Full Text Available Background The most common symptom in early menopausal women is depression. Depression is a type of chronic disease that impacts on postmenopausal women’s life. Social support plays a protective role for women and enables them to solve their life problems and thus, feel less depressed. Objectives We assessed depression as a chronic disease and evaluated the association between perceived social support and depression in postmenopausal women. Patients and Methods This correlation-analytic study was conducted on 321 postmenopausal women using 2-stage cluster sampling in Ahvaz in 2014. Data collecting instruments were comprised of a demographic questionnaire, a depression scale (Beck Depression Inventory-II, and a social support questionnaire (PRQ 85-Part 2. Data analysis was done using SPSS, version 20. The Spearman correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the relationship between perceived social support and depression, and the χ2 test was employed to assess the relationship between perceived social support and demographic characteristics. Results The Spearman correlation test revealed a significant reverse relationship between perceived social support and depression (r = -0.468; P = 0.001. There were significant relationships between perceived social support and some personal variables such as marital status, education level, and job status (P 0.05. Conclusions We found a reverse relationship between perceived social support and depression in postmenopausal women. Raising awareness in society apropos the relationship between social support and depression in postmenopausal women can enhance their quality of life.
Guruge, S; Thomson, M S; George, U; Chaze, F
Social support has positive and negative dimensions, each of which has been associated with mental health outcomes. Social networks can also serve as sources of distress and conflict. This paper reviews journal articles published during the last 24 years to provide a consolidated summary of the role of social support and social conflict on immigrant women's mental health. The review reveals that social support can help immigrant women adjust to the new country, prevent depression and psychological distress, and access care and services. When social support is lacking or social networks act as a source of conflict, it can have negative effects on immigrant women's mental health. It is crucial that interventions, programmes, and services incorporate strategies to both enhance social support as well as reduce social conflict, in order to improve mental health and well-being of immigrant women. Researchers have documented the protective role of social support and the harmful consequences of social conflict on physical and mental health. However, consolidated information about social support, social conflict, and mental health of immigrant women in Canada is not available. This scoping review examined literature from the last 24 years to understand how social support and social conflict affect the mental health of immigrant women in Canada. We searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Healthstar, and EMBASE for peer-reviewed publications focusing on mental health among immigrant women in Canada. Thirty-four articles that met our inclusion criteria were reviewed, and are summarized under the following four headings: settlement challenges and the need for social support; social support and mental health outcomes; social conflict and reciprocity; and social support, social conflict, and mental health service use. The results revealed that social support can have a positive effect on immigrant women's mental health and well-being, and facilitate social inclusion and the use of
Shelby, Rebecca A.; Crespin, Tim R.; Wells-Di Gregorio, Sharla M.; Lamdan, Ruth M.; Siegel, Jamie E.; Taylor, Kathryn L.
Past studies show that optimism and social support are associated with better adjustment following breast cancer treatment. Most studies have examined these relationships in predominantly non-Hispanic White samples. The present study included 77 African American women treated for nonmetastatic breast cancer. Women completed measures of optimism, social support, and adjustment within 10-months of surgical treatment. In contrast to past studies, social support did not mediate the relationship between optimism and adjustment in this sample. Instead, social support was a moderator of the optimism-adjustment relationship, as it buffered the negative impact of low optimism on psychological distress, well-being, and psychosocial functioning. Women with high levels of social support experienced better adjustment even when optimism was low. In contrast, among women with high levels of optimism, increasing social support did not provide an added benefit. These data suggest that perceived social support is an important resource for women with low optimism. PMID:18712591
Mulia, Nina; Schmidt, Laura; Bond, Jason; Jacobs, Laurie; Korcha, Rachael
Previous studies have found that stress contributes to problem drinking, while social support can buffer its effects. However, these studies are confined largely to middle-class and general populations. We extend what is known by examining how the unique stressors and forms of social support experienced by women in poverty impact alcohol problems over a 4-year time-period. This prospective study used generalized estimating equations (GEE) transition modeling and four annual waves of survey data from 392 American mothers receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) in a large Northern California county. We examined the effects of neighborhood disorder, stressful life events and economic hardship on psychological distress and problem drinking over time, and whether social support moderated these relationships for women in poverty. Neighborhood disorder and stressful life events increased significantly the risk for problem drinking, largely through their effect on psychological distress. We found little evidence, however, that social support buffers poor women from the effects of these stressors. Women in poverty are exposed to severe, chronic stressors within their communities and immediate social networks which increase vulnerability to psychological distress and problem drinking. The finding that social support does not buffer stress among these women may reflect their high level of exposure to stressors, as well as the hardships and scarce resources within their networks. If the 'private safety net' of the social network fails to provide a strong buffer, more effective environmental interventions that reduce exposure to stressors may be needed to prevent alcohol problems in poor women's lives.
Majer, John M.; Salina, Doreen D.; Jason, Leonard A.
Social support types (abstinence, appraisal, belonging, tangible) were analyzed among a sample of women with criminal justice involvement and substance use disorders (n = 200). Hierarchical linear regression was conducted to examine social support types in relation to changes in abstinence self-efficacy while controlling for incarceration histories. Only abstinence social support and tangible social support predicted significant increases in abstinence self-efficacy, with tangible support accounting for more variance in the analytic model. Findings suggest women with criminal justice involvement who have substance use disorders have basic needs that if met would have an indirect effect on their recovery. Implications for treatment and research are discussed. PMID:26949443
Farhadifar, Fariba; Taymoori, Parvaneh; Bahrami, Mitra; Zarea, Shamsy
Breast cancer ranks as the first most common cancer among the Iranian women. The regular repeat of mammography with 1-2 year intervals leads to the increased efficiency of early detection of breast cancer. The present study examined the predictors of repeat mammography. It was hypothesized that higher social support is connected with mammography repeat. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 400 women 50 years and older in Sanandaj, Iran. Data was collected by the questionnaire including information on socio demographical variables and measuring social support level. Data was analyzed by SPSS16 software. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the predictive power of demographic variables and dimensions of social support for repeat mammography. Women aged 50-55 years had three times odds of repeat mammography compared to women aged 56-60 years) OR, 3.02). Married women had greater odds of repeat mammography compared to single women (P women with higher social support was 0.93 times greater than the women with lower social support (OR, 0.93; 95 % CI, 0.91-0.95; P women are less likely repeat mammography than other Asian women. Identifying the associations between perceived social support and repeat mammography may offer detailed information to allow for future study and guide the development of interventions not only for Iranian women but also for similar cultural that received pay too little attention to date in the breast cancer literature.
Stein, Elizabeth R; Smith, Bruce W
The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that social support buffers the effects of perceived stress on physical symptoms in healthy women. The study was conducted in the Southwest United States and data were collected from 2006 to 2010. Participants were 52 healthy adult women who completed a baseline questionnaire and a 21-day daily diary. Social support was assessed in the baseline questionnaire and perceived stress and physical symptoms were assessed in the daily diary. Multilevel analyses were used to predict both same day and next day physical symptoms from baseline social support and daily perceived stress. The hypotheses were supported when predicting both same and next day physical symptoms. For the same day, perceived stress and the social support × perceived stress interaction were both related to physical symptoms. For the next day, the social support × perceived stress interaction but not perceived stress was related to physical symptoms when controlling for previous day physical symptoms. The interactions were such that women higher in social support had smaller increases in same and next day physical symptoms on days of higher perceived stress than women lower in social support. Social support may buffer the effects of daily perceived stress on physical symptoms in healthy women. Future research should investigate what aspects and in what contexts social support may reduce the effects of perceived stress on physical symptoms and examine how social support may affect the development of long-term health problems through increases in daily physical symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pereira-Gomes, Nadirlene; Lorenzini Erdmann, Alacoque; Rebouças-Gomes, Nadjane; da Silva-Monteiro, Deise; Moreira Dos Santos, Raiane; Menezes-Couto, Telmara
Objective To understand the meanings attributed by health professionals to the social support of women in domestic violence situations. Methods We interviewed 52 professionals from five local health units of the municipality of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Data were processed based on the Grounded Theory. Results It was shown that the demands are related to the threats of companions and economic dependence, which justifies intersectorial referrals and women's inclusion in the income and employment generation program. Discussion Given the high demand and the health promotion prerogative of Primary Health Care, a greater availability of social workers within the Health Strategy is needed. Social support to women requires political interest in combining the health care sector with other resources available to combat violence.
Mitchell, Amanda M; Kowalsky, Jennifer M; Epel, Elissa S; Lin, Jue; Christian, Lisa M
Adverse perinatal health outcomes are heightened among women with psychosocial risk factors, including childhood adversity and a lack of social support. Biological aging could be one pathway by which such outcomes occur. However, data examining links between psychosocial factors and indicators of biological aging among perinatal women are limited. The current study examined the associations of childhood socioeconomic status (SES), childhood trauma, and current social support with telomere length in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in a sample of 81 women assessed in early, mid, and late pregnancy as well as 7-11 weeks postpartum. Childhood SES was defined as perceived childhood social class and parental educational attainment. Measures included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and average telomere length in PBMCs. Per a linear mixed model, telomere length did not change across pregnancy and postpartum visits; thus, subsequent analyses defined telomere length as the average across all available timepoints. ANCOVAs showed group differences by perceived childhood social class, maternal and paternal educational attainment, and current family social support, with lower values corresponding with shorter telomeres, after adjustment for possible confounds. No effects of childhood trauma or social support from significant others or friends on telomere length were observed. Findings demonstrate that while current SES was not related to telomeres, low childhood SES, independent of current SES, and low family social support were distinct risk factors for cellular aging in women. These data have relevance for understanding potential mechanisms by which early life deprivation of socioeconomic and relationship resources affect maternal health. In turn, this has potential significance for intergenerational transmission of telomere length. The predictive value of
Den Oudsten, Brenda L; Van Heck, Guus L; Van der Steeg, Alida F W; Roukema, Jan A; De Vries, Jolanda
This study examines the relationships between personality, on the one hand, and perceived availability of social support (PASS) and satisfaction with received social support (SRSS), on the other hand, in women with early stage breast cancer (BC). In addition, this study examined whether a stressful event (i.e., diagnosis) is associated with quality of life (QOL), when controlling for PASS and SRSS. Women were assessed on PASS and SRSS (World Health Organization QOL assessment instrument-100) before diagnosis (time 1) and 1 (time 2), 3 (time 3), 6 (time 4), 12 (time 5), and 24 months (time 6) after surgical treatment. Personality (neuroticism extraversion openness five-factor inventory and state trait anxiety inventory-trait scale) and fatigue (fatigue assessment scale) were assessed at time 1. Agreeableness and fatigue predicted PASS and SRSS at time 5 and time 6. Trait anxiety had a negative effect on SRSS (ss = -0.22, p personality factors substantially influence the way women with early stage BC perceive social support. Knowledge about these underlying mechanisms of social support is useful for the development of tailor-made interventions. Professionals should be aware of the importance of social support. They should check whether patients have sufficient significant others in their social environment and be sensitive to potential discrepancies patients might experience between availability and adequacy of social support.
Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective Social support interventions have a somewhat chequered history. Despite evidence that social connection is associated with good health, efforts to implement interventions designed to increase social support have produced mixed results. The aim of this paper is to reflect on the relationship between social connectedness and good health, by examining social support interventions with mothers of young children and analysing how support was conceptualised, enacted and valued, in order to advance what we know about providing support to improve health. Context and approach First, we provide a brief recent history of social support interventions for mothers with young children and we critically examine what was intended by ‘social support’, who provided it and for which groups of mothers, how support was enacted and what was valued by women. Second, we examine the challenges and promise of lay social support approaches focused explicitly on companionship, and draw on experiences in two cluster randomised trials which aimed to improve the wellbeing of mothers. One trial involved a universal approach, providing befriending opportunities for all mothers in the first year after birth, and the other a targeted approach offering support from a ‘mentor mother’ to childbearing women experiencing intimate partner violence. Results Interventions providing social support to mothers have most often been directed to women seen as disadvantaged, or ‘at risk’. They have also most often been enacted by health professionals and have included strong elements of health education and/or information, almost always with a focus on improving parenting skills for better child health outcomes. Fewer have involved non-professional ‘supporters’, and only some have aimed explicitly to provide companionship or a listening ear, despite these aspects being what mothers receiving support have said they valued most. Our trial
Cederbaum, Julie A; Rice, Eric; Craddock, Jaih; Pimentel, Veronica; Beaver, Patty
Social support is important to the mental health and well-being of HIV-positive women. Limited information exists about the specific structure and composition of HIV-positive women's support networks or associations of these network properties with mental health outcomes. In this pilot study, the authors examine whether support network characteristics were associated with depressive symptoms. Survey and network data were collected from HIV-positive women (N = 46) via a web-based survey and an iPad application in August 2012. Data were analyzed using multivariate linear regression models in SAS. Depressive symptoms were positively associated with a greater number of doctors in a woman's network; having more HIV-positive network members was associated with less symptom reporting. Women who reported more individuals who could care for them had more family support. Those who reported feeling loved were less likely to report disclosure stigma. This work highlighted that detailed social network data can increase our understanding of social support so as to identify interventions to support the mental health of HIV-positive women. Most significant is the ongoing need for support from peers.
Gauthier, G Robin; Francisco, Sara C; Khan, Bilal; Dombrowski, Kirk
Throughout North America, indigenous women experience higher rates of intimate partner violence and sexual violence than any other ethnic group, and so it is of particular importance to understand sources of support for Native American women. In this article, we use social network analysis to study the relationship between social integration and women's access to domestic violence support by examining the recommendations they would give to another woman in need. We ask two main questions: First, are less integrated women more likely to make no recommendation at all when compared with more socially integrated women? Second, are less integrated women more likely than more integrated women to nominate a formal source of support rather than an informal one? We use network data collected from interviews with 158 Canadian women residing in an indigenous community to measure their access to support. We find that, in general, less integrated women are less likely to make a recommendation than more integrated women. However, when they do make a recommendation, less integrated women are more likely to recommend a formal source of support than women who are more integrated. These results add to our understanding of how access to two types of domestic violence support is embedded in the larger set of social relations of an indigenous community.
Steuber, Keli R; High, Andrew
Do the strategies women use to disclose information about their infertility to social network members impact the quality of the support they receive and their quality of life? The data showed that women who disclosed infertility-related information in direct ways, rather than in indirect ways (e.g. by incremental disclosures or through third parties), to social network members perceived higher quality support and reported greater quality of life related to their infertility experience. Social support has been shown to buffer stress associated with various health issues including infertility. The way people disclose information about stressors has been associated with the quality of the support they receive. Disclosing information in a way that most effectively elicits support is beneficial because women with infertility who have lower levels of stress are more likely to seek and remain in treatment. This cross-sectional study of 301 infertile women was conducted in the USA. To determine the variation in length of infertility and treatment decisions, we conducted an online survey of 301 American women coping with infertility. We investigated the strategies women used to disclose infertility-related information with social network members, their perceptions of support from friends and family, and their quality of life both in general (overall quality of life) and related to the experience of infertility (fertility quality of life). Direct disclosure of experiences related to infertility was positively and significantly associated with the perceived quality of social support received (P women's fertility quality of life (95% CI: 0.18, 1.05) and overall quality of life (95% CI: 0.10, 0.30). This effect is particularly noteworthy for the model predicting fertility quality of life, which exhibited a non-significant main effect with direct disclosures. The non-significant main effect combined with the significant indirect effect suggests that perceived support quality
Witt, Dawn; Benson, Gretchen; Campbell, Susan; Sillah, Arthur; Berra, Kathy
Social support has been associated with beneficial effects on many disease states and overall health and well-being. However, there is limited research exploring the impact of peer-led support models among women living with coronary heart disease. This study describes the structure of peer-led support groups offered by WomenHeart (WH): The National Coalition for Women Living with Heart Disease, and assesses WH participants' quality of life and social, emotional, and physical health. Participants were recruited from 50 WH groups. A 70-item online survey was administered, and the main analytic sample included 157 women. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association between patient activation levels (lower activation levels: 1, 2 vs higher activation levels: 3, 4) and social support scores (range: lowest 8 to highest 34), adjusting for age. High levels of social support, patient activation, physical activity, and low levels of stress, anxiety, and depression were reported. Those who were at or above the median for the social support measures (indicating high levels of social support) had greater odds of high levels of patient activation (level 3 or 4) than individuals reporting low levels of social support (OR = 2.23; 95% CI, 1.04-4.76; P = .012). Women who regularly attended a support group by a trained peer leader were highly engaged in their health care and had low levels of stress, anxiety, and depression. These findings lend credibility to the value of the peer support model and could potentially be replicated in other disease states to enhance patient care.
den Oudsten, Brenda L.; van Heck, Guus L.; van der Steeg, Alida F. W.; Roukema, Jan A.; de Vries, Jolanda
This study examines the relationships between personality, on the one hand, and perceived availability of social support (PASS) and satisfaction with received social support (SRSS), on the other hand, in women with early stage breast cancer (BC). In addition, this study examined whether a stressful
Levin, Dana S; Woodford, Michael R; Gutiérrez, Lorraine M; Luke, Katherine P
Social work faculty play an important role in preparing students to address sexism and engage in culturally competent practice with women. This study examines the nature of U.S. and Anglo-Canadian graduate social work faculty's support for content on women and on sexism. Although support appears high for both content areas, results suggest that faculty endorsement for content on women is significantly greater than that for sexism. Further, bivariate and multivariate analyses indicate that the nature of support differs for each content area. Implications for social work education are discussed.
Bowling, Jessamyn; Dodge, Brian; Banik, Swagata; Bartelt, Elizabeth; Mengle, Shruta; Guerra-Reyes, Lucia; Hensel, Devon; Herbenick, Debby; Anand, Vivek
Little research exists on women who do not identify as heterosexual in India. Social support for sexual minority women may protect against the effects of discrimination. An examination of significant social relationships may point to both strengths and weaknesses in this support. We aimed to understand relationship prioritisation and communication patterns associated with the social support of sexual minority women in Mumbai. In partnership with the Humsafar Trust, India's oldest and largest sexual and gender minority-advocacy organisation, we conducted photo-elicitation interviews with 18 sexual minority women, using participants' photographs to prompt dialogue about their social support. Intimate partners were a source of dependable support and many of those without relationships were seeking them. Participants' extended networks included friends and family as well as less formal relationships of social support. Participants mediated their communication with particular social network members, which involved filtering information sexual identity, romantic interests, and personal aspirations, among others. The diverse relationships that sexual minority women have in their social support networks may be used to guide programmes to improve health outcomes.
Wayment, Heidi A.; Peplau, Letitia Anne
Examines the types of social support that lesbian and heterosexual women receive from their social networks and the link between support and psychological well-being. Results indicate that both groups reported receiving equivalent overall amounts of support from their social networks, and that coupled women reported greater well-being than single…
Albuja, Analia F; Lara, M Asunción; Navarrete, Laura; Nieto, Lourdes
Women who lack social support tend to have a higher risk of postpartum depression. The present study examined the traditional female role, understood here as the adoption of passive and submissive traits specific to Mexican women, as another risk factor for postpartum depressive symptomatology that interacts with social support. Using two waves of data from a longitudinal study of 210 adult Mexican women (20-44 years-old, M age = 29.50 years, SD = 6.34), we found that lacking social support during the third trimester of their pregnancy was associated with greater depressive symptoms at 6 months in the postpartum, although this relationship depended on the level of endorsement of the traditional female role during pregnancy. Lower social support during pregnancy predicted greater postpartum depressive symptoms for women with higher endorsement of the traditional female role, even when accounting for prenatal depressive symptoms. These results suggest that Mexican women's experience of social support may depend on their individual adherence to gender roles. Understanding the association between women's traditional roles and social support in the risk for postpartum depression can improve prevention and educational programs for women at risk.
Nargiso, Jessica E; Kuo, Caroline C; Zlotnick, Caron; Johnson, Jennifer E
The nature of social support available to incarcerated women is not well-understood, particularly among women at high risk of negative outcomes, including women dually diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder and a Substance Use Disorder (MDD-SUD). Descriptive statistics and paired-tests were conducted on 60 incarcerated MDD-SUD women receiving in-prison substance use and depression treatments to characterize the women's social networks, including the strength of support, network characteristics, and types of support provided as well as to determine what aspects of social support may be amenable to change during incarceration and post-release. Study results showed that, on average, women perceived they had moderately supportive individuals in their lives, although more than a quarter of the sample could not identify any regular supporters in their network at baseline. During incarceration, women's social networks significantly increased in general supportiveness, and decreased in network size and percentage of substance users in their networks. Participants maintained positive social support gains post-release in most areas while also significantly increasing the size of their support network post-release. Findings suggest that there are aspects of incarcerated MDD-SUD women's social networks that are amenable to change during incarceration and post-release and provide insight into treatment targets for this vulnerable population.
Winetrobe, Hailey; Wenzel, Suzanne; Rhoades, Harmony; Henwood, Benjamin; Rice, Eric; Harris, Taylor
Permanent supportive housing (PSH) is the leading intervention to end chronic homelessness. Little is known, however, about gender differences, including potential disparities in physical and mental health and social support, that might inform services available through PSH. This study included 421 homeless adults, at least 39 years old, English- or Spanish-speaking, who were moving into PSH through 26 different agencies in the Los Angeles area. Compared with men entering PSH, homeless women (28% of the sample) were younger (p social networks (Coefficient, 0.79, p social support among homeless adults moving into PSH. PSH cannot be a one-size-fits-all approach. Supportive services within housing should be tailored based on gender and other individual needs. Copyright © 2017 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shaw, B R; McTavish, F; Hawkins, R; Gustafson, D H; Pingree, S
Using an existential-phenomenological approach, this paper describes how women with breast cancer experience the giving and receiving of social support in a computer-mediated context. Women viewed their experiences with the computer-mediated support group as an additional and unique source of support in facing their illness. Anonymity within the support group fostered equalized participation and allowed women to communicate in ways that would have been more difficult in a face-to-face context. The asynchronous communication was a frustration to some participants, but some indicated that the format allowed for more thoughtful interaction. Motivations for seeking social support appeared to be a dynamic process, with a consistent progression from a position of receiving support to that of giving support. The primary benefits women received from participation in the group were communicating with other people who shared similar problems and helping others, which allowed them to change their focus from a preoccupation with their own sickness to thinking of others. Consistent with past research is the finding that women in this study expressed that social support is a multidimensional phenomenon and that their computer-mediated support group provided abundant emotional support, encouragement, and informational support. Excerpts from the phenomenological interviews are used to review and highlight key theoretical concepts from the research literatures on computer-mediated communication, social support, and the psychosocial needs of women with breast cancer.
Chong, Jenny; Lopez, Darlene
The relationship of social networks and social support to the psychosocial functioning (self-efficacy, self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and hostility) of 159 American Indian women undergoing residential substance abuse treatment at Native American Connections was assessed. Social support and active participation by clients' families during…
Conclusion: Our finding suggests that coherent social support can have a significant impact on mental health and social functions of older women, as such, interventions promoting mental health and social needs of elderly women are necessities in the context of Iranian culture.
Tittman, Sarah M; Harteau, Christy; Beyer, Kirsten M M
Rural residents are less likely to receive preventive health screening, more likely to be uninsured, and more likely to report fair to poor health than urban residents. Social disconnectedness and perceived isolation are known to be negative predictors of self-rated physical health; however, the direct effects of geographic isolation and social support on overall health have not been well elucidated. A cross-sectional survey of women (n = 113) participating in Wisconsin Rural Women's initiative programming was conducted, which included measures of geographic isolation, an assessment of overall health, and social support using the validated Interpersonal Support Evaluation List with 3 subscales, including belonging support, tangible support, and appraisal support. Geographic isolation was shown to be a negative predictor of belonging support (P = .0064) and tangible support (P = .0349); however, geographic isolation was not a statistically significant predictor of appraisal support. A strong and direct relationship was observed between social support and self-perceived health status among this population of Wisconsin women, and hospital access based on geographic proximity was positively correlated (P = .028) with overall health status. The direct relationship between social support and overall health demonstrated here stresses the importance of developing and maintaining strong social support networks, which can be improved through rural support groups that have the unique ability to assist rural residents in fostering social support systems, advocating stress management techniques, and achieving a greater sense of well-being.
Full Text Available Alexis C Dennis1 Sarah M Wilson1–3 Mary V Mosha4 Gileard G Masenga4 Kathleen J Sikkema1,5,6 Korrine E Terroso1 Melissa H Watt1 1Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, 2Department of Veterans Affairs, Mid-Atlantic Mental Illness Research, Education and Clinical Center, 3Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 4Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Center, Moshi, Tanzania; 5Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; 6Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Objective: An obstetric fistula is a childbirth injury resulting in uncontrollable leakage of urine and/or feces and can lead to physical and psychological challenges, including social isolation. Prior to and after fistula repair surgery, social support can help a woman to reintegrate into her community. The aim of this study was to preliminarily examine the experiences of social support among Tanzanian women presenting with obstetric fistula in the periods immediately preceding obstetric fistula repair surgery and following reintegration.Patients and methods: The study used a mixed-methods design to analyze cross-sectional surveys (n=59 and in-depth interviews (n=20.Results: Women reported widely varying levels of social support from family members and partners, with half of the sample reporting overall high levels of social support. For women experiencing lower levels of support, fistula often exacerbated existing problems in relationships, sometimes directly causing separation or divorce. Many women were assertive and resilient with regard to advocating for their fistula care and relationship needs.Conclusion: Our data suggest that while some women endure negative social experiences following an obstetric fistula and require additional resources and services, many women report high levels of social support from family members and partners, which may be harnessed to improve the holistic
Xu, Jihong; Chen, Ping; Ma, Xu
The reproductive-aged women have to face physiological and psychological challenges as long as they plan to conceive. However, most previous studies focused on depression and anxiety during pregnancy. This study aimed to investigate the association among preconception depression, anxiety, and social support of the Chinese reproductive-aged women. Nine-hundred five reproductive-aged women who planned to conceive for the first or second time in the next three months were recruited through the Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospital and Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital from three provinces in China. Social Support Rating Scale, Self-Rating Depression Scale, and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale were used in this study. The hierarchical regression model was employed to examine the prediction effect of the three sub-dimensions of social support on preconception depression and anxiety. Of the reproductive-aged women, 25.86 and 13.04% had preconception depression and anxiety symptoms. Nearly all reproductive-aged women had moderate and high social support before pregnancy. The significant differences in depression and anxiety among different levels of occupation and monthly income were found. For depression and anxiety, objective support, support availability, and subjective support simultaneously entered into the model still could significantly explain 5.9 and 6.7% of variations after controlling for the demographic variables, respectively. According to this study, there were significant correlations among preconception depression, anxiety, and social support. And objective support, support availability, and subjective support could negatively predict preconception depression and anxiety. Attaching importance to the preconception mental health and social support can provide effective scientific support for helping women fully understand and effectively use the social resources, and scientifically prepare for pregnancy.
Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Xudong; Leonhart, Rainer; Nadig, Maya; Hasenburg, Annette; Wirsching, Michael; Fritzsche, Kurt
This cross-cultural study aimed to compare climacteric symptoms, self-esteem, and perceived social support between Mosuo and Han Chinese women, and to explore the interaction between culture and climacteric symptoms. Mosuo is a Chinese minority group with a matriarchal structure, and Han Chinese is the majority ethnic group in China with a patriarchal structure. Through convenience sampling, 54 Mosuo women and 52 Han Chinese women between 40 and 60 years of age completed the sociodemographic questionnaire, the Menopause Rating Scale, the Self-Esteem Scale, and the Perceived Social Support Scale. Compared with Han Chinese women, Mosuo women scored lower on the psychological (P psychological symptoms severity. Referring to the severity of all symptoms, predictive variables were: perceived support from family (β = -0.210, P = 0.017); self-esteem (β = 0.320, P Cultural variables such as familial structure, women's self-esteem, and perceived social support were correlated with symptomatology.
Maldonado-Cisneros, Maritza; Medina-Gómez, Oswaldo Sinoe
Prenatal care ensures favorable results for maternal-fetal health and, to that end, it must be provided early, periodically, comprehensively and with high coverage. To find out the social determinants of prenatal care in women affiliated to the Mexican Institute of Social Security during 2014. Cross-sectional study where the association of social conditions, social support and family functioning with inadequate prenatal care was analyzed. A descriptive analysis was performed; hypothesis tests were used with chi-square (95% level of confidence). The prevalence ratio and Mann-Whitney's U-test were estimated to compare medians and logistic regression. Of the interviewed women, 58.1% had inadequate prenatal care, mainly associated with unplanned pregnancy, poor social support, low level of education and higher marginalization. Not having leaves of absence granted by employers was the main barrier in those women who did not attend health services. There is a need for strategies to be designed and implemented to enable understanding the interaction between different biological and social dimensions of the health-disease process and reduce health inequities that affect pregnant women, in order to achieve good prenatal care and to implement alternative models guaranteeing its efficiency. Copyright: © 2018 SecretarÍa de Salud.
Rodrigo Pegado de Abreu Freitas
Full Text Available ABSTRACT We aimed to assess the impact of social support on symptoms in Brazilian women with FM. An observational, descriptive study enrolling 66 women who met the 1990 American College of Rheumatology (ACR criteria. Social support was measured by the Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS, functionality was evaluated using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ, depression was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, anxiety was measured using the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAS, affectivity was measured by Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS, and algometry was carried out to record pressure pain threshold (PPth and tolerance (PPTo at 18 points recommended by the ACR. Patients were divided into normal (NSS or poor social support (PSS groups with PSS defined as having a MOS-SSS score below the 25th percentile of the entire sample. Mann-Whitney or Unpaired t-test were used to compare intergroup variables and Fisher's for categorical variables. Analysis of covariance and Pearson correlation test were used. No differences in sociodemographic variables between PSS and NSS were found. Differences between NSS and PSS groups were observed for all four subcategories of social support and MOS-SSS total score. Significant differences between NSS and PSS on depression (p = 0.007, negative affect (p = 0.025 and PPTh (p = 0.016 were found. Affectionate subcategory showed positive correlation between pain and positive affect in PSS. Positive social interaction subcategory showed a negative correlation between FIQ and depression state. Therefore social support appears to contribute to ameliorate mental and physical health in FM.
Linnabery, Eileen; Stuhlmacher, Alice F; Towler, Annette
In the workplace, Black women encounter different job demands than their White counterparts and often experience less control. Demand-control theory offers a framework to examine the challenges Black women face as well as how factors such as coping strategies and social support can moderate levels of well-being. In this study we examined the impact of Black women's social support and coping strategies on job-family role strain, career satisfaction, and life satisfaction. Responses were collected from 188 highly educated Black American women employed in variety of occupations. Results of path modeling found that social support is important to well-being, and that self-help coping can overcome deficient social support's impact on well-being. Exploratory analyses revealed that support from ones' family, church, coworkers, and supervisor each individually related to aspects of well-being, particularly when self-help coping is low. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Ogle, Jennifer Paff; Park, Juyeon; Damhorst, Mary Lynn; Bradley, Linda Arthur
We explored the role that social support plays in the lives of women who have undergone bariatric surgery. We conducted in-depth interviews with 13 women who had had bariatric surgery (M age = 53.0 years) and analyzed the data using constant comparison processes. We found that individuals in participants' lives offered support by acting as role models and providing information, offering empathy and expressions of concern and caring, assisting with everyday responsibilities, and serving as companions. In turn, these forms of support guided participants' behavior, calmed their concerns, enhanced their self-esteem, relieved them of daily responsibilities, and offered them companionship in their bariatric journeys. Consistent with the existing theory, differently situated individuals specialized in offering particular types of support. Although participants appreciated the support received, many indicated a desire for more or "better" support, pointing to a need for resources guiding supporters in how to best offer support to bariatric patients. © The Author(s) 2015.
Poudel-Tandukar, Kalpana; Nanri, Akiko; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Matsushita, Yumi; Takahashi, Yoshihiko; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro
Although the important role of social support in mental health is acknowledged, no prospective study has yet examined the relation of social support to suicide. Here, we investigated the association between social support and suicide in a cohort of Japanese men and women. A total of 26,672 men and 29,865 women aged 40-69 years enrolled in the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study in 1993-1994 completed a self-administered questionnaire which included four items of social support, and were followed for death through December 2005. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of suicidal death by social support index were estimated using a Cox proportional hazards regression model. A total of 180 suicidal deaths were recorded during an average of 12 years' follow-up. Men and women with the highest level of social support had a significantly decreased risk of suicide, with HRs (95% CI) for the highest versus lowest social support group of 0.56 (0.33-0.94) and 0.38 (0.16-0.89) in men and women, respectively. Esteem support and having four or more friends were associated with a lower risk of suicide in women [0.32 (0.13-0.77)] and in both sexes [men: 0.56 (0.36-0.88); women: 0.65 (0.32-1.30)], respectively, whereas confident support was not. These findings suggest that social support may be important for suicide prevention. Avoiding social isolation may decrease the incidence of suicide in men and women, and esteem support can provide additional benefit for women. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Letícia Becker Vieira
Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the possibilities of help/support through the mapping and acknowledgement of the social network of women who denounce experiences of violence at a Police Precinct for Women.Method: qualitative study based on the theoretical-methodological framework of Lia Sanicola's Social Network, through interviews with 19 women.Results: the analysis of the network maps evidenced that the primary social network was more present than the secondary on and, despite consisting of significant relations, it demonstrates limitations. The women access the secondary network occasionally in the violence problem and/or its repercussions in their life and health. The discrete presence of the health network in the composition of the social network was revealed and, when mentioned, the relation between the health professional and the woman was characterized as fragile.Conclusion: the importance of the social network relates to the creation of spaces of help/support for the women beyond the moment of the aggression, which accompany them throughout their process of emancipation from an experience annulled by violence, considering that each woman acts and makes decisions in the relational context when she is ready for it.
Sidebottom, Abbey C; Hellerstedt, Wendy L; Harrison, Patricia A; Jones-Webb, Rhonda J
We examined associations of depressive symptoms and social support with late and inadequate prenatal care in a low-income urban population. The sample was prenatal care patients at five community health centers. Measures of depressive symptoms, social support, and covariates were collected at prenatal care entry. Prenatal care entry and adequacy came from birth certificates. We examined outcomes of late prenatal care and less than adequate care in multivariable models. Among 2341 study participants, 16% had elevated depressive symptoms, 70% had moderate/poor social support, 21% had no/low partner support, 37% had late prenatal care, and 29% had less than adequate prenatal care. Women with both no/low partner support and elevated depressive symptoms were at highest risk of late care (AOR 1.85, CI 1.31, 2.60, p care (AOR 0.74, CI 0.54, 1.10, p = 0.051). Women with moderate/high depressive symptoms were less likely to experience less than adequate care compared to women with low symptoms (AOR 0.73, CI 0.56, 0.96, p = 0.022). Social support and partner support were negatively associated with indices of prenatal care use. Partner support was identified as protective for women with depressive symptoms with regard to late care. Study findings support public health initiatives focused on promoting models of care that address preconception and reproductive life planning. Practice-based implications include possible screening for social support and depression in preconception contexts.
Ozdemir, Deniz; Arslan, Fatma Tas
Social support may play a role in effective stress management and make a positive contribution to the health of women with breast cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the ways of coping with stress and levels of perceived social support of women with breast cancer, as well as the associated factors. The descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted with 100 women with breast cancer at a training and research hospital in Turkey. Data were collected using an information form including sociodemographic and disease characteristics, the Scale of Ways of Coping with Stress, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Effective ways of coping with stress were found to be significantly lower in women who were primary school graduates and who did not undergo surgery (psocial support from family and total score of perceived social support increased, so did the levels of effective coping with stress (psocial support and age significantly predicted effective stress management (pSocial support given to women with breast cancer is a key reference point in effective stress mamangement, and increased age also has an important effect on women's ability to cope with stress. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Brittain, Kirsty; Mellins, Claude A; Phillips, Tamsin; Zerbe, Allison; Abrams, Elaine J; Myer, Landon; Remien, Robert H
Depression, HIV-related stigma and low levels of social support may be particularly prevalent and adversely affect health and treatment outcomes among HIV-infected pregnant women. We examined factors associated with social support and stigma among pregnant women initiating antiretroviral therapy in the Western Cape, South Africa; and explored associations with depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale; EPDS) in linear regression models. Among 623 participants, 11 and 19 % had elevated EPDS scores using thresholds described in the original development of the scale (scores ≥13 and ≥10, respectively). Social support and stigma were highly interrelated and were associated with depressive symptoms. Stigma was observed to moderate the association between social support and depression scores; when levels of stigma were high, no association between social support and depression scores was observed. Elevated depression scores are prevalent in this setting, and interventions to reduce stigma and to address risk factors for depressive symptoms are needed.
Norlander, T; Dahlin, A; Archer, T
This study examined the effects of life events, social support, personality traits, and siblings' birth-order on the health of women. 199 middle-class participants were included. 95 women, randomly assigned from four different patient groups, were compared with a control group of 96 randomly selected women without any special health problems. They completed a questionnaire which included questions regarding family background, health, different life events, social support, and signs of disease and a projective test, the Sivik Psychosomatism Test. Analysis indicated that report of negative life events was associated with more physical symptoms than positive life events and that the patient groups reported more negative life events and less social support than the control group.
Full Text Available Background: Studies conducted on infertile women in the literature investigated some features such as depression, anxiety, loneliness, and social support. However, there has been no study examining the relationship between levels of perceived social support and depression in infertile women. Considering this deficiency, the study was conducted to determine the relationship between perceived social support and depression in infertile women. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between perceived social support and depression in infertile women. Materials and Methods: This descriptive and sectional study was conducted between 16 April and 31 October 2012 in in vitro fertilisation (IVF Centre of Fırat University Research Hospital. Sampling formula was used in cases when the number of elements in the population was not known to calculate minimum sample size required to be included in the study. A total of 238 women who applied to the relevant centre between the specified dates constituted the sample group of the study. A Questionnaire Form, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS were used to collect the data. A pilot study was carried out on nine infertile women. As a result of the pilot study, we formed the final version of the Questionnaire Form. The data of these nine women were not involved in the research. The data obtained from the study was assessed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA version 15.0. Percentage distribution, mean, t test, one-way analysis of variance (One-Way ANOVA, and Pearson correlation analysis were used to evaluate the data. Results: The women’s total mean score on the BDI was 12.55 ± 8.07. Scores obtained by women on the MSPSS was 15.75 ± 8.53 for the subscale of friend, 21.52 ± 8.20 for the subscale of family, and 15.62 ± 8.45 for the subscale of significant others. The women’s total
Moshki, Mahdi; Cheravi, Khadijeh
Prenatal depression is a significant predictor of postpartum depression and is detrimental to fetal development. To examine whether depression during pregnancy is associated with social support and health locus of control (HLC). Data were collected from a sample of 208 Iranian pregnant women using a demographic questionnaire, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, the multidimensional HLC Scale and the social support appraisals. Depression was experienced by 37% of participants. Overall, women reported higher level of family support (6.88 ± 1.15) than other supports (6.87 ± 1.29). Protective supports from other resources (6.87 ± 1.29) were higher than those from friends (5.94 ± 1.5). Internal, powerful others and chance beliefs had the highest mean scores. Social support and chance HLC significantly influenced the proposed mediator (depressive mood) in the linear regression model. Bivariate analysis showed significant associations between social support (friend, family and others) and depressive mood. Internal HLC had a significant association with social support and powerful others HLC. However, Pearson correlation coefficient was not significant between depressive mood and all dimensions of HLC. Clinicians could assess social support and chance HLC to identify and treat women at risk of prenatal depression. By providing support during pregnancy, depression levels in women and its effects on the fetus may be decreased, which could prevent postpartum depression. © The Author(s) 2015.
Krause-Parello, Cheryl A
Pets can play a positive role in the both the physical and psychological health of older adults. This cross sectional study investigated the relationships among loneliness, pet attachment support, human social support, and depressed mood in a convenience sample of 159 pet-owning older women residing in the community. Participants completed loneliness, pet attachment support, human social support, and depressed mood scales. The results supported significant relationships between loneliness, pet attachment support, human social support, and depressed mood. No relationship was found between human social support and depressed mood. Pet attachment support, but not human social support, influenced the relationship between loneliness and depressed mood indicating the importance of pet attachment as a greater form of support in this sample. Clinical and social implications for nurses working with the geriatric population were identified and discussed. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Nargiso, Jessica E.; Kuo, Caroline C.; Zlotnick, Caron; Johnson, Jennifer E.
The nature of social support available to incarcerated women is not well understood, particularly among women at high risk of negative outcomes, including women dually-diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder and a Substance Use Disorder (MDD-SUD). Descriptive statistics and paired-tests were conducted on 60 incarcerated MDD-SUD women receiving in-prison substance use and depression treatments to characterize the women’s social networks, including the strength of support, network characterist...
Leung, Janni; Pachana, Nancy A; McLaughlin, Deirdre
A breast cancer diagnosis is a distressing event that impacts on physical and psychological functioning. This study examined the longitudinal relationships among a diagnosis of breast cancer, social support, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Participants were 412 women from the 1946-1951 birth cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health who self-reported a new diagnosis of breast cancer between 1998 and 2007. The three surveys of longitudinal data analyzed included data 3 years before diagnosis, at diagnosis (baseline), and 3 years after diagnosis (follow-up). Social support was measured using the 19-item Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey; HRQOL was measured using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey. Compared with pre-diagnosis HRQOL, women newly diagnosed with breast cancer reported significantly poorer HRQOL in subscales related to pain, physical functioning, and health and vitality. At 3-year follow-up, HRQOL had improved in most domains to levels consistent with pre-diagnosis. Levels of social support remained stable across time. The structural equation model showed that social support was positively predictive of better physical and mental HRQOL at 3-year follow-up. Longitudinal analyses indicate that social support appears to be an important predictor of HRQOL in women diagnosed with breast cancer. In particular, positive emotional and informational support that may normally be provided by a partner is important in maintaining HRQOL. Identification of those lacking social support, especially patients without partners, will enable them to be guided to appropriate support networks and programs. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Higgins, P; Murray, M L; Williams, E M
This descriptive, retrospective study examined levels of self-esteem, social support, and satisfaction with prenatal care in 193 low-risk postpartal women who obtained adequate and inadequate care. The participants were drawn from a regional medical center and university teaching hospital in New Mexico. A demographic questionnaire, the Coopersmith self-esteem inventory, the personal resource questionnaire part 2, and the prenatal care satisfaction inventory were used for data collection. Significant differences were found in the level of education, income, insurance, and ethnicity between women who received adequate prenatal care and those who received inadequate care. Women who were likely to seek either adequate or inadequate prenatal care were those whose total family income was $10,000 to $19,999 per year and high school graduates. Statistically significant differences were found in self-esteem, social support, and satisfaction between the two groups of women. Strategies to enhance self-esteem and social support have to be developed to reach women at risk for receiving inadequate prenatal care.
Fleuriet, K Jill
Women who have immigrated to the United States from Mexico have better than expected birth outcomes. Part of this apparent health 'paradox' has been explained by high levels of social support which are thought to offset known risk factors for low birth weight. Yet common measures of social support during pregnancy suffer from presumptions of cultural homogeneity and a-priori definitions of meaningful social support. Analysis of qualitative data from ethnographic research with 28 low-income immigrant women from Mexico living in south Texas demonstrates that preferences for certain kinds of social support vary considerably, based on how each woman makes meaning of being pregnant. This diversity is one more piece of evidence that minority cultures cannot be essentialised in health disparities research. By not measuring the diversity of desire for different kinds of support, existing correlations between social support and birth outcomes may obscure other important psychosocial mediators, such as pregnancy-related social status, that could impact birth outcomes. Moreover, a measure of pregnancy-related status may offer a more thorough explanation of the 'protective effect' that could be explored independent of immigrant status.
Humphreys, A S; Thompson, N J; Miner, K R
The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between breastfeeding intention among socioeconomically disadvantaged pregnant women and maternal demographics, previous breastfeeding experience, and social support. A cross-sectional, convenience sampling strategy was employed for data collection. Low-income women (n = 1001) in a public hospital completed a six-page questionnaire about their infant feeding plans, demographics, and social support. Simple regression analyses were conducted to compare maternal breastfeeding intention with the hypothesized correlates. Breastfeeding intention was positively correlated with older maternal age, higher education, more breastfeeding experience, Hispanic ethnicity, and hearing about breastfeeding benefits from family members, the baby's father, and lactation consultants, but not from other health professionals. Health professionals' attitudes were less influential on women's infant feeding decisions than the attitudes and beliefs of members of women's social support networks. When controlling for breastfeeding experience (none vs any), some findings, varied, indicating a need for breastfeeding interventions tailored to women's level of experience. Use of peer counselors and lactation consultants, inclusion of a woman's family members in breastfeeding educational contacts, and creation of breastfeeding classes tailored to influential members of women's social support networks may improve breastfeeding rates among low-income women, especially those with no breastfeeding experience, more effectively than breastfeeding education to pregnant women that is solely conducted by health professionals.
ABSTRACT. The article explores the relationship between social support and health behaviour of rural and urban women who .... residential clinics and 3 mobile clinic teams attached to it. .... used traditional herbal medications, with the usage.
McDoom, M Maya; Bokhour, Barbara; Sullivan, Meg; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn
As black women over age 50 represent a growing share of women living with HIV, understanding what helps them persist and engage in ongoing HIV care will become increasingly important. Delineating the specific roles of social support and stigma on HIV care experiences among this population remains unclear. We qualitatively examined how experiences with stigma and social support either facilitated or inhibited engagement in HIV care, from the perspective of older black women. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 older black women currently receiving HIV care at primary care clinics in the Metropolitan Boston area. Women expressed that experiences with stigma and seeking support played an important role in evaluating the risks and benefits of engaging in care. Social support facilitated their ability to engage in care, while stigma interfered with their ability to engage in care throughout the course of their illness. Providers in particular, can facilitate engagement by understanding the changes in these women's lives as they struggle with stigma and disclosure while engaging in HIV care. The patient's experiences with social support and stigma and their perceptions about engagement are important considerations for medical teams to tailor efforts to engage older black women in regular HIV care.
Tani, Franca; Castagna, Valeria
Social relationships provide individuals with a general sense of self-worth, psychological wellbeing, as well as allowing them access to resources during stressful periods and transitions in life. Pregnancy is a time of significant life change for every woman. The aim of this study was to verify the influence of social support perceived by mothers during pregnancy on the quality of their birth experience and post-partum depression. A longitudinal study at three different times was carried out on 179 nulliparous pregnant women. Women completed a Maternal Social Support Questionnaire during the third trimester of their pregnancy. Then, on the first day after childbirth, clinical birth indices were collected. Finally, a month after childbirth, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was administered. Post-partum depression was influenced negatively by maternal perceived social support and positively by negative clinical birth indices. In addition to these direct effects, analyses revealed a significant effect of maternal perceived social support on post-partum depression, mediated by the clinical indices considered. Social support perceived by mothers during pregnancy plays a significant role as a protection factor against post-partum depression, both directly and indirectly, reducing the negative clinical aspects of the birth experience.
Chien, Li-Yin; Tai, Chen-Jei; Yeh, Mei-Chiang
Domestic decision-making power is an integral part of women's empowerment. No study has linked domestic decision-making power and social support concurrently to postpartum depression and compared these between immigrant and native populations. The aim of this study was to examine domestic decision-making power and social support and their relationship to postpartum depressive symptoms among immigrant and native women in Taiwan. This cross-sectional survey included 190 immigrant and 190 native women who had delivered healthy babies during the past year in Taipei City. Depression was measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, with a cutoff score of 10. Logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with postpartum depression symptoms. Immigrant mothers had significantly higher prevalence of postpartum depression symptoms (41.1% vs. 8.4%) and had significantly lower levels of domestic decision-making power and social support than native mothers did. Logistic regression showed that insufficient family income was associated with an increased risk of postpartum depression symptoms, whereas social support and domestic decision-making power levels were associated negatively with postpartum depression symptoms. After accounting for these factors, immigrant women remained at higher risk of postpartum depression symptoms than native women did, odds ratio = 2.59, 95% CI [1.27, 5.28]. Domestic decision-making power and social support are independent protective factors for postpartum depression symptoms among immigrant and native women in Taiwan. Social support and empowerment interventions should be tested to discover whether they are able to prevent or alleviate postpartum depression symptoms, with special emphasis on immigrant mothers.
Abstract Background Family violence (FV), spirituality, and social support are salient psychosocial determinants of health. FV is associated with poor health among older African American women. The effect of spirituality and social support levels on the health of older African American women is unknown. Methods To assess the role of spirituality and social support as culturally relevant determinants of health status for older African American women independent of FV levels, we used a cross-sectional observational study. Two hundred twelve African American women, aged ≥50, were interviewed in two urban primary care practices. The measures used were (1) Family Violence Against Older Women (FVOW) scale, (2) Physical and Mental Composite Scores of the Short-Form 8® scale, (3) Medical Outcomes of Social Support survey (MOSS), and (4) Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS). Spearman correlation coefficients estimated to test associations among lifetime FV exposure, spirituality, social support, and health status outcomes and multivariate regression models were used to examine the independent effect of spirituality and social support on physical and mental health status, controlling for FV and significant demographic variables. Results Mean participant age was 63.9 years. Higher spirituality levels were significantly associated with better physical health status after adjusting for FV levels and demographic factors (F = 6.17, p = 0.0001). Similarly, higher levels of spirituality and social support both significantly correlated with better mental health status in the multivariate model (F = 13.45, p < 0.0001) that controlled for lifetime FV levels and demographic factors. Conclusions Spirituality and social support are two potentially modifiable determinants of health for older African American women. Culturally appropriate mechanisms to enhance social support and spirituality levels need to be explored as potential inteventions to improve the health of those
Daoud, Nihaya; Shoham-Vardi, Ilana; Urquia, Marcelo Louis; O'Campo, Patricia
Polygamy is a complex phenomenon and a product of power relations, with deep cultural, social, economic, and political roots. Despite being banned in many countries, the practice persists and has been associated with women's marginalization and mental health sequelae. In this study, we sought to improve understanding of this ongoing, complex phenomenon by examining the contribution of socioeconomic position (SEP) and social support to the excess of depressive symptoms (DS) and poor self-rated health (SRH) among women in polygamous marriages compared to women in monogamous marriages. Measuring the contribution of these factors could facilitate policies and interventions aimed at protecting women's mental health. The study was conducted among a sample of Arab Bedouin women living in a marginalized community in southern Israel (N=464, age 18-50). The women were personally interviewed in 2008-2009. We then used logistic regression models to calculate the contribution of SEP (as defined by the women's education, family SEP, and household characteristics) and social support to excess of depressive symptoms and poor SRH among participants in polygamous versus monogamous marriages. About 23% of the participants were in polygamous marriages. These women reported almost twice the odds of depressive symptoms (OR=1.91, 95%CI=1.22, 2.99) and poorer SRH (OR=1.73, 95%CI=1.10, 2.72) than those in monogamous marriages. Women's education changed these associations slightly, but family SEP and household characteristics resulted in virtually no further change. Social support reduced the odds for poor SRH and DS by about 23% and 28%, respectively. Polygamy is associated with higher risk for poor mental health of women regardless of their SEP and education. Social support seems to have some protective effect.
