (with tier 2 and tier 3) can become direct

  17. Design and Co-design of Project-organized Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Andreasen, Lars Birch

    2014-01-01

    The chapter contributes to discussions on design processes in relation to education, presenting different notions of design research and demonstrating how professors and students are involved together in designing innovative and constructive study processes that can help foster students' engagement......, self-awareness, mutual evaluation, reflection, and critical and creative thinking....

  18. Women's experiences with violence: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moracco, Kathryn E; Runyan, Carol W; Bowling, J Michael; Earp, Jo Anne L

    2007-01-01

    Violence against women (VAW) is widespread and linked to negative public health and social outcomes. Research on VAW, however, has largely been limited to convenience samples and on variable definitions of violence, hindering our ability to fully characterize this important problem nationally and among subgroups of women. Using a population-based national sample of noninstitutionalized women ages > or =18 (n = 1,800), we conducted a telephone survey on women's experiences with 6 types of violence, including being followed and repeatedly contacted, as well as physical and sexual assault by intimate partners and others. We calculated adult lifetime and prior year prevalence of violent experiences, examined bivariate differences in experiences among groups of women, and employed logistic regression to model the odds of adult lifetime and prior year victimization. Sixty percent of the respondents experienced at least 1 form of violence since age 18; 10% reported violence in the previous year. Adult lifetime and prior-year prevalence varied widely by types of violence, and by respondents' sociodemographic characteristics. Women under age 55, those receiving public assistance, and lesbian/bisexual women were at higher risk of experiencing violence in their adult lifetimes. Women age 18-24 had increased risks of victimization in the previous year. To accurately reflect the chronic nature of partner violence, point estimates should be supplemented with adult lifetime estimates of victimization, including stalking behaviors. Ensuring adequate numbers of women from diverse backgrounds and developing measures that more completely assess the patterns and consequences of women's experiences with violence are important next steps.

  19. User-centric design considerations for women's functional protective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... comfort, protection and garment fit. Subsequently, a boosted self-confidence and higher levels of motivation occasioned by a positive body image would validate the efficacy of the intended ergonomic design intervention. Keywords: 3D scanning; body image; clothing fit; construction industry; ergonomics; protective wear ...

  20. An actigraphy study of sleep and pain in midlife women: the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation Sleep Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, Howard M; Zheng, Huiyong; Bromberger, Joyce T; Buysse, Daniel J; Owens, Jane; Hall, Martica H

    2015-07-01

    We examined whether women reporting nighttime pain would have more actigraphy-measured evidence for disturbed sleep and would report feeling less rested compared with women without nighttime pain. Up to 27 consecutive nights of actigraphy and sleep diary data from each participant were analyzed in this community-based study of 314 African-American (n = 118), white (n = 141), and Chinese (n = 55) women, aged 48 to 58 years, who were premenopausal, perimenopausal, or postmenopausal and were participating in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation Sleep Study. Dependent variables were actigraphy-measured movement and fragmentation index, total sleep time, sleep efficiency, and diary self-report of "feeling rested" after waking up. All outcomes were fitted using linear mixed-effects models to examine covariate-adjusted associations between the independent variable (nighttime pain severity) and sleep outcomes. Higher pain severity scores were associated with longer sleep duration but reduced sleep efficiency and less restful sleep. Women reporting nocturnal vasomotor symptoms had more sleep-related movement and sleep fragmentation, had reduced sleep efficiency, and were less likely to feel rested after wakening whether or not they reported pain. Midlife women who report higher nighttime pain levels have more objective evidence for less efficient sleep, consistent with self-reported less restful sleep. Nocturnal vasomotor symptoms also can contribute to restlessness and wakefulness in midlife women.

  1. Novel Compressor Blade Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Abhay

    Jet engine efficiency goals are driving compressors to higher pressure ratios and engines to higher bypass ratios, each one driving to smaller cores. This is leading to larger tip gaps relative to the blade height. These larger relative tip clearances would negate some of the cycle improvements, and ways to mitigate this effect must be found. A novel split tip blade geometry has been created which helps improve the efficiency at large clearances while also improving operating range. Two identical blades are leaned in opposite directions starting at 85% span. They are cut at mid chord and the 2 halves then merged together so a split tip is created. The result is similar to the alula feathers on a soaring bird. The concept is that the split tip will energize the tip flow and increase range. For higher relative tip clearance, this will also improve efficiency. The 6th rotor of a highly loaded 10 stage machine was chosen as the baseline for this study. Three dimensional CFD simulations were performed using CD Adapco's Star-CCM+ at 5 clearances for the baseline and split tip geometry. The choking flow and stall margin of the split tip blade was higher than that of the baseline blade for all tip clearances. The pressure ratio of the novel blade was higher than that of the baseline blade near choke, but closer to stall it decreased. The sensitivity of peak efficiency to clearance was improved. At tight clearances of 0.62% of blade height, the maximum efficiency of the new design was less than the baseline blade, but as the tip clearance was increased above 2.5%, the maximum efficiency increased. Structural analysis was also performed to ascertain the feasibility of the design.

  2. Asian American college women's body image: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Allison S M; Lum, Sharilyn K; Chronister, Krista M; Forrest, Linda

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of values acculturation and the influence of media on Asian American college women's overall body image. A sample of 59 Asian American women from two large universities completed self-report surveys, which included questions regarding values acculturation, media internalization, and overall body satisfaction. Results showed that Asian American women who identified more strongly with traditional Asian values reported higher levels of body image dissatisfaction. Further, Asian American women who reported higher internalization of media portrayals of beauty ideals reported higher body image dissatisfaction. Research and clinical recommendations are made to enhance psychologists' understanding of Asian American women's body image and acculturation.

  3. Sexual dysfunction in women with type 1 diabetes: Long-term findings from the DCCT/ EDIC study cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Enzlin, P.; Rosen, R.; Wiegel, M; Brown, J; Wessells, H.; Gatcomb, P; Rutledge, B; Chan, KL; Cleary, PA

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors associated with sexual dysfunction in a well-characterized cohort of women with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - The study was conducted in women enrolled in the long-term Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study, a North American study of men and women with type 1 diabetes. At year 10 of the EDIC study, 652 female participants were invited to complete a validated self-report...

  4. ACSA : Conference book: Design Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbieri, U.; Engel, H.; Van Velzen, E.; Willems Floet, W.; Van Duin, L.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, the Faculty of Architecture, Housing, Urban Design and Planning has been undergoing large changes in the training and research program mes. These changes followon from the signals received from professional practice, but above all from the desire of staff and students to design

  5. An Exploratory Study of Women in the Health Professions Schools: Volume VIII: Women in Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban and Rural Systems Associates, San Francisco, CA.

    In an exploratory study conducted for the Women's Action Program of HEW, the aims were to identify and explore the barriers to success that women face as MODVOPPP (Medicine, Osteopathic medicine, Dentistry, Veterinary medicine, Optometry, Podiatry, Pharmacy, and Public health) school applicants and students and to describe the discrimination…

  6. An Exploratory Study of Women in the Health Professions Schools. Volume VI: Women in Optometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban and Rural Systems Associates, San Francisco, CA.

    In an exploratory study conducted for the Women's Action Program of HEW, the aims were to identify and explore the barriers to success that women face as MODVOPPP (Medicine, Osteopathic medicine, Dentistry, Veterinary medicine, Optometry, Podiatry, Pharmacy, and Public health) school applicants and students and to describe the discrimination…

  7. An Exploratory Study of Women in the Health Professions Schools. Volume VII: Women in Podiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban and Rural Systems Associates, San Francisco, CA.

    In an exploratory study conducted for the Women's Action Program of HEW, the aims were to identify and explore the barriers to success that women face as MODVOPPP (Medicine, Osteopathic medicine, Dentistry, Veterinary medicine, Optometry, Podiatry, Pharmacy, and Public health) school applicants and students, and to describe the discrimination…

  8. MR Imaging as an Additional Screening Modality for the Detection of Breast Cancer in Women Aged 50-75 Years with Extremely Dense Breasts: The DENSE Trial Study Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emaus, M.J.; Bakker, M.F.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Loo, C.E.; Mann, R.M.; Jong, M.D.E.; Bisschops, R.H.; Veltman, J.; Duvivier, K.M.; Lobbes, M.B.; Pijnappel, R.M.; Karssemeijer, N.; Koning, H.J. de; Bosch, M.A. van den; Monninkhof, E.M.; Mali, W.P.; Veldhuis, W.B.; Gils, C.H. van

    2015-01-01

    Women with extremely dense breasts have an increased risk of breast cancer and lower mammographic tumor detectability. Nevertheless, in most countries, these women are currently screened with mammography only. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has the potential to improve breast cancer detection at an

  9. MR imaging as an additional screening modality for the detection of breast cancer in women aged 50-75 years with extremely dense breasts : The DENSE trial study design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emaus, Marleen J.; Bakker, Marije F.; Peeters, Petra H M; Loo, Claudette E.; Mann, Ritse M.; De Jong, Mathijn D F; Bisschops, Robertus H C; Veltman, Jeroen; Duvivier, Katya M.; Lobbes, Marc B I; Pijnappel, Ruud M.; Karssemeijer, Nico; De Koning, Harry J.; Van Den Bosch, Maurice A A J; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.; Mali, W.P.T.M.; Veldhuis, WB; Van Gils, Carla H.

    2015-01-01

    Women with extremely dense breasts have an increased risk of breast cancer and lower mammographic tumor detectability. Nevertheless, in most countries, these women are currently screened with mammography only. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has the potential to improve breast cancer detection at an

  10. Case–control study of risk factors for infectious mastitis in Spanish breastfeeding women

    OpenAIRE

    Mediano, Pilar; Fernández, Leónides; Juan M. Rodríguez; Marín, María

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to identify potential predisposing factors associated with human infectious mastitis. Methods We conducted a case–control study among breastfeeding women, with 368 cases (women with mastitis) and 148 controls. Data were collected by a questionnaire designed to obtain retrospective information about several factors related to medical history of mother and infant, different aspects of pregnancy, delivery and postpartum, and breastfeeding practices that c...

  11. Study protocol. A prospective cohort study of unselected primiparous women: the pregnancy outcome prediction study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Ian R

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been dramatic changes in the approach to screening for aneuploidy over the last 20 years. However, the approach to screening for other complications of pregnancy such as intra-uterine growth restriction, pre-eclampsia and stillbirth remains largely unchanged. Randomised controlled trials of routine application of high tech screening methods to the general population have generally failed to show improvement in outcome. We have previously reviewed this and concluded it was due, in large part, to poor performance of screening tests. Here, we report a study design where the primary aim is to generate clinically useful methods to screen women to assess their risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. Methods/design We report the design of a prospective cohort study of unselected primiparous women recruited at the time of their first ultrasound scan. Participation involves serial phlebotomy and obstetric ultrasound at the dating ultrasound scan (typically 10–14 weeks, 20 weeks, 28 weeks and 36 weeks gestation. In addition, maternal demographic details are obtained; maternal and paternal height are measured and maternal weight is serially measured during the pregnancy; maternal, paternal and offspring DNA are collected; and, samples of placenta and membranes are collected at birth. Data will be analysed as a prospective cohort study, a case-cohort study, and a nested case-control study. Discussion The study is expected to provide a resource for the identification of novel biomarkers for adverse pregnancy outcome and to evaluate the performance of biomarkers and serial ultrasonography in providing clinically useful prediction of risk.

  12. Maternal health study: a prospective cohort study of nulliparous women recruited in early pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonald Ellie A

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the first year after childbirth, 94% of women experience one or more major health problems (urinary incontinence, faecal incontinence, perineal pain, back pain. Difficulties in intimate partner relationships and changes affecting sexual health are also common. The aim of this study is to investigate changes in women's health from early pregnancy until four years after the birth of a first child. Methods/design The Maternal Health Study is a longitudinal study designed to fill in some of the gaps in current research evidence regarding women's physical and psychological health and recovery after childbirth. A prospective pregnancy cohort of >1500 nulliparous women has been recruited in early pregnancy at six metropolitan public hospitals in Melbourne, Australia between April 2003 and December 2005. In the first phase of the study participants are being followed up at 30–32 weeks gestation in pregnancy, and at three, six, nine, 12 and 18 months postpartum using a combination of self-administered questionnaires and telephone interviews. Women consenting to extended follow-up (phase 2 will be followed up six and 12 months after any subsequent births and when their first child is four years old. Study instruments incorporate assessment of the frequency and severity of urinary and bowel symptoms, sexual health issues, perineal and abdominal pain, depression and intimate partner violence. Pregnancy and birth outcome data will be obtained by review of hospital case notes. Discussion Features of the study which distinguish it from prior research include: the capacity to identify incident cases of morbidity and clustering of health problems; a large enough sample to detect clinically important differences in maternal health outcomes associated with the method of birth; careful exposure measurement involving manual abstraction of data from medical records in order to explore mediating factors and possible causal pathways; and use of

  13. Teaching scientific literacy in an introductory women's studies course: a case study in interdisciplinary collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuselier, Linda; Murphy, Claudia; Bender, Anita; Creel Falcón, Kandace

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose:The purpose of this exploratory case study is to describe how scholars negotiated disciplinary divides to develop and communicate to their students an understanding of the basic features of scientific knowledge. Our goals were to examine boundary crossing in interdisciplinary collaboration and to assess the efficacy of adding science content to an introductory Women's Studies course. Sample:We studied a collaboration between faculty in Biology and Women's Studies and evaluated science modules in a Women's Studies course at a regional four-year university in the Midwestern USA. The study included 186 student participants over three semesters and four faculty from Philosophy, Women's Studies and Biology. Design and method:Women's Studies and Biology faculty collaborated to design and implement science content learning modules that included the case of women and science in an introductory Women's Studies course. Qualitative data collected from faculty participants in the form of peer debrief sessions and narrative reflections were used to examine the process of interdisciplinary collaboration. Students exposed to curriculum changes were administered pre- and post-lesson surveys to evaluate their understanding of issues faced by women in science careers, the nature of science, and interest in science studies. Data from collaborators, student journal reflections, and pre-/post-lesson surveys were considered together in an evaluation of how knowledge of science was understood and taught in a Women's Studies course over a longitudinal study of three semesters. Results:We found evidence of discipline-based challenges to interdisciplinarity and disciplinary boundary crossing among collaborators. Three themes emerged from our collaboration: challenges posed by disciplinary differences, creation of a space for interdisciplinary work, and evidence of boundary crossing. Student participants exhibited more prior knowledge of Women's Studies content than

  14. Mindful Yoga for women with metastatic breast cancer: design of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, James W; Carson, Kimberly M; Olsen, Maren K; Sanders, Linda; Porter, Laura S

    2017-03-13

    Women with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) have average life expectancies of about 2 years, and report high levels of disease-related symptoms including pain, fatigue, sleep disturbance, psychological distress, and functional impairment. There is growing recognition of the limitations of medical approaches to managing such symptoms. Yoga is a mind-body discipline that has demonstrated a positive impact on psychological and functional health in early stage breast cancer patients and survivors, but has not been rigorously studied in advanced cancer samples. This randomized controlled trial examines the feasibility and initial efficacy of a Mindful Yoga program, compared with a social support condition that controls for attention, on measures of disease-related symptoms such as pain and fatigue. The study will be completed by December 2017. Sixty-five women with MBC age ≥ 18 are being identified and randomized with a 2:1 allocation to Mindful Yoga or a support group control intervention. The 120-min intervention sessions take place weekly for 8 weeks. The study is conducted at an urban tertiary care academic medical center located in Durham, North Carolina. The primary feasibility outcome is attendance at intervention sessions. Efficacy outcomes include pain, fatigue, sleep quality, psychological distress, mindfulness and functional capacity at post-intervention, 3-month follow-up, and 6-month follow-up. In this article, we present the challenges of designing a randomized controlled trial with long-term follow-up among women with MBC. These challenges include ensuring adequate recruitment including of minorities, limiting and controlling for selection bias, tailoring of the yoga intervention to address special needs, and maximizing adherence and retention. This project will provide important information regarding yoga as an intervention for women with advanced cancer, including preliminary data on the psychological and functional effects of yoga for MBC

  15. Associations between cardiovascular parameters and uteroplacental Doppler (blood) flow patterns during pregnancy in women with congenital heart disease: Rationale and design of the Zwangerschap bij Aangeboren Hartafwijking (ZAHARA) II study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balci, A.; Sollie, K.M.; Mulder, B.J.; Laat, M.W. de; Roos-Hesselink, J.W.; Dijk, A.P. van; Wajon, E.M.; Vliegen, H.W.; Drenthen, W.; Hillege, H.L.; Aarnoudse, J.G.; Veldhuisen, D.J. van; Pieper, P.G.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown that women with congenital heart disease (CHD) are more susceptible to cardiovascular, obstetric, and offspring events. The causative pathophysiologic mechanisms are incompletely understood. Inadequate uteroplacental circulation is an important denominator in

  16. Associations between cardiovascular parameters and uteroplacental Doppler (blood) flow patterns during pregnancy in women with congenital heart disease: Rationale and design of the Zwangerschap bij Aangeboren Hartafwijking (ZAHARA) II study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balci, Ali; Sollie, Krystyna M.; Mulder, Barbara J. M.; de Laat, Monique W. M.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.; van Dijk, Arie P. J.; Wajon, Elly M. C. J.; Vliegen, Hubert W.; Drenthen, Willem; Hillege, Hans L.; Aarnoudse, Jan G.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Pieper, Petronella G.

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous research has shown that women with congenital heart disease (CHD) are more susceptible to cardiovascular, obstetric, and offspring events. The causative pathophysiologic mechanisms are incompletely understood. Inadequate uteroplacental circulation is an important denominator in

  17. Associations between cardiovascular parameters and uteroplacental Doppler (blood) flow patterns during pregnancy in women with congenital heart disease : Rationale and design of the Zwangerschap bij Aangeboren Hartafwijking (ZAHARA) II study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balci, Ali; Sollie, Krystyna M.; Mulder, Barbara J. M.; de Laat, Monique W. M.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.; van Dijk, Arie P. J.; Wajon, Elly M. C. J.; Vliegen, Hubert W.; Drenthen, Willem; Hillege, Hans L.; Aarnoudse, Jan G.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Pieper, Petronella G.

    Background Previous research has shown that women with congenital heart disease (CHD) are more susceptible to cardiovascular, obstetric, and offspring events. The causative pathophysiologic mechanisms are incompletely understood. Inadequate uteroplacental circulation is an important denominator in

  18. Women's Studies, Higher Education, and Feminist Educators in Japan Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Helen Rippier

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the backgrounds and current status of Women's Studies in Japan today. Research on which it is based was conducted while the author was visiting scholar and guest lecturer in Women's Studies at Toyo University in Tokyo in spring and summer 1984. (Author)

  19. Women's Studies in Australian Higher Education: Introduction and Brief History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Lyndall

    1991-01-01

    The history of women's studies in Australian universities is reviewed from 1973 to the present. Three phases are identified: phase one 1972-82: revolutionary feminism versus liberal feminism; phase two 1983-88: development of academic feminism; and phase three 1989-91: women's studies in the post-Dawkins era. (DB)

  20. A Study among Women Attending a Primary Healthcare Clinic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Candidiasis: A Study among Women Attending a. Primary Healthcare Clinic in Kwazulu‑Natal, South Africa ... leading women to seek advice in primary healthcare facilities. Aim: The aim of this study is to describe the .... a 0.22 μm Costar Spin‑X cellulose acetate filter membranes. (Sigma). The filtered soluble fraction was ...

  1. Arabic Women and English Language Learning: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkarni, Ream

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to interview Arabic women students at Spring International Language Center to record their perceptions, rationale, goals, stories, and opinions about learning English in a U.S. language school. This research was conducted to understand the purposes and goals of Arabic women who come to the United Stated to study the…

  2. Independent Senior Women Who Travel Internationally: A Collective Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Nine independent women over age 55 who traveled internationally were investigated through a qualitative case study. The purpose of the study was to explore the women's attitudes, actions, and motivations during and after their international travel experiences. The adult, aging, experiential, and transformational theories of researchers such as…

  3. Study of skin colors of Korean women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Byung-tae D.; Moon, Eun-bae M.; Song, Kyung-suk

    2002-06-01

    Native Korean women skin colors were classified to 30 standard colors. Research was conducted using spectrophotometer to show CIE L*a*b* values. Color palette for the products of cosmetics was created. Numerical value indicates lightness and change in hue.

  4. Notes on Methods for Studying Farm Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Gould P.

    1981-01-01

    Supports several of Frances Hill's positions on research about farm women (RC 504 387). States that regarding farm and family as separate dynamic systems whose integration varies in differing situations provides a context for evaluating impacts on farm and family. Available from: Rural Sociological Society, 325 Morgan Hall, University of…

  5. Bridging the language gap: a co-designed quality improvement project to engage professional interpreters for women during labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelland, Jane; Biro, Mary Anne; Dawson, Wendy; Riggs, Elisha; Vanpraag, Dannielle; Wigg, Karen; Antonopoulos, John; Morgans, Jenny; Szwarc, Jo; East, Chris; Brown, Stephanie

    2017-10-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to improve the engagement of professional interpreters for women during labour. Methods The quality improvement initiative was co-designed by a multidisciplinary group at one Melbourne hospital and implemented in the birth suite using the plan-do-study-act framework. The initiative of offering women an interpreter early in labour was modified over cycles of implementation and scaled up based on feedback from midwives and language services data. Results The engagement of interpreters for women identified as requiring one increased from 28% (21/74) at baseline to 62% (45/72) at the 9th month of implementation. Conclusion Improving interpreter use in high-intensity hospital birth suites is possible with supportive leadership, multidisciplinary co-design and within a framework of quality improvement cycles of change. What is known about the topic? Despite Australian healthcare standards and policies stipulating the use of accredited interpreters where needed, studies indicate that services fall well short of meeting these during critical stages of childbirth. What does the paper add? Collaborative approaches to quality improvement in hospitals can significantly improve the engagement of interpreters to facilitate communication between health professionals and women with low English proficiency. What are the implications for practice? This language services initiative has potential for replication in services committed to improving effective communication between health professionals and patients.

  6. Whatever Happened to Rural Women? A Comparative Study of Labor Force Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokemeier, Janet; And Others.

    A 1979 Kentucky study comparing rural farm and nonfarm women to each other and to women residing in metropolitan areas examined women's labor force participation. A statewide mail survey of Kentucky adults produced usable questionnaires from 3 groups of women: farm women (1,231), nonmetropolitan women (3,631), and metropolitan women (937).…

  7. Domestic violence against women in Kosovo: a qualitative study of women's experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmendi, Kaltrina

    2015-02-01

    Research on gender-based violence describes domestic violence by male partners as a major public health issue and serious human rights violation. Many studies have been conducted in Kosovo to understand the factors that contribute to violence against women. The present study aims to examine the experiences of battered women and their understanding of the violence from an ecological framework, by asking questions regarding personal, situational, and socio-cultural factors. The study is qualitative, consisting of 50 in-depth interviews with victims of domestic violence, and uses a grounded theory approach to identify main themes of the women's experiences. Findings from the study suggest that poverty, a patriarchal culture, strictly defined gender roles, and lack of programs for reintegrating victims subordinate women and leave them susceptible to domestic violence. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Knowledge, facilitators and barriers to cervical cancer screening among women in Uganda: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Ndejjo, Rawlance; Mukama, Trasias; Kiguli, Juliet; Musoke, David

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To explore community knowledge, facilitators and barriers to cervical cancer screening among women in rural Uganda so as to generate data to inform interventions. Design A qualitative study using focus group discussions and key informant interviews. Setting Discussions and interviews carried out in the community within two districts in Eastern Uganda. Participants Ten (10) focus group discussions with 119 screening-eligible women aged between 25 and 49 years and 11 key informant in...

  9. Seeking Comfort: Women Mental Health Process in I. R. Iran: A Grounded Theory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Farahnaz Mohammadi; Monir Baradaran Eftekhari; Masoumeh Dejman; Ameneh Setareh Forouzan; Arash Mirabzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Psychosocial factor is considered as intermediate social determinant of health, because it has powerful effects on health especially in women. Hence deeper understanding of the mental-health process needed for its promotion. The aim of this study was to explore women′s experience of the mental-health problem and related action-interactions activities to design the appropriate interventions. Methods: In-depth interviews with women 18-65 years were analyzed according to the grou...

  10. MOMOWO: Women Designers, Craftswomen, Architects and Engineers between 1918 and 1945

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.H.; Helena Seražin, Helena Seražin

    2017-01-01

    The book consists of six chapters, which present achievements by European women – pioneers in the fields of architecture, civil engineering, interior and industrial design and arts and crafts, who were active in the period between 1918 and 1945. The chapter Crossing Geographies deals with the

  11. A longitudinal study of plasma insulin and glucagon in women with previous gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P; Kühl, C; Hornnes, P

    1995-01-01

    response) at all time points investigated; this was also found when only nonobese glucose-tolerant women were examined. Low insulin secretion during pregnancy together with a high fasting plasma glucose level at the diagnostic OGTT in pregnancy and hyperglycemia during the postpartum OGTT were predictive......OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether plasma insulin or glucagon predicts later development of diabetes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The subjects studied were 91 women with diet-treated GDM and 33 healthy women. Plasma insulin and glucagon during a 50...... at follow-up (2 had insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, 13 had non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and 12 had impaired glucose tolerance). Compared with the control subjects, women with previous GDM had relatively impaired insulin secretion (decreased insulinogenic index and delayed peak insulin...

  12. A longitudinal study of plasma insulin and glucagon in women with previous gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P; Kühl, C; Hornnes, P

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether plasma insulin or glucagon predicts later development of diabetes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The subjects studied were 91 women with diet-treated GDM and 33 healthy women. Plasma insulin and glucagon during a 50...... at follow-up (2 had insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, 13 had non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and 12 had impaired glucose tolerance). Compared with the control subjects, women with previous GDM had relatively impaired insulin secretion (decreased insulinogenic index and delayed peak insulin...... for subsequent development of overt diabetes (logistic regression analysis). CONCLUSIONS: Women who develop GDM have a relative insulin secretion deficiency, the severity of which is predictive for later development of diabetes. Furthermore, our data indicate that their relatively reduced beta-cell function may...

  13. The Recognition of Women Librarians in Nigeria: An Evaluative Study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using documentary sources, the contribution of female librarians in Nigeria to library development from 1960 to 2000 was examined. The study revealed that only few female women librarians were appreciated and cited in Nigerian biographical works. The status and role of women librarians in Nigeria revealed an explicit ...

  14. Case Studies: Profiles of Women Recovering from Drug Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Suzanne M.

    1995-01-01

    Profiles two women over an eight-month study who abused alcohol and other drugs while pregnant and describes their recovery from the addiction. Examines, from an ecological framework, the women's experiences with drug addiction, treatment, and recovery, and recounts their situation through each. (JPS)

  15. Opioid-Linked Hospitalizations Rising Fastest for Women: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166799.html Opioid-Linked Hospitalizations Rising Fastest for Women: Study U.S. ... 21, 2017 WEDNESDAY, June 21, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Opioid-related hospitalizations among women in the United States ...

  16. Correlates of bone mineral density among postmenopausal women of African Caribbean ancestry: Tobago women's health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Deanna D; Cauley, Jane A; Bunker, Clareann H; Baker, Carol E; Patrick, Alan L; Beckles, Gloria L A; Wheeler, Victor W; Zmuda, Joseph M

    2008-07-01

    Population dynamics predict a drastic growth in the number of older minority women, and resultant increases in the number of fractures. Low bone mineral density (BMD) is an important risk factor for fracture. Many studies have identified the lifestyle and health-related factors that correlate with BMD in Whites. Few studies have focused on non-Whites. The objective of the current analyses is to examine the lifestyle, anthropometric and health-related factors that are correlated with BMD in a population based cohort of Caribbean women of West African ancestry. We enrolled 340 postmenopausal women residing on the Caribbean Island of Tobago. Participants completed a questionnaire and had anthropometric measures taken. Hip BMD was measured by DXA. We estimated volumetric BMD by calculating bone mineral apparent density (BMAD). BMD was >10% and >25% higher across all age groups in Tobagonian women compared to US non-Hispanic Black and White women, respectively. In multiple linear regression models, 35-36% of the variability in femoral neck and total hip BMD respectively was predicted. Each 16-kg (one standard deviation (SD)) increase in weight was associated with 5% higher BMD; and weight explained over 10% of the variability of BMD. Each 8-year (1 SD) increase in age was associated with 5% lower BMD. Current use of both thiazide diuretics and oral hypoglycemic medication were associated with 4-5% higher BMD. For femoral neck BMAD, 26% of the variability was explained by a multiple linear regression model. Current statin use was associated with 5% higher BMAD and a history of breast feeding or coronary heart disease was associated with 1-1.5% of higher BMAD. In conclusion, African Caribbean women have the highest BMD on a population level reported to date for women. This may reflect low European admixture. Correlates of BMD among Caribbean women of West African ancestry were similar to those reported for U.S. Black and White women.

  17. The Effects of Menorrhagia on Women's Quality of Life: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokyildiz, Sule; Aslan, Ergul; Beji, Nezihe Kizilkaya; Mecdi, Meltem

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study is to identify menstruation characteristics of the women and the effects of menorrhagia on women's quality of life. Methods. The study was designed as a descriptive, case-control one. Results. Of the women in the case group, 10.9% stated that their menstrual bleeding was severe and very severe before complaints while 73.2% described bleeding as severe or very severe after complaints. Among those who complained about menorrhagia, 46.7% pointed that they used hygienic products that are more protective than regular sanitary pads. Women also stated that their clothes, bed linens, and furniture got dirty parallel to the severity of the bleeding. In all subscales of SF-36 scale, quality of life of the women in the menorrhagia group was significantly lower than the ones in the control group (P Menorrhagia has negative effects on women's quality of life. Therefore, quality of life of the women consulting the clinics with menorrhagia complaint should be investigated and effective approaches should be designed. PMID:23970973

  18. Psychological problems among women with infertility problem: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Bibi Nooreen; Hasan, Shazia

    2014-11-01

    To explore the difference between anxiety and depression among infertile and fertile women. The study was conducted in 2009 and comprised fertile and infertile women. The sample of infertile women was drawn from the Liaquat National Hospital, Patel Hospital, Infertility Concept and Zainub Hospital, located in urban areas of Karachi, while fertile women were drawn from the general population in urban Karachi. All the subjects had at least 10 years of education and were in the age range of 20-35 years. They two groups were further divided into two sub-groups of working and non-working women. Institute for Personality and Ability Testing Depression and Anxiety scales were used to assess depression and anxiety. SPSS 14.0 was used to analyse the data. Of the 120 subjects, the two groups had 60(50%) each. The mean age of fertile women was 27.48±160.75 and that in the infertile group was 27.36±160.75. Depression among fertile women was 21.85±10.98 compared to 32.01±12.49 among the infertile women. Corresponding values for anxiety was 24.45±9.63 and 36.20±12.51. The difference was significant. Women with infertility experience a greater psychological impact.

  19. CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN OLDER HAN WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Tao; Yuan, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Malnutrition is one of the most prevalent problems in older people, but there is little information about the nutritional status of the older women in China. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the nutritional status and clinically correlated factors for malnutrition in older Han women in China. In total, 2,556 hospital- and community-based Han women aged 60 years or older were recruited between May 2007 and December 2014. All women completed comprehensive geriatric assessment, and the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF) was used to assess the nutritional status. The clinically corre- lated factors for malnutrition were also analyzed, including social factors, health status, and dietary behavior. The average age of these women was 75.9 ± 9.4 years, and 63.8% women lived in urban areas. Of the total respondents, 344 and 716 women were classified as malnutrition and at risk of malnutrition, respectively. Five factors were independently and positively correlated with poor nutrition, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), gastrointestinal disease, depression, cognitive impairment, and comorbidity (≥ 2). Three factors were independently and negatively correlated with poor nutrition, including economic status, meat intake, and fish intake. The older Han women with these five health problems should be given more attention with regards to their nutritional status. Improving economic status, eating more meat and fish were recommended for preventing poor nutrition in older women.

  20. A design study of VOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deen, P. P.; Vickery, Anette; Andersen, K. H.

    2015-01-01

    VOR, the versatile optimal resolution chopper spectrometer, is designed to probe dynamic phenomena that are currently inaccessible for inelastic neutron scattering due to flux limitations. VOR is a short instrument by the standards of the European Spallation Source (ESS), 30.2m moderator to sample...... an extra order of magnitude in flux. In addition, VOR has been optimised for repetition rate multiplication (RRM) and is therefore able to measure, in a single ESS period, 6-14 incident wavelengths, across a wavelength band of 9 Å with a novel chopper configuration that transmits all incident wavelengths...... with equivalent counting statistics. The characteristics of VOR make it a unique instrument with capabilities to access small, limited-lifetime samples and transient phenomena with inelastic neutron scattering....

  1. Exploring Chinese Women's Perception of Cervical Cancer Risk as It Impacts Screening Behavior: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Can; Chen, Wei-Ti; Zhang, Qiue; Chow, Ka Ming; Wu, Jianzhen; Tao, Lijian; Chan, Carmen W H

    Chinese women rarely undergo regular cervical screening. Women's decisions about cervical screening may be influenced by their perception of the risk of cervical cancer. Therefore, understanding how women perceive the risk of cervical cancer, how personal risk factors are interpreted, and the influence of cultural issues on cervical screening behavior is important. The aim of this study is to understand cervical cancer risk perception and the role of personal risk factors as they influence screening behavior among Chinese women. An exploratory qualitative research design was used. We conducted semistructured, in-depth interviews of 27 women in Changsha, a medium-size city in Hunan province, China. Participants identified that cervical cancer had serious consequences, but they distanced themselves psychologically from the disease because they felt that "cervical cancer is a shameful and deadly disease." Although women identified some of the risk factors for the disease, they had little specific knowledge of human papillomavirus infection, its association with cervical cancer, and the importance of cervical screening. This study contributes new knowledge to the understanding of cervical screening behavior within a specific social and cultural context. Better efforts should be made to educate Chinese women on the risk of cervical cancer and emphasize that effective cancer treatments are available and that there is a good chance of survival. Nurses working with Chinese women should ensure that the information they provide is culturally sensitive, particularly by acknowledging the normative beliefs of this population group.

  2. A Phenomenological Study on the Leadership Development of African American Women Executives in Academia and Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Deanna Rachelle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore the intersectionality of race and gender for African American women through their lived experiences of how they developed into leaders. This research study was designed to determine how the intersection of race and gender identities contributed to the elements of leadership…

  3. Women's Reported Health Behaviours before and during Pregnancy: A Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedley, Jenna; Jancey, Jonine M.; Dhaliwal, Satvinder; Zhao, Yun; Monteiro, Sarojini M. D. R.; Howat, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to determine women's reported health behaviours (physical activity, diet, weight management) before and during pregnancy, and to identify sources of health information. Design: Retrospective study incorporating quantitative (a self-completed survey) and qualitative (one-on-one interviews) methods. Methodology:…

  4. The Design, Development, and Evaluation of a Qualitative Data Collection Application for Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keedle, Hazel; Schmied, Virginia; Burns, Elaine; Dahlen, Hannah

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the development and evaluation of a smartphone mobile software application (app) to collect qualitative data. The app was specifically designed to capture real-time qualitative data from women planning a vaginal birth after caesarean delivery. This article outlines the design and development of the app to include funding, ethics, and the recruitment of an app developer, as well as the evaluation of using the app by seven participants. Data collection methods used in qualitative research include interviews and focus groups (either online, face-to-face, or by phone), participant diaries, or observations of interactions. This article identifies an alternative data collection methodology using a smartphone app to collect real-time data. The app provides real-time data and instant access to data alongside the ability to access participants from a variety of locations. This allows the researcher to gain insight into the experiences of participants through audio or video recordings in longitudinal studies without the need for constant interactions or interviews with participants. Using smartphone applications can allow researchers to access participants who are traditionally hard to reach and access their data in real time. Evaluating these apps before use in research is invaluable. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  5. Prospective study of ankle and foot fractures in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadagiri Surender Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of ankle fractures in old people is changing as time passes on. The incidence of ankle fractures increases with advancing age. The study conducted was among a rural popula-tion which comprised of 68 women (32 women with ankle fractures & 36 women with foot fractures. Patients studied were in the age group more than 50 years. The study highlights the etiological & risk factors for fractures of ankle & foot. The commonest ankle fracture was the lateral malleolar fracture & the commonest foot fracture was the 5th Metatarsal fracture. Diabetes is a risk factor which increases the occurrence of ankle and foot injuries.

  6. Women Entrepreneurship and Innovations in India: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemantkumar P. Bulsara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Increased female entrepreneurial activity heralds a progress for women’s rights and optimization of their economic and social living index. Women entrepreneurship is synonymous with women empowerment. Parallel to the male counterparts, female entrepreneurs are catalytic in job creation, innovation and more than tangible contribution to the GNP of the country. An economy thrives when women get a level playing field as men. Innovation works as a catalyst or an instrument for Entrepreneurship. Indian Women, despite all the social hurdles stand tall from the rest of the crowd and are applauded for their achievements in their respective field. The transformation of social fabric of the Indian society, in terms of increased educational status of women and varied aspirations for better living, necessitated a change in the life style of Indian women. This paper endeavors to explore studies related to Women Entrepreneurship and Innovation in India. Few examples from Gujarat, India have been taken to understand the study in a better way. Keywords: Women Entrepreneurship; Innovation; Entrepreneurship; India; Economy; Gujarat.

  7. Advancing Women in Administration: Study of an Intervention Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Norma T.; Venditti, Frederick P.

    1985-01-01

    Evaluates a training institute designed to increase the advancement of women in administrative positions in four Tennessee school districts. Reports that the program improved participants' qualifications, sensitivity to sexism, sense of self as administrator, motivation to pursue career, professional visibility, feeling of belonging to a group,…

  8. The Influence of Social Presence on e-Loyalty in Women Online Shoppers: An Application of the Social Identity Approach to Website Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coverdale, Tonjia Simmone

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to propose and test the Social Identity Approach to Website Design research model, which extends the traditionally examined interaction between website design and e-Commerce Success by considering the role of Social Identity in the development of e-Loyalty in women online shoppers. The Social Identity Approach is a…

  9. Vehicle systems design optimization study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmour, J. L.

    1980-04-01

    The optimization of an electric vehicle layout requires a weight distribution in the range of 53/47 to 62/38 in order to assure dynamic handling characteristics comparable to current production internal combustion engine vehicles. It is possible to achieve this goal and also provide passenger and cargo space comparable to a selected current production sub-compact car either in a unique new design or by utilizing the production vehicle as a base. Necessary modification of the base vehicle can be accomplished without major modification of the structure or running gear. As long as batteries are as heavy and require as much space as they currently do, they must be divided into two packages - one at front under the hood and a second at the rear under the cargo area - in order to achieve the desired weight distribution. The weight distribution criteria requires the placement of batteries at the front of the vehicle even when the central tunnel is used for the location of some batteries. The optimum layout has a front motor and front wheel drive. This configuration provides the optimum vehicle dynamic handling characteristics and the maximum passsenger and cargo space for a given size vehicle.

  10. Interval Management Display Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Beyer, Timothy M.; Cooke, Stuart D.; Grant, Karlus A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) estimated that U.S. commercial air carriers moved 736.7 million passengers over 822.3 billion revenue-passenger miles. The FAA also forecasts, in that same report, an average annual increase in passenger traffic of 2.2 percent per year for the next 20 years, which approximates to one-and-a-half times the number of today's aircraft operations and passengers by the year 2033. If airspace capacity and throughput remain unchanged, then flight delays will increase, particularly at those airports already operating near or at capacity. Therefore it is critical to create new and improved technologies, communications, and procedures to be used by air traffic controllers and pilots. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the FAA, and the aviation industry are working together to improve the efficiency of the National Airspace System and the cost to operate in it in several ways, one of which is through the creation of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). NextGen is intended to provide airspace users with more precise information about traffic, routing, and weather, as well as improve the control mechanisms within the air traffic system. NASA's Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 (ATD-1) Project is designed to contribute to the goals of NextGen, and accomplishes this by integrating three NASA technologies to enable fuel-efficient arrival operations into high-density airports. The three NASA technologies and procedures combined in the ATD-1 concept are advanced arrival scheduling, controller decision support tools, and aircraft avionics to enable multiple time deconflicted and fuel efficient arrival streams in high-density terminal airspace.

  11. Spiral 2: preliminary design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-11-15

    The scientific council of GANIL asked to perform a comparative study on the production methods based on gamma induced fission and rapid-neutron induced fission concerning the nature and the intensity of the neutron-rich products. The production rate expected should be around 10{sup 13} fissions per second. The study should include the implantation and the costs of the concerned accelerators. The scientific committee recommended also to study the possibility to re-inject the radioactive beams of SPIRAL-II in the cyclotrons available at GANIL in order to give access to an energy range from 1.7 to 100 MeV/nucleon. For that purpose, some study groups have been formed to evaluate the possibility of such a project in the different components: physics case, target-ion sources, drivers, post-acceleration and general infrastructure. The organization of the project study is given at the end of this report. The following report presents an overview of the study. Particularly the total costs have been assessed according to 3 options for the driver: 38.0*10{sup 6} euros for a 40 MeV deuteron linac, 18.7*10{sup 6} euros for a 45 MeV electron linac, and 29.1*10{sup 6} euros for a 80 MeV deuteron cyclotron.

  12. Induced abortion and breast cancer among parous women: a Danish cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braüner, Christina Marie; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Attermann, Jørn

    2013-06-01

    We investigated whether induced abortion is associated with breast cancer when lifestyle confounders, including smoking and alcohol consumption, are adjusted for. Design. Prospective cohort study. Danish women from the Diet, Cancer and Health study. A total of 25,576 women. We obtained exposure data from baseline questionnaires filled in by the women between 1993 and 1997. Information on breast cancer and emigration was retrieved from Danish national registries. The study power was approximately 85% when applying a minimum detection hazard ratio of 1.2. Long-term effects of induced abortion on the risk of breast cancer among women above 50 years of age. During a follow up of approximately 12 years, 1215 women were diagnosed with breast cancer. When comparing parous women who had an abortion with parous women who never had an abortion, there was no association between breast cancer risk and induced abortion (ever vs. never), with a hazard ratio 0.95 (95% confidence interval 0.83-1.09), regardless of whether the abortion occurred before the first birth (hazard ratio 0.86; 95% confidence interval 0.65-1.14), or after the first birth (hazard ratio 0.97; 95% confidence interval 0.84-1.13). Our study did not show evidence of an association between induced abortion and breast cancer risk. © 2013 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica © 2013 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. Women's views and postpartum follow-up in the CHIPS Trial (Control of Hypertension in Pregnancy Study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vidler, Marianne; Magee, Laura A.; von Dadelszen, Peter; Rey, Evelyne; Ross, Susan; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Murphy, Kellie E.; Menzies, Jennifer; Sanchez, Johanna; Singer, Joel; Gafni, Amiram; Gruslin, Andrée; Helewa, Michael; Hutton, Eileen; Lee, Shoo K.; Lee, Terry; Logan, Alexander G.; Ganzevoort, Wessel; Welch, Ross; Thornton, Jim G.; Moutquin, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare women's views about blood pressure (BP) control in CHIPS (Control of Hypertension In Pregnancy Study) (NCT01192412). Design: Quantitative and qualitative analysis of questionnaire responses. Setting: International randomised trial (94 sites, 15 countries). Population/sample:

  14. Women and mass media: a critical and analytical study of the portrayal of Sudanese women in printed media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, A E; Osama, S

    1995-06-01

    This study examines how Sudanese women are portrayed in the mass media. Data are obtained from a content analysis of historical records of Sudanese daily newspapers and women's magazines and from surveys among female editors in print media. The following types of newspapers are reviewed: independent newspapers; papers for the Al-Umma Party, a communist party, a Bathist party, a Muslim Nationalist Islamic Front Party, and a National Union Democratic Party; and a current military government paper. Women's magazines are published by women. Articles focus on women as the main newsmakers, women's life issues, female authors, a female focus but a male author, and famous Sudanese women. 16 content themes are identified. Women were not extensively featured or photographed in either newspapers or magazines. The Al-Umma Party paper and Al-Sudan Al-Hadith paper (an independent paper) were the only two newspapers with at least 10 photos of women. Women were pictured as professionals, educated persons, and leaders. There were 17 female editors. These editors preferred an image of women as leaders, followed by productive workers. Only 11.76% believed that women's dual roles as producers and reproducers should be portrayed. Female editors did not want a special women's page. 52.94% (the largest percentage) preferred targeting women with substantial leadership abilities. 17.65% desired the portrayal of women as workers and housewives. 58.82% did not think that the mass media image changed behavior or attitudes, because most Sudanese women are illiterate. Women's issues in both newspapers and women's magazines were devoted to women's work, achievements, and needs. The authors recommend removal of obstacles to women's equal participation in the mass media and press and research on the effect of media images on women's self-perception and behavior.

