Elnashar, A M; El-Dien Ibrahim, M; Eldesoky, M M; Aly, O M; El-Sayd Mohamed Hassan, M
To assess the prevalence of sexual abuse (SA) and associated factors among married women in Lower Egypt. A cross-sectional clinic- and hospital-based survey was designed for married women aged between 16 and 49 years. The study was conducted with 936 women from the Dakahlia Governorate, which is considered representative of Lower Egypt. Data were collected by personal interview using a questionnaire. The response rate was 93.6%. The most commonly reported frequency of sexual intercourse was 2 to 4 times per week. More than one-third of the women (36.2%) thought this was too frequent, and 11.5% reported being sexually abused in addition to other sexual problems. The educational level of the women; the presence of genital mutilation; parity, especially for those who had more than 5 deliveries; number of gynecologic visits; and history of gynecologic interventions were significantly or highly significantly associated with SA. The husbands' educational level and age were highly significantly correlated with their wives reporting SA, particularly when the men were illiterate or were smokers or drug users. The study's findings demonstrate an immediate need for the prevention of SA in Lower Egypt.
Małgorzata H. Kowalczyk
Full Text Available Victims experiencing the sexual abuse are surviving not only physical injustice but above all deep traumas, which very often in different forms, are keeping them company through the entire life. Quite often at establishing different results a sex is underestimated for the perpetrator. Therefore knowing the problem of sexual abuses from a perspective of close as well as distant results is very important in the event that a woman was a perpetrator of these acts – mother, minder. In the present article based on analysis of literature, a problem of results of the sexual abuse was presented at victims which experienced these behaviours on the part of women. In order to draw up discussing the survived specificity by victims was both of sex of the trauma connected with the sexual application as well as close and distant consequences of these events in the form prime victimisation and revictimisation for figure being noticeable in the adult life of psychosexual disorders and social shortages. Amongst the consequence isolated traumatic factors are deserving the particular attention about dynamic character which are provoking the appearance of many symptoms characteristic of children which experienced the sexual violence. Recalled factors it: traumatic sexualisation of child, the betrayal, the stigmatization and the helplessness. The specificity of these factors results from the fact that they will leave distant “tracks” in the psyche and they can undergo the additional reinforcement if a woman is a perpetrator of the sexual violence. It results from frequent attitudes of “denying” towards the sexual violence applied by women. In the study they pointed also at one of possible consequences of the revictimisation process copying patterns of behaviour connected with the sexual exploitation of children in their more late life by victims is which. This process resulting from the alternating identification of the perpetrator and the victim is starting
expended providing treatment for these injuries. 5 Afr Med J2001; 91: ... that violent practices are deployed by men against women in attempts to maintain ... child abuse, or sexual harassment; social support; and experiences with police and ...
Watson, Laurel B.; Matheny, Kenneth B.; Gagne, Phill; Brack, Greg; Ancis, Julie R.
The purpose of our study was to examine the role that child sexual abuse may play in body surveillance and sexual risk behaviors among undergraduate women. First, a measured variable path analysis was conducted, which assessed the relations among a history of child sexual abuse, body surveillance, and sexual risk behaviors. Furthermore, body…
Carreiro, Andrea V; Micelli, Ligia P; Sousa, Maria H; Bahamondes, Luis; Fernandes, Arlete
To assess scores for sexual dysfunction risk and quality of life in a cohort of women in Brazil who had a history of sexual abuse. The present study was a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional study conducted between February 1, 2011 and May 31, 2012. Women aged 18-49years attending a family planning clinic at the University of Campinas, Brazil, who were in a heterosexual relationship and reported engaging in sexual intercourse in the 4weeks prior to the study were enrolled. Participants were asked to complete the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire, Abbreviated Version, and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire. Data were grouped based on a history of sexual abuse. An FSFI score of no higher than 26.55 was considered the cut off for sexual dysfunction. The prevalence of FSFI-defined sexual dysfunction was higher in participants with a history of sexual abuse (Phistory of sexual abuse had significantly lower scores across all quality of life domains. Increased risk of sexual dysfunction among women with a history of sexual abuse suggests potential problems in the sex lives of individuals in this population. Healthcare professionals should be alert to this diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L.
Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual,…
López, Sílvia; Faro, Concepció; Lopetegui, Lourdes; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta; Monteagudo, Mònica; Cobo, Jesús; Fernández, María Isabel
To analyse perceived sexual satisfaction, sexual dysfunction, satisfaction with affective relationships and confidence and communication in existing relationships, related to a past history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and type suffered, among women treated as part of the Catalonian Sexual and Reproductive Health Care Programme (PASSIR). Multicentric, descriptive, cross-sectional study. A total of 1,013 women over the age of 18 years, who underwent psychological therapy at any of the 24 PASSIR centres, were enrolled. A structured, anonymised, self-administered Sex History Questionnaire adapted from Wyatt (1985) & Dubé et al. (2005), and the Female Sexual Function Index (Rosen, 2000), were used. Statistical analysis was descriptive, bivariate and multivariate. Women who suffered childhood sexual abuse had a significantly higher prevalence of sexual dysfunction, with lower perceived sexual satisfaction. CSA with penetration or attempted penetration was associated with greater arousal difficulties and greater rejection. Women who experienced CSA were less confident and experienced greater communication difficulties with their partner. It is necessary to identify potential childhood sexual abuse among women who seek therapy due to relationship problems. It is also necessary to continue research into protective factors and therapeutic interventions to alleviate the consequences of CSA in adult life. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Lacelle, Celine; Hebert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.
Research studies have provided increasing evidence for the potential adverse impact of child sexual abuse on women's sexual health. The present study examined the association between child sexual abuse and sexual health while controlling for various forms of childhood victimization. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 889 young women…
Dolan, Mairead; Whitworth, Helen
There is little literature on childhood sexual abuse in women seen by forensic services. A cohort of 225 cases of women seen by forensic services in a medium secure unit in the UK were examined, and childhood sexual abuse and non-childhood sexual abuse cases were compared. Over half the sample had a history of childhood sexual abuse, and 5.6% of…
Leroi, A M; Duval, V; Roussignol, C; Berkelmans, I; Peninque, P; Denis, P
This work aimed to see whether (1) biofeedback is useful and (2) whether it needs to be combined with psychotherapy in sexually abused patients with anismus. Fifteen women aged 41.2 +/- 4.1 years who had experienced sexual abuse in childhood (9 cases) or adulthood (6 cases) and complained of symptoms of irritable bowel disease were studied. Anismus was recorded during anorectal manometry in all cases. Patients were free to choose biofeedback and/or group psychotherapy and/or individual psychotherapy. When necessary, psychoactive drugs were prescribed after a psychiatric evaluation. Initially all the patients chose biofeedback and none accepted psychotherapy. Eight patients accepted psychotherapy after several weeks of biofeedback. Thirteen patients completed the study: 5 treated by biofeedback alone, 5 with biofeedback and group therapy, and 3 with biofeedback and individual psychotherapy. Eight women recovered completely from their symptoms, only two of whom had had biofeedback without psychotherapy. Biofeedback alone was not always sufficient to cure abused patients, but was chose initially by all the patients. It could initially be a middle path between somatic treatment and psychotherapy, at a time when patients are not yet ready to undertake the latter.
Kristensen, Ellids; Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht
% dyspareunia. The occurrence of sexual problems was significantly correlated to childhood physical violence, current psychological distress, flashbacks in sexual situations and discomfort with physical endearment. The prevalence of sexual pain disorders were also positively correlated to “no adult support......This study investigated sexual function in women with a history of severe intrafamilial childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and the correlation between sexual problems and the severity of CSA, adult support during childhood and current psychiatric symptoms. The sample consisted of 158 women who...... subsequently began specialized group psychotherapy for CSA sequellae. Clinical interview and questionnaires (Present Sexual Function, Sexual and Body Satisfaction, Symptom Check List 90-R) were used for data collection in a cross sectional study design. Non-parametric analysis, linear and logistic regression...
Simons, Ronald L.; Whitbeck, Les B.
Studied 40 adolescent runaways and 95 homeless women to examine impact of early sexual abuse on prostitution and victimization. Findings suggest that early sexual abuse increases probability of involvement in prostitution irrespective of influence of running away, substance abuse, and other deviant acts; only indirectly affects chances of…
Cachelin, Fary M.; Schug, Robert A.; Juarez, Laura C.; Monreal, Teresa K.
The purpose of this study was to examine the association between sexual abuse and eating disorders in a voluntary community sample of Mexican American women. Eighty eating disorder cases were compared to 110 healthy controls on presence of sexual abuse and on characteristics of the abuse. The Structured Clinical Interview for the "Diagnostic and…
You, Sungeun; Talbot, Nancy L.; He, Hua; Conner, Kenneth R.
Depressed women with sexual abuse histories have a heightened risk of suicidal ideation (SI), which may be only in part attributable to psychiatric symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Emotions and SI were studied among 106 women with histories of childhood sexual abuse enrolled in treatment trials for major depression.…
Lau, Marianne; Kristensen, Ellids
BACKGROUND: Child and adolescent sexual abuse (CSA) increases the risk for adult sexual assault (ASA), and psychological vulnerability as well as aspects of CSA and upbringing might influence the risk. AIMS: The aims of this study were to investigate whether women who reported both CSA and ASA: 1......: The results showed an increased psychological vulnerability among women with ASA, but whether the results are cause or effect of sexual revictimization or can be generalized to other clinical samples are not clear. Interventions targeting the increased risk of ASA should be developed, implemented and tested...
Bremner, J. Douglas; Narayan, Meena; Staib, Lawrence H.; Southwick, Steven M.; McGlashan, Thomas; Charney, Dennis S.
Objective Childhood sexual abuse is very common in our society, but little is known about the long-term effects of abuse on brain function. The purpose of this study was to measure neural correlates of memories of childhood abuse in sexually abused women with and without the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method Twenty-two women with a history of childhood sexual abuse underwent injection of [15O]H2O, followed by positron emission tomography imaging of the brain while they listened to neutral and traumatic (personalized childhood sexual abuse events) scripts. Brain blood flow during exposure to traumatic and neutral scripts was compared for sexually abused women with and without PTSD. Results Memories of childhood sexual abuse were associated with greater increases in blood flow in portions of anterior prefrontal cortex (superior and middle frontal gyri—areas 6 and 9), posterior cingulate (area 31), and motor cortex in sexually abused women with PTSD than in sexually abused women without PTSD. Abuse memories were associated with alterations in blood flow in medial prefrontal cortex, with decreased blood flow in subcallosal gyrus (area 25), and a failure of activation in anterior cingulate (area 32). There was also decreased blood flow in right hippocampus, fusiform/inferior temporal gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, and visual association cortex in women with PTSD relative to women without PTSD. Conclusions These findings implicate dysfunction of medial prefrontal cortex (subcallosal gyrus and anterior cingulate), hippocampus, and visual association cortex in pathological memories of childhood abuse in women with PTSD. Increased activation in posterior cingulate and motor cortex was seen in women with PTSD. Dysfunction in these brain areas may underlie PTSD symptoms provoked by traumatic reminders in subjects with PTSD. PMID:10553744
Conclusions: Effective and efficient treatment of victims of sexual abuse requires a systematic approach to the patient, starting with a thorough history, and continuing with a clinical investigation, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the consequences of sexual abuse. The complete management must include sampling of any potential biological traces from the body of the victim. The key to success is a coordinated cooperation with investigators and forensics.
This study extends investigation of the long-term consequences of child sexual abuse into the workplace and considers the economic effects on Lesbian women as determined by the National Lesbian Health Care Survey. It considers the effects of child sexual abuse on four spheres of a woman's life: her physical health, mental health, educational…
Hebert, Martine; Bergeron, Manon
This study evaluates the effects of a group intervention for women sexually abused in childhood or adulthood. The sample consisted of 41 women involved in a group intervention based on a feminist approach offered by help centers for sexual assault victims in Quebec and 11 women in a wait-list comparison group. Results reveal that the group…
Staples, Jennifer M; George, William H; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia R
HIV and other STIs are major public health concerns for women, and risky sexual behaviors increase the risk of transmission. Risky sexual behaviors include sexual abdication, that is, willingness to let a partner decide how far to go sexually. Alcohol intoxication is a risk factor for risky sexual behavior, and the Inhibition Conflict Model of Alcohol Myopia may help explain this relationship. This model suggests that in order for intoxication to influence behavior there must be high conflict, meaning the strength of the instigatory cues and inhibitory cues are both high. Recent research indicates that the degree to which cues are experienced as high in instigation or inhibition is subject to individual difference factors. One individual difference factor associated with alcohol-related sexual risk taking is child sexual abuse (CSA) history. The current study examined the influence of acute alcohol intoxication, CSA, and inhibition conflict on sexual abdication with 131 women (mean age 25) randomized into a 2 (alcohol, control)×2 (high conflict, low conflict) experimental design. Regression analyses yielded a significant 3-way interaction, F (1,122)=8.15, R(2)=.14, psexual decision making among women with CSA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kristensen, Ellids; Lau, Marianne
The socio-demographics and psychiatric diagnoses in a clinical sample of women with a history of mainly intrafamilial childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are described. The women were referred to five psychiatric centres for incest group psychotherapy. Data were gathered using interviews and self......-administered questionnaires. Over a period of 2.5 years, 385 women with mean age of 33 years were referred with a history of CSA. Three hundred and forty of those had experienced intrafamilial CSA. The average age at first abuse was 6.8 years, and it lasted for a mean of 6 years. The women had been abused by a mean of 1.......5 perpetrators. A quarter of the women had been subjected to violence in connection with the sexual abuse. The likelihood of violence having occurred rose significantly if there was more than one perpetrator and/or if penetration had been part of the sexual abuse. Violence was less common if the perpetrator...
Pulverman, Carey S; Boyd, Ryan L; Stanton, Amelia M; Meston, Cindy M
Sexual self-schemas are cognitive generalizations about the sexual self that influence the processing of sexually pertinent information and guide sexual behavior. Until recently sexual self-schemas were exclusively assessed with self-report instruments. Recent research using the meaning extraction method, an inductive method of topic modeling, identified 7 unique themes of sexual self-schemas: family and development, virginity, abuse, relationship, sexual activity, attraction, and existentialism from essays of 239 women (Stanton, Boyd, Pulverman, & Meston, 2015). In the current study, these themes were used to examine changes in theme prominence after an expressive writing treatment. Women (n = 138) with a history of childhood sexual abuse completed a 5-session expressive writing treatment, and essays on sexual self-schemas written at pretreatment and posttreatment were examined for changes in themes. Women showed a reduction in the prominence of the abuse, family and development, virginity, and attraction themes, and an increase in the existentialism theme. This study supports the validity of the 7 themes identified by Stanton and colleagues (2015) and suggests that expressive writing may aid women with a history of sexual abuse to process their abuse history such that it becomes a less salient aspect of their sexual self-schemas. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Lukasse, Mirjam; Schroll, Anne-Mette; Ryding, Elsa Lena
in Belgium, Iceland, Denmark, Estonia, Norway, and Sweden between March 2008 and August 2010. POPULATION: A total of 7174 pregnant women. METHODS: A questionnaire including a validated instrument measuring emotional, physical and sexual abuse. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Proportion of women reporting emotional......OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to investigate the prevalence of a history of abuse among women attending routine antenatal care in six northern European countries. Second, we explored current suffering from reported abuse. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. SETTING: Routine antenatal care......, physical and sexual abuse. Severe current suffering defined as a Visual Analogue Scale score of ≥6. RESULTS: An overall lifetime prevalence of any abuse was reported by 34.8% of the pregnant women. The ranges across the six countries of lifetime prevalence were 9.7-30.8% for physical abuse, 16...
Loeb, Tamra B.; Gaines, Tommi; Wyatt, Gail E.; Zhang, Muyu; Liu, Honghu
Women with histories of child sexual abuse (CSA) are more likely than those without such experiences to report a variety of negative sexual outcomes. This study examines the explanatory power of a CSA summed composite versus dichotomous (presence/absence) measurement in predicting a comprehensive negative sexual behavior outcome. Study…
Meyer, Ilan H.; And Others
Structured clinical interviews concerning childhood histories of physical and sexual abuse with 70 mentally ill women at 2 times found test-retest reliability of .63 for physical abuse and .82 for sexual abuse. Validity, assessed as consistency with an independent clinical assessment, showed 75% agreement for physical abuse and 93% agreement for…
Saewyc, E M; Bearinger, L H; Blum, R W; Resnick, M D
Although a limited amount of research has retrospectively explored the childhood and adolescent heterosexual experiences of lesbians, little is known about the prevalence of heterosexual behavior and related risk factors or about pregnancy histories among lesbian and bisexual teenagers. A secondary analysis was conducted using responses from a subsample of 3,816 students who completed the 1987 Minnesota Adolescent Health Survey. Behaviors, risk factors and pregnancy histories were compared among adolescents who identified themselves as lesbian or bisexual, as unsure of their sexual orientation and as heterosexual. Overall, bisexual or lesbian respondents were about as likely as heterosexual women ever to have had intercourse (33% and 29%, respectively), but they had a significantly higher prevalence of pregnancy (12%) and physical or sexual abuse (19-22%) than heterosexual or unsure adolescents. Among sexually experienced respondents, bisexual or lesbian and heterosexual women reported greater use of ineffective contraceptives (12-15% of those who used a method) than unsure adolescents (9%); bisexual or lesbian respondents were the most likely to have frequent intercourse (22%, compared with 15-17% of the other groups). In the sample overall, among those who were sexually experienced and among those who had ever been pregnant, bisexual or lesbian women were the most likely to have engaged in prostitution during the previous year. Providers of reproductive health care and family planning services should not assume that pregnant teenagers are heterosexual or that adolescents who say they are bisexual, lesbian or unsure of their sexual orientation are not in need of family planning counseling. Further research should explore the interactions between adolescent sexual identity development and sexual risk behaviors.
Sanchez, Sixto E; Pineda, Omar; Chaves, Diana Z; Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Gelaye, Bizu; Simon, Gregory E; Rondon, Marta B; Williams, Michelle A
We sought to evaluate the extent to which childhood physical and/or sexual abuse history is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) during early pregnancy and to explore the extent to which the childhood abuse-PTSD association is mediated through, or modified by, adult experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV). In-person interviews collected information regarding history of childhood abuse and IPV from 2,928 women aged 18-49 years old prior to 16 weeks of gestation. PTSD was assessed using the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Compared to women with no childhood abuse, the odds of PTSD were increased 4.31-fold for those who reported physical abuse only (95% CI, 2.18-8.49), 5.33-fold for sexual abuse only (95% CI, 2.38-11.98), and 8.03-fold for those who reported physical and sexual abuse (95% CI, 4.10-15.74). Mediation analysis showed 13% of the childhood abuse-PTSD association was mediated by IPV. Furthermore, high odds of PTSD were noted among women with histories of childhood abuse and IPV compared with women who were not exposed to either (OR = 20.20; 95% CI, 8.18-49.85). Childhood abuse is associated with increased odds of PTSD during early pregnancy. The odds of PTSD were particularly elevated among women with a history of childhood abuse and IPV. Efforts should be made to prevent childhood abuse and mitigate its effects on women's mental health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mills, Letty J.; Daniluk, Judith C.
This qualitative, phenomenological study explores the experiences of dance therapy for 5 women who had been sexually abused as children. Using in-depth, largely unstructured interviews, the women reflect on their dance therapy experiences: and on their perceptions of the role of these experiences in their psychological healing. (Contains 46…
van der Hulst, Leonie A. M.; Bonsel, Gouke J.; Eskes, Martine; Birnie, Erwin; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Bleker, Otto P.
OBJECTIVE: The long-term effects on women in childbirth with a history of sexual abuse have only been studied to a limited degree. We estimated the prevalence of lifetime experience among low-risk pregnant women (non-clinical) in The Netherlands as well as the association with (1) psycho-social
Larson, Jeffry H.; LaMont, Craig
This study investigated the relationship of childhood sexual abuse to marital attitudes and perceived readiness for marriage in single young adult women. A total of 622 women from three universities in the United States completed questionnaires on sexual abuse, attitudes and feelings about marriage, and readiness for marriage. After controlling…
Hamelin, Christine; Salomon, Christine; Sitta, Rémi; Gueguen, Alice; Cyr, Diane; Lert, France
The long-term consequences of violence against women are poorly documented within the context of political domination, economic inequalities and rapid social change of indigenous communities. Using data from the first population study on violence against women and their consequences on health in New Caledonia, South Pacific, this article investigates the association between childhood sexual abuse and binge drinking among 441 adult Kanak women. Face-to-face standardised interviews were conducted in 2002-2003, among women aged 18-54 years drawn from the electoral rolls. Childhood sexual abuse before 15 years of age was reported by 11.6% of respondents. Nearly all the perpetrators (96%) were known to the victims (63% being a close relative). The rate of frequent binge drinking amongst the women within the last 12 months was 34%. After controlling for social and demographic factors, an independent association was found between childhood sexual abuse and current binge drinking. This study is the first to analyse the contribution of childhood sexual abuse to the likelihood of later heavy alcohol use in an indigenous population in the South Pacific. The findings call for improving and giving priority to care for children who are victims of violence to prevent long-term health consequences and to develop prevention programs aimed at alcohol-related behaviour in women, while taking into account simultaneous individual and collective factors.
Mosack, Katie E.; Randolph, Mary E.; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Abbott, Maryann; Smith, Ellen; Weeks, Margaret R.
This study investigated the mechanisms of risk for urban women at high risk for HIV with and without childhood sexual abuse histories. Childhood sexual abuse survivors reported more unprotected intercourse and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The association of STI locus of control with frequency of unprotected sex was fully mediated by…
Walker-Williams, Hayley J.; Fouché, Ansie
Purpose: This study evaluated the benefits of a ''survivor to thriver'' strengths-based group intervention program to facilitate posttraumatic growth in women survivors of child sexual abuse. Method: A quasi-experimental, one group, pretest, posttest, time-delay design was employed using qualitative methods to evaluate the benefits of the…
Bedi, Saaniya; Nelson, Elliot C.; Lynskey, Michael T.; McCutcheon, Vivia V.; Heath, Andrew C.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Martin, Nicholas G.
Earlier studies have found an elevated risk for psychopathology and suicidal behavior associated with childhood sexual abuse (CSA); however, the degree to which risk is mediated by depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women and men remains unclear. We examined these issues in data from a family study of childhood maltreatment (N…
Meston, Cindy M.; Lorenz, Tierney A.
Physiological responses to sexual stimuli may contribute to the increased rate of sexual problems seen in women with childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories. We compared two physiological stress responses as predictors of sexual function and satisfaction, sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation and cortisol in women with (CSA, N = 136) and without CSA histories (NSA, N = 102). In CSA survivors, cortisol response to sexual stimuli did not significantly predict sexual functioning; however, i...
Teunissen, T.A.; Wong, S.H.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.
Sexual abuse is very common. In the Netherlands 42% of women and 13% of men aged over 25 years have experienced unacceptable sexual behaviour. Most victims do not seek professional help nor do they report the abuse to the police, and most of the victims who do seek medical help do not mention the
Zollman, Gena; Rellini, Alessandra; Desrocher, Danielle
Psychopathologies such as posttraumatic stress disorder are often proposed as mediators of the sexual arousal dysfunction experienced by women with a history of childhood maltreatment. However, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms are only part of the difficulties experienced by these women. Other factors to consider include negative affectivity and perceived daily stress. To assess the mediating role of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, negative affectivity, and perceived daily stress, we collected data from 62 women with and without a history of childhood maltreatment (sexual, physical and emotional abuse). A comprehensive assessment of sexual arousal functioning and sexual responses was obtained using self-reported measures and psychophysiological measures of vaginal engorgement and subjective sexual arousal during exposure to sexual visual stimuli. The model assessed the simultaneous mediating effect of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, negative affectivity and perceived daily stress on the relation between childhood maltreatment and sexual variables. Daily stress, showed a significant and stronger mediation effect on sexual arousal functioning as compared to posttraumatic stress disorder and negative affectivity. These findings suggest that daily stress may be an important mechanism to consider when treating sexual arousal functioning in women who have a history of childhood maltreatment.
Vink, C.W.; Labots-Vogelesang, S.M.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between menstruation disorders and prior sexual abuse. DESIGN: Questionnaire investigation. METHOD: A questionnaire was developed consisting of 50 questions about menstruation disorders, premenstrual syndrome and sexual abuse. The questionnaire was mailed to
Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause
Feinstein, Brian A; Dyar, Christina; London, Bonita
Sexual minority women (SMW) are at increased risk for substance abuse compared to heterosexual women. Two psychosocial factors that have been implicated in SMW's substance abuse are outness and LGBT community involvement, but findings have been mixed as to whether these are risk or protective factors. One possible explanation is that they may have different consequences for subgroups of SMW (lesbians, bisexual women, and queer women). While being open about one's sexual orientation and involved in the community may be protective for lesbians, discrimination against bisexual women may lead these same factors to contribute to substance abuse for bisexual women. It is unclear how these associations will operate for queer women, given limited research on this subpopulation. The current study examined whether sexual identity moderated the associations between outness and community involvement with alcohol and drug abuse. We also examined whether perceived discrimination would help explain why these associations may be different for subgroups of SMW. A sample of 288 self-identified SMW (113 lesbians, 106 bisexual women, and 69 queer women) completed an online survey. Higher outness was associated with higher alcohol and drug abuse for bisexual women, but not for lesbians or queer women. Similarly, higher community involvement was associated with higher drug abuse for bisexual women, but not for lesbians or queer women. Among bisexual women, the association between community involvement and drug abuse was mediated by perceived discrimination. Further, the association between outness and drug abuse was mediated by both community involvement and perceived discrimination. Findings demonstrate that outness and community involvement function as risk factors for substance abuse for bisexual women, in part due to their associations with discrimination.
Amaro, Hortensia; Larson, Mary Jo; Zhang, Annie; Acevedo, Andrea; Dai, Jianyu; Matsumoto, Atsushi
Women in substance abuse treatment often have co-occurring mental health disorders and a history of trauma; they are also at high risk for HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases via unprotected sex. A quasi-experimental study evaluated the effectiveness of trauma-enhanced substance abuse treatment combined with HIV/AIDS prevention…
Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... in the ranks of the South African government that violence against women is a serious problem facing us all. ... The prevalences of rape were 4.5% (EC), 7.2% (MP) and 4.8% (NP).
Mokma, Taylor R; Eshelman, Lee R; Messman-Moore, Terri L
Child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault have been linked to increased self-blame, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and alcohol use. The current study aims to examine (a) whether these constructs explain women's risk for later adult sexual assault and revictimization, (b) whether such factors differentially confer risk for specific types of adult sexual assault (i.e., substance-facilitated and forcible), and (c) if self-blame confers risk indirectly through other risk factors. Multiple types of self-blame, posttraumatic stress, and alcohol use were examined among 929 female college students as serial mediators of the relationship between child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault and as risk factors for sexual revictimization among child sexual abuse survivors. In the model predicting risk for substance-facilitated adult sexual assault, child sexual abuse indirectly predicted greater risk for substance-facilitated adult sexual assault mediated through two separate paths: global blame-to-posttraumatic-stress and global blame-to-alcohol use. In the model predicting risk for forcible adult sexual assault, child sexual abuse directly predicted greater risk for forcible adult sexual assault, and this relation was mediated by the global blame-to-posttraumatic-stress path. Among child sexual abuse survivors, child sexual abuse specific characterological and behavioral self-blame directly predicted greater risk for forcible and substance-facilitated revictimization, but the pathways were not mediated by posttraumatic stress or alcohol use. Results emphasize the importance of assessing different types of self-blame in predicting posttraumatic stress symptoms as well as examining risk for sexual victimization and revictimization. Findings did not support hypotheses that increased posttraumatic stress would predict increased alcohol use but did indicate that heightened self-blame is consistently associated with heightened posttraumatic stress and that heightened global self
Campbell, Aimee N C; Tross, Susan; Dworkin, Shari L; Hu, Mei-Chen; Manuel, Jennifer; Pavlicova, Martina; Nunes, Edward V
Relationship power has been highlighted as a major factor influencing women's safer sex practices. Little research, however, has specifically examined relationship power in drug-involved women, a population with increased risk for HIV transmission. Using baseline data from a National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network multisite trial of a women's HIV prevention intervention in community-based drug treatment programs, this paper examined the association between sexual relationship power and unprotected vaginal or anal sex. The Sexual Relationship Power Scale, a measure of relationship control and decision-making dominance, was used to assess the association between power and unprotected sex in relationships with primary male partners. It was hypothesized that increased relationship power would be associated with decreased unprotected sexual occasions, after controlling for relevant empirical and theoretical covariates. Findings show a more complex picture of the association between power and sexual risk in this population, with a main effect in the hypothesized direction for decision-making dominance but not for relationship control. Possible explanations for these findings are discussed, and future research directions for examining power constructs and developing interventions targeting relationship power among drug-involved women are suggested.
Background: Child sexual abuse with significant impact on victim's physical, mental and social health has now been recognized as existing on an appreciable scale worldwide. Diversity of opinions exist about the concept, types, prevalence and repercussions along with a paucity of systematic and scientific work in the developing world including Pakistan. Objective: This paper aims at reviewing the literature for clarification of concept, update of estimates and correlates, and to identify lines for future research. Data sources: The literature was search through BMJ-Medline for international data, supplemented by local data through CPSP-MEDLIP service. The search term child sexual abuse with associated sub-heads were used. No constraint of time period, publication type or source applied except english Language version Comparative findings: Wide variations identified in conceptual boundaries with consequent impact on prevalence estimates. Agreement found for its existence as an international problem with rates ranging from 7% - 36% for women and 3% - 29% for men. Female abused 1.5-3 times more than male with exponential high rates in age group 3-6 years and 8-11 years. In 2/3 cases the perpetrator identified belonged to nuclear or extended family. Significant association exists with early onset of psychiatric ailments like substance abuse, eating disorders, personality disorders, dissociative disorders and depression. Conclusion and Suggestion: The need for extensive research studies in immense in developing countries like Pakistan where environmental circumstances suggest its presence at rates higher than the identified elsewhere. In addition to facilitate awareness and perhaps to clarify the concept as well as the prevalence of child sexual abuse researchers need to select methodologies and instruments with international comparison in mind. (author)
Berry, Vashti Louise; Stanley, Nicky; Radford, Lorraine; McCarry, Melanie; Larkins, Cath
Independent researchers from the Connect Centre for International Research on Interpersonal Violence based in the School of Social Work at the University of Central Lancashire were commissioned by the Welsh Government in 2013 to conduct research into violence against women, domestic abuse and sexual violence services in Wales. The research aimed to inform the forthcoming Ending Violence Against Women and Domestic Abuse (Wales) Bill, implementation of the legislation and future policy more gen...
Oates, R K; Tebbutt, J; Swanston, H; Lynch, D L; O'Toole, B I
To see if mothers who were sexually abused in their own childhood are at increased risk of their children being sexually abused and to see if prior sexual abuse in mothers affects their parenting abilities. Sixty-seven mothers whose children had been sexually abused by others and 65 control mothers were asked about sexual abuse in their own childhood. The sexually abused children of mothers who had been sexually abused in their own childhood were compared with the sexually abused children of mothers who had not suffered child sexual abuse as children. Comparisons were made on self-esteem, depression and behavior in the children. Thirty-four percent of mothers of sexually abused children gave a history of sexual abuse in their own childhoods, compared with 12% of control mothers. Assessment of the sexually abused children for self-esteem, depression and behavior at the time of diagnosis, after 18 months and after 5 years showed no difference in any of these measures at any of the three time intervals between those whose mothers had suffered child sexual abuse and those whose mothers had not been abused. In this study, sexual abuse in a mother's own childhood was related to an increased risk of sexual abuse occurring in the next generation, although prior maternal sexual abuse did not effect outcome in children who were sexually abused.
Meston, Cindy M; Lorenz, Tierney A
Physiological responses to sexual stimuli may contribute to the increased rate of sexual problems seen in women with childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories. We compared two physiological stress responses as predictors of sexual function and satisfaction, sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation and cortisol in women with (CSA, N = 136) and without CSA histories (NSA, N = 102). In CSA survivors, cortisol response to sexual stimuli did not significantly predict sexual functioning; however, in NSA women, cortisol increases were associated with poorer sexual functioning, and decreases with higher functioning. For women with CSA histories, lower SNS activity was associated with poorer sexual functioning. For CSA survivors with low lifetime trauma, lower SNS activity was associated with higher sexual satisfaction; for women with high lifetime trauma, the reverse was true. Decreased SNS activity during sexual stimuli predicted higher sexual functioning in NSA women with low lifetime exposure to traumatic events, but lower sexual functioning in those with high exposure. Differences between women with and without CSA histories in the association between cortisol and SNS response and sexual functioning and satisfaction suggests that CSA causes disruptions in both short and long-term stress responses to sexual stimuli that perpetuate into adulthood.
Lewis, Ione R.
Child sexual abuse in Papua New Guinea is a human rights issue as well as an indicator of HIV risk in women. This study aimed to develop knowledge about the link between violence experienced by women and their HIV status. The study used a mixed method approach to collect quantitative and qualitative data through structured interviews with a sample…
Murray-Close, Dianna; Rellini, Alessandra H
This study examined the association between cardiovascular reactivity and proactive and reactive functions of relational aggression among women with and without a history of sexual abuse. Heart rate reactivity, blood pressure reactivity, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity while recounting a relational stressor (e.g., being left out) were assessed. Participants provided self-reports of relational aggression and a history of sexual abuse prior to age 16. Results indicated that cardiovascular reactivity was only associated with relational aggression among women with a history of sexual abuse. In addition, whereas blunted reactivity was associated with proactive relational aggression, exaggerated reactivity was associated with reactive relational aggression. These findings highlight the importance of considering contextual moderators of the association between cardiovascular reactivity and aggression; moreover, results highlight distinct cardiovascular correlates of different functions of aggression. Finally, the findings underscore the need for additional research examining the physiological correlates of aggressive behavior among women. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Luo, Tsun-yin Echo
This study conducted interviews with 19 survivors of sexual abuse and three social workers in Taiwan. It found sexual stigmatization and feelings of disempowerment and betrayal as the most pervasive trauma complex among the abuse survivors. Effects of cultural attitudes toward sexual victimization of women and Chinese patriarchal familialism are…
Meston, Cindy M.; Lorenz, Tierney A.; Stephenson, Kyle R.
Introduction Women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have high rates of depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and sexual problems in adulthood. Aim We tested an expressive writing based intervention for its effects on psychopathology, sexual function, satisfaction and distress in women who have a history of CSA. Main Outcome measures Validated self-report measures of psychopathology and sexual function were conducted at post-treatment, 2 weeks, one month, and six months. Methods Seventy women with CSA histories completed five 30-minute sessions of expressive writing, either with a trauma focus or a sexual schema focus. Results Women in both writing interventions exhibited improved symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Women who were instructed to write about the impact of the abuse on their sexual schema were significantly more likely to recover from sexual dysfunction. Conclusions Expressive writing may improve depressive and PTSD symptoms in women with CSA histories. Sexual schema-focused expressive writing in particular appears to improve sexual problems, especially for depressed women with CSA histories. Both treatments are accessible, cost-effective, and acceptable to patients. PMID:23875721
Greenwald, E; Leitenberg, H; Cado, S; Tarran, M J
The purpose of this study was to explore how the experience of childhood sexual abuse is related to long-term psychological and sexual functioning in a nonclinical and nonstudent community sample of women. Questionnaires were distributed to 1,500 nurses and returned anonymously. Fifty-four women who had been sexually abused as children (age 15 or younger) responded. These subjects were then matched with 54 nonabused control subjects. Although there was no difference on a measure of self-esteem, the abused group reported more symptoms of distress on the Global Severity Index and on seven out of nine subscales of the Derogatis Brief Symptom Inventory. They also reported more disturbance on a scale which examined psychological symptoms that have been commonly reported in the literature to be particularly associated with sexual abuse. These differences between the abused and nonabused groups were evident even after controlling for differences in subjects' perceptions of parental emotional support. Unlike the results for psychological adjustment, however, the abused subjects did not differ from the control subjects on self-reported levels of sexual satisfaction or sexual dysfunction.
Mullings, J L; Marquart, J W; Brewer, V E
There were two aims in this research. First, to examine the relationships between childhood sexual abuse and HIV drug and sexual risk taking behaviors among female prisoners, and second, to examine the relationship between a marginal adult living context and HIV drug and sexual risk taking behavior among female prisoners. The data were collected through face-to-face interviews with a random sample of 500 women at admission to prison in 1994. Differences between women who were sexually abused while growing up (n = 130) were compared to women who reported no sexual abuse (n = 370) along various demographic, and HIV drug and sexual risk taking dimensions. A history of sexual abuse while growing up was associated with increased sexual risk taking behaviors in adulthood. A marginal adult living situation also emerged as an important factor increasing the risk for HIV infection. Examining the co-occurrence of both childhood sexual abuse and adult marginal living context revealed a strong relationship between these two factors and HIV risk taking activities. The findings indicate that childhood sexual abuse may be a predictor for HIV sexual risk taking behaviors among incarcerated women. The marginal and chaotic adult living style of these women was also associated the extent of their HIV drug and sexual risk taking behaviors. Our research suggests that the co-occurrence of sexual victimization and marginality is a stronger predictor of HIV risk than each variable alone.
Baviskar, Siddhartha; Christensen, Else
Objectives. The objective was to study the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among the mothers of children in Greenland and its association with the psychosocial adjustment of their children. Study design. The study was based on a 2007–2008 survey of a national sample of children...... in Greenland designed by researchers at SFI – The Danish National Centre for Social Research in collaboration with the Greenlandic Home Rule. The survey was conducted via telephone interviews with the children’s mothers. Methods. The relationship between the mothers’ childhood sexual abuse and their children...... sexually abused as children. The psychosocial adjustment of the children in the sample overall was good, with few children scoring on the upper end of the scale, indicating maladjustment. A strong inverse relationship between the mothers’ childhood sexual abuse and the children’s adjustment was found after...
Anderson, Geri; And Others
Interviews with 51 female sexual abuse survivors revealed that over half had a diagnosis of multiple personality disorder, and the vast majority had extensive dissociative symptomatology and related features. (Author/JDD)
Reinhart, Michael A.
Reports of male victims (N=189) of child sexual abuse were retrospectively reviewed. Comparison to an age- and race-matched group of female victims revealed similarities in patterns of disclosure and perpetrator characteristics. (Author/DB)
... Showing private parts ("flashing"), forcing children to watch pornography, verbal pressure for sex, and exploiting children as prostitutes or for pornography can be sexual abuse as well. Researchers estimate ...
Güneş, Gizem; Karaçam, Zekiye
To examine the feeling of discomfort during vaginal examinations, history of abuse and sexual abuse and post-traumatic stress disorder in women to determine the correlation between these variables. Women who have experienced abuse or sexual abuse may feel more discomfort during vaginal examinations and may perceive a sensation similar to what they experienced during sexual abuse. Cross-sectional. This study included 320 women receiving a vaginal examination. The data were collected using a questionnaire composed of items related to descriptive characteristics, vaginal examinations and violence, a visual analogue scale of discomfort, and the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Scale-civilian version. The mean score for the feeling of discomfort during vaginal examinations was 3·92 ± 3·34; 26·3% of the women described discomfort. Thirty-eight (12%) of the 320 women had experienced emotional violence, 25 (8%) had experienced physical violence, and 25 (8%) had been forced into sexual intercourse by their spouses. Of the women, 64·7% suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder, and physical, emotional and sexual violence were found to increase the possibility of this disorder. Exposure to emotional violence increased the possibility of discomfort during vaginal examinations by 4·5 (OR = 4·482; 95% CI = 1·421-14·134). Post-traumatic stress disorder (OR = 1·038; 95% CI = 1·009-1·066) was found to increase the possibility of discomfort during vaginal examinations; however, as the number of live births increases, women reported a reduction in their discomfort with vaginal examinations. This study revealed a positive correlation between discomfort during vaginal examinations and emotional violence and post-traumatic stress disorder but a negative correlation between discomfort during vaginal examinations and the number of live births. In addition, having a history of abuse and sexual abuse was found to increase post-traumatic stress disorder. Considering
Full Text Available Child sexual abuse is a worldwide problem. Although most studies on the longterm consequences of child sexual abuse have focused on women, sexual abuse of both boys and girls is common. Peer sexual abuse in schools was an often overlooked problem that contributes to a hostile school environment: one major study found that 85% of girls and 76% of boys reported experiencing some form of sexual abuse in school. 85% of child sexual abuse is committed by relatives, close family friend or an adult that the child knows and trusts. The childhood sexual abuse variables taken into account are commonly age of onset, duration, abuse forms and relationship between the child and the perpetrator. The objective of this study was to gather information or opinion about sexual abuse concept, methods and media of the elementary students, parents, teachers and experts. A qualitative study, involving one to one interviews, was conducted with 7 experts, focus group discussion with 40 elementary students, and with 40 parents in Yogyakarta district about child sexual abuse issues. Data were analysed according to Miles and Huberman’s data reduction, data display and conclusion verification process. These findings strongly indicate that boys and girls are vulnerable to this form of childhood sexual abuse ; the similarity in the likelihood for multiple behavioral, mental and social outcomes among men and women suggest the need to identify and treat all adults affected by child sexual abuse. Themes related to the child sexual abuse were: paperwork design, good facilitator, guidelines for students, parents and teachers. Students prefer media that can help them understand concept with komik paperwork as media for early prevention. Parents, teachers and experts prefer that this prevention program can run as soon. With careful paperwork design and evaluation of prevention program, the success of program implementation can be enhanced.
Curtis, Tine; Larsen, Finn B; Helweg-Larsen, Karin
The purposes of the study were to analyse the lifetime prevalence of violence and sexual abuse among the Inuit in Greenland and to study the associations between health and having been the victim of violence or sexual abuse. Associations were studied with specific attention to possible differences...... between women and men. Further, response rates were analysed specifically in order to understand consequences of including questions on violence and sexual abuse in the questionnaire survey. The analyses were based on material from a cross-sectional health interview survey conducted during 1993......-94 with participation from a random sample of the Inuit population in Greenland (N = 1393). The prevalence of ever having been a victim of violence was 47% among women and 48% among men. Women had more often than men been sexually abused (25% and 6%) (p sexually abused in childhood (8...
de Jong, Rinke; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.
This study aimed to examine the association between different characteristics of sexual abuse and adverse family outcomes in later life. Through archived court files, a large sample of Dutch men and women who have been sexually abused as a child could be identified. Outcome variables were assessed
Curtis, Tine; Larsen, Finn B; Helweg-Larsen, Karin
The purposes of the study were to analyse the lifetime prevalence of violence and sexual abuse among the Inuit in Greenland and to study the associations between health and having been the victim of violence or sexual abuse. Associations were studied with specific attention to possible differences...... between women and men. Further, response rates were analysed specifically in order to understand consequences of including questions on violence and sexual abuse in the questionnaire survey. The analyses were based on material from a cross-sectional health interview survey conducted during 1993......-94 with participation from a random sample of the Inuit population in Greenland (N = 1393). The prevalence of ever having been a victim of violence was 47% among women and 48% among men. Women had more often than men been sexually abused (25% and 6%) (p abused in childhood (8...
Dale, Sannisha K; Weber, Kathleen M; Cohen, Mardge H; Kelso, Gwendolyn A; Cruise, Ruth C; Brody, Leslie R
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) places women at risk for HIV infection and once infected, for poor mental health outcomes, including lower quality of life and depressive symptoms. Among HIV-positive and demographically matched HIV-negative women, we investigated whether resilience and HIV status moderated the relationships between CSA and health indices as well as the relationships among CSA, depressive symptoms, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Participants included 202 women (138 HIV+, 64 HIV-, 87 % African American) from the Women's Interagency HIV Study Chicago CORE Center site. Results indicated that in both HIV-positive and HIV-negative women, higher resilience significantly related to lower depressive symptoms and higher HRQOL. CSA related to higher depressive symptoms only for women scoring low in resilience. Interventions to promote resilience, especially in women with a CSA history, might minimize depressive symptoms and poor HRQOL among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women.
Johnson, Dawn M.; Sheahan, Timothy C.; Chard, Kathleen M.
Using a treatment-seeking sample of adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse, the relationships between coping strategies, personality disorders (PD) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) were explored. A variety of PDs were found to exist in this population, with avoidant, antisocial, dependent PDs having higher frequencies than…
More specifically, this project will involve the African Network for Integrated Development (ANID) and its partners taking a participatory research-action approach, and combining qualitative and quantitative methods to produce a knowledge base regarding sexual abuse and the constraints on access to justice in rural areas.
Chen, Jing; Cai, Yiyun; Cong, Enzhao; Liu, Ying; Gao, Jingfang; Li, Youhui; Tao, Ming; Zhang, Kerang; Wang, Xumei; Gao, Chengge; Yang, Lijun; Li, Kan; Shi, Jianguo; Wang, Gang; Liu, Lanfen; Zhang, Jinbei; Du, Bo; Jiang, Guoqing; Shen, Jianhua; Zhang, Zhen; Liang, Wei; Sun, Jing; Hu, Jian; Liu, Tiebang; Wang, Xueyi; Miao, Guodong; Meng, Huaqing; Li, Yi; Hu, Chunmei; Li, Yi; Huang, Guoping; Li, Gongying; Ha, Baowei; Deng, Hong; Mei, Qiyi; Zhong, Hui; Gao, Shugui; Sang, Hong; Zhang, Yutang; Fang, Xiang; Yu, Fengyu; Yang, Donglin; Liu, Tieqiao; Chen, Yunchun; Hong, Xiaohong; Wu, Wenyuan; Chen, Guibing; Cai, Min; Song, Yan; Pan, Jiyang; Dong, Jicheng; Pan, Runde; Zhang, Wei; Shen, Zhenming; Liu, Zhengrong; Gu, Danhua; Wang, Xiaoping; Liu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Qiwen; Li, Yihan; Chen, Yiping; Kendler, Kenneth S; Shi, Shenxun; Flint, Jonathan
Our prior study in Han Chinese women has shown that women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are at increased risk for developing major depression (MD). Would this relationship be found in our whole data set? Three levels of CSA (non-genital, genital, and intercourse) were assessed by self-report in two groups of Han Chinese women: 6017 clinically ascertained with recurrent MD and 5983 matched controls. Diagnostic and other risk factor information was assessed at personal interview. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression. We confirmed earlier results by replicating prior analyses in 3,950 new recurrent MD cases. There were no significant differences between the two data sets. Any form of CSA was significantly associated with recurrent MD (OR 4.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) [3.19-5.24]). This association strengthened with increasing CSA severity: non-genital (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.58-3.15), genital (OR 5.24, 95% CI 3.52-8.15) and intercourse (OR 10.65, 95% CI 5.56-23.71). Among the depressed women, those with CSA had an earlier age of onset, longer depressive episodes. Recurrent MD patients those with CSA had an increased risk for dysthymia (OR 1.60, 95%CI 1.11-2.27) and phobia (OR 1.41, 95%CI 1.09-1.80). Any form of CSA was significantly associated with suicidal ideation or attempt (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.20-1.89) and feelings of worthlessness or guilt (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.02-2.02). Intercourse (OR 3.47, 95%CI 1.66-8.22), use of force and threats (OR 1.95, 95%CI 1.05-3.82) and how strongly the victims were affected at the time (OR 1.39, 95%CI 1.20-1.64) were significantly associated with recurrent MD. In Chinese women CSA is strongly associated with recurrent MD and this association increases with greater severity of CSA. Depressed women with CSA have some specific clinical traits. Some features of CSA were associated with greater likelihood of developing recurrent MD.
Full Text Available Our prior study in Han Chinese women has shown that women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA are at increased risk for developing major depression (MD. Would this relationship be found in our whole data set?Three levels of CSA (non-genital, genital, and intercourse were assessed by self-report in two groups of Han Chinese women: 6017 clinically ascertained with recurrent MD and 5983 matched controls. Diagnostic and other risk factor information was assessed at personal interview. Odds ratios (ORs were calculated by logistic regression.We confirmed earlier results by replicating prior analyses in 3,950 new recurrent MD cases. There were no significant differences between the two data sets. Any form of CSA was significantly associated with recurrent MD (OR 4.06, 95% confidence interval (CI [3.19-5.24]. This association strengthened with increasing CSA severity: non-genital (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.58-3.15, genital (OR 5.24, 95% CI 3.52-8.15 and intercourse (OR 10.65, 95% CI 5.56-23.71. Among the depressed women, those with CSA had an earlier age of onset, longer depressive episodes. Recurrent MD patients those with CSA had an increased risk for dysthymia (OR 1.60, 95%CI 1.11-2.27 and phobia (OR 1.41, 95%CI 1.09-1.80. Any form of CSA was significantly associated with suicidal ideation or attempt (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.20-1.89 and feelings of worthlessness or guilt (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.02-2.02. Intercourse (OR 3.47, 95%CI 1.66-8.22, use of force and threats (OR 1.95, 95%CI 1.05-3.82 and how strongly the victims were affected at the time (OR 1.39, 95%CI 1.20-1.64 were significantly associated with recurrent MD.In Chinese women CSA is strongly associated with recurrent MD and this association increases with greater severity of CSA. Depressed women with CSA have some specific clinical traits. Some features of CSA were associated with greater likelihood of developing recurrent MD.
Roosa, Mark W.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Reinholtz, Cindy; Angelini, Patricia Jo
Examined the sexual history of 2,003 young women to determine whether childhood sexual abuse contributed to a greater risk for teenage pregnancy. Results indicate that sexual abuse alone was not related to the incidence of teenage pregnancy, but sexual precocity was related to much higher incidences of teenage pregnancy. (RJM)
Klettke, Bianca; Mellor, David
This study investigated perceptions of victim culpability in sexual assaults against girls and women according to victim age, perceiver gender, and perceiver parental status. Overall, 420 jury-eligible participants completed an online survey recording their attributions of guilt, responsibility, and blame toward 10-, 15-, and 20-year-old girls and women in relation to sexual assault. Attributions of culpability were affected by whether the victim physically or verbally resisted the abuse, wore sexually revealing clothes, or was described as having acted promiscuously. Fifteen-year-old victims were perceived as more culpable for the abuse than 10-year-old victims. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Homma, Yuko; Wang, Naren; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Kishor, Nand
Purpose Childhood and adolescent sexual abuse has been shown to lead to increased odds of sexual behaviors that lead to sexually transmitted infections and early pregnancy involvement. Research, meta-analyses, and interventions, however, have focused primarily on girls and young women who have experienced abuse, yet some adolescent boys are also sexually abused. We performed a meta-analysis of the existing studies to assess the magnitudes of the link between a history of sexual abuse and each of three risky sexual behaviors among adolescent boys in North America. Methods The three outcomes were a) unprotected sexual intercourse, b) multiple sexual partners, and c) pregnancy involvement. Weighted mean effect sizes were computed from 10 independent samples, from nine studies published between 1990 and 2011. Results Sexually abused boys were significantly more likely than non-abused boys to report all three risky sexual behaviors. Weighted mean odds ratios were 1.91 for unprotected intercourse, 2.91 for multiple sexual partners, and 4.81 for pregnancy involvement. Conclusions Our results indicate that childhood and adolescent sexual abuse can substantially Influence sexual behavior in adolescence among male survivors. To improve sexual health for all adolescents, even young men, we should strengthen sexual abuse prevention initiatives, raise awareness about male sexual abuse survivors’ existence and sexual health issues, improve sexual health promotion for abused young men, and screen all people, regardless of gender, for a history of sexual abuse. PMID:22727072
Elkjaer, Henriette; Kristensen, Ellids; Mortensen, Erik Lykke
This randomized prospective study examines durability of improvement in general symptomatology, psychosocial functioning and interpersonal problems, and compares the long-term efficacy of analytic and systemic group psychotherapy in women 1 year after completion of treatment for childhood sexual...
Conway, Michael; Mendelson, Morris; Giannopoulos, Constantina; Csank, Patricia A. R.; Holm, Susan L.
Objective: The study addressed the hypothesis that adults reporting sexual abuse are more likely to exhibit a general tendency to ruminate on sadness. The relations between reported abuse, rumination on sadness, and dysphoria were also examined. Method: Undergraduate students (101 women and 100 men) reported on childhood and adult sexual abuse and…
Full Text Available This study investigated secondary school pupils’ views on strategies that can be used to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA. A survey design was adopted as the operational framework for data gathering. Data were collected from three secondary schools, all in the Gweru district of Zimbabwe. The sample comprised 268 secondary pupils (50% female; M age = 15.42, SD = 1.376. Each participant was asked to write down three main strategies that can be used to fight CSA on a given questionnaire. The responses were then analyzed using the thematic content analysis technique. The study revealed that most pupils believed that CSA can be prevented through teaching them about it and also reporting to the police. Another significant finding was that pupils’ responses tended to vary with gender and level of education. Whereas female respondents suggested that CSA can be fought by avoiding strangers, saying no to sexual advances, and having reliable friends, their male counterparts suggested teaching the community about CSA, forming new clubs, and enacting life imprisonment for perpetrators, among other suggestions. In terms of level of education, Form 2 participants suggested avoiding strangers, staying home at night, whereas their Form 4 counterparts suggested lessons for Guidance and Counseling, saying no to sexual advances, and having reliable friends. These findings unequivocally demonstrate the need to vigorously engage secondary school pupils in activities aimed at fighting CSA to safeguard their inalienable human rights.
Ulibarri, Monica D.; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Salazar, Marissa
This study examined self-reported sexually abusive experiences in childhood and adulthood as correlates of current drug use, alcohol abuse, and depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 204 Latina women 18–34 years old. Results indicated significant relationships between history of sexual abuse (regardless of age of occurrence), depression symptoms, PTSD symptoms, alcohol abuse, and drug use. When examined separately, childhood sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of depression, PTSD, and substance use but not alcohol abuse behaviors. Experiencing sexual abuse in adulthood was associated with symptoms of depression, alcohol abuse behaviors, and substance use but not PTSD symptoms. Structural equation modeling showed that substance use partially mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and mental health outcomes. These findings suggest mental health and substance use services should incorporate treatment for trauma, which may be the root of comorbid mental health and substance use issues. PMID:25635897
Kubiak, Sheryl P; Brenner, Hannah J; Bybee, Deborah; Campbell, Rebecca; Cummings, Cristy E; Darcy, Kathleen M; Fedock, Gina; Goodman-Williams, Rachael
More than 80,000 prisoners each year are sexually victimized during incarceration, but only about 8% report victimization to correctional authorities. Complicating reporting is the fact that half of the perpetrators are staff members. Given the restrictive and highly regulated prison environment, studies that examine reporting behaviors are difficult to conduct and to date information available relied on those who have reported or hypothetical victimization studies. This study uses an ecological framework and archival data from a class action lawsuit of sexual misconduct to determine predictors of reporting. Relying on a subsample of 179 women, chosen because they have all experienced at least 1 penetration offense, we use bivariate and multivariable mixed effects logistic regression analyses to examine individual, assault, and context-level predictors of reporting on 397 incidents of staff sexual misconduct. The final model revealed that that 6 predictors (age at time of assault, physical injury, multiple incidents, perpetrator with multiple victims, the year the abuse began, and the number of years women have left on their sentence) account for 58% of the variance in reporting. Disclosure to inmate peers and/or family and friends was significant in the bivariate results. These findings indicate the need for stronger and more systematic implementation of Prison Rape Elimination Act guidelines and remedies that create and enforce sanctions, including termination, for staff violating policy and state law. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Santos-Iglesias, Pablo; Sierra, Juan Carlos; Vallejo-Medina, Pablo
This study was conducted to test interpersonal, attitudinal, and sexual predictors of sexual assertiveness in a Spanish sample of 1,619 men and 1,755 women aged 18-87 years. Participants completed measures of sexual assertiveness, solitary and dyadic sexual desire, sexual arousal, erectile function, sexual attitudes, and frequency of partner abuse. In men, higher sexual assertiveness was predicted by less non-physical abuse, more positive attitudes toward sexual fantasies and erotophilia, higher dyadic desire, and higher sexual arousal. In women, higher sexual assertiveness was predicted by less non-physical abuse, less solitary sexual desire and higher dyadic sexual desire, arousal, erotophilia, and positive attitudes towards sexual fantasies. Results were discussed in the light of prevention and educational programs that include training in sexual assertiveness skills.
Macías-Cortés, Emma Del Carmen; Llanes-González, Lidia; Aguilar-Faisal, Leopoldo; Asbun-Bojalil, Juan
Although individualized homeopathic treatment is effective for depression in climacteric women, there is a lack of well-designed studies of its efficacy for depression in battered women or in post-traumatic stress disorder. The aim of this study was to assess the association between individualized homeopathic treatment or fluoxetine and response to depression treatment in climacteric women with high levels of domestic violence, sexual abuse or marital dissatisfaction. One hundred and thirty-three Mexican climacteric women with moderate-to-severe depression enrolled in the HOMDEP-MENOP Study (a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, double-dummy, three-arm trial, with a 6-week follow-up study) were evaluated. Domestic violence, marital dissatisfaction and sexual abuse were assessed at baseline. Response to depression treatment was defined by a decrease of 50% or more from baseline score of Hamilton scale. Association between domestic violence, sexual abuse, and marital dissatisfaction and response to depression treatment was analyzed with bivariate analysis in the three groups. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Homeopathy versus placebo had a statistically significant association with response to depression treatment after adjusting for sexual abuse (OR [95% CI]: 11.07 [3.22 to 37.96]), domestic violence (OR [95% CI]: 10.30 [3.24 to 32.76]) and marital dissatisfaction (OR [95% CI]: 8.61 [2.85 to 25.99]). Individualized homeopathic treatment is associated with response to depression treatment in climacteric women with high levels of domestic violence, sexual abuse or marital dissatisfaction. Further studies should be conducted to evaluate its efficacy specifically for post-traumatic stress disorder in battered women. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT01635218,: URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01635218?term=depression+homeopathy&rank=1. The Faculty of Homeopathy.
This special issue brings together emerging research concerning the issue of Sexual Violence and Abuse from around the world. The importance of pulling together research that explores the central topic of sexual violence and abuse is more pressing than ever and having a collection of work using different methodological approaches to unique samples previously unexplored contributes significantly to our understanding towards this type of offence.
... and frequency of abuse increases.” 76 o Among adolescents, suicide attempters report more sexual abuse than non-attempters ... suicide attempts among junior and senior high school youth. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 25, 358-372. 1011 ...
Sexual abuse is a problem of epidemic proportions in the United States. Given the sheer numbers of sexually abused children, it is vital for pediatric nurse practitioners to understand both short-term and long-term consequences of sexual abuse. Understanding consequences of sexual abuse can assist the pediatric nurse practitioner in anticipating the physical and mental health needs of patients and also may assist in the identification of sexual abuse victims. Sexual abuse typically does not occur in isolation. Implications for practice will be discussed. Copyright © 2010 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Coles, Jan; Lee, Adeline; Taft, Angela; Mazza, Danielle; Loxton, Deborah
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) occurs across the world, with a prevalence of 20% internationally. Our aim was to investigate the associations between CSA, CSA plus adult violence experiences, and selected self-reported physical and mental health in a community sample of women. Data from 7,700 women aged 28-33 years from the 1973-1978 cohort who completed Survey 4 of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) were analyzed. Questions about prior abuse experience such as child sexual abuse, IPV, adult physical and sexual assaults, andphysical and mental health. Women who experienced CSA were 1.4 times more likely to experience bodily pain (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.37, confidence interval [CI] = [1.19, 1.58]), 1.3 times more likely to have poorer general health (AOR = 1.33, CI = [1.15, 1.54]), and 1.4 times more likely to be depressed in the past 3 years (AOR = 1.44, CI = [1.22, 1.71]) compared with those without abuse.. Women who experienced both CSA and adult violence were 2.4 to 3.1 times more likely to experience poor general (AOR = 2.35, CI = [1.76, 3.14]) and mental health (AOR = 2.69, CI = [1.98, 3.64]), and suffer from depression (AOR = 2.84, CI = [2.13, 3.78]) and anxiety (AOR = 3.10, CI = [2.12, 4.53]) compared with women with no abuse. This study demonstrates the importance of CSA in pain and poorer long-term mental and physical health.. It emphasizes how prior CSA may amplify pain and poorer long-term mental and physical health among women who are again exposed to violence in adulthood. © The Author(s) 2014.
Noll, Jennie G; Trickett, Penelope K; Putnam, Frank W
The sexual attitudes and activities of 77 sexually abused and 89 comparison women (mean age = 20.41, SD = 3.38) were assessed 10 years after disclosure in a longitudinal, prospective study of the long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse. Abused participants were more preoccupied with sex, younger at first voluntary intercourse, more likely to have been teen mothers, and endorsed lower birth controlefficacy than comparison participants. When psychological functioning earlier in development was examined, sexual preoccupation was predicted by anxiety, sexual aversion was predicted by childhood sexual behavior problems, and sexual ambivalence (simultaneous sexual preoccupation and sexual aversion) was predicted by pathological dissociation. Findings also indicate that biological father abuse may be associated with greater sexual aversion and sexual ambivalence.
Sarwer, David B.; Durlak, Joseph A.
A study of 359 married women who sought sex therapy with their spouses found a connection between adult female sexual dysfunction and childhood sexual abuse. Abuse involving sexual penetration was specifically associated with adult sexual dysfunction. Future research on additional variables that contribute to sexual dysfunction is urged. (CR)
Vaillancourt-Morel, Marie-Pier; Godbout, Natacha; Bédard, Maryline Germain; Charest, Émilie; Briere, John; Sabourin, Stéphane
Among individuals defined as having been sexually abused based on legal criteria, some will self-report having been abused and some will not. Yet, the empirical correlates of self-definition status are not well studied. Different definitions of abuse may lead to varying prevalence rates and contradictory findings regarding psychological outcomes. The present study examined whether, among legally defined sexual abuse survivors, identifying oneself as having experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was associated with more severe abuse, negative emotional reactions toward the abuse, and current sexual reactions. A convenience sample of 1,021 French-speaking Canadians completed self-report questionnaires online. The prevalence of legally defined CSA was 21.3% in women and 19.6% in men, as compared to 7.1% in women and 3.8% in men for self-defined CSA. Among legally defined sexual abuse survivors, those who identified themselves as CSA survivors had been abused more frequently, were more likely to report a male aggressor, and more often described abuse by a parental figure than those who did not self-identify as abused. Further, self-defined CSA was associated with more negative postabuse reactions and sexual avoidance, whereas those not identifying as sexually abused were more likely to report sexual compulsion. © The Author(s) 2016.
... can help abused children regain a sense of self-esteem, cope with feelings of guilt about the abuse, and begin the process of overcoming ... find Facts for Families © helpful and would like to make good mental health a reality, consider donating to the Campaign for ...
Corwin, David L.; Olafson, Erna
This introduction to the special issue on clinical identification of sexually abused children reviews the history of the study of child sexual abuse and describes the 14 papers included in the special issue. (JDD)
abused patients scored higher on depression rating scales than non sexually ... between sexual abuse and depresSIon, suicidal symptoms and alcohol nse is .... psychiatric symptoms, including negative cognitions, suicidal. Not present.
Mantula, Fennie; Saloojee, Haroon
Although child sexual abuse is a significant public health problem globally, its incidence, prevention, and management is less well described in resource-poor settings. In poorer settings prevention initiatives assume even more importance since resources for managing abused children are severely limited. This article examines the current status of policy and practice related to the prevention of child sexual abuse in Zimbabwe. It identifies implementation challenges and highlights opportunities that could be embraced to reduce CSA in Zimbabwe, based on evidence synthesized from recent work. Although Zimbabwe has a well-established legal and regulatory framework to protect children from child sexual abuse, implementation of existing policies is weak. Financial, human, and material resource constraints are frequently cited to explain limited prevention activity. Effective strategies for the prevention of child sexual abuse should focus on implementing existing legislation, targeting schoolchildren, and getting community involvement. A dedicated budget would help entrench these strategies, but gains can be achieved even in the absence of this.
Noll, Jennie G.; Trickett, Penelope K.; Putnam, Frank W.
The sexual attitudes and activities of 77 sexually abused and 89 comparison women (mean age = 20.41, SD = 3.38) were assessed 10 years after disclosure in a longitudinal, prospective study of the long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse. Abused participants were more preoccupied with sex, younger at first voluntary intercourse, more likely to have been teen mothers, and endorsed lower birth control efficacy than comparison participants. When psychological functioning earlier in development...
... look at pornography Masturbating in front of a child Signs of Sexual Abuse in Children Suspect sexual abuse when children: Tell ... update 04-03-18. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Child Sexual Abuse Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...
This article investigates the relationship between sexual abuse, power and the body from a Catholic ... Some researchers recognize that power also plays a role in sexual abuse, but this abuse of ..... Gender, power, and organizational culture.
Alexander, P C; Teti, L; Anderson, C L
This study explored the main and interactive effects of sexual abuse history and relationship satisfaction on self-reported parenting, controlling for histories of physical abuse and parental alcoholism. The community sample consisted of 90 mothers of 5- to 8-year-old children. The sample was limited to those mothers currently in an intimate relationship, 19 of whom reported a history of childhood sexual abuse. Participants completed the Child Behavior Checklist, the Parenting Stress Inventory, the Family Cohesion Index, and questions assessing parent-child role reversal, history of abuse and parental alcoholism, and current relationship satisfaction. Results of analyses and multivariate analyses of covariance suggested that sexual abuse survivors with an unsatisfactory intimate relationship were more likely than either sexual abuse survivors with a satisfactory relationship or nonabused women to endorse items on a questionnaire of role reversal (defined as emotional overdependence upon one's child). Role reversal was not significantly predicted by histories of physical abuse or parental alcoholism or child's gender. While parenting stress was inversely predicted by the significant main effect of relationship satisfaction, neither parenting stress nor child behavior problems were predicted by the main effect of sexual abuse history or by the interaction between sexual abuse history and relationship satisfaction. These results suggest the unique relevance of sexual abuse history and relationship satisfaction in the prediction of a specific type of parent-child role reversal--namely, a mother's emotional overdependence upon her child.
This paper bemoans the current scourge of child- sexual abuse as well as the recent .... What we must bear in mind is that these are the. 'reported cases' ..... Plato was trying to advance a theory of motivation for human action and he explains ...
Full Text Available Despite an increasing literature related to elder abuse, sexual abuse of older persons in general and of vulnerable adults living in nursing homes in particular is still sparsely described. The purpose of this study was to assess the state of knowledge on the subject of sexual abuse against older nursing home residents through a literature review. Systematic searches in reference databases including Cinahl, Medline, OVID Nursing Database, ISI Web of Science, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, and SveMed + were conducted. Through several phases of selection of the articles, using strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, six articles were chosen for a deeper examination. Findings from the review show that sexual abuse occurs in nursing homes and that both older women and men are victims of sexual abuse. Perpetrators appear mainly to be staff and other residents and mainly to be men, but also women abuse both older men and older women. Findings from the literature review show that there is a need for knowledge and further research on the topic of sexual abuse against older residents in nursing homes. Furthermore, there is a need for good policies and reporting systems, as an important step in seriously addressing sexual abuse against older persons.
Levine, James A; McCrady-Spitzer, Shelly K; Bighorse, William
Mainstream American culture frequently minimizes the prevalence and significance of sexual abuse. Unfortunately, this denial of extensive victimization of women is also present in many underserved populations. In June 2007, Amnesty International released its report on sexual abuse in indigenous women, which states that, "One in three Native American or Alaska Native women will be raped at some point in their lives. Most do not seek justice because they know they will be met with inaction or indifference." This report highlighted an infrequently discussed issue namely, very high levels of sexual abuse in Native American and Alaska Native women. The relationship between sexual abuse and obesity has been delineated in several studies; overall about one quarter to one half of women with high levels of obesity have been sexually abused and it has been postulated that weight-gain serves as an adaptive response for many survivors of sexual abuse. It is also well known in Native American and Alaskan Native women that there is a high prevalence of obesity (about 40% greater than the population average) and that this obesity is associated with a many-fold greater risk of diabetes and increased risks of hypertension, cancer and cardiovascular disease. The link between the concomitantly high rates of sexual abuse and obesity in this population may or may not be partial causality but the issue is nonetheless important. If approaches are to succeed in reversing the trend of increasing levels of obesity in Native American and Alaskan Native women, the high prevalence of sexual abuse will need to be specifically and comprehensively addressed.
Sartor, Carolyn E.; Grant, Julia D.; Duncan, Alexis E.; McCutcheon, Vivia V.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Calvert, Wilma J.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Heath, Andrew C.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.
Objective The aim of the current study was to determine whether the higher rates of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) but lower rates of cigarette smoking in African-American vs. European-American women can be explained in part by a lower magnitude of association between CSA and smoking in African-American women. Methods Data were drawn from a same-sex female twin study of substance use (n=3,521; 14.3% African-American). Cox proportional hazards regression analyses using CSA to predict smoking initiation and progression to regular smoking were conducted separately by race/ethnicity. Co-twin status on the smoking outcome was used to adjust for familial influences on smoking (which may overlap with family-level influences on CSA exposure). Results After adjusting for co-twin status, CSA was associated with smoking initiation in European Americans (hazards ratio (HR)=1.43, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.26–1.62) and with smoking initiation ≤16 in African Americans (HR=1.70, CI: 1.26–2.29). CSA was associated with regular smoking onset ≤15 in European Americans (HR=1.63, CI:1.21–2.18), with no change in HR after adjusting for co-twin status. In the African-American subsample, the HR for CSA was reduced to non-significance after adjusting for co-twin status (from HR=3.30, CI:1.23–8.89 to HR=1.16, CI:0.71–1.92 for regular smoking ≤15). Conclusions CSA is associated with moderate elevation in risk for initiating smoking among African-American and European-American women. By contrast, CSA is associated with elevated risk for (adolescent onset) regular smoking only in European-American women. Furthermore, there is significant overlap between risk conferred by CSA and familial influences on regular smoking in African-American but not European-American women. PMID:27131220
Jaffe, Anna E.; Cranston, Christopher C.; Shadlow, Joanna O.
Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was…
Fogler, Jason M.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Clarke, Stephanie; Jensen, Jennifer; Rowe, Erin
The literature on clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse suggests that there are two modal populations of survivors: boys and adult women. We review what is known about trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder following sexual abuse and explore the different treatment needs for these two survivor groups. For children, clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse can…
When the sexual abuse of children is revealed, it is often found that other nonabusing adults were aware of the abuse but failed to act. During the past twenty years or so, the concealment of child sexual abuse (CSA) within organizations has emerged as a key challenge for child protection work. Recent events at Pennsylvania State University (PSU)…
This article investigates the relationship between sexual abuse, power and the body from a Catholic theological viewpoint. The article starts with the relationship between sexual abuse and power. It is argued that sexual abuse is always a form of power abuse. A second step examines the relation between sexual abuse and the body. We may not ignore the theme of the body when we speak about sexual abuse as a form of power abuse. The article also explores whether the body is a theme in recent (th...
Reissing, Elke D; Binik, Yitzchak M; Khalifé, Samir; Cohen, Deborah; Amsel, Rhonda
This study investigated the role of sexual and physical abuse, sexual self-schema, sexual functioning, sexual knowledge, relationship adjustment, and psychological distress in 87 women matched on age, relationship status, and parity and assigned to 3 groups--vaginismus, dyspareunia/vulvar vestibulitis syndrome (VVS), and no pain. More women with vaginismus reported a history of childhood sexual interference, and women in both the vaginismus and VVS groups reported lower levels of sexual functioning and a less positive sexual self-schema. Lack of support for traditionally held hypotheses concerning etiological correlates of vaginismus and the relationship between vaginismus and dyspareunia are discussed.
Homeyer, Linda E.; Landreth, Garry L.
The purpose of this study was to identify play therapy behaviors of sexually abused children. Surveys were sent to members of the Association for Play Therapy, of which 249 respondents, who worked with 16 or more sexually abused children, were used. Results indicate that there are identifiable and highly interrelated PTBs of sexually abused…
Mitchell, Mark W.
Child Sexual Abuse is a growing epidemic. In the United States, 1 in 6 boys and 1 in 4 girls will be sexually abused before reaching adulthood. From a legal standpoint, inappropriate sexual relations between a faculty/staff member and a student are a growing national concern. In 1991, the Supreme Court heard the Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public…
Howard, J R; O'Neill, S; Travers, C
To investigate the sexual behavior, sexual relationships, sexual satisfaction, sexual dysfunction and sexual distress in a population of older urban Australian women. In 2004, 474 women participating in the Longitudinal Assessment of Ageing in Women (LAW) Study completed a series of questionnaires about sexuality. They included the Short Personal Experiences Questionnaire (SPEQ), Relationship Assessment Scale (RAS), Female Sexual Distress Scale (FSDS), questions concerning past sexual abuse based on the Sex in Australia Study, and questions comparing present and past sexual interest and activity. The percentage of women with partners ranged from 83.3% in the 40 - 49-year age group to 46.4% women in the 70 - 79-year age group. The sexual ability of partners diminished markedly with age, with only 4.8% of the partners using medication to enable erections. Only 2.5% of women reported low relationship satisfaction. The incidence of sexual distress was also low, being reported by only 5.7% of women. Younger women and women with partners had higher levels of distress than older women. Indifference to sexual frequency rose from 26.7% in women aged 40 - 49 years to 72.3% in the 70 - 79-year age group. Past sexual abuse was recalled by 22.7% of women and 11.6% recalled multiple episodes of abuse. Women who recalled abuse had lower scores for satisfaction with sexual frequency. It appears from this study that there is a wide range of sexual experience amongst aging women, from never having had a sexual partner, to having solitary sex, to having a relationship with or without sex into the seventh decade. As women age, they experience a decrease in sexual activity, interest in sex, and distress about sex. This may be associated with the loss of intimate relationships as part of separation, divorce or bereavement. Decreased sexual activity with aging may be interpreted as a biological phenomenon (part of the aging process) or as sexual dysfunction, or it may be the result of
Feb 7, 2012 ... psychological trauma of sexual abuse, which manifests as major stress and ... to have been sexually active in their adolescence, which highlights some ... presentation in the clinic was 14 days, however three cases presented ...
from sexual exploitation and sexual abuse (ST/SGB/2003/13) (UN, Secretary .... In addition, in most situations, UN personnel have enjoyed immunity from local .... 9 Official UN statistics show a higher incidence of allegations reported against.
Leroi, A M; Berkelmans, I; Denis, P; Hémond, M; Devroede, G
Anorectal manometry was performed in 40 women, who consulted for functional disorders of the lower gastrointestinal tract and had been sexually abused. Anismus, defined as a rise in anal pressure during straining, was observed in 39 of 40 abused women, but in only six of 20 healthy control women (P anismus, as well as the group of healthy controls. A decreased amplitude of anal voluntary contraction and an increased threshold volume in perception of rectal distension were observed in both abused and nonabused patients. A decreased amplitude of rectoanal inhibitory reflex, little rise in rectal pressure upon straining, frequent absence of initial contraction during rectal distension, and increased resting pressure at the lower part of the anal canal were observed in abused but not in nonabused patients, suggesting that these abnormalities, in association with anismus, suggest a pattern of motor activity in the anal canal that could be indicative of sexual abuse.
Durán, Mercedes; Moya, Miguel; Megías, Jesús L
This article describes three studies in which we explored the influence of the sexist ideology attributed to the perpetrator on women's responses to hypothetical acts of sexual assault perpetrated by male intimate partners. In Study 1 (n = 83), college women read three sexual assault scenarios in the context of an intimate relationship. The male partner's sexist ideology (benevolent, hostile, or control) was manipulated within participants. Women showed less active responses when the partner had been described as a benevolent sexist man. This effect was replicated in Study 2 (n = 103), which showed a relationship between women's less active responses and the belief that benevolent sexist men are very attracted to and interested in their partners. Study 3 (n = 130) demonstrated experimentally that women's responses are less active when they are exposed to information that indicates that the perpetrator is both high in benevolent sexism and highly attracted to his victim than when the latter information is not provided. Results suggest that sexist ideology and particularly benevolent sexism-attributed to the perpetrator in this case-is highly important in women's reactions to acts of sexual violence perpetrated by male intimate partners.
Klein, H; Chao, B S
This study explores the relationship of sexual abuse during childhood and adolescence with HIV-related sexual risk behaviors during adulthood among female sexual partners of injection drug users. It analyzed data that was gathered between 1990 and 1993, which included a sample of 2794 women from the US, Mexico, and Puerto Rico. 6 HIV-related sexual risk behaviors that occurred during the month prior to interview were examined; namely, number of sexual partners, number of drug-injecting sexual partners, number of sexual intercourse while high on alcohol and/or other drugs, number of times trading sex for drugs and/or money, proportion of all sexual acts involving protection, and overall HIV-related sexual risk. The results showed that more than one-third of the women (36.3%) experienced some form of sexual abuse during childhood, whereas 34.4% reported that they had been abused sexually during adolescence; 1 in 5 women (18.4%) stated being abused during both periods. The results further indicate that there is a strong link between sexual abuse victimization early in life and involvement later in life in HIV-related sexual risk behaviors. It was found out that certain forms of sexual abuse, such as forced exposure and touching of one's sexual parts were more strongly related than other forms of sexual abuse to subsequent involvement in HIV-related sexual behaviors.
Harding, Hilary G.; Zinzow, Heidi M.; Burns, Erin E.; Jackson, Joan L.
Previous research suggests that similarity to a victim may influence attributions of responsibility in hypothetical child sexual abuse scenarios. One aspect of similarity receiving mixed support in the literature is respondent child sexual abuse history. Using a sample of 1,345 college women, the present study examined child sexual abuse history,…
Sexual abuse in children and adolescents is a silent epidemic because despite the fact that close to 20% of children and adolescents (1 out 5) are affected, less than 10% of the cases get reported to law enforcement agents or medical practitioners. Sexual abuse is associated with physical injuries such as bruises and ...
Burgess, Ann Wolbert; Welner, Michael; Willis, Danny G.
Sexual abuse by educators has become an increasingly noted type of sexual abuse, especially among adolescents, for two reasons. First, there is a potential for these cases to be silent and prolonged and second, when disclosed, the forensic implications usually include both criminal and/or civil sanctions. For forensic case evaluations,…
De Bellis, Michael D.; Spratt, Eve G.; Hooper, Stephen R.
Child maltreatment appears to be the single most preventable cause of mental illness and behavioral dysfunction in the United States. Few published studies examine the developmental and the psychobiological consequences of sexual abuse. There are multiple mechanisms through which sexual abuse can cause post-traumatic stress disorder, activate…
Comparison of a theory-based (AIDS Risk Reduction Model) cognitive behavioral intervention versus enhanced counseling for abused ethnic minority adolescent women on infection with sexually transmitted infection: results of a randomized controlled trial.
Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Collins, Jennifer L
Ethnic minority adolescent women with a history of sexual or physical abuse and sexually transmitted infections represent a vulnerable population at risk for HIV. Community-based interventions for behavior modification and subsequent risk reduction have not been effective among these women. To evaluate the effects of a theory-based (AIDS Risk Reduction Model) cognitive behavioral intervention model versus enhanced counseling for abused ethnic minority adolescent women on infection with sexually transmitted infection at 6 and 12 months follow-up. Controlled randomized trial with longitudinal follow-up. Southwestern United States, Metropolitan community-based clinic. Mexican-and-African American adolescent women aged 14-18 years with a history of abuse or sexually transmitted infection seeking sexual health care. Extensive preliminary study for intervention development was conducted including individual interviews, focus groups, secondary data analysis, pre-testing and feasibility testing for modification of an evidence-based intervention prior to testing in the randomized controlled trial. Following informed consents for participation in the trial, detailed interviews concerning demographics, abuse history, sexual risk behavior, sexual health and physical exams were obtained. Randomization into either control or intervention groups was conducted. Intervention participants received workshop, support group and individual counseling sessions. Control participants received abuse and enhanced clinical counseling. Follow-up including detailed interview and physical exam was conducted at 6 and 12 months following study entry to assess for infection. Intention to treat analysis was conducted to assess intervention effects using chi-square and multiple regression models. 409 Mexican-(n=342) and African-(n=67) American adolescent women with abuse and sexually transmitted infection histories were enrolled; 90% intervention group attendance; longitudinal follow-up at 6 (93
Bottoms, Bette L; Peter-Hagene, Liana C; Epstein, Michelle A; Wiley, Tisha R A; Reynolds, Carrie E; Rudnicki, Aaron G
Many adult survivors of childhood abuse hide their victimization, avoiding disclosure that could identify perpetrators, end the abuse, and bring help to the victim. We surveyed 1,679 women undergraduates to understand disclosure of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse, and, for the first time, witnessed domestic violence, which many consider to be emotionally abusive. A substantial minority of victims failed to ever disclose their sexual abuse (23%), physical abuse (34%), emotional abuse (20%), and witnessed domestic violence (29%). Overall, abuse-specific factors were better predictors of disclosure than individual-level characteristics. Disclosure of sexual abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and by multiple perpetrators), being more worried about injury and more upset at the time of the abuse, and self-labeling as a victim of abuse. Disclosure of physical abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and multiple perpetrators), being less emotionally close to the perpetrator, being older when the abuse ended, being more worried and upset, and self-labeling as a victim. Disclosure of emotional abuse was associated with being older when the abuse ended, and being more worried and upset. Disclosure was unrelated to victim demographic characteristics or defensive reactions (dissociative proneness, fantasy proneness, repressive coping style, and temporary forgetting), except that among physical and emotional abuse victims, repressors were less likely to disclose than non-repressors. Disclosure of witnessing domestic violence was not significantly related to any factors measured. © The Author(s) 2014.
Ulibarri, Monica D; Ulloa, Emilio C; Salazar, Marissa
This study examined self-reported sexually abusive experiences in childhood and adulthood as correlates of current drug use, alcohol abuse, and depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 204 Latina women 18-34 years old. Results indicated significant relationships between history of sexual abuse (regardless of age of occurrence), depression symptoms, PTSD symptoms, alcohol abuse, and drug use. When examined separately, childhood sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of depression, PTSD, and substance use but not alcohol abuse behaviors. Experiencing sexual abuse in adulthood was associated with symptoms of depression, alcohol abuse behaviors, and substance use but not PTSD symptoms. Structural equation modeling showed that substance use partially mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and mental health outcomes. These findings suggest mental health and substance use services should incorporate treatment for trauma, which may be the root of comorbid mental health and substance use issues.
sexual exploitation of children by peacekeepers is particularly insidious. ... sexual exploitation and abuse should involve an understanding of the social .... The charges of sexual misconduct, and the consequent media exposure, have ..... awareness programmes such as video tapes, lectures and training manuals, designed.
Reese-Weber, Marla; Smith, Dana M.
The association between a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) and specific negative outcomes (attachment, feelings of power, and self-esteem) was explored as was the relationship between those negative outcomes and sexual victimization during the first semester of college. Two groups of freshman college women (67 who had experienced CSA and 55 who…
Niehaus, Ashley F; Jackson, Joan; Davies, Stephanie
Childhood sexual trauma has been demonstrated to increase survivors' risk for engaging in unrestricted sexual behaviors and experiencing adolescent sexual assault. The current study used the sexual self-schema construct to examine cognitive representations of sexuality that might drive these behavioral patterns. In Study 1 (N = 774), we attempted to improve the content validity of the Sexual Self Schema Scale for child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors, introducing a fourth sexual self-schema factor titled the "immoral/irresponsible" factor. In Study 2 (N = 1150), the potential differences in sexual self-views, as assessed by the four sexual self-schema factors, between CSA survivors and non-victims were explored. In addition, Study 2 evaluated how these sexual self-schema differences may contribute to participation in unrestricted sexual behaviors and risk for sexual assault in adolescence. Results indicated that a history of CSA impacted the way women viewed themselves as a sexual person on each of the four factors. CSA survivors were found to view themselves as more open and possessing more immoral/irresponsible cognitions about sexuality as compared to women who did not have a CSA history. In addition, the CSA survivors endorsed less embarrassment and passionate/romantic views of their sexual selves. The interaction of CSA severity and the sexual self-schemas explained variance in adolescent sexual assault experiences above and beyond the severity of CSA history and participation in risky sexual behaviors. The findings suggest that sexual self-views may serve to moderate the relationship between CSA and adolescent sexual assault. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.
KEY TERMS: Sexual abuse, social work, social exchange theory, Botswana. ... The problem of sexual abuse of children by teachers in the education system is not .... to leave an abusive relationship when the costs of the relationship outweigh ...
Johnson, Karl; Chapman, Stephen; Hall, Christine M.
Background: Sexual abuse is often associated with physical abuse, the most common injuries being bruising and other soft-tissue injuries, but fractures occur in 5% of sexually abused children. The fractures described to date have formed part of the spectrum of injuries in these children and have not been specifically related to the abusive act. Objective: To describe concurrent sexual abuse and fractures. Materials and methods: Three children with pelvic or femoral shaft injuries in association with sexual abuse. Results: A 3-year-old girl with extensive soft-tissue injuries to the arms, legs and perineum also sustained fractures of both pubic rami and the sacral side of the right sacro-iliac joint. A 5-month-old girl with an introital tear was shown to have an undisplaced left femoral shaft fracture. A 5-year-old girl presented with an acute abdomen and pneumoperitoneum due to a ruptured rectum following sexual abuse. She had old healed fractures of both pubic rami with disruption of the symphysis pubis. Conclusions: Although the finding of a perineal injury in a young child may be significant enough for the diagnosis of abuse, additional skeletal injuries revealed by radiography will assist in confirmation of that diagnosis and may be more common than hitherto suspected. (orig.)
Johnson, Karl; Chapman, Stephen [Department of Radiology, Birmingham Children' s Hospital, Steelhouse Lane, B4 6NH, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Hall, Christine M. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom)
Background: Sexual abuse is often associated with physical abuse, the most common injuries being bruising and other soft-tissue injuries, but fractures occur in 5% of sexually abused children. The fractures described to date have formed part of the spectrum of injuries in these children and have not been specifically related to the abusive act. Objective: To describe concurrent sexual abuse and fractures. Materials and methods: Three children with pelvic or femoral shaft injuries in association with sexual abuse. Results: A 3-year-old girl with extensive soft-tissue injuries to the arms, legs and perineum also sustained fractures of both pubic rami and the sacral side of the right sacro-iliac joint. A 5-month-old girl with an introital tear was shown to have an undisplaced left femoral shaft fracture. A 5-year-old girl presented with an acute abdomen and pneumoperitoneum due to a ruptured rectum following sexual abuse. She had old healed fractures of both pubic rami with disruption of the symphysis pubis. Conclusions: Although the finding of a perineal injury in a young child may be significant enough for the diagnosis of abuse, additional skeletal injuries revealed by radiography will assist in confirmation of that diagnosis and may be more common than hitherto suspected. (orig.)
Muenzenmaier, K; Meyer, I; Struening, E; Ferber, J
The purposes of the study were to determine the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, and neglect among women outpatients with severe and persistent mental illness; to examine patterns of co-occurrence of the various types of abuse; and to explore the relationships between childhood abuse and adult psychiatric symptomatology. Childhood histories of abuse and data on clinical characteristics of 78 women enrolled in a New York State outpatient clinic were elicited in face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Sixty-five percent of the women reported histories of some type of abuse or neglect during childhood. Forty-five percent of the sample had been sexually abused, 51 percent had been physically abused, and 22 percent had experienced neglect. Seventy-four percent of the sexually abused women, 70 percent of the physically abused women, and 94 percent of the women who experienced neglect reported at least one additional form of abuse or neglect. Respondents who had been abused in childhood had higher levels of depressive and psychotic symptoms and higher rates of sexual victimization in adulthood than those who had not been abused. Women who experienced neglect as children had higher rates of homelessness in adulthood. Chronic mentally ill women seem to experience higher rates of abuse and more types of abuse than the general population. Clinicians should try to determine whether chronic mentally ill women have histories of abuse and to develop interventions to meet their special needs.
Oshri, Assaf; Himelboim, Itai; Kwon, Josephine A; Sutton, Tara E; Mackillop, James
The aim of the present study was to examine the links between severities of child abuse (physical vs. sexual), and alcohol use versus problems via social media (Facebook) peer connection structures. A total of 318 undergraduate female students at a public university in the United States reported severity of child abuse experiences and current alcohol use and problems. Social network data were obtained directly from the individuals' Facebook network. Severity of childhood physical abuse was positively linked to alcohol use and problems via eigenvector centrality, whereas severity of childhood sexual abuse was negatively linked to alcohol use and problems via clustering coefficient. Childhood physical and sexual abuse were linked positively and negatively, respectively, to online social network patterns associated with alcohol use and problems. The study suggests the potential utility of these online network patterns as risk indices and ultimately using social media as a platform for targeted preventive interventions.
Finkel, K C
An increasing number of studies in the past decade have shown that sexual abuse of children is disturbingly common. The author reviews some of the more recent knowledge about the problem, with particular reference to medical implications. The incidence and distribution of the problem and the relative importance of the medical examination are reviewed, and the diagnostic significance of clinical presentations such as vulvovaginitis, recurrent urinary tract infection and masturbation is evaluated. The agents responsible for sexually transmitted diseases in abused children are reviewed. Many crucial psychosocial issues are raised in the evaluation and management of sexual abuse. The author discusses some aspects of abuse that are hard to confront, such as the possible pleasure of the child and the nonoffending role of the mother in cases of incest. Information from sources other than the medical literature on the characteristics of abusers, therapy and prevention is reviewed. The medical implications of the Badgley Report are also discussed. PMID:3801988
In this paper, trauma, sexual abuse, and some of the potential resulting long-term effects, are explored in terms of the problem of embodiment and the formation of personal identity and psychological integrity. That is, what effect does severe sexual abuse have on an individual's, particularly a child's, sense of living in his or her body and, by extension, living in the world? First, trauma and dissociation are analyzed and linked to the development and maintenance of a "posttraumatic" sense of personal identity. Then, several disorders associated with sexual abuse--dissociation, multiple personality disorder, eating disorders, somatization disorder, self-mutilation, suicide, and suicide attempts--are examined in terms of their phenomenological coherence and relation to the problem of embodiment. This conceptual framework may be of use to clinicians and researchers assessing and treating the survivors of sexual abuse.
Lau, M; Kristensen, Ellids
Research suggests that group psychotherapy for adults with a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) is generally beneficial. Only few studies have included random assignment. This study compared the effects of analytic (A) and systemic group psychotherapy (S) on CSA.......Research suggests that group psychotherapy for adults with a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) is generally beneficial. Only few studies have included random assignment. This study compared the effects of analytic (A) and systemic group psychotherapy (S) on CSA....
Yuranis Ibeth Henríquez Santoya
Full Text Available ResumenEl presente estudio consistió en determinar la presencia del maltrato infantil y abuso sexual en el hogar en adolescentes escolarizados con edades comprendidas entre 14 y 16 años, matriculados a 2010 en colegios públicos de la de la ciudad de Santa Marta. Los participantes fueron 229 jóvenes. Las variables medidas fueron la edad, el tipo de maltrato y el género. Los resultados indican que la tendencia al maltrato psicológico fue de 29.3%, de maltrato físico 13.3% y de abuso sexual de 32.3%. Con relación al género se halló que las mujeres han sido objeto en mayor porcentaje de maltrato físico y abuso sexual que los hombres y éstos han sido objeto de mayor maltrato psicológico que las mujeres; respecto a la edad los jóvenes de 14 años presentaron mayor porcentaje de maltrato y abuso que en los otros rangos etarios. Se concluye que tres (3 de cada 10 estudiantes ha sido objeto de abuso sexual, tres ha sido objeto de maltrato psicológico y uno de maltrato físico. (DUAZARY 2011 No. 2, 262 - 269AbstractThe present study was to determine the presence of child maltreatment and sexual abuse at home, concerning schooling adolescents, aged between 14 and 16 years enrolled in public schools belonging to the city of Santa Marta. Participants were 229 young persons. The variables were age, abuse and gender. The results point out: 29.3% for psychological abuse, 32.3% for sexual abuse, and 13.3% for physical abuse. Concerning the gender it was detected that women have been at a higher rate aim of physical mistreatment and sexual abuse than men, but on the other hand men are aim of psychological abuse. With regard to age, young people of 14 years, revealed a higher percentage of maltreatment than the elder ones. We conclude that three of each schooling boy has been object of sexual abuse; three of them have been injured of psychological mistreatment and one of physical abuse.Keywords: abuse; sexual abuse; maltreatment; gender; adolescents
This study assessed sexual abuse/attack histories in 537 bariatric surgery patients using the PsyBari. The prevalence rates found were lower (15.5%, 19.3% of women, 5.2% of men) than other studies that used bariatric surgery patients but consistent with studies that used nonbariatric obese subjects. Furthermore, bariatric surgery patients who…
Engh Kraft, Lisbet; Rahm, GullBritt; Eriksson, Ulla-Britt
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a global public health problem with major consequences for the individual child and society. An earlier Swedish study showed that the school nurses did not initially talk about nor mention CSA as one form of child abuse. For the child to receive adequate support, the disclosure is a precondition and is dependent on an…
Full Text Available We discuss the basic typological and integrative theoretical models that explain the occurrence of child sexual abuse and the differences detected among the perpetrators of crimes against sexual integrity of minors. A comprehensive review of the theoretical concepts of sexual abuse in our country, in fact has not been carried out, and in this paper for the first time we made such an attempt. It is shown that the existing notions of sexual abuse largely overlap each other, but each of the models somehow takes into account the factors not explicitly addressed in other concepts. Systematic consideration of the theoretical models of sexual abuse can generalize and systematize the available data on the mechanisms of pedophile behavior. This review provides an opportunity to develop a new benchmark in the study of sexual abuse, get closer to building the most accurate and comprehensive model. In turn, this may contribute to solving the questions about the factors, dynamics, and the prevention of criminal sexual conduct against children
Estévez, Ana; Ozerinjauregi, Nagore; Herrero-Fernández, David
Child sexual abuse is one of the most serious forms of abuse due to the psychological consequences that persist even into adulthood. Expressions of anger among child sexual abuse survivors remain common even years after the event. While child sexual abuse has been extensively studied, the expression of displaced aggression has been studied less. Some factors, such as the maladaptive early schemas, might account for this deficiency. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationships between child sexual abuse, displaced aggression, and these schemas according to gender and determine if these early schemas mediate the relationship between child sexual abuse and displaced aggression. A total of 168 Spanish subjects who were victims of child sexual abuse completed measures of childhood trauma, displaced aggression, and early maladaptive schemas. The results depict the relationship between child sexual abuse, displaced aggression, and early maladaptive schemas. Women scored higher than men in child sexual abuse, emotional abuse, disconnection or rejection and impaired autonomy. Mediational analysis found a significant mediation effect of disconnection or rejection on the relationship between child sexual abuse and displaced aggression; however, impaired autonomy did not mediate significantly.
This study explored the manner in which abused women cope with loneliness. Eighty women, victims of domestic abuse, were compared to 84 women from the general population who have had no history of abusive relationships. A 34-item yes/no loneliness questionnaire was utilized in order to compare the "beneficial" ways of coping with loneliness in the…
Williams, Javonda; Nelson-Gardell, Debra
This research examined factors that predicted resilience in sexually abused adolescents. Using Bronfenbrenner's Process-Person-Context-Time (PPCT) ecological model, this study considered the proximal and distal factors that would contribute to adolescents' reactions to sexual victimization. This correlational study used hierarchical regression…
Taveira, Francisco; Frazão, Sofia; Dias, Ricardo; Matos, Eduarda; Magalhães, Teresa
The sexual abuse of a child or young person constitutes a major social and public health problem and there is recent evidence that intra-familial (IF) sexual abuses are more serious in their consequences than extra-familial (EF). However, there are no studies on this phenomenon in Portugal. Thus, the aim of the present study is to contribute to a better characterization of these types of abuses and to identify possible differences between IF and EF cases. A retrospective study was preformed based on medico-legal reports related to victims below the age of 18, suspected of being sexually abused (n = 764), corresponding to 67% of the total of observed sexual crimes. Results revealed that 34.9% of the abuses are IF and they show statistically significant differences when compared to EF cases. These are due to the following factors found in IF situations: a) lower victim age; b) closeness between victim and abuser; c) abusers with a higher rate of previous sexual abuse; d) sexual practices of reduced physical intrusion; e) decreased physical violence but increased emotional violence; f) greater delay between last abuse and the forensic exam; g) reduced number of injuries or biological evidence (none in the great majority of the cases). Results point out the existence of several characteristics in IF abuse that have been identified as factors that influence the severity of the abuse consequences. Among them are: a) lower victim age; b) greater proximity to the abuser; c) increased amount of emotional violence. These factors account for the reduced visibility of this kind of cases and therefore explain their delayed disclosure and diagnosis. The association of this fact with the reduced intrusiveness of this sort of practice and the consequent decrease in number of injuries and other evidence leads to a marked reduction of the number of cases where evidence of the abuse can be found by physical examination alone. The above aspects underlie the need of using different
Fontes, Lisa Aronson; Plummer, Carol
Cultural norms affect the likelihood that child sexual abuse will be discovered by an adult or disclosed by a child. Cultural norms also affect whether abused children's families will report child sexual abuse to authorities. This article explores the ways ethnic and religious culture affect child sexual abuse disclosure and reporting, both in the…
Bornefeld-Ettmann, Pia; Steil, Regina; Lieberz, Klara A; Bohus, Martin; Rausch, Sophie; Herzog, Julia; Priebe, Kathlen; Fydrich, Thomas; Müller-Engelmann, Meike
Impairments in sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction are very common in women who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA). A growing body of literature suggests a high prevalence of sexual distress in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the influence of sexual trauma exposure per se and the influence of PTSD symptoms on impairments in sexual functioning remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of sexual trauma exposure and PTSD on sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction by comparing 3 groups of women. Women with PTSD after CSA (N = 32), women with a history of CSA and/or physical abuse but without PTSD (trauma controls [TC]; N = 32), and healthy women (N = 32) were compared with regards to self-reported sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction. Trauma exposure was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and PTSD was assessed with the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Sexual functioning was assessed with the Sexual Experience and Behavior Questionnaire, and sexual satisfaction was assessed with the questionnaire Resources in Sexuality and Relationship. PTSD patients had significantly lower sexual functioning in some aspects of sexual experience (sexual aversion, sexual pain, and sexual satisfaction) but did not significantly differ in sexual arousal and orgasm from the other 2 groups. TC and healthy women did not significantly differ from each other on the measures of sexual functioning or sexual satisfaction. Results suggest that the development of PTSD has a greater impact on sexual functioning than does the experience of a traumatic event. This emphasizes the importance to address possible sexual distress and sexual satisfaction in women with PTSD by administering specific diagnostic instruments and by integrating specific interventions targeting sexual problems into a trauma-specific treatment. The study
McGregor, Kim; Julich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny
This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had…
Jaffe, Anna E; Cranston, Christopher C; Shadlow, Joanna O
Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was related to lower parenting self-efficacy and more permissive parenting. In women at a domestic violence shelter (n = 45), child sexual abuse was related to current sexual coercion of the partner, and authoritative parenting was related to higher parenting self-efficacy. These results indicate that having a history of child sexual abuse should be taken into consideration when dealing with mothers in violent relationships.
One of the most unnerving aspects of child sexual abuse is that it is constantly manifesting in unexpected ways. The current Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse has collected testimony of abuse in churches, schools, out-of-home care, hospitals and religious communities, demonstrating the breadth of institutional arrangements whose structures and cultures have facilitated child sexual abuse. Cases of serious and prolonged sexual abuse in family contexts have bee...
... Your Kids Cyber SafeCyber safety is important for kids. Parents should monitor their child’s internet and mobile device use.Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)Read Article >>Sex and SexualitySexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)Learn about sexually ...
Wyatt, G E; Riederle, M
This study examined the relationship between sexual harassment in work, educational, and social settings and sexual abuse in childhood and/or adulthood in a stratified community sample of 248 African-American and white American women. The cumulative impact of sexual victimization on women's sense of general well-being was also examined. Those most likely to be sexually harassed in work and social settings were women with contact sexual abuse histories, regardless of ethnicity. The work status of harassers of women with sexual abuse histories differed significantly by ethnic group. Although women with prior sexual abuse experiences from both ethnic groups most frequently reported a response to sexual harassment at work, they least frequently did so in social settings. A history of childhood sexual abuse was more negatively associated with African- American women's well-being than were repeated experiences of sexual violence. Future research should address the implications of ethnic and cultural issues on the cumulative impact of incidents of sexual violence on women of color.
van Lankveld, Jacques J. D. M.; Granot, Michal; Schultz, Willibrord C. M. Weijmar; Binik, Yitzchak M.; Wesselmann, Ursula; Pukall, Caroline F.; Bohm-Starke, Nina; Achtrari, Chahin
Introduction. Women's sexual pain disorders include dyspareunia and vaginismus and there is need for state-of-the-art information in this area. Aim. To update the scientific evidence published in 2004, from the 2nd International Consultation on Sexual Medicine pertaining to the diagnosis and
van Lankveld, Jacques J D M; Granot, Michal; Weijmar Schultz, Willibrord C M; Binik, Yitzchak M; Wesselmann, Ursula; Pukall, Caroline F; Bohm-Starke, Nina; Achtrari, Chahin
Women's sexual pain disorders include dyspareunia and vaginismus and there is need for state-of-the-art information in this area. To update the scientific evidence published in 2004, from the 2nd International Consultation on Sexual Medicine pertaining to the diagnosis and treatment of women's sexual pain disorders. An expert committee, invited from six countries by the 3rd International Consultation, was comprised of eight researchers and clinicians from biological and social science disciplines, for the purpose of reviewing and grading the scientific evidence on nosology, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of women's sexual pain disorders. Expert opinion was based on grading of evidence-based medical literature, extensive internal committee discussion, public presentation, and debate. Results. A comprehensive assessment of medical, sexual, and psychosocial history is recommended for diagnosis and management. Indications for general and focused pelvic genital examination are identified. Evidence-based recommendations for assessment of women's sexual pain disorders are reviewed. An evidence-based approach to management of these disorders is provided. Continued efforts are warranted to conduct research and scientific reporting on the optimal assessment and management of women's sexual pain disorders, including multidisciplinary approaches.
Regotti, Terri L.
Explores negligent hiring, supervision, and retention of teachers who sexually abuse students. Examines the issue of defamation and suggests school policy that will work toward eradication of sexual abuse of students by teachers. (33 references) (MLF)
preventable harm and trauma of sexual abuse in rural communities of Tanzania. .... about preventing child sexual abuse was measured by 10 Likert's scale-type ..... Bensley, L., van Eenwyk, J. & Simmons K. (2000) Self-reported childhood ...
This study found that 39 women alleging satanic ritual abuse and 47 women reporting less controversial forms of sexual trauma as children were characterized by high but nondiscriminating levels of psychiatric pathology. Patients alleging satanic ritual abuse reported higher levels of dissociation, in the range often exhibited by patients with…
Conclusions- Sexual abuse against male children around Merkato area is rampant, but received less or no attention ..... abusers and started protecting myself from such abuse. Figure 1: .... Then I ran away fast with determination and without.
Simon, Valerie A.; Feiring, Candice
Youth with confirmed histories of sexual abuse (N = 118) were followed longitudinally to examine associations between their initial sexual reactions to abuse and subsequent sexual functioning. Participants were interviewed at abuse discovery (ages 8 through 15) and again 1 and 6 years later. Eroticism and sexual anxiety emerged as distinct indices of abuse-specific sexual reactions and predicted subsequent sexual functioning. Eroticism was associated with indicators of heightened sexuality, i...
Abuso físico y sexual durante la niñez y revictimización de las mujeres mexicanas durante la edad adulta Physical and sexual abuse during childhood and revictimization during adulthood in Mexican women
una mayor probabilidad de sufrirla durante la edad adulta. El abuso físico y sexual durante la niñez debe prevenirse o, en su defecto, detectarse y tratarse.OBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between physical and sexual abuse during childhood and violence during adulthood in a representative sample of female health care users in Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire was administered to 26 042 women over 14 years of age who sought medical consultation from public health care services between October 2002 and March 2003, in all 32 states in Mexico. Two models were constructed: a Multiple polytomic logistic regression models to explore the association between violent victimization by the partner during adulthood and violence during childhood. b Multiple logistic regression models to explore the association between experiencing rape during adulthood and violence during childhood. RESULTS: Among women studied, an association was found between experiencing physical violence during childhood and suffering physical and sexual violence from the male partner or experiencing rape, during adulthood. When physical violence during childhood occurred "almost always", it was more likely that the woman undergo physical and sexual violence (OR=3.1; 95%CI 2.6-3.7 and rape (OR=2.9; 95%CI 2.4-3.6, during her adult life. In addition, when violence during childhood was more frequent, the likelihood of experiencing violence during adulthood was greater. A positive association was found between physical and sexual abuse before 15 years of age (OR=2.8; 95%CI 2.2-3.5. Experiencing rape during adulthood was also associated with sexual abuse before 15 years of age (OR=11.8; 95%CI 10.2-13.7. CONCLUSIONS: In this sample of Mexican women, both physical and sexual violence during childhood has negative results during adulthood, including a greater likelihood of revictimization by the male partner and rape. Physical and sexual abuse during childhood must be prevented or at least detected
King, M C; Ryan, J
Our society abounds with myths and misperceptions in relation to the battering of women. These myths impede the identification of women who are experiencing violence and abuse, and inhibit appropriate intervention. Abuse is not too private a matter to assess for, nor does abuse affect only poor black or Hispanic women. No woman deserves to be beaten. Women do not like or seek out abuse. Abused women are courageous, competent women; what abused women have in common is that they are threatened and controlled by a male partner and live under the constant fear of violence and abuse. Raising one's consciousness about the victimization and oppression of women in our society, and uncovering the myths which leave practitioners powerless and ineffective agents of change for women are important tasks for health care providers. By focusing attention on this enormous health problem, clinicians can provide a leadership role in using health care responses that actually empower women to take control of their own lives.
Seng, Magnus J.
Explored relationship between sexual abuse and adolescent prostitution by comparing 70 sexually abused children with 35 prostitution-involved children on 22 variables. Findings suggest that relationship is not direct, but involves runaway behavior as intervening variable. Concludes that it is not so much sexual abuse that leads to prostitution, as…
Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; Goldsmith, Rachel E.
Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child…
Draucker, Claire Burke; Martsolf, Donna S.; Roller, Cynthia; Knapik, Gregory; Ross, Ratchneewan; Stidham, Andrea Warner
Childhood sexual abuse is a prevalent social and health care problem. The processes by which individuals heal from childhood sexual abuse are not clearly understood. The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical model to describe how adults heal from childhood sexual abuse. Community recruitment for an ongoing broader project on sexual…
Beck, Jacobus Johannes Hendrikus
The primary aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of sexual abuse in a urological outpatient clinic. Can differences been made in urological population, i.e. general urological clinic, a university urological clinic and a tertiary university pelvic floor clinic? Do urologists inquire
Ray, JoAnn; Murty, Susan A.
Reviews literature on rural child sexual abuse and treatment. Surveys providers in rural Washington treatment programs. Responses describe agency characteristics, services, delivery problems, and suggested solutions. Reports providers' perceptions of service quality and interagency cooperation. Cites as problems heavy caseloads, lack of staff, and…
Using availability-sampling methods, four educators from a local primary school were interviewed and the data systematically analysed in accordance with Morrisette's (1999) seven–step procedural model. The present study confirmed the finding of Skinner (1999) and Mzamo (2003) that managing cases of sexually abused ...
Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.
The report examined psychological symptoms exhibited by 24 girls (ages 6-12) evaluated within six months of being sexually abused. Results showed a marked discrepancy between child and parent reports of symptoms with children not reporting as many symptoms of depression, anxiety, or low self-esteem as parents. (Author/DB)
Potential long-term effects of the trauma of severe sexual abuse on a child's sense of living in his/her body and in the world are explored. Trauma and dissociation are analyzed and linked to a posttraumatic sense of personal identity. Then dissociation, multiple personality disorder, eating disorders, somatization disorder, self-mutilation, and…
that social workers in Zimbabwe have a role to play at all the three levels of intervention. KEY TERMS: Child sexual abuse (CSA), social work, prevention,. Meili's model. ..... network/2013/mar/19/world-social-work-day-fair-global- · economy1.
McElvaney, Rosaleen; Greene, Sheila; Hogan, Diane
This study reports a grounded theory study of the process of how children tell of their experiences of child sexual abuse from the perspectives of young people and their parents. Individual interviews were conducted with 22 young people aged 8 to 18, and 14 parents. A theoretical model was developed that conceptualises the process of disclosure as…
Di Giacomo, Ester; Alamia, Alberto; Cicolari, Federica; Cimolai, Valentina; Clerici, Massimo
The aim of this review was to provide the state of art of child sexual abuse and its psychophysical consequences. We assessed the evidence-based literature derived from PubMed, Embase, Medline, PsychINFO databases, including a thorough analysis of what has been published in the last 5 years, not neglecting previous publications essential to the argument for their scientific validity (methodological accuracy, recruited survey). Child sexual abuse is ubiquitous both regarding victims' gender and socio-economic conditions. The important consequences linked to what they suffered--either immediately or with adolescent or adult onset--are mediated by age and family support to trauma reprocessing as well as by the frequency of repetition of the abuse or familiarity with the abuser. These factors appear to be of primary importance--both at a physical and psychic level--and may be expressed in multiple manifestations, hence it is of utmost importance to pay timely attention to possible alarm signals revealing suspected abuse suffered by any underage person. Special emphasis is addressed towards some of the consequences for which child sexual abuse is considered to be a primary cause (e.g. post-traumatic stress disorder) and the perpetuation of such abuse, both short-term as well as long-term. Poor training, regarding this field, of various professionals (pediatricians, teachers, etc.) who each day work with minors, as well as the paucity of available treatment options point to an urgent need for prevention (including in-depth diagnosis/therapy) and early intervention.
Mathoma, Anikie M; Maripe-Perera, Dorcas B; Khumalo, Lindiwe P; Mbayi, Bagele L; Seloilwe, Esther S
This study sought to explore the phenomenon of child sexual abuse by investigating the knowledge and perceptions of parents regarding this problem in Botswana and Swaziland. Although there are no published studies on child sexual abuse in Botswana and Swaziland, literature elsewhere has indicated that child abuse and prostitution prevail in Southern African Development Community countries and that children still continue to be rape victims within and outside the family structure [Muwanigwa, V. (1996). Child Abuse Demands More Preventive Measures. Harare: Zimbabwe. (Southern Africa News Features Southern African Research and Documentation Center)]. In Botswana in 1998, there were 300 cases of child abuse reported, of which 33 were sexual abuse cases. The same year in Swaziland, >50% of child abuse cases were sexual abuse related. In addition, the same year in Swaziland, >50% of sexual abuse case patients reporting for counseling were children younger than 21 years. Respondents of the study included 8 men (1 from Swaziland and 7 from Botswana) and 10 women (3 from Swaziland and 7 from Botswana) who were parents aged between 26 and 70 years; they were determined by way of purposive sampling. A focused interview guide with open-ended questions was used to collect data, and measures to ensure trustworthiness and ethical considerations were adhered to. Analysis of data was facilitated by categorization of themes and concepts and coding systems. The results of the study showed that the respondents acknowledged the prevalence of child sexual abuse in Botswana and Swaziland and further demonstrated their knowledge of the predisposing factors, perpetrators of the problem, and effects of sexual abuse on children. They placed major emphases on community involvement in fighting against the problem; appropriate education of children, parents, families, and community members about child sexual abuse; and improvement on the laws that protect children against sexual abuse to
Meyer, Dixie; Cohn, Aaron; Robinson, Brittany; Muse, Fatima; Hughes, Rachel
Child sexual abuse has the potential to cause distress for the victim across the lifespan. Romantic relationships may be particularly difficult for victims of child sexual abuse. This retrospective study examined differences in adult romantic attachment, sexually compulsive behaviors, and emotion regulation by history of child sexual abuse in a large, nonclinical sample. Those with a history of child sexual abuse reported more attachment anxiety in romantic relationships and engaged in more sexually compulsive behaviors. Overall, males displayed more sexually compulsive behaviors than females regardless of history of sexual abuse. Males with a history of sexual abuse displayed the greatest number of sexually compulsive behaviors. Surprisingly, no differences were observed in emotion regulation or attachment avoidant behaviors by history of child sexual abuse. Future research should seek to replicate current findings and examine emotion regulation difficulties experienced as a result of trauma.
Tocker, Lotem; Ben-Amitay, Galit; Horesh-Reinman, Netta; Lask, Michal; Toren, Paz
This cross-sectional, case control study examines the association between child sexual abuse and interpersonal and intrapersonal outcomes among 54 adolescents, examining specific clinical measures (depression, anxiety, dissociation, and posttraumatic stress disorder, attachment patterns, self-esteem, self-disclosure, and family environment characteristics). The research results point to a correlation between sexual abuse and higher levels of the clinical measures. In addition, a correlation was found between sexual abuse and level of avoidant attachment, self-esteem, and family environment characteristics. Stepwise hierarchical regressions were conducted to examine how adolescent attributes predicted depression, anxiety, and dissociation beyond the prediction based on sexual abuse. A combination of self-esteem, anxiety attachment, and family cohesiveness made sexual abuse insignificant when predicting levels of depression, anxiety, and dissociation. This study contributes to characterizing the emotional, personal, and family attributes of adolescents who experienced sexual abuse. It also raises questions about the clinical outcomes usually associated with sexual abuse.
Juliana Hilario Maranhão
Full Text Available This article came from the monographic study “Resilience and Sexual Violence: a study of adolescents victimized by sexual abuse assistance” (MARANHÃO, 2008, in which was investigated the building resilience in victimized adolescents. Resilience is characterized as overcoming adversity, setting up as something procedural, promoted by the interaction of personal and collective protection, in particular context of risk or social vulnerability. We made the trimming about the meanings and feelings of sexual victimization within the family from the perception of adolescents between 12 and 16 years of age that received care in a Specialized Reference Social Assistance in 2010. The research is qualitative, having as theoretical-methodological referential the Historic-Cultural Theory. Data collection was used by semi-structured interview. We realize that the profile of the victims are set up by females, the beginning of sexual abuse occurred between childhood and preadolescence. The profile of perpetrators are men, adults, acting the role of the stepfather, father and uncle. Despite an abject sense, adolescents could not break the cycle of violence. Friends, extended family, and the work of professionals emerged as support for the redefinition of the abusive relationships.
van der Made, F.; Bloemers, J.; van Ham, D.; El Yassem, W.; Kleiverda, G.; Everaerd, W.; Olivier, B.; Tuiten, A.
INTRODUCTION: Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) may be associated with reduced central sensitivity for sexual cues. A single dose of testosterone might induce an increase in sensitivity for sexual stimuli, which in turn allows a PDE5 inhibitor to be effective in boosting the physiological sexual
Elizalde Bravo, Roger; Dávila Noriega, Nebel; Bulnes Bedón, Mario; Sarria Joya, César
This study explorer the problem of the sexual abuse in 391 scholars of sex both, proceeding of centers state educative of primary level, of socioeconomic stratum short and of wich ages to fluctuate between the 7 or 14 ages. Initialy be constructed a questionary of 32 items and chip sociodemographic for to determínate the characterístics of the sample. Be to find different significative in function to sex the boys to considerate ages of rísk or abuse sex between 3 or 5 ages, and the girls the ...
This is the first book to explore child sexual abuse within global religious and media organisations. Termed here the dual narrative, there is, on the one hand, the view that everyone is a potential paedophile, and, on the other, the notion of a witch-hunt falsely accusing people. Beginning with a re-examination of historic claims of satanic ritual abuse, the author moves on to investigate global celebrity culture, the global religious context as well as an analysis of technology. The interna...
Naved, Ruchira Tabassum
This article explored the magnitude and nature of within marriage sexual violence against women and factors associated with physically forced sex by husbands in urban and rural Bangladesh using population-based survey data from 2001 (n = 2,702). Results showed high prevalence of lifetime sexual violence: 37 % in urban and 50 % in rural areas. An overwhelming majority of the women reported being sexually abused by husbands more than once. Logistic regression analyses revealed that six out of ten independent variables included in the models were significant. The factors positively associated with physically forced sex by husbands during the last 12 months were: history of physical abuse of husband's mother by his father; level of controlling behavior by husband; and forced or coerced first sex. Women's age (20-24 compared to 15-19) and dowry demand at marriage increased the likelihood of this violence in the rural area. Urban women in the second and third income quartiles were more likely to be exposed to this violence compared to women in the first quartile. Results highlight the need for prevention programs targeting men, which would help at the same time to break the cycle of intergenerational exposure and thereby transmission of violence. Notions of gender equality; women's sexual rights; and women's right to consent and choice need to be widely promoted particularly among men.
The Scope of Sexual, Physical, and Psychological Abuse in a Bedouin-Arab Community of Female Adolescents: The Interplay of Racism, Urbanization, Polygamy, Family Honor, and the Social Marginalization of Women
Elbedour, Salman; Abu-Bader, Soleman; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Abu-Rabia, Aref; El-Aassam, Salman
Objectives: This is an exploratory study of the abuse--especially sexual--of female adolescents in a conservative and traditional Bedouin-Arab community in southern Israel. The objectives were (1) to examine the rate of sexual abuse, (2) to examine the rate of physical and psychological abuse, and (3) to develop regression models to predict these…
Sarwer, David B.; And Others
A study of 359 men who sought sexual dysfunction treatment found that childhood sexual abuse did not predict sexual dysfunction in the men. Unemployment was the only significant predictor of male sexual dysfunction. Differences between the sexual abuse experiences of the male victims compared to female victims (n=73) are discussed. (Author/CR)
Burgess, Ann W; Clements, Paul T
Sexual abuse is considered to be a pandemic contemporary public health issue, with significant physical and psychosocial consequences for its victims. However, the incidence of elder sexual assault is difficult to estimate with any degree of confidence. A convenience sample of 284 case records were reviewed for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The purpose of this paper is to present the limited data noted on record review on four PTSD symptoms of startle, physiological upset, anger, and numbness. A treatment model for information processing of intrapsychic trauma is presented to describe domain disruption within a nursing diagnosis of rape trauma syndrome and provide guidance for sensitive assessment and intervention.
Background: Child sexual abuse has been reported from all corners of the globe, ... Although the trauma of abuse heals with time, it leaves long term psychological and ... sexual abuse, from August 2008 to October 2009, at a primary health centre in ... Eleven cases (55%) attended school, while three (15%) were hawkers.
Estévez, Ana; Ozerinjauregi, Nagore; Herrero-Fernández, David; Jauregui, Paula
Child abuse is a traumatic experience that may have psychological consequences such as dysfunctional beliefs. The aim of this study was to analyze the impulsive behaviors (alcohol abuse, gambling, drug abuse, eating disorders, Internet abuse, videogame abuse, shopping and sex addiction) in sexual abuse survivors and to study the mediating role of early maladaptive schemas in the appearance of impulsive behaviors in adult female victims. The sample consisted of 182 adult women who had suffered childhood sexual abuse (CSA), mostly referred by associations for the treatment of childhood abuse and maltreatment. Sexual abuse was found to be positively related to the domains of Disconnection/Rejection and Impaired Autonomy. Moreover, these domains were significantly related to impulsivity and impulsive behaviors. Finally, the Disconnection/Rejection domain was found to mediate between CSA and eating disorders and alcohol abuse. These results may provide important guidance for clinical intervention. © The Author(s) 2016.
Waldron, Jonathan C; Scarpa, Angela; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Coe, Christopher L
The current study investigated whether a history of child abuse is a predictor of adult immune status, with unwanted adult sexual experiences as a proximal mediator. Participants included 89 young adult women (M(age) = 19.24) who were classified as having experienced no child abuse, child physical abuse, or child sexual abuse, based upon self-reported victimization history before 14 years of age. Participants also reported on unwanted sexual experiences in young adulthood and provided four saliva samples, which were collected over two consecutive days to determine secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA). Age and negative life events were considered as covariates. The results indicated that adult sexual victimization partially mediated the relationship between child abuse (physical and sexual) and sIgA. Specifically, child abuse experiences predicted more adult sexual victimization experiences, which in turn predicted lower sIgA levels. These findings support long-term health effects of victimization, and suggest that the influence of child abuse on sIgA may be perpetuated through adult victimization. Prevention efforts should aim to empower child maltreatment survivors with skills to prevent adult re-victimization. By thwarting future unwanted sexual experiences in adulthood, individuals will be better protected from the health impairments associated with early abuse experiences. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available Online child sexual abuse is an increasingly visible problem in society today. The introduction, growth and utilization of information and telecommunication technologies (ICTs have been accompanied by an increase in illegal activities. With respect to cyberspace the Internet is an attractive environment to sex offenders. In addition to giving them greater access to minors, extending their reach from a limited geographical area to victims all around the world, it allows criminals to alter or conceal their identities. Sexual predators, stalkers, child pornographers and child traffickers can use various concealment techniques to make it more difficult for investigators to identify them and find evidence. Others physically hide removable media and incriminating evidence in rented storage space, impeding an investigatorâ€™s job to find the truth. France has given the protection of children from sexual exploitation and abuse a high priority. Traditional laws have been amended to address the challenges of information technology, violence and to bring at the same time the country into line with international conventions on the rights of children. Accordingly this current article will analyze some of the techniques used by offenders to abuse children online, including recent legal and administrative developments in France concerning online children protection.
Remes-Troche, J M; Cid-Juárez, S; Campos-Ramos, I; Ramos-de la Medina, A; Galmiche, A; Schmulson-Wasserman, M; Roesch-Dietlen, F
Abuse has been considered a significant factor on the development of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID), especially for severe and treatment-refractory patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate the presence of all FGID according to Rome II criteria, in a group of women with history of physical, psychological and/or sexual abuse. A cross sectional study was performed in 96 women (37 +/- 12 years of age) with history of physical, psychological and/or sexual abuse (cases); and 96 open population women (36 +/- 14 years of age) (controls). The following evaluations were administered: Rome II questionnaire, a self-administered instrument to evaluate history of physical (beating), psychological(insults, public humiliation) and/or sexual abuse (rape, coercion), and HAD questionnaire. Among 96 women with history of abuse,91 (95%) reported to have suffered psychological abuse, 72 (75%) physical abuse, and 24 (25%)sexual abuse. Women with history of abuse had a higher prevalence of rumination (6% vs. 0%, p= 0.02), functional heartburn (26% vs. 13%, p =0.04), aerofagia (17% vs. 5%, p = 0.019), irritable bowel syndrome (38% vs. 18%, p = 0.002), fecalin continence (16% vs. 4%, p = 0.01), elevator anisyndrome (5% vs. 0%, p = 0.05), and proctalgia fugax (29% vs. 15%, p = 0.02) compared to controls. There was a positive correlation between anxiety (r = 0.5, p = 0.001) and depression scores(r = 0.45, p = 0.001), and the number of FGID. We demonstrated a high prevalence of FGID among women with history of physical,psychological, and/or sexual abuse. In this association,concomitant anxiety and depression play a significant role.
Krahé, Barbara; Berger, Anja
This study aimed to examine the pathways from child sexual abuse to sexual assault victimization and perpetration in adolescence and early adulthood, considering risky sexual behavior and lowered sexual self-esteem as mediator variables. In a two-wave longitudinal study with 2251 college students in Germany, male and female participants provided reports of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration since age 14 (T1) and again a year later (T2), covering the last 12 months. In addition, child sexual abuse (CSA; before the age of 14), risky sexual behavior, and sexual self-esteem were assessed at T1, and risky sexual behavior and sexual-self-esteem were assessed again at T2. Experience of CSA was significantly associated with greater likelihood of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration, lower sexual self-esteem, and more risky sexual behavior in both gender groups at T1 and was directly related to victimization at T2 among male participants. In both gender groups, CSA indirectly contributed to a higher probability of sexual victimization at T2 via its impact on victimization T1. In males, the indirect path from CSA to T2 perpetration via T1 perpetration was also significant. Through its negative impact on sexual self-esteem, CSA indirectly increased the probability of sexual victimization among women and the probability of sexual aggression perpetration among men. Risky sexual behavior mediated the pathway from CSA to sexual victimization at T2 for men and women and the pathway from CSA to sexual aggression perpetration for women. The findings contribute to the understanding of gendered effects of CSA on revictimization and the victim-to-perpetrator cycle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tanzania Journal of Health Research ... Methods: Key informant interviews were conducted among adults including parents of the ... factors for child sexual abuse, the type of perpetrators and the context into which these abuses take place.
Green, Harold D; Tucker, Joan S; Wenzel, Suzanne L; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P; Ryan, Gery W; Zhou, Annie J
Childhood abuse has been linked to negative sequelae for women later in life including drug and alcohol use and violence as victim or perpetrator and may also affect the development of women's social networks. Childhood abuse is prevalent among at-risk populations of women (such as the homeless) and thus may have a stronger impact on their social networks. We conducted a study to: (a) develop a typology of sheltered homeless women's social networks; (b) determine whether childhood abuse was associated with the social networks of sheltered homeless women; and (c) determine whether those associations remained after accounting for past-year substance abuse and recent intimate partner abuse. A probability sample of 428 homeless women from temporary shelter settings in Los Angeles County completed a personal network survey that provided respondent information as well as information about their network members' demographics and level of interaction with each other. Cluster analyses identified groups of women who shared specific social network characteristics. Multinomial logistic regressions revealed variables associated with group membership. We identified three groups of women with differing social network characteristics: low-risk networks, densely connected risky networks (dense, risky), and sparsely connected risky networks (sparse, risky). Multinomial logistic regressions indicated that membership in the sparse, risky network group, when compared to the low-risk group, was associated with history of childhood physical abuse (but not sexual or emotional abuse). Recent drug abuse was associated with membership in both risky network groups; however, the association of childhood physical abuse with sparse, risky network group membership remained. Although these findings support theories proposing that the experience of childhood abuse can shape women's social networks, they suggest that it may be childhood physical abuse that has the most impact among homeless women
Krieger, Nancy; Waterman, Pamela D; Hartman, Cathy; Bates, Lisa M; Stoddard, Anne M; Quinn, Margaret M; Sorensen, Glorian; Barbeau, Elizabeth M
This study documents the prevalence of workplace abuse, sexual harassment at work, and lifetime experiences of racial discrimination among the United for Health cohort of 1,202 predominantly black, Latino, and white women and men low-income union workers in the Greater Boston area. Overall, 85 percent of the cohort reported exposure to at least one of these three social hazards; exposure to all three reached 20 to 30 percent among black women and women and men in racial/ethnic groups other than white, black, or Latino. Workplace abuse in the past year, reported by slightly more than half the workers, was most frequently reported by the white men (69%). Sexual harassment at work in the past year was reported by 26 percent of the women and 22 percent of the men, with values of 20 percent or more in all racial/ ethnic-gender groups other than Latinas and white men. High exposure to racial discrimination was reported by 37 percent of the workers of color, compared with 10 percent of the white workers, with black workers reporting the greatest exposure (44%). Together, these findings imply that the lived--and combined-experiences of class, race, and gender inequities and their attendant assaults on human dignity are highly germane to analyses of workers' health.
Marsh, Jaimee; Patel, Sonya; Gelaye, Bizu; Goshu, Miruts; Worku, Alemayehu; Williams, Michelle A; Berhane, Yemane
To determine the one year prevalence of workplace abuse and sexual harassment and to determine the extent of their associations with symptoms of depression. A total of 387 female faculty and staff from colleges in Awassa, Ethiopia completed a self-administered questionnaire which collected information about relationships, mood and feelings, thoughts and satisfaction concerning the workplace, and experiences with sexual harassment. Symptoms of depression were evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Logistic regression procedures were employed to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The 12 mo prevalence of either workplace abuse or sexual harassment was 86.3%; with 39.5% reporting workplace abuse only, 4.1% of them reporting sexual harassment only, and 42.6% reporting experiences of both sexual harassment and workplace abuse. Overall, the mean depression score for this cohort was 3.7 (standard deviation 4.2, range 0-19), and 9.3% of the cohort were identified as having moderate or moderately severe depression. The proportion of participants with depression were statistically significantly elevated in relation to reported experience of workplace abuse and sexual harassment (p=0.001). Compared with women reporting no experience with workplace abuse or sexual harassment, those who reported experiencing both workplace abuse and sexual harassment had an 8.00 fold increased risk of depression (OR=8.00, 95% CI:1.05-60.85). Inferences from this analysis are limited by our relatively small sample size as reflected by the wide 95% CI. Workplace abuse and sexual harassment are highly prevalent, and are positively correlated with symptoms of depression among college female faculty and staff in Awassa, Ethiopia. Future policies should include a combination of education, health, and public policy initiatives that clearly outline the problem and consequences of workplace abuse and sexual harassment in educational settings.
Alaggia, Ramona; Turton, Jennifer V.
Although the co-occurrence of woman abuse and child sexual abuse is high little research exists exploring the impact of woman abuse on maternal response to child sexual abuse (CSA). Findings from two qualitative studies indicate the form of woman abuse to have differential impact on maternal response. Mothers who were abused in non-physical ways,…
Davila, Yolanda R
This study explored cultural and gender perspectives of abuse on condom negotiation behaviors for AIDS prevention among Mexican-American women in abusive intimate relationships. A convenience sample of 20 abused women participated in the study. Data were collected through a demographic questionnaire and audiotaped responses to a semistructured interview guide. Content analysis using QSR NUDIST was used to analyze the verbatim transcriptions of all participant interviews. The predominant category, "He always got his way," was developed in response to the content of the verbatim transcriptions. The category was further expanded to include the self-descriptive subcategories of "He beat me," "He made me feel bad," and "He forced me." Through content analysis, a relationship between abuse by male sexual partners and condom negotiation for AIDS prevention was identified. Trustworthiness of the data collection and analysis was established through methods suggested by Lincoln and Guba.
Cancer treatments such as chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and radiation may cause sexual problems in women. Conditions may include vaginal dryness, vaginal stenosis, and vaginal atrophy. Learn how to manage and treat these sexual problems.
Lown, E Anne; Nayak, Madhabika B; Korcha, Rachael A; Greenfield, Thomas K
Previous research has documented a relationship between child sexual abuse and alcohol dependence. This paper extends that work by providing a comprehensive description of past year and lifetime alcohol consumption patterns, consequences, and dependence among women reporting either physical and sexual abuse in a national sample. This study used survey data from 3,680 women who participated in the 2005 U.S. National Alcohol Survey. Information on physical and sexual child abuse and its characteristics were assessed in relation to 8 past year and lifetime alcohol consumption measures. Child physical or sexual abuse was significantly associated with past year and lifetime alcohol consumption measures. In multivariate analyses, controlling for age, marital status, employment status, education, ethnicity, and parental alcoholism or problem drinking, women reporting child sexual abuse vs. no abuse were more likely to report past year heavy episodic drinking (OR(adj) = 1.7; 95% CI 1.0 to 2.9), alcohol dependence (OR(adj) = 7.2; 95% CI 3.2 to 16.5), and alcohol consequences (OR(adj) = 3.6; 95% CI 1.8 to 7.3). Sexual abuse (vs. no abuse) was associated with a greater number of past year drinks (124 vs. 74 drinks, respectively, p = 0.002). Sexual child abuse was also associated with lifetime alcohol-related consequences (OR(adj) = 3.5; 95% CI 2.6 to 4.8) and dependence (OR(adj) = 3.7; 95% CI 2.6 to 5.3). Physical child abuse was associated with 4 of 8 alcohol measures in multivariate models. Both physical and sexual child abuse were associated with getting into fights, health, legal, work, and family alcohol-related consequences. Alcohol-related consequences and dependence were more common for women reporting sexual abuse compared to physical abuse, 2 or more physical abuse perpetrators, nonparental and nonfamily physical abuse perpetrators, and women reporting injury related to the abuse. Both child physical and sexual abuse were associated with many alcohol outcomes in
Chambliss, Catherine; And Others
This study sought to identify personality differences in abused versus non-abused women. Abused women (N=25) were from several centers for abused women and non-abused women (N=39) were students in evening psychology classes. All subjects completed Rubin's Love Scale, the abbreviated Dominance and Romanticism Scale, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale,…
Abdolmanafi, Atefe; Nobre, Pedro; Winter, Sam; Tilley, P J Matt; Jahromi, Reza Ghorban
Several studies have demonstrated that culture plays a fundamental role in individuals' beliefs, attitudes, and values toward sexuality, and influences their ability to enjoy sex. It follows that culture may influence sexual satisfaction or dissatisfaction. To examine and compare cognitive-emotional variables related to women's sexual dissatisfaction in Iran and New Zealand. In total, 196 Iranian women and 207 New Zealand women participated in the study, answering questionnaires evaluating dysfunctional sexual beliefs, automatic thoughts, emotional and sexual response during sexual activity, as well as sexual satisfaction. Sexual beliefs were measured by the Sexual Dysfunctional Beliefs Questionnaire, thoughts and emotional responses were measured by the Sexual Modes Questionnaire, and sexual satisfaction was measured by the Sexual Satisfaction Index. Findings indicated that in both Iranian and New Zealand women, failure and disengagement thoughts, lack of erotic thoughts, and emotions of fear during sexual activity were significant predictors of sexual dissatisfaction. Besides these common predictors, results also indicated that sexual conservatism and women's sexual passivity beliefs, sexual abuse thoughts, and fear during sexual activity were significant predictors of sexual dissatisfaction in Iranian women. Beliefs of sexual desire and pleasure as a sin; age-related beliefs; and emotions such as sadness, disillusion, and hurt were significant predictors of sexual dissatisfaction in New Zealand women. The present findings could facilitate a better understanding of cultural differences in the roles played by dysfunctional sexual beliefs, negative automatic thoughts, and negative emotions during sexual activity, and the value of these beliefs, thoughts, and emotions in predicting sexual dissatisfaction. The strength of this study is in providing an examination of the role of culturally bound beliefs in predicting sexual dissatisfaction in women from different
Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen
This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly.
Music is part of everyday life, and is generally regarded as therapeutic. There is increasing interdisciplinary interest in innate human musicality and the link between music and the emotions. Innate musicality is evident in the dynamic forms of emotional expression that both regulate and cultivate the foundations of meaning in human communication (intersubjectivity). This article discusses music therapy, drawing from interdisciplinary perspectives, and illustrated by case material of individual music therapy with a sexually abused child. Where the growth of mind and meaning is devastated at its core by early relational trauma, music, when used with clinical perception, may reach and work constructively with damaged children in an evolving, musically mediated therapeutic relationship.
Neglect, Sexual Abuse, and Witnessing Intimate Partner Violence During Childhood Predicts Later Life Violent Attitudes Against Children Among Kenyan Women: Evidence of Intergenerational Risk Transmission From Cross-Sectional Data.
Goodman, Michael L; Hindman, Andrea; Keiser, Philip H; Gitari, Stanley; Ackerman Porter, Katherine; Raimer, Ben G
Violence against children, including corporal punishment, remains a global concern. Understanding sources of support for corporal punishment within cultures, and the potential for intergenerational transmission of child maltreatment, is essential for policy-development and community engagement to protect children. In this study, we use data from a cross-section of women in Meru County, Kenya ( n = 1,974) to profile attitudes toward violence against children using the Velicer Attitudes Towards Violence-Child subscale. We find reported histories of sexual abuse, emotional and physical neglect, and witnessing interpersonal violence during childhood predict more violent attitudes toward children in adulthood. The pathway between these forms of child maltreatment and violent attitudes is significantly mediated by family function, perceived stress, and attitudes toward violence against women. Interventions to prevent sexual abuse, intimate partner violence, and promote attachments between parents and children may benefit future generations in this population. Furthermore, secondary prevention of the effects of these childhood adversities may require development of social support, improving family function and challenging violent attitudes against women.
Majer, John M; Rodriguez, Jaclyn; Bloomer, Craig; Jason, Leonard A
Lifetime histories of sexual and physical abuse have been associated with increased HIV-risk sexual behavior, and some studies have identified other variables associated with these relationships. However, there is a dearth of literature that has critically examined abuse histories and HIV-risk sexual behavior in relation to these other variables. Predictors of HIV-risk sexual behavior were analyzed among a sample of ex-offenders who were completing inpatient substance dependence treatment to identify factors related to increases in HIV-risk sexual behavior beyond that of abuse histories. Hierarchical linear regression was conducted to examine sociodemographic characteristics, recent substance use, and current psychiatric problem severity in addition to lifetime histories of sexual/physical abuse in a cross-sectional design. Gender, substance use, and psychiatric problem severity predicted increases in HIV-risk sexual behavior beyond what was predicted by abuse histories. Proportionately more women than men reported abuse histories. In addition, significantly more unprotected sexual than safer sexual practices were observed, but differences in these practices based on lifetime abuse histories and gender were not significant. Findings suggest recent substance use and current psychiatric problem severity are greater risk factors for HIV-risk sexual behavior than lifetime abuse histories among persons who have substance use disorders.
This article analyzes how women survivors of intrafamilial child sexual abuse perceive the family members who took part in keeping it secret and their tactics for doing so. Analysis of 20 in-depth interviews with Jewish Israeli women revealed unique ways of guarding the secret. These were attributed to the perpetrator, the mother and the family. Secret-keeping tactics included presenting a normative public identity or an unstable psychological identity, presenting multiple personas, reframing the abuse, concealing any trace of the secret after it was disclosed, as if the abuse had never happened, and making a monument of the abuser. These tactics are discussed in the context of silencing, the interpersonal relations orientation model, and the wider concepts of secrecy in society. Implications for professional practice and for society are considered, and new attitudes toward intrafamilial child sexual abuse secrecy are suggested.
Aslihan Okan Ibiloglu
Full Text Available An experience of domestic violence can lead to permanent physical, mental, and psychological harms, whether the child is a direct victim or a witness. Although having no standard definition, it is generally agreed that childhood sexual abuse and incest are underreported. The majority of sexual abuse happens in childhood, with incest being the most common form. Incest is a sexual activity or assault between family members or close relatives and can be defined as the sexual abuse of the child, as well. On the other hand, pedophilic disorder is defined as having recurrent, intense sexual urges or behaviors involving sexual activity with a preadolescent child, over a period of at least 6 months. In this article, clinical, social, and legal effects from the sexual abuse of results are investigated. Results of our research will be hopefully helpful in informing social policy and guiding mental health practice.
McClellan, Jon; And Others
Variables associated with sexual abuse were examined among youth, ages 5 through 18, with severe mental illness. Review of 499 patient records revealed abuse as an isolated event in 62 cases, intermittent abuse in 61 cases, and chronic abuse in 150. Sexual abuse was associated with inappropriate sexual behaviors, substance abuse, and posttraumatic…
Crowley, M. Sue
The study explored types of memory for childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in a clinical sample of 30 women and identified factors that led some women (n = 24) to report recovered memories. Questionnaires produced three types of memory: always (n = 6), recovered (n = 14), both (n = 10); however, analysis of narrative data also revealed the use of…
Aug 10, 2015 ... reduce shame, stigma, and self-blame for youth who have experienced sexual abuse6. ... tional level of parents, sex education and child sexual abuse among ..... Jean R. Changes in self-esteem during the middle school ...
Timmerman, Margaretha; Schreuder, Pauline
This paper reports the results of an international review of academic literature on sexual abuse in residential child and youth care, 1945-2011. The review focusses on questions related to the nature and scope of sexual abuse, on personal and institutional factors providing either protection or
Davis, Deborah Winders; Pressley-McGruder, Gloria; Jones, V. Faye; Potter, Deborah; Rowland, Michael; Currie, Melissa; Gale, Bruce
Child sexual abuse poses a serious threat to public health and is often unreported, unrecognized, and untreated. Prevention, early recognition, and treatment are critically important to reduce long-term effects. Little data are available on effective methods of preventing child sexual abuse. The current research demonstrates a unique approach to…
Cooper, Sharon W.
Analysis of child sexual abuse images, commonly referred to as pornography, requires a familiarity with the sexual maturation rating of children and an understanding of growth and development parameters. This article explains barriers that exist in working in this area of child abuse, the differences between subjective and objective analyses,…
Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa; Chirio, Lisa
Two hundred and twelve Australian mothers completed an online survey examining features of mother-child communication about child sexual abuse prevention. Two-thirds (67.5%) of respondents had discussed child sexual abuse prevention with their children, with proportions varying according to age range (highest for mothers with children aged 5-12…
Background: The role of parents in preventing child sexual abuse in the community in low-and-middle income countries has not been adequately emphasized. The objective of this study was to assess parents' knowledge, attitudes and practices on child sexual abuse and its prevention in Shinyanga district, Tanzania in ...
The psychological trauma and physical complaints presented by victims include symptoms of anxiety and depression. Conclusion: It was found out that child sexual abuse cases presented to the legal office was not properly managed. Female children appear to be more prone to sexual abuse than their male counterparts.
Bonvanie, Irma J.; van Gils, Anne; Janssens, Karin A. M.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.
The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of childhood sexual abuse on medically not well explained or functional somatic symptoms (FSSs) in adolescents. We hypothesized that sexual abuse predicts higher levels of FSSs and that anxiety and depression contribute to this relationship.
Alexander, Pamela C.
Attachment theory provides useful conceptual framework for understanding familial antecedents and long-term consequences of sexual abuse. Themes associated with insecure parent-child attachment (rejection, role reversal/parentification, and fear/unresolved trauma) are frequently found in dynamics of families characterized by sexual abuse, and…
Objective: South Africa has a high prevalence of sexual abuse of children and adolescents. Among the numerous adverse consequences of sexual abuse is the difficulty survivors may experience in developing positive self-esteem and maintaining positive relationships. In a low resource setting, an expressive art group ...
The sexual abuse of children crosses cultural and economic divides. Sexual abuse can lead to long-lasting, even life-long consequences and is a serious problem on individuals, families and societies. Social workers by nature of their work, intervene at the individual, family and societal level. This paper will explore the ...
Bailey, Jennifer A.; McCloskey, Laura Ann
This study examined the link between childhood sexual abuse and adolescent substance use among girls, and evaluated depressive self-concept and behavioral under-control (BUC) as pathways to substance use for sexually abused girls. Participants (n = 150) were drawn from a longitudinal study of the impact of domestic violence on the lives of women…
Full Text Available One of the most unnerving aspects of child sexual abuse is that it is constantly manifesting in unexpected ways. The current Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse has collected testimony of abuse in churches, schools, out-of-home care, hospitals and religious communities, demonstrating the breadth of institutional arrangements whose structures and cultures have facilitated child sexual abuse. Cases of serious and prolonged sexual abuse in family contexts have been excluded from the terms of reference of the Royal Commission but nonetheless continue to surface in media reports. In 2013, twelve children were permanently removed from an extended family living in rural NSW in what has been described as one of the worst cases of child abuse in Australia, involving intergenerational incest going back at least three generations (Auebach 2014. Another recent high-profile case involved the use of the Internet to facilitate the sexual exploitation of an adopted child by his parents in Queensland (Ralston 2013. These cases challenge the received wisdom that child sexual abuse is characterised by the victimisation of one child by one opportunistic offender. Such incidents suggest instead that child sexual abuse takes varied and systemic forms, and can operate to perpetuate and entrench toxic cultures and power structures. This special issue on Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation is a timely contribution to ongoing efforts to understand the multiplicity of child sexual abuse. It is an interdisciplinary collection of insights drawn from criminology, sociology, psychiatry, psychology and psychoanalysis, and includes papers from academic researchers alongside academic practitioners whose writing is grounded in their work with affected individuals and communities. A key aim of the special issue is to contextualise the diversity of child sexual abuse socially, politically and historically, recognising the dynamic and iterative
Gelaye, Bizu; Lam, Nelly; Cripe, Swee May; Sanchez, Sixto E; Williams, Michelle A
The authors sought to identify correlates of violent response among women exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) in Lima, Peru. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on exposure to IPV and women's physical violent reaction towards their abuser. Women who were sexually abused by their partners, as compared with women who experienced emotional abuse only, were more than twice as likely to respond in a violent manner to the abuse (OR = 2.32, 95% CI = 1.14-4.74). Similarly, women who reported being physically abused, were 4 times as likely than those who experienced emotional abuse only to retaliate in a physically violent manner (OR = 4.04, 95% CI = 2.68-6.11). Women's educational status, history of witnessing parental violence as a child, and type of IPV are significantly associated with women's violent response. Community support networks and culturally appropriate intervention programs designed to prevent and mitigate the impact of IPV are needed.
McKibbin, Gemma; Humphreys, Cathy; Hamilton, Bridget
Harmful sexual behavior carried out by children and young people accounts for about half of all child sexual abuse perpetration. The aim of this study was to draw on the insights of young people who had been sexually abusive to enhance the current prevention agenda. The study involved semi-structured interviews with 14 young people and six treatment-providing workers. Sampling was purposive and the young people had previously completed a treatment program for harmful sexual behaviour in Victoria, Australia. The young people were approached as experts based on their previous experience of engaging in harmful sexual behavior. At the same time, their past abusive behavior was not condoned or minimised. Constructivist Grounded Theory was used to analyse the qualitative data. Opportunities for preventing harmful sexual behavior were the focus of the interviews with young people and workers. The research identified three opportunities for prevention, which involved acting on behalf of children and young people to: reform their sexuality education; redress their victimization experiences; and help their management of pornography. These opportunities could inform the design of initiatives to enhance the prevention agenda. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kidd, Jeremy D; Tross, Susan; Pavlicova, Martina; Hu, Mei-Chen; Campbell, Aimee N C; Nunes, Edward V
Sexual risk behavior is now the primary vector of HIV transmission among substance users in the United States with gender as a crucial moderator of risk behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in factors (age, race/ethnicity, education) that predict main-partner unprotected sexual occasions (USO) using the unique platform of two parallel NIDA National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network gender-specific safer sex intervention trials. Baseline assessments of male (N = 430) and female (N = 377) participants included demographic characteristics; past 3-month sexual activity; and a diagnostic assessment for alcohol, cocaine/stimulant, and opioid use disorders. Using mixed effects generalized linear modeling of the main outcome USO, two-way interactions of gender with age, race/ethnicity, and education were evaluated and adjusted by alcohol, cocaine/stimulant, or opioid use disorder. When adjusted for alcohol use disorder, the interaction of education and gender was significant. For men, a high school or greater education was significantly associated with more USO compared to men with less than high school. For women, greater than high school education was significantly associated with less USO compared to women with a high school education. None of the other interactions were significant when adjusted for cocaine/stimulant or opioid use disorder. Conclusions/Importance: This study demonstrates gender differences in the relationship of education, alcohol use disorder, and main-partner USO in individuals in substance abuse treatment. This underscores the importance of considering demographic and substance use factors in HIV sexual risk behavior and in crafting prevention messages for this population.
Kim, Kihyun; Trickett, Penelope K.; Putnam, Frank W.
Objective: The primary goal of this study was to explore the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and parenting practices among non-offending mothers of sexually abused girls. Guided by a developmental-ecological perspective of parenting, several models with different potential pathways starting from the mothers' childhood experiences of…
Pineda-Lucatero, A G; Trujillo-Hernández, B; Millán-Guerrero, R O; Vásquez, C
To determine the characteristics and prevalence of previous child sexual abuse among a group of Mexican junior high school students. A total of 1067 adolescents of both genders were selected to fill out a survey about child sexual abuse. The prevalence of child sexual abuse was 18.7% (n = 200). It was more frequent in girls (58%) than in boys (42%). Sexual abuse involved physical contact in 75% of those cases reporting abuse. The aggressors were neighbours (50.3%), relatives (36.8%) and strangers (13.9%). Abuse was committed through deception in 90% of the cases and involved physical mistreatment in 10% of the cases. Of the victims, 14.4% had spoken about the problem and 3.7% had taken legal action. And 9.6% of those surveyed stated that they required psychological counselling. In the population studied, the prevalency of child sexual abuse was greater than that reported in Mexico City (4.3-8.4%), although it was similar to that found in the Spanish child population (15-23%). The risk of sexual abuse is greater for girls and the principal aggressors are male neighbours, family friends and relatives; the abuse is committed in the home of the aggressor or the victim and very few cases are reported to the authorities.
Chavez Ayala, Ruben; Rivera-Rivera, Leonor; Angeles-Llerenas, Angélica; Díaz-Cerón, Eva; Allen-Leigh, Betania; Ponce, Eduardo Lazcano
To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence. Study conducted in a sample of students in the state of Morelos, Mexico, in 2004-2005. Participants (n=1730) were drawn from a cohort of 13,293 students aged 12 to 24 years. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire comprising parts of validated scales. The variables studied were: sociodemographic (gender, living area, socioeconomic status), family (parental education, parental addictions, violence between parents), individual psychological factors (self-esteem assessed using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, depression, alcohol consumption), intrafamily violence (assessed through Strauss Scale) and sexual abuse. Multiple logistic regression assessed the risk factors associated. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals were estimated. Of all students studied, 4.7% (n=80) reported attempted sexual abuse and 2.9% (n=50) were victims of consummated sexual abuse. Women had higher prevalence of attempted (6.1%) abuse; 3.6% of females and 1.9% of men were sexually abused. Main perpetrators were boyfriends in women and a stranger in men. Mean age was 12.02 years old among females and 11.71 years old among men. Factors found to be associated with abuse: high parental alcohol consumption (OR = 3.37, 95% CI 1.40;8.07), violence toward the mother (OR = 4.49, 95% CI 1.54;13.10), female gender (OR = 2.47, 95% CI 1.17;5.24), being a victim of great domestic violence (OR = 3.58, 95% CI 1.32;9.67). High self-esteem was a protective factor (OR = 0.27, 95% CI 0.09;0.75). Overall sexual abuse occurs at the age of 12 in both males and females, and it is more frequent among females. Most victims do not report abuse.
Austin, S. Bryn; Roberts, Andrea L.; Corliss, Heather L.; Molnar, Beth E.
Objectives. We sought to examine sexual violence victimization in childhood and sexual risk indicators in young adulthood in a primarily Latina and Black cohort of “mostly heterosexual” and heterosexual women in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). Methods. In 2000, a comprehensive survey that assessed sexual orientation, sexual risk indicators, and sexual abuse victimization was completed by 391 young women (aged 18 to 24 years) who had participated in PHDCN. We used multivariable regression methods to examine sexual orientation group differences in sexual risk indicators and to assess whether childhood sexual abuse may mediate relationships. Results. Compared with self-reported heterosexual women, self-reported “mostly heterosexual” women were more likely to report having been the victim of childhood sexual abuse, to have had a sexually transmitted infection, to report an earlier age of first sexual intercourse, and to have had more sexual partners. Childhood sexual abuse did not mediate relationships between sexual orientation and sexual risk indicators. Conclusions. Our findings add to the evidence that “mostly heterosexual” women experience greater health risk than do heterosexual women. In addition, “mostly heterosexual” women are at high risk for having experienced childhood sexual abuse. PMID:17901440
Austin, S Bryn; Roberts, Andrea L; Corliss, Heather L; Molnar, Beth E
We sought to examine sexual violence victimization in childhood and sexual risk indicators in young adulthood in a primarily Latina and Black cohort of "mostly heterosexual" and heterosexual women in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). In 2000, a comprehensive survey that assessed sexual orientation, sexual risk indicators, and sexual abuse victimization was completed by 391 young women (aged 18 to 24 years) who had participated in PHDCN. We used multivariable regression methods to examine sexual orientation group differences in sexual risk indicators and to assess whether childhood sexual abuse may mediate relationships. Compared with self-reported heterosexual women, self-reported "mostly heterosexual" women were more likely to report having been the victim of childhood sexual abuse, to have had a sexually transmitted infection, to report an earlier age of first sexual intercourse, and to have had more sexual partners. Childhood sexual abuse did not mediate relationships between sexual orientation and sexual risk indicators. Our findings add to the evidence that "mostly heterosexual" women experience greater health risk than do heterosexual women. In addition, "mostly heterosexual" women are at high risk for having experienced childhood sexual abuse.
Stern, A W; Smith-Blackmore, M
Animal sexual abuse (ASA) involves harm inflicted on animals for the purposes of human sexual gratification and includes such terms as bestiality, zoophilia, zoosadism, animal sexual assault, and others. The prevalence of ASA is not known, although it may be more common than is currently perceived. Veterinarians have the skills required to identify and document cases of ASA. This article reviews the terminology, legal definitions and forms of ASA, and its social and psychological context. An investigative approach is outlined, including an alternate light source examination; collection of swabs for DNA analysis; sampling vaginal washes, rectal washes, and toenails for trace evidence and biologic analyses; radiographic studies; and a complete forensic necropsy, including histopathology. Gross lesions identified in ASA victims include injuries to the anus, rectum, penis, scrotum, nipples, and vagina; the presence of foreign bodies; and abrasions, bruising, and other evidence of nonaccidental injury. Specialized procedures, including examination using alternate light sources and screening tests to identify human seminal fluid within samples from ASA victims, are of potential value but have not been validated for use in animals. © The Author(s) 2016.
... talking to your partner. By Mayo Clinic Staff Women's sexual health, like men's, is important to overall ... well worth addressing. Follow this guide to discussing women's sexual health concerns and promoting sexual enjoyment. Many ...
Dion, Jacinthe; Cantinotti, Michael; Ross, Amélie; Collin-Vézina, Delphine
Sexual abuse leads to short-term and long-lasting pervasive outcomes, including addictions. Among Indigenous Peoples, sexual abuse experienced in the context of residential schooling may have led to unresolved grief that is contributing to social problems, such as pathological (disordered) gambling. The aim of this study is to investigate the link between child sexual abuse, residential schooling and probable pathological gambling. The participants were 358 Indigenous persons (54.2% women) aged between 18 and 87 years, from two communities and two semi-urban centers in Quebec (Canada). Probable pathological gambling was evaluated using the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), and sexual abuse and residential schooling were assessed with dichotomous questions (yes/no). The results indicate an 8.7% past-year prevalence rate of pathological gambling problems among participants, which is high compared with the general Canadian population. Moreover, 35.4% were sexually abused, while 28.1% reported having been schooled in a residential setting. The results of a logistic regression also indicate that experiences of child sexual abuse and residential schooling are associated with probable pathological gambling among Indigenous Peoples. These findings underscore the importance of using an ecological approach when treating gambling, to address childhood traumas alongside current addiction problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schmidt, U; Evans, K; Tiller, J; Treasure, J
In order to assess the relationship pubertal development, sexual milestones and childhood sexual abuse in women with eating disorders, 44 patients with restricting anorexia nervosa (RAN), 26 with bulimic anorexia nervosa (BAN), 29 with bulimia nervosa and also with a history of anorexia nervosa (BN/HistAN), and 69 with bulimia nervosa but without a history of anorexia nervosa (BN) completed questionnaires on pubertal and sexual development and unpleasant sexual experiences. Forty-four female college students complete the sexual development questionnaire only. Different eating disorder groups were found to be similar in terms of their pubertal development. All eating disorder groups showed delays in aspects of their psychosexual development (age at first kiss, masturbation, genital fondling and first sexual intercourse) compared with the control group, although to a different degree. The RAN group was delayed on almost all sexual milestones whereas the other groups were delayed on only some. On some variables, most noticeably on first sexual intercourse, restricters also were more delayed than the other eating disorder groups. Similarly, the median number of sexual partners differed significantly between groups (RAN = 1, BAN = 2, BN/HistAN = 4, BN = 4, controls = 5, P masturbation, marriage, children or pregnancy. Of the eating disorder patients 22-31% had been sexually abused during childhood. A history of abuse affected attitudes to masturbation, but did not appear to affect sexual development.
This article explores sexual violence in male prisons in South Africa. It focuses on the social meanings and identities that surround sexual violence, particularly the ideas of manhood that shape both the perpetration of sexual abuses and how it is dealt with – or not. The dominant inmate culture endorses prison rape and ...
Kassah, Bente Lilljan Lind; Kassah, Alexander Kwesi; Agbota, Tete Kobla
The article discusses the different forms of abuse experienced by physically disabled women in Ghana, and seeks to provide an understanding of the coping strategies used by these women. This is a qualitative inquiry based on data collected after informed consent from five female informants using in-depth interviews and focus groups. Presentation of results and discussion: The data revealed that our informants experienced social, physical/verbal and sexual abuse to which they adopt coping strategies such as help-seeking, avoidance, confrontation, confidence building and an exchange of sympathy. Disabled women in Ghana still face various forms of abuse that appear to be generally accepted because of cultural beliefs and norms, and they employ various strategies to cope with abuse and sustain their female identity. There is the need for awareness programmes at all societal levels to eradicate prejudices and practices that expose disabled women to abuse. Implications for Rehabilitation The rehabilitation of abused disabled women should include empowering processes that enable them to overcome abusive relationships. The dignity of abused disabled women can be restored by increasing their access to rehabilitation facilities. Cultural stereotypes that legitimate abuse should be addressed in efforts to rehabilitate abused, disabled women. Abused, disabled women may increase their female identity when they engage in rehabilitation processes such as networking and participation in full-time work.
Marshal, Michael P.; Guadamuz, Thomas E.; Wei, Chongyi; Wong, Carolyn F.; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Stall, Ron
Objectives. We compared the likelihood of childhood sexual abuse (under age 18), parental physical abuse, and peer victimization based on sexual orientation. Methods. We conducted a meta-analysis of adolescent school-based studies that compared the likelihood of childhood abuse among sexual minorities vs sexual nonminorities. Results. Sexual minority individuals were on average 3.8, 1.2, 1.7, and 2.4 times more likely to experience sexual abuse, parental physical abuse, or assault at school or to miss school through fear, respectively. Moderation analysis showed that disparities between sexual minority and sexual nonminority individuals were larger for (1) males than females for sexual abuse, (2) females than males for assault at school, and (3) bisexual than gay and lesbian for both parental physical abuse and missing school through fear. Disparities did not change between the 1990s and the 2000s. Conclusions. The higher rates of abuse experienced by sexual minority youths may be one of the driving mechanisms underlying higher rates of mental health problems, substance use, risky sexual behavior, and HIV reported by sexual minority adults. PMID:21680921
Friedman, Mark S; Marshal, Michael P; Guadamuz, Thomas E; Wei, Chongyi; Wong, Carolyn F; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Stall, Ron
We compared the likelihood of childhood sexual abuse (under age 18), parental physical abuse, and peer victimization based on sexual orientation. We conducted a meta-analysis of adolescent school-based studies that compared the likelihood of childhood abuse among sexual minorities vs sexual nonminorities. Sexual minority individuals were on average 3.8, 1.2, 1.7, and 2.4 times more likely to experience sexual abuse, parental physical abuse, or assault at school or to miss school through fear, respectively. Moderation analysis showed that disparities between sexual minority and sexual nonminority individuals were larger for (1) males than females for sexual abuse, (2) females than males for assault at school, and (3) bisexual than gay and lesbian for both parental physical abuse and missing school through fear. Disparities did not change between the 1990s and the 2000s. The higher rates of abuse experienced by sexual minority youths may be one of the driving mechanisms underlying higher rates of mental health problems, substance use, risky sexual behavior, and HIV reported by sexual minority adults.
The scope of sexual, physical, and psychological abuse in a Bedouin-Arab community of female adolescents: The interplay of racism, urbanization, polygamy, family honor, and the social marginalization of women.
Elbedour, Salman; Abu-Bader, Soleman; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J; Abu-Rabia, Aref; El-Aassam, Salman
This is an exploratory study of the abuse-especially sexual-of female adolescents in a conservative and traditional Bedouin-Arab community in southern Israel. The objectives were (1) to examine the rate of sexual abuse, (2) to examine the rate of physical and psychological abuse, and (3) to develop regression models to predict these forms of abuse. : A self-administered survey that measured demographic characteristics and psychological abuse was distributed to 217 female high-school students (aged 14-18 years). Sexual and physical abuse were measured via the Finkelhor's scale [Finkelhor, D. (1979). Sexually victimized children. New York: Free Press]. Sixty-nine percent of the participants (n=149) reported no sexual abuse experiences, 16% reported one or two experiences, 11% reported three or four, and 4% reported more than four. Most participants indicated that they had been physically abused at least once by their father (37.1%), mother (43.7%), or siblings (44%) during the previous month. More than 50% of the participants reported being psychologically abused by members of their immediate families. Mother's age and closeness to mother significantly predicted physical abuse, and marital satisfaction and mother's age significantly predicted psychological abuse. This study addresses a topic that has never before been fully investigated--the maltreatment of females in a conservative, tribal Arab community. Although this was an exploratory study, the results attest that female abuse is a serious social problem in this community, and that the rate of abuse exceeds that of other Palestinian groups. These findings demonstrate an immediate need for professional intervention and prevention to address this problem.
Lutnick, Alexandra; Harris, Jennie; Lorvick, Jennifer; Cheng, Helen; Wenger, Lynn D; Bourgois, Philippe; Kral, Alex H
The high prevalence of rape and sexual trauma symptomatology among women involved in street-based sex trades is well-established. Because prior research has lacked appropriate, non-sex trade involved comparison groups, it is unknown whether differences exist among similarly situated women who do and do not trade sex. This article explores experiences of childhood and adult rape and symptomatology of sexual abuse trauma among a community-based sample of 322 women who use methamphetamine in San Francisco, California, 61% of whom were involved in the sex trade. Study participants were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and eligible if they were cisgender women, aged 18 or older, current methamphetamine users, and sexually active with at least one cisgender man in the past 6 months. The dependent variable was sexual abuse trauma symptomatology, as measured by the Sexual Abuse Trauma Index (SATI) subscale of the Trauma Symptom Checklist-40 (TSC-40), and the explanatory variable was sex trade involvement. Potential covariates were age, current homelessness, methamphetamine dependence, and experiences of childhood and adult rape. Sixty-one percent of participants had a SATI subscale score suggestive of sexual abuse trauma. The overall prevalence of rape in childhood and adulthood was 52% and 73%, respectively. In bivariate analysis, sex trade involvement and all of the potential covariates except for homelessness and age were associated with a SATI score suggestive of sexual abuse trauma. In multivariate models controlling for significant covariates, there was no longer a statistically significant association between sex trade involvement or childhood rape and an elevated SATI score. Elevated levels of psychological dependence on methamphetamine and experiences of rape as an adult were still associated with a high SATI score. These findings highlight that urban poor women, regardless of sex trade involvement, suffer high levels of rape and related trauma
Welington dos Santos Silva
Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study is identify potential factors associated with child sexual abuse confirmation at forensic examinations. The forensic files of children under 12 years of age reporting sexual abuse at the Nina Rodrigues Institute of Forensic Medicine in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil between January 2008 and December 2009 were reviewed. A multivariate analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with finding evidence of sexual abuse in forensic examinations. The proportion of cases confirmed by the forensic physician based on material evidence was 10.4%. Adjusted analysis showed that the variables place of birth, type of abuse reported, family relationship between the child and the perpetrator, and the interval between the reported abuse and the forensic examination were not independently associated with finding forensic evidence of sexual abuse. A report of penetration was associated with a five-fold greater likelihood of confirmation, while the victim being 10-11 years of age was associated with a two-fold of abuse confirmation than younger children. These findings should be taken into consideration when drawing up guidelines for the multidisciplinary evaluation of children suspected of being victims of sexual abuse and in deciding whether to refer the child for forensic examination.
Thurston, Rebecca C; Chang, Yuefang; Derby, Carol A; Bromberger, Joyce T; Harlow, Sioban D; Janssen, Imke; Matthews, Karen A
Some evidence suggests that abuse may be related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among women. However, this relation has largely been addressed using self-reported measures of CVD. We tested whether a history of abuse was related to subclinical CVD among midlife women without clinical CVD. The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) is a longitudinal cohort study of women transitioning through the menopause. One thousand four hundred two white, black, Hispanic, and Chinese SWAN participants completed measures of childhood and adult physical and sexual abuse, underwent a blood draw, completed physical measures, and underwent a carotid artery ultrasound at SWAN study visit 12. Associations between abuse and intima media thickness and plaque were tested in linear and multinomial logistic regression models controlling for age, site, race/ethnicity, financial strain, education, body mass index, lipids, blood pressure, measures of insulin resistance, smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, and medication use. Findings indicated that a history of childhood sexual abuse was associated with higher intima media thickness controlling for standard CVD risk factors and other confounders (β=0.022; SE=0.010; Pthe importance of considering the potential impact of early-life stressors on women's later cardiovascular health. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.
Kelley, S J
The purpose of this study was to examine the stress responses of parents to the sexual and ritualistic abuse of their children in day-care centers. Sixty-five mothers and 46 fathers of children sexually abused in day-care centers completed the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), a measure of psychological distress. These scores were compared with a carefully matched comparison group of parents of 67 nonabused children. Parents of abused children also completed the Impact of Event Scale (IES), a measure which indexes symptoms that characterize posttraumatic stress disorder. Parents of sexually abused children reported significantly more psychological distress than parents of nonabused children, with parents of ritually abused children displaying the most severe psychological distress. Parents of abused children reported symptom profiles on the SCL-90-R and IES consistent with posttraumatic stress disorder.
Porcerelli, John H; Hurrell, Kristen; Cogan, Rosemary; Jeffries, Keturah; Markova, Tsveti
This study assessed the relationship between psychopathology with the Personality Assessment Screener (PAS) and childhood physical and sexual abuse and adult physical and sexual partner violence in a primary care sample of 98 urban-dwelling African American women. Patients completed the PAS, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The PAS total score significantly correlated with all measures of childhood and adult abuse. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that PAS element scores of Suicidal Thinking and Hostile Control significantly predicted a history of childhood physical abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Hostile Control, and Acting Out significantly predicted a history of childhood sexual abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Negative Affect, and Alienation significantly predicted current adult partner physical violence; and Psychotic Features, Alcohol Problems, and Anger Control significantly predicted current adult sexual partner violence. The PAS appears to be a useful measure for fast-paced primary care settings for identifying patients who need a more thorough assessment for abuse. © The Author(s) 2015.
Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Wells, Anne; Rondon, Marta B; Williams, Michelle A; Barrios, Yasmin V; Sanchez, Sixto E; Gelaye, Bizu
Childhood abuse is a major global and public health problem associated with a myriad of adverse outcomes across the life course. Suicide is one of the leading causes of mortality during the perinatal period. However, few studies have assessed the relationship between experiences of childhood abuse and suicidal ideation in pregnancy. We sought to examine the association between exposure to childhood abuse and suicidal ideation among pregnant women. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 2964 pregnant women attending prenatal clinics in Lima, Peru. Childhood abuse was assessed using the Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse Questionnaire. Depression and suicidal ideation were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scale. Logistic regression procedures were performed to estimate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for potential confounders. Overall, the prevalence of childhood abuse in this cohort was 71.8% and antepartum suicidal ideation was 15.8%. The prevalence of antepartum suicidal ideation was higher among women who reported experiencing any childhood abuse compared to those reporting none (89.3% vs 10.7%, P suicidal ideation. Women who experienced both physical and sexual childhood abuse had much higher odds of suicidal ideation (adjusted odds ratio, 4.04; 95% confidence interval, 2.88-5.68). Women who experienced any childhood abuse and reported depression had 3.44-fold (3.44, adjusted odds ratio; 95% confidence interval, 1.84-6.43) increased odds of suicidal ideation compared with depressed women with no history of childhood abuse. Finally, the odds of suicidal ideation increased with increased number of childhood abuse events experienced (P value for linear trend suicidal ideation. It is important for clinicians to be aware of the potential increased risk of suicidal behaviors among pregnant women with a history of childhood physical and sexual abuse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kinzl, Johann F.; And Others
This study evaluated 202 female university students for early familial experience and childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in relation to adult sexual disorders: (1) victims of multiple CSA more frequently reported sexual desire disorders; and (2) single-incident victims and nonvictims reported no significantly different rates of sexual dysfunction.…
Littleton, Heather L; Grills, Amie E; Drum, Katherine B
Although having a sexual victimization history is associated with engaging in sexual risk behavior, the mechanisms whereby sexual victimization increases risk behavior are unclear. This study examined use of sex as an affect regulation strategy as a mediator of the relationship between depressive symptoms and sexual risk behavior among 1,616 sexually active college women as well as examined having a history of child sexual abuse (CSA), adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA), or both (CSA/ASA) as moderators. Results supported the mediated model as well as moderated mediation, where depressive symptoms were more strongly associated with use of sex as an affect regulation strategy among ASA victims, and sex as an affect regulation strategy was more strongly related to sexual risk behavior for CSA/ASA victims.
Del Río, Francisco Javier; Cabello-Santamaría, Francisco; Cabello-García, Marina A; Aragón-Vela, Jerónimo
The impact of pain in sexuality, couple relationships and the quality of life is very well known. The relationship between substance abuse and the presence of sexual pain disorder is assessed, together with anxiety and sexual attitudes . Two samples were selected. One sample for women with a history of substance abuse (n = 129), and another one of women nonconsumers (n = 129). The Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS), the Sexual Opinion Survey (SOS) and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) questionnaires were used. The results indicate that women consumers obtained a higher mean scores in sexual pain disorder (4.88 > 2.89, that is 65.12%), plus higher mean scores on state anxiety (23.82 > 14.56) and trait anxiety (30.93 > 16.95), and lower average figure in erotophilia (84.93 < 95.81). It was also verified that the period of abstinence does not improve sexual response. Substance consumption affects sexual response in women negatively. Sexual response does not improve with abstinence period.
Piperno, Francesca; Di Biasi, Stefania; Levi, Gabriel
The aim of this study is to analyse the family drawings of two groups of physically and/or sexually abused children as compared to the drawings of non-abused children of a matched control group. The drawings by 12 physically abused, 12 sexually abused and 12 non-abused children, all aged between 5 years-old and 10 years-old, were assessed and compared. Family drawings were analysed using a specific Screening Inventory (FDI-Family Drawing Inventory). This Inventory takes into consideration such qualitative and quantitative variables as the quality of drawing, the children's perception of their family members and their own perception of themselves within the family system. The results have shown significant differences between the abused minors and the control group. Abused children are more likely to draw distorted bodies, the human figure is usually represented devoid of details, their drawings generally show clear signals of trauma and the majority of the abused children are likely to exclude their primary caregiver from the drawings. The "drawings of the family" of physically and/or sexually abused children significantly evidence a greater emotional distress then the drawings of the non-abused children of the matched control group.
Gilroy, Heidi; McFarlane, Judith; Nava, Angeles; Maddoux, John
To determine preferred communication methods of abused women. A naturalistic study utilizing principles of Community Based Participatory Research. A total of 300 first time users of criminal justice or safe shelter for abused women were interviewed in person. The Preferred Communication Questionnaire was used to determine preference. Given the choice of phone voice, face to face, phone text, e-mail, or Facebook, traditional methods of communication (face-to-face communication and phone voice) were the primary (80% combined) and secondary (58.6% combined) preferred sources among abused women. A total of 292 women (97.3%) gave at least two preferred methods of communication, 255 (85%) gave three preferred methods, 190 (63%) gave four, and 132 (44%) used all five methods. Public health nurses and other professionals who serve abused women should be aware of their preferred method of communication for contact. The women in the sample preferred face-to-face and phone-voice communication; however, many were open to newer forms of communication such as texting and Facebook. Caution should be used to protect the safety of abused women when using any kind of communication. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Cour, F; Robain, G; Claudon, B; Chartier-Kästler, E
To understand and manage the sequels of childhood sexual abuse on sexual, anorectal and lower urinary tract functions. Review of articles published in the Medline database, selected according to their scientific relevance and published guidelines on this subject together with our own experience. A history of sexual abuse is frequently found when assessing dysfunction or symptoms of the lower urinary tract. In this context, urinary stress incontinence is rarely involved but it can be linked by epidemiological factors. Dysuria with urgency is the most frequent expressed symptom. When associated with anorectal disorders and pelvic pain or a sexual disorder in particular dyspareunia, a sexual abuse should be evoked and specific questions asked to the patient. Although these symptoms are frequently encountered in 12 to 33% of women, and 8 to 16% of men, few practitioners, whatever their speciality ask about them as routine. It is important that the physician diagnose the existence of sexual abuse, in particular when the symptoms mentioned by the patient are not conclusive, in spite of thorough urological assessment. Patients finding the initial examination difficult and painful and the failure of the initial treatment should lead to questions concerning abuse, if neglected by the initial medical inquiry. Clinicians involved in perineal functional pathology are able to acquire standardized modalities of inquiry about child sexual abuse for a better time management and efficacy in the therapeutic approach. The interest of a multidisciplinary diagnostic and therapeutic approach is primordial, associating psychological therapy and if necessary perineal re-education. This can avoid unnecessary tests and out-patient visits. Directing patients towards a multidisciplinary approach is highly advisable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Santos-Iglesias, Pablo; Sierra, Juan Carlos
Sexual revictimization is frequent among victims of child sexual abuse. Several variables, such as sexual experience, substance abuse, and sexual assertiveness, have been proposed to explain the link between child sexual abuse and adolescent and adult sexual victimization, although they have typically been tested separately. The main objective of…
Steine, Iris M.; Krystal, John H.; Nordhus, Inger H.; Bjorvatn, Bjorn; Harvey, Allison G.; Eid, Jarle; Gronli, Janne; Milde, Anne M.; Pallesen, Stale
In this study of victims of sexual abuse, the aim was to investigate the role of perceived social support and abuse characteristics in self-reported insomnia, nightmare frequency, and nightmare distress. Four hundred sixty Norwegian victims of sexual abuse completed a questionnaire assessing perceived social support, abuse characteristics,…
Dec 2, 2012 ... Child sexual abuse is defined in various ways, making it challenging to ... elementary schools (aged 6-12 years) and adolescent ... children registered at both clinics (CHOP and consultant clinic). ..... American Psychological.
online support group and resource centre for African-American sexual abuse survivors .... Younger children do well with developmental play groups, while older children and youth can ... indirect, avoidance); aggressive behaviour. ―I win, you ...
Factors associated with child sexual abuse in Tanzania: a qualitative study. Mangi J. Ezekiel, Felix Kisanga, Idda H. Mosha, Amani Anaeli, Switbert R. Kamazima, Rose Mpembeni, Eustace P. Muhondwa ...
Methods: This was a qualitative study that was carried out among inmates ... study showed that the child sexual abuse is common in Zambia. .... Guba was used to ensure trustworthiness of the. 11 study. The criteria of credibility, transferability,.
retrospective cross-sectional study among male pediatric patients at ... HIV on the first presentation of the incident to the emergency unit. ..... sexual abuse a qualitative interview study with ... exposure prophylaxis programme Malawi Med J.
Treguear, T; Peters, L
In San Jose, Costa Rica, the nongovernmental organization PROCAL has established two rescue homes for sexually abused girls 10-15 years of age. One of these homes is devoted to the care of pregnant girls. In almost all cases, the perpetrator was a male relative. Since girls are taught they must obey older male relatives, they are powerless to stop the abuse. When girls become pregnant as a result of sexual abuse, they face social ostracism and are blamed for their participation in sexual activity. PROCAL counsels the girls that they are victims of their own lack of power and provides them with skills and education they need to return to society and start a new life. The stories of two young girls who became pregnant as a result of sexual abuse and were helped by PROCAL are presented.
Fegert, J M; Hoffmann, U; Spröber, N; Liebhardt, H
The article provides an overview of the research on sexual abuse and the current political developments in Germany. First, the terminology of sexual child abuse is discussed, followed by the presentation of epidemiological data. The section on diagnostics and therapy shows that--because of mostly nonspecific indicators--the diagnosis of child sexual abuse is very difficult to define. Child sexual abuse is discussed as a traumatic experience for children and adolescents with different psychiatric and physical diseases. Current studies have shown that especially cognitive behavioral therapeutic-oriented approaches are effective in curing posttraumatic stress disorders. Based on the new German Child Protection Act, the focus lies on the clarification of confidentiality for medical professionals and their right to consulting services for child protection. In conclusion, guidelines and minimum standards for a child prevention and protection model are presented as well as institutional recommendations addressed to all institutions (also clinical) that take care of or treat children and adolescents.
Cyranowski, Jill M; Bromberger, Joyce; Youk, Ada; Matthews, Karen; Kravitz, Howard M; Powell, Lynda H
We examined the association between lifetime depression history and sexual function in a community-based sample of midlife women. Specifically, 914 women aged 42-52 who were participants in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation completed a self-report assessment of their sexual behaviors, sexual desire, sexual arousal, and sexual satisfaction over the past 6 months. On the basis of the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV , participants were categorized into 1 of 3 lifetime major depressive disorder (MDD) history groups: no MDD history, single episode MDD, and recurrent MDD. In line with previous reports, women with a history of recurrent MDD reported experiencing less frequent sexual arousal, less physical pleasure, and less emotional satisfaction within their current sexual relationships. Although the groups did not differ in their reported frequency of sexual desire or partnered sexual behaviors, lifetime depression history was associated with increased rates of self-stimulation (masturbation). Associations between lifetime depression history and lower levels of physical pleasure within partnered sexual relationships and higher rates of masturbation remained significant following control for current depressive symptoms, study site, marital status, psychotropic medication use, and lifetime history of anxiety or substance abuse/dependence disorder. Future research is needed to characterize the temporal and etiologic relationships among lifetime depressive disorder, current mood state, and sexual function in women across the lifespan.
Silvia Susana Robles Montijo
Full Text Available The present study proposed a descriptive analysis of sociodemographic and family variables, as well as risky sexual behaviors and sexual abuse in a sample of young Mexicans with hearing or visual impairments, examining differences based on gender and type of disability of the participants. 128 young persons (64 hearing impaired and 64 visually impaired of whom, 53.2% were male and 86.6% were single, were included in the study. The instruments used were adapted linguistically to be answered by young people with hearing disabilities, and translated into Braille for visually impaired young people. The results show that participants maintain an active sex life with a risk profile that is characterized by the early onset of sexual intercourse, lack of planning their first sexual encounter, underuse of condoms and victimization of some form of sexual abuse. The risk was higher in women and among those with visual disabilities.
Luis Eduardo Wearick-Silva; Saulo G. Tractenberg; Mateus L. Levandowski; Thiago W. Viola; Joelza M. A. Pires; Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira
Introduction: Recurrent exposure to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) seems to be higher among victims of sexual abuse. In this sense, experiences related to sexual violence can perpetuate within the family context itself in various ways. Here, we investigate the association between being exposed to CSA and having a child victim of sexual abuse. Method: We used a sample with 123 mothers, who were divided into 2 groups: one consisting of 41 mothers of sexually abused children and another consi...
Willie, Tiara C; Overstreet, Nicole M; Peasant, Courtney; Kershaw, Trace; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Hansen, Nathan B
There is a critical need to examine protective and risk factors of anxiety and depressive symptoms among people living with HIV in order to improve quality of life. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the associations between HIV-related shame, sexual abuse-related shame, posttraumatic growth, and anxiety and depressive symptoms among a cohort of 225 heterosexual women and men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Higher sexual abuse-related shame was related to more anxiety and depressive symptoms for heterosexual women. Higher posttraumatic growth predicted less anxiety symptoms for only heterosexual women. Higher posttraumatic growth predicted less depressive symptoms for heterosexual women and MSM, but the magnitude of this effect was stronger for heterosexual women than MSM. Psychosocial interventions may need to be tailored to meet the specific needs of heterosexual women and MSM living with HIV and CSA.
Gumpert, Clara Hellner
Background During the past decades, the evaluation of alleged sexual abuse has manifested itself as a major challenge for professionals working within the field of child maltreatment. A new role for psychologists and psychiatrists has been to give expert opinions regarding the credibility and reliability of child witnesses in legal proceedings. Although some aspects of evaluating suspected sexual abuse cases are close to traditional clinical work, other aspects necessitate ...
Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Bejan, Raluca; Hunter, John T.; Grundland, Tamara; Brennenstuhl, Sarah
Objectives: This study examined the relationship between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and myocardial infarction in men and women, while controlling for social determinants (i.e., socioeconomic status, social support, mental health) and traditional cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., age, race, obesity, smoking, physical inactivity, diabetes…
The right of children to be protected from abuse is grounded in international law. Children should be free to enjoy their childhoods and to engage with their physical environment without fear for their safety. In recent years, girls and women in Jamaica have been targeted by men who rape and/or otherwise sexually assault them. This is without…
Godbout, Natacha; Sabourin, Stephane; Lussier, Yvan
This study compared the usefulness of single- and multiple-indicator strategies in a model examining the role of child sexual abuse (CSA) to predict later marital satisfaction through attachment and psychological distress. The sample included 1,092 women and men from a nonclinical population in cohabiting or marital relationships. The single-item…
Perrin, Nancy A; Yragui, Nanette L; Hanson, Ginger C; Glass, Nancy
The purpose of this study was to understand differences in patterns of supervisor support desired by female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) and to examine whether the pattern of support desired at work is reflective of a woman's stage of change in the abusive relationship, IPV-related work interference, and IPV-related job reprimands or job loss. We conducted interviews in Spanish or English with adult women working in low-income jobs who had been physically or sexually abused by an intimate partner/ ex-partner in the past year ( N = 133). Cluster analysis revealed three distinct clusters that form a hierarchy of type of support wanted: those who desired limited support; those who desired confidential, time-off, and emotional support; and those who desired support in wide variety of ways from their supervisor. The clusters appeared to reflect stages of behavior change in an abusive relationship. Specifically, the limited-support cluster may represent an early precontemplation stage, with women reporting the least interference with work. The support-in-every-way cluster may represent later stages of change, in which women are breaking away from the abusive partner and report the greatest interference with work. Women in the confidential-, time-off-, and emotional-support cluster are in a transition stage in which they are considering change and are exploring options in their abusive relationship. Understanding the hierarchy of the type of support desired, and its relationship to stages of change in the abusive relationship and work interference, may provide a strong foundation for developing appropriate and effective workplace interventions to guide supervisors in providing support to women experiencing IPV.
Schneider, Renee; Baumrind, Nikki; Kimerling, Rachel
Risk for adult mental health problems associated with child sexual, physical, or emotional abuse and multiple types of child abuse was examined. Logistic regression analyses were used to test study hypotheses in a population-based sample of women (N = 3,936). As expected, child sexual, physical, and emotional abuse were independently associated with increased risk for mental health problems. History of multiple types of child abuse was also associated with elevated risk for mental health problems. In particular, exposure to all three types of child abuse was linked to a 23-fold increase in risk for probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Findings underscore relations between child emotional abuse and adult mental health problems and highlight the need for mental health services for survivors of multiple types of child abuse.
Myers, John E. B.
This commentary on an article (EC 619 279) about research issues at the interface of medicine and law concerning medical evaluation for child sexual abuse focuses on empirically testable questions: (1) the medical history--its accuracy, interviewing issues, and elicitation and preservation of verbal evidence of abuse; and, (2) expert testimony.…
Background: Female sexual abuse is one of the most stressful life events and is associated with many adverse consequences including physical and mental health problems, substance abuse and criminality Methods: This study was a cross sectional study that was conducted among female secondary school students in ...
school functioning, emotional reactions to the abuse were found to have ... feelings toward the perpetrator were negative or the ... When the child discloses sexual abuse, the parent's reaction .... divorced (n= 2, 5.88%) and single (n= 2, 5.88%).
Background: Child sexual abuse is a widespread form of child abuse that has remained the most under-reported. In our communities, much remains unknown of this act which often leaves victims traumatised with unsavoury memory that tends to affect their psychosocial development. The study evaluted the ...
Rubin, Stephen; Biggs, John S.
This book examines sexual abuse and provides a plan of action for educators in schools. Following a historical perspective and a report on the extent of the problem in chapters 1 and 2, chapter 3 presents case studies of abuse involving adult males and female students, adult males and male students, and adult females and male students. Chapter 4,…
Child sexual abuse (CSA) has not previously been regarded as important in the overall ... episode of abuse is unknown," but because of greater risk of mucosal trauma, the risk is .... Children and adolescents started on HIV PEP should receive sufficient ... A clear message should be proclaimed by all political and community ...
Peixoto, Maria Manuela; Nobre, Pedro
Conservative and dysfunctional sexual beliefs are commonly associated with sexual problems among heterosexual men and women. However, little is known about the role of sexual beliefs in sexual problems in gay men and lesbians. The present study aimed at analyzing the role of sexual beliefs in sexual dysfunction in a sample of heterosexual and homosexual men and women. Participants answered questions about self-perceived sexual problems and completed the Sexual Dysfunctional Beliefs Questionnaire. Two hundred twelve men (106 gay) and 192 women (96 lesbian) completed a Web survey. Findings indicated that men with sexual dysfunction (regardless of sexual orientation) reported significantly more conservative beliefs and more erroneous beliefs related to partner's sexual satisfaction compared with sexually healthy men. Also, gay men with sexual dysfunction (but not heterosexual men) scored higher on belief in sex as an abuse of men's power compared with healthy controls. In addition, heterosexual men scored higher on "macho" beliefs, beliefs regarding partner's sexual satisfaction, and partner's power, compared with gay men. For women, a main effect was found for sexual orientation, with lesbian women scoring higher on sexual desire as a sin, age-related beliefs, and affection primacy and lower on beliefs related to motherhood primacy. Overall, findings suggest that dysfunctional sexual beliefs may play a role as vulnerability factors for sexual dysfunction regardless of sexual orientation, particularly in men. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Dartnall, Elizabeth; Jewkes, Rachel
Rape and sexual violence occur in all societies, and cut across all social classes. Prevalence estimates of rape victimisation range between 6 and 59% of women having experienced sexual abuse from their husbands or boyfriends in their lifetime. Two population-based studies from South Africa have found that 28% and 37% of men, respectively, have perpetrated rape. Estimates of rape perpetration from high-income countries seem to be lower than those from low- and middle-income countries; however, current data make it impossible to confirm this. Women and girls are much more likely to be the victims and men the perpetrators and, in most instances, the perpetrator is known to the victim. Children are particularly vulnerable to sexual abuse, with girls being at greater risk, especially while at school and at home. High rates of child sexual abuse are emerging from the research, with an increasing understanding of the effect of child sexual abuse on later perpetration and victimisation, highlighting the importance of primary prevention for sexual violence to address childhood exposures to violence. Much of our knowledge about sexual violence has historically been based on research undertaken in high-income countries. This, however, is changing with the emergence of good-quality studies from other settings, particularly in Africa, alongside an increasing number of multi-country studies looking at interpersonal and sexual violence. Most countries lack population data on perpetration of sexual violence, across all categories, including children, and a major gap exists in research on sexual violence among sub-groups and populations. Much of the existing research has limitations that affect cross-study comparability, owing to differences in definitions, research tools, methods and sampling used. Improved research is essential. Research priorities for understanding the magnitude of sexual violence prevalence include assessment of the prevalence and patterns of sexual violence
Smallbone, Stephen W; McCabe, Billee-Anne
Written autobiographies of 48 incarcerated adult male sexual offenders (22 rapists, 13 intrafamilial child molesters, and 13 extrafamilial child molesters) were used to generate retrospective self-report measures of their childhood maternal and paternal attachment, childhood sexual abuse experiences, and onset of masturbation. Contrary to expectation, the offenders as a combined group more often reported secure than they did insecure childhood maternal and paternal attachment. There were no differences between the three offender subgroups with respect to maternal attachment; however the rapists and the intrafamilial child molesters were more likely to report insecure paternal attachment than were the extrafamilial child molesters. There were no differences between these offender subgroups in the frequency with which childhood sexual abuse was reported. However, offenders with insecure paternal attachment were more likely to report having been sexually abused than were those with secure paternal attachment. Sexually abused offenders in turn reported earlier onset of masturbation than did those who were not sexually abused. These results are consistent with contemporary attachment models linking insecure childhood attachment to childhood sexual abuse, and with traditional conditioning models linking childhood sexual abuse, early masturbation, and sexual offending.
Prat, S; Bertsch, I; Chudzik, L; Réveillère, Ch
All available studies addressing the clinical and legal aspects of child pornography have systematically concerned male abusers. The social lens through which women are viewed tends to play down their responsibility in the sexual abuse of children. Unlike men, women rarely abuse children outside the close or family circle. Furthermore, they have frequently been abused themselves in their childhood. To our knowledge, no cases of women charged with sex-related offences, including child pornography, have been described in the literature. The psychopathological characteristics of female sexual abusers and of the two women in our cases tend to suggest that the deliberate downloading of child pornography images by women is unusual, as their deviant behaviour is not related to paedophile sexual arousal It is hypothesized that the act enables women perpetrators to satisfy the sexual urges of their spouse. Sexual abuse by women exists, but the nature of the abuse appears to be specific to the gender of the perpetrator. We present two cases of women charged with sexual offences concerning minors, including the production of child pornography material. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Nault, Tori; Gupta, Priyanka; Ehlert, Michael; Dove-Medows, Emily; Seltzer, Marlene; Carrico, Donna J; Gilleran, Jason; Bartley, Jamie; Peters, Kenneth M; Sirls, Larry
To investigate associations of bullying and abuse with pelvic floor symptoms, urogenital pain, and sexual health characteristics of women presenting to a multidisciplinary women's urology center. Retrospective review of a prospective database. Patients completed questions about bullying, abuse, sexual health and validated questionnaires including the Pelvic Floor Dysfunction Inventory (PFDI-20), Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB-q), and visual analog scale (VAS 0-10) for genitourinary pain. Statistical analyses included Chi-squared and t tests, which compared victims of bullying and/or abuse to non-victims. Three hundred and eighty patients were reviewed. Three hundred and thirty-eight had data on bullying and abuse history. Out of 380, 94 (24.7 %) reported that they were victims of bullying. Out of 380, 104 (27.4 %) reported that they were victims of abuse. Women with a history of bullying and abuse had increased overall pain scores compared to those without a history of either. Women with a history of abuse and bullying had increased PFDI-20, POPDI, and UDI-6 scores compared to women who were not bullied or abused. There was no difference in being sexually active or in sexual satisfaction between the groups. Patients with a history of abuse and bullying had the greatest percentage of dyspareunia (p = 0.009). Women with a history of bullying, abuse, or both predict increased pelvic floor distress, urological symptoms, increased urogenital pain, and increased dyspareunia. Clinicians should screen for exposure to bullying or abuse in order to provide comprehensive resources to address these psychosocial issues.
Newton, Jeremy W; Hobbs, Sue D
The current study investigated effects of simulated memory impairment on recall of child sexual abuse (CSA) information. A total of 144 adults were tested for memory of a written CSA scenario in which they role-played as the victim. There were four experimental groups and two testing sessions. During Session 1, participants read a CSA story and recalled it truthfully (Genuine group), omitted CSA information (Omission group), exaggerated CSA information (Commission group), or did not recall the story at all (No Rehearsal group). One week later, at Session 2, all participants were told to recount the scenario truthfully, and their memory was then tested using free recall and cued recall questions. The Session 1 manipulation affected memory accuracy during Session 2. Specifically, compared with the Genuine group's performance, the Omission, Commission, or No Rehearsal groups' performance was characterized by increased omission and commission errors and decreased reporting of correct details. Victim blame ratings (i.e., victim responsibility and provocativeness) and participant gender predicted increased error and decreased accuracy, whereas perpetrator blame ratings predicted decreased error and increased accuracy. Findings are discussed in relation to factors that may affect memory for CSA information. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Zafar, Sadia; Ross, Erin C.
The Childhood Sexual Abuse Stereotypes Scale was developed to assess stereotypes of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Scale items were derived from two studies that elicited cultural and personal beliefs about, and emotions experienced towards adult childhood sexual abuse survivors among university undergraduates. Two scales, Emotions and…
Hayer, Manvir Kaur
This paper sets out to explore Ugandan young women's definitions and perceptions of sexual coercion. A qualitative study was conducted with seven young women in rural Uganda. Participants filmed videos, wrote stories, made drawings and participated in transect walks before analysing their data through formal and informal discussions. Forced sex is defined narrowly to mean only rape. Verbal forms of sexual coercion were recognised, but only after some discussion. Verbal coercion is referred to as "abusing" or "convincing". Young women are commonly pressured into consenting to have sex, despite what they really want, owing to the socio-cultural circumstances. Young women in Uganda are significantly tolerant of sexual coercion. This tolerance appears to arise from power differentials between genders, and the socio-cultural environment shaping their lives. The paper improves understanding of young women's definitions and perceptions of sexual coercion, which is essential to provide effective violence prevention programmes. It also suggests that further research is warranted in this field.
Morais, Hugo B; Alexander, Apryl A; Fix, Rebecca L; Burkhart, Barry R
Most studies on the mental health consequences of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) focus predominantly on CSA survivors who do not commit sexual offenses. The current study examined the effects of CSA on 498 male adolescents adjudicated for sexual offenses who represent the small portion of CSA survivors who engage in sexual offenses. The prevalence of internalizing symptoms, parental attachment difficulties, specific sexual offending behaviors, and risk for sexually offending were compared among participants with and without a history of CSA. Results indicated that participants with a history of CSA were more likely to be diagnosed with major depression and posttraumatic stress disorder than those who did not report a history of CSA. A history of CSA was also positively correlated with risk for sexually offending and with specific offense patterns and consensual sexual behaviors. No significant differences emerged on parental attachment difficulties. These results highlight that adolescents adjudicated for sexual offenses with a history of CSA present with differences in sexual and psychological functioning as well as markedly different offending patterns when compared with those without a CSA history. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed.
Cleary, Vicki; Hegarty, Josephine; McCarthy, Geraldine
To investigate sexual self-concept, sexual relationships, and sexual functioning, and the relationship between these and certain demographic variables of Irish women, following a diagnosis of gynecologic cancer. Descriptive, correlational. Outpatient gynecologic oncology clinic in a large university hospital in Southern Ireland. 106 women with a diagnosis of and treatment for various gynecologic cancers (cervical, ovarian, endometrial, and vulvar). The Body Image Scale, Sexual Esteem Scale, and Sexual Self-Schema Scale were administered to women a minimum of six weeks postdiagnosis of any form of gynecologic cancer to measure sexual self-concept; the Intimate Relationships Scale to measure sexual relationships; and the Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale to measure sexual functioning. Sexual self-concept, body image, sexual esteem, sexual self-schema, sexual relationships, and sexual functioning. Participants reported negative changes in relation to their sexual self-concept, sexual relationships, and sexual functioning. Participants reported negative changes in relation to all stages of the sexual response cycle. Gynecologic cancer has the potential to negatively affect a woman's sexual self-concept, sexual relationships, and sexual functioning. Sexuality is a multidimensional construct and must be measured in this way. Healthcare professionals must use a holistic approach when providing information and support to patients with gynecologic cancer. Information must be provided to women on how cancer and its treatment has the potential to affect their sexual self-concept, sexual relationships, and sexual functioning, including information on how to overcome these alterations.
Schreier, Hannah M C; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Ritz, Thomas; Gennings, Chris; Wright, Rosalind J
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity is known to be altered following events such as childhood abuse. However, despite potential adverse consequences for the offspring of women who have experienced abuse, very little is known about altered HPA axis activity during pregnancy. During pregnancy, 180 women from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds reported on their exposure to emotional, physical and/or sexual abuse before the age of 11, and general post-traumatic stress symptoms (ie, not limited to childhood years or abuse experiences). Around delivery, they provided hair samples for the assessment of cortisol levels during pregnancy. Hair cortisol was assessed for each pregnancy trimester. The effect of childhood abuse on hair cortisol was assessed using mixed-effects analyses of covariance models allowing for within-subject correlated observations, and were first performed in the entire sample and subsequently stratified by race/ethnicity. Controlling for post-traumatic stress symptoms, hair cortisol levels varied by history of child abuse, F(2,166)=3.66, p=0.028. Childhood physical and/or sexual abuse was associated with greater hair cortisol levels, t(166)=2.65, p=0.009, compared with no history of abuse. Because childhood rates of abuse and hair cortisol levels varied by race/ethnicity, analyses were stratified by race/ethnicity. The associations between history of abuse and cortisol levels were only significant among black women, F(2,23)=5.37, p=0.012. Childhood abuse, especially physical and/or sexual abuse, is associated with differences in cortisol production during pregnancy, particularly among black women. Future research should investigate how these differences impact physical and mental health outcomes among offspring of affected women. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Shoop, Robert J.
Sexual abuse of students by teachers is a serious problem. A 1998 "Education Week" nationwide study identified 244 cases of inappropriate sexual behavior during one six-month period. Overly affectionate behavior, inappropriate noneducation-related contact, and harassing behaviors are warning signs. Administrators should craft policies, pay…
Chandy, Joseph M.; Blum, Robert Wm.; Resnick, Michael D.
Examined the suicidal involvement, disordered eating behaviors, sexual risk taking, delinquent behaviors, substance use, and school performance of male teenagers (N=370) with a reported history of sexual abuse. Results show that, except for school performance, this group had higher rates of adverse correlates in the above areas than did a control…
Leach, Fiona; Sitaram, Shashikala
This article reports on a small exploratory study of adolescent girls' experiences of sexual harassment and abuse while attending secondary school in Karnataka State, South India. In South Asia, public discussion of sexual matters, especially relating to children, is largely taboo, and the study uncovers a hidden aspect of schooling, which…
Christopher, Kelly; Lutz-Zois, Catherine J.; Reinhardt, Amanda R.
Objective: The goal was to examine, in an all female sample, possible mechanisms for the relationship between a history of childhood sexual abuse and the likelihood of perpetrating sexual abuse as an adult. It was hypothesized that Borderline and Antisocial Personality Disorder tendencies would mediate the relationship between these two forms of…
Pereda, Noemi; Guilera, Georgina; Forns, Maria; Gomez-Benito, Juana
Objective: The purpose of this paper was to compare the prevalence rates of child sexual abuse reported by [Finkelhor, D. (1994). "The international epidemiology of child sexual abuse." "Child Abuse & Neglect," 18 (5), 409-417] with those found in recent publications in order to confirm the widespread prevalence of child sexual abuse. Methods:…
Wolf, Molly R.; Nochajski, Thomas H.
Although the issue of dissociative amnesia in adult survivors of child sexual abuse has been contentious, many research studies have shown that there is a subset of child sexual abuse survivors who have forgotten their abuse and later remembered it. Child sexual abuse survivors with dissociative amnesia histories have different formative and…
Chishugi, John; Franke, Trixy
A young girl was brought to the emergency unit after suffering sexual abuse by an older male. Additional abuses against women and girls include physical beating, forced marriage, female genital mutilation, breast ironing, widow's rites, psychological abuse, and discrimination in education, finance, employment, and legal access. Cameroon has adopted strategies aimed at eliminating violence against women, including ratification of international policies, penal codes, and support of local and international efforts that promote women; however, many of the laws remain in name only and are rarely enforced, given women's lack of financial access to quality lawyers and an unsympathetic male-dominated police force. Underreporting and culturally accepted abuses remain a challenge, too, as the country seeks to understand the extent of abuses and how to effectively fight against them. A complete paradigm shift in cultural attitude toward the female gender is required for abuses to cease.
Crowley, M. Sue
Data from a clinical sample (N = 88) reporting childhood sexual abuse was compared by types of memory, abuse characteristics, and psychological symptoms. Three types of memory were identified from a questionnaire ("Always" n = 27 [31%], "Recovered" n = 41 [46%], and "Both" n = 20 [23%]). When compared with narrative…
Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Bernier, Jetta
This case study describes the Enough Abuse Campaign, a multidisciplinary, statewide effort to prevent child sexual abuse in Massachusetts. The study uses the Institute of Medicine's Framework for Collaborative Community Action on Health to provide a systematic description of the campaign's process of implementation, which includes: (a) developing…
Steel, Jennifer; Sanna, Lawrence; Hammond, Barbara; Whipple, James; Cross, Herbert
Objective: The aim of this study was to test a model predicting the contribution of abuse-related characteristics and mediating variables such as coping and attributional style in the development of psychological sequelae in adults reporting a history of child sexual abuse (CSA). Methodology: Two hundred and eighty-five males and females from…
Roberts, Susan; Vanstone, Maurice
There is a dearth of research on sexual abuse perpetrated by educators. Although the problem is receiving increasing attention, little emphasis has been placed on abuse directed at younger schoolchildren and on offenders' accounts of this form of abuse. Here, we attempt to address this gap in knowledge by exploring the narratives of five convicted, imprisoned male child sexual abusers, each of whom worked with children in educational settings in the United Kingdom. We draw on four themes that emerged from detailed interviews with offenders, namely: the power of reputation, authority and control, the "front of invulnerability," and disclosure of abuse. We conclude by considering the implications of our work for policy and practice.
Chasan-Taber, L; Tabachnick, J
A half-million children are believed to be sexually abused each year in the United States. In 1995, the American Medical Association declared sexual assault "a silent violent epidemic." The majority of efforts to stop child sexual abuse have focused on punishing abusers and treating victims and their families; prevention programs are uncommon and rely on educating children to report sexual abuse. This case study describes the evaluation of the first public health campaign designed to target adults for prevention. A baseline assessment of attitudes, awareness, knowledge, and policies was conducted in Vermont to identify facilitators and barriers to adult prevention of child sexual abuse. These included predisposing factors (50% of Vermont residents did not know the characteristics of an abuser), enabling factors (60% of Vermont residents did not know where to refer someone who may have sexual behavior problems), and reinforcing factors (when focus group participants knew an abuser, they were less likely to take action). This process guided the intervention, which included a broad-based media campaign targeting adults; a one-to-one communications strategy that provided information to agencies working with families at risk and a toll-free helpline for adults in an abuse situation; and a systems change strategy designed to educate decision-makers and leaders. Program evaluation measures included a random-digit dial survey, focus groups, a survey of Vermont decision-makers, and other data sets. The successes and limitations of these interventions, both as strategies in themselves and as data sources for evaluation, are discussed.
Satya Wydya Yenny
Full Text Available AbstrakInfeksi Neisseria gonorrhoeae pada anak akibat sexual abuse sangat jarang dilaporkan.Dilaporkan satu kasus infeksi Neisseria gonorrhoeae pada seorang anak perempuan usia 6 tahun setelah mengalami sexual abuse satu minggu yang lalu.Diagnosis ditegakkan berdasarkan anamnesis, pemeriksaan klinis dan pemeriksaan laboratorium. Anamnesis adanya keputihan sejak 5 hari sebelum berobat. Pada pemeriksaan fisis tampak cairan berwarna krem menempel pada celana dalam, cukup banyak, serta sedikit kemerahan dan duh genital pada vulva. Hasil pemeriksaan mikroskopis ditemukan diplokokus Gram negatif dan kultur didapatkan Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Berdasarkan hasil tes sensitivitas, pasien diterapi dengan ceftriaxon 125 mg i.m, dosis tunggal dan memberikan kesembuhan.Infeksi ini membutuhkan penatalaksanaan yang komprehensif karena mempunyai dampak psikologis baik bagi anak maupun keluarga seumur hidupKata kunci : Neisseria gonorrhoeae, sexual abuse, anakAbstractNeisseria gonorrhoe infection in childhood caused by sexual abuse is considered rare reported.A young girl 6 years old suffering gonococcal infection was reported. The diagnostic procedure were base on clinically and laboratory findings. The source of transmission was sexual abuse by an adult man. Physical examination revealed purulent discharge, cream in colour that stains the underwear with minimal vaginal discharge and vulval erythema. Laboratory examination showed Gram-negative diplococcic and isolation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. This patient had been treated with ceftriaxon 125mg given intramuscularly in a single dose. Result of the treatment was good.The psychological sequelae of sexual abuse and the turmoil in the family produced by suspicions and allegations are largely unknown, but are probably life long.Keywords: Neisseria gonorrhoeae, sexual abuse, childLAPORAN
Kaleağasi, Hakan; Ozge, Aynur; Toros, Fevziye; Kar, Hakan
Although the vast majority of chronic headache is idiopathic in origin, child abuse can be a very rare cause of paroxysmal headaches in children. The aim of this report was to present a case of migraine headache aggravated after sexual abuse, which did not respond to treatment. An 11-year-old girl admitted to the outpatient department of the Neurology Clinic with headache complaint for the past two years. Neurological examination, neuroimaging and laboratory tests were normal. According to the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD)-II criteria, the headache was diagnosed as migraine without aura and treatment as prophylaxis was planned. Her headache did not respond to treatment, so she was consulted with the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and diagnosed as major depressive disorder. During one of the psychological interviews, she confessed that she had been sexually abused by her mother's boyfriend for two years. After this confession and punishment of the abuser, her headache improved dramatically. The prevalence of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse during childhood has been estimated between 13% and 27%, and these children may suffer chronic pain, headache or depression. Sexual abuse has been strongly associated with the migraine-depression phenotype when abuse first occurred before the age of 12 years. Despite the high prevalence of abuse, many physicians do not routinely ask about abuse history. In conclusion, child abuse must be kept in mind in intractable childhood headache. A multidisciplinary approach with the Departments of Forensic Sciences and Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and detailed psychiatric evaluation should be useful in these cases.
National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2009
Child sexual abuse is any interaction between a child and an adult (or another child) in which the child is used for the sexual stimulation of the perpetrator or an observer. Children of all ages, races, ethnicities, and economic backgrounds are vulnerable to sexual abuse. Children who have been sexually abused may display a range of emotional and…
Swaby, Antoneal N.; Morgan, Kai A. D.
This study examined the associations between early traumatic sexualization and later sexual dysfunction in a sample of 100 Jamaican adults while identifying the linkages between age, frequency of abuse, and gender on sexual functioning. Participants were selected via purposive and convenience sampling and divided equally into comparison and…
Approximately 150,000 confirmed cases of child sexual abuse were reported to child welfare authorities in the United States during 1993. This number represents about 15% of the more than one million confirmed cases of all child abuse and neglect. But the true scope of this problem is better reflected in retrospective surveys of adults, and this article summarizes data from 19 of these surveys. Considerable evidence exists to show that at least 20% of American women and 5% to 10% of American men experienced some form of sexual abuse as children. The rates are somewhat lower among people born before World War II, but there is little evidence of a dramatic increase for recent generations. The studies provide little evidence that race or socioeconomic circumstances are major risk factors. They do show elevated risk for children who experienced parental inadequacy, unavailability, conflict, harsh punishment, and emotional deprivation. Adult retrospective studies are also good sources of information about the characteristics of abuse. Most sexual abuse is committed by men (90%) and by persons known to the child (70% to 90%), with family members constituting one-third to one-half of the perpetrators against girls and 10% to 20% of the perpetrators against boys. Family members constitute a higher percentage of the perpetrators in child protective agency cases because the mandate of these agencies generally precludes their involvement in extrafamily abuse. Around 20% to 25% of child sexual abuse cases involve penetration or oral-genital contact. The peak age of vulnerability is between 7 and 13. Studies of the criminal justice processing of sexual abusers suggest that, compared with other violent criminals, slightly fewer are prosecuted, but of those prosecuted, slightly more are convicted. Studies conducted in the 1980s also showed that, once convicted, relatively few sexual abusers receive sentences longer than one year, while 32% to 46% serve no jail time. Overall, there
Bailey, J V; Farquhar, C; Owen, C; Whittaker, D
To provide data about the sexual histories of a large sample of lesbians and bisexual women, to inform those who provide health care or carry out research with women who may be sexually active with other women. Cross sectional survey. 803 lesbians and bisexual women attending, as new patients, lesbian sexual health clinics, and 415 lesbians and bisexual women from a community sample. Self reported sexual history and sexual practice with both male and female partners. 98% of the whole sample gave a history of sexual activity with women, 83% within the past year, with a median of one female partner in that year. 85% of the sample reported sexual activity with men; for most (70%) this was 4 or more years ago. First sexual experience tended to be with a man (median 18 years old), with first sexual experience with a woman a few years later (median 21 years). Oral sex, vaginal penetration with fingers, and mutual masturbation were the most commonly reported sexual practices between women. Vaginal penetration with penis or fingers and mutual masturbation were the most commonly reported sexual activities with men. These data from the largest UK survey of sexual behaviour between women to date demonstrate that lesbians and bisexual women may have varied sexual histories with both male and female partners. A non-judgmental manner and careful sexual history taking without making assumptions should help clinicians to avoid misunderstandings, and to offer appropriate sexual health advice to lesbians and bisexual women.
Shin, Kyoung Min; Chung, Young Ki; Shin, Yee Jin; Kim, Miran; Kim, Nam Hee; Kim, Kyoung Ah; Lee, Hanbyul; Chang, Hyoung Yoon
More than half of all sexual assault victims report experiencing sexual victimization more than once. The aim of this paper was to determine the role post-traumatic cognition plays in the relationship between a history of sexual abuse and post-traumatic stress symptoms in sexual assault victims. The relationship between a history of sexual assault and the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms was investigated retrospectively using data from a sexual assault crisis center in Korea. Data on psychological symptoms were collected in person at the initial assessment and by telephone 1 month later using the Post-traumatic Cognitions Inventory and the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Scale: Self-report Version. Of 105 women included in the analysis, 10 (9.5%) reported prior sexual abuse and were classified as sexually revictimized. Revictimized women had more post-traumatic negative cognition at initial assessment (t = -2.98; P = 0.004) and more post-traumatic symptoms at 1 month follow-up (t = -2.39; P = 0.019) than singly victimized women. At 1 month follow-up, the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms had increased in revictimized women but had decreased slightly in singly victimized women. Negative post-traumatic cognition fully mediated the association between a history of sexual abuse and the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Early detection of sexually revictimized women and tailored service and treatment intervention is needed to better serve this group of victims. Interventions targeted at preventing revictimization or post crime victimization may also help victims recover from the trauma and prevent future abuse. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.
More than half of all sexual assault victims report experiencing sexual victimization more than once. The aim of this paper was to determine the role post-traumatic cognition plays in the relationship between a history of sexual abuse and post-traumatic stress symptoms in sexual assault victims. The relationship between a history of sexual assault and the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms was investigated retrospectively using data from a sexual assault crisis center in Korea. Data on psychological symptoms were collected in person at the initial assessment and by telephone 1 month later using the Post-traumatic Cognitions Inventory and the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Scale: Self-report Version. Of 105 women included in the analysis, 10 (9.5%) reported prior sexual abuse and were classified as sexually revictimized. Revictimized women had more post-traumatic negative cognition at initial assessment (t = −2.98; P = 0.004) and more post-traumatic symptoms at 1 month follow-up (t = −2.39; P = 0.019) than singly victimized women. At 1 month follow-up, the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms had increased in revictimized women but had decreased slightly in singly victimized women. Negative post-traumatic cognition fully mediated the association between a history of sexual abuse and the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Early detection of sexually revictimized women and tailored service and treatment intervention is needed to better serve this group of victims. Interventions targeted at preventing revictimization or post crime victimization may also help victims recover from the trauma and prevent future abuse. PMID:28875614
... physical injury, leave marks, or cause pain. Sexual abuse is any type of sexual contact between an adult and anyone younger than 18; between a significantly older child and a younger child; or if one person ...
Williams, Rachel; Taylor, Janette Y.
This article describes an arts and narrative intervention program using visual art, storytelling, music, journaling, and support groups with incarcerated abused women to address the following questions: How can visual art and music empower incarcerated female survivors of domestic violence? Can art, music, storytelling, journaling, and support…
Baril, Karine; Tourigny, Marc; Paillé, Pierre; Pauzé, Robert
Considering the importance of mother's support in the adaptation of a sexually abused child, it is relevant to determine if the mothers and children involved in an intergenerational cycle of child sexual victimization differ from dyads in which only the child has been abused. The purpose of this study was to compare mother-child dyads with sexually abused children according to whether the mother had herself been victim of child sexual abuse. The sample included 87 dyads with sexually abused children aged 3-18 years old and their mothers (44 reporting maternal and child abuse), followed by social welfare services of the province of Quebec (Canada). The two groups of mothers were compared on their past family abuse experiences and past family relations, their mental health history, their current psychological distress, their parenting behaviors, and their current levels of family functioning. Children were compared on their adaptation. Multivariate analyses indicated that mothers reporting child sexual abuse were more likely to report more other maltreatments in their childhood and greater prevalence of lifetime history of alcohol abuse disorders, dysthymia, and panic disorder compared with mothers who had not experienced CSA. Compared to children whose mothers had not experienced CSA, those whose mothers had experienced CSA showed higher rates of problems behaviors and were more likely to report having been sexually abused by a trusted person. These results highlight the specific clinical needs for the assessment and treatment for sexually abused children whose mothers experienced child sexual abuse.
Wilson, Laura C; Scarpa, Angela
Evidence supports that the majority of young women who experience sexual victimization that meets the legal definition of rape do not label their experiences as rape--this has been termed unacknowledged rape. In a sample of 77 young adult women, the odds of unacknowledged rape significantly increased as a function of less severe child sexual abuse histories and greater levels of dysfunctional personality traits. Potential explanations for these findings as well as clinical implications are discussed. Because of the potential psychological and societal consequences of unacknowledged rape, it is vital that researchers continue to examine this phenomenon.
Vrolijk-Bosschaart, Thekla F; Verlinden, Eva; Langendam, Miranda W; De Smet, Vivienne; Teeuw, Arianne H; Brilleslijper-Kater, Sonja N; Benninga, Marc A; Lindauer, Ramón J L
Children with alleged child sexual abuse (CSA) need to be assessed systematically. The use of validated instruments during the assessment, like the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI), could add diagnostic value. We aim to assess the diagnostic utility of the CSBI to differentiate between sexually abused and non-abused children. We conducted a systematic review. We searched the electronic databases MEDLINE and PsychInfo for studies comparing CSBI scores in sexually abused children and non-abused children (2-12 years old). Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed the methodological quality. We included 7 (out of 1048) articles. The CSBI total scores were significantly higher in CSA-victims compared with non-abused children (in case-control settings). However, in children with suspected CSA, the results were ambiguous. One study reported significant differences. Another study reported weak diagnostic ability for the CSBI-3 in children with suspected CSA (a sensitivity and specificity of 0.50, with a positive predictive value of 0.28, and a negative predictive value of 0.72). Research on the diagnostic utility of the CSBI for suspected CSA is limited and shows disappointing results. Until more research is done, the CSBI should not be used on its own to differentiate between sexually abused and non-abused children.
Full Text Available Child abuse is behavior in which child faces physical, sexual, negligence and emotional abuses. This study’s aimed to investigate relationship between childhood abuse and self-compassion with stress-coping strategies among women. Statistical population included all of married women in Tehran. The sample contains 182 participants who were selected by convenience sampling method entertainment centers, shopping centers, health centers and cultural centers. The data were collected by Mohammad Khani’s self-report questionnaire, Neff's self-compassion scale and coping strategies of Blings and Mous. The findings showed that emotional abuse with mean of 23.54 was the hisgest and physical abuse with mean of 7.87 was the lowest one. Results showed that there is negative relationship between the abuse’s total score and self-compassion’s total score. All physical abuse's subscales, emotional abuse and negligence can predict the self-compassion except sexual abuse. Also none of the abuse subscales can predict the stress-coping methods. The results have shown that the experience of abuse in childhood injury ,can be affected him in adulthood on self-concept and coping responces to stress and problems.
Lia Leão Ciuffo
Full Text Available Objective. Understanding the role of nurses as members of interdisciplinary teams in the care of children with suspected sexual abuse. Methodology. This is a qualitative research based on the sociological phenomenology of Alfred Schutz. In 2008 were interviewed eleven nurses who worked in reference institutions for the care of child victims of sexual abuse in Rio de Janeiro. Results. The category called 'Interacting with other professionals in child care' emerged from the analysis of performance of professionals. The intersubjective relations between the nurses and the interdisciplinary team will enable to understand the intent of care from the perspective of social, emotional and psychological needs of children and their families. Conclusion. Interdisciplinarity favored the development of actions based on acceptance, listening and agreements on possible solutions in the care of children with suspected sexual abuse.
Everson, Mark D.; Faller, Kathleen Coulborn
Developmentally inappropriate sexual behavior has long been viewed as a possible indicator of child sexual abuse. In recent years, however, the utility of sexualized behavior in forensic assessments of alleged child sexual abuse has been seriously challenged. This article addresses a number of the concerns that have been raised about the…
Kwako, Laura E.; Noll, Jennie G.; Putnam, Frank W.; Trickett, Penelope K.
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a recognized risk factor for various negative outcomes in adult survivors and their offspring. We used the Dynamic-Maturational Model of attachment theory as a framework for exploring the impact of maternal CSA on children’s attachment relationships in the context of a longitudinal sample of adult survivors of CSA and non-abused comparison mothers and their children. Results indicated that children of CSA survivors were more likely to have extreme strategies of...
Noll, Jennie G; Shenk, Chad E
Prospectively track teen childbirths in maltreated and nonmaltreated females and test the hypothesis that child maltreatment is an independent predictor of subsequent teen childbirth over and above demographic characteristics and other risk factors. Nulliparous adolescent females (N = 435) aged 14 to 17 years were assessed annually through age 19 years. Maltreated females were referred by Child Protective Services agencies for having experienced substantiated sexual abuse, physical abuse, or neglect within the preceding 12 months. Comparison females were matched on race, family income, age and family constellation. Teen childbirth was assessed via self-report during annual interviews. Births were confirmed using hospital delivery records. Seventy participants gave birth during the study, 54 in the maltreated group and 16 in the comparison group. Maltreated females were twice as likely to experience teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds and known risk factors (odds ratio = 2.17, P = 0.01). Birth rates were highest for sexually abused and neglected females. Sexual abuse and neglect were both independent predictors of teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds, other risk factors and alternative forms of maltreatment occurring earlier in development. Results provide evidence that sexual abuse and neglect are unique predictors of subsequent teen childbirth. Partnerships between protective service providers and teen childbirth prevention strategists hold the best promise for further reducing the US teen birth rate. Additional research illuminating the pathways to teen childbirth for differing forms of maltreatment is needed so that tailored interventions can be realized.
Full Text Available Sally StevensSouthwest Institute for Research on Women (SIROW and Department of Gender and Women’s Studies (GWS, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USAAbstract: Research on the incidence, etiology and substance abuse treatment needs of lesbian, bisexual and transgender (LBT women is limited. Most research indicates higher levels of alcohol and drug abuse among these populations compared to their heterosexual counterparts, with recent research indicating that substance abuse is a particular concern for transgender individuals and an increasing problem among younger LBT individuals. Risk factors and reasons for substance abuse among sexual minority women are similar to those of heterosexual women, yet are substantially complicated by issues of family rejection and lack of social support, stigma and minority stress, as well as abuse and harassment. Historically, substance abuse prevention, early intervention, and clinical treatment programs were designed to meet the needs of the sexual majority population with relatively few programs designed to incorporate the specific needs of sexual minorities. This article reviews findings from previous studies and utilizes new data collected from community-based and residential substance abuse treatment programs to (1 examine issues relevant to LBT women and substance use, and (2 make recommendations for tailoring substance abuse treatment programs to meet the needs of these populations.Keywords: lesbian, bisexual, transgender, substance abuse, family rejection, social support, stigma, minority stress, abuse, harassment
Szalacha, Laura A; Hughes, Tonda L; McNair, Ruth; Loxton, Deborah
We examined the relationships among experiences of interpersonal violence, mental health, and sexual identity in a national sample of young adult women in Australia. We used existing data from the third (2003) wave of young adult women (aged 25-30) in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH). We conducted bivariate analyses and fit multiple and logistic regression models to test experiences of six types of interpersonal violence (physical abuse, severe physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, harassment, and being in a violent relationship), and the number of types of violence experienced, as predictors of mental health. We compared types and number of types of violence across sexual identity subgroups. Experiences of interpersonal violence varied significantly by sexual identity. Controlling for demographic characteristics, compared to exclusively heterosexual women, mainly heterosexual and bisexual women were significantly more likely to report physical, sexual, and emotional abuse. Mainly heterosexual and lesbian women were more likely to report severe physical abuse. Mainly heterosexual women were more than three times as likely to have been in a violent relationship in the past three years, and all three sexual minority subgroups were two to three times as likely to have experienced harassment. Bisexual women reported significantly higher levels of depression than any of the other sexual identity groups and scored lower on mental health than did exclusively heterosexual women. In linear regression models, interpersonal violence strongly predicted poorer mental health for lesbian and bisexual women. Notably, mental health indicators were similar for exclusively heterosexual and sexual minority women who did not report interpersonal violence. Experiencing multiple types of interpersonal violence was the strongest predictor of stress, anxiety and depression. Interpersonal violence is a key contributor to mental health disparities
Christy, Evelyn; Handojo, Priska Febrinia
One of the common problems leading to the sexual abuse is that the child is not aware about it. This project aims to raise children's awareness against sexual abuse through picture book. This picture book use realistic fiction as the genre of my picture book. The purpose is to make the children familiar with the story and can relate it to their life. This picture book uses the narrative theory as the framework of the story. The narrative story is consist of abstract, orientation, complication...
Susan Nicole Rayment-McHugh
Full Text Available Endemic sexual violence and abuse has been observed in a number of specific circumstances, most notably conflict zones, remote and marginalised communities, and religious and state institutions. In this article we examine several documented examples and argue that a similar set of causal processes are at work in all of these otherwise apparently disparate circumstances. Rather than construing the problem as ‘organised’ sexual abuse, we present the problem in terms of the breakdown (or disorganisation of usual individual, situational and ecological constraints.
Paine, Mary L; Hansen, David J
Self-disclosure by victims of child sexual abuse (CSA) is critical to initiate legal and therapeutic intervention. Unfortunately, research indicates that lengthy delays in disclosure and even nondisclosure are common. A comprehensive review of the clinical and research literature on CSA and an overview of related bodies of literature was conducted. Areas addressed include the context of sexual abuse as it relates to disclosure, the context and elements of children's disclosures, motivational factors inhibiting disclosure, and models of the disclosure process. Ancillary and analogue research on secrecy and disclosure are also reviewed. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
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Kwako, Laura E; Noll, Jennie G; Putnam, Frank W; Trickett, Penelope K
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a recognized risk factor for various negative outcomes in adult survivors and their offspring. We used the Dynamic-Maturational Model of attachment theory as a framework for exploring the impact of maternal CSA on children's attachment relationships in the context of a longitudinal sample of adult survivors of CSA and non-abused comparison mothers and their children. Results indicated that children of CSA survivors were more likely to have extreme strategies of attachment than the children of non-abused mothers. However, because both groups were at socioeconomic risk, both were typified by anxious attachment. Explanations for findings and implications for children's development are explored.
Feiring, Candice; Simon, Valerie A.; Cleland, Charles M.
Potential pathways from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to subsequent romantic intimacy problems were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 160 ethnically diverse youth with confirmed CSA histories. Participants were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery, when they were 8-15 years of age, and again 1-6 years later. Stigmatization…
Dodd, Julia; Littleton, Heather
Sexual victimization is associated with risky sexual behaviors. Limited research has examined mechanisms via which victimization affects risk behaviors, particularly following different types of sexual victimization. This study examined self-worth as a mediator of the relationship between sexual victimization history: contact childhood sexual abuse (CSA), completed rape in adolescence/adulthood (adolescent/adulthood sexual assault [ASA]), and combined CSA/ASA, and two sexual risk behaviors: past year partners and one-time encounters. Participants were diverse (57.9% African American), low-income women recruited from an OB-GYN waiting room (n = 646). Women with a history of sexual victimization, 29.8% (n = 186) reported lower self-worth, t(586) = 5.26, p < .001, and more partners, t(612) = 2.45, p < .01, than nonvictims. Self-worth was a significant mediator only among women with combined CSA/ASA histories in both risk behavior models.
Belur, J. S.
Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) has only recently been publicly acknowledged as a problem in India. A welcome development has been the enactment of a special law—Protection of Children against Sexual Offences (POCSO) 2012—criminalising a range of acts including child rape, harassment, and exploitation for pornography. The law mandates setting up of Special Courts to facilitate speedy trials in CSA cases. The paper highlights the intended benefits and the unintended consequences that might arise from...
Haeseler, Lisa Ann
Through this phenomenological case study the author investigates the experience of coping by women in the spectrum of domestic violence abuse. An ecological view of women's coping is critically reviewed. Women of abuse cope with many factors simultaneously in their lives as there are numerous, multifaceted, and diverse issues that comprise and contribute to an abusive situation. Eight providers from four different agencies, two providers per agency, describe the coping experiences of women both in and out of the abusive situation. Study results corroborate with research and demonstrate that women's coping, both in and out of the abusive relationship is unique and complex.
Newton, Alice Whittier; Vandeven, Andrea Marie
It was only 30 years ago that the medical community began to develop an increased awareness of child sexual abuse, and the role of the medical provider in the evaluation of sexually abused children has evolved significantly. As clinicians worldwide develop a greater understanding of the impact of the sexual abuse evaluation on the child, the roles…
Han, In Young; Lee, Yongwoo; Yoo, Seo Koo; Hong, Jun Sung
This study examined the prevalence of and risk factors for sexual abuse of boys in South Korea by asking a national sample of 1,043 adult males whether they had experienced sexual abuse during childhood. The results indicate that 13.5% experienced at least one of the nine types of child sexual abuse assessed. In addition, the majority of the…
Walsh, Wendy A.; Cross, Theodore P.; Jones, Lisa M.
Although the importance of parental support for child sexual abuse victims is well documented, the nature of parental support for victims sexually abused by adolescents is less understood. In this exploratory study, we examine whether parents differ in their levels of blame or doubt for their child when sexually abused by adolescents versus…
Children's picturebooks dealing with the topic of child sexual abuse first appeared in the early 1980s with the aim of addressing the need for age-appropriate texts to teach sexual abuse prevention concepts and to provide support for young children who may be at risk of or have already experienced sexual abuse. Despite the apparent potential of…
Unger, Jo Ann; Norton, G. Ron; De Luca, Rayleen V.
This study explored the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and gender role attitudes. Female university students rated themselves and their parents on gender role attitudes and history of childhood sexual abuse. Traditional participant gender role attitude and social isolation were associated with reporting being sexually abused as a…
Tripp, Margaret M.; Petrie, Trent A.
Tested a model that hypothesized an indirect relationship between sexual abuse and eating disorders, with the effects of sexual abuse being mediated through bodily shame and body disparagement. Surveys of female undergraduate students indicated that 60 percent had been sexually abused, 8 percent had diagnosable eating disorders, and 72.7 percent…
Dorahy, Martin J.; Clearwater, Ken
This study examined the experiences of shame and guilt in adult males sexually abused as children. Seven participants attending a service for male sexual abuse completed measures of shame, guilt, dissociation, and childhood trauma history and subsequently participated in a focus group. All participants experienced childhood sexual abuse in the…
Hunt, Robyn; Walsh, Kerryann
This paper presents the results of a systematic review of literature on the topic of parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education. It describes: i) what parents know about child sexual abuse prevention education; ii) what child sexual abuse prevention messages parents provide to their children and what topics they discuss; iii)…
Garrett, Linda H
While numerous efforts have been made to understand the impact of child sexual abuse, little has been done to examine the childhood experiences of those who abuse children. Child sexual abusers have been studied from quantitative perspectives using behavioral checklists, parental-bonding surveys, and sexual history questionnaires. The purpose of this study was to explore incarcerated child sexual abusers' recollections of their childhood experiences using the descriptive existential lens of phenomenology. Eight incarcerated male child sexual abusers described their childhood from existential perspectives of lived space, lived other, lived body, and lived time via face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Analysis was accomplished through the qualitative, descriptive method of Max van Manen. Rich descriptions of the participants' insights into their daily childhood life experiences that shaped their self-concepts and contributed to their adult behaviors were gathered. Four major themes were identified: (1) failure to root, (2) what you see is what you learn, (3) stupid is as stupid does, and (4) life's moments. Data from this study suggest that the experiences of childhood significantly contribute to an adult self-concept that can be distorted by the lack of a secure home space, maladaptive relationships, internalization of inappropriate behavior, and a lack of significant family development. This study explores the psychosocial and behavioral consequences of early childhood experiences. The findings support the need for family and psychological mental health nurse practitioners to be more aware of early home environments; improve their assessment of children's developing self-concept and the potential for abusive relationships.
Daval-Cote, M; Liberas, S; Tristan, A; Vandenesch, F; Gillet, Y
Vulvovaginitis is the most frequent gynecologic pathology among prepubertal females. An infectious cause is found in 30% of cases and is highly associated with the presence of vaginal discharge upon examination. Neisseria gonorrhoeae may be one of the causative agents. Since N. gonorrhoeae is a common sexually transmitted disease, sexual abuse should be considered in the pediatric setting. We report the case of a 5-year-old girl with N. gonorrhoeae vulvovaginitis. Her previous history, multiple interviews with the patient and her parents, and clinical examination showed no evidence or signs of sexual abuse. Both parents presented gonorrhea, urethritis for the father and vaginitis for the mother. The discrepancy between pediatric evaluation and the presence of a bacterium associated with sexually transmitted disease led us to consider other means of contamination. Previous studies have shown that other routes of transmission are possible but are often neglected. Hence, contamination can be transmitted by the hands or mostly through passive means (towels, rectal thermometer, etc.). Many epidemics have been noted in group settings with young girls with no evidence of sexual transmission. Therefore, we concluded that this patient's infection was likely an accidental transmission within her family. The acknowledgement of these transmission routes is very important in order to avoid misguided suspicion of sexual abuse and the possible traumatic family and psychosocial consequences. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier SAS.
Kalichman, Seth C.; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Benotsch, Eric; Cage, Marjorie; Rompa, David
Childhood sexual abuse is associated with high-risk sexual behavior in men who have sex with men. This study examined psychological and behavioral correlates of HIV risk behavior associated with childhood sexual abuse in a sample of men who have sex with men. Men attending a large gay pride event (N = 647) completed anonymous surveys that assessed…
Melkman, Eran P; Hershkowitz, Irit; Zur, Ronit
A major challenge in cases of child sexual abuse (CSA) is determining the credibility of children's reports. Consequently cases may be misclassified as false or deemed 'no judgment possible'. Based on a large national sample of reports of CSA made in Israel in 2014, the study examines child and event characteristics contributing to the probability that reports of abuse would be judged credible. National data files of all children aged 3-14, who were referred for investigation following suspected victimization of sexual abuse, and had disclosed sexual abuse, were analyzed. Cases were classified as either 'credible' or 'no judgment possible'. The probability of reaching a 'credible' judgment was examined in relation to characteristics of the child (age, gender, cognitive delay, marital status of the parents,) and of the abusive event (abuse severity, frequency, perpetrator-victim relationship, perpetrator's use of grooming, and perpetrator's use of coercion), controlling for investigator's identity at the cluster level of the analysis. Of 1563 cases analyzed, 57.9% were assessed as credible. The most powerful predictors of a credible judgment were older age and absence of a cognitive delay. Reports of children to married parents, who experienced a single abusive event that involved perpetrator's use of grooming, were also more likely to be judged as credible. Rates of credible judgments found are lower than expected suggesting under-identification of truthful reports of CSA. In particular, those cases of severe and multiple abuse involving younger and cognitively delayed children are the ones with the lowest chances of being assessed as credible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
MacIntosh, Judith; Wuest, Judith; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Varcoe, Colleen
Little is known about how patterns of workplace bullying contribute to the negative effects of lifetime violence. Analysis of longitudinal data from a study of women's health after separating from an abusive partner revealed that 76% of 229 women had experienced workplace bullying. Workplace bullying was associated with child sexual abuse, adult sexual assault, and ongoing partner abuse. Timing was critical, with those experiencing past workplace bullying having poorer health and fewer personal and social resources than those experiencing none, ongoing, or past and ongoing bullying. Lifetime sexual harassment (54%) was associated with higher posttraumatic stress disorder symptomology and greater likelihood of leaving workplaces and physical bullying (16%) with poorer health and personal, social, and economic resources. These findings highlight the importance of including bullying in studying lifetime violence.
Gayer-Anderson, Charlotte; Fisher, Helen L; Fearon, Paul; Hutchinson, Gerard; Morgan, Kevin; Dazzan, Paola; Boydell, Jane; Doody, Gillian A; Jones, Peter B; Murray, Robin M; Craig, Thomas K; Morgan, Craig
Childhood adversity (variously defined) is a robust risk factor for psychosis, yet the mitigating effects of social support in adulthood have not yet been explored. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between childhood sexual and physical abuse and adult psychosis, and gender differences in levels of perceived social support. A sample of 202 individuals presenting for the first time to mental health services with psychosis and 266 population-based controls from south-east London and Nottingham, UK, was utilised. The Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire was used to elicit retrospective reports of exposure to childhood adversity, and the Significant Others Questionnaire was completed to collect information on the current size of social networks and perceptions of emotional and practical support. There was evidence of an interaction between severe physical abuse and levels of support (namely, number of significant others; likelihood ratio test χ(2) = 3.90, p = 0.048). When stratified by gender, there were no clear associations between childhood physical or sexual abuse, current social support and odds of psychosis in men. In contrast, for women, the highest odds of psychosis were generally found in those who reported severe abuse and low levels of social support in adulthood. However, tests for interaction by gender did not reach conventional levels of statistical significance. These findings highlight the importance of investigating the potential benefits of social support as a buffer against the development of adult psychosis amongst those, particularly women, with a history of early life stress.
Maree, Jacobus G.; Venter, Cobus J.
This study examined whether life design counselling can enhance the career resilience of a sexual abuse survivor. One participant was selected through purposive sampling. Five life design sessions occurred over a period of three months. Various (postmodern) qualitative and quantitative techniques were used to gather data while data analysis was…
AJRH Managing Editor
as it is commonly perpetrated by close ones including family relations. Victims are left ... The case brings to the fore the problem of child sexual abuse in Nigeria and its attendant sequelae. .... matter was brought to the public domain, she was.
The Child Sexual Abuse Centre at the Paediatric Centre of Excellence,. University ... As a result of its effects, CSA is a psychiatric emergency. .... Primary. 91. 47.4. Preschool. 29. 15.1. Not in School. 6. 3.1. Never been to School. 24. 12.5.
de Jong, R.; Alink, L.; Bijleveld, C.; Finkenauer, C.; Hendriks, J.
There is extensive evidence that childhood sexual abuse (CSA) can have deleterious consequences for adult psychological and physical functioning. The extent to which CSA hampers victims in the fulfillment of adult roles such as marriage, employment, and parenting is less clear. In this review, we
Kuehnle, Kathryn; Connell, Mary
This article addresses what, if any, psychotherapeutic interventions should be provided to meet the emotional and clinical needs of alleged child victims of sexual abuse while they await judicial determinations from the family, dependency, or criminal courts. The discussion emphasizes that to minimize iatrogenic outcomes, professionals involved in…
Cheit, Ross E.; Shavit, Yael; Reiss-Davis, Zachary
This article analyzes trends in the coverage of child sexual abuse in popular magazines since the early 1990s. The article employs systematic analysis to identify and analyze articles in four popular magazines. Articles are analyzed by subject, length, and publication. The results affirm established theories of newsworthiness related to the…
Specifically, females with experience of sexual abuse were found to be more susceptible to develop depression, panic anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorders than unabused females. Thus, parents, and teachers should give the necessary care and protection to female children. Primary bio-psychosocial care services ...
McPherson, Paul; Scribano, Philip; Stevens, Jack
Child sexual abuse (CSA) often requires psychological treatment to address the symptoms of victim trauma. Barriers to entry and completion of counseling services can compromise long-term well-being. An integrated medical and mental health evaluation and treatment model of a child advocacy center (CAC) has the potential to reduce barriers to mental…
Background: Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a global public health concern especially in developed countries and where legal measures take unprecedented time. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of different forms of CSA, and the perceived health consequences among secondary school students in ...
McElroy, Linda Provus
This paper reviews factors in the professional neglect of multiple personality disorder (MPD) and sexual abuse in childhood, as well as recent diagnostic developments in childhood dissociative disorders. The identification of subtle dissociative symptomatology in children is illustrated, and two case examples are presented. (Author)
The aim of the study is to investigate sexual abuse, violence and HIV risk among a sample of South African adolescents. The sample included 400 male and 400 female 16 or 17 year-olds; 400 were from rural and 400 from urban areas, and almost all from African descent. Participants were chosen by multi-stage cluster and ...
Guilt and shame can be traumatic, self-conscious experiences which have an impact on sexually abused adolescents' physical, psychological, social, emotional, moral and religious development. It can determine the adolescents' behaviour, their views of themselves and their interpersonal relationships. Guilt and shame ...
This study reports some baseline findings from a community-based project on the incidence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in two Nigerian urban centres. The study focused on low income, non-elite, occupational groups. Data were generated through in-depth interviews (IDIs), focus group discussions (FGDs), and survey ...
The problem of sexual abuse of children by teachers in the education system is not .... From the chosen 10 classes, 10 participants were selected using simple random sampling. ... idea, there is a danger that the complex power dynamics are overlooked. .... thus become rebellious and belligerent towards teachers or display ...
Full Text Available The UN Secretary-General has issued a strategy tosupport victims of sexual exploitation and abuse by UNstaff. It includes a controversial proposal to introduceDNA sampling for all UN staff. Unless this suggestionis adopted, an important opportunity to implementa truly survivor-centred approach may be lost.
Zhang, Wenjing; Chen, Jingqi; Feng, Yanan; Li, Jingyi; Liu, Chengfeng; Zhao, Xiaoxia
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of a sexual abuse prevention education in a sample of Chinese preschool children in Beijing, China. Method: One hundred and fifty preschool children were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (N = 78) or the wait-list control group (N = 72). Children were posttested on…
Ringa, Virginie; Diter, Kevin; Laborde, Caroline; Bajos, Nathalie
Studies designed in northern countries show that most women are still sexually active after the age of 50. Many factors other than hormones influence sexual life in and after middle age; they include social status, personal characteristics, physical and psychological conditions, relationship factors, and social representations of sexuality. This study aims to analyze various components of sexuality, including its social representations, among women aged 45-55 years, as they reach menopause. Comparison of three groups: all postmenopausal women (277), postmenopausal women not currently using hormonal treatment (HT) (209), postmenopausal women currently using HT (68), with a reference group of premenopausal women (408). All were recruited in a national general population-based survey of sexual behaviors and interviewed by telephone. Practices, sexual function, satisfaction, and representations and expectations concerning sexuality. The women did not differ according to menopausal status for sexual activity, practices (wide range of practices beyond sexual intercourse), dysfunction, or satisfaction. They also attributed equal importance to sexuality. Nevertheless, although postmenopausal women not using HT did not report less sexual activity than premenopausal women, they were less likely to consider that a 3-month period without sex is a sign of difficulty in a relationship (30.3% vs. 47.7%; odds ratio: 0.35 [0.21-0.57], P=0.000). This difference was not observed between postmenopausal women using HT and premenopausal women. Our results suggest that for middle-aged women who are at the onset of menopause, the biological/hormonal changes characterizing menopause do not negatively affect sexual life. Any negative reported effects on sexuality are more likely due to anticipation or negative representations of sexuality around menopause than to biological or hormonal effects. The effect of menopause at this point in women's lives may thus be more symbolic than biological
Cummings, Marissa; Berkowitz, Steven J; Scribano, Philip V
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) involves multiple complex factors that make the evaluation of therapeutic interventions especially complicated. PTSD prevalence rates of CSA are approximately 37 % -53 %. Several other psychiatric sequelae of CSA exist. CSA appears to disrupt brain and body physiology. One co-located service delivery model reported a 52 % linkage rate of CSA survivors with mental health treatment. This article reviews current literature on the treatment of CSA, including psychosocial interventions, pharmacotherapy, and early preventative interventions. It also provides an update on the short- and long-term sequelae of CSA and implications for future research directions. A literature search of papers published in the last 3 years was conducted using the keywords treatment, sexual abuse, childhood, epigenetics, resilience and review, and searching the following databases: PsycInfo, PubMed, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, and Centers for Disease Control.
This article examines an extraordinary cultural transformation in public and private knowledge: the discovery of child sexual abuse. It draws on interviews and focus group discussions conducted over eleven years to explore how dramatic changes in mass media coverage influenced public and personal perceptions of this issue. Focussing on the experiences of women and girls in the UK, my research highlights the media's special role, quite distinct from other cultural resources, in helping to conf...
Kazimierczak, Małgorzata; Sipiński, Adam
At work we took up the matter of sexual harassment of children in the family. We presented the history of incest contacts, reasons, conditions causing incest, the perpetrator, his methods and kinds of his actions.We took into consideration description of victims, physical and psychological symptoms of sexual harassment and its effects. We paid attention to effective methods of prevention of incest behavior, diagnostic actions taken in order to confirm any offence and therapy of victims emphasizing role of health service staff.
Widom, Cathy Spatz; Massey, Christina
Childhood sexual abuse has been assumed to increase the risk for sexual offending. However, despite methodological limitations of prior research, public policies and clinical practice have been based on this assumption. To empirically examine the commonly held belief that sexually abused children grow up to become sexual offenders and specialize in sex crimes. This prospective cohort study and archival records check included cases and control individuals originally from a metropolitan county in the Midwest. Children with substantiated cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect (aged 0-11 years) were matched with children without such histories on the basis of age, sex, race/ethnicity, and approximate family social class (908 cases and 667 control individuals). Both groups were followed up into adulthood (mean age, 51 years). The court cases were from 1967 to 1971; the follow-up extended to 2013. Criminal history information was collected from federal and state law enforcement agency records at 3 points in time and from state sex offender registries. Overall, individuals with histories of childhood abuse and neglect were at increased risk for being arrested for a sex crime compared with control individuals (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.17; 95% CI, 1.38-3.40), controlling for age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Specifically, individuals with histories of physical abuse (AOR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.02-4.16) and neglect (AOR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.39-3.51) were at significantly increased risk for arrest for sex offenses, whereas for sexual abuse, the AOR (2.13; 95% CI, 0.83-5.47) did not reach significance. Physically abused and neglected males (not females) were at increased risk and physically abused males also had a higher mean number of sex crime arrests compared with control individuals. The results did not provide support for sex crime specialization. The widespread belief that sexually abused children are uniquely at risk to become sex offenders was not supported by
Støckel, Jan Toftegaard
of sexual abuse prevalence in a national sample of athletes from recreational, regional competitive level, national and international elite level. Results from the total sample (N=1660) revealed that 5% (N=83) of athletes reported being manipulated or coerced into sexual contact at some time in their lives......, and in five cases the offender was reported to be a coach. Significant gender differences were found as 6.3% of female athletes reported lifetime sexual abuse as opposed to 3% among male athletes. Almost one in three athletes reported to have experienced an intimate relationship with a coach...... reporting to have had experienced an intimate relationship with a coach as an adult had a more positive response regarding the relationship than athletes experiencing the same at 13-17 years of age. Elite athletes had a more critical response to coach-athlete relationships than at other sport levels...
Choi, Myunghan; Belyea, Michael; Phillips, Linda R; Insel, Kathleen; Min, Sung-Kil
Many Korean women are just beginning to recognize that what they considered to be normal treatment is actually domestic violence. Many are becoming more intolerant of the abuse and more likely to desire to leave an abusive relationship. The aim of this study was to test, using the framework of sociostructural and psychological-relational power (PRP), a model of Korean women's propensities to leave their abusive husbands. Multigroup structural equation modeling was used to test relationships between variables chosen from the sociostructural power and PRP to explain intolerance to abuse. Married Korean women (n = 184) who self-identified as being abused physically, psychologically, sexually, or financially participated in the study. The multigroup analysis revealed that the relationship of abuse and Hwa-Byung (a culture-bound syndrome that denotes Korean women's anger) with intolerance was supported for women with low education (defined as having an education of high school or less: power was related to high levels of reported abuse and abuse intolerance. For women in the high-education group (education beyond high school: > or =13 years), high power was related to abuse, Hwa-Byung, and abuse intolerance; age did not influence power. Overall, the multigroup model adequately fitted the sample data (chi2 = 92.057, degree of freedom = 50, p = .000; normal fit index = .926, comparative fix index = .964, root mean square error of approximation = .068, Hoelter's critical number = 152), demonstrating that education is a crucial moderator of Korean women's attitude toward the unacceptability of abuse and propensity to terminate the marriage. This study found support for a model of abuse intolerance using the framework of sociostructural power and PRP, primarily for the low-education group. Hwa-Byung was a mediating factor that contributed to intolerance to abuse in women with low education. This study highlights the importance of understanding the cultural assumptions that
Leander, Else-Marie Buch; Larsen, Per Lindsø; Munk, Karen
This article presents the first research study of guidelines in Danish childcare institutions for protecting children against sexual abuse (CSA), and staff against wrongful allegations of CSA. Worldwide, it represents one of few empirical studies of the unintended consequences of contemporary soc...
Mary W. Kuria
Full Text Available The harmful effects of sexual abuse are long lasting. Sexual abuse when associated with violence is likely to impact negatively on the life of the victim. Anecdotal reports indicate that there was an increase in the number of cases of sexual violence following the 2007 post election conflict and violence in Kenya. Although such increases in sexual abuse are common during war or conflict periods the above reports have not been confirmed through research evidence. The purpose of the current study is to establish the trend in numbers of reported cases of sexual abuse at Kenyatta National Hospital over a 4-year period (2006-2009. Data on sexually abused persons for the year 2006-2009 was retrieved from the hospitals record. A researcher designed questionnaire was used to collect relevant data from the completed Post Rape Care (PRC form. The PRC-Ministry of Health no. 363 (MOH363 form is mandatorily completed by the physician attending the sexually abused patient. There was an increase in the number of cases of sexual abuse reported in 2007 election year in Kenya, with a statistically significant increase in the sexually abused male cases. Sexual crime is more prevalent when there is war or conflict.
Restrepo Martínez, Miguel; Trujillo Numa, Laura; Restrepo Bernal, Diana; Torres de Galvis, Yolanda; Sierra, Gloria
In Colombia, one out of five women between the ages of 15 and 19 years have been pregnant. Almost two-thirds (64%) of these pregnancies were unplanned. To examine the socio-demographic, psychosocial and clinical risk factors associated with adolescent pregnancy. An analytical prevalence study was performed using secondary data from the First Demographic Study of Mental Health in Medellin, Colombia. Female adolescents between 13 and 19 years of age were included in the study. The population was evaluated using the Composite International Diagnosis Interview, a structured interview developed by the World Health Organization, which establishes diagnoses according to the DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria. A sample of 499 female adolescents was obtained, in which 135 adolescent pregnancies were identified, representing a prevalence of 21.5%. The large majority (84.4%) were between 16 and 19 years old. The median age was 17 years, with an interquartile range of 2 years. Almost two-thirds (61.2%) of female adolescents had initiated sexual activity at the age of 15 or later. Almost one-third (31.9%) reported being physically abused during childhood, and 6.7% sexually abused. Of those who were pregnant, 66.7% reported previous sexual abuse. A bivariate analysis showed that sexual abuse (OR=7.68), childhood negligence (OR=4.33), and having a partner (OR=6.31) were factors associated with an adolescent pregnancy. Negligence and sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence can be prevented, and adolescent pregnancies can be decreased. This finding has important implications for clinical management and prognosis, and requires public preventive policies. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Brilleslijper-Kater, S.N.; Friedrich, W.N.; Corwin, D.L.
Age inappropriate sexual behavior is strongly associated with sexual abuse but is also correlated with other factors that often co-occur in the lives of vulnerable children, including physical abuse, domestic violence, excessive life stress, and inappropriate exposure to family sexuality. In
Luis Eduardo Wearick-Silva
Full Text Available Introduction: Recurrent exposure to childhood sexual abuse (CSA seems to be higher among victims of sexual abuse. In this sense, experiences related to sexual violence can perpetuate within the family context itself in various ways. Here, we investigate the association between being exposed to CSA and having a child victim of sexual abuse. Method: We used a sample with 123 mothers, who were divided into 2 groups: one consisting of 41 mothers of sexually abused children and another consisting of 82 mothers of non-sexually abused children. History of exposure to CSA was evaluated by means of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire - Short Form (CTQ and we used a logistic regression model to estimate the prediction values regarding having or not a child exposed to sexual violence. Results: Mothers of sexually abused children had significantly higher scores on CTQ, especially on the sexual abuse subscale (SA. According to our logistic regression model, higher scores on the CTQ significantly predicted the status of being a mother of children exposed to sexual violence in our sample (Wald = 7.074; p = 0.008; Exp(B = 1.681. Years of formal education reduced the likelihood of having a child victim of sexual violence (Wald = 18.994; p = 0.001; Exp(B = 0.497. Conclusion: Our findings highlight the importance of a possible intergenerational effect of sexual abuse. Family intervention and prevention against childhood maltreatment should take this issue in account.
Duberstein Lindberg, Laura; Singh, Susheela
Public policies promoting abstinence until marriage attempt to influence the sexual behavior of the more than 18 million American women who are currently single. An analysis of these women's behavior is needed to inform policies that are responsive to their sexual and reproductive health needs. Sexual behaviors, risk factors and reproductive health needs were examined among a nationally representative sample of 6,493 women aged 20-44 from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth. Paired t tests were used to assess differences among single, married and cohabiting women by selected demographic, behavioral and risk measures. Thirty-six percent of women aged 20-44 are single, and nine in 10 single women are sexually experienced. Seventy percent of the latter women are currently sexually active; on average, they had intercourse in seven of the last 12 months. A higher proportion of single women (22%) than of cohabiting (9%) or married women (2%) have had two or more partners in the past year, and half of single women are at risk of unintended pregnancy. Furthermore, single women and cohabiting women are more likely to lack health insurance than are married women (21-25% vs. 12%). Because of the high level of sexual activity among single adult women, providers must address their reproductive health care needs and offer appropriate counseling and services. Government policies aimed at encouraging adult women to have sex only within marriage appear out of touch with the reality of the sexual behavior of single women.
Weinrich, Sally; Hardin, Sally; Glaser, Dale; Barger, Mary; Bormann, Jill; Lizarraga, Cabiria; Terry, Micheal; Criscenzo, Jeeni; Allard, Carolyn B
Almost 1 out of every 3 homeless women (32%) in the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia has experienced childhood sexual trauma. We assessed lifetime sexual trauma histories among 29 homeless women from three Southern California community sites: one residential safe house and two safe parking areas. More than half of the women (54%) reported a history of sexual trauma. That rate was higher (86%) among women living at the safe home than among women staying at the safe parking sites (only 42%). All four of the women who had served in the military reported having experienced military sexual trauma. The high percentages of sexual trauma found in homeless women highlight the need for effective interventions for sexual trauma.
In this chapter, it will be argued that, even though the legislation from 1930 represents a legally shift in the perception of the younger party under the age of 18 (from accomplice to victim), in practice, norms about gender, age and sexuality continued to play an important role in the police...... system after 1933. Dichotomous stereotypes, such as the “decent girl” (with no sexual experiences) vs. the “immoral adolescent” (sexually experienced girl) and the “seduced adult” (who could not resist the temptation from the immoral adolescent) vs. the “child molester” (who had assaulted an innocent...... child), were, in this respect, shared and used by police authorities and families in the construction of the victim and offender and in attributing the moral responsibility for the crime ¬– despite the fact, that the younger party under the age of 18 couldn’t get punished...
Richman, J A; Rospenda, K M; Nawyn, S J; Flaherty, J A; Fendrich, M; Drum, M L; Johnson, T P
This study hypothesized that interpersonal workplace stressors involving sexual harassment and generalized workplace abuse are highly prevalent and significantly linked with mental health outcomes including symptomatic distress, the use and abuse of alcohol, and other drug use. Employees in 4 university occupational groups (faculty, student, clerical, and service workers; n = 2492) were surveyed by means of a mailed self-report instrument. Cross-tabular and ordinary least squares and logistic regression analyses examined the prevalence of harassment and abuse and their association with mental health status. The data show high rates of harassment and abuse. Among faculty, females were subjected to higher rates; among clerical and service workers, males were subjected to higher rates. Male and female clerical and service workers experienced higher levels of particularly severe mistreatment. Generalized abuse was more prevalent than harassment for all groups. Both harassment and abuse were significantly linked to most mental health outcomes for men and women. Interpersonally abusive workplace dynamics constitute a significant public health problem that merits increased intervention and prevention strategies.
Barata, Paula C; McNally, Mary Jane; Sales, Isabel; Stewart, Donna E
This study examined Portuguese-speaking women's definitions of wife abuse and beliefs about appropriate responses to abuse. The goals were to determine the breadth of definitions and to examine cultural stereotyping. This information was sought in an effort to design education strategies in the Portuguese-speaking community. One-on-one semistructured interviews were conducted with 163 Portuguese-speaking women living in Toronto, Canada. The participants' open-ended answers were first coded using Qualitative Software Research NUDIST and then narrowed and grouped. Responses were then tagged by group label to generate descriptive statistics using Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Participants defined wife abuse broadly with respect to kind, prevalence, and severity. Six themes for abuse emerged: physical, psychological, sexual, financial, patriarchal, and infidelity. Participants provided various responses to what women should do and actually do in response to abuse. Most participants believed that Portuguese-speaking women should leave their husbands and/or seek help for the abuse, but that they actually remain quiet about the abuse and take very little action. Their responses and explanations demonstrate that they hold stereotypes about their culture. The range of definitions reported by participants suggests that a continuum of wife abuse, using Portuguese-speaking women's own words, can be created to educate them about how abusive acts are linked and used to maintain control over women. The differences that emerged with respect to appropriate responses to abuse suggest that it may be important to challenge Portuguese-speaking women about the cultural stereotypes that they hold to help them see patriarchy as widespread rather than particular to their culture.
Easton, Scott D; Renner, Lynette M; O'Leary, Patrick
Men who were sexually abused during childhood are at risk for a variety of long-term mental health problems, including suicidality. However, little is known about which factors are related to recent suicide attempts for this vulnerable, under-researched population. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between abuse severity, mental health, masculine norms and recent suicide attempts among men with histories of child sexual abuse (CSA). We analyzed survey data gathered from a purposive sample of 487 men who were sexually abused during childhood. The age of the sample ranged from 19 to 84 years (μ = 50.4 years). Recent suicide attempts served as the dependent variable in the study. Self-reported measures of sexual abuse severity, child physical abuse, mental health, masculine norms, and demographic information (age, race) represented the independent variables. The results from logistic regression modeling found that five variables - duration of the sexual abuse, use of force during the sexual abuse, high conformity to masculine norms, level of depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation - increased the odds of a suicide attempt in the past 12 months. To improve mental health services for men with histories of CSA, mental health practitioners should incorporate sexual abuse severity, current mental health, and adherence to masculine norms into assessment and treatment planning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lehavot, Keren; Molina, Yamile; Simoni, Jane M
Several studies have demonstrated that lesbian and bisexual women are more likely than heterosexual women to report childhood abuse and adult sexual assault. It is unknown, however, which sexual minority women are most likely to experience such abuse. We recruited adult sexual minority women living in the US through electronic fliers sent to listservs and website groups inviting them to complete an online survey ( N =1,243). We examined differences in both childhood abuse and adult sexual assault by women's current gender identity (i.e., butch , femme , androgynous , or other ) and a continuous measure of gender expression (from butch/masculine to femme/feminine), adjusting for sexual orientation identity, age, education, and income. Results indicated that a more butch/masculine current self-assessment of gender expression, but not gender identity, was associated with more overall reported childhood trauma. Although one aspect of gender expression, a more butch/masculine gender role, was associated with adult sexual assault, feminine appearance and a femme gender identity also significantly predicted adult sexual assault. These findings highlight the significance of gender identity and expression in identifying women at greater risk for various abuse experiences.
Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Taylor, Julie; Kroll, Thilo; Duncan, Fiona
To investigate the dynamics of domestic abuse awareness and recognition among primary healthcare professionals and abused women. Domestic abuse is a serious, public health issue that crosses geographical and demographic boundaries. Health professionals are well placed to recognise and respond to domestic abuse, but empirical evidence suggests that they are reluctant to broach the issue. Moreover, research has shown that women are reluctant to disclose abuse. A two-phase, qualitative study was conducted in Scotland. Twenty-nine primary health professionals (midwives, health visitors and general practitioners) participated in the first phase of the study, and 14 abused women took part in phase two. Data were collected in 2011. Semi-structured, individual interviews were conducted with the health professionals, and three focus groups were facilitated with the abused women. Data were analysed using a framework analysis approach. Differing levels of awareness of the nature and existence of abuse are held by abused women and primary healthcare professionals. Specifically, many women do not identify their experiences as abusive. A conceptual representation of domestic abuse - the "abused women, awareness, recognition and empowerment' framework - arising from the study - presents a new way of capturing the complexity of the disclosure process. Further research is necessary to test and empirically validate the framework, but it has potential pedagogical use for the training and education of health professionals and clinical use with abused women. The framework may be used in clinical practice by nurses and other health professionals to facilitate open discussion between professionals and women. In turn, this may empower women to make choices regarding disclosure and safety planning. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Sexual concordance is defined as the association between genital response and self-reported sexual arousal. Though one might predict a strong association between sexual concordance and awareness of other internal physiological sensations (termed interoception, past research on sexually healthy women has not found these different domains to be related. The aim of the present study was to test the association between interoception and sexual concordance in a clinical sample of women with Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder (SIAD. Fifty-two women with SIAD completed the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA, a validated self-report measure of interoception, and completed a heart-beat accuracy test, an objective measure of interoception. They also participated in a laboratory-based assessment of physiological sexual arousal and self-reported sexual arousal while viewing an erotic film. Mental and physiological arousal were correlated at r = 0.27 (range -0.80 to 0.95. There was no significant association between sexual concordance and women's heartrate awareness. However, five aspects of interoceptive awareness (noticing, emotional awareness, self-regulation, body-listening, and trusting, were predictive of lower, and one aspect (not-distracting was predictive of higher sexual concordance. We discuss the findings in relation to the role of emotions and arousal states in the interoception-sexual concordance relationship.
Green, Harold D., Jr.; Tucker, Joan S.; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P.; Ryan, Gery W.; Zhou, Annie J.
Objective: Childhood abuse has been linked to negative sequelae for women later in life including drug and alcohol use and violence as victim or perpetrator and may also affect the development of women's social networks. Childhood abuse is prevalent among at-risk populations of women (such as the homeless) and thus may have a stronger impact on…
Teitelman, Anne M; Bellamy, Scarlett L; Jemmott, John B; Icard, Larry; O'Leary, Ann; Ali, Samira; Ngwane, Zolani; Makiwane, Monde
Intimate partner violence directed at women by men continues to be a global concern. However, little is known about the factors associated with perpetrating intimate partner violence among heterosexual men. History of childhood sexual abuse and other sociodemographic variables were examined as potential factors associated with severe intimate partner violence perpetration toward women in a sample of heterosexual men in South Africa. Longitudinal logistic generalized estimating equations examined associations of childhood sexual abuse and sociodemographic variables at baseline with intimate partner violence perpetration at subsequent time points. Among participants with a steady female partner, 21.81 % (190/ 871) reported perpetrating intimate partner violence in the past year at baseline. Having a history of childhood sexual abuse (p sexual impulses in order to use a condom (p = .006) at baseline were associated with self-reported intimate partner violence perpetration in the past year at subsequent time points. With high levels of recent severe physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence perpetration in South Africa, comprehensive interventions are urgently needed. To more fully address gender-based violence, it is important to address associated factors, including exposure to childhood sexual abuse that could impact behavior later in life and that have long-lasting and deleterious effects on men and their female partners.
Mazza, Marianna; Harnic, Desiree; Catalano, Valeria; Di Nicola, Marco; Bruschi, Angelo; Bria, Pietro; Daniele, Antonio; Mazza, Salvatore
There is a lack of studies regarding sexuality and sexual behavior in women with bipolar disorder. The aim of this study is to investigate sexual behavior in women affected by bipolar disorder in order to stimulate interest and debate in this area of care. Sixty women (30 BD I and 30 BD II) consent to participate in the study and were included in the sample. Moreover, sixty female healthy subjects without histories of psychiatric disorders were recruited as normal controls. Patients and healthy subjects were given the Sexual Interest and Sexual Performance Questionnaire, a questionnaire devised to explore various aspects of sexual behavior. The results of the present study suggest an increase of sexual interest in patients with BD I as compared both with BD II patients and healthy controls. In women with BD I such increase of interest was detected on some items of section I of the Sexual Interest and Sexual Performance Questionnaire, in particular "Actual Value of Sexuality" and "Implicit Sexual Interest", which implicitly explore sexual interest without overtly focusing upon sexual problems. Moreover, we observed a higher desired frequency of intercourse in women with BD I than BD II and a higher occurrence of repeated sexual intercourse in women with BD I than BD II. The main finding of the present study was an increase of sexual interest in BD I as compared with BD II female patients and normal controls. This result was detected when sexual interest was explored implicitly. Our study is limited by the small size of our subject groups. Further investigations on larger subject samples are needed to better clarify particular aspects of sexual behavior of BD patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Balsam, Kimberly F.; Lehavot, Keren; Beadnell, Blair
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has several deleterious effects on health and well-being, including increased risk for rape in adulthood. Such revictimization experiences are linked to negative mental health outcomes. The vast majority of literature on prevalence and impact of sexual revictimization has focused on heterosexual women. In an effort to…
Botash, A S; Babuts, D; Mitchell, N; O'Hara, M; Lynch, L; Manuel, J
To review the findings of interdisciplinary team evaluations of children who disclosed sexual abuse via facilitated communication. Case series. Tertiary care hospital outpatient child sexual abuse program in central New York. Between January 1990 and March 1993, 13 children who disclosed sexual abuse via facilitated communication and were referred to a university hospital child abuse referral and evaluation center. The range of previously determined developmental diagnosis included mental retardation, speech delay, and autism. None. Medical records were reviewed for (1) disclosure, (2) physical evidence, (3) child's behavioral and medical history, (4) disclosures by siblings, (5) perpetrator's confession, (6) child protective services determinations, and (7) court findings. Four children had evidence of sexual abuse: two had physical findings consistent with sexual abuse, one also disclosed the allegation verbally, and one perpetrator confessed. These results neither support nor refute validation of facilitated communication. However, many children had other evidence of sexual abuse, suggesting that each child's case should be evaluated without bias.
Tumaini M. Nyamhanga
Full Text Available Background: There is a dearth of empirical research illuminating possible connections between gender imbalances and sexual violence among married women in Tanzania. There is a need to generate in-depth information on the connectivity between gender imbalances (asymmetrical resource ownership, sexual decision making, roles, and norms and sexual violence plus associated HIV risky sexual behavior among married women. Design: This paper is based on a qualitative case study that involved use of focus group discussions (FGDs. A thematic analysis approach was used in analyzing the study findings. Results: The study findings are presented under the three structures of gender and power theory. On sexual division of labor, our study found that economic powerlessness exposes women to sexual violence. On sexual division of power, our study found that perception of the man as a more powerful partner in marriage is enhanced by the biased marriage arrangement and alcohol consumption. On cathexis, this study has revealed that because of societal norms and expectations regarding women's sexual behavior characterized by their sexual and emotional attachments to men, women find it hard to leave sexually abusive marriages. That is, because of societal expectations of obedience and compelled tolerance many married women do suffer in silence. They find themselves trapped in marriages that increase their risk of acquiring HIV. Conclusions: This study suggests that married women experience a sexual risk of acquiring HIV that results from non-consensual sex. That non-consensual sex is a function of gender imbalances – ranging from women's economic dependence on their husbands or partners to socioculturally rooted norms and expectations regarding women's sexual behavior. The HIV risk is especially heightened because masculine sexual norms encourage men [husbands/partners] to engage in unprotected intra- and extramarital sex. It is recommended that the Tanzania
Vanesa Galego Carrillo
Full Text Available Emotional regulation through cognitions is directly linked to human life and help people to maintain control on their emotions, both during and after experimenting an stressful event. Exposition to gender violence cause serious health problems related to stress that need the activation of cognitive and behavioral processes to cope with it. WHOWorld Health Organization states that women in maltreatment situation have limitations on self-autonomy (autonomy and independent behavior. For this reason, self-regulation, understood as a mechanic of self-management through cognitions, emotions, mood, impulsive control and executive task may be affected. The main objective of this research is, to know the impact that gender-based violence may result in the use of cognitive emotion regulation strategies. It was an observational cross-over design of two non-equivalent women's groups/samples. A total of 116 women completed adapted versions to Spanish of "Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ”. Of these, 51 were in a situation of abuse. Results show that the greatest differences between being affected or not by abuse reside in “Rumination”, “Acceptance”, “Catastrophizing and blaming others”. These findings contribute to the empirical evidence in the field of gender-based violence and provide key elements for intervention.
Full Text Available Orientation: Globally, women have become an essential part of the mining workforce. Among other jobs, they fulfil management positions, operate heavy machinery and are involved in artisanal mining processes. In South Africa, new mining legislation not only prohibits the exclusion of women but requires from companies to actively change the demographic profile of their workforce. Mining companies are obliged to also employ women in core mining activities. Although well intended, women appointed in core positions work side by side with men, often in isolation, and are frequently at risk of sexual abuse and/or harassment. Research purpose: This research determined perceptions regarding the occurrence of sexual harassment among women working in core mining positions. Motivation for the study: Currently, there is a paucity of published data on the occurrence of sexual harassment in the mining industry. Method: A mixed-method research design was used including quantitative and qualitative research paradigms. Quantitative data were collected by means of a structured questionnaire. Qualitative data were collected by means of individual and group interviews. Main findings: From the literature review and the empirical findings, it is evident that women are still exploited and sexually harassed in the mining industry. Incidents taking place on a daily basis vary from whistling; name calling; use of vulgar or derogatory language; display of body parts; physical contact, ranging from touching to sexual assault and rape; to the exchange of sexual favours for promotion. Practical/managerial implications: It is evident from the research that a holistic approach is required to effectively eradicate sexual harassment in the mining industry, involving the commitment of relevant state departments, human resource managers and labour experts. Contribution: Practical recommendations are made to effectively address sexual harassment in the mining industry.
Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Grimbeek, Peter
Child abuse and neglect, particularly child sexual abuse, is a pastoral care issue that deeply concerns all education professionals. The literature strongly supports specific training for pre-service teachers about child sexual abuse and its mandatory reporting, although few studies identify how such training should be academically structured.…
Dale, Kathryn A.; Alpert, Judith L.
The existence of child sexual abuse within the Catholic Church has shocked many. In this article, the authors review the history of child sexual abuse in the church, the recent events that brought this tragedy into societal consciousness, and the efforts by the church to conceal the abuse. Two sources of empirical literature, the general…
The phenomenon of child sexual abuse has significant implications for teachers' pre-service training and professional development. Teachers have a pedagogical role in dealing with abused children, and a legal and professional duty to report suspected child sexual abuse. Teachers require support and training to develop the specialised knowledge and…
McEachern, Adriana G.
Sexual abuse of individuals with disabilities occurs in alarming proportions, although the prevalence and incidence of such abuse is difficult to determine. Although all states maintain statistics on child sexual abuse, the rate of victimization for individuals with disabilities is not specific. This paper reviews several studies conducted on…
Mejia, Pamela; Cheyne, Andrew; Dorfman, Lori
News media coverage of child sexual abuse can help policymakers and the public understand what must be done to prevent future abuse, but coverage tends to focus on extreme cases. This article presents an analysis of newspaper coverage from 2007 to 2009 to describe how the daily news presents and frames day-to-day stories about child sexual abuse.…
Blakemore, Tamara; Herbert, James Leslie; Arney, Fiona; Parkinson, Samantha
While awareness of institutional child sexual abuse has grown in recent years, there remains limited understanding of its occurrence and outcomes as a distinct form of abuse. Drawing on research commissioned by the Australian Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse, this article presents a rapid review of available evidence on the impacts of institutional abuse on victim/survivors. Literature searches identified 75 sources spanning international peer reviewed work and reports to Government that document or quantify the impacts of mostly historical child sexual abuse occurring in religious, educational, sporting and residential or out-of-home care settings. Consistent with child sexual abuse in other contexts, institutional child sexual abuse is found to be associated with numerous, pervasive and connected impacts upon the psychological, physical, social, educative and economic wellbeing of victims/survivors. Further, institutional child sexual abuse is associated with vicarious trauma at the individual, family and community level, and with impacts to the spiritual wellbeing of victims/survivors of abuse that occurs in religious settings. The identified literature suggests the trauma of institutional child sexual abuse may be exacerbated by the interplay of abuse dynamics in institutional settings, which may reduce or impede circumstances supporting disclosure, belief, support and protection from future harm. Acknowledging the limitations of the present study and the available evidence, this narrative synthesis provides insights into the complex impacts of institutional child sexual abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Molina, Yamile; Simoni, Jane M.
Several studies have demonstrated that lesbian and bisexual women are more likely than heterosexual women to report childhood abuse and adult sexual assault. It is unknown, however, which sexual minority women are most likely to experience such abuse. We recruited adult sexual minority women living in the US through electronic fliers sent to listservs and website groups inviting them to complete an online survey (N=1,243). We examined differences in both childhood abuse and adult sexual assault by women’s current gender identity (i.e., butch, femme, androgynous, or other) and a continuous measure of gender expression (from butch/masculine to femme/feminine), adjusting for sexual orientation identity, age, education, and income. Results indicated that a more butch/masculine current self-assessment of gender expression, but not gender identity, was associated with more overall reported childhood trauma. Although one aspect of gender expression, a more butch/masculine gender role, was associated with adult sexual assault, feminine appearance and a femme gender identity also significantly predicted adult sexual assault. These findings highlight the significance of gender identity and expression in identifying women at greater risk for various abuse experiences. PMID:24003263
Full Text Available This study reports on the core components of the Survivor to Thriver strengths-based group intervention programme for women who experienced childhood sexual abuse. It advocates a balanced approach and draws on an eclectic mix of theories, and has been field tested with two groups of women. An exposition of the philosophical and theoretical underpinnings, a description of the context, the role of the expert companion, outcomes and activities of the programme, evaluation methods and standard of care is provided. Finally, critical reflections on the intervention are discussed as well as limitations and the way forward.
Franco, Alvaro; Ramírez, Luis
In the review of the current literature, the main causing factors of the related conditions with child sexual abuse are the ethical dilemmas and legal implications. A review was conducted on the classic literature on this topic. In this articlesome difficult paradigmatic cases are presented in which the hypothetical dilemmas were solved. The main characteristics of child sexual abuse enable us to have a better argument to address these situations. Taking into account the literature reviewed and predictable courses of action, it is concluded that it is important to take into account each individual each case and its circumstances, and that prudence and clinical objectivity, as well as knowledge of the law, become essential requirements for proper action. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Hurtado, Alicia; Katz, Craig L; Ciro, Dianne; Guttfreund, Daniel; Nosike, Digna
Child sexual abuse (CSA) remains a global health problem that must be addressed. In a country with limited resources such as El Salvador, we sought an alternative way to disseminate CSA prevention information to elementary school children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention exhibit at a children's museum. We asked 189 children to answer a questionnaire about CSA prevention before entering a museum exhibit on the subject and then asked 59 different children to answer the questionnaire after visiting the exhibit. Children's knowledge scores on CSA prevention significantly improved after visiting the exhibit (P School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Alexander, Kamila Anise; Fannin, Ehriel F
To examine sexuality narratives of Black women who have sex with women and men and explore factors that influence their sexual safety and sexual security. Secondary qualitative content analysis. We recruited young self-identified Black women from beauty salons and community-based organizations. Our sample included a subset of five sexually active, Black women age 19 to 25 who reported engaging in sexual relationships with women and men. Participants were selected from a larger parent study that included sexuality narratives from 25 women. We analyzed interview transcripts in which participants described sexual relationships. We used constant comparative techniques and conventional content analysis methodology. We uncovered three themes illustrating influences on sexual safety and sexual security: institutional expectations, emotional connectedness, and sexual behaviors. From this analysis, we derive valuable insights into decision-making processes within sexual relationships from the perspectives of young Black women who have sex with women and men. Clinicians and investigators can use these findings to inform programs designed to improve the sexual health of this often invisible group of women. Nurses are uniquely positioned to support young women as they navigate societal institutions and emotional experiences that inform future sexual decisions and behaviors. © 2014 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Sexual concordance is defined as the association between genital response and self-reported sexual arousal. Though one might predict a strong association between sexual concordance and awareness of other internal physiological sensations (termed interoception), past research on sexually healthy women has not found these different domains to be related. The aim of the present study was to test the association between interoception and sexual concordance in a clinical sample of women with Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder (SIAD). Fifty-two women with SIAD completed the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA), a validated self-report measure of interoception, and completed a heart-beat accuracy test, an objective measure of interoception. They also participated in a laboratory-based assessment of physiological sexual arousal and self-reported sexual arousal while viewing an erotic film. Mental and physiological arousal were correlated at r = 0.27 (range -0.80 to 0.95). There was no significant association between sexual concordance and women’s heartrate awareness. However, five aspects of interoceptive awareness (noticing, emotional awareness, self-regulation, body-listening, and trusting), were predictive of lower, and one aspect (not-distracting) was predictive of higher sexual concordance. We discuss the findings in relation to the role of emotions and arousal states in the interoception-sexual concordance relationship. PMID:29020067
Theimer, Kate; Hansen, David J
Youth who are blamed for their sexual abuse may experience increased negative outcomes, such as amplified self-blame. Similarly, blaming nonoffending parents can impede their ability to support their child following disclosure. Understanding the factors that influence how people perceive victim, caregiver, and perpetrator responsibility is imperative for the protection and treatment of families who have experienced sexual abuse. Little research has explored victim and abuse characteristics that influence the perception of sexual abuse. As such, the purpose of this study was to examine the roles of behavior problems and frequency of abuse in the attribution of blame in a hypothetical sexual abuse case. In addition, the relationship between several respondent characteristics and assignment of responsibility were explored as secondary aims. The study used a two (behavior problems: three suspensions in one school semester vs. no mention of behavior problems) by two (one abuse occurrence vs. five abuse occurrences) between-subjects design. Seven hundred forty-two participants read one of the four child sexual abuse (CSA) vignettes and completed measures related to responsibility. ANOVAs revealed those who read a vignette where the youth experienced multiple abuse incidents rated the victim as more responsible regardless of whether or not the youth was described as having behavior problems. Results indicate that respondents may have attributed more blame to the victim due to the belief that she could have done something to stop the abuse after the first incident. The abuse frequency manipulation when combined with the behavior manipulation appeared to relate to how respondents perceived the victim's parents. Males and younger respondents attributed more blame to the victim; however, sexual abuse or assault history did not associate with victim responsibility ratings. Clinical and research implications were discussed.
Costa, Eleonora C V; Guimarães, Sara; Ferreira, Domingos; Pereira, M Graça
This study examined if abuse during childhood, rape in adulthood, and loss of resources predict a woman's probability of reporting symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and whether resource loss moderates the association between reporting childhood abuse and PTSD symptoms. The sample included 767 women and was collected in publicly funded primary-care settings. Women who reported having been abused during childhood also reported more resource loss, more acute PTSD symptoms, and having suffered more adult rape than those who reported no childhood abuse. Hierarchical logistic regression yielded a two-variable additive model in which child abuse and adult rape predict the probability of reporting or not any PTSD symptoms, explaining 59.7% of the variance. Women abused as children were 1 to 2 times more likely to report PTSD symptoms, with sexual abuse during childhood contributing most strongly to this result. Similarly, women reporting adult rape were almost twice as likely to report symptoms of PTSD as those not reporting it. Resource loss was unexpectedly not among the predictors but a moderation analysis showed that such loss moderated the association between child abuse and current PTSD symptoms, with resource loss increasing the number and severity of PTSD symptoms in women who also reported childhood abuse. The findings highlight the importance of early assessment and intervention in providing mental health care to abused, neglected, and impoverished women to help them prevent and reverse resource loss and revictimization.
Estévez, Ana; Jauregui, Paula; Ozerinjauregi, Nagore; Herrero-Fernández, David
Child abuse affects people's ways of thinking, feeling, and observing the world, resulting in dysfunctional beliefs and maladaptive schemas. Thus, consequences of child abuse may persist during adulthood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the psychological consequences (anxiety, phobic anxiety, depression, and hopelessness) of different types of maltreatment (physical, sexual, and emotional abuse and physical and emotional neglect) and to study the role of early maladaptive schemas in the onset of symptomatology in adult female victims of child abuse. The sample consisted of 75 women referred by associations for treatment of abuse and maltreatment in childhood. Sexual abuse was the type of maltreatment that was most strongly related to most dysfunctional symptomatology, followed by emotional abuse and physical abuse, whereas physical neglect was the least related. Also, early maladaptive schemas were found to correlate with child abuse and dysfunctional symptomatology. Finally, early maladaptive schemas mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and dysfunctional symptomatology when the effect of other types of abuse was controlled. These results may provide important guidance for clinical intervention.
Lindsay, W.; Steptoe, L.; Haut, F.
Background: Some studies have found higher rates of childhood sexual abuse in sex offenders while others have failed to find such relationships. Method: This study reviews the sexual and physical abuse histories of 156 male sex offenders with intellectual disability (ID), 126 non-sexual male offenders with ID and 27 female offenders with ID.…
Wurtele, Sandy K.
Child sexual abuse is a widespread social problem that negatively affects victims, families, communities, and society. This article briefly describes the scope and consequences of child sexual abuse and briefly critiques child-focused personal safety educational programs designed to prevent sexual victimization. The final section offers…
O'Dougherty Wright, Margaret; Fopma-Loy, Joan; Oberle, Katherine
This article reviews past research on the parenting characteristics of childhood sexual abuse survivors and presents the results of a qualitative study exploring the women's perspectives on mothering as a survivor. Grounded theory was used in the collection and analysis of the data. Data sources included the narrative responses of 79 women (mean age = 38.2 years) and in-depth interviews of a purposive sample of 15 women (mean age = 39 years). They had an average of 2.2 children, ranging in age from 5 months to young adulthood. The theoretical model identified through analysis of data using the constant comparison method was entitled "The Hard Work of Mothering as a Survivor." Processes emerged that described the ways participants managed the work of mothering in light of memories of the abuse and attempts to heal from this earlier trauma. The conditions for committing to the work included becoming aware of and accepting the reality of the abuse and how it affected one's life, and taking on the hard work of developing a mothering self. This included expanding awareness, developing and evaluating a personal model of mothering, navigating typical and abuse salient parenting challenges, mothering through the pain of recovery, and battling for balance. The findings highlighted the dynamic, multifaceted nature of recovery and resilience for these mothers and the need for an increased focus on parenting in counseling with childhood sexual abuse survivors. Provision of anticipatory guidance regarding commonly experienced stressors at varying stages of the child's development and the mother's stage of recovery and methods for coping with these challenges, would benefit these mothers and promote parenting competence. Specific implications for psychotherapy and directions for future research are discussed.
Vegunta, Suneela; Kuhle, Carol; Kling, Juliana M; Files, Julia A; Kapoor, Ekta; David, Paru S; Rullo, Jordan; Sood, Richa; Thielen, Jacqueline M; Jatoi, Aminah; Schroeder, Darrell R; Faubion, Stephanie S
The aim of the study was to determine whether there is an association between current menopausal symptom bother and a history of abuse (physical, sexual, or emotional/verbal) in the last year. A cross-sectional survey was completed using the Data Registry on Experiences of Aging, Menopause, and Sexuality and the Menopause Health Questionnaire. Data from the Menopause Health Questionnaire were collected from 4,956 women seen consecutively for menopause consultation in the Women's Health Clinic at Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN) from January 1, 2006 through October 7, 2014. Data from 3,740 women were included in the analysis. Menopausal symptom ratings were compared between women reporting a history of abuse (physical, sexual, or emotional/verbal) in the last year and those not using a two-sample t test. Analysis of covariance was used to assess whether abuse was associated with menopausal symptom bother after adjusting for baseline participant characteristics. Of the 3,740 women, 253 (6.8%) reported experiencing one or more forms of abuse in the last year, the majority (96%) of which was verbal/emotional abuse. Those reporting abuse in the last year had higher (P menopausal symptom bother scores. Consistent findings were obtained from multivariable analyses adjusting for all demographic and substance use characteristics. In the present study from the Data Registry on Experiences of Aging, Menopause, and Sexuality, menopausal symptom bother scores were directly associated with recent self-reported abuse.
Mian, Marcellina; And Others
The authors present a chart review of 125 children referred in 1981-1983 because of sexual abuse. Among findings were that 60 percent were victims of intrafamilial abuse. Of the preschoolers, 72.5 percent were victims of intrafamilial abuse. At school age there was a reversal with 73 percent of 6-year-olds being abused by extrafamilial offenders.…
Ullman, Sarah E.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.; Filipas, Henrietta H.
This study examined the unique effects of child sexual abuse simultaneously with post-traumatic stress disorder symptom clusters, problem drinking, and illicit drug use in relation to sexual revictimization in a community sample of female adult sexual assault victims. Participants (N = 555) completed two surveys a year apart. Child sexual abuse…
Santos, Samara Silva dos; Dell'Aglio, Débora Dalbosco
A literatura tem indicado que mães de crianças vítimas de abuso sexual, ao tomarem conhecimento da situação de abuso de suas filhas, podem apresentar uma variedade de manifestações, que podem incluir ansiedade, depressão e estresse pós-traumático. Além disso, a reação frente à revelação pode ser de apoio e proteção ou, ainda, de evitação, indiferença ou ambivalência. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar como mães de meninas abusadas sexualmente reagiram quando tomaram conhecimento do abu...
Trickett, Penelope K; Noll, Jennie G; Susman, Elizabeth J; Shenk, Chad E; Putnam, Frank W
Inconsistencies exist in literature examining hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in children and adults who have experienced childhood abuse. Hence, the extent and manner to which childhood abuse may disrupt HPA axis development is largely unknown. To address these inconsistencies, the developmental course of nonstress cortisol in a long-term longitudinal study was assessed at six time points from childhood through adolescence and into young adulthood to determine whether childhood abuse results in disrupted cortisol activity. Nonstress, morning cortisol was measured in 84 females with confirmed familial sexual abuse and 89 nonabused, comparison females. Although dynamically controlling for co-occurring depression and anxiety, hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) showed that relative to comparison females, the linear trend for abused females was significantly less steep when cortisol was examined across development from age 6 to age 30, t (1, 180) = -2.55, p cortisol activity starting in adolescence with significantly lower levels of cortisol by early adulthood, F (1, 162) = 4.78, p cortisol activity was initially significantly higher, t (1, 425) = 2.18, p cortisol hyposecretion subsequent to a period of heightened secretion.
Full Text Available Even though sexual problems and sexual dysfunction are commonly observed in the society, a significant majority of the problems are not reported to the doctors, and due to this fact, remain unaddressed. In our country, the studies about sexual dysfunction are limited in number but in recent years there has been an increase in these studies. The ratio of sexual dysfunction is higher in women than the ratio in men (43%; 31%. However, there are few treatment modality about women sexual dysfunction. Most commonly observed sexual dysfunctions in women are loss of sexual interest/desire, sexual arousal dysfunctions, orgasm dysfunctions, dyspareunia, vaginismus and sexual anxiety. In DSM-IV-TR, sexual dysfunction is treated by taking stress and interfamily relation problems into consideration. According to WHO’s definition, sexual health refers the combination of physical, emotional, intellectual and social sexual existense with the techniques that would increase personality communication and love. Sexual problems damage this combination, and cause pyschological and social problems. J Clin Exp Invest 2010; 1(3: 235-240
Azar, Mathilde; Kroll, Thilo; Bradbury-Jones, Caroline
This study explores the meanings middle-aged Lebanese women attribute to sexuality and sexual life and how these constructs are shaped socially, culturally, and politically. Using a qualitative design, data generation comprised semistructured individual interviews (n = 18) and one focus group (n = 5) with Lebanese women aged 40-55 years. Framework analysis was used for data analysis. Inductive analysis identified four themes: Sexuality as imposed by sociocultural and gender norms; sexuality as a symbol of youthful femininity; sexual life as a fundamental human need; and sexual life as a marital unifier and family stabiliser. Findings show that women's sexual self is largely defined based on men's needs. Women sacrifice themselves to maintain family cohesiveness, which they regard as the core of society. However, some women challenged social norms and therefore bringing new meanings to their sexuality. This study offers new contextual information about the understanding of sexuality of middle-aged women within a Lebanese context, where the topic is not openly discussed. New insights are important to provide women with professional support that is culturally sensitive and appropriate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cook, D J; Liutkus, J F; Risdon, C L; Griffith, L E; Guyatt, G H; Walter, S D
To assess the prevalence of psychological abuse, physical assault, and discrimination on the basis of gender and sexual orientation, and to examine the prevalence and impact of sexual harassment in residency training programs. Self-administered questionnaire. McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont. Residents in seven residency training programs during the academic year from July 1993 to June 1994. Of 225 residents 186 (82.7%) returned a completed questionnaire, and 50% of the respondents were women. Prevalence of psychological abuse, physical assault and discrimination on the basis of gender and sexual orientation experienced by residents during medical training, prevalence and residents' perceived frequency of sexual harassment. Psychological abuse was reported by 50% of the residents. Some of the respondents reported physical assault, mostly by patients and their family members (14.7% reported assaults by male patients and family members, 9.8% reported assaults by female patients and family members), 5.4% of the female respondents reported assault by male supervising physicians. Discrimination on the basis of gender was reported to be common and was experienced significantly more often by female residents than by male residents (p sexual orientation. Most of the respondents experienced sexual harassment, especially in the form of sexist jokes, flirtation and unwanted compliments on their dress or figure. On average, 40% of the respondents, especially women (p sexual harassment to someone (p sexual harassment were embarassment (reported by 24.0%), anger (by 23.4%) and frustration (20.8%). Psychological abuse, discrimination on the basis of gender and sexual harassment are commonly experienced by residents in training programs. A direct, progressive, multidisciplinary approach is needed to label and address these problems.
Chan, Lai Fong; Maniam, T; Saini, Suriati Mohamed; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Loh, Sit Fong; Sinniah, Aishvarya; Idris, Zawaha Haji; Che Rus, Sulaiman; Hassan Nudin, Siti Sa'adiah; Tan, Susan Mooi Koon
The aim of this study was to determine the association between sexual abuse, substance abuse and socio-demographic factors with suicidal ideation (SI), plans (SP) and deliberate self-harm (DSH) and propose steps to prevent youth suicidal behavior. This was a cross-sectional study of 6786 adolescents aged 17-18 years, selected randomly from all Malaysian adolescents to undergo compulsory youth camps located in Selangor, Malaysia (2008-2009). Participants were assessed using self-administered questionnaires developed to reflect the local cultural setting. However, only 4581 subjects were analyzed after excluding incomplete data. The rates of SI, SP and DSH were 7.6%, 3.2% and 6.3%, respectively. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio showed that sexual abuse was associated with SI 1.99 (95% CI: 1.56-2.55), SP 1.57 (95% CI: 1.09-2.27) and DSH 2.26 (95% CI: 1.75-2.94); illicit drug use was associated with SI 4.05 (95% CI: 2.14-7.67), SP 2.62 (95% CI: 1.05-6.53) and DSH 2.06, (95% CI: 1.05-4.04); for alcohol use DSH was 1.34 (95% CI: 1.00-1.79). Being female was associated with all suicidal behaviors: SI 2.51 (95% CI: 1.91-3.30), SP 2.07 (95% CI: 1.39-3.08) and DSH 1.59 (95% CI: 1.19-2.11). Given the well-founded concern of increasing risk of suicidal behavior among youth, preventive efforts should adopt a more comprehensive approach in dealing with sexual abuse and substance abuse, and their sequelae, especially in girls. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Background Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) remains a critical public health issue among black and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM), as it is associated with multiple negative outcomes including substance misuse, poor mental health, revictimization, and high-risk sexual behavior. Most CSA research with MSM relies on quantitative assessment that often precludes consideration of cultural variations in how formative sexual experiences are understood and is based on inconsistent or overly restrictive definitions of abuse, and therefore may fail to detect certain abusive experiences (eg, those involving female perpetrators), which can have harmful health consequences if they remain unrecognized. Objective The objective of this study is to overcome existing limitations in the literature by drawing on perspectives of black and Latino MSM and men who have sex with men and women (MSMW), as well as relevant service providers to better understand the role of, and the need to include, sexual abuse histories (eg, CSA) in treatment and counseling settings, with the long-term goal of improving assessment and health outcomes. Methods We will conduct mixed-methods interviews, framed by an intersectionality approach, with 80 black and Latino men (40 MSM and 40 MSMW) in New York City (NYC), exploring appraisals of their formative sexual experiences, including those described as consensual but meeting criteria for CSA. We will also interview 30 local service providers representing substance abuse treatment, mental health care, and HIV prevention and outreach. Results The study was launched in May 2017. Conclusions This formative research will inform testable approaches to assessing and incorporating sexual abuse history into substance abuse treatment and other health and mental health services used by men with such histories. PMID:29483063
Lopez, Felix; And Others
The prevalence and effects of child sexual abuse in Spain were studied, using interview and survey responses from 1,821 individuals. Results indicated a high prevalence of sexual abuse prior to age 17 (15 percent of males and 22 percent of females) and a number of short-term and long-term effects, including a tendency toward mental health…
International research has commented on social stigma as a key reason for nondisclosure of child sexual abuse. However, the actual components of this social stigma frequently remain unexplored. The present study deals with perceptions of consequences of child sexual abuse among professionals and laypeople in Ghana (N = 44), employing a bystander perspective. As a qualitative study using a grounded theory framework, it considers these consequences in light of their underlying beliefs about child and adolescent development, particularly in relation to gender-based expectations placed on girls and boys. Consequences of child sexual abuse could be divided into sexual health consequences, beliefs about "destroyed innocence" and beliefs about a "destroyed future," which were strongly related to the sexual nature of the violence perpetrated. These perceived consequences of child sexual abuse hold implications for what surviving child sexual abuse means on a social level. Implications for practice are discussed on the basis of the data analysis.
Does the impact of child sexual abuse differ from maltreated but non-sexually abused children? A prospective examination of the impact of child sexual abuse on internalizing and externalizing behavior problems.
Lewis, Terri; McElroy, Erika; Harlaar, Nicole; Runyan, Desmond
Child sexual abuse (CSA) continues to be a significant problem with significant short and long term consequences. However, extant literature is limited by the reliance on retrospective recall of adult samples, single-time assessments, and lack of longitudinal data during the childhood and adolescent years. The purpose of this study was to compare internalizing and externalizing behavior problems of those with a history of sexual abuse to those with a history of maltreatment, but not sexual abuse. We examined whether gender moderated problems over time. Data were drawn from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) at ages 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 (N=977). The Child Behavior Checklist was used to assess internalizing and externalizing problems. Maltreatment history and types were obtained from official Child Protective Services (CPS) records. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to assess behavior problems over time by maltreatment group. Findings indicated significantly more problems in the CSA group than the maltreated group without CSA over time. Internalizing problems were higher for sexually abused boys compared to girls. For sexually abused girls internalizing problems, but not externalizing problems increased with age relative to boys. This pattern was similar among maltreated but not sexually abused youth. Further efforts are needed to examine the psychological effects of maltreatment, particularly CSA longitudinally as well as better understand possible gender differences in order to best guide treatment efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Saxena, Preeta; Messina, Nena; Grella, Christine E
This study explores outcome variation among women offenders who participated in gender-responsive substance abuse treatment (GRT). In order to identify subgroups of participants that may differentially benefit from this treatment, secondary analyses examined the interaction between randomization into GRT and a history of abuse (physical/sexual) on depression and number of substances used post- treatment. The sample consisted of 115 incarcerated women assessed at baseline and 6- and 12-months post parole. Longitudinal regression showed that women reporting abuse randomized into GRT had significantly reduced odds of depression ( OR = .29, p < .05, 95% CI = .10 - .86) and lowered rates of number of substances used ( IRR = .52, p < .05, 95% CI = 0.28-0.98), in comparison to those who reported abuse and were randomized to the non-GRT group. GRT for women offenders who have experienced prior abuse would maximize the benefits of the trauma-informed, gender-sensitive intervention.
Bramsen, Rikke H; Lasgaard, Mathias; Koss, Mary P; Shevlin, Mark; Elklit, Ask; Banner, Jytte
The present study modeled the direct relationship between child sexual abuse (CSA) and adolescent peer-to-peer sexual victimization (APSV) and the mediated effect via variables representing the number of sexual partners, sexual risk behavior, and signaling sexual boundaries. A cross-sectional study on the effect of CSA on APSV was conducted, utilizing a multiple mediator model. Mediated and direct effects in the model were estimated employing Mplus using bootstrapped percentile based confidence intervals to test for significance of mediated effects. The study employed 327 Danish female adolescents with a mean age of 14.9 years (SD = 0.5). The estimates from the mediational model indicated full mediation of the effect of CSA on APSV via number of sexual partners and sexual risk behavior. The current study suggests that the link between CSA and APSV was mediated by sexual behaviors specifically pertaining to situations of social peer interaction, rather than directly on prior experiences of sexual victimization. The present study identifies a modifiable target area for intervention to reduce adolescent sexual revictimization. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.
Stanton, Amelia M; Boyd, Ryan L; Pulverman, Carey S; Meston, Cindy M
The meaning extraction method (MEM), an advanced computerized text analysis technique, was used to analyze women's sexual self-schemas. Participants (n=239) completed open-ended essays about their personal feelings associated with sex and sexuality. These essays were analyzed using the MEM, a procedure designed to extract common themes from natural language. Using the MEM procedure, we extracted seven unique themes germane to sexual self-schemas: family and development, virginity, abuse, relationship, sexual activity, attraction, and existentialism. Each of these themes is comprised of frequently used words across the participants' descriptions of their sexual selves. Significant differences in sexual self-schemas were observed to covary with age, relationship status, and sexual abuse history. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zerubavel, Noga; Messman-Moore, Terri L
The current study examined sexual victimization and two barriers to young women's sexual assertiveness: fear of sexual powerlessness and cognitive emotion dysregulation. College women (N = 499) responded to surveys and indicated that fear of sexual powerlessness and, to a lesser extent, cognitive emotion dysregulation were barriers to sexual assertiveness. Compared with nonvictims, sexually victimized women had greater problems with sexual assertiveness, fear of sexual powerlessness, and cognitive emotion dysregulation. Among victims, fear of sexual powerlessness and emotion dysregulation interacted to impede sexual assertiveness. Findings support targeting identified barriers in interventions to improve sexual assertiveness and reduce risk for unwanted sexual experiences and sexual victimization.
Fong, Hiu-Fai; Bennett, Colleen E; Mondestin, Valerie; Scribano, Philip V; Mollen, Cynthia; Wood, Joanne N
In this qualitative study with nonoffending caregivers of suspected child sexual abuse victims, we aimed to explore the perceived impact of sexual abuse discovery on caregivers and their families, and caregivers' attitudes about mental health services for themselves. We conducted semistructured, in-person interviews with 22 nonoffending caregivers of suspected sexual abuse victims <13 years old seen at a child advocacy center in Philadelphia. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed using modified grounded theory. Recruitment continued until thematic saturation was reached. We found that caregivers experienced significant emotional and psychological distress, characterized by anger, depressed mood, and guilt, after learning that their child may have been sexually abused. We identified four specific sources of caregiver distress: concerns about their child, negative beliefs about their parenting abilities, family members' actions and behaviors, and memories of their own past maltreatment experiences. Some caregivers described worsening family relationships after discovery of their child's sexual abuse, while others reported increased family cohesion. Finally, we found that most caregivers in this study believed that mental health services for themselves were necessary or beneficial to help them cope with the impact of their child's sexual abuse. These results highlight the need for professionals working with families affected by sexual abuse to assess the emotional and psychological needs of nonoffending caregivers and offer mental health services. Helping caregivers link to mental health services, tailored to their unique needs after sexual abuse discovery, may be an acceptable strategy to improve caregiver and child outcomes after sexual abuse.
Resnick, Heidi S.; Acierno, Ron; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Self-Brown, Shannon
Sexual assault and rape routinely produce extreme distress and negative psychological reactions in victims. Further, past research suggests that victims are at increased risk of developing substance use or abuse post-rape in efforts to ameliorate post assault distress. The post-rape forensic medical exam may itself exacerbate peritraumatic distress because it includes cues that may serve as reminders of the assault, thereby potentiating post-assault negative sequelae. To address this problem, a two-part video intervention was developed to take advantage of the existing sexual assault forensic exam infrastructure, and to specifically (a) minimize anxiety/discomfort during forensic examinations, thereby reducing risk of future emotional problems, and (b) prevent increased substance use and abuse following sexual assault. Updated findings with a sample of 268 sexual assault victims participating in the forensic medical exam and completing one or more follow-up assessments at: (1) video was associated with significantly lower frequency of marijuana use at each time point, among women who reported use prior to the assault. PMID:17275198
Ompad, Danielle C.; Ikeda, Robin M.; Shah, Nina; Fuller, Crystal M.; Bailey, Susan; Morse, Edward; Kerndt, Peter; Maslow, Carey; Wu, Yingfeng; Vlahov, David; Garfein, Richard; Strathdee, Steffanie A.
Objectives. We examined the relation between childhood sexual abuse and injection drug use initiation among young adult injection drug users. Methods. We used mixed effect linear models to compare age at first injection among 2143 young injection drug users by first sexual abuse age categories. Results. The participants were predominantly male (63.3%) and White (52.8%). Mean age and age at first injection were 23.7 and 19.6 years, respectively; 307 participants (14.3%) reported childhood sexual abuse. After adjustment for gender, race/ethnicity, noninjection drug use before first injection drug use, and recruitment site, childhood sexual abuse was independently associated with younger age at first injection. Conclusions. Childhood sexual abuse was associated with earlier initiation of injection drug use. These data emphasize the need to integrate substance abuse prevention with postvictimization services for children and adolescents. PMID:15798133
Wadsworth, Pamela; Records, Kathie
To review the research findings for mental and physical health outcomes and health behaviors of African American women and adolescents after sexual assault. Searches of the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, and PubMed from January 2001 through May 2012 using the terms Blacks, African Americans, sexual abuse, sexual offenses, and rape. Criteria for inclusion included (a) results of primary research conducted in the United States and published in English, (b) African American females age 13 and older, (c) sexual assault or sexual abuse reported as distinct from other types of abuse, and (d) health status as an outcome variable. Twenty-one publications met inclusion criteria. Articles were reviewed for the mental and physical health and health behavior outcomes associated with sexual assault of African American women and adolescents. Sexual assault was associated with increased risk of poor mental and physical health outcomes in the general population of women and adolescents. There was an increased risk of unhealthy behaviors (e.g., drinking, drug use, risky sexual behaviors) for all women and adolescents, with the highest risk reported for African American women and adolescents. Help seeking from family and friends demonstrated conflicting results. Cumulative effects of repeated assaults appear to worsen health outcomes. Sexual assault has significant effects on the physical and mental health and health behaviors of women and adolescents in the general population. Less evidence is available for differences among African American women and adolescents. More research is needed to understand the influence of race on women's and adolescents' responses to assault. © 2013 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Pyra, Maria; Weber, Kathleen; Wilson, Tracey E; Cohen, Jennifer; Murchison, Lynn; Goparaju, Lakshmi; Cohen, Mardge H
Sexual minority women with and at-risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may face increased risks of violence. To understand the relationship between sexual minority status and violence; and how high-risk sex and substance use mediate that relationship among women with and at-risk for HIV. Longitudinal study of 1,235 HIV infected and 508 uninfected women of the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) cohort, from New York City, NY, Chicago, IL, Washington D.C., and San Francisco, CA, 1994-2012. Primary exposures are sexual identity (heterosexual, bisexual, lesbian/gay) and sexual behavior (male, female, or male & female partners). Primary outcomes are sexual abuse, intimate partner violence (IPV) and physical violence; high-risk sex and substance use were examined as mediators. Bisexual women were at increased odds for sexual abuse [aOR 1.56 (1.00, 2.44)], IPV [aOR 1.50 (1.08, 2.09)], and physical violence [aOR 1.77 (1.33, 2.37)] compared to heterosexual women. In a separate analysis, women who reported sex with men and women (WSMW) had increased odds for sexual abuse [aOR 1.65 (0.99, 2.77], IPV [aOR 1.50 (1.09, 2.06)] and physical violence [aOR 2.24 (1.69, 2.98)] compared to women having sex only with men (WSM). Using indirect effects, multiple sex partners, cocaine and marijuana were significant mediators for most forms of abuse. Transactional sex was only a mediator for bisexual women. Women who reported sex only with women (WSW) had lower odds of sexual abuse [aOR 0.23 (0.06, 0.89)] and physical violence [aOR 0.42 (0.21, 0.85)] compared to WSM. Women who identify as bisexual or report both male and female sex partners are most vulnerable to violence; multiple recent sex partners, transactional sex and some types of substance use mediate this relationship. Acknowledging sexual identity and behavior, while addressing substance use and high-risk sex in clinical and psychosocial settings, may help reduce violence exposure among women with and at-risk for HIV.
Dong, Maxia; Anda, Robert F.; Dube, Shanta R.; Giles, Wayne H.; Felitti, Vincent J.
This retrospective cohort study assessed the relationship of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to other categories of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), such as childhood abuse, neglect, and parental separation/divorce. Adults reporting CSA experienced a 1.6- to 3.4-fold greater likelihood of experience each category of ACE. The ACE score was also…
Feiring, Candice; Cleland, Charles M.; Simon, Valerie A.
Potential pathways from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to negative self-schemas to subsequent dissociative symptoms and low global self-esteem were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 160 ethnically diverse youth with confirmed CSA histories. Participants were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery, when they were 8 to 15 years of…
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of infertility on sexual distress in women attending the infertility clinic. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study we evaluated sexual distress among 88 women who attended the infertility clinic in our institute between January and June 2015. All women who were experiencing primary or secondary infertility during the study sampling were included in the sudy. Sexual distress was measured using the Female sexual distress scale-revised (FSDS-R, a cross-validated patient-reported outcomes measure. Correlations of FSDS-R with patient characteristics and laboratory measurements were calculated using Spearman’s rank correlation tests. Results: With the exceptions of the age of couples and serum anti-mullerian hormone (AMH levels, no predictor of high sexual distress was found in the univariate analysis when comparing groups with regard to the FSDS-R cut-off score. The mean age of the sexually distressed women (33.6±5.8 years vs. 29.3±5.1 years and their partners (35.4±4.8 years vs. 31.6±4.2 years was significantly higher than those of the non distressed women, according to a FSDS-R score over 11 (p<0.05. The serum level of AMH was significantly lower in infertile women with high total sexual distress scores (1.4 vs. 7.6 ng/mL (p<0.001. Conclusion: In infertile women, age of woman, age of partner, and serum AMH levels are related with the hope of women to have a child despite an association with sexual distress. Serum AMH, which is perceived as necessary for fertility, had a significant inverse correlation with levels of sexual stress.
Hegarty, K; Roberts, G
We systematically reviewed studies of the prevalence of domestic violence. Selected overseas community studies were compared with all Australian prevalence studies found to be published. Twelve-month prevalence estimates of partner abuse in Australia varied from 2.1 per cent to 28.0 per cent, depending mainly on the definition of domestic violence used in each study. Implications of the lack of a precise definition result in varying operationalised definitions of partner abuse, from all types of violence in relationships (including a single minor violent incident), through to only those violent incidents that are classified as a crime. Recommendations for any future prevalence studies in this field include the need to collect frequency data which reflected the fact that partner abuse against women is a complex behavioural phenomenon involving emotional, physical and sexual abuse against a partner, not just simply physical incidents.
Queen, Josie; Nurse, Army; Brackley, Margaret H; Williams, Gail B
The purpose of this study was to explore and describe individual perceptions, meanings, and definitions of emotional abuse through the lived experience of women who identified themselves as being emotionally abused by an intimate partner (IP). To answer the research question, "What is it like to live the life of a woman who is emotionally abused by her intimate partner?" A descriptive, phenomenological research design was undertaken. Unstructured individual interviews with 15 emotionally abused adult women resulted in the discovery of seven essential themes: captivity, defining moments, disassociation from self, fixing, mindful manipulation, relentless terror, and taking a stand. A combination of a hermeneutic approach and Diekelmann's approach to data analysis was used to explore differences in perceptions and develop essential themes that portrayed the essence of a woman's lived experience of being emotionally abused by her IP. The data also demonstrated that (1) IP emotional abuse has no prerequisite for partner rage or obvious emotional manipulation, (2) the absence of caring and respectful partner behaviors was just as powerful in creating an emotionally abusive experience as openly abusive behaviors, and (3) being emotionally abused was a life journey, encompassing multiple culminations, secondary physical and mental health symptoms, and quality of life issues that extended well beyond the immediate abuse experience.
Stern, Erin; Buikema, Rosemarie; Cooper, Diane
Despite the documented relationship between hegemonic norms of masculinities and South African men's use of sexual violence, less is known about how women's engagement with norms of masculinity influences their agency in sexually coercive experiences. This study applied a narrative approach to assess how women's understandings of hegemonic male norms affected their perceptions of and responses to sexually coercive experiences. Twenty-five sexual history narrative interviews were conducted with women across five South African provinces representing a range of ages, language and sociocultural backgrounds. Interviews elicited stories of first experiences of sex and the range of sexual relationships through adulthood. Data were analysed using principles of thematic and narrative analysis. Coercive sexual experiences informed many women's normative ideas about men's sexuality including being impulsive, controlling and aggressive. This could underpin women's limited ability to exercise agency and their increased vulnerability to sexual abuse. Some women reported levels of trust and respect in subsequent relationships, which typically involved deconstructing norms of men's use of coercion and moving beyond self-blame and guilt. The findings highlight the need to appreciate the fluid and situated nature of women's agency from a relational perspective in terms of how women condone and challenge gender norms that support men's use of sexual violence in their relationships.
Ruscio, A M
Although empirical investigations have established a relationship between childhood sexual abuse and numerous long-term consequences, surprisingly little research has addressed the possible effects of childhood victimization on the later child-rearing practices of adult survivors. The present study examined hypothesized predictors of three parenting styles among adult survivors of sexual abuse as compared with adult children of alcoholic parents. Forty-five clinical outpatients completed a questionnaire battery assessing experiences of childhood abuse, current economic and social resources, and parenting attitudes and practices. The child-rearing practices of participants were compared with those reported by a community sample of 717 mothers. Additional analyses examined the extent to which sexual abuse and its adult sequelae predicted the parenting behaviors reported by the present sample. Both sexual abuse survivors and children of alcoholics reported significantly higher rates of permissive parenting practices than mothers in the community sample. Multiple regression analyses further revealed unique relationships between sexual abuse and parenting, over and above the variance explained by physical abuse, current socioeconomic status, and the experience of growing up in an alcoholic home. Mothers' sexual abuse severity, social support satisfaction, and dysfunctional parenting attitudes moderated several of these relationships. The present findings suggest that sexual abuse and its adult sequelae may have negative consequences for the parenting practices of survivors, particularly for survivors' ability to provide their children with appropriate structure, consistent discipline, and clear behavioral expectations. Implications for the psychosocial development of survivors' children are discussed.
Many clinicians and researchers have speculated that child sexual abuse and conduct disorder co-occur frequently, yet no systematic reviews of literature have specifically addressed both these conditions. To estimate the prevalence of sexual abuse among children with conduct disorder, the pertinent literature was systematically reviewed. Ten databases were searched, supplemented with hand search of reference lists from retrieved papers. Blind assessments of study eligibility and quality were conducted by two independent researchers. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Twenty-three studies meeting minimum quality criteria that were enough to insure objectivity and not to invalidate results and including 7,256 participants with either conduct disorder or child sexual abuse were examined. The prevalence of child sexual abuse among participants with conduct disorder was 27 %; however, such figure might be underestimated due to selection, sampling, and recall biases; poor assessment methods; and narrow definitions of abuse in included studies. Participants with conduct disorder, compared with healthy individuals, reported higher rates of child sexual abuse. However, compared with other psychiatric populations, they reported similar or lower rates. There was also some evidence suggesting that children with conduct disorder might be more likely to report child physical abuse. Female participants with conduct disorder, compared with males, were significantly more likely to report child sexual abuse. Youths with conduct disorder are at risk of being (or having been) sexually abused, although such risk seems to be neither more specific to nor stronger for these individuals, compared with people with other psychiatric disorders.
Stern, Erin; Cooper, Diane; Greenbaum, Bryant
While sexual abuse against women and girls in South Africa has generated much deserved attention, the awareness of men's experiences of sexual coercion is limited, and often restricted to a homosexual context. This article illuminates men's experiences of pressurized sex in a heterosexual context, which were revealed in a broader men's sexual health study. Fifty sexual history narrative interviews were conducted with men purposively sampled from three age categories: (18-24, 25-54, and 55+), a wide range of cultural and racial backgrounds, and in urban and rural sites across five provinces in South Africa. Narrative interviews began with accounts of early knowledge of sex and sexual experimentation and explored the range of sexual relationships and experiences through adulthood. The narratives privileged the diversity of men's conceptualizations of and the impact of reportedly sexually coercive experiences by women. Many men described feeling unready for their first sexual experiences but pressured to do so by their peers and female partners, who were often older. There were also some instances of sexual coercion by women against men, some of which would constitute a criminal offense in South Africa. Due to the pressure for men to always be responsive to women's sexual desires, these experiences were often not framed as sexual coercion. Nevertheless, for many of these men, such experiences were uncomfortable and unrewarding. Men's negative responses to such experiences appeared to be linked to the fact that they did not fit social stereotypes of masculine sexuality as being initiative and dominant. Such coercive experiences could influence men's sexual risk-taking, including their use of sexual coercion against women. Research on sexual abuse should not be limited to male against male sexual abuse, but needs to explore the meanings and experiences associated with reported coercion against men by women to more comprehensively prevent and respond to sexual violence
... Cancer treatment: fertility and sexual side effects in women To use the sharing features on this page, ... Bladder cancer Types of Sexual Side Effects For women, the most common sexual side effects include: Loss ...
Spearson Goulet, Jo-Annie; Tardif, Monique
Very few studies have taken a specific interest in the various sexual dimensions, beyond delinquent sexual behavior, of adolescents who have engaged in sexual abuse (AESA). Those that went beyond delinquent sexual behavior have report mixed results, suggesting they are a heterogeneous group. The current study used cluster analysis to examine the sexuality profiles of AESA, which included information on several sexual dimensions (atypical and normative fantasies and experiences, drive, body image, pornography, first masturbation, onset of sexual interest and first exposure to sex). Participants (N = 136) are adolescents who have engaged in sexual abuse involving physical contact, for which at least one parent also participated in the study. They were recruited from six specialized treatment centers and three youth centers in Quebec (Canada). Cluster analyses were performed to identify specific sexual profiles. Results suggest three clusters of AESA: 1- Discordant sexuality pertaining to adolescents who show mostly normative sexual interests, 2- Constrictive sexuality, characterizing adolescents who seem to be less invested/interested in their sexuality and 3- Overinvested sexuality for adolescents showing an exacerbated sexuality, including atypical sexual interest. Additional analyses (ANOVAs and Chi-square tests) reveal that five delinquency and offense characteristics were significantly more likely to be present in the Overinvested than the Constrictive cluster: non-sexual offenses, three or more victims, peer victims and alcohol and drug consumption. Advancing our knowledge on this topic can provide relevant data for clinicians to better target interventions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available Background: Sexuality is an important part of women’s health, quality of life, and general well-being. There are many factors influencing the female sexual function, including psychological, physiological, couple relationship, and socio-cultural factors. Pregnancy plays an important role in the sexual function and behavior of women. Objective: This study aims to evaluate the sexual function and determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction among women during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 257 healthy pregnant women aging between18-40 years who had attended the antenatal clinic, Paymaneh Hospital, Jahrom, Iran between April and October 2011 Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI questionnaire was used for assessing the sexual function Results: The mean age of the participants was reported as 26.45±4.49 years. In addition, 143, 69, and 45 subjects were in their 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters, respectively. Comparison of the second and the third trimesters revealed a significant difference in the scores of all FSFI domains and the mean total FSFI score was reported as 19.9±22.45. Among the study subjects, 197 ones (79.1% had sexual dysfunction (FSFI score <26.5, while only 52 (20.9% had normal sexual function (FSFI score ≥26.5. The sexual dysfunction among pregnant women was rated as 23.4%, 30.5%, and 46.2% in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters, respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of sexual dysfunction is high during pregnancy and reaches higher levels in the third trimester. Therefore, pregnant women and their partners need counseling about physical and psychological changes in pregnancy
The study used publicly available data on post-traumatic stress disorder in a sample of the Australian population with a history of sexual abuse to demonstrate how this evidence can inform economic analyses. The 2007 Australian Mental Health Survey revealed that 8.3% of 993 adolescents experienced childhood sexual abuse, of which 40.2% were…
Habigzang, Luisa Fernanda; Damasio, Bruno Figueiredo; Koller, Silvia Helena
This study evaluated the impact of a cognitive behavioral group therapy model in Brazilian girls who had experienced sexual abuse. The effect of the waiting period before treatment and the enduring effectiveness of the treatment after six and 12 months were also evaluated. Forty-nine female sexual abuse victims between the ages of 9 and 16…
Lemmey, Dorothy E.; Tice, Pamela Paradis
The persistence and pervasiveness of two forms of child sexual abuse in particular, pornography and prostitution, undoubtedly lie in the perpetuation of societal norms that unwittingly support such tragic behaviors. Argues that the overall problem of child sexual abuse must be reconceptualized, and in-depth, long-term investigations of both child…
Chen, Yi-Chuen; Fortson, Beverly L.; Tseng, Kai-Wen
The purpose of the current study was to develop and evaluate the efficacy of a school-based child sexual abuse prevention program for Taiwanese children. Forty-six Taiwanese children age 6 to 13 were divided into one of two groups based on their school grade and then randomly assigned to a skills-based child sexual abuse prevention program who…
Jones, Karyn Dayle
Group play therapy is a common treatment modality for children who have been sexually abused. Sexually abused preschoolers exhibit different group play therapy behaviors than do nonabused children. Group workers need to be aware of these differences and know the appropriate group interventions. This article describes group play therapy with…
Children (N=73) in grades two, four, and six were interviewed concerning their comprehension and response to a special comic book on child sexual abuse. Although the comic made some children anxious, one child spoke up about having been sexually abused and how the comic would have helped him. (DB)
Rispens, Jan; Aleman, Andre; Goudena, Paul P.
Meta-analysis of 16 evaluation studies of school programs aimed at the prevention of child sexual abuse victimization found significant and considerable mean postintervention and follow-up effect sizes, indicating that the programs were effective in teaching children sexual abuse concepts and self-protection skills. Program duration and content…
Faller, Kathleen Coulborn; Birdsall, William C.; Vandervort, Frank; Henry, James
Objective: To determine significant predictors of severity of sentencing of sex offenders of minors in a jurisdiction which obtains many confessions. Method: Data were abstracted from 323 criminal court case records of sexually abused minors over 11 years in a county which places a high priority on sexual abuse prosecution. The sample used in this…
Walsh, Kerryann; Berthelsen, Donna; Nicholson, Jan M.; Brandon, Leisa; Stevens, Judyann; Rachele, Jerome N.
The past four decades have seen increasing public and professional awareness of child sexual abuse. Congruent with public health approaches to prevention, efforts to eliminate child sexual abuse have inspired the emergence of prevention initiatives which can be provided to all children as part of their standard school curriculum. However,…
Okur, P.; van der Knaap, L.M.; Bogaerts, S.
In most epidemiological prevalence studies of child sexual abuse, the role of ethnicity remains unclear. This study examined the prevalence and nature of child sexual abuse in four non-Western ethnic minority groups and compared them with a native Dutch group. A sample of 3,426 young adults (aged
Pechtel, Pia; Evans, Ian M.; Podd, John V.
Eighty-five New Zealand based practitioners experienced in treating adults with a history of child sexual abuse participated in an online judgment study of child sexual abuse outcomes using signal detection theory methodology. Participants' level of sensitivity was assessed independent of their degree of response bias when discriminating (a) known…
Bergström, Helena; Eidevald, Christian; Westberg-Broström, Anna
The objective of this research review is to synthesize research published between 2000 and 2015 regarding child sexual abuse, preschool and preschool teachers. The review identifies themes relevant for the preschool teacher profession: child sexual abuse at preschools, suspicions and consequences for the preschool sector, preventing techniques and…
Holland, Alice R.
The outcomes of The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) child sexual abuse scandal have left many scholars and individuals questioning the university's collective identity. The goal of this research was to uncover the dominant themes that describe a problematic institutional response to the child sexual abuse incidents in order to provide…
Paranal, Rechelle; Thomas, Kiona Washington; Derrick, Christina
The prevalence of child sexual abuse demands innovative approaches to prevent further victimization. The online environment provides new opportunities to expand existing child sexual abuse prevention trainings that target adult gatekeepers and allow for large scale interventions that are fiscally viable. This article discusses the benefits and…
Walsh, Kerryann; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Mathews, Ben; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des
This paper presents an evaluation of an instrument to measure teachers' attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse and discusses the instrument's merit for research into reporting practice. Based on responses from 444 Australian teachers, the Teachers' Reporting Attitude Scale for Child Sexual Abuse was evaluated using exploratory factor…
Giglio, Jessie J.; Wolfteich, Paula M.; Gabrenya, William K.; Sohn, Mary L.
Child sexual abuse changes the lives of countless children. Child sexual abuse victims experience short and long term negative outcomes that affect their daily functioning. In this study, undergraduate students' perceptions of CSA were obtained using vignettes with an adult or child perpetrator and a general questionnaire. Results indicated…
Reitsema, Anne Margit; Grietens, Hans
We conducted an exploratory review of the current literature on child sexual abuse disclosure in everyday contexts. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of relevant publications on the process of child sexual abuse disclosure, in order to generate new directions for future research and
Terry, Karen J.; Freilich, Joshua D.
Most sexual offense research focuses on offender motivation and individual risk factors rather than the criminal events themselves. This article provides an analysis of data from two studies on child sexual abuse by Catholic priests to help understand the opportunities clergy had or created to abuse youth. Findings show that situational factors…
Bingham, Adrian; Delap, Lucy; Jackson, Louise; Settle, Louise
This article reflects on methodological and ethical issues that have shaped a collaborative project which aims to chart social, legal and political responses to child sexual abuse in England and Wales across the twentieth century. The etymological problem of searching for child sexual abuse in the historical archive is discussed, given that the…
Goldman, Juliette D. G.
This study aims to understand how primary school teachers, as mandatory reporters of child sexual abuse, are responding to child sexual abuse and its mandatory reporting, even though many teachers do not receive a compulsory course in Child Protection and its legal requirements in their pre-service university training. A cohort of 81 Australian…
McNulty, Craig; Wardle, Jane
This paper surveys research evidence relating to the disclosure of childhood sexual abuse by adults and argues that, for some adults, the disclosure of sexual abuse may be a primary cause of psychological distress, resulting in the dissolution of social support systems and increasing the individual's vulnerability to psychiatric disorder.…
van Dijck, Gijs
Catholic Church sexual abuse cases have received worldwide attention, with lawsuits and nationwide investigations reported in various countries. This study examines a procedure—a hybrid between tort litigation and a victim compensation fund—that not only allowed sexual abuse victims to seek monetary
Full Text Available The study examined the level of two risk factors (autonomy and intimacy for healthy functional family among sexually abused and sexually non-abused individuals. Autonomy and intimacy were measured with Family-of-Origin Scale (FOS; Hovestadt, Anderson, Piercy, Cochran, & Fine, 1985. 261 participants (194 girls and 67 boys completed the FOS, average age was 25 years (SD = 7. Among all participants 18% were sexually abused (N = 46, approximately every fifth (5.7 girl and every seventh (6.7 boy. There were 78% girls and 22% boys among sexually abused participants. Families of sexually abused participants in comparison with the families of sexually non-abused showed many statistically significant differences in elements of autonomy (clarity of expressing emotions, responsibility, respect for others, openness to others, and acceptance of separation and loss and intimacy (encouraging expression of a range of feelings, creating a warm atmosphere in the home, dealing with conflict resolution without undue stress, promoting empathy among family members, trust and developing trust. In general the sexually abused group had a statistically significantly lower level of autonomy and intimacy in comparison with sexually non-abused group.
McOmber, James B.
States that, in "The Etiology of Hysteria," Sigmund Freud's "seduction theory" asserted that child sexual abuse was the single cause of adult hysteria. Argues that Freud's failure to persuade his audience can be attributed not only to their denial of sexual abuse but also to his failure to clarify how pschyoanalysis could…
House, Amy S.
There is an ongoing need for empirically based treatments for child sexual abuse (CSA) that are time-efficient and cost-effective. This article describes a modification of cognitive processing therapy for child sexual abuse (CPT-SA) that increases the therapy's usability by reducing the number of individual therapy sessions required. The…
Ethical issues in screening of victims of sexual abuse for infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are raised in response to Gellert (EC 222 881). It is concluded that widescale HIV testing of child victims of sexual abuse is not justified by the available information. (DB)
Elzy, Meredith B.
The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and borderline personality disorder is a prominent issue in the etiological research on borderline personality disorder. This study further explored the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and the development of borderline personality features while evaluating the moderating role of a primary…
Baker, Thomas A., III.; Byon, Kevin K.
A scale was developed to measure perceptions of sexual abuse in youth sports by assessing (a) the perceived prevalence of sexual abuse committed by pedophilic youth sport coaches, (b) the perceived likelihood that a coach is a pedophile, (c) perceptions on how youth sport organizations should manage the risk of pedophilia, and (d) media influence…
Moon, Kyoung Ja; Park, Kyung Min; Sung, Yunsick
This study aimed to develop and evaluate the effects of a sexual abuse prevention mobile application, SAP_MobAPP, for primary school children. Forty-five subjects were trained for 40 minutes once a week. The experimental group received education that utilized the SAP_MobAPP. Control group A received Web based sexual abuse prevention education, while control group B received textbook based sexual abuse prevention education. Effectiveness was verified through a survey on child sexual abuse recognition and avoidance skills administered before and after training. The SAP_MobAPP program improved recognition (awareness) and the child's skills to avoid child sexual abuse situations, and the effects were long-lasting. However, differences between groups were not statistically significant. This study developed a sexual abuse prevention application and verified its effectiveness. Awareness and skills to avoid child sexual abuse after app education increased immediately after training and four weeks later. The SAP_MobAPP could be used for sexual abuse prevention education in schools.
Baral, Isin; Kora, Kaan; Yuksel, Sahika; Sezgin, Ufuk
Self-mutilating behavior (SMB), suicide, and eating disorders are examined in adult females (N=42) in relation to childhood sexual abuse. A statistically significant relationship was found between SMB and suicide attempts. Findings support the contention that SMB and sexual abuse are closely related to eating disorders. (Author/EMK)
Ozbaran, Burcu; Erermis, Serpil; Bukusoglu, Nagehan; Bildik, Tezan; Tamar, Muge; Ercan, Eyyup Sabri; Aydin, Cahide; Cetin, Saniye Korkmaz
Childhood sexual abuse is a traumatic life event that may cause psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. During 2003-2004, 20 sexually abused children were referred to the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic of Ege University in Izmir, Turkey. Two years later, the psychological adjustment of these children (M…
Chan, Lai Fong; Tan, Susan Mooi Koon; Ang, Jin Kiat; Kamal Nor, Norazlin; Sharip, Shalisah
Adolescent sexual abuse is not an uncommon phenomenon in Malaysia. It is a traumatic experience that complicates the psychosocial development of young people on the threshold of adulthood. This case report highlights the psychosocial sequelae of adolescent sexual abuse by a traditional healer and discusses management issues in the context of unique cultural and belief systems.
Wherry, Jeffrey N.; And Others
Differences in family trauma, stressors, and dysfunction among adolescent psychiatric inpatients grouped by sexual abuse self-reports were investigated. Family trauma/dysfunction was determined from a composite score derived from the Traumatic Antecedents Scale. The results indicated that sexually abused adolescents reported more family…
Chan, Lai Fong; Tan, Susan Mooi Koon; Ang, Jin Kiat; Kamal Nor, Norazlin; Sharip, Shalisah
Adolescent sexual abuse is not an uncommon phenomenon in Malaysia. It is a traumatic experience that complicates the psychosocial development of young people on the threshold of adulthood. This case report highlights the psychosocial sequelae of adolescent sexual abuse by a traditional healer and discusses management issues in the context of…
Morrow, Jan; And Others
This study of 23 boys (ages 6 to 14) in a residential psychiatric treatment program found nine of the boys were encopretic (27 times the incidence of encopresis in the general population of boys 10-12). Seven of the nine boys had histories of sexual abuse by males, suggesting that encopresis may be a marker of sexual abuse. (DB)
Cutajar, Margaret C.; Mullen, Paul E.; Ogloff, James R. P.; Thomas, Stuart D.; Wells, David L.; Spataro, Josie
Objective: To determine the rate and risk of clinical and personality disorders diagnosed in childhood and adulthood in those known to have been sexually abused during childhood. Methods: Forensic medical records of 2,759 sexually abused children assessed between 1964 and 1995 were linked with a public psychiatric database between 12 and 43 years…
Sam-Soto, Selene; Sámano, Reyna; Flores-Ramos, Mónica; Rodríguez-Bosch, Mario; García-Salazar, Danae; Hernández-Mohar, Gabriela; García-Espinosa, Verónica
the purpose of the present study was to describe some perinatal outcomes in two groups of pregnant adolescents: one group with history of sexual abuse and one group without sexual abuse antecedent. we designed an observational, retrolective study. Participants were primigravid adolescents between 10 to 16 years, with a singleton pregnancy, and at least three prenatal medical evaluations. Participants were grouped according to sexual abuse antecedent: 55 adolescents had sexual abuse antecedent, and 110 participants had not sexual abuse antecedent. We obtained the clinical data from medical records: socio-demographic characteristics, sexually transmitted infections, illicit drugs use, pre-gestational body mass index, gestational weight gain, and newborn weight. The data were analyzed using association tests and mean comparisons. the adolescents with sexual abuse history had higher prevalence of human papilloma virus infection. The newborns weight of mothers without sexual abuse antecedent was about 200 grams higher than the newborns of mothers with sexual abuse antecedent (p = 0.002); while the length of the first group was 2 centimeters longer than the length of the newborns on the second group (p = 0.001). Gestational weight increase was 5 kilograms lower in adolescents with sexual abuse antecedent compared to adolescent without the antecedent (p = 0.005). Illicit drug use was similar in the two groups and it was associated to low newborn weight. the sexual abuse antecedent in pregnant adolescents was associated to higher frequency of human papilloma virus infections, lower newborn weight, and lower gestational weight increase on pregnant adolescents. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Shelton, J. Nicole; Chavous, Tabbye M.
Examined how racial factors influence college women's perceptions of sexual harassment with samples of 46 black and 89 white women. Data suggest that sexual harassment between black women and black men is trivialized compared to sexual behavior between black women and white men. Discusses implications for the study of sexual harassment. (SLD)
Marks, Saul; Mountjoy, Margo; Marcus, Madalyn
Sexual harassment and abuse occur in all sports and at all levels with an increased risk at the elite level. The physical and psychological consequences of sexual harassment and abuse are significant for the athlete, their team and for the health and integrity of sport in general. The sports medicine health professional has an integral role to play in the prevention of sexual harassment and abuse in sport. This paper provides sport healthcare professionals with a practical guide on prevention strategies and advice on the recognition and management of suspected abuse.
Azzopardi, Corry; Alaggia, Ramona; Fallon, Barbara
Most theories of child sexual abuse are, to some degree, gendered, with nonoffending mothers bearing the burden of blame, ideologically and legally, for the transgressions of predominantly male offenders. This article explores the social construction of blame for child sexual abuse via critical analyses of evolving theoretical perspectives on maternal culpability for the inception and maintenance of abuse dynamics. Drawing on selected conceptual and research knowledge that supports and refutes anecdotal claims, this synthesis of the literature culminates in the proposal of an evidence-informed, feminist-grounded, multitheoretical child sexual abuse framework that disrupts dominant mother-blaming discourse and guides socially just and ethically responsive policy, practice, and research.
Wangel, Anne-Marie; Ryding, Elsa Lena; Schei, Berit; Östman, Margareta; Lukasse, Mirjam
This study aims to describe the prevalence of emotional, physical, and sexual abuse and analyze associations with symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress (PTS) in pregnancy, by ethnic background. This is a cross-sectional study of the Swedish data from the Bidens cohort study. Ethnicity was categorized as native and non-native Swedish-speakers. Women completed a questionnaire while attending routine antenatal care. The NorVold Abuse Questionnaire (NorAQ) assessed a history of emotional, physical or sexual abuse. The Edinburgh Depression Scale-5 measured symptoms of depression. Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress (PTS) included intrusion, avoidance and numbness. Of 1003 women, 78.6% were native and 21.4% were non-native Swedish-speakers. Native and non-native Swedish-speakers experienced a similar proportion of lifetime abuse. Moderate emotional and physical abuse in childhood was significantly more common among non-native Swedish-speakers. Sexual abuse in adulthood was significantly more prevalent among native Swedish-speakers. Emotional and sexual abuse were significantly associated with symptoms of depression for both natives and non-natives. Physical abuse was significantly associated with symptoms of depression for non-natives only. All types of abuse were significantly associated with symptoms of PTS for both native and non-native Swedish-speakers. Adding ethnicity to the multiple binary regression analyses did not really alter the association between the different types of abuse and symptoms of depression and PTS. The prevalence of lifetime abuse did not differ significantly for native and non-native Swedish-speakers but there were significant differences on a more detailed level. Abuse was associated with symptoms of depression and PTS. Being a non-native Swedish-speaker did not influence the association much. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Laan, E.; Everaerd, W.; van Aanhold, M. T.; Rebel, M.
Up to now, no experimental studies have inquired into the possible role of performance demand in female sexuality. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of performance demand on sexual arousal in functional women, using explicit instructions. Forty-eight female subjects were
Lindon, J; Nourse, C A
This paper describes a treatment approach for sexually abused adolescent girls using a group work model. The model incorporates three treatment modalities: a skills component, a psychotherapeutic component, and an educative component. The group ran for 16 sessions over a 6-month period and each girl was assessed prior to joining the group. The girls were again assessed at the end of treatment and a 6-months follow-up; all of them showed improvement on self-statements (outcome) and on behavioral measures assessed by others (follow-up). Girls who had been sexually abused demonstrated difficulties in many areas of their lives following abuse. These problems related to their feelings of guilt and helplessness in relation to both themselves and their abuser. Sexually abused children often have poor knowledge of sexual matters and demonstrate confusion over their own body image. Using a multidimensional model the problems following abuse can be addressed.
Brotto, Lori A.; Bitzer, Johannes; Laan, Ellen; Leiblum, Sandra; Luria, Mijal
ABSTRACT Introduction. A committee of five was convened to update the chapter on women's sexual dysfunctions from the perspective of diagnostic issues, pathophysiology, assessment, and treatment. Aim. To review the literature since 2003 and provide recommendations based on evidence. Methods.
Abeid, Muzdalifat; Muganyizi, Projestine; Olsson, Pia; Darj, Elisabeth; Axemo, Pia
Rape of women and children is recognized as a health and human rights issue in Tanzania and internationally. Exploration of the prevailing perceptions in rural areas is needed in order to expand the understanding of sexual violence in the diversity of Tanzania's contexts. The aim of this study therefore was to explore and understand perceptions of rape of women and children at the community level in a rural district in Tanzania with the added objective of exploring those perceptions that may contribute to perpetuating and/or hindering the disclosure of rape incidences. A qualitative design was employed using focus group discussions with male and female community members including religious leaders, professionals, and other community members. The discussions centered on causes of rape, survivors of rape, help-seeking and reporting, and gathered suggestions on measures for improvement. Six focus group discussions (four of single gender and two of mixed gender) were conducted. The focus group discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using manifest qualitative content analysis. The participants perceived rape of women and children to be a frequent and hidden phenomenon. A number of factors were singled out as contributing to rape, such as erosion of social norms, globalization, poverty, vulnerability of children, alcohol/drug abuse and poor parental care. Participants perceived the need for educating the community to raise their knowledge of sexual violence and its consequences, and their roles as preventive agents. In this rural context, social norms reinforce sexual violence against women and children, and hinder them from seeking help from support services. Addressing the identified challenges may promote help-seeking behavior and improve care of survivors of sexual violence, while changes in social and cultural norms are needed for the prevention of sexual violence.
Background Alcohol is the most important substance of abuse in South Africa. There are, however, reports of an increase in the use of other drugs among adolescents. The aim of this study was to assess the use of alcohol and other drugs of abuse and their association with physical or sexual abuse in three urban high ...
Nalavany, Blace Arthur; Ryan, Scott D.; Hinterlong, Jim
This study examined the severity of externalizing symptomology among adopted boys with preadoptive histories of child sexual abuse, physical abuse, neglect/abandonment, or no abuse. The study was based on data collected across a three-year period from parents who adopted children from Florida's child welfare system. The sample consisted of 1,136…
Full Text Available Caring for victims of sexual assault demands of the physician a precise physical examination, provision of evidence, psychological support and appropriate treatment. Because the majority of victims of sexual violence are women, we usually encounter these patients in gynecological clinics. If the evidence is collected and stored properly, with special forensic methods we can distinguish between any two persons in the world, except identical twins. Therefore, patient’s history and taking evidence is of utmost importance. In the case of sexual assault, infection with sexually transmitted diseases is possible, so they should be diagnosed and treated in time. The victim should be offered the use of emergency contraception, which is only effective in the first days after sexual assault. To make sure that each step of the examination is completed and all samplings are done in the correct order, it is useful to have a written questionnaire or a routine protocol. We describe stepby- step management procedures for victims of sexual assault, taking into consideration the victim’s history, physical examination, different samplings, and different emergency treatments.
Yılmaz Irmak, Türkan; Aksel, Şeyda; Thompson, Dennis
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between type of coping style and depression in college students with child sexual abuse experience. A total of 1,055 college students completed self-report measures to assess depressive symptoms, coping strategies, and child sexual abuse history. This study was conducted with a subset of 125 college students who reported that they had been sexually abused in childhood. They were divided into depressive and nondepressive groups according to their depressive symptoms. Data was collected with the Childhood Sexual Abuse Measurement, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Coping Styles of Stress Scale. Family characteristics were measured with a demographic questionnaire. Analyses involved multiple regression to test for predictive effects. Among college students with child sexual abuse histories, parental education level and both problem-focused and emotion-focused strategies significantly explained depression scores.
Full Text Available While there is a wide body of literature examining the behavioral, emotional, and social consequences associated with being sexually abused, comparatively few studies have focused on males. Sexual abuse victimization among males remains largely under-reported, under-treated, and under-recognized by researchers, practitioners, and the public. Researchers trying to clarify why sexual abuse in males has been overlooked point to prevailing cultural norms, myths, assumptions, stigma, and biases about masculinity. Consequently, there is often an assumption that males are not negatively affected by sexual abuse. Drawing extensively from the literature, this article provides a critical review of: (1 the nature, experience and impact of sexual abuse victimization for males; and (2 the multidimensional processes that promote and inhibit resilient outcomes. It concludes with a discussion of trauma-informed and gender-responsive recommendations and future directions for social work practice, policy, and research.
Poteat, Tonia C; Logie, Carmen H; Adams, Darrin; Mothopeng, Tampose; Lebona, Judith; Letsie, Puleng; Baral, Stefan
In recent years, gender and sexual minorities have become increasingly visible across sub-Saharan Africa, marking both the progression and violation of their human rights. Using data from a study with sexual minorities in Lesotho, this analysis leveraged the social ecological model to examine relationships between stigma, human rights, and sexual health among women who have sex with women in Lesotho. A community-based participatory approach was used for the mixed-method, cross-sectional study. A total of 250 women who have sex with women completed a structured questionnaire, of which 21 participated in a total of three focus group discussions. Stigma was common within and outside the health sector. Stigma and human rights abuses were associated with increased risk for HIV and STIs. Interventions to address stigma at the structural, community, and interpersonal levels are essential to ensuring sexual health and rights for women who have sex with women in Lesotho. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wilson, Tracey E; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Schwartz, Rebecca; Golub, Elizabeth T; Cohen, Mardge H; Maki, Pauline; Greenblatt, Ruth; Massad, L Stewart; Robison, Esther; Goparaju, Lakshmi; Lindau, Stacy
To compare sexual problems among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women and describe clinical and psychosocial factors associated with these problems. Data were collected during a study visit of the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). The WIHS studies the natural and treated history of HIV among women in the United States. Between October 01, 2006, and March 30, 2007, 1805 women (1279 HIV positive and 526 HIV negative) completed a study visit that included administration of the Female Sexual Function Index. In addition, the visit included completion of standardized interviewer-administered surveys, physical and gynecological examinations, and blood sample collection. Women with HIV reported greater sexual problems than did those without HIV. Women also reported lower sexual function if they were classified as menopausal, had symptoms indicative of depression, or if they reported not being in a relationship. CD4 cell count was associated with Female Sexual Function Index scores, such that those with CD4 women's quality of life, greater attention to this issue as a potential component of women's overall HIV care is warranted.
D.Litt et Phil. The study explored strategies abused women use to overcome power and control in their intimate relationships, using their own self-agency. Data was collected through the technique of triangulation in which three women who were legally divorced, wrote their own stories, after which each was individually interviewed by the researcher to get information about the process of leaving and staying away from their abusive relationships, and clearing up and moving on with their live...
Scheidell, Joy D; Kumar, Pritika C; Campion, Taylor; Quinn, Kelly; Beharie, Nisha; McGorray, Susan P; Khan, Maria R
Child sexual abuse is associated with substance use and sexual risk behaviors during adolescence and adulthood, but no known studies have documented associations across the life course in a nationally representative U.S. We used the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health to measure associations between child sexual abuse and substance use and sexual risk behaviors during adolescence, young adulthood, and adulthood among males and females (n = 11,820). Approximately 10% of females and 7% of males reported child sexual abuse. Associations with substance use were strongest during adolescence and lessened over time. Increased odds of sexual risk among those with a history of child sexual abuse remained consistent through the life course. Significant gender differences existed for some associations (e.g., adulthood multiple partners: males adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.73, 95%CI:1.18, 2.53; females AOR = 1.11, 95%CI:0.79, 1.56). Trauma-informed prevention interventions should address child sexual abuse among both males and females to prevent substance use and sexual risk behavior throughout the life course.
The Amsterdam Sexual Abuse Case (ASAC)-study in day care centers: longitudinal effects of sexual abuse on infants and very young children and their parents, and the consequences of the persistence of abusive images on the internet
Lindauer, Ramón J. L.; Brilleslijper-Kater, Sonja N.; Diehle, Julia; Verlinden, Eva; Teeuw, Arianne H.; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Tuinebreijer, Wilco; Bosschaart, Thekla F.; van Duin, Esther; Verhoeff, Arnoud
BackgroundLittle research has been done on the signs of child sexual abuse (CSA) in infants and very young children, or on the consequences that such abuse ¿ including the persistence of the abusive pornographic images on the internet ¿ might have for the children and their parents. The effects of
The Amsterdam Sexual Abuse Case (ASAC)-study in day care centers: longitudinal effects of sexual abuse on infants and very young children and their parents, and the consequences of the persistence of abusive images on the internet
Lindauer, R.J.L.; Brilleslijper-Kater, S.N.; Diehle, J.; Verlinden, E.; Teeuw, A.H.; Middeldorp, C.M.; Tuinebreijer, W.; Bosschaart, T.F.; van Duin, E.; Verhoeff, A.
Background: Little research has been done on the signs of child sexual abuse (CSA) in infants and very young children, or on the consequences that such abuse ¿ including the persistence of the abusive pornographic images on the internet ¿ might have for the children and their parents. The effects of
The Amsterdam Sexual Abuse Case (ASAC)-study in day care centers: longitudinal effects of sexual abuse on infants and very young children and their parents, and the consequences of the persistence of abusive images on the internet
Lindauer, R.J.L.; Brilleslijper-Kater, S.N.; Diehle, J.; Verlinden, E.; Teeuw, A.H.; Middeldorp, C.M.; Tuinebreijer, W.; Bosschaart, T.F.; van Duin, E.; Verhoeff, A.
Background: Little research has been done on the signs of child sexual abuse (CSA) in infants and very young children, or on the consequences that such abuse - including the persistence of the abusive pornographic images on the internet - might have for the children and their parents. The effects of
Bell, Suzanne; Reissing, Elke D
The aim of this study was to use the dual control model of sexual response (DCM) to investigate variation in sexual well-being among women 50 years of age and older. Data from 185 women 50 years of age and older (M = 59.46, SD = 6.96) were used to examine the relationships between sexual excitation (SE) and sexual inhibition (SI) and their lower-order factors to indicators of sexual well-being (i.e., sexual functioning, satisfaction, distress, frequency of sexual activity, and breadth of sexual behavior). Possible moderating factors were also explored. Independently, SE and SI were associated with the majority of the indicators of sexual well-being, and the directions of associations were consistent with the tenets of the DCM. SE and SI lower-order factors were significant predictors of sexual function, satisfaction, and frequency of sexual activity. Sexual distress was predicted more strongly by SI factors and breadth of sexual behavior by one SE lower-order factor (arousability). Partner physical and mental health and participant's own mental health were identified as moderating variables of these associations. Findings of this study are discussed considering the contribution of the DCM to understanding the role of diversity in older women's sexual well-being.
Lampert, Jo; Walsh, Kerryann
Children's picture books dealing with the topic of child sexual abuse appeared in the 1980s with the aim of addressing the need for age-appropriate texts to teach sexual abuse prevention concepts and to provide support for young children who may be at risk of or have already experienced sexual abuse. Despite the apparent potential of children's…
Tishelman, Amy C.; Geffner, Robert
This article introduces the second issue of the special double issue focusing on forensic, cultural, and systems issues in child sexual abuse cases. We briefly review the articles, which include a discussion of child sexual abuse myths, an empirical analysis of extended child sexual abuse evaluations, an article on the role of the medical provider…
Al-Mahroos, Fadheela; Al-Amer, Eshraq
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a common problem with severe short and long-term consequences to the abused child, the family and to society. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of CSA, and demographic and other characteristics of the abused and their families. Retrospective and descriptive study based on a review of medical records of CSA cases from 2000-2009 at Sulmaniya Medical Complex, the main secondary and tertiary medical care facility in Bahrain. The review included demographic data, child and family characteristics, manifestations and interventions. The 440 children diagnosed with CSA had a mean age of 8 years (range, 9 months to 17 years); 222 were males (50.5%) and 218 were females (49.5%). There was a steady increase in cases from 31 per year in 2000 to 77 cases in 2009. Children disclosed abuse in 26% of cases, while health sector professionals recognized 53% of the cases. Genital touching and fondling (62.5%) were the most common form of CSA, followed by sodomy in 39%. Gonorrhea was documented in 2% of the cases and pregnancy in 4% of the females. The illiteracy rate among the fathers and mothers was 9% and 12%, respectively, which is higher than the rate among the adult general population. Children came from all socio-economic classes. There was referral to police in 56%, public prosecution in 31% of the cases, but only 8% reached the court. During ten years there has been a 2.5% increase in reported cases of CSA. Improving the skill of professionals in identifying CSA indicators and a mandatory reporting law might be needed to improve the rate of recognition and referral of CSA cases. Further general population-based surveys are needed to determine more accurately the scope of CSA and the risk and protective factors in the family and community.
Hibbard, R A; Hartman, G
To replicate and explore the associations of drawing genitalia on a human figure, child-rearing practices, and a history of alleged sexual abuse, we designed a cross-sectional study of 109 alleged child sexual abuse victims, ages 3 through 8 years, and a group of 109 comparison children matched for age, sex, race, and socioeconomic status but with no history of abuse. A standardized format was used to collect drawings, administer the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, and gather background data on medical, developmental, and child-rearing issues. Seven alleged sexual abuse victims and one comparison child spontaneously drew genitalia (p = 0.02, one-tailed Fisher Exact Test, estimated relative risk 7.96). No differences in drawing maturity (Draw-A-Man score) were identified, although Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test scores were higher in comparison children (82.1 vs. 91.0, p less than 0.01). Neither drawing genitalia nor history of alleged sexual abuse were significantly associated with histories of medical problems, enuresis, encopresis, urinary tract infection, or child-rearing practices related to sleeping, nudity, bathing, sexual abuse education, or exposure to sexually explicit materials. The similar patterns of child-rearing practices in both samples should make professionals cautious in attributing allegations of abuse to specific child-rearing practices. This study confirms our previous report that the presence of genitalia spontaneously drawn on a child's drawing of a human figure is associated with alleged sexual abuse.
Castro, Roberto; Peek-Asa, Corinne; García, Lorena; Ruiz, Agustín; Kraus, Jess F
Although violence against women is gaining international attention as a prevention priority, little is known about how risks differ across countries. A comparative study of violence against pregnant Mexican women in Morelos, Mexico, and Latina women in Los Angeles County, California, United States. In 1998 and 1999, women in prenatal clinics were interviewed about psychological abuse and sexual and physical violence by their partner, during and the 1 year prior to the index pregnancy. The overall response rate for Morelos was 99%, with a sample size of 914; Los Angeles County had a response rate of 96.9%, with a sample size of 219. Women in Morelos reported a higher prevalence of violence compared to women in the California (14.8% v 11.9%, respectively). A partner aged child were more than 25 times more likely to be abused during pregnancy than women not reporting this type of abuse. The identification of factors associated with violence against women, especially as they differ by culture and ethnicity, will help clinicians to better identify victims and to design and implement culturally appropriate prevention programs.
Rosario, Margaret; Corliss, Heather L.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Austin, S. Bryn
Objectives. We examined whether lifetime risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was elevated in sexual minority versus heterosexual youths, whether childhood abuse accounted for disparities in PTSD, and whether childhood gender nonconformity explained sexual-orientation disparities in abuse and subsequent PTSD. Methods. We used data from a population-based study (n = 9369, mean age = 22.7 years) to estimate risk ratios for PTSD. We calculated the percentage of PTSD disparities by sexual orientation accounted for by childhood abuse and gender nonconformity, and the percentage of abuse disparities by sexual orientation accounted for by gender nonconformity. Results. Sexual minorities had between 1.6 and 3.9 times greater risk of probable PTSD than heterosexuals. Child abuse victimization disparities accounted for one third to one half of PTSD disparities by sexual orientation. Higher prevalence of gender nonconformity before age 11 years partly accounted for higher prevalence of abuse exposure before age 11 years and PTSD by early adulthood in sexual minorities (range = 5.2%–33.2%). Conclusions. Clinicians, teachers, and others who work with youths should consider abuse prevention and treatment measures for gender-nonconforming children and sexual minority youths. PMID:22698034
Hébert, Martine; Tourigny, Marc; Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre; Joly, Jacques
Our study sought to explore patterns of disclosure of child sexual abuse (CSA) in a sample of adult men and women. A telephone survey conducted with a representative sample of adults (n = 804) from Quebec assessed the prevalence of CSA and disclosure patterns. Analyses were carried out to determine whether disclosure groups differed in terms of psychological distress and symptoms of posttraumatic stress, and a logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with prompt disclosure. Prevalence of CSA was 22.1% for women and 9.7% for men. About 1 survivor out of 5 had never disclosed the abuse, with men more likely not to have told anyone, than women. Only 21.2% of adults reported prompt disclosure (within a month of the first abusive event), while 57.5% delayed disclosure (more than 5 years after the first episode). CSA victims who never disclosed the abuse and those who delayed disclosure were more likely to obtain scores of psychological distress and posttraumatic stress achieving clinical levels, compared with adults without a history of CSA. In the multivariate analysis, experiencing CSA involving a perpetrator outside the immediate family and being female were factors independently associated with prompt disclosure. A significant number of adult women and men reported experiencing CSA, and most victims attested to either not disclosing or significantly delaying abuse disclosure.
Maria Rosaria Pelizzari
As concerns the reactions following the discovery of the abuse, it is possible to delineate models of behavior which are more or less constant. Above all during the period immediately following the discovery of the episode, word of mouth seems to involve mainly the women of the neighborhood. In the reconstruction of the narration of the sexual abuse, women emerge as the protagonists at crucial moments: they provide first aid, they carry out perfunctory ‘check ups’ on the victim, help the mothers to find a doctor to verify and attest the circumstance in the event of a formal complaint and the type of abuse and harm suffered.
Ige, Olusimbo K; Fawole, Olufunmilayo I
This study examined parents' perceptions of child sexual abuse as well as prevention practices in an urban community in southwest Nigeria. Questionnaires were collected from 387 parents and caregivers of children younger than 15 years of age. Results showed that many parents felt CSA was a common problem in the community, and most parents disagreed with common child sexual abuse myths. In addition, almost all parents ( >90%) reported communicating with their child(ren) about stranger danger. However, about 47% felt their children could not be abused, and over a quarter (27.1%) often left their children alone and unsupervised. There were no significant variations in the perceptions of child sexual abuse and communication practices. The implications of findings for child sexual abuse prevention are discussed.
Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Palic, Sabina
Childhood sexual abuse can be extremely traumatic and lead to lifelong symptomatology. The present study examined the impact of several demographic, abuse, and psychosocial variables on posttraumatic stress disorder severity among a consecutive sample of treatment-seeking, adult child sexual abuse...... survivors (N = 480). The child sexual abuse sample was characterized by severe trauma exposure, insecure attachment, and significant traumatization, with an estimated 77% suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder, more than twice the level of the comparison group. Regression analyses revealed risk...... factors associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder in which the strongest predictors being additional traumas, negative affectivity, and somatization. The findings add to existing research confirming the stressful nature of child sexual abuse and the variables that contribute...
Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M; Palic, Sabina; Karsberg, Sidsel; Eriksen, Sara Bek
Childhood sexual abuse can be extremely traumatic and lead to lifelong symptomatology. The present study examined the impact of several demographic, abuse, and psychosocial variables on posttraumatic stress disorder severity among a consecutive sample of treatment-seeking, adult child sexual abuse survivors (N = 480). The child sexual abuse sample was characterized by severe trauma exposure, insecure attachment, and significant traumatization, with an estimated 77% suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder, more than twice the level of the comparison group. Regression analyses revealed risk factors associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder in which the strongest predictors being additional traumas, negative affectivity, and somatization. The findings add to existing research confirming the stressful nature of child sexual abuse and the variables that contribute to the development and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder.
C, Manyike Pius; M, Chinawa Josephat; Elias, Aniwada; I, Odutola Odetunde; Awoere, Chinawa T.
Background and Objective: Child sexual abuse among adolescents is an often overlooked issue in pediatrics, yet it is a major cause of low self esteem and stigmatization in adolescents. The objective of this study was to determine the socioeconomic determinant and pattern of child sexual abuse among adolescent attending secondary schools in South East Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that was carried out among children in three secondary schools in Enugu and Ebonyi states of Nigeria. Five hundred and six adolescents who met inclusion criteria were consecutively recruited into our prospective study between June and October, 2014. Results: One hundred and ninety nine (40 %) of the respondents had been abused and the commonest form of abuse was to look at pornographic pictures, drawings, films, videotapes or magazine 93(18.4%). Fifty eight (11.5%) adolescents stated that they were abused once with age at first exposure being 7-12 years 57 (11.4%). When grouped together, family members and relatives are perpetrators of child sexual abuse. There was significant difference in sex abuse between males and females (p=0.014) while there were no significant difference for age (p=0.157) and social class (p=0.233). Conclusion: Overall prevalence and one time prevalence rates of sexual abuse among adolescents in south east Nigeria was 40% and 11.5% respectively with male perpetrators. There is no link between socioeconomic class, age and child sexual abuse among adolescents. PMID:26430412
Faubion, Stephanie S; Rullo, Jordan E
Sexual dysfunction in women is a common and often distressing problem that has a negative impact on quality of life and medication compliance. The problem is often multifactorial, necessitating a multidisciplinary evaluation and treatment approach that addresses biological, psychological, sociocultural, and relational factors. Criteria for sexual interest/arousal disorder require the presence of at least three specific symptoms lasting for at least six months. Lifelong anorgasmia may suggest the patient is unfamiliar or uncomfortable with self-stimulation or sexual communication with her partner. Delayed or less intense orgasms may be a natural process of aging due to decreased genital blood flow and dulled genital sensations. Genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder includes fear or anxiety, marked tightening or tensing of the abdominal and pelvic muscles, or actual pain associated with attempts toward vaginal penetration that is persistent or recurrent for at least six months. Treatment depends on the etiology. Estrogen is effective for the treatment of dyspareunia associated with genitourinary syndrome of menopause. Testosterone, with and without concomitant use of estrogen, is associated with improvements in sexual functioning in naturally and surgically menopausal women, although data on long-term risks and benefits are lacking. Bupropion has been shown to improve the adverse sexual effects associated with antidepressant use; however, data are limited. Psychotherapy or sex therapy is useful for management of the psychological, relational, and sociocultural factors impacting a woman's sexual function. Clinicians can address many of these issues in addition to providing education and validating women's sexual health concerns.
Full Text Available Background This study deals with the link between forced migration and sexual abuse, with a special focus on adolescent girls. Existing literature associates forced migration with sexual abuse and identifies adolescent girls as the most vulnerable. However, little is known about the situation of sexual abuse among Congolese refugees in Rwanda since their arrival in 2012 due to the conflict between Congolese government forces and the M23 rebel group. This study was initiated to explore the situation of sexual abuse of Congolese adolescent girls in Kigeme camp and to suggest remedial strategies. Participants and procedure Qualitative data were collected through individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs with adolescent girls. Interviews also involved parents, boys, camp authorities, and neighbouring citizens. Results The findings show that rape, unwanted physical touching, sexual exploitation, commercial sex, early marriage and girl trafficking are the main forms of sexual abuse. These are facilitated by the miserable life in the camp, shortcomings in the camp layout and security system, and adolescent developmental stage. They negatively impact girls’ reproductive health, social integration and mental health. Conclusions Existing strategies to address sexual abuse in the camp have had positive but insufficient results, and thus need to be improved and reinforced. Improvement is suggested in the areas of the abuse reporting system, the camp layout and security system, involvement of men and youth, and the consolidation of anti-GBV (gender-based violence clubs.