Qadir, Farah; Khalid, Amna; Haqqani, Sabahat; Zill-e-Huma; Medhin, Girmay
Marital circumstances have been indicated to be a salient risk factor for disproportionately high prevalence of depression and anxiety among Pakistani women. Although social support is a known buffer of psychological distress, there is no clear evidence as to how different aspects of marital relations interact and associate with depression and anxiety in the lives of Pakistani married women and the role of social supports in the context of their marriage. Two hundred seventy seven married women were recruited from Rawalpindi district of Pakistan using a door knocking approach to psychometrically evaluate five scales for use in the Pakistani context. A confirmatory factor analysis approach was used to investigate the underlying factor structure of Couple satisfaction Index (CSI-4), Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Test (LWMAT), Relationship Dynamic Scale (RDS), Multidimensional Scale for Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The interplay of the constructs underlying the three aspects of marital relations, and the role of social support on the mental health of married Pakistani women were examined using the Structural Equation Model. The factor structures of MSPSS, CSI-4, LWMAT, RDS and HADS were similar to the findings reported in the developed and developing countries. Perceived higher social support reduces the likelihood of depression and anxiety by enhancing positive relationship as reflected by a low score on the relationship dynamics scale which decreases CMD symptoms. Moreover, perceived higher social support is positively associated with marital adjustment directly and indirectly through relationship dynamics which is associated with the reduced risk of depression through the increased level of reported marital satisfaction. Nuclear family structure, low level of education and higher socio-economic status were significantly associated with increased risk of mental illness among married women. Findings of this
Background Marital circumstances have been indicated to be a salient risk factor for disproportionately high prevalence of depression and anxiety among Pakistani women. Although social support is a known buffer of psychological distress, there is no clear evidence as to how different aspects of marital relations interact and associate with depression and anxiety in the lives of Pakistani married women and the role of social supports in the context of their marriage. Methods Two hundred seventy seven married women were recruited from Rawalpindi district of Pakistan using a door knocking approach to psychometrically evaluate five scales for use in the Pakistani context. A confirmatory factor analysis approach was used to investigate the underlying factor structure of Couple satisfaction Index (CSI-4), Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Test (LWMAT), Relationship Dynamic Scale (RDS), Multidimensional Scale for Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The interplay of the constructs underlying the three aspects of marital relations, and the role of social support on the mental health of married Pakistani women were examined using the Structural Equation Model. Results The factor structures of MSPSS, CSI-4, LWMAT, RDS and HADS were similar to the findings reported in the developed and developing countries. Perceived higher social support reduces the likelihood of depression and anxiety by enhancing positive relationship as reflected by a low score on the relationship dynamics scale which decreases CMD symptoms. Moreover, perceived higher social support is positively associated with marital adjustment directly and indirectly through relationship dynamics which is associated with the reduced risk of depression through the increased level of reported marital satisfaction. Nuclear family structure, low level of education and higher socio-economic status were significantly associated with increased risk of mental illness among
Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal, neonatal and child health outcomes are worse in families from black and ethnic minority groups and disadvantaged backgrounds. There is little evidence on whether lay support improves maternal and infant outcomes among women with complex social needs within a disadvantaged multi-ethnic population in the United Kingdom (UK. Method/Design The aim of this study is to evaluate a lay Pregnancy Outreach Worker (POW service for nulliparous women identified as having social risk within a maternity service that is systematically assessing social risks alongside the usual obstetric and medical risks. The study design is a randomised controlled trial (RCT in nulliparous women assessed as having social risk comparing standard maternity care with the addition of referral to the POW support service. The POWs work alongside community midwifery teams and offer individualised support to women to encourage engagement with services (health and social care from randomisation (before 28 weeks gestation until 6 weeks after birth. The primary outcomes have been chosen on the basis that they are linked to maternal and infant health. The two primary outcomes are engagement with antenatal care, assessed by the number of antenatal visits; and maternal depression, assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at 8-12 weeks after birth. Secondary outcomes include maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, routine child health assessments, including immunisation uptake and breastfeeding at 6 weeks. Other psychological outcomes (self efficacy and mother-to-infant bonding will also be collected using validated tools. A sample size of 1316 will provide 90% power (at the 5% significance level to detect increased engagement with antenatal services of 1.5 visits and a reduction of 1.5 in the average EPDS score for women with two or more social risk factors, with power in excess of this for women with any social risk factor. Analysis will
Gjerdingen, D K; Chaloner, K M
This study was conducted to examine changes in women's mental health over the first postpartum year and factors that are associated with mental health. Participants included women who were married, employed, English-speaking, and giving birth to their first child at one of two hospitals in St Paul, Minnesota. Women who were eligible and willing to participate were mailed questionnaires at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months postpartum. There were significant changes in mothers' general mental health, depression, and anxiety over the first postpartum year (P appearance, and infant illnesses. In addition, postpartum symptoms were predicted by physical illness, previous mental problems, poor general health, poor social support, fewer recreational activities, young age, and low income (R2 = 37% to 57%). In this select group of women, postpartum mental health was found to be least favorable 1 month after delivery and related to factors associated with employment, recent delivery, and level of social support.
Garner, Melissa J; McGregor, Bonnie A; Murphy, Karly M; Koenig, Alex L; Dolan, Emily D; Albano, Denise
Breast cancer risk is a chronic stressor associated with depression. Optimism is associated with lower levels of depression among breast cancer survivors. However, to our knowledge, no studies have explored the relationship between optimism and depression among women at risk for breast cancer. We hypothesized that women at risk for breast cancer who have higher levels of optimism would report lower levels of depression and that social support would mediate this relationship. Participants (N = 199) with elevated distress were recruited from the community and completed self-report measures of depression, optimism, and social support. Participants were grouped based on their family history of breast cancer. Path analysis was used to examine the cross-sectional relationship between optimism, social support, and depressive symptoms in each group. Results indicated that the variance in depressive symptoms was partially explained through direct paths from optimism and social support among women with a family history of breast cancer. The indirect path from optimism to depressive symptoms via social support was significant (β = -.053; 90% CI = -.099 to -.011, p = .037) in this group. However, among individuals without a family history of breast cancer, the indirect path from optimism to depressive symptoms via social support was not significant. These results suggest that social support partially mediates the relationship between optimism and depression among women at risk for breast cancer. Social support may be an important intervention target to reduce depression among women at risk for breast cancer. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Blom, May; Georgiades, Anastasia; László, Krisztina D; Alinaghizadeh, Hassan; Janszky, Imre; Ahnve, Staffan
Work and marital status have been shown to be associated with health outcome in women. However, the effect of employment and marriage on psychosocial functioning has been studied predominantly in healthy subjects. We investigated whether work and marital status are associated with depressive symptoms, social support, and daily stress behavior in women with coronary artery disease (CAD). Data of 105 women with CAD and of working age were analyzed. General linear models were used to determine the association between work and marital status and depressive symptoms, social support, and daily stress behavior. Women who were working at the time of measurement had lower levels of depressive symptoms (7.0 +/- 1.2 vs. 12.1 +/- 0.9, p marital status was not related to any of the outcome variables. Results were similar after adjusting for potential confounders, that is, age, education, self-reported health, and risk factors for CAD. There was no significant interaction between marital status and working status on depressive symptoms, social support, or daily stress behavior. In women with CAD, all working had lower levels of depressive symptoms and a better social integration than those not working, regardless of reason for being nonemployed. Daily stress behavior, depression, and social support did not differ between cohabiting and not cohabiting women. Future interventions should take into consideration that women with CAD who are unemployed may have a higher risk for depression and social isolation and, therefore, poor clinical outcomes.
DePrince, Anne P; Dmitrieva, Julia; Gagnon, Kerry L; Srinivas, Tejaswinhi
A growing literature links social reactions to disclosures of intimate violence to posttraumatic outcomes. The Social Reactions Questionnaire (SRQ), a widely used measure developed to assess social reactions, asks about reactions received from people generally. The ability to examine the impact of social reactions from specific groups of people-such as criminal justice personnel versus community-based providers-has become increasingly more important from both research and practice perspectives. For example, as sexual assault responses nationally have relied on community-coordinated models that involve both criminal justice and community-based systems, tools are lacking to systematically assess the impact of social reactions from criminal justice personnel and community-based providers on survivors. Using the SRQ, the current study asked women to report separately on reactions received from criminal justice personnel, community-based providers, and informal supports. We recruited a diverse community sample of women ( N = 228, ages 18-63, 19% lesbian/bisexual, 44% ethnic minority) who experienced a sexual assault in the previous year and disclosed to the criminal justice system and/or a community-based provider. Multilevel analyses revealed considerable variability in the social reactions reported by women across criminal justice personnel, community-based providers, and informal supports. Analyses supported a seven-factor structure for the SRQ when the measure is yoked to particular experiences of disclosure, in this case to criminal justice personnel, community-based providers, or informal supports. The utility of this modified administration and scoring of the SRQ and the importance of considering reactions across different groups are described.
Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Tuval-Mashiach, Rivka; Goldzweig, Gil; Levi, Rienat; Pizem, Noam; Kaufman, Bela
Employing a cross-sectional design, the current study examined the relationships between various agents and types of support and posttraumatic growth (PTG) among women with breast cancer. Eighty married women who were coping with breast cancer completed social support and PTG questionnaires. All agents of social support (family, friends, belief-based), excluding spousal support, and all types of social support were found to be related to the various PTG dimensions and its total score. Regression analyses revealed that, among the agents of support, only support provided from friends and belief-based support uniquely contribute to prediction of total PTG score. While examining the contribution of various types of support, only cognitive support had a unique contribution to prediction of total PTG score. Various agents and types of support play different roles in the PTG process following breast cancer. Accordingly, friends as an agent of support and information as a type of support seem to be most important in enhancing PTG among women with breast cancer.
Chan, C W; Molassiotis, A; Yam, B M; Chan, S J; Lam, C S
A qualitative research design was selected to gather data on the experiences of social support for Chinese women with gynecologic cancer. Eighteen women were recruited and interviewed at an oncology unit of a teaching hospital in Hong Kong. Content analysis of the interview data showed Chinese women with gynecologic cancer placed enormous emphasis on their human relationships. Family members were especially significant to them although not all identified their family relations as satisfactory or helpful. Their social network comprised 4 major sources, including family and friends, work and colleagues, health professionals, and religion and spiritual beliefs. Each network offered significant reciprocal relations, authoritative relations, or entrusting relations. The positive appraisal of the support function was linked to the Chinese value of food, work ethics, the Confucian and religious philosophy, whereas negative aspects of support, such as the stress of maintaining relationships and inadequate information, conjoined with the Chinese suppression of emotion and the busyness of health professionals. Future studies, including social relations as a determinant, should ensure a broad and multifunctional view of social support and acknowledge the cultural influences on the perspective of support.
Gagliardi, Cristina; Vespa, Anna; Papa, Roberta; Mariotti, Carlo; Cascinu, Stefano; Rossini, Simonetta
The aim of this study was to investigate the areas of depression, anxiety, and social support using the structural model of the social network. By comparing the networks of two samples of breast cancer sufferers and healthy control participants, it was possible to identify differences in their relationships, in the shape of the networks themselves, and in the levels of depression and anxiety. Women with breast cancer described smaller and denser networks, including mainly kins whereas the healthy women included more friends, coworkers, and leisure companions. The levels of anxiety and depression were higher in women with breast cancer. Social network and social support measure correlated differently with depression and anxiety in the two groups.
Ribeiro, Marizélia Rodrigues Costa; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da; Alves, Maria Teresa Seabra Soares de Britto E; Batista, Rosângela Fernandes Lucena; Ribeiro, Cecília Cláudia Costa; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Bettiol, Heloisa; Barbieri, Marco Antônio
Few studies have used structural equation modeling to analyze the effects of variables on violence against women. The present study analyzed the effects of socioeconomic status and social support on violence against pregnant women who used prenatal services. This was a cross-sectional study based on data from the Brazilian Ribeirão Preto and São Luís birth cohort studies (BRISA). The sample of the municipality of São Luís (Maranhão/Brazil) consisted of 1,446 pregnant women interviewed in 2010 and 2011. In the proposed model, socioeconomic status was the most distal predictor, followed by social support that determined general violence, psychological violence or physical/sexual violence, which were analyzed as latent variables. Violence was measured by the World Health Organization Violence against Women (WHO VAW) instrument. The São Luis model was estimated using structural equation modeling and validated with 1,378 pregnant women from Ribeirão Preto (São Paulo/Brazil). The proposed model showed good fit for general, psychological and physical/sexual violence for the São Luís sample. Socioeconomic status had no effect on general or psychological violence (p>0.05), but pregnant women with lower socioeconomic status reported more episodes of physical/sexual violence (standardized coefficient, SC = -0.136; p = 0.021). This effect of socioeconomic status was indirect and mediated by low social support (SC = -0.075; psocioeconomic status. Physical/sexual violence was more common for pregnant women with lower socioeconomic status and lower social support. Better social support contributed to reduction of all types of violence. Results were nearly the same for the validation sample of Ribeirão Preto except that SES was not associated with physical/sexual violence.
Clementine M. Msengi
Full Text Available The purpose of this case study was to describe a single multicultural women’s support program known as the Women of Care Project. The program was conducted in a community in the Midwest region of the United States and began in 2005 with a grant from the Open Meadows Foundation. Participants were volunteers who were recruited for the program through pre-existing access points to the Bosnian, African, and Hispanic communities, such as ethnic churches, markets, and key contacts within these communities. The support group format for the Women of Care Program was an open group format in which participants were encouraged to invite their friends to join. The initial support group consisted of women from various cultural origins, including Ghana, Rwanda, Tanzania, Russia, Sierra Leone, Brazil, China, Taiwan, India, Nepal, Bosnia, Mexico, and the United States. This case study was based on focus group discussions, as well as observations and completion of evaluation forms. To analyze data, the focus group discussion notes and summaries were rearranged into recurring themes. The evaluation provided further feedback from the discussions to cement these themes. Findings suggested immigrants, especially women, benefit from support groups. Group involvement could empower women and increase their general sense of well-being in overcoming barriers they may face in transitioning into a new environment. It is recommended that host communities have integration programs which benefit both the host community and the immigrant: a win–win situation.
De Alencar, Lucienne Christine Estevez; Seidl, Eliane Maria Fleury
The study aimed to characterize the behavior of human milk donation and to describe the informal social and formal institutional support, according to reports from women donors. It is an exploratory, cross-sectional, descriptive study using domicile interviews based on structured and semi-structured scripts. The participants were 36 women enrolled in two human milk banks of the public health system of the Federal District. Statistical analysis of quantitative data and categorical content analysis of qualitative data were performed. Categories of reasons that most influenced the frequency of expressing were: food, time availability, negative emotions and fluid intake. The manual expressing technique was reported as predominant. The use of breast shells was cited by almost a third of the donors. Most frequent suggestions for improving institutional support were more attention and support from the milk banks for the donor. The study may serve as a stimulus for the implementation of technical and political strategies to encourage this practice.
Sigalla, Geofrey Nimrod; Rasch, Vibeke; Gammeltoft, Tine
Background: Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem with negative health consequences for women and their pregnancies. While social support has a protective effect against IPV and reduces health consequences of violence, its association with experiencing IPV during...... pregnancy remain less explored. In our study we aimed to determine the effect of social support on IPV during pregnancy among women attending antenatal care in Moshi, Tanzania Methods: The study was part of a prospective cohort study that assessed the impact of violence on reproductive health of 1......,116 participants. Pregnant women were enrolled below 24 weeks of gestation and followed until delivery. The experiences of social support and IPV during pregnancy were assessed at the 34th week of gestation. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between social support and IPV...
Golub, Sarit A; Walker, Ja'nina J; Longmire-Avital, Buffie; Bimbi, David S; Parsons, Jeffrey T
Transgender women completed questionnaires of religiosity, social support, stigma, stress-related growth, and sexual risk behavior. In a multivariate model, both social support and religious stress-related growth were significant negative predictors of unprotected anal sex, but religious behaviors and beliefs emerged as a significant positive predictor. The interaction between religious behaviors and beliefs and social support was also significant, and post-hoc analyses indicated that high-risk sex was least likely among individuals with high-levels of social support but low levels of religious behaviors and beliefs. These data have important implications for understanding factors that might protect against HIV risk for transgender women.
Kenyon, Sara; Jolly, Kate; Hemming, Karla; Hope, Lucy; Blissett, Jackie; Dann, Sophie-Anna; Lilford, Richard; MacArthur, Christine
Objectives We sought evidence of effectiveness of lay support to improve maternal and child outcomes in disadvantaged families. Design Prospective, pragmatic, individually randomised controlled trial. Setting 3 Maternity Trusts in West Midlands, UK. Participants Following routine midwife systematic assessment of social risk factors, 1324 nulliparous women were assigned, using telephone randomisation, to standard maternity care, or addition of referral to a Pregnancy Outreach Worker (POW) service. Those under 16 years and teenagers recruited to the Family Nurse Partnership trial were excluded. Interventions POWs were trained to provide individual support and case management for the women including home visiting from randomisation to 6 weeks after birth. Standard maternity care (control) included provision for referring women with social risk factors to specialist midwifery services, available to both arms. Main outcome measures Primary outcomes were antenatal visits attended and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) 8–12 weeks postpartum. Prespecified, powered, subgroup comparison was among women with 2 or more social risks. Secondary outcomes included maternal and neonatal birth outcomes; maternal self-efficacy, and mother-to-infant bonding at 8–12 weeks; child development assessment at 6 weeks, breastfeeding at 6 weeks, and immunisation uptake at 4 months, all collected from routine child health systems. Results Antenatal attendances were high in the standard care control and did not increase further with addition of the POW intervention (10.1 vs 10.1 (mean difference; MD) −0.00, 95% CI (95% CI −0.37 to 0.37)). In the powered subgroup of women with 2 or more social risk factors, mean EPDS (MD −0.79 (95% CI −1.56 to −0.02) was significantly better, although for all women recruited, no significant differences were seen (MD −0.59 (95% CI −1.24 to 0.06). Mother-to-infant bonding was significantly better in the intervention group
Fuochi, G; Foà, C
Quality of life, coping strategies, social support and self-efficacy are important psychosocial variables strongly affecting the experience of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in women. To gain a more in-depth understanding of how coping strategies, self-efficacy, quality of life and social support shape women's adjustment to AMI. Mixed methods study. Quantitative data were collected through a standardised questionnaire on coping strategies, self-efficacy, quality of life and social support. Qualitative data stemmed from 57 semistructured interviews conducted with post-AMI female patients on related topics. Quantitative data were analysed with unpaired two-sample t-tests on the means, comparing women who experienced AMI (N = 77) with a control group of women who did not have AMI (N = 173), and pairwise correlations on the AMI sample. Qualitative data were grouped into coding families and analysed through thematic content analysis. Qualitative and quantitative results were then integrated, for different age groups. Quantitative results indicated statistically significant differences between women who experienced AMI and the control group: the former showed lower self-perceived health, perceived social support and social support coping, but greater self-efficacy, use of acceptance, avoidance and religious coping. Pairwise correlations showed that avoidance coping strategy was negatively correlated with quality of life, while the opposite was true for problem-oriented coping, perceived social support and self-efficacy. Qualitative results extended and confirmed quantitative results, except for coping strategies: avoidance coping seemed more present than reported in the standardised measures. Mixed methods provide understanding of the importance of social support, self-efficacy and less avoidant coping strategies to women's adjustment to AMI. Women need support from health professionals with knowledge of these topics, to facilitate their adaptation to AMI. © 2017
Wu, Chun Yi; Prosser, Rachel A; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y
The purpose of this study was to explore the associations between depressive symptoms and perceived social support on blood pressure in African American women. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 159 African American women from multiple sites in the Detroit Metro area. Results from this study found that both higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure were positively associated with higher depressive symptom scores (r= .20 and .18, p social support scores (r=-.44, p social support scores were not significantly correlated with blood pressure readings. Higher depressive symptom scores were associated with increased systolic blood pressure independent of social support. Findings of the present study suggest the importance of appropriate social support to help alleviate depressive symptoms. However, to effectively control blood pressure in patients with depressive symptoms, other pathophysiologic mechanisms between depressive symptoms and elevated blood pressures independent of social support should be examined in future research. Future studies should consider a cohort design to examine the temporal relationship of depressive symptoms, social support, and blood pressure readings. ©2010 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2010 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.
Holden, Libby; Lee, Christina; Hockey, Richard; Ware, Robert S; Dobson, Annette J
The influence of social support on health and quality of life has been well documented. There is less evidence on whether health status affects social support, and little is known about longitudinal relationships between social support and health in early adulthood. This study investigates these associations using both concurrent and time-lagged measures at 5 time-points over 12 years during early adulthood. A population-based cohort of 9,758 young women from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health was used. Women were aged 22-27 in 2000 and 35-39 in 2012. The General Health subscale of the SF-36 and the MOS Social Support Survey 6-item Scale were used, with scores standardised to a range of 0-100. Longitudinal tobit models were used, because both social support and general health data were left skewed, with marked ceiling effects. All models were adjusted for status of the outcome of interest at the immediately previous survey. With both concurrent and time-lagged measures, there was a statistically significant difference in mean general health scores across social support quintiles after adjusting for demographic and behavioural covariates: lower general health was associated with lower social support. In reverse, social support mean scores were also significantly different across general health quintiles in both concurrent and time-lagged fully adjusted models. Social support is significantly associated with both current and subsequent general health in early adulthood. The significance of the reverse associations indicates that the two mutually influence each other. This study highlights the importance of social support as a health-related quality of life issue.
Hill, Erin M
The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of emotional and instrumental social support seeking in the quality of life (QOL) and mental health of women with ovarian cancer. Participants were recruited through the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry, and one hundred women took part in a mail questionnaire that collected information on their demographics, medical status, social support seeking, QOL and mental health including anxiety, depression and stress. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted to assess the influence of emotional and instrumental social support seeking on QOL and mental health. After controlling for remission status, greater emotional social support seeking was predictive of higher overall QOL, social/family QOL, functional QOL and lower depression scores. Instrumental social support seeking was not significant in the models. The results illustrate that social support seeking as a coping mechanism is an important consideration in the QOL and mental health of women with ovarian cancer. Future studies should examine the psychological and behavioral mediators of the relationship to further understand the QOL and mental health of women with ovarian cancer.
Barringer, Alexandra; Hunter, Bronwyn A.; Salina, Doreen; Jason, Leonard A.
Programs for women with substance abuse and criminal justice histories often incorporate empowerment and social support into service delivery systems. Women’s empowerment research has focused on the relationship between women’s personal identities and the larger sociopolitical context, with an emphasis on how community based resources are critical for promoting well-being. Social support often protects against negative outcomes for individuals who live with chronic stress. However, few studies have evaluated community resource knowledge and empowerment among marginalized women or how social support might strengthen or weaken this relationship. This study investigated resource knowledge, social support and empowerment among 200 minority women in substance abuse recovery who had recent criminal justice involvement. Results indicated that resource knowledge was related to empowerment and belonging social support marginally moderated this relationship. In addition, education level increased and current involvement in the criminal justice system decreased empowerment. Implications for research, practice and policy are discussed. PMID:27084362
Westdahl, Claire; Milan, Stephanie; Magriples, Urania; Kershaw, Trace S.; Rising, Sharon Schindler; Ickovics, Jeannette R.
OBJECTIVE To estimate how social support and social conflict relate to prenatal depressive symptoms and to generate a brief clinical tool to identify women at increased psychosocial risk. METHODS This is a prospective study following 1,047 pregnant women receiving care at two university-affiliated clinics from early pregnancy through 1 year postpartum. Structured interviews were conducted in the second trimester of pregnancy. Hierarchical and logistic regressions were used to examine potential direct and interactive effects of social support and conflict on prenatal depressive symptoms measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale. RESULTS Thirty-three percent of the sample reported elevated levels of depressive symptoms predicted from sociodemographic factors, social support, and social conflict. Social support and conflict had independent effects on depressive symptoms although social conflict was a stronger predictor. There was a “dose–response,” with each increase in interpersonal risk factor resulting in consequent risk for probable depression based on symptom reports (Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Scale greater than or equal to 16). A composite of one social support and three conflict items were identified to be used by clinicians to identify interpersonal risk factors for depression in pregnancy. Seventy-six percent of women with a composite score of three or more high-risk responses reported depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION Increased assessment of social support and social conflict by clinicians during pregnancy can identify women who could benefit from group or individual interventions to enhance supportive and reduce negative social interactions. PMID:17601908
Gao, Ling-Ling; Sun, Ke; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi
to examine the changes in and relationship between perceived social support and parenting self-efficacy in the perinatal period among pregnant women in mainland China. this was a secondary analysis with data from part of an experimental study of the effects of an interpersonal-psychotherapy-oriented childbirth psychoeducation programme on maternal adaptation. A longitudinal design was employed in the present study. The study was carried out from July 2008 to May 2009 in one general hospital in Guangzhou, China. a convenience sample of 68 first-time mothers in mainland China completed measurement of social support and parenting self-efficacy during pregnancy and at six weeks and three months post partum. perceived social support and parenting self-efficacy declined during early motherhood. Parenting self-efficacy increased from six weeks post partum to three months post partum. Perceived social support positively correlated with parenting self-efficacy. culturally competent health-care intervention should be developed during early motherhood to promote perceived social support and parenting self-efficacy for the new mothers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Illangasekare, Samantha L; Burke, Jessica G; Chander, Geetanjali; Gielen, Andrea C
Intimate partner violence (IPV), HIV/AIDS, and substance use are described as the SAVA "syndemic" among low-income urban women because of their intersecting and synergistic presence in these women's lives. Depressive symptoms are significantly associated with these SAVA factors and although social support is potentially protective for depression, little is understood about its impact on depression associated with the SAVA syndemic. This paper investigates how women living with SAVA experience and describe depressive symptoms, and examines how the types of social support they access impact their experiences of SAVA and depressive symptoms. Qualitative, in-depth interviews were conducted with 24 HIV-positive, low-income, urban women who experienced IPV and used cocaine or heroin in their lifetime. Interviews were analyzed based on study aims, principles of thematic content analysis, and grounded theory. Women identified multiple SAVA factors as catalysts for depression and noted their synergistic effect on depressive symptoms, which were both a trigger for and a result of drug use. Women accessed varying sources of social support to address their SAVA factors and associated symptoms of depression, relying on informal sources for instrumental support related to IPV and formal sources for support related to HIV, drug use, and depression. These findings have important implications for health providers who serve SAVA-affected women, and suggest that comprehensively addressing all SAVA factors (and IPV in particular) and improving their access to quality social support at critical times is essential to improve their mental health. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schumm, Jeremiah A; Briggs-Phillips, Melissa; Hobfoll, Stevan E
This study represents one of the largest examinations of how child abuse, adult rape, and social support impact inner-city women (N = 777). Using retrospective self-report, the effects of interpersonal trauma were shown to be cumulative such that women who experienced either child abuse or adult rape were 6 times more likely to have probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), whereas women who experienced both child abuse and rape were 17 times more likely to have probable PTSD. High social support predicted lower PTSD severity for women who experienced both child abuse and adult rape, but not for women who reported one or none of these traumas. Results suggest that social support, when left intact, might buffer the cumulative impact of child and adult interpersonal traumas.
Lau, Ying; Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Wang, Yuqiong; Kwong, Dennis Ho Keung; Wang, Ying
A community-based sample of 755 pregnant Chinese women were recruited to test the direct and moderating effects of social support in mitigating perceived stress associated with antenatal depressive or anxiety symptoms. The Social Support Rating Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, the Edinburgh Depressive Postnatal Scale and the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale were used. Social support was found to have direct effects and moderating effects on the women's perceived stress on antenatal depressive and anxiety symptoms in multiple linear regression models. This knowledge of the separate effects of social support on behavioral health is important to psychiatric nurse in planning preventive interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wachter, Karin; Gulbas, Lauren E
In 2016, researchers conducted a qualitative study in a mid-sized town in the United States to address gaps in research and practice related to psychosocial consequences of forced migration among women. The loss of social support and its impacts on the well-being of women are rarely addressed in refugee resettlement policy or practice overwhelmingly concerned with economic self-sufficiency. The study sought to develop theory to explain how women (n = 27) who migrated from the Democratic Republic of the Congo recreate social support post-resettlement in the United States. An interpretive approach informed by postcolonial feminist perspectives guided the grounded theory methodology. A theoretical model emerged explaining pivots in the internal and relational lives of women as social support systematically constricted over time as a result of war, displacement, and resettlement. Upon arrival to the United States, women experienced partitioned lives through changing relationships to space and time, which contributed to women being alone and impacted well-being. Converging processes propelled women towards learning to stand alone, through which women could develop a sense self-reliance, but not without internal and relational consequences. The analysis contributes to the empirical literature knowledge of how resettlement is a life altering event that sets into motion psychosocial processes with implications for well-being and health. Implications for practice and future research are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This article examines the influence of emotional and instrumental support on women's immune function, a biomarker of stress, in the city of El Alto, Bolivia. It tests the prediction that instrumental support is protective of immune function for women living in this marginal environment. Qualitative and quantitative ethnographic methods were employed to assess perceived emotional and instrumental support and common sources of support; multiple linear regression analysis was used to model the relationship between social support and antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus. These analyses provided no evidence that instrumental social support is related to women's health, but there is some evidence that emotional support from compadres helps protect immune function. © 2014 by the American Anthropological Association.
Rashid, Abdul; Mohd, Rokiah
Depression, a type of mental disorder which is portrayed by marked alterations in mood, is associated with distress and/or impaired functioning. Poor social support is an important risk factor for depression in pregnancy. An extensive literature search failed to show any published study conducted in Malaysia on antenatal depressive symptoms and the risk of poor social support on it. The aim of the study was to determine the risk of antenatal depressive symptoms due to poor social support. This cross sectional study was conducted among 3000 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Penang, Malaysia. Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used to screen for antenatal depressive symptoms and the Oslo-3 Social Support Scale (OSS-3) was used to measure social support. Odds ratio and adjusted odds ratio were used to quantify the risk of antenatal depressive symptoms due to poor social support. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 20%. Using OSS-3 scale to gauge social support, most of the participants had moderate support (61.3%) followed by poor support (22%) and strong support (16.7%). Social support was found to be significantly associated with depressive symptoms in this study (OR 2.2, aOR 2.1, AR 45%). Considering that an expecting mother's psychological factors are important in the wellbeing of the mother and child, antenatal depression must be quickly identified. Screening pregnant women for social support can help identify women with higher risk of depression.
Xiaowen, Wang; Guangping, Guo; Ling, Zhou; Jiarui, Zheng; Xiumin, Liang; Zhaoqin, Li; Hongzhuan, Luo; Yuyan, Yang; Liyuan, Yang; Lin, Lu
Pregnant women living with HIV represent one of the most high-priority groups for HIV treatment and health assessment. Although social support has been shown to be a protective factor for improved health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and depression and anxiety have been identified as two major causes of psychological distress among people living with HIV, it is still unclear how social support, anxiety, and depression interact to influence HRQoL. The objective of our study was to demonstrate the nature of predictors, direct effects and mediator effects among social support, anxiety, depression symptoms and HRQoL in pregnant women living with HIV. We investigated a total of 101 pregnant women living with HIV in Yunnan province in China from April 2016 to June 2016. All participants completed the Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS), the Chinese version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales (HADS) and Quality of Life instruments (EuroQoL Five Dimensions Questionnaire, EQ-5D). The relationships between the variables were examined by Pearson's or Spearman's correlation analysis. Predictor effects were tested using separate multiple regressions, controlling for demographic variables and HIV diagnosis variables. Direct and mediation effects of social support on HRQoL were tested using a structural equation model (SEM). Anxiety and depression symptoms were negatively correlated with subjective social support, support utilization, social support and HRQoL. Social support significantly predicted better HRQoL, and anxiety and depression symptoms significantly predicted poorer HRQoL. Anxiety and depression symptoms partially mediated the associations between social support and HRQoL. Anxiety and depression symptoms completely mediated the associations of objective support and support utilization with HRQoL. Interventions to improve HRQoL in pregnant women living with HIV must consider the mediation effect of anxiety and depression symptoms on the association between
Full Text Available Social networks often provide an important source of support for new parents. General, parent support programs sustain social-emotional development of children. Different aspects could impact both the quantity and quality of the sources of social support and the perception that parents would had. This study examines the role of social support in the couples of new-parents and assesses the influence of attachment models on it. The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS were administered to a sample of 100 participants. Results indicated a perception of social support more pronounced in women, mainly on the dimension of social support derived from the partner. Furthermore, for women and not for men, an association between attachment models to the AAI and the different perceptions of social support was revealed. Data seems support the opportunity to assess parents during early rehabilitation interventions. Support groups could be used with insecure parents and has positive effects in reducing stress and promoting adjustment to the disability for children and their families.
Winetrobe, Hailey; Wenzel, Suzanne; Rhoades, Harmony; Henwood, Benjamin; Rice, Eric; Harris, Taylor
Background Permanent supportive housing (PSH) is the leading intervention to end chronic homelessness. Little is known, however, about gender differences, including potential disparities in physical and mental health and social support, that might inform services available through PSH. Methods 421 homeless adults, at least 39 years old, English- or Spanish-speaking, who were moving into PSH through 26 different agencies in the Los Angeles area participated. Results Compared to men entering PSH, homeless women (28% of the sample) were younger (phomeless adults moving into PSH. PSH cannot be a one-size-fits-all approach. Supportive services within housing should be tailored based on gender and other individual needs. PMID:28153741
Seffren, Victoria; Familiar, Itziar; Murray, Sarah M; Augustinavicius, Jura; Boivin, Michael J; Nakasujja, Noeline; Opoka, Robert; Bass, Judith
Poor mental health detrimentally affects quality of life among women living with HIV/AIDS. An improved understanding of how coping and social support relate to depression and anxiety in this population can facilitate the design and implementation of appropriate mental health treatment and support services. Secondary analysis was conducted on baseline data from 288 HIV-positive women enrolled in a parenting intervention in Uganda. Depression and anxiety symptoms, social support, and coping were assessed with the Hopkins Symptom Checklist and adapted versions of the Multidimensional Scale for Perceived Social Support and Ways of Coping Questionnaire. General linear regression models were used to estimate associations between coping and mental health. Based on report of elevated symptoms, approximately 10% of women were categorized as having clinically-relevant depression or anxiety. Emotion-focused (EF: p symptoms while greater family support (EF: p = .002; PF: p = .003) was associated with fewer depression symptoms. More anxiety symptoms were associated with reporting both coping strategies (EF: p symptoms among women living with HIV.
Lee, Seungwon; Seo, Da Hea; Kim, Kyoung Min; Lee, Eun Young; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Kim, Chang Oh; Youm, Yoosik; Rhee, Yumie
To investigate the association between the number of personal ties (or the size of the social support network) and the incidence of osteoporosis among older women in Korea. Data from the Korean Urban Rural Elderly Study were used. Bone density was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and femur neck. T-score, the standardized bone density compared with what is normally expected in a healthy young adult, was measured and the presence of osteoporosis was determined, if the T-score was social support network size was measured by self-responses (number of confidants and spouse). Of the 1,846 participants, 44.9% were diagnosed with osteoporosis. The association between the social support network size and the incidence of osteoporosis was curvilinear in both bivariate and multivariate analyses. Having more people in one's social support network size was associated with lower risk of osteoporosis until it reached around four. Increasing the social support network size beyond four, in contrast, was associated with a higher risk of osteoporosis. This association was contingent on the average intimacy level of the social network. At the highest average intimacy level ("extremely close"), increasing the number of social support network members from one to six was associated with linear decrease in the predicted probability of osteoporosis from 45% to 30%. However, at the lowest average intimacy level ("not very close"), the predicted probability of osteoporosis dramatically increased from 48% to 80% as the size of the social network increased from one to six. Our results show that maintaining a large and intimate social support network is associated with a lower risk of osteoporosis among elderly Korean women, while a large but less-intimate social relationship is associated with a higher risk.
Yang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Lie; Gu, Yuan; Song, Wei; Hao, Chun; Zhou, Jinling; Zhang, Qun; Zhao, Qun
Anxiety symptoms are the prevalent mental disorders for transgender women. However, only a few studies are available pertaining to this problem among Chinese Transgender women. Chinese Transgender women are a vulnerable population which is exposed to discrimination and loss of social support due to their gender identity and transition. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with anxiety symptoms among Chinese transgender women. A cross-sectional study was performed by convenience sampling. This comprised of 209 Chinese transgender women in Shenyang, China. The Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) was used to assess anxiety symptoms for these transgender women. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to explore the associated factors of SAS. The prevalence of anxiety symptoms in Chinese transgender women was found to be 34.5%. Regression analyses indicated that SAS was associated with casual partnership, friend discrimination and social support in the final model. Sexual partnership and discrimination contributed the most to the model, R-square, accounting for 19.2% and 15.5% of the total variance respectively. Chinese transgender women showed considerably high level of anxiety symptoms. It was also found that they were exposed to significant transition challenges, such as high risk sexual partnership, excessive discrimination and a reduction in social support. Furthermore, anxiety symptoms was best predicted by the absence or presence of a casual partner, friend discrimination and social support rather than the disclosure of their gender identity, knowledge of HIV prevention and health service. Improvement of social support, reduction of friend discrimination and determination of the characteristics of risky sexual partnerships especially for the casual partner can help to attenuate anxiety symptoms and increase mental well-being for transgender women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This article studies the conceptions of social justice of women active in transnational migrant politics over a period of roughly 20 years in the Netherlands. The novel focus on migrant women reveals that transnational politics is almost completely male-dominated and -directed. Two of the exceptions found in this article include a leftist and a Kurdish women organization supporting the communist cause in the 1980s and the Kurdish struggle in the 1990s in Turkey, respectively. In both organizations gender equality was subordinated to broader ideologies of political parties in their homeland. Leftist activists in the cold war era supported a narrow definition of the "politics of redistribution," while and Kurdish activists, combined classical features of the latter with those of traditional identity politics.
Wielding, Sally; Scott, Alison
A total of 229 women attend Chalmers Centre (a city-centre integrated sexual health centre in Edinburgh, Scotland) for their HIV care and treatment. Local third-sector agencies provide peer support, but anecdotally, it is not well utilised and some demographic groups are under-represented. The aim of this study was to gain better understanding of the background social characteristics of these women, to ascertain what issues they are affected by, and to better identify what support is required and how it should be provided/facilitated. An anonymous self-completion questionnaire was developed, and all women attending HIV clinics between July and November 2015 were given the opportunity to participate. Additional data were accessed from the National Sexual Health database on cohort size and gender-based violence enquiries. Forty-four women living with HIV completed the questionnaire. 25% are unemployed. 84.6% had a combined household income of less than £30,000 per annum. 16.7% do not know anyone else, and 59.5% know only one other person, who is living with HIV. 32.6% would like to meet other/more women living with HIV, and 25.5% were unsure if they did or not. Of those who would, 42.9% would prefer a one-to-one setting, 42.9% would prefer a group setting, and 14.3% did not mind. 64.3% would prefer to meet off NHS premises. 26.8% were interested in discussion groups on women's issues, and 31.7% were unsure. The most popular suggestions for discussion group topics were stress/anxiety (nine women), HIV disclosure (eight women), diet and nutrition (seven women), and pregnancy and childbirth (six women). 26.8% were interested in attending a "women clinic" staffed by female staff, the same number were unsure if they would utilise this service or not. 50% of women had, at some point, experienced gender-based violence, 13.5% were currently experiencing gender-based violence, and four of these women have children living with them. From National Sexual Health records, only
Krantz, G; Ostergren, P O
Over the past few decades there has been a growing interest among researchers, in women's overall life circumstances and their relation to women's health status. For example, paid employment has been considered an important part of women's living conditions in Western societies as the number of women entering the labour market has grown constantly over the past decades. When comparing men's and women's health, one of the most consistent findings is a higher rate of symptoms among women. The most commonly reported symptoms in women are depressive symptoms, symptoms of bodily tension and chronic pain from muscles and joints. The aim of this study was to investigate whether socioeconomic factors, employment status, psychosocial work conditions and social network/support are associated with middle aged women's health status in terms of common symptoms. A mailed questionnaire was used in a cross sectional design assessing socioeconomic factors, employment status, psychosocial work conditions according to the demand/control model, social network/support and an index based on the 15 most frequent symptoms presented by middle aged women when seeking health care. A rural community with 13,200 inhabitants in the western part of Sweden. Women were randomly selected from the general population in the study area, 40 to 50 years of age. The response rate was 81.7 per cent. Women who were non-employed had a significantly increased odds of a high level of common symptoms (OR = 2.82; 95% confidence intervals 1.69, 4.70), as well as women exposed to job strain (OR = 3.27; 1.92, 5.57), independently of the level of social network/support. Furthermore, exposure to low social support, low social anchorage or low social participation independently showed significantly increased odds of a high level of common symptoms (OR = 2.75; 1.71, 4.42; OR = 2.91; 1.81, 4.69 and OR = 1.69; 1.10, 2.61, respectively). Work related factors, such as non-employment and job strain, and circumstances
Full Text Available Social support and knowledge of the disease have been shown to facilitate adaptation to a chronic disease. However, the adaptation process is not fully understood. We hypothesized that these factors can contribute to better adaptation to the disease through their impact on disease-related cognitive appraisal. To analyze the links between social support and the knowledge of the disease, on one hand, and disease-related appraisals, on the other hand, one hundred fifty-eight women with stress UI, aged 32 to 79, took part in the study. Questionnaire measures of knowledge of UI, social support, and disease-related appraisals were used in the study. The level of knowledge correlated significantly negatively with the appraisal of the disease as Harm. The global level of social support correlated significantly positively with three disease-related appraisals: Profit, Challenge, and Value. Four subgroups of patients with different constellations of social support and knowledge of the disease were identified in cluster analysis and were demonstrated to differ significantly on four disease-related appraisals: Profit, Challenge, Harm, and Value. Different cognitive appraisals of UI may be specifically related to social support and knowledge of the disease, with social support affective positive disease-related appraisals, and the knowledge affecting the appraisal of Harm.
Burnette, Catherine E; Liddell, Jessica; Roh, Soonhee; Lee, Yeon-Shim; Lee, Hee Yun
Cancer is the leading cause of death among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) women, and although cancer disparities among AI women are alarming, there is little research focused on the topic of social support and cancer treatment and outcomes. A community advisory board was used to develop and administer the project, and a qualitative descriptive study methodology was used. This research was conducted in partnership with two community-based hospitals in the Northern Plains. The sample included 43 AI female cancer survivors who were interviewed with a semi-structured interview guide. The data were analyzed using content analysis. Emergent themes revealed that AI cancer survivors' non-familial support systems included friends (n = 12), support groups (n = 6), churches (n = 10), co-workers (n = 5), communities (n = 4), support from health practitioners (n = 3) and additional forms of support. Results indicate that survivors' networks are diverse, and support broad prevention programs that reach out to churches, community groups, and online forums. These sources of supports can be enhanced through sustainable community-based infrastructures.
Burgess, Kimberly R.
Women have long since used social networking as a means of coping with their struggles, educating and empowering themselves, engaging in broader social movements, and building international advocacy. Internet communities that are designed and facilitated to be inclusive of women's experiences can be important social spaces where women feel…
Maier, Karl J; James, Ashley E
We examined social support as a moderator of cynical hostility in relation to physical activity and body mass index among college students (n = 859; M = 18.71 years (SD = 1.22); 60% women, 84% White). After controlling for negative affect in hierarchical linear regression models, greater hostility was associated with lesser physical activity among those with low social support, as expected. Greater hostility was also associated with greater physical activity among those high in social support, ps men only. Hostility and social support were unrelated to body mass index, ps > .05. Young men with a hostile disposition and low social support may be at risk for a sedentary lifestyle for reasons other than negative affect.
Timmerman, IGH; Emanuels-Zuurveen, ES; Emmelkamp, PMG
The development of a brief measure to assess satisfaction with obtained social support using Simultaneous Components Analysis (SCA) is described. In the first study the component structure of the Social Support Questionnaire (Van Sonderen, 1991) was determined in a sample of men (n = 401) and women
den Heijer, Mariska; Seynaeve, Caroline; Vanheusden, Kathleen; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; Bartels, Carina C M; Menke-Pluymers, Marian B E; Tibben, Aad
Hereditary breast cancer has a profound impact on individual family members and on their mutual communication and interactions. The way at-risk women cope with the threat of hereditary breast cancer may depend on the quality of family communication about hereditary breast cancer and on the perceived social support from family and friends. To examine the associations of family communication and social support with long-term psychological distress in a group of women at risk for hereditary breast cancer, who opted either for regular breast surveillance or prophylactic surgery. The study cohort consisted of 222 women at risk for hereditary breast cancer, who previously participated in a study on the psychological consequences of either regular breast cancer surveillance or prophylactic surgery. General and breast cancer specific distress, hereditary cancer-related family communication, perceived social support, and demographics were assessed. Using structural equation modelling, we found that open communication about hereditary cancer within the family was associated with less general and breast cancer specific distress. In addition, perceived support from family and friends was indirectly associated with less general and breast cancer-specific distress through open communication within the family. These findings indicate that family communication and perceived social support from friends and family are of paramount importance in the long-term adaptation to being at risk for hereditary breast cancer. Attention for these issues needs to be incorporated in the care of women at risk for hereditary breast cancer. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ni, Phang Koh; Siew Lin, Serena Koh
Maternal postpartum health is a neglected area both in research and practice. This aspect warrants more attention as the health of postpartum mothers has a considerable influence on her infant and also other family members. Social support provided by family and friends has been identified as a buffer against the many stressors faced by the women. Outcomes such as self-esteem, stress, postnatal depression, breastfeeding levels, infant care, and maternal adaptation have been studied and found to be significantly related to social support. The need to understand the role of social support provided by family and friends provide the impetus for conducting this review. The objective of this systematic review was to appraise and synthesise the best available evidence which discusses the impact of social support from family and friends on enhancing the wellbeing of postpartum women. This review includes women who were within their first year postpartum period, with any number of children, and had given birth to healthy infants. Mothers who had co-existing morbidities such as depression were excluded. Mothers from low socio-economic groups were excluded.This review considered any study that involved the provision of social support by family and/or friends. Interventions provided by peer counsellors were also considered.The six outcomes were stress, self esteem, breastfeeding levels, mental health in relation to postnatal depression, infant care and maternal adaptation.Quantitative This review considered any randomised controlled trials that examined the effectiveness of social support from family and friends on the well being of the postpartum women. As it was not likely to find RCTs on this topic, this review also considered observational studies (cohort, case control, quantitative descriptive studies such as surveys).Qualitative This review considered any interpretive studies that drew on the experiences of social support from family and friends in postpartum women
Fujitani, Tomoko; Ohara, Kumiko; Kouda, Katsuyasu; Mase, Tomoki; Miyawaki, Chiemi; Momoi, Katsumasa; Okita, Yoshimitsu; Furutani, Maki; Nakamura, Harunobu
Recent studies have shown that perceived social support is associated with gratitude and sense of coherence, but evidence for this concept remains scarce. In the present study, we investigated relationships between social support, gratitude, and sense of coherence, focusing on the construct of and source of social support among young women. The study was conducted in 2014 in Japan. Participants comprised 208 female university students (aged 19.9 ± 1.1 years), who completed a self-administered anonymous questionnaire regarding perceived social support, gratitude, and sense of coherence. Emotional and instrumental social support from acquaintances were found to be lower than those from family and friends. Gratitude was positively correlated with all forms of social support except instrumental social support from acquaintances. However, sense of coherence was positively correlated with both emotional and instrumental social support from family and only emotional social support from acquaintances. Multiple regression analysis showed that emotional support from family and emotional support from acquaintances were positively associated with gratitude whereas emotional support from family was associated with sense of coherence. These results indicate that emotional social support from family was related to both gratitude and sense of coherence.
Frost, David M.; Meyer, Ilan H.; Schwartz, Sharon
This paper reports a study of the function and composition of social support networks among diverse lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) men and women (n = 396) in comparison to their heterosexual peers (n = 128). Data were collected using a structured social support network matrix in a community sample recruited in New York City. Our findings show that gay and bisexual men may rely on “chosen families” within LGBT communities more so than lesbian and bisexual women. Both heterosexuals and LGBs relied less on family and more on other people (e.g., friends, co-workers) for everyday social support (e.g., recreational and social activities, talking about problems). Providers of everyday social support were most often of the same sexual orientation and race/ethnicity as participants. In seeking major support (e.g., borrowing large sums of money), heterosexual men and women along with lesbian and bisexual women relied primarily on their families, but gay and bisexual men relied primarily on other LGB individuals. Racial/ethnic minority LGBs relied on LGB similar others at the same rate at White LGBs but, notably, racial/ethnic minority LGBs reported receiving fewer dimensions of support. PMID:26752447
Chen, Bai Qi Peggy; Parmar, Monica P; Gartshore, Kimberley
Despite early detection of breast cancer and the progress of treatment modalities, metastasis-specific symptoms continue to impact women's functional status and daily living. The aim of this study was to explore the experience of altered functional status and social roles of women with advanced breast cancer. Using qualitative descriptive methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 women diagnosed with advanced breast cancer and altered functional status attending a tertiary care cancer centre. Results illustrated the adaptive experience of women living with their illness as they reshaped their social roles to fit with their altered functional status and advanced disease. These findings highlight the opportunity for supportive care nursing interventions to facilitate the behavioural and cognitive transitions that are experienced by women with advanced breast cancer and altered functional status. These results may have implications for women with other advanced chronic diseases, though more research is required.
Aro, A R; Nyberg, N; Absetz, P
The association of socioeconomic factors, health-related factors, and social support with depressive symptoms has been extensively studied. However, most epidemiological studies have focused on a few factors such as marital status, social class, and employment. In this study of middle-aged women we...... analyzed both univariate and multivariate associations of socioeconomic factors, perceived physical health factors, and social support with self-rated depressive symptoms measured with the Beck Depression Inventory. A nationwide sample (n = 1851) of Finnish women aged 48-50 years was analyzed....... Socioeconomic, health-related, and social support factors were all measured with single items. All variables, except level of urbanization, were significantly associated with depressive symptoms in univariate analyses. Multivariate associations were examined with standard multiple regression analyses in three...
Kiernan, Michaela; Moore, Susan D.; Schoffman, Danielle E.; Lee, Katherine; King, Abby C.; Taylor, C. Barr; Kiernan, Nancy Ellen; Perri, Michael G.
Social support could be a powerful weight-loss treatment moderator or mediator but is rarely assessed. We assessed the psychometric properties, initial levels, and predictive validity of a measure of perceived social support and sabotage from friends and family for healthy eating and physical activity (eight subscales). Overweight/obese women randomized to one of two 6-month, group-based behavioral weight-loss programs (N=267; mean BMI 32.1±3.5; 66.3% White) completed subscales at baseline, and weight loss was assessed at 6 months. Internal consistency, discriminant validity, and content validity were excellent for support subscales and adequate for sabotage subscales; qualitative responses revealed novel deliberate instances not reflected in current sabotage items. Most women (>75%) “never” or “rarely” experienced support from friends or family. Using non-parametric classification methods, we identified two subscales—support from friends for healthy eating and support from family for physical activity—that predicted three clinically meaningful subgroups who ranged in likelihood of losing ≥5% of initial weight at 6 months. Women who “never” experienced family support were least likely to lose weight (45.7% lost weight) whereas women who experienced both frequent friend and family support were more likely to lose weight (71.6% lost weight). Paradoxically, women who “never” experienced friend support were most likely to lose weight (80.0% lost weight), perhaps because the group-based programs provided support lacking from friendships. Psychometrics for support subscales were excellent; initial support was rare; and the differential roles of friend versus family support could inform future targeted weight-loss interventions to subgroups at risk. PMID:21996661
Razee, Husna; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Blignault, Ilse; Smith, Ben J; Bauman, Adrian E; McLean, Mark; Wah Cheung, N
Women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes; this risk is higher in non-Caucasian women. This study explored the beliefs, attitudes, social support, environmental influences and other factors related to diabetes risk behaviours among Arabic, Cantonese/Mandarin, and English speaking women with recent GDM. Women living in the Sydney metropolitan area (Australia) who had GDM 6-36 months previously were included. In-depth semi-structured telephone interviews on women's experiences and perceptions of GDM and the lifestyle risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes were conducted in the language participants spoke at home (n=20 Arabic, 20 Cantonese/Mandarin, 17 English). Data were analysed for underlying themes using NVivo software. Mental distress, role perceptions, social support and cultural expectations were major issues related to women's struggles to find the right balance between the large proportion of household and child care responsibilities and leading a healthy lifestyle. Women's ability to follow a healthy lifestyle is embedded in their psychological wellbeing and the social and cultural context of their lives. The study highlights the need for a holistic approach that ensures personal support and access to services as well as lifestyle specific programs.