  15. Factors Associated With Domestic Violence Against Women in Iran: An Exploratory Multicenter Community-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffari, Mohsen; Arslan, Syed Asadullah; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeid; Pakpour, Amir H; Zaben, Faten Al; Koenig, Harold G

    2017-06-01

    Domestic violence against women committed by intimate partners is a worldwide concern especially in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess the problem among Iranian women and identify associated risk factors. Using a cross-sectional multicenter design, 1,600 women in six different areas of Iran were surveyed. A measure of domestic violence against women was administered and demographic information collected. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with domestic violence. The prevalence of domestic violence among participants were emotional (64%), physical (28%), and sexual (18%). Higher education (both women and their partners), employment status of partner (being employed), and lower number of children lowered the risk, whereas history of previous marriage (for either women or their partners), unstable marriage, substance abuse, crowded family situation, and lower socioeconomic status increased the risk of domestic violence. There is a high prevalence of domestic violence, particularly emotional, against women by their partners. Preventive measures are recommended such as increasing public awareness, improving in socioeconomic status of families, educating women about what they can do, and encouraging counseling for the couple or the woman alone.

  16. Maximising retention in a longitudinal study of genital Chlamydia trachomatis among young women in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birden Hudson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cohort studies are an important study design however they are difficult to implement, often suffer from poor retention, low participation and bias. The aims of this paper are to describe the methods used to recruit and retain young women in a longitudinal study and to explore factors associated with loss to follow up. Methods The Chlamydia Incidence and Re-infection Rates Study (CIRIS was a longitudinal study of Australian women aged 16 to 25 years recruited from primary health care clinics. They were followed up via the post at three-monthly intervals and required to return questionnaires and self collected vaginal swabs for chlamydia testing. The protocol was designed to maximise retention in the study and included using recruiting staff independent of the clinic staff, recruiting in private, regular communication with study staff, making the follow up as straightforward as possible and providing incentives and small gifts to engender good will. Results The study recruited 66% of eligible women. Despite the nature of the study (sexual health and the mobility of the women (35% moved address at least once, 79% of the women completed the final stage of the study after 12 months. Loss to follow up bias was associated with lower education level [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR: 0.7 (95% Confidence Interval (CI: 0.5, 1.0], recruitment from a sexual health centre as opposed to a general practice clinic [AHR: 1.6 (95% CI: 1.0, 2.7] and previously testing positive for chlamydia [AHR: 0.8 (95% CI: 0.5, 1.0]. No other factors such as age, numbers of sexual partners were associated with loss to follow up. Conclusions The methods used were considered effective for recruiting and retaining women in the study. Further research is needed to improve participation from less well-educated women.

  17. Living with urinary incontinence: a longitudinal study of older women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Byles, Julie; Millar, Cynthia J; Sibbritt, David W; Chiarelli, Pauline

    ...: the aim of this study was to investigate changes in continence status among a large cohort of older women, and to identify factors associated with incidence of incontinence in later life. Subjects...

  18. Participatory design of ehealth solutions for women from vulnerable populations with perinatal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mara; Henderson, Rebecca; Holmes, John H; Wolters, Maria K; Bennett, Ian M

    2016-01-01

    Cultural and health service obstacles affect the quality of pregnancy care that women from vulnerable populations receive. Using a participatory design approach, the Stress in Pregnancy: Improving Results with Interactive Technology group developed specifications for a suite of eHealth applications to improve the quality of perinatal mental health care. We established a longitudinal participatory design group consisting of low-income women with a history of antenatal depression, their prenatal providers, mental health specialists, an app developer, and researchers. The group met 20 times over 24 months. Applications were designed using rapid prototyping. Meetings were documented using field notes. The group achieved high levels of continuity and engagement. Three apps were developed by the group: an app to support high-risk women after discharge from hospital, a screening tool for depression, and a patient decision aid for supporting treatment choice. Longitudinal participatory design groups are a promising, highly feasible approach to developing technology for underserved populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Racial discrimination and breast cancer incidence in US Black women: the Black Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Teletia R; Williams, Carla D; Makambi, Kepher H; Mouton, Charles; Harrell, Jules P; Cozier, Yvette; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L

    2007-07-01

    Perceived discrimination may contribute to somatic disease. The association between perceived discrimination and breast cancer incidence was assessed in the Black Women's Health Study. In 1997, participants completed questions on perceived discrimination in two domains: "everyday" discrimination (e.g., being treated as dishonest) and major experiences of unfair treatment due to race (job, housing, and police). Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios, controlling for breast cancer risk factors. From 1997 to 2003, 593 incident cases of breast cancer were ascertained. In the total sample, there were weak positive associations between cancer incidence and everyday and major discrimination. These associations were stronger among the younger women. Among women aged less than 50 years, those who reported frequent everyday discrimination were at higher risk than were women who reported infrequent experiences. In addition, the incidence rate ratio was 1.32 (95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.70) for those who reported discrimination on the job and 1.48 (95% confidence interval: 1.01, 2.16) for those who reported discrimination in all three situations - housing, job, and police - relative to those who reported none. These findings suggest that perceived experiences of racism are associated with increased incidence of breast cancer among US Black women, particularly younger women.

  20. Sexual behavior of infertile women: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokaie, Mahshid; Simbar, Masoumeh; Yassini Ardekani, Seyed Mojtaba

    2015-10-01

    Infertility makes an essential challenge to the sexual life of couples, especially infertile women. When pregnancy does not happen, infertile women think that sexual intercourse is not fruitful and sexual desire became reduce gradually. Infertile women progressively forget that their sexual relationship is also a response to their natural need. This qualitative study was conducted to explore the infertility consequences in the sexual behavior of infertile women. This was a qualitative content analysis study; and it was part of a widespread study, used a sequential mixed-method and conducted from August 2014 until February 2015. A purposeful sampling was used to recruit infertile women who had referred to Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility. Data gathering techniques employed in this research included in-depth semi structured open face-to-face interviews and field notes. Credibility, transferability, confirm ability, and dependability were assessed for the rigor of the data collection. Totally, 15 infertile women and 8 key informants were interviewed. Data analysis showed four themes about impact of infertility on female sexual behavior: 1/ Impact of infertility drugs on couple sexual behavior, 2/ Impact of assisted reproductive technologies on female sexual behavior, 3/ Timed intercourse during infertility and 4/ The psychological impact of infertility on sexual behavior. Some of Iranian infertile women could cope with their problems, but some of them were very affected by infertility drugs and assisted reproductive technologies procedures. Psychosexual counseling before medical treatment could help them to have a better sexual life.

  1. Collective design in 3D printing: A large scale empirical study of designs, designers and evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özkil, Ali Gürcan

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical study of a collective design platform (Thingiverse); with the aim of understanding the phenomenon and investigating how designs concurrently evolve through the large and complex network of designers. The case study is based on the meta-data collected from 158 489 ...

  2. A descriptive study of mastitis in Australian breastfeeding women: incidence and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Lisa H; Forster, Della A; Lumley, Judith; McLachlan, Helen

    2007-04-25

    Mastitis is one of the most common problems experienced by women who are breastfeeding. Mastitis is an inflammation of breast tissue, which may or may not result from infection. The aims of this paper are to compare rates of mastitis in primiparous women receiving public hospital care (standard or birth centre) and care in a co-located private hospital, and to use multivariate analysis to explore other factors related to mastitis. Data from two studies (a randomised controlled trial [RCT] and a survey) have been combined. The RCT (Attachment to the Breast and Family Attitudes to Breastfeeding, ABFAB) which was designed to test whether breastfeeding education in mid-pregnancy could increase breastfeeding duration recruited public patients at the Royal Women's Hospital at 18-20 weeks gestation. A concurrent survey recruited women planning to give birth in the Family Birth Centre (at 36 weeks gestation) and women in the postnatal wards of Frances Perry House (private hospital). All women were followed up by telephone at 6 months postpartum. Mastitis was defined as at least 2 breast symptoms (pain, redness or lump) AND at least one of fever or flu-like symptoms. The 6 month telephone interview was completed by 1193 women. Breastfeeding rates at 6 months were 77% in Family Birth Centre, 63% in Frances Perry House and 53% in ABFAB. Seventeen percent (n = 206) of women experienced mastitis. Family Birth Centre and Frances Perry House women were more likely to develop mastitis (23% and 24%) than women in ABFAB (15%); adjusted odds ratio (Adj OR) ~1.9. Most episodes occurred in the first 4 weeks postpartum: 53% (194/365). Nipple damage was also associated with mastitis (Adj OR 1.7, 95% CI, 1.14, 2.56). We found no association between breastfeeding duration and mastitis. The prevention and improved management of nipple damage could potentially reduce the risk of lactating women developing mastitis. Trial registration (ABFAB): Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN21556494.

  3. TLEP design study forges ahead

    CERN Multimedia

    Alain Blondel & Mike Koratzinos

    2013-01-01

    As the Future Circular Collider (FCC) study is launched, one of its component parts, TLEP, enjoys a successful workshop at CERN. The FCC study looks at all options for a future circular collider with the emphasis on a hadron machine with TLEP as a possible intermediate step.   The poster of the sixth TLEP workshop that took place at CERN. Japanese artist Kazuya Akimoto kindly agreed to the use of one of his works as the basis for the poster’s backdrop. October 16 to 18 saw a three-day workshop on TLEP, the sixth in the series. The workshop took place at CERN and was well attended, informative and stimulating. To name just one of the influential people present, Herwig Schopper, ex-Director General of CERN and instrumental in the approval, construction and success of LEP, was among the participants. But what exactly is TLEP? The name was, somehow serendipitously, coined from future lepton collider option studies and stands for triple-LEP, a machine three times the size of LEP. But th...

  4. Socio-demographic characteristics of women sustaining injuries during pregnancy: a study from the Danish National Birth Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Virk, Jasveer; Hsu, Paul; Olsen, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To describe adverse birth outcomes associated with hospital-treated injuries that took place among women in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting Denmark. Participants 90 452 women and their offspring selected from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Primary and secondary outcome measures To determine if injured women were more likely to deliver an infant preterm, with low birth weight, stillborn or have a spontaneous abortion, the authors estima...

  5. Pilot Feasibility Study of an Educational Intervention in Women With Gestational Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amason, Janeen S; Lee, Shih-Yu; Aduddell, Kathie; Hewell, Sandra W; Van Brackle, Lewis

    2016-01-01

    To pilot test the feasibility of an educational intervention, Start Understanding Gestational Diabetes and Risk of Developing Type 2 Diabetes (SUGAR), in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A pretest-posttest, two-group study design. Three obstetrics and gynecology offices in the southeastern United States. Twenty-three women with a first-time diagnosis of GDM. Women diagnosed with GDM were recruited and placed in a control group or educational intervention group. Women completed six self-report, standardized questionnaires at baseline (third trimester) and posttest (6-8 weeks postpartum). Women in the intervention group (n = 18) received the SUGAR educational intervention after the baseline data collection with a booster session at 2 to 4 weeks postpartum. Women in the control group (n = 5) received an attention control treatment. Study participants had obesity, and most had a family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The attrition rate was low (n = 2; 8%). The educational intervention significantly increased diabetes mellitus knowledge for women in the SUGAR group. In addition, 39% of participants received the recommended postpartum glucose screening. Although the effect of the SUGAR intervention with a small sample was not expected to produce statistically significant changes, we add our pilot study to the limited research of diabetes mellitus preventative care for women with GDM and provide preliminary findings to develop meaningful education and support for women diagnosed with GDM. Future researchers need to focus on prevention programs that center on self-efficacy, postpartum glucose screening, and adoption of healthy lifestyle behaviors. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Sexual behaviour of women in rural South Africa: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubbink, Jan Henk; van der Eem, Lisette; McIntyre, James A; Mbambazela, Nontembeko; Jobson, Geoffrey A; Ouburg, Sander; Morre, Servaas A; Struthers, Helen E; Peters, Remco P H

    2016-07-12

    Sexual behaviour is a core determinant of the HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) epidemics in women living in rural South Africa. Knowledge of sexual behaviour in these areas is limited, but constitutes essential information for a combination prevention approach of behavioural change and biomedical interventions. This descriptive study was conducted in rural Mopani District, South Africa, as part of a larger study on STI. Women of reproductive age (18-49 years) who reported sexual activity were included regardless of the reason for visiting the facility. Questionnaires were administered to 570 women. We report sexual behaviour by age group, ethnic group and self-reported HIV status. Young women (fellatio, have concurrent sexual partners and report a circumcised partner than older women (>34 years); there was no difference for condom use during last sex act (36 % overall). Sotho women were more likely to report concurrent sexual partners whereas Shangaan women reported more frequent intravaginal cleansing and vaginal scarring practice in our analysis. HIV-infected women were older, had a higher number of lifetime sexual partners, reported more frequent condom use during the last sex act and were more likely to have a known HIV-infected partner than women without HIV infection; hormonal contraceptive use, fellatio, and a circumcised partner were less often reported. This study provides insight into women's sexual behaviour in a rural South African region. There are important differences in sexual behaviour by age group and ethnicity and HIV status; these should be taken into account when designing tailor-made prevention packages.

  7. Leadership Case Studies from Women Serving During World War I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    leadership tips and messages to assist a leader to recognize their leadership potential, improve their skills and connect with their subordinates. The... LEADERSHIP CASE STUDIES FROM WOMEN SERVING DURING WORLD WAR I A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and...Thesis 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) AUG 2016 – JUN 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Leadership Case Studies from Women Serving during World War I

  8. Cardiovascular Fat, Menopause, and Sex Hormones in Women: The SWAN Cardiovascular Fat Ancillary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khoudary, Samar R; Shields, Kelly J; Janssen, Imke; Hanley, Carrie; Budoff, Matthew J; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Powell, Lynda H; Matthews, Karen A

    2015-09-01

    Cardiovascular risk increases in women after menopause. Mounting evidence demonstrates a role of cardiovascular fat (CF) in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease, but no research has examined CF in relation to sex hormones or menopausal status in women. The objective was to determine the relationship between CF depots, menopausal status, and endogenous sex hormones. Cross-sectional and longitudinal study designs were used. The setting included the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Heart and Cardiovascular Fat Ancillary Study. A total of 456 women (mean age, 50.75 y); 62% premenopausal/early perimenopausal, and 38% late peri-/postmenopausal. Menopausal status, endogenous sex hormones measured simultaneously with CF volumes, and circulating estradiol available 4.80 years (median) before CF measures. Volumes of CF (epicardial adipose tissue [EAT], paracardial adipose tissue [PAT], total heart adipose tissue [TAT = EAT + PAT], and aortic perivascular adipose tissue [PVAT]). In final models, late peri-/postmenopausal women had 9.88% more EAT, 20.72% more PAT, and 11.69% more TAT volumes than pre-/early perimenopausal women (P menopausal status. In final models, lower estradiol concentrations were associated with greater volumes of PAT and TAT (P obesity, and other covariates. Endogenous sex hormones are associated with CF. Perhaps CF plays a role in the higher risk of coronary heart disease reported in women after menopause.

  9. Prevalence of Complementary and Alternative Medicine and Herbal Remedy Use in Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Women: Results from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robin R; Santoro, Nanette; Allshouse, Amanda A; Neal-Perry, Genevieve; Derby, Carol

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use, including botanical/herbal remedies, among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), New Jersey site. We also examined whether attitudes toward CAM and communication of its use to providers differed for Hispanic and non-Hispanic women. SWAN is a community-based, multiethnic cohort study of midlife women. At the 13th SWAN follow-up, women at the New Jersey site completed both a general CAM questionnaire and a culturally sensitive CAM questionnaire designed to capture herbal products commonly used in Hispanic/Latina communities. Prevalence of and attitudes toward CAM use were compared by race/ethnicity and demographic characteristics. Among 171 women (average age 61.8 years), the overall prevalence of herbal remedy use was high in both Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women (88.8% Hispanic and 81.3% non-Hispanic white), and prayer and herbal teas were the most common modalities used. Women reported the use of multiple herbal modalities (mean 6.6 for Hispanic and 4.0 for non-Hispanic white women; p = 0.001). Hispanic women were less likely to consider herbal treatment drugs (16% vs. 37.5%; p = 0.005) and were less likely to report sharing the use of herbal remedies with their doctors (14.4% Hispanic vs. 34% non-Hispanic white; p = 0.001). The number of modalities used was similar regardless of the number of prescription medications used. High prevalence of herbal CAM use was observed for both Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women. Results highlight the need for healthcare providers to query women regarding CAM use to identify potential interactions with traditional treatments and to determine whether CAM is used in lieu of traditional medications.

  10. Experiences of Syrian women with breast cancer regarding chemotherapy: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamli, Frial; Anoosheh, Monireh; Mohammadi, Essa

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of Syrian women with breast cancer regarding their chemotherapy. A qualitative design, based on the content analysis approach, was used for the data collection and analysis of the perspectives of women with breast cancer in Syria. Semistructured interviews were carried out with 17 women who underwent chemotherapy after mastectomy in a chemotherapy center in Latakia between June and October 2010. Four main themes emerged from the study: psychological discomfort (negative emotion, body image, and depressive symtoms), physical problems (acute consequences of chemotherapy and general aspects of chemotherapy), social dysfunction (social isolation and lack of marriage opportunites), and failure in the family role (mother role and sexual relationship). Understanding the experiences of women with breast cancer regarding chemotherapy enables nurses to devise appropriate strategies to provide better support and care to patients in order to improve their quality of life. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Influencing factors on cervical cancer screening from the Kurdish women's perspective: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasul, V H; Cheraghi, M A; Behboodi Moqadam, Z

    2015-01-01

    Aim:This study was aimed to explore and describe the Kurdish women's perception of cervical cancer screening. Methods: A qualitative design based on a conventional content analysis approach. Purposive sampling was applied to 19 women chosen, who had a Pap smear or refused to have one. The study was performed in the Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Semi-structure din-depth individual interviews were carried out to collect data. Results: Four main themes including conflict, belief, and awareness about cervical cancer screening and socio-cultural factors emerged during data analysis Conclusions: Cervical cancer has a high mortality rate in the developing countries. However, only a few Kurdish women participated in the cervical cancer screening in the Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Understanding the factors associated with the women's perception of cervical cancer could guide future educational planning and clinical interventions improve the cervical cancer screening.

  12. Understanding women's choices to enroll in engineering: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Eileen

    The underrepresentation of women in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) college programs is a troublesome local, national and global phenomenon. The topic of this doctoral thesis specifically focused on the underrepresentation of women in the field of engineering and more specifically on the factors that women may perceive as chiefly motivating them to choose engineering as a college major. By not choosing to major in engineering, women forego intellectual opportunities and the financial rewards that engineering careers can provide. Their absence means that the field of engineering also suffers from the lack of contributions from a diverse workforce. Women who graduated from a specific community college's engineering program in the United States were the focus of this qualitative study. Grounded in achievement motivation theory, and in particular expectancy-value theory of academic and career choice, this research was guided by two questions: How do women perceive their academic self-efficacies and expectations for success as influencing their decisions to enroll in engineering? How do women perceive their subjective task values as influencing their decisions to enroll in engineering? This single, holistic case study with one main unit of analysis incorporated a written questionnaire, individual interviews and a focus group meeting as the three instruments used to collect data. The qualitative data, cyclically coded, shed light on the complex mechanisms of academic and career choice.

  13. Perimenopausal contraception in Turkish women: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharbouch Sema B

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiologic research has shown that perimenopausal contraception is an important medical issue, because women during the perimenopause still need effective contraception. The objective of the study was to assess the contraceptive choices of perimenopausal Turkish women. Methods This is a descriptive cross-sectional study that in a non – random fashion recruited 202 perimenopausal and naturally menopausal women who lived in a suburban area of Istanbul. Women who took part were aged between 45–59 years old. Chief database used to identify the suitable participants in the district. Subjects who voluntarily participated in the study were interviewed in their homes by the researcher. The analysis of the data was evaluated using percentages. Results The percentage of sexually active women among the participants was 87.6%. A large majority – 80.2% – of the participants did not have any idea of when they should bring contraception to an end. The method most commonly used was withdrawal (Coitus Interruptus, represented by 38.8%. In regard to the participants' choices of medical contraception, those being utilized were the IUD (24.3%, tubal sterilization (8.9%, condom (5.9% and COC (6.4%. Additionally, 18% of women used other traditional methods including vaginal lavage, vaginal aspirin, and even inserting a small sponge presoaked with fresh lemon juice or cola deep into the vagina. Among the perimenopausal women who participated, the IUD was the most popular and appropriate contraceptive method. Conclusion Most perimenopausal Turkish women are still using traditional methods and women's knowledge about contraception in the menopausal stages is very limited. Health professionals should provide information about perimenopausal contraception.

  14. An Exploratory Study of Women in the Health Professions Schools. Volume III: Women in Osteopathic Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban and Rural Systems Associates, San Francisco, CA.

    As part of a larger study of the success and problems of women as applicants to and students in the schools of eight health professions, the study of osteopathic medicine involved interviews with administrators, faculty, and medical students. Its central purpose was to identify any characteristics of the profession--in its history, organization,…

  15. Encouraging Women's Creative Confidence: A Case Study of Women's Insights into Their Own Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esslinger, Deborah S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to investigate the insights of a small group of women to determine factors important in encouraging creative confidence and specific activities that would contribute to creative growth. There were three research questions that guided the study, using an open-ended questionnaire and a focus group…

  16. Women's perspectives toward menopause: A phenomenological study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimi, Sevil; Simbar, Masoumeh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Zaiery, Farid; Khatami, Shiva

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the attitude and feelings toward menopause among Azeri menopausal women using hermeneutic phenomenology based on Van Manen's approach. A total of 18 menopausal women who were attended in urban health centers of Tabriz, Iran, were recruited using a purposive sampling method. Data were gathered through semistructured interviews. Each interview was transcribed verbatim and analyzed simultaneously. Data analysis led to the emergence of five main themes: positive attitude, neutral attitude, negative attitude, positive feelings, and negative feelings. Participants had different feelings and attitude. Acceptance of menopause as a natural process helps women to have a neutral attitude toward menopause.

  17. Women Empowerment through Health Information Seeking: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Alireza; Sabzevari, Sakineh; Negahban Bonabi, Tayebeh

    2015-04-01

    Today, women empowering is an important issue.  Several methods have been introduced to empower women. Health information seeking is one of the most important activities in this regard. A wide range of capabilities have been reported as outcomes of health information seeking in several studies. As health information seeking is developed within personal-social interactions and also the health system context, it seems that the qualitative paradigm is appropriate to use in studies in this regard. This study aimed to explore how women's empowerment through health information seeking is done. In this qualitative content analysis study, data collection was done with regard to inclusion criteria, through purposive sampling by semi-structured interviews with 17 women and using documentation and field notes until data saturation. Qualitative data analysis was done constantly and simultaneous with data collection. Four central themes were emerged to explain women's empowerment through health information seeking that included: a) Health concerns management with three subcategories of Better coping, Stress management, Control of situation, b) Collaborative care with two subcategories of Effective interaction with health professions and Participation in health decision making c) Individual development d) Self-protection with four sub- categories of Life style modification,  Preventive behaviors promoting, Self-care promoting, and  medication adherence. The results of this study indicate the importance of women empowerment through foraging their health information seeking rights and comprehensive health information management.

  18. Quality of life and its determinants in postmenopausal women: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhaghjou, Seyedeh Nooshaz; Niknami, Maryam; Moridi, Maryam; Pakseresht, Sedigheh; Kazemnejad, Ehsan

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to assess quality of life (QOL) and its determinants in Iranian postmenopausal women. This population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted using cluster sampling design. The samples consisted of postmenopausal women aged 40-60 years with total household in Rasht city (north Iran) as the sample frame. Quality of life was assessed by Menopause-Specific QOL (MENQOL) Questionnaire. Mean domain scores and factors related to the higher score of each domain were determined. Findings showed that the mean scores for each domain were: vasomotor: 2.14 ± 1.49; psycho-social: 1.56 ± 0.85; physical: 1.91 ± 0.52 and sexual: 1.37 ± 1.05. Comparing the median of the studied domains, physical domain had the worst score in menopausal women. Pain in joint and muscle, one item of physical domain, had the highest score. The univariate analysis demonstrated that women aged 60-65 (p women with postmenopausal stage 5 or more years (p women (p women holding higher education degree (p women (p women with a body mass index (BMI) women who do physical activity (p < 0.05) showed better QOL. Based on Logistic Regression model, the predictive factors of normal QOL in menopause status were: age, husband education, score of Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and BMI. Our findings suggest that menopause-related symptoms had negative impact on QOL. Confirmation by further research is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Claiming Your Connections: A Psychosocial Group Intervention Study of Black College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lani V.

    2009-01-01

    The emergent psychosocial competence practice model in mental health represents an innovative strengths-based paradigm with potential relevance and applicability to black college women struggling with problems of psychological and social adjustment. Using an experimental design, with pre- and posttest measures, this study investigated the…

  20. Prospective study on dietary intakes of folate, betaine, and choline and cardiovascular disease risk in women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalmeijer, G.W.; Olthof, M.R.; Verhoef, P.; Bots, M.L.; Schouw, van der Y.T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between dietary intakes of folate, betaine and choline and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Design: Prospective cohort study. Subjects: A total of 16 165 women aged 49¿70 years without prior CVD. Subjects were breast cancer screening participants in

  1. Prospective study on dietary intakes of folate, betaine, and choline and cardiovascular disease risk in women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalmeijer, G.W.; Olthof, M.R.; Verhoef, P.; Bots, M.L.; van der Schouw, Y.T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between dietary intakes of folate, betaine and choline and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Design: Prospective cohort study. Subjects: A total of 16165 women aged 49-70 years without prior CVD. Subjects were breast cancer screening participants in

  2. "Thank You, Sorry, Love" (TSL) Therapy with North Korean Refugee Women: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Jin; Kim, Jae Yop; Kim, Dong Goo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of The "Thank You, Sorry, Love" (TSL) family therapy program in potentially improving the marital relationships and health of North Korean refugee women. Methods: The participants included 12 married North Korean female refugees in their 20s to 40s. Using a blinded…

  3. Designing Mobile Service experiences, an exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Sarmento, Teresa; Patrício, Lia; Bártolo, José

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an exploratory study on the relevance of experiential factors when using services. The multidisciplinary approach is stressed seeing that is an important contribution in terms of service design interfaces. The project aimed at identifying elements for designing service experiences and for contributing to an improved service design and testing process. The paper presents a study carried out on a group of participants in a creative training cour...

  4. Reproductive health of women with and without disabilities in South India, the SIDE study (South India Disability Evidence) study: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Gudlavalleti Venkata S; John, Neena; Sagar, Jayanthi

    2014-11-30

    Evidence shows that women with disability have adverse pregnancy outcomes compared to those without a disability. There is a lack of published data on reproductive health of women with disability in India till date. The objective of the South India Disability Evidence (SIDE) Study was to compare reproductive health parameters including pregnancy experience, health access during pregnancy and type of delivery among women with disability compared to women with no disability. The study was conducted in one district each in two States (Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka) in 2012. A case-control design was used to identify appropriate age and sex-matched controls for women with disability identified through a population-based survey. Trained key informants first listed women with disabilities who were then examined by a medical team to confirm the diagnosis. Trained research investigators administered questionnaire schedules to both groups of women to collect information on reproductive health and outcomes of any pregnancy experienced in the past two years. A total of 247 women with disability and 324 age-matched controls aged 15-45 years were recruited for the study. 87% of the women with disability had a physical disability. The mean age of women with disability was 29.86 against 29.71 years among women without a disability. A significantly lower proportion of women with disability experienced pregnancy (36.8%) compared to women without a disability (X (2) -16.02 P disability compared to women without a disability was 19.3(95% CI: 1.2- 313.9), while it was 9.5 (95% CI: 2.2-40.8) for depression. A higher proportion of women without a disability (7.7%) compared to women with a disability (5.3%) reported a successful pregnancy in the past two years. There were no statistically significant differences between women with and without a disability with regard to utilization of antenatal care and pregnancy outcomes. The study provides evidence on some reproductive health parameters

  5. Associations Between Provider Designation and Female-specific Cancer Screening in Women Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean-Mayberry, Bevanne; Bastian, Lori; Trentalange, Mark; Murphy, Terrence E.; Skanderson, Melissa; Allore, Heather; Reyes-Harvey, Evelyn; Maisel, Natalya C.; Gaetano, Vera; Wright, Steven; Haskell, Sally; Brandt, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    Background In 2010, the Department of Veterans Affairs Healthcare System (VA) implemented policy to provide Comprehensive Primary Care (for acute, chronic, and female-specific care) from designated Women’s Health providers (DWHPs) at all VA sites. However, since that time no comparisons of quality measures have been available to assess the level of care for women Veterans assigned to these providers. Objectives To evaluate the associations between cervical and breast cancer screening rates among age-appropriate women Veterans and designation of primary-care provider (DWHP vs. non-DWHP). Research Design Cross-sectional analyses using the fiscal year 2012 data on VA women’s health providers, administrative files, and patient-specific quality measures. Subjects The sample included 37,128 women Veterans aged 21 through 69 years. Measures Variables included patient demographic and clinical factors (ie, age, race, ethnicity, mental health diagnoses, obesity, and site), and provider factors (ie, DWHP status, sex, and panel size). Screening measures were defined by age-appropriate subgroups using VA national guidelines. Results Female-specific cancer screening rates were higher among patients assigned to DWHPs (cervical cytology 94.4% vs. 91.9%, P screening (odds ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–1.47; P screening (odds ratio, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.10–1.39; P screening within VA. Separate evaluation of sex neutral measures is needed to determine whether other measures accrue benefits for patients with DWHPs. PMID:25767975

  6. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PERINATAL OUTCOME IN WOMEN WITH RECURRENT PREECLAMPSIA TO WOMEN WITH PRE-ECLAMPSIA WHO WERE NORMOTENSIVE DURING THEIR PREVIOUS PREGNANCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Guhan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Pre-eclampsia is a systemic syndrome that occurs in 3-5% of the pregnant women and is the leading cause of maternal/neonatal morbidity and mortality. We designed a study to compare perinatal outcome in women with recurrent preeclampsia to women with women with pre-eclampsia who were normotensive during their previous pregnancies. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was conducted in Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Institute of Maternal and Child Health, Government Medical College, Kozhikode for a period of 1 year from March 2013 to February 2014. We conducted this study in multiparous women who developed pre-eclampsia in index pregnancy (n=110. Among these, women who had pre-eclampsia in previous pregnancies (n=55 were compared to those who remained normotensive during their prior pregnancies (n=55. Maternal and foetal variables were compared. Multivariate logistic analyses were performed to examine the impact of pre-eclampsia on foetal outcome, preterm delivery, IUGR, still births adjusted for confounding variables. RESULTS No statistical significant difference was observed between the 2 groups in terms of age, gravida, parity. Women who experienced recurrent pre-eclampsia were at elevated risk for early onset of pre-eclampsia, deranged laboratory investigations (Hepatic and Renal parameters, Coagulation Profile, higher chances of maternal complications, foetal mortality and morbidity (Statistically significant P <0.05. Foetal loss was higher in women with recurrent pre-eclampsia (14.5% than in women with pre-eclampsia who had normotensive pregnancy history (1.8%. CONCLUSION Women with recurrent pre-eclampsia had a higher rate of perinatal loss compared to women with pre-eclampsia who were normotensive in their prior pregnancies.

  7. Why some women fail to give birth at health facilities: a qualitative study of women's perceptions of perinatal care from rural Southern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbani, Lily; Bjune, Gunnar; Chirwa, Ellen; Malata, Address; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2013-02-08

    Despite Malawi government's policy to support women to deliver in health facilities with the assistance of skilled attendants, some women do not access this care. The study explores the reasons why women delivered at home without skilled attendance despite receiving antenatal care at a health centre and their perceptions of perinatal care. A descriptive study design with qualitative data collection and analysis methods. Data were collected through face-to-face in-depth interviews using a semi- structured interview guide that collected information on women's perception on perinatal care. A total of 12 in- depth interviews were conducted with women that had delivered at home in the period December 2010 to March 2011. The women were asked how they perceived the care they received from health workers before, during, and after delivery. Data were manually analyzed using thematic analysis. Onset of labor at night, rainy season, rapid labor, socio-cultural factors and health workers' attitudes were related to the women delivering at home. The participants were assisted in the delivery by traditional birth attendants, relatives or neighbors. Two women delivered alone. Most women went to the health facility the same day after delivery. This study reveals beliefs about labor and delivery that need to be addressed through provision of appropriate perinatal information to raise community awareness. Even though, it is not easy to change cultural beliefs to convince women to use health facilities for deliveries. There is a need for further exploration of barriers that prevent women from accessing health care for better understanding and subsequently identification of optimal solutions with involvement of the communities themselves.

  8. Against all odds: a retrospective case-controlled study of women who experienced extraordinary breastfeeding problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegney, Desley; Fallon, Tony; O'Brien, Maxine L

    2008-05-01

    The study investigated factors empowering women to continue breastfeeding despite experiencing extraordinary difficulties. The study documented the experiences and characteristics of women who continued to breastfeed (continuing cohort) and those who weaned (non-continuing cohort) despite extraordinary difficulties. Retrospective case control. The study was undertaken in south-east Queensland, Australia in 2004. Forty women (20 in each cohort) were recruited over six months. Both quantitative (breastfeeding knowledge questionnaire) and qualitative (semi-structured interviews) data were collected. This paper describes the qualitative data. Women from both cohorts expressed idealistic expectations about breastfeeding and experienced psychological distress due to their breastfeeding problems. Those who continued breastfeeding used coping strategies and exhibited personal qualities that assisted them to overcome the difficulties experienced. Women who continued to breastfeed were more likely to report relying on a health professional they could trust for support. This latter cohort were also more likely to report having peers with which they shared their experiences. Non-continuing women expressed feelings of guilt and inadequacy following weaning and were more likely to feel isolated. This study has highlighted the methods women use to deal with breastfeeding problems. It has also revealed modificable factors that can improve breastfeeding duration. The findings indicate that clinicians should: *Provide information which accurately reflects the breastfeeding experience; *Ensure systems are in place so that effective postnatal support for breastfeeding difficulties is available; *Consider screening to ascertain levels of psychological distress, sadness and disillusionment among breastfeeding women; *Design educational interventions with elements of cognitive skills, problem-solving and self-efficacy training to equip women with the skills to overcome any experienced

  9. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF UNMARRIED WOMEN IN THE EDUCATION SECTOR 'A FIELD STUDY ON A SAMPLE OF UNMARRIED WOMEN'

    OpenAIRE

    Fekih, Laid; Meziane, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The present research was designed to determine thepsychological stress as experienced by unmarried women in the education sector,and how to help them to discover the meaning of their presence in theframework, innovation and achievement, art, science, comprehension, love andadaptation in life. This research aims to identify the various problemsand mental disorders that unmarried women suffering from, and to determine thedifferences between unmarried women in terms of the psychological problems...

  10. Characterization of patients in the European Forsteo Observational Study (EFOS): postmenopausal women entering teriparatide treatment in a community setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajzbaum, Gerald; Jakob, Franz; Karras, Dimitrios

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The European Forsteo Observational Study (EFOS) study was primarily designed to assess fracture incidence, degree of pain, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and compliance in women prescribed teriparatide in a community setting. This report describes the design of the study...

  11. Urodynamic study in women with pure stress urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdevenito, J P; Águila, F; Naser, M; Manríquez, V; Wenzel, C; Díaz, J P

    2015-03-01

    To describe the results of urodynamic study in women with pure stress urinary incontinence symptoms, including the characteristics of the overactive detrusor. No other clinical assessments were taken into account. A retrospective study in women with urinary incontinence consecutively evaluated by urodynamic study. From a total of 710 women, only 108 (15%) with pure stress urinary incontinence symptoms were selected. Women with prior urinary incontinence surgery, pelvic organ prolapse (stage ≥iii), pelvic radiotherapy, using medication active on the lower urinary tract and neurological diseases were excluded. Infusion rate was 70 ml/min. Detrusor overactivity was induced only by cough. A standardized cough stress test with progressive cough intensity was carried out. Reference urodynamic values for stress incontinent women are described. Urodynamic stress incontinence was observed in 79 women (73.1%), detrusor overactivity in 4 (3.7%) and mixed urodynamic diagnosis in 15 (13.8%). Test was inconclusive in 10 patients (9.2%). Two women had detrusor overactivity incontinence (1.9%). One patient had detrusor overactivity induced by cough without urodynamic stress incontinence (0.9%). There was an association between detrusor overactivity and nocturia ≥2 (P=.002; odds ratio: 3.74; 95% confidence interval: 1.22-11.39). One woman had a bladder outlet obstruction (0.9%). In women with pure stress urinary incontinence, without knowing the outcome of other clinical assessments, urodynamic study can provide useful information to define the proper therapy. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. A qualitative study of women in polygynous marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabi, M M; Doster, C; Cheney, T

    2010-03-01

    Polygyny, the practice of taking more than one wife at the same time is a common practice in several countries including Africa. This study, conducted in Ghana, West Africa, investigated married women's experiences in polygyny and their ways of coping. Using exploratory qualitative methodology, data were collected from 15 married women who consented to in-depth interviews. The study was conducted in the summer of 2005 with approval from an institutional review board and permission from community leaders from the study site. Three themes emerged from the study: infertility, co-wives' relationships and ways of coping. The findings indicated that infertility was the number one reason that women allowed for co-wives in their marriages because this was necessary to protect the marriage rather than divorce. Unhappiness, loneliness, sense of competition and jealousy, and lack of intimacy with the spouse were identified as disadvantages of polygyny. The perceived advantages of polygyny included sharing of house chores and child rearing. The women's ways of coping included the use of religion, faith and a strong sisterly bond formed with the co-wives. Though the majority of the women disapproved of polygyny unions, divorce was not an option. These findings have implications for nursing and policy-makers. Nurses can provide education and implement programmes that teach coping mechanisms and stress management. Policy-makers should be made aware of the implications of polygynous marriages on women's health and well-being. There is the need to conduct more research to investigate the effects of polygyny on women's mental health and the need to develop programmes to support women.

  13. Statistical design and evaluation of biomarker studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbin, Kevin K

    2014-01-01

    We review biostatistical aspects of biomarker studies, including design and analysis issues, covering the range of settings required for translational research-from early exploratory studies through clinical trials.

  14. An exploratory study of women in Ghana's accountancy profession ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study was carried out on the research recommendations of an earlier study carried out by Hinson et al (2005) on successful women in marketing in Ghana in which a recommendation was made for other gender studies to be carried out among female professionals in Ghana; which studies will focus on middle-level ...

  15. Menstrual Cycle Hormone Changes in Women Traversing Menopause: Study of Women's Health Across the Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Nanette; Crawford, Sybil L; El Khoudary, Samar R; Allshouse, Amanda A; Burnett-Bowie, Sherri-Ann; Finkelstein, Joel; Derby, Carol; Matthews, Karen; Kravitz, Howard M; Harlow, Sioban D; Greendale, Gail A; Gold, Ellen B; Kazlauskaite, Rasa; McConnell, Dan; Neal-Perry, Genevieve; Pavlovic, Jelena; Randolph, John; Weiss, Gerson; Chen, Hsiang-Yu; Lasley, Bill

    2017-07-01

    Menstrual cycle hormone patterns in women approaching menopause are inadequately studied. To describe day-to-day menstrual cycle hormones in women as they approach menopause from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation Daily Hormone Study (DHS). DHS enrollees collected daily urine for one entire menstrual cycle or up to 50 days, whichever came first, annually, up to the final menstrual period (FMP) or for up to 10 years. Seven sites across the United States. A total of 511 premenopausal or early perimenopausal women at enrollment, within 10 years before menopause. Time-to-FMP measurement. Evidence of luteal activity (ELA), determined using objective algorithms. Menstrual cycle/segment length; whole cycle, and segment integrated urinary luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, estrone conjugates, and pregnanediol glucuronide (Pdg) for each year, organized around the FMP. Mean menstrual cycle length was remarkably preserved at 26 to 27 days in ELA cycles; non-ELA cycles had greater variability. The percentage of cycles that were ELA remained high until 5 years before the FMP (87.9%); only 22.8% of cycles within 1 year of the FMP were ELA. Whole cycle hormones remained relatively stable up to 3 years before the FMP, when gonadotropins began to increase. Pdg excretion declined slowly with progress to the FMP, but Pdg patterns of ELA cycles remained distinguishable from non-ELA. Menstrual cycle hormone patterns in perimenopausal women resemble those of midreproductive-aged women until 5 years before menopause, and presumably ovulatory cycles retain a potentially fertile pattern up to the end of reproductive life.

  16. Design and validity of a questionnaire to assess sexuality in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa Angélica P

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A review of validated methods for assessing female sexual dysfunction and a review of male and female sexual dysfunction did not refer to any specific questionnaire for evaluating sexuality during pregnancy. A study was performed at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Botucatu Medical School, São Paulo State University, Brazil to design and validate a pregnancy sexuality questionnaire, the Pregnancy Sexual Response Inventory (PSRI. Methods Women with a singleton pregnancy between 10 and 35 weeks of gestation were randomly recruited. There were five phases in the development of the PSRI: (1 item selection; (2 item development; (3 determination of internal consistency, reliability and convergence; (4 content validity; and (5 determination of inter-interviewer reliability. Internal consistency and reliability were evaluated using Cronbach's alpha. Inter-interviewer reliability was assessed by evaluating the responses of 18 academics at various institutions, using Kappa Index and Student t test. Results Good internal consistency and reliability were obtained (Cronbach's alpha coefficient = 0.79. Among the 18 academics, 13 totally agreed (K = 1.0, three partially agreed (K = 0.67 and two disagreed (K = 0.33 with the proposed questions. Comparisons of the mean PSRI domain scores made between the primary investigators and the other interviewers showed no significant differences in all domains (p > 0.05. Conclusion PSRI is a new validated instrument for evaluating sexuality and sexual activity and related health concerns during pregnancy.

  17. Some socio-cultural factors influencing fertility behaviour: a case study of Yoruba women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akande, B

    1989-12-01

    The sociocultural factors impacting on fertility behavior among the Yoruba of Nigeria were investigated in a sample of 330 women, 199 from Ife-Ife urban area and 131 from 3 rural villages also in the Oranmiyan Local Government Area. All study participants were Yoruba women married to Yoruba men who had at least 1 child; their mean age was 34.5 years and 41% had no education. The study was conducted during 1987. The responses confirmed the close link between marriage and procreation in this culture. Children are valued as a source of prestige to a woman, and childless women are stigmatized. The reasons for which children are valued were found to vary according to educational level. 77% of women with no education compared with 41% of those with high levels of education value children as a source of caretaking in old age. In contrast, 44% of highly educated women versus 11% of uneducated women valued children as a source of joy. Educated women were also more likely than women with no education to view motherhood as a means of fulfilling God's command to continue the human race. In terms of sex preference, higher percentages of educated and urban women wanted their 1st child to be a male and son preference has strong religious, legal, and social status significance in the Yoruban culture. However, all respondents indicated they wanted to have children of both sexes. More information on sociocultural factors examined in this study is needed to help in the design of a population policy for the Yoruba.

  18. Exploratory Study of Childbearing Experiences of Women With Asperger Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Marcia; Suplee, Patricia D; Bloch, Joan; Lecks, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Increasing numbers of girls have been diagnosed with Asperger syndrome and other autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) over the past two decades; therefore, more women with ASDs are entering the childbearing phase of their lives. Little is known about the childbearing experiences of women with ASDs. This qualitative study describes the childbearing experiences of eight women with Asperger syndrome. Four major themes emerged: Processing Sensations, Needing to Have Control, Walking in the Dark, and Motherhood on My Own Terms. Clinicians can provide sensitive, individualized care by asking women with Asperger syndrome about their specific sensory experiences, counseling them about coping strategies for sensory intrusions, providing targeted support, and modifying the clinical environment to decrease distressing stimuli. © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  19. A comparative study of Trichomonas vaginalis prevalence in Filipino women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arambulo, P V; Cabrera, B D; Osteria, T S; Baltazar, J C

    1977-09-01

    A comparative study of Trichomonas vaginalis prevalence among Filipino women is presented herein. A total of 288 women randomly drawn from various sources, including Social Hygiene clinics, Health Centers, and Family Planning Centers in the Metropolitan Manila Area were examined for T. vaginalis. Nineteen or (6.8%) were found positive either by wet mount or stained smear methods. Prevalence was significantly higher among the group of single than married women and five times higher among the waitress/hostess group than in the housewife/other group. Infection was related to parity and is significantly higher among nulliparous women. Likewise, a significant relationship was observed between prevalence of infection and gravidity. Prevalence decreases with increasing gravidity. No relationship in prevalence was observed between the use and non-use of contraceptives, and the method of contraceptive used. There was no significant association between the presence of the parasite and symptoms.

  20. Fusion reactor blanket/shield design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.L.; Clemmer, R.G.; Harkness, S.D.

    1979-07-01

    A joint study of tokamak reactor first-wall/blanket/shield technology was conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company (MDAC). The objectives of this program were the identification of key technological limitations for various tritium-breeding-blanket design concepts, establishment of a basis for assessment and comparison of the design features of each concept, and development of optimized blanket designs. The approach used involved a review of previously proposed blanket designs, analysis of critical technological problems and design features associated with each of the blanket concepts, and a detailed evaluation of the most tractable design concepts. Tritium-breeding-blanket concepts were evaluated according to the proposed coolant. The ANL effort concentrated on evaluation of lithium- and water-cooled blanket designs while the MDAC effort focused on helium- and molten salt-cooled designs. A joint effort was undertaken to provide a consistent set of materials property data used for analysis of all blanket concepts. Generalized nuclear analysis of the tritium breeding performance, an analysis of tritium breeding requirements, and a first-wall stress analysis were conducted as part of the study. The impact of coolant selection on the mechanical design of a tokamak reactor was evaluated. Reference blanket designs utilizing the four candidate coolants are presented.

  1. Factors Affecting Women Enrolment In Technical Institutions In Tanzania A Case Study Of Arusha Technical College

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glory B. Kaaya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors affecting women enrolment in Technical Institutions in Tanzania by focusing on the women. The study examined in detail the factors affecting women enrolment in Technical institutions and Arusha Technical College in particular as well as exploring sexual dynamics within Technical Institutions. Moreover a number of theoretical frameworks were concerned basing on the objectives a case study design was employed involving both qualitative and quantitative methods. Data was collected through focus group discussion questionnaires and observation at ATC. The finding of this study offers a framework of the understanding of the factors affecting women enrolment in Technical Institutions the report raised the recommendations that Colleges to conduct more sensitisation and awareness campaigns Establishment of Pre-Entry Courses for female candidates in all institutes encourage industries and companies Government and Private to recruitment more female staff Make use of educated and employed female role models to encourage girls to go to school Educate the parents community on the importance of educating women and their role in the community and the Country at large and by increasing the PPP between MoEVT and other Educational stakeholders to work of factors affecting women enrolment in Technical Institutions.

  2. POLITICAL REPRESENTATION OF WOMAN: A Study Of Women???s Role In The Legislative

    OpenAIRE

    GUSTIANA A KAMBO; PUSPARIDA SYAHDAN

    2014-01-01

    -- This study aimed to understand the complexity of the dynamics political representation in the legislative board which is intended to determine how the political representation of women in legislative board, whether the political representation in the form of role running as much as possible or the representation of cultural obstacles patriakri.

  3. Dietary intakes in infertile women a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background The reproductive axis is closely linked to nutritional status. The purpose of this study was to compare the nutritional status in two groups of young infertile women, without clinically overt eating disorders: hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods Eighteen young infertile women (10 HA, 8 PCOS) attending an outpatient gynecological endocrinology unit, underwent evaluation of anthropometry, body composition, dietary intakes by means of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a seven-day food diary (7DD), and psychological characteristics by means of EDI2 and SCL90 tests. Results HA women had lower BMI and body fat compared to PCOS women. Habitual intake derived from FFQs showed a similar macronutrient distribution between groups (about 16% protein, 33% fat, 52% carbohydrates). The psychometric profiles of the two groups did not differ significantly. The underreporting of dietary intakes (measured as habitual energy intake by FFQs/basal metabolic rate) was found to be negatively correlated with the interpersonal sensitivity SCL-90 subscale scores (r = -0.54, p = 0.02). Conclusion Our study identified differences in body composition but not in dietary habits between HA and PCOS infertile women. We documented, for the first time, a relationship between the accuracy of dietary surveys and the psychological characteristics of subjects with anovulation. This finding suggests that it may be important to be aware of the psychological terrain when planning a dietary survey in infertile women. PMID:19903344

  4. Turkish Women Seafarers and A Quastionnaire Study on Employment Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Yġlmaz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Throughout history, women have struggled to gain a place and establish their presence in social life. Mostly, they have continued their life in the position of carrying out family responsibilities. When women want to get involved in the business world, they are facing some problems arising from dogmatic thinking and prejudices, especially among the professions with "male-dominated" judiciary. Maritime profession, one of the oldest professions in the world, was also regarded as a single-gender area until the 20th century. However, in recent years, economical and political changes in the world, equal opportunity in education and incentive works of the International Maritime Organization have led women to work as seafarers. Although female seafarers constitute 2% of the world seafarers, this ratio is higher in developed countries than that of undeveloped or developing countries (URL-1. There is very little information regarding women seafarers in general, including the actual population size. Most of studies focus on passenger ships or cruise ships, not cargo ships (Sohyun, 2010. It is difficult to find relevant studies regarding women seafarers in the world, including in Turkey. In Turkey, women have played an active role and gained an apparent identity in the maritime sector since the 2000s. According to 2015 data, Turkey is ranks the 14th in the world maritime trade with more than 27,6 million deadweight tonnage and manages 1530 vessels (UNCTAD, 2015. In Turkey, many studies related to the employment of seafarers are carried out as in the whole world. However, studies on the employment of women seafarers should be paid more attention. In this study, a questionnaire was carried out with the personnel department managers in Turkish shipping companies. Employment, career, educational status of female seafarers and the general difficulties they face were revealed.

  5. Three city feasibility study of a body empowerment and HIV prevention intervention among women with drug use histories: Women FIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollub, Erica L; Morrow, Kathleen M; Mayer, Kenneth H; Koblin, Beryl A; Peterside, Pamela Brown; Husnik, Marla J; Metzger, David S

    2010-09-01

    New intervention models are needed for HIV prevention among drug-using women. The Women Fighting Infection Together (Women FIT) feasibility study enrolled 189 women in three U.S. cities (Providence, New York, Philadelphia) with drug-using histories, who also reported risky sexual behavior. Eligible women had participated previously in a yearlong study of HIV Counseling and Testing (HIV-CT) and limited case management. Two thirds of the sample were black, most were unemployed, and about two thirds reported prior or current crack use. Women were randomized into two groups. In one group, women participated in a manualized, four-session, peer-led, interactive group intervention that stressed body knowledge, woman-initiated HIV/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) prevention, including a focus on women's health (reproductive health screening, sexual violence, self-breast examination, STI signs, symptoms), which aimed to increase comfort with and pride in their bodies. Control group women received HIV-CT enriched by female condom counseling. Outcomes included study retention, session attendance and ratings, changes in knowledge, and use of protection methods. The study successfully retained 95% of the participants for a 2-month follow-up. Positive assessments from participants and peer leaders exceeded preset thresholds for success. Pre-post changes in body knowledge (p women than the control women. The body empowerment model deserves further elaboration in interventions focusing on women at high risk of HIV/STI acquisition.

  6. Cryostat design case studies, principles and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book enables the reader to learn the fundamental and applied aspects of practical cryostat design by examining previous design choices and resulting cryostat performance. Through a series of extended case studies the book presents an overview of existing cryostat design covering a wide range of cryostat types and applications, including the magnet cryostats that comprise the majority of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, space-borne cryostats containing sensors operating below 1 K, and large cryogenic liquid storage vessels. It starts with an introductory section on the principles of cryostat design including practical data and equations. This section is followed by a series of case studies on existing cryostats, describing the specific requirements of the cryostat, the challenges involved and the design choices made along with the resulting performance of the cryostat. The cryostat examples used in the studies are chosen to cover a broad range of cryostat applications and the authors of each case are ...

  7. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study interim design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-04-01

    The status of the design of a tenth-of-a-kind commercial tandem-mirror fusion reactor is described at the midpoint of a two-year study. When completed, the design is to serve as a strategic goal for the mirror fusion program. The main objectives of the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) are: (1) to design an attractive tandem-mirror fusion reactor producing electricity and synfuels (in alternate versions), (2) to identify key development and technology needs, and (3) to exploit the potential of fusion for safety, low activation, and simple disposal of radioactive waste. In the first year we have emphasized physics and engineering of the central cell and physics of the end cell. Design optimization and trade studies are continuing, and we expect additional modifications in the end cells to further improve the performance of the final design.

  8. Picturing Women: Gender, Images, and Representation in Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woyshner, Christine

    2006-01-01

    More than two decades ago, a well-known study pointed out that despite the marked increase in images of women in secondary history textbooks, the narrative emphasis on political, diplomatic, and military history had not changed. While this study raised awareness of gender balance in the social studies curriculum, little attention has been paid to…

  9. Women?s perceptions and experiences of the challenges in the process of male infertility treatment: A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Taghipour, Ali; Karimi, Fatemeh Zahra; Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad; Kimiaei, Seyed Ali; Mazlom, Seyed Reza; Amirian, Maliheh

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite the fact that both men and women are equally subject to infertility, it is usually women who bear the burden of treatment and its consequences, even in cases of male infertility. Therefore, it is more necessary to recognize their health problems in order to help them. Aim To explore women?s perceptions and experiences of the challenges they face in the process of male infertility treatment. Methods This qualitative study was conducted during 2014?2015 using content analysis...

  10. Use of complementary and alternative medicine among women in New York City: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Factor-Litvak, P; Cushman, L F; Kronenberg, F; Wade, C; Kalmuss, D

    2001-12-01

    This study documents the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), among White, African American, and Hispanic/Latina women living in New York City. A pilot to a national survey of CAM use among American women, this study explores women's use of categories of CAM and various CAM practitioners, racial and ethnic differences in CAM use, and women's perceptions regarding the effectiveness of CAM. DESIGN AND LOCATION: Data were collected from women residing in New York City using random digit dialing/computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI). The sample of 300 had equal numbers of women (n = 100) who self-identified as White, Hispanic/Latina, and African American, equally stratified by age (below and above age 40). Eligibility requirements included self-identification as Anglo/white, African American, or Hispanic/Latina and between ages 18 and 80. Three distinct categories of CAM were explored: (1) medicinal teas, homeopathic remedies, herbs, vitamins; (2) yoga, meditation, spiritual practices; and (3) manual therapies including chiropractic, massage, acupressure. Health concerns of interest were those frequently described in prior focus groups, and included reproductive health issues (e.g., pregnancy, menstruation, menopause) as well as other common women's health problems (e.g., heart disease, high blood pressure, headaches). More than half the sample has used a CAM treatment or remedy, and 40% have visited a CAM practitioner. Among users, half have used only one of the CAM categories, approximately one third have used two, and 16% used all three. The category of CAM used most often was medicinal tea/herbs/vitamins; the practitioners visited most frequently were chiropractors (18%) and nutritionists (17%). Racial and ethnic differences in CAM use were minimal, and approximately one third of all treatments used were rated "very effective" by users. Substantial utilization of CAM remedies and treatments for a variety of women's health concerns is

  11. Preconceptions influence women's perceptions of information on breast cancer screening: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Mikael Johannes Vuokko; Guassora, Ann Dorrit; Brodersen, John

    2015-09-03

    Screening for breast cancer has been subject to intense debate in recent decades regarding benefits and risks. Participation in breast cancer screening should be based on informed choice, and most countries approach this by sending information leaflets with invitations to attend screening. However, very little attention has been paid to the decision-making process and how the information leaflets are used and understood by women. The aim of this study is twofold. First, we use a theoretical framework to explore how the framing of information influences the intention to participate in breast cancer screening. Second, we discuss how information and attitudes held prior to receiving the invitation influence the perception of the balance between the benefits and risks harms of screening. We used a qualitative design and interviewed six women who were soon to receive their first invitation to participate in the breast screening programme in Denmark. The selected women received a copy of the official information leaflet 1 week before we interviewed them. The six women were interviewed individually using an interview guide based on the theory of planned behaviour. We used meaning condensation for our initial analysis, and further analysis was guided by the theory of cognitive dissonance. For our participants, the decision-making process was dominated by the attitudes of the women's circle of acquaintances and, to a lesser extent, by the information that accompanied the screening invitation. Information that conflicted with attitudes the women already held was actively disregarded. The risk of overdiagnosis as a potentially harmful effect of participation in mammography screening was unknown to the women in our study. An isolated framing effect was not found. Women have expectations about breast cancer screening that are formed before they receive information from the screening programme. These expectations compromise the perception of balance between screening benefits

  12. A Case Study in Acoustical Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, Bruce R.; Brown, John A.

    1992-01-01

    Addresses concerns of both facilities planners and instructional designers in planning for the audio component of group presentations. Factors in the architectural design of enclosures for the reproduction of sound are described, including frequency, amplitude, and reverberation; and a case study for creating an acceptable enclosure is presented.…

  13. Studying Design Engineers Use Of Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Restrepo-Giraldo, John Dairo

    2006-01-01

    Studying information usage by design engineers involves considering technical, social, cognitive and volitional factors. This makes it challenging, especially for researchers without a cognitive psychology background. This paper presents a summary of key findings in researching information use...... and processing in design, discusses important issues on the selection of a research strategy and sums up the important variables that need to be controlled for....

  14. Nuclear-Powered GPS Spacecraft Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raab, Bernard

    1977-05-01

    This is the final report of a study to investigate the potential benefits of a nuclear (radioisotope) - powered satellite for advanced phases of the Global Positioning System (GPS) program. The critical parameters were: power to user; mean mission duration; orbital predictability; thermal control of on-board frequency standards; and vulnerability. The reference design approach is described, and input data are given for two power systems that are under development: an organic Rankine system and a Brayton cycle system. Reference design details are provided and structural design and analysis are discussed, as well as thermal design and analysis. A higher altitude version is also considered.

  15. Flight Path Recovery System (FPRS) design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    The study contained herein presents a design for a Flight Path Recovery System (FPPS) for use in the NURE Program which will be more accurate than systems presently used, provide position location data in digital form suitable for automatic data processing, and provide for flight path recovery in a more economic and operationally suitable manner. The design is based upon the use of presently available hardware and technoloy, and presents little, it any, development risk. In addition, a Flight Test Plan designed to test the FPRS design concept is presented.

  16. Exploring Australian Aboriginal women's experiences of menopause: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgenson, Janelle R; Jones, Emma K; Haynes, Emma; Green, Charmaine; Thompson, Sandra C

    2014-03-20

    Despite extensive literature demonstrating differing experiences in menopause around the world, documentation of the experience of menopause in Australian Aboriginal women is scarce, and thus their menopausal experience is relatively unknown. This study aimed to understand Australian Aboriginal women's understanding and experience of menopause and its impact on their lives. The study was an exploratory qualitative study. Twenty-five Aboriginal women were recruited from a regional centre in the Mid-West region of Western Australia using opportunistic and snowballing sampling. Interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken from February 2011 to February 2012 using open-ended questioning with a yarning technique. Thematic analysis was undertaken of the transcribed interviews. A number of themes were revealed. These related to the language used, meanings and attitudes to menopause, symptoms experienced, the role of men, a lack of understanding, coping mechanisms and the attribution of menopausal changes to something else. The term "change of life" was more widely recognised and signified the process of ageing, and an associated gain of respect in the local community. A fear of menopausal symptoms or uncertainty about their origin was also common. Overall, many women reported insufficient understanding and a lack of available information to assist them and their family to understand the transition. There are similarities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal experiences of menopause, including similar symptom profiles. The current language used within mainstream health settings may not be appropriate to this population if it fails to recognise the importance of language and reflect the attributed meaning of menopause. The fear of symptoms and uncertainty of their relationship to menopause demonstrated a need for more information which has not adequately been supplied to Australian Aboriginal women through current services. While this study is with a select

  17. Insomnia Symptoms and HIV Infection among Participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Louis, Girardin; Weber, Kathleen M.; Aouizerat, Bradley E.; Levine, Alexandra M.; Maki, Pauline M.; Liu, Chenglong; Anastos, Kathryn M.; Milam, Joel; Althoff, Keri N.; Wilson, Tracey E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study assessed the prevalence of insomnia symptoms among women with and without HIV-infection and examined factors associated with insomnia. Design: Participants (n = 1682) were enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS); 69% were infected with HIV. This was a cross-sectional analysis of data from standardized interviewer-administered instruments and physical/gynecological exams. Analysis focused on sociodemographics, sleep measures, depressive symptoms, drug use, alcohol consumption, medications, and HIV-related clinical variables. Women were classified as having symptoms of insomnia if they reported either difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, or early morning awakening ≥ 3 times a week in the past 2 weeks. Results: Overall, HIV-infected women were 17% more likely to endorse insomnia symptoms than uninfected women (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.04-1.34, P Althoff KN; Wilson TE. Insomnia symptoms and HIV infection among participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. SLEEP 2012;35(1):131-137. PMID:22215927

  18. The Study of Statue of Women on Iranian Coins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Fathi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract By examining Iranian coins, this study investigates the statues of Iranian women and manner their presence from Achaemenid periods until Jalayerian era in Iran. The study deals with coins since they are regarded as the precious documents of history, culture, and art of every nation and state, and relatively less affected by physical corrosion. The general purpose of this research is to study the women statues in different periods of Iran with regard to the motifs and decorations as well as minted writing son the coins. Examined coins reveal that the presence of women on the coins changes depending on converting to Islam—as before and after Islam. The study concludes two different aspects whether before Islam and after Islam as follow: 1. Based on beliefs and faiths of those era with the goddesses' statues; 2. Based on political aspects of those era.

  19. Cost studies for commercial fuselage crown designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, T. H.; Smith, P. J.; Truslove, G.; Willden, K. S.; Metschan, S. L.; Pfahl, C. L.

    1991-01-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the cost and weight potential of advanced composite design concepts in the crown region of a commercial transport. Two designs from each of three design families were developed using an integrated design-build team. A range of design concepts and manufacturing processes were included to allow isolation and comparison of cost centers. Detailed manufacturing/assembly plans were developed as the basis for cost estimates. Each of the six designs was found to have advantages over the 1995 aluminum benchmark in cost and weight trade studies. Large quadrant panels and cobonded frames were found to save significant assembly labor costs. Comparisons of high- and intermediate-performance fiber systems were made for skin and stringer applications. Advanced tow placement was found to be an efficient process for skin lay up. Further analysis revealed attractive processes for stringers and frames. Optimized designs were informally developed for each design family, combining the most attractive concepts and processes within that family. A single optimized design was selected as the most promising, and the potential for further optimization was estimated. Technical issues and barriers were identified.

  20. Physiological Uterine Involution in Primiparous and Multiparous Women: Ultrasound Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Paliulyte

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine the uterine involution period after uncomplicated delivery in primiparous and multiparous women. Methods. Longitudinal prospective study. Repeated parameters were measured and endometrial contents and diastolic notch were observed. Measurements of primiparous and multiparous women were carried out after labour on the 1st, 3rd, 10th, 30th, 42nd, and 60th postpartum days. The analysis was performed using SPSS version 21. Results. The median uterus parameters are bigger in multiparous group in physiological puerperium, but the decreasing trend is the same. The endometrial cavity on the 10th day was significantly wider in multiparous women and mainly echo-negative view of the uterine cavity was observed. The evaluation of the uterine angle deviation changes from an extremely retroverted position to a more anteverted position. RI of the uterine artery in both groups was low immediately after labour and significantly increased one month postpartum. Notching of the uterine artery undergoes changes, but diastolic notch does not appear in all postpartum women even after two months following labour. Conclusions. The puerperium period after normal vaginal delivery depends on parity. The trend of involution in primiparous and multiparous women follows a similar pattern, yet, it lasts longer in the multiparous women. Ultrasound of uterine is certainly a useful tool after labour and may be important in facilitating an early detection of postpartum uterine complications.

  1. Systemic Design: Two Canadian Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Ryan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces two novel applications of systemic design to facilitate a comparison of alternative methodologies that integrate systems thinking and design. In the first case study, systemic design helped the Procurement Department at the University of Toronto re-envision how public policy is implemented and how value is created in the broader university purchasing ecosystem. This resulted in an estimated $1.5 million in savings in the first year, and a rise in user retention rates from 40% to 99%. In the second case study, systemic design helped the clean energy and natural resources group within the Government of Alberta to design a more efficient and effective resource management system and shift the way that natural resource departments work together. This resulted in the formation of a standing systemic design team and contributed to the creation of an integrated resource management system. A comparative analysis of the two projects identifies a shared set of core principles for systemic design as well as areas of differentiation that reveal potential for learning across methodologies. Together, these case studies demonstrate the complementarity of systems thinking and design thinking, and show how they may be integrated to guide positive change within complex sociotechnical systems.

  2. Sexual behavior of infertile women: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshid Bokaie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility makes an essential challenge to the sexual life of couples, especially infertile women. When pregnancy does not happen, infertile women think that sexual intercourse is not fruitful and sexual desire became reduce gradually. Infertile women progressively forget that their sexual relationship is also a response to their natural need. Objective: This qualitative study was conducted to explore the infertility consequences in the sexual behavior of infertile women. Materials and Methods: This was a qualitative content analysis study; and it was part of a widespread study, used a sequential mixed-method and conducted from August 2014 until February 2015. A purposeful sampling was used to recruit infertile women who had referred to Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility. Data gathering techniques employed in this research included in-depth semi structured open face-to-face interviews and field notes. Credibility, transferability, confirm ability, and dependability were assessed for the rigor of the data collection. Results: Totally, 15 infertile women and 8 key informants were interviewed. Data analysis showed four themes about impact of infertility on female sexual behavior: 1/ Impact of infertility drugs on couple sexual behavior, 2/ Impact of assisted reproductive technologies on female sexual behavior, 3/ Timed intercourse during infertility and 4/ The psychological impact of infertility on sexual behavior. Conclusion: Some of Iranian infertile women could cope with their problems, but some of them were very affected by infertility drugs and assisted reproductive technologies procedures. Psychosexual counseling before medical treatment could help them to have a better sexual life.

  3. Sexual behavior of infertile women: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokaie, Mahshid; Simbar, Masoumeh; Yassini Ardekani, Seyed Mojtaba

    2015-01-01

    Background: Infertility makes an essential challenge to the sexual life of couples, especially infertile women. When pregnancy does not happen, infertile women think that sexual intercourse is not fruitful and sexual desire became reduce gradually. Infertile women progressively forget that their sexual relationship is also a response to their natural need. Objective: This qualitative study was conducted to explore the infertility consequences in the sexual behavior of infertile women. Materials and Methods: This was a qualitative content analysis study; and it was part of a widespread study, used a sequential mixed-method and conducted from August 2014 until February 2015. A purposeful sampling was used to recruit infertile women who had referred to Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility. Data gathering techniques employed in this research included in-depth semi structured open face-to-face interviews and field notes. Credibility, transferability, confirm ability, and dependability were assessed for the rigor of the data collection. Results: Totally, 15 infertile women and 8 key informants were interviewed. Data analysis showed four themes about impact of infertility on female sexual behavior: 1/ Impact of infertility drugs on couple sexual behavior, 2/ Impact of assisted reproductive technologies on female sexual behavior, 3/ Timed intercourse during infertility and 4/ The psychological impact of infertility on sexual behavior. Conclusion: Some of Iranian infertile women could cope with their problems, but some of them were very affected by infertility drugs and assisted reproductive technologies procedures. Psychosexual counseling before medical treatment could help them to have a better sexual life. PMID:26644793

  4. Medication safety research by observational study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Kim S J; Chui, Celine S L; Man, Kenneth K C; Lau, Wallis C Y; Chan, Esther W; Wong, Ian C K

    2016-06-01

    Observational studies have been recognised to be essential for investigating the safety profile of medications. Numerous observational studies have been conducted on the platform of large population databases, which provide adequate sample size and follow-up length to detect infrequent and/or delayed clinical outcomes. Cohort and case-control are well-accepted traditional methodologies for hypothesis testing, while within-individual study designs are developing and evolving, addressing previous known methodological limitations to reduce confounding and bias. Respective examples of observational studies of different study designs using medical databases are shown. Methodology characteristics, study assumptions, strengths and weaknesses of each method are discussed in this review.

  5. Research Design in Marital Adjustment Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croake, James W.; Lyon, Rebecca S.

    1978-01-01

    The numerous marital adjustment studies which exist in the literature are confounded by basic design problems. Marital stability should be the baseline for data. It is then possible to discuss "happiness,""success,""adjustment," and "satisfaction." (Author)

  6. Design study: fishing vessel technical information system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Park, C.H

    1979-01-01

    ... out. This study is primarily concerned with the design of a Fishing Vessel Technical Information System that will meet the requirements of the Department, and the determination of a schedule and means of data collection and management.

  7. Progressive resistance training for community-dwelling women aged 90 or older; a single-subject experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idland, Gro; Sylliaas, Hilde; Mengshoel, Anne Marit; Pettersen, Renate; Bergland, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    To examine the effect and feasibility of a 12-week programme of progressive resistance exercise on a group of nonagenarian (≥90 years) community-dwelling women. An A-B single-subject experimental design was applied. Visual analyses were used for estimating the effect of the intervention. Outcome measurements were: Timed Up and Go (TUG), comfortable walking speed and 30-s chair stands. The programme comprised four exercises, following the principle of overload, aiming at improving strength in the main muscle groups. Feasibility of the progressive resistance intervention was assessed by recording the recruitment of participants, adherence to the intervention and adverse events. Twenty-seven women were invited; eight women aged 90 and above agreed to participate and six completed the study. They suffered from one to 10 chronic medical conditions. All improved their performance in the TUG test. Five of the six participants achieved a higher walking speed (11-59%) and four of them improved on the 30-s chair-stand test with five to 10 stands. No major adverse events were reported. Progressive resistance training was a safe and efficient method to enhance mobility and increase lower body strength in this heterogeneous group of nonagenarian community-dwelling women. Progressive resistance (PRT) training was found to be a safe and efficient method to enhance mobility and increase lower body strength in a group of community-dwelling women 90+. Participants with the poorest initial functional performance had great benefits, and the improvements appeared already after a few weeks of PRT. PRT might be useful in the rehabilitation field and could be implemented in facilities such as day care and senior centres frequented by very old persons with mobility limitations.

  8. Design of the sex hormones and physical exercise (SHAPE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeters Petra HM

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity has been associated with a decreased risk for breast cancer. The biological mechanismn(s underlying the association between physical activity and breast cancer is not clear. Most prominent hypothesis is that physical activity may protect against breast cancer through reduced lifetime exposure to endogenous hormones either direct, or indirect by preventing overweight and abdominal adiposity. In order to get more insight in the causal pathway between physical activity and breast cancer risk, we designed the Sex Hormones and Physical Exercise (SHAPE study. Purpose of SHAPE study is to examine the effects of a 1-year moderate-to-vigorous intensity exercise programme on endogenous hormone levels associated with breast cancer among sedentary postmenopausal women and whether the amount of total body fat or abdominal fat mediates the effects. Methods/Design In the SHAPE study, 189 sedentary postmenopausal women, aged 50–69 years, are randomly allocated to an intervention or a control group. The intervention consists of an 1-year moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic and strenght training exercise programme. Partcipants allocated to the control group are requested to retain their habitual exercise pattern. Primary study parameters measured at baseline, at four months and at 12 months are: serum concentrations of endogenous estrogens, endogenous androgens, sex hormone binding globuline and insuline. Other study parameters include: amount of total and abdominal fat, weight, BMI, body fat distribution, physical fitness, blood pressure and lifestyle factors. Discussion This study will contribute to the body of evidence relating physical activity and breast cancer risk and will provide insight into possible mechanisms through which physical activity might be associated with reduced risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Trial registration NCT00359060

  9. Design rationalization and the logic of design: a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    1996-01-01

    This is a study of the reasoning involved in justifying a decision chain from a given design brief (of an architectural competition on site planning) to a given solution (the winning entry). A logical method of analysis is presented and applied to the case data; the resulting findings include...... various ‘sources of credibility’ of premises, items of general background knowledge, and several (abductive and deductive) patterns of inference which suggest a possible ‘logic of design’. Rationalization of decisions is defined, and many decisions are found not to be fully rationalized, despite...

  10. Abused women's experiences of a primary care identification and referral intervention: a case study analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Clark, Maria; Taylor, Julie

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to report the findings of a qualitative case study that investigated abused women's experiences of an identification and referral intervention and to discuss the implications for nurses, specifically those working in primary and community care. Domestic violence and abuse is a significant public health issue globally but it is a hidden problem that is under-reported. In the UK, Identification and Referral to Improve Safety is a primary care-based intervention that has been found to increase referral rates of abused women to support and safety services. This paper reports on the findings of an evaluation study of two sites in England. Qualitative study with a case study design. In line with case study design, the entire evaluation study employed multiple data collection methods. We report on the qualitative interviews with women referred through the programme. The aim was to elicit their experiences of the three aspects of the intervention: identification; referral; safety. Data collection took place March 2016. Ten women took part. Eight had exited the abusive relationship but two remained with the partner who had perpetrated the abuse. Women were overwhelmingly positive about the programme and irrespective of whether they had remained or exited the relationship all reported perceptions of increased safety and improved health. Nurses have an important role to play in identifying domestic violence and abuse and in referral and safety planning. As part of a portfolio of domestic violence and abuse interventions, those that empower women to take control of their safety (such as Identification and Referral to Improve Safety) are important. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Assisted reproductive technology treatments and quality of life: a longitudinal study among subfertile women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Francesca; Monti, Fiorella; Andrei, Federica; Paterlini, Marcella; Palomba, Stefano; La Sala, Giovanni Battista

    2017-10-01

    Quality of life (QoL) may represent a comprehensive indicator for the assessment of the psychological impact of complex clinical conditions, such as infertility. Infertile women have a worse QoL compared to both infertile men and non-infertile controls. However, the initial phases of infertility treatments have been frequently investigated using cross-sectional study designs. This prospective longitudinal study aimed at assessing the health-related QoL change across different phases of assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments in subfertile women and men. Eighty-five subfertile women and men undergoing ART cycles were assessed at the beginning of the ovarian stimulation, during oocyte retrieval before discharging, and around 14 days after the embryo transfer. QoL was assessed through the Short Form 36. Irrespective of the cause of infertility, work status, and age, QoL levels decreased from the first to the third assessment, and women scored significantly lower than men to each QoL indicator. Additionally, a higher number of previous ART failures had a negative impact on QoL, irrespective of gender and the phase of treatment. ART outcome marginally affected women's QoL across time. Infertile women have a worse QoL throughout all phases of ARTs compared to men, and this difference increases in infertile patients with more than one previous ART failure.

  12. Community water fluoridation, bone mineral density, and fractures: prospective study of effects in older women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Kathy R; Orwoll, Eric S; Mason, Jill D; Cauley, Jane A

    2000-01-01

    Objective To determine whether fluoridation influences bone mineral density and fractures in older women. Design Multicentre prospective study on risk factors for osteoporosis and fractures. Setting Four community based centres in the United States. Participants 9704 ambulatory women without bilateral hip replacements enrolled during 1986-8; 7129 provided information on exposure to fluoride. Main outcome measures Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, radius, and calcaneus plus incident fractures (fractures that occurred during the study) of vertebrae, hip, wrist, and humerus. Results Women were classified as exposed or not exposed or having unknown exposure to fluoride for each year from 1950 to 1994. Outcomes were compared in women with continuous exposure to fluoridated water for the past 20 years (n=3218) and women with no exposure during the past 20 years (n=2563). In women with continuous exposure mean bone mineral density was 2.6% higher at the femoral neck (0.017 g/cm2, Pfluoridated drinking water does not increase the risk of fracture. PMID:11021862

  13. Looking At: Future Studies, Legal Education, Women's Studies, Mini-Courses, Global Studies, School Ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse for Social Studies/Social Science Education, Boulder, CO.

    Six issues of a current awareness bulletin published occasionally by the ERIC Clearinghouse for Social Studies are combined in this document. The various issues, written in 1973 and 1974, deal with emerging topics of interest in future studies, legal education, womens studies, minicourses, global studies, and school ethnography. Each four page…

  14. A neuromuscular test battery for osteoporotic women: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerschan-Schindl, K; Uher, E; Grampp, S; Kaider, A; Ghanem, A H; Fialka-Moser, V; Preisinger, E

    2001-05-01

    To examine the efficacy of a short neuromuscular test battery in elderly women suffering from osteoporosis in accordance with the World Health Organization criteria, with and without a history of fractures. Reduced bone mass and a high likelihood of falling increase the risk of osteoporotic fractures. There is a need for neuromuscular tests to identify individuals at risk for falls and fractures. The women were assessed twice. Forty-two women, with a mean age of 70.0 +/- 5.1 (SD) yr, completed the first assessment. The number of postmenopausal fractures and the women's history with regard to agility and falls were assessed. The women performed neuromuscular tests (one-leg stance, tandem walk, and body sway); bone mineral density of the spine and femoral neck were measured. For the follow-up assessment, 13.2 +/- 1.3 mo later, 39 women were studied. The same outcome measurements were obtained at both evaluations. During the observation period, five women fell once and one woman fell twice; there were only two vertebral fractures and no nonvertebral fracture. Neuromuscular performance did not change during this observation period. The median changes in bone mineral density between the two assessments were clinically not relevant. A comparison between patients suffering from established osteoporosis and osteoporotic patients without a history of postmenopausal fractures showed that both groups of patients did not differ with respect to age, neuromuscular performance, bone mineral density, and fear of falling. This neuromuscular test battery is a feasible and practical tool because it is brief and economical to perform. However, its efficacy as a predictor of fractures must be tested in additional studies with a long-term follow-up and a larger group of subjects.

  15. African American Women's Sexual Objectification Experiences: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Laurel B.; Robinson, Dawn; Dispenza, Franco; Nazari, Negar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate African American women's experiences with sexual objectification. Utilizing grounded theory methodology as well as Black feminist thought and objectification theory as the research lenses, the results of this study uncovered how racist, sexist, and classist ideologies contributed to sexual…

  16. Frailty and Fracture, Disability, and Falls: A Multiple Country Study from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Sarah E.; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Anderson, Frederick A.; Boonen, Steven; Chapurlat, Roland D.; Compston, Juliet E.; Cooper, Cyrus; Gehlbach, Stephen H.; Greenspan, Susan L.; Hooven, Frederick H.; Nieves, Jeri W.; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Roux, Christian; Silverman, Stuart; Wyman, Allison; LaCroix, Andrea Z.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To test whether women age ≥ 55 years with increasing evidence of a frailty phenotype would have greater risk of fractures, disability, and recurrent falls, compared with women who were not frail, across geographic areas (Australia, Europe, and North America) and age groups. Design Multinational, longitudinal, observational cohort study. Setting The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW). Participants Women (n=48,636) age ≥ 55 years enrolled at sites in Australia, Europe, and North America. Measurements Components of frailty (slowness/weakness, poor endurance/exhaustion, physical activity, and unintentional weight loss) at baseline and report of fracture, disability, and recurrent falls at 1 year of follow-up were investigated. Women also reported health and demographic characteristics at baseline. Results Among those age < 75 years, women from the United States were more likely to be prefrail and frail than women from Australia/Canada, and Europe. The distribution of frailty was similar by region for women age ≥ 75 years. Odds ratios from multivariable models for frailty versus non frailty were 1.23 (95% CI = 1.07–1.42) for fracture, 2.29 (95% CI = 2.09–2.51) for disability, and 1.68 (95% CI = 1.54–1.83) for recurrent falls. The associations for pre-frailty versus non frailty were weaker but still indicated statistically significant increased risk for each outcome. Overall, associations between frailty status and each outcome were similar across age and geographic region. Conclusion Increased evidence of a frailty phenotype is associated with increased risk for fracture, disability, and falls among women age ≥ 55 years in 10 countries, with similar patterns across age and geographic region. PMID:23351064

  17. Interactive design computation : A case study on quantum design paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, H.

    2013-01-01

    The ever-increasing complexity of design processes fosters novel design computation models to be employed in architectural research and design in order to facilitate accurate data processing and refined decision making. These computation models have enabled designers to work with complex geometry

  18. EVOLUTION--taking charge and growing stronger: the design, acceptability, and feasibility of a secondary prevention empowerment intervention for young women living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Jennifer; Harper, Gary W; Fernandez, M Isabel; Hosek, Sybil G

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, youth of 13-24 years account for nearly a quarter of all new HIV infections, with almost 1000 young men and women being infected per month. Young women account for 20% of those new infections.This article describes the design, feasibility, and acceptability of a secondary prevention empowerment intervention for young women living with HIV entitled Young Women Taking Charge and Growing Stronger. The nine session intervention aimed to reduce secondary transmission by enhancing social and behavioral skills and knowledge pertaining to young women's physical, social, emotional, and sexual well-being,while addressing the moderating factors such as sexual inequality and power imbalances. Process evaluation data suggest that EVOLUTION is a highly acceptable and feasible intervention for young women living with HIV. Participants reported enjoying both the structure and comprehensive nature of the intervention. Both participants and interventionists reported that the intervention was highly relevant to the lives of young women living with HIV since it not only provided opportunities for them to broaden their knowledge and risk reduction skills in HIV, but it also addressed important areas that impact their daily lives such as stressors, relationships,and their emotional and social well-being. Thus, this study demonstrates that providing a gender-specific,comprehensive group-based empowerment intervention for young women living with HIV appears to be both feasible and acceptable.

  19. International Active Surveillance Study of Women Taking Oral Contraceptives (INAS-OC Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assmann Anita

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A 24-day regimen of contraceptive doses of drospirenone and ethinylestradiol (DRSP/EE 24d was recently launched. This regimen has properties which may be beneficial for certain user populations (e.g., women suffering from premenstrual dysphoric disorder or acne. However, it is unknown whether this extended regimen has an impact on the cardiovascular risk associated with the use of oral contraceptives (OCs. The INternational Active Surveillance study of women taking Oral Contraceptives (INAS-OC is designed to investigate the short- and long-term safety of the new regimen in a population which is representative for the typical user of oral contraceptives. Methods/Design A large, prospective, controlled, non-interventional, long-term cohort study with active surveillance of the study participants has been chosen to ensure reliable and valid results. More than 2,000 gynecologists in the US and 5 European countries (Austria, Germany, Italy, Poland, and Sweden will recruit more than 80,000 OC users. The two to five year follow-up of these women will result in at least 220,000 documented women-years. The main clinical outcomes of interest for the follow-up are deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, acute myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular accidents. Secondary objectives are general safety, effectiveness and drug utilization pattern of DRSP/EE 24d, return to fertility after stop of OC use, as well as the baseline risk for users of individual OC formulations. Because of the non-interference character of this study, potential participants (first-time users or switchers are informed about the study only after the decision regarding prescription of a new OC. There are no specific medical inclusion or exclusion criteria. Study participation is voluntary and a written informed consent is required. After the baseline questionnaire, follow-up questionnaires will be mailed to the participants every 6 months for up to 5 years after

  20. Bone mineral density in midlife women: the Study of Women's Health in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, L M; Bener, A; Al-Ali, H M; Hammoudeh, M; Liu, L Q; Verjee, M

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate bone mineral density (BMD) for a large cross-section of midlife Arab women living in Qatar and to evaluate the association of body mass index (BMI), menopause status, and nationality, on BMD of the spine and femur. A cross-sectional study was conducted among women aged 40-60 years recruited from nine primary-care health centers in Qatar. BMD (g/m(2)) was assessed at the lumbar spine and the femur. The combined prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis was 4% at the femur and 16.2% at the spine. BMI and menstrual status were both independently associated with BMD at the spine and at the femur (all p values BMD increased at both the spine and femur. Women who menstruated in the past 12 months had 0.82 g/cm(2) and 0.61 g/cm(2) greater BMD at the spine and femur, respectively, compared with women who had not menstruated in 12 months. Nationality was not associated with mean BMD of the spine or the femur. No significant differences were observed between Qatari and non-Qatari women in terms of mean BMD values at the spine and the femur except for the femur in the age group 55-60, where values were lower among non-Qataris (p = 0.04). Multivariable analyses showed that BMI and menstrual status were found to be strongly associated with BMD levels at the spine and femur. The high prevalence of obesity observed in this sample may explain the low levels of osteopenia and osteoporosis observed.

  1. Rhetorical Design Studies: The Art of Making Design Choices Explicit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halstrøm, Per L.

    2017-01-01

    Design has the potential to affect the situations we are in, the choices we make and the beliefs we live by. Being such an affective field, one might expect that canonized design thinking models and methods would be much concerned with how designers can discover arguments for their design choices...... in the situations they intend to address by design rather than first and foremost thinking of a problem to solve. In area two, the designers look through the available means of amplification. The purpose of this is to discover ideas for making the design solution as persuasive as possible. In area three....... However, these are predominantly concerned with the phases to go through in a design process and the steps to take rather than informing design practitioners of how to explore their arguments of why. Concepts and theories from rhetoric are employed here to explain how designers can develop a process where...

  2. Women's Perceptions of Usefulness and Ease of Use of Four Healthy Eating Blog Characteristics: A Qualitative Study of 33 French-Canadian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissonnette-Maheux, Véronique; Dumas, Audrée-Anne; Provencher, Véronique; Lapointe, Annie; Dugrenier, Marilyn; Straus, Sharon; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Desroches, Sophie

    2017-10-26

    Healthy eating blogs are knowledge translation tools used by nutrition and dietetics practitioners for helping people improve their health behaviors and food choices. Our aim was to explore women's perceptions of the usefulness and ease of use of healthy eating blog (HEB) characteristics that might increase potential users' intention to use them as tools to improve their dietary habits. We conducted qualitative research using semi-structured individual interviews. Thirty-three women (mean age of 44 years; range=27 to 61 years) living in the Quebec City, Canada, metropolitan area were studied. Four existing HEBs, written by French-Canadian registered dietitians (RDs) whose main objective was the promotion of a healthy diet, were explored by women during individual interviews. A standardized open-ended interview questionnaire based on the Technology Acceptance Model was used to identify women's perceptions about characteristics of type of blog content delivery, RD blogger's delivery of information, blog layout, and blog design. Women's perceptions toward the contribution of HEB characteristics to the usefulness and ease of use of those tools to improve their dietary habits were measured. Interviews were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, coded, and analyzed through an inductive content analysis using NVivo software. The most useful characteristics of type of blog content delivery identified by women were recipes, hyperlinks, and references. Among characteristics of RD blogger's delivery of information, most women reported that interaction between blog readers and the RD blogger created a sense of proximity and of connection that was helpful for improving their dietary behaviors. Women's perceptions toward various characteristics of blog layout and design were also discussed. Incorporating specific characteristics when designing HEBs should be considered by RDs and future research to promote the use of those tools to support dietary behavior change efforts of

  3. Sexual behaviour of women in rural South Africa: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Henk Dubbink

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual behaviour is a core determinant of the HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI epidemics in women living in rural South Africa. Knowledge of sexual behaviour in these areas is limited, but constitutes essential information for a combination prevention approach of behavioural change and biomedical interventions. Methods This descriptive study was conducted in rural Mopani District, South Africa, as part of a larger study on STI. Women of reproductive age (18–49 years who reported sexual activity were included regardless of the reason for visiting the facility. Questionnaires were administered to 570 women. We report sexual behaviour by age group, ethnic group and self-reported HIV status. Results Young women (34 years; there was no difference for condom use during last sex act (36 % overall. Sotho women were more likely to report concurrent sexual partners whereas Shangaan women reported more frequent intravaginal cleansing and vaginal scarring practice in our analysis. HIV-infected women were older, had a higher number of lifetime sexual partners, reported more frequent condom use during the last sex act and were more likely to have a known HIV-infected partner than women without HIV infection; hormonal contraceptive use, fellatio, and a circumcised partner were less often reported. Conclusions This study provides insight into women’s sexual behaviour in a rural South African region. There are important differences in sexual behaviour by age group and ethnicity and HIV status; these should be taken into account when designing tailor-made prevention packages.

  4. Postpartum haemorrhage in nulliparous women: incidence and risk factors in low and high risk women. A Dutch population-based cohort study on standard (> or = 500 ml) and severe (> or = 1000 ml) postpartum haemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bais, Joke M. J.; Eskes, Martine; Pel, Maria; Bonsel, Gouke J.; Bleker, Otto P.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence and risk factors for standard and severe postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) in vaginally delivering nulliparous women, before and after risk stratification. STUDY DESIGN: A population-based cohort study in an unselected cohort nulliparous women (N = 3464) in 'The

  5. Rapidly exchangeable pool study of zinc in free-living or institutionalized elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Patrice; Ducros, Véronique; Couzy, François; Favier, Alain; Ferry, Monique

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of age and institutionalization on zinc metabolism by using a stable isotope technique. This was a randomized case-control study. Three groups were recruited: nine young women (group 1, ages 36+/-1 y) as controls, nine free-living elderly women (group 2, ages 72+/-2 y), and nine institutionalized women (group 3, ages 73+/-2 y). Only women were recruited to obtain homogeneous groups. The study was set in a Valence hospital (France) in the geriatric department (headed by Dr. Ferry). The experimental design of the study was reviewed and approved by the local ethical committee, and all participants signed a consent form. No subject dropped out of the study. A zinc stable isotope label (0.73 mg of (70)Zn) was injected intravenously into patients and measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Decay curves of the plasma (70)Zn followed a one-compartment kinetic leading to the determination of one pool. The size of this pool suggested that it corresponded to the liver compartment. The size of this pool was significantly smaller in elderly people. (70)Zn plasma resident time was significantly longer in elderly individuals, and shorter in institutionalized than in free-living elderly subjects. These data suggest that the zinc metabolism of elderly women is related to lifestyle or its consequences and to age. Moreover, we have demonstrated that kinetic studies using stable isotopes of zinc can provide novel information on exchangeable zinc pools in clinical situations.

  6. Design Considerations for Artificial Pancreas Pivotal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Steven J; Beck, Roy W

    2016-07-01

    The development of artificial pancreas systems has evolved to the point that pivotal studies designed to assess efficacy and safety are in progress or soon to be initiated. These pivotal studies are intended to provide the necessary data to gain clearance from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, coverage by payers, and adoption by patients and clinicians. Although there will not be one design that is appropriate for every system, there are certain aspects of protocol design that will be considerations in all pivotal studies designed to assess efficacy and safety. One key aspect of study design is the intervention to be used by the control group. A case can be made that the control group should use the currently available best technology, which is sensor-augmented pump therapy. However, an equally, if not more, compelling case can be made that the control intervention should be usual care. In this Perspective, we elaborate on this issue and provide a pragmatic approach to the design of clinical trials of artificial pancreas systems. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  7. Barriers to employability among substance dependent and nonsubstance-affected women on federal welfare: implications for program design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Jon; McCrady, Barbara S; Blanchard, Kimberly A; McVeigh, Katharine H; Riordan, Annette; Irwin, Thomas W

    2003-03-01

    This study examined barriers to employability among women meeting criteria for a substance dependence disorder who were identified by routine screening conducted in welfare offices. The characteristics of these women were compared to other women on welfare who did not have a substance use disorder. A sample of 214 substance dependent women on federal welfare were recruited to participate in a substance use disorders welfare demonstration project. An additional 69 nonsubstance-affected women on welfare served as a comparison sample. All participants were assessed in welfare settings through a standardized battery of measures. Substance dependent women reported moderate to severe substance use problems. They also reported significantly higher rates than the women with no substance use disorder of other barriers such as domestic violence, mental health problems, legal problems, child welfare investigations and fewer job skills. Findings raise questions about the likely effectiveness of existing welfare reform services in addressing the needs of substance dependent women.

  8. Engineering study for ISSTRS design concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzel, J.S.

    1997-01-31

    Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., is pleased to transmit the attached Conceptual Design Package for the Initial Single Shell Tank Retrieval System (ISSTRS), 90% Conceptual Design Review. The package includes the following: (1) ISSTRS Trade Studies: (a) Retrieval Facility Cooling Requirements; (b) Equipment Re-usability between Project W-320 and Tanks 241-C-103 and 241-C-1 05; (c) Sluice Line Options; and (d) Options for the Location of Tanks AX-103 and A-1 02 HVAC Equipment; (2) Drawings; (3) Risk Management Plan; (4) 0850 Interface Control Document; (5) Requirements Traceability Report; and (6) Project Design Specification.

  9. Controlled air incinerator conceptual design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This report presents a conceptual design study for a controlled air incinerator facility for incineration of low level combustible waste at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2). The facility design is based on the use of a Helix Process Systems controlled air incinerator. Cost estimates and associated engineering, procurement, and construction schedules are also provided. The cost estimates and schedules are presented for two incinerator facility designs, one with provisions for waste ash solidification, the other with provisions for packaging the waste ash for transport to an undefined location.

  10. Generic turbine design study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of Task 12, Generic Turbine Design Study was to develop a conceptual design of a combustion turbine system that would perform in a pressurized fluidized bed combustor (PFBC) application. A single inlet/outlet casing design that modifies the W251B12 combustion turbine to provide compressed air to the PFBC and accept clean hot air from the PFBC was developed. Performance calculations show that the net power output expected, at an inlet temperature of 59{degrees}F, is 20,250 kW.

  11. Dynamics Governing Women's Decision on Reproductive Health Matters: Reflections from a Qualitative Study in Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somen Saha

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the major challenges of Reproductive and Child Health Programme in India is addressing the barriers in communication and improve dialogue between diverse stakeholders, particularly women in the community. Through a qualitative study conducted in one of the rural districts of India, it was attempted to understand the factors affecting women's decision-making process. It is observed that most of the factors are affected by strong intrinsic environment and hence it becomes important for programme managers to understand the environment first in order to design an acceptable and effective communication strategy. In this study, knowledge, tradition, stigma and accessibility of services are identified as the key primary factors affecting decision making of women in the community, particularly on their health related issues. These in turn are governed by various supporting factors. Finally, it is observed that communication strategies can achieve their desired objective only when the local intrinsic environment is taken into cognisance.

  12. Physical activity correlates in young women with depressive symptoms: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleland Verity J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young women are at high risk for developing depression and participation in physical activity may prevent or treat the disorder. However, the influences on physical activity behaviors of young women with depression are not well understood. The aim of this study was to gather in-depth information about the correlates of physical activity among young women with and without depressive symptoms. Methods A sample of 40 young women (aged 18-30 years, 20 with depressive symptoms (assessed using the CES-D 10 and 20 without depressive symptoms participated in one-on-one semi-structured interviews. A social-ecological framework was used, focusing on the individual, social and physical environmental influences on physical activity. Thematic analyses were performed on transcribed interview data. Results The results indicated several key themes that were unique to women with depressive symptoms. These women more often described negative physical activity experiences during their youth, more barriers to physical activity, participating in more spontaneous than planned activity, lower self-efficacy for physical activity and being influenced by their friends' and family's inactivity. Conclusions Interventions designed to promote physical activity in this important target group should consider strategies to reduce/overcome early life negative experiences, engage support from family and friends and plan for activity in advance.

  13. Objects of temporary contraception: an exploratory study of women's perspectives in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvi, Kamyla; Howard, Natasha

    2013-08-01

    To explore perspectives of three modern contraceptive objects, using an emic approach, among women in a low-income community in Karachi, Pakistan. A qualitative interview study design was employed, using qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach and manual thematic coding. Shah Faisal Colony, Karachi. 20 women, potential contraceptive users of reproductive age and living within a health centre catchment, were purposively selected to provide a similar number of non-users (n=5), contraceptive injection users (n=7), pill users (n=4), and intrauterine device users (n=4). One interview was excluded because it was not recorded. No other exclusion criteria were used. The primary outcome was interpretation of potency and effects of selected family planning objects. Secondary outcome measures were knowledge of family planning and description of therapeutic approaches used and preferred. Awareness of family planning was high. Women described different therapeutic approaches, stating they generally preferred modern medicine for contraception as it was fastest and most powerful. They reported that fear of some contraceptive objects, particularly injections and intrauterine contraceptive devices, influenced their choices. Women explained their perceptions of how the heating effects of contraceptives could cause unwanted side effects including menstrual irregularities, weight gain and weakness, leading to disease. Most women wanted family planning, but remained dissatisfied with the available contraceptives and their effects. While women reported that they relied on modern medicine for contraception, their descriptions of how contraceptives affected their health relied on the hot-cold explanatory idiom of traditional medicine.

  14. Hispanic women overcoming deterrents to computer science: A phenomenological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herling, Lourdes

    The products of computer science are important to all aspects of society and are tools in the solution of the world's problems. It is, therefore, troubling that the United States faces a shortage in qualified graduates in computer science. The number of women and minorities in computer science is significantly lower than the percentage of the U.S. population which they represent. The overall enrollment in computer science programs has continued to decline with the enrollment of women declining at a higher rate than that of men. This study addressed three aspects of underrepresentation about which there has been little previous research: addressing computing disciplines specifically rather than embedding them within the STEM disciplines, what attracts women and minorities to computer science, and addressing the issues of race/ethnicity and gender in conjunction rather than in isolation. Since women of underrepresented ethnicities are more severely underrepresented than women in general, it is important to consider whether race and ethnicity play a role in addition to gender as has been suggested by previous research. Therefore, this study examined what attracted Hispanic women to computer science specifically. The study determines whether being subjected to multiple marginalizations---female and Hispanic---played a role in the experiences of Hispanic women currently in computer science. The study found five emergent themes within the experiences of Hispanic women in computer science. Encouragement and role models strongly influenced not only the participants' choice to major in the field, but to persist as well. Most of the participants experienced a negative atmosphere and feelings of not fitting in while in college and industry. The interdisciplinary nature of computer science was the most common aspect that attracted the participants to computer science. The aptitudes participants commonly believed are needed for success in computer science are the Twenty

  15. Conceptual study of advanced PWR core design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin; Chang, Moon Hee; Kim, Keung Ku; Joo, Hyung Kuk; Kim, Young Il; Noh, Jae Man; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Kim, Taek Kyum; Yoo, Yon Jong

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this project is for developing and verifying the core design concepts with enhanced safety and economy, and associated methodologies for core analyses. From the study of the sate-of-art of foreign advanced reactor cores, we developed core concepts such as soluble boron free, high convertible and enhanced safety core loaded semi-tight lattice hexagonal fuel assemblies. To analyze this hexagonal core, we have developed and verified some neutronic and T/H analysis methodologies. HELIOS code was adopted as the assembly code and HEXFEM code was developed for hexagonal core analysis. Based on experimental data in hexagonal lattices and the COBRA-IV-I code, we developed a thermal-hydraulic analysis code for hexagonal lattices. Using the core analysis code systems developed in this project, we designed a 600 MWe core and studied the feasibility of the core concepts. Two additional scopes were performed in this project : study on the operational strategies of soluble boron free core and conceptual design of large scale passive core. By using the axial BP zoning concept and suitable design of control rods, this project showed that it was possible to design a soluble boron free core in 600 MWe PWR. The results of large scale core design showed that passive concepts and daily load follow operation could be practiced. (author). 15 refs., 52 tabs., 101 figs.

  16. Women's Access to Higher Education in Tanzania: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Megan Patricia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal the ways in which first-generation women in Tanzania explained their success in pursuing a university education despite cultural and social obstacles. Such obstacles include social policies, socio-cultural factors, and academic factors. A review of the literature revealed that issues such as patriarchy,…

  17. institutionalising gender and women's studies at the university

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Keywords: Ghana, Gender centre, Institutionalizing gender, Advocacy, Women's studies & Gender sensitization. Introduction .... struggle for setting a distinctive African identity to provide answers to critical questions of nation building. This mission was ..... Editorial: "Rethinking Universities II": Feminist Africa (9), 1-4. Britwum ...

  18. The Study of Women Scientists/Engineers in Academe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Clare; And Others

    Academic employment and graduate enrollment trends of women scientists/engineers in eight scientific fields were studied, and the dynamics of their occupational choice and career stability were assessed. The eight fields were engineering, physical sciences, environmental sciences, medical sciences, psychology, and social sciences. The principal…

  19. HIV-prevention studies: Educate smarter, boost women's earning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two pilot studies that have been teaching income- building, communication and relationship skills to men and women in 3 informal settlements around Durban have nearly tripled participants' earnings, and dramatically reduced intimate partner violence (IPV). The test probes could form the basis of an ambitious bid.

  20. A STUDY OF THE ASPIRATIONS OF MARRIED WOMEN COLLEGE GRADUATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LYON, RHEE

    THE PURPOSES OF THIS STUDY WERE TO DETERMINE WHAT HAPPENS TO CAREER AMBITIONS AFTER THE COLLEGE GIRL MARRIES, WHETHER INTERESTS AND AMBITIONS CHANGE IN SPECIFIC DIRECTIONS DURING MARRIAGE, AND IN WHAT WAYS MARRIED WOMEN WITH CAREER AMBITIONS DIFFER FROM THOSE WITH NONE. RESPONDENTS TO A FORCED-CHOICE QUESTIONNAIRE WERE 310 MEMBERS OF THE AMERICAN…

  1. Venue-based recruitment of women at elevated risk for HIV: an HIV Prevention Trials Network study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Danielle F; Golin, Carol; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Hughes, James P; Wang, Jing; Roman Isler, Malika; Mannheimer, Sharon; Kuo, Irene; Lucas, Jonathan; DiNenno, Elizabeth; Justman, Jessica; Frew, Paula M; Emel, Lynda; Rompalo, Anne; Polk, Sarah; Adimora, Adaora A; Rodriquez, Lorenna; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Hodder, Sally

    2014-06-01

    The challenge of identifying and recruiting U.S. women at elevated risk for HIV acquisition impedes prevention studies and services. HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 064 was a U.S. multisite, longitudinal cohort study designed to estimate HIV incidence among women living in communities with prevalent HIV and poverty. Venue-based sampling (VBS) methodologies and participant and venue characteristics are described. Eligible women were recruited from 10 U.S. communities with prevalent HIV and poverty using VBS. Participant eligibility criteria included age 18-44 years, residing in a designated census tract/zip code, and self-report of at least one high-risk personal and/or male sexual partner characteristic associated with HIV acquisition (e.g., incarceration history). Ethnography was conducted to finalize recruitment areas and venues. Eight thousand twenty-nine women were screened and 2,099 women were enrolled (88% black, median age 29 years) over 14 months. The majority of participants were recruited from outdoor venues (58%), retail spaces (18%), and social service organizations (13%). The proportion of women recruited per venue category varied by site. Most participants (73%) had both individual and partner characteristics that qualified them for the study; 14% were eligible based on partner risk only. VBS is a feasible and effective approach to rapidly recruit a population of women at enhanced risk for HIV in the United States. Such a recruitment approach is needed in order to engage women most at risk and requires strong community engagement.

  2. Randomized clinical trial of multimodal physiotherapy treatment compared to overnight lidocaine ointment in women with provoked vestibulodynia: Design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Mélanie; Dumoulin, Chantale; Bergeron, Sophie; Mayrand, Marie-Hélène; Khalifé, Samir; Waddell, Guy; Dubois, Marie-France

    2016-01-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a highly prevalent and debilitating condition yet its management relies mainly on non-empirically validated interventions. Among the many causes of PVD, there is growing evidence that pelvic floor muscle (PFM) dysfunctions play an important role in its pathophysiology. Multimodal physiotherapy, which addresses these dysfunctions, is judged by experts to be highly effective and is recommended as a first-line treatment. However, the effectiveness of this promising intervention has been evaluated through only two small uncontrolled trials. The proposed bi-center, single-blind, parallel group, randomized controlled trial (RCT) aims to evaluate the efficacy of multimodal physiotherapy and compare it to a frequently used first-line treatment, topical overnight application of lidocaine, in women with PVD. A total of 212 women diagnosed with PVD according to a standardized protocol were eligible for the study and were randomly assigned to either multimodal physiotherapy or lidocaine treatment for 10weeks. The primary outcome measure is pain during intercourse (assessed with a numerical rating scale). Secondary measures include sexual function, pain quality, psychological factors (including pain catastrophizing, anxiety, depression and fear of pain), PFM morphology and function, and patients' global impression of change. Assessments are made at baseline, post-treatment and at the 6-month follow-up. This manuscript presents and discusses the rationale, design and methodology of the first RCT investigating physiotherapy in comparison to a commonly prescribed first-line treatment, overnight topical lidocaine, for women with PVD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Analyzing factors associated with women's attitudes and behaviors toward screening mammography using design-based logistic regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadi, Mahboubeh; Zhang, Shengfan; Yeary, Karen H Kim; Henderson, Louise M

    2014-02-01

    We examined the factors associated with screening mammography adherence behaviors and influencing factors on women's attitudes toward mammography in non-adherent women. Design-based logistic regression models were developed to characterize the influencing factors, including socio-demographic, health related, behavioral characteristics, and knowledge of breast cancer/mammography, on women's compliance with and attitudes toward mammography using the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey data. Findings indicate significant associations among adherence to mammography and marital status, income, health coverage, being advised by a doctor to have a mammogram, having had Pap smear before, perception of chance of getting breast cancer, and knowledge of mammography (frequency of doing mammogram) in both women younger than 65 and women aged 65 and older. However, number of visits to a healthcare provider per year and lifetime number of smoked cigarettes are only significant for women younger than 65. Factors significantly associated with attitudes toward mammography in non-adherent women are age, being advised by a doctor to have a mammogram, and seeking cancer information. To enhance adherence to mammography programs, physicians need to continue to advise their patients to obtain mammograms. In addition, increasing women's knowledge about the frequency and starting age for screening mammography may improve women's adherence. Financially related factors such as income and insurance are also shown to be significant factors. Hence, healthcare policies aimed at providing breast cancer screening services to underserved women will likely enhance mammography participation.

  4. Teaching Strategis Designed to Change the Undergraduate Experience for College Women Learning Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Samia

    A college for women has been cited as one of the most productive origins of female physical science doctorates in the United States. A case study was conducted to investigate teaching strategies that support the retention of women in the physical sciences, based on evidence from one of the college's most notable instructors and her teaching strategies. The strategies this teacher used included a personal "contract", confidence building techniques, and science internships. Data were collected from classroom documents, classroom observations, teacher interviews, student focus groups, student feedback sheets, Likert-response student surveys, and student final exams. Evidence from the Likert-response survey and focus groups suggested that the contract increased students' likelihood of success in the course and that confidence-building strategies improved students' confidence in their ability to succeed in science. An analysis of students' final exam scores indicated that student marks improved after the introduction of the aforementioned teaching innovations: 4% of students taking the same science course with the same teacher earned less than a C-, compared to a previous three-year average of 18% of students with below C- grades. In addition, notably fewer minority women dropped the course than they had in the past. The findings of this study suggest that this teacher's strategies may have played a part in retaining these women in the physical sciences. Based on the data, a theoretical model is proposed that suggests how switching or "fading" out of the course may have been addressed and how multiple teaching strategies can work in concert with each other to contribute to women's positive experiences in the physical sciences.

  5. A quantitative approach to measure women?s sexual function using electromyography: A preliminary study of the Kegel exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Mohktar, Mas Sahidayana; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Rozi, Nur Farahana Mohd; Yusof, Juhaida Mohd; Ahmad, Siti Anom; Yen, Khong Su; Omar, Siti Zawiah

    2013-01-01

    Background Currently, the reference standard used to clinically assess sexual function among women is a qualitative questionnaire. Hence, a generalised and quantitative measurement tool needs to be available as an alternative. This study investigated whether an electromyography (EMG) measurement tecnique could be used to help quantify women?s sexual function. Material/Methods A preliminary intervention study was conducted on 12 female subjects, who were randomised into a control (n=6) and an ...

  6. Advancing gender equality through the Athena SWAN Charter for Women in Science: an exploratory study of women's and men's perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovseiko, Pavel V; Chapple, Alison; Edmunds, Laurel D; Ziebland, Sue

    2017-02-21

    While in the United Kingdom, Ireland, and Australia, higher education and research institutions are widely engaged with the Athena SWAN Charter for Women in Science to advance gender equality, empirical research on this process and its impact is rare. This study combined two data sets (free- text comments from a survey and qualitative interviews) to explore the range of experiences and perceptions of participation in Athena SWAN in medical science departments of a research-intensive university in Oxford, United Kingdom. The study is based on the secondary analysis of data from two projects: 59 respondents to an anonymous online survey (42 women, 17 men) provided relevant free-text comments and, separately, 37 women participated in face-to-face narrative interviews. Free-text survey comments and narrative interviews were analysed thematically using constant comparison. Both women and men said that participation in Athena SWAN had brought about important structural and cultural changes, including increased support for women's careers, greater appreciation of caring responsibilities, and efforts to challenge discrimination and bias. Many said that these positive changes would not have happened without linkage of Athena SWAN to government research funding, while others thought there were unintended consequences. Concerns about the programme design and implementation included a perception that Athena SWAN has limited ability to address longstanding and entrenched power and pay imbalances, persisting lack of work-life balance in academic medicine, questions about the sustainability of positive changes, belief that achieving the award could become an end in itself, resentment about perceived positive discrimination, and perceptions that further structural and cultural changes were needed in the university and wider society. The findings from this study suggest that Athena SWAN has a positive impact in advancing gender equality, but there may be limits to how much it can

  7. Impact of a brief intervention on cervical health literacy: A waitlist control study with jailed women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Ramaswamy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Jailed women are four-five times more likely to have had cervical cancer compared to women without criminal justice histories. Previous research has shown that an important contributor to cervical cancer risk, and perhaps lack of follow-up, is incarcerated women's low health literacy about broader reproductive health issues. Little work has been done to address this disparity. Thus, the objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of an intervention to improve incarcerated women's cervical health literacy and ultimately address cervical cancer disparities. Using a waitlist control design, we compared changes in cervical health literacy (knowledge, beliefs, self-efficacy, and confidence for screening and follow-up among 188 incarcerated women who completed a 10-hour intervention between 2014 and 2016 in three Kansas City jails. We used bivariate tests and multivariate analyses that controlled for baseline cervical health literacy level and key covariates. Women in the intervention group showed significant gains in seven out of eight cervical health literacy domains (all p < 0.01, whereas the control group only improved in one domain (p < 0.01. When controlling for covariates, the intervention group had less barriers, perceptions of seriousness, susceptibility to disease, and increased self-efficacy for cervical health screening and follow-up, compared to the control group (all p < 0.05. A brief intervention is an effective way to improve jailed women's cervical health literacy, but should be provided alongside systemic efforts that expand access to correctional preventive health services, including the human papillomavirus vaccine, community-based cancer screenings, and health insurance after women leave jails and transition back to communities.

  8. Women smokers' experiences of an age-appearance anti-smoking intervention: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, Sarah; Flett, Keira; Clark-Carter, David; Gough, Brendan; Davey, Rachel; Richardson, Deborah; Rajaratnam, Giri

    2011-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate women's experiences of engaging in an age-appearance anti-smoking intervention. Ten 18- to 34-year-old women gave accounts of their experiences after engaging in an age-appearance facial morphing anti-smoking intervention in interviews (n= 7) and a focus group (n= 3), and 37 women gave their accounts while they were engaged in the intervention. Transcripts were analysed using a thematic analysis broadly informed by the procedures of Grounded Theory. Women were very concerned about the impact of ageing on their faces in general, and in particular the additional impact of smoking on their skin. Women were concerned about other people's reactions to them as older smokers with wrinkled skin, and many experienced a physical shock reaction (including reports of nausea) to seeing how they would age if they continued to smoke. They reported that seeing their own face aged on the computer screen increased their perceived risk of skin wrinkling. Women reported being highly motivated to quit smoking as a result of the intervention, and many reported that they would take active steps to quit having seen how they would look if they continued to smoke. This was linked with increased perceived personal responsibility for quitting. Results are discussed in relation to suggestions for anti-smoking interventions aimed at women in the 18- to 34-year-old age group. It is concluded that interventions incorporating age-appearance morphing techniques are likely to be effective in helping women to take active steps to quit smoking. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Obesity increases risk of declining physical activity over time in women: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jared M; Tucker, Larry A; Lecheminant, James; Bailey, Bruce

    2013-12-01

    Research indicates that risk of obesity increases as physical activity (PA) decreases; however, the reciprocal effect has been rarely studied. The present investigation was conducted to determine the contribution of obesity on objectively measured PA over 20 months. A prospective cohort design with 254 middle-aged women was employed. Body fat percentage (BF%) was measured using Bod Pod, and obesity was defined as BF% ≥32%. PA was assessed objectively using 7-day accelerometry at baseline and ∼20 months later at follow-up. Of the 254 subjects, 124 were obese (49%) at baseline. Mean BF% was 32.1 ± 7.8 and average age was 41.7 ± 3.1 years. Mean weekly PA was 2.79 ± 0.85 million activity counts for all participants. Over the 20-month period, PA decreased significantly more in obese women (-8.1% ± 27.1%) than in nonobese women (0.3% ± 31.7%) after adjusting for confounders (F = 5.3, P = 0.022). Moderate plus vigorous PA levels also decreased more in obese women (-28.1 ± 73.6 min/week) than in nonobese women (-5.9 ± 66.8 min/week), after adjusting for covariates (F = 7.84; P = 0.0055). It appears that obese women tend to reduce PA over time at a faster rate than nonobese women. Evidently, obesity is a risk factor for decreasing PA over time in middle-aged women. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  10. Selecting the appropriate study design for your research: Descriptive study designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamir Omair

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the importance of selecting the appropriate epidemiological study design for a given study question. It provides an explanation to the different terms used in describing study designs with regards to observational versus interventional and descriptive versus analytical types of study designs. This article focuses on the description of the different types of descriptive study designs, that is, case report, case series, correlational, and cross-sectional study designs. The requirements for selecting these study designs are discussed along with the advantages and disadvantages of each study design. The descriptive studies are similar in the context that they are based on a single sample with no comparative group within the study design. Their basic purpose is to describe the characteristics of the sample with regards to the characteristics that are present and so are useful in generating a hypothesis. The absence of a comparative group is the main limitation of the descriptive studies, and this is the reason they cannot be used to determine an association by testing a hypothesis showing a relationship between a risk factor and disease. The analytical study designs will be discussed in the next article in this series.

  11. Perceived stress and risk of colorectal cancer in men and women: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N R; Kristensen, T S; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aim to assess the relationship between stress and risk of primary colorectal cancer in men and women. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. SETTING: The Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark. SUBJECTS: A total of 6488 women and 5426 men were included in the study. The participants were...... asked about intensity and frequency of stress at baseline in 1981-1983 and were followed until the end of 2000 in the Danish Cancer Registry. Less than 0.1% was lost to follow-up. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: First time incidence of primary colorectal cancer. RESULTS: During follow-up 162 women and 166 men...... were diagnosed with colorectal cancer. Women with moderate and high stress intensity had a hazard ratio of 0.60 (95% CI: 0.37-0.98) and 0.52 (0.23-1.14) for colorectal cancer, respectively, compared to women with no stress. For colon cancer, a one-unit increase on a seven-point stress...

  12. Study of intimate partner violence against women in an urban locality of Pune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Fernandez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Intimate partner violence against women has an adverse effect on the health of women. Aims: To estimate the proportion of physical, emotional, economical and sexual violence against women by the husband (intimate partner and to identify factors that may put women at risk of violence by their husbands. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: A convenience consecutive sample of 369 married women (18-49 years age attending the Out Patient Department (OPD of the Urban Health Training Centre (UHTC of a Medical College in Pune was interviewed using a pretested semi-structured questionnaire after obtaining informed consent. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi square test and Odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CI were used to identify the risk factors. Results: Almost half of the study sample had experienced some form of violence. The associated factors with intimate partner violence were drinking alcohol by husband (OR = 4.54, 95% CI = 2.52, 8.18, P < 0.001, aggressive nature of husband (OR = 11.81, 95% CI = 3.53, 39.47, P < 0.001 and family history of domestic violence (OR = 11.0, 95% CI = 3.83, 31.63, P < 0.001. Conclusion: Intimate partner violence was high in our study. Risk factors for domestic violence were alcohol use by husband, aggressive nature of husband and family history of domestic violence.

  13. Geographic variation in cardiovascular inflammation among healthy women in the Women's Health Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl R Clark

    Full Text Available Geographic variation in traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors has been observed among women in the US. It is not known whether state-level variation in cardiovascular inflammation exists or could be explained by traditional clinical risk factors and behavioral lifestyle factors.We used multilevel linear regression to estimate state-level variation in inflammatory biomarker patterns adjusted for clinical and lifestyle characteristics among 26,029 women free of CVD. Participants derived from the Women's Health Study, a national cohort of healthy middle-aged and older women. Inflammatory biomarker patterns (plasma levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1, and fibrinogen were compared to state-level patterns of traditional CVD risk factors and global risk scores. We found that all three inflammatory biomarkers exhibited significant state-level variation including hsCRP (lowest vs. highest state median 1.3 mg/L vs. 2.7 mg/L, unadjusted random effect estimate 1(st to 99(th percentile range for log hsCRP 0.52, p<.001, sICAM-1 (325 ng/ml vs. 366ng/ml, unadjusted random effect estimate 1(st to 99(th percentile range 0.44, p<.001, and fibrinogen (322 mg/dL vs. 367 mg/dL, unadjusted random effect estimate 1(st to 99(th percentile range 0.41, p = .001. Neither demographic, clinical or lifestyle characteristics explained away state-level effects in biomarker patterns. Southern and Appalachian states (Arkansas, West Virginia had the highest inflammatory biomarker values. Regional geographic patterns of traditional CVD risk factors and risk scores did not completely overlap with biomarkers of inflammation.There is state-level geographic variation in inflammatory biomarkers among otherwise healthy women that cannot be completely attributed to traditional clinical risk factors or lifestyle characteristics. Future research should aim to identify additional factors that may explain

  14. Lesbian women's experiences with health care: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorkman, Mari; Malterud, Kirsti

    2009-01-01

    Background Although the social situation for gay, lesbian, and bisexual people has improved over the last decades, lesbian women still face unique challenges when seeking healthcare services. Objectives To explore lesbian women's healthcare experiences specifically related to sexual orientation to achieve knowledge which can contribute to increased quality of healthcare for lesbian women. Methods Qualitative study based on written stories, with recruitment, information, and data sampling over the internet. Data consisted of 128 anonymously written answers to a web-based, open-ended questionnaire from a convenience sample of self-identified lesbian women. Data were analysed with systematic text condensation. Interpretation of findings was supported by theories of heteronormativity. Main outcome measures Patients’ histories of experiences where a lesbian orientation was significant, when seeing a doctor or another healthcare professional. Results Analysis presented three different aspects of healthcare professionals’ abilities, regarded as essential by our lesbian participants. First, the perspective of awareness was addressed – is the healthcare professional able to think of and facilitate the disclosure of a lesbian orientation? Second, histories pointed to the attitudes towards homosexuality – does the healthcare professional acknowledge and respect the lesbian orientation? Third, the impact of specific and adequate medical knowledge was emphasized – does the healthcare professional know enough about the specific health concerns of lesbian women? Conclusion To obtain quality care for lesbian women, the healthcare professional needs a persistent awareness that not all patients are heterosexual, an open attitude towards a lesbian orientation, and specific knowledge of lesbian health issues. The dimensions of awareness, attitude, and knowledge are interconnected, and a positive direction on all three dimensions appears to be a necessary prerequisite. PMID

  15. A qualitative study of faculty members' views of women chairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Carol; Griffin, Lindsay; Carnes, Molly

    2010-03-01

    Concurrent with the evolving role of the department chair in academic medicine is the entry of women physicians into chair positions. Because implicit biases that stereotypically masculine behaviors are required for effective leadership remain strong, examining faculty members' perceptions of their chair's leadership in medical school departments with women chairs can provide insight into the views of women leaders in academic medicine and the complex ways in which gender may impact these chairs' leadership style and actions. We conducted semistructured interviews with 13 male and 15 female faculty members representing all faculty tracks in three clinical departments chaired by women. Inductive, qualitative analysis of the subsequent text allowed themes to emerge across interviews. Four themes emerged regarding departmental leadership. One dealt with the leadership of the previous chair. The other three described the current chair's characteristics (tough, direct, and transparent), her use of communal actions to help support and mentor her faculty, and her ability to build power through consensus. Because all three chairs were early in their tenure, a wait and see attitude was frequently expressed. Faculty generally viewed having a woman chair as an indication of positive change, with potential individual and institutional advantages. This exploratory study suggests that the culture of academic medicine has moved beyond questioning women physicians' competence to lead once they are in top organizational leadership positions. The findings are also consonant with experimental research indicating that women leaders are most successful when they pair stereotypic male (agentic) behaviors with stereotypic female (communal) behaviors. All three chairs exhibited features of a transformational leadership style and characteristics deemed essential for effective leadership in academic medicine.

  16. Women's intentions to breastfeed: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutsiv, O; Pullenayegum, E; Foster, G; Vera, C; Giglia, L; Chapman, B; Fusch, C; McDonald, S D

    2013-11-01

    Given that intention to breastfeed is a strong predictor of breastfeeding initiation and duration, the objectives of this study were to estimate the population-based prevalence and the factors associated with the intention to breastfeed. Retrospective population-based cohort study. All hospitals in Ontario, Canada (1 April 2009-31 March 2010). Women who gave birth to live, term, singletons/twins. Patient, healthcare provider, and hospital factors that may be associated with intention to breastfeed were analysed using univariable and multivariable regression. Population-based prevalence of intention to breastfeed and its associated factors. The study included 92,364 women, of whom 78,806 (85.3%) intended to breastfeed. The odds of intending to breastfeed were higher amongst older women with no health problems and women who were cared for exclusively by midwives (adjusted OR 3.64, 95% CI 3.13-4.23). Being pregnant with twins (adjusted OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.57-0.94), not attending antenatal classes (adjusted OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.54-0.62), having previous term or preterm births (adjusted OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.78-0.81, and adjusted OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.82-0.93, respectively), and delivering in a level-1 hospital (adjusted OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.77-0.93) were associated with a lower intention to breastfeed. In this population-based study ~85% of women intended to breastfeed their babies. Key factors that are associated with the intention to breastfeed were identified, which can now be targeted for intervention programmes aimed at increasing the prevalence of breastfeeding and improving overall child and maternal health. © 2013 RCOG.

  17. Women's access to managerial positions: an experimental study of leadership styles and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado, Isabel; Morales, J Francisco; Recio, Patricia

    2008-05-01

    This study attempts to test one of the explanations of the scarce representation of women in managerial positions, specifically the one advanced by "role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders" (Eagly & Karau, 2002), which appeals to the fact that women get unfavorable evaluations if they adopt male-stereotypical leadership styles. One-hundred and thirty-six undergraduate students participated in an experiment with a 2 (Male-stereotypical vs. Female-stereotypical leadership style) x 2 (Male vs. Female leader) design. Dependent variables were leader's competence, efficacy, and evaluation in a series of traits. It was found that, regardless of sex, the leaders were considered more competent and efficient, and were evaluated more favorably, when they adopted stereotypically feminine leadership styles. Implications of these findings for women's underrepresentation as leaders in management top positions worldwide are discussed.

  18. Taxation of Spouses: A Cross-Country Study of the Effects on Married Women's Labour Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callan, Tim; Dex, Shirley; Smith, Nina

    1999-01-01

    The labour force participation rate of married women varies considerably between the European countries. There may be several explanations for this evidence. In this study, the effect of the different income tax schemes on female labour force participation is investigated and compared. A common...... labour supply function is estimated on cross-section household samples for each of the countries Britain, Denmark, Ireland, and East and West Germany. Based on the estimated labour supply functions, we calculate for each of the countries the hypothetical part time and full time participation rates...... of married women if the households were taxed by either separate or split taxation principles, as in Britain and Ireland, respectively. The results show that the design of the tax scheme is highly important for the economic incentives that married women face and their resulting labour supply behaviour....

  19. Transitions in pregnancy planning in women recruited for a large prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luderer, U; Li, T; Fine, J P; Hamman, R F; Stanford, J B; Baker, D

    2017-06-01

    Do the rates at which women transition among different intensities of pregnancy planning vary with age, marital status and race/ethnicity? Rates of transition from low or moderate pregnancy probability groups (PPGs) to higher PPGs vary by age, marital status and race/ethnicity. The design of prospective studies of the effects of pre- and peri-conception exposures on fecundity, pregnancy and children's health is challenging because at any specific time only a small percentage of reproductive age women is attempting to conceive. To our knowledge, there has been no population-based, prospective study that repeatedly assessed pregnancy planning, which included women who were not already planning pregnancy at enrollment and whose ages spanned the female reproductive age range. A longitudinal study was carried out that repeatedly assessed pregnancy probability in 12 916 women for up to 21 months from January 2009 to September 2010. We analyzed data from the National Children's Study Vanguard Study, a pilot study for a large-scale epidemiological birth cohort study of children and their parents. During the Vanguard Study, investigators followed population-based samples of reproductive age women in each of seven geographically dispersed and diverse study locations over time to identify when they sought to become pregnant, providing a unique opportunity to prospectively assess changes in pregnancy planning in a large sample of US women. At study entry and each follow-up contact, which occurred at 1, 3 or 6 month intervals depending on PPG, a questionnaire was used to assess behavior dimensions of pregnancy planning to assign women to low, moderate, high non-tryer and high tryer PPGs. Crude rates of pregnancy increased with higher assigned PPG, validating the utility of the instrument. The initial PPG and probabilities of transitioning from low or moderate PPG to higher PPG or pregnancy varied with age, marital status and race/ethnicity. Women aged 25 to study, the self

  20. A weight-loss intervention program designed for Mexican-American women: Cultural adaptations and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Nangel M.; Stevens, Victor J.; Vega-López, Sonia; Kauffman, Tia; Calderón, Mariana Rosales; Cervantes, María Antonieta

    2013-01-01

    Background This study assessed the feasibility of a culturally-appropriate weight-loss intervention targeting obese Spanish-speaking Mexican women. Methods This 12-month weight-loss program was based on behavioral interventions previously used successfully with English-speaking participants. Cultural adaptations included: female interventionists, minimal written materials, emphasis on group activities, focus on Mexican traditions and beliefs, and skill-building approach to food measurement. All sessions were conducted in Spanish. The study had few exclusionary criteria, which allowed participation of women with a wide range of literacy levels. Results Recruitment exceeded expectations, with 47 participants enrolling in the program. Not counting participants who became pregnant during the study, attendance at 6 and 12 months was 62% and 50% respectively. Mean weight loss at 6 and 12 months was 5.3 kg and 7.2 kg, respectively, with a mean reduction in BMI of 4.0 kg/m2 and 5.5 kg/m2 from baseline to 6 and 12 months, respectively. Discussion This pilot study shows that it is feasible to develop and implement culturally-appropriate behavioral lifestyle interventions for obesity treatment in Mexican-American women. PMID:22460538

  1. A weight-loss intervention program designed for Mexican-American women: cultural adaptations and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Nangel M; Stevens, Victor J; Vega-López, Sonia; Kauffman, Tia L; Calderón, Mariana Rosales; Cervantes, María Antonieta

    2012-12-01

    This study assessed the feasibility of a culturally-appropriate weight-loss intervention targeting obese Spanish-speaking Mexican women. This 12-month weight-loss program was based on behavioral interventions previously used successfully with English-speaking participants. Cultural adaptations included: female interventionists, minimal written materials, emphasis on group activities, focus on Mexican traditions and beliefs, and skill-building approach to food measurement. All sessions were conducted in Spanish. The study had few exclusionary criteria, which allowed participation of women with a wide range of literacy levels. Recruitment exceeded expectations, with 47 participants enrolling in the program. Not counting participants who became pregnant during the study, attendance at 6 and 12 months was 62 and 50 % respectively. Mean weight loss at 6 and 12 months was 5.3 and 7.2 kg, respectively, with a mean reduction in BMI of 4.0 and 5.5 kg/m(2) from baseline to 6 and 12 months, respectively. This pilot study shows that it is feasible to develop and implement culturally-appropriate behavioral lifestyle interventions for obesity treatment in Mexican-American women.

  2. Internet methods in the study of women's physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsiu-Min; Chee, Wonshik; Im, Eun-Ok

    2006-01-01

    Internet self-reporting methods have opened new opportunities in research that focuses on women's physical activity. Understanding the strengths and limitations of this self-report Internet method is critical to conducting a feasible and effective Internet study. The purpose of this paper is to address consideration of the strengths and limitations for researchers undertaking physical activity studies of women utilizing the Internet self-reporting method (Tables 1 and 2). The analysis utilizes a cross-sectional Internet survey regarding physical activity among women. Five major strengths were found including (1) reciprocal communication, (2) reduction of data incompleteness, (3) accuracy of data entry, (4) convenience, and (5) confidentiality and anonymity. Five potential limitations were found including (1) low response rate, (2) recall bias, (3) validity and reliability of Internet-based instruments, (4) sample bias, and (5) indirect measurement. Information in this paper may serve as a future reference for researchers engaged in using a self-report Internet method to estimate women's engagement in physical activity.

  3. A binary logistic regression model with complex sampling design of unmet need for family planning among all women aged (15-49) in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workie, Demeke Lakew; Zike, Dereje Tesfaye; Fenta, Haile Mekonnen; Mekonnen, Mulusew Admasu

    2017-09-01

    Unintended pregnancy related to unmet need is a worldwide problem that affects societies. The main objective of this study was to identify the prevalence and determinants of unmet need for family planning among women aged (15-49) in Ethiopia. The Performance Monitoring and Accountability2020/Ethiopia was conducted in April 2016 at round-4 from 7494 women with two-stage-stratified sampling. Bi-variable and multi-variable binary logistic regression model with complex sampling design was fitted. The prevalence of unmet-need for family planning was 16.2% in Ethiopia. Women between the age range of 15-24 years were 2.266 times more likely to have unmet need family planning compared to above 35 years. Women who were currently married were about 8 times more likely to have unmet need family planning compared to never married women. Women who had no under-five child were 0.125 times less likely to have unmet need family planning compared to those who had more than two-under-5. The key determinants of unmet need family planning in Ethiopia were residence, age, marital-status, education, household members, birth-events and number of under-5 children. Thus the Government of Ethiopia would take immediate steps to address the causes of high unmet need for family planning among women.

  4. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Overweight/Obese Women With and Without Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Design and Methods of a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja-Khan, Nazia; Agito, Katrina; Shah, Julie; Stetter, Christy M.; Gustafson, Theresa S.; Socolow, Holly; Kunselman, Allen R.; Reibel, Diane K.; Legro, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) may be beneficial for overweight/obese women, including women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), as it has been shown to reduce psychological distress and improve quality of life in other patient populations. Preliminary studies suggest that MBSR may also have salutary effects on blood pressure and blood glucose. This paper describes the design and methods of an ongoing pilot randomized controlled trial evaluating the feasibility and effects of MBSR in PCOS and non-PCOS women who are overweight or obese. Eighty six (86) women with body mass index ≥25 kg/m2, including 31 women with PCOS, have been randomized to 8 weeks of MBSR or health education control, and followed for 16 weeks. The primary outcome is mindfulness assessed with the Toronto Mindfulness Scale. Secondary outcomes include measures of blood pressure, blood glucose, quality of life, anxiety and depression. Our overall hypothesis is that MBSR will increase mindfulness and ultimately lead to favorable changes in blood pressure, blood glucose, psychological distress and quality of life in PCOS and non-PCOS women. This would support the integration of MBSR with conventional medical treatments to reduce psychological distress, cardiovascular disease and diabetes in PCOS and non-PCOS women who are overweight or obese. PMID:25662105

  5. Returning to life, the Lived Experiences of Pregnancy in Women with HIV: A Phenomenological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Khalajinia

    2016-08-01

    . Understanding and awareness of all those are necessary for health care providers.The findings of this study emphasize on the need to design and implement comprehensive prevention strategies and interventions tailored to have a good feeling of pregnancy in these women.

  6. Core design and fuel management studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Byung Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Chan, P. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    1997-06-01

    The design target for the CANDU 9 requires a 20% increase in electrical power output from an existing 480-channel CANDU core. Assuming a net electrical output of 861 MW(e) for a natural uranium fuelled Bruce-B/Darlington reactor in a warm water site, the net electrical output of the reference CANDU 9 reactor would be 1033 MW(e). This report documents the result of the physics studies for the design of the CANDU 9 480/SEU core. The results of the core design and fuel management studies of the CANDU 9 480/SEU reactor indicated that up to 1033 MW(e) output can be achieved in a 480-channel CANDU core by using SEU core can easily be maintained indefinitely using an automated refuelling program. Fuel performance evaluation based on the data of the 500 FPDs refuelling simulation concluded that SEU fuel failure is not expected. (author). 2 tabs., 38 figs., 5 refs.

  7. Symptoms in women with Peripartum Cardiomyopathy: A mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Harshida; Berg, Marie; Barasa, Anders; Begley, Cecily; Schaufelberger, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Peripartum Cardiomyopathy is a form of cardiac disease often associated with cardiac failure, occurring in late pregnancy or after childbirth. The anatomical and physiological changes in the mother associated with normal pregnancy are profound, and this may result in symptoms and signs that overlap with Peripartum Cardiomyopathy, leading to missed or delayed diagnosis. Women's experiences of Peripartum Cardiomyopathy symptoms remain poorly studied. The aim of this study was to explore and describe women's experiences of symptoms in Peripartum Cardiomyopathy. A triangulation of methods with individual interviews and data from medical records. Mothers with Peripartum Cardiomyopathy diagnosis were recruited from Western Sweden as a part of research project. 19 women were interviewed and medical records were reviewed by authors. All interview transcripts were analysed using qualitative inductive content analysis to identify key themes. The main theme, meaning of onset and occurrence of symptoms is captured in the metaphor: being caught in a spider web, comprising subthemes, invasion of the body by experienced symptoms and feeling of helplessness. Symptoms related to Peripartum Cardiomyopathy started for 17 women during pregnancy and in two post partum and time from symptoms to diagnosis varied between three and 190 days (median 40). The physical symptoms were:shortness of breath, excessive fatigue and swelling, bloatedness, nausea, palpitation, coughing, chest tightness, bodily pain, headache, fever, tremor, dizziness, syncope, restless and tingly body and reduced urine output. Emotional symptoms were: fear, anxiety, feelings of panic, and thoughts of impending death. Symptoms of Peripartum Cardiomyopathy were debilitating, exhausting and frightening for the women interviewed in this study. Health care professionals responsible for the antenatal care, especially midwives, need skills to identify initial symptoms of Peripartum Cardiomyopathy for early referral and

  8. Gender bias in hospital leadership: a qualitative study on the experiences of women CEOs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soklaridis, Sophie; Kuper, Ayelet; Whitehead, Cynthia R; Ferguson, Genevieve; Taylor, Valerie H; Zahn, Catherine

    2017-04-10

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the experiences of gender bias among women hospital CEOs and explore to what these female leaders attribute their success within a male-dominated hospital executive leadership milieu. Design/methodology/approach This qualitative study involved 12 women hospital CEOs from across Ontario, Canada. Purposeful sampling techniques and in-depth qualitative interview methods were used to facilitate discussion around experiences of gender and leadership. Findings Responses fell into two groups: the first group represented the statement "Gender inequality is alive and well". The second group reflected the statement "Gender inequity is not significant, did not happen to me, and things are better now". This group contained a sub-group with no consciousness of systemic discrimination and that claimed having no gendered experiences in their leadership journey. The first group described gender issues in various contexts, from the individual to the systemic. The second group was ambivalent about gender as a factor impacting leadership trajectories. Originality/value Representations of women's leadership have become detached from feminism, with major consequences for women. This study reveals how difficult it is for some women CEOs to identify gender bias. The subtle everyday norms and practices within the workplace make it difficult to name and explain gender bias explicitly and may explain the challenges in understanding how it might affect a woman's career path.

  9. Prevention of congenital Chagas disease by Benznidazole treatment in reproductive-age women. An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, María G; Vigliano, Carlos; Lococo, Bruno; Bertocchi, Graciela; Viotti, Rodolfo

    2017-10-01

    Since the decline in new cases of infection by insect/vector, congenital Chagas disease has become more relevant in the transmission of Chagas disease. Treatment with benznidazole significantly reduces the parasitemia, which constitutes an important factor linked to vertical transmission. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether treatment with benznidazole previously administered to women of childbearing age can prevent or reduce the incidence of new cases of congenital Chagas disease. An historical cohort study that included all women in reproductive age (15-45 years) assisted in our center was designed. We included 67 mothers with chronic Chagas disease; 35 women had not been treated prior to pregnancy, 15 had been treated prior to pregnancy and 17 gave birth prior and after treatment with benznidazole. Eight mothers gave birth to 16 children with congenital Chagas disease (8/67, 12%). The prevalence of congenital Chagas was 16/114 (14%) children born to untreated mothers and 0/42 (0%) children born to benznidazole- treated mothers, p=0.01. No significant differences were observed in clinical, serologic, epidemiological or socioeconomic baseline variables between mothers with and without children born with congenital Chagas. A 32% conversion rate to negative serology was observed in benznidazole-treated women after long-term follow up. Antiparasitic treatment administered to women in reproductive age can prevent the occurrence of congenital Chagas disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Empowerment in breastfeeding as viewed by women: A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Heidari, Zeinab; Kohan, Shahnaz; Keshvari, Mahrokh

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The positive effect of breastfeeding on health is globally accepted. However, breastfeeding has not yet practiced at a favorite level. Empowerment of mothers is an important factor for continuing breastfeeding. This study was conducted to explore women's perception of empowerment in breastfeeding. METHODS: The present qualitative study was conducted in conventional content analysis method. Thirty-four semi-structured deep interviews were conducted with 18 mothers, four key family ...

  11. Seeking Comfort: Women Mental Health Process in I. R. Iran: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Eftekhari, Monir Baradaran; Dejman, Masoumeh; Forouzan, Ameneh Setareh; Mirabzadeh, Arash

    2014-01-01

    Background: Psychosocial factor is considered as intermediate social determinant of health, because it has powerful effects on health especially in women. Hence deeper understanding of the mental-health process needed for its promotion. The aim of this study was to explore women's experience of the mental-health problem and related action-interactions activities to design the appropriate interventions. Methods: In-depth interviews with women 18-65 years were analyzed according to the grounded theory method. The selection of Participants was based on purposeful and theoretical sampling. Results: In this study, a substantive theory was generated; explaining how female with the mental-health problem handled their main concern, which was identified as their effort to achieve comfort (core variable). The other six categories are elements in this process. Daily stress as a trigger, satisfaction is the end point, marriage is the key point and action - interaction activities in this process are strengthening human essence, Developing life skills and help seeking. Conclusions: Better understanding the mental-health process might be useful to design the interventional program among women with mental-health problems. PMID:24627750

  12. Seeking comfort: women mental health process in I. R. Iran: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Eftekhari, Monir Baradaran; Dejman, Masoumeh; Forouzan, Ameneh Setareh; Mirabzadeh, Arash

    2014-02-01

    Psychosocial factor is considered as intermediate social determinant of health, because it has powerful effects on health especially in women. Hence deeper understanding of the mental-health process needed for its promotion. The aim of this study was to explore women's experience of the mental-health problem and related action-interactions activities to design the appropriate interventions. In-depth interviews with women 18-65 years were analyzed according to the grounded theory method. The selection of Participants was based on purposeful and theoretical sampling. In this study, a substantive theory was generated; explaining how female with the mental-health problem handled their main concern, which was identified as their effort to achieve comfort (core variable). The other six categories are elements in this process. Daily stress as a trigger, satisfaction is the end point, marriage is the key point and action - interaction activities in this process are strengthening human essence, Developing life skills and help seeking. Better understanding the mental-health process might be useful to design the interventional program among women with mental-health problems.

  13. Predictors of Sexual Hookups: A Theory-Based, Prospective Study of First-Year College Women

    OpenAIRE

    Fielder, Robyn L.; Walsh, Jennifer L.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Hooking up, or engaging in sexual interactions outside of committed relationships, has become increasingly common among college students. This study sought to identify predictors of sexual hookup behavior among first-year college women using a prospective longitudinal design. We used problem behavior theory (Jessor, 1991) as an organizing conceptual framework and examined risk and protective factors for hooking up from three domains: personality, behavior, and perceived environment. Participa...

  14. Healthy lifestyle and decreasing risk of heart failure in women: the Women's Health Initiative observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Golareh; Loucks, Eric B; Tinker, Lesley F; Waring, Molly E; Michaud, Dominique S; Foraker, Randi E; Li, Wenjun; Martin, Lisa W; Greenland, Philip; Manson, JoAnn E; Eaton, Charles B

    2014-10-28

    The impact of a healthy lifestyle on risk of heart failure (HF) is not well known. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of a combination of lifestyle factors on incident HF and to further investigate whether weighting each lifestyle factor has additional impact. Participants were 84,537 post-menopausal women from the WHI (Women's Health Initiative) observational study, free of self-reported HF at baseline. A healthy lifestyle score (HL score) was created wherein women received 1 point for each healthy criterion met: high-scoring Alternative Healthy Eating Index, physically active, healthy body mass index, and currently not smoking. A weighted score (wHL score) was also created in which each lifestyle factor was weighted according to its independent magnitude of effect on HF. The incidence of hospitalized HF was determined by trained adjudicators using standardized methodology. There were 1,826 HF cases over a mean follow-up of 11 years. HL score was strongly associated with risk of HF (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio [HR] [95% confidence interval (CI)] 0.49 [95% CI: 0.38 to 0.62], 0.36 [95% CI: 0.28 to 0.46], 0.24 [95% CI: 0.19 to 0.31], and 0.23 [95% CI: 0.17 to 0.30] for HL score of 1, 2, 3, and 4 vs. 0, respectively). The HL score and wHL score were similarly associated with HF risk (HR: 0.46 [95% CI: 0.41 to 0.52] for HL score; HR: 0.48 [95% CI: 0.42 to 0.55] for wHL score, comparing the highest tertile to the lowest). The HL score was also strongly associated with HF risk among women without antecedent coronary heart disease, diabetes, or hypertension. An increasingly healthy lifestyle was associated with decreasing HF risk among post-menopausal women, even in the absence of antecedent coronary heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes. Weighting the lifestyle factors had minimal impact. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A descriptive study of mastitis in Australian breastfeeding women: incidence and determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forster Della A

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mastitis is one of the most common problems experienced by women who are breastfeeding. Mastitis is an inflammation of breast tissue, which may or may not result from infection. The aims of this paper are to compare rates of mastitis in primiparous women receiving public hospital care (standard or birth centre and care in a co-located private hospital, and to use multivariate analysis to explore other factors related to mastitis. Methods Data from two studies (a randomised controlled trial [RCT] and a survey have been combined. The RCT (Attachment to the Breast and Family Attitudes to Breastfeeding, ABFAB which was designed to test whether breastfeeding education in mid-pregnancy could increase breastfeeding duration recruited public patients at the Royal Women's Hospital at 18–20 weeks gestation. A concurrent survey recruited women planning to give birth in the Family Birth Centre (at 36 weeks gestation and women in the postnatal wards of Frances Perry House (private hospital. All women were followed up by telephone at 6 months postpartum. Mastitis was defined as at least 2 breast symptoms (pain, redness or lump AND at least one of fever or flu-like symptoms. Results The 6 month telephone interview was completed by 1193 women. Breastfeeding rates at 6 months were 77% in Family Birth Centre, 63% in Frances Perry House and 53% in ABFAB. Seventeen percent (n = 206 of women experienced mastitis. Family Birth Centre and Frances Perry House women were more likely to develop mastitis (23% and 24% than women in ABFAB (15%; adjusted odds ratio (Adj OR ~1.9. Most episodes occurred in the first 4 weeks postpartum: 53% (194/365. Nipple damage was also associated with mastitis (Adj OR 1.7, 95% CI, 1.14, 2.56. We found no association between breastfeeding duration and mastitis. Conclusion The prevention and improved management of nipple damage could potentially reduce the risk of lactating women developing mastitis. Trial registration

  16. Deepening Kindergarteners' Science Vocabulary: A Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Allison Ward; Bryant, Camille Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Early, effective instruction to introduce both science vocabulary and general academic language may help children build a strong conceptual and linguistic foundation for later instruction. In this study, a design research intervention was employed to expose children to a variety of interrelated science content words to increase both the breadth…

  17. Design Difficulties in Stand Density Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank A. Bennett

    1969-01-01

    Designing unbiased stand density studies is difficult. An acceptable sample requires stratification of the plots of age, site, and density. When basal area, percent stocking, or Reineke's stand density index is used as the density measure, this stratification forces a high negative correlation between site and number of trees per acre. Mortality in trees per acre...

  18. Birth characteristics in a clinical sample of women seeking infertility treatment: a case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikström, Josefin; Hammar, Mats; Josefsson, Ann; Bladh, Marie; Sydsjö, Gunilla

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the distribution of low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth, small for gestational age (SGA) and large for gestational age (LGA) by main cause of infertility (female, combined, male, unexplained) in women seeking infertility treatment. Design A case–control study. Setting A Centre for Reproductive Medicine in Sweden. Participants All women (n=1293) born in Sweden in 1973 or later and who were part of heterosexual couples seeking infertility treatment at a Centre of Reproductive Medicine from 2005 to 2010 were asked to participate. Those who had not begun the diagnostic process and who declined participation in the study were excluded. In total, 1206 women (94.5%) participated in the study. Main outcome measures Main cause of infertility (female, combined, male, unexplained) collected from the patients’ medical charts. LBW (+2SD of the mean weight for the gestational length), collected from the Swedish Medical Birth Register. Results The risk of being born with LBW was increased about 2.4 times (OR=2.40, CI 1.13 to 5.07, p=0.02) in women seeking treatment for infertility due to female causes rather than for male or unexplained causes. Women with a female infertility factor were 2.7 times more likely to be born SGA (OR=2.73, CI 1.02 to 7.34, p=0.047) compared with those in whom the cause of infertility was unexplained. Conclusions Women born with LBW or SGA seem to suffer an increased risk of infertility due to a female factor. Thus, infants born with birth characteristics that deviate from the norm may be at greater risk of difficulties in childbearing later on in life. Since this study is the first of its kind, more studies are needed to verify the associations found in this study and to determine their nature. PMID:24613821

  19. Trajectories of Mental Health over 16 Years amongst Young Adult Women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both…

  20. Vitamin D status and breast cancer in Saudi Arabian women: case-control study1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Fatimah M; Jacobs, Elizabeth T; Kang, Paul T; Hakim, Iman A; Going, Scott; Yousef, Jehad M; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa M; Kumosani, Taha A; Thomson, Cynthia A

    2013-01-01

    Background: The role of vitamin D in breast cancer prevention is equivocal. Saudi Arabian women may be at greater risk of vitamin D deficiency because of a darker skin type and a greater likelihood of reduced ultraviolet B radiation exposure. Data regarding the vitamin D status of Saudi Arabian women and its relation to breast cancer risk are lacking. Objective: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the association between circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and breast cancer risk in Saudi Arabian women. Design: A case-control study was conducted among 120 breast cancer cases and 120 controls. The study population was drawn from patients admitted to King Fahd Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, from June to August 2009. Participants completed questionnaires on diet and medical history, and serum samples were collected from all women to measure circulating 25(OH)D concentrations. Results: The participants had a mean age of 47.8 y and a mean body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) of 30.0. Breast cancer cases had significantly lower (mean ± SD) serum concentrations of 25(OH)D (9.4 ± 6.4 ng/mL) than did controls (15.4 ± 12.3 ng/mL; P = 0.001). In comparison with those in the highest category of vitamin D status for this population (≥20 ng/mL), the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for invasive breast cancer were 6.1 (2.4, 15.1) for women with a serum 25(OH)D concentration women with a serum concentration of ≥10 to Saudi Arabian women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01817231. PMID:23697705

  1. Black Women in the African Diaspora Seeking Their Cultural Heritage through Studying Abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Rose M.; Mwegelo, Desideria T.; Turner, Laura N.

    2002-01-01

    Seeks to identify the perceptions of African American women toward a study abroad program in West Africa and to make recommendations to increase their participation. Argues that study abroad programs provide opportunities for Black women and African women to learn about each other and share experiences that empower Black women who question their…

  2. Dietary flavonoid intake and risk of cancer in postmenopausal women: the Iowa Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Gretchen J; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Ross, Julie A; Harnack, Lisa J; Jacobs, David R; Scrafford, Carolyn G; Barraj, Leila M; Mink, Pamela J; Robien, Kim

    2008-08-01

    Flavonoids, which are found in certain plant foods, are thought to lower cancer risk through their antioxidant, antiestrogenic and antiproliferative properties. We examined the association of intake of total flavonoids and 7 flavonoid subclasses with risk of lung, colorectal, breast, pancreatic and upper aerodigestive cancer among women in a large prospective cohort study. Study participants were 34,708 postmenopausal women in the Iowa Women's Health Study who completed a food frequency questionnaire and were followed for cancer occurrence from 1986 through 2004. Flavonoid intake was estimated from 3 databases developed by the USDA Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL). Hazard ratios (HR) for cancer risk were calculated across total flavonoid and flavonoid subclass intake categories. Interactions between smoking history and flavonoid intake were also examined. After multivariable adjustment, lung cancer incidence was inversely associated with intakes of flavanones (HR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.53-0.86, all results highest vs. lowest quintile) and proanthocyanidins (HR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.57-0.97). Among current and past smokers, those with intakes in the highest quintile for flavanones (HR = 0.66; 95% CI: 0.50-0.86), and proanthocyanidins (HR = 0.66; 95% CI; 0.49-0.89) had significantly lower lung cancer incidence than those in the lowest quintile. Similar associations were not seen in never smokers. Isoflavone intake was inversely associated with overall cancer incidence (HR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.86-1.00). This study provides further support for a beneficial effect of flavonoid intake on lung cancer risk, especially among current and past smokers.

  3. Women's Perspective on Progesterone: A Qualitative Study Conducted in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spark, M Joy; Dunn, Rebecca A; Houlahan, Kelli L

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the perspective of women using compounded progesterone preparations. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in Victoria, Australia with eight self-selected women who were dispensed a progesterone-only preparation. Participating women gained symptome relief for migraine, painful breasts, mood swings, bloating, hot flushes, and other conditions. The participants also experienced unexpected benefits such as improvement in irregular and painful periods, relief from cystitis, or increased libido, without any reported negative side effects. The participants appreciated the ability to adjust the dose and dosage form to their individual requirements and held a positive perception of progesterone as a "natural" product. Accessibility of progesterone treatment is limited due to the limited number of doctors that have knowledge about the treatment, little information available for lay people, and cost. Participants who had been treated with progesterone were willing to share their experience with others, and many heard about progesterone therapy from their social contacts. The cost of progesterone therapy, which was often more expensive than traditional hormone replacement therapy, was outweighed by the benefits received. These women found that progesterone treatment, although hard to access, was beneficial over conventional therapy.

  4. Few microorganisms associated with bacterial vaginosis may constitute the pathologic core: a population-based microbiologic study among 3596 pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, P; Jensen, I P; Jeune, B

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between various microorganisms isolated from the genital tract in pregnant women with bacterial vaginosis. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional population-based study among pregnant women addressed at their first antenatal visit before 24 full gestational weeks......) between the microorganisms isolated from the lower genital tract in pregnant women with and without clinical diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. RESULTS: Three thousand five hundred ninety-six (3596) pregnant women were asked to participate. Of the 3596 pregnant women 3174 (88.4%) agreed to participate...

  5. Study design issues in evaluating immune biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Ronald J; Zhang, Xinyan; Sandler, Netanya G

    2013-03-01

    The dramatic increase in the number and type of immune biomarkers that can be measured, particularly those assessing immune activation, has led to numerous investigations in HIV-infected individuals to explore pathogenesis and to assess therapeutic interventions that aim to attenuate immune activation. An overview is provided on study designs and related statistical and operational issues relevant to these investigations. Cohort studies and nested case-control studies within these cohorts have identified multiple biomarkers that are associated with an increased risk of disease. Early-stage clinical trials of therapies to address these risks in HIV-infected individuals with viral suppression on antiretroviral therapy are a substantial focus of current HIV research. Appropriate study design is essential in biomarker research.

  6. Design study of the CEPC booster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chuang [Key Laboratory of Particle Acceleration Physics and Technology, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19B Yuquan Road, Beijing 10049, China

    2014-12-10

    Design study of the CEPC booster is reported. The booster provides 120 GeV beams for the collider with topup injection frequency of 0.1 Hz. To save cost, energy of the linac injector for the booster is chosen as 6GeV, corresponding to the magnetic field of 30 Gs. In this paper, lattice of the booster is described; the low injection energy issues are studied; beam transfer from linac to booster and from booster to collider are discussed.

  7. A Design Study for Standard Nanofluid Coolants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, In Cheol [Energy Sciences, Global Edge Institute Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Gyun Young [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    The experimental data for nanofluids in thermal-fluid systems have shown that the new fluids promise to become advanced heat transfer fluids in terms of thermal performance. While enhancing thermal characteristics, the solid-liquid mixtures present an unavoidable disadvantage in terms of pumping cost for economic operation of thermal-fluid systems. In addition, there is a lack of agreement between experimental data provided in the literature. We can find that this issue of nanofluids resembles that of designing new materials. Many nanofluids researchers tend to view the nanofluid field as a highly coupled 'tetrahedro' whose four vertices (performance, properties, structure, and processes) are interconnected to each other. The present design study has a big merit to systemize the nanofluid work and to reduce a lot of trial-error efforts. The present work found that there would be no comprehensible design strategy in developing nanofluids. In this work, the Axiomatic Design (AD) theory is applied to standardize the design of nanofluids in order to bring its practical use forward. According to the Independence Axiom of the AD theory, the excessive couplings between the functional requirements and the parameters of a nanofluid system prevent from meeting the functional goals of the entire system. At a parametric level, the design of a nanofluid system is inherently coupled due to the characteristics of thermal-fluid system; the design parameters physically affect each other sharing sub-level parameters for nanoparticles with making a feedback loop. Even though parts of the nanofluids are naturally coupled, it is possible to reduce and/or eliminate the degree of coupling by help of AD principles. From the perspective of AD, this implies that we are able to ascertain which nanofluid system is better one in the light of functional achievement.

  8. An empirical study of software design practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, David N.; Church, Victor E.; Agresti, William W.

    1986-01-01

    Software engineers have developed a large body of software design theory and folklore, much of which was never validated. The results of an empirical study of software design practices in one specific environment are presented. The practices examined affect module size, module strength, data coupling, descendant span, unreferenced variables, and software reuse. Measures characteristic of these practices were extracted from 887 FORTRAN modules developed for five flight dynamics software projects monitored by the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL). The relationship of these measures to cost and fault rate was analyzed using a contingency table procedure. The results show that some recommended design practices, despite their intuitive appeal, are ineffective in this environment, whereas others are very effective.

  9. An Educational Intervention Designed to Increase Women's Leadership Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Carol; Kaatz, Anna; Lee, Barbara; Carnes, Molly

    2012-01-01

    Women are sparsely represented in leadership in academic science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM). Cultural stereotypes about men, women, and leaders influence the attitudes, judgments, and decisions that others make about women and the choices women make for themselves. Multilevel interventions are needed to counteract…

  10. Immigrant women's views about care during labor and birth: an Australian study of Vietnamese, Turkish, and Filipino women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Rhonda; Yelland, Jane; Lumley, Judith; Brown, Stephanie; Liamputtong, Pranee

    2002-12-01

    Few studies of immigrant women's views of maternity care in their new homelands have been conducted. In Victoria, Australia, approximately 1 woman in 7 giving birth was born overseas in a non-English speaking country. This paper examines the views of three groups of immigrant women about the care they received in hospital for the birth of their babies and compares the findings with a population-based statewide survey. Mothers in a New Country was a study of 318 Vietnamese, Turkish, and Filipino women interviewed about their maternity care experiences by bicultural interviewers 6 months after giving birth in Melbourne, Australia. The interview schedule was adapted from the 1994 Victorian Survey of Recent Mothers, a population-based postal survey of 1336 women. Of the 3 groups, 27 percent of Vietnamese, 48 percent of Turkish, and 39 percent of Filipino women reported their care during labor and birth as "very good," figures significantly lower than for the statewide survey, in which 61 percent of women experiencing similar models of care described their care as "very good." This significant differential in views about care was also present for many individual aspects of care. In the current study of mothers in a new country, comments about aspects of care with which women were particularly happy and unhappy highlighted their appreciation of care that was safe, kind, supportive, and respectful, and conversely, illustrated how distressed women were when care failed to meet these basic standards. What immigrant women wanted from their maternity care proved to be extremely similar to what Australian-born women--and women the world over--want. Unfortunately, immigrant women were much less likely to experience care that gave them what they wanted.

  11. Thermodynamic studies for drug design and screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbett, Nichola C; Chaires, Jonathan B

    2012-04-01

    A key part of drug design and development is the optimization of molecular interactions between an engineered drug candidate and its binding target. Thermodynamic characterization provides information about the balance of energetic forces driving binding interactions and is essential for understanding and optimizing molecular interactions. This review discusses the information that can be obtained from thermodynamic measurements and how this can be applied to the drug development process. Current approaches for the measurement and optimization of thermodynamic parameters are presented, specifically higher throughput and calorimetric methods. Relevant literature for this review was identified in part by bibliographic searches for the period 2004 - 2011 using the Science Citation Index and PUBMED and the keywords listed below. The most effective drug design and development platform comes from an integrated process utilizing all available information from structural, thermodynamic and biological studies. Continuing evolution in our understanding of the energetic basis of molecular interactions and advances in thermodynamic methods for widespread application are essential to realize the goal of thermodynamically driven drug design. Comprehensive thermodynamic evaluation is vital early in the drug development process to speed drug development toward an optimal energetic interaction profile while retaining good pharmacological properties. Practical thermodynamic approaches, such as enthalpic optimization, thermodynamic optimization plots and the enthalpic efficiency index, have now matured to provide proven utility in the design process. Improved throughput in calorimetric methods remains essential for even greater integration of thermodynamics into drug design. © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd.

  12. Thermodynamic Studies for Drug Design and Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbett, Nichola C.; Chaires, Jonathan B.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction A key part of drug design and development is the optimization of molecular interactions between an engineered drug candidate and its binding target. Thermodynamic characterization provides information about the balance of energetic forces driving binding interactions and is essential for understanding and optimizing molecular interactions. Areas covered This review discusses the information that can be obtained from thermodynamic measurements and how this can be applied to the drug development process. Current approaches for the measurement and optimization of thermodynamic parameters are presented, specifically higher throughput and calorimetric methods. Relevant literature for this review was identified in part by bibliographic searches for the period 2004 – 2011 using the Science Citation Index and PUBMED and the keywords listed below. Expert opinion The most effective drug design and development platform comes from an integrated process utilizing all available information from structural, thermodynamic and biological studies. Continuing evolution in our understanding of the energetic basis of molecular interactions and advances in thermodynamic methods for widespread application are essential to realize the goal of thermodynamically-driven drug design. Comprehensive thermodynamic evaluation is vital early in the drug development process to speed drug development towards an optimal energetic interaction profile while retaining good pharmacological properties. Practical thermodynamic approaches, such as enthalpic optimization, thermodynamic optimization plots and the enthalpic efficiency index, have now matured to provide proven utility in design process. Improved throughput in calorimetric methods remains essential for even greater integration of thermodynamics into drug design. PMID:22458502

  13. Women׳s birthplace decision-making, the role of confidence: Part of the Evaluating Maternity Units study, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg, Celia P; Tracy, Sally K; Schmied, Virginia; Daellenbach, Rea; Kensington, Mary

    2015-06-01

    to explore women׳s birthplace decision-making and identify the factors which enable women to plan to give birth in a freestanding midwifery-led primary level maternity unit rather than in an obstetric-led tertiary level maternity hospital in New Zealand. a mixed methods prospective cohort design. data from eight focus groups (37 women) and a six week postpartum survey (571 women, 82%) were analysed using thematic analysis and descriptive statistics. The qualitative data from the focus groups and survey were the primary data sources and were integrated at the analysis stage; and the secondary qualitative and quantitative data were integrated at the interpretation stage. Christchurch, New Zealand, with one tertiary maternity hospital and four primary level maternity units (2010-2012). well (at 'low risk' of developing complications), pregnant women booked to give birth in one of the primary units or the tertiary hospital. All women received midwifery continuity of care, regardless of their intended or actual birthplace. five core themes were identified: the birth process, women׳s self-belief in their ability to give birth, midwives, the health system and birth place. 'Confidence' was identified as the overarching concept influencing the themes. Women who chose to give birth in a primary maternity unit appeared to differ markedly in their beliefs regarding their optimal birthplace compared to women who chose to give birth in a tertiary maternity hospital. The women who planned a primary maternity unit birth expressed confidence in the birth process, their ability to give birth, their midwife, the maternity system and/or the primary unit itself. The women planning to give birth in a tertiary hospital did not express confidence in the birth process, their ability to give birth, the system for transfers and/or the primary unit as a birthplace, although they did express confidence in their midwife. birthplace is a profoundly important aspect of women׳s experience of

  14. Is a motivational interviewing based lifestyle intervention for obese pregnant women across Europe implemented as planned? Process evaluation of the DALI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. Jelsma (Judith G. M.); Simmons, D. (David); Gobat, N. (Nina); Rollnick, S. (Stephen); Blumska, K. (Kinga); G. Jans (Goele); S. Galjaard (Sander); G. Desoye (G.); R. Corcoy (Rosa); Juarez, F. (Fabiola); A. Kautzky-Willer (Alexandra); J. Harreiter (Jurgen); A. Van Assche (Andre); R. Devlieger (Roland); D. Timmerman (Dirk); D. Hill (David); P. Damm (Peter); E. Mathiesen (E.); E. Wender-Ozegowska (Ewa); A. Zawiejska (Agnieszka); A. Lapolla (Annunziata); M.G. Dalfra (Maria G.); del Prato, S. (Stefano); A. Bertolotto (Alessandra); F. Dunne (Fidelma); D.M. Jensen (Dorte M.); L. Andersen (Liselotte); F.J. Snoek (Frank); M.N. van Poppel (Mireille)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Process evaluation is an essential part of designing and assessing complex interventions. The vitamin D and lifestyle intervention study (DALI) study is testing different strategies to prevent development of gestational diabetes mellitus among European obese pregnant women

  15. Dehydroepiandrosterone as an adjunct to gonadotropins in infertile Indian women with premature ovarian aging: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Nisha Malik; Alka Kriplani; Nutan Agarwal; Neerja Bhatla; Garima Kachhawa; Raj Kumar Yadav

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation is a relatively recent development that augments ovarian responsiveness in patients with poor ovarian reserve and premature ovarian aging (POA). AIMS: To evaluate the efficacy of DHEA supplementation prior to gonadotropins for ovulation induction in women with POA. DESIGN: Prospective randomized controlled study. METHODS: Fifty infertile women with POA were randomized into two groups of 25 each. Group 1 received tablet DHEA 25 mg while...

  16. Comparison of rates of adverse events in adolescent and adult women undergoing medical abortion: population register based study

    OpenAIRE

    Niinimäki, Maarit; Suhonen, Satu; Mentula, Maarit; Hemminki, Elina; Heikinheimo, Oskari; Gissler, Mika

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the risks of short term adverse events in adolescent and older women undergoing medical abortion. Design Population based retrospective cohort study. Setting Finnish abortion register 2000-6. Participants All women (n=27 030) undergoing medical abortion during 2000-6, with only the first induced abortion analysed for each woman. Main outcome measures Incidence of adverse events (haemorrhage, infection, incomplete abortion, surgical evacuation, psychiatric morbidity, inj...

  17. An Educational Intervention Designed to Increase Women's Leadership Self-Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Isaac, Carol; Kaatz, Anna; Lee, Barbara; Carnes, Molly

    2012-01-01

    Women are sparsely represented in leadership in academic science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM). Cultural stereotypes about men, women, and leaders influence the attitudes, judgments, and decisions that others make about women and the choices women make for themselves. Multilevel interventions are needed to counteract the impact of these pervasive and easily activated stereotypes, which conspire in multiple ways to constrain women's entry, persistence, and advance...

  18. What makes a good family-centered partnership between women and their practitioners? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramling, Lou; Hickman, Kathleen; Bennett, Sharon

    2004-03-01

    Family-centered maternity care is an approach based on mutually beneficial partnerships between health care providers and families. It offers new ways of thinking about the relationship among childbearing women, their families, and health caregivers. This study was designed to identify health care practices that promoted or limited a family-centered philosophy. A qualitative design, using reflexive interviews and focus groups, investigated the perspectives of 34, primarily African American women who used maternity services at a large urban hospital; some women traveled from rural areas for delivery. Inductive data analysis was conducted on the transcribed audiotapes of the interviews and groups. Barriers to family-centered maternity care were categorized as issues in coordination of services among health caregivers, patient-health caregiver relationships and systems, and access to services. Facilitators of family-centered maternity care were identified as perceived response to high-risk patients, health-related support outside the hospital, and special resources. Narratives, or personal stories told by the women, were used to illustrate barriers and facilitators. Education about family-centered maternity care is vitally important for health caregivers. In clinical situations, each childbearing woman and her family should be treated as if they are extraordinary. In this way, practitioners can alter routines that cause the woman and her family to lose individualized care.

  19. Fully Bayesian Experimental Design for Pharmacokinetic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth G. Ryan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Utility functions in Bayesian experimental design are usually based on the posterior distribution. When the posterior is found by simulation, it must be sampled from for each future dataset drawn from the prior predictive distribution. Many thousands of posterior distributions are often required. A popular technique in the Bayesian experimental design literature, which rapidly obtains samples from the posterior, is importance sampling, using the prior as the importance distribution. However, importance sampling from the prior will tend to break down if there is a reasonable number of experimental observations. In this paper, we explore the use of Laplace approximations in the design setting to overcome this drawback. Furthermore, we consider using the Laplace approximation to form the importance distribution to obtain a more efficient importance distribution than the prior. The methodology is motivated by a pharmacokinetic study, which investigates the effect of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation on the pharmacokinetics of antibiotics in sheep. The design problem is to find 10 near optimal plasma sampling times that produce precise estimates of pharmacokinetic model parameters/measures of interest. We consider several different utility functions of interest in these studies, which involve the posterior distribution of parameter functions.

  20. Coccydynia in Taiwanese women: biomechanical and physiological study

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, San-Pei

    2010-01-01

    Coccydynia is a form of back pain and occurs more commonly in women than in men, and is a particular clinical problem seen in Taiwan. Understanding of the condition is limited and it cannot be isolated from other dysfunctions in the lumbopelvic region. It is proposed that neuromuscular alterations that occur in low back pain (LBP) could also occur in coccydynia and forms the topic of this thesis. The aims of this study were to explore neuromuscular and musculoskeletal changes in Taiwanese wom...

  1. Prospective cohort study of tea consumption and risk of digestive system cancers: results from the Shanghai Women's Health Study123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechuta, Sarah; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Li, Hong-Lan; Yang, Gong; Ji, Bu-Tian; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Cai, Hui; Chow, Wong-Ho; Gao, Yu-Tang

    2012-01-01

    Background: Data from in vitro and animal studies support a protective role for tea in the etiology of digestive system cancers; however, results from prospective cohort studies have been inconsistent. In addition, to our knowledge, no study has investigated the association of tea consumption with the incidence of all digestive system cancers in Chinese women. Objective: We investigated the association of regular tea intake (≥3 times/wk for >6 mo) with risk of digestive system cancers. Design: We used the Shanghai Women's Health Study, a population-based prospective cohort study of middle-aged and older Chinese women who were recruited in 1996–2000. Adjusted HRs and associated 95% CIs were derived from Cox regression models. Results: After a mean follow-up of 11 y, 1255 digestive system cancers occurred (stomach, esophagus, colorectal, liver, pancreas, and gallbladder/bile duct cancers) in 69,310 nonsmoking and non–alcohol-drinking women. In comparison with women who never drank tea, regular tea intake (mostly green tea) was associated with reduced risk of all digestive system cancers combined (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.98), and the reduction in risk increased as the amount and years of tea consumption increased (P-trend = 0.01 and P-trend tea/mo (∼2–3 cups/d) had a 21% reduced risk of digestive system cancers combined (HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.99). The inverse association was found primarily for colorectal and stomach/esophageal cancers. Conclusion: In this large prospective cohort study, tea consumption was associated with reduced risk of colorectal and stomach/esophageal cancers in Chinese women. PMID:23053557

  2. The Women's Studies Center--A Women's-Led NGO Deepening Democracy in Chile: Educating Women through Personal Empowerment and Political Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Caroline

    This paper explores how the Women's Studies Center (Centro de Estudios de la Mujer, CEM), a feminist, women-led nongovernmental organization (NGO), is contributing to socio-cultural change in Chile 11 years after the country's democratic transition. CEM merges the theoretical and the practical, and the personal and the political through education…

  3. Cases and Materials on Women and the Law for GS 200: Introduction to Women's Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Marjorie Fine, Ed.

    Cases and materials used in an undergraduate course, "Women and the Law," are divided to cover women and the Constitution of the U.S. (including the Equal Rights Amendment), the Supreme Court Abortion Decision, and the contemporary legal status of women including employment, education, and criminal law. Fifteen cases highlight the issues…

  4. Service Design, insights from nine case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Gijbels; C. van Gessel; Dr. Ir. Remko van der Lugt; Tanja Enninga; Sjoukje Sleeswijk Visser; Fenne Verhoeven; Berit Godfroij; M.M. Manschot

    2013-01-01

    Service design is literally the design of services. Service designers improve existing services or design completely new ones. Nothing new so far. Services have been around for centuries, and every service was conceived and designed by someone. However, service design takes a different angle; a

  5. Freestanding midwifery unit versus obstetric unit: a matched cohort study of outcomes in low-risk women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Charlotte; Møller, Anna Margrethe; Fenger-Grøn, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare perinatal and maternal morbidity and birth interventions in low-risk women giving birth in two freestanding midwifery units (FMUs) and two obstetric units (OUs). Design A cohort study with a matched control group. Setting The region of North Jutland, Denmark. Participants 839...... low-risk women intending FMU birth and a matched control group of 839 low-risk women intending OU birth were included at the start of care in labour. OU women were individually chosen to match selected obstetric/socio-economic characteristics of FMU women. Analysis was by intention to treat. Main...... outcome measures Perinatal and maternal morbidity and interventions. Results No significant differences in perinatal morbidity were observed between groups (Apgar scores outcomes were rare and occurred in both groups. FMU...

  6. Promoting physical activity in Iranian women: A qualitative study using social marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Seyed Vahid Ahmadi; Ardabili, Hassan Eftekhar; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Nakhaee, Nouzar; Shams, Mohsen

    2017-09-01

    In social marketing, at the center of the program is consumer perception. The objective of this study was to explore the viewpoints of Iranian women for tailoring interventions so as to increase physical activity. The social marketing model served as the framework of the study. Qualitative data were collected via six semi-structured focus group discussions (FGDs), in 2014 in Iran. Participants were 51 women, 20 to 60 years old, selected by purposive sampling, with a maximum diversity. Qualitative content analysis of the data was conducted by researchers. After data analysis and extracting initial codes, they were all categorized in four predefined categories of social marketing model (product, price, place and promotion) and related sub-categories. Most of the participants were inactive. Price was addressed by women as the dominant category of this study. The majority of participants emphasized the benefits of prevention of chronic diseases, fitness, staying young, and improving family relations. Most women preferred to do physical activity in a secure and enclosed female environment. And the majority of participants considered radio, television, face to face training, texting, and advertising billboards as promotional strategies. This study provides a unique insight into consumers' values and motivations that affect consumers' decisions to adopt physical activity, in Iran. It could also help researchers to design and implement intervention programs to increase physical activity.

  7. Psychosocial Work Characteristics Predict Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Health Functioning in Rural Women: The Wisconsin Rural Women's Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikani, Vatsal; Reding, Douglas; Gunderson, Paul; McCarty, Catherine A.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study is to investigate the association between psychosocial work characteristics and health functioning and cardiovascular disease risk factors among rural women of central Wisconsin and compare psychosocial work characteristics between farm and nonfarm women. Methods: Stratified sampling was used to select a…

  8. Effect of levothyroxine on live birth rate in euthyroid women with recurrent miscarriage and TPO antibodies (T4-LIFE study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissenberg, R; van Dijk, M M; Fliers, E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab) in euthyroid women are associated with recurrent miscarriage (RM) and other pregnancy complications such as preterm birth. It is unclear if treatment with levothyroxine improves pregnancy outcome. Aim To determine the effect of levothyroxine...... administration on live birth rate in euthyroid TPO-Ab positive women with recurrent miscarriage. METHODS: /Design We will perform a multicenter, placebo controlled randomized trial in euthyroid women with recurrent miscarriage and TPO-Ab. Recurrent miscarriage is defined as two or more miscarriages before the 20...... we discuss the rationale and design of the T4-LIFE study, an international multi-center randomized, double blind placebo controlled, clinical trial aimed to assess the effectiveness of levothyroxine in women with recurrent miscarriage and TPO-Ab....

  9. Reproductive intentions and outcomes among women on antiretroviral therapy in rural Uganda: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Homsy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART may influence the biological, social and behavioral determinants of pregnancy in HIV-infected women. However, there are limited longitudinal data on the reproductive intentions and outcomes among women on ART in Africa. METHODOLOGY /PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a prospective cohort design, we analyzed trends in desire for children and predictors of pregnancy among a cohort of 733 HIV-infected women in rural Uganda who initiated ART between May 2003 and May 2004 and were followed up in their homes until June 2006. Women answered in-depth social and behavioral questionnaires administered every quarter in year 1 after initiating ART, and every 6 to 12 months thereafter. Use of family planning methods was assessed at 18 and 24 months after starting ART. We tested for non-constant pregnancy incidence by using a shape parameter test from the Weibull distribution. We modeled repeated measurements of all variables related to the women's desire for children over time using a generalized estimating equation (GEE extension to the logistic regression model. Risk factors for pregnancy were examined using Cox proportional hazards model. 711 women eligible for the study were followed-up for a median time of 2.4 years after starting ART. During this time, less than 7% of women reported wanting more children at any time point yet 120 (16.9% women experienced 140 pregnancies and pregnancy incidence increased from 3.46 per 100 women-years (WY in the first quarter to 9.5 per 100 WY at 24 months (p18.5 (HR = 1.09, CI: 1.01-1.18 and not having used condoms consistently in the last 3 months (HR = 1.79, CI: 1.02-3.13 were independently associated with pregnancy. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Women on ART and their partners should be consistently counseled on the effects of ART in restoring fertility, and offered regularly free and comprehensive family planning services as part of their standard package of care.

  10. Understanding Women's Differing Experiences of Distress after Colposcopy: A Qualitative Interview Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Mairead

    2015-01-01

    Women who have an abnormal cervical cytology test may be referred for a colposcopy. Accumulating evidence suggests some women may experience distress after colposcopy. This exploratory study examined women\\'s differing experiences of post-colposcopy distress with the aim of identifying factors that are predictive of, or protective against, distress.

  11. Knowledge, attitude and practice of Nigerian women towards breast cancer: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okonofua Friday E

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Late presentation of patients at advanced stages when little or no benefit can be derived from any form of therapy is the hallmark of breast cancer in Nigerian women. Recent global cancer statistics indicate rising global incidence of breast cancer and the increase is occurring at a faster rate in populations of the developing countries that hitherto enjoyed low incidence of the disease. Worried by this prevailing situation and with recent data suggesting that health behavior may be influenced by level of awareness about breast cancer, a cross-sectional study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of community-dwelling women in Nigeria towards breast cancer. Methods One thousand community-dwelling women from a semi-urban neighborhood in Nigeria were recruited for the study in January and February 2000 using interviewer-administered questionnaires designed to elicit sociodemographic information and knowledge, attitude and practices of these women towards breast cancer. Data analysis was carried out using Statistical Analysis Software (SAS version 8.2. Results Study participants had poor knowledge of breast cancer. Mean knowledge score was 42.3% and only 214 participants (21.4% knew that breast cancer presents commonly as a painless breast lump. Practice of breast self examination (BSE was low; only 432 participants (43.2% admitted to carrying out the procedure in the past year. Only 91 study participants (9.1% had clinical breast examination (CBE in the past year. Women with higher level of education (X2 = 80.66, p 2 = 47.11, p Conclusion The results of this study suggest that community-dwelling women in Nigeria have poor knowledge of breast cancer and minority practice BSE and CBE. In addition, education appears to be the major determinant of level of knowledge and health behavior among the study participants. We recommend the establishment and sustenance of institutional framework and policy guidelines

  12. Women, environment and population: a Moroccan case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mdaghri, C A

    1995-01-01

    The case study of the impact of environmental degradation on rural Moroccan women illustrates that women with a high degree of dependence on natural resources are the most deeply affected by environmental degradation. The study area is deforested with declining water supplies and soil erosion. Within the study area are two peasant sedentary communities with different relationships to the urban economy. The first area is in part of the northwest province of Tetouan, where population density is high, cultivated lands have expanded, and fuelwood collection has increased to the detriment of the environment. The study village is Al Haoud with 87 households. The second area is in the province of Al Hoceima, where resources are poor and population pressure is great. The peasants grow cannabis, which provides substantial revenues, especially for the middlemen. The study village is Iatmanene with 69 households. In Al Haoud women are the basis of the "Jbala" economy, and their survival is based on conservation of resources (sharing of ovens and fuelwood for baking bread). In Iatmanene 33% of households have one member working abroad, and 20% have two or more members absent. Off-farm income is based on sales of dwarf palm produce in Al Haoud and income from migrant workers and petty trading. 4% of housing Al Haoud and 38% in Iatmanene is modern housing. 75% of housing in Iatmanene has 4 or more rooms. No house in Al Haoud has 4 rooms. 91% in Al Haoud, and 71% in Iatmanene are nuclear families. Only Iatmanene of the 12 study villages has piped water and electricity. Iatmanene population has a higher standard of living. Education of girls is 48% in Iatmanene and zero in Al Haoud. Children are used for fetching water. In Al Haoud boys help with water fetching to some extent. Women in Al Haoud and girls in Iatmanene collect fuelwood. Almost all households in Iatmanene and only 68% in Al Haoud know about family planning. 44% in Iatmanene and 0% in Al Haoud are current users

  13. Conceptual design studies for surface infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufkin, Ann L.; Jones, William R., II

    1986-01-01

    The utimate design of a manned Mars base will be the result of considerable engineering analysis and many trade studies to optimize the configuration. Many options and scenarios are available and all need to be considered at this time. Initial base elements, two base configuration concepts, internal space architectural concerns, and two base set-up scenarios are discussed. There are many variables as well as many unknowns to be reckoned with before people set foot on the red planet.

  14. Pregnant women: What do they need to know during pregnancy? A descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almalik, Mona M A; Mosleh, Sultan M

    2017-04-01

    Antenatal education programs provide women with essential knowledge and skills in various aspects of maternal and fetal health. Antenatal education is based on improving women's health, reducing the risks of complications and enhancing couples' positive experience during childbirth. There is a lack of formal antenatal educational programs based on women's needs in Jordan. This study sought to identify and prioritize the learning needs for women during pregnancy. A descriptive cross-sectional design was employed. The study sample was recruited from three maternal and child health centers. Data were collected from a convenient sample of 150 pregnant women during their antenatal visits. One hundred and twenty three participants (response rate=82%) completed the self-reported antenatal learning needs questionnaire. Women identified their most important learning needs were related to managing major complications of pregnancy (mean=3.49, SD=0.78), investigations and physician follow-up visit during pregnancy (mean=3.42, SD=0.71), appropriate diet (mean=3.36, SD=0.84) and information about medication and supplements (mean=3.22, SD=0.97). Spearman correlation showed negative association between participants' age and physical (r=-0.536, p=0.015) and emotional concerns (r=-0.490, p=0.001). Women who had a diploma or higher degree reported greater concern regarding physical (median=4.00, IQR=3.00-4.00, p=0.047) and emotional changes (median=3.33, IQR=3.00-4.00, p=0.004). Finally, migrant participants showed greater significant concern regarding emotional changes and coping with minor complications. A large proportion of pregnant women in this study reported a high degree of importance of specific learning topics that were closely relevant to their current period of pregnancy. The lack of focusing on issues related to maternal emotional status and possible complications suggests a need for a national strategy to provide antenatal education based on women's perceptions of their

  15. The Women's international study of long-duration oestrogen after menopause (WISDOM: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meade Tom W

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At the time of feasibility work and final design of the trial there was no randomised control trial evidence for the long-term risks and benefits of hormone replacement therapy. Observational studies had suggested that long term use of estrogen was likely to be associated, amongst other things, with reduced risks of osteoporosis and ischaemic heart disease and increased risks of breast and endometrial cancer. Concomitant use of progestogens had been shown to protect against endometrial cancer, but there were few data showing how progestogen might affect estrogen actions on other conditions. Disease specific risks from observational studies suggested that, overall, long-term HRT was likely to be beneficial. Several studies showed that mortality from all causes was lower in HRT users than in non-users. Some secondary cardiovascular prevention trials were ongoing but evidence was also required for a range of outcomes in healthy women. The WISDOM trial was designed to compare combined estrogen and progestogen versus placebo, and estrogen alone versus combined estrogen and progestogen. During the development of WISDOM the Women's Health Initiative trial was designed, funded and started in the US. Design Randomised, placebo, controlled, trial. Methods The trial was set in general practices in the UK (384, Australia (94, and New Zealand (24. In these practices 284175 women aged 50–69 years were registered with 226282 potentially eligible. We sought to randomise 22300 postmenopausal women aged 50 – 69 and treat for ten years. The interventions were: conjugated equine estrogens, 0.625 mg orally daily; conjugated equine estrogens plus medroxyprogesterone acetate 2.5/5.0 mg orally daily; matched placebo. Primary outcome measures were: major cardiovascular disease, osteoporotic fractures, breast cancer and dementia. Secondary outcomes were: other cancers, all cause death, venous thromboembolism and cerebro-vascular disease. Results

  16. Sexuality in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucilene Sales da Paixão Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the sexual behavior of women with polycystic ovary syndrome and the relationship between sexual behavior and the clinical parameters related to this syndrome (obesity, hirsutism and menstrual irregularities. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 48 women with polycystic ovary syndrome. The evaluation was based on the complaints reported by the women with particular emphasis on sexual satisfaction, the presence of a sexual partner, phases of the sexual response cycle (desire, arousal, orgasm and resolution phases, sexual frequency, practice of masturbation, evaluation of less usual sexual habits, degree of intimacy and the quality of communication in the women’s involvement with their sexual partner. The variables of sexual behavior (sexual satisfaction, masturbation, sexual fantasies, frequency of desire, arousal and orgasm were compared with three clinical parameters: menstrual cycle, hirsutism and body mass index (BMI. Results: The sexual initiation, ways of expressing sexuality, communication and intimacy with partner and sexual satisfaction were not influenced by the clinical aspects of the syndrome. With respect to association of polycystic ovary syndrome clinical parameters with sexual behavior, a statistically significant correlation was found with the menstrual cycle. Conclusion: The absence of menstruation affected sexual interest in activities not involving the partner, thus increasing the frequency of masturbation.

  17. Mental disorders in battered women: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, W J

    1993-01-01

    Prevalence of mental disorders in 62 battered women receiving services from a Florida battered woman agency was identified by means of a structured interview, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Of the total sample of battered women, 30 were in a shelter operated by the agency and 32 were living in their own homes and receiving assistance from the agency. Resultant diagnoses met diagnostic criteria developed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (3rd. ed.) of the American Psychiatric Association. The Diagnostic Interview Schedule is a 263 item structured interview used in the National Institute of Mental Health Epidemiological Catchment Area program carried out in the early 1980s. The Diagnostic Interview Schedule permits the use of 10,953 females in the epidemiological study as a comparison group of normal women. Scoring of the interviews was done by a computer diagnostic program with absolute decision rules. Extremely high prevalence was found for psychosexual dysfunction, major depression, post traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and obsessive compulsive disorder. These diagnoses appear to reflect the major components of the battered woman syndrome developed by Lenore Walker and the study approximates Walker's request for improved methodology in the research into the psychology of the battered woman.

  18. Brucellosis in pregnant women from Pakistan: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahzad; Akhter, Shamim; Neubauer, Heinrich; Scherag, André; Kesselmeier, Miriam; Melzer, Falk; Khan, Iahtasham; El-Adawy, Hosny; Azam, Asima; Qadeer, Saima; Ali, Qurban

    2016-09-02

    Brucella species occasionally cause spontaneous human abortion. Brucella can be transmitted commonly through the ingestion of raw milk or milk products. The objective of this study was to determine the sero-prevalence of and to identify potential risk factors for brucellosis in pregnant women from Rawalpindi, Pakistan. We conducted a cross-sectional study at the Gynecology Outdoor Patient department of the Benazir Bhutto Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan from March to June 2013. Data related to potential risk factors and clinical history was collected by individual interviews on the blood sampling day. The 429 serum samples collected were initially screened by Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination test for the detection of Brucella antibodies. We applied standard descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses. Twenty five (5.8 %; 95 % confidence interval (CI): 3.8 % -8.5 %) serum samples were found to be seropositive. Brucellosis-related clinical symptoms were recorded in various seropositive cases. Animal contact, raw milk consumption, having an abortion history and the experience of an intrauterine fetal death were associated with seropositivity for brucellosis in univariate analyses (all p Brucellosis is a serious threat for pregnant women and their unborn children in Pakistan. Pregnant women having brucellosis-related symptoms or previous history of abortions, miscarriages, intrauterine fetal death and other brucellosis-related manifestations should be screened for brucellosis - especially those exposed to animals given the increased risk - and medication should be administered according to state of the art.

  19. Challenges Women with Disability Face in Accessing and Using Maternal Healthcare Services in Ghana: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganle, John Kuumuori; Otupiri, Easmon; Obeng, Bernard; Edusie, Anthony Kwaku; Ankomah, Augustine; Adanu, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background While a number of studies have examined the factors affecting accessibility to and utilisation of healthcare services by persons with disability in general, there is little evidence about disabled women's access to maternal health services in low-income countries and few studies consult disabled women themselves to understand their experience of care and the challenges they face in accessing skilled maternal health services. The objective of this paper is to explore the challenges women with disabilities encounter in accessing and using institutional maternal healthcare services in Ghana. Methods and Findings A qualitative study was conducted in 27 rural and urban communities in the Bosomtwe and Central Gonja districts of Ghana with a total of 72 purposively sampled women with different physical, visual, and hearing impairments who were either lactating or pregnant at the time of this research. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were used to gather data. Attride-Stirling’s thematic network framework was used to analyse the data. Findings suggest that although women with disability do want to receive institutional maternal healthcare, their disability often made it difficult for such women to travel to access skilled care, as well as gain access to unfriendly physical health infrastructure. Other related access challenges include: healthcare providers’ insensitivity and lack of knowledge about the maternity care needs of women with disability, negative attitudes of service providers, the perception from able-bodied persons that women with disability should be asexual, and health information that lacks specificity in terms of addressing the special maternity care needs of women with disability. Conclusions Maternal healthcare services that are designed to address the needs of able-bodied women might lack the flexibility and responsiveness to meet the special maternity care needs of women with disability. More disability-related cultural competence and

  20. Exploring the career choices of White and Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic women pharmacists: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howells, Kelly; Bower, Peter; Hassell, Karen

    2017-12-26

    In the UK, a growing number of females entering pharmacy are women from Black, Asian and minority ethnic groups (BAME). Research shows that BAME women are more likely to work in the community sector and be self-employed locums than white women, and Asian women overrepresented in part-time, lower status roles. This study aims to explore the employment choices of white and BAME women pharmacists to see whether their diverse work patterns are the product of individual choices or other organisational factors. This study analyses 28 qualitative interviews conducted with 18 BAME and 10 white women pharmacists. The interview schedule was designed to explore early career choices, future career aspirations and key stages in making their career decisions. The findings show that white and BAME women are influenced by different factors in their early career choices. Cultural preferences for self-employment and business opportunities discourage BAME women from hospital sector jobs early in their careers. Resonating with other studies, the findings show that white and BAME women face similar barriers to career progression if they work part-time. Women working part-time are more likely to face workforce barriers, irrespective of ethnic origin. Cultural preferences may be preventing BAME women from entering the hospital sector. This research is important in the light of current debates about the future shape of pharmacy practice, as well as wider government policy objectives that seek to improve the working lives of health care professionals and promote racial diversity and equality in the workplace. © 2017 The Authors. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  1. Challenges Women with Disability Face in Accessing and Using Maternal Healthcare Services in Ghana: A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kuumuori Ganle

    Full Text Available While a number of studies have examined the factors affecting accessibility to and utilisation of healthcare services by persons with disability in general, there is little evidence about disabled women's access to maternal health services in low-income countries and few studies consult disabled women themselves to understand their experience of care and the challenges they face in accessing skilled maternal health services. The objective of this paper is to explore the challenges women with disabilities encounter in accessing and using institutional maternal healthcare services in Ghana.A qualitative study was conducted in 27 rural and urban communities in the Bosomtwe and Central Gonja districts of Ghana with a total of 72 purposively sampled women with different physical, visual, and hearing impairments who were either lactating or pregnant at the time of this research. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were used to gather data. Attride-Stirling's thematic network framework was used to analyse the data. Findings suggest that although women with disability do want to receive institutional maternal healthcare, their disability often made it difficult for such women to travel to access skilled care, as well as gain access to unfriendly physical health infrastructure. Other related access challenges include: healthcare providers' insensitivity and lack of knowledge about the maternity care needs of women with disability, negative attitudes of service providers, the perception from able-bodied persons that women with disability should be asexual, and health information that lacks specificity in terms of addressing the special maternity care needs of women with disability.Maternal healthcare services that are designed to address the needs of able-bodied women might lack the flexibility and responsiveness to meet the special maternity care needs of women with disability. More disability-related cultural competence and patient-centred training for

  2. Challenges Women with Disability Face in Accessing and Using Maternal Healthcare Services in Ghana: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganle, John Kuumuori; Otupiri, Easmon; Obeng, Bernard; Edusie, Anthony Kwaku; Ankomah, Augustine; Adanu, Richard

    2016-01-01

    While a number of studies have examined the factors affecting accessibility to and utilisation of healthcare services by persons with disability in general, there is little evidence about disabled women's access to maternal health services in low-income countries and few studies consult disabled women themselves to understand their experience of care and the challenges they face in accessing skilled maternal health services. The objective of this paper is to explore the challenges women with disabilities encounter in accessing and using institutional maternal healthcare services in Ghana. A qualitative study was conducted in 27 rural and urban communities in the Bosomtwe and Central Gonja districts of Ghana with a total of 72 purposively sampled women with different physical, visual, and hearing impairments who were either lactating or pregnant at the time of this research. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were used to gather data. Attride-Stirling's thematic network framework was used to analyse the data. Findings suggest that although women with disability do want to receive institutional maternal healthcare, their disability often made it difficult for such women to travel to access skilled care, as well as gain access to unfriendly physical health infrastructure. Other related access challenges include: healthcare providers' insensitivity and lack of knowledge about the maternity care needs of women with disability, negative attitudes of service providers, the perception from able-bodied persons that women with disability should be asexual, and health information that lacks specificity in terms of addressing the special maternity care needs of women with disability. Maternal healthcare services that are designed to address the needs of able-bodied women might lack the flexibility and responsiveness to meet the special maternity care needs of women with disability. More disability-related cultural competence and patient-centred training for healthcare

  3. Menstruation during a lifespan: A qualitative study of women's experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantelid, Ida Emilie; Nilvér, Helena; Alehagen, Siw

    2014-01-01

    Menstruation is a natural phenomenon for women during their reproductive years. Our aim was to describe women's experiences of menstruation across the lifespan. Qualitative interviews with a narrative approach were conducted with 12 women between 18 and 48 years of age in Sweden. Using thematic analysis, we found menstruation to be a complex phenomenon that binds women together. It is perceived as an intimate and private matter, which makes women want to conceal the occurrence of menstrual bleeding. Over time, menstruation becomes a natural part of women's lives and gender identity. Health professionals play a central role supporting women to deal with menstruation.

  4. Social capital in association with health status of women in reproductive age: study protocol for a sequential explanatory mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baheiraei, Azam; Bakouei, Fatemeh; Mohammadi, Eesa; Hosseini, Mostafa

    2014-05-09

    Women's health is a general health priority. Preserving and improving women's health is not only a basic human right, but it is also essential for the health of all nations. Women's health in Reproductive age affects long-term health of theirs, their family members, and community. Origins of health inequalities are very complicated. Health outcomes are influenced by biological, social and political factors, so to improve women's health it is necessary to recognize all these factors. Social capital is one of the social determinants of health that might play a considerable role in health inequalities. The association between social capital and health varies according on the sample studied, the type of health outcome and the context in which it is studied. This mixed methods study was designed to determine and explore of relationship between social capital and health status of women of reproductive age in Tehran (capital city of Iran) with its specific social-cultural characteristics. This study is sequential explanatory mixed methods study, follow-up explanations variant, with two strands (phases). This design will be implemented in two distinct phases. The first phase is a population-based cross-sectional survey on 770 women of reproductive age residing in any of the 22 municipal districts across Tehran. Based on a need to further understand the quantitative results, researchers will implement a second qualitative phase that is designed to help explain the initial quantitative results. Finally, the researchers will present an interpretation about explanation of quantitative results using the qualitative data. This study promotes women's health by determining the priorities and designing evidence-based interventions founded on the basic and insightful information provided on social capital and the status of the health of women.

  5. Seropositivity for Listeria monocytogenes in women with spontaneous abortion: a case-control study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, Mahin; Jahromi, Abdolreza Sotoodeh; Davoodian, Parivash; Amirian, Malihe; Zangeneh, Mehrangiz; Jadcareh, Fatemeh

    2009-03-01

    There are many studies supporting the role of certain asymptomatic infections such as Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) in spontaneous abortion. In some cases, latent listeriosis may complicate the pregnancy, and serologic tests can, therefore, be used to detect the disease. This study was designed to assess the relationship between seropositivity for L. monocytogenes and spontaneous abortion. A total of 250 women with previous spontaneous abortion and a control group of 200 women with normal full-term deliveries entered the study as case and control groups, respectively. Demographic characteristics were recorded for each subject, and serum samples were obtained from all participants. All serum samples were examined using the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test for L. monocytogenes antibody. Data was analyzed using Chi-squared and t tests. The average age of participants was 25.6 +/- 7.6 years in cases and 25.3 +/- 6.5 years in controls. Eighty-nine (35.6%) of the cases with abortion and 35 (17.5%) of the control group were positive for L. monocytogenes antibody (p = 0.001). No relationship was observed between the number of pregnancies and infection with L. monocytogenes (p = 0.4), or between the number of previous abortions and L. monocytogenes seropositivity (p = 0.2). We suggest monitoring L. monocytogenes seroprevalence in pregnant women at high risk of threatened abortion, and further microbiological assessment of symptomatic women for detection of L. monocytogenes and insidious infection.

  6. Abortion and depression: a population-based longitudinal study of young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Willy

    2008-06-01

    Induced abortion is an experience shared by a large number of women in Norway, but we know little about the likely social or mental health-related implications of undergoing induced abortion. International studies suggest an increased risk of adverse outcomes such as depression, but many studies are weakened by poor design. One particular problem is the lack of control for confounding factors likely to increase the risk of both abortion and depression. The aim of the study was to investigate whether induced abortion was a risk factor for subsequent depression. A representative sample of women from the normal population (n=768) was monitored between the ages of 15 and 27 years. Questions covered depression, induced abortion and childbirth, as well as sociodemographic variables, family relationships and a number of individual characteristics, such as schooling and occupational history and conduct problems. Young women who reported having had an abortion in their twenties were more likely to score above the cut-off point for depression (odds ratio (OR) 3.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0-6.1). Controlling for third variables reduced the association, but it remained significant (OR 2.9; 95% CI 1.7-5.6). There was no association between teenage abortion and subsequent depression. Young adult women who undergo induced abortion may be at increased risk for subsequent depression.

  7. Menopausal hormone therapy and pancreatic cancer risk in women: a population-based matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadr-Azodi, Omid; Konings, Peter; Brusselaers, Nele

    2017-12-01

    The role of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) in the development of pancreatic cancer is inconclusive owing to small studies and lack of proper study design. This population-based matched cohort study included all Swedish women who used systemic MHT between 1 July 2005 and 31 December 2012. For each user of MHT, three never-users of MHT were randomly selected, matched for childbirth, history of thromboembolic events, and previous hysterectomy, as well as for year of birth, diabetes, obesity, and smoking- or alcohol-related disorders. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between MHT use and pancreatic cancer. The effect of MHT duration on pancreatic cancer development was calculated using multivariable Poisson regression. There were 290,186 ever-users of MHT and 870,165 matched never-users. During the follow-up, 311 (0.0011%) ever-users of MHT and 1220 (0.0014) never-users developed pancreatic cancer. In a multivariable adjusted model, ever-users had a 23% reduced risk (OR 0.77; 95% CI: 0.68-0.87) of pancreatic cancer. This risk decreased by 35% (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.65; 95% CI: 0.33-1.27) in women who used MHT 1-2 years and by 60% (IRR 0.40; 95% CI: 0.18-0.88) in women who used MHT ≥ 3 years compared to women with pancreatic cancer.

  8. Clinical epidemiological studies of women undergoing surgery for urogynaecological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Rikke Guldberg

    2015-10-01

    This PhD thesis was performed during my employment at the Center for Clinical Epidemiology, Odense University Hospital and University of Southern Denmark, 2010-2013. It comprises an overview and four papers, two published in international peer-reviewed scientific journals, one under review, and one in draft. Urinary incontinence (UI) and pelvic organ prolapse (POP) are prevalent disorders among women worldwide, affecting their psychological and social wellbeing, with reductions in quality of life. Treatment options are conservative (e.g. pelvic floor exercises, weight loss, and bladder training), pharmacological, and surgical. Surgery has especially for UI undergone an improvement during the last decades with development of minimally-invasive sub-urethral sling procedures, and the number of surgeries has increased in Denmark and other countries. In a population of Danish women undergoing surgery for UI or POP, we aimed: to describe the establishment of the Danish Urogynaecological Database (DugaBase), and to evaluate the completeness and the validity of surgery registration in the DugaBase; to study patient reported outcome measures in Danish women undergoing urogynaecological surgery; to study the use of symptom-relieving drugs before and after surgery for UI; to study the use of antibiotics for urinary tract infection (UTI) before and after surgery for UI METHODS: Study I The completeness of DugaBase was assessed by comparing procedure codes in the DugaBase to iodes registered in the National Patient Registry, 2006-2010. The study also included review of medical journals from 200 women (computed randomly from DugaBase), representing 22 departments in Denmark. Information on selected variables was compared to registered data in the DugaBase. the National Patient Registry, the DugaBase, and medical records. Study II was based on a national cohort of women undergoing surgery for UI and POP registered in the DugaBase, 2006-2011. Clinical data and data from patient

  9. Quantitative methods for studying design protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Kan, Jeff WT

    2017-01-01

    This book is aimed at researchers and students who would like to engage in and deepen their understanding of design cognition research. The book presents new approaches for analyzing design thinking and proposes methods of measuring design processes. These methods seek to quantify design issues and design processes that are defined based on notions from the Function-Behavior-Structure (FBS) design ontology and from linkography. A linkograph is a network of linked design moves or segments. FBS ontology concepts have been used in both design theory and design thinking research and have yielded numerous results. Linkography is one of the most influential and elegant design cognition research methods. In this book Kan and Gero provide novel and state-of-the-art methods of analyzing design protocols that offer insights into design cognition by integrating segmentation with linkography by assigning FBS-based codes to design moves or segments and treating links as FBS transformation processes. They propose and test ...

  10. Design Study for Pulsed Proton Beam Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Sung Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fast neutrons with a broad energy spectrum, with which it is possible to evaluate nuclear data for various research fields such as medical applications and the development of fusion reactors, can be generated by irradiating proton beams on target materials such as beryllium. To generate short-pulse proton beam, we adopted a deflector and slit system. In a simple deflector with slit system, most of the proton beam is blocked by the slit, especially when the beam pulse width is short. Therefore, the available beam current is very low, which results in low neutron flux. In this study, we proposed beam modulation using a buncher cavity to increase the available beam current. The ideal field pattern for the buncher cavity is sawtooth. To make the field pattern similar to a sawtooth waveform, a multiharmonic buncher was adopted. The design process for the multiharmonic buncher includes a beam dynamics calculation and three-dimensional electromagnetic simulation. In addition to the system design for pulsed proton generation, a test bench with a microwave ion source is under preparation to test the performance of the system. The design study results concerning the pulsed proton beam generation and the test bench preparation with some preliminary test results are presented in this paper.

  11. Exposure to soda commercials affects sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young women: An observational experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Baaren, R.B. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the direct effects of television commercials advertising soda on actual sugar-sweetened soda consumption among young women. An experimental-observational study design was used, in which 51 female students (ages 18-29) were exposed to a 35-min movie clip, interrupted by two

  12. The 5- or 10-km Marikenloop Run: A Prospective Study of the Etiology of Running-Related Injuries in Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worp, M.P. van der; Wijer, A. de; Cingel, R. van; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Staal, J.B.

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Prospective cohort. Background The popularity of running events is still growing, particularly among women; however, little is known about the risk factors for running-related injuries in female runners. Objectives The aims of this study were to determine the incidence and

  13. Reducing health inequities affecting immigrant women: a qualitative study of their available assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonmatí-Tomás, Anna; Malagón-Aguilera, Maria Del Carmen; Bosch-Farré, Cristina; Gelabert-Vilella, Sandra; Juvinyà-Canal, Dolors; Garcia Gil, Maria Del Mar

    2016-07-07

    Immigrant women often experience health inequities, whether for reasons of gender, country of origin, or socioeconomic status. The view of immigrant women has always focussed on their needs, without taking into account their available assets. A salutogenic approach incorporating an assets analysis could provide a new perspective on the design of health promotion interventions to reduce health inequities. The study objective was to identify the assets of this group of women as a necessary first step in changing the paradigm used in such health promotion interventions. This qualitative study combined focus groups, in-depth interviews, and a photovoice session. The aim was to describe the assets of this group, based on Antonovsky's salutogenic approach and assets model. Qualitative results were interpreted with a phenomenological focus, identifying each individual's internal, community, and institutional assets. The self awareness of skills was linked to a person's description of herself as being optimistic, having religious beliefs, and having motivations and objectives in life, for herself, her family or her children. Being motivated helped the women to persist in doing or learning things that could be useful in confronting difficult situations. Another selfawareness skill was feeling useful to others, whether this was due to religious beliefs about their role in life or to the importance of the mutual support of interpersonal relationships. High optimism, strong capacity for struggle and self-initiative, the importance of religious beliefs, social support, and concern for their children's future were described as assets of immigrant women. Identification of these assets allows us to develop more in-depth knowledge and better tools for health promotion programs and policies intended to reduce health inequities in this population of immigrant women.

  14. Interim report on the tandem mirror hybrid design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W. (ed.)

    1979-08-01

    The initial phase of a 2-year design study of a tandem mirror fusion reactor is presented. The following chapters are included: (1) mechanical design of the plant; (2) plasma physics; (3) blanket design; (4) magnet design; (5) injector design; (6) direct convertor design; (7) balance of plant design; (8) fission burner reactor; (9) environment and safety; and (10) economic analysis. (MOW)

  15. Study of impulse control disorders among women presenting nicotine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejoyeux, Michel; Kerner, Laurent; Thauvin, Isabelle; Loi, Sabrina

    2006-01-01

    Objective. Impulse control disorders (ICDs) include intermittent explosive disorder, kleptomania, trichotillomania, pyromania and pathological gambling. Several studies have showed an association between ICDs and alcohol use disorders. The rate of co-occurrence ICDs and nicotine dependence has never been investigated. We thus assessed the frequency of all ICDs in a population of nicotine-dependent women compared to non-smoking women. We also checked criteria of two other impulsive behaviours, compulsive buying and bulimia. Methods. Five hundred consecutive patients were assessed by a general practitioner in Paris (France). One hundred and twenty-seven women presenting the DSM-IV-R criteria for nicotine dependence were included. They were compared to 127 women consulting the same practitioner but who did not smoke. Diagnosis of ICD (pyromania, kleptomania, trichotillomania, intermittent explosive disorder, pathological gambling) and of bulimia was based on DSM-IV criteria and a modified version of the Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview (MIDI). Diagnosis of compulsive buying was made with the McElroy et al. criteria and a specific questionnaire. Cigarette smoking was studied using the Fagerström questionnaire and the DSM-IV-R criteria for nicotine dependence. Alcohol use disorders were assessed with the DSM-IV-R criteria for dependence and the CAGE and the MAST questionnaires. Results. Thirteen patients presented trichotillomania, 22 explosive intermittent disorder and 12 pathological gambling. All these diagnoses were equally frequent in the nicotine-positive and nicotine-negative groups. We found no case of pyromania. Compulsive buying was the most frequent impulse control disorder. It was significantly more frequent in the nicotine-positive group than in the nicotine-negative group (58 vs. 39 cases, P=0.01). Scores of the compulsive buying scale were higher in the nicotine-positive group (4.07 vs. 2.9, P=0.01). None of the patients presented an association

  16. An experimental investigation of a psychoeducational strategy designed to reduce men's endorsement of societal ideals of women's attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamiya, Yuko; Thompson, J Kevin

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluated whether a psychoeducational manipulation, focused on reducing an unrealistic view of women's attractiveness, might affect men's ratings of the attractiveness of females. The participants were 159 male undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to four conditions: psychoeducational message (beauty ideals; marketing strategies) and photo exposure (attractive females; household products). The results indicated that males pre-exposed to attractive female images subsequently evaluated average females as less attractive than those exposed to household products. However, a psychoeducational information condition designed to challenge "beauty ideals" did not reduce the adverse exposure effect and was comparable in effectiveness to the "marketing strategies" manipulation. The limitations of the findings are discussed and avenues for future research in this area offered.

  17. Patterns and correlates of physical activity: a cross-sectional study in urban Chinese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hong-Lan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for many diseases. Rapid economic development in China has been associated with changes in lifestyle, including physical activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the patterns and correlates of physical activity in middle-aged and elderly women from urban Shanghai. Methods Study population consisted of 74,942 Chinese women, 40–70 years of age, participating in the baseline survey of the Shanghai Women's Health Study (1997–2000, an ongoing population-based cohort study. A validated, interviewer-administered physical activity questionnaire was used to collect information about several physical activity domains (exercise/sports, walking and cycling for transportation, housework. Correlations between physical activity domains were evaluated by Spearman rank-correlation coefficients. Associations between physical activity and socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were evaluated by odds ratios derived from logistic regression. Results While more than a third of study participants engaged in regular exercise, this form of activity contributed only about 10% to daily non-occupational energy expenditure. About two-thirds of women met current recommendations for lifestyle activity. Age was positively associated with participation in exercise/sports and housework. Dietary energy intake was positively associated with all physical activity domains. High socioeconomic status, unemployment (including retirement, history of chronic disease, small household, non-smoking status, alcohol and tea consumption, and ginseng intake were all positively associated with exercise participation. High socioeconomic status and small household were inversely associated with non-exercise activities. Conclusion This study demonstrates that physical activity domains other than sports and exercise are important contributors to total energy expenditure in women. Correlates of physical activity are domain

  18. A Study on Spice Usage Habits of Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Demircioglu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study has been carried out on the total of 662 women to determine their habits on the use of spices. The results indicated that 94.6% of women use spices at their home. When they cook meal, they generally use black pepper, red pepper flakes, pepper mint, oregano, red pepper and cumin. Sage, peppers mint and oregano are the most used spices for herbal therapy. Most of the women buy their spices on supermarket in wrapped products (67.1%, look the production and expiration dates of spices products (44.3%, keep them in colorless glass jar (63.6%, never consume expired date spices (88.8% and add spices to meal with a spoon that they use during meal preparation (48.2%. According to the results, the consumers should buy spices in a wrapped product with production and expiration dates from reliable companies. Morover, they must be kept from light, air, moisture and temperature and they must be kept in covered and dark-color glass jars and in cool places. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 161-168

  19. Lessons from Initiating the First Veterans Health Administration (VA) Women's Health Practice-based Research Network (WH-PBRN) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomernacki, Alyssa; Carney, Diane V; Kimerling, Rachel; Nazarian, Deborah; Blakeney, Jill; Martin, Brittany D; Strehlow, Holly; Yosef, Julia; Goldstein, Karen M; Sadler, Anne G; Bean-Mayberry, Bevanne A; Bastian, Lori A; Bucossi, Meggan M; McLean, Caitlin; Sonnicksen, Shannan; Klap, Ruth; Yano, Elizabeth M; Frayne, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    The Veterans Health Administration (VA) Women's Health Practice-Based Research Network (WH-PBRN) was created to foster innovations for the health care of women veterans. The inaugural study by the WH-PBRN was designed to identify women veterans' own priorities and preferences for mental health services and to inform refinements to WH-PBRN operational procedures. Addressing the latter, this article reports lessons learned from the inaugural study. WH-PBRN site coordinators at the 4 participating sites convened weekly with the study coordinator and the WH-PBRN program manager to address logistical issues and identify lessons learned. Findings were categorized into a matrix of challenges and facilitators related to key study elements. Challenges to the conduct of PBRN-based research included tracking of regulatory documents; cross-site variability in some regulatory processes; and troubleshooting logistics of clinic-based recruitment. Facilitators included a central institutional review board, strong relationships between WH-PBRN research teams and women's health clinic teams, and the perception that women want to help other women veterans. Our experience with the inaugural WH-PBRN study demonstrated the feasibility of establishing productive relationships between local clinicians and researchers, and of recruiting a special population (women veterans) in diverse sites within an integrated health care system. This identified strengths of a PBRN approach. © Copyright 2015 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  20. Risk factors for syphilis in women: case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macêdo, Vilma Costa; de Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral; de Frias, Paulo Germano; Romaguera, Luciana Maria Delgado; Caires, Silvana de Fátima Ferreira; Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the sociodemographic, behavioral, and health care factors related to the occurrence of syphilis in women treated at public maternity hospitals. METHODS This is a case-control study (239 cases and 322 controls) with women admitted to seven maternity hospitals in the municipality of Recife, Brazil, from July 2013 to July 2014. Eligible women were recruited after the result of the VDRL (Venereal Disease Research Laboratory) under any titration. The selection of cases and controls was based on the result of the serology for syphilis using ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The independent variables were grouped into: sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical and obstetric history, and health care in prenatal care and maternity hospital. Information was obtained by interview, during hospitalization, with the application of a questionnaire. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using logistic regression to identify the predicting factors of the variable to be explained. RESULTS The logistic regression analysis identified as determinant factors for gestational syphilis: education level of incomplete basic education or illiterate (OR = 2.02), lack of access to telephone (OR = 2.4), catholic religion (OR = 1.70 ), four or more pregnancies (OR = 2.2), three or more sexual partners in the last year (OR = 3.1), use of illicit drugs before the age of 18 (OR = 3.0), and use of illicit drugs by the current partner (OR = 1.7). Only one to three prenatal appointments (OR = 3.5) and a previous history of sexually transmitted infection (OR = 9.7) were also identified as determinant factors. CONCLUSIONS Sociodemographic, behavioral, and health care factors are associated with the occurrence of syphilis in women and should be taken into account in the elaboration of universal strategies aimed at the prevention and control of syphilis, but with a focus on situations of greater vulnerability. PMID:28832758

  1. Risk factors for syphilis in women: case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Costa de Macêdo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the sociodemographic, behavioral, and health care factors related to the occurrence of syphilis in women treated at public maternity hospitals. METHODS This is a case-control study (239 cases and 322 controls with women admitted to seven maternity hospitals in the municipality of Recife, Brazil, from July 2013 to July 2014. Eligible women were recruited after the result of the VDRL (Venereal Disease Research Laboratory under any titration. The selection of cases and controls was based on the result of the serology for syphilis using ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The independent variables were grouped into: sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical and obstetric history, and health care in prenatal care and maternity hospital. Information was obtained by interview, during hospitalization, with the application of a questionnaire. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using logistic regression to identify the predicting factors of the variable to be explained. RESULTS The logistic regression analysis identified as determinant factors for gestational syphilis: education level of incomplete basic education or illiterate (OR = 2.02, lack of access to telephone (OR = 2.4, catholic religion (OR = 1.70 , four or more pregnancies (OR = 2.2, three or more sexual partners in the last year (OR = 3.1, use of illicit drugs before the age of 18 (OR = 3.0, and use of illicit drugs by the current partner (OR = 1.7. Only one to three prenatal appointments (OR = 3.5 and a previous history of sexually transmitted infection (OR = 9.7 were also identified as determinant factors. CONCLUSIONS Sociodemographic, behavioral, and health care factors are associated with the occurrence of syphilis in women and should be taken into account in the elaboration of universal strategies aimed at the prevention and control of syphilis, but with a focus on situations of greater vulnerability.

  2. Instruments to study sleep disorders in climacteric women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Monterrosa-Castro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To identify the scales to assess sleep disorders applied to women with climacteric stage. Bibliographical research without intervention, the available information in scientific databases. Performed in PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Ebscohos OvidSP and Health Library. The words used in this article: insomnia, adjustment sleep disorder, questionnaires, studies and menopause. Publications of all types were included. Seven scales were identified: Insomnia Severity Index, Athens Insomnia Scale, Pittsburgh Quality of sleep Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Jenkins Sleep Scale, Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire and The St Mary's Hospital Sleep Questionnaire. There are validated scales in multiple languages and considered appropriate for studying sleep disorders.

  3. Women Emoloyees’ Perceptions About Their Managers: A Field Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail BAKAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The leadership style of people in managerial positions has a significant impact on employee behavior and attitudes towards business. Therefore, finding out the perceptions of employees regarding their managers’ leadership style will guide to managers to display successful management. There are several distinctions in the literature as to the type of leadership. In this study, first the concept and types of leadership determined and then the autocratic, democratic and free reign leadership styles will be explained. In the second part of the study a field research, to measure the perceptions of women workers about their managers’ leadership style, will be included in the textile industry as leading sector in Kahramanmaras.

  4. Obstetric outcomes for women with female genital mutilation at an Australian hospital, 2006-2012: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varol, Nesrin; Dawson, Angela; Turkmani, Sabera; Hall, John J; Nanayakkara, Susie; Jenkins, Greg; Homer, Caroline S E; McGeechan, Kevin

    2016-10-28

    Women, who have been subjected to female genital mutilation (FGM), can suffer serious and irreversible physical, psychological and psychosexual complications. They have more adverse obstetric outcomes as compared to women without FGM. Exploratory studies suggest radical change to abandonment of FGM by communities after migration to countries where FGM is not prevalent. Women who had been subjected to FGM as a child in their countries of origin, require specialised healthcare to reduce complications and further suffering. Our study compared obstetric outcomes in women with FGM to women without FGM who gave birth in a metropolitan Australian hospital with expertise in holistic FGM management. The obstetric outcomes of one hundred and ninety-six women with FGM who gave birth between 2006 and 2012 at a metropolitan Australian hospital were analysed. Comparison was made with 8852 women without FGM who gave birth during the same time period. Data were extracted from a database specifically designed for women with FGM and managed by midwives specialised in care of these women, and a routine obstetric database, ObstetriX. The accuracy of data collection on FGM was determined by comparing these two databases. All women with FGM type 3 were deinfibulated antenatally or during labour. The outcome measures were (1) maternal: accuracy and grade of FGM classification, caesarean section, instrumental birth, episiotomy, genital tract trauma, postpartum blood loss of more than 500 ml; and (2) neonatal: low birth weight, admission to a special care nursery, stillbirth. The prevalence of FGM in women who gave birth at the metropolitan hospital was 2 to 3 %. Women with FGM had similar obstetric outcomes to women without FGM, except for statistically significant higher risk of first and second degree perineal tears, and caesarean section. However, none of the caesarean sections were performed for FGM indications. The ObstetriX database was only 35 % accurate in recording the correct

  5. Women Studies in Engineering Education: Content Analysis in Three Referred Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Pao-Nan

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the research characteristics of past women studies in engineering education. In order to add knowledge base about the advanced development of women studies in current engineering education research, the purpose of the study is to investigate research characteristics of past women studies published in three referred…

  6. Social-Cultural Factors Affecting Maasai Women Participation In Decision Making In Tanzania. A Case Study Of Longido District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Kandusi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Throughout history participation in decision making through processes like voting vying for leadership position and participation in decision making meetings has been blinded by discrimination to certain groups of community members including women. This study assessed the social cultural factors affecting Maasai womens participation in decision making a case of Longido district. Purposive sampling was used to select the districts under the study. Decision to select Longido was based on the inhabitance of pastoral community. A total of 115 respondents were obtained through simple random selection. Data were collected through a questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS. Simple descriptive statistics and cross tabulation were used in the analysis. The results show that majority would you vote for a woman to be an MP Councilor Village Chairman in your community. A considerable proportion of men refused to be led by a woman. Furthermore women were found not to effectively participate in politics through vying for leadership positions as many respondents voted for male contestant main reasons being no female contestant. Situations in which women are involved in decision making were found mainly to be on issues pertaining women development and family matters. Findings show that women are allowed to vote in the community but often the decision for a woman to vote was found to be determined by men. The study further found that women are not regarded elders and females ideas were not taken into account as male ideas in village meetings. The main barriers for women participation in leadership were found that men do not want women to compete in leadership and women ideas not accepted by most men. The study concluded that Maasai women participation in decision making is limited by social cultural factors like social identity social acceptance social roles and limiting cultural practices. It is recommended that civic education strategy and appropriate

  7. Prospective study of alcohol drinking patterns and coronary heart disease in women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne; Jensen, Majken K; Tjønneland, Anne

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between alcohol drinking patterns and risk of coronary heart disease in women and men. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING: Denmark, 1993-2002. PARTICIPANTS: 28 448 women and 25 052 men aged 50-65 years, who were free of cardiovascular disease...... at entry to the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence of coronary heart disease occurring during a median follow-up period of 5.7 years. RESULTS: 749 and 1283 coronary heart disease events occurred among women and men. Women who drank alcohol on at least one day a week had a lower risk of coronary heart...... a week (0.65, 0.51 to 0.84). For men an inverse association was found between drinking frequency and risk of coronary heart disease across the entire range of drinking frequencies. The lowest risk was observed among men who drank daily (0.59, 0.48 to 0.71) compared with men who drank alcohol on less than...

  8. Food choices and practices during pregnancy of immigrant and Aboriginal women in Canada: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higginbottom Gina MA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Facilitating the provision of appropriate health care for immigrant and Aboriginal populations in Canada is critical for maximizing health potential and well-being. Numerous reports describe heightened risks of poor maternal and birth outcomes for immigrant and Aboriginal women. Many of these outcomes may relate to food consumption/practices and thus may be obviated through provision of resources which suit the women's ethnocultural preferences. This project aims to understand ethnocultural food and health practices of Aboriginal and immigrant women, and how these intersect with respect to the legacy of Aboriginal colonialism and to the social contexts of cultural adaptation and adjustment of immigrants. The findings will inform the development of visual tools for health promotion by practitioners. Methods/Design This four-phase study employs a case study design allowing for multiple means of data collection and different units of analysis. Phase 1 consists of a scoping review of the literature. Phases 2 and 3 incorporate pictorial representations of food choices (photovoice in Phase 2 with semi-structured photo-elicited interviews (in Phase 3. The findings from Phases 1-3 and consultations with key stakeholders will generate key understandings for Phase 4, the production of culturally appropriate visual tools. For the scoping review, an emerging methodological framework will be utilized in addition to systematic review guidelines. A research librarian will assist with the search strategy and retrieval of literature. For Phases 2 and 3, recruitment of 20-24 women will be facilitated by team member affiliations at perinatal clinics in one of the city's most diverse neighbourhoods. The interviews will reveal culturally normative practices surrounding maternal food choices and consumption, including how women negotiate these practices within their own worldview and experiences. A structured and comprehensive integrated knowledge

  9. Somali women's view of physical activity--a focus group study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Persson, Gerthi; Mahmud, Amina Jama; Hansson, Eva Ekvall; Strandberg, Eva Lena

    2014-01-01

    .... Few studies explore determinants of physical activity among Somali women. The aim of this study was to explore Somali women's views and experiences of physical activity after migration to Sweden...

  10. Diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and obesity in relation to serum dioxin concentrations: the Seveso women's health study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warner, Marcella; Mocarelli, Paolo; Brambilla, Paolo; Wesselink, Amelia; Samuels, Steven; Signorini, Stefano; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    .... Using data from the Seveso Women's Health Study (SWHS), a cohort study of the health of the women, we examined the relation of serum TCDD to diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and obesity > 30 years later...

  11. Advanced Subsonic Airplane Design and Economic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebeck, Robert H.; Andrastek, Donald A.; Chau, Johnny; Girvin, Raquel; Lyon, Roger; Rawdon, Blaine K.; Scott, Paul W.; Wright, Robert A.

    1995-01-01

    A study was made to examine the effect of advanced technology engines on the performance of subsonic airplanes and provide a vision of the potential which these advanced engines offered. The year 2005 was selected as the entry-into-service (EIS) date for engine/airframe combination. A set of four airplane classes (passenger and design range combinations) that were envisioned to span the needs for the 2005 EIS period were defined. The airframes for all classes were designed and sized using 2005 EIS advanced technology. Two airplanes were designed and sized for each class: one using current technology (1995) engines to provide a baseline, and one using advanced technology (2005) engines. The resulting engine/airframe combinations were compared and evaluated on the basis on sensitivity to basic engine performance parameters (e.g. SFC and engine weight) as well as DOC+I. The advanced technology engines provided significant reductions in fuel burn, weight, and wing area. Average values were as follows: reduction in fuel burn = 18%, reduction in wing area = 7%, and reduction in TOGW = 9%. Average DOC+I reduction was 3.5% using the pricing model based on payload-range index and 5% using the pricing model based on airframe weight. Noise and emissions were not considered.

  12. Antenatal physical activity: a qualitative study exploring women's experiences and the acceptability of antenatal walking groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Sinéad; Gray, Cindy; Shepherd, Ashley; McInnes, Rhona J

    2016-07-22

    Regular physical activity (PA) can be beneficial to pregnant women, however, many women do not adhere to current PA guidelines during the antenatal period. Patient and public involvement is essential when designing antenatal PA interventions in order to uncover the reasons for non-adherence and non-engagement with the behaviour, as well as determining what type of intervention would be acceptable. The aim of this research was to explore women's experiences of PA during a recent pregnancy, understand the barriers and determinants of antenatal PA and explore the acceptability of antenatal walking groups for further development. Seven focus groups were undertaken with women who had given birth within the past five years. Focus groups were transcribed and analysed using a grounded theory approach. Relevant and related behaviour change techniques (BCTs), which could be applied to future interventions, were identified using the BCT taxonomy. Women's opinions and experiences of PA during pregnancy were categorised into biological/physical (including tiredness and morning sickness), psychological (fear of harm to baby and self-confidence) and social/environmental issues (including access to facilities). Although antenatal walking groups did not appear popular, women identified some factors which could encourage attendance (e.g. childcare provision) and some which could discourage attendance (e.g. walking being boring). It was clear that the personality of the walk leader would be extremely important in encouraging women to join a walking group and keep attending. Behaviour change technique categories identified as potential intervention components included social support and comparison of outcomes (e.g. considering pros and cons of behaviour). Women's experiences and views provided a range of considerations for future intervention development, including provision of childcare, involvement of a fun and engaging leader and a range of activities rather than just walking

  13. Design Study: Rocket Based MHD Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This report addresses the technical feasibility and design of a rocket based MHD generator using a sub-scale LOx/RP rocket motor. The design study was constrained by assuming the generator must function within the performance and structural limits of an existing magnet and by assuming realistic limits on (1) the axial electric field, (2) the Hall parameter, (3) current density, and (4) heat flux (given the criteria of heat sink operation). The major results of the work are summarized as follows: (1) A Faraday type of generator with rectangular cross section is designed to operate with a combustor pressure of 300 psi. Based on a magnetic field strength of 1.5 Tesla, the electrical power output from this generator is estimated to be 54.2 KW with potassium seed (weight fraction 3.74%) and 92 KW with cesium seed (weight fraction 9.66%). The former corresponds to a enthalpy extraction ratio of 2.36% while that for the latter is 4.16%; (2) A conceptual design of the Faraday MHD channel is proposed, based on a maximum operating time of 10 to 15 seconds. This concept utilizes a phenolic back wall for inserting the electrodes and inter-electrode insulators. Copper electrode and aluminum oxide insulator are suggested for this channel; and (3) A testing configuration for the sub-scale rocket based MHD system is proposed. An estimate of performance of an ideal rocket based MHD accelerator is performed. With a current density constraint of 5 Amps/cm(exp 2) and a conductivity of 30 Siemens/m, the push power density can be 250, 431, and 750 MW/m(sup 3) when the induced voltage uB have values of 5, 10, and 15 KV/m, respectively.

  14. Increasing fruits and vegetables in midlife women: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Caroline A; Weber, Janet L; Coad, Jane; Kruger, Marlena C

    2013-07-01

    The positive link between bone health and fruit/vegetable consumption has been attributed to the lower renal acid load of a diet high in alkaline-forming fruit/vegetables. Other important dietary determinants of bone health include micronutrients and bioactives found in fruit/vegetables. We hypothesized that increased intake of fruit/vegetables to 9 or more servings a day would lower net endogenous acid production (NEAP) significantly (~20 mEq/d) and increase urine pH (0.5 pH units). This 8-week feasibility study investigated if 21 midlife women (age, 40-65 years) currently consuming 5 or less servings a day of fruit/vegetables could increase their intake to 9 or more servings a day to substantially lower NEAP and include specific vegetables daily. Three-day diet diaries were completed at baseline and the end of the study and assessed for NEAP (estimated) and number of servings from all food groups. Urine pH dipsticks were provided for the participants to assess and record their fasting urine pH daily (second void). Seventy-six percent of women achieved the study aim, which was to increase to 9 or more servings of fruit/vegetables for at least 5 d/wk. There was a reduction in the number of bread/cereal servings. Net endogenous acid production (estimated) was reduced significantly, with a mean urine pH increase of 0.68 pH units (95% confidence interval, 0.46-1.14); however, daily urine pH measures showed high variability. This study demonstrated that a group of midlife women can change their diet for 8 weeks by significantly increasing fruit/vegetable servings and include specific "bone friendly" vegetables daily, resulting in a significant decrease in estimated dietary NEAP and an increase in urine pH. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Tetracyanodibenzotetrathiafulvalene diimides: design, synthesis, and property study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zheng; Wang, Zhongli; Hu, Yunbin; Yang, Xiaodi; Li, Hongxiang; Gao, Xike; Zhu, Daoben

    2013-12-06

    Tetracyanodibenzotetrathiafulvalene diimide (TCDBTTF-DI), an isomer of core-expanded naphthalene diimides bearing two 2-(1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene)malononitrile moieties (NDI-DTYM2), has been designed and synthesized to explore the effect of its isomeric structure on the optical and electrochemical properties of the materials. UV-vis spectra show that TCDBTTF-DI exhibits variation in its absorption peaks while maintaining a similar optical band gap to NDI-DTYM2. Electrochemical studies indicate that TCDBTTF-DI can not only accept but also lose electrons, in contrast to the solely electron-accepting behavior of NDI-DTYM2.

  16. Protecting count queries in study design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwate, Anand D; Boxwala, Aziz A

    2012-01-01

    Objective Today's clinical research institutions provide tools for researchers to query their data warehouses for counts of patients. To protect patient privacy, counts are perturbed before reporting; this compromises their utility for increased privacy. The goal of this study is to extend current query answer systems to guarantee a quantifiable level of privacy and allow users to tailor perturbations to maximize the usefulness according to their needs. Methods A perturbation mechanism was designed in which users are given options with respect to scale and direction of the perturbation. The mechanism translates the true count, user preferences, and a privacy level within administrator-specified bounds into a probability distribution from which the perturbed count is drawn. Results Users can significantly impact the scale and direction of the count perturbation and can receive more accurate final cohort estimates. Strong and semantically meaningful differential privacy is guaranteed, providing for a unified privacy accounting system that can support role-based trust levels. This study provides an open source web-enabled tool to investigate visually and numerically the interaction between system parameters, including required privacy level and user preference settings. Conclusions Quantifying privacy allows system administrators to provide users with a privacy budget and to monitor its expenditure, enabling users to control the inevitable loss of utility. While current measures of privacy are conservative, this system can take advantage of future advances in privacy measurement. The system provides new ways of trading off privacy and utility that are not provided in current study design systems. PMID:22511018

  17. Women's Perceived Reasons for Their Excessive Postpartum Weight Retention: A Qualitative Interview Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Christenson

    Full Text Available Obesity in Sweden has doubled to 14% over the last 20 years. New strategies for treatment and prevention are needed. Excessive gestational weight gain has been found to contribute substantially to obesity, and there is a consistent association between postpartum weight retention and obesity later in life. We aimed to explore what factors women perceive as reasons for having substantial postpartum weight retention, to identify areas for new and improved interventions.Qualitative interview study (semi-structured using an emergent design. Fifteen women, with a postpartum weight retention ≥ 10 kg, were interviewed by a trained cognitive therapist. Eight women had pre-pregnancy BMI below 30 kg/m2. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and data analysed using inductive manifest content analysis. Salient text passages were extracted, shortened, coded and clustered into categories.Participants reported no knowledge of current gestational weight gain recommendations or of risks for adverse pregnancy outcomes with excessive weight gain or postpartum weight retention. Excessive eating emerged as a common strategy to provide relief of psychological, emotional and physical discomfort, such as depression and morning sickness. Women perceived medical staff as being unconcerned about weight, and postpartum weight loss support was scarce or absent. Some women reported eating more due to a belief that breastfeeding would automatically lead to weight loss.There is a need to raise awareness about risks with unhealthy gestational weight development and postpartum weight retention in women of childbearing age. The common strategy to cope with psychological, emotional or physical discomfort by eating is an important factor to target with intervention. The postpartum year is a neglected period where additional follow-up on weight and weight loss support is strongly indicated.

  18. Emotional Experiences of Obese Women with Adequate Gestational Weight Variation: A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Bicudo Faria-Schützer

    Full Text Available As a result of the growth of the obese population, the number of obese women of fertile age has increased in the last few years. Obesity in pregnancy is related to greater levels of anxiety, depression and physical harm. However, pregnancy is an opportune moment for the intervention of health care professionals to address obesity. The objective of this study was to describe how obese pregnant women emotionally experience success in adequate weight control.Using a qualitative design that seeks to understand content in the field of health, the sample of subjects was deliberated, with thirteen obese pregnant women selected to participate in an individual interview. Data was analysed by inductive content analysis and includes complete transcription of the interviews, re-readings using suspended attention, categorization in discussion topics and the qualitative and inductive analysis of the content. The analysis revealed four categories, three of which show the trajectory of body care that obese women experience during pregnancy: 1 The obese pregnant woman starts to think about her body;2 The challenge of the diet for the obese pregnant woman; 3 The relation of the obese pregnant woman with the team of antenatal professionals. The fourth category reveals the origin of the motivation for the change: 4 The potentializing factors for change: the motivation of the obese woman while pregnant.During pregnancy, obese women are more in touch with themselves and with their emotional conflicts. Through the transformations of their bodies, women can start a more refined self-care process and experience of the body-mind unit. The fear for their own and their baby's life, due to the risks posed by obesity, appears to be a great potentializing factor for change. The relationship with the professionals of the health care team plays an important role in the motivational support of the obese pregnant woman.

  19. Emotional Experiences of Obese Women with Adequate Gestational Weight Variation: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria-Schützer, Débora Bicudo; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani de Castro; Alves, Vera Lucia Pereira; Vieira, Carla Maria; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    As a result of the growth of the obese population, the number of obese women of fertile age has increased in the last few years. Obesity in pregnancy is related to greater levels of anxiety, depression and physical harm. However, pregnancy is an opportune moment for the intervention of health care professionals to address obesity. The objective of this study was to describe how obese pregnant women emotionally experience success in adequate weight control. Using a qualitative design that seeks to understand content in the field of health, the sample of subjects was deliberated, with thirteen obese pregnant women selected to participate in an individual interview. Data was analysed by inductive content analysis and includes complete transcription of the interviews, re-readings using suspended attention, categorization in discussion topics and the qualitative and inductive analysis of the content. The analysis revealed four categories, three of which show the trajectory of body care that obese women experience during pregnancy: 1) The obese pregnant woman starts to think about her body;2) The challenge of the diet for the obese pregnant woman; 3) The relation of the obese pregnant woman with the team of antenatal professionals. The fourth category reveals the origin of the motivation for the change: 4) The potentializing factors for change: the motivation of the obese woman while pregnant. During pregnancy, obese women are more in touch with themselves and with their emotional conflicts. Through the transformations of their bodies, women can start a more refined self-care process and experience of the body-mind unit. The fear for their own and their baby's life, due to the risks posed by obesity, appears to be a great potentializing factor for change. The relationship with the professionals of the health care team plays an important role in the motivational support of the obese pregnant woman.

  20. The experiences of urban, professional women when combining breastfeeding with paid employment in Karachi, Pakistan: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirani, Shela Akbar Ali; Karmaliani, Rozina

    2013-06-01

    Pakistan has the second highest child mortality rate in South Asia. Breastfeeding can promote infant health, prevent infection and possibly mortality. However, a gradual decline in breastfeeding is reported for Pakistan; especially among urban, educated, employed women. Little research exists regarding the experiences of professional women in Pakistan who are breastfeeding and employed. To describe the experiences of urban, professional women who breastfeed and are employed, as related to facilitators and barriers of breastfeeding. Using a qualitative descriptive design, nine full-time employed women were recruited through purposive sampling from a private tertiary care health setting in Karachi, Pakistan. A pre-tested, semi-structured interview guide was used for an in-depth interview of 40-45min with each participant. Most women spoke about the challenges of combining breastfeeding with employment, which resulted in early cessation of breastfeeding. The study indicated that positive maternal attributes such as knowledge about breastfeeding, planning, self-commitment, and open communication, as well as availability of social and workplace support is essential to enable urban, professional women in Pakistan to continue breastfeeding while employed. Pakistan has high infant and child mortality rate and decreasing prevalence of breastfeeding, especially among employed professional women. Our findings indicate an urgent need for lactation support programs that include integrated interventions for lactating women that offer informational support, social support, and formal workplace support. Copyright © 2012 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Increased risk of stroke in hypertensive women using hormone therapy: analyses based on the Danish Nurse Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Ellen; Jovanovic, Zorana; Heitmann, Berit L

    2003-01-01

    by presence of risk factors for stroke. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: In 1993, the Danish Nurse Study was established, and questionnaires on lifestyle and HT use were sent to all Danish nurses older than 44 years, of whom 19,898 (85.8%) replied. PARTICIPANTS: Postmenopausal women (n = 13......BACKGROUND: Recent randomized clinical trials suggest an increased risk of stroke with hormone therapy (HT), whereas observational studies have suggested mixed results. Differences in design, definitions of HT exposure, and stroke outcome may explain these discrepancies. Little attention has been...... paid to identifying subgroups of women who are particularly sensitive to HT. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the risk of various stroke outcomes among women using HT based primarily on estradiol-17beta (unopposed or combined with norethisterone acetate) and to assess the potential modifying effect...

  2. perinatal depression in a cohort study of Iranian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Reza Kheirabadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Childbearing years in the women’s life are associated with the highest risk of depression. Despite the results of some studies that suggested, depression during pregnancy has been associated with poor prenatal care, substance abuse, low birth weight, and preterm delivery and introduced antenatal depression and anxiety as predictors of postnatal depression, researches during past 25 years have focused mostly on postpartum depression so depression during pregnancy is relatively neglected. Materials and methods: We studied depression during third trimester of pregnancy and after delivery, using prospectively gathered data from a cohort of 1898 women. We compared depressive symptom score and the proportion of mothers above a threshold, to indicate probable depressive disorder at each stage. Results: Point prevalence of depressed pregnant women (clinical depression based on BDI score greater than 20 in last trimester of pregnancy, was 22.8% and postnatal rate of depression based on EPD score greater than 12 between 6 to 8 weeks after delivery, was 26.3%. Incidence of PPD in 6 to 8 weeks after delivery in those who were not clinically depressed during pregnancy was, 20.1%. Discussion: We found that history of depression, unplanned pregnancy; being housewife and having 3 or more children were variables with significant relation to ante partum depression. Two main risk factors for post partum depression in this cohort study, were previous history of depression and depression during current pregnancy that highlight the importance of these two variables assessment during pregnancy in order to facilitate timely identification of women at risk.

  3. European active surveillance study of women taking HRT (EURAS-HRT: study protocol [NCT00214903

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinemann Lothar AJ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The post marketing safety surveillance program for a drug containing a new chemical entity should assess both, the safety outcomes that relate specifically to the targeted population, as well as those that could potentially be related to special pharmacological characteristics of the drug. Active safety surveillance using valid epidemiological study designs has been proven to be a pertinent and reliable method to approach this endeavor. Methods/design The primary objective of the study is to compare incidence rates of serious adverse events in users of all types of newly prescribed oral HRT products. This active surveillance study will assess pertinent cardiovascular outcomes - in particular venous and arterial thromboembolism - and other serious adverse events (SAEs in new HRT users over a period of several years. One product under surveillance is Angeliq®, which contains the novel progestagen drospirenone (DRSP combined with estradiol. In addition, all other oral combined HRT products with a novel progestagen or estrogen that will be newly marketed during the study period will be studied. These new HRT products will be compared with established HRT products. The combined cohort will include at least 30,000 women recruited in several European countries. At least 90,000 years of observation are expected from the field work which started in early 2002 and will end around 2008. The participating women will complete a baseline survey using a self-administered questionnaire to describe the baseline risk. After 6 months, 12 months, and then on an annual basis, they will fill out a questionnaire in which they record complaints and events during the use of the prescribed HRTs. All adverse outcomes occurring during the observational period will be evaluated. Discussion A complete lifetime medical history, individually validated SAEs over time, and a low loss to follow-up rate are essential for a robust safety assessment. Therefore

  4. Metabolic Syndrome among Women: A Study from Bursa Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Orhan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Obesity is one of the risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS and its prevalence is rapidly increasing in Turkey. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of MetS and obesity among women aged 20 years and older. METHOD: This is a cross- sectional study, undergone in a primary health care setting in Bursa /Turkey in the year 2008. A total of 807 women were included in the study. Body weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure, total and HDL cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose and triglyceride levels were measured. Metabolic Syndrome definition was made according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria. RESULTS: The mean age was 42.713.2 years, 96.4% were married, 50.7% had education of less than 8 years, 93.7% were housewives and 85.3% had a monthly family income of $650 or less. The prevalence of MetS and abdominal obesity were 17.5 % and 87.7% respectively. Those with diabetes mellitus and elevated plasma lipids had increased risk of developing MetS 11.3 and 4.5 times more than those without these situations respectively. The risk of MetS increases with age and increasing BMI. CONCLUSION: Obesity is an alarming risk factor for the development of MetS in our study group. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(4.000: 421-432

  5. Risk of post-pregnancy hypertension in women with a history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Ida; Basit, Saima; Melbye, Mads; Lykke, Jacob A; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Bundgaard, Henning; Thilaganathan, Baskaran; Boyd, Heather A

    2017-07-12

    Objectives To determine how soon after delivery the risk of post-pregnancy hypertension increases in women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and how the risk evolves over time.Design Nationwide register based cohort study.Setting Denmark.Populations 482 972 primiparous women with a first live birth or stillbirth between 1995 and 2012 (cumulative incidence analyses), and 1 025 118 women with at least one live birth or stillbirth between 1978 and 2012 (Cox regression analyses).Main outcome measures 10 year cumulative incidences of post-pregnancy hypertension requiring treatment with prescription drugs, and hazard ratios estimated using Cox regression.Results Of women with a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy in a first pregnancy in their 20s, 14% developed hypertension in the first decade post partum, compared with 4% of women with normotensive first pregnancies in their 20s. The corresponding percentages for women with a first pregnancy in their 40s were 32% and 11%, respectively. In the year after delivery, women with a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy had 12-fold to 25-fold higher rates of hypertension than did women with a normotensive pregnancy. Rates in women with a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy were threefold to 10-fold higher 1-10 years post partum and remained twice as high even 20 or more years later.Conclusions The risk of hypertension associated with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy is high immediately after an affected pregnancy and persists for more than 20 years. Up to one third of women with a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy may develop hypertension within a decade of an affected pregnancy, indicating that cardiovascular disease prevention in these women should include blood pressure monitoring initiated soon after pregnancy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study: rationale, design and population characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slimani, N.; Kaaks, R.; Ferrari, P.; Casagrande, C.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Lotze, G.; Kroke, A.; Trichopoulos, D.; Trichopoulou, A.; Lauria, C.; Bellegotti, M.; Ocké, M.C.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Engeset, D.; Lund, E.; Agudo, A.; Larranaga, N.; Mattisson, I.; Andren, C.; Johansson, I.; Davey, G.; Welch, A.A.; Overvad, K.; Tjonneland, A.; Staveren, van W.A.; Saracci, R.; Riboli, E.

    2002-01-01

    The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), which covers a large cohort of half a million men and women from 23 European centres in 10 Western European countries, was designed to study the relationship between diet and the risk of chronic diseases, particularly cancer.

  7. A Study of Landscape Architecture Design Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Lidy, Christopher James

    2006-01-01

    How do different methods employed by landscape architects impact the design outcome? This paper identifies and defines design methods in landscape architecture that may be classified as part of four internal and external connections and structures categories. Methods are further examined through two design exercises. In the first design exercise, the identified methods are individually applied to the same simple design which is used as a control. The only variable changed is the method used ...

  8. Mistreatment of women during childbirth in Abuja, Nigeria: a qualitative study on perceptions and experiences of women and healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohren, Meghan A; Vogel, Joshua P; Tunçalp, Özge; Fawole, Bukola; Titiloye, Musibau A; Olutayo, Akinpelu Olanrewaju; Ogunlade, Modupe; Oyeniran, Agnes A; Osunsan, Olubunmi R; Metiboba, Loveth; Idris, Hadiza A; Alu, Francis E; Oladapo, Olufemi T; Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Hindin, Michelle J

    2017-01-17

    Global efforts have increased facility-based childbirth, but substantial barriers remain in some settings. In Nigeria, women report that poor provider attitudes influence their use of maternal health services. Evidence also suggests that women in Nigeria may experience mistreatment during childbirth; however, there is limited understanding of how and why mistreatment this occurs. This study uses qualitative methods to explore women and providers' experiences and perceptions of mistreatment during childbirth in two health facilities and catchment areas in Abuja, Nigeria. In-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs) were used with a purposive sample of women of reproductive age, midwives, doctors and facility administrators. Instruments were semi-structured discussion guides. Participants were asked about their experiences and perceptions of, and perceived factors influencing mistreatment during childbirth. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize findings into meaningful sub-themes, narrative text and illustrative quotations, which were interpreted within the context of this study and an existing typology of mistreatment during childbirth. Women and providers reported experiencing or witnessing physical abuse including slapping, physical restraint to a delivery bed, and detainment in the hospital and verbal abuse, such as shouting and threatening women with physical abuse. Women sometimes overcame tremendous barriers to reach a hospital, only to give birth on the floor, unattended by a provider. Participants identified three main factors contributing to mistreatment: poor provider attitudes, women's behavior, and health systems constraints. Moving forward, findings from this study must be communicated to key stakeholders at the study facilities. Measurement tools to assess how often mistreatment occurs and in what manner must be developed for monitoring and evaluation. Any intervention to prevent mistreatment will need to be multifaceted, and

  9. Design Factors Affecting the Reaction Time for Identifying Toilet Signs: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Lang; Sie, Cai-Cin

    2016-04-01

    This study focused on the manner in which design factors affect the reaction time for identifying toilet signs. Taiwanese university students and staff members (50 men, 50 women; M age = 23.5 year, SD = 5.7) participated in the study. The 36 toilet signs were modified on three factors (six presenting styles, two figure-ground exchanges, and three colors), and the reaction time data of all participants were collected when the signs were presented in a simulation onscreen. Participants were quickest when reading Chinese text, followed by graphics and English texts. The findings also showed that men and women had different reaction times across various design combinations. These findings can serve as a reference for practically designing toilet signs, since design factors can lead to difficulties with comprehension based on reaction time measurements. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Access To Credit: A Study Of The Perception Of Nigerian Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Access To Credit: A Study Of The Perception Of Nigerian Women Entrepreneurs. ... Women businesses are increasingly an important part of the small business sector. Some studies have shown ... We found in this exploratory study that access to credit is the most important problem women face in growing their businesses.

  11. Study Of Lampungnese Traditional Home Garden Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, R. A.; Gunawan

    2017-10-01

    Lampung is one area in Indonesia which has a traditional culture that comes from two groups of descents, they are ulun Lampung Pepadun and ulun Lampung Saibatin. Lampungnese traditional culture has been well-known by Indonesian people for its traditional dances, traditional clothing, or traditional home architecture. However, Lampungnese traditional home garden recently may not yet been described. Information related to Lampungnese traditional home garden is still very limited and it does not yet represented the culture based design concept. This research was directed to identify the elements of the home garden and map it into design concept of the Lampungnese traditional home garden based on information of Lampungnese traditional culture. The study was conducted by using descriptive approach through literature review, interviews and cultural exploration, as well as field observation. The study was able to identify the elements forming the Lampungnese traditional home garden, namely gakhang hadap, walai, outdoor kitchenette, firewood place, outdoor kitchen, livestock barns, as well as plants. Space layout of the home garden comprises front yard (tengahbah/terambah/beruan), side yard (kebik/kakebik), and backyard (kudan/juyu/kebon). Each element of the garden is located in the right place of the space layout.

  12. Validation study of the SCREENIVF : An instrument to screen women or men on risk for emotional maladjustment before the start of a fertility treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ockhuysen, Henrietta D.L.; van Smeden, Maarten; van den Hoogen, Agnes; Boivin, Jacky

    Objective: To examine construct and criterion validity of the Dutch SCREENIVF among women and men undergoing a fertility treatment. Design: A prospective longitudinal study nested in a randomized controlled trial. Setting: University hospital. Patient(s): Couples, 468 women and 383 men, undergoing

  13. Empowering self-care ability - a follow-up study of clinical-based perimenopausal women personal health counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Chi; Yu, Yen-Yen; Chou, Bee-Chin; Szu, Li-Yun; Tsao, Lee-Ing

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the longitudinal effects of a personal counselling intervention for perimenopausal women in northern Taiwan. Women face a variety of physical changes during menopause. Counselling intervention could enrich individual health education for menopausal women. Quasi-experimental design. The study used one-on-one personal health counselling with a 'menopausal health passport' for perimenopausal women. The Perceived Perimenopausal Disturbances scale, the Practice of Health Behavior scale and the Perceived Uncertainty scale were used to measure the intervention effects. Results were estimated by a Generalized Estimating Equation procedure at one and a half months, three months and six months post intervention. In addition, data regarding perceived health changes were collected qualitatively through interviews in the experimental group at the sixth month. A total of 34 women were included in the experimental group, while 33 were in the control group. Interaction effect results showed that personal health counselling significantly increased the practice of health behaviours at one and a half months and extended to three months post intervention. Additionally, content categories, including 'relief of symptoms', 'establishment of health behaviors', 'interaction with others' and 'consideration from others' were identified in quantitative analysis. The results suggest that perimenopausal personal health counselling can effectively improve healthy behaviours. This study can also serve as a future reference for effective perimenopausal counselling. It is crucial to set up personal health counselling for perimenopausal women in clinics and develop information technology systems to support menopausal women in the technological era. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Accessing and engaging women from socio-economically disadvantaged areas: a participatory approach to the design of a public health intervention for delivery in a Bingo club.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Josie M M; Ryde, Gemma; Jepson, Ruth; Gray, Cindy; Shepherd, Ashley; Mackison, Dionne; Ireland, Aileen V; McMurdo, Marion E T; Williams, Brian

    2016-04-18

    Our aim was to use participatory methods to investigate the feasibility and acceptability of using Bingo clubs for the design and delivery of an evidence-based physical activity and/or healthy eating intervention to socio-economically disadvantaged women. This paper describes the participatory process that has resulted in a physical activity intervention for women aged >55 years, ready for pilot-testing in a Bingo club setting. Studies using different quantitative and qualitative approaches were conducted among customers and staff of a Bingo club in a city of 85,000 inhabitants in central Scotland. These were designed to take the views of different stakeholders into account, with a view to enhancing uptake, engagement and effectiveness with any proposed intervention. Sixteen relevant studies were identified in a literature review that generated ideas for intervention components. A questionnaire completed by 151 women in the Bingo club showed that almost half (47 %) aged >55 years were not meeting physical activity guidelines; evidence backed up by accelerometer data from 29 women. Discussions in six focus groups attended by 27 club members revealed different but overlapping motivations for attending the Bingo club (social benefits) and playing Bingo (cognitive benefits). There was some scepticism as to whether the Bingo club was an appropriate setting for an intervention, and a dietary intervention was not favoured. It was clear that any planned intervention needed to utilise the social motivation and habitual nature of attendance at the Bingo club, without taking women away from Bingo games. These results were taken forward to a 5-h long participative workshop with 27 stakeholders (including 19 Bingo players). Intervention design (form and content) was then finalised during two round table research team meetings. It was possible to access and engage with women living in areas of socio-economic disadvantage through a Bingo club setting. A physical activity

  15. Accessing and engaging women from socio-economically disadvantaged areas: a participatory approach to the design of a public health intervention for delivery in a Bingo club

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josie M. M. Evans

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aim was to use participatory methods to investigate the feasibility and acceptability of using Bingo clubs for the design and delivery of an evidence-based physical activity and/or healthy eating intervention to socio-economically disadvantaged women. This paper describes the participatory process that has resulted in a physical activity intervention for women aged >55 years, ready for pilot-testing in a Bingo club setting. Methods Studies using different quantitative and qualitative approaches were conducted among customers and staff of a Bingo club in a city of 85,000 inhabitants in central Scotland. These were designed to take the views of different stakeholders into account, with a view to enhancing uptake, engagement and effectiveness with any proposed intervention. Results Sixteen relevant studies were identified in a literature review that generated ideas for intervention components. A questionnaire completed by 151 women in the Bingo club showed that almost half (47 % aged >55 years were not meeting physical activity guidelines; evidence backed up by accelerometer data from 29 women. Discussions in six focus groups attended by 27 club members revealed different but overlapping motivations for attending the Bingo club (social benefits and playing Bingo (cognitive benefits. There was some scepticism as to whether the Bingo club was an appropriate setting for an intervention, and a dietary intervention was not favoured. It was clear that any planned intervention needed to utilise the social motivation and habitual nature of attendance at the Bingo club, without taking women away from Bingo games. These results were taken forward to a 5-h long participative workshop with 27 stakeholders (including 19 Bingo players. Intervention design (form and content was then finalised during two round table research team meetings. Conclusions It was possible to access and engage with women living in areas of socio

  16. Emotional Burden of Infertility: A Controlled Study of Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cultural factors and infertility-related stress among a sample of Nigerian women. The subscales of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and a schedule detailing socio-demographic and infertility-related variables were administered on women ...

  17. HPV infection among rural American Indian women and urban white women in South Dakota: an HPV prevalence study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muller Clemma J

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-risk strains of human papillomavirus (HPV cause cervical cancer. American Indian (AI women in the Northern Plains of the U.S. have significantly higher incidence and mortality rates for cervical cancer than White women in the same geographical area. We compared HPV prevalence, patterns of HPV types, and infection with multiple HPV types in AI and White women living in South Dakota, U.S. Methods We analyzed the HPV status of cervical samples collected in 2006-2008 from women aged 18-65 years who attended two rural AI reservation clinics (n = 235 or an urban clinic in the same area serving mostly White women (n = 246. Data collection occurred before HPV vaccination was available to study participants. HPV DNA was amplified by using the L1 consensus primer system and an HPV Linear Array detection assay to identify HPV types. We used chi-square tests to compare HPV variables, with percentages standardized by age and lifetime number of sexual partners. Results Compared to White women, AI women were younger (p = 0.01 and reported more sexual partners (p p p = 0.001. Infections among AI women showed a wider variety and very different pattern of HPV types, including a higher prevalence of mixed HPV infections (19% [95% CI = 26-38] vs. 7% [95% CI = 4-11]; p = 0.001. AI women had a higher percentage of HPV infections that were not preventable by HPV vaccination (32% [95% CI = 26-38] vs. 15% [95% CI = 11-21]; p Conclusions A higher HPV burden and a different HPV genotyping profile may contribute to the high rate of cervical cancer among AI women.

  18. The METEX study: Methotrexate versus expectant management in women with ectopic pregnancy: A randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visser Harry

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with ectopic pregnancy (EP and low serum hCG concentrations and women with a pregnancy of unknown location (PUL and plateauing serum hCG levels are commonly treated with systemic methotrexate (MTX. However, there is no evidence that treatment in these particular subgroups of women is necessary as many of these early EPs may resolve spontaneously. The aim of this study is whether expectant management in women with EP or PUL and with low but plateauing serum hCG concentrations is an alternative to MTX treatment in terms of treatment success, future pregnancy, health related quality of life and costs. Methods/Design A multicentre randomised controlled trial in The Netherlands. Hemodynamically stable patients with an EP visible on transvaginal ultrasound and a plateauing serum hCG concentration Discussion This trial will provide guidance on the present management dilemmas in women with EPs and PULs with low and plateauing serum hCG concentrations. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN 48210491

  19. A Social Media Campaign to Promote Breastfeeding among Saudi Women: A Web-based Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahkali, Salwa; Alkharjy, Nora; Alowairdy, Maryam; Househ, Mowafa; Da'ar, Omar; Alsurimi, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged breastfeeding can prevent or limit the severity of a variety of diseases and conditions. Although evidence clearly shows that there are health benefits for breastfeeding, adherence to breastfeeding remains a key challenge facing maternal health providers in Saudi Arabia. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impacts of a social media platform (Twitter) to promote breastfeeding in Saudi Arabia. Between February 10 and March 25, 2015, a web-based questionnaire was administered to evaluate the impacts of a Twitter based educational campaign on the awareness, knowledge, and adherence to breastfeeding behavior for women in Saudi Arabia. The overall response rate among mothers with a newborn child was 83% (n=484). The results showed an increase in the knowledge and awareness of breastfeeding practices and adherence among Twitter followers. The initiation rate of breastfeeding had slightly increased among women who never had previously breastfed. More women reported their willingness to continue exclusive breastfeeding and to stop bottle-feeding. Results also show that an integration of professional breastfeeding support, public health education programs through social media could be an effective tool in promoting breastfeeding in Saudi Arabia. There is a need for further research on designing and implementing a social media based educational outreach program to increase women's awareness, knowledge, and adherence to breastfeeding behavior in Saudi Arabia.

  20. Brief Online Self-help Exercises for Postnatal Women to Improve Mood: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Susan; Fitzgerald, Gemima; Thompson, Susan

    2015-11-01

    Giving birth and adjusting to a new baby can be difficult and stressful for new mothers. Negative mood may occur during this time and can affect women, their parenting and the infant's development. This pilot study evaluated a brief online self-help intervention designed to promote positive mood in mothers of babies and toddlers. Women in the UK who had given birth within the previous 18 months were randomly allocated to the online self-help intervention (n = 40) or active comparison group exercise (n = 40) which was matched for time and structure. Mood was measured before and after the intervention. Acceptability was examined at the end of the trial. The self-help intervention was acceptable to the majority of women and significantly increased positive mood compared to the comparison condition. This effect persisted after controlling for self-esteem, anxiety and depression. These results suggest that a simple self-help intervention focused on changing beliefs about oneself as a mother can have an immediate impact on women's mood. Further research is need to see whether these improvements continue long-term and what processes underlie these improvements.

  1. An epidemiological Study of Domestic Violence Against Women and its Association with Sexually Transmitted Infections in Bangalore Rural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali Gaikwad

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gender-based violence is universal, differing only in scope from one society to the other. The most common form of violence against women is domestic violence or violence within families. Objectives: 1. To study the prevalence and different forms of domestic violence perpetrated by intimate partner against married women. 2. To study socio economic and demographic factors which affect the victimization of woman for domestic violence. 3.To study prevalence of sexually transmitted infection and its association with domestic violence in the study group. Methods: Based on a pilot study results, a sample size of 257 was determined. Total 257 currently married women in the reproductive age group (15-49 yrs were interviewed by systematic random sampling with prior consent using a well designed, pre- tested questionnaire . All the women were screened for sexually transmitted infections as per the WHO guidelines by syndromic approach. The data was analyzed by percentages and chi-square test. Results: Prevalence of domestic violence was found to be 29.57% in the study group. Verbal abuse was reported by 81.58% of the women, Physical abuse by 31.58% of the women ,Psychological abuse by 27.63% of the women and Sexual abuse by 10.53% of the women. Among the 76 victimized women none of them reported to the police. Interpretation and conclusions: The vulnerability to domestic violence was found significantly associated with age at marriage, duration of marriage and addiction of husband to alcohol. The association between domestic violence and sexually transmitted infections was also found significant.

  2. Inflammatory markers and risk of hip fracture in older white women: the study of osteoporotic fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Kamil E; Lui, Li-Yung; Ensrud, Kristine E; Hillier, Teresa A; LeBlanc, Erin S; Ing, Steven W; Hochberg, Marc C; Cauley, Jane A

    2014-09-01

    Hip fractures are the most devastating consequence of osteoporosis and impact 1 in 6 white women leading to a two- to threefold increased mortality risk in the first year. Despite evidence of inflammatory markers in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis, few studies have examined their effect on hip fracture. To determine if high levels of inflammation increase hip fracture risk and to explore mediation pathways, a case-cohort design nested in a cohort of 4709 white women from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures was used. A random sample of 1171 women was selected as the subcohort (mean age 80.1 ± 4.2 years) plus the first 300 women with incident hip fracture. Inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6) and soluble receptors (SR) for IL-6 (IL-6 SR) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF SR1 and TNF SR2) were measured, and participants were followed for a median (interquartile range) of 6.3 (3.7, 6.9) years. In multivariable models, the hazard ratio (HR) of hip fracture for women in the highest inflammatory marker level (quartile 4) was 1.64 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-2.48, p trend = 0.03) for IL-6 and 2.05 (95% CI, 1.35-3.12, p trend hip fracture was 1.51 (95% CI, 1.07-2.14) and 1.42 (95% CI, 0.87-2.31) compared with women with zero to one marker(s) in the highest quartile (p trend = 0.03). After individually adjusting for seven potential mediators, cystatin-C (a biomarker of renal function) and bone mineral density (BMD) attenuated HRs among women with the highest inflammatory burden by 64% and 50%, respectively, suggesting a potential mediating role. Older white women with high inflammatory burden are at increased risk of hip fracture in part due to poor renal function and low BMD. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  3. Design and analysis of biomedical studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Merete Kjær

    been allocated this field. It is utterly important to utilize these ressources responsibly and efficiently by constantly striving to ensure high-quality biomedical studies. This involves the use of a sound statistical methodology regarding both the design and analysis of biomedical studies. The focus...... rate, the type II error rate is not explicitly specified during the statistical analysis and this entails that assessment of the type II error rate in practice is at risk of being neglected altogether. Concerns regarding type I errors, type II errors and adherence (or lack thereof) to model assumptions...... is specified prior to conducting the statistical analysis. However, all statistical models make assumptions and if violated the actual type I error rate may deviate from the pre-specified type I error rate. Type II errors occur when we fail to reject a false null hypothesis. On contrary to the type I error...

  4. DEMO port plug design and integration studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossetti, G.; Boccaccini, L. V.; Cismondi, F.; Del Nevo, A.; Fischer, U.; Franke, T.; Granucci, G.; Hernández, F.; Mozzillo, R.; Strauß, D.; Tran, M. Q.; Vaccaro, A.; Villari, R.

    2017-11-01

    The EUROfusion Consortium established in 2014 and composed by European Fusion Laboratories, and in particular the Power Plant Physics and Technology department aims to develop a conceptual design for the Fusion DEMOnstration Power Plant, DEMO. With respect to present experimental machines and ITER, the main goals of DEMO are to produce electricity continuously for a period of about 2 h, with a net electrical power output of a few hundreds of MW, and to allow tritium self-sufficient breeding with an adequately high margin in order to guarantee its planned operational schedule, including all planned maintenance intervals. This will eliminate the need to import tritium fuel from external sources during operations. In order to achieve these goals, extensive engineering efforts as well as physics studies are required to develop a design that can ensure a high level of plant reliability and availability. In particular, interfaces between systems must be addressed at a very early phase of the project, in order to proceed consistently. In this paper we present a preliminary design and integration study, based on physics assessments for the EU DEMO1 Baseline 2015 with an aspect ratio of 3.1 and 18 toroidal field coils, for the DEMO port plugs. These aim to host systems like electron cyclotron heating launchers currently developed within the Work Package Heating and Current Drive that need an external radial access to the plasma and through in-vessel systems like the breeder blanket. A similar approach shown here could be in principle followed by other systems, e.g. other heating and current drive systems or diagnostics. The work addresses the interfaces between the port plug and the blanket considering the helium-cooled pebble bed and the water cooled lithium lead which are two of four breeding blanket concepts under investigation in Europe within the Power Plant Physics and Technology Programme: the required openings will be evaluated in terms of their impact onto the

  5. Women Empowerment in Oman: A study based on Women Empowerment Index

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Thresiamma Varghese

    2011-01-01

    Women's empowerment is ?a process whereby women become able to organize themselves to increase their own self-reliance, to assert their independent right to make choices and to control resources which will assist in challenging and eliminating their own subordination"......

  6. Stair negotiation in women with fibromyalgia: A descriptive correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Mateo, Daniel; Domínguez-Muñoz, Francisco J; Olivares, Pedro R; Adsuar, José C; Gusi, Narcis

    2017-10-01

    Walking up and down stairs is a common and important activity of daily living. Women with fibromyalgia often show a reduced ability to perform this task.The objective of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of stair negotiation tasks and to assess the impact of fibromyalgia symptoms on the ability to negotiate stairs.Forty-two women with fibromyalgia participated in this descriptive correlational study. The relevance of the stair negotiation (both walking up and down) was evaluated by assessing its association with the revised version of the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ-R) and other health-related variables. Test-retest reliability was also analyzed. The main outcome measures were time spent walking up and down stairs and impact of fibromyalgia, quality of life, number of falls, weight, and lower limb strength and endurance.The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for stair descent was 0.929 whereas that for ascent was 0.972. The score in these tests correlated significantly with the total score for the FIQ-R and the score for many of dimensions and symptoms: that is, physical function, overall impact of fibromyalgia, pain, energy, stiffness, restorative sleep, tenderness, self-perceived balance problems, and sensitivity.Given the importance of the stair negotiation as activity of daily living and the high reliability, both stair ascent and descent tasks may be useful as outcome measures in studies on patients with fibromyalgia.

  7. Increasing physical activity in postpartum multiethnic women in Hawaii: results from a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddock Jason E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mothers of an infant are much less likely to exercise regularly compared to other women. This study tested the efficacy of a brief tailored intervention to increase physical activity (PA in women 3–12 months after childbirth. The study used a pretest-posttest design. Sedentary women (n = 20 were recruited from a parenting organization. Half the participants were ethnic minorities, mean age was 33 ± 3.8, infants' mean age was 6.9 ± 2.4 months, 50% were primiparas, and mean body mass index was 23.6 ± 4.2. Methods The two-month intervention included telephone counseling, pedometers, referral to community PA resources, social support, email advice on PA/pedometer goals, and newsletters. The primary outcome of the study was minutes per week of moderate and vigorous leisure-time physical activity measured by the Godin physical activity instrument. Results All women (100% returned for post-test measures; thus, paired t-tests were used for pre-post increase in minutes of moderate and vigorous leisure-time physical activity and comparisons of moderate and vigorous leisure-time physical activity increases among ethnic groups. At baseline participants' reported a mean of 3 ± 13.4 minutes per week moderate and vigorous leisure-time physical activity. At post-test this significantly increased to 85.5 ± 76.4 minutes per week of moderate and vigorous leisure-time physical activity (p Conclusion A telephone/email intervention tailored to meet the needs of postpartum women was effective in increasing physical activity levels. However, randomized trials comparing tailored telephone and email interventions to standard care and including long-term follow-up to determine maintenance of physical activity are warranted.

  8. Study of maternal and prenatal outcome in pregnant women with acute hepatitis E viral infection

    OpenAIRE

    Sunita Mishra; Rajesh Kumar Jha; Ratna Thakur; Sindhuja Tiwari

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) is a major aspect of hepatitis and death in the developing countries and asymmetrical source of deaths in among of pregnant women. The objective of this study was to determine the maternal and prenatal outcome in pregnant women with acute hepatitis E viral infection in Malwa, India. Methods: Observational, cross-sectional study. The study population was pregnant women with acute hepatitis E infection confirmed by ELISA technique. Pregnant women with othe...

  9. Women, Education and Empowerment: Pathways towards Autonomy. UIE Studies 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medel-Anonuevo, Carolyn, Ed.

    This document contains seven papers about and from the International Seminar on Women's Education and Empowerment, which was convened to give women educators and researchers from diverse sociocultural backgrounds an opportunity to examine collectively different education practices and their theoretical implications for empowering women. The…

  10. Emotional Burden of Infertility: A Controlled Study of Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low religiosity, friction with husband's family, polygamous relationship and family pressure on husband predicted symptoms among the women with infertility. Public campaign to improve attitude towards women with infertility is advocated. Therapeutic mental health services are important for these women. Gender and ...

  11. A STUDY ON FAMILY PLANNING PRACTICES AND METHODS AMONG WOMEN OF URBAN SLUMS OF LUCKNOW CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjit Kumar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Utilization of family planning methods, their side effects and the factors influencing their uses. Aims: To study the family planning practices/methods among the married women of reproductive age (15- 45yrs. Study Design: Community-based study. Study Subjects: The Women of reproductive age groups (15-45yrs adopting family planning methods & those residing in urban slums of, Lucknow. Sample size: 540, Study Period : July 2009 to July 2011. Sampling Technique: thirty cluster sampling. Result: The acceptance of family planning methods both temporary and permanent methods increased with level of literacy of women. About 53.40 % adopted I.U.C.D, 38.83% O.C pills & only 7.77% of their partners used condoms. 66.6% have undergone laparoscopic & 33.4% mini-lap sterilization. Vasectomy was not done for even a single partner. More number of illiterate and primary educated accepted permanent method after 3 or more children than higher educated who accepted it after 1 or 2 children. Among acceptors of permanent methods, total 70.27 % were experiencing side effects and among temporary method users, it accounted 23.30%. Conclusions: Acceptance in family planning is associated with increasing age, nuclear family & level of literacy. IUCD is the most accepted one among all the temporary methods. Vasectomy and newer contraceptives were not at all used.

  12. Change in Physical Activity and Sitting Time After Myocardial Infarction and Mortality Among Postmenopausal Women in the Women's Health Initiative?Observational Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gorczyca, Anna M.; Eaton, Charles B; LaMonte, Michael J.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Johnston, Jeanne D.; Bidulescu, Aurelian; Waring, Molly E.; Manini, Todd; Martin, Lisa W.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; He, Ka; Chomistek, Andrea K.; Rossouw, Jacques; Ludlam, Shari; Burwen, Dale

    2017-01-01

    Background How physical activity (PA) and sitting time may change after first myocardial infarction (MI) and the association with mortality in postmenopausal women is unknown. Methods and Results Participants included postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative?Observational Study, aged 50 to 79?years who experienced a clinical MI during the study. This analysis included 856 women who had adequate data on PA exposure and 533 women for sitting time exposures. Sitting time was self?re...

  13. Learning English Vocabulary in a Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) Environment: A Sociocultural Study of Migrant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Kham Sila; Sudweeks, Fay; Armarego, Jocelyn

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a case study of a group of six non-native English speaking migrant women's experiences learning English vocabulary in a mobile assisted language learning (MALL) environment at a small community centre in Western Australia. A sociocultural approach to learning vocabulary was adopted in designing the MALL lessons that the women…

  14. Effect of implementation of the mass breast cancer screening programme in older women in the Netherlands : population based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Glas, Nienke A; de Craen, Anton J M; Bastiaannet, Esther; Op 't Land, Ester G; Kiderlen, Mandy; van de Water, Willemien; Siesling, Sabine; Portielje, Johanneke E A; Schuttevaer, Herman M; de Bock, Geertruida Truuske H; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Liefers, Gerrit-Jan

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of early stage and advanced stage breast cancer before and after the implementation of mass screening in women aged 70-75 years in the Netherlands in 1998. DESIGN: Prospective nationwide population based study. SETTING: National cancer registry, the Netherlands.

  15. The Biomechanics of Gender Difference and Whiplash Injury: Designing Safer Car Seats for Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mordaka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Female car users are reported to have a higher incidence of soft tissue neck injuries in low speed rear-end collisions than males, and they apparently take longer to recover. This paper addresses the whiplash problem by developing a biomechanical FEM (Finite Element Method model of the 50th and the 5th percentile female cervical spines, based on the earlier published male model created at the Nottingham Trent University. This model relies on grafting a detailed biomechanical model of the neck and head onto a standard HYBRID III dummy model. The overall philosophy of the investigation was to see if females responded essentially as scaled down males from the perspective of rear end collisions. It was found that detailed responses varied significantly with gender and it became clear that females cannot be modelled as scaled-down males, thus confirming the need for separate male and female biomechanical models and a revision of car test programmes and regulations which are currently based on the average male. Further investigation is needed to quantify the gender differences and then recommendations can be made for changes to the design of car seats and head restraints in order to reduce the risk of soft tissue injury to women.

  16. Selecting the appropriate study design: Case–control and cohort study designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamir Omair

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the observational analytic study designs, i.e., case–control and cohort studies. These two study designs are useful for testing a hypothesis to determine the association between a risk factor and a disease. The analysis for both the studies is based on the conventional 2 × 2 table with the disease status in columns and the risk factor status in rows. The case–control studies start from the disease status and compare the exposure to the risk factor(s between the diseased (cases and the not diseased (controls groups. The odds ratio is determined to compare the proportion of exposed persons in the two groups. The cohort studies start from the exposure to the risk factor status and compare the incidence of the disease in the exposed and not exposed groups. The relative risk compares the incidence between the two groups. The 95% confidence interval is estimated for both studies to determine an actual association between the risk factor and the disease. The strengths and limitations of the two study designs differ based on the direction of the two designs. The case–control study goes backward from the disease status so is more useful for rare diseases and for evaluating multiple risk factors, but it cannot determine causality, and there are chances of recall bias affecting the results of the study. The cohort studies are generally prospective in design from the exposure status and can determine the causal association between the risk factor and the disease. However, the cohort studies are more expensive and require a longer time as well as a larger sample size; the loss to follow-up and misclassification biases can affect the results of the cohort studies.

  17. Inertial Motion Capture Costume Design Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczęsna, Agnieszka; Skurowski, Przemysław; Lach, Ewa; Pruszowski, Przemysław; Pęszor, Damian; Paszkuta, Marcin; Słupik, Janusz; Lebek, Kamil; Janiak, Mateusz; Polański, Andrzej; Wojciechowski, Konrad

    2017-03-17

    The paper describes a scalable, wearable multi-sensor system for motion capture based on inertial measurement units (IMUs). Such a unit is composed of accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer. The final quality of an obtained motion arises from all the individual parts of the described system. The proposed system is a sequence of the following stages: sensor data acquisition, sensor orientation estimation, system calibration, pose estimation and data visualisation. The construction of the system's architecture with the dataflow programming paradigm makes it easy to add, remove and replace the data processing steps. The modular architecture of the system allows an effortless introduction of a new sensor orientation estimation algorithms. The original contribution of the paper is the design study of the individual components used in the motion capture system. The two key steps of the system design are explored in this paper: the evaluation of sensors and algorithms for the orientation estimation. The three chosen algorithms have been implemented and investigated as part of the experiment. Due to the fact that the selection of the sensor has a significant impact on the final result, the sensor evaluation process is also explained and tested. The experimental results confirmed that the choice of sensor and orientation estimation algorithm affect the quality of the final results.

  18. Inertial Motion Capture Costume Design Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Szczęsna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a scalable, wearable multi-sensor system for motion capture based on inertial measurement units (IMUs. Such a unit is composed of accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer. The final quality of an obtained motion arises from all the individual parts of the described system. The proposed system is a sequence of the following stages: sensor data acquisition, sensor orientation estimation, system calibration, pose estimation and data visualisation. The construction of the system’s architecture with the dataflow programming paradigm makes it easy to add, remove and replace the data processing steps. The modular architecture of the system allows an effortless introduction of a new sensor orientation estimation algorithms. The original contribution of the paper is the design study of the individual components used in the motion capture system. The two key steps of the system design are explored in this paper: the evaluation of sensors and algorithms for the orientation estimation. The three chosen algorithms have been implemented and investigated as part of the experiment. Due to the fact that the selection of the sensor has a significant impact on the final result, the sensor evaluation process is also explained and tested. The experimental results confirmed that the choice of sensor and orientation estimation algorithm affect the quality of the final results.

  19. Violence against Women and Gastroschisis: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ruiz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastroschisis, a birth defect characterized by herniated fetal abdominal wall, occurs more commonly in infants born to teenage and young mothers. Ischemia of the vascular vitelline vessels is the likely mechanism of pathogenesis. Given that chronic stress and violence against women are risk factors for cardiovascular disease we explored whether these may represent risk factors for gastroschisis, when they occur during pregnancy. A case-control study was conducted, with 15 incident cases of children born with gastroschisis in the Region of Murcia, Spain, from December 2007 to June 2013. Forty concurrent controls were recruited at gestation weeks 20–24 or post-partum. All mothers of cases and controls completed a comprehensive, in-person, ‘green sheet’ questionnaire on environmental exposures. Results: Mothers of children with gastroschisis were younger, smoked more cigarettes per week relative to controls, were exposed to higher amounts of illegal drugs, and suffered from domestic violence more frequently than the controls. Multivariable logistic regression analysis highlights periconceptional ‘gender-related violence’ (OR: 16.6, 95% CI 2.7 to 101.7 and younger maternal age (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0–1.3. Conclusions: Violence against pregnant women is associated with birth defects, and should be studied in more depth as a cause-effect teratogenic. Psychosocial risk factors, including gender-based violence, are important for insuring the health and safety of the pregnant mother and the fetus.

  20. Perceived needs in women with gestational diabetes: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khooshehchin, Taraneh Emamgoli; Keshavarz, Zohre; Afrakhteh, Maryam; Shakibazadeh, Elham; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat

    2016-12-01

    Diabetes is the most common medical complication of pregnancy. It can be associated with many complications for mother and fetus. Gestational diabetes is also one of the main health issues in Iran. Therefore, the present study is aimed at a deeper understanding of women's experiences of gestational diabetes and their perceived needs to inform future lifestyle interventions. This qualitative content analysis study was carried out in 2015. Participants were pregnant women diagnosed with gestational diabetes in the 24th to 36th week of pregnancy, who were referred to the clinics affiliated with Shahid Beheshti Medical Science University in Tehran, Iran. In-depth interviews were conducted with participants, using semi-structured questions. Interviews were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. Conventional content analysis was carried out for data analysis. Interviews continued until data saturation was obtained. Data were coded in MAXQDA software (version 11). Content analysis highlighted two themes; educational needs and need to support. The former was featured with five main categories: information sources, education process, unknown and known, weaknesses of public information system, and eagerness to learn. The latter was featured with two main categories: family support and social support. Clarifying the needs of the mothers with gestational diabetes, leads to better and proper education planning and a program toward the improvement of health, self-care, and prevention of diabetes.

  1. Violence against women and gastroschisis: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-García, Juan Antonio; Soldin, Offie P; Sánchez-Sauco, Miguel Felipe; Cánovas-Conesa, Alicia; Gomaríz-Peñalver, Virtudes; Jaimes-Vega, Diana Carolina; Perales, Joseph E; Cárceles-Alvarez, Alberto; Martínez-Ros, Maria Teresa; Ruiz, Daniel

    2013-10-17

    Gastroschisis, a birth defect characterized by herniated fetal abdominal wall, occurs more commonly in infants born to teenage and young mothers. Ischemia of the vascular vitelline vessels is the likely mechanism of pathogenesis. Given that chronic stress and violence against women are risk factors for cardiovascular disease we explored whether these may represent risk factors for gastroschisis, when they occur during pregnancy. A case-control study was conducted, with 15 incident cases of children born with gastroschisis in the Region of Murcia, Spain, from December 2007 to June 2013. Forty concurrent controls were recruited at gestation weeks 20-24 or post-partum. All mothers of cases and controls completed a comprehensive, in-person, 'green sheet' questionnaire on environmental exposures. Mothers of children with gastroschisis were younger, smoked more cigarettes per week relative to controls, were exposed to higher amounts of illegal drugs, and suffered from domestic violence more frequently than the controls. Multivariable logistic regression analysis highlights periconceptional 'gender-related violence' (OR: 16.6, 95% CI 2.7 to 101.7) and younger maternal age (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.3). Violence against pregnant women is associated with birth defects, and should be studied in more depth as a cause-effect teratogenic. Psychosocial risk factors, including gender-based violence, are important for insuring the health and safety of the pregnant mother and the fetus.

  2. Mobile Application vs Paper Pictorial Blood Assessment Chart to Track Menses in Young Women: A Randomized Cross-over Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Amanda E; Vesely, Sara K; Haamid, Fareeda; Christian-Rancy, Myra; O'Brien, Sarah H

    2017-10-10

    Heavy menstrual bleeding is a common symptom reported by approximately 30% of women. The Pictorial Blood Assessment Chart (PBAC) score is often used to quantify severity of menstrual bleeding. However, the traditional PBAC paper diary might be subject to recall bias and compliance issues, especially in adolescents. We developed a mobile application (app) version of the PBAC score and evaluated patient satisfaction and compliance with app reporting vs paper reporting. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: This study was a randomized cross-over study of 25 postmenarchal female adolescents and young women ages 13-21 years. Participants agreed to track bleeding in 2 consecutive menstrual cycles and were randomized to use the PBAC paper diary or mobile app format first. At the end of each cycle, a satisfaction survey and system usability scale (app only) was used to assess the acceptability of the format used. Twenty-five participants had a median age of 15 years. Cross-over analysis showed that satisfaction level was significantly higher for the app (P paper diary. For the app, 20 of 25 participants (80%) had high compliance for reporting bleeding, with a mean of 2 app entries per day. Participants' PBAC scores did not vary significantly between the paper diary (median, 95) and mobile app (median, 114). All paper diaries met definition for high compliance. There was no significant period or carryover effect. This study showed that a PBAC app compared with the paper diary was the preferred method of recording menstrual bleeding in adolescents and showed feasibility as a research data collection tool. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Postcoital contraception or abortion? A longitudinal study of young women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Willy

    2007-12-13

    The use of postcoital contraception or emergency contraception has increased in many countries. This has been linked to an expected reduction in the abortion rates, but so far there is no evidence of such an association. A possible explanation could be that women who are in the risk zone for abortion typically do not use emergency contraception. The aim of study was to investigate possible differences between the two groups. 768 Norwegian women (a representative sample) were followed up from they were 15 to 27 years. Data were collected through surveys on; emergency contraception and induced abortion, sociodemographic characteristics, family relationships, and individual aspects previously reported to be associated with an increased risk of induced abortion (education level, conduct problems and depression). Women who use emergency prevention are recruited (more often than expected) from families with a high income (OR 2.0; 95 % CI 1.3 - 2.9), but otherwise have no characteristics that discriminate them from the rest of the population. Induced abortion was however associated with risk factors such as depression (OR 3.2; 95 % CI 1.7 - 6.0) and deviant peer groups (OR 2.5; 95 % CI 1.3 - 4.8), and they rarely have education at a university- or college level (OR 0.2; 95 % CI 0.1 - 0.7). Emergency contraception appears to be used by others than those with typical risk factors for abortion. One should consider targeted preventive interventions to increase the use of emergency contraception in groups at-risk for induced abortion.

  4. A social work study on the impact of different factors on respect to women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Jannesari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life plays an important role on people's life style and there are many studies to determine important factors influencing it. In this paper, we study the effect of different factors influencing respect for women including upbringing children, strengthening families, participation and community involvement, women's talent political participation increase, women's confidence in accepting responsibility and consent of the docility of marriage. The proposed study of this paper selects a sample from all female students who are enrolled in educational studies in Shiraz university, Iran and using Pearson correlation test, we measure the relationship between seven mentioned items with respect for women. The results indicate that except one case, participation and community involvement, all other factors significantly increase respect for women.DOI: 10.5267/j.msl.2012.10.031Keywords: Quality of life, Women's confidence, Respect for women, Women's talent, Political participation

  5. Swedish women with coeliac disease in remission use more health care services than other women: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Susanne; Wilhelmsson, Susan; Hallert, Claes

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether the perceived poor outcome of dietary treatment makes Swedish women with coeliac disease (CD) prone to use more health care services than other women. The health care consumption over 36 consecutive months was examined for 137 Swedish women aged 20-80 years with CD in remission after living on a gluten-free diet for a median of 4 years (range 1-8 years). Comparisons were made with the health care consumption of 411 women in the general population matched for age and residence. The results show that women with CD use health care services annually a median of 5.0 times (range 0-76) that is more than female controls 3.6 (0-311) (p Women with CD used health care services in keeping with studies indicating reduced health-related quality of life of people with this condition. The results provide evidence that women with CD in remission suffer from co-morbidities that may signal a need for a multidisciplinary follow-up of subjects with CD in Sweden.

  6. Equality in the division of household labor: a comparative study of Jewish women and Arab Muslim women in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Liat

    2007-08-01

    In this study, the author compared perceptions of gender-based equality in the division of household labor among Jewish women (n = 60) and Arab Muslim women (n = 62) from dual-earner families in Israel. Guided by theories regarding the division of household labor, the author also explored the impact of 3 sets of variables--resources, gender-role attitudes, and job flexibility (flextime)--on perceived equality in the division of household labor. The findings revealed that the Jewish women tended to perceive the division of household labor as more egalitarian than did their Arab Muslim counterparts. Furthermore, the Jewish women had more egalitarian gender-role attitudes and more job flexibility than did the Arab Muslim women. However, all 3 sets of variables predicted perceived equality in the division of household labor to the same extent for both groups of women. Moreover, for both groups, education level correlated with attitudes toward household labor and with extent of job flexibility. Overall, the findings suggest that education may contribute to improving women's quality of life in both traditional and modem sociocultural contexts.

  7. Formerly eclamptic women have lower nonpregnant blood pressure compared with formerly pre-eclamptic women: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, M P; Cipolla, M J; Al-Nasiry, S; Peeters, L L H; Spaanderman, M E A

    2015-09-01

    To compare nonpregnant blood pressure and circulating metabolic factors between formerly pre-eclamptic women who did and did not deteriorate to eclampsia. Retrospective observational cohort study. Tertiary referral centre. Formerly pre-eclamptic women with (n = 88) and without (n = 698) superimposed eclampsia. Women who experienced pre-eclampsia with or without superimposed eclampsia during their pregnancy or puerperium were tested for possible underlying cardiovascular risk factors at least 6 months postpartum. We measured blood pressure and determined cardiovascular and metabolic risk markers in a fasting blood sample. Groups were compared using Mann-Whitney U test, Spearman's Rho test or Fisher's Exact test (odds ratios). Differences in postpartum blood pressures and features of the metabolic syndrome between formerly pre-eclamptic and formerly eclamptic women. Formerly pre-eclamptic women who developed eclampsia differed from their counterparts without eclampsia by a lower blood pressure (P blood pressure correlating inversely with the likelihood of having experienced eclampsia (P pre-eclamptic women (P pre-eclamptic women with superimposed eclampsia have lower nonpregnant blood pressure compared with their counterparts without neurological sequelae with blood pressure negatively correlated to the occurrence of eclampsia. As about 40% of all eclamptic cases occur postpartum, routine blood pressure monitoring postpartum should be intensified. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  8. Older Brazilian women's experience of psychological domestic violence: a social phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Rafaella Queiroga; Merighi, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa; Guruge, Sepali; Jesus, Maria Cristina Pinto de

    2015-05-12

    Domestic violence is a global public health issue, as it is in Brazil. The psychological violence is one of the most prevalent forms of domestic violence, affecting more women than men. However, many older adults do not consider it as a type of domestic violence. In addiction, psychological violence has received little attention from researchers. So, this study aims to further understand the phenomenon of psychological domestic violence perpetrated by relatives against older adult women (60 years and older). A qualitative study was conducted using a social phenomenological approach proposed by Alfred Schütz. In-depth interviews were conducted with 11 older Brazilian women from three different agencies, two in Campina Grande and one in São Bernardo do Campo. Data collection took place between November 2012 and February 2013. We performed data analysis using the key concepts (such as the world of everyday life, natural attitude, intersubjetivity, stock of knowledge, biographical situation, social action, motivation and typification) proposed by Alfred Schutz. Despite the fact that participants reported being psychologically abused, they also referred to being neglected and financially abused. They revealed being threatened, disrespected, neglected, financially abused, forced to do housework, and humiliated. Older women expressed feelings of sadness, anger, grief, and fear, which had negative effects on their health. Attempts by the participants to change their current situations were unsuccessful and resulted in feelings of helplessness. The abuser's behaviour will change, and leaving the abusive situation were two possible outcomes pointed for participants. A support network is crucial to help changing the behaviour of aggressors and/or to help older adult women leave the abusive situation. Further research is needed to understand the risk factors linked to abuse behaviours, to develop educational programs for the abusers, and to design social support for the

  9. A qualitative study of leadership characteristics among women who catalyze positive community change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folta, Sara C; Seguin, Rebecca A; Ackerman, Jennifer; Nelson, Miriam E

    2012-05-28

    Leadership is critical to making changes at multiple levels of the social ecological model, including the environmental and policy levels, and will therefore likely contribute to solutions to the obesity epidemic and other public health issues. The literature describing the relative leadership styles and strengths of women versus men is mixed and virtually all research comes from sectors outside of public health. The purpose of this qualitative study is to identify specific leadership skills and characteristics in women who have successfully created change predominantly within the food and physical activity environments in their communities and beyond. The second purpose of this study is to understand best practices for training and nurturing women leaders, to maximize their effectiveness in creating social change. Key informant interviews were conducted with 16 women leaders in the public health sector from November 2008 through February 2010. The sample represented a broad spectrum of leaders from across the United States, identified through web searches and through networks of academic and professional colleagues. Most were working on improving the food and physical activity environments within their communities. Questions were designed to determine leaders' career path, motivation, characteristics, definition of success, and challenges. The initial coding framework was based on the questioning structure. Using a grounded theory approach, additional themes were added to the framework as they emerged. The NVivo program was used to help code the data. Respondents possessed a vision, a strong drive to carry it out, and an ability to mobilize others around the vision. Their definitions of success most often included changing the lives of others in a sustainable way. Persistence and communications skills were important to their success. The mentoring they received was critical. Challenges included fundraising and drifting from their original mission. These findings

  10. Pioneer Women in Engineering Studies: What Can We Learn from Their Experiences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, P.; Calvet, M. D.; Pons, O.; Martinez, M. C.

    2016-01-01

    Women's access to higher education in Spain began in the last third of the nineteenth century. However, the full incorporation of women into technical studies did not occur until a century later. This article presents the results of research into the access of the first women to do technical studies in Catalonia (northeast Spain). Data have been…

  11. College Women's Persistence in Engineering and Physical Science: A Further Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberger, Ann K.

    Participation by women in scientific and technical careers is still low despite gains made by women in the United States job market. Consequently women's earning power and job opportunities as a group are diminished. Another effect is a loss of talent in the American work force. The objectives of this study were to: (1) study the rates of…

  12. Colorectal Cancer Awareness for Women via Facebook: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Kelly; Pennings Kamp, Kendra J; Salaysay, Zachary

    Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death among U.S. women. Women report being screened for colorectal cancer less often than men, and if colorectal cancer screening guidelines were routinely followed, approximately 60% of colorectal cancer deaths could be prevented. Many colorectal cancer screening interventions have not used Facebook, which is the most popular social media site among women. Little is known about engaging women in colorectal cancer screening and risk reduction information using Facebook. The "Colorectal Cancer Screening Awareness for Women" Facebook page was created to promote colorectal cancer screening and risk reduction awareness among women. Facebook posts targeted women aged 45-64 years and highlighted colorectal cancer screening methods, guidelines, and colorectal cancer risk reduction strategies. Demographics and data about the women's interactions with the page were collected using Facebook analytics and analyzed. The majority of the 391 users of the Colorectal Cancer Screening Awareness for Women Facebook page were women aged 45-54 years (56.5%). The most "liked" posts were related to colorectal cancer risk reduction behaviors. In an effort to increase routine colorectal cancer screening and colorectal cancer risk reduction behaviors, gastroenterology nurses and practices should consider Facebook as a good method to regularly engage women in colorectal cancer screening and colorectal cancer risk reduction information.

  13. Women's experiences of abnormal Pap smear results - A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rask, Marie; Swahnberg, Katarina; Lindell, Gunnel; Oscarsson, Marie

    2017-06-01

    To describe women's experiences of abnormal Pap smear result. Ten women were recruited from a women's health clinic. Qualitative interviews based on six open-ended questions were conducted, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by content analysis. The women believed that their abnormal Pap smear result was indicative of having cancer. This created anxiety in the women, which resulted in the need for emotional support and information. Testing positive with human papillomavirus (HPV) also meant consequences for the relatives as well as concerns about the sexually transmitted nature of the virus. Finally, the women had a need to be treated with respect by the healthcare professionals in order to reduce feelings of being abused. In general, women have a low level of awareness of HPV and its relation to abnormal Pap smear results. Women who receive abnormal Pap smear results need oral information, based on the individual women's situation, and delivered at the time the women receive the test result. It is also essential that a good emotional contact be established between the women and the healthcare professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Study and Design of Differential Microphone Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Benesty, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Microphone arrays have attracted a lot of interest over the last few decades since they have the potential to solve many important problems such as noise reduction/speech enhancement, source separation, dereverberation, spatial sound recording, and source localization/tracking, to name a few. However, the design and implementation of microphone arrays with beamforming algorithms is not a trivial task when it comes to processing broadband signals such as speech. Indeed, in most sensor arrangements, the beamformer tends to have a frequency-dependent response. One exception, perhaps, is the family of differential microphone arrays (DMAs) that have the promise to form frequency-independent responses. Moreover, they have the potential to attain high directional gains with small and compact apertures. As a result, this type of microphone arrays has drawn much research and development attention recently. This book is intended to provide a systematic study of DMAs from a signal processing perspective. The primary obj...

  15. Brief education to increase uptake of influenza vaccine among pregnant women: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Valerie W Y; Fong, Daniel Y T; Tarrant, Marie

    2014-01-14

    Pregnant women are the highest priority group for annual influenza vaccination. Studies have shown unacceptably low uptake of both seasonal and pandemic A/H1N1 influenza vaccination among pregnant women. This paper will describe the study protocol and methodology of a randomised controlled trial designed to assess the effectiveness of a brief educational intervention in improving the uptake of seasonal influenza vaccine among pregnant women in Hong Kong. A randomised controlled trial will be conducted with pregnant women in at least the second trimester of pregnancy from four publicly funded hospital antenatal clinics in Hong Kong. Participants will be randomly assigned to either one of the two treatment groups: standard care (control) or standard care plus brief education (intervention). Pregnant women in the standard care group will receive the usual antenatal care with an educational pamphlet developed by the Hong Kong Centre for Health Protection and those in the intervention group will be provided with usual care plus a brief ten-minute education intervention. Content of the education session will cover four core components recommended in the research literature. The primary study outcome will be the proportion of participants who have received influenza vaccine during their pregnancy. A total of 184 pregnant women (92 per group) will be required to give an 80% power to detect a treatment effect of 15%. Most intervention studies aimed at improving influenza vaccination rates in pregnant women have targeted obstetric-care providers and the results of the two patient-oriented RCT interventions are conflicting. The high priority for vaccination given to pregnant women and the low influenza vaccination rate among pregnant women worldwide strongly indicates a need for interventions to improve uptake.

  16. Using mixed-methods research to study the quality of life of coeliac women

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Almagro, Julián; Hernández-Martínez, Antonio; Solano-Ruiz, MCarmen; Siles González, José

    2017-01-01

    Aims and objectives. To research the quality of life of Spanish women with coeliac disease. Background. Women with coeliac disease express lower quality of life than men with coeliac disease. Design. Explanatory sequential approach using mixed methods and with a gender perspective. Methods. The research was carried out between May and July 2015. In its quantitative stage, it aimed to determine the health-related quality of life in a representative sample (n = 1097) of Spanish adult women with...

  17. Youth in the Netherlands Study (JOiN): Study design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Huizink (Anja); K. Greaves-Lord (Kirstin); B.E. Evans (Brittany); A.S. Euser (Anja); J. van der Ende (Jan); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); I.H.A. Franken (Ingmar)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Adolescence is a critical developmental period regarding exposure to substances. Therefore, it is important to be able to identify those adolescents who are most vulnerable to substance abuse in the (near) future. The JOiN study was specifically designed to examine two

  18. An Ethiopian birth cohort study: the study design | Asefa | Ethiopian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    93. We report here on the design and on the methods used in the study and describe the principal health outcomes. Infants were visited bimonthly until their first birthday. Background data on the physical, cultural and economic environment of ...

  19. A grounded theory study of midwives experiences of supporting women to have a lotus birth

    OpenAIRE

    Mulheron, G.; Harris, Tina

    2014-01-01

    This grounded theory study was devised to explore with midwives their experience of supporting women who have chosen to have a Lotus Birth (LB), in order to inform midwifery practice in the future when supporting women in their birth choices. STUDY OBJECTIVES: 1) To gain information about the nature of Lotus Birth. 2) To gain insight into how to support women who would like to have a Lotus Birth experience. 3) To inform midwifery practice about caring for women who choose to hav...

  20. Trastuzumab-Related Cardiotoxic Effects in Taiwanese Women: A Nationwide Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Hsu-Chih; Kao Yang, Yea-Huei; Bai, Jane P F

    2016-10-01

    Trastuzumab is an essential medicine per the World Health Organization Model List, but its cardiac safety information in Asian women is limited. To estimate the rate and the risk of heart failure (HF) and/or cardiomyopathy (CM) in Asian women undergoing trastuzumab treatment. This cohort study used the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD), a nationwide claim database covering more than 99% of the entire Taiwanese population, to identify 23 006 women with incident breast cancer (BC) who received chemotherapy from 2006 to 2009. We grouped women per their initial treatment regimens and found 1066 new trastuzumab users. We matched trastuzumab users with nonusers by year of BC diagnosis and propensity score (PS) with the caliper widths at 0.25 standard deviation of PS (up to 4 nonusers per trastuzumab user). The study lasted from January 2006 to December 2013 with a median follow-up of 5.29 years and a landmark design to avoid immortal time bias. Trastuzumab. To estimate HF and/or CM rates and time to HF and/or CM, we employed a cause-specific hazard model. Trastuzumab exposure was a time-dependent variable, while cumulative courses of chemotherapy agents with known cardiotoxic effects (including anthracyclines, taxanes, and cyclophosphamide) were defined as time-dependent covariates in the analysis model. We also performed 6 sensitivity analyses. In this cohort of 23 006 women (mean age, 50.99 years), the crude incidence of HF and/or CM was 4.03% in trastuzumab users and 2.88% in nonusers. The median time to HF and/or CM was 456 days in trastuzumab users and 966 days in nonusers. The 1-year cumulative hazard ratio was 1.86 (95% CI, 1.08-3.19). The sensitivity analyses yielded similar results. Compared with the published results, the trastuzumab-related HF and/or CM rate was 5-fold lower in Taiwanese women with breast cancer. Nonetheless, our cohort had a similar trastuzumab-related HF and/or CM risk. Our study provides critical cardiac

  1. Study design and description of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, P; Schmidt, H; Batzler, U

    1990-01-01

    A West German multicentre study (eight centres) of PKU was designed in 1976. The subjects of the study are the differential diagnosis, factors influencing the therapeutic outcome, and the extension of dietary therapy into adolescence. Between 1978 and 1984, 165 patients were enrolled, of whom 38 were of non-German nationality. The educational and occupational status of the West German parents were comparable to the population of the Federal Republic of Germany. In the central data bank located at the University Childrens Hospital in Heidelberg, data from recurrent medical examinations and from biochemistry, dietetics, neurology, psychometry and demography were collected. The differential diagnosis of the elevated plasma Phe level in the newborn period resulted in the detection of 2 patients with a PTPS-deficiency, and of 163 with an apo-enzyme defect. Depending upon the magnitude of the Phe levels during the first weeks of life, preliminary treatment groups were formed. They were revised at the age of 6 months with a protein challenge. The levels of Phe during the protein challenge resulted in three types of response. Of these, type III can apparently forgo dietary restrictions resulting in plasma Phe concentrations of around 10 mg/dl. Preliminary results of the whole study are now presented.

  2. The duality of suffering and trust: abused women's experiences of general psychiatric care--an interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Örmon, Karin; Torstensson-Levander, Marie; Sunnqvist, Charlotta; Bahtsevani, Christel

    2014-08-01

    To elucidate how women subjected to physical, emotional and/or sexual abuse experience the care provided at a general psychiatric clinic after the disclosure of abuse. Violence against women is a major global public health issue, which has an impact on women's lives and mental health as well as generating frequent hospital admission. Qualitative design with an inductive approach. Interviews with nine women who were recipients of general psychiatric care and had disclosed experiences of abuse to a member of staff were conducted. Qualitative inductive content analysis was used. The overall theme emerging from the narratives, 'dependency as a reality containing a duality of suffering and trust,' links the categories together. Each subcategory is presented in relation to the categories 'being belittled,' 'being misinterpreted' and 'being cared for.' Experiences of care as caring and noncaring were found in the narratives. Caring could include situations experienced as the women being acknowledged and listened to, situations where staff approached and supported the women in a sensitive way. Experiences of noncaring were when the abuse was disregarded, and when the women were not believed in, were left with burdens of guilt and were offended. A noncaring environment focused primarily on the diagnosis, and the experienced abuse was seen as secondary. Abused women are subjected to psychiatric environments where staff are divided into groups of those who believed in and supported the abused women and those who regarded experiences of abuse as a secondary issue and focused on the mental disorder. This study provides knowledge of how abused women experience the care provided at a general psychiatric clinic after the disclosure of abuse. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Types of anemia and mortality among older disabled women living in the community: the Women's Health and Aging Study I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semba, Richard D; Ricks, Michelle O; Ferrucci, Luigi; Xue, Qian-Li; Chaves, Paulo; Fried, Linda P; Guralnik, Jack M

    2007-08-01

    To classify the different types of anemia among moderately to severely disabled women living in the community and examine the relationship between types of anemia and mortality. We studied anemia in 688 women, >or=65 years, in the Women's Health and Aging Study I, a population based study of moderately to severely disabled older women living in the community in Baltimore, Maryland. Anemia was defined by World Health Organization criteria. Causes of anemia were classified as due to nutritional deficiencies (iron, folate, and B12 deficiencies), anemia of chronic inflammation, anemia with renal disease, and unexplained anemia. 147 of 688 (21.4%) women were anemic (hemoglobin anemia due to nutritional causes, 45 (30.6%) had anemia due to chronic inflammation, 29 (19.7%) had anemia and renal disease, and 51 (34.7%) had unexplained anemia. The proportions of those who died over five years among non-anemic women and women with anemia due to nutritional causes, chronic inflammation, renal disease, and unexplained anemia were 26.1%, 18.2%, 38.6%, 64.3%, and 33.3%, respectively (panemia and renal disease (HR 1.99, 95% CI 1.18-3.35, p=0.009) and anemia of chronic inflammation (HR 1.69, 95% CI 1.00-2.84, p=0.05) had higher risk of death. Anemia is common among moderately to severely disabled older women living in the community, and about one-third of the anemia is unexplained. Anemia with renal disease and anemia of chronic inflammation are associated with a higher mortality.

  4. Design and Co-Design of Project-Organized Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Birch Andreasen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    ’ engagement, self-awareness, mutual evaluation, reflec- tion, and critical and creative thinking. The case presented and analyzed is the master’s program ICT and learning (MIL), where Roskilde University is partner in the cross-insti- tutional collaboration behind the program. Why. It is a challenge......-ended and directed at handling unknown and dynamic processes. Where. Problem-based approaches are relevant for master’s programs with a need for collaboration, flexibility, and implementation of technologies to overcome time, space, and geographical limitations, and for study programs, where students are involved...

  5. Design Study for A Low-Cost LH2 Turbopump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japikse, David; Baines, Nicholas; Platt, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    A preliminary design study, focusing on potential component selections and design for manufacturing and assembly (DFMAR1) analysis, is presented in this study. The investigation focused on a nominal cost liquid hydrogen turbopump suitable for a private launch class vehicle. Utilizing a "turbocharger-like" design philosophy, preliminary feasibility studies of the basic pump design class, the rotordynamic design class, and the turbine design class were conducted with associated DFMA evaluations. Reasonable cost levels and sensible levels of product assurance have been established.

  6. Perinatal depression in a cohort study on Iranian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Reza Kheirabadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childbearing years in the women′s life are associated with the highest risk of depression. In this study depression in third trimester of pregnancy and after delivery was studied. Depressive symptom score and the proportion of mothers above a threshold were compared to indicate probable depressive disorder at each stage. Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted in rural areas of Isfahan province of Iran from September 2007 to January 2008. Subjects were all in their third trimester and followed up from the beginning of the study to 6- 8 weeks postpartum. At all, 2156 pregnant women completed the self report questionnaires but 258 were excluded because they were incomplete and final analysis was done with 1898 samples. At the final stage the sample size was decreased to 1291. Results: The prevalence of depression based on BDI score greater than 20 in last trimester of pregnancy, was 22.8% and rate of depression based on EPD score greater than 12 between 6 to 8 weeks after delivery, was 26.3%. Incidence of Post Partum Depression (PPD in 6 to 8 weeks after delivery in those who were not clinically depressed during preg-nancy was 20.1%. Results showed that history of depression, unplanned pregnancy, being housewife and having 3 or more children had significant relation with ante partum depression. Conclusions: Two main risk factors for post partum depression are previous history of depression and depression during current pregnancy. It is important to assess these variables during pregnancy in order to facilitate timely identifi-cation of women at risk.

  7. Employment Opportunity and Women's Empowerment. A Study with Special Reference to Immigrant Women in Bergen

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Tahmina Tanzim

    2013-01-01

    Gender injustice towards women in societies is the basic reason for deprivation of women from expanding their abilities to make strategic life choices. Even today, we can find female oppression in many societies ranging from tacit male dominance in religion and philosophies to the brutal male oppression. This, gender injustice to woman, again restricts the achievement of development, peace and freedom resulting as a major contributor to global poverty - in both the economic and human definiti...

  8. Women Epidemiology Lung Cancer (WELCA study: reproductive, hormonal, occupational risk factors and biobank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Stücker

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancer aetiology and clinical aspects have been mainly studied in men, although specific risk factors probably exist in women. Here we present the rationale, design and organization of the WELCA study (Women Epidemiology Lung CAncer that has been launched to investigate lung cancer in women, focusing particularly on hormonal and occupational factors. Methods/Design WELCA is a population based case-control study and planned to recruit 1000 cases and 1000 controls in three years, based on study power calculation. Eligible cases are female patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer, living in Paris and the Ile de France area and aged up to 75 years. Almost all Parisian pneumology and oncology clinical departments are involved. The control group is a random sample of the population living in the same area, frequency-matched on age and additionally stratified on the distribution of socio-professional categories of women residing there. After acquisition of written consent, research nurses administer standardized computer assisted questionnaires to all the subjects in face-to-face interviews and acquire anthropometric measures. Besides usual socio-demographic characteristics, information is gathered about menstrual and reproductive factors, hormonal treatments, lifestyle and leisure characteristics, occupational history, personal and familial medical history. Biological samples are also collected, in order to establish a biobank for molecular epidemiology studies. Molecular characteristics of the tumours will be obtained and patients will be followed up for five years. Discussion The WELCA study