Sample records for women including elizabeth

  1. The Impact of the Feminist Heroine: Elizabeth in Pride and Prejudice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Chun CHANG


    Full Text Available This paper critically examines the feminist significance of Elizabeth Bennet, heroine of Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice. The feminist view found in Pride and Prejudice is well-supported in literary criticism yet little discussion has focused on Elizabeth’s feminism as seen in the prominent contrast to her female foils within the novel, namely Caroline, Jane, and Charlotte. Each of these women conforms to the socially imposed gender norms of Regency England, while Elizabeth artfully challenges gender inequality. As other women adapt their views to increase their chances of marriage, Elizabeth persistently refuses to capitulate. Defying traditional gender norms, Elizabeth affirms her feminist perspective by helping to shape Mr. Darcy’s moral character to match her own. Elizabeth inspires Mr. Darcy to set aside the pride he has in his high station in society in order to win her affections and take her hand in marriage. I argue that Elizabeth’s character is not feminist in isolation, but is understood only in contrast to Caroline, Jane, and Charlotte. This claim is supported by an in-depth comparison of Elizabeth and each of the female foils.

  2. 75 FR 26793 - Beam Global Spirits & Wine, Including On-Site Leased Workers from Adecco, St. Elizabeth Business... (United States)


    ... & Wine, Including On-Site Leased Workers from Adecco, St. Elizabeth Business Health, Guardsmark, and Lab... 26, 2010, applicable to workers of Beam Global Spirits & Wine, including on-site leased workers from... on-site at the Cincinnati, Ohio location of Beam Global Spirits & Wine. The Department has determined...

  3. Suffrage Movement and the Subversion of the ‘Juridico-Discursive’ Power in the Victorian Period: Elizabeth Robins and The Concept of 'New Women'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Najar


    Full Text Available This paper examines the socio-historical subversion of ‘juridico-discursive’ power in the late Victorian period. It briefly investigates the rise of the British suffrage movement and highlights the role of ‘suffrage drama’ as its social apparatus. The authors demonstrate how suffrage artists, especially the playwright/actress Elizabeth Robins, acted against the dominant patriarchal hegemony and were in frontline of social uprisings. It is argued that ‘Suffrage drama’ as a ‘place of tolerance’ functioned as an antithesis to the mainstream theatre and challenged the conventional dramatic forms practiced prior to its birth. Suffrage drama provided a space for women to have their collective voice heard in a social and political context in the early Victorian era. Elizabeth Robins, mostly acknowledged for enacting women heroines of Ibsen’s plays, became an invaluable inspirational figure for suffrage women as she was the actress in whom the strong concept of the ‘New Woman’ was incarnated.

  4. Elizabeth II uus kunstigalerii

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Tähistamaks oma troonile asumise 50. aastapäeva, avab Elizabeth II 6. II 2002 Buckinghami palees uue kunstigalerii, mis ehitatakse palee tiibhoonena. Arhitekt John Simpson. Elizabeth II kunstikogust

  5. ACHP | News | St. Elizabeths Programmatic Agreement Signed (United States)

    Search skip specific nav links Home arrow News arrow St. Elizabeths Programmatic Agreement Signed St redevelopment of the St. Elizabeths West Campus, which is part of the St. Elizabeths National Historic Landmark this project, due to the historic significance of the NHL. GSA's client for the St. Elizabeths

  6. Elizabeth Boynton Harbert and the Woman Suffrage Movement, 1870-1896. (United States)

    Buechler, Steven M.


    The Woman Suffrage Movement experienced ideological changes so that earlier and later suffragists had different views. Elizabeth Boynton Harbert was one reformer who first criticized female socialization and the system of separate spheres. Later her views became more sentimental and she idealized the traditional role of women. (VM)

  7. Elizabeths ›deutsch-englischer‹ Garten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, Vera


    Dieser Aufsatz interpretiert Elizabeth von Arnims 1898 erschienenen autobiografischen Roman Elizabeth und ihr Garten als Porträt der deutsch-englischen Kulturbeziehungen der Kaiserzeit. Hierbei spielt der hybridisierte Natur- und Kulturraum des Gartens eine Schlüsselrolle, da er den politischen S...

  8. Type specimens in the Port Elizabeth Museum, South Africa, including the historically important Albany Museum collection. Part 1: Amphibians. (United States)

    Conradie, Werner; Branch, William R; Watson, Gillian


    The Port Elizabeth Museum houses the consolidated herpetological collections of three provincial museums of the Eastern Cape, South Africa: the Port Elizabeth Museum (Port Elizabeth), the Amatole (previously Kaffarian) Museum (King Williams Town), and the Albany Museum (Grahamstown). Under John Hewitt, Albany Museum was the main centre of herpetological research in South Africa from 1910-1940, and he described numerous new species, many based on material in the museum collection. The types and other material from the Albany Museum are now incorporated into the Port Elizabeth Museum Herpetology collection (PEM). Due to the vague typification of much of Hewitt's material, the loss of the original catalogues in a fire and the subsequent deterioration of specimen labels, the identification of this type material is often troublesome. Significant herpetological research has been undertaken at the PEM in the last 35 years, and the collection has grown to be the third largest in Africa. During this period, numerous additional types have been deposited in the PEM collection, generated by active taxonomic research in the museum. As a consequence, 43 different amphibian taxa are represented by 37 primary and 151 secondary type specimens in the collection. This catalogue provides the first documentation of these types. It provides the original name, the original publication date, journal number and pagination, reference to illustrations, current name, museum collection number, type locality, notes on the type status, and photographs of all holotypes and lectotypes. Where necessary to maintain nomenclatural stability, and where confused type series are housed in the PEM collection, lectotypes and paralectotypes are nominated.

  9. Gender, culture, and astrophysical fieldwork: Elizabeth Campbell and the Lick Observatory-Crocker eclipse expeditions. (United States)

    Pang, A. S.-K.

    The article is organized as follows. It begins with an overview of women in nineteenth-century American science. It then describes the culture of mountaintop observatories and life on Mount Hamilton. Elizabeth Campbell's unique role in the Crocker-Lick expeditions drew upon her equally unique role in the observatory, and also on the meaning given to women's work in general on the mountain. The bulk of the article focuses on the Campbells and their expeditions to India in 1898, Spain in 1905, and the South Pacific in 1908. The third section compares the Lick Observatory expeditions to those conducted by David Todd of Amherst College. Todd's wife, Mabel Loomis Todd, went into the field several times with her husband, but her place in the field was radically different from Elizabeth Campbell's, a difference that can be ascribed to a combination of local culture and personality. Finally, it compares American expeditions to British expeditions of the period, to see what the absence of British women on expeditions can tell us about the way national scientific styles and cultures affected gender roles in science.

  10. Lesson Plans for "Not for Ourselves Alone: The Story of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony." (United States)

    Prososki, Lisa; Krouse, Judith; Harper, Judith E.

    These lesson plans for high school students were developed to accompany the documentary film by Ken Burns and Paul Barnes which tells the story of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony and their lifelong fight for women's rights. In the lessons students write editorials about women's rights around the world today, interview senior citizens…

  11. 78 FR 24071 - Safety Zone; Pasquotank River; Elizabeth City, NC (United States)


    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Pasquotank River; Elizabeth City, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary... Pasquotank River in Elizabeth City, NC in support of the Fireworks display for the Potato Festival. This... Guard is establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of Pasquotank River in Elizabeth City, NC...

  12. 78 FR 66265 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Elizabeth River, Eastern Branch, Norfolk, VA (United States)


    ... Operation Regulation; Elizabeth River, Eastern Branch, Norfolk, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice... Elizabeth River Eastern Branch, mile 1.1, at Norfolk, VA. This deviation is necessary to facilitate... maintenance. The Norfolk Southern 5 railroad Bridge, at mile 1.1, across the Elizabeth River (Eastern Branch...

  13. The Port Elizabeth Electric Tramway Case: Is the Meaning Ascribed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Port Elizabeth Electric Tramway Case: Is the Meaning Ascribed to the Phrase “In the Production of the Income” By Watermeyer AJP in the Port Elizabeth Electric Tramway Case Still Religiously Followed Today?

  14. Book review of "The estrogen elixir: A history of hormone replacement therapy in America" by Elizabeth Siegel Watkins (United States)

    Sonnenschein, Carlos


    "The Estrogen elixir: A history of hormone replacement therapy in America" by Elizabeth Siegel Watkins is a thoroughly documented cautionary tale of the information and advice offered to women in the perimenopausal period of their life, and the consequences of exposure to sexual hormones on their health and wellbeing.

  15. Elizabeth Belle's Birth Story. (United States)

    Boro, Jessica; Boro, Samuel


    In this article, Jessica and Samuel Boro share the story of the birth of their daughter, Elizabeth Belle. With the physical and emotional support of her husband and her doula, this mother was able to cope with a long labor and have the natural birth she wanted. Her husband describes how important the doula was for him.

  16. Book review of The Estrogen Elixir: A History of Hormone Replacement Therapy in America by Elizabeth Siegel Watkins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonnenschein Carlos


    Full Text Available Abstract The Estrogen Elixir: A History of Hormone Replacement Therapy in America by Elizabeth Siegel Watkins is a thoroughly documented cautionary tale of the information and advice offered to women in the perimenopausal period of their life, and the consequences of exposure to sexual hormones on their health and wellbeing.

  17. Elizabeth Eleanor Siddall (1829-1862)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherry, D.; Prettejohn, E.


    This essay considers Elizabeth Siddall (1829-1862) as an artist, focusing on the striking, deep-toned watercolours and line drawings that she produced in the mid-1850s. It is argued that her archaising art, with their subjects drawn from British ballads and with their blocks of vivid, strong colour

  18. InterClone hotell / Elizabeth Diller, Ricardo Scofidio

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Diller, Elizabeth


    Reklaamikampaania fiktiivsele hotelliketile. Algne installatsioon Attatürki lennujaamas Istanbuli biennaalil 1997. Autorid ameerika arhitektid Elizabeth Diller ja Ricardo Scofidio (büroo Diller + Scofidio). 4 ill.

  19. Elizabeth II / Fagira D. Morti

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fagira D. Morti, pseud., 1974-


    Järjejutt Elizabeth II elust. Järgneb nr. 80, lk. 30-33, nr. 81, lk. 30-32, nr. 82, lk. 34-36, nr. 83, lk. 34-37, nr. 84, lk. 42-45, nr. 85, lk. 36-38, 86, lk. 44-47, nr. 87, lk. 32-35. Nr. 86 ja 87 autor: Helene Wait

  20. Headache in the writings of Elizabeth Gaskell (1810-1865). (United States)

    Larner, A J


    Mrs Elizabeth Gaskell was a celebrated author of the Victorian era, a friend of both Charles Dickens and Charlotte Brontë and the latter's first biographer. References to headache in Mrs Gaskell's six major novels, published between 1848 and 1866 as well as some of her shorter fiction, have been collated. These multiple references suggest that Elizabeth Gaskell used headache as a narrative device, possibly based on her own experience of headache and that of female acquaintances, most notably Charlotte Brontë. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. Elizabeth Belle’s Birth Story (United States)

    Boro, Jessica; Boro, Samuel


    In this article, Jessica and Samuel Boro share the story of the birth of their daughter, Elizabeth Belle. With the physical and emotional support of her husband and her doula, this mother was able to cope with a long labor and have the natural birth she wanted. Her husband describes how important the doula was for him. PMID:25364215

  2. 76 FR 70345 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Elizabeth River, Eastern Branch, Norfolk, VA (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 [Docket No. USCG-2011-1022] Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Elizabeth River, Eastern Branch, Norfolk, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice... periodic maintenance. The Norfolk Southern 5 Bridge, at mile 1.1, across the Elizabeth River (Eastern...

  3. 78 FR 16816 - Television Broadcasting Services; Hampton-Norfolk, Virginia; Norfolk, Virginia-Elizabeth City... (United States)


    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 11-139; RM-11636; DA 13-258] Television Broadcasting Services; Hampton-Norfolk, Virginia; Norfolk, Virginia-Elizabeth City, North Carolina... modify its television station, WHRO-TV's license to specify Norfolk, Virginia-Elizabeth City, North...

  4. Queen elizabeth class battleships

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Les


    The 'ShipCraft' series provides in-depth information about building and modifying model kits of famous warship types. Lavishly illustrated, each book takes the modeller through a brief history of the subject class, highlighting differences between sister-ships and changes in their appearance over their careers. This includes paint schemes and camouflage, featuring colour profiles and highly detailed line drawings and scale plans. The modelling section reviews the strengths and weaknesses of available kits, lists commercial accessory sets for super-detailing of the ships, and provides hints on modifying and improving the basic kit. This is followed by an extensive photographic survey of selected high-quality models in a variety of scales, and the book concludes with a section on research references - books, monographs, large-scale plans and relevant websites.This volume covers the five ships of the highly successful Queen Elizabeth class, a design of fast battleship that set the benchmark for the last generati...

  5. 77 FR 37319 - Safety Zone for Fifth Coast Guard District Fireworks Display Pasquotank River; Elizabeth City, NC (United States)


    ...-AA00 Safety Zone for Fifth Coast Guard District Fireworks Display Pasquotank River; Elizabeth City, NC... the Pasquotank River, Elizabeth City, North Carolina. The fireworks display ordinarily originated from... vessel traffic in a portion of the Pasquotank River, Elizabeth City, North Carolina, during the event...

  6. Elizabeth Brown (1830-1899), solar astronomer (United States)

    Creese, M.


    Were it not for the fact that she was a woman, Elizabeth Brown might well be thought of as a fairly typical nineteenth-century British amateur astronomer. She has a place, although a relatively modest one, in the distinguished group of people who, with their own fortunes, carried out much of the astronomical research being done in the country at a time before extensive government support was forthcoming for the work.1 Her career in fact follows a pattern common to several of the nineteenth-century men astronomers in that her full productive period came only after she was freed from her primary responsibilities; she did not have to amass the necessary financial resources as did many of the men,2 but she had the time-consuming responsibility, not unusual for a Victorian woman, of caring for a parent through a lengthy old age. Only after her father died at the age of ninety-one, did Elizabeth, then in her early fifties, begin her sixteen years of remarkable public activity in astronomy.

  7. Female Factory Workers in Charlotte Elizabeth Tonna’s Quest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Carla


    Full Text Available Female workers represent a fundamental component of the workforce to the extent that it is true that the Industrial Revolution owes them a huge debt. However, despite the unfair exploitation of many women in factories in which conditions resembled manslaughter, they have been often neglected and reduced to liminal characters by Victorian novelists. An interesting exception in the early Victorian period is represented by the writer Charlotte Elizabeth Tonna, whose fiction works as a medium of social criticism. Her semi-fictional The Wrongs of Woman is a reform novel which sheds a controversial light on female working conditions. On the one hand she indeed deplores the inhuman treatment of female labourers, but on the other hand she also argues that female employment provokes a consequent increase in male unemployment! My paper aims to investigate the role of Tonna’s text and her attempt to alleviate working-class suffering.

  8. Elizabeth II üle Diana ja Tony / Kristiina Davidjants

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Davidjants, Kristiina, 1974-


    Stephen Frearsi mängufilm "Kuninganna" ("The Queen") : stsenarist Peter Morgan : kuninganna Elizabeth II kehastab Helen Mirren peaminister Tony Blair'i Michael Sheen: Suurbritannia - Ameerika Ühendriigid - Itaalia 2006

  9. Presentation of child sexual abuse cases to Queen Elizabeth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    presenting to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH),. Blantyre ... American guidelines recommend HIV PEP for children after ..... reactions, poor social support and traumatic associations ... However animal models of PEP have shown.

  10. 76 FR 582 - Elizabeth Hartwell Mason Neck National Wildlife Refuge, Fairfax County, VA, and Featherstone... (United States)


    ...] Elizabeth Hartwell Mason Neck National Wildlife Refuge, Fairfax County, VA, and Featherstone National... comprehensive conservation plan and the environmental assessment (CCP/EA) for Elizabeth Hartwell Mason Neck (Mason Neck) National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) and Featherstone NWR for a 45-day public review and comment...

  11. 76 FR 59153 - Elizabeth Hartwell Mason Neck National Wildlife Refuge, Fairfax County, VA, and Featherstone... (United States)


    ...] Elizabeth Hartwell Mason Neck National Wildlife Refuge, Fairfax County, VA, and Featherstone National... plan (CCP) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) for Elizabeth Hartwell Mason Neck (Mason Neck...: Download a copy of the document at

  12. Liz’s Bali Journey Ends In Love In Elizabeth Gilbert’s Novel “Eat Pray Love”


    Simanjuntak, Lenni


    This paper entitled "Liz's Bali Love Ends with Love in Elizabeth Gilbert's Eat Pray Love". There are three main characters in the novel, namely: Elizabeth Gilbert, Felipe and Ketut Liyer. Elizabeth Gilbert is 31-year-old who is a widow and worked as a writer in New York. Liz experienced hard times after having broken up several times and felt could never find a man who is match for her. All this makes her to search her true identity. Liz traveled alone across in the three countries. Although ...

  13. Soovin Eesti rahvale õnne ja edu / kuninganna Elizabeth II

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Elizabeth II, 1926-


    Ilmunud ka: Postimees 20. okt. lk. 17, Koit 21. okt. lk. 6, Postimees : na russkom jazõke 23. okt. lk. 7. Kuninganna Elizabeth II kõne riiklikul õhtusöögil 19. oktoobril Tallinnas Mustpeade majas


    Shepard, Alexandra


    Taking a micro-historical approach, this paper explores the business activities of Elizabeth Carter and Elizabeth Hatchett, two married women who operated together as pawnbrokers in London in the early decades of the eighteenth century. Based on a protracted inheritance dispute through which their extensive dealings come to light, the discussion assesses married women's lending and investment strategies in a burgeoning metropolitan economy; the networks through which women lenders operated; and the extent to which wives could sidestep the legal conventions of 'coverture' which restricted their ownership of moveable property. It is argued that the moneylending and asset management activities of women like Carter and Hatchett were an important part of married women's work that did not simply consolidate neighbourhood ties but that placed them at the heart of the early modern economy.