Ziaei, Shirin; Contreras, Mariela; Zelaya Blandón, Elmer; Persson, Lars-Åke; Hjern, Anders; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte
To evaluate the associations of women's autonomy and social support with infant and young child feeding practices (including consumption of highly processed snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages) and nutritional status in rural Nicaragua. Cross-sectional study. Feeding practices and children's nutritional status were evaluated according to the WHO guidelines complemented with information on highly processed snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages. Women's autonomy was assessed by a seventeen-item questionnaire covering dimensions of financial independence, household-, child-, reproductive and health-related decision making and freedom of movement. Women's social support was determined using the Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire. The scores attained were categorized into tertiles. Los Cuatro Santos area, rural Nicaragua. A total of 1371 children 0-35 months of age. Children of women with the lowest autonomy were more likely to be exclusively breast-fed and continue to be breast-fed, while children of women with middle level of autonomy had better complementary feeding practices. Children of women with the lowest social support were more likely to consume highly processed snacks and/or sugar-sweetened beverages but also be taller. While lower levels of autonomy and social support were independently associated with some favourable feeding and nutrition outcomes, this may not indicate a causal relationship but rather that these factors reflect other matters of importance for child care.
Hill, Terrence D.; Uchino, Bert N.; Eckhardt, Jessica L.; Angel, Jacqueline L.
Although numerous studies of non-Hispanic whites and blacks show that social integration and social support tend to favor longevity, it is unclear whether this general pattern extends to the Mexican American population. Building on previous research, we employed seven waves of data from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly to examine the association between perceived social support trajectories and the all-cause mortality risk of older Mexican Americans. Growth mixture estimates revealed three latent classes of support trajectories: high, moderate, and low. Cox regression estimates indicated that older Mexican American men in the low support trajectory tend to exhibit a higher mortality risk than their counterparts in the high support trajectory. Social support trajectories were unrelated to the mortality risk of older Mexican American women. A statistically significant interaction term confirmed that social support was more strongly associated with the mortality risk of men. PMID:26966256
Webster, Joan; Nicholas, Catherine; Velacott, Catherine; Cridland, Noelle; Fawcett, Lisa
to evaluate the impact of social support on postnatal depression and health-related quality of life. prospective cohort study. Data were collected at baseline and at six weeks post discharge using a postal survey. between August and December 2008, 320 women from a large tertiary hospital were recruited following the birth of their infant. Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Maternity Social Support Scale and World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment questionnaire. of the 320 women recruited, 222 (69.4%) returned their six-week questionnaire. Women with low social support had significantly higher scores on the EPDS than women who reported adequate support (p = 0.007). There was also a significant effect of social support on health-related quality of life. Women with low family or partner support scored lower in all domains, with the greatest mean difference in the social health domain (p = 0.000). Of those scoring >10 on the EPDS, 75.5% had sought professional help. women with low social support are more likely to report postnatal depression and lower quality of life than well-supported women. Careful assessment of a woman's level of support following the birth, particularly from her partner and family, may provide useful information for possible interventions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kroenke, Candyce H; Kwan, Marilyn L; Neugut, Alfred I; Ergas, Isaac J; Wright, Jaime D; Caan, Bette J; Hershman, Dawn; Kushi, Lawrence H
We examined mechanisms through which social relationships influence quality of life (QOL) in breast cancer survivors. This study included 3,139 women from the Pathways Study who were diagnosed with breast cancer from 2006 to 2011 and provided data on social networks (the presence of a spouse or intimate partner, religious/social ties, volunteering, and numbers of close friends and relatives), social support (tangible support, emotional/informational support, affection, positive social interaction), and QOL, measured by the FACT-B, approximately 2 months post diagnosis. We used logistic models to evaluate associations between social network size, social support, and lower versus higher than median QOL scores. We further stratified by stage at diagnosis and treatment. In multivariate-adjusted analyses, women who were characterized as socially isolated had significantly lower FACT-B (OR = 2.18, 95 % CI: 1.72-2.77), physical well-being (WB) (OR = 1.61, 95 % CI: 1.27-2.03), functional WB (OR = 2.08, 95 % CI: 1.65-2.63), social WB (OR = 3.46, 95 % CI: 2.73-4.39), and emotional WB (OR = 1.67, 95 % CI: 1.33-2.11) scores and higher breast cancer symptoms (OR = 1.48, 95 % CI: 1.18-1.87) compared with socially integrated women. Each social network member independently predicted higher QOL. Simultaneous adjustment for social networks and social support partially attenuated associations between social networks and QOL. The strongest mediator and type of social support that was most predictive of QOL outcomes was "positive social interaction." However, each type of support was important depending on outcome, stage, and treatment status. Larger social networks and greater social support were related to higher QOL after a diagnosis of breast cancer. Effective social support interventions need to evolve beyond social-emotional interventions and need to account for disease severity and treatment status.
Cortina, Lilia M
Bridging the social support, sexual victimization, and cultural psychology literatures, this study examines social-support processes in the context of sexual harassment and Hispanic American culture. Surveys were administered to a community sample of Hispanic American working women, 249 of whom described some encounter with sexual harassment at work. Regression results provided mixed backing for hypotheses about support-seeking behavior, which appeared largely dependent on the social power of the harassment perpetrator. Additional findings upheld predictions about support-perception patterns; harassed women perceived more supportive social reactions when they turned to informal networks of friends and family, but responses were less positive when they turned to formal, organizational sources. Finally, as expected, perceived support and acculturation interacted to moderate relations between sexual harassment and job satisfaction. The article concludes with implications for research and interventions related to social support and sexual harassment.
Sigalla, Geofrey Nimrod; Rasch, Vibeke; Gammeltoft, Tine
BACKGROUND: Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem with negative health consequences for women and their pregnancies. While social support has a protective effect against IPV and reduces health consequences of violence, its association with experiencing IPV during...... pregnancy remain less explored. In our study we aimed to determine the effect of social support on IPV during pregnancy among women attending antenatal care in Moshi, Tanzania METHODS: The study was part of a prospective cohort study that assessed the impact of violence on reproductive health of 1...... during pregnancy, AOR 3.57, (95% CI 1.85 - 6.90) and AOR 3.21, (95% CI 1.69 - 6.11) respectively. For social support in terms of communication, talking to a member of the family of origin at least monthly was associated with decreased odds of IPV and repeated episodes of IPV during pregnancy, AOR 0...
Kroenke, Candyce H; Kwan, Marilyn L.; Neugut, Alfred I.; Ergas, Isaac J.; Wright, Jaime D.; Caan, Bette J.; Hershman, Dawn; Kushi, Lawrence H.
Purpose We examined mechanisms through which social relationships influence quality of life (QOL) in breast cancer survivors. Methods This study included 3,139 women from the Pathways Study who were diagnosed with breast cancer from 2006-2011 and provided data on social networks (presence of spouse or intimate partner, religious/social ties, volunteering, and numbers of close friends and relatives), social support (tangible, emotional/informational, affection, positive social interaction), and quality of life (QOL), measured by the FACT-B, approximately two months post-diagnosis. We used logistic models to evaluate associations between social network size, social support, and lower vs. higher than median QOL scores. We further stratified by stage at diagnosis and treatment. Results In multivariate-adjusted analyses, women who were characterized as socially isolated had significantly lower FACT-B (OR=2.18, 95%CI:1.72-2.77), physical well-being (WB) (OR=1.61, 95%CI:1.27-2.03), functional WB (OR=2.08, 95%CI:1.65-2.63), social WB (OR=3.46, 95%CI:2.73-4.39), and emotional WB (OR=1.67, 95%CI:1.33-2.11) scores and higher breast cancer symptoms (OR=1.48, 95%CI:1.18-1.87), compared with socially integrated women. Each social network member independently predicted higher QOL. Simultaneous adjustment for social networks and social support partially attenuated associations between social networks and QOL. The strongest mediator and type of social support that was most predictive of QOL outcomes was “positive social interaction”. However, each type of support was important depending on outcome, stage, and treatment status. Conclusions Larger social networks and greater social support were related to higher QOL after a diagnosis of breast cancer. Effective social support interventions need to evolve beyond social-emotional interventions and need to account for disease severity and treatment status. PMID:23657404
Porter, Eliora; Chambless, Dianne L
Little is known about the quality of socially anxious individuals' romantic relationships. In the present study, we examine associations between social anxiety and social support in such relationships. In Study 1, we collected self-report data on social anxiety symptoms and received, provided, and perceived social support from 343 undergraduates and their romantic partners. One year later couples were contacted to determine whether they were still in this relationship. Results indicated that men's social anxiety at Time 1 predicted higher rates of breakup at Time 2. Men's and women's perceived support, as well as men's provided support, were also significantly predictive of breakup. Social anxiety did not interact with any of the support variables to predict breakup. In Study 2, a subset of undergraduate couples with a partner high (n=27) or low (n=27) in social anxiety completed two 10-minute, lab-based, video-recorded social support tasks. Both partners rated their received or provided social support following the interaction, and trained observers also coded for support behaviors. Results showed that socially anxious individuals received less support from their partners during the interaction according to participant but not observer report. High and lower social anxiety couples did not differ in terms of the target's provision of support. Taken together, results suggest that social anxiety is associated with difficulties even in the context of established romantic relationships. Clinical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Moradi, Bonnie; Funderburk, Jamie R.
The authors of the present study contribute to research on the role of sexist events in women's mental health by examining the sexism-distress relation (a) with a sample of women who are seeking mental health services and (b) in the context of the additional roles of perceived social support in positive self-appraisal (i.e., empowerment and…
Molina, Yamile; Hohl, Sarah D; Nguyen, Michelle; Hempstead, Bridgette H; Weatherby, Shauna Rae; Dunbar, Claire; Beresford, Shirley A A; Ceballos, Rachel M
We examine access to and type of social support after initial receipt of an abnormal mammogram across non-Latina White (NLW), African American, and Latina women. This cross-sectional study used a mixed method design, with quantitative and qualitative measures. Women were recruited through 2 community advocates and 3 breast-health-related care organizations. With regard to access, African American women were less likely to access social support relative to NLW counterparts. Similar nonsignificant differences were found for Latinas. Women did not discuss results with family and friends to avoid burdening social networks and negative reactions. Networks' geographic constraints and medical mistrust influenced Latina and African American women's decisions to discuss results. With regard to type of social support, women reported emotional support across ethnicity. Latina and African American women reported more instrumental support, whereas NLW women reported more informational support in the context of their well-being. There are shared and culturally unique aspects of women's experiences with social support after initially receiving an abnormal mammogram. Latina and African American women may particularly benefit from informational support from health care professionals. Communitywide efforts to mitigate mistrust and encourage active communication about cancer may improve ethnic disparities in emotional well-being and diagnostic resolution during initial receipt of an abnormal mammogram. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
McMahon, Mary; Bimrose, Jenny; Watson, Mark
This paper considers women's career development and the potential contribution of career development theory, research, practice and policy in advancing a social inclusion agenda. In particular, the paper focuses on older women in the contexts of an ageing population, labour market shortages and Australia's social inclusion agenda. Supporting young…
Sanguanklin, Natthananporn; McFarlin, Barbara L; Finnegan, Lorna; Park, Chang Gi; Giurgescu, Carmen; White-Traut, Rosemary; Engstrom, Janet L
Most Thai women continue to work throughout their pregnancy; however, little is known about job strain and its relation to psychological distress. This study aimed to examine: (1) the direct effects of job strain, perceived workplace support, perceived family support, and coping strategies on psychological distress and (2) the moderating effect of perceived workplace support, perceived family support, and coping strategies on the relationship between job strain and psychological distress. Lazarus and Folkman's transactional model of stress and coping guided this cross-sectional study. Full-time employed pregnant women (N = 300) were recruited from three antenatal clinics in Thailand. Thai versions of the following instruments were used: the State-Anxiety Inventory and Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (psychological distress), the Job Content Questionnaire (job strain and perceived workplace support), the Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey (perceived family support), and the Ways of Coping Checklist-Revised (coping strategies). Job strain with other predictors explained 54% of the variance in psychological distress. In the separate hierarchical multiple linear regression models, two types of coping strategies, seeking social support and wishful thinking, moderated the effects of job strain on psychological distress. Perceived family support had a direct effect in reducing psychological distress. Job strain is a significant contributor to psychological distress. The average levels of seeking social support and wishful thinking were most beneficial in moderating the negative impact of job strain on psychological distress. Since perceived workplace and family support did not have moderating effects, stress management programs for decreasing the levels of job strain should be developed.
Thompson, Tess; Pérez, Maria; Kreuter, Matthew; Margenthaler, Julie; Colditz, Graham; Jeffe, Donna B
Social support plays an important role in quality of life and health outcomes after breast cancer diagnosis and treatment. To examine changes in perceived social support in African American women during the two years following a new breast cancer diagnosis. This secondary analysis uses data collected from 2009 to 2015 from 227 newly diagnosed, African American women with breast cancer (mean age 56 [SD = 10], 59% household income social support (measured by the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey) as well as correlates of baseline levels of social support and predictors of change in individuals' social support. Additional analyses examined whether change in social support over the first year affected depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale) and general health perceptions (RAND SF-36 subscale) at two years. Being married, reporting greater spirituality, and reporting fewer depressive symptoms at baseline were significantly associated with higher initial levels of perceived social support. Women whose social support declined during the first year after diagnosis reported more severe depressive symptoms and worse general health perceptions at two years. Clinicians should periodically assess perceived social support among African American women with breast cancer to help find support resources for those who have low initial social support and for those whose support declines in the first year after diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nagayoshi, Mako; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Iso, Hiroyasu; Mosley, Thomas H; Rose, Kathryn M; Lutsey, Pamela L
Having a small social network and lack of social support have been associated with incident coronary heart disease; however, epidemiological evidence for incident stroke is limited. We assessed the longitudinal association of a small social network and lack of social support with risk of incident stroke and evaluated whether the association was partly mediated by vital exhaustion and inflammation. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study measured social network and social support in 13 686 men and women (mean, 57 years; 56% women; 24% black; 76% white) without a history of stroke. Social network was assessed by the 10-item Lubben Social Network Scale and social support by a 16-item Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-Short Form. During a median follow-up of 18.6 years, 905 incident strokes occurred. Relative to participants with a large social network, those with a small social network had a higher risk of stroke (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.44 [1.02-2.04]) after adjustment for demographics, socioeconomic variables, marital status, behavioral risk factors, and major stroke risk factors. Vital exhaustion, but not inflammation, partly mediated the association between a small social network and incident stroke. Social support was unrelated to incident stroke. In this sample of US community-dwelling men and women, having a small social network was associated with excess risk of incident stroke. As with other cardiovascular conditions, having a small social network may be associated with a modestly increased risk of incident stroke. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.
Zheng, Xujuan; Morrell, Jane; Watts, Kim
There are many parenting problems during infancy for Chinese primiparous women. As an important determinant of good parenting, maternal self-efficacy (MSE) should be paid more attention by researchers. At present, the limitations of previous research examining MSE during infancy are that most studies were conducted with a homogeneous sample and there were few studies with Chinese women. Secondly, the trajectory of change in MSE, postnatal depression symptoms and social support for Chinese primiparous women was not clear during the initial postpartum period in earlier studies. This study aimed to describe changes in MSE, postnatal depression symptoms and social support among Chinese primiparous women in the first three months postnatally. A quantitative longitudinal study using questionnaires was conducted. Obstetric wards at three hospitals in Xiamen City, South-East China. In total, 420 Chinese primiparous women were recruited. Initial baseline questionnaires to measure socio-demographic and clinical characteristics at three days postnatally were distributed to participants face-to-face by the researcher on the postnatal ward. Follow-up questionnaires at six and 12 weeks postnatally were sent via e-mail by the researcher to participants, including the Self-efficacy in Infant Care Scale (SICS), the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Postpartum Social Support Scale (PSSS) to measure MSE, postnatal depression symptoms and social support, respectively. These were returned by participants via e-mail. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS. The mean MSE score at six weeks postnatally was 74.92 (SD = 11.05), and increased to 77.78 (SD = 11.13) at 12 weeks postnatally. The mean social support scores at six and 12 weeks postnatally were 40.99 (SD = 9.31) and 43.00 (SD = 9.55). The mean EPDS scores decreased from 9.09 (SD = 4.33) at six weeks postnatally to 8.63 (SD = 4.40) at 12 weeks postnatally; the proportion of women with an
Saint Arnault, Denise; Roles, Deborah J
Asian immigrant women have the lowest utilization of mental health services of any ethnic minority (Garland, Lau, Yeh & McCabe 2005). Because help seeking for distress occurs within social networks, we examined how social networks supported or disabled help seeking for Japanese sojourners living in the US. Unfortunately, most of the literature about Japanese social relationships focuses on men in organizational settings. This study used intensive ethnographic interviewing with 49 Japanese expatriate women to examine how social relationships influenced psychosocial distress and help seeking. We found that the women in these samples engaged in complex, highly regulated, complicated and obligatory relationships through their primary affiliation with other "company wives." Like many immigrant women, increased traditional cultural norms (referred to in Japanese as ryoosai kenbo, or good wives and wise mothers), were expected from these modern women, and the enactment of these roles was enforced through scrutiny, gossip and the possibility of ostracism. Fears of scrutiny was described by the women as a primary barrier to their self-disclosure and ultimate help seeking. Understanding the social organization and support within the Japanese women's community is central to understanding how culturally specific social networks can both give support, as well as create social constraints to help seeking. Health oriented prevention programs must consider these social factors when evaluating the immigration stressors faced by these families.
Ashe, Karen M; Lapane, Kate L
Women are disproportionately affected by both obesity and food insecurity. Food insecurity occurs when there is limited ability to acquire adequate foods. It is unknown whether social support can reduce the effect of food insecurity on increased obesity. This study seeks to determine whether social support modifies the relationship between food insecurity and obesity. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a nationally representative sample of 4672 women aged ≥40 years using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2008). Individual food insecurity was assessed based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture 18-item validated household food security scale. Women were categorized as fully food secure (0 affirmative responses) or food insecure (1-10 affirmative responses). Obesity was defined as body mass index ≥30 kg/m 2 . Outcomes were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression. Fourteen percent were food insecure. Women with food insecurity had 1.4 the odds of obesity as those who were fully food secure, adjusting for race/ethnicity and health status (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22-1.62). Food-insecure women were 80% less likely to report strong social support than women who were fully food secure (95% CI 0.11-0.36). Social support as measured in this study did not modify the association between food insecurity and obesity. Women reporting food insecurity reported lower levels of social support and were more likely to experience obesity. Interventions to reduce obesity in women who are food insecure must consider the limited resources available to these women.
Velloza, Jennifer; Watt, Melissa H; Abler, Laurie; Skinner, Donald; Kalichman, Seth C; Dennis, Alexis C; Sikkema, Kathleen J
Alcohol use is associated with increased HIV-risk behaviors, including unprotected sex and number of sex partners. Alcohol-serving venues can be places to engage in HIV-related sexual risk behaviors, but are also important sites of social support for patrons, which may mitigate risks. We sought to examine the relationship between alcohol-serving venue attendance, social support, and HIV-related sexual risk behavior, by gender, in South Africa. Adult patrons (n = 496) were recruited from six alcohol-serving venues and completed surveys assessing frequency of venue attendance, venue-based social support, and recent sexual behaviors. Generalized estimating equations tested associations between daily venue attendance, social support, and sexual behaviors, separately by gender. Interaction effects between daily attendance and social support were assessed. Models were adjusted for venue, age, education, and ethnicity. Daily attendance at venues was similar across genders and was associated with HIV-related risk behaviors, but the strength and direction of associations differed by gender. Among women, daily attendance was associated with greater number of partners and higher proportion of unprotected sex. Social support was a significant moderator, with more support decreasing the strength of the relationship between attendance and risk. Among men, daily attendance was associated with a lower proportion of unprotected sex; no interaction effects were found for attendance and social support. Frequent venue attendance is associated with additional HIV-related risks for women, but this risk is mitigated by social support in venues. These results were not seen for men. Successful HIV interventions in alcohol-serving venues should address the gendered context of social support and sexual risk behavior.
Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena; Löfmark, Rurik; Carlsson, Marianne
The aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge about gender differences in perceptions of coping and social support among patients who have experienced myocardial infarction. Women with coronary heart disease have physical, social and medical disadvantages compared with their male counterparts, which can influence their perception of recovery after cardiac events. No review has been found which focuses on gender differences in coping and social support in myocardial infarction patients. A computerized search was conducted using the keywords 'myocardial infarction', 'coping', 'gender differences' and 'social support'. Forty-one articles, published between 1990 and October 2002, were scrutinized. Two studies report that women used more coping strategies than men. Several qualitative studies found that women used a variety of coping strategies. Women minimized the impact of the disease, tended to delay in seeking treatment and did not want to bother others with their health problems. Household activities were important to them and aided their recovery. Men were more likely to involve their spouses in their recovery, and resuming work and keeping physically fit were important to them. Women tended to report that they had less social support up to 1 year after a myocardial infarction compared with men. They received less information about the disease and rehabilitation and experienced lack of belief in their heart problems from caregivers. Further, they received less assistance with household duties from informal caregivers. Men tended to report more support from their spouses than did women. Traditional gender-role patterns may influence the recovery of patients who have experienced myocardial infarction. Caregivers may need to be more sensitive to gender-specific needs with regard to risk profiles, social roles, and the patient's own role identity. For many women, especially older ones, household duties and family responsibilities may be an opportunity and a
Pinar, Gul; Okdem, Seyda; Buyukgonenc, Lale; Ayhan, Ali
Anxiety and depression are among the most common psychosocial problems with gynecologic cancer patients. In this respect, "social support" has become a key tool in the patients' coping with the aforementioned risk factors as an important contributor to their well-being. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between social support and the level of anxiety, depression, and quality of life of Turkish women with gynecologic cancer. In a hospital in Turkey, 187 women with a diagnosis of gynecologic cancer comprised a convenience sample and completed 4 study instruments in a cross-sectional design. Statistically significant correlations among type of perceived social support, quality of life, anxiety, and depression (P social support was associated with increased quality of life, it was also associated with reduced anxiety and depression rates. Our study showed that the type of perceived social support by the patients with cancer had significant effect on depression, anxiety, and quality of life. Social support is a powerful tool that can mediate the effects of difficult life stressors and decrease the incidence of mood disorders, and, therefore, greater importance should be attached to it in the realm of cancer treatment. Supported by the collaborative efforts of family members and healthcare professionals, cancer patients will more easily cope with the drawbacks of their state.
Arnold, Emily A; Sterrett-Hong, Emma; Jonas, Adam; Pollack, Lance M
The House Ball Community (HBC) is an understudied network of African American men who have sex with men and transgender women, who join family-like houses that compete in elaborate balls in cities across the United States. From 2011 to 2012, we surveyed 274 recent attendees of balls in the San Francisco Bay Area, focusing on social networks, social support, and HIV-related behaviours. Participants with a high percentage of alters who were supportive of HIV testing were significantly more likely to have tested in the past six months (p = .02), and less likely to have engaged in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in the past three months (p = .003). Multivariate regression analyses of social network characteristics, and social support, revealed that testing in the past six months was significantly associated with social support for safer sex, instrumental social support, and age. Similarly, UAI in the past three months was significantly associated with social support for safer sex, homophily based on sexual identity and HIV status. HIV-related social support provided through the HBC networks was correlated with recent HIV testing and reduced UAI. Approaches utilising networks within alternative kinship systems, may increase HIV-related social support and improve HIV-related outcomes.
Delavari, Mina; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi, Sakineh
The objective of this study was to determine the relationship of maternal-fetal attachment and depression during pregnancy with social support. This cross-sectional study was done on 287 primipara women. The data collection tools used included a demographic characteristics questionnaire, Maternal-Fetal Attachment Scale, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Social Support Scale. Pearson's correlation test and general linear model were used for data analysis. The mean maternal-fetal attachment score was 90.0 (SD: 10.3). The highest score was obtained in the "role taking" domain and the lowest in the "interaction with the fetus" domain. The mean depression score was 8.5 (SD: 4.0). The score of perceived social support was 135.5 (SD: 15.6). Pearson's correlation test showed a significant positive correlation between social support and maternal-fetal attachment (r = 0.36, p social support and depression (r= -0.14, p = .018). The present study found a significant relationship between maternal-fetal attachment, depression and social support. It is recommended to devise plans for increasing the support given to women and to improve the society's and families' awareness about these issues in the attempt to have healthy mothers and thereby healthy families and communities.
Gjesfjeld, Christopher D.; Greeno, Catherine G.; Kim, Kevin H.; Anderson, Carol M.
Maternal depression in low-income women is a significant problem because of its negative consequences for both mothers and their children. Economic stress increases risk for depression; however, mechanisms linking economic stress and depression are not well understood. The social support deterioration model suggests that chronic stressors can…
Nylen, Kimberly J; O'Hara, Michael W; Engeldinger, Jane
Prenatal depression has been linked to adverse reproductive outcomes including preterm labor and delivery, and low birth weight. Social support also has been linked to birth outcomes, and may buffer infants from the adverse impact of maternal depression. In this prospective study, 235 pregnant women completed questionnaires about depression and social support. Clinical interviews were administered to assess for DSM-IV axis I disorders. Following delivery, birth outcomes were obtained from medical records. Babies of depressed mothers weighed less, were born earlier and had lower Apgar scores than babies of nondepressed mothers. Depressed women had smaller social support networks and were less satisfied with support from social networks. We found no direct associations between perceived social support and birth weight. However, depressed women who rated their partners as less supportive had babies who were born earlier and had lower Apgar scores than depressed mothers with higher perceived partner support. Women's perception of partner support appears to buffer infants of depressed mothers from potential adverse outcomes. These results are notable in light of the low-risk nature of our sample and point to the need for continued depression screening in pregnant women and a broader view of risk for adverse birth outcomes. The results also suggest a possible means of intervention that may ultimately lead to reductions in adverse birth outcomes.
Casale, Marisa; Wild, Lauren; Cluver, Lucie; Kuo, Caroline
Social support has been shown to be a protective resource for mental health among chronically ill adults and caregiver populations. However, to date no known studies have quantitatively explored the relationship between social support and depression among women caring for children in HIV-endemic Southern Africa, although they represent a high risk population for mental health conditions. Using data from a household survey with 2,199 adult female caregivers of children, living in two resource-deprived high HIV-prevalence South African communities, we conducted hierarchical logistic regression analysis with interaction terms to assess whether social support had a main effect or stress-buffering effect on depression. Findings provide evidence of stress-buffering of non-HIV-related chronic illness, but not HIV-related illness. Results reinforce the importance of social support for the mental health of chronically ill caregivers, and suggest that factors related to the specific nature of HIV/AIDS may be hindering the potential stress-buffering effects of social support among people living with the disease. Implications for future research and interventions are discussed.
Yilmaz, Sema Dereli; Bal, Meltem Demirgöz; Beji, Nezihe Kzlkaya; Arvas, Macit
Stress is commonly encountered among cancer patients and may be a challenge affecting immune system resistance. Social support may contribute positively to the health of cancer patients, playing a role in coping with stress. The aim of this study was to determine whether ways of coping are related to social support given to women with gynecologic cancer. The study was performed as a cross-sectional design in a university hospital in Istanbul, Turkey, with 221 women with gynecologic cancer; the data were collected via 3 questionnaires, the first with sociodemographic and clinical features, the second with multidimensional scale of perceived social support, and the third with the scale of ways of coping with stress. Women with gynecologic cancer who were employed and declared their incomes as balanced and reported more years of education were more likely to perceive higher social support and to use the ineffective coping ways with stress at a lower rate (P perceived social support from family, friends, significant other, and total increases (P support from family members is the mainstay of coping with stress by women with gynecologic cancer. Nurses are indispensable in increasing social support required by women with gynecologic cancer. Well-trained clinical nurses via in-service programs should be experienced and aware of women diagnosed with gynecologic cancer in need of social support during hospital visits and provide necessary guidance.
Edith Marie Williams
Full Text Available Lupus patients should avoid stress because physical or emotional stress can affect overall physical health. It has been suggested that social support has a positive influence on health status, but there is a lack of information in the literature on the association between the two among lupus patients. The current study investigated the association between social support and self-reported stress and coping status among African American women with lupus using data collected from two linked cross-sectional surveys. No social support differences in groups of high and low stress/coping were revealed; a duplicate study with a larger sample size is required.
Yragui, Nanette L; Mankowski, Eric S; Perrin, Nancy A; Glass, Nancy E
The authors draw on social support theory to examine supervisor support match (support wanted and received), support mismatch (support not wanted and received) and work outcomes for abused low-wage working women, and to determine if supervisor support match and mismatch are more strongly associated with work outcomes than global supervisor support Face-to-face interviews were conducted with a community sample of abused, employed women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) in the past year (N = 163). Using hierarchical regression, we found, after accounting for global supervisor support; a higher level of supervisor support match was associated with greater job satisfaction, fewer job reprimands and less job termination. Findings from the study inform theories of social support and have practical implications for workplace interventions for IPV.
Park, Crystal L; Wachen, Jennifer Schuster; Kaiser, Anica Pless; Mager Stellman, Jeanne
Research increasingly demonstrates that trauma exposure can have cumulative effects, yet much remains to be learned about effects of cumulative trauma, particularly regarding longer term adjustment. One such trauma, combat exposure, is insufficiently understood, especially for women, who are increasingly engaged in professional combat activities. The study comprised a cross-sectional survey assessing multiple aspects of current well-being in women approximately 25 years after their service in Vietnam during the Vietnam War. Participants were 1374 women (78% military and 22% nonmilitary; mean age = 59.7). This study investigated the relations between three separate categories of trauma exposure (childhood, adulthood, and combat) and well-being and examined whether perceived social support at return from Vietnam moderated the association between combat exposure and well-being. While both childhood and adulthood trauma exposure related to midlife well-being, combat exposure still uniquely predicted outcomes. Further, postdeployment perceived social support moderated the association of combat and well-being: recollected higher perceived social support at homecoming buffered participants from the links between combat exposure and well-being. These results may have important implications for interventions to reduce the impact of traumatic experiences, particularly in light of the increasing exposure of women to direct combat events.
Full Text Available The ELSIPS (Evaluation of Lay Support in Pregnant Women with Social Risk RCT showed that lay support for women with social risk had a positive effect on maternal mental health and mother-infant bonding. This exploratory study examined whether these observed benefits would impact infant development at 1 year.A sub-sample of women whose infants were under one year who had participated in the ELSIPS RCT which randomised women to receive either standard care or the services of a Pregnancy Outreach Worker (POW, and who were contactable, were eligible to participate in the follow up. At home visits, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (3rd Edition and standardised measures of depression, self efficacy, mind-mindedness and bonding were completed.486 women were eligible for follow up, of whom 154 agreed to participate. 61/273 were successfully followed up in the standard maternity care arm and 51/213 in the POW arm. Women who completed follow up were less depressed and had higher selfefficacy scores at 8-12 weeks postpartum than those who did not complete follow up. There were no significant differences in maternal outcomes, infant cognitive development, receptive communication, expressive communication, fine motor development or social/emotional functioning between groups at 12 month follow up. Infants of mothers who received the POW intervention had significantly better gross motor development than infants whose mothers received standard care (p<0.03.The provision of lay support to women with social risk may facilitate infant gross motor skill development at one year but there were no other demonstrable benefits. The effects of the intervention may be underestimated given that those women who completed follow up had better mental health than the original study sample.Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN35027323.
Popo, Emma; Kenyon, Sara; Dann, Sophie-Anna; MacArthur, Christine; Blissett, Jacqueline
The ELSIPS (Evaluation of Lay Support in Pregnant Women with Social Risk) RCT showed that lay support for women with social risk had a positive effect on maternal mental health and mother-infant bonding. This exploratory study examined whether these observed benefits would impact infant development at 1 year. A sub-sample of women whose infants were under one year who had participated in the ELSIPS RCT which randomised women to receive either standard care or the services of a Pregnancy Outreach Worker (POW), and who were contactable, were eligible to participate in the follow up. At home visits, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (3rd Edition) and standardised measures of depression, self efficacy, mind-mindedness and bonding were completed. 486 women were eligible for follow up, of whom 154 agreed to participate. 61/273 were successfully followed up in the standard maternity care arm and 51/213 in the POW arm. Women who completed follow up were less depressed and had higher selfefficacy scores at 8-12 weeks postpartum than those who did not complete follow up. There were no significant differences in maternal outcomes, infant cognitive development, receptive communication, expressive communication, fine motor development or social/emotional functioning between groups at 12 month follow up. Infants of mothers who received the POW intervention had significantly better gross motor development than infants whose mothers received standard care (p<0.03). The provision of lay support to women with social risk may facilitate infant gross motor skill development at one year but there were no other demonstrable benefits. The effects of the intervention may be underestimated given that those women who completed follow up had better mental health than the original study sample. Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN35027323.
Dougé, Nathalie; Lehman, Erik B; McCall-Hosenfeld, Jennifer S
Depression and intimate partner violence (IPV) are significant health issues for U.S. women. Interaction effects between IPV and other psychosocial factors on the severity of depressive symptoms have not been fully explored. This study assessed effect modification, that is, how IPV interacts with sociodemographics, psychosocial factors and health risk behaviors, on the severity of depressive symptoms in women. We utilized cross-sectional data from female respondents (n = 16,106) of the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance Survey. Sociodemographics, psychosocial variables, and health risk behaviors determined to be significantly associated with depression were tested for interaction effects with IPV. Weighted ordinal logistic regression and predicted probabilities illustrated the effect of IPV status on depressive symptom severity, stratified by interaction effects. Recent and lifetime IPV exposure were associated with more severe depressive symptoms compared with no IPV exposure. IPV history interacted with employment status and social support on the severity of depressive symptoms in women. Overall, any IPV exposure was associated with more severe depressive symptoms among women with low social support and unemployment, although the effect of recent (versus lifetime) IPV was most pronounced among women with high social support or employed women. Social support and employment status interact with IPV on the severity of depressive symptoms in women. Therefore, social support or workplace interventions designed to improve depressive symptoms should examine IPV history. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: Social support and perceived self-efficacy affect health-related behaviors and play an important role on mothers' adaptability with pregnancy. This paper aims to study the impact of educational interventions based on social support and perceived self-efficacy on maternal prenatal care.Materials and methods: The present study is a before after experimental study in which 90 first-time pregnant women were randomly selected and divided into two 45- participants experimental and control groups. Data were collected from 21 January to 20 May 2016. Determining the validity and reliability of the questionnaire, we used the panel of experts and Cronbach's alpha. The data collected from the two groups were compared before and 3 months after intervention and were analyzed by SPSS 18.Results: Unlike the control subjects, there was a significant difference in maternal prenatal cares before and after an educational intervention between the scores of social support and perceived self-efficacy in the experimental group (p < 0.05. Before intervention, the average score of the experimental group was 12.62 ± 2.63 that rose to 17.71 ± 1.56, three months after the educational intervention, which is statistically significant (p < 0.05. There was a direct and positive relation between self-efficacy and maternal prenatal cares (p = 0.000, r = 0.538. Social support and self-efficacy predicted the variance of maternal cares by 69.2%.Conclusion: Developing an educational program based on social support and perceived self-efficacy on maternal prenatal cares is helpful and efficient. The health system, family and society are in charge of making facilities and opportunities to improve social support and perceived self-efficacy in pregnant women, resulting in improved maternal prenatal cares.
Full Text Available Dana K Schirk,1 Erik B Lehman,2 Amanda N Perry,3 Rollyn M Ornstein,4 Jennifer S McCall-Hosenfeld2,5 1The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, 2Department of Public Health Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, 3Department of Agricultural Economics, Sociology, and Education, Division of Rural Sociology, College of Agriculture, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, 4Department of Pediatrics, 5Department of Medicine, The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USA Background: Eating disorders (EDs are often found among women exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV. The role of social support (SS as a protective factor against ED among IPV-exposed women is not firmly established.Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the distribution of risk of EDs among women exposed to IPV and to examine the impact of SS on risk of ED among IPV-exposed women.Methods: Women (aged 18–64 years exposed to IPV during their lifetimes (defined by the Humiliation–Afraid–Rape–Kick instrument were recruited from primary care and domestic violence service agencies and surveyed on demographics, mood/anxiety disorders, psychosocial/community factors, and strategies used in response to IPV. The Eating Disorder Screen for Primary Care assessed the risk of ED. A modified Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey assessed overall functional support (scale range: 0–32; categorized into quartiles. Ordinal logistic regression examined the risk of ED based on SS, controlling for prespecified demographics (age, race/ethnicity, marital status, near-poverty level, and health-related factors significant in bivariate analyses (risky alcohol use.Results: Among 302 women with lifetime IPV, 41 (14% were at high risk, 127 (42% were at moderate risk, and 134 (44% were at low risk of an ED. In bivariate analyses, high risk of an ED was significantly more frequent among women with a
María José Montero-Simó
Full Text Available This study aims to analyse whether any differences exist between the genders with respect to the effect of perceived Job Demands, Control and Support (JDCS model on how individuals reach high levels of job stress. To do this, the perceived risk of suffering an illness or having an accident in the workplace is used as an outcome measure. The study is based on the First Survey on Working Conditions in Andalusia, which has a sample of 5,496 men and 2,779 women. We carry out a multi-sample analysis with structural equation models, controlling for age and sector. The results show that the generation of job stress has a different pattern in men and women. In the case of men, the results show that only one dimension of the job demands stressor is significant (quantitative demands, whose effect on job stress is weakened slightly by the direct effects of control and support. With women, in contrast, emotional and intellectual aspects (qualitative demands are also statistically significant. Moreover, social support has a greater weakening effect on the levels of job stress in women than in men. These results suggest that applying the JDCS model in function of the gender will contribute to a greater understanding of how to reduce the levels of job stress in men and women, helping the design of more effective policies in this area.
Full Text Available Tomoko Fujitani,1 Kumiko Ohara,1 Katsuyasu Kouda,2 Tomoki Mase,3 Chiemi Miyawaki,4,5 Katsumasa Momoi,1,6 Yoshimitsu Okita,7 Maki Furutani,1 Harunobu Nakamura1 1Graduate School of Human Development and Environment, Kobe University, Kobe, 2Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Kindai University, Osaka-Sayama, 3Faculty of Human Development and Education, Kyoto Women’s University, 4Department of Early Childhood Education, Heian Jogakuin College, Kyoto, 5Kagoshima University Research Field in Education, Education, Law, Economics and the Humanities Area, Kagoshima, 6Faculty of Health and Welfare, Tokushima Bunri University, Tokushima, 7Graduate School of Integrated Science and Technology, College of Engineering, Academic Institute, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, Japan Purpose: Recent studies have shown that perceived social support is associated with gratitude and sense of coherence, but evidence for this concept remains scarce. In the present study, we investigated relationships between social support, gratitude, and sense of coherence, focusing on the construct of and source of social support among young women. Methods: The study was conducted in 2014 in Japan. Participants comprised 208 female university students (aged 19.9 ± 1.1 years, who completed a self-administered anonymous questionnaire regarding perceived social support, gratitude, and sense of coherence. Results: Emotional and instrumental social support from acquaintances were found to be lower than those from family and friends. Gratitude was positively correlated with all forms of social support except instrumental social support from acquaintances. However, sense of coherence was positively correlated with both emotional and instrumental social support from family and only emotional social support from acquaintances. Multiple regression analysis showed that emotional support from family and emotional support from acquaintances were positively associated
Rüegsegger, Anna Barbara; Senn, Beate; Spirig, Rebecca
Background: Cancer of the vulva is a gynaecological disease often with relevant impact for these women’s daily life. On top of the medical complications, psychological problems might arise as well, due to the impaired quality of life and the withdrawal from social life. We do not know whether and what type of support is given to these patients. Aim: The qualitative study aimed at describing how the affected women experience the support they receive from their social environment from the time of the diagnosis to six months postoperatively. Methods: A qualitative design was used. In a secondary analysis, 20 transcribed interviews from the WOMN-PRO study were analysed by qualitative content analysis according to Mayring. Results: The findings from the study resulted in four main categories: having a serious disease shows how the patients experience the diagnosis as a shock and are confronted with questions of guilt and taboos. The category feel alone was strongly represented with features of not-speaking out, not looking at it and not-acting. Do it on your own features descriptions of the strategies the women use to get out of their loneliness. In experience help, it is shown that women who try to get in touch with their social environment usually receive support. Conclusions: Patients have a high demand for information concerning the disease and its possible impacts on their daily life as well as emotional and practical support from their families / partners and especially from health professionals. We recommend designating someone who acts throughout the whole treatment process as a mediator and a person of trust.
Vameghi, Roshanak; Amir Ali Akbari, Sedigheh; Alavi Majd, Hamid; Sajedi, Firoozeh; Sajjadi, Homeira
Given the significant health effects of domestic violence against women, the present study was conducted in 2016, in Tehran, Iran in order to compare the socioeconomic status, perceived social support and mental status in women of reproductive age experiencing and not experiencing domestic violence. This descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 women. The data collection tools used included questionnaires: demographic information, Socioeconomic, Beck's Depression, Spielberger's Anxiety, Cohen's Perceived Stress, Sarason's Perceived Social Support and WHO's Domestic Violence Inventory. The results showed that 43.2% of women said they had experienced at least one case of domestic violence, among which 16.4%, 15% and 36.6% of women had experienced physical, sexual and emotional-verbal types of violence, respectively. The mean age (p less than 0.001) and educational level (p=0/018) of violated women and their spouses (p less than 0.001) were lower than those of non-violated women. Furthermore, violated women experienced lower socioeconomic status (p less than 0.05), higher perceived stress (p less than 0.008), higher depression (p less than 0.001), and higher overt anxiety (0.002. They also perceived lower levels of social support (p less than 0.001). The issue of domestic violence was rather prevalent in the participants of the present study, particularly the younger, less educated and more socioeconomically deprived communities and families.
Hankonen, Nelli; Konttinen, Hanna; Absetz, Pilvikki
This study investigated whether gender-role related traits agency and communion contribute to successful health behavior change, in an interplay with domain-specific psychosocial factors, namely, agency, mediated by health-related self-efficacy, and communion, moderated by social support. Data from women (N = 282) participating in the GOAL Lifestyle Implementation Trial were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Agency and increase in self-efficacy both independently predicted waist circumference reduction in the 1-year follow-up. Individuals high in communion succeeded in waist reduction only if they received social support. Initial self-efficacy increase predicted 3-year waist reduction. Gender-role orientation, together with social environment, influences behavior change intervention outcomes. © The Author(s) 2013.
Gjerdingen, Dwenda; McGovern, Patricia; Attanasio, Laura; Johnson, Pamela Jo; Kozhimannil, Katy Backes
The purpose of this study was to characterize the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms and employment and whether it is mediated by social support. We used data from a nationally representative sample of 700 US women who gave birth in 2005 and completed 2 surveys in the Listening to Mothers series, the first in early 2006, an average of 7.3 months postpartum, and the second an average of 13.4 months postpartum. A dichotomous measure of depressive symptoms was calculated from the 2-item Patient Health Questionnaire, and women reported their employment status and levels of social support from partners and others. We modeled the association between maternal employment and depressive symptoms using multivariate logistic regression, including social support and other control variables. Maternal employment and high support from a nonpartner source were both independently associated with significantly lower odds of depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.35 and P = .011, and AOR, 0.40, P = .011, respectively). These relationships remained significant after controlling for mothers' baseline mental and physical health, babies' health, and demographic characteristics (AOR, 0.326 and P = .015, and AOR, 0.267 and P = .025, respectively). Maternal employment and strong social support, particularly nonpartner support, were independently associated with fewer depressive symptoms. Clinicians should encourage mothers of young children who are at risk for depression to consider ways to optimize their employment circumstances and "other" social support.
Full Text Available The social and institutional support networks structured around women who suffer violence are strategic tools when coping with the phenomenon, which is considered a public health problem. This qualitative study was aimed at understanding the relational dynamics of significant social networks of women who have experienced family violence and have resided in a shelter. A group of 12 women participated in the study and data collection was carried out through semi-structured interviews and the social networks map. Data analysis was based on Grounded Theory and performed using the software Atlas.ti 5.0. The results revealed that the significant social networks were important sources of help and support in the process of coping with violence experienced by women. Results also showed that the persons in the social networks develop multiple functions and present an increasing level of relational commitment to women, especially after they leave the shelter.
Williams-Petersen, M G; Myers, B J; Degen, H M; Knisely, J S; Elswick, R K; Schnoll, S S
Eighty pregnant women (25 substance using, 55 nonusing) from an American prenatal clinic serving lower-income to working-class women responded to questionnaire measures of child-rearing attitudes. The drug users' primary substance of misuse was cocaine (68%), alcohol (16%), amphetamines (12%), or sedatives (4%); polydrug use was documented for 80% of the women. The two (user and nonuser) groups were not different on demographic (age, race, marital status, education, SES, source of income) or obstetrical factors (number of pregnancies, number of children). Drug-using women scored significantly higher on a measure of child abuse potential; more than half scored in the range of clinical criterion for extreme risk. As their babies were not yet born, no actual physical abuse was documented, only a higher potential for abuse. The subgroup who were both drug users and had lower social support scored higher on child abuse potential than all other subgroups. The drug users also had lower self-esteem scores than the nonusers. The two groups did not differ on measures of overall social support, authoritarian/democratic child-rearing beliefs, or affection for the expected baby.
Crookes, Danielle M; Shelton, Rachel C; Tehranifar, Parisa; Aycinena, Corina; Gaffney, Ann Ogden; Koch, Pam; Contento, Isobel R; Greenlee, Heather
Little is known about Latina breast cancer survivors' social networks or their perceived social support to achieve and maintain a healthy diet. This paper describes the social networks and perceived support for healthy eating in a sample of breast cancer survivors of predominantly Dominican descent living in New York City. Spanish-speaking Latina breast cancer survivors enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of a culturally tailored dietary intervention. Social networks were assessed using Cohen's Social Network Index and a modified General Social Survey Social Networks Module that included assessments of shared health promoting behaviors. Perceived social support from family and friends for healthy, food-related behaviors was assessed. Participants' networks consisted predominantly of family and friends. Family members were more likely than other individuals to be identified as close network members. Participants were more likely to share food-related activities than exercise activities with close network members. Perceived social support for healthy eating was high, although perceived support from spouses and children was higher than support from friends. Despite high levels of perceived support, family was also identified as a barrier to eating healthy foods by nearly half of women. Although friends are part of Latina breast cancer survivors' social networks, spouses and children may provide greater support for healthy eating than friends. Involving family members in dietary interventions for Latina breast cancer survivors may tap into positive sources of support for women, which could facilitate uptake and maintenance of healthy eating behaviors.
de Dios, Marcel Alejandro; Stanton, Cassandra A; Caviness, Celeste M; Niaura, Raymond; Stein, Michael
Previous studies have shown social support and social network variables to be important factors in smoking cessation treatment. Tobacco use is highly prevalent among individuals in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). However, smoking cessation treatment outcomes in this vulnerable subpopulation have been poor and social support and social network variables may contribute. The current study examined the social support and social network characteristics of 151 MMT smokers involved in a randomized clinical trial of smoking cessation treatments. Participants were 50% women and 78% Caucasian. A high proportion (57%) of MMT smokers had spouses or partners who smoke and over two-thirds of households (68.5%) included at least one smoker. Our sample was characterized by relatively small social networks, but high levels of general social support and quitting support. The number of cigarettes per day was found to be positively associated with the number of smokers in the social network (r = .239, p social support and social networks of smokers in MMT.
Brereton, Kate L; Alvarez, Josefina; Jason, Leonard A; Stevens, Edward B; Dyson, Vida B; McNeilly, Catherine; Ferrari, Joseph R
This study sought to identify individual- and house-level predictors of women's employment, education, and retention in self-run recovery homes. Data from a national study of 292 women in Oxford House, an international organization of recovery homes grounded on self-help/mutual aid and 12-step principles were analyzed. Results indicated that the house's Reciprocal Responsibility predicted number of days of paid work. Individual and house variables did not predict participation in education. The presence of recovery home members in personal social networks was statistically significant in predicting retention in the recovery home. Lastly, results indicated that number of days of paid work were not predictive of likelihood of substance use in the next 12 months. The findings of this study indicate that the ability to develop social networks and Reciprocal Responsibility in recovery homes can contribute to positive outcomes for women.
Kitamura, T; Toda, M A; Shima, S; Sugawara, K; Sugawara, M
In a questionnaire survey among 1329 first-trimester pregnant women, both the husband support measures and unwanted pregnancy ('stressor' agent in pregnancy) showed significant effects on an elevated score of the cognitive disturbance subscale of the Zung's self-rating depression scale (SDS), while only unwanted pregnancies showed an effect on an elevated score of the dysphoric mood subscale of the SDS. However, no interaction was observed between the husband support measures and unwanted pregnancy, therefore the effect of the husband's social support on the cognitive disturbance score was not that of a buffer, but rather a main effector. Finally, multiple regression analyses showed that the dysphoric mood score was preceded by unwanted pregnancy, premenstrual irritability, public self-consciousness, and maternal overprotection; while the cognitive disturbance score was preceded by unwanted pregnancy, husband reduced 'given' and 'giving' support, maternal reduced care and overprotection, paternal reduced care, low annual income, low private self-consciousness, and smoking. These findings suggest that the husband's support for a pregnant woman is effective only in reducing cognitive symptoms, and that different symptomatic constellations have different sets of psychosocial correlates.
McLaughlin, Deirdre; Leung, Janni; Pachana, Nancy; Flicker, Leon; Hankey, Graeme; Dobson, Annette
high levels of social support and engagement may help sustain good health and functional ability. However, the definition of social support in previous research has been inconsistent and findings are mixed. The aim of this analysis was to explore the effect of two aspects of social support on subsequent disability in a group of community dwelling older women and men. data were drawn from two concurrent prospective observational cohort studies of community-based older Australian women (N = 2,013) and men (N = 680). Baseline and follow-up data were drawn from the second (1999) and fifth (2008) surveys of the women and the second (2001) and third (2008) surveys of the men. At baseline, social support was measured by the two subscales (social network and subjective support) of the Duke Social Support Index (DSSI). The outcome measure was Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs). overall, social network size was not associated with subsequent disability in either women or men. After adjusting for health status at baseline, lack of satisfaction with social support was associated with greater difficulties in ADLs and IADLs for both women and men. our results suggest that the provision of social support is insufficient to limit subsequent disability: support provided must be subjectively perceived to be relevant and adequate.
Vameghi, Roshanak; Amir Ali Akbari, Sedigheh; Alavi Majd, Hamid; Sajedi, Firoozeh; Sajjadi, Homeira
Abstract: Background: Given the significant health effects of domestic violence against women, the present study was conducted in 2016, in Tehran, Iran in order to compare the socioeconomic status, perceived social support and mental status in women of reproductive age experiencing and not experiencing domestic violence. Methods: This descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 women. The data collection tools used included questionnaires: demographic information, Socioeconomic, Beck’s Depression, Spielberger’s Anxiety, Cohen’s Perceived Stress, Sarason’s Perceived Social Support and WHO’s Domestic Violence Inventory. Results: The results showed that 43.2% of women said they had experienced at least one case of domestic violence, among which 16.4%, 15% and 36.6% of women had experienced physical, sexual and emotional-verbal types of violence, respectively. The mean age (p less than 0.001) and educational level (p=0/018) of violated women and their spouses (p less than 0.001) were lower than those of non-violated women. Furthermore, violated women experienced lower socioeconomic status (p less than 0.05), higher perceived stress (p less than 0.008), higher depression (p less than 0.001), and higher overt anxiety (0.002. They also perceived lower levels of social support (p less than 0.001). Conclusions: The issue of domestic violence was rather prevalent in the participants of the present study, particularly the younger, less educated and more socioeconomically deprived communities and families. PMID:29376514
Hazard, Cambria Jones; Callister, Lynn Clark; Birkhead, Ana; Nichols, Lisa
To evaluate the qualitative aspects of the Hispanic Labor Friends Initiative. "Hispanic Labor Friends," bilingual Hispanic community women who were themselves mothers, were recruited by clinic and hospital personnel. Women who agreed were educated, received translation certification, and were oriented to the initiative. Pregnant Hispanic immigrant women seen in the health center who met criteria set by the multidisciplinary health care team were assigned a Hispanic Labor Friend by 32 weeks' gestation. Hispanic Labor Friends assisted women with communication with healthcare providers and provided social support. Qualitative evaluation of the program consisted of interviews with several groups: (1) Hispanic immigrant women who had a Hispanic Labor Friend, (2) Hispanic immigrant women who were not in the Hispanic Labor Friends program, (3) Hispanic Labor Friends, (4) healthcare providers for Hispanic women. Data saturation was reached, and data were analyzed by the research team using descriptive qualitative inquiry. The Hispanic immigrant women described positive outcomes from being involved in the Hispanic Labor Friends program, including feeling supported and comforted. "I felt as though my family were at my side." One woman who had standard care said, "It is hard for me to communicate. When I gave birth, the nurses asked me things, and I didn't understand anything. I stayed quiet." One of the nurses who was interviewed said: "I think they [the HLF patients] get better care. Sometimes we think we can communicate with them with their little bit of English and our little bit of Spanish. But you get an HLF and it's a totally different story. We can more adequately tell what's going on with them...They end up getting better care." One Hispanic Labor Friend said, "The women are very appreciative that I was there to help them through a critical time." Women who participated in the study identified the need to have a continuing association with Hispanic Labor Friends in
Robyn J. McQuaid
Full Text Available Stress responses in humans can be attenuated by exogenous oxytocin administration, and these stress-buffering properties may be moderated by social factors. Yet, the influence of acute stressors on circulating endogenous oxytocin levels have been inconsistent, and limited information is available concerning the influence of social support in moderating this relationship. In the current investigation, undergraduate women (N = 67 were assessed in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST with either social support available from a close female friend or no social support being available. An additional set of women served as controls. The TSST elicited marked elevations of state anxiety and negative emotions, which were largely attenuated among women who received social support. Furthermore, baseline oxytocin levels were inversely related to women's general feelings of distrust, as well as basal plasma cortisol levels. Despite these associations, oxytocin levels were unaffected by the TSST, and this was the case irrespective of oral contraceptive use or estrogen levels. In contrast, plasma cortisol elevations were elicited by the psychosocial stressor, but only in women using oral contraceptives, an effect that was prevented when social support was available. Taken together, these data provisionally suggest that changes in plasma oxytocin might not accompany the stress attenuating effects of social support on cortisol levels. Moreover, as plasma oxytocin might not reliably reflect brain oxytocin levels, the linkage between oxytocin and prosocial behaviors remains tenuous.
Burgess, Rochelle; Campbell, Catherine
Many emphasise the need for policies that support women's agency in highly coercive settings, and the importance of involving target women in public deliberation to inform policy design. The Ugandan Marriage and Divorce Bill seeks to strengthen women's agency in marriage, but has faced many obstacles, including objections from many women themselves in public consultations. We explore key stakeholders' accounts of the difficulties facing the Bill's progress to date, through focus groups with 24 rural and urban men and women, interviews with 14 gender champions in government, non-governmental organisations and legal sectors, and 25 relevant media and radio reports. Thematic analysis revealed an array of representations of the way the Bill's progress was shaped by the public consultation process, the nature of the Ugandan public sphere, the understanding and manipulation of concepts such as 'culture' and 'custom' in public discourse, the impact of economic inequalities on women's understandings of their gendered interests and low women's trust in the law and the political process. We discuss the complexities of involving highly marginalised women in public debates about gender issues and highlight possible implications for conceptualising agency, gender and social change as tools for gender policy and activism in extreme inequality.
Full Text Available Background Workaholism is related to experiencing high negative emotions, the inability to control them, and poor psychological well-being. One of the possible countermeasures against the risk of workaholism can be purpose in life. According to Frankl and Yalom, the feeling that life has a meaning or purpose prevents an individual from experiencing meaninglessness. Purpose in life is considered to be closely associated with mood and well-being and has been proven to act as a countermeasure against depression. Participants and procedure The goal of our study was to analyze the relation between workaholism, perception of purpose in life, and social support among women. Two hundred and sixty female professionals took part in the study. They occupied either specialist or managerial positions in their companies, which implies being highly committed to professional roles. Two sociodemographic variables were included in the analysis as significant moderators of the relation studied, namely family status: whether or not women had children, and marital status. We used the following analytical methods: Robinson’s Work Addiction Risk Test (WART, adapted from English by K. Wojdylo, the Purpose-in-Life Test developed by Crumbaugh and Maholick, and Schwarzer’s and Schulz’s Berlin Social Support Scales. Results Statistical analysis allowed us to test a model, which proved the existence of a significant relation between “social support” and “purpose in life” variables. The results also indicate a dependency between “purpose in life” and “workaholism” – higher scores in “purpose in life” correspond to lower results in “workaholism”. Additionally, “purpose in life” can be considered a partial mediator between “social support” and “workaholism”. Conclusions The direct results prove that social programs aimed at reducing the risk of workaholism by strengthening social support networks can be both effective, e.g. for
Moore, Donna; Ayers, Susan
Many women with postnatal mental illness do not get the treatment they need and this is often because stigma prevents disclosure. The purpose of this study was to explore online social support for postnatal mental illness, how women experience stigma and potential disadvantages of using Internet forums. Interviews were conducted with fifteen participants who had suffered postnatal mental illness and had used forums. Systematic thematic analysis identified common themes in relation to social support, stigma and disadvantages of using forums. Most women felt they benefited from visiting forums by developing a shared understanding and discourse about their illness. Findings suggest future research should investigate if women benefit from using online social support provided by forums, if use challenges stigma and further explore potential concerns about using forums.
Cho, Insook; Ahn, Sukhee; Kim, Souk Young; Park, Young Sook; Kim, Hae Won; Lee, Sun Ok; Lee, Sook Hee; Chung, Chae Weon
This study was based on social-role theory, and purposes were to investigate (1) how depression and health determinants vary with married and employed women, and (2) what factors contribute to depression according to family cycle. A stratified convenience sample of 765 married and employed women was recruited during May to August 2010. Study variables of depression, socio-demographic threatening factors, psycho-stimulating factors, and social-role related factors were measured via a structured questionnaire. Prevalence rate for depression was 18.6%, with highest rate (25.4%) from elementary laborers. Greater levels of depression were related to women's occupation, higher life stress, and poorer health; lower social support and vulnerable personality; higher levels of social-role related stress. From multivariate analysis, women with preadolescents were the most vulnerable to depression affected by occupation, life stress, personality, and parenting stress. These factors (except for occupational class) combined with economic status, social support, and housework unfairness were significant for depression in women with adolescents. Depression among married and employed women differs by psycho-stimulating and social role relevant factors in addition to occupational class and family life cycle. Female elementary laborers and women with children need to have the highest prioritization for community mental health programs.
Weston, Peter J.; Mednick, Martha T.
Based on senior author's M.A thesis in Psychology at Howard University. Examines race and social class differences in the expression of fear of success (termed M-s) in college women. Hypothesis that black women would show less M-s than white women was supported. Social class differences not found. (RJ)
Harris, J. Irene; Moritzen, Sara K.; Robitschek, Christine; Imhoff, Anne; Lynch, Jonathan L. A.
Assesses the relative contributions of social support and interest-occupation congruence in job satisfaction and tenure. Congruence predicted 13% of the variance in job satisfaction for men while social support accounted for 10% of the variance in job satisfaction for women. Neither congruence nor social support predicted tenure. (Contains 35…
EDRALIN, Divina M.
This paper examines the Philippine regulatory frameworks, support policies, initiatives, and barriers to encouraging women entrepreneurship. Currently, women entrepreneurship seems to be nurtured with the right environment, including regulatory frameworks, financial resources and support programs for, as well as business practices and social attitudes in the country towards women entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship in general. However, though many SME-friendly laws and policies exist, their im...
Do Mexicanas receive social support from a close network of family and friends during the perinatal period? To answer this question, a longitudinal ethnographic study followed 28 urban Mexican-origin women living in the US from their last trimester of pregnancy through their first month post-partum. A total of 93 interviews with Mexicanas focused on health and social support. All of the women lived in a large western city in the US but varied in their acculturation and income levels. Analyses identified four social support themes from women's experience (the emic analysis) and four social support typologies from the researcher (etic) analyses. The kinds of support women described as emanating from their support networks were inductively identified as Helping with Daily Hassles, Showing Love and Understanding, Being There for Me, and My Family Failing Me. Approximately half of the women reported densely supportive networks. The other women were disconnected from their support networks, or dealt with antagonism or instability in their networks. Women's perceptions of social support differed from the judgements made by the researcher about received support. Specifically, women perceived more network members in the supportive category than did the researcher by a factor of 1.4, and fewer network members in the disconnected category by a factor of 0.7. From an emic perspective, women listed only half as many antagonistic network members compared to the etic analysis (a factor of 0.50). These emic/etic discrepancies complicate clinical assessment of social support, but suggest that data on social support should be collected as part of the clinical processes of perinatal risking. To enhance assessment of social support, a clinically relevant guide is proposed for use by practitioners caring for Mexicanas in the perinatal period.
Williams-Tolliver, Sarah D.
The purpose of this study was to explore how women attending graduate degree programs in public universities in Virginia were affected by such issues as stress and lack of marital/social support. Utilizing a mixed method approach for data collection, 23 participants completed demographic data, an essay response, and the PSS-10 Stress Scale; 8 were…
Sonnenberg, C.M.; Deeg, D.J.H.; van Tilburg, T.G.; Vink, D.; Stek, M.L.; Beekman, A.T.F.
ABSTRACT Background: Prevalence of depression is twice as high in women as in men, also in older adults. Lack of social support is a risk factor for late-life depression. The relation between depression and social support may be different for men and women. Methods: Data from the Longitudinal Aging
Natamba, Barnabas K; Mehta, Saurabh; Achan, Jane; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Griffiths, Jeffrey K; Young, Sera L
Common mental disorders, such as depression and anxiety, affect approximately 16% of pregnant women in low- and middle-income countries. Food insecurity (FI) has been shown to be associated with depressive symptoms. It has also been suggested that the association between FI and depressive symptoms is moderated by social support (SS); however, there is limited evidence of these associations among pregnant women living in low-income and middle-income countries. We studied the association between FI and depressive symptoms severity and assessed whether such an association varied among Ugandan pregnant women with low vs. high SS. Cross-sectional data were collected among 403 pregnant women in northern Uganda. SS was assessed using an eight-item version of the Duke-UNC functional SS scale. FI and depressive symptoms were assessed by, respectively, the individually focused FI scale and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale. Women were categorized into two SS groups, based on scoring category (adjusted beta (95%CI): 0.91 (0.55; 1.27)) than for women belonging to the high SS group (0.53 (0.28; 0.78)) (adjusted p value for interaction = 0.026). There is need for longitudinal or interventional studies among pregnant women living in northern Uganda or similar contexts to examine the temporal sequence of the associations among food insecurity, depressive symptoms severity and social support. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Racine, Nicole; Madigan, Sheri; Plamondon, Andre; Hetherington, Erin; McDonald, Sheila; Tough, Suzanne
The aims of the current study were to examine the association between maternal adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and antepartum health risks, and to investigate whether social support moderated this association. It was hypothesized that ACEs would be associated with antepartum health risks; however, social support in the prenatal period would buffer mothers from the deleterious consequences of ACEs. Data from 1994 women (mean age = 31 years) and their infants were collected from a longitudinal cohort recruited in health care offices in Alberta, Canada. Pregnant women completed questionnaires related to ACEs prior to the age of 18 and prenatal social support, and a health care professional assessed the mother's antepartum health risk. ACEs included physical, emotional, and sexual abuse, exposure to domestic violence, as well as exposure to household dysfunction such as parental substance use, mental illness, or incarceration. Regression analyses demonstrated a positive association between ACEs and antepartum health risks. However, a significant interaction between maternal ACEs and social support was also observed. Specifically, women exposed to high ACEs and low social support in pregnancy had high antepartum health risks. However, among mothers who had high ACEs but also high levels of social support, there was no association between ACEs and antepartum health risk. A history of ACEs can place mothers at risk of antepartum health complications. However, a resiliency effect was observed: women with a history of ACEs were buffered from experiencing antepartum health risks if they reported high levels of social support in pregnancy.
Levitt, Heidi M; Puckett, Julia A; Ippolito, Maria R; Horne, Sharon G
Sexual minority women were divided into four groups to study their gender identities (butch and femme), and gender expression (traditionally gendered and non-traditionally gendered women who do not identify as butch or femme). Experiences of heterosexist events (discrimination, harassment, threats of violence, victimization, negative emotions associated with these events), mental health (self esteem, stress, depression), and supports for a sexual minority identity (social support, outness, internalized homophobia) were examined across these groups. Findings suggested that butch-identified women experienced more heterosexist events than femme women or women with non-traditional gender expressions. There were no differences in mental health variables. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
Evans, Sarah E.; Steel, Anne; DiLillo, David
Objectives The current study investigates the moderating effect of perceived social support on associations between child maltreatment severity and adult trauma symptoms. We extend the existing literature by examining the roles of severity of multiple maltreatment types (i.e., sexual, physical, and emotional abuse; physical and emotional neglect) and gender in this process. Methods The sample included 372 newlywed individuals recruited from marriage license records. Participants completed a number of self-report questionnaires measuring the nature and severity of child maltreatment history, perceived social support from friends and family, and trauma-related symptoms. These questionnaires were part of a larger study, investigating marital and intrapersonal functioning. We conducted separate, two-step hierarchical multiple regression models for perceived social support from family and perceived social support from friends. In each of these models, total trauma symptomatology was predicted from each child maltreatment severity variable, perceived social support, and the product of the two variables. In order to examine the role of gender, we conducted separate analyses for women and men. Results As hypothesized, increased severity of several maltreatment types (sexual abuse, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and physical neglect) predicted greater trauma symptoms for both women and men, and increased physical abuse severity predicted greater trauma symptoms for women. Perceived social support from both family and friends predicted lower trauma symptoms across all levels of maltreatment for men. For women, greater perceived social support from friends, but not from family, predicted decreased trauma symptoms. Finally, among women, perceived social support from family interacted with child maltreatment such that, as the severity of maltreatment (physical and emotional abuse, emotional neglect) increased, the buffering effect of perceived social support from family on
Shimanoe, Chisato; Hara, Megumi; Nishida, Yuichiro; Nanri, Hinako; Otsuka, Yasuko; Horita, Mikako; Yasukata, Jun; Miyoshi, Nobuyuki; Yamada, Yosuke; Higaki, Yasuki; Tanaka, Keitaro
Inconsistent associations have been reported between perceived stress and C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of systemic inflammation. We previously observed a male-specific inverse relationship between perceived stress and CRP in a cross-sectional study. In the present study, we examined the longitudinal association between changes in perceived stress and CRP, and further analyzed whether changes in coping strategies and social support modify this association. This study included 8454 participants in both a baseline survey and a follow-up survey 5 years later. Psychosocial measures (i.e. perceived stress, coping strategies, and social support) and CRP concentrations were measured by identical means in both surveys. Consistent with our previous findings, increased perceived stress was significantly associated with lower CRP in men (p trend = .037), but not in women. Increased "emotional expression," a coping strategy, was also associated with lower CRP in women (p trend = .024). Furthermore, interactions between perceived stress and a coping strategy (positive reappraisal) or social support on CRP were found in men (p interaction = .007 and .038, respectively); the above inverse association between stress and CRP was not detected for participants with diminished positive reappraisal or social support. In conclusion, increases in perceived stress during a 5-year period were associated with decreases in CRP among healthy men, and the observed association was possibly modified by coping strategy or social support.
Hur, Nam Wook; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Waite, Linda; Youm, Yoosik
To investigate the buffering effects of social support as an effects modifier in the association between depression and inflammation in the elderly. We analyzed the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (KSHAP) for questionnaire, clinical, and laboratory data of 530 older adults living in a rural community. Multivariate regression models were used to investigate the association between depressive symptoms and C-reactive protein level (CRP), a marker of inflammation, at varying levels of social support. Social support affected the association between depressive symptoms and CRP level in both sexes. However, the direction of effects modification was different for men and women. In men, a higher CRP level was significantly associated with depressive symptoms only among those with lower support from a spouse or family members. By contrast, in women, the association was significant only among subgroups with higher spousal or family support. Social support from neighbors or friends did not affect the depression-inflammation relationship in men but modestly affected the relationship in women. Our findings suggest that social support may have a buffering effect in the relationship between depression and inflammation in elderly Koreans. But the influence of social support may run in different directions for men and women.
Suvak, Michael K.; Taft, Casey T.; Goodman, Lisa A.; Dutton, Mary Ann
Objective: We examined 4 separate dimensions of functional social support (tangible, appraisal, self-esteem, and belonging) as predictors of change in depression over 4.5 years in a sample of women reporting intimate partner violence. Method: Participants were recruited as they sought help for violence perpetrated by a current or former male…
Full Text Available The issue of anticipation social support is actual topic because of detection important factors for positive development of personality. Emotional bonds are getting stronger with perception of social support. Subjective feeling of positive emotions and relationships is manifest with higher range of social and mental functioning, emotional - willing stability of personality. Emotional basement of personality is emotional stability, which represent relationship with the anticipated social support. The lack of social support make a negative influence on personality development and personality traits. Positive emotional relationsthips with parents are important for healthy growth of personality (Filadelfiová, 2001; Arrive, 2004; Vágnerová, 2000; Langmeier & Křejčířová, 2006; Grun, 2011; Kraus & Poláčková, 2001; Matulník, 2002; Matějček & Dytrych, 2002. The meaning of social support and partner's love is confirmed with research. The meaning of social support in adolescence is replaced from parents to life partner. Strong emotional relationship motivates, integrates and regulates (Vágnerová, 2000. Absence of positive and permanent emotional relationship hold the positive soul steadiness. The signs of soul unsteadiness are destruction of self-esteem and self-image which manifest unstable emotionality. Subjective survival of emotional and social disharmony influence mental problems - neurotic disorders, problems with adaptation, emotional and social problems (Kondáš, 2002. The goal of research was find out relationship of social support regarding with emotional-willing stability and adolescence relationships in their family. We were interested in level of social support and level of emotional- willing stability and perception of quality family relationships regarding with gender and actual partnership. The research sample contained with N= 120 respondents (men = 33, women = 87 in age 19 - 24 years old, M = 23, 97. The next criterium of
Sundin, Karin; Bruce, Elisabeth; Barremo, Ann-Sofi
Heart failure is a chronic syndrome that has physiological, psychological and social effects. The aim of the study was to illuminate the meanings of support as experienced by elderly women with chronic heart failure. Narrative interviews were conducted with five elderly women with chronic heart failure. A phenomenological hermeneutic method of interpretation was used. The meanings of support were experienced by the women out of two perspectives, that is, when support is present and when there is a lack of support. The findings were revealed in two themes: "Feeling confident means support" and "Feeling abandoned". The women do not wish to be a burden. They want to be independent as much as possible to defend their dignity. An important support to the women is that they are understood and confirmed in their illness. Supportive relations are most valuable, that is, a relationship that supports the women's independence. If there is no supportive relationship, they feel like a burden to others and they feel lonely; this loneliness creates suffering and counteracts wellbeing and health.
Green, Harold D; Tucker, Joan S; Wenzel, Suzanne L; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P; Ryan, Gery W; Zhou, Annie J
Childhood abuse has been linked to negative sequelae for women later in life including drug and alcohol use and violence as victim or perpetrator and may also affect the development of women's social networks. Childhood abuse is prevalent among at-risk populations of women (such as the homeless) and thus may have a stronger impact on their social networks. We conducted a study to: (a) develop a typology of sheltered homeless women's social networks; (b) determine whether childhood abuse was associated with the social networks of sheltered homeless women; and (c) determine whether those associations remained after accounting for past-year substance abuse and recent intimate partner abuse. A probability sample of 428 homeless women from temporary shelter settings in Los Angeles County completed a personal network survey that provided respondent information as well as information about their network members' demographics and level of interaction with each other. Cluster analyses identified groups of women who shared specific social network characteristics. Multinomial logistic regressions revealed variables associated with group membership. We identified three groups of women with differing social network characteristics: low-risk networks, densely connected risky networks (dense, risky), and sparsely connected risky networks (sparse, risky). Multinomial logistic regressions indicated that membership in the sparse, risky network group, when compared to the low-risk group, was associated with history of childhood physical abuse (but not sexual or emotional abuse). Recent drug abuse was associated with membership in both risky network groups; however, the association of childhood physical abuse with sparse, risky network group membership remained. Although these findings support theories proposing that the experience of childhood abuse can shape women's social networks, they suggest that it may be childhood physical abuse that has the most impact among homeless women
Gale, Nicola K; Kenyon, Sara; MacArthur, Christine; Jolly, Kate; Hope, Lucy
Levels of social support are strongly associated with health outcomes and inequalities. The use of lay health workers (LHWs) has been suggested by policy makers across the world as an intervention to identify risks to health and to promote health, particularly in disadvantaged communities. However, there have been few attempts to theorize the work undertaken by LHWs to understand how interventions work. In this article, the authors present the concept of 'synthetic socialsupport' and distinguish it from the work of health professionals or the spontaneous social support received from friends and family. The authors provide new empirical data to illustrate the concept based on qualitative, observational research, using a novel shadowing method involving clinical and non-clinical researchers, on the everyday work of 'pregnancy outreach workers' (POWs) in Birmingham, UK. The service was being evaluated as part of a randomized controlled trial. These LHWs provided instrumental, informational, emotional and appraisal support to the women they worked with, which are all key components of social support. The social support was 'synthetic' because it was distinct from the support embedded in spontaneous social networks: it was non-reciprocal; it was offered on a strictly time-limited basis; the LHWs were accountable for the relationship, and the social networks produced were targeted rather than spontaneous. The latter two qualities of this synthetic form of social support may have benefits over spontaneous networks by improving the opportunities for the cultivation of new relationships (both strong and weak ties) outside the women's existing spontaneous networks that can have a positive impact on them and by offering a reliable source of health information and support in a chaotic environment. The concept of SSS can help inform policy makers about how deploying lay workers may enable them to achieve desired outcomes, specify their programme theories and evaluate
Wright, Paul J; Tokunaga, Robert S
A recent White House Council Report on Women and Girls called attention to sexual assault on college campuses and encouraged continued research on this important public health problem. Media that sexually objectify women have been identified by feminist scholars as encouraging of sexual assault, but some researchers question why portrayals that do not feature sexual assault should affect men's attitudes supportive of violence against women. Guided by the concepts of specific and abstract sexual scripting in Wright's (Communication Yearbook 35:343-386, 2011) sexual script acquisition, activation, application model of sexual media socialization, this study proposed that the more men are exposed to objectifying depictions, the more they will think of women as entities that exist for men's sexual gratification (specific sexual scripting), and that this dehumanized perspective on women may then be used to inform attitudes regarding sexual violence against women (abstract sexual scripting). Data were gathered from collegiate men sexually attracted to women (N = 187). Consistent with expectations, associations between men's exposure to objectifying media and attitudes supportive of violence against women were mediated by their notions of women as sex objects. Specifically, frequency of exposure to men's lifestyle magazines that objectify women, reality TV programs that objectify women, and pornography predicted more objectified cognitions about women, which, in turn, predicted stronger attitudes supportive of violence against women.
Martins, M V; Peterson, B D; Almeida, V; Mesquita-Guimarães, J; Costa, M E
Is perceived social support from partner, family, and friends associated with increased infertility-related stress? While men's perceived support did not seem to influence their partners' stress, women's perceptions of spousal and familial support can affect the way men deal with the challenge of infertility. Previous studies showed that low levels of social support are associated with poor psychosocial adjustment and treatment termination in women and men. Studies examining the impact of social support using the couple as unit of analysis are lacking. A cross-sectional sample of 613 Portuguese patients participated in the research, online over a 3-month period, and in a public fertility clinic over 11 months. The final sample comprised 213 married or cohabiting couples (191 from the fertility clinic) who were actively attempting to have a child, were seeking infertility treatment and had not undergone previous preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Perceived social support was assessed through the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and infertility-related stress was assessed with the fertility problem inventory. Hypotheses were tested by applying the actor-partner interdependence model using structural equation modeling. Couples had been living together for an average (±SD) of 6 ± 3.5 years, and attempting a pregnancy for 3.8 ± 2.6 years. Nearly half of the couples had undergone infertility treatment (41.3%). Infertility stress was found to be associated with low family support for women (β = -0.27, P = .003), and low partner support for both men (β = -0.29, P = .001) and women (β = -0.45, P = .006). Both women and men's perceived friend support were not significantly related to male or female infertility stress. Men infertility stress was also associated with their partners low levels of partner (β = -0.24, P = .049) and family support (β = -0.23, P family support), the explained variance of the model in women's fertility stress was greater (R
Barton, Katherine; Redshaw, Maggie; Quigley, Maria A; Carson, Claire
Research into the impact of unintended pregnancy on the wellbeing of women tends to focus on pregnancies ending in either termination or lone motherhood. Unintended pregnancy is common in partnered women, but little is known about the association between unintended pregnancy and postpartum affective disorders, such as depression and anxiety in this group. Poor relationship quality and lack of social support are considered risk factors for psychological distress (PD). We examined the association between unplanned motherhood and subsequent PD in partnered women, for whom evidence is sparse, accounting for the role of relationship quality and social support. Data for 12,462 partnered mothers were drawn from the first survey of Millennium Cohort Study, completed at 9 months postpartum. Women reported whether their baby was planned, and how they felt when they discovered that they were pregnant. Pregnancy intention is categorised as "planned", "unplanned/happy", "unplanned/ambivalent" and "unplanned/unhappy". PD was assessed using the modified 9-item Rutter Malaise Inventory. Social support was measured by a composite score for perceived support, and a measure of actual support from friends and family. Relationship quality was assessed using a modified Golombok-Rust Inventory of Marital State. The effect of pregnancy intention on the odds of PD at 9 months was estimated, adjusting for potential confounding factors. All analyses were weighted for response and design effects. In total 32.8%(weighted) (4343/12462) of mothers reported an unplanned pregnancy: 23.3 wt% (3087) of mothers felt happy, 3.5 wt% (475) ambivalent, and 6.0 wt% (781) unhappy upon discovery. Unplanned pregnancy was associated with a significantly increased odds of PD compared to planned (OR 1.73 (95%CI: 1.53, 1.95)). This was more pronounced among women who reported negative or ambivalent feelings in early pregnancy (OR 2.72 (95%CI:2.17, 3.41) and 2.56 (95%CI:1.95, 3.34), respectively), than those
Mansyur, Carol L; Rustveld, Luis O; Nash, Susan G; Jibaja-Weiss, Maria L
To explore quantitatively the extent to which social support, social norms and barriers are associated with self-efficacy and self-care adherence in Hispanic patients with diabetes and the extent to which these differ for men and women. Baseline survey data were collected from 248 low-SES, Hispanic men and women who were participants in a randomized controlled trial of a culturally targeted intervention for diabetes management. Student's t, Pearson correlations and multiple regression were used to analyze the data. Compared to men, women were less likely to receive support, faced more barriers, reported less self-efficacy and had lower levels of self-care adherence. Perceived support was consistently correlated with better self-efficacy in women but not men, even though men reported higher levels of support. The lack of adequate support seems to be a fundamental barrier for Hispanic women with diabetes. Health care providers should be sensitive to sociocultural influences in Hispanic groups that may facilitate men's self-care adherence, but could potentially hamper women's efforts. Interventions designed for Hispanics should augment women's support needs and address culture and social factors that may differentially impact the ability of men and women to manage their diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kroenke, Candyce H; Quesenberry, Charles; Kwan, Marilyn L; Sweeney, Carol; Castillo, Adrienne; Caan, Bette J
Larger social networks have been associated with lower breast cancer mortality. The authors evaluated how levels of social support and burden influenced this association. We included 2,264 women from the Life After Cancer Epidemiology study who were diagnosed with early-stage, invasive breast cancer between 1997 and 2000, and provided data on social networks (spouse or intimate partner, religious/social ties, volunteering, time socializing with friends, and number of first-degree female relatives), social support, and caregiving. 401 died during a median follow-up of 10.8 years follow-up with 215 from breast cancer. We used delayed entry Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate associations. In multivariate-adjusted analyses, social isolation was unrelated to recurrence or breast cancer-specific mortality. However, socially isolated women had higher all-cause mortality (HR = 1.34, 95 % CI: 1.03-1.73) and mortality from other causes (HR = 1.79, 95 % CI: 1.19-2.68). Levels of social support and burden modified associations. Among those with low, but not high, levels of social support from friends and family, lack of religious/social participation (HR = 1.58, 95 % CI: 1.07-2.36, p = 0.02, p interaction = 0.01) and lack of volunteering (HR = 1.78, 95 % CI: 1.15-2.77, p = 0.01, p interaction = 0.01) predicted higher all-cause mortality. In cross-classification analyses, only women with both small networks and low levels of support (HR = 1.61, 95 % CI: 1.10-2.38) had a significantly higher risk of mortality than women with large networks and high levels of support; women with small networks and high levels of support had no higher risk of mortality (HR = 1.13, 95 % CI: 0.74-1.72). Social networks were also more important for caregivers versus noncaregivers. Larger social networks predicted better prognosis after breast cancer, but associations depended on the quality and burden of family relationships.
Harling, Guy; Morris, Katherine Ann; Manderson, Lenore; Perkins, Jessica M; Berkman, Lisa F
Drawing on the "Health and Aging in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH community in South Africa" (HAALSI) baseline survey, we present data on older adults' social networks and receipt of social support in rural South Africa. We examine how age and gender differences in social network characteristics matched with patterns predicted by theories of choice- and constraint-based network contraction in older adults. We used regression analysis on data for 5,059 South African adults aged 40 and older. Older respondents reported fewer important social contacts and less frequent communication than their middle-aged peers, largely due to fewer nonkin connections. Network size difference between older and younger respondents was greater for women than for men. These gender and age differences were explicable by much higher levels of widowhood among older women compared to younger women and older men. There was no evidence for employment-related network contraction or selective retention of emotionally supportive ties. Marriage-related structural constraints impacted on older women's social networks in rural South Africa, but did not explain choice-based network contraction. These findings suggest that many older women in rural Africa, a growing population, may have an unmet need for social support.
Zapata-López, Bertha I; Delgado-Villamizar, Norma L; Cardona-Arango, Doris
Objective To describe the social and family support networks available to the elderly living in urban areas of the municipality of Angelópolis-Antioquia during the year 2011. Materials A descriptive transversal study was conductedusing the population experience to determine the social support received by the 239 seniors in the urban area of Angelópolis-Antioquia. The data was obtained from primary sources and univariate and bivariate analysis was conducted. Results Mostly women were interviewed (59.8 %) aged between 60 and 74 (66.9 %). The social status that appeared with the highest percentage was "married" (47.3 %) though with the interviewed women the social status with the highest occurrence was "widow" (40.6 %). 69,5 % had an elementary school educational level and 16,7 % had no formal education at all. 60.3 % were registered in the subsidized program. The support from families and friends was qualified as satisfactory. A statistically significant connection was found between gender and undertaking different activities in free time (value of p=0,004). Conclusions the study indicates that loneliness is an aspect that makes the elderly feel unprotected and vulnerable. Despite the general feeling of satisfaction regarding family support, some of them, especially women, expressed feeling mistreated. The data along with the lack of activities for spare time must be taken into account to formulate intervention strategies for effective support networks to improve the situation of this vulnerable population of the municipality.
Fleuriet, K Jill; Sunil, T S
The purpose of this study was to determine differences in subjective social status, perceived social stress, depressive symptoms, and pregnancy-related anxiety between pregnant Mexican American and Mexican immigrant women. Three hundred pregnant Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women in South Texas were surveyed for pregnancy-related anxiety, perceived social stress, depressive symptoms, and subjective social status. Pregnant Mexican immigrant women had higher levels of pregnancy-related anxiety and lower levels of depression and perceived social stress than pregnant Mexican American women. Change in these variables among Mexican immigrant women was relatively linear as time of residence in the United States increased. Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women had significantly different correlations between subjective social status, self-esteem and perceived social stress. Results indicate that subjective social status is an important psychosocial variable among pregnant Hispanic women. Results contribute to ongoing efforts to provide culturally responsive prenatal psychosocial support services.
Daniels, A; Hoffman, M; Lombard, C; Steyn, K; Levitt, N; Katzenellenbogen, J
Social support, by moderating cardiovascular reactivity, has been demonstrated to attenuate the effects of stress on blood pressure in American communities. This is the first report to examine the relationship between social support and blood pressure in a South African context, during a period of infrastructure modernisation and political change. A total of 1240 residents (542 men, 698 women) of mixed ethnic origin, older than 14 years and stratified by age and sex, participated in a survey to determine risk factors for hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Social support was assessed by a questionnaire developed in consultation with the community. It was defined by interactions that may threaten family harmony (score 1) and by networking between relatives, friends, colleagues and neighbours (score 2). Mean blood pressure of the sample was 130/79 mm Hg (s.d. 25/14 mm Hg). Hypertension prevalence was 26.9%. Only 36% of women compared to 57.3% of men (P social support networks were similarly perceived by both sexes. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure correlated weakly with score 1 (r = 0.096, P networking between relatives, friends or neighbours, significantly influences blood pressure in this community. Measures of social support thought to moderate blood pressure may have limited cross-cultural application. Attitudinal changes during socio-political transition may impact on the generalisability of instruments for measurement.
Aitken, Zoe; Krnjacki, Lauren; Kavanagh, Anne Marie; LaMontagne, Anthony Daniel; Milner, Allison
Disability acquisition in adulthood is associated with deterioration in mental health. Social support may act as a "buffer" against poor mental health following disability acquisition. We tested the hypothesis that women and men with low social support experienced larger declines in mental health on acquisition of a disability compared to women and men with high social support. We assessed whether social support, measured both prior and subsequent to disability acquisition, modified the association between disability acquisition and mental health using 14 annual waves of data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey. Participants reported at least two consecutive waves of disability preceded by at least two consecutive waves without disability (2200 participants, 15,724 observations). Fixed-effects linear regression models were used to estimate average differences in mental health between waves with and without disability, for women and men separately. We tested for effect measure modification of the association by social support, including a three-way interaction between disability and social support prior and subsequent to disability acquisition. Though the effects of disability acquisition on mental health were much larger for women, for both women and men there was a consistent pattern of association with social support. There was evidence that social support modified the association between disability acquisition and mental health, with the largest effects for those experiencing a change from high to low social support subsequent to disability and for people with consistently low social support. These findings highlight the importance of developing new policy and practice strategies to improve the mental health of people with disabilities, including interventions to promote social support at the time of disability acquisition.
Salma, Jordana; Keating, Norah; Ogilvie, Linda; Hunter, Kathleen F
The increase in ethnically and linguistically diverse older adults in Canada necessitates attention to their experiences and needs for healthy ageing. Arab immigrant women often report challenges in maintaining health, but little is known about their ageing experiences. This interpretive descriptive study uses a transnational life course framework to understand Arab Muslim immigrant women's experiences of engaging in health-promoting practices as they age in Canada. Women's stories highlight social dimensions of health such social connectedness, social roles and social support that are constructed and maintained within different migration contexts across the life course. Barriers and facilitators to healthy ageing in this population centred around five themes: (i) the necessity of staying strong, (ii) caring for self while caring for others, (iii) double jeopardy of chronic illnesses and loneliness, (iv) inadequate support within large social networks and (v) navigating access to health-supporting resources. The findings point to transnational connections and post-migration social support as major influencers in creating facilitators and barriers to healthy ageing for Arab Muslim immigrant women. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Davey, Amanda; Bouman, Walter P; Arcelus, Jon; Meyer, Caroline
There is a paucity of research in the area of social support and psychological well-being among people with gender dysphoria. The present study aimed to investigate levels of social support among individuals with gender dysphoria compared with a matched control group. It also aimed to examine the relationship between social support and psychological well-being. Participants were 103 individuals diagnosed with gender dysphoria (according to ICD-10 criteria) attending a national gender identity clinic and an age- and gender-matched nonclinical control group recruited via social networking websites. All participants completed measures of social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, MSPSS), psychopathology (Symptom Checklist 90 Revised, SCL), quality of life (Short Form 36 version 2, SF), and life satisfaction (Personal Wellbeing Index, PWI). Trans women reported significantly lower MSPSS total and MSPSS family scores compared with control women, although these differences in levels of social support were no longer significant when SCL depression was controlled for. No significant differences were found between trans men and any other group. MSPSS scores did not significantly predict SCL subscales but did predict both SF subscales and PWI total scores. Trans women perceived themselves to be lacking social support. Given that social support is beneficial to quality of life and life satisfaction in those with gender dysphoria, this is of great concern. Though these findings have been derived from correlational results, extended research may highlight the value of clinicians helping trans women to seek out and maintain social support. Additionally, efforts could be made to educate and challenge attitudes of nontrans people towards those with gender dysphoria. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Suwankhong, Dusanee; Liamputtong, Pranee
Women with breast cancer receive different forms of treatment. Although treatment can save the lives of women, they can result in adverse physical, psychological, and social effects that can impact the women's quality of life. The objective of this study was to describe the experiences of breast cancer treatment among Thai women in southern Thailand. This study used qualitative methods (in-depth interviewing and drawings) with 20 Thai women who had been diagnosed with breast cancer. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis methods. Three themes emerged: (a) being a breast cancer patient: visible signs and adverse effects of therapy, (b) experiencing emotional chaos, and (c) experiencing social dysfunction. The women had to deal with physical body changes, emotional burden, treatment-related social stigma, and being marginalized within their own social context. Women experienced changes including social stigma after receiving breast cancer treatments. They had to manage stigma and difficulties themselves without sufficient professional support. It is important for nurses to understand such experiences so that they may support appropriate coping strategies suited to each woman. Community health nurses need to view each woman with breast cancer as a unique person and appreciate how to provide appropriate care and support based on each woman's experience with her illness and treatment.
Ragusa, Angela T
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a widespread, ongoing, and complex global social problem, whose victims continue to be largely women. Women often prefer to rely on friends and family for IPV help, yet when informal support is unavailable they remain hesitant to contact formal services, particularly legal support for many reasons. This study applies a sociological lens by framing the IPV and legal help-seeking experiences of rural Australian women gained from 36 in-depth face-to-face interviews as socially contextualized interactions. Findings reveal police and court responses reflect broader social inequalities and rurality exacerbates concerns such as anonymity and lack of service. Cultural differences and power imbalances between survivors and formal support providers are manifested to inform future research seeking to improve survivors' willingness to engage and satisfaction with formal services. Finally, the important role police and the criminal justice system play in de-stigmatizing IPV and legitimating its unacceptability is argued a crucial, yet unrecognized, key to social change.
Esmaelzadeh Saeieh, Sara; Rahimzadeh, Mitra; Yazdkhasti, Mansooreh; Torkashvand, Shoukofeh
Developing maternal competence in first time mothers has a significant impact on neonate's growth psychosocial development and neonates growth and psychological development. Social support can be an important element for becoming a new mother. We aimed to investigate how social support and maternal competence change during pregnancy and 4 months after it and examine the relationships among social support and maternal competence. This longitudinal study was conducted on 100 first time mothers attending health centers in Alborz city, Alborz Province, between February 2015 and January 2016. Data were collected through perceived social support questionnaire that consisted of 12 questions and Parenting Sense of Competence Scale consisting of 17 items scored based on Likert's scale. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software, version 16. Repeated-measure test and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used. Psocial support did not show any significant reduction (P=0.286). A direct relationship was found between social support and maternal competent six weeks after childbirth (r=0.19, P=0.049), and also social support and maternal competence sixteen weeks after childbirth (r=0.23, P=0.01). Considering the reduction of maternal competency during the study, social support by healthcare providers may be helpful for the mothers' transition to motherhood, and midwives must design specific interventions to promote the sense of maternal competence and perceived social support in first time mothers.
Creswell, Kasey G; Cheng, Yu; Levine, Michele D
Social support has been linked to quitting smoking, but the mechanisms by which social support affects cessation are poorly understood. The current study tested a stress-buffering model of social support, which posits that social support protects or "buffers" individuals from stress related to quitting smoking. We hypothesized that social support would be negatively associated with risk of relapse, and that this effect would be mediated by reduced withdrawal and depressive symptoms (i.e., cessation-related stress) over time. Further, we predicted that trait neuroticism would moderate this mediational effect, such that individuals high in negative affectivity would show the greatest stress-buffering effects of social support. Participants were weight-concerned women (n = 349) ages 18-65 enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled smoking cessation trial of bupropion and cognitive behavioral therapy. Social support was assessed at baseline, and biochemically-verified abstinence, withdrawal-related symptoms, and depressive symptoms were assessed at 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12-months follow-up. Social support was negatively related to risk of relapse in survival models and negatively related to withdrawal symptoms and depression in mixed effects models. These relationships held after controlling for the effects of pre-quit day negative affect and depression symptoms, assignment to treatment condition, and number of cigarettes smoked per day. A temporal mediation model showed that the effect of social support on risk of relapse was mediated by reductions in withdrawal symptoms over time but not by depression over time. Contrary to hypotheses, we did not find that neuroticism moderated this mediation effect. Increased social support may buffer women from the harmful effects of cessation-related withdrawal symptoms, which in turn improve cessation outcomes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and
Dearden Andy M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Twenty percent of pregnant women in the UK are obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2, reflecting the growing public health challenge of obesity in the 21st century. Obesity increases the risk of adverse outcomes during pregnancy and birth and has significant cost implications for maternity services. Gestational weight management strategies are a high priority; however the evidence for effective, feasible and acceptable weight control interventions is limited and inconclusive. This qualitative study explored the experiences and perceptions of pregnant women and midwives regarding existing support for weight management in pregnancy and their ideas for service development. Methods A purposive sample of 6 women and 7 midwives from Doncaster, UK, participated in two separate focus groups. Transcripts were analysed thematically. Results Two overarching themes were identified, 'Explanations for obesity and weight management' and 'Best care for pregnant women'. 'Explanations' included a lack of knowledge about weight, diet and exercise during pregnancy; self-talk messages which excused overeating; difficulties maintaining motivation for a healthy lifestyle; the importance of social support; stigmatisation; and sensitivity surrounding communication about obesity between midwives and their clients. 'Best care' suggested that weight management required care which was consistent and continuous, supportive and non-judgemental, and which created opportunities for interaction and mutual support between obese pregnant women. Conclusions Women need unambiguous advice regarding healthy lifestyles, diet and exercise in pregnancy to address a lack of knowledge and a tendency towards unhelpful self-talk messages. Midwives expressed difficulties in communicating with their clients about their weight, given awareness that obesity is a sensitive and potentially stigmatising issue. This indicates more could be done to educate and support them in their work with
Ten U.S. minority female undergraduates who aspire to become physicists were followed over an 8-year period. Participant observation and in-depth interviews recorded the strategies they used to earn bachelor's degrees in physics or physics-related fields, and then go on to graduate school and/or careers in science. One significant strategy these women of color employed was participating in small subcommunities with other women or underrepresented ethnic minorities at the margins of their local physics community. The study found that informal peer groups offered safe spaces to counter negative experiences, to normalize their social realities, and to offer practical guidance for persevering in the field. Formal women- and minority-serving programs in physics provided foundations for community building, stronger curriculum and instruction, networking, and role models. The positive effects of informal and formal support groups on these students' experiences challenge a standard application of Pierre Bourdieu's framework of social and cultural capital. Women of color in the study initially lacked traditional capital of "acceptable" appearance, cultural background and habits, and networks that are more easily acquired by white males and are rewarded by the U.S. physics culture. However, instead of failing or leaving, as Bourdieu's theory would predict, the minority women persisted and achieved in science. The marginal communities contributed to their retention by offering safe spaces in which they could learn and share alternative ways of "accruing capital." Moreover, as these women made strides along their academic and career paths, they also engaged in social justice work in efforts to change the physics culture to be more welcoming of nontraditional members. The outcomes of the study offer empirical confirmation of the critical need for informal and institutionally supported women's and minorities' support groups to promote diversity in science.
Afifi, Rema A; Nakkash, Rima T; Khawaja, Marwan
We sought to examine the associations between social capital, women's empowerment, and smoking behavior among married women in three low-income neighborhoods in Beirut, Lebanon. Data from currently married women aged 15 to 59 years in the 2003 Urban Health Study were used. The dependent variable was cigarette smoking. The main independent variables were five social capital items and three women's empowerment indices. Other socioeconomic variables as well as mental distress, happiness, and community of residence were included as covariates. Bivariate associations were conducted on all variables using chi-square tests. Adjusted odds ratios from binary logistic regression models were then modeled on smoking behavior separately for younger and older women. More than one third (35.9%) of married women reported smoking cigarettes. At the bivariate level, a variety of socioeconomic and demographic variables predicted smoking. With respect to social capital, women who lacked trust and were dissatisfied with the number friends or relatives living nearby were more likely to smoke. As for women's autonomy, high decision making and high mobility were associated with smoking. When analyzed multivariately, social capital items were statistically significant for younger women but not for older women. And the mobility variables were significant for older women but not younger women. Our results support the conclusion that determinants of women's tobacco use are multilayered, and include social capital and women's autonomy. Our results also suggest that younger and older married women may be influenced by differential determinants. Reasons for these differences are explored. Interventions may need to be tailored to each age group separately. Copyright 2010 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Social marketing involves the application of commercial marketing principles to advance the public good. Social marketing calls for much more than health communications campaigns. It involves four interrelated tasks: audience benefit, target behavior, essence (brand, relevance, positioning), and developing the "4Ps" (product, price, place, promotion) marketing mix. The ongoing U.S. Department of Agriculture "Loving Support Makes Breastfeeding Work" campaign was launched in 1997 based on social marketing principles to increase breastfeeding initiation rates and breastfeeding duration among Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) participants. Since then there have been improvements in breastfeeding duration in the country, and the majority of WIC women now initiate breastfeeding. Breastfeeding in public places is still not well accepted by society at large, and any and exclusive breastfeeding durations remain exceedingly low. Lessons learned from "Loving Support" and other campaigns indicate that it is important to design social marketing campaigns to target the influential societal forces (e.g., family and friends, healthcare providers, employers, formula industry, legislators) that affect women's decision and ability to breastfeed for the recommended amount of time. This will require formative research that applies the social-ecological model to different population segments, taking and identifying the right incentives to nudge more women to breastfeed for longer. Any new breastfeeding campaign needs to understand and take into account the information acquisition preferences of the target audiences. The vast majority of WIC women have mobile devices and are accessing social media. The Brazilian experience indicates that making breastfeeding the social norm can be done with a solid social marketing strategy. This is consistent with the recently released "Six Steps to Achieve Breastfeeding Goals for WIC Clinics," which identifies
Full Text Available Background: Life satisfaction and perceived social support been shown to improve the well-being of a person and also affect the outcome of treatment in somatization disorder. The phenomenon of somatization was explored in relation to the perceived social support and life satisfaction. Aim: This study aimed at investigating perceived social support and life satisfaction in people with somatization disorder. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on persons having somatization disorder attending the outpatient unit of LGB Regional Institute of Mental Health, Tezpur, Assam. Satisfaction with life scale and multidimensional scale of perceived social support were used to assess life satisfaction and perceived social support respectively. Results: Women reported more somatic symptoms than men. Family perceived social support was high in the patient in comparison to significant others′ perceived social support and friends′ perceived social support. Perceived social support showed that a significant positive correlation was found with life satisfaction. Conclusion: Poor social support and low life satisfaction might be a stress response with regard to increased distress severity and psychosocial stressors rather than a cultural response to express psychological problems in somatic terms.
Rzeszutek, Marcin; Oniszczenko, Włodzimierz; Firląg-Burkacka, Ewa
The aim of the authors of the present study was to investigate gender differences in the levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and social support in a Polish sample of HIV+ men (n = 613) and women (n = 230). This was an anonymous cross-sectional study, and participation was voluntary. The research questionnaires were distributed in paper form among patients of Warsaw's Hospital for Infectious Diseases from January to October 2015. The level of PTSS was assessed using the PTSD Factorial Version Inventory. Social support was assessed using the Berlin Social Support Scales. HIV+ women scored higher on all PTSS dimensions compared to HIV+ men. HIV+ women were characterized by a higher need for support and more support actually received compared to HIV+ men. We observed a positive association between HIV infection duration and AIDS phase and the global trauma score only among HIV+ men. The moderation analysis also revealed a positive relationship between actual received support and the global trauma score among HIV+ women only. Increased clinician awareness is needed about the role of PTSS and social support among people living with HIV, especially taking gender differences into account.
These findings underscores the importance of assessing postpartum women for depression. There is ... Thus integration into social networks and provision of high levels of social support are key to mental health, well-being and improved ...
Sara Esmaelzadeh Saeieh
Full Text Available Background: Developing maternal competence in first time mothers has a significant impact on neonate’s growth psychosocial development and neonates growth and psychological development. Social support can be an important element for becoming a new mother. We aimed to investigate how social support and maternal competence change during pregnancy and 4 months after it and examine the relationships among social support and maternal competence. Methods: This longitudinal study was conducted on 100 first time mothers attending health centers in Alborz city, Alborz Province, between February 2015 and January 2016. Data were collected through perceived social support questionnaire that consisted of 12 questions and Parenting Sense of Competence Scale consisting of 17 items scored based on Likert’s scale. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software, version 16. Repeated-measure test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient were used. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: Maternal competence significantly reduced during the study (P=0.008, while perceived social support did not show any significant reduction (P=0.286. A direct relationship was found between social support and maternal competent six weeks after childbirth (r=0.19, P=0.049, and also social support and maternal competence sixteen weeks after childbirth (r=0.23, P=0.01. Conclusion: Considering the reduction of maternal competency during the study, social support by healthcare providers may be helpful for the mothers’ transition to motherhood, and midwives must design specific interventions to promote the sense of maternal competence and perceived social support in first time mothers.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare basic psychological needs, stressful life events, and social support in addicts and non-addicts. The study was a causal-comparative research. Two hundreds residents of Khorramabad were chosen by available sampling (130 healthy and 70 addicts and were asked to respond to Basic Psychological Need Scale La Guardia, Ryan, Couchman & Deci, Multi-facet Perceived Social Support Scale Zimet, Powell, Farley, Werkman, & Berkoff, Addiction Acceptance Scale Weed, Butcher, McKenna, & Ben-Porath, and Weekly Stress Inventory Brantley, Jones & Boudreaux. Results of analysis of variance and and discriminant analysis showed singnificant differences between men and women. The results also showed significant differences competency and friend social support in the two groups of men, and autonomy, competency and family social support in the two groups of women. Discriminant analysis revealed that stressful life events and competency predict addiction in men. and relationship and family social support predict addiction in women.Results were discussed according to different protecting factors in men and women and possible reciprocal relationships between addiction and protecting factors.
Scott, Christy K; Johnson, Kimberly; Dennis, Michael L
Mobile technology holds promise as a recovery tool for people with substance use disorders. However, some populations who may benefit the most may not have access to or experience with mobile phones. Incarcerated women represent a group at high risk for recidivism and relapse to substance abuse. Cost-effective mechanisms must be in place to support their recovery upon release. This study explores using mobile technology as a recovery management tool for women offenders residing in the community following release from jail. This study surveyed 325 minority women offenders with substance use disorders to determine whether or not they use cell phones, their comfort with texting and search features, and the social networks that they access from mobile phones. We found that 83% of survey subjects had cell phones; 30% of those were smartphones. Seventy-seven percent of the women reported access to supportive friends, and 88% had close family members they contacted regularly using mobile technology. Results indicated that most of the women were comfortable using a mobile phone, although the majority of them had prepaid minutes rather than plans, and most did currently use smartphones or have the capability to download applications or access social networks via their phones. Most women reported that they would be comfortable using a mobile phone to text, e-mail, and answer surveys. The high rate of adoption of mobile technology by women offenders makes them a promising target for recovery support delivered via mobile phone.
Ziaei, S; Contreras, M; Zelaya Blandón, E; Persson, L.Å,; Hjern, A; Ekström, EC
To evaluate the associations of women's autonomy and social support with infant and young child feeding practices (including consumption of highly processed snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages) and nutritional status in rural Nicaragua. Cross-sectional study. Feeding practices and children's nutritional status were evaluated according to the WHO guidelines complemented with information on highly processed snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages. Women's autonomy was assessed by a seventeen-item...
Marra, Jaime V; McCarthy, Elissa; Lin, Hsiu-Ju; Ford, Julian; Rodis, Eleni; Frisman, Linda K
Research has shown that having a supportive social network is generally beneficial for individuals, particularly those who are homeless or at risk of homelessness. However, conflict within these networks may diminish the positive effects of social support on well-being, and these effects may be felt acutely within a vulnerable population with multiple needs. This study examined the impact of conflict and social support on parenting behaviors in a sample of mothers who are homeless and were involved in a study of case management interventions of varying intensity. We found that women who reported high emotional and instrumental social support self-reported greater improvements in parenting consistency over time than those who reported lower levels of support. However, three-way interactions showed that conflict in support networks was a risk factor for harsh parenting practices among participants who reported lower levels of instrumental social support. Results suggest that social support may enhance homeless mothers' ability to provide consistent parenting, but that these benefits may be undermined if conflict occurs in combination with limited levels of instrumental social support.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the number of studies on anti-smoking interventions has increased, studies focused on identifying social contextual factors in rural areas are scarce. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of social support and social networks in smoking behavior among middle and older aged people living in rural areas of South Korea. Methods The study employed a cross-sectional design. Participants included 1,057 adults, with a mean age of 60.7 years, residing in rural areas. Information on participants' tobacco use, stress, social support, and social networks was collected using structured questionnaires. The chi-square test, the t-test, ANOVA, and logistic regression were used for data analysis. Results The overall smoking prevalence in the study was 17.4% (men, 38.8%; women, 5.1%. Overall, stress was high among women, and social support was high among men. Smokers had high levels of social support (t = -2.90, p = .0038 and social networks (t = -2.22, p = .0271, as compared to non- and former smokers. Those in the high social support group were likely to be smokers (AOR = 2.21, 95% CI 1.15-4.26. Women with moderate social ties were less likely to smoke (AOR = 0.18, 95% CI 0.05-0.61. Conclusion There was a protective role of a moderate social network level among women, and a high level of social support was associated with smoking behaviors in rural areas. Findings suggest the need for a comprehensive understanding of the functions and characteristics of social contextual factors including social support and social networks in order to conduct more effective anti-smoking interventions in rural areas.
Azimi, Masoomeh; Fahami, Fariba; Mohamadirizi, Soheila
Numerous empirical evidences have shown that social and environmental circumstances and social relations have an important impact on pregnancy outcomes, women's ability to cope with stressful situations, and childbirth pain management. The present study was conducted to determine the relationship between perceived social support and fear of childbirth. The present descriptive correlational study was conducted on 270 nulliparous pregnant women who referred for pregnancy care in 2016. The subjects were selected through convenience sampling method. The data collection tools were a demographic characteristics form, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and the Wijma Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire (W-DEQ). The collected data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics tests. The mean perceived social support score of the participants was 77.90 and a significant correlation was observed between the perceived social support score and fear of childbirth score (β = -0.18, p = 0.004). The participants' mean score of fear of childbirth was 36.8. The results of study after the evaluation of the effect of predictive variables on the fear of childbirth are as follows: pregnancy preparation classes: ( β = 3.50, p = 0.220); observation of natural childbirth videos: ( β = 5.26, p = 0.040); and use of educational software: ( β =5.82, p = 0.080). In order to reduce the fear of childbirth, women's social support structure during pregnancy should be assessed. Moreover, demographic characteristics form the structure and determine the extent of individuals' social network and, through the evaluation of these characteristics during pregnancy, the rate of effective support can be predicted in individuals.
Prosman, Gert-Jan; Lo Fo Wong, Sylvie H; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine L M
Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a major health problem and negatively affects the victim's mental and physical health. Evidence-based interventions in family practice are scarce. We aimed to evaluate a low threshold home-visiting intervention for abused women provided by trained mentor mothers in family practice. The aim was to reduce exposure to IPV, symptoms of depression as well as to improve social support, participation in society and acceptance of mental health care. A pre-post study of a 16-week mentoring intervention with identified abused women with children was conducted. After referral by a family doctor, a mentor mother visited the abused woman weekly. Primary outcomes are IPV assessed with the Composite Abuse Scale (CAS), depressive symptoms using the Symptom Checklist (SCL 90) and social support by the Utrecht Coping List. Secondary outcomes are analysed qualitatively: participation in society defined as employment and education and the acceptance of mental health care. At baseline, 63 out of 66 abused women were referred to mentor support. Forty-three participants completed the intervention programme. IPV decreased from CASt otal 46.7 (SD 24.7) to 9.0 (SD 9.1) (P ≤ 0.001) after the mentor mother support programme. Symptoms of depression decreased from 53.3 (SD 13.7) to 34.8 (SD 11.5) (P ≤ 0.001) and social support increased from 13.2 (SD 4.0) to 15.2 (SD 3.5) (P ≤ 0.001). Participation in society and the acceptance of mental health for mother and child improved. Sixteen weekly visits by trained mentor mothers are a promising intervention to decrease exposure to IPV and symptoms of depression, as well as to improve social support, participation in society and the acceptance of professional help for abused women and their children.
Most studies of older adults' social networks focus on their access to dense networks that yield access to social support. This paper documents gender differences in the extent to which older adults maintain a related, but distinct, form of social capital-bridging potential, which involves serving as a tie between two unconnected parties and thus boosts independence and control of everyday social life. I use egocentric social network data from a national sample of 3,005 older adults--collected in 2005-2006 by the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project--to compare older men's and women's network bridging potential using multivariate regression analysis. Older women are more likely than older men to have bridging potential in their networks-between both kin and non-kin contacts. These gender differences increase with age. Older women are also more likely to have network members who are not connected to or monopolized by their spouse or partner. Some, but not all, of these gender differences are due to the fact that older women have larger social networks and maintain more ties to people outside of the household. These findings raise important questions about the relational advantages older women have over older men, including greater autonomy, and contradict stereotypes about women having more closely knit, kin-centered networks than men.
Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la composición de las redes y el apoyo social de ancianos enfermos de escasos recursos en Guadalajara, México. Se entrevistaron a 40 ancianos durante su hospitalización con un cuestionario de preguntas abiertas. Las redes sociales de estos ancianos están compuestas por 7,5 integrantes en promedio, principalmente mujeres, son redes multigeneracionales e incluyen a la familia extensa. Las redes en su mayoría proporcionan apoyo emocional. Las ancianas tienen redes más grandes y reciben más apoyo social en comparación a los ancianos varones; los ancianos casados y viudos, a su vez, tienen redes más grandes y reciben más apoyo social que los solteros. No hay diferencias por la edad y con quien vive en la unidad doméstica. Se requieren futuros estudios sobre los aspectos culturales y sociales sobre el tema.This paper examines social networks and social support among poor elderly ill in Guadalajara, Mexico. We interviewed 40 hospitalized elderly patients. The mean size of social networks was 7.5, basically involving women, multiple generations, and members of the extended family. Emotional support was more frequent than other types of social support. Elderly women had larger social networks and received more social support than men. Married elderly also had larger social networks and more social support than single patients. There were no differences between age and living arrangements with social networks and social support. Future studies are needed on the social and cultural environment of social support for the elderly.
Rostami, Arian; Ghazinour, Mehdi; Richter, Jörg
Stress is unavoidable in everyday life and it can effect on marital relationship. Social support especially from emotionally closed persons as a protective factor can help individuals to deal with stress and buffers the negative effects of life stress on marital satisfaction. In the present cross-sectional study we investigated the relationship between social and spousal support and marital satisfaction in medical staff in Iran. Data collection was performed in 653 medical staff using socio-demographic questions, the ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Inventory, and the Social Support Questionnaire. Women and men did not differ in total social support satisfaction and the total number of supporting people; but, women were more often support providers for their husbands than men were for their wives. Spouse support was a more important indicator of marital satisfaction for women than for men. Also results revealed that spouse support is more important than social support from other resources to explain marital satisfaction. Job satisfaction had an explanatory effect on marital satisfaction especially in men. Furthermore, the findings showed that social support could decrease the explanatory impact of job satisfaction on scales of marital satisfaction. Therefore, focusing on social support, especially spouse support could be an effective approach in family counseling or family education programs to improve marital satisfaction in medical staff.
Jaeckel, Dalit; Seiger, Christine P.; Orth, Ulrich; Wiese, Bettina S.
The present study assesses the effects of a lack of social support reciprocity at work on employees' occupational self-efficacy beliefs. We assume that the self-efficacy effects of received support and support reciprocity depend on the specific work context (e.g., phase in the process of organizational socialization). 297 women who returned to…
Kwok, C; White, K
Both informational and social support are vital components in achieving a high quality of life as a cancer survivor. The study aims to explore the perceptions of information needs and social support among Chinese-Australian breast cancer survivors and how these resources impacted their cancer experience. Three focus groups were conducted with 23 Chinese-Australian women diagnosed with breast cancer in their native language (Mandarin and Cantonese). Each interview was translated and transcribed. Content analysis was used to uncover the major themes. Themes for information needs were identified as (1) using linguistically appropriate information, (2) the need for culturally sensitive information for the management of expected side effect and promotion of recovery and (3) the need for information on signs and symptoms of recurrence. Families were described as a primary source of multifaceted social support, although it was challenging to obtain. Support groups were also an important support source, but health care professionals were not identified as a source of support. Our study has provided practical insight into the information needs and social support of Chinese women with breast cancer. These findings can be used to inform the development of linguistically and culturally tailored support and survivorship interventions for this vulnerable population.
Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Cassel, Kevin; Trinidad, Dennis R; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku; Herzog, Thaddeus A
Cigarette smoking may be one of the factors contributing to the high levels of cancer-related mortality experienced by certain Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI) subgroups (e.g., Native Hawaiian). Given the collectivist cultural orientation attributed to A/PI groups, social strategies are recommended for substance abuse or smoking cessation treatment among A/PI. However, research examining how social network characteristics and social support relate to smoking across A/PI subgroups has been lacking. This study investigated the associations between social network characteristics (e.g., size, composition), perceived social support, and recent cigarette use across Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and East Asian (e.g., Japanese, Chinese) young adults (18-35 year old). Cross-sectional, self-report data were collected from N = 435 participants (M age = 25.6, SD = 8.3; 61% women). Ethnic differences were found in a number of pathways linking social network characteristics, perceived social support, and cigarette smoking. Larger network size was strongly associated with higher perceived social support and lower recent cigarette smoking among Native Hawaiians but not Filipinos or East Asians. Higher perceived social support was associated with lower recent smoking among East Asians and Filipinos but not Native Hawaiians. Implications are discussed with regard to smoking prevention and cessation among A/PI. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.
Rosiak, Katarzyna; Zagożdżon, Paweł
Quality of life and needforsocial support in persons diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS) are to a large extent determined by the degree of their disability. The aim of the study was to analyze an association between specific forms of MS, subjectively perceived quality of life and social support. The study included subjects with established diagnosis of MS, treated at rehabilitation centers, hospitals and in a home setting, as well as the members of patient organizations. After being informed about objectives of the study, type of included tasks and way to complete them, each participant was handed out a set of questionnaires: Berlin Social Support Scales (Łuszczyńska, Kowalska, Schwarzer, Schulz), Quality of Life Questionnaire (WHOQOLBREF), as well as a survey developed specifically for the purposes of this project. The results were subjected to statistical analysis with STATA 12 package. The study included a total of 110 persons (67 women and 43 men). Quality of life overall, as well in physical, psychological, social relationships and environmental health domains, turned out to be particularly important in patients with primary-progressive MS. Irrespective of MS type, social support overall did not play a significant role on univariate analysis. However, subgroup analysis according to sex demonstrated that men with MS received social support four times less often than women. Quality of life in individuals with primary-progressive MS is significantly lower than in patients presenting with other types of this disease. Men with MS are more likely to present with worse scores for social support overall. They are less likely both to acknowledge the need for support and to realize the availability of support they actually need.
Full Text Available Women and men entering the 2014 presidential arena. Running a campaign on social media explores how the usage of social media in the electoral campaign supports or resists representation of conventional stereotypes of femininity/masculinity and politics (such as the public man/private woman whether women and men candidates have addressed substantive representation of women and tried to mobilize the support of women voters through specific targeted messages. Even if at the beginning of the research my intention was to focus exclusively on women entering the arena, I chose to expand the focus and address the two most preeminent men engaging in the campaign. I explain the reasons and advantages of such an approach in the research section.
Ragusa, Angela T.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a widespread, ongoing, and complex global social problem, whose victims continue to be largely women. Women often prefer to rely on friends and family for IPV help, yet when informal support is unavailable they remain hesitant to contact formal services, particularly legal support for many reasons. This study…
Granero-Molina, José; Matarín Jimenez, Tamara María; Ramos Rodríguez, Carmen; Hernández-Padilla, José Manuel; Castro-Sánchez, Adelaida Maria; Fernández-Sola, Cayetano
The aim of this study is to describe and understand experiences related to social support for women with fibromyalgia who suffer from sexual dysfunction. An interpretive qualitative research methodology based on Gadamer’s philosophical hermeneutics was used. Data collection included a focus group and in-depth interviews with 13 women who averaged 44.8 years of age and 14.3 years since being diagnosed with fibromyalgia. Data were analyzed using Fleming’s method and two themes were identified: ...
Caetano, Silvana C; Silva, Cosme M F P; Vettore, Mario V
Older adults are more likely to live alone, because they may have been predeceased by their spouse and friends. Social interaction could also be reduced in this age group due by limited mobility caused by chronic conditions. Therefore, aging is frequently accompanied by reduced social support, which might affect health status. Little is known about the role of gender in the relationship between social support and health in older adults. Hence, the present study tests the hypothesis that gender differences exist in the relationship between perceived social support, social network, and self-rated health (SRH) among older adults. A cross-sectional study using two-stage probabilistic sampling recruited 3,649 individuals aged 60 years and above. Data were collected during the national influenza vaccination campaign in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2006. Individual interviews collected information on SRH, perceived social support, social network, and other covariates. Multivariate logistic regression analyses using nested models were conducted separately for males and females. Independent variables were organised into six blocks: (1) perceived social support and social network, (2) age group, (3) socioeconomic characteristics, (4) health-related behaviours, (5) use of health care services, (6) functional status measures and somatic health problems. Older men who did not participate in group activities were more likely to report poor SRH compared to those who did, (OR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.16-2.30). Low perceived social support predicted the probability of poor SRH in women (OR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.16-2.34). Poor SRH was associated with low age, low income, not working, poor functional capacity, and depression in both men and women. More somatic health problems were associated with poor SRH in women. The association between social interactions and SRH varies between genders. Low social network involvement is associated with poor SRH in older men, whereas low perceived social
Webel, Allison R; Cuca, Yvette; Okonsky, Jennifer G; Asher, Alice K; Kaihura, Alphoncina; Salata, Robert A
HIV self-management is central to the health of people living with HIV and is comprised of the daily tasks individuals employ to manage their illness. Women living with HIV are confronted with social context vulnerabilities that impede their ability to conduct HIV self-management behaviors, including demanding social roles, poverty, homelessness, decreased social capital, and limited access to health care. We examined the relationship between these vulnerabilities and HIV self-management in a cross-sectional secondary analysis of 260 women living with HIV from two U.S. sites. All social context variables were assessed using validated self-report scales. HIV Self-Management was assessed using the HIV Self-Management Scale that measures daily health practices, HIV social support, and the chronic nature of HIV. Data were analyzed using appropriate descriptive statistics and multivariable regression. Mean age was 46 years and 65% of participants were African-American. Results indicated that social context variables, particularly social capital, significantly predicted all domains of HIV self-management including daily health practices (F = 5.40, adjusted R(2) = 0.27, p traditional social roles of mother and employee on the daily health practices and the chronic nature of HIV domains of HIV self-management. Our data support the idea that women's social context influences their HIV self-management behavior. While social context has been previously identified as important, our data provide new evidence on which aspects of social context might be important targets of self-management interventions for women living with HIV. Working to improve social capital and to incorporate social roles into the daily health practices of women living with HIV may improve the health of this population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nurdan Eren BODUR
Full Text Available In this study it was aimed to assess and evaluate the impact of the levels of perceived social support in infertile couples on stress related with infertility and marital adjustment. The study included 104 couples with primary or secondary infertility and 44 healthy couples with children for the control group. Control group was given the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS, Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS. Infertile group was given HADS, DAS, MSPSS and also Fertility Problem Inventory. Women in infertile couples reported greater psychological symptoms and more decreased marital adjustment than men in infertile couples; but the couples did not show any significant difference with those in control groups regarding these parameters. It was determined that, in general, while marital adjustment in infertile couples increases, depression and anxiety levels decrease. It was also observed that perceieved social support from the family has a positive effect on the marital adjustment. The perceived social support level in men in infertil couples is lower than women in the same group, and this outcome is also related with the increasing anxiety in men. These results showed that psychosocial problems in infertile couples should be evaluated with specific scales. Psychosocial support which will be given to infertile couples and motivating social support systems while providing this service would have positive effects especially on men. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(2.000: 214-223
Bohren, Meghan A; Hofmeyr, G Justus; Sakala, Carol; Fukuzawa, Rieko K; Cuthbert, Anna
Historically, women have generally been attended and supported by other women during labour. However, in hospitals worldwide, continuous support during labour has often become the exception rather than the routine. The primary objective was to assess the effects, on women and their babies, of continuous, one-to-one intrapartum support compared with usual care, in any setting. Secondary objectives were to determine whether the effects of continuous support are influenced by:1. Routine practices and policies in the birth environment that may affect a woman's autonomy, freedom of movement and ability to cope with labour, including: policies about the presence of support people of the woman's own choosing; epidural analgesia; and continuous electronic fetal monitoring.2. The provider's relationship to the woman and to the facility: staff member of the facility (and thus has additional loyalties or responsibilities); not a staff member and not part of the woman's social network (present solely for the purpose of providing continuous support, e.g. a doula); or a person chosen by the woman from family members and friends;3. Timing of onset (early or later in labour);4. Model of support (support provided only around the time of childbirth or extended to include support during the antenatal and postpartum periods);5. Country income level (high-income compared to low- and middle-income). We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 October 2016), ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (1 June 2017) and reference lists of retrieved studies. All published and unpublished randomised controlled trials, cluster-randomised trials comparing continuous support during labour with usual care. Quasi-randomised and cross-over designs were not eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. We sought
Story, Chandra R.; Knutson, Douglas; Brown, Jameisha B.; Spears-Laniox, Erica; Harvey, Idethia Shevon; Gizlice, Ziya; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C.
African-American women report higher levels of chronic conditions and church attendance relative to the overall US population. Therefore, efforts have increased over the past decade to design church-based health promotion programs. The present study compared changes in religiosity, religious social support and general social support across time…
Sánchez-Siancas, Luis E; Rodríguez-Medina, Angélica; Piscoya, Alejandro; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio
This study aimed to assess the association between perceived social support and induced abortion among young women in Lima, Peru. In addition, prevalence and incidence of induced abortion was estimated. A cross-sectional study enrolling women aged 18-25 years from maternal health centers in Southern Lima, Peru, was conducted. Induced abortion was defined as the difference between the total number of pregnancies ended in abortion and the number of spontaneous abortions; whereas perceived social support was assessed using the DUKE-UNC scale. Prevalence and incidence of induced abortion (per 100 person-years risk) was estimated, and the association of interest was evaluated using Poisson regression models with robust variance. A total of 298 women were enrolled, mean age 21.7 (± 2.2) years. Low levels of social support were found in 43.6% (95%CI 38.0%-49.3%), and 17.4% (95%CI: 13.1%- 21.8%) women reported at least one induced abortion. The incidence of induced abortion was 2.37 (95%CI: 1.81-3.11) per 100 person-years risk. The multivariable model showed evidence of the association between low perceived social support and induced abortion (RR = 1.94; 95%CI: 1.14-3.30) after controlling for confounders. There was evidence of an association between low perceived social support and induced abortion among women aged 18 to 25 years. Incidence of induced abortion was similar or even greater than rates of countries where abortion is legal. Strategies to increase social support and reduce induced abortion rates are needed.
Rostami, Arian; Ghazinour, Mehdi; Richter, Jörg
Stress is unavoidable in everyday life and it can effect on marital relationship. Social support especially from emotionally closed persons as a protective factor can help individuals to deal with stress and buffers the negative effects of life stress on marital satisfaction. In the present cross-sectional study we investigated the relationship between social and spousal support and marital satisfaction in medical staff in Iran. Data collection was performed in 653 medical staff using socio-demographic questions, the ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Inventory, and the Social Support Questionnaire. Women and men did not differ in total social support satisfaction and the total number of supporting people; but, women were more often support providers for their husbands than men were for their wives. Spouse support was a more important indicator of marital satisfaction for women than for men. Also results revealed that spouse support is more important than social support from other resources to explain marital satisfaction. Job satisfaction had an explanatory effect on marital satisfaction especially in men. Furthermore, the findings showed that social support could decrease the explanatory impact of job satisfaction on scales of marital satisfaction. Therefore, focusing on social support, especially spouse support could be an effective approach in family counseling or family education programs to improve marital satisfaction in medical staff. PMID:23777731
Documet, Patricia; Bear, Todd M.; Flatt, Jason D.; Macia, Laura; Trauth, Jeanette; Ricci, Edmund M.
Background: Disparities in breast and cervical cancer screening by socioeconomic status persist in the United States. It has been suggested that social support may facilitate screening, especially among women of low socioeconomic status. However, at present, it is unclear whether social support enables mammogram and Pap test compliance. Purpose:…
Elkind, A K
The history of women's smoking behaviour is one of changing normative definitions. Recent trends have been explained in terms of the symbolic value of smoking, representing for women freedom and independence. This view is emphasised by advertising. However, other evidence suggests the continued existence of an older, more negative cultural stereotype. A two-part study of young women undergoing professional training for nursing and teaching throws some light on the way in which female smoking behaviour is currently socially interpreted. The first phase indicated that among the minority of parents who had expressed their attitudes towards their daughter's smoking in relation to sex-role norms, smoking was presented as unacceptable for women. More than half the sample perceived a negative cultural stereotype to be operating in contemporary society and two-thirds recognised its existence in the past. This stereotype presents smoking as a male behaviour and hence inappropriate for women. Women who do smoke are liable to be labelled as having unfeminine or degrading attributes. The stereotype operated more strongly in the general social background rather than in reference to personal relationships and hence its influence on contemporary behaviour is likely to be limited. It was rejected as out-dated or a male belief by some but nevertheless it represented the personal opinion of others. In terms of a more favourable definition the female smoker was perceived in terms of an elegant/sophisticated dimension and in relation to an extrovert personality. The view of sample members that the growing acceptability of women's smoking was related to social change indirectly supported the view that sees smoking as symbolic of independence. Those who saw smoking in neutral terms, i.e. as not having sex-role attributes, perceived smoking in this sense as normal social behaviour for men and women alike. The second phase suggested that smokers and non-smokers have divergent views about
Bäckström, Caroline A; Mårtensson, Lena B; Golsäter, Marie H; Thorstensson, Stina A
Pregnant women are not always satisfied with the professional support they receive during their midwifery care. More knowledge is needed to understand what professional support pregnant women need for childbirth and parenting. Childbearing and the transition to becoming a parent is a sensitive period in one's life during which one should have the opportunity to receive professional support. Professional support does not always correspond to pregnant women's needs. To understand pregnant women's needs for professional support within midwifery care, it is crucial to further illuminate women's experiences of this support. To explore pregnant women's perceptions of professional support in midwifery care. A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. Fifteen women were interviewed during gestational weeks 36-38. Data was analysed using phenomenography. The women perceived professional support in midwifery care to be reassuring and emotional, to consist of reliable information, and to be mediated with pedagogical creativity. The professional support facilitated new social contacts, partner involvement and contributed to mental preparedness. The findings of the study were presented in six categories and the category Professional support contributes to mental preparedness was influenced by the five other categories. Pregnant women prepare for childbirth and parenting by using several different types of professional support in midwifery care: a strategy that could be described as piecing together a puzzle. When the women put the puzzle together, each type of professional support works as a valuable piece in the whole puzzle. Through this, professional support could contribute to women's mental preparedness for childbirth and parenting. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Atzori, Milena; Lombardi, Luigi; Fraccaroli, Franco; Battistelli, Adalgisa; Zaniboni, Sara
Purpose: This study aims to examine the organizational socialization of women soldiers in the Italian Army. Design/methodology/approach: Following an interactionist interpretation of socialization, a model was tested to determine the influence of organizational socialization tactics, proactive behaviours, supervisor support on organizational…
Idahl, Annika; Hermansson, Andrea; Lalos, Ann
Low social support is associated with worse prognosis for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients. However, few studies have explored the relation between low social support and incidence of EOC. The aim of this prospective nested case-control study was to examine whether self-perceived low social support was associated with the incidence of EOC. The Swedish Cancer Registry was used to identify participants in the Västerbotten Intervention Programme (VIP) comprising 58,000 women, who later developed EOC. Each case was matched to four cancer free controls. The VIP uses the Social Support questionnaire, a modified version of the validated questionnaire "The Interview Schedule for Social Interaction" (ISSI) measuring quantitative (AVSI) and qualitative (AVAT) aspects of social support. The risk of EOC in relation to AVSI and AVAT was similar between the 239 cases and the 941 controls after adjustment for educational level, smoking, BMI, Cambridge Physical Activity Index and age (aOR 0.85, 95% CI 0.72-1.01 and aOR 0.54, 95% CI 0.16-1.81). Lagtime was found to have no impact. A decreased risk of serous ovarian cancer was seen in women with fewer persons available for informal socializing (aOR 0.75, 95% CI 0.59-0.95). Adjusted analyses showed non-significant odds ratios below 1.0 in the vast majority of histotypes. A general trend towards a decreased risk of ovarian cancer associated with low AVSI and AVAT was identified. Solely the serous subtype was significantly associated with low scores of AVSI. Prospective pathophysiological and epidemiological studies regarding social support are needed. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Travaglini, Letitia E; Himelhoch, Seth S; Fang, Li Juan
Black women living with HIV/AIDS (LWHA) are a subgroup with the highest growing rates of HIV infection in the United States. Stigma and co-occurring mental and physical health problems have been reported among Black women LWHA, and research on the benefits of social and religious support, often major protective factors among Black women, has been met with mixed findings. The current study examined the relation between anticipated HIV stigma and mental and physical health symptoms and risk and protective factors (discrimination, coping, social support) among Black women LWHA (N = 220). Results showed that greater anticipated stigma was significantly related to poorer mental health status, greater discrimination, and greater use of negative coping strategies. Stigma was not related to physical health, perceived social support or use of positive coping strategies. This study lends support to the need for psychosocial interventions that reduce anticipated stigma among individuals LWHA, particularly Black women LWHA.
Jaffee, S R; Takizawa, R; Arseneault, L
Adults who were victims of childhood maltreatment tend to have poorer health compared with adults who did not experience abuse. However, many are in good health. We tested whether safe, supportive, and nurturing relationships buffer women with a history of childhood maltreatment from poor health outcomes in later life. Participants included women from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study who were involved in an intimate relationship at some point by the time their twin children were 10 years old. Women were initially interviewed in 1999-2000 (mean age = 33 years) and 2, 5, and 7 years later. They reported on their physical and mental health, and their health-risk behaviours. Compared with women who did not experience abuse in childhood, women with histories of maltreatment were at elevated risk for mental, physical, and health-risk behaviours, including major depressive disorder, sleep, and substance use problems. Cumulatively, safe, supportive, and nurturing relationships characterized by a lack of violence, emotional intimacy, and social support buffered women with a history of maltreatment from poor health outcomes. Our findings emphasize that negative social determinants of health - such as a childhood history of maltreatment - confer risk for psychopathology and other physical health problems. If, however, a woman's current social circumstances are sufficiently positive, they can promote good health, particularly in the face of past adversity.
Available work from North America indicates that same-sex attracted (SSA) individuals enjoy aspects of rural life but nonetheless report encountering homophobia and experiencing isolation from SSA networks. The experience of prejudice and social isolation are often associated with psycho-social distress among the general population of same-sex attracted individuals. Little is known of how SSA women experience life in rural areas of Australia and how this influences their psycho-social wellbeing. This was a small-scale qualitative study using guided interviews to explore the experience of SSA women living in rural areas of South Australia. Seven women identifying as same-sex attracted were interviewed. In addition, a woman who provides a counseling and support service for same-sex attracted women was also interviewed. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim and were then analysed for emergent themes. Summaries of the interviews, based on the emergent themes, were sent to all interviewees so that they could verify or challenge the validity of the emergent themes, as well as to allow them to remove any information they felt might identify them. Most women had felt 'different' while growing up; almost unanimously describing themselves as having been 'tomboys'. However, the lack of visible SSA role models in rural areas, together with a lack of SSA social networks, did not allow some of the women to identify and name their same-sex attraction. For many of the women in this study, it was visits to the state capital, where they had the opportunity to meet other SSA women, which precipitated them identifying themselves as same-sex attracted. In light of this new knowledge, some women denied their same-sex attraction and entered into heterosexual relationships, often entailing marriage. Other women entered same-sex relationships but tried to keep them invisible within their communities. Rural communities are frequently close-knit environments, where
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Socio-economically disadvantaged women are at a greater risk of spending excess time engaged in television viewing, a behavior linked to several adverse health outcomes. However, the factors which explain socio-economic differences in television viewing are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of intrapersonal, social and environmental factors to mediating socio-economic (educational inequalities in women's television viewing. Methods Cross-sectional data were provided by 1,554 women (aged 18-65 who participated in the 'Socio-economic Status and Activity in Women study' of 2004. Based on an ecological framework, women self-reported their socio-economic position (highest education level, television viewing, as well as a number of potential intrapersonal (enjoyment of television viewing, preference for leisure-time sedentary behavior, depression, stress, weight status, social (social participation, interpersonal trust, social cohesion, social support for physical activity from friends and from family and physical activity environmental factors (safety, aesthetics, distance to places of interest, and distance to physical activity facilities. Results Multiple mediating analyses showed that two intrapersonal factors (enjoyment of television viewing and weight status and two social factors (social cohesion and social support from friends for physical activity partly explained the educational inequalities in women's television viewing. No physical activity environmental factors mediated educational variations in television viewing. Conclusions Acknowledging the cross-sectional nature of this study, these findings suggest that health promotion interventions aimed at reducing educational inequalities in television viewing should focus on intrapersonal and social strategies, particularly providing enjoyable alternatives to television viewing, weight-loss/management information, increasing social cohesion in the
Rogelio Rodríguez Hernández
Full Text Available This study was motivated by the phenomenon of gender differences in dating violence, the importance of social support in this setting, and the relative scarcity of studies on dating violence in Mexico and Latin America. It analysed the association between perceived support from family and friends and dating violence victimization in a sample of 679 college students from Ciudad Juarez, Mexico (n = 679; women = 67%; mean age = 20.5, SD = 2.1. Mean and women were analysed separately. Men experienced violence more frequently than women. Social support from friends was associated with various types of victimization in men. In contrast, support from family and friends was weakly associated with violence experienced by women. The results are discussed in terms of their potential to guide both future studies on this topic and prevention efforts in Mexican and Latin-American settings.
This article reports on the work carried out by the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) in the small island of Djibouti, Africa. The republic's population has been plagued with problems of high levels of unemployment, poverty, malnutrition, an almost non-existent family reproductive health care service, 100% prevalence rate of female genital mutilation and low literacy rate, especially for women. In addition, refugees from Ethiopia and Eritrea have settled in the country increasing the risks of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), HIV/AIDS, prostitution, and other social ills. In 1983, UNFPA started funding family planning and later reproductive health projects aimed at assuring access to services for a majority of Djiboutan women. The first country population program of assistance was started in 1992. This would help the government with health care for its population and to conduct a population census. In addition, the Fund has paid for training of doctors, midwives, and traditional birth assistants in the country and for rehabilitating maternity clinics and information centers. Moreover, it has supported agencies concerned with educating people on STDs, HIV/AIDS, safe motherhood and reproductive health for men and women, and other important issues.
Noonan, Carolyn; Gonzales, Kelly; Winchester, Blythe; Bradley, Vickie L.
Aims Among older American Indian women with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), we examined the association between mental health and T2DM control and if social support modifies the association. Methods Survey data were linked to T2DM medical record information. Mental health measures were the Center for Epidemiologic Studies – Depression Scale and the National Anxiety Disorders Screening Day instrument. T2DM control was all HbA1c values taken post mental health measures. Results There was not a significant association between depressive symptomatology and higher HbA1c although increased depressive symptomatology was associated with higher HbA1c values among participants with low social support. There was a significant association between psychological trauma and higher HbA1c values 12 months [mean 7.5, 95% CI 7.0–8.0 for no trauma vs. mean 7.0, 95% CI 6.3–7.6 for trauma with no symptoms vs. mean 8.4, 95% CI 7.7–9.1 for trauma with =1 symptom(s)] and 6 months later [mean 7.2, 95% CI 6.7–7.7 for no trauma vs. mean HbA1c 6.8, 95% CI 6.2–7.4 for trauma with no symptoms vs. mean 8.4, 95% CI 7.6–9.2 for trauma with ≥1 symptom(s)]. High social support attenuated the association between psychological trauma and HbA1c values. Conclusions T2DM programs may consider activities that would strengthen participants’ social support and thereby building on an intrinsic community strength. PMID:28161383
Goins, R Turner; Noonan, Carolyn; Gonzales, Kelly; Winchester, Blythe; Bradley, Vickie L
Among older American Indian women with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), we examined the association between mental health and T2DM control and if social support modifies the association. Survey data were linked to T2DM medical record information. Mental health measures were the Center for Epidemiologic Studies - Depression Scale and the National Anxiety Disorders Screening Day instrument. T2DM control was all HbA1c values taken post mental health measures. There was not a significant association between depressive symptomatology and higher HbA1c although increased depressive symptomatology was associated with higher HbA1c values among participants with low social support. There was a significant association between psychological trauma and higher HbA1c values 12months [mean 7.5, 95% CI 7.0-8.0 for no trauma vs. mean 7.0, 95% CI 6.3-7.6 for trauma with no symptoms vs. mean 8.4, 95% CI 7.7-9.1 for trauma with ≥1 symptom(s)] and 6months later [mean 7.2, 95% CI 6.7-7.7 for no trauma vs. mean HbA1c 6.8, 95% CI 6.2-7.4 for trauma with no symptoms vs. mean 8.4, 95% CI 7.6-9.2 for trauma with ≥1 symptom(s)]. High social support attenuated the association between psychological trauma and HbA1c values. T2DM programs may consider activities that would strengthen participants' social support and thereby building on an intrinsic community strength. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hopkins, Joyce; Miller, Jennifer L; Butler, Kristina; Gibson, Lynda; Hedrick, Laura; Boyle, Deborah Anne
The aims of this study were to: (1) examine the relation between social support, trait anxiety, symptoms of maternal distress (including stress, depression and anxiety) and maternal-fetal attachment; and (2) to determine if social support buffers the relation between trait anxiety, symptoms of distress and maternal-fetal attachment. Ninety-four pregnant women completed five self-report questions. Two hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine the influence of trait anxiety, symptoms of distress, and social support on two factors of maternal-fetal attachment, quality and intensity/frequency. In the first model with the dependent measure as the maternal-fetal attachment quality score, trait anxiety (β = -.24, p social support (β = .30, p social support (β = .32, p social support is high, the relation between anxiety and maternal-fetal attachment intensity/frequency is attenuated. This study demonstrates that prenatal attachment is related to trait anxiety and social support. These findings suggest that interventions to decrease anxiety and increase social support could enhance maternal-fetal attachment.
Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir la relación entre la presencia de apoyo social global y de diferentes fuentes y la violencia de pareja en mujeres que acuden a centros de atención primaria por cualquier motivo de consulta. Método: Estudio transversal en 1.402 mujeres de entre 18 y 65 años elegidas aleatoriamente en 23 consultas de atención primaria de las comunidades autónomas de Andalucía, Madrid y Valencia en el año 2003. La información sobre características sociodemográficas, maltrato físico, psicológico y sexual, y apoyo social, fue recogida mediante un cuestionario anónimo y autoadministrado. Resultados: El 32% de las mujeres refirió haber sufrido algún tipo de maltrato (físico, psicológico o sexual por su pareja en algún momento de la vida. Las mujeres que refirieron tener apoyo social tenían una probabilidad un 89% menor de haber sido maltratadas que las que refirieron no tenerlo (odds ratio [OR] = 0,11; intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%]: 0,06-0,20. Entre quienes refirieron haber sido maltratadas en el pasado, las que afirmaron tener apoyo tenían una probabilidad menor de volver a ser maltratadas por una pareja distinta que las mujeres sin apoyo (OR = 0,14; IC95%: 0,05-0,37. Conclusiones: Dada la naturaleza transversal del trabajo, no podemos afirmar si la falta de apoyo aumenta la vulnerabilidad de las mujeres para sufrir maltrato, o si el maltrato deriva en el aislamiento social. No obstante, una estrategia de intervención esencial con las mujeres maltratadas debería ser restablecer sus redes sociales.Objective: To describe the relationship between the presence of social support and overall support from different sources and intimate partner violence in women attending primary care centers irrespective of reason. Method: We performed a cross-sectional survey in 1,402 women aged 18 to 65 years old, randomly selected from 23 primary health practices in the autonomous communities of Andalusia, Madrid and Valencia (Spain in
Jalali-Farahani, Sara; Amiri, Parisa; Karimi, Mehrdad; Vahedi-Notash, Golnaz; Amirshekari, Golshan; Azizi, Fereidoun
Several studies have demonstrated the positive association between perceived social support and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in certain groups; however, few studies have assessed this relationship in general population and between genders. This study aimed to investigate associations between socio-demographic factors, perceived social support and HRQoL among an urban Iranian population. The study population were 1036 adults who had participated in Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS). Data on socio-demographic information, perceived social support and HRQoL were collected using standard questionnaires by trained interviewers. Perceived social support and HRQoL were assessed using Iranian versions of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and Short-Form 12-Item Health Survey version 2 (SF-12v2) respectively. Data on sets of associations among socio-demographic factors, perceived social support and quality of life were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) with IBM SPSS AMOS software. Mean ages were 50.3 ± 16.3 and 49.6 ± 14.0 years in men and women respectively and 40.9% of participants were male. In terms of perceived social support scores, except for family subscale scores (p = 0.003), there were no significant differences between men and women. However, men had significantly higher HRQoL scores, compared to women in all subscales. The findings of SEM analysis demonstrated that being married in both genders (p social support. In terms of physical HRQoL, being single and higher perceived social support in both genders and lower age and not having any chronic diseases, only in women were associated with higher physical HRQoL. However, for mental HRQoL, age and perceived social support had significant direct associations with mental HRQoL in both genders (p social support was found to be both directly and indirectly associated with physical and mental aspects of HRQoL in both genders. Current
Choudhury, Shonali Mona; Toller Erausquin, Jennifer; Park, Kyuwon; Anglade, Debbie
Social support can affect health outcomes of female sex workers. In this inductive feminist grounded theory study based on 20 in-depth interviews, we explore how establishment-based female sex workers in Tijuana perceive the impact of the connections among women on their lives and health. Participants elected to discuss the importance of social support from mothers, sisters, friends, and co-workers, and the empowering and disempowering aspects of these relationships. In previous studies, scholars demonstrated the efficacy of formal organization of female sex workers in promoting the mitigation of sexual and HIV risk. We show the importance of informal ties with other women. Some participants mentioned competitive relationships, others talked about cooperation and the desire for a venue to learn from one another. Social interactions with other women are especially empowering when female sex workers can openly engage in "woman talk" that may contribute to the mitigation of sexual and HIV risk. © The Author(s) 2015.
Ryser, Laura; Halseth, Greg
Within the context of an aging Canadian rural and small-town landscape, there is a growing trend of low-income senior women living alone. While there is a perception that rural seniors have well-developed social networks to meet their daily needs, some research suggests that economic and social restructuring processes have impacted the stability of seniors' support networks in small places. While much of the research on seniors' informal networks focuses upon small towns in decline, booming resource economies can also produce challenges for low-income senior women living alone due to both a higher cost of living and the retrenchment of government and service supports. Under such circumstances, an absence of informal supports can impact seniors' health and quality of life and may lead to premature institutionalization. Drawing upon a household survey in Fort St. John, British Columbia, we explore informal supports used by low-income senior women living alone in this different context of the Canadian landscape. Our findings indicate that these women not only have a support network that is comparable to other groups, but that they are also more likely to draw upon such supports to meet their independent-living needs. These women rely heavily on family support, however, and greater efforts are needed to diversify both their formal and informal sources of support as small family networks can quickly become overwhelmed.
Flórez, Karen R; Richardson, Andrea S; Ghosh-Dastidar, Madhumita Bonnie; Troxel, Wendy; DeSantis, Amy; Colabianchi, Natalie; Dubowitz, Tamara
Social support and social networks can elucidate important structural and functional aspects of social relationships that are associated with health-promoting behaviors, including Physical Activity (PA) and weight. A growing number of studies have investigated the relationship between social support, social networks, PA and obesity specifically among African Americans; however, the evidence is mixed and many studies focus exclusively on African American women. Most studies have also focused on either functional or structural aspects of social relationships (but not both) and few have objectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and body mass index (BMI). Cross-sectional surveys of adult African American men and women living in two low-income predominantly African American neighborhoods in Pittsburgh, PA (N = 799) measured numerous structural features as well as functional aspects of social relationships. Specifically, structural features included social isolation, and social network size and diversity. Functional aspects included perceptions of social support for physical activity from the social network in general as well as from family and friends specifically. Height, weight, and PA were objectively measured. From these, we derived Body Mass Index (BMI) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). All regression models were stratified by gender, and included age, income, education, employment, marital status, physical limitations, and a neighborhood indicator. Greater social isolation was a significant predictor of lower BMI among men only. Among women only, social isolation was significantly associated with increased MVPA whereas, network diversity was significantly associated with reduced MVPA. Future research would benefit from in-depth qualitative investigations to understand how social networks may act to influence different types of physical activity among African Americans, as well as understand how they can be possible levers
Nikolić, Snezana; Ilić-Stosović, Danijela; Kolarević, Ivan; Djurdjević, Ana; Ilić, Snezana; Djuricić, Milica
The general problems of persons with malignant diseases (stages of asthenia, chronic fatigue and exhaustion, followed by depression and anxiety) lead to a decrease in functional abilities and a declining quality of life. The aim of this study was to determine the level of difficulty, the type of required assistance and the level of satisfaction that derives from maintaining life habits. The study also examined the correlation between the level of accomplishment of life habits and the level of satisfaction with how they are maintained. The research was conducted at the Military Medical Academy in Belgrade and in the "Get Together" Association of Women with Breast Cancer from June to September 2012 on a sample of 30 women. A standardised questionnaire, Assessment of Life Habits-LIFE-H v.3.0, was administered. The lowest level of maintaining normal activities was related to education, housing and recreation. The greatest need for support to maintain normal activities was in the domains of housing, interpersonal relationships and employment The greatest satisfaction in the accomplishment of normal activities was observed in the domains of mobility, nutrition and housing, and the lowest level of satisfaction was in the domains of recreation, communication and interpersonal relationships. The correlation between the level of accomplishment of normal activities and the level of satisfaction was the highest in the domains of general physical activity, responsibility and life in a community; the lowest level was in the domains of personal hygiene, housing, mobility, employment and recreation (p social activities than their everyday activities. This clearly indicates the necessity to develop and implement special advisory and educational programs aimed at preventing social exclusion and to strengthen and support personal resources in the area of the social roles of women with breast cancer.
V. V. Zhyvylko
Full Text Available In compliance with the principles of bioethics and deontology, during 2013-2017, acomprehensive examination of women with a diagnosis of «total alopecia» was conducted on the basis of the Center for Reconstructive and Restorative Medicine of the Clinic of theOdessaNationalMedicalUniversity. 233 women aged 22 - 45 years old were examined. 76 persons had passed outpatient comprehensive course of author therapy, and 62 persons received treatment in accordance with the «Clinical protocol» but did not receive comprehensive psychosocial assistance. The patients under examination had violations in psycho-emotional, personal level, level of social functioning. A range of measures of psychosocial support, aimed at providing qualified transdisciplinary help to the patients and their families have been worked out. Their effectiveness is proved on the basis of evidence-based medicine. Within the framework of the research the peculiarities of the psychoemotional sphere of women with total alopecia are determined. Scientifically substantiated, developed and implemented in practice psychosocial support of women with total alopecia, which consisted of psycho-corrective measures using modern mobile e-health technologies. Approbation of measures of psychosocial support showed their effectiveness in 70,89% of cases (р≤0,05. Due to the allocation and systematization of predictors, provocative and supporting factors of diseases, the system of modular medical and social prevention of total alopecia in women was developed, which includes three modules: universal, indicative and selective prevention.
Lee, Chih-Yuan Steven; Dik, Bryan J
This study aimed to examine how sources of social support intersect with stress and health by testing two theoretical models. Three relationship-specific sources of social support (family, friends, and romantic partners) and two health indicators (self-rated physical health and depressive symptoms) were investigated. The sample consisted of 636 emerging adults attending college (age range: 18-25). Results suggest that only support from family was a stress-buffer, in that it buffered the adverse association between stress and depressive symptoms. Holding stress constant, only support from family was related to self-rated physical health and only support from friends or romantic partners was associated with depressive symptoms. There were no gender differences in the mean levels of self-rated physical health and depressive symptoms. However, gender moderations were found, in that the positive relationship between friends support and physical health was observed only in women, that the association between friends support and depressive symptoms was greater in men than in women, and that family support buffered the negative relationship between stress and physical health only in men. Findings of this study suggest that the associations among stress, social support, and health vary by the sources of support, the health outcome, and gender. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Driscoll, Mary A; Higgins, Diana M; Seng, Elizabeth K; Buta, Eugenia; Goulet, Joseph L; Heapy, Alicia A; Kerns, Robert D; Brandt, Cynthia A; Haskell, Sally G
Women veterans have a higher prevalence of chronic pain relative to men. One hypothesis is that differential combat and traumatic sexual experiences and attenuated levels of social support between men and women may differentially contribute to the development and perpetuation of pain. This investigation examined  gender differences in trauma, social support, and family conflict among veterans with chronic pain, and  whether trauma, social support, and family conflict were differentially associated with pain severity, pain interference, and depressive symptom severity as a function of gender. Participants included 460 veterans (56% female) who served in support of recent conflicts, and who endorsed pain lasting 3 months or longer. Participants completed a baseline survey during participation in a longitudinal investigation. Self-report measures included pain severity, pain interference, depressive symptom severity, exposure to traumatic life events, emotional and tangible support, and family conflict. Relative to men, women veterans reporting chronic pain evidenced higher rates of childhood interpersonal trauma (51% vs 34%; P military sexual trauma (54% vs 3%; P trauma, and family conflict with pain interference. It also moderated family conflict in the prediction of depressive symptoms. Results underscore the potential importance of developing and testing gender specific models of chronic pain that consider the relative roles of trauma, social support, and family conflict. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Rüsch, Nicolas; Hölzer, Aurelia; Hermann, Christiane; Schramm, Elisabeth; Jacob, Gitta A; Bohus, Martin; Lieb, Klaus; Corrigan, Patrick W
Little is known about how women with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and women with social phobia react to mental illness stigma. The goal of this study was to assess empirically self-stigma and its correlates in these groups. Self-stigma and related constructs were measured by self-report questionnaires among 60 women with BPD and 30 women with social phobia. Self-stigma was inversely related to self-esteem, self-efficacy, and quality of life and predicted low self-esteem after controlling for depression and shame-proneness. Stereotype awareness was not significantly correlated with self-esteem or quality of life. While there was no difference in stereotype awareness between women with BPD and women with social phobia, women with BPD showed higher self-stigma than women with social phobia. Self-stigma is associated with low self-esteem and other indices of poor psychological well-being. In comparison to women with social phobia, women with BPD suffer from more self-stigma. This may reflect intense labeling processes as being mentally ill due to repeated hospitalizations, frequent interpersonal difficulties, and visible scars.
Zimmerman, Jacob; Morrison, Amanda S; Heimberg, Richard G
Research suggests a positive relationship between social anxiety and shame; however, few studies have examined this relationship or potential mechanisms. Common behaviours of persons with social anxiety disorder (SAD), such as submissive behaviours, may be more consistent with societal expectations of women than men and therefore more likely to be associated with shame in socially anxious men than women. We examined the hypothesis that submissive behaviours would mediate the relationship between social anxiety and shame in men, but not in women, with SAD. Moderated mediation was examined in a cross-sectional dataset. Gender was modeled to moderate the paths from social anxiety to submissive behaviours and from submissive behaviours to shame. We also examined an alternative model of the relationships among these variables and the potential contributory role of depression. Men (n = 48) and women (n = 40) with SAD completed the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale, Submissive Behaviour Scale, Internalized Shame Scale, and Beck Depression Inventory. Analyses supported the hypothesized model. The relationship between submissive behaviours and shame was greater in men than women with SAD; the relationship between social anxiety and submissive behaviours was not. Controlling for depression, moderation remained evident although diminished. Results for the comparison model did not support gender moderation. Submissive behaviours mediated the relationship between social anxiety and shame in men, but not women, with SAD. These findings provide preliminary evidence for a model of shame in SAD and may help to further elucidate specific features of SAD that differ between men and women. Although researchers have argued that the display of submissive behaviours might allow the socially anxious individual to limit or prevent attacks on the self, our results suggest that there are greater costs, with regard to feelings of shame, associated with such behaviours for men. In men with SAD
Le, Daisy; Holt, Cheryl L; Hosack, Dominic P; Huang, Jin; Clark, Eddie M
This study reports on the association between religious beliefs and behaviors and the change in both general and religious social support using two waves of data from a national sample of African Americans. The Religion and Health in African Americans (RHIAA) study is a longitudinal telephone survey designed to examine relationships between various aspects of religious involvement and psychosocial factors over time. RHIAA participants were 3173 African American men (1281) and women (1892). A total of 1251 men (456) and women (795) participated in wave 2 of data collection. Baseline religious behaviors were associated with increased overall religious social support from baseline to wave 2 (p social support from baseline to wave 2 in each of the following religious social support subscales: emotional support received (p social support. African Americans who are active in faith communities showed increases in all types of religious social support, even the negative aspects, over a relatively modest longitudinal study period. This illustrates the strength of the church as a social network and the role that it plays in people's lives.
Victoria A. Osborne
Full Text Available Women involved in all aspects of the United States Armed Forces face mental health needs that are unique from women in the general population. Because the most recent wars in Iraq and Afghanistan are involving more women in combat situations, social workers encounter female clients who are increasingly experiencing post-traumatic stress disorder, substance misuse, and sexual violence. Special attention must be paid particularly to women who serve in the National Guard or Reserves, as they have different concerns than enlisted active duty women. These concerns include less social support and fewer resources upon return from deployment. Thus, it is imperative for social workers in the community to be aware of these military women’s experiences and unique mental health challenges in order to effectively treat their needs.
Matthews, Ellyn E; Cook, Paul F
The impact of diagnosis and treatment for breast cancer, stressors that affect emotional well-being, is influenced by several psychosocial factors and the relationships among them. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between optimism and emotional well-being (EWB) and the individual and combined mediation of this relationship by perceived social support (SS), problem focused coping (PFC), and self-transcendence in women with breast cancer during radiation therapy. Ninety-three women receiving radiation treatment for breast cancer completed questionnaires that measured EWB, optimism, SS, PFC, and self-transcendence. Correlational and multiple regression analysis revealed that optimism was positively related to EWB. Of the three mediators, self-transcendence alone was found to partially mediate the relationship between optimism and EWB. The relationship between optimism and PFC was not significant. Optimism was related to SS, but its indirect effect on EWB through SS did not reach significance. During breast cancer treatment, the positive effects of optimism on EWB are partially mediated by a woman's level of self-transcendence. Brief screening of women's optimism may help identify women at risk for psychological distress. Early detection and interventions to promote psychological adjustment throughout the cancer trajectory (e.g. enhancing self-transcendence) should receive attention in future research. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bonnie N. Kaiser
Full Text Available This mixed-method study explored the social world of Haitian migrants, examining forms of social support and social stress, as well as their relationship to mental health. Among six Haitian migrant communities in the Cibao Valley of the Dominican Republic, a community-based survey (n = 127 was conducted to assess migration experiences, current stressors, mental health, and functioning. In addition, to explore perceptions and experiences of migration, social interactions, and mental health, the study drew upon in-depth interviews and free-listing activities among Haitian migrants, as well as cognitive interviews with select survey participants. Depressive, anxiety, and mental distress survey scores were associated with 1 negative social interactions (including interrogation or deportation, perceived mistreatment by Dominicans, and overcrowding and 2 lack of social support, including migrating alone. Mental distress scores were higher among women, and being married was associated with higher anxiety scores, potentially reflecting unmet social expectations. In qualitative data, participants emphasized a lack of social support, often referred to as tèt ansanm (literally meaning "heads together" in Haitian Creole or Kreyòl and roughly defined as solidarity or reciprocal social collaboration. The authors of the study propose that the practice of tèt ansanm-also termed konbit, and, in the Dominican Republic, convite-could be used as a means of facilitating positive-contact events among Haitians and Dominicans. These interactions could help counteract social stress and build social capital in settings similar to those of the study.
Karlsson, Sara; Henningsson, Susanne; Hovey, Daniel; Zettergren, Anna; Jonsson, Lina; Cortes, Diana S.; Melke, Jonas; Laukka, Petri; Fischer, Håkan
The ability to recognize the identity of faces and voices is essential for social relationships. Although the heritability of social memory is high, knowledge about the contributing genes is sparse. Since sex differences and rodent studies support an influence of estrogens and androgens on social memory, polymorphisms in the estrogen and androgen receptor genes (ESR1, ESR2, AR) are candidates for this trait. Recognition of faces and vocal sounds, separately and combined, was investigated in 490 subjects, genotyped for 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ESR1, four in ESR2 and one in the AR. Four of the associations survived correction for multiple testing: women carrying rare alleles of the three ESR2 SNPs, rs928554, rs1271572 and rs1256030, in linkage disequilibrium with each other, displayed superior face recognition compared with non-carriers. Furthermore, the uncommon genotype of the ESR1 SNP rs2504063 was associated with better recognition of identity through vocal sounds, also specifically in women. This study demonstrates evidence for associations in women between face recognition and variation in ESR2, and recognition of identity through vocal sounds and variation in ESR1. These results suggest that estrogen receptors may regulate social memory function in humans, in line with what has previously been established in mice. PMID:26955855
IMPROVING WOMEN'S LIVES Practical support for women gives communities a better future. October 26 ... Organized into small cooperatives, the women produce and market argan oil using a mix of traditional and modern methods. At the same time ... arts and craft. Technology helps Asian women balance family and work.
Kroenke, Candyce H; Hershman, Dawn L; Gomez, Scarlett L; Adams, Sara R; Eldridge, Elizabeth H; Kwan, Marilyn L; Ergas, Isaac J; Kubo, Ai; Kushi, Lawrence H
We evaluated associations between personal and clinical social support and non-adherence to adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET) in a large, Northern California breast cancer (BC) cohort from an integrated healthcare network. This study included 3382 women from the Pathways Study diagnosed from 2005 to 2013 with stages I-III hormone receptor-positive BC and who responded to the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support and Interpersonal Processes of Care surveys, approximately 2 months post-diagnosis. We used logistic regression to evaluate associations between tertiles of social support and non-initiation (social support (P trend = 0.02). Women with moderate (HR 1.20, 95% CI 0.99-1.45) or low (HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.09-1.60) personal social support were also more likely to discontinue treatment (P trend = 0.01). Furthermore, women with moderate (HR 1.25, 95% CI 1.02-1.53) or low (HR 1.38, 95% CI 1.12-1.70) personal social support had higher non-adherence (P trend = 0.007). Associations with clinical social support and outcomes were similar. Notably, high clinical social support mitigated the risk of discontinuation when patients' personal support was moderate or low (P value = 0.04). Women with low personal or clinical social support had higher AET non-adherence. Clinician teams may need to fill support gaps that compromise treatment adherence.
Frans van Dijk
The issue is addressed whether assistance to persons in need can be left to the `family' and the `community'. In that case people depend on their social networks. The support a person receives through a given network of social ties is examined. However, ties are diverse and subject to change. By means of a model of the dynamics of social ties, the conditions for adequate private support are analyzed. The sustainability of private support over time is examined by incorporating the impact on so...
Väänänen, Ari; Toppinen-Tanner, Salla; Kalimo, Raija; Mutanen, Pertti; Vahtera, Jussi; Peiró, José M
Most longitudinal studies on the relationship between psychosocial health resources and risks, and the employees' subsequent sickness absences have been conducted in the public sector. The purpose of this study was to find out psychosocial antecedents of sickness absenteeism in the private industrial sector. The effects of job characteristics (job autonomy and job complexity), physical and psychological symptoms, and social support (from coworkers and supervisors) on sickness absenteeism were investigated. The number of long (4-21 days) and very long (>21 days) sickness absence episodes of 3895 persons (76% men and 24% women, mean age 44 years) was obtained from the health registers of a multinational forest industry corporation in 1995-1998. A questionnaire survey on the working conditions and health of the workers was carried out in 1996. The follow-up time of the sickness absences was 1-year 9-month. Job autonomy was found to be associated with long and very long episodes in men (rate ratio (RR) in the lowest autonomy group approximately 2 times higher than the highest autonomy group), and with very long episodes of absence in women (2-3 times higher RR between the low vs. the high category). Low job complexity predicted men's very long absences (RR 1.4). Long and very long episodes were associated with physical and psychological symptoms (RR 1.2-1.7) among men and women. Lack of coworkers' support increased the frequency of very long sickness absence among men (RR 1.4), and lack of supervisor's support among women (RR 1.6). Also, some interaction effects of social support variables were observed among both genders. We conclude that the studied psychosocial factors are associated with subsequent sickness absence, and that the associations are partly gender-specific. The results showing which variables are related to employees' sickness absenteeism in the private industrial sector can be applied in human resource management and health service planning.
Oliver, Vanessa; Cheff, Rebecca
This article looks at the means through which homeless young women are able to improve their flow of social capital by attaining a sense of belonging and forming positive attachments to supportive people and places. In so doing, they also develop relationships with health and social services and improve their overall physical and mental health…
Full Text Available Introduction: Bosnia and Herzegovina has a high prevalence of smoking among women, especially among health care professionals. The goal of this study is to investigate the influence of the social environment of women employed in health institutions in relation to the cigarettes smoking habits.Methods: The study included 477 women employed in hospitals, outpatient and public health institutions in Sarajevo Canton Bosnia and Herzegovina. We used a modifi ed questionnaire assessing smoking habits of medical staff in European hospitalsResults: The results showed that 50% of women are smokers, with the highest incidence among nurses (58.1% and administrative staff (55.6%. The social environment is characterized by a high incidence of colleagues (60.1% and friends who are smokers (54.0% at the workplace and in the family (p<0.005. One third of women (27.8%, mainly non-smokers, states that the work environment supports employees smoking (p=0.003.Conclusion: Workplace and social environment support smoking as an acceptable cultural habit and is contributing to increasing rates of smoking among women.
Tucker, C; Arandi, C Galindo; Bolaños, J Herbert; Paz-Bailey, G; Barrington, C
Sexual minority men and transgender women are disproportionately affected by HIV in Guatemala. Innovative prevention strategies are urgently needed to address these disparities. While social network approaches are frequently used to reach sexual minorities, little is known about the unique network characteristics among sub-groups. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 13 gay-identifying men, eight non-gay-identifying men who have sex with men (MSM) and eight transgender women in Guatemala City. Using narrative and thematic coding procedures, we identified distinct patterns in the size, composition, and overlap between social and sexual networks across groups. Gay-identifying men had the largest, most supportive social networks, predominantly comprising family. For both non-gay-identifying MSM and transgender women, friends and sex clients provided more support. Transgender women reported the smallest social networks, least social support, and the most discrimination. HIV prevention efforts should be tailored to the specific sexual minority population and engage with strong ties.
Tucker, C.; Arandi, C. Galindo; Bolaños, J. Herbert; Paz-Bailey, G.; Barrington, C.
Sexual minority men and transgender women are disproportionately affected by HIV in Guatemala. Innovative prevention strategies are urgently needed to address these disparities. While social network approaches are frequently used to reach sexual minorities, little is known about the unique network characteristics among sub-groups. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 13 gay-identifying men, eight non-gay-identifying men who have sex with men (MSM) and eight transgender women in Guatemala City. Using narrative and thematic coding procedures, we identified distinct patterns in the size, composition, and overlap between social and sexual networks across groups. Gay-identifying men had the largest, most supportive social networks, predominantly comprising family. For both non-gay-identifying MSM and transgender women, friends and sex clients provided more support. Transgender women reported the smallest social networks, least social support, and the most discrimination. HIV prevention efforts should be tailored to the specific sexual minority population and engage with strong ties. PMID:25418236
Walkner, Tammy J; Weare, Andrea M; Tully, Melissa
Social isolation is a problem facing many older women. Isolation can contribute to poor health as adults age without social support. Increased and tailored communication offers service organizations more opportunities to provide social support to these adults. This research examines perceptions of aging to explore communication behaviors, barriers, and opportunities for improved communication and service provision for aging women. Using data from focus groups and interviews, this study finds that participants from community organizations rely on word of mouth and traditional media to communicate with their aging constituents, despite opportunities to use digital communication and to develop communication plans for this population.
Prescott, Alexandra S.; Luippold-Roge, Genevieve P.; Gurman, Tilly A.
Objective: Maya women in Guatemala are disproportionately affected by poverty and negative reproductive health outcomes. Although social networks are valued in many Indigenous cultures, few studies have explored whether health education programmes can leverage these networks to improve reproductive health and economic wellbeing. Design: This…
Portwood, Sharon G; Heany, Julia Finkel
Violence against women represents a serious problem in America. Not only does intimate partner violence represent a significant threat to women, but it also counts among its victims, children living in the violent household. By its very nature, intimate partner or domestic violence may be approached as either a legal or a social problem. However, there is a shortage of legal approaches that have been informed by sound social science research. One promising framework for developing such integrated responses to intimate partner violence is therapeutic jurisprudence, which encourages legal professionals to work closely with social scientists to develop system responses based on empirical data. Such an approach contrasts sharply with the current practice of developing law based on assumptions, which frequently reflect traditional paternalistic and sexist attitudes toward women. This paper begins by examining the current theories and scientific knowledge on domestic violence with particular emphasis on the supporting data. A theoretical framework for conceptualizing domestic violence characterized as patriarchal terrorism as distinct from common couple violence is examined and offered as a means of explaining inconsistencies in research findings. Following a review of current legal responses to domestic violence, the paper concludes by outlining alternative strategies and recommendations for future efforts that are supported by current theory and research.
MCDOWELL, T. L.; SEROVICH, J. M.
The purpose of this paper is to compare the ways in which perceived and actual social support affect the mental health of gay men, straight or bisexual men, and women living with HIV/AIDS. Participants included 125 women and 232 men with an HIV-positive or AIDS diagnosis involved in three larger investigations of HIV, disclosure and mental health. Results suggest each sub-group experienced perceived social support as significantly predictive of better mental health while the effect of actual ...
Eichhorn, Svenja; Klauer, Thomas; Grundke, Elena; Freyberger, Harald J; Brähler, Elmar; Kuwert, Philipp
The aim of the study was to document perceived social support in a sample of German war-raped women in World War II. Furthermore the impact of this potential resource on today's posttraumatic symptoms should be pointed out. 27 women (M = 80.3 years, SD = 3.1 years) answered each a semi-structured interview and several questionnaires. Perceived social support shows clearly lower values than in the comparative samples. The measured degree of the variable in the present sample bears negative relationship to the actual posttraumatic symptoms of the women. In World War II sexually traumatized women could profit only few from the examined resource. The found negative relationship between perceived social support and posttraumatic symptoms shows additionally the potentially long-lasting impact of these form of coping on psychological health in trauma victims. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Cahill, Daniel J.; Sias, Patricia M.
Investigates gender differences and similarities in the perceived social costs and importance of seeking emotional support regarding work-related problems. Finds women perceived such support to be more important than did men. Finds no gender differences regarding perceived social costs associated with seeking support from coworkers. Finds women…
Nguyen, Ann W.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M.
An emerging body of research notes the importance of church-based social support networks in the daily lives of Americans. However, few studies examine church-based support, and especially among ethnic subgroups within the U.S. Black population, such as Caribbean Blacks. This study uses data from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) to examine demographic and religious participation (e.g., attendance, interaction) correlates of church-based social support (e.g., receipt of emotional support, receipt of general support, provision of support to others, and negative interaction) among Caribbean Blacks residing in the U.S. Multiple regression analyses indicated that religious participation was associated with all four dependent variables. Church attendance was positively associated with receiving emotional support, general social support, and providing support to others, but was not associated with negative interaction. Frequency of interaction with fellow congregants was positively associated with receiving emotional support, receiving general support, providing support to others and negative interaction. Demographic findings indicated that women provided more support to church members and experienced more negative interactions with members than did men. Education was positively associated with frequency of support; household income was negatively associated with receiving emotional support and providing social support to others. Findings are discussed in relation to the role of church-based support networks in the lives of Caribbean Black immigrants and communities. PMID:27942078
McDonough, Peggy; Worts, Diana; McMunn, Anne; Sacker, Amanda
Over the past five decades, the organization of women's lives has changed dramatically. Throughout the industrialized world, paid work and family biographies have been altered as the once-dominant role of homemaker has given way to the role of secondary, dual, or even primary wage-earner. The attendant changes represent a mix of gains and losses for women, in which not all women have benefited (or suffered) equally. But little is known about the health consequences. This article addresses that gap. It develops a "situated biographies" model to conceptualize how life course change may influence women's health. The model stresses the role of time, both as individual aging and as the anchoring of lives in particular historical periods. "Situating" biographies in this way highlights two key features of social change in women's lives: the ambiguous implications for the health of women as a group, and the probable connections to growing social and economic disparities in health among them. This approach lays the groundwork for more integrated and productive population-based research about how historical transformations may affect women's health.
Vilar-Compte, Mireya; Giraldo-Rodríguez, Liliana; Ochoa-Laginas, Adriana; Gaitan-Rossi, Pablo
We assessed the association between depression and elder abuse, and the mediation effect of social support among elder women in Mexico City. A total of 526 noninstitutionalized elder women, residing in Mexico City and attending public community centers were selected. Logistic regressions and structural equation models (SEM) were estimated. One fifth of the elderly women were at risk of depression, one third suffered some type of abuse in the past 12 months, and 82% reported low social support. Logistic models confirmed that depression was statistically associated with elder abuse and vice versa (odds ratio [OR] = 1.97 and 1.96, respectively). In both models, social support significantly reduced the association between these variables leading to study these associations through SEM. This approach highlighted that social support buffers the association between depression and elder abuse. Findings underline the relevance of programs and strategies targeted at increasing social support among urban older adults.
Harandi, Tayebeh Fasihi; Taghinasab, Maryam Mohammad; Nayeri, Tayebeh Dehghan
Social support is an important factor that can affect mental health. In recent decades, many studies have been done on the impact of social support on mental health. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect size of the relationship between social support and mental health in studies in Iran. This meta-analysis was carried out in studies that were performed from 1996 through 2015. Databases included SID and Magiran, the comprehensive portal of human sciences, Noor specialized magazine databases, IRANDOC, Proquest, PubMed, Scopus, ERIC, Iranmedex and Google Scholar. The keywords used to search these websites included "mental health or general health," and "Iran" and "social support." In total, 64 studies had inclusion criteria meta-analysis. In order to collect data used from a meta-analysis worksheet that was made by the researcher and for data analysis software, CMA-2 was used. The mean of effect size of the 64 studies in the fixed-effect model and random-effect model was obtained respectively as 0.356 and 0.330, which indicated the moderate effect size of social support on mental health. The studies did not have publication bias, and enjoyed a heterogeneous effect size. The target population and social support questionnaire were moderator variables, but sex, sampling method, and mental health questionnaire were not moderator variables. Regarding relatively high effect size of the correlation between social support and mental health, it is necessary to predispose higher social support, especially for women, the elderly, patients, workers, and students.
Black, Angela R; Cook, Jennifer L; Murry, Velma McBride; Cutrona, Carolyn E
Ecological theory was used to explore the pathways through which intimate relationship quality influenced health functioning among rural, partnered African American women. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze data from 349 women in Georgia and Iowa. Women's intimate relationship quality was positively associated with their psychological and physical health functioning. Support from community residents moderated this link, which was strongest for women who felt most connected with their neighbors and for women who believed their neighborhood to have a sense of communal responsibility. Future research should identify other factors salient to health functioning among members of this population.
Full Text Available This study explored the health problems of never-married women as they relate to modern social life. In-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 45 never-married women aged 30–50 working or living in Bangkok and having health problems. It was found that never-married women in this modern era have experienced a variety of illnesses, such as “office syndrome” symptoms, chronic illnesses, and psychological and psychosomatic symptoms. Their social life resulted from the response to the context of modernity and was made through careful thought and deliberation. Whichever choice of social life they make, the consequences may lead them to a state of illness, distress, anxiety, and paranoia. These choices involve work, living conditions/environments, and intimacy aspects of their modern social life. This is the result of procuring by “husky modernity” which seems to be merely a “husk” or superficial modernization and changes so rapidly, but there is no core and it is full of double standards of traditional and new norms that have mixed together and fight against each other. Supporting health-related knowledge and information exchange within the network coupled with experience sharing essential for living in the modern society will enable them to sensibly decide on a path to good health.
IDRC Communications. LASTING IMPACTS. IDRC has supported poor women in developing countries in their efforts to learn, to earn, and to take part in local decision-making. University degrees and decent jobs make it easier ... Two Palestinian women sit in classroom. Scholarships bring hope to poor Palestinian women ...
Pettit, Jeremy W.; Roberts, Robert E.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Seeley, John R.; Yaroslavsky, Ilya
Longitudinal trajectories of depressive symptoms, perceived support from family, and perceived support from friends were examined among 816 emerging adults (480 women; 59%). In the context of a larger longitudinal investigation on the predictors and course of depression, data were drawn from eight self-report questionnaire assessments that roughly spanned the third decade of life. An age-based scaling approach was used to model trajectories of depressive symptoms and perceived social support between the ages of 21 and 30. Associative models of the relations between depressive symptoms and perceived social support from family and friends were tested. Results indicated that depressive symptoms decreased and perceived social support increased during the study period. Associative models suggested that among women, higher initial levels of perceived support from family predicted slower decreases in depressive symptoms (b = .34, p perceived family support (b = −.23, p perceived support from friends and depressive symptoms. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:21355652
Full Text Available Introduction: The importance of attention to social health among women is an obvious case and supporting the Family Health, society and environment are as important as, preparing social health of women is an inevitable case. Determining of the social health condition and its correlation between life satisfaction and social health is the basic object of this research. Methods: The present research was survey cross- sectional study. The population of this study included all Women 18-60 years old, the city of Yazd in 2014. The sample size was determined based on Cochran formula 288 and was used with Probability Proportionate to Size Sampling (PPS. Data based on Keyes social health (1998 and life satisfaction Diener et al (1985 standard questionnaire were collected. Results: Pearson correlation coefficient between life satisfaction and social health are: social integration (r=0.215, Social participation (r=0.176, social acceptance (r=0.311, Social actualization (r=0.175, Social solidarity (r=0.213 that are statistically significant. Conclusion: The results show that there is significant and direct correlation between life satisfaction and social health and with the increase in life satisfaction, social health increases.
Full Text Available Pinterest, the theme-based image-sharing website, has seen a predominantly female usership since its launch in 2010. Unique in both its design and its demographics in the US, the site has generated distinctive patterns of use, posing new questions about how women are claiming this particular spot in social media as their own. Supported by both feminist linguistic and social science research, this article undertakes a discussion of Pinterest's implicit and explicit gendered protocols of usership, which result in what I argue is an emerging women's online rhetoric. Through the examination of images and accompanying comments taken from the site, I trace Pinterest's often conflicting outcomes. On one hand, its online community self-polices by discouraging its users from expressing dissent, thus frequently operating as a repressive mechanism. At the same time, however, the collaborative elements noted in women's speech— often criticized in traditional social linguistics as rhetorically passive—take on complex new meanings in the context of online communication. While still evolving, the discursive strategies evident on Pinterest have provided an alternative rhetorical zone for women engaging in social media.
Tehee, Melissa; Buchwald, Dedra; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Omidpanah, Adam; Manson, Spero M; Goins, R Turner
To estimate the prevalence of lifetime traumatic experiences, describe related symptoms of traumatic stress, and examine their association with perceived social support and physical and mental health among older American Indians. Analyses of existing interview data from the Native Elder Care Study, a random age-stratified sample of 505 tribal members ≥55 years of age conducted in partnership with a large Southeastern tribe. Interviews assessed trauma exposure, traumatic stress, measures of social support, and physical and mental health status. Overall, 31% of participants had experienced a traumatic event; of these, 43% reported traumatic stress at the time of the interview. Higher perceived social support was associated with a reduced prevalence of traumatic stress. Compared to their counterparts without traumatic stress, women participants reporting traumatic stress reported more symptoms of depression, and both symptomatic men and women had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease and chronic pain. Traumatic stress was associated with less perceived social support and poorer health. Social support was not found to moderate the relationship between traumatic stress and physical and mental health. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Hsieh, Hsing-Fang; Heinze, Justin E; Lang, Ian; Mistry, Ritesh; Buu, Anne; Zimmerman, Marc A
African American youth are among those at greatest risk for experiencing violence victimization. Notably, the mortality rate of cervical cancer for African American women is also twice that of white women. To date, we know of no literature using longitudinal data to examine how violence victimization relates to Papanicolaou (Pap) smear results or cervical cancer in this population. Our study examines how violence victimization during adolescence (age 15 to 18) influences psychological distress, perceived social support, heavy substance abuse, and sexual risk behaviors during emerging adulthood (age 20 to 23), and subsequent Pap smear outcomes during young adulthood (age 29 to 32). This study is based on 12 waves of data collected in a longitudinal study of 360 African American women from mid-adolescence (ninth grade, mean age = 14.8 years) to young adulthood (mean age = 32.0 years). We used structural equation modeling analysis to examine the hypothesized model. Violence victimization during adolescence had a direct effect on decreased social support, increased psychological distress, and increased heavy cigarette use during emerging adulthood. Better social support was also associated with fewer sexual partners during emerging adulthood and lower odds of abnormal Pap smear results during young adulthood. The effect of violence victimization on abnormal Pap smear was mediated by social support. Our results show that violence victimization during adolescence has long-term negative effects through multiple pathways that persist into adulthood. Our findings also suggest that social support may help to compensate against other risk factors. Interventions designed to address the perceived support may help victims cope with their experience.
Fowler, Barbara Ann
To describe the social processes used by African American (AA) women ages > or = 50 years in making decisions about mammography screening. Grounded theory methodology. Tape-recorded interviews with a researcher-designed, semi-structured interview guide with an initial and theoretical sample of 30 AA women ages 52 to 71 of diverse socioeconomic status. Interviews occurred in various settings such as the church rectory, women's homes, and work settings. Extensive written field notes and tapes were transcribed verbatim immediately after the interviews by an experienced transcriptionist. The women's decisions about mammography screening were associated with five social processes: (a) acknowledging prior experiences with healthcare providers and systems; (b) reporting fears and fatalistic beliefs of breast cancer and related treatment; (c) valuing the opinions of significant others; (d) relying on religious beliefs and supports; and (e) caregiving responsibilities of significant others. The processes were further differentiated by three distinct decision-making styles: taking charge, enduring, and protesting. Each of the social processes was reported equally and emphasized by the diverse sample of AA women in decisions related to mammography screening. Mammography screening decisions were heavily influenced by caregiving responsibilities. Further research is needed to explain and understand this social process on the health and well-being of AA women over time.
Thompson, Tess; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Pérez, Maria; Schootman, Mario; Jeffe, Donna B.
Objective To identify variables associated with levels of and change in social support in a cohort of early-stage breast cancer patients and age-matched controls. Methods Telephone interviews measuring perceived social support and other demographic and psychosocial variables were conducted at 4–6 weeks and 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery (patients) or a normal/benign screening mammogram (controls). A latent trajectory model was used to model the intercept (starting point) and slope (changing) aspects of social support. Results Participants included 542 controls and 541 patients (77% White, 23% African American; mean age 57.7 [SD = 10.6]). Most participants reported high social support. Patients reported significantly higher levels of social support at baseline than controls. For patients, social support had a significant negative slope that significantly varied between individuals; the intercept of social support also varied significantly. Predictors of lower social support intercept in patients included not being married/partnered, being White, having lower perceived general health, and having higher negative affect (modeled as a latent variable defined by anxiety and depression symptom severity). Patients who were African American (vs. White) or had mastectomy (vs. lumpectomy) had steeper social support declines, and participants with both these characteristics had lower starting points as well as steeper declines. Social support among controls did not change significantly. Conclusions Clinicians might consider psychosocial interventions for patients reporting low social support around the time of diagnosis and surgical treatment, and for patients at risk for steeper declines in support, such as African Americans and women undergoing mastectomy. PMID:23477582
Yelland, Jane; Brown, Stephanie J
Social adversity undermines health in pregnancy. The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which pregnant women were asked about their mental health and life circumstances in pregnancy checkups. Population-based postal survey of recent mothers in two Australian states. Around half of the 4,366 participants reported being asked about depression (45.9%) and whether they were anxious or worried about things happening in their life (49.6%); fewer reported being asked about relationship issues (29.6%), financial problems (16.6%), or family violence (14.1%). One in five women (18%) reported significant social adversity. These women were more likely to recall being asked about their mental health and broader social health issues. Far higher levels of inquiry were reported by women in the public maternity system with midwives more likely than doctors to ask about mental health, family violence, and other social hardships. Routine pregnancy visits afford a window of opportunity for identifying and supporting women experiencing mental health problems and social adversity. Changing practice to take advantage of this opportunity will require concerted and coordinated efforts by practitioners and policy makers to build systems to support public health approaches to antenatal care. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Saskia Keuzenkamp; Ans Merens
Original title: Sociale atlas van vrouwen uit etnische minderheden. The Social atlas of women from ethnic minorities (Sociale atlas van vrouwen uit etnische minderheden) offers a look in breadth and depth at the social position and participation of these women. The themes covered
Boykin, Derrecka M; Dunn, Qweandria T; Orcutt, Holly K
Experiencing repeated trauma can have increasingly detrimental effects on psychosocial functioning after subsequent stressors. These effects may be intensified for victims of interpersonal traumas given that these events are often associated with heightened risk for adverse outcomes. To better understand this relationship, the present study prospectively examined the effect of pre-shooting trauma exposure (i.e., interpersonal vs. non-interpersonal trauma) on psychological functioning (i.e., posttraumatic stress symptoms, depression) following a mass campus shooting. Based on previous research, it was expected that negative appraisals and social support would mediate this relationship. A sample of 515 college women reporting prior trauma exposure was assessed at four time points following the shooting (i.e., pre-shooting, 1-month, 6-months, and 12-months post-shooting). Bootstrap analyses with bias-corrected confidence intervals were conducted. Contrary to expectation, pre-shooting trauma exposure was unrelated to 12-month post-shooting outcomes and neither negative appraisals nor social support at 6-months post-shooting emerged as mediators. Interestingly, a history of non-interpersonal trauma was associated with greater post-shooting family and friend support than a history of interpersonal trauma. Ad hoc analyses showed that pre-shooting symptom severity and level of exposure to the shooting had indirect effects on post-shooting outcomes via post-shooting negative appraisals. These findings support that cumulative trauma, regardless of type, may not have an additive effect unless individuals develop clinically significant symptoms following previous trauma. Trauma severity also appears to play a meaningful role.
Westerveld, M.; Pennings, F.; Vonk, G.
Does ‘the’ social security take sufficient account of women? Are its protection schemes sufficiently aimed at safeguarding women’s interests? These are the questions I was invited to answer for this handbook on social security law. At the same time I was asked to adopt an unorthodox approach, one
Pedrosa, Ignacio; García-Cueto, Eduardo; Suárez-Álvarez, Javier; Pérez Sánchez, Blanca
Social support is a variable that has a great influence in the sport context. In fact, this variable not only affects the athlete's performance but it has also shown to be related to psychological disorders such as Burnout Syndrome. The aim of this paper was to illustrate the Spanish adaptation of a social support scale in the sport context. The normative group who took part in the final version of the research was composed of 397 athletes aged between 13 and 64 years old (mean= 19.23 and standard deviation= 6.67). The scale shows: adequate factorial and construct validity, acceptable fit indexes (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin= 0.785, Root Mean Square Residual= 0.078; Kelly's criterion= 0.075), a negative correlation with the dimensions of burnout and no relationship with respect to self-esteem. In addition, it also shows high reliability (a= 0.88). Furthermore, statistically significant differences have been found in relation to genders - where women require greater social support. In contrast, males tend to display a lower level of social support with team players and international athletes. Moreover, differential item functioning (DIF) was carried out to explore sex bias, however, none of the items exhibit DIF problems.
Lamarca, Gabriela A; Leal, Maria do C; Leao, Anna T T; Sheiham, Aubrey; Vettore, Mario V
Individuals connected to supportive social networks have better general and oral health quality of life. The objective of this study was to assess whether there were differences in oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) between women connected to either predominantly home-based and work-based social networks. A follow-up prevalence study was conducted on 1403 pregnant and post-partum women (mean age of 25.2 ± 6.3 years) living in two cities in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Women were participants in an established cohort followed from pregnancy (baseline) to post-partum period (follow-up). All participants were allocated to two groups; 1. work-based social network group--employed women with paid work, and, 2. home-based social network group--women with no paid work, housewives or unemployed women. Measures of social support and social network were used as well as questions on sociodemographic characteristics and OHRQoL and health related behaviors. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to obtain OR of relationships between occupational contexts, affectionate support and positive social interaction on the one hand, and oral health quality of life, using the Oral Health Impacts Profile (OHIP) measure, adjusted for age, ethnicity, family income, schooling, marital status and social class. There was a modifying effect of positive social interaction on the odds of occupational context on OHRQoL. The odds of having a poorer OHIP score, ≥ 4, was significantly higher for women with home-based social networks and moderate levels of positive social interactions [OR 1.64 (95% CI: 1.08-2.48)], and for women with home-based social networks and low levels of positive social interactions [OR 2.15 (95% CI: 1.40-3.30)] compared with women with work-based social networks and high levels of positive social interactions. Black ethnicity was associated with OHIP scores ≥ 4 [OR 1.73 (95% CI: 1.23-2.42)]. Pregnant and post-partum Brazilian women in paid
Background Individuals connected to supportive social networks have better general and oral health quality of life. The objective of this study was to assess whether there were differences in oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) between women connected to either predominantly home-based and work-based social networks. Methods A follow-up prevalence study was conducted on 1403 pregnant and post-partum women (mean age of 25.2 ± 6.3 years) living in two cities in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Women were participants in an established cohort followed from pregnancy (baseline) to post-partum period (follow-up). All participants were allocated to two groups; 1. work-based social network group - employed women with paid work, and, 2. home-based social network group - women with no paid work, housewives or unemployed women. Measures of social support and social network were used as well as questions on sociodemographic characteristics and OHRQoL and health related behaviors. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to obtain OR of relationships between occupational contexts, affectionate support and positive social interaction on the one hand, and oral health quality of life, using the Oral Health Impacts Profile (OHIP) measure, adjusted for age, ethnicity, family income, schooling, marital status and social class. Results There was a modifying effect of positive social interaction on the odds of occupational context on OHRQoL. The odds of having a poorer OHIP score, ≥4, was significantly higher for women with home-based social networks and moderate levels of positive social interactions [OR 1.64 (95% CI: 1.08-2.48)], and for women with home-based social networks and low levels of positive social interactions [OR 2.15 (95% CI: 1.40-3.30)] compared with women with work-based social networks and high levels of positive social interactions. Black ethnicity was associated with OHIP scores ≥4 [OR 1.73 (95% CI: 1.23-2.42)]. Conclusions Pregnant and post
Casale, Silvia; Fioravanti, Giulia; Flett, Gordon L; Hewitt, Paul L
The present study developed and tested a model that explains how people who believe that others have unrealistically high standards and exert pressure on them to be perfect (that is, people high in socially prescribed perfectionism) develop a problematic use of internet communicative services (GPIU). Following the perfectionism social disconnection model and previous evidence about the role that the online environment might play in the development of problematic internet use, low reported social support and the fear of negative evaluations in face to face interactions were hypothesized to mediate the association between socially prescribed perfectionism and GPIU. A sample of 465 undergraduate students was recruited (240 F; mean age 21.91+2.23years), and the hypotheses were tested through structural equation modeling separately for men and women. Among men, the association between SPP and GPIU was fully mediated by the fear of being negatively evaluated and the perception of low social support. For women, we found a partially mediated model in which SPP affected GPIU indirectly through the fear of negative evaluations. The presence of a direct effect of SPP on GPIU was also found. Moreover, perceived social support was not found to be a significant mediator among women. The findings suggest that problematic use of internet communicative services might be, at least in part, a defensive response to extreme social evaluation pressures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Holden, Libby; Lee, Christina; Hockey, Richard; Ware, Robert S; Dobson, Annette J
This study aimed to validate a 6-item 1-factor global measure of social support developed from the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS) for use in large epidemiological studies. Data were obtained from two large population-based samples of participants in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. The two cohorts were aged 53-58 and 28-33 years at data collection (N = 10,616 and 8,977, respectively). Items selected for the 6-item 1-factor measure were derived from the factor structure obtained from unpublished work using an earlier wave of data from one of these cohorts. Descriptive statistics, including polychoric correlations, were used to describe the abbreviated scale. Cronbach's alpha was used to assess internal consistency and confirmatory factor analysis to assess scale validity. Concurrent validity was assessed using correlations between the new 6-item version and established 19-item version, and other concurrent variables. In both cohorts, the new 6-item 1-factor measure showed strong internal consistency and scale reliability. It had excellent goodness-of-fit indices, similar to those of the established 19-item measure. Both versions correlated similarly with concurrent measures. The 6-item 1-factor MOS-SSS measures global functional social support with fewer items than the established 19-item measure.
Full Text Available The paper presents a characterisation of socio-professional status and socio-political activity of women in rural areas in Poland. Traditional, stereotypical approach was compared to the contemporary perception of the social roles performed by women in the countryside, and the results of recent empirical studies concerning the problems discussed were presented. The causes of the lack of socio-professional and political activity were discussed. The opportunities for the support that helps improve social activity of women from rural areas were also presented. The analysis carried out in the study revealed that the status of women in contemporary rural areas is close to traditional stereotypes used in this social category. The need for inclusion of the analysis of socio-professional situation of women in socio-economic strategies of development of rural areas was emphasized. The basis for writing the paper was analysis of the related literature and the results obtained in a national-level empirical research.
Conte, Kathleen P.; Schure, Marc B.; Goins, R. Turner
Objectives This study examined social support and identified demographic and health correlates among American Indians aged 55 years and older. Methods Data were derived from the Native Elder Care Study, a cross-sectional study of 505 community-dwelling American Indians aged ≥55 years. Social support was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey measure (MOS-SSS) of which psychometric properties were examined through factor analyses. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify associations between age, sex, educational attainment, marital status, depressive symptomatology, lower body physical functioning, and chronic pain and social support. Results Study participants reported higher levels of affectionate and positive interaction social support (88.2% and 81.8%, respectively) than overall (75.9%) and emotional (69.0%) domains. Increased age, being married/partnered, and female sex were associated with high social support in the final model. Decreased depressive symptomatology was associated with high overall, affectionate, and positive interaction support, and decreased chronic pain with affectionate support. The count of chronic conditions and functional disability were not associated with social support. Conclusions Overall, we found high levels of social support for both men and women in this population, with the oldest adults in our study exhibiting the highest levels of social support. Strong cultural values of caring for older adults and a historical tradition of community cooperation may explain this finding. Future public health efforts may be able to leverage social support to reduce health disparities and improve mental and physical functioning. PMID:25322933
Full Text Available Elizabeth Reed,1 Andrea N Emanuel,2 Bronwyn Myers,3,4 Kim Johnson,3 Wendee M Wechsberg2,5–7 1George Washington University School of Public Health, Department of Prevention and Community Health, Washington, DC, USA; 2RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 3Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research Unit, Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa; 4Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; 5Gillings Global School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 6Psychology in the Public Interest, North Carolina State University, NC, USA; 7Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, NC, USA Objectives: To examine qualitatively how women's social context and community mobilization (eg, mobilizing women to take social action and engaging their community in social change influence substance use abstinence and victimization among women participating in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV intervention in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods: Thirty women who had participated in a randomized controlled trial of a group-delivered intervention to address substance use, gender-based violence, and associated risk for HIV (The Women's Health CoOp were selected to participate in semi-structured interviews about their perceived impact of the intervention on their substance use and exposure to victimization. The Women's CoOp intervention involved creating a new positive social environment for women within a group setting that also fostered women's social action (eg, educating peers or family members in the community. Interviews were analyzed using content analysis and coded to examine women's descriptions of social contexts and social action, and the influence of these on women's substance use abstinence and exposure to victimization. Results: Social support (eg, via program staff and other participants and social action (eg, engaging others in the
Cole, David A; Nick, Elizabeth A; Zelkowitz, Rachel L; Roeder, Kathryn M; Spinelli, Tawny
As social media websites have grown in popularity, public concern about online victimization has grown as well; however, much less attention has focused on the possible beneficial effects of online social networks. If theory and research about in-person social networks pertain, then online social relationships may represent an important modern source of or vehicle for support. In a study of 231 undergraduates, three major findings emerged: (1) for people with weaker in-person social support, social media sites provide a source of social support that is less redundant of the social support they receive in person; (2) in ways that were not redundant of each other, both online and in-person social support were associated with lower levels of depression-related thoughts and feelings, and (3) the beneficial effects of online social support (like in-person social support) offset some of the adverse effects of peer victimization. The study suggests that augmenting social relations via strategic use of social media can enhance young people's social support systems in beneficial ways.
This report describes the perceived stressors, coping strategies, and social supports of a group of adolescent mothers during their first month at home after delivery. In addition to concerns about the baby and the limitations imposed by motherhood, many of the young mothers considered their interpersonal relationships as problematic. Findings suggest that the puerperium was not a time of major distress for most of these young women. Factors contributing to a relatively smooth transition to motherhood were the adolescent's use of anticipatory coping prior to the birth, their extensive reliance on family support once at home, and their past experience with childcare. Sharing childcare with the family was an important component of the support received by these adolescents, and it is suggested that the adolescent's mobilization of social supports may be essential to ther adaptation to motherhood. Professionals were infrequently mentioned as sources of support even though a majority of the sample participated in special adolescent maternity programs. Finally, findings also suggest that problem-focused coping was used more often when dealing with concrete stressors, while emotion-focused coping was used more in response to interpersonal problems.
McGinn, Kathleen L; Oh, Eunsil
People in low-power positions, whether due to gender or class, tend to exhibit other-oriented rather than self-oriented behavior. Women's experiences at work and at home are shaped by social class, heightening identification with gender for relatively upper class women and identification with class for relatively lower class women, potentially mitigating, or even reversing, class-based differences documented in past research. Gender-class differences are reflected in women's employment beliefs and behaviors. Research integrating social class with gendered experiences in homes and workplaces deepens our understanding of the complex interplay between sources of power and status in society. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Harandi, Tayebeh Fasihi; Taghinasab, Maryam Mohammad; Nayeri, Tayebeh Dehghan
Background and aim Social support is an important factor that can affect mental health. In recent decades, many studies have been done on the impact of social support on mental health. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect size of the relationship between social support and mental health in studies in Iran. Methods This meta-analysis was carried out in studies that were performed from 1996 through 2015. Databases included SID and Magiran, the comprehensive portal of human sciences, Noor specialized magazine databases, IRANDOC, Proquest, PubMed, Scopus, ERIC, Iranmedex and Google Scholar. The keywords used to search these websites included “mental health or general health,” and “Iran” and “social support.” In total, 64 studies had inclusion criteria meta-analysis. In order to collect data used from a meta-analysis worksheet that was made by the researcher and for data analysis software, CMA-2 was used. Results The mean of effect size of the 64 studies in the fixed-effect model and random-effect model was obtained respectively as 0.356 and 0.330, which indicated the moderate effect size of social support on mental health. The studies did not have publication bias, and enjoyed a heterogeneous effect size. The target population and social support questionnaire were moderator variables, but sex, sampling method, and mental health questionnaire were not moderator variables. Conclusion Regarding relatively high effect size of the correlation between social support and mental health, it is necessary to predispose higher social support, especially for women, the elderly, patients, workers, and students. PMID:29038699
Furniss, Mary; Conroy, Molly; Filoche, Sara; MacDonald, E Jane; Geller, Stacie E; Lawton, Beverley
To determine what information, support, and follow-up were offered to women who had experienced severe maternal morbidity (SMM). The present retrospective case review included patients who experienced SMM (admission to intensive care during pregnancy or up to 42 days postpartum) who had previously been reviewed for potential preventability as part of a nationwide New Zealand study performed between January 1 and December 31, 2014. Data were audited to ascertain documented evidence of an event debrief or explanation; referral to social support and/or mental health services; a detailed discharge letter; and a follow-up appointment with a specialist. Of 257 patients who experienced SMM, 23 (8.9%) were offered all four components of care, 99 (38.5%) an event debrief, 102 (39.7%) a referral to social support and/or mental health services, 148 (57.6%) a detailed discharge letter, and 131 (51.0%) a follow-up appointment. Many women who had experienced SMM did not receive explanatory information about their illness, an offer of psychosocial support, or a follow-up appointment prior to discharge from hospital. It is incumbent on clinicians and the maternity care system to improve these aspects of care for all women experiencing a potentially life-changing SMM event to minimize the risk and burden of long-term mental illness. © 2018 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.
Gayer-Anderson, Charlotte; Fisher, Helen L; Fearon, Paul; Hutchinson, Gerard; Morgan, Kevin; Dazzan, Paola; Boydell, Jane; Doody, Gillian A; Jones, Peter B; Murray, Robin M; Craig, Thomas K; Morgan, Craig
Childhood adversity (variously defined) is a robust risk factor for psychosis, yet the mitigating effects of social support in adulthood have not yet been explored. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between childhood sexual and physical abuse and adult psychosis, and gender differences in levels of perceived social support. A sample of 202 individuals presenting for the first time to mental health services with psychosis and 266 population-based controls from south-east London and Nottingham, UK, was utilised. The Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire was used to elicit retrospective reports of exposure to childhood adversity, and the Significant Others Questionnaire was completed to collect information on the current size of social networks and perceptions of emotional and practical support. There was evidence of an interaction between severe physical abuse and levels of support (namely, number of significant others; likelihood ratio test χ(2) = 3.90, p = 0.048). When stratified by gender, there were no clear associations between childhood physical or sexual abuse, current social support and odds of psychosis in men. In contrast, for women, the highest odds of psychosis were generally found in those who reported severe abuse and low levels of social support in adulthood. However, tests for interaction by gender did not reach conventional levels of statistical significance. These findings highlight the importance of investigating the potential benefits of social support as a buffer against the development of adult psychosis amongst those, particularly women, with a history of early life stress.
Full Text Available The current study involved conducting a pilot test of a culturally sensitive support group program developed to assist Iraqi women in the year following the birth of their baby (CSSG-B in Perth, Western Australia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the social validity of the program. It was hypothesised that women involved in the program would find the program to be socially valid and culturally appropriate, and will also report lower levels of depressive symptomatology and higher levels of social support, following the group intervention. Participants were twelve Iraqi Arabic speaking women, who had a child less than 12 months of age. The program was based on Iraqi women's explanatory models (Kleinman, 1978; Di Ciano, Rooney, Wright, Hay, & Robinson, 2010 of the birth and motherhood experience. Social validity ratings were obtained during the implementation of the program in order to assess the level of acceptability of the intervention. A one-group pretest-posttest design was used to determine if depressive symptoms had decreased during the course of the intervention and social support had increased. Results indicated that Iraqi Arabic speaking women found the support group intervention acceptable and relevant and there was a significant decrease in scores on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression scale from pretest to posttest. These results that the culturally sensitive group intervention was culturally acceptable and was associated with decreased levels of depressive symptomatology.
Full Text Available Microcredit has been seen as a way of helping low-income people, primarily women, to survive, by giving them independence and the resources to create their own businesses. Low-income people have the support of social networks that allow their members to assist each other morally, economically and by sharing information. They also share experiences that make it easier to obtain the income needed for survival. Through their social networks and social capital the poor can use the tools provided by microcredits to improve their living conditions. This document compares the ways in which women in three countries associate, and use microcredits. The countries involved are India, Bangladesh and the South of Mexico.
This study focuses upon the contemporary process of Social Norms and Impediments of Women Development in Bangladesh. The development of women in organizations, Decision making, Political participation and gender mainstreaming is currently seen as the dominant conceptual model for promoting social justice and women equality. This study intends to see the position of women, discourses and various political, economic and social factors that surrounded these events. The impediments of women in Ba...
Mena, Emily; Kroll, Lars Eric; Maier, Werner; Bolte, Gabriele
To investigate the association between area deprivation at municipality level with low perceived social support, independent of individual socioeconomic position and demographic characteristics. To assess whether there are gender inequalities in this association. Cross-sectional multilevel analysis of survey data. Germany. 3350 men and 3665 women living in 167 municipalities throughout Germany participating in the 'German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults' (DEGS1 2008-2011) as part of the national health monitoring. Perceived social support as measured by Oslo-3 Social Support Scale. Prevalence of low perceived social support was 11.4% in men and 11.1% in women. Low social support was associated in men and women with sociodemographic characteristics that indicate more disadvantaged living situations. Taking these individual-level characteristics into account, municipal-level deprivation was independently associated with low perceived social support in men (OR for the most deprived quintile: 1.80 (95% CI 1.14 to 2.84)), but not in women (OR 1.22 (95% CI 0.78 to 1.90)). The results of our multilevel analysis suggest that there are gender inequalities in the association of municipal-level deprivation with the prevalence of low perceived social support in Germany independent of individual socioeconomic position. Community health interventions aiming at promotion of social support among residents might profit from a further understanding of the observed gender differences. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Mannell, Jenevieve; Jackson, Sharon; Umutoni, Aline
This paper explores instances of agency in women's responses to intimate partner violence (IPV) in Rwanda. The literature on women's responses to IPV conceptualises agency primarily as an individual's capacity to take action by reporting violence or leaving a relationship, obscuring other ways women may respond to violence in contexts where reporting or leaving are unlikely. We aim to replace this narrow conceptualisation of agency with a social constructivist focus on the meanings women attribute to possible IPV responses. We draw on data from a study of IPV in Rwanda, which includes semi-structured interviews with women experiencing violence and four focus group discussions with women community members (n = 39). Our findings highlight sociocultural, economic, political-legal and historical constraints that shape women's actions in this context. In relation to these constraints, women describe four possible responses to IPV: reporting the violence; seeking emotional support; 'fighting back' against violence; or remaining silent. While reporting and leaving violent relationships are identified, women also discuss the social constraints that make these actions extremely difficult. In designing effective strategies, we conclude that public health strategies need to consider women's understandings of their own actions, particularly in social contexts where certain actions may be constrained.
Walker, Rae; Koh, Lee; Wollersheim, Dennis; Liamputtong, Pranee
The aim of this research was to inform the development of mobile phone-assisted health promotion programmes that support social connectedness among refuge women to enhance their mental, physical and social health. For refugees, relationship development during the early stages of resettlement is often difficult. Enhancing personal skills, and resources, can enhance relationships that provide social support. It can also contribute to the development of social relationships in communities and thence acculturation. Communication technologies can assist refugees, if their particular needs and capacities are taken into account. This paper reports a study of refugee women's experience of an intervention based on principles of empowerment and using peer support training and the provision of free mobile phones, and free calls, for at least 1 year. Potential participants were invited by the Afghan, Burmese and Sudanese community leaders to an information session, where the study was explained and invitations to participate extended. A snowball sampling technique was also used, where the first group of participants invited people they had relationships with to join the programme. One hundred and eleven participants were recruited from the three groups. All were from refugee backgrounds. Data collection consisted of: a pre- and post-intervention questionnaire; a log of outgoing phone calls; and in-depth interviews with a subgroup of the study population. The call logs described the patterns of interpersonal relationships facilitated by the mobile phones. In the interviews, characteristics of interpersonal social support, and relationships with heritage and host communities, were described. The quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and the qualitative data using thematic analysis. By describing the conditions under which mobile phone technology can enhance interpersonal and community connectedness, we strengthen the evidence base for the use of mobile
Allahdadian, Maryam; Irajpour, Alireza; Kazemi, Ashraf; Kheirabadi, Gholamreza
Background: Stillbirth is one of the deepest losses that can inflict a broad range of cognitive, mental, spiritual, and physical turmoil. Many researchers believe that the failure to provide the care required by health teams during the hard times is the main determinant of maternal mental health in the future. In other words, social support can significantly improve the mental health outcomes of mothers after stillbirth. This study aimed to explore social support to aid mothers in adaptation ...
Mallinckrodt, Brent; Armer, Jane M.; Heppner, P. Paul
This study examined a threshold model that proposes that social support exhibits a curvilinear association with adjustment and distress, such that support in excess of a critical threshold level has decreasing incremental benefits. Women diagnosed with a first occurrence of breast cancer (N = 154) completed survey measures of perceived support…
Elisa da Luz Adorna
Full Text Available AbstractObjectives To identify the importance of participation in support groups for mastectomized women’s recovery and their knowledge about this type of cancer.Material and methods Qualitative descriptive study with ten mastectomized women participants of the “Reborn” (“Renascer”, in portuguese support group. Data were collected by means of interviews, using a questionnaire prepared by the researcher as an instrument. The data collected were then qualitatively analyzed according to the systematization proposed by Minayo (4.Results Six categories were identified. This study addressed the knowledge of the participants on breast cancer and their participation in the support group.Conclusion A change of concepts and ideas about cancer in the interviewed women was identified, as well as the importance of information and explanation about this cancer, its treatment and consequences for the patient. The relevance of the support group in these women’s recovery is also noteworthy, due to the opportunity of socializing with other people with similar stories.
Nina B. Hansen
Full Text Available Background: Research has documented severe mental health problems in female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV. Therefore, providing effective treatment is pivotal. Few studies have investigated the effects of intervention programs on reducing the harmful consequences of IPV. Objective: The present study examined the effects of a specific three-phase intervention program for female victims of IPV on psychological symptoms (PTSD, anxiety, and depression and perceived social support. Given that many of the women dropped out before and during the intervention program, potential differences in initial levels of psychological symptoms, perceived social support, as well as descriptive variables were explored between the women who completed the whole program and the groups of women who dropped out prematurely. Method: The initial sample consisted of 212 female victims of IPV. Symptoms of PTSD, depression, anxiety, and level of perceived social support were measured with validated scales before the start of the intervention and after completion of each treatment phase. Results: Results showed a significant effect of the intervention program on reducing psychological symptoms and increasing levels of perceived social support. Effect sizes ranged from medium to very high. Significant positive effects were found for each of the treatment phases. There were no significant differences between the women who completed the whole program and those women who dropped out prematurely in terms of initial level of symptoms and perceived social support as well as descriptive characteristics. Conclusions: Specifically developed intervention programs for female victims of IPV are effective in reducing the harmful personal consequences of IPV. Future studies should consider employing controlled study designs and address the issue of high drop out rates found in intervention studies.
Alquaiz, ALJohara M; Almuneef, Maha; Kazi, Ambreen; Almeneessier, Aljohara
Intimate partner violence is a worldwide public health problem. The objectives of this study were to measure the prevalence and types of domestic violence, and to explore the association between social determinants (sociodemographic factors, husband-related factors, and social support) and violence against women by their intimate partner (husband). We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 18 randomly selected primary health care centers and 13 private institutions (teaching institutes, government offices, social welfare organizations) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Female data collectors took interview from 1,883 married Saudi females aged 30 to 75 years. Interviews included sociodemographic information, reproductive health variables, and social support questionnaire. Violence was measured using modified Intimate Partner Violence Against Women questionnaire developed by the World Health Organization. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted. The lifetime prevalence for any type of violence was 43.0% ( n = 810). The most frequent type was controlling behavior (36.8%), followed by emotional violence (22%), sexual violence (12.7%), and physical violence (9.0%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the following were associated with greater odds of reporting domestic violence: younger age 30 to 40 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.3, 3.0]), 41 to 50 years (aOR = 1.6, 95% CI = [1.1, 2.5]); lack of emotional support (aOR = 1.7, 95% CI = [1.2, 2.5]); lack of tangible support (aOR = 1.4, 95% CI = [1.1, 1.9]); and perceived poor self-health (aOR = 1.7, 95% CI = [1.0, 3.0]), husbands' poor health (aOR = 1.9, 95% CI = [1.2, 2.0]), and polygamy (aOR = 1.6, 95% CI = [1.5, 2.6]). Domestic violence occurs frequently in Saudi Arabia. Both social conditions and social relations are significantly associated with domestic violence against Saudi women. Furthermore, improvement in implementation of the local policies
Leung, Janni; Smith, Michelle D; McLaughlin, Deirdre
To compare long-term quality of life outcomes by marital status among women living with breast cancer, and to test the mediation effects of social support as an underlying factor. Data are drawn from 1996 to 2010 of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. The sample included 505 women with breast cancer with six years of follow-up data. Social support was measured by the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS). Physical and mental health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was measured using the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Breast cancer survivors who did not have a partner, compared to those who had a partner, had significantly lower levels of social support, which was associated with poorer HRQOL. Social support mediated the relationship between not having a partner and poorer HRQOL. Results were consistent after taken into consideration socio-demographic characteristics, which included age, highest level of education, country of birth, and area of residence. Women recovering from breast cancer who do not have partners have poorer physical and mental HRQOL, than those with partners, with a lack of social support as an underlying inequality. Partners of breast cancer survivors are importance sources in the provision of social support to help them maintain well-being and quality of life. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Chen, Jiang-Peng; Han, Ming-Ming; Liao, Zi-Jun; Dai, Zhen-Zhen; Liu, Liang; Chen, Hua; Wen, Xiao-Yan; Hu, Shan; Que, Ping; Wen, Wen; Peng, Bin
Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has become commonly used both as a concept and as a field of research. However, little is known about the HRQOL of men who have sex with men and women (MSMW). The aim of this study was to examine HIV-related behaviors, social support, and HRQOL status and explore its predictors among MSMW. An anonymous cross-sectional study was conducted by snowball sampling method in 2013. A total of 563 Chinese MSM completed a structured questionnaire. The HRQOL and social support were measured with the Chinese version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale (WHOQOL-BRFE) and the Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS), respectively. Of the 563 MSM analyzed, 77 (13.68%) were MSMW who had a higher proportion of in-marriage and preference for an insertive role as compared with the men who have sex with men only (MSMO) (Ppaid to those with low social support, low-income, the old and those prefer a receptive role during anal sex populations.
Hammond, Matthew D; Overall, Nickola C
The current research demonstrates how benevolent sexism functions to undermine women's competence while facilitating men's access to heterosexual intimacy by prompting different support behaviors by men and women. Objective coders rated the support provision exhibited during heterosexual couples' (N = 100) video-recorded discussions of each other's personal goals. Men who endorsed benevolent sexism provided more dependency-oriented support, including directly providing plans and solutions and neglecting the recipient's own abilities, which led to their female partners feeling less competent and less positively regarded. In contrast, women who endorsed benevolent sexism provided greater relationship-oriented support, characterized by affection and emphasizing the positive relationship outcomes associated with their partner's goals, which led their male partners to perceive greater regard and intimacy in their relationship. This study is the first to investigate how benevolent sexism prompts naturalistic support behaviors that can impede women's capacity for independent success while supporting the fulfillment of men's intimacy needs. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Full Text Available Very little is known about how women’s experiences with inclusion or exclusion shape their entry into community after they have been incarcerated. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine inclusion from the perspective of women entering community after release from a federal prison in Ontario, Canada. This research project combined feminist participatory action research with anti-oppressive theories. Women who had been incarcerated were asked to come together to discuss ideas around inclusion and explore ways to foster a more inclusive environment. As women described the kind of community they experienced before and after incarceration, themes of being pushed out of community, being pulled into community, and negotiating issues of responsibility were evident. At the core of these themes was a powerful sense of difference. Findings suggest that deep societal change is needed for women to truly experience social inclusion upon their release from federal prison. They also suggest a role for community in supporting personal change and growth. We argue that if principles of social justice guided inclusion efforts, there would be dialogue and negotiation aimed at re-imagining social inclusion and creating a space that is hopeful and inclusive for all citizens.
Avlund, K; Damsgaard, M T; Holstein, B E
and who lived alone and women with no social support to other tasks had increased risk of dying during the follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports (1) that there is an association between social relations and mortality, (2) that two aspects of the function of social relations matters: (a...
Ana Márcia de Almeida Rezende
Full Text Available Violence against women in affectionate intimate relationships is a serious problem that causes damages to its victims. In the social imaginary there are ways of thinking and representations that tend to trivialize this type of violence, considering it a natural practice. In this sense, this article brings a study that aimed to know the social representations elaborated by adolescents on violence against women in affectionate relationships. Data were collected through a semi-structured interview conducted with 22 adolescents, and analyzed through the content analysis technique (BARDIN, 2011. The results revealed that the adolescents represent violence against women objectified in an everyday phenomenon, which happens even in their families. They have also elaborated social representations anchored in patriarchy, in which men use violence as means to dominate partners. It was observed the need for preventive work that would make adolescents aware of patriarchal ideologies present in the society, helping them to construct social representations based on respect and gender equity.
Giurgescu, Carmen; Zenk, Shannon N; Engeland, Christopher G; Garfield, Lindsey; Templin, Thomas N
African American women are more likely to be exposed to racial discrimination and to experience psychological distress compared with white women. Although studies have shown that social support is positively related to psychological wellbeing, little is known about the potential buffering effect of social support on the relationship between racial discrimination and psychological wellbeing of pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to determine if social support moderates effects of racial discrimination on psychological wellbeing among pregnant African American women. Using a cross-sectional design, 107 African American women between 15 and 26 weeks gestation from an urban university-based midwifery practice completed questionnaires. Women who reported more experiences of racial discrimination also reported lower levels of social support and psychological wellbeing (p discrimination have negative effects on psychological wellbeing of pregnant African American women regardless of their levels of social support. However, social support can reduce psychological distress and improve wellbeing of pregnant women. Therefore, nurses need to provide pregnant women with positive and supportive experiences that may improve their psychological wellbeing.
Babington, Lynn M; Malone, Linda; Kelley, Barbara R
Adolescent pregnancy is a major health concern among Dominicans in the U.S. and in the Dominican Republic (DR). Twenty three percent of adolescents age 15-19 have experienced pregnancy and this trend is rising. The purpose of this study was to explore and compare social support, self-esteem and pregnancy between Dominican adolescents in the DR with those who have immigrated to the U.S. This study used an exploratory, descriptive design including study samples from both the U.S. and DR. Findings showed that young women with stronger social support and higher self esteem experienced lower pregnancy rates in both the DR and U.S. Neither self esteem nor social support was found to be predictors of pregnancy. Important findings from this study will inform the development of interventions aimed at preventing pregnancy in adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The objective was to identify the number of registered women social clubs in the areas, their community development activities and projects and the perception of the residents of the communities. Based on the programmes of the women social clubs, data were collected from 67 registered women social clubs, 670 club ...
Tamplin, Natalie C; McLean, Siân A; Paxton, Susan J
Frequent exposure to appearance ideal social media is associated with body dissatisfaction. We hypothesised that commercial and peer social media literacy would protect against the negative impact of exposure to social media appearance ideal images on young adults' body image. The study was presented as an investigation of alcohol promotion on social media. Participants were 187 women (M age = 24.6, SD = 3.7) and 187 men (M age = 22.8, SD = 3.9) who viewed gender-matched alcohol-related appearance ideal social media images or control images containing alcohol only. Social media literacy was assessed prior to image exposure and body satisfaction measured before and after exposure. A negative effect of ideal image exposure on body satisfaction was observed in both women and men. In women only, commercial-social media literacy moderated the negative effect of exposure, independent of internalization or body comparison. Inclusion of social media literacy skills in prevention interventions is supported. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Grav, Siv; Hellzèn, Ove; Romild, Ulla; Stordal, Eystein
The aim was to investigate the associations between perceived social support and depression in a general population in relation to gender and age. Social support is seen as one of the social determinants for overall health in the general population. Studies have found higher probability of experiencing depression among people who have a lack of social support; evidence from the general population has been more limited. Subjective perception that support would be available if needed may reduce and prevent depression and unnecessary suffering. A cross-sectional survey with self-reported health was used. A total of 40,659 men and women aged 20-89 years living in Nord-Trøndelag County of Norway with valid ratings of depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in the The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 3 were used. Logistic regression was used to quantify associations between two types of perceived support (emotional and tangible) and depression. Gender, age and interaction effects were controlled for in the final model. The main finding was that self-rated perceived support was significantly associated with Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-defined depression, even after controlling for age and gender; emotional support (OR = 3·14) and tangible support (OR = 2·93). The effects of emotional and tangible support differ between genders. Interaction effects were found for age groups and both emotional and tangible support. Self-rated perceived functional social support is associated with Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-defined depression. In the group of older people who have a lack of social support, women seem to need more emotional support and men tangible support. Health care providers should consider the close association between social support and depression in their continuing care, particularly in the older people. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Malik, Kulsoom Jawaid; Unwin, Gemma; Larkin, Michael; Kroese, Biza Stenfert; Rose, John
Carers and service users with intellectual disabilities from minority ethnic groups have typically been reported to be dissatisfied with the social care services they receive. However, service users themselves have rarely been asked directly about their experiences of social care. This paper aims to understand the meaning of social care services in the lives of South Asian women with intellectual disabilities, in the United Kingdom. 10 British South Asian women with mild-moderate intellectual disabilities were interviewed about their experiences of social care services. The transcripts were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The analysis produced three super-ordinate themes, which focus on how services facilitate the development of complex identities, how the participants explored their sense of being 'stuck' between cultures as they negotiated their journeys towards independence, and the triple disadvantage which they experienced as a consequence of the intersection between gender, ethnicity and disability. The participants were broadly satisfied with the role which services played in these domains, and appeared to find them valuable and helpful. The results suggest that the participants successfully managed complex identity issues, such as acculturation processes, with the support of services. It may be helpful to give more explicit consideration to the positive role which good services can play in supporting people with intellectual disabilities in the development of their identities and goals, alongside the more traditionally 'concrete' objectives of such social care. Engagement with families in 'positive risk-taking' is likely to be an important component of success. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Arrivillaga, Marcela; Ross, Michael; Useche, Bernardo; Springer, Andrew; Correa, Diego
The purpose of this study was to explore and analyze social determinants that influence adherence among Colombian women living with HIV/AIDS in poverty conditions. A qualitative, descriptive-interpretative study was developed. Forty-seven women participated in five focus group discussions. Also, in-depth interviews with six women were conducted. Results showed that women with lower adherence sell their antiretroviral medication to satisfy economic needs, and prioritize the care of their HIV-positive children over their own adherence needs. In contrast, women with higher adherence were found to participate in social support groups offered by nongovernmental organizations. These findings underscore the need to understand the social determinants that facilitate and/or hinder adherence among women in poverty-associated conditions. Results indicate the need to facilitate access to treatment on a timely and continual basis; provide economic resources, including support to meet basic needs as well as subsidies for transportation to health care centers; and explore mechanism for supporting the care of their offspring. Copyright © 2011 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of life events and social support in the broadly defined category of depression in late life. INTRODUCTION: Negative life events and lack of social support are associated with depression in the elderly. Currently, there are limited studies examining the association between life events, social support and late-life depression in Brazil. METHODS: We estimated the frequency of late-life depression within a household community sample of 367 subjects aged 60 years or greater with associated factors. ''Old age symptomatic depression'' was defined using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 1.1 tool. This diagnostic category included only late-life symptoms and consisted of the diagnoses of depression and dysthymia as well as a subsyndromal definition of depression, termed ''late subthreshold depression''. Social support and life events were assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment and Referral Evaluation (SHORT-CARE inventory. RESULTS: ''Old age symptomatic depression'' occurred in 18.8% of the patients in the tested sample. In univariate analyses, this condition was associated with female gender, lifetime anxiety disorder and living alone. In multivariate models, ''old age symptomatic depression'' was associated with a perceived lack of social support in men and life events in women. DISCUSSION: Social support and life events were determined to be associated with late-life depression, but it is important to keep in mind the differences between genders. Also, further exploration of the role of lifetime anxiety disorder in late-life depression may be of future importance. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that this study helps to provide insight into the role of psychosocial factors in late-life depression.
Hanh, Nguyen Thi Thúy; Rasch, Vibeke; Chi, Bùi Kim
Women with HIV who want to have children face a range of challenges, quandaries, and hard decisions. This article examines the role of health staff in supporting HIV-infected pregnant women who desire to maintain their pregnancies. The article is derived from anthropological research conducted...
Nemoto, Tooru; Bödeker, Birte; Iwamoto, Mariko
We determined racial/ethnic differences in social support and exposure to violence and transphobia, and explored correlates of depression among male-to-female transgender women with a history of sex work (THSW). A total of 573 THSW who worked or resided in San Francisco or Oakland, California, were recruited through street outreach and referrals and completed individual interviews using a structured questionnaire. More than half of Latina and White participants were depressed on the basis of Center For Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale scores. About three quarters of White participants reported ever having suicidal ideation, of whom 64% reported suicide attempts. Half of the participants reported being physically assaulted, and 38% reported being raped or sexually assaulted before age 18 years. White and African American participants reported transphobia experiences more frequently than did others. Social support, transphobia, suicidal ideation, and levels of income and education were significantly and independently correlated with depression. For THSW, psychological vulnerability must be addressed in counseling, support groups, and health promotion programs specifically tailored to race/ethnicity.
Roger, Kerstin; Migliardi, Paula; Mignone, Javier
Little research has been conducted on women living with HIV with a focus on caregiving. This paper explores data that emerged in a study examining caregiving networks among people living with HIV in the Prairies in Canada. Photovoice provided a methodology for data collection. The narratives presented suggest that while these women's lives are…
This study investigated influence of social support, duration of illness, and age on the quality of life of breast cancer patients. Twenty women with breast cancer drawn from the University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH) and Irrua Specialist Hospital participated in the study. One out of three hypotheses stated was ...
Sharpley, Christopher; Hussain, Rafat; Wark, Stuart; Mcevoy, Mark; Attia, John
Social support is proposed as a coping mechanism against anxiety and depression amongst older persons, but few data have examined how this occurs. This study assessed the contributions of two sub-components of social support as mediators against psychological distress-broadly defined as anxiety and depression. 1,560 men and 1,758 women from the Hunter Community Study (Australia) completed the Duke Social Support Scale and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. The Duke Social Support Scale examined the amount of social interaction and satisfaction with social interactions. Significant mediating effects of social support were found in the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale items measuring depression but not anxiety. Satisfaction with social support was a significant predictor of Kessler Psychological Distress Scale total score and Sadness items, but the amount of social support was not a predictor of stress. Social support may assist with symptoms of depression, i.e., specific sadness/depressed mood, but not necessarily with anxiety. Implications for policy and service delivery were discussed.
Through in-depth, tape-recorded interviews, this qualitative pilot study explored the feelings and concerns of 10 HIV-positive women, aged 18 to 70 years, and the socioeconomic, spiritual, and family support available to them in Kolkata, India. A qualitative approach of continuous comparative analysis of themes revealed that although heterosexual contact was the main source of infection, poverty and sexual violence were indirect social factors. These women experienced markedly less socioeconomic, spiritual, and family support after contracting the disease. In addition to worsening physical symptoms, emotional and mental anguish forced them into isolation, negatively affecting their mental health. Social isolation infiltrated their spiritual lives, producing feelings of helplessness about the future of their children. The identification of this process is important to nursing practice, as it highlights key areas of concern in the implementation of prevention programs and future research.
This cross-sectional study investigated the relationships among self-esteem, social support, and Internet dependence. A sample of young people aged between 15 and 18 years old (M age = 16.3 yr., SD = 0.7; 470 boys, 441 girls) completed measures of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Perceived Social Support Scale, and the Internet Dependence Test. According to the cognitive-behavioral model of problematic Internet use, social support should mediate the relationship between self-esteem and Internet dependence. Furthermore, based on previous research it was predicted that boys would score higher on Internet dependence than women. Support for this model was obtained. Internet dependent students were more likely to be boys. Self-esteem and social support were negatively correlated with Internet dependence. The relationship between self-esteem and Internet dependence was mediated by social support. Although the effect sizes were small, the findings of the present study are of significance in investigating adolescents' Internet dependence.
Ikeda, Ai; Kawachi, Ichiro; Iso, Hiroyasu; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro
Recent reports have found an association between social support and reduced prevalence of metabolic syndrome (or its components) in the West; however, no study has been carried out in Asian populations. The authors examined 12,537 men and women who were part of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study initiated in 1993. Perceived emotional support was assessed through questionnaire as receipt of confidant support and esteem support from family members or friends. Metabolic syndrome was defined based on the modified criteria of the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF), while its components were obtained through health examinations conducted during the same year as the questionnaire. The authors found an association between social support and metabolic syndrome among Japanese men that was in the opposite direction to what has previously been reported in western studies. Among men, the multivariate ORs and 95% CIs for metabolic syndrome in the lowest versus highest level of social support was 0.75 (0.58 to 0.97) based on AHA/NHLBI criteria and 0.69 (0.51 to 0.92) based on IDF criteria. Among women, the authors found no association between social support and metabolic syndrome. In this study, men with higher social support appeared to engage in heavier drinking and also reported a higher fat intake pattern, both of which may increase the risk of metabolic syndrome mainly through overweight. Our findings lend weight to the notion that the pattern of association between social support and health outcomes is both culturally contingent and gender-specific.
Michell, Dee; Beddoe, Liz; Fraser, Heather; Jarldorn, Michele
This paper reports on our use of a two-phased, feminist memory work in a project conducted with 11 women, social science students at an Australian university. We begin by describing government-led attempts to widen participation in Australian universities because 10 of the 11 women who participated in our project were from…
Stauffer, Suzanne M
After the renunciation of polygamy, Mormon women formed secular women's clubs as a means of collaborating with non-Mormon women in the construction of a shared secular society. Their common goal was the establishment and maintenance of the mainstream American social order. Activity in these clubs extended women's sphere into the public realm through socially acceptable public activities such as the temperance cause, civic improvements, political reform movements, and child welfare. The women campaigned for public support of libraries as institutions that would construct, preserve, and transmit American culture, educate the young, strengthen the home and family, and reform society.
Olff, Miranda; Koch, Saskia B. J.; Nawijn, Laura; Frijling, Jessie L.; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Veltman, Dick J.
A lack of social support and recognition by the environment is one of the most consistent risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and PTSD patients will recover faster with proper social support. The oxytocin system has been proposed to underlie beneficial effects of social support as
Bradley, Rebekah; Schwartz, Ann C; Kaslow, Nadine J
There is a dearth of research on risk/protective factors for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among low-income African American women with a history of intimate partner violence (IPV), presenting for suicidal behavior or routine medical care in a large, urban hospital. We examined self-esteem, social support, and religious coping as mediators between experiences of child maltreatment (CM) and IPV and symptoms of PTSD in a sample (N = 134) of low-income African American women. Instruments used included the Index of Spouse Abuse, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Taylor Self-Esteem Inventory, the Multidimensional Profile of Social Support, the Brief Religious Coping Activities Scale, and the Davidson Trauma Scale. Both CM and IPV related positively to PTSD symptoms. Risk and resilience individual difference factors accounted for 18% of the variance in PTSD symptoms over and above IPV and CM, with self-esteem and negative religious coping making unique contributions. Both variables mediated the abuse-PTSD symptom link. In addition, we tested an alternate model in which PTSD symptoms mediated the relationship between abuse and both self-esteem and negative religious coping.
Full Text Available Background Divorce is a transition period in which divorcing individuals face restructuring of the family system and adjustment to changes. The psychological well-being of divorcees can serve as an important indicator of the adjustment process. The achievement of well-being does not come easily for many reasons, one of which is the experience related to a sense of loss associated with the marriage break-up. Social support is a major relational resource for overcoming the crisis and successfully adjusting to post-divorce life. Participants and procedure The sample consisted of 157 individuals after divorce: 120 women and 37 men (mean age = 41.29. Instruments employed in the study included the Sense of Loss Scale (DS, the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL, the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ-23, and sociodemographic data. Results Our results show that perceived social support is a partial mediator of the relationship between the sense of loss associated with divorce and the psychological well-being of individuals after divorce. For the vast majority of the respondents their parents, friends and acquaintances were the major source of support. About one third of the participants were given support by their siblings and their own children. Conclusions The study confirms the mediating role of support in building well-being after experiencing loss related to dissolution of marriage. This means that for divorced women and men perceived social support is one of the key resources that have a significant impact on achieving psychological well-being after divorce, since it is related to mitigating the negative impact of the sense of loss associated with marriage break-up.
Débora Raquel Soares Guedes Trigueiro
Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To graspthe AIDS social representations built by freedom-deprived women. METHOD Descriptive study with a quali-quantitative approach that involved 174 convicted women in a women's prison in a capital city of the Brazilian northeastern region. Aword-association test was applied in October and November 2014, using AIDS as a stimulus. The corpuswas processed usingIramuteq software. Descending Hierarchical Classification and Correspondence Factor Analysis were applied. RESULTS The content that comprises the social representation of AIDS was influenced by the prison context, which was pervaded by a lack of assistance, lack of knowledge, discrimination, and suffering that disclosed vulnerability to HIV/AIDS factors such as unprotected sex and object sharing. This underlines the stigma and fear of the illness, in addition to favoring and supporting negative feelings and a sense of rejection. CONCLUSION To consider the use of this representational amalgam to ensure a comprehensive, contextualized care can help redirect practices, motivate self-care practices, and reduce prejudiced attitudes.
Vassard, Ditte; Lund, Rikke; Pinborg, Anja
STUDY QUESTION: Do social support and social strain from social relations have an impact on the decision to terminate fertility treatment among men and women after 1 year of unsuccessful treatment? SUMMARY ANSWER: Several functional aspects of social relations show an impact on the probability to...
Stringhini, Silvia; Berkman, Lisa; Dugravot, Aline; Ferrie, Jane E.; Marmot, Michael; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana
The authors examined the associations of social support with socioeconomic status (SES) and with mortality, as well as how SES differences in social support might account for SES differences in mortality. Analyses were based on 9,333 participants from the British Whitehall II Study cohort, a longitudinal cohort established in 1985 among London-based civil servants who were 35–55 years of age at baseline. SES was assessed using participant's employment grades at baseline. Social support was assessed 3 times in the 24.4-year period during which participants were monitored for death. In men, marital status, and to a lesser extent network score (but not low perceived support or high negative aspects of close relationships), predicted both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Measures of social support were not associated with cancer mortality. Men in the lowest SES category had an increased risk of death compared with those in the highest category (for all-cause mortality, hazard ratio = 1.59, 95% confidence interval: 1.21, 2.08; for cardiovascular mortality, hazard ratio = 2.48, 95% confidence interval: 1.55, 3.92). Network score and marital status combined explained 27% (95% confidence interval: 14, 43) and 29% (95% confidence interval: 17, 52) of the associations between SES and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, respectively. In women, there was no consistent association between social support indicators and mortality. The present study suggests that in men, social isolation is not only an important risk factor for mortality but is also likely to contribute to differences in mortality by SES. PMID:22534202
Orgambídez-Ramos, Alejandro; de Almeida, Helena
Job Demands-Resources model assumes the mediator role of work engagement between social support (job resource) and job satisfaction (organizational result). However, recent studies suggest that social support can be considered as a moderator variable in the relationship between engagement and job satisfaction in nursing staff. The aim of this study is to analyze the moderator role of social support, from supervisor and from co-workers, in the relationship between work engagement and job satisfaction in a Portuguese nursing sample. We conducted a cross-sectional and correlational study assessing a final sample of 215 participants (55.56% response rate, 77.21% women). Moderation analyses were carried out using multiple and hierarchical linear regression models. Job satisfaction was significantly predicted by work engagement and social support from supervisor and from co-workers. The significant interaction in predicting job satisfaction showed that social support from co-workers enhances the effects of work engagement on nurses' satisfaction. A climate of social support among co-workers and higher levels of work engagement have a positive effect on job satisfaction, improving quality care and reducing turnover intention in nursing staff. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hess, J; Kurth, I; Henkel, A; Panic, L; Rübben, H; Rossi Neto, R; Hess-Busch, Y
Gender reassignment surgery (GRS) can lead to discrimination. This transition makes great demands on the individual and also affects the social environment. To evaluate the social support of male-to-female (MtF) transgender people. Group A comprised 254 consecutive MtF transsexuals, who received a penile inversion vaginoplasty between 2004 and 2010. These women were surveyed retrospectively. Group B comprised 144 consecutive MtF transsexuals who presented for preoperative counselling. These patients were asked to answer the survey in advance of the planned GRS. The return rate was 46.9 % (A) and 95.1 % (B). In both groups, approximately two-thirds lived with their parents or children at ease. About 13.4 % (A) and 16.9 % (B) estimated the relationship towards their parents and one- seventh (A) or one-sixth (B) woman rated their relationship towards their children as poor. The acceptance of the parents regarding GRS was 65.6 % (A) and 77.1 % (B). In total 20 % (A) and 9.2 % (B) did not, however, accept GRS in their children. The acceptance of children regarding GRS was 64.9 % (A) and 71.1 % (B) with 10.8 % (A) and 6.7 % (B) who did not approve the decision. Social support is an important resource in the context of gender reassignment surgery. Understanding can help to improve the situation for transsexuals and to reduce consecutive healthcare utilisation.
“Heterogeneous Social Dilemmas: The Case of Social Support” studies the level of social support between heterogeneous actors. We consider heterogeneity with respect to several individual properties: the likelihood of needing support, the costs of providing support, and the benefits from receiving
Full Text Available This article analyses prostitution in the Barents Region as a social question through the subjective experiences of female Russian prostitutes. The women who were interviewed for this research live their everyday lives in the context of Russia. The operational possibilities of the women are based on a sociocultural framework which differs from that of Western countries. This article addresses the following question: How does prostitution construct the agency of women in the Barents Region? The question is explored in terms of the social relationships of the women, their everyday agency within the local environment, their living conditions, and the marginal conditions of their lives. Our focus is on the social structures and the position of the women within them. The data used in this article consist of observational material as well as interviews with 17 women, wherein they discuss their experiences of prostitution in the Barents Region. All of the material was collected in Murmansk, Russia between 2004 and 2008. Qualitative content analysis was performed as a means to understand the aforementioned women’s experiences of prostitution and its relation to everyday life. Prostitution is a product of social structures, a woman’s position, the accessibility of support, and the available personal, social and mental resources. Sometimes prostitution is a way to survive. Women who practice prostitution are often seen only as stereotypes, but the individual paths of their lives and the social contexts in which they live are integral to an understanding of the causes and effects of sex work.
Shimazu, Akihito; Shimazu, Miyuki; Odahara, Tsutomu
This study examined the effects of active coping on job satisfaction in the context of the job demands-control-support model. Participants were 867 employees (811 men and 56 women, M age = 35.2 yr.) of a large electrical company in Japan. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis examined whether effects of active coping on job satisfaction might depend on the extent of coping resources, such as job control or social support (supervisor and coworker). Analysis showed that the effect of active coping on job satisfaction depended on the extent of coworkers' support, not on job control and supervisors' support.
Mezuk, Briana; Diez Roux, Ana V; Seeman, Teresa
Social support is associated with cardiovascular disease mortality, however, the physiologic mechanisms underlying this relationship remains unspecified. This study evaluated the association of social support with inflammatory markers associated with cardiovascular risk: C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and fibrinogen. We evaluated two competing models of the support-inflammation relationship: first, that low social support is directly associated with inflammation, and second, that high support acts to buffer the effect of stress on inflammation. Using data from the baseline interview of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (N = 6814, 53% female, age 45-84 years) we assessed the independent and interacting associations of social support and stress with inflammation. Social support was measured by the emotional social support index. Stressors in multiple domains (work, family, finances, interpersonal) were assessed. Serum CRP, IL-6, and fibrinogen were analyzed from fasting samples using high-sensitivity assays. Multivariate linear regression, including models stratified by gender and age group (45-64 and 65-84 years), was used to assess the direct and buffering relationships between social support, stress, and inflammation. In bivariate analyses low social support was associated with higher levels of all three markers. In adjusted models, low support was associated with higher lnCRP (B: 0.15, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.30) among men but not women. High social support buffered the relationship between stress and CRP among middle-aged women only (P for interaction 0.042). Overall, social support was only modestly associated with inflammation in this relatively healthy sample, and these relationships varied by age and gender. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rydström, Ingela; Dalheim Englund, Lotta; Dellve, Lotta; Ahlstrom, Linda
The workplace is an essential source of social capital for many people; it provides mutual support and gives meaning to life. However, few prospective studies have thoroughly investigated the importance of aspects of social capital in the workplace. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between aspects of social capital (social support, sense of community, and quality of leadership) at the workplace, and work ability, working degree, and vitality among women with a history of long-term sick leave from human service organizations. A longitudinal cohort study was performed among women with a history of long-term sick leave. The study started in 2005, and the women were followed up at 6 months, 1 year, and 6 years using self-reported questionnaires (baseline n = 283). Linear mixed models were used for longitudinal analysis of the repeated measurements of prospective degree of work ability, working degree, and vitality. Analyses were performed with different models; the explanatory variables for each model were social support, sense of community, and quality of leadership and time. Social capital in terms of quality of leadership (being good at solving conflicts and giving high priority to job satisfaction), sense of community (co-operation between colleagues) and social support (help and support from immediate superiors and colleagues) increased the women's work ability score (WAS) as well as working degree over time. Additionally, social capital in terms of quality of leadership increased the women's vitality score over time. A sustainable return-to-work process among individuals with a history of long-term sick leave, going in and out of work participation, could be supported with social support, good quality of leadership, and a sense of community at the workplace. The responsibility for the rehabilitation process can not be reduced to an individual problem, but ought to include all stakeholders involved in the process, such as managers
SUURMEIJER, TPBM; DOEGLAS, DM; BRIANCON, S; KRIJNEN, WP; KROL, B; SANDERMAN, R; MOUM, T; BJELLE, A; VANDENHEUVEL, WJA
Social support is supposed to have a beneficial effect on the health and wellbeing of people. It is a central concept in the 'EUropean Research on Incapacitating DIseaes and Social Support' (EURIDISS). In general, two main distinctions concerning social support are made in the literature, providing
Suurmeijer, T P B M; Doeglas, D M; Briançon, S; Krijnen, W; Krol, B.; Sanderman, R.; Moum, T; Bjelle, A; van den Heuvel, W.J.A.
Social support is supposed to have a beneficial effect on the health and wellbeing of people. It is a central concept in the "European Research on Incapacitating Diseases and Social Support" (EURIDISS). In general, two main distinctions concerning social support are made in the literature, providing
Van Dijk, F
"The issue is addressed whether assistance to persons in need can be left to the ¿family' and the ¿community'. In that case people depend on their social networks. The support a person receives through a given network of social ties is examined. However, ties are diverse and subject to change. By means of a model of the dynamics of social ties, the conditions for adequate private support are analyzed. The sustainability of private support over time is examined by incorporating the impact on social ties of lending and receiving support. It is shown that support is only an effective alternative in a limited number of situations." excerpt
Maria do Carmo Leal; Ana Paula Esteves Pereira; Gabriela de Almeida Lamarca; Mario Vianna Vettore
This study investigated the relationship between social capital and social support and the adequate use of prenatal care. A follow-up study involving 1,485 pregnant women was conducted in two cities in the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, social support and social capital data were collected during the first trimester of pregnancy. The post-partum period included information on levels of prenatal care utilization, social networks, parity, obstetric ...
Kim, Theresa H M; Connolly, Jennifer A; Tamim, Hala
Postpartum depression (PPD) is a mood disorder that affects 10-20 percent of women, and can begin any time during first year after delivery lasting for months. Social support may decrease risk of depression during pregnancy for women. However, literature shows that the amount of social support received during and after pregnancy is different for teen mothers and adult mothers. This study examined the effects of social support received during and after pregnancy on PPD among Canadian women and identified if the relationship was different for teen mothers compared to adult mothers. The study was based on secondary analysis of the Maternity Experiences Survey. A total of 6,421 women with singleton live births, aged 15 years and older were analyzed. Teen mothers were identified as 15-19 years old and adult mothers were identified as 20 years and older. The main outcome of the study was PPD, which was evaluated using the Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale. The main independent variable was social support received during pregnancy and after birth. Logistic regression was computed to assess the relationship between social support and PPD after adjusting for confounding variables and age as an interaction term. Adjusted Odds Ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals were reported. PPD was experienced by 14.0% among teen mothers and 7.2% among adult mothers (p teen mothers reported receiving more support during pregnancy and after birth than adult mothers (p teen compared to adult mothers. Both teen and adult mothers were approximately five times more likely to experience PPD if they received no support or minimal support after the birth of the baby (95% CI, 3.51-7.36). Receiving social support especially after birth is important for mothers of all ages to reduce the risk of PPD.
Prang, Khic-Houy; Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Newnam, Sharon
Social support can be an important coping resource for persons recovering from injury. In this study, we examined the effects of family structure and sources of social support on physical health, persistent pain and return to work (RTW) outcomes following musculoskeletal injury (MSI) sustained in a transport accident. Secondary analysis of Transport Accident Commission (TAC) cross-sectional surveys held in 2010 and 2011 was conducted. In total 1649 persons with MSI were identified and included. Family structure was determined by marital status and number of children. Sources of social support were measured as perceived help from family, friends, neighbours and employers. Physical health was measured with the Physical Component Summary (PCS) score of the Short-Form-12 Health Survey Version 2. Persistent pain was defined as self-reported persistent pain experienced in the last 3 months, and RTW was defined as being back at work for ≥3 months at time of interview. Multiple linear and logistic regressions were used for the analyses. Family and friends' support was associated with better physical health among persons with >1 day hospital stay. Being married or in a de facto relationship was associated with greater PCS score among non-hospitalised persons. Being widowed/separated/divorced was associated with more self-reported persistent pain (odds ratio 1.62 [95 % confidence intervals 1.11-2.37]). Support from family (0.40 [0.24-0.68]), friends (0.29 [0.17-0.47]) and neighbours (0.59 [0.41-0.84]) was associated with less persistent pain. Among women, support from family (0.09 [0.01-0.78]) was negatively associated with RTW, whereas support from friends (3.03 [1.15-8.02]) was positively associated with RTW. These associations were not observed among men. For both men (5.62 [2.77-11.38]) and women (7.22 [2.58-20.20]), support from employers was positively associated with RTW. Family structure and sources of social support had a positive impact on physical health
Bener, Abdulbari; Alsulaiman, Reem; Doodson, Lisa; Agathangelou, Tony
Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between different demographic variables, hopelessness, depression and social support of Breast cancer patients in Qatari’s population. Design: This is an observational cohort hospital based study. Subjects and Methods: The study included 678 breast cancer patients. The questionnaires included a demographic questionnaire, the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), Back Depression Scale (BDS) and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). The demographic questionnaire was used to assess patients’ basic information including gender, age, marital status, education, family size, and place of residence. Medical information regarding cancer stage, the time passed since diagnosis, treatment, and duration of disease were recorded. Results: The mean age of the studied women was 47.7±10.2 years. Among the studied patients, 34.7% were Qataris and 65.3% were Arab expatriates. Nearly 39.2% of the patients were in pre-menopausal status and 60.8% in post-menopausal status. 86.1% of women were married. 14.6% were illiterate women, 20.9% were university graduates and 37.2% were housewives. Smoking habit was less common in studied Arab women (9.1%), but, sheesha smoking was more common, 17.7%. Daily physical activity indicated 25.7% were walking 30 minutes per-day and 14% were walking 60 minutes per day. 30.4% of them had consanguineous parents. Breast feeding was practiced among 67.7% of women and over 73% were considered overweight and obese. Furthermore, over 75% of breast cancer women were at the Stage 3 (40.9%) and Stage 4 (35.8%) of cancer. The percentage of patients who underwent mastectomy and lumpectomy were 49.3 % and 50.7%, respectively. It was observed that 27.7% of BDI patients had moderate depression and 19.5% of the BDI patients had severe depression and with mean and standard deviation 25.1±7.7. Also, the mean and SD of BDI for consanguineous has showed statistically significant 28.4±5.7 than
Full Text Available Introduction: Bosnia and Herzegovina has a high prevalence of smoking among women, especially among health care professionals. The goal of this study is to investigate the influence of the social environment of women employed in health institutions in relation to the cigarettes smoking habits.Methods: The study included 477 women employed in hospitals, outpatient and public health institutions in Sarajevo Canton Bosnia and Herzegovina. We used a modifi ed questionnaire assessing smoking habits of medical staff in European hospitalsResults: The results showed that 50% of women are smokers, with the highest incidence among nurses (58.1% and administrative staff (55.6%. The social environment is characterized by a high incidence of colleagues (60.1% and friends who are smokers (54.0% at the workplace and in the family (pConclusion: Workplace and social environment support smoking as an acceptable cultural habit and is contributing to increasing rates of smoking among women.
Dahya, Negin; Dryden-Peterson, Sarah
In this paper, we explore the role of online social networks in the cultivation of pathways to higher education for refugees, particularly for women. We compare supports garnered in local and offline settings to those accrued through online social networks and examine the differences between women and men. The paper draws on complementary original…
Ringa, Virginie; Diter, Kevin; Laborde, Caroline; Bajos, Nathalie
Studies designed in northern countries show that most women are still sexually active after the age of 50. Many factors other than hormones influence sexual life in and after middle age; they include social status, personal characteristics, physical and psychological conditions, relationship factors, and social representations of sexuality. This study aims to analyze various components of sexuality, including its social representations, among women aged 45-55 years, as they reach menopause. Comparison of three groups: all postmenopausal women (277), postmenopausal women not currently using hormonal treatment (HT) (209), postmenopausal women currently using HT (68), with a reference group of premenopausal women (408). All were recruited in a national general population-based survey of sexual behaviors and interviewed by telephone. Practices, sexual function, satisfaction, and representations and expectations concerning sexuality. The women did not differ according to menopausal status for sexual activity, practices (wide range of practices beyond sexual intercourse), dysfunction, or satisfaction. They also attributed equal importance to sexuality. Nevertheless, although postmenopausal women not using HT did not report less sexual activity than premenopausal women, they were less likely to consider that a 3-month period without sex is a sign of difficulty in a relationship (30.3% vs. 47.7%; odds ratio: 0.35 [0.21-0.57], P=0.000). This difference was not observed between postmenopausal women using HT and premenopausal women. Our results suggest that for middle-aged women who are at the onset of menopause, the biological/hormonal changes characterizing menopause do not negatively affect sexual life. Any negative reported effects on sexuality are more likely due to anticipation or negative representations of sexuality around menopause than to biological or hormonal effects. The effect of menopause at this point in women's lives may thus be more symbolic than biological
Malak, Arzu Tuna; Bektash, Murat; Turgay, Ayshe San; Tuna, Asli; Genç, Rabia Ekti
To estimate associations among peer education, social support and self-esteem and their influences on performance of breast self-examination (BSE). Seven volunteer peer educators were given the BSE training programme and in turn educated 65 women students in the university. BSE knowledge evaluation forms developed by Maurer were applied for evaluation. Other data were collected with questionnaires for the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and Scale of Perceived Social Support over three months. Knowledge level points of students and the BSE practice ratio were increased by peer support. There was a positive relationship between average BSE knowledge points and social support and self-esteem. The results showed positive relationships among BSE knowledge, social support and self-esteem, these affecting the BSE performance level.
Clement, Damien; Shannon, Vanessa R
According to the buffering hypothesis, social support moderates the harmful effects of stress and, in turn, indirectly affects injured athletes' health and well-being. Previous research suggests that perceptions of social support influence athletes' psychological reactions, as well as their rehabilitation adherence, but additional research in this area is warranted. To examine injured athletes' perceptions regarding satisfaction, availability, and contribution for each of the 8 types of social support. Descriptive. Mid-Atlantic Division II and III institutions. 49 injured athletes. Social support was assessed using a modified version of the Social Support Survey. Injured athletes were significantly more satisfied with social support provided by athletic trainers (ATCs) than that provided by coaches and teammates. In addition, injured athletes reported that social support provided by ATCs contributed significantly more to their overall well-being. Athletes reported several significant differences regarding satisfaction and contribution to well-being among the 8 different types of social support. Injury, an unavoidable part of sport, is often accompanied by negative psychological reactions. This reaction may have a negative influence on an athlete's experience of injury and rehabilitation. Findings suggest that perceptions of social support provided by ATCs have the greatest influence on injured athletes' rehabilitation and well-being.
Kita, Sachiko; Minatani, Mariko; Hikita, Naoko; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Shiraishi, Mie; Haruna, Megumi
The perinatal mortality of immigrants in Japan is higher than that of Japanese women. However, details of the problems of immigrant perinatal women that contribute to worsening of their health are still unknown. This review describes the physical, psychological, social, and economic problems of immigrant women during the perinatal period in Japan. Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Igaku-Chuo Zasshi were searched and 36 relevant articles were reviewed. The related descriptions were collected and analyzed by using content analysis. The results showed that immigrant perinatal women in Japan experienced the following problems: language barriers, a problematic relationship with a partner, illegal residency, emotional distress, physical distress, adjustment difficulties, lack of utilization of services, social isolation, lack of support, lack of information, low economic status, unsatisfactory health care, and discrimination. These results indicated that multilingual services, strengthening of social and support networks, and political action are necessary to resolve their problems.
McCaughan, Eilis; Parahoo, Kader; Hueter, Irene; Northouse, Laurel; Bradbury, Ian
Survival rates for women with a diagnosis of breast cancer continue to improve. However, some women may experience physical, psychological and emotional effects post diagnosis, throughout treatment and beyond. Support groups can provide opportunities for people to share their experiences and learn from others. As the number of online support groups increases, more and more women with breast cancer will likely access them. To assess effects of online support groups on the emotional distress, uncertainty, anxiety, depression and quality of life (QoL) of women with breast cancer. We searched for trials in the Cochrane Breast Cancer Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 4), MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO on 2 May 2016, and we handsearched journals and reference lists. We also searched the World Health Organization's International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP) search portal and clinicaltrials.gov on 2 May 2016. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing effects of online support groups on women with a diagnosis of breast cancer and women who have completed breast cancer treatment. We included studies comparing online support groups with a usual care group, and studies comparing two or more types of online support groups (without a usual care group). Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We presented outcome data using mean differences (MDs) and standardised mean differences (SMDs) along with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and we used the fixed-effect model when appropriate. We assessed the quality of the body of evidence using the GRADE approach. We included six studies (492 women) that assessed online support groups for women with breast cancer. Online support groups in these six trials lasted from six to 30 weeks. Women participated in these groups between 1.5 and 2.5 hours per week, and investigators conducted all studies in the USA
A group of women formed the Women and AIDS Support Network (WASN) in Zimbabwe in June 1989 to improve women;s self-esteem and confidence and to bring about changes in attitudes and reactions toward AIDS-related problems. Both HIV-positive and HIV-negative women are WASN members. Women have limited control over sexual relationships. Women who know their partners are having intercourse with other women have few options, e.g., they may depend on their partners. A family council settles marital disagreements, but husbands do not always cooperate. Increased peer pressure could change societal acceptance of male infidelity to positive attitudes toward friendship and partnership in marriage. Therefore, WASN explores sexual relationships, especially control and power in them. These discussions should lead to affirmation of positive behavior. For example, men can promote condom use and monogamy to their male peers. They can also talk to their partners and their sons about HIV. Rural women should not blame urban women for their partner's HIV status. WASN also targets schoolgirls. Most early and some current messages of AIDS campaigns reinforces the dichotomy of good and bad women, supported by an earlier link between urban women and sexually transmitted diseases. Yet, they ignored men's role in HIV transmission. WASN speaks out against such negative images, e.g., dramas that depict the HIV-infected woman as evil and the innocent as good while the man worries about which woman infected him instead of feeling awful about infecting other women. WASN also addressee AIDS-related discrimination on the job and stigmatization issues. It now is conducting 2 research projects: information needs of urban and rural women and capacities of family support systems to assist HIV-positive women.
Maercker, A; Heim, E; Hecker, T; Thoma, M V
The classical concept of social support has recently become of relevance again, particularly in the context of traumatized patient groups, which include refugees and migrants. This article summarizes the evidence from social support research, e. g. different types of positive effects as well as context, gender and cultural aspects. These aspects are highlighted by means of studies stemming from applied healthcare research and thus describe a wide range of health effects, e.g. increased well-being and reduced depressive symptoms, improved functional abilities, better immune status and longevity. Two new trauma-specific differentiations of the social support concept are introduced: societal acknowledgement as a trauma survivor and disclosure of traumatic experiences. Against this background several implications for working with refugees arise: promotion of self-efficacy and posttraumatic maturation as well as the treatment of mental disorders show considerable benefits from focusing on social support. Finally, possibilities emerging from digital communication media are discussed, which are particularly relevant in this context.
Full Text Available A growing body of research suggests that having more women in the boardroom leads to better corporate social responsibility (CSR performance. However, much of this work views the CSR-enhancing effect of women directors as largely driven by their moral orientations and rarely considers other underlying mechanisms. Moreover, less explored are the firm-specific conditions under which such CSR-promoting roles of female directors might be performed more (or less effectively. In this paper, we seek to bridge this gap in the literature by (1 proposing an additional account for the positive influence of female independent directors on the firm’s CSR and (2 illuminating the organizational context in which female directorship is likely to translate into good CSR performance. We argue that women independent directors might take CSR issues more seriously than their male counterparts not only because of their stronger moral orientations, but also because they have reputational reasons to do so. Further, we suggest that female directors’ concerns about CSR-relevant matters are more (less likely to gain support from other members of the organization when their company is doing more (less business in the product markets where reputation for CSR is more (less vital for success. Using a sample of Standard & Poor’s (S&P 1500 index firms (2000–2009 and the data on their board composition and CSR ratings, we find strong support for our argument. We find that the number (or proportion of women independent directors is positively associated with a firm’s CSR ratings and that the strength of this relationship depends on the level of the firm’s consumer market orientation.
Gecková, A.; Pudelsky, M.; van Dijk, J.P.
The influence of perceived social support on health and socio-economic differences in social support were investigated in sample of adolescents (n = 2616, including 1370 boys, mean age 15 years). The perceived social support was studied in five spheres: school, interpersonal relations, serious
Alfonso, Sarah V; Alfonso, Lauren A; Llabre, Maria M; Fernandez, M Isabel
Although there is evidence supporting the use of equine-assisted activities to treat mental disorders, its efficacy in reducing signs and symptoms of social anxiety in young women has not been examined. We developed and pilot tested Project Stride, a brief, six-session intervention combining equine-assisted activities and cognitive-behavioral strategies to reduce symptoms of social anxiety. A total of 12 women, 18-29 years of age, were randomly assigned to Project Stride or a no-treatment control. Participants completed the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale at baseline, immediate-post, and 6 weeks after treatment. Project Stride was highly acceptable and feasible. Compared to control participants, those in Project Stride had significantly greater reductions in social anxiety scores from baseline to immediate-post [decrease of 24.8 points; t (9) = 3.40, P = .008)] and from baseline to follow-up [decrease of 31.8 points; t (9) = 4.12, P = .003)]. These findings support conducting a full-scale efficacy trial of Project Stride. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Burnley, C S
Even though filial caregivers are typically daughters rather than sons, examinations of caregiving have not adequately considered the impact of gender and marital status differences on the support systems that mediate the strain of caring. Because of competing demands on time and energy, caregivers make many changes in their personal activities while maintaining work and immediate family responsibilities. The friendships that provide emotional support for singles are perceived as less important than familial relationships. Therefore, the assumption is made that the single adult daughter has less to give up as compared to her married siblings. The parallel emotional support systems of the married and single caregivers go unrecognized. This study of never-married women over age 30 reveals that these caregivers essentially foreclosed social relationships in order to provide care. Copyright © 1987. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Boneham, Margaret Anne; Sixsmith, Judith A
The voices of older women are rarely heard in debates about the health of disadvantaged groups. Despite growing interest in health in old age, the health experiences of older women as gendered social beings have yet to be fully explored. Their potential to contribute positively to family and community health is seldom acknowledged. The aim of this article is to present findings from a qualitative British Health Development Agency funded project on the relationship between social capital, health and gender, focusing on the health and social networks of older women in a socially disadvantaged community in the north of England. Seventy-seven community members were interviewed, of these 19 were older women aged 55-78 years. Their accounts of ill health in the context of ageing were analysed to explore the intricate ways in which social capital was created, maintained and linked to health. Findings suggest that social constructions of motherhood and caring underpinned responsibility for their own and others' health. Their experiences of dealing with health matters, together with frequent health talk, gave the women confidence as lay health experts, enabling them to contest medical advice. Drawing on personal experiences of trust and reciprocity, they recognised the importance of social networking in alleviating the problems of loneliness and isolation. At stressful times in their lives they were able to draw on existing support networks and, in spite of occasional personal conflicts, some benefited from the empowering and health-enhancing role of formal and informal participation in community life. These findings indicate that older women can operate autonomously in health matters and can substantially influence the development of healthy communities, although this can sometimes be at a personal cost.
Yohannes Dibaba Wado
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW is the principal risk factor for neonatal and infant mortality in developing countries. This study examines the effects of unwanted pregnancy, prenatal depression and social support on the risk of low birth weight in rural southwestern Ethiopia. We hypothesized that unwanted pregnancy and prenatal depression increase the risk of low birth weight, while social support mediates this association. METHODS: Data for the study comes from a prospective study in which women were followed from pregnancy through to delivery. Six hundred twenty two women were followed and 537 birth weights were measured within 72 hours. Multivariable log binomial regression was used to model the risk of low birth weight. RESULTS: The mean birth weight was 2989 grams (SD ± 504 grams, and the incidence of LBW was 17.88%. The mean birth weight of babies after unwanted pregnancy was 114 g lower compared to births from intended pregnancy. Similarly, mean birth weight for babies among women with symptoms of antenatal depression was 116 grams lower. Results of unadjusted log-binomial regression showed that unwanted pregnancy, prenatal depression and social support were associated with LBW. The relationship between antenatal depressive symptoms and LBW was mediated by the presence of social support, while the association between LBW and unwanted pregnancy remained after multivariable adjustment. CONCLUSION: The incidence of low birth weight is high in the study area. Poverty, nonuse of antenatal care, low social support and unwanted pregnancy contribute to this high incidence of low birth weight. Hence, identifying women's pregnancy intention during antenatal care visits, and providing appropriate counseling and social support will help improve birth outcomes.
Full Text Available Web 2.01 has redefined the virtual life of ordinary individuals and has given wide opportunities to internet users including women to exchange ideas, interact with like minded people and participate in the development of virtual societies as per one's own choices. Social networking websites (SNWs, a segment of Web 2.0 is very popular among the internet users. However, there is a dark side of these SNW's too. They have become havens for offenders to victimize women, the most vulnerable targets in the internet, after children. In this paper, we examine the victimization of women in the social networking websites in general, analyze the trends of such victimization from socio - legal - victimological angle and ascertain the reasons for the growth of such victimization.
Tiedt, Andrew D
Depression has been described as the world's most prevalent illness and a leading cause of disability across age groups. The global literature on aging and depression reports greater prevalence of depressive symptoms among women than men. This research applies data from the Nihon University Japanese Longitudinal Study of Aging to the gender gap in depressive symptoms reported by Japanese elders. This study takes the position that cultural norms centered on obligations to care determine both the prevalence of social support and its application by family members. Since gender is the lens through which social and cultural expectations are filtered, the experiences of men and women are distinguished from one another. This study hypothesized that coresidency and filial obligations should protect elders from depression. At the same time, combative relationships within households were posited to aggravate depressive symptoms among mothers-in-law and daughters-in-law. Weak social support networks, as captured through not being married, living alone and lack of community contact were also hypothesized to exacerbate isolation and heighten depressive symptoms. The analyses found that receipt of support both protected elders as well as worsened depressive symptoms. While women reported greater frequency of depressive symptoms overall, results indicated that men experienced a larger effect of decreased mobility and transitions to poor physical health on depressive symptoms than women.
Sidloyi, Sinethemba S; Bomela, Nolunkcwe J
This study seeks to examine the critical issue of how the elderly women of Ngangelizwe, Mthatha, Eastern Cape, South Africa address the challenges they encounter in their attempts to provide for their needs and those of their dependants. These challenges include among others lack of education, access to resources, caring for their sick children suffering from AIDS related diseases as well as their orphaned grandchildren. In-depth interviews were held with 15 retired women above 60 years old who are also heads of households, receiving or not receiving state pension, and/or a child support grant. The study reveals that friendship-based ties, social networks and their impact on the livelihoods, health, survival and social adjustment of the elderly women are essential components of their lives. The study also reports on the strategies they employ to alleviate poverty through their own and school-going age grandchildren's participation in income generating activities. The study indicates that for most women, the inability to attain basic essentials of life leads to loss of self-dignity. Socio-economic factors such as low levels of education, unemployment, little or no income, poor access to resources, many dependants and looking after their children who are ill creates a situation where they operate within the "little opportunities" circle. The evidence in this study suggests that friendship-based ties, social groups, including social capital, pension grants, child support grants and remittances from their employed children help to mitigate some of the poverty experiences of the elderly women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lyman, Linda L.; Strachan, Jane; Lazaridou, Angeliki
"Shaping Social Justice Leadership: Insights of Women Educators Worldwide" contains evocative portraits of twenty-three women educators and leaders from around the world whose actions are shaping social justice leadership. Woven from words of their own narratives, the women's voices lift off the page into readers' hearts and minds to inspire and…
Becofsky, Katie M; Shook, Robin P; Sui, Xuemei; Wilcox, Sara; Lavie, Carl J; Blair, Steven N
To examine associations between relative, friend, and partner support, as well as size and source of weekly social network, and mortality risk in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. In a mail-back survey completed between January 1, 1990, and December 31, 1990, adult participants in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (N=12,709) answered questions on whether they received social support from relatives, friends, and spouse/partner (yes or no for each) and on the number of friends and relatives they had contact with at least once per week. Participants were followed until December 31, 2003, or until the date of death. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses evaluated the strength of the associations, controlling for covariates. Participants (3220 [25%] women) averaged 53.0 ± 11.3 years of age at baseline. During a median follow-up of 13.5 years, 1139 deaths occurred. Receiving social support from relatives reduced mortality risk by 19% (hazard ratio [HR], 0.81; 95% CI, 0.68-0.95). Receiving spousal/partner support also reduced mortality risk by 19% (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.66-0.99). Receiving social support from friends was not associated with mortality risk (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.75-1.09); however, participants reporting social contact with 6 or 7 friends on a weekly basis had a 24% lower mortality risk than did those in contact with 0 or 1 friend (HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.58-0.98). Contact with 2 to 5 or 8 or more friends was not associated with mortality risk, nor was the number of weekly contacts with relatives. Receiving social support from one's spouse/partner and relatives and maintaining weekly social interaction with 6 to 7 friends reduced mortality risk. Such data may inform interventions to improve long-term survival. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of coping strategies, personality trait and social support as the main social and psychological factors on infertility stress.Materials and methods: This study was conducted on 201 infertile Iranian women referred to the Vali-e-Asr Reproductive health Research Center, and completed the following questionnaires: The fertility problem inventory, measuring perceived infertility related stress (Newton CR, 1999, big five factor personality questionnaire (Farahani, 2009, multidimensional scale of perceived social support MSPS (Zimmet 1988, and multidimensional assessment of coping (Endler, 1990.The results were then analyzed using the Pearson Correlation and stepwise regression.Results: Infertility stress has negative and significant relation with emotion-oriented coping method, perceived social support and bring extrovert. It has a positive, significant relation with emotion-oriented coping method, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD. The results of the stepwise regression showed that emotion-oriented coping method, OCD and being extrovert are suitable predictors of infertility stress.Conclusion: About 22% of the infertility stress variance was explained by coping strategies and personality trait. Therefore our result demonstrates the importance of social and psychological factors on experiencing the infertility stress.
Sherman, Stephanie M; Cheng, Yen-Pi; Fingerman, Karen L; Schnyer, David M
Social support benefits health and well-being in older individuals, however the mechanism remains poorly understood. One proposal, the stress-buffering hypothesis states social support 'buffers' the effects of stress on health. Alternatively, the main effect hypothesis suggests social support independently promotes health. We examined the combined association of social support and stress on the aging brain. Forty healthy older adults completed stress questionnaires, a social network interview and structural MRI to investigate the amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex circuitry, which is implicated in social and emotional processing and negatively affected by stress. Social support was positively correlated with right medial prefrontal cortical thickness while amygdala volume was negatively associated with social support and positively related to stress. We examined whether the association between social support and amygdala volume varied across stress level. Stress and social support uniquely contribute to amygdala volume, which is consistent with the health benefits of social support being independent of stress. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Grundy, Gillian; Beeching, Nicholas
The aim of this research is to gain a more complete understanding of the impact of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) on women. This research used qualitative methods. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with eight HCV-positive women. The interviews explored counselling and testing, social stigma, treatment options, transmission and gender roles, and the influence of reductionism on the experience of HCV-positive women attending services. All the women experienced significant difficulties coming to terms with the diagnosis. Many had worries about transmission and stigma--these worries affected their relationships, including those with sexual partners, family members and children. Most of the women had mixed feelings about knowing their diagnosis and varying levels of satisfaction with treatments and services provided. Women appear to have individual anxieties related to the transmission of HCV and their ability to carry out their social roles. They were particularly concerned about social stigma, sexual transmission, pregnancy and childcare. These worries affected their close relationships and resulted in concerns about their ability to fulfil expected gender roles.
Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Chiatti, Carlos; Lamura, Giovanni; Torres-Gonzales, Francisco; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Lindert, Jutta; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Barros, Henrique; Macassa, Gloria; Soares, Joaquim F J
Social support has a strong impact on individuals, not least on older individuals with health problems. A lack of support network and poor family or social relations may be crucial in later life, and represent risk factors for elder abuse. This study focused on the associations between social support, demographics/socio-economics, health variables and elder mistreatment. The cross-sectional data was collected by means of interviews or interviews/self-response during January-July 2009, among a sample of 4,467 not demented individuals aged 60-84 years living in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden). Multivariate analyses showed that women and persons living in large households and with a spouse/partner or other persons were more likely to experience high levels of social support. Moreover, frequent use of health care services and low scores on depression or discomfort due to physical complaints were indicators of high social support. Low levels of social support were related to older age and abuse, particularly psychological abuse. High levels of social support may represent a protective factor in reducing both the vulnerability of older people and risk of elder mistreatment. On the basis of these results, policy makers, clinicians and researchers could act by developing intervention programmes that facilitate friendships and social activities in old age.
Maria Gabriella Melchiorre
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Social support has a strong impact on individuals, not least on older individuals with health problems. A lack of support network and poor family or social relations may be crucial in later life, and represent risk factors for elder abuse. This study focused on the associations between social support, demographics/socio-economics, health variables and elder mistreatment. METHODS: The cross-sectional data was collected by means of interviews or interviews/self-response during January-July 2009, among a sample of 4,467 not demented individuals aged 60-84 years living in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden. RESULTS: Multivariate analyses showed that women and persons living in large households and with a spouse/partner or other persons were more likely to experience high levels of social support. Moreover, frequent use of health care services and low scores on depression or discomfort due to physical complaints were indicators of high social support. Low levels of social support were related to older age and abuse, particularly psychological abuse. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of social support may represent a protective factor in reducing both the vulnerability of older people and risk of elder mistreatment. On the basis of these results, policy makers, clinicians and researchers could act by developing intervention programmes that facilitate friendships and social activities in old age.
Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Chiatti, Carlos; Lamura, Giovanni; Torres-Gonzales, Francisco; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Lindert, Jutta; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Barros, Henrique; Macassa, Gloria; Soares, Joaquim F. J.
Background Social support has a strong impact on individuals, not least on older individuals with health problems. A lack of support network and poor family or social relations may be crucial in later life, and represent risk factors for elder abuse. This study focused on the associations between social support, demographics/socio-economics, health variables and elder mistreatment. Methods The cross-sectional data was collected by means of interviews or interviews/self-response during January-July 2009, among a sample of 4,467 not demented individuals aged 60–84 years living in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden). Results Multivariate analyses showed that women and persons living in large households and with a spouse/partner or other persons were more likely to experience high levels of social support. Moreover, frequent use of health care services and low scores on depression or discomfort due to physical complaints were indicators of high social support. Low levels of social support were related to older age and abuse, particularly psychological abuse. Conclusions High levels of social support may represent a protective factor in reducing both the vulnerability of older people and risk of elder mistreatment. On the basis of these results, policy makers, clinicians and researchers could act by developing intervention programmes that facilitate friendships and social activities in old age. PMID:23382989
Idalski Carcone, April; Ellis, Deborah A; Weisz, Arlene; Naar-King, Sylvie
The aim of this research study was to examine the relationship between 4 sources of social support (support for the adolescent from family, support for the adolescent from friends, support for the caregiver from another adult, and support to the family from the health care provider) and adolescents' diabetes outcomes (illness management behavior and health status) using a diverse sample of urban adolescents. One hundred forty-one adolescents with insulin-managed diabetes and their primary caregivers completed questionnaires assessing social support and illness management behavior. Glucose meters were downloaded and hemoglobin A1c assays were obtained. Structural equation modeling was used to test a model social support informed by social ecological theory. The results of the structural equation modeling indicated that support for the caregiver from another adult was directly and positively related to support for the adolescent from family and indirectly related to better illness management. Support for the adolescent from family was directly related to better diabetes management and, through better management, to better diabetes health. Support to the family from the health care provider was not related to support for the adolescent and support to the adolescent from friends was not related to illness management, as hypothesized. This study identifies a novel target for social support intervention to improve adolescents' illness management behavior-the caregivers of adolescents with diabetes. By enhancing the social support caregivers receive from other adults in their lives, caregivers' ability to support their adolescent children with diabetes might also be improved which, in turn, improves adolescents' illness outcomes.
This study investigated anxiety as a phenomenon distinct from depression and evaluated several variables that influence anxiety in first-time mothers. This explored the relationship between maternal sense of competence (both of mothering and efficacy) and perceived social support (from family, friends, and significant others) and first-time mothers' postpartum anxiety, when depression, socioeconomic status (SES), and marital status were controlled for. The population studied were 86 first-time mothers made up of women with children 24 months or younger in two populations of Kentucky and Michigan. The constructs of maternal sense of competence and perceived social support were found to be significant in explaining first-time mothers' anxiety. The study concluded that a combined association of perceived social support and maternal sense of competence were associated with a 34% (change in R-squared = .339) decrease of a first-time mothers' anxiety. However, not all types of social support, or maternal competence appeared to be equally important with regards to maternal anxiety: social support from friends and family and maternal sense of competence in regard to productivity appeared to be most significant. Lastly, some recommendations for health practitioners who work with mothers are provided.
Adriano Gonçalves Silva
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Different kinds of psychological distress have been identified for students in the health field, especially in the medical school. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of mental suffering among medical students in the Southeastern Brazil and asses its association with social support. METHODS: It is a cross-sectional study. Structured questionnaires were applied for students from the 1st up to the 6th years of the medical school of Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho", assessing demographic variables related to aspects of graduation and adaptation to the city. Psychological suffering was defined as a common mental disorder (CMD assessed by the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20. Social support was assessed by the social support scale of the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS. The association between the outcome and explanatory variables was assessed by the χ2 test and Logistic Regression, for the multivariate analyses, using p < 0.05. RESULTS: The response rate was of 80.7%, with no differences between sample and the population regarding gender (p = 0.78. The average age was 22 years old (standard deviation - SD = 2.2, mainly women (58.2% and students who were living with friends (62%. The prevalence of CMD was 44.9% (95%CI 40.2 - 49.6. After the multivariate analyses, the explanatory variables that were associated with CMD were: feeling rejected in the past year (p < 0.001, thinking about leaving medical school (p < 0.001 and "interaction" in the MOS scale (p = 0.002. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of CMD among medical students was high and insufficient social support was an important risk factor. Our findings suggest that interventions to improve social interaction among those students could be beneficial, decreasing the prevalence of CMD in this group.
Silva, Adriano Gonçalves; Cerqueira, Ana Teresa de Abreu Ramos; Lima, Maria Cristina Pereira
Different kinds of psychological distress have been identified for students in the health field, especially in the medical school. To estimate the prevalence of mental suffering among medical students in the Southeastern Brazil and asses its association with social support. It is a cross-sectional study. Structured questionnaires were applied for students from the 1st up to the 6th years of the medical school of Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho", assessing demographic variables related to aspects of graduation and adaptation to the city. Psychological suffering was defined as a common mental disorder (CMD) assessed by the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Social support was assessed by the social support scale of the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS). The association between the outcome and explanatory variables was assessed by the χ2 test and Logistic Regression, for the multivariate analyses, using p < 0.05. The response rate was of 80.7%, with no differences between sample and the population regarding gender (p = 0.78). The average age was 22 years old (standard deviation - SD = 2.2), mainly women (58.2%) and students who were living with friends (62%). The prevalence of CMD was 44.9% (95%CI 40.2 - 49.6). After the multivariate analyses, the explanatory variables that were associated with CMD were: feeling rejected in the past year (p < 0.001), thinking about leaving medical school (p < 0.001) and "interaction" in the MOS scale (p = 0.002). The prevalence of CMD among medical students was high and insufficient social support was an important risk factor. Our findings suggest that interventions to improve social interaction among those students could be beneficial, decreasing the prevalence of CMD in this group.
Stewart, Warren; Lovely, Rachel
To undertake a service evaluation to assess the effect of peer social support training using two separate learning programmes, which were designed to assist prisoners to support older prisoners and prisoners with disabilities. The service evaluation used an action research approach to support planning, delivery and data collection. Eleven interviews with nine prisoners who had undertaken the peer social support training programmes and two members of prison staff (one nurse manager and one prison officer) were recorded and transcribed by the researchers. This data was coded and thematically analysed to evaluate the findings. Recommendations were made regarding the format and content of the training. The training was well received by the peer social support worker trainees and had several positive outcomes, including increased peer social support, improved relationships between peer social support workers and older prisoners and prisoners with disabilities, increased self-esteem, measured as 'social capital', among peer social support workers, and effective teamworking. The peer social support training programmes were considered to be a positive intervention and were effective in supporting peer social support roles. Recommendations for future training of prisoner peer support workers include involving existing peer social support workers in training and recruitment, and enhancing the role of peer social support workers in prisons by providing them with job descriptions. ©2012 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Social support is strongly implicated in the aetiology of perinatal mental disorder: particularly the quality of the marital and family environment. Family structures are important under-researched potential modifiers. Turkey offers particular advantages for research in this area because of long-standing coexistence of Western and Middle Eastern family structures. We aimed to investigate associations between the quality of key relationships and depression in women in their third trimester of pregnancy, and the extent to which these associations were modified by family structure. Method Women attending antenatal clinics in their third trimester were recruited from urban and rural settings in Ankara. A nuclear family structure was defined as a wife and husband living alone or with their children in the same household, whereas a traditional/extended family structure was defined if another adult was living with the married couple in the same household. Depression was ascertained using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS and social support was assessed by the Close Person Questionnaire with respect to the husband, mother and mother-in-law. Social support was compared between participants with/without case-level depression on the EPDS in linear regression models adjusted for relevant covariates, then stratified by nuclear/traditional family structure. Results Of 772 women approached, 751 (97.3% participated and 730 (94.6% had sufficient data for this analysis. Prevalence of case-level depression was 33.1% and this was associated with lower social support from all three family members but not with traditional/nuclear family structure. The association between depression and lower emotional support from the husband was significantly stronger in traditional compared to nuclear family environments. Conclusions Lower quality of relationships between key family members was strongly associated with third trimester depression
Senturk, Vesile; Abas, Melanie; Berksun, Oguz; Stewart, Robert
Social support is strongly implicated in the aetiology of perinatal mental disorder: particularly the quality of the marital and family environment. Family structures are important under-researched potential modifiers. Turkey offers particular advantages for research in this area because of long-standing coexistence of Western and Middle Eastern family structures. We aimed to investigate associations between the quality of key relationships and depression in women in their third trimester of pregnancy, and the extent to which these associations were modified by family structure. Women attending antenatal clinics in their third trimester were recruited from urban and rural settings in Ankara. A nuclear family structure was defined as a wife and husband living alone or with their children in the same household, whereas a traditional/extended family structure was defined if another adult was living with the married couple in the same household. Depression was ascertained using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and social support was assessed by the Close Person Questionnaire with respect to the husband, mother and mother-in-law. Social support was compared between participants with/without case-level depression on the EPDS in linear regression models adjusted for relevant covariates, then stratified by nuclear/traditional family structure. Of 772 women approached, 751 (97.3%) participated and 730 (94.6%) had sufficient data for this analysis. Prevalence of case-level depression was 33.1% and this was associated with lower social support from all three family members but not with traditional/nuclear family structure. The association between depression and lower emotional support from the husband was significantly stronger in traditional compared to nuclear family environments. Lower quality of relationships between key family members was strongly associated with third trimester depression. Family structure modified the association but, contrary to
Gharaibeh, Muntaha; Oweis, Arwa
The purpose of this study was to explore why Jordanian women stay with an abusive husband. The study used a qualitative approach to collect data from 28 abused women who were recruited through their community during the summer and fall of 2007. Data were collected using an open-ended question through one-on-one in-depth interviews. Results from analysis of the qualitative data revealed that abused Jordanian women identified five main reasons for staying with an abusive husband: the inherited social background, financial dependency, lack of family support, sacrificing self for the sake of the children, and the adverse social consequences of divorce. The results indicate that Jordanian women are strongly bound by traditions and cultural rules and lack all means of empowerment. Results of the study have implications for healthcare providers, social workers, policy makers, and educators to enhance the health and social well-being of Arab Muslim women in Jordan. The findings may also apply to Arab families immigrating to the United States, Canada, and Europe who tend to bring their cultural beliefs, values, and norms, and may help healthcare professionals dealing with violence against women in these countries. Healthcare professionals worldwide need to play an instrumental role in providing culture-specific and evidence-based care to empower women staying in abusive relationships, taking into consideration the influence of Arab Muslim culture.
Tajvar, Maryam; Grundy, Emily; Fletcher, Astrid
To investigate direct and stress-buffering associations between social support from family and the mental health of older people in Iran, a country which has recently undergone an exceptionally fast fertility transition and is consequently experiencing rapid population ageing. A cross-sectional stratified random survey of 800 people aged 60+ years resident in Tehran was conducted. In total, 644 people responded. The Social Provisions Scale and the General Health Questionnaire were used to measure perceived social support and mental health, respectively. Multilevel mixed-effects models were used to examine the hypotheses. The findings supported the hypothesis of a direct association between perceived and received social support and mental health. However, we did not find strong evidence to suggest that social support buffered the effects of stress arising from limitations of physical functioning. Lack of help doing paperwork was associated with worse mental health for women but not men. Source of support did not seem to be important. Our results indicated that in Tehran, as in Western settings, social support is important for the mental well-being of older people. Recommendations for policy and further research priorities based on the study findings were provided.
Lam, Jeffrey; Lu, Bo; Doogan, Nate; Thomson, Tiffany; Ferketich, Amy; Paskett, Electra D; Wewers, Mary Ellen
Depression is a serious, costly, and debilitating disorder that is understudied in rural women. Studies show that depression is associated with low social integration and support, but few studies investigate the relationship between depression and social network characteristics. This study examined the associations among women from three Ohio Appalachian counties enrolled in a health study, which aimed to collect information for a future social network smoking cessation intervention. An address-based sampling method was used to randomly select and recruit 404 women. A cross-sectional survey and interview were used to collect information about demographic, psychosocial, behavioral factors, and ego-centric social network characteristics, which are variables derived from an individual (ego) and her first degree contacts (alters). The CES-D scale assessed depressive symptoms. A multivariable logistic regression analysis described the association between these factors and participants with depression (defined as CES-D≥16). Higher network density, or greater number of relationships among alters divided by the total amount of alters, reduced the risk for depression (OR = 0.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.73-0.95). Additionally, women with a high percentage of smoking alters were at greater risk for depression (OR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.02-1.39). Other factors associated with risk for depression included perceived stress score (OR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.24-1.45), loneliness score (OR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.05-1.80), and days with poor physical health (OR = 1.06, 95% CI 1.02-1.11). Findings suggest that psychosocial factors and social networks should be considered when addressing depression in clinical practice.
Maya Safrina Suraningsih
Full Text Available Agricultural development is currently prioritizing on the technical aspects and pays less attention to human factors which resulting in low empowerment of farmers. The patriarchal system which still prevails in rural areas causing the involvement of women in the decision-making process is still very low, so as the importance of empowering women in rural areas in order to make them more confident about themselves and are able to formulate and convey the problems efficiently. The research objectives are (1 to analyze the level of women farmers’ empowerment, and (2 to analyze factors affecting the level of participation and empowerment of women farmers. Data were processed using quantitative analysis supported by qualitative analysis. The results obtained the level of women farmer’s empowerment in medium category, the activities of Women Farmers Group (KWT categories of low in making decisions, increasing the additional income and distribute production, the medium category, namely access to information and regulate family food consumptions, and high category that aspect of utilizing their yards. Factors that mostly affect the empowerment of women farmers are a long time to cultivate the farm yard, the level of income, cosmopolitan level, motivation level, intensity of interaction within the groups, the development of technical capabilities, the intensity of the assistance, government policy support, social environment conduciveness, interpersonal, group, behavior in using media, planning, income utilization, and monitoring and evaluation activities.
Barton, Christopher; Effing, Tanya W; Cafarella, Paul
A scoping review was conducted to determine the size and nature of the evidence describing associations between social support and networks on health, management and clinical outcomes amongst patients with COPD. Searches of PubMed, PsychInfo and CINAHL were undertaken for the period 1966-December 2013. A descriptive synthesis of the main findings was undertaken to demonstrate where there is current evidence for associations between social support, networks and health outcomes, and where further research is needed. The search yielded 318 papers of which 287 were excluded after applying selection criteria. Two areas emerged in which there was consistent evidence of benefit of social support; namely mental health and self-efficacy. There was inconsistent evidence for a relationship between perceived social support and quality of life, physical functioning and self-rated health. Hospital readmission was not associated with level of perceived social support. Only a small number of studies (3 articles) have reported on the social network of individuals with COPD. There remains a need to identify the factors that promote and enable social support. In particular, there is a need to further understand the characteristics of social networks within the broader social structural conditions in which COPD patients live and manage their illness.
BUUNK, BP; HOORENS, [No Value
This paper first presents four different conceptualizations of social support: social integration, satisfying relationships, perceived helpfulness and enacted support. Then, classic and contemporary social comparison theory and social exchange theory are analysed as they are two theoretical
Altevers, J; Lukaschek, K; Baumert, J; Kruse, J; Meisinger, C; Emeny, R T; Ladwig, K H
Several psychosocial factors have been shown to increase the risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study investigated the association between structural social support and incidence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus in men and women. Data were derived from three population-based MONICA/KORA surveys conducted in 1984-1995 in the Augsburg region (southern Germany) and followed up by 2009. The study population comprised 8952 participants (4669 men/4283 women) aged 30-74 years without diabetes at baseline. Structural social support was assessed using the Social Network Index. Sex-specific hazard ratios were estimated from Cox proportional hazard models. Within follow-up, 904 incident Type 2 diabetes mellitus cases (558 men, 346 women) were observed. Crude incidence rates for Type 2 diabetes mellitus per 10 000 person-years were substantially higher in poor compared with good structural social support (men: 94 vs. 69, women: 58 vs. 43). After adjustment for age, survey, parental history of diabetes, smoking status, alcohol intake, physical activity, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, BMI, education, sleep complaints and depressed mood, risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus for participants with poor compared with good structural social support was 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.11-1.55] in men and 1.10 (95% CI = 0.88-1.37) in women. Stratified analyses revealed a hazard ratio of 1.50 (95% CI = 1.23-1.83) in men with a low level of education and 0.87 (95% CI = 0.62-1.22) in men with a high level of education (P for interaction: 0.0082). Poor structural social support is associated with Type 2 diabetes mellitus in men. This association is independent of risk factors at baseline and is particularly pronounced in men with a low level of education. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2015 Diabetes UK.
Paula Mendonça Studart
Full Text Available Background Bipolar disorder is a chronic condition that affects the functioning of its carriers in many different ways, even when treated properly. Therefore, it’s also important to identify the psychosocial aspects that could contribute to an improvement of this population’s quality of life.Objective Carry out a literature review on the role of social support in cases of bipolar disorder.Method A research on the following online databases PubMed, Lilacs and SciELO was conducted by using the keywords “social support” or “social networks” and “mood disorders” or “bipolar disorder” or “affective disorder,” with no defined timeline.Results Only 13 studies concerning the topic of social support and BD were found in the search for related articles. Generally speaking, the results show low rates of social support for BD patients.Discussion Despite the growing interest in the overall functioning of patients with bipolar disorder, studies on social support are still rare. Besides, the existing studies on the subject use different methodologies, making it difficult to establish data comparisons.
Taub, Diane E.; McLorg, Penelope A.; Bartnick, April K.
Through exploring the lived experiences of disabled women, this study investigates how physical and social barriers affect their social relationships. In-depth tape-recorded interviews investigating a variety of social and interpersonal issues were conducted with 24 women with physical or visual impairments who lived in a rural region of the…
Formanowicz, Magdalena M; Cisłak, Aleksandra; Horvath, Lisa K; Sczesny, Sabine
Gender-fair language consists of the symmetric linguistic treatment of women and men instead of using masculine forms as generics. In this study, we examine how the use of gender-fair language affects readers' support for social initiatives in Poland and Austria. While gender-fair language is relatively novel in Poland, it is well established in Austria. This difference may lead to different perceptions of gender-fair usage in these speech communities. Two studies conducted in Poland investigate whether the evaluation of social initiatives (Study 1: quotas for women on election lists; Study 2: support for women students or students from countries troubled by war) is affected by how female proponents (lawyers, psychologists, sociologists, and academics) are referred to, with masculine forms (traditional) or with feminine forms (modern, gender-fair). Study 3 replicates Study 2 in Austria. Our results indicate that in Poland, gender-fair language has negative connotations and therefore, detrimental effects particularly when used in gender-related contexts. Conversely, in Austria, where gender-fair language has been implemented and used for some time, there are no such negative effects. This pattern of results may inform the discussion about formal policies regulating the use of gender-fair language.
Torkan, Nasrin; Kazemi, Ashraf; Paknahad, Zamzam; Bahadoran, Parvin
Nutrition during pregnancy is undoubtedly one of the most important factors affecting maternal health. In this regard, considering the cognitive-behavioral factors associated with feeding, behaviors will play an important role in the effectiveness of interventions. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the correlation between food habits and structures of social cognitive theory in pregnant women. In this cross-sectional study, 192 pregnant women were randomly selected. Data were collected using a questionnaire based on the social cognitive theory structures and food habits questionnaire in the questioning manner and was also analyzed using Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression with the software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 19. There was a significant correlation between nutritional behavior with self-regulation ( p = 0.001), self-efficacy ( p = 0.001), outcome expectations ( p = 0.001), social support ( p = 0.002), and access ( p = 0.001). A significant correlation was observed between lack of consumption of unnecessary and unhelpful food with self-regulation ( p = 0.02). In the multivariable regression analysis, only self-regulation revealed significant and direct contribution in relation to nutritional behavior ( p < 0.001). Results of this study showed that self-regulation is one of the important factors associated with feeding behavior in pregnant women so that it is suggested to be considered in nutritional interventions in order to improve nutritional behavior.
Ali Khani Jeihooni
self-regulation, social protection of social cognitive theory, and questionnaire of functional feeding and walking were determined to prevent osteoporosis in women. The data were analyzed using SPSS 16 software. Results: The average age of women was 40/9± 6/2 years. The variables of perceived susceptibility, motivation, social support and self-regulation for walking behavior and variables of perceived sensitivity and self-regulation for feeding behavior were predicted. There was a significant association between walking performance and perceived susceptibility (B=0.252 ,p=0/007, motivation (B=0.235 ,p=0.009, social support (B=0.078 ,p=0.030 and Self-regulation (B=0.105 ,p=0.007. In this study, there was a significant association between nutritional performance and perceived susceptibility (B=0.10,p=0.02, self-regulation (r=0.069 ,p=0.050. The variables under study expressed 29/1% of the variance in walking behavior and 20/2% of the variance in feeding behavior in osteoporosis prevention. Conclusion: The study indicated that perceived susceptibility, motivation, self-regulation and social support, otherwise more people might have osteoporosis preventive behaviors better .Health Belief Model and Social Cognitive Theory can be used as a framework for designing and implementing educational interventions for the prevention of osteoporosis in women and can help to improve and maintain their health.
A Zare Shahabadi
Full Text Available Introduction: Social support can be defined as the interactive process through which emotional and instrumental support is obtained. Social support has been found to be a relevant factor in diabetes self-management. Diabetes refers to complex chronic metabolic conditions that are characterized by elevated levels of blood glucose if untreated. Diabetes is one of the biggest health care problems facing Yazd with regards to prevalence, cost, and the onus it places on patients and its high morbidity rates. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among social factors on the control and treatment of type II diabetes. Methods: The population under study included 4990 diabetes type II patients referring to Yazd Diabetes Research Center and a sample of 256 cases was selected by simple random sampling method through statistical society. This study was based on survey method and the instrument for collecting data was a questionnaire. Results: About 65.4% of the patients were women and 35.6 were men. The mean age of patients was 56 years. Significant correlations were found between perceived social support (r= 0.193, p= 0.001, positive reinforcing behaviors (r= 0.455, p= 0.000, and adherence to self-care activities. Misguided support behaviors did not show a significant correlation with adherence to self-care activities. A total of 25% of variance in self-care behavior can be explained by positive reinforcing behaviors and misguided support behaviors. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that by increasing the positive reinforcing behaviors and perceived social support and decreasing the misguided support behaviors, the diabetic patients can adhere better to self-care activities.
Walton, Vicki R; Finkenberg, Mel E
This study involved a comparison of social physique anxiety, assessed through the application of a modified version of the Social Physique Anxiety Scale, with 28 women who were new members exercising at all-female facilities compared to 43 new female members exercising at coeducational facilities. Analyses indicated there were no significant differences in means between the groups. The scores of women attending all-female facilities were significantly more influenced by the sex of members when choosing a facility.
Zapor, Heather; Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Johnson, Dawn M
For survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV), it is often difficult to take steps to establish safety and obtain a violence free life. Researchers have applied stage of change theory to aid in understanding the experience of survivors, as well as, the factors that can help women who desire to make changes in or break free from a violent relationship. Social support is one factor that can be helpful to IPV survivors who are attempting to make changes in their relationship. The purpose of the current study was to examine the differences in social support experienced by women who are at varying points in the process of change. Shelter residents ( N = 191) participated in this cross-sectional non-experimental study. Analyses demonstrated five distinct clusters or profiles of change among study participants and were labeled by the authors as follows: preparticipation, decision making, engagement, ambivalent, and action. All forms of social support (i.e., structural, functional, and satisfaction) were generally higher for individuals more engaged in the process of change. More specifically, differences were noted between the action and decision-making clusters and the engagement and decision-making clusters. These findings suggest that it is vital that clinicians working with survivors of IPV not only assess but also tailor interventions to meet survivors where they are in the process of change. Further, interventions that foster survivors' abilities to develop reliable and satisfying social support networks will be beneficial for survivors of IPV.
Addresses major social issues faced by women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease and explores gender differences in HIV transmission, disease progression, and diagnosis. Discusses how women's sexuality and reproductive rights are affected. Examines specific issues regarding HIV-infected women who use intravenous drugs, women of color,…
Full Text Available Mapping and assessing social networks and the quality of their social support is a valuable intervention strategy for social workers. These networks have now spread onto the digital realm in the form of Online Social Networks (OSNs. This study investigated the nature of social support provided by such networks to their users in a rural mid-South University (USA and explored parallels with the current understanding of social support in conventional social networks. A web-based survey administered to college students revealed that users of these online networks were predominantly undergraduate first year students, female, single, unemployed and from a variety of academic disciplines. The examination of the components of OSNs appears to mirror those of offline networks. They also seem to complement the effects of each other while contributing to an individual's support system. The paper concludes with critical implications of such online social networking for University students and social workers in practice and education.
Carr, Melissa; Kelan, E.
Recent research has highlighted the negative intra-gender relations that occur between women in organisations, focusing on aspects such as micro-violence, the queen bee syndrome, negative intra-gender relations, and competition and distance between women. Through a thematic analysis of interviews with 16 women, we draw on material where women were asked to consider their intra-gender relationships at work. We suggest that women are actively supporting each other and aligning themselves with e...
Mikami, Amori Yee; Szwedo, David E.; Ahmad, Shaikh I.; Samuels, Andrea Stier; Hinshaw, Stephen P.
Little is known about adult women with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), however available evidence suggests that they experience social impairment. Online social networking websites such as Facebook have become endemic outlets through which emerging adults communicate with peers. No study has examined the peer interactions of emerging adults with childhood histories of ADHD in this developmentally relevant online domain. Participants in the current study were an ethnically diverse sample of 228 women, 140 of whom met diagnostic criteria for ADHD in childhood and 88 who composed a matched comparison sample. These women were assessed at three time points spanning 10 years (mean age = 9.6 at Wave 1, 14.1 at Wave 2, 19.6 at Wave 3). After statistical control of demographic covariates and comorbidites, childhood ADHD diagnosis predicted, by emerging adulthood, a greater stated preference for online social communication and a greater tendency to have used online methods to interact with strangers. A childhood diagnosis of ADHD also predicted observations of fewer Facebook friends and less closeness and support from Facebook friends in emerging adulthood. These associations were mediated by a composite of face-to-face peer relationship impairment during childhood and adolescence. Intriguingly, women with persistent diagnoses of ADHD from childhood to emerging adulthood differed from women with consistent comparison status in their online social communication; women with intermittent diagnoses of ADHD had scores intermediate between the other two groups. Results are discussed within the context of understanding the social relationships of women with childhood histories of ADHD. PMID:25894439
Mikami, Amori Yee; Szwedo, David E; Ahmad, Shaikh I; Samuels, Andrea Stier; Hinshaw, Stephen P
Little is known about adult women with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, available evidence suggests that they experience social impairment. Online social networking websites such as Facebook have become endemic outlets through which emerging adults communicate with peers. No study has examined the peer interactions of emerging adults with childhood histories of ADHD in this developmentally relevant online domain. Participants in the current study were an ethnically diverse sample of 228 women, 140 of whom met diagnostic criteria for ADHD in childhood and 88 who composed a matched comparison sample. These women were assessed at 3 time points spanning 10 years (mean age = 9.6 at Wave 1, 14.1 at Wave 2, 19.6 at Wave 3). After statistical control of demographic covariates and comorbidities, childhood ADHD diagnosis predicted, by emerging adulthood, a greater stated preference for online social communication and a greater tendency to have used online methods to interact with strangers. A childhood diagnosis of ADHD also predicted observations of fewer Facebook friends and less closeness and support from Facebook friends in emerging adulthood. These associations were mediated by a composite of face-to-face peer relationship impairment during childhood and adolescence. Intriguingly, women with persistent diagnoses of ADHD from childhood to emerging adulthood differed from women with consistent comparison status in their online social communication; women with intermittent diagnoses of ADHD had scores intermediate between the other 2 groups. Results are discussed within the context of understanding the social relationships of women with childhood histories of ADHD. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Eslami, Bahareh; Di Rosa, Mirko; Barros, Henrique; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Torres-Gonzalez, Francisco; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Lindert, Jutta; Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella
Being a victim of abuse during one's life course may affect social relations in later life. The aims of this study were to: (i) examine the association between lifetime abuse and perceived social support and (ii) identify correlates of perceived social support among older persons living in seven European countries. A sample of 4467 women and men aged 60-84 years living in Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain and Sweden was collected through a cross-sectional population-based study. Abuse (psychological, physical, sexual, financial and injury) was assessed through interviews or interviews/self-response questionnaire based on the Conflict Tactics Scale-2 and the UK study on elder abuse. Perceived social support was assessed by the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Victims of lifetime abuse perceived poorer social support in later life. Multivariate analyses showed that high levels of perceived social support were associated with being from Greece and Lithuania (compared to Germany), being female, not living alone, consuming alcohol and physical activity. Poorer perceived social support was associated with being from Portugal, being old, having social benefits as the main source of income, experiencing financial strain and being exposed to lifetime psychological abuse and injuries. Our findings showed that exposure to psychological abuse and injuries across the lifespan were associated with low levels of perceived social support, emphasizing the importance of detection and appropriate treatment of victims of abuse during their life course. Future research should focus on coping strategies buffering the negative effects of abuse on social relationships. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Holloway, T.; Hastings, M. G.; Barnes, R. T.; Fischer, E. V.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Rodriguez, C.; Adams, M. S.; Marin-Spiotta, E.
The Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN) is an international peer-mentoring organization with over 2000 members, dedicated to career development and community for women across the geosciences. Since its formation in 2002, ESWN has supported the growth of a more diverse scientific community through a combination of online and in-person networking activities. Lessons learned related to online networking and community-building will be presented. ESWN serves upper-level undergraduates, graduate students, professionals in a range of environmental fields, scientists working in federal and state governments, post-doctoral researchers, and academic faculty and scientists. Membership includes women working in over 50 countries, although the majority of ESWN members work in the U.S. ESWN increases retention of women in the geosciences by enabling and supporting professional person-to-person connections. This approach has been shown to reduce feelings of isolation among our members and help build professional support systems critical to career success. In early 2013 ESWN transitioned online activities to an advanced social networking platform that supports discussion threads, group formation, and individual messaging. Prior to that, on-line activities operated through a traditional list-serve, hosted by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). The new web center, http://eswnonline.org, serves as the primary forum for members to build connections, seek advice, and share resources. For example, members share job announcements, discuss issues of work-life balance, and organize events at professional conferences. ESWN provides a platform for problem-based mentoring, drawing from the wisdom of colleagues across a range of career stages.
Mundell, Jonathan P; Visser, Maretha J; Makin, Jennifer D; Kershaw, Trace S; Forsyth, Brian W C; Jeffery, Bridget; Sikkema, Kathleen J
The authors of this study evaluated a structured 10-session psychosocial support group intervention for newly HIV-diagnosed pregnant South African women. Participants were expected to display increases in HIV disclosure, self-esteem, active coping and positive social support, and decreases in depression, avoidant coping, and negative social support. Three hundred sixty-one pregnant HIV-infected women were recruited from four antenatal clinics in Tshwane townships from April 2005 to September 2006. Using a quasi-experimental design, assessments were conducted at baseline and two and eight months post-intervention. A series of random effects regression analyses were conducted, with the three assessment points treated as a random effect of time. At both follow-ups, the rate of disclosure in the intervention group was significantly higher than that of the comparison group (p<0.001). Compared to the comparison group at the first follow-up, the intervention group displayed higher levels of active coping (t=2.68, p<0.05) and lower levels of avoidant coping (t=-2.02, p<0.05), and those who attended at least half of the intervention sessions exhibited improved self-esteem (t=2.11, p<0.05). Group interventions tailored for newly HIV positive pregnant women, implemented in resource-limited settings, may accelerate the process of adjusting to one's HIV status, but may not have sustainable benefits over time.
Entwistle, Francesca; Kendall, Sally; Mead, Marianne
Breastfeeding is a key determinant in promoting public health and reducing health inequality. Low-income women have a significantly lower level of breastfeeding. Midwives in the UK have been encouraged to implement the World Health Organization/United Nations Children's Fund's Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding, but to date, there has been no evaluation of the impact of the training initiative on the breastfeeding behaviours of low-income women. As part of a wider study, this qualitative component was designed to answer the question - what are the views and experiences of low-income women (defined by Jarman scores) in relation to their breastfeeding support received in the post-natal period? A sample of seven women was interviewed. The in-depth interviews were analysed using a qualitative, thematic approach based on the self-efficacy theory. The four themes that emerged from the data were the following: breastfeeding related to the woman's self-confidence, the social environment in which the woman lived, knowledge of breastfeeding and the influence of maternity services on breastfeeding outcomes. These themes were interpreted in relation to the self-efficacy theory. The findings suggest that the components that inform self-efficacy are consistent with the themes from the data, suggesting that midwives and other health professionals should take the psychosocial aspects of breastfeeding support into account. As this important feature of breastfeeding support is not explicitly part of the current Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding, we suggest that further research and debate could inform expansion of these minimum standards to include the psychosocial aspects.
Hung Sa Lee, PhD, RN
Conclusions: This study found that social support and discrimination had indirect effects on depression through stress. More specifically, decreased stress led to a reduction of depression. Therefore, social support based on a thorough understanding of stress is very important for caring elderly who are depressive.
Health screening and early detection of cancer results in significantly better health outcomes and lower mortality. However barriers to such screening are multiple and complex. This paper specifically addresses barriers to women's health screening for socially disadvantaged women in an economically and service disadvantaged area. In this qualitative study, women's healthcare workers and consumers of women's health screening were interviewed and data related to issues for women who had special needs were analysed. Findings indicate there is a lack of access to appropriate services for socially disadvantaged women which affects their screening uptake rates. This study also highlights the difficulties socially disadvantaged women encountered when they were able to access these services which also influenced their decisions regarding subsequent health screening. Implications for nurses and other healthcare professionals are manifold and include advocating for greater access to services and more sensitive care in the delivery of health screening services for socially disadvantaged women.
Full Text Available Introduction: Social support is the perception that one is cared for, has assistance available from significant others and its benefit is by buffering stress by influencing the ability to adjust and live with illness. Social support can uplift the quality and subjective wellbeing of people. The objective of this study was to examine the perceived social support and factors influencing it among mentally ill patients. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out. Ninety cases aged more than 18 years visiting outpatient of psychiatric department and diagnosed as a case of mental illness for at least a year were included. Instruments used were self-developed proforma and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Interview technique was used to collect the data. Results: Majority (60% of the patients perceive social support from family, 28% of the patients perceive social support from significant others. Regression analysis showed that the perceived social support is influenced by employment status, type of family one lives in and physical illness. It is not influenced by gender, subjective financial status and frequency of hospitalization. Conclusion: Perceived social support is influenced by employment status, type of family one lives in and physical illness. Majority (60% of the patients perceive social support from family.
Leeves, Sylvia; Banerjee, Robin
Social support-seeking is recognised as an important strategy used by children to cope with negative emotions. However, there are important gaps in our knowledge about children's perceptions of different sources of social support, and the associations that these perceptions have with individual differences in socio-emotional functioning. The…
This study investigated the possible differences between single individuals and individuals in nonmarital romantic relationships in the domains of emotional (romantic and family) and social loneliness, and of perceived social support from family, friends and significant others. Based on a Polish university-student sample of 315 participants (167 women and 148 men) aged 19 to 25?years (M?=?21.90, SD?=?2.15), single relationship status was related to greater romantic and family loneliness, and ...
Smyth, Natasha; Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Hotopf, Matthew; Hatch, Stephani L
Little is known about how social networks and social support are distributed within diverse communities and how different types of each are associated with a range of psychiatric symptoms. This study aims to address such shortcomings by: (1) describing the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of social networks and social support in a multicultural population and (2) examining how each is associated with multiple mental health outcomes. Data is drawn from the South East London Community Health Study; a cross-sectional study of 1,698 adults conducted between 2008 and 2010. The findings demonstrate variation in social networks and social support by socio-demographic factors. Ethnic minority groups reported larger family networks but less perceived instrumental support. Older individuals and migrant groups reported lower levels of particular network and support types. Individuals from lower socioeconomic groups tended to report less social networks and support across the indicators measured. Perceived emotional and instrumental support, family and friend network size emerged as protective factors for common mental disorder, personality dysfunction and psychotic experiences. In contrast, both social networks and social support appear less relevant for hazardous alcohol use. The findings both confirm established knowledge that social networks and social support exert differential effects on mental health and furthermore suggest that the particular type of social support may be important. In contrast, different types of social network appear to impact upon poor mental health in a more uniform way. Future psychosocial strategies promoting mental health should consider which social groups are vulnerable to reduced social networks and poor social support and which diagnostic groups may benefit most.
Chou, Fan-Hao; Avant, Kay C; Kuo, Shih-Hsien; Fetzer, Susan J
Women worldwide experience pregnancy-related nausea and vomiting yet tolerate this significant prenatal stressor. The physical and emotional stress caused by pregnancy-related nausea and vomiting may influence maternal psychosocial adaptation yet few studies have examined these relationships. The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships between nausea and vomiting, perceived stress, social support and their ability to predict maternal psychosocial adaptation among Taiwanese women during early pregnancy. A correlational, cross-sectional research design. Four prenatal clinics in Taiwan. Women (n=243) who had completed the 6-16 week of gestation consented to participate. Subjects completed four self-report questionnaires in additional to providing demographic data: Index of Nausea, Vomiting, and Retching (INVR), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL), and the Prenatal Self-Evaluation Questionnaire (PSEQ). Pregnancy-related nausea and vomiting was experienced in varying degrees by 188 (77.4%) women. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that 37.6% of the variance in maternal psychosocial adaptation was explained by the severity of nausea and vomiting, perceived stress, social support, and pregnancy planning. Women at higher risk for poor maternal psychosocial adaptation have not planned their pregnancy and experience severe pregnancy-related nausea and vomiting. Severe pregnancy-related nausea and vomiting associated with high-perceived stress levels may be mediated by social support.
Lopata, Helena Znaniecki
Data derived from a study on two groups of women, housewives and married working women, and widows over 50, was examined for the association between social relationships and formal schooling. The conclusion is that urbanization and industrialization trends make formal education a major requirement for the social engagement of women. (Author/KM)
Sakamoto, Izumi; Anastas, Jeane W.; McPhail, Beverly M.; Colarossi, Lisa G.
This invited study sought to determine the current status of women in social work education for the special section of the "Journal of Social Work Education." Analysis of the latest data available indicate that gender differences remain pervasive across many aspects of social work education, including pay, rank, job duties, and tenure.…
Torkan, Nasrin; Kazemi, Ashraf; Paknahad, Zamzam; Bahadoran, Parvin
Background: Nutrition during pregnancy is undoubtedly one of the most important factors affecting maternal health. In this regard, considering the cognitive-behavioral factors associated with feeding, behaviors will play an important role in the effectiveness of interventions. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the correlation between food habits and structures of social cognitive theory in pregnant women. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 192 pregnant women were randomly selected. Data were collected using a questionnaire based on the social cognitive theory structures and food habits questionnaire in the questioning manner and was also analyzed using Pearson correlatio