  15. Twenty-Five Years and Counting of "Sweet Valley": Jessica and Elizabeth in Romance Novels for Young Children? (United States)

    Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth


    With the 2008 reissue of Francine Pascal's (1983) "Sweet Valley High", the popular cultural icons of twins Jessica and Elizabeth have been revitalized. Jessica and Elizabeth are the much-beloved protagonists in romance novels strategically targeted for young adults in "Sweet Valley High" or "Sweet Valley U", and for first- and second-grade readers…

  16. Briti kuninganna Elizabeth II Eesti-visiidil lasub saladuseloor / Priit Rajalo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rajalo, Priit, 1975-


    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 30. jaan. lk. 2-3. Buckinghami palee teatas 25. jaanuaril, et Briti kuninganna Elizabeth II tuleb koos oma abikaasa Edinburghi hertsogi prints Philipiga oktoobris riigivisiidile Eestisse, Lätti ja Leetu. Lisa: Kõrged külalised

  17. J. M. Coetzee’s unsettling portrayals of Elizabeth Costello = Os retratos vexatórios de J. M. Coetzee sobre Elizabeth Costello

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Giovannelli


    Full Text Available This paper addresses the vexed question of animal and human rights byfocusing on Coetzee’s ‘trilogy’ connected with Elizabeth Costello’s lecturing and experiencing, from her anti-Cartesian stances and sympathetic imagination advocated in The lives of animals, through the eight lessons which she frantically goes over and delivers like a ‘circus seal’, or even happens to be taught (in Elizabeth Costello, up to Slow man, where she turns into the waspish, vulpine ‘Costello woman’ preying on tortoise-like Paul Rayment. As such a debasing hybridization may already suggest, the committed intellectual shall lose track of her formerly heated debates on animals as ‘embodied souls’ and divinely created beings to be held in great respect, to enter a region of ethical ambivalence where biological and axiological boundaries are deviously blurred. Textual evidence andcommentaries on Coetzee’s fictional world and thematic concerns are provided to single out the stages of this unsettling metamorphosis, a process through which Costello wavers between Franciscan self-effacement and dictatorial omniscience. In the upshot, the striving after a recognition of animal dignity is seemingly supplanted by a debasement of the human person into a pet or a beast, as though she had lost herself in a labyrinth of fumbling speculation.O problema vexatório sobre os direitos dos animais e das pessoas é analisado pela trilogia de Coetzee, ou seja, a partir das conferências e das experiências de Elizabeth Costello, nas quais propõe sua posição anticartesiana e sua imaginação simpatética defendida em The lives of animals, versando sobre as oito aulas que ela ministra como ‘uma foca circense’ ou até quando é tutelada (em Elizabeth Costello, até Slow man, onde se transforma na ‘fêmeaCostello’, uma loba que age como predadora junto ao lento Paul Rayment. Como a hibridização acima mencionada pode sugerir, o intelectual pode se esquecer dos

  18. Leadership: Subject to the State Personnel Act (SPA) Employee's Perceptions of Job Satisfaction at Elizabeth City State University (United States)

    Leary, Mary


    This evaluation was conducted at Elizabeth City State University (ECSU) in Elizabeth City, North Carolina, located approximately 40 miles south of the Virginia state line. ECSU, a historically Black institution of higher learning, was founded in 1891 and is one of 17 constituent universities in The University of North Carolina system. The…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sriastuti


    Full Text Available By not giving voice and value to women‘s opinions, responses and writings, men have therefore suppressed the female, define what it means to be feminine, and therefore devoiced, devalued, and trivialized what it means to be a woman. As femininity is mostly related to women for women are labeled as extensions of men, mirrors of men, devices for showing men off, and also devices for helping men get what they want, women‘s position is inferior to men. This study discusses the female‘s masculinities through the portrayal and life experiences of the main female characteristics, Anna Leonowens, as her protests against the Siamese patriarchal systems that abundant her life as a career woman and also the oppressed lives of Siamese women in Elizabeth Hand‘s novel Anna and the King. Feminism and Deconstructions approaches will be applied to analyze Leonowens‘ actions and reactions regarding to what Siamese patriarchal systems claim to be parts of masculine traits. Leonowens‘ nationality, cultural and educational backgrounds as well as positions play significant roles in the novel. By opposing Leonowens‘ ways of thinking to the King who represents the patriarchal system of Siam, Hand gives a new identity to women in struggling for gender equality in Siam.

  20. Helen Mirren võitis Elizabeth II rolliga brittide Oscari / Triin Tael

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tael, Triin


    Stephen Frearsi mängufilmis "Kuninganna" ("The Queen") kuninganna Elizabeth II kehastav Helen Mirren sai oma rolli eest parima naisnäitleja Bafta (Briti filmiakadeemia auhind). Linateos pälvis ka aasta parima filmi tiitli. Ka teistest võitjatest

  1. Reason vs Revelation: Feminism, Malthus, and the New Poor Law in Narratives by Harriet Martineau and Charlotte Elizabeth Tonna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Dzelzainis


    Full Text Available My article examines the profoundly influential presence of eighteenth-century stadial or ‘four stages' theory in industrial fiction of the early Victorian period. Axiomatic within this Enlightenment theory was the assumption that the treatment of women was a reliable index to the civilized status of any society. The two women writers studied here, Harriet Martineau (1802-76 and Charlotte Elizabeth Tonna (1790-1846, took opposing sides in the debate over Malthusian political economy and interpreted stadial theory in correspondingly different ways. Martineau's enthusiastic Malthusianism in the 'Illustrations of Political Economy '(1832-4 foresaw a feminist future brought about by illimitable progress and the spread of reason. With the deliberate aim of countering Martineau's views, the pre-Millenarian Evangelical Tonna asserted the truth of revelation in 'The Wrongs of Woman' (1843-4 and positioned women's domestic subordination as integral to England's continued pre-eminence as a commercial nation. This essay examines the religious, social and political grounds on which these two adversaries staked their arguments, and does so through an analysis of their fictional accounts of the status, role, and treatment of working women in an industrializing society.

  2. "Courageous, Zealous, Learned, Wise, and Chaste" - Queen Elizabeth I's Biblical Analogies After Her Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidan Norrie


    Full Text Available During her reign, Queen Elizabeth I of England was the subject of various biblical analogies. Much of the current historiography, however, does not continue analysis of these literary devices after the Queen's death in 1603. Primary source documents show that their use did not cease with the Queen's death. These analogies appear to have continued for two primary purposes. Analogies legitimised a questionable event that had occurred during Elizabeth's reign, and portrayed these decisions as an example for the current Protestant monarch to imitate. Also, in the years after the Queen's death, analogies reinforced England's Protestantism (and its divine sanction, and gave the Stuart monarchs an example to emulate in religio-political matters.

  3. Elizabeth II tervitas Briti ja Eesti sõjaväelasi / Allar Viivik, Katrin Rohtla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viivik, Allar


    Kuninganna Elizabeth II avas Eesti uue miinijahtija Admiral Cowani vapi ning kohtus Briti sõjalaeva Liverpool pardal Afganistanis võidelnud kaitseväelastega. Kuningannat saatis Eesti presidendipaar

  4. Reflections on the 1862 football match in Port Elizabeth | Hill | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The oldest recorded football match in South Africa was played in Port Elizabeth on 24 May 1862. This article explores the available evidence for this match before moving on to a more general discussion of three broader contexts in which the match was played. These contexts are contemporary football developments in ...

  5. The Famous Women Dinner Service: In Conversation with Contemporary Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Chicago


    Full Text Available This conversation between Judy Chicago, The Women’s Art League, and Hana Leaper, filmed by Jonathan Law at the Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art, Brooklyn Museum, will be published in early 2018. The participants will discuss the Famous Women Dinner Service in relation to contemporary artworks, focusing on The Dinner Party (Judy Chicago, 1974–79 and Vagina China (The Women’s Art League, 2016–present. Questions explored will include: the role of hospitality and domesticity in feminist art projects; the evolution of iconography as it relates to aesthetic freedom and the visibility of women and their bodies; the strategies of shared authorship and collective practice; and what each of the artworks discussed offers their respective eras in terms of confronting taboos associated with women and their histories.

  6. Women's Month 2006 to include a tribute concert to women composers


    Lazenby, Jenna


    Virginia Tech will commemorate Women's Month 2006 in March with a variety of events and programs. Festivities will include a special concert to be held Wednesday, March 1 at 8 p.m. in the Squires Student Center Recital Salon. This concert will pay tribute to 400 years of women composers by featuring performances by Virginia Tech faculty, students, and guests. Admission to the concert is free, though a free-will donation will be taken to support the work of the Women's Resource Center of the N...

  7. Towards a New Confessionalism: Elizabeth Jennings and Sylvia Plath


    Dowson, Jane


    Due to their self-disclosing manner, both Elizabeth Jennings (1926-2001) and Sylvia Plath (1932-63) have been labelled ‘confessional’ yet have markedly different life experiences and profiles in literary and popular imaginations. Jennings was born in Boston, Lincolnshire, and educated in Oxford where she lived for the rest of her life. She had a broken engagement then a relationship with a married man but never married or had children. Plath emigrated to Cambridge University from America in 1...

  8. Geochemical Characteristics of TP3 Mine Wastes at the Elizabeth Copper Mine Superfund Site, Orange County, Vermont (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R.; Briggs, Paul H.; Meier, Allen L.; Muzik, Timothy L.


    Remediation of the Elizabeth mine Superfund site in the Vermont copper belt poses challenges for balancing environmental restoration goals with issues of historic preservation while adopting cost-effective strategies for site cleanup and long-term maintenance. The waste-rock pile known as TP3, at the headwaters of Copperas Brook, is especially noteworthy in this regard because it is the worst source of surface- and ground-water contamination identified to date, while also being the area of greatest historical significance. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study of the historic mine-waste piles known as TP3 at the Elizabeth mine Superfund site near South Strafford, Orange County, VT. TP3 is a 12.3-acre (49,780 m2) subarea of the Elizabeth mine site. It is a focus area for historic preservation because it encompasses an early 19th century copperas works as well as waste from late 19th- and 20th century copper mining (Kierstead, 2001). Surface runoff and seeps from TP3 form the headwaters of Copperas Brook. The stream flows down a valley onto flotation tailings from 20th century copper mining operations and enters the West Branch of the Ompompanoosuc River approximately 1 kilometer downstream from the mine site. Shallow drinking water wells down gradient from TP3 exceed drinking water standards for copper and cadmium (Hathaway and others, 2001). The Elizabeth mine was listed as a Superfund site in 2001, mainly because of impacts of acid-mine drainage on the Ompompanoosuc River.

  9. 76 FR 54189 - Television Broadcasting Services; Hampton-Norfolk, Virginia; Norfolk, Virginia-Elizabeth City, NC (United States)


    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Hampton-Norfolk, Virginia; Norfolk, Virginia-Elizabeth City, NC AGENCY... licensee of noncommercial educational television station WHRO-TV, channel *16, Hampton-Norfolk, Virginia... freeze on the filing of television allotment rulemaking petitions, but since HRETA'S proposal...

  10. Bathymetry of the waters surrounding the Elizabeth Islands, Massachusetts (United States)

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Andrews, Brian D.; Ackerman, Seth D.; Twichell, Dave


    The Elizabeth Islands in Massachusetts that separate Vineyard Sound from Buzzards Bay are the remnants of a moraine (unconsolidated glacial sediment deposited at an ice sheet margin; Oldale and O’Hara, 1984). The most recent glacial ice retreat in this region occurred between 25,000 and 20,000 years ago, and the subsequent rise in sea level that followed deglaciation caused differences in the seafloor character between Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound. The relatively rough seafloor of Vineyard Sound reflects widespread exposure of glacial material. Shoals mark the location of recessional ice contact material, and deep channels illustrate where meltwater drainage incised glacial deposits. Following ice retreat from the Elizabeth Islands, a glacial lake formed across the mouth of Buzzards Bay, when the lake drained, it scoured two deep channels at the southern end of the bay. Sea level rise began to inundate Vineyard Sound and Buzzards Bay about 8,000 years ago and continues to modify the modern seafloor (Robb and Oldale, 1977). Fine-grained marine and estuarine sediments were deposited in the partially protected setting of Buzzards Bay. These deposits, up to 10 meters in thickness, buried the high-relief glacial landscape and created the generally smooth modern seafloor. In contrast, the Vineyard Sound of today experiences strong tidal currents, which largely prevent the deposition of fine-grained material and constantly rework the glacial sand and gravel within shoals. The seafloor of the sound largely reflects the contours of the ancient glaciated landscape that existed before sea level began to rise. The bathymetric data used to create the hillshaded relief image of the seafloor were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management and supplemented with National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration hydrographic survey data. The map shows the detailed bathymetry of Buzzards Bay and Vineyard

  11. [Elizabeth Fee: a historian reaching out to wider audiences]. (United States)

    Hochman, Gilberto; Benchimol, Jamie; Wegner, Liene; Azevedo, Nara; Romero Sá, Magali; Martins, Ruth B


    To what activities and topics does a historian in health and medicine, whose articles and books have become fundamental references for scholars of the area, devote her time? Feminism, counter-culture, medical education, global health, the role of international health organizations, and knowledge sharing in the health history are some of the subjects Elizabeth Fee addresses in this interview given at Fiocruz in April where she presented the 2006 inaugural class to the Graduate Program in History of Health Sciences at Casa de Oswaldo Cruz. The topic of her lecture was "The World Health Organization and AIDS: what can we learn from history?"

  12. Elizabeth Bowen, Modernism, and the Spectre of Anglo-Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F. Wurtz


    Full Text Available The recent scholarly focus on Elizabeth Bowen’s modernism tends to reinforce a false dichotomy between Bowen as an Ascendancy Big House novelist and Bowen as a literary modernist. In keeping with Jameson’s argument that the colonial experience is at the root of Western modernism, I propose that her representations of Anglo-Irish Big House culture, in The Last September in particular, are in fact focal points for understanding Bowen as a modernist, and I argue that the Gothic, with its unavoidable political and colonial resonances, is fundamental to Bowen’s Irish modernism.

  13. Survey of industrial noise in Port Elizabeth. (United States)

    Lane, J L


    The amendment to the Factories, Machinery and Building Work Act of 1941 in regard to hearing conservation is outlined. A survey by the Port Elizabeth Deaf Association on workmen from Cadbury (Pty) Ltd was undertaken in 1973 and on a second group in 1974 and the results are published and discussed. Although the numbers of workmen were small, the results suggest that widespread testing will unearth many cases of unsuspected hearing loss. The implications as applied to industry at large are discussed and the difficulties in adequately assessing large numbers of workmen with adequately trained audiometric testers are stressed. A suggestion is made that mobile clinics under the control of Chambers of Industries would be the most efficient way of approaching the screening problem, and an estimated cost structure in the setting up of such a clinic is introduced.

  14. The Unsung Past: Afro-American Women Writers of 19th Century. (United States)

    Simson, Renate

    Pointing to the widespread neglect afforded to the works of nineteenth century Afro-American women authors, this paper discusses, and presents excerpts from, the works of many of these authors to show the types of concerns they wrote about. Among the works discussed are the following: the slave narratives of Harriet Jacobs and Elizabeth Keckley;…

  15. Effects of rotation of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] crops on soil fertility in Elizabeth, Mississippi, USA


    H.A., Reddy, K. and Pettigrew, W.T.


    The effects of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.): soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation on the soil fertility levels are limited. An irrigated soybean: cotton rotation experiment was conducted from 2012 through 2015 near Elizabeth, Mississippi, USA. The crop rotation sequences were included continuous cotton (CCCC), continuous soybean (SSSS), cotton-soybean-cotton-soybean (CSCS), cotton-soybean-soybean-cotton (CSSC), soybean-cotton-cotton-soybean (SCCS), soybean-cotton-soybean-cotton (SCSC)....

  16. [Dr. Elizabeth Ross: heroine and victim of the World War I in Serbia]. (United States)

    Mikić, Želimir; Lešić, Aleksandar


    At the beginning of 1915, several months after the World War I started, Serbia was in an extremely difficult situation.The country was war-ravaged, full of sick and wounded soldiers, there was a desperate shortage of doctors, nurses and other medical personnel, and the epidemic of typhus fever exploded and violently attacked the entire country. At that time, however, a number of both foreign allied medical missions and individual volunteers, from various countries, mostly from Great Britain, came to Serbia to help. Among them mostly were women, and they were of enormous support to Serbia in that grave situation. It is estimated that there were more than 600 foreign women volunteers in Serbia at that time and that 22 of them died there. Dr. Elizabeth Ross was one of those brave volunteers who came to Serbia early in 1915. That noble Scottish lady doctor was born in 1878 and finished her medical studies at the University of Glasgow in 1901. After graduation she worked in various places in Great Britain until 1909, when she went to Persia (Iran), where she worked until the beginning of the so called Great War. When she heard of the urgent need in Serbia she left Persia as soon as she could and volunteered to serve in Serbia. She came to Kragujevac at the beginning of January 1915, where she worked at the First Military Reserve Hospital, which at that time was actually a typhus hospital. Working there intensively and devotedly for several weeks under shocking conditions she contracted typhus herself and died there on her 37th birthday on February 14th, 1915. She was buried in Kragujevac, next to two British ladies who also died in Serbia of typhus. Her grave was restored in 1980 when the town of Kragujevac started holding commemorations at the graveside every February 14th at noon to honor her and all other brave and noble women who lost their lives helping Serbia at that unfortunate time.

  17. Obituary: Elizabeth Katherine Holmes, 1973-2004 (United States)

    Beichman, Charles Arnold


    Elizabeth (Beth) K. Holmes died suddenly in Pasadena on March 23, 2004, from the unexpected effects of a long-standing heart condition. She was 30 years old. At the moment of her passing, she was at her computer comparing her theoretical models on the effects of planets on the distribution of zodiacal dust with some of the first observations from the Spitzer Space Telescope. Born on June 24, 1973, in New York City, Beth was the only child of James and Barbara Holmes, who were respectively, a financial manager and a nurse and social worker. Undeterred by numerous treatments and operations to correct a congenital heart condition, Beth developed an interest in math and physics leading to her graduation from MIT in 1995 with a bachelor's degree in Physics. She entered the University of Florida shortly afterwards to begin her PhD studies under the direction of Stanley Dermott. Beth was particularly interested in the dynamics of interplanetary dust, and initially worked on secular perturbations of the zodiacal cloud: how the planets impose warping of the cloud, and how they can force the center of the cloud to be offset from the Sun. Despite the fact that Beth was primarily a theorist, she was keen to include some observing experience in her PhD education. She recently completed an observing program with Harold Butner at the Steward and Palomar Observatories looking for submillimeter and mid-infrared emission around nearby main-sequence stars - a signpost of planetary formation. The results were published last year in the Astronomical Journal. Beth's PhD thesis work, some results of which were recently published in the Astrophysical Journal, focused on dust originating in the Kuiper belt and how some of this dust is expected to be spatially structured due to resonant interactions with Neptune. This phenomenon may be quite common in other planetary systems, with recent images of Epsilon Eridani perhaps providing a prime example of a Kuiper disk analog. After graduating

  18. Re-Creation in the Age of Wisdom : Involuntary Job Transition in Women over 50

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyon-Dugin, Frances E.


    Re-Creation in the Age of Wisdom: Involuntary Job Transition in Women over 50 Frances Elizabeth Lyon-Dugin A large share of our time with each other is centered around employment or ‘work’, however we define it. A time of transition between jobs, especially when a job is lost through no choice of

  19. Misoprostol en la inducción del parto. Experiencias en el Queen Elizabeth II Hospital de Maseru, Lesotho Misoprostol (Cytotec for artificial delivery. Experiences at Queen Elizabeth II Hospital from Maseru, Lesotho*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Pascual López


    Full Text Available La inducción del parto con misoprostol es un procedimiento médico reconocido por la Organización Mundial de la Salud como práctica clínica beneficiosa para la madre y el perinato y, por ello, los autores de este trabajo se propusieron sistematizar su aplicación por vía vaginal, en dosis de 50 µg (máxima de 200 µg e intervalos de 4 horas, en gestantes seleccionadas (n= 468 con criterio de interrupción médica del embarazo, ingresadas y tratadas en el Hospital Queen Elizabeth II -- institución de referencia nacional -- de Maseru, capital de Lesotho. Se considera que las experiencias y resultados obtenidos pueden ser de apreciable utilidad para los colegas que en circunstancias y condiciones similares, brinden atención médica internacionalista, puesto que la inducción del parto con ese producto fue altamente efectiva, por cuanto disminuyó el índice de cesáreas; mostró muy buen pronóstico de vida y salud, según puntaje de Apgar al quinto minuto, morbilidad y mortalidad del peripato, así como también garantizó que la morbilidad materna se correspondiera con el patrón de la población obstétrica en general y que no se produjeran defunciones.Artificial abortion using Misoprostol is a medical procedure recognized by the World Health Organization as a clinical practice that benefits both the mother and the neonate. That is why the authors of the present work proposed to systematize its vaginal application using doses of 50 µg (200 µg as maximum and time periods of 4 hours in pregnant women (n= 468 who were chosen under the criterion of medical pregnancy interruption and hospitalized and treated at Queen Elizabeth II Hospital -- a national reference institution -- from Maseru, capital of Lesotho. Experiences and results obtained are considered of high usefulness for colleagues who, under similar conditions and circumstances, provide international medical care. Artificial abortion using this product was highly effective; thus

  20. (Un)Making Sex, Making Race: Nineteenth-Century Liberalism, Difference, and the Rhetoric of Elizabeth Cady Stanton (United States)

    Poirot, Kristan


    Elizabeth Cady Stanton has been celebrated for her astute rhetorical contributions to woman's rights advocacy and highly criticized for her racist and elitist sentiments about citizenship and the franchise. Although there appears to be a discontinuity between Cady Stanton's commitment to (sexual) equality and her racism/elitism, this tension is…

  1. Telling About Southern Fluctuations: Elizabeth Spencer at the Back Door

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    Gérald PRÉHER


    Full Text Available Le troisième roman d’Elizabeth Spencer, The Voice at the Back Door (1956, appartient à son cycle du Mississippi. Il traite des relations raciales et de la violence sudiste, deux thèmes qui n’avaient pas bonne presse à cette époque puisque le mouvement pour les droits civiques débutait. Le roman rappelle L’intrus (1948 de Faulkner en ce qu’il met en scène la recherche du coupable du meurtre d’un homme blanc. Cet article analyse la façon dont Spencer dépeint les manières du Sud en s’interrogeant sur les relations raciales. Le roman est également lu dans le contexte de sa publication puisque Spencer fut perçue comme une traîtresse par les Sudistes. Spencer utilise des sujets impopulaires pour révéler le paradoxe au cœur de la manière de vivre sudiste et montre combien le passé se rejoue constamment dans le présent.Elizabeth Spencer’s third novel, The Voice at the Back Door (1956, is part of her Mississippi cycle. It deals with race relations and southern violence, two highly controversial issues at the time since the Civil Rights Movements were beginning. The novel, reminiscent of William Faulkner’s Intruder in the Dust (1948, stages the search for a culprit after the murder of a white man. This paper focuses on Spencer’s portrait of southern manners and interracial relationships and analyzes the novel in the context of its publication. It will show that Spencer uses unpopular topics to expose the paradox at the core of the southern way of life and show that the past is constantly reenacted in the present.

  2. How to market an affiliation. St. Elizabeth Hospital and Mercy Medical Center affiliate to create Affinity Health System. (United States)


    When Wisconsin's St. Elizabeth Hospital and Mercy Medical Center affiliated to create Affinity Health System, Inc., strategic planning and a solid marketing plan carefully executed were instrumental in its success. A corporate identity campaign and product line identification were follow-up phases to the merger approval.

  3. Cuando la musa pinta y escribe: Elizabeth Bishop y las pintoras surrealistas



    Este ensayo explora las afinidades entre la poesía de Elizabeth Bishop y la obra de diversas pintoras surrealistas a la luz de la problemática de género asociada al machismo de los surrealistas. Un estudio de las afinidades entre Bishop y estas pintoras nos muestra cómo recurrieron a una serie de estrategias de subversión comunes dentro de la mal disimulada réplica del patriarcado social que crearon los surrealistas. Su búsqueda de una madurez artística las condujo a una poética doblemente su...

  4. 76 FR 30827 - Temporary Change of Dates for Recurring Marine Event in the Fifth Coast Guard District; Elizabeth... (United States)


    ...-AA08 Temporary Change of Dates for Recurring Marine Event in the Fifth Coast Guard District; Elizabeth River, Norfolk, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will... various river boat races and a parade during the ``35th Annual Norfolk Harborfest Celebration.'' Special...

  5. Elizabeth Bishop and the Poetry of Meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Matthew Wilson


    Full Text Available Elizabeth Bishop’s poetry has won the admiration of a number of Christian poets and scholars. This essay argues that one reason for this is Bishop’s subtle engagement with the work of the poet-divines Gerard Manley Hopkins and, especially, George Herbert; through their influence, she enters into the guiding western poetic tradition of the meditative lyric, which is rooted in the Platonic and Christian accounts of the human person as an image of the Triune God in virtue of the mind as a trinity of memory, understanding, and will. Bishop practiced poetry as a moral act open to a divinity it cannot account for or even name, but traces of whose significance run through the world her poems depict. By considering her work, and her poem “The Weed” in particular, in the context of Herbert, the historical studies of Louis L. Martz, and the literary theory of Yvor Winters, we see that Bishop the unbeliever cannot properly be understood as a “secular” poet, but as one who recognizes the meditative lyric as a way of arriving at understanding of a truth that transcends us.

  6. Lessons learned from early implementation of option B+: the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation experience in 11 African countries. (United States)

    Kieffer, Mary Pat; Mattingly, Meghan; Giphart, Anja; van de Ven, Roland; Chouraya, Caspian; Walakira, Moses; Boon, Alexandre; Mikusova, Silvia; Simonds, R J


    "Option B+" is a World Health Organization-recommended approach to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission whereby all HIV-positive pregnant and lactating women initiate lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART). This review of early Option B+ implementation experience is intended to inform Ministries of Health and others involved in implementing Option B+. This implementation science study analyzed data from 11 African countries supported by the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation (EGPAF) to describe early experience implementing Option B+. Data are from 4 sources: (1) national guidelines for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission and Option B+ implementation plans, (2) aggregated service delivery data between January 2013 and March 2014 from EGPAF-supported sites, (3) field visits to Option B+ implementation sites, and (4) relevant EGPAF research, quality improvement, and evaluation studies. Rapid adoption of Option B+ led to large increases in percentage of HIV-positive pregnant women accessing ART in antenatal care. By the end of 2013, most programs reached at least 50% of HIV-positive women in antenatal care with ART, even in countries using a phased approach to implementation. Scaling up Option B+ through integrating ART in maternal and child health settings has required expansion of the workforce, and task shifting to allow nurse-led ART initiation has created staffing pressure on lower-level cadres for counseling and community follow-up. Complex data collection needs may be impairing data quality. Early experiences with Option B+ implementation demonstrate promise. Continued program evaluation is needed, as is specific attention to counseling and support around initiation of lifetime ART in the context of pregnancy and lactation.

  7. Characteristics of HIV-infected childbearing women in Barbados Características de las mujeres con infección por VIH que dan a luz en Barbados


    Alok Kumar; Valmay Bent


    OBJECTIVE: To describe the demographic profile, social and family characteristics, and life style traits of HIV-infected childbearing women in the Caribbean nation of Barbados in comparison to a control group of HIV-negative women. METHODS: Data for this report were drawn from the Pediatrics HIV Surveillance Program of the Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Barbados. The data covered all HIV-infected women in the country who delivered between 1986-2000, with similar data coming from a control group ...

  8. Including women in work | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Jun 13, 2017 ... ... near the production site to limit their travel to and from work, and she designed a ... Counting Women's Work found that the time women and girls spend ... the creation of jobs based on the real needs of women and families.

  9. Women convicted of a sexual offence, including child pornography production: two case reports. (United States)

    Prat, S; Bertsch, I; Chudzik, L; Réveillère, Ch


    All available studies addressing the clinical and legal aspects of child pornography have systematically concerned male abusers. The social lens through which women are viewed tends to play down their responsibility in the sexual abuse of children. Unlike men, women rarely abuse children outside the close or family circle. Furthermore, they have frequently been abused themselves in their childhood. To our knowledge, no cases of women charged with sex-related offences, including child pornography, have been described in the literature. The psychopathological characteristics of female sexual abusers and of the two women in our cases tend to suggest that the deliberate downloading of child pornography images by women is unusual, as their deviant behaviour is not related to paedophile sexual arousal It is hypothesized that the act enables women perpetrators to satisfy the sexual urges of their spouse. Sexual abuse by women exists, but the nature of the abuse appears to be specific to the gender of the perpetrator. We present two cases of women charged with sexual offences concerning minors, including the production of child pornography material. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  10. Adherence to hand hygiene protocol by clinicians and medical students at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre-Malawi. (United States)

    Kalata, N L; Kamange, L; Muula, A S


    While communicable diseases are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Malawi, the contribution of nosocomial or hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) is unknown but could be substantial. The single most important method of preventing nosocomial infections is hand hygiene. We report a study which was conducted in 2011 to investigate adherence to hand hygiene protocols by clinicians and medical students working at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital in Blantyre, Malawi. There were two parts to the study: a single blinded arm in which participants were observed without their knowledge by trained nurses; and a second arm which included self-completion of questionnaire after participant consent was obtained. The 2009 World Health Organization hand hygiene technique and recommendations which were adopted by Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital were used to define an opportunity for hand washing and effectiveness of hand washing. Hand hygiene effectiveness was defined as adherence to at least 6 out of 7 steps (80%) of the hand hygiene technique when using alcohol-based formulation or at least 8 out of 10 steps (80%) of the hand hygiene technique when using water and soap formulation before and after having direct contact with patients or their immediate surroundings. Clinicians were found to have disinfected their hands more than medical students (phand sanitizer and hand hygiene practice (p=0.3). Adherence to hand hygiene was found to be 23%. Most of the participants mentioned infection transmission prevention as a reason for disinfecting their hands. Other reasons mentioned included: a routine personal hand hygiene behaviour and discomfort if not washing hands. The top three reasons why they did not disinfect hands were forgetfulness, unavailability of sanitizers and negligence. Adherence to hand hygiene practice was found to be low, with forgetfulness and negligence being the major contributing factors. A hospital-wide multifaceted program aiming at clinicians and

  11. Ethics at War: Review of Elizabeth Scannell-Desch and Mary Ellen Doherty, Nurses in War: Voices from Iraq and Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillespie, Leigh-Anne


    Full Text Available In Nurses in War: Voices from Iraq and Afghanistan, Elizabeth Scannell-Desch and Mary Ellen Doherty take a journey through the lived experiences of 37 United States military nurses who served in Iraq or Afghanistan during the war years 2003 through 2010.

  12. W3C director Tim Berners-Lee to be Knighted by Queen Elizabeth web inventor recognized for contributions to internet development

    CERN Document Server


    "Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the World Wide Web and director of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), will be made a Knight Commander, Order of the British Empire (KBE) by Queen Elizabeth" (1/2 page).

  13. Meet Jessica and Elizabeth from Sweet Valley: Who Are the Female Role Models in Popular Romance Novels for Children? (United States)

    Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth

    Jessica and Elizabeth are two female characters, twins, featured throughout Francine Pascal's Sweet Valley series, the Bantam Publishers popular series for girls from elementary school through junior high, high school, university, and well into adulthood. This paper notes that these books are a part of the same formula that are used for romance…

  14. "All the World Is Gone to the Assembly": Elizabeth Carter's Headaches, Nerves, and (In)Sociability. (United States)

    Hansen, Mascha

    Elizabeth Carter suffered from severe headaches all her life. Her letters are peppered with references to fits of "head-ach" so bad they made her bold enough to demand her own room wherever she visited, and to cherish a preference for solitude contrary to the ideal of Bluestocking sociability. Following her friends and physicians, she bowed to fashionable diagnoses in considering these headaches the result of a nervous constitution, and she was prescribed the usual remedies, including sociable trips to fashionable watering places. While positioning her sufferings within the frame of fashionable diseases, Carter tried to dissociate herself from fashionable sensibility, and struggled to gain acceptance for her pain as part of her body's "mechanism" by using a more old-fashioned, religious interpretative frame. This case study of Carter's headaches thus charts Carter's own understanding of her constitution, her body, and her pain within-and without-the framework of eighteenth-century fashionable diseases.

  15. Mapping New York Irish-American Identities: Duality of Spirituality in Elizabeth Cullinan’s Short Story “Life After Death”

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    Nicoleta Stanca


    Full Text Available Elizabeth Cullinan’s short story “Life After Death” depicts a day in the life of a young New Yorker, Constance, walking along Lexington Avenue, attending the evening Mass at a Dominican church and visiting the Catholic college where she worked part time to pick up her paycheck. Though the woman is involved with the married Francis Hughes and confronted with the burden of the past and of intricate family dynamics, her voice, which is “the Cullinan narrative voice has become that of one of those sceptical granddaughters grown into a reasonably assured and independent adulthood [...] balanced between then and now, the ethnic and the worldly, and better able to judge self and others because of the doubleness” (Fanning qtd. in Bayor and Meagher 528. Thus, the paper will discuss the manner in which Elizabeth Cullinan maps, in her story, the oscillation of Irish Americans between the ethnic drive and a cosmopolitan individuality gained in New York, with a focus on the value of the duality of consciousness and spirituality, which facilitates enriching and clarifying answers to identity dilemmas.

  16. ‘The thin universe’: the domestic worlds of Elizabeth Burns, Tracey Herd and Kathleen Jamie


    Thompson, Jacqueline


    As Elizabeth Burns’s paradoxical phrase ‘the thin universe’ suggests, the home is a place of both limitations and possibilities. Domestic life has been regarded by some as a spirit-sapping hindrance to creativity, recalling Cyril Connolly’s famous declaration that: ‘There is no more sombre enemy of good art than the pram in the hall.’ This thesis examines the ways in which Burns, Herd and Jamie demonstrate how domestic life, for all its restrictions, can prove to be the ally of...

  17. Investigating antenatal nutrition education preferences in South-East Queensland, including Maori and Pasifika women. (United States)

    Cruickshank, Andrea; Porteous, Helen E; Palmer, Michelle A


    Little is reported about the nutrition-related needs and preferences of women seeking maternity services, particularly Maori and Pasifika (M&P) women who have higher chronic disease rates in Queensland. Nutrition-related knowledge, needs, behaviours and education preferences were compared between women of M&P ancestry and non-Maori and Pasifika women (NMP). Women (≥18 years) admitted to the postnatal ward were surveyed. Anthropometry, dietary quality, nutrition education preferences, country of birth and ancestry were collected. Analysis included chi-squared and t-tests. The survey was completed by 399 eligible women. Country of birth data suggested 4% of respondents were Pasifika and failed to separately identify New Zealand Maori, whereas 18% of respondents (n=73) reported M&P ancestry. Descriptors were similar between groups (28±5 years; 91% any breastfeeding; 18% gestational diabetes mellitus; p>0.05). However M&P women were less often university educated (M&P:6(9%); NMP:71(22%), p2 children (M&P: 30(54%); NMP:70(30%), p75%) women did not know their recommended weight gain. Many respondents reported inadequate intake of vegetables (95%), fruit (29%) and dairy (69%) during pregnancy. Two-fifths (38-41%) reported interest in perinatal nutrition education, with topics including healthy eating postpartum. Findings enable targeted service delivery according to women's preferences. Collecting ancestral and maternal data to facilitate the provision of appropriate nutrition education may be critical for achieving optimal maternal outcomes in Maori and Pasifika women. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Title: The Impact of 2006-2012 CReSIS Summer Research Programs that Influence Student's Choice of a STEM Related Major in College Authors: Dr. Darnell Johnson Elizabeth City State University, Elizabeth City, North Carolina 27909 Dr. Linda Hayden Elizabeth City State University, Elizabeth City, North Carolina, 27909 (United States)

    Johnson, D.


    Abstract: Researchers, policymakers, business, and industry have indicated that the United States will experience a future shortage of professionals in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields. Several strategies have been suggested to address this impending shortage, one of which includes increasing the representation of females and minorities in the STEM fields. In order to increase the representation of underrepresented students in the STEM fields, it is important to understand the motivational factors that impact underrepresented students' interest in STEM academics and extracurricular programs. Research indicates that greater confidence leads to greater interest and vice versa (Denissen et al., 2007). In this paper, the mathematics research team examined the role of practical research experience during the summer for talented minority secondary students studying in STEM fields. An undergraduate research mathematics team focused on the link between summer research and the choice of an undergraduate discipline. A Chi Square Statistical Test was used to examine Likert Scale results on the attitude of students participating in the 2006-2012 Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) Summer Research Programs for secondary students. This research was performed at Elizabeth City State University located in northeastern North Carolina about the factors that impact underrepresented students' choices of STEM related majors in college. Results can be used to inform and guide educators, administrators, and policy makers in developing programs and policy that support and encourage the STEM development of underrepresented students. Index Terms: Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM), Underrepresented students

  19. To and From the Queen: Modalities of Epistolography in the Correspondence of Elizabeth I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Iannaccaro


    Full Text Available The article analyses the connection between modalities of letter writing and the relation between writer and addressee. We take into consideration the case of Elizabeth I of England, situated in the overall panorama of early modern European historiography. The English Queen was a prolific and skilful letter writer, endowed with an uncommon talent for foreign languages; but she was also, thanks to her role, the willing or unwilling recipient of thousands of epistles. By selecting two different corpora of letters, from and to the Queen, it is possible to explore how personal relations, degree of acquaintance, respective status and purpose of the letter influence the very structure of the genre.

  20. Elizabeth Ferri y Stephen Ferry (2017. La batea. Ícono Editores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Rueda Fajardo


    Full Text Available El nuevo libro de uno de los fotógrafos que más ha seguido el enrevesado, complejo e interminable conflicto colombiano, Stephen Ferry. Pero el libro es ante todo, un homenaje a los trabajadores del oro en este país. Así como Timothy Prus escogió la vaca y la orquídea como argumento para describir lo que considera una fotografía genérica colombiana, Ferry junto a su hermana Elizabeth, quien realiza con el fotógrafo la investigación y escribe con maestría los textos del libro, han escogido el oro, y en concreto la batea, como herramienta para explicarnos y acercarnos a las luchas de los trabajadores artesanales del metal en tres lugares concretos de Colombia, Segovia, Marmato y Yolombó, con un breve epílogo que suceden en Mompox, donde el artesanato orfebre sobrevive en el tiempo muerto de las riveras del Río Magdalena

  1. ‘Dancing through the Minefield’: Canon Reinstatement Strategies for Women Authors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dascăl Reghina


    Full Text Available The paper explores the limiting and detrimental effects of biographical criticism and exceptionalism in the efforts of reinstating women authors into the Renaissance canon, by looking into the literary merits of Elizabeth Cary’s The Tragedy of Mariam, The Fair Queen of Jewry and The History of The Life, Reign and Death of Edward II. Whereas the conflation of biography and fiction is a successful recipe for canonization and for the production of feminist icons, it renders the text impotent because of its resulting inability to compete with or to be seen in correlation and interplay with other contemporary texts.

  2. Elizabeth City, North Carolina. Limited Surface Observations Climatic Summary (LISOCS). Parts A-F. (United States)


    7691 1 STATION NAME: ELIZABETH CITY NC PERIOD Of RECORD: 78-67 MONTH: JAN HOURSILSTI: ISO -1700 WIND SPEED IN KNOTS DIRECTION i 1-3 4-6 7-10 11-16 17...68.3 88.3 88.3 R8.3 88.3 88.3 88.3 88.3 GE 25001 33.9 73.C 81.0 84.3 87.9 87.9 88.3 88.7 88.7 88.7 88.7 88.7 88.7 88.7 88.7 88.7 0E 27001 33.9 73.4...30.038 29.976 29.929 29.960 29.969 29.978 30.000 30.013 30D4 30-068 30.09C 3U.009 16 ISO .276 .263 .268 .221 .157 .145 .123 .119 .128 .197 .208 .240

  3. Science and stewardship to protect and sustain wilderness values: Seventh World Wilderness Congress symposium; 2001 November 2-8; Port Elizabeth, South Africa (United States)

    Alan Watson; Janet Sproull


    The Seventh World Wilderness Congress met in Port Elizabeth, South Africa, in 2001. The symposium on science and stewardship to protect and sustain wilderness values was one of several symposia held in conjunction with the Congress. The papers contained in this proceedings were presented at this symposium and cover seven topics: state-of-knowledge on protected areas...

  4. Activismo LGBTIQ y ciudadanías sexuales en el Ecuador. Diálogo con Elizabeth Vásquez

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    Amy Lind


    Full Text Available Elizabeth Vásquez es abogada por entrenamiento, activista y fundadora del PROYECTO TRVNSGEN3RO de Quito. En esta entrevista, ella nos habla de los logros y desafíos que ha enfrentado a lo largo de su trayectoria: los orígenes de su activismo legal, sus inspiraciones políticas, su participación como asesora en la Asamblea Nacional Constituyente de 2008 y sus visiones del movimiento lésbico, gay, bisexual, transgénero y intersexual (LGTBI en Ecuador.

  5. Naming names: the first women taxonomists in mycology

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    Sara Maroske


    Full Text Available The transition from amateur to professional in natural history is generally regarded as having taken place in the nineteenth century, but landmark events such as the 1917 appointment of mycologist Johanna Westerdijk (1883–1961 as the first female professor in the Netherlands indicate that the pattern of change for women was more varied and delayed than for men. We investigate this transition in mycology, and identify only 43 women in the Western World who published scientific mycological literature pre-1900, of whom twelve published new fungal taxa. By charting the emergence of these women over time, and comparing the output of self-taught amateurs and university graduates, we establish the key role of access to higher education in female participation in mycology. Using a suite of strategies, six of the self-taught amateurs managed to overcome their educational disadvantages and name names — Catharina Dörrien (the first to name a fungal taxon, Marie-Anne Libert, Mary Elizabeth Banning, Élise-Caroline Bommer, Mariette Rousseau, and Annie Lorrain Smith. By 1900, the professional era for women in mycology was underway, and increasing numbers published new taxa. Parity with male colleagues in recognition and promotion, however, remains an ongoing issue. Key words: Amateurs, Fungi, Gender studies, History of science, Plant pathology

  6. Unrecognized circulation of SAT 1 foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle herds around Queen Elizabeth National Park in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhikusooka, Moses Tefula; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Namatovu, Alice


    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Uganda in spite of the control measures used. Various aspects of the maintenance and circulation of FMD viruses (FMDV) in Uganda are not well understood; these include the role of the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) as a reservoir for FMDV. To better...... understand the epidemiology of FMD at the livestock-wildlife-interface, samples were collected from young, unvaccinated cattle from 24 pastoral herds that closely interact with wildlife around Queen Elizabeth National Park in Uganda, and analysed for evidence of FMDV infection. In total, 37 (15 %) of 247...... serum samples had detectable antibodies against FMDV non-structural proteins (NSPs) using a pan-serotypic assay. Within these 37 sera, antibody titres ≥ 80 against the structural proteins of serotypes O, SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3 were detected by ELISA in 5, 7, 4 and 3 samples, respectively, while...

  7. Outward bound: women translators and scientific travel writing, 1780-1800. (United States)

    Martin, Alison E


    As the Enlightenment drew to a close, translation had gradually acquired an increasingly important role in the international circulation and transmission of scientific knowledge. Yet comparatively little attention has been paid to the translators responsible for making such accounts accessible in other languages, some of whom were women. In this article I explore how European women cast themselves as intellectually enquiring, knowledgeable and authoritative figures in their translations. Focusing specifically on the genre of scientific travel writing, I investigate the narrative strategies deployed by women translators to mark their involvement in the process of scientific knowledge-making. These strategies ranged from rhetorical near-invisibility, driven by women's modest marginalization of their own public engagement in science, to the active advertisement of themselves as intellectually curious consumers of scientific knowledge. A detailed study of Elizabeth Helme's translation of the French ornithologist François le Vaillant's Voyage dans l'intérieur de l'Afrique [Voyage into the Interior of Africa] (1790) allows me to explore how her reworking of the original text for an Anglophone reading public enabled her to engage cautiously - or sometimes more openly - with questions regarding how scientific knowledge was constructed, for whom and with which aims in mind.

  8. Leukaemia at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital in Blantyre, Malawi. (United States)

    Mukiibi, J M; Nyirenda, C M; Adewuyi, J O; Mzula, E L; Magombo, E D; Mbvundula, E M


    To determine the patterns of leukaemias seen in Malawians at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH) and to compare the findings with those from elsewhere. An overview of the problems encountered in the management of leukaemia in developing countries especially those in sub-Saharan Africa are highlighted. Retrospective descriptive analysis of consecutive leukaemia cases seen from January 1994 through December 1998. Of the 95 leukaemia patients diagnosed during the study period, childhood (0-15 years) leukaemia occurred in 27 (28.4%) patients while adulthood (above 15 years) leukaemia accounted for 68 (71.6%) patients. The main leukaemia types were: acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) 14 (14.7%), acute myeloblastic leukaemia (AML) 25 (26.3%), chronic myeloid (granulocytic) leukaemia (CML) 32 (33.7%), chronic lymphocytic (lymphatic) leukaemia (CLL) 22 (23.2%) and hairy cell leukaemia (HCL) two (2.1%) patients. Most of the acute leukaemia (AL) cases occurred in the six to 15 year age bracket with a male preponderance. In ALL, lymphadenopathy was the commonest presenting feature followed by pallor (92.9%) while in the AML group, pallor occurred in 80% of cases. Abdominal swelling (87.5%) due to splenomegaly (81.3%) were the main clinical features in the CML group whereas lymphadenopathy (63.6%) followed by splenomegaly (59.1%) were the dominant presenting features in CLL. Haematologically, although leucocytosis characterised both acute and chronic leukaemias, most cases of acute leukaemia presented with more severe anaemia (Hb charitable organisations.

  9. Enhancing the health of women living with HIV: the SMART/EST Women's Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M Weiss


    Full Text Available Stephen M Weiss1, Jonathan N Tobin2, Michael Antoni1, Gail Ironson1, Mary Ishii1, Anita Vaughn2, Andrea Cassells2, Deborah Jones1, Neil Schneiderman1, Elizabeth Brondolo3, Arthur LaPerriere1, Maria Lopez1, Olga Villar-Loubet1, Joanne Camille2, Mahendra Kumar1, J Bryan Page1, SMART/EST Women's Project Team*1University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA; 2Clinical Directors Network, New York, NY, USA; 3St Johns University, Queens, NY, USA; *The SMART/EST Womens' Project Team: DeVieux J, Jean-Gilles M, Gousse Y, Alexander K, Bustamonte V, Lopez E, Casani J, Stanley H, Asthana D, Van Splunteren F, Goldstein A, Nasajon R, Wiesner Y, Zukerman M, Segal-Isaacson CJ, Romanowsky A, Masheb R, Coma C, Ubiera M, D'Andrea SM, Ittai N.Abstract: The principal objective of these multisite studies (Florida, New York, New Jersey: epicenters for human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] among women was to develop and implement effective combinations of behavioral interventions to optimize the health status of the most neglected and understudied population affected by the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS epidemic in the United States: poor women of color living with HIV. The two studies enrolled nearly 900 women randomly assigned to “high intensity” (cognitive–behavioral stress management training combined with expressive–supportive therapy [CBSM]+ group or “low intensity” (individual psychoeducational program treatment conditions over a period of 9 years. The initial study of the stress management and relaxation training/expressive–supportive therapy (SMART/EST Women's Project (SWP I focused on reducing depression and anxiety, as well as improving self-efficacy and overall quality of life for women with case-defined AIDS. Findings from this study demonstrated the utility of CBSM+ in reducing distress (depression, anxiety and denial, while improving social support, self-efficacy, coping skills, and quality of life. The second study (SWP II, which included all

  10. Women and tobacco: a call for including gender in tobacco control research, policy and practice. (United States)

    Amos, Amanda; Greaves, Lorraine; Nichter, Mimi; Bloch, Michele


    Female smoking is predicted to double between 2005 and 2025. There have been numerous calls for action on women's tobacco use over the past two decades. In the present work, evidence about female tobacco use, progress, challenges and ways forward for developing gendered tobacco control is reviewed. Literature on girls, women and tobacco was reviewed to identify trends and determinants of tobacco use and exposure, the application of gender analysis, tobacco marketing, the impact of tobacco control on girls and women and ways to address these issues particularly in low-income and middle-income countries. Global female tobacco use is increasingly complex, involving diverse products and factors including tobacco marketing, globalisation and changes in women's status. In high-income countries female smoking is declining but is increasingly concentrated among disadvantaged women. In low-income and middle-income countries the pattern is more complex; in several regions the gap between girls' and boys' smoking is narrow. Gendered analyses and approaches to tobacco control are uncommon, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. Tobacco control has remained largely gender blind, with little recognition of the importance of understanding the context and challenges of girl's and women's smoking and secondhand smoke exposure. There has been little integration of gender considerations in research, policy and programmes. The present work makes a case for gender and diversity analyses in tobacco control to reflect and identify intersecting factors affecting women's tobacco use. This will help animate the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control's concern for gender specificity and women's leadership, and reduce the impact of tobacco on women.

  11. A Case Study in Caribbean Climate Change: Impacts on Crop Suitability and Small Farmer Vulnerability in St. Elizabeth, Jamaica (United States)

    Curtis, W. R.; Gamble, D. W.; Popke, J.


    This paper examines some of the implications of climate change for farming in the Caribbean, through an analysis of future crop suitability and a case study of climate variability and agricultural practices in St. Elizabeth Parish, Jamaica. To assess potential changes in Caribbean agriculture, we present results from a water budget model based on a 100-year regional climate projection of temperature and precipitation for the circum-Caribbean basin. We find that future water deficits in the region are climate type-dependent. Savanna climates experience the largest annual changes, while semi-arid environments are greatly impacted in the spring. When the impacts of temperature and precipitation are considered separately, we find that predicted future warming, and the associated increase in evapotranspiration, has a slightly larger climatological effect on crop water need than predicted decreases in precipitation. To illustrate how a changing climate regime may impact agricultural practices, we present results from recent fieldwork in St. Elizabeth Parish, one of the main farming regions on the island of Jamaica. Drawing on data from farmer interviews and a recently-installed weather mesonet, we highlight the ways in which local microclimates influence farmer livelihood strategies and community-level vulnerability. Initial results suggest that farmers are experiencing greater climate variability, and that communities with Savanna and semi-arid type climates may be more susceptible to drought than communities in wetter, higher-elevation microclimates. These changes have enhanced the importance of irrigation technology and water management strategies for successful farming. In this context, we argue, large, well-capitalized farmers may be better able to manage the uncertainties associated with climate change, leading to an uneven landscape of vulnerability across the region.

  12. Organic compounds and cadmium in the tributaries to the Elizabeth River in New Jersey, October 2008 to November 2008: Phase II of the New Jersey Toxics Reduction Workplan for New York-New Jersey Harbor (United States)

    Bonin, Jennifer L.


    Samples of surface water and suspended sediment were collected from the two branches that make up the Elizabeth River in New Jersey - the West Branch and the Main Stem - from October to November 2008 to determine the concentrations of selected chlorinated organic and inorganic constituents. The sampling and analyses were conducted as part of Phase II of the New York-New Jersey Harbor Estuary Plan-Contaminant Assessment and Reduction Program (CARP), which is overseen by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Phase II of the New Jersey Workplan was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey to define upstream tributary and point sources of contaminants in those rivers sampled during Phase I work, with special emphasis on the Passaic and Elizabeth Rivers. This portion of the Phase II study was conducted on the two branches of the Elizabeth River, which were previously sampled during July and August of 2003 at low-flow conditions. Samples were collected during 2008 from the West Branch and Main Stem of the Elizabeth River just upstream from their confluence at Hillside, N.J. Both tributaries were sampled once during low-flow discharge conditions and once during high-flow discharge conditions using the protocols and analytical methods that were used in the initial part of Phase II of the Workplan. Grab samples of streamwater also were collected at each site and were analyzed for cadmium, suspended sediment, and particulate organic carbon. The measured concentrations, along with available historical suspended-sediment and stream-discharge data were used to estimate average annual loads of suspended sediment and organic compounds in the two branches of the Elizabeth River. Total suspended-sediment loads for 1975 to 2000 were estimated using rating curves developed from historical U.S. Geological Survey suspended-sediment and discharge data, where available. Concentrations of suspended-sediment-bound polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Main Stem and the

  13. Rune Frederiksen, Elizabeth R. Gebhard & Alexander Sokolicek (eds.), The Architecture of the Ancient Greek Theatre, Monographs of the Danish Institute, Volume 17 (Aarhus: Aarhus University Press and The Danish Institute at Athens, 2015)


    William C. Miller


    A review of the book: Rune Frederiksen, Elizabeth R. Gebhard & Alexander Sokolicek (eds.), The Architecture of the Ancient Greek Theatre, Monographs of the Danish Institute, Volume 17 (Aarhus: Aarhus University Press and The Danish Institute at Athens, 2015)

  14. "The difference being a woman made" Untold Lives in personal and intellectual context. (United States)

    Rutherford, Alexandra; Milar, Katharine


    To mark the 30th anniversary of the publication of Scarborough and Furumoto's classic work Untold Lives, and to honor the intellectual legacy of Elizabeth Scarborough (1935-2015), we introduce this special issue devoted to the histories of women, gender, and feminism in psychology. We provide a short biographical sketch of Elizabeth, highlighting her own marriage-career dilemma, then contextualize the publication of Untold Lives within the historiography on women in psychology at that time. We conclude by discussing intersectionality as an analytic framework for the history of psychology as a way to extend and enrich this historiography. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Rune Frederiksen, Elizabeth R. Gebhard & Alexander Sokolicek (eds., The Architecture of the Ancient Greek Theatre, Monographs of the Danish Institute, Volume 17 (Aarhus: Aarhus University Press and The Danish Institute at Athens, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C. Miller


    Full Text Available A review of the book: Rune Frederiksen, Elizabeth R. Gebhard & Alexander Sokolicek (eds., The Architecture of the Ancient Greek Theatre, Monographs of the Danish Institute, Volume 17 (Aarhus: Aarhus University Press and The Danish Institute at Athens, 2015

  16. The Generic Structure of Print Advertisement of Elizabeth Arden’s INTERVENE: A Multimodal Discourse Analysis

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    Aylanda Dwi Nugroho


    Full Text Available The Elizabeth Arden campaign with Catherine Zeta-Jones as the brand ambassador has deployed the semiotic resources of language and visual images. The analysis of this paper is based on the systemic functional linguistics (SFL proposed by Halliday (1985, 1994 and Halliday and Matthiessen (2004, which says that a text is understood to simultaneously function three metafunctions: Ideational, Interpersonal and Textual. O’Toole’s (1994 framework of analysing visual images, which follows the main concept of SFL, is also used in the analysis. A multimodal discourse analysis is then applied to analyse one of the series, Intervene, using Cheong’s framework (2004, which combined both frameworks to find the generic structure of this advertisement. Further, this paper also analyses the intersemiosis of the linguistic and the visual resources using Wee’s (2009 intersemiotic mechanisms. It concludes that the interplay of the language and the visual image has proved to be very effective in the meaning-making process of this print advertisement.

  17. Mansfield Park Comes to Life: Teaching and Staging Elizabeth Inchbald’s Lovers’ Vows in an Austen Course

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    Misty Krueger


    Full Text Available This essay discusses how I incorporated readers theatre into a senior seminar on Jane Austen and her contemporaries. The article recounts how my students read Elizabeth Inchbald’s 1798 drama, Lovers’ Vows, and Austen’s 1814 novel, Mansfield Park, and then were inspired at the end of the seminar to take part in a readers theatre production of the play. In order to set up this pedagogical example, the essay addresses the theatrical episode of Mansfield Park, the controversies surrounding Lovers’ Vows, and the ways in which I edited the play and prepared students to create a “little theatre”—to quote Austen character, Tom Bertram—at my university and become their own version of The Mansfield Players. The essay concludes by explaining what students can learn about drama and the novel by partaking in such an exercise.

  18. The Telomere Effect: A Revolutionary Approach to Living Younger, Healthier, Longer Blackburn Elizabeth and Epel Elissa The Telomere Effect: A Revolutionary Approach to Living Younger, Healthier, Longer 417pp £14.99 Orion Books 9780297609230 0297609238 [Formula: see text]. (United States)


    Elizabeth Blackburn received a Nobel prize for discovering the molecular nature of telomeres (the ends of our chromosomes that serve as protective caps) and telomerase (the enzyme that maintains telomeres).

  19. “Do the next thing”: an interview with Elizabeth Adams St. Pierre on post-qualitative methodology

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    Hanna Guttorm


    Full Text Available Professor Elizabeth Adams St. Pierre’s work focuses on critical and poststructural theories of language and the subject and what she has called post qualitative inquiry or post inquiry. She asks what might come after conventional humanist qualitative research methodology. She’s especially interested in the new empiricisms/new materialisms as well as new research practices enabled by the ontological turn. During St. Pierre's visit to the Finnish Educational Research Association (FERA Conference in Oulu in November 2014, we had the opportunity to talk with her about post qualitative research around some questions we had sent her beforehand. We then transcribed, edited, and translated the interview, and published it in the Finnish journal Kasvatus (Education in spring 2015. In this interview St. Pierre talks in the US context, where qualitative methodology is turning—or being pushed to turn—back to positivism with normalized and formalized practices, St. Pierre encourages researchers to constantly question the prevailing truths and the traditions they have learnt too well.

  20. Thinking with birds: Mary Elizabeth Barber's advocacy for gender equality in ornithology

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    Tanja Hammel

    Full Text Available This article explores parts of the first South African woman ornithologist's life and work. It concerns itself with the micro-politics of Mary Elizabeth Barber's knowledge of birds from the 1860s to the mid-1880s. Her work provides insight into contemporary scientific practices, particularly the importance of cross-cultural collaboration. I foreground how she cultivated a feminist Darwinism in which birds served as corroborative evidence for female selection and how she negotiated gender equality in her ornithological work. She did so by constructing local birdlife as a space of gender equality. While male ornithologists naturalised and reinvigorated Victorian gender roles in their descriptions and depictions of birds, she debunked them and stressed the absence of gendered spheres in bird life. She emphasised the female and male birds' collaboration and gender equality that she missed in Victorian matrimony, an institution she harshly criticised. Reading her work against the background of her life story shows how her personal experiences as wife and mother as well as her observation of settler society informed her view on birds, and vice versa. Through birds she presented alternative relationships to matrimony. Her protection of insectivorous birds was at the same time an attempt to stress the need for a New Woman, an aspect that has hitherto been overlooked in studies of the transnational anti-plumage movement.

  1. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyl residues in sediments and blue mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from Port Elizabeth Harbour, South Africa. (United States)

    Kampire, E; Rubidge, G; Adams, J B


    Sediment and Mytilus galloprovincialis samples collected from the Port Elizabeth Harbour were analysed for six indicator PCB congeners to assess their contamination status. The concentrations of total PCBs in sediments and M. galloprovincialis ranged from 0.56 to 2.35 ng/g dry weight and 14.48 to 21.37 ng/g wet weight, respectively. Congeners 138 and 153 were dominant and accounted for an average of 29% and 24% of total PCBs in M. galloprovincialis; 32% and 30% in sediments, respectively. Sediments are home to a wide variety of aquatic life. None of the sediments analysed exceeded the PCB limits recommended the Canadian interim sediment quality guideline and the South African recommended sediment guidelines (21.6 ng/g). Both humans and aquatic life are sensitive to the toxic effects of PCBs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A social network typology and sexual risk-taking among men who have sex with men in Cape Town and Port Elizabeth, South Africa. (United States)

    de Voux, Alex; Baral, Stefan D; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Beyrer, Chris; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Siegler, Aaron J; Sullivan, Patrick S; Winskell, Kate; Stephenson, Rob


    Despite the high prevalence of HIV among men who have sex with men in South Africa, very little is known about their lived realities, including their social and sexual networks. Given the influence of social network structure on sexual risk behaviours, a better understanding of the social contexts of men who have sex with men is essential for informing the design of HIV programming and messaging. This study explored social network connectivity, an understudied network attribute, examining self-reported connectivity between friends, family and sex partners. Data were collected in Cape Town and Port Elizabeth, South Africa, from 78 men who have sex with men who participated in in-depth interviews that included a social network mapping component. Five social network types emerged from the content analysis of these social network maps based on the level of connectivity between family, friends and sex partners, and ranged from disconnected to densely connected networks. The ways in which participants reported sexual risk-taking differed across the five network types, revealing diversity in social network profiles. HIV programming and messaging for this population can greatly benefit from recognising the diversity in lived realities and social connections between men who have sex with men.

  3. The Story of Women (United States)

    Grady, Marilyn L.


    In this article, the author shares Elizabeth Ann Seton's story as a woman's story. Seton was born in 1774 to a New York family. Through her work in Maryland, Seton was credited with being the founder of the parochial Catholic school system in the U.S. Seton formed a group of sisters known as the Sisters of Charity of St. Joseph. The sisters…

  4. Dialysis in Barbados: the cost of hemodialysis provision at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital La diálisis en Barbados: el costo de la hemodiálisis en el Queen Elizabeth Hospital

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    Sara A. Adomakoh


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the health service cost of hemodialysis delivered at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital in St. Michael, Barbados. METHODS: A cost analysis was performed from the viewpoint of the tertiary hospital studied here, using treatment protocols based on current practice for establishing vascular access sites (surgical set-up and dialysis maintenance. Cost and patient data were collected for the period from 1 April 1998 to 31 March 1999. Sixty-four patients were studied and a total of 7 488 hemodialysis sessions were performed in the study period. The costs analyzed were personnel, drug expenditure, supplies (dialysis and nondialysis, inpatient costs, laboratory and other ancillary services, and indirect or overhead costs such as engineering, housekeeping, laundry and administration. RESULTS: The cost per hemodialysis treatment was calculated as US$ 156.64 in the first year and US$ 145.55 in subsequent years. The total cost per patient per year was US$ 18 327.22 in the first year of dialysis including surgical set-up, and US$ 17 029.54 thereafter. Direct costs (determined by patients' utilization of resources and labor costs for physicians and nurses contributed to 80.7% of the total cost. The main expenditures were dialysis-related supplies, labor and overheads. CONCLUSION: These findings are important in the light of limited economic resources available to health services in Caribbean countries coupled with the spiraling prevalence of kidney failure in these countries. Further analyses are recommended to review the provision of renal replacement therapy services in Barbados and to develop plans to expand and optimize services.OBJETIVO: El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar el costo, para los servicios sanitarios, de la hemodiálisis realizada en el Queen Elizabeth Hospital de St. Michael, Barbados. MÉTODOS: Realizamos un análisis de costos desde el punto de vista del hospital terciario objeto de este

  5. Cumulative live birth rates after one ART cycle including all subsequent frozen-thaw cycles in 1050 women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftager, M; Bogstad, J; Løssl, K


    birth increases. There are no previous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing CLBRs in GnRH-antagonist versus GnRH-agonist protocols. Previous studies on CLBR are either retrospective cohort studies including multiple fresh cycles or RCTs comparing single embryo transfer (SET) with double embryo...... transfer (DET). STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: CLBR was a secondary outcome in a Phase IV, dual-center, open-label, RCT including 1050 women allocated to a short GnRH-antagonist or a long GnRH-agonist protocol in a 1:1 ratio over a 5-year period using a web-based concealed randomization code. The minimum...... follow-up time from the first IVF cycle was 2 years. The aim was to compare CLBR between the two groups following utilization of all fresh and frozen embryos from the first ART cycle. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: All women referred for their first ART cycle at two public fertility clinics...

  6. Enantiomer-specific ketorolac pharmacokinetics in young women, including pregnancy and postpartum period

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    Aida Kulo


    Full Text Available Racemic ketorolac clearance (CL is significantly higher at delivery, but S-ketorolac disposition determines the analgesic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pregnancy and postpartum period on enantiomer-specific (S and R intravenous (IV ketorolac pharmacokinetics (PKs. Data in women shortly following cesarean delivery (n=39 were pooled with data in a subgroup of these women that was reevaluated in the later postpartum period (postpartum group, n=8/39 and with eight healthy female volunteers. All women received single IV bolus of 30 mg ketorolac tromethamine. Five plasma samples were collected at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours and plasma concentrations were determined using high performance liquid chromatography. Enantiomer-specific PKs were calculated using PKSolver. Unpaired analysis showed that distribution volume at steady state (Vss, L/kg for S- and R-ketorolac was significantly higher in women shortly following cesarean delivery (n=31 compared to postpartum group (n=8 or to healthy female volunteers (n=8. CL, CL to body weight, and CL to body surface area (CL/BSA for S- and R-ketorolac were also significantly higher in women following delivery. In addition, S/R-ketorolac CL/BSA ratio was significantly higher at delivery. Paired PK analysis in eight women shortly following delivery and in postpartum group showed the same pattern. Finally, the simultaneous increase in CL and Vss resulted in similar estimates for elimination half-life in both unpaired and paired analysis. In conclusion, pregnancy affects S-, R-, and S/R-ketorolac disposition. This is of clinical relevance since S-ketorolac (analgesia CL is even more increased compared to R-ketorolac CL, and S/R-ketorolac CL ratio is higher following delivery compared to postpartum period or to healthy female volunteers.

  7. Women who served Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth : Ladies, Gentlewomen and Maids of the Privy Chamber, 1553-1603.


    Merton, Charlotte Isabelle.


    A brief introduction to the history of the Tudor Court and the subject in hand is enlarged upon in the second 'chapter ('The Court'). which describes the nature of the evidence available, the process of admission to the Privy Chamber, the hierarchy within it and the titles given to the various Privy Chamber posts, and official payment (wages, food and accommodation). Chamber reform and the status of the womens' own servants are also discussed. The third chapter ('Recruitment') turns to the cr...

  8. A Talk Show from the Past. (United States)

    Gallagher, Arlene F.


    Describes a two-day activity in which elementary students examine voting rights, the right to assemble, and women's suffrage. Explains the game, "Assemble, Reassemble," and a student-produced talk show with five students playing the roles of leaders of the women's suffrage movement. Profiles Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan…

  9. Genome-wide association study for the interaction between BMR and BMI in obese Korean women including overweight. (United States)

    Lee, Myoungsook; Kwon, Dae Young; Kim, Myung-Sunny; Choi, Chong Ran; Park, Mi-Young; Kim, Ae-Jung


    This is the first study to identify common genetic factors associated with the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and body mass index (BMI) in obese Korean women including overweight. This will be a basic study for future research of obese gene-BMR interaction. The experimental design was 2 by 2 with variables of BMR and BMI. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was conducted in the overweight and obesity (BMI > 23 kg/m(2)) compared to the normality, and in women with low BMR (BMR. A total of 140 SNPs reached formal genome-wide statistical significance in this study (P BMR (rs10786764; P = 8.0 × 10(-7), rs1040675; 2.3 × 10(-6)) and BMI (rs10786764; P = 2.5 × 10(-5), rs10786764; 6.57 × 10(-5)). The other genes related to BMI (HSD52, TMA16, MARCH1, NRG1, NRXN3, and STK4) yielded P BMR and BMI, including NRG3, OR8U8, BCL2L2-PABPN1, PABPN1, and SLC22A17 were identified in obese Korean women (P BMR- and BMI-related genes using GWAS. Although most of these newly established loci were not previously associated with obesity, they may provide new insights into body weight regulation. Our findings of five common genes associated with BMR and BMI in Koreans will serve as a reference for replication and validation of future studies on the metabolic rate.

  10. Missing the target: including perspectives of women with overweight and obesity to inform stigma-reduction strategies. (United States)

    Puhl, R M; Himmelstein, M S; Gorin, A A; Suh, Y J


    Pervasive weight stigma and discrimination have led to ongoing calls for efforts to reduce this bias. Despite increasing research on stigma-reduction strategies, perspectives of individuals who have experienced weight stigma have rarely been included to inform this research. The present study conducted a systematic examination of women with high body weight to assess their perspectives about a broad range of strategies to reduce weight-based stigma. Women with overweight or obesity ( N  = 461) completed an online survey in which they evaluated the importance, feasibility and potential impact of 35 stigma-reduction strategies in diverse settings. Participants (91.5% who reported experiencing weight stigma) also completed self-report measures assessing experienced and internalized weight stigma. Most participants assigned high importance to all stigma-reduction strategies, with school-based and healthcare approaches accruing the highest ratings. Adding weight stigma to existing anti-harassment workplace training was rated as the most impactful and feasible strategy. The family environment was viewed as an important intervention target, regardless of participants' experienced or internalized stigma. These findings underscore the importance of including people with stigmatized identities in stigma-reduction research; their insights provide a necessary and valuable contribution that can inform ways to reduce weight-based inequities and prioritize such efforts.

  11. Shrinking risk profiles after deworming of children in Port Elizabeth, South Africa, with special reference to Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura. (United States)

    Müller, Ivan; Gall, Stefanie; Beyleveld, Lindsey; Gerber, Markus; Pühse, Uwe; Du Randt, Rosa; Steinmann, Peter; Zondie, Leyli; Walter, Cheryl; Utzinger, Jürg


    Risk maps facilitate discussion among different stakeholders and provide a tool for spatial targeting of health interventions. We present maps documenting shrinking risk profiles after deworming with respect to soil-transmitted helminthiasis among schoolchildren from disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Port Elizabeth, South Africa. Children were examined for soil-transmitted helminth infections using duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears in March 2015, October 2015 and May 2016, and subsequently treated with albendazole after each survey. The mean infection intensities for Ascaris lumbricoides were 9,554 eggs per gram of stool (EPG) in March 2015, 4,317 EPG in October 2015 and 1,684 EPG in March 2016. The corresponding figures for Trichuris trichiura were 664 EPG, 331 EPG and 87 EPG. Repeated deworming shrank the risk of soil-transmitted helminthiasis, but should be complemented by other public health measures.

  12. African-American and Latina Women Seeking Public Health Services: Cultural Beliefs regarding Pregnancy, including Medication-taking Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Dalia Sanchez, MD, MCP, MHA, PhD


    Full Text Available Objective: to describe cultural beliefs and medication-taking-behavior about pregnancy in African-American and Latina women. Design: qualitative study using phenomenological methodology; face-to-face, semi structured interviews and focus group. Thematic analysis was done to obtain themes consistent with the research objective. Setting: Maricopa County, Arizona, Department of Public-health Programs, November 2008 through April 2009.Participants: women seeking public-health services in the greater Phoenix, Arizona.Results: fifteen adult women representing two ethnic groups (seven African-Americans and eight Latinas participated. Themes derived from the interview data included: “The Dilemma: To Become or Not to Become Pregnant;” “The Ideal Stress-free World: Support System;” “Changing Worlds: Wanting Dependency;” and “The Health care System: Disconnection from Pregnancy to Postpartum.”Conclusions: based on the cultural themes: 1. pregnancies were not planned; 2. healthy life-style changes were not likely to occur during pregnancy; 3. basic facts about the biology of sexual intercourse and pregnancy were not understood, and there was no usage of any preconceptional or prenatal medications; and 4. professional health care was not desired or considered necessary (except during delivery. These cultural beliefs can contribute to negative birth outcomes, and need to be considered by pharmacists and other health-care providers. The information gained from this study can guide the implementation of educational programs developed by pharmacists that are more sensitive to the cultural beliefs and points of view of these particular women. Such programs would thus be more likely to be favorably received and utilized.

  13. 1995 Emerging Leaders in Healthcare. The new leaders: Gita Budd, Colene Daniel, Elizabeth Gallup, Scott Wordelman. (United States)

    Southwick, K


    Fierce pressures for cost containment. Demands for quality improvements. The drive toward patient-centered care. The push for community involvement. Insistent voices of payers, patients, consumers, physicians. Accumulated tensions amid the chaos of change. Balancing all of these demands while inspiring and encouraging the professionals and other workers within the healthcare organization requires a high level of leadership ability. One that insists on the best from everyone involved in a healthcare system--from physicians to staff, nurses to social workers. And then strives for more. The four young executives who are this year's Emerging Leaders in Healthcare have all pushed their systems beyond traditional boundaries into new territory, helping their patients, their employees, their physicians, and their communities rise to new levels of achievement. At the same time, these leaders emphasize teamwork and consensus-style management, so that their co-workers feel like they're participating in the changes, not being victimized by them. Gita Budd, Colene Daniel, Elizabeth Gallup, and Scott Wordelman are winners of the 1995 award from The Healthcare Forum and Korn/Ferry International that honors ¿dynamic, decisive young leaders (under 40) with the proven ability to nurture the growth of the industry.¿ Korn/Ferry International and The Healthcare Forum are proud to present 1995's Emerging Leaders.

  14. Erving Goffman's asylums and institutional culture in the mid-twentieth-century United States. (United States)

    Gambino, Matthew


    Sociologist Erving Goffman based his seminal work Asylums (1961) on a year of field research at St. Elizabeths Hospital in Washington, DC. Goffman described the mental hospital as a "total institution," in which regimentation dominated every aspect of daily life and patients were denied even the most basic means of self-expression; rather than promote recovery, such conditions produced the sorts of disordered behavior for which men and women were ostensibly admitted. A closer look at the changes transforming St. Elizabeths around the time of Goffman's research reveals a far richer portrait of institutional culture. Group therapy, psychodrama, art and dance therapy, patient newspapers, and patient self-government-each of which debuted at the hospital in the 1940s and 1950s-provided novel opportunities for men and women to make themselves heard and to take their fate into their own hands. While these initiatives did not reach all of the patients at St. Elizabeths, surviving documentation suggests that those who participated found their involvement rewarding and empowering. Goffman explicitly set out to describe "the social world of the hospital inmate." His failure to appreciate fully the capacities of his subjects, however, appears to have led him to underestimate the importance of these developments.

  15. Inside the Literature: An Interview with Sally G. Hoskins, 2017 Recipient of the Elizabeth W. Jones Award for Excellence in Education. (United States)

    Hoskins, Sally G


    The Genetics Society of America's Elizabeth W. Jones Award for Excellence in Education recognizes significant and sustained impact on genetics education. The 2017 recipient is Sally G. Hoskins, in recognition of her role in developing and promoting the transformative science education method CREATE (Consider, Read, Elucidate hypotheses, Analyze and interpret data, and Think of the next Experiment). This innovative approach uses primary literature to engage students, allowing them to experience for themselves the creativity and challenge of study design, analysis, interpretation, collaboration, and debate. Comprehensive evaluation of CREATE has consistently found that students improve in difficult-to-teach skills like critical thinking and experimental design, while showing improved attitudes and beliefs about science.This is an abridged version of the interview. The full interview is available on the Genes to Genomes blog, at Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  16. Recensión de: LA LUCHA POR EL PASADO. Cómo construimos la memoria social. Elizabeth Jelin. Ed. Siglo XXI. Buenos Aires. 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Malet Vázquez


    Full Text Available El 29 de noviembre de 2017, organizada por Extensión de la Universidad de la República, se realizó la presentación de este libro de la socióloga argentina Elizabeth Jelin. A lo largo de su vida se ha dedicado especialmente a la investigación sobre los Derechos Humanos, la represión política y las memorias, junto con el abordaje de otros temas que se vinculan fácilmente con aquéllos, tales como los estudios sobre familia, género y movimientos sociales. De proficua trayectoria, la autora mantiene lazos estrechos con Uruguay, siendo la tutora de varios de nuestros investigadores, lo que propició el clima cálido de la presentación. (...

  17. Obituary Betty Johnson - tireless advocate for woment to pursue - and return to - scientific careers

    CERN Multimedia

    Perry, K


    "The physicist Professor Elizabeth (Betty) Johnson, who has died aged 66, was a major force in the establishment of the Daphne Jackson Trust in 1992 to help women returning to science after a career break. She worked tirelessly to encourage women into science, both through her own example as a female scientist and her advocacy of science as a career" (1/2 page).

  18. The effect of weight management interventions that include a diet component on weight-related outcomes in pregnant and postpartum women: a systematic review protocol. (United States)

    Spencer, Lisa; Rollo, Megan; Hauck, Yvonne; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley; Wood, Lisa; Hutchesson, Melinda; Giglia, Roslyn; Smith, Roger; Collins, Clare


    What are the effects of weight management interventions that include a diet component on weight-related outcomes in pregnant and postpartum women?The primary objective of this systematic review is to evaluate the effectiveness of weight management interventions which include a diet component and are aimed at limiting gestational weight gain and postpartum weight retention in women.The second objective of this systematic review is to investigate included intervention components with respect to effect on weight-related outcomes. This may include, but is not limited to: length of intervention, use of face-to-face counselling, group or individual consultations, use of other interventions components including exercise, use of goals and use of support tools like food diaries, coaching, including email or text message support. Around half of all women of reproductive age are either overweight or obese, with women aged 25-34 years having a greater risk of substantial weight gain compared with men of all ages. Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and postpartum weight retention (PPWR) may play a significant role in long term obesity. Having one child doubles the five- and 10-year obesity incidence for women, with many women who gain excessive weight during pregnancy remaining obese permanently. Excessive GWG and/or PPWR can also significantly contribute to short- and long-term adverse health outcomes for mother, baby and future pregnancies.Maternal obesity increases the risk of pregnancy related complications such as pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, stillbirth and the rate of caesarean section. Childhood obesity is a further long term complication of maternal obesity for offspring, which may persist in to adulthood. Excess GWG is also a risk factor for PPWR both in the short and long-term. Nehring et al. conducted a meta-analysis with over 65,000 women showing that, compared to women who gained weight within recommendations during pregnancy, women with GWG

  19. Car la Lettre tue mais l’Esprit vivifie : une relecture des textes bibliques selon Elizabeth Gaskell For the Letter Killeth, but the Spirit Giveth Life: Elizabeth Gaskell’s Rewriting of the Gospels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamine Toussaint-Thiriet


    Full Text Available As the anonymous author of “The Hard Church Novel” underlined in his article, “Theology and Literature – the study of God and the study of Man – need to go hand in hand, and are only just beginning to know it”. The links between literature and religion are in fact much older than we might imagine when reading this statement; however, it is a fact that the Victorian period was a time when many authors tried to reconcile secular writing and the Scriptures, to the extent that a new literary genre, the religious novel, was born. Although Elizabeth Gaskell’s works do not belong to this category, she set her heart on reconciling her vocation as a novelist with her beliefs as a Christian. Unlike her husband, she was not a Minister and therefore her own way of preaching the Word of God was to write fiction. She was convinced that the Pharisees had not disappeared with the Advent of Christ and, in her novels, she used her own, sometimes unorthodox, interpretation and rewriting of the Gospels to convert the Pharisees of her own time to the true essence of Christianity. Indeed, her Unitarian education granted her a greater freedom than most of her contemporaries in terms of biblical exegesis, as we can see in many of her works, but most particularly in Ruth, in which the eponymous heroine, a fallen woman, is not only described as a Magdalen but soon turns into a Madonna and then a Christ-like figure.

  20. Extensions of the Rosner-Colditz breast cancer prediction model to include older women and type-specific predicted risk. (United States)

    Glynn, Robert J; Colditz, Graham A; Tamimi, Rulla M; Chen, Wendy Y; Hankinson, Susan E; Willett, Walter W; Rosner, Bernard


    A breast cancer risk prediction rule previously developed by Rosner and Colditz has reasonable predictive ability. We developed a re-fitted version of this model, based on more than twice as many cases now including women up to age 85, and further extended it to a model that distinguished risk factor prediction of tumors with different estrogen/progesterone receptor status. We compared the calibration and discriminatory ability of the original, the re-fitted, and the type-specific models. Evaluation used data from the Nurses' Health Study during the period 1980-2008, when 4384 incident invasive breast cancers occurred over 1.5 million person-years. Model development used two-thirds of study subjects and validation used one-third. Predicted risks in the validation sample from the original and re-fitted models were highly correlated (ρ = 0.93), but several parameters, notably those related to use of menopausal hormone therapy and age, had different estimates. The re-fitted model was well-calibrated and had an overall C-statistic of 0.65. The extended, type-specific model identified several risk factors with varying associations with occurrence of tumors of different receptor status. However, this extended model relative to the prediction of any breast cancer did not meaningfully reclassify women who developed breast cancer to higher risk categories, nor women remaining cancer free to lower risk categories. The re-fitted Rosner-Colditz model has applicability to risk prediction in women up to age 85, and its discrimination is not improved by consideration of varying associations across tumor subtypes.

  1. Echoes of a not so Mythical Past: Memories of Race in Elizabeth Jolley’s The Well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelis Martin Renes


    Full Text Available Critical discussion of Elizabeth Jolley’s The Well (1986 has largely focused on issues of gender, but little has been said about the racial inscription of the novel. This lack is especially relevant when criticism, despite praising the author’s experimentation with narrative technique and genre, tends to voice dissatisfaction with the novel’s conclusion in medias res, which never solves the tension between a presumed return to the patriarchal norm and the voicing of liberating alternatives. This paper proposes a postcolonial perspective so as to come to terms with this dilemma, and argues that the text signals the impossibility of suppressing the Native from the contemporary Australian land and textscape, whose Gothic articulation in the uncanny shape of the male well-dweller haunts the novel’s engagement with female empowerment. The female protagonist may only start overcoming a crippling gender discourse in the White postcolonial pastoralist setting by inscribing herself into ‘Australianness’. Reconciling her body with the land is significantly staged in terms of an Aboriginal cosmogony, as it is a ‘walkabout’ that allows Hester to start controlling her body and story. Thus, The Well may be understood to be inconclusive because it struggles to map gender across race at a time of Aboriginal-exclusive multiculturalism. Written in the mid 1980s, it announces a point of inflection in thinking about nativenonnative relationships

  2. Economics | Page 4 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Economics. Économie. Colour. #2C81B5. Read more about Improving childcare options to create better economic opportunities for women in Nairobi slums. Language English. Read more about Expanding the Canadian Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Scholarship Program to Advanced Scholars. Language English.

  3. Properties of the surface snow in Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica - climate and non-climate dependent variability of the surface mass balance and stable water isotopic composition (United States)

    Vladimirova, D.; Ekaykin, A.; Lipenkov, V.; Popov, S. V.; Petit, J. R.; Masson-Delmotte, V.


    Glaciological and meteorological observations conducted during the past four decades in Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica, are compiled. The database is used to investigate spatial patterns of surface snow isotopic composition and surface mass balance, including detailed information near subglacial lake Vostok. We show diverse relationships between snow isotopic composition and surface temperature. In the most inland part (elevation 3200-3400 m a.s.l.), surface snow isotopic composition varies independently from surface temperature, and is closely related to the distance to the open water source (with a slope of 0.98±0.17 ‰ per 100 km). Surface mass balance values are higher along the ice sheet slope, and relatively evenly distributed inland. The minimum values of snow isotopic composition and surface mass balance are identified in an area XX km southwestward from Vostok station. The spatial distribution of deuterium excess delineates regions influenced by the Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean air masses, with Vostok area being situated close to their boundary. Anomalously high deuterium excess values are observed near Dome A, suggesting high kinetic fractionation for its moisture source, or specifically high post-deposition artifacts. The dataset is available for further studies such as the assessment of skills of general circulation or regional atmospheric models, and the search for the oldest ice.

  4. Being Included and Excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina


    Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural...... politics. It analyzes how formal education and mobility either challenge or reinforce traditional gendered norms which dictate a lowly position for young married women in the household and their absence from community politics. The article concludes that women are simultaneously excluded and included from...... community politics. On the one hand, their mobility and decision-making powers decrease with the increase in the labor mobility of men and their newly gained education is politically devalued when compared to the informal education that men gain through mobility, but on the other hand, schooling strengthens...

  5. Theory of Planned Behavior including self-stigma and perceived barriers explain help-seeking behavior for sexual problems in Iranian women suffering from epilepsy. (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Ying; Oveisi, Sonia; Burri, Andrea; Pakpour, Amir H


    To apply the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and the two additional concepts self-stigma and perceived barriers to the help-seeking behavior for sexual problems in women with epilepsy. In this 18-month follow-up study, TPB elements, including attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and behavioral intention along with self-stigma and perceived barriers in seeking help for sexual problems were assessed in n=818 women with epilepsy (94.0% aged ≤40years). The basic TPB model (model 1) and the TPB model additionally including self-stigma and perceived barriers (Model 2) were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Both SEM models showed satisfactory model fits. According to model, attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention explained 63.1% of the variance in help-seeking behavior. Variance was slightly higher (64.5%) when including self-stigma and perceived barriers (model 2). In addition, the fit indices of the models were better highlighting the importance of self-stigma and perceived barriers in help-seeking behavior for sexual problems. Theory of Planned Behavior is useful in explaining help-seeking behavior for sexual problems in women with epilepsy. Self-stigma and perceived barriers are additional factors that should be considered in future interventions aiming to adopt TPB to improve help-seeking behavior for sexual problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The relevance of social contexts and social action in reducing substance use and victimization among women participating in an HIV prevention intervention in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed E


    Full Text Available Elizabeth Reed,1 Andrea N Emanuel,2 Bronwyn Myers,3,4 Kim Johnson,3 Wendee M Wechsberg2,5–7 1George Washington University School of Public Health, Department of Prevention and Community Health, Washington, DC, USA; 2RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 3Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research Unit, Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa; 4Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; 5Gillings Global School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 6Psychology in the Public Interest, North Carolina State University, NC, USA; 7Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, NC, USA Objectives: To examine qualitatively how women's social context and community mobilization (eg, mobilizing women to take social action and engaging their community in social change influence substance use abstinence and victimization among women participating in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV intervention in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods: Thirty women who had participated in a randomized controlled trial of a group-delivered intervention to address substance use, gender-based violence, and associated risk for HIV (The Women's Health CoOp were selected to participate in semi-structured interviews about their perceived impact of the intervention on their substance use and exposure to victimization. The Women's CoOp intervention involved creating a new positive social environment for women within a group setting that also fostered women's social action (eg, educating peers or family members in the community. Interviews were analyzed using content analysis and coded to examine women's descriptions of social contexts and social action, and the influence of these on women's substance use abstinence and exposure to victimization. Results: Social support (eg, via program staff and other participants and social action (eg, engaging others in the

  7. Women in Cities. (United States)

    Hurst, Liz


    Suggesting that women are at a disadvantage in cities and towns, discusses experiences of women at home, working women, women traveling, shopping, and growing old in cities. Includes suggestions for studying women in cities. (JN)

  8. Commentary: Looking Back and Moving Forward (United States)

    New, Rebecca


    Elizabeth Peabody, a radical feminist, used early 19th-century ideas of the "woman's sphere" to suggest that a career in early childhood education was "the ideal solution to the problem of what educated American women should do with their lives," and she credited Froebel's "genius" in identifying a way in…

  9. Women NGO's and Women Empowerment in Nigeria | Arum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation was carried out into the activities of various women non – governmental organizations (NGO) in Nigeria, as a veritable tool for women empowerment. The results of the research revealed that women NGO's have ventured into areas that were previously ignored by government such areas include female ...

  10. Skin physiology in men and women: in vivo evaluation of 300 people including TEWL, SC hydration, sebum content and skin surface pH. (United States)

    Luebberding, S; Krueger, N; Kerscher, M


    Evidence is given that differences in skin physiological properties exist between men and women. However, despite an assessable number of available publications, the results are still inconsistent. Therefore, the aim of this clinical study is the first systematic assessment of gender-related differences in skin physiology in men and women, with a special focus on changes over lifetime. A total of 300 healthy male and female subjects (20-74 years) were selected following strict criteria including age, sun behaviour or smoking habits. TEWL, hydration level, sebum production and pH value were measured with worldwide-acknowledged biophysical measuring methods at forehead, cheek, neck, volar forearm and dorsum of hand. Until the age of 50 men's TEWL is significantly lower than the water loss of women of the same age, regardless of the location. With ageing gender-related differences in TEWL assimilate. Young men show higher SC hydration in comparison with women. But, whereas SC hydration is stable or even increasing in women over lifetime, the skin hydration in men is progressively decreasing, beginning at the age of 40. Sebum production in male skin is always higher and stays stable with increasing age, whereas sebum production in women progressively decreases over lifetime. Across all localizations and age groups, the pH value in men is below 5, the pH value of female subjects is, aside from limited expectations, higher than 5. Skin physiological distinctions between the sexes exist and are particularly remarkable with regard to sebum production and pH value. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  11. Tobacco advertisements targeted on women: creating an awareness among women. (United States)

    Kaleta, Dorota; Usidame, Bukola; Polańska, Kinga


    It has been always believed that men smoke more than women, but the trend of smoking in women is increasing nowadays. In some countries there are even more female smokers than male smokers. This is a major health risk because women are present and future mothers, and increasing number of smoking women will enlarge the number of exposed children. Relatively few women are aware of gender-specific health risks, including cervical cancer, osteoporosis, poor pregnancy outcome and early menopause. Tobacco related diseases are on the rise in women, considering the fact that more women now die of lung cancer than breast cancer. Tobacco companies have invented various ways to target women through tobacco advertising despite the various bans. This inevitably leads to the increase in female smoking rates. There are various recommendations from the World Health Organization which include the need for governments to pay particular attention to protect women from the tobacco companies' attempts to lure them into lifetimes of nicotine dependence and to take up counter advertisements against the tobacco companies.

  12. A preliminary investigation of tuberculosis and other diseases in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer in Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kalema-Zikusoka


    Full Text Available A survey to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis and certain other infectious diseases was conducted on 42 free-ranging African buffaloes, (Syncerus caffer from May to June 1997 in the Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda. Using the gamma interferon test, exposure to M. bovis was detected in 21.6 % of the buffaloes. One dead buffalo and an emaciated warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus that was euthanased, were necropsied; both had miliary granulomas from which M. bovis was isolated. None of the buffaloes sampled in Sector A of the park, which has no cattle interface, tested positive for bovine tuberculosis (BTB exposure. The prevalence and distribution of BTB does not appear to have changed significantly since the 1960s, but this may be due to fluxes in the buffalo population. Serological testing for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD demonstrated positive exposure of 57.1% of the buffaloes sampled, with types A, O and SAT 1-3, which is the first known report of FMD antibodies to A and O types in free ranging African buffaloes. Foot-and-mouth disease virus types SAT 1 and SAT 3 were isolated from buffalo probang samples. Two percent of the buffaloes had been exposed to brucellosis. None of the buffaloes tested had antibodies to rinderpest, leptospirosis or Q fever.

  13. RCRA corrective measures using a permeable reactive iron wall US Coast Guard Support Center, Elizabeth City, North Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmithors, W.L.; Vardy, J.A.


    A chromic acid release was discovered at a former electroplating shop at the U.S. Coast Guard Support Center in Elizabeth City, North Carolina. Initial investigative activities indicated that chromic acid had migrated into the subsurface soils and groundwater. In addition, trichloroethylene (TCE) was also discovered in groundwater during subsequent investigations of the hexavalent chromium (Cr VI) plume. Corrective measures were required under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The in-situ remediation method, proposed under RCRA Interim Measures to passively treat the groundwater contaminants, uses reactive zero-valent iron to reductively dechlorinate the chlorinated compounds and to mineralize the hexavalent chromium. A 47 meter by 0.6 meter subsurface permeable iron wall was installed downgradient of the source area to a depth of 7 meters using a direct trenching machine. The iron filings were placed in the ground as the soils were excavated from the subsurface. This is the first time that direct trenching was used to install reactive zero-valent iron filings. Over 250 metric tons of iron filings were used as the reactive material in the barrier wall. Installation of the iron filings took one full day. Extensive negotiations with regulatory agencies were required to use this technology under the current facility Hazardous Waste Management Permit. All waste soils generated during the excavation activities were contained and treated on site. Once contaminant concentrations were reduced the waste soils were used as fill material

  14. The Civil-Military Gap and Women in Combat: The Elite’s Attitude Transformation, 1991-2013 (United States)


    110th), Sec 595. Note: A number of the military elite were command chiefs, which are not normally considered part of the military elite. However, it...Press, 1978. Kier, Elizabeth. “ Homosexuals in the U.S. Military: Open Integration and Combat Effectiveness.” International Security 23, no. 2

  15. [Verification of doubtful PAP smear results of women included in the screening program in the Podlaskie province]. (United States)

    Błońska, Ewa; Knapp, Piotr Andrzej


    Verification of uncertain PAP-smear results in a group of women covered by the cervical screening program in the Podlaski province. The main aim of the study was to identify CIN (Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia) lesions present, with varying degrees of severity in women with cytological diagnosis of ASCUS (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance), LSIL (low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion), and ASC-H (atypical squamous cells - cannot exclude high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion). The study evaluated 101 cervical smears taken from the vaginal part of the cervix in a group of screened women in the Podlaski province. Cytological evaluation was performed according the Bethesda System. We analyzed abnormal smears selected from a total of 7296 cytological examinations performed during 2012 at the University Center for Pathomorphological and Genetic - Molecular Diagnosis, Medical University in Białystok. The cytological results which were of interest to us included 19 cases with ASCUS, 59 with LSIL, and 23 with ASC-H, as well as with morphological features of the presence of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). Staining was performed using CINtecPLUS test according to the manufacturer's instructions. CINtecPLUS is a immunocytochemical test based on specially designed monoclonal antibodies (E6H4TM) that let us identify protein p16ink4a within the cervical smear Additionally the diagnostic kit was provided with antibodies for diagnosing the presence of Ki-67 protein, a known marker of cell proliferation. The result was considered positive when staining of the nucleus and the cytoplasm appeared in red and brown, respectively. All abnormal results were eventually verified by histological examination of the tissue taken from cervical lesions by diagnostic-therapeutic procedure following colposcopic evaluation of cervical lesion topography In the group of cytological smears with ASCUS, the diagnosis was positive in 5 cases (26.3%), negative in 14 (73

  16. [Health for women; women for health]. (United States)


    This document describes a proposed new health policy for Colombian women. The rationale for the new policy, known as "Health for women, women for health", is discussed, and the general and specific objectives, program description, actions and strategies are presented for each of 5 subprograms. The subprograms cover health promotion and self-care for women, reproductive and sexual health care, prevention of abuse and services for women and children who are victims of violence, mental health, and occupational health Changes in Colombian society and living conditions and in the role of women over the past few decades have been reflected in changing epidemiologic profiles, life expectancy, and demands placed on health services. The Health for women, women for health policy takes into account social discrimination against women and its impact on female health. The subprogram of health promotion and self-care is intended to complement, reinforce, and broaden preventive interventions already offered by the health services. The subprogram will require a mobile interdisciplinary team to conduct educational campaigns and to coordinate activities. Promotional actions include staff training in a gender focus on health and health policy for women, development of a health manual for women, and a mass media campaign on self-care for women. The subprogram for reproductive health and sexuality will reorient existing maternal health services away from their emphasis on increasing coverage of prenatal care, promoting births in health facilities, and actions to reduce infant mortality and toward services appropriate to the different phases of the female reproductive cycle. The subprogram will include provision of family planning services, preventing and managing high risk pregnancies, providing adequate care in maternity centers for labor and delivery, and preventing avoidable maternal deaths. Reviewing and revising existing legislation to protect reproductive health is among proposed

  17. Difference and proliferation: race in the poetry of Elizabeth Bishop = Diferença e proliferação: o conceito de raça na poesia de Elizabeth Bishop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Caesar


    Full Text Available The current paper deals with the whole imagination of race in the work of a major American poet. The very subject of race intersects with the question of national identity, also neglected in Bishop’s work, although not in the same way. The aim of the discussion is to align the racial text with the national text. How can we understand Bishop’s consistent interest in race throughout her poetry, and what effect can be observed in it as a result of her exposure to racial constructs in Brazil that are so different from those of her native United States? We can see this effect manifest even in the controversy over her 1965 magazine article on the quatercentenary of Rio de Janeiro. What does this controversy demonstrate, finally, but that national experience with respect to race turns out to be mutually exclusive? One cannot be in this respect both Brazilian and American—in prose. In poetry, however, it is quite another matter. The subject of race is all of a piece, and has been all along conducted in Bishop’s work according to a logic ultimately apart fromnational construction. Analisa-se a imaginação de raça na obra de Elizabeth Bishop, uma poetisa importante da literatura estadunidense. O assunto ‘raça’ cruza com o problema da identidade nacional, também negligenciado na obra de Bishop, embora de modo diferente. A presente discussão alinha o texto racial ao texto nacional. Como pode-se compreender o seu interesse constante sobre ‘raça’ e quais são os efeitos em sua poesia como resultado de sua exposição às construções raciais no Brasil, as quais são tão diferentes daquelas nos Estados Unidos? Este efeito manifesta-se também em seu artigo numa revista de 1965 referente ao quatrocentenário do Rio de Janeiro. Esta controvérsia parece mostrar que a experiência nacional sobre ‘raça’ é mutuamente exclusiva. Na prosa não se pode ser brasileiro ou estadunidense ao mesmo tempo. Na poesia, parece que os parâmetros s

  18. Biomedical HIV Prevention Including Pre-exposure Prophylaxis and Opiate Agonist Therapy for Women Who Inject Drugs: State of Research and Future Directions. (United States)

    Page, Kimberly; Tsui, Judith; Maher, Lisa; Choopanya, Kachit; Vanichseni, Suphak; Mock, Philip A; Celum, Connie; Martin, Michael


    Women who inject drugs (WWID) are at higher risk of HIV compared with their male counterparts as a result of multiple factors, including biological, behavioral, and sociostructural factors, yet comparatively little effort has been invested in testing and delivering prevention methods that directly target this group. In this article, we discuss the need for expanded prevention interventions for WWID, focusing on 2 safe, effective, and approved, yet underutilized biomedical prevention methods: opiate agonist therapy (OAT) and oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Although both interventions are well researched, they have not been well examined in the context of gender. We discuss the drivers of women injectors' higher HIV risk, review the effectiveness of OAT and PrEP interventions among women, and explain why these new HIV prevention tools should be prioritized for WWID. There is substantial potential for impact of OAT and PrEP programs for WWID in the context of broader gender-responsive HIV prevention initiatives. Although awaiting efficacy data on other biomedical approaches in the HIV prevention research "pipeline," we propose that the scale-up and implementation of these proven, safe, and effective interventions are needed now.

  19. Queer signs: The women of the British projective test movement. (United States)

    Hubbard, Katherine


    As queer history is often hidden, historians must look for "signs" that hint at queer lives and experiences. When psychologists use projective tests, the search for queer signs has historically been more literal, and this was especially true in the homophobic practices of Psychology in the mid-twentieth century. In this paper, I respond to Elizabeth Scarborough's call for more analytic history about the lesser known women in Psychology's history. By focusing on British projective research conducted by lesbian psychologist June Hopkins, I shift perspective and consider, not those who were tested (which has been historically more common), but those who did the testing, and position them as potential queer subjects. After briefly outlining why the projective test movement is ripe for such analysis and the kinds of queer signs that were identified using the Rorschach ink blot test in the mid-twentieth century, I then present June Hopkins' (1969, 1970) research on the "lesbian personality." This work forms a framework upon which I then consider the lives of Margaret Lowenfeld, Ann Kaldegg, and Effie Lillian Hutton, all of whom were involved in the British projective test movement a generation prior to Hopkins. By adopting Hopkins' research to frame their lives, I present the possibility of this ambiguous history being distinctly queer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Drawing the eczema aesthetic: the psychological effects of chronic skin disease as depicted in the works of John Updike, Elizabeth Bishop, and Zelda Fitzgerald. (United States)

    Tatum, Karen E


    How might the psycho-social effects of chronic skin disease, its treatments (and discontents) be figuratively expressed in writing and painting? Does the art reveal common denominators in experience and representation? If so, how do we understand the cryptic language of these expressions? By examining the works of artists with chronic skin diseases--John Updike, Elizabeth Bishop, and Zelda Fitzgerald--some common features can be noted. Chronically broken skin can fracture the ego or self-perception, resulting in a disturbed body image, which leads to personality disorders and co-morbid affective disorders such as anxiety and depression. The vertiginous feeling that results can be noted in the paradoxical characters, figures, and psyches portrayed in the works of these artists. This essay will examine the more specific ways in which artists disclose and/or conceal their experiences and the particular ways in which these manifest in their works. While certain nuances exist, the common denominators give us a starting point for developing an eczema aesthetic, a code for interpreting the ways in which artists' experiences with skin disease manifest in their works.

  1. Prevalence of pathogenic free-living amoeba and other protozoa in natural and communal piped tap water from Queen Elizabeth protected area, Uganda. (United States)

    Sente, Celsus; Erume, Joseph; Naigaga, Irene; Mulindwa, Julius; Ochwo, Sylvester; Magambo, Phillip Kimuda; Namara, Benigna Gabriela; Kato, Charles Drago; Sebyatika, George; Muwonge, Kevin; Ocaido, Michael


    Pathogenic water dwelling protozoa such as Acanthamoeba spp., Hartmannella spp., Naegleria spp., Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. are often responsible for devastating illnesses especially in children and immunocompromised individuals, yet their presence and prevalence in certain environment in sub-Saharan Africa is still unknown to most researchers, public health officials and medical practitioners. The objective of this study was to establish the presence and prevalence of pathogenic free-living amoeba (FLA), Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Queen Elizabeth Protected Area (QEPA). Samples were collected from communal taps and natural water sites in QEPA. Physical water parameters were measured in situ. The samples were processed to detect the presence of FLA trophozoites by xenic cultivation, Cryptosporidium oocysts by Ziehl-Neelsen stain and Giardia cysts by Zinc Sulphate floatation technique. Parasites were observed microscopically, identified, counted and recorded. For FLA, genomic DNA was extracted for amplification and sequencing. Both natural and tap water sources were contaminated with FLA, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. All protozoan parasites were more abundant in the colder rainy season except for Harmannella spp. and Naegleria spp. which occurred more in the warmer months. The prevalence of all parasites was higher in tap water than in natural water samples. There was a strong negative correlation between the presence of Acanthamoeba spp., Hartmannella spp., Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. with Dissolved Oxygen (DO) (P protozoa that could possibly be the cause of a number of silent morbidities and mortalities among rural households in QEPA. This implies that water used by communities in QEPA is of poor quality and predisposes them to a variety of protozoan infections including the FLA whose public health importance was never reported, thus necessitating adoption of proper water safety measures.

  2. Women boxers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gems, Gerald; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula


    of women as the weak sex. Vaudeville provided women with an opportunity to present physical performances that surpassed the restrictions placed on women within the mainstream middle-class society. This article includes biographical sketches of some of the outstanding female boxers of the era by drawing......This article fills a gap in the very limited literature on women's boxing by examining the gendered space in which women engaged in the sport as participants in saloons, vaudeville theatres and the prize ring. In doing so, they challenged the contemporary gender order and disputed the notion...

  3. AdvanceVT Newsletter: February 2004




    Inside this issue: Today's Leadership Seminar; Women's Month Reception; Child Care Survey National Science Foundation The AdvanceVT Team Elizabeth Creamer, Assessment Director Associate Professor of Educational Leadership and Policy Studies Catherine Eckel, ADVANCE Professor Professor of Economics Patricia Hyer, Principle Investigator Associate Provost for Academic Administration Barbara Johnson, Administrative Assistant Peggy Layne, Project Coordinator Nancy Love, Co-PI and ADVANCE Pro...

  4. Women in 1974. (United States)

    Citizens Advisory Council on the Status of Women, Washington, DC.

    This is a report on the legal, political and social status of women in the year1974. The report includes the laws passed by Congress for equal rights for women, laws for equal pay, amendments that provide for flexible working hours and childbearing leave for women; and some cases of job discrimination against women. Legal amendments to insure…

  5. Violence against Amazon women. (United States)

    Lima, Vera Lúcia de Azevedo; Souza, Maria de Lourdes de; Monticelli, Marisa; Oliveira, Marília de Fátima Vieira de; Souza, Carlos Benedito Marinho de; Costa, Carlos Alberto Leal da; Brüggemann, Odaléa Maria


    This quantitative and exploratory study analyzed violence against Amazon women presented in print media according to type and severity, and whether aggressors fell under the Maria da Penha law. A total of 181 issues of a regional newspaper were consulted. Based on content analysis, 164 items addressing violence against women were selected and 46 were included in the corpus of analysis. Results were gathered in three thematic groups: women killed with cruelty, sexual violence against women regardless of age, and violence against women and the limitations of the Maria da Penha law. Violence against these women varied in terms of form and severity, including up to homicide. Women are submitted to sexual violence from childhood through adulthood. The enforcement of this law shows the community it has a means to cope with this social phenomenon.

  6. Women's Athletics: Coping with Controversy. (United States)

    Hoepner, Barbara J., Ed.

    This book is a collection of papers discussing controversial topics in women's athletics. Section one, "Overview--Women's Rights," includes articles on women's rights and equal opportunities in sports, the emergence of women in sports, and significant events in a century of American women's sports. Section two, "Women's Intercollegiate…

  7. Evidence of tuberculosis among children in medieval (13th–15th century Wrocław: A case study of hip joint tuberculosis in a juvenile skeleton excavated from the crypt of the St. Elizabeth church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieślik Agata Izabela


    Full Text Available Paleopathological examinations of the skeletal remains of people who died centuries ago are material source of knowledge about health and diseases in the past. In this article, a case of skeletal tuberculosis from historical (13th-15th c. Wrocław, Poland has been presented. The juvenile skeleton excavated from grave No 93, from the crypt located under the church of St. Elizabeth, displayed pathological lesions within the right hip joint resulting from a chronic inflammation, which might have been assigned to signs typical for skeletal tuberculosis. The results of macroscopic and radiological analyses appeared to be consistent, and allowed to determine a reliable diagnosis of this paleopathological case.

  8. The United States Air Force Academy: A Bibliography 2001-2005 (United States)


    Faldons. WEEKLY COMPILATION OF PRESIDENTIAL DOCUMENTS May 16, 2003: 612-613. PERIODICAL ARTICLES 31. Academy names new women’s basketball coach...succeed. CHECKPOINTS Fall 2003: 50-51. 382. Popovich, 󈨊, NBA Coach of the Year. CHECKPOINTS Spring 2003: 50. 383. Rauschkolb, Dick...178 185 Basketball 31 38 45 Battlebots Tournament 64 Beer, Heather 128 Bell, Luke 65 Benn, Elizabeth 245 Biancur, Andrew W 314 Big Brothers

  9. Women and AIDS caregiving: women's work? (United States)

    Songwathana, P


    In this ethnographic study, I examine personal, kinship, and social obligations and the role of women in the traditional Thai family. Under what circumstances do women take on the responsibility to care or not care, and how do they cope with the disease and care when they are also infected? Fifteen women who were afflicted or affected by HIV/AIDS participated in in-depth interviews and participant observations. Analysis employed mainly qualitative methods following Spradley. I show that women who are responsible for caring for both themselves and others, including members of their immediate families or extended family members, face a double jeopardy by virtue of their inferior role and status. When HIV-infected women experience illness, sometimes they feel split; they are incapable of functioning normally, yet they are obligated to do "What they've got to do." Women as carers feel that they have to care because they want to free someone else from suffering despite the fact that they are also suffering. Women roles as family carers seem to be both psychologically and socially constructed. AIDS care is not just a labour of love, but also is done in the spirit of work following Buddhist beliefs of karma and metta. In conclusion, traditional, persistent gender imbalances and inequalities influence women's sexuality, vulnerability, responsibility, and caregiving. When women become infected with HIV and sick with AIDS, their quality of life drops because of the physical, psychological, cultural value, and economic burdens of care they face. AIDS then necessitates rather than prevents women from fulfilling their multiple roles. Consequently, there is a need for greater support especially among Thai women who are afflicted and affected with AIDS.

  10. Associations between selective attention and soil-transmitted helminth infections, socioeconomic status, and physical fitness in disadvantaged children in Port Elizabeth, South Africa: An observational study. (United States)

    Gall, Stefanie; Müller, Ivan; Walter, Cheryl; Seelig, Harald; Steenkamp, Liana; Pühse, Uwe; du Randt, Rosa; Smith, Danielle; Adams, Larissa; Nqweniso, Siphesihle; Yap, Peiling; Ludyga, Sebastian; Steinmann, Peter; Utzinger, Jürg; Gerber, Markus


    Socioeconomically deprived children are at increased risk of ill-health associated with sedentary behavior, malnutrition, and helminth infection. The resulting reduced physical fitness, growth retardation, and impaired cognitive abilities may impede children's capacity to pay attention. The present study examines how socioeconomic status (SES), parasitic worm infections, stunting, food insecurity, and physical fitness are associated with selective attention and academic achievement in school-aged children. The study cohort included 835 children, aged 8-12 years, from eight primary schools in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods of Port Elizabeth, South Africa. The d2-test was utilized to assess selective attention. This is a paper and pencil letter-cancellation test consisting of randomly mixed letters d and p with one to four single and/or double quotation marks either over and/or under each letter. Children were invited to mark only the letters d that have double quotation marks. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed via the 20 m shuttle run test and muscle strength using the grip strength test. The Kato-Katz thick smear technique was employed to detect helminth eggs in stool samples. SES and food insecurity were determined with a pre-tested questionnaire, while end of year school results were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Children infected with soil-transmitted helminths had lower selective attention, lower school grades (academic achievement scores), and lower grip strength (all pselective attention was associated with soil-transmitted helminth infection (pattention and thereby impede their academic performance. Poor academic achievement will make it difficult for children to realize their full potential, perpetuating a vicious cycle of poverty and poor health. ISRCTN68411960.

  11. Medieval women's writing: Works by and for Women in England, 1100-1500


    Watt, D


    Medieval Women's Writing is a major new contribution to our understanding of women's writing in England, 1100-1500. The most comprehensive account to date, it includes writings in Latin and French as well as English, and works for as well as by women. Marie de France, Clemence of Barking, Julian of Norwich, Margery Kempe, and the Paston women are discussed alongside the Old English lives of women saints, The Life of Christina of Markyate, the St Albans Psalter, and the legends of women saints...

  12. Alcohol, tobacco and breast cancer--collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 58,515 women with breast cancer and 95,067 women without the disease. (United States)

    Hamajima, N; Hirose, K; Tajima, K; Rohan, T; Calle, E E; Heath, C W; Coates, R J; Liff, J M; Talamini, R; Chantarakul, N; Koetsawang, S; Rachawat, D; Morabia, A; Schuman, L; Stewart, W; Szklo, M; Bain, C; Schofield, F; Siskind, V; Band, P; Coldman, A J; Gallagher, R P; Hislop, T G; Yang, P; Kolonel, L M; Nomura, A M Y; Hu, J; Johnson, K C; Mao, Y; De Sanjosé, S; Lee, N; Marchbanks, P; Ory, H W; Peterson, H B; Wilson, H G; Wingo, P A; Ebeling, K; Kunde, D; Nishan, P; Hopper, J L; Colditz, G; Gajalanski, V; Martin, N; Pardthaisong, T; Silpisornkosol, S; Theetranont, C; Boosiri, B; Chutivongse, S; Jimakorn, P; Virutamasen, P; Wongsrichanalai, C; Ewertz, M; Adami, H O; Bergkvist, L; Magnusson, C; Persson, I; Chang-Claude, J; Paul, C; Skegg, D C G; Spears, G F S; Boyle, P; Evstifeeva, T; Daling, J R; Hutchinson, W B; Malone, K; Noonan, E A; Stanford, J L; Thomas, D B; Weiss, N S; White, E; Andrieu, N; Brêmond, A; Clavel, F; Gairard, B; Lansac, J; Piana, L; Renaud, R; Izquierdo, A; Viladiu, P; Cuevas, H R; Ontiveros, P; Palet, A; Salazar, S B; Aristizabel, N; Cuadros, A; Tryggvadottir, L; Tulinius, H; Bachelot, A; Lê, M G; Peto, J; Franceschi, S; Lubin, F; Modan, B; Ron, E; Wax, Y; Friedman, G D; Hiatt, R A; Levi, F; Bishop, T; Kosmelj, K; Primic-Zakelj, M; Ravnihar, B; Stare, J; Beeson, W L; Fraser, G; Bullbrook, R D; Cuzick, J; Duffy, S W; Fentiman, I S; Hayward, J L; Wang, D Y; McMichael, A J; McPherson, K; Hanson, R L; Leske, M C; Mahoney, M C; Nasca, P C; Varma, A O; Weinstein, A L; Moller, T R; Olsson, H; Ranstam, J; Goldbohm, R A; van den Brandt, P A; Apelo, R A; Baens, J; de la Cruz, J R; Javier, B; Lacaya, L B; Ngelangel, C A; La Vecchia, C; Negri, E; Marubini, E; Ferraroni, M; Gerber, M; Richardson, S; Segala, C; Gatei, D; Kenya, P; Kungu, A; Mati, J G; Brinton, L A; Hoover, R; Schairer, C; Spirtas, R; Lee, H P; Rookus, M A; van Leeuwen, F E; Schoenberg, J A; McCredie, M; Gammon, M D; Clarke, E A; Jones, L; Neil, A; Vessey, M; Yeates, D; Appleby, P; Banks, E; Beral, V; Bull, D; Crossley, B; Goodill, A; Green, J; Hermon, C; Key, T; Langston, N; Lewis, C; Reeves, G; Collins, R; Doll, R; Peto, R; Mabuchi, K; Preston, D; Hannaford, P; Kay, C; Rosero-Bixby, L; Gao, Y T; Jin, F; Yuan, J-M; Wei, H Y; Yun, T; Zhiheng, C; Berry, G; Cooper Booth, J; Jelihovsky, T; MacLennan, R; Shearman, R; Wang, Q-S; Baines, C-J; Miller, A B; Wall, C; Lund, E; Stalsberg, H; Shu, X O; Zheng, W; Katsouyanni, K; Trichopoulou, A; Trichopoulos, D; Dabancens, A; Martinez, L; Molina, R; Salas, O; Alexander, F E; Anderson, K; Folsom, A R; Hulka, B S; Bernstein, L; Enger, S; Haile, R W; Paganini-Hill, A; Pike, M C; Ross, R K; Ursin, G; Yu, M C; Longnecker, M P; Newcomb, P; Bergkvist, L; Kalache, A; Farley, T M M; Holck, S; Meirik, O


    Alcohol and tobacco consumption are closely correlated and published results on their association with breast cancer have not always allowed adequately for confounding between these exposures. Over 80% of the relevant information worldwide on alcohol and tobacco consumption and breast cancer were collated, checked and analysed centrally. Analyses included 58,515 women with invasive breast cancer and 95,067 controls from 53 studies. Relative risks of breast cancer were estimated, after stratifying by study, age, parity and, where appropriate, women's age when their first child was born and consumption of alcohol and tobacco. The average consumption of alcohol reported by controls from developed countries was 6.0 g per day, i.e. about half a unit/drink of alcohol per day, and was greater in ever-smokers than never-smokers, (8.4 g per day and 5.0 g per day, respectively). Compared with women who reported drinking no alcohol, the relative risk of breast cancer was 1.32 (1.19-1.45, P/=45 g per day alcohol. The relative risk of breast cancer increased by 7.1% (95% CI 5.5-8.7%; P<0.00001) for each additional 10 g per day intake of alcohol, i.e. for each extra unit or drink of alcohol consumed on a daily basis. This increase was the same in ever-smokers and never-smokers (7.1% per 10 g per day, P<0.00001, in each group). By contrast, the relationship between smoking and breast cancer was substantially confounded by the effect of alcohol. When analyses were restricted to 22 255 women with breast cancer and 40 832 controls who reported drinking no alcohol, smoking was not associated with breast cancer (compared to never-smokers, relative risk for ever-smokers=1.03, 95% CI 0.98-1.07, and for current smokers=0.99, 0.92-1.05). The results for alcohol and for tobacco did not vary substantially across studies, study designs, or according to 15 personal characteristics of the women; nor were the findings materially confounded by any of these factors. If the observed relationship

  13. High Tech for Milady's Makeup (United States)


    "Elizabeth," a computerized beauty analysis system marketed by Elizabeth Arden, is based upon an ARAC data base search of technologies measuring skin profiles. * "Elizabeth" is no longer commercially available.

  14. Proceedings of the LLNL Technical Women`s Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Holtz, E. [ed.


    This report documents events of the LLNL Technical Women`s Symposium. Topics include; future of computer systems, environmental technology, defense and space, Nova Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Physics, technical communication, tools and techniques for biology in the 1990s, automation and robotics, software applications, materials science, atomic vapor laser isotope separation, technical communication, technology transfer, and professional development workshops.

  15. Metaphors of Postmodernism in Neo-Victorian Fiction: “The Trial of Elizabeth Cree” by Peter Ackroyd and “The Decorator” by Boris Akunin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Baratova


    Full Text Available One of the features that characterizes postmodern fiction is an intense interest in the past, and especially so – in Victorian period, chiefly in its sensational aspects. Therefore we witness a revival of Victorian crime novel and this tendency can be traced not only in recent English literature, but in other literatures as well, Russian in particular. This gave birth to the term “neo-Victorian novel”, referring to the pieces, which recreate the atmosphere of the period, introduce a lot of intertextual allusions and references to the well-known Victorian novels and exploit most popular subjects of the 19th century literature. However as we will argue in this essay the authors often use these plots as implicit metaphors of postmodern art as such. It will be demonstrated on the example of two Neo-Victorian novels – “The Trial of Elizabeth Cree” by Peter Ackroyd (1995 and “The Decorator” by Boris Akunin; for the latter Ackroyd’s novel can be also regarded as one of the precedent texts. Both novels give their versions of the story of Jack the Ripper but what is more important in our case – employ akin plot structures, images and artistic devices, which in fact become metaphoric actualization of postmodern techniques.

  16. Women residents, women physicians and medicine's future. (United States)

    Serrano, Karen


    The number of women in medicine has increased dramatically in the last few decades, and women now represent half of all incoming medical students. Yet residency training still resembles the historical model when there were few women in medicine. This article reviews the issues facing women in residency today. Data suggest that the experience of female residents is more negative than that of males. Unique challenges facing female residents include the existence of gender bias and sexual harassment, a scarcity of female mentors in leadership positions, and work/family conflicts. Further research is needed to understand the experience of female residents and to identify barriers that hinder their optimal professional and personal development. Structural and cultural changes to residency programs are needed to better accommodate the needs of female trainees.

  17. Obesity and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This women's health podcast focuses on obesity in women and girls. It discusses obesity-related health risks and includes tips to help achieve and maintain a healthy weight.  Created: 5/11/2009 by Office of Women’s Health (OWH) and National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/11/2009.

  18. Women's experiences accessing a women-centered cardiac rehabilitation program: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Rolfe, Danielle E; Sutton, Erica J; Landry, Mireille; Sternberg, Len; Price, Jennifer A D


    The health benefits of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) for women living with heart disease are well documented, yet women remain underrepresented in traditionally structured CR programs. This health service delivery gap has been attributed to a number of sex-related factors experienced by women, including lower rates of physician referral, travel-related barriers, competing work and caregiving responsibilities, greater cardiovascular disease severity, and number of comorbid health conditions. Whether a program specifically designed for women is able to address these barriers and facilitate women's participation is a question that has seldom been explored in the CR literature. As part of a larger study exploring whether 6 predefined principles of women's health (empowerment of women, accessible programs, broad definition of health care, high-quality of care, collaborative planning, and innovative and creative approaches) are reflected in the practices of the Women's Cardiovascular Health Initiative (WCHI) (a comprehensive CR and primary prevention program designed for women), the objective of this analysis was to explore how the principle of "accessible programs" is experienced by women participating in the WCHI. Fourteen women previously enrolled in the WCHI program participated in a single, in-person qualitative interview. Transcripts were analyzed using a constant-comparative approach to identify relevant themes related to program accessibility. Key themes identified included participants' experiences with acquiring physician referral, negotiating transportation issues, and navigating program schedules. Women discussed how peer support and staff members' willingness to address their health-related concerns facilitated their participation. While a women-centered CR/primary prevention program may facilitate and encourage women's participation by providing flexible program schedules as well as peer and professional support, efforts are still required to address

  19. 1986 Index/Directory of Women's Media. (United States)

    Allen, Martha Leslie, Ed.

    This is a directory of women's media, i.e., media primarily owned and operated by and for women. The mission of this annual publication is to aid networking among women, women's organizations, and women's media, both nationally and internationally. The directory includes two sections: women's media groups, and individual media women and…

  20. 1993 Technical Paper Contest for Women. Gear Up 2000: Women in Motion (United States)

    Orans, Robin (Editor); Duckett, Sophie (Editor); White, Susan (Editor)


    The NASA Ames Research Center Advisory Committee for Women (ACW) sponsored the second ACW Technical paper Contest for Ames women in order to increase the visibility of, and to encourage writing for publication by Ames women scientists, engineers, and technicians. The topics of the contest paper mirrored in the topics of the 1993 Society for Women Engineers (SWE) National Convention, which included technological, workplace, global, and family issues.

  1. Preventing traumatic childbirth experiences: 2192 women?s perceptions and views


    Hollander, M. H.; van Hastenberg, E.; van Dillen, J.; van Pampus, M. G.; de Miranda, E.; Stramrood, C. A. I.


    The purpose of this study is to explore and quantify perceptions and experiences of women with a traumatic childbirth experience in order to identify areas for prevention and to help midwives and obstetricians improve woman-centered care. A retrospective survey was conducted online among 2192 women with a self-reported traumatic childbirth experience. Women were recruited in March 2016 through social media, including specific parent support groups. They filled out a 35-item questionnaire of w...

  2. Pennsylvania Women's Mental Health. (United States)

    Towns, Kathryn; And Others

    Women have undergone a revolution in their self-perception and their traditional relationships to work, money, marriage, and family. These social changes have implications for every aspect of women's lives, including their mental health. Because of the special problems and conflicts confronting women today, data need to be analyzed on policies,…

  3. Index/Directory of Women's Media. To Increase Communication Nationally and Internationally among Women. (United States)

    Women's Inst. for Freedom of the Press, Washington, DC.

    This directory includes two sections: women's media groups, and individual media women and media-concerned women. In the first section, there are listings of periodicals, presses/publishers, news services, columns, radio-TV groups, regular programs-radio, regular programs-TV, video and cable, film, multi-media, music, arts, writers groups, public…

  4. Increased endometrial thickness in women with hypertension. (United States)

    Bornstein, J; Auslender, R; Goldstein, S; Kohan, R; Stolar, Z; Abramovici, H


    We noticed an increase in endometrial thickness in women with hypertension who were treated with a combination of medications, including beta-blockers. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the endometrium of hypertensive women is thicker than that of healthy women and to determine whether endometrial thickening in hypertensive women is directly related to the antihypertensive beta-blocker treatment. We compared 3 groups of postmenopausal patients as follows: (1) women with a history of essential hypertension treated with a combination of medications, including beta-blockers; (2) women with a history of hypertension treated with a combination of medications that did not include beta-blockers; and (3) healthy women without hypertension. All patients were interviewed and examined, blood tests were performed, and endometrial thickness in the anterior-posterior diameter was measured by vaginal ultrasonography. Among the exclusion criteria were diabetes or an abnormal fasting blood glucose level, obesity, hormonal medication or replacement hormonal therapy during the previous 6 months, and a history of hormonal disturbances, infertility, or polycystic ovary syndrome. Of 45 hypertensive women enrolled in the study, 22 were treated with a beta-blocker combination medication and 23 were treated with other antihypertensive medications. They were compared with 25 healthy women. There was no statistically significant difference in endometrial thickness between women treated with medications, including beta-blockers, and those who were treated with other hypotensive agents. Twenty percent of women with hypertension and none of the healthy women had endometrium >5 mm thick (P infinity). Twenty percent of hypertensive postmenopausal women were found to have increased endometrial thickness. However, we were unable to substantiate an association between the type of treatment administered, whether beta-blockers were included, and the increase in endometrial thickness.

  5. Occurrence of Organic Compounds and Trace Elements in the Upper Passaic and Elizabeth Rivers and Their Tributaries in New Jersey, July 2003 to February 2004: Phase II of the New Jersey Toxics Reduction Workplan for New York-New Jersey Harbor (United States)

    Wilson, Timothy P.; Bonin, Jennifer L.


    Samples of surface water and suspended sediment were collected from the Passaic and Elizabeth Rivers and their tributaries in New Jersey from July 2003 to February 2004 to determine the concentrations of selected chlorinated organic and inorganic constituents. This sampling and analysis was conducted as Phase II of the New York-New Jersey Harbor Estuary Workplan?Contaminant Assessment and Reduction Program (CARP), which is overseen by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Phase II of the New Jersey Workplan was conducted to define upstream tributary and point sources of contaminants in those rivers sampled during Phase I work, with special emphasis on the Passaic and Elizabeth Rivers. Samples were collected from three groups of tributaries: (1) the Second, Third, and Saddle Rivers; (2) the Pompton and upper Passaic Rivers; and (3) the West Branch and main stem of the Elizabeth River. The Second, Third, and Saddle Rivers were sampled near their confluence with the tidal Passaic River, but at locations not affected by tidal flooding. The Pompton and upper Passaic Rivers were sampled immediately upstream from their confluence at Two Bridges, N.J. The West Branch and the main stem of the Elizabeth River were sampled just upstream from their confluence at Hillside, N.J. All tributaries were sampled during low-flow discharge conditions using the protocols and analytical methods for organic constituents used in low-flow sampling in Phase I. Grab samples of streamflow also were collected at each site and were analyzed for trace elements (mercury, methylmercury, cadmium, and lead) and for suspended sediment, particulate organic carbon, and dissolved organic carbon. The measured concentrations and available historical suspended-sediment and stream-discharge data (where available) were used to estimate average annual loads of suspended sediment and organic compounds in these rivers. Total suspended-sediment loads for 1975?2000 were estimated using rating

  6. Partnership Opportunities In Earth System Science Education Between Historically Black and Historically White Universities: Elizabeth City State University and the University of New Hampshire (United States)

    Williams, J. E.; Hayden, L. B.; Wake, C. P.; Varner, R. K.; Graham, K.; Rock, B. N.; Hale, S.; Hurtt, G. C.; Porter, W.; Blackmon, R.; Bryce, J. G.; Branch, B. D.; Johnson, J. E.


    Federal efforts to promote the participation of underrepresented students in the science, technology, engineering and mathematics disciplines (STEM) in higher education have been in effect over several decades. The Science and Engineering Equal Opportunities Act of 1980 aimed to create equal opportunity in the STEM disciplines by promoting and broadening the participation of underrepresented talent in science and engineering. Since that time, federal agencies such as the National Science Foundation, NOAA and NASA, scientific organizations such as the American Geophysical Union, and other organizations such as the Educational Testing Service have created programs, diversity plans and cutting edge reports designed to further explicate the need to broaden the participation of underrepresented student talent in these disciplines. Despite increases in the degrees awarded to underrepresented students in the STEM disciplines, enhancing diversity in these disciplines continues to remain a significant challenge. This paper describes a strategic approach to this challenge via the development of a collaborative partnership model between two universities: the historically black Elizabeth City State University (ESCU) and the historically white University of New Hampshire (UNH). The alliance, built on a mutually-agreed upon set of partnership principles, strives to enhance opportunities for underrepresented students to pursue careers in STEM disciplines, specifically those in Earth system science and remote sensing. In examining the partnership, six promising practices that help advance its success come to the forefront. These practices include institutional commitment and faculty engagement, mutual respect and shared time commitment, identifying engaged leadership, engaging critical change agents, initiating difficult dialogues, and preparing for growth and evolution. Outcomes of the partnership to date include the successful submission and funding of four collaborative

  7. Weiblichkeitsentwürfe viktorianischer Literatur Concepts of Femininity in Victorian Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Rönz


    Full Text Available Die viktorianische Epoche verzeichnet einen überproportionalen Zuwachs an Schriftstellerinnen besonders im Bereich des Romans, aber auch innerhalb der übrigen literarischen Gattungen. Autorinnen wie Charlotte und Emily Brontë, Mary Elizabeth Braddon, Christina Rossetti oder Harriet Martineau reflektieren in ihren Schriften eine Gesellschaft, in deren Ideologie die Rolle der Frau als „Angel of the House“ definiert wurde. Silvia Mergenthal untersucht anhand ausführlicher Beispiele die Darstellung der konkreten Perspektiven britischer Frauen in Texten des 19. Jahrhunderts.The Victorian era marks a disproportionate increase of female authors, particularly of novels but also of other literary genres. Authors such as Charlotte and Emily Brontë, Mary Elizabeth Braddon, Christina Rossetti or Harriet Martineau reflect a society in which the role of the woman is ideologically defined as the „angel of the house“ in their writings. Silvia Mergenthal examines the actual perspectives of British women from Nineteenth Century texts, using extensive examples.

  8. Analysis of Health Behaviors and Personal Values of Childless Women, Pregnant Women and Women Who Recently Delivered. (United States)

    Nowicki, Grzegorz Józef; Misztal-Okońska, Patrycja; Ślusarska, Barbara; Rudnicka-Drożak, Ewa; Młynarska, Magdalena; Czekierdowski, Artur


    Preconception lifestyle modifications and reduction of several known risk factors may have an influence on future pregnancy outcomes. The aim of the study was to analyze health behaviors and personal values as well as to assess the relationship between these factors in women without children, in pregnant women and in women who had already delivered babies. The questionnaire survey included the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI), the Personal Value List (PVL) and sociodemographic data and was conducted in 538 women. These women were divided into three groups: women who had recently delivered ( n = 235), pregnant women ( n = 121) and childless women ( n = 182). Pregnant women demonstrated a significantly higher level of declared health behaviors, and also, they rated higher on the subscales values "positive mental attitude" and "health practices", in comparison to women who had recently delivered and to childless women. In all tested groups, the highest rated personal value was "a successful family life", while the most appreciated symbol of happiness was "love and friendship". Our results suggest that the system of values and the perception of happiness symbols may influence women's health behaviors. Positioning "health" in the hierarchy of personal values as the most important one may facilitate the introduction of healthy behaviors. This, in turn, could reduce several adverse pregnancy outcomes that are potentially modifiable with changing preconception health attitudes. Our results also identify several unanswered questions and highlight areas where new research is needed.

  9. Involving women. (United States)

    Agbo, J


    I am a primary health care (PHC) coordinator working with the May Day Rural project, a local NGO involved in integrated approaches and programs with rural communities in the Ga District of the Greater-Accra region in Ghana. When we talk about the community development approach we must first and foremost recognize that we are talking about women, because in the developing world frequent childbirths mean that her burden of mortality is higher than a man's; her workload is extremely heavy--whether in gardening, farming, other household duties, caring for the sick, or the rearing of children; she has a key role in PHC and community development, because men are always looking for greener pastures elsewhere, leaving the women behind. Women's concerns are critical in most health care projects and women and children are their main beneficiaries. Why not include women in the management team, project design, implementation and evaluation processes? That is what the May Day Rural project is practicing, encouraging women's participation and creating a relationship of trust. full text

  10. Global Policy Change and Women\\'s Access to safe abortion: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Policy Change and Women\\'s Access to safe abortion: The impact of the World Health Organization\\'s guidance in African. ... remains very high in many African countries, stakeholders are increasingly using WHO recommendations in conjunction with other global and regional policy frameworks, including the African ...

  11. 75 FR 34186 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; EDGX Exchange, Inc... (United States)


    ... Bar Association Business Law Section to Elizabeth M. Murphy, Secretary, Commission, dated June 3, 2010... of Business, to Elizabeth M. Murphy, Secretary, Commission, dated May 26, 2010 (``Harris Letter...''); Letter from Alexander M. Cutler, Business Roundtable to Elizabeth M. Murphy, Secretary, Commission, dated...

  12. Jobs: women's double burden. (United States)


    Whereas international conventions and national laws provide equal opportunities for women in employment, the reality of women's lives keeps a disproportionate number of women unemployed, underemployed, and living in poverty. The UN itself, which officially is working toward equity among its employees, has a staff composed of just 32.6% women, and women comprise only 10.5% of the top end of the hierarchy. In areas where women's labor force participation has increased dramatically, women typically earn 30-40% less than men doing the same job or else their employment is limited to "traditional female" service positions. The fact that women and girls have received an inadequate education makes it extremely difficult to break the barriers of discrimination in developing countries. The empowerment of women will break the education barrier, and, when that falls, many other barriers will follow suit. Efforts are already underway to break structural barriers caused by economic and social policies. For example, a more flexible pattern of work has been proposed which will include the voluntary assumption of flexible hours, job-sharing, and part-time work. The concept of work is also being broadened to include the important human services that women traditionally provide on a volunteer basis. This will lead to a valuation of women's contribution to society which can be added to calculations of gross domestic product. Women also need protection as they attempt to eke out a living in the informal sector which has been the traditional avenue for women to earn money. This sector is not protected by law and is subject to extortion by officials and by male competitors. A variety of measures is under consideration to increase the protection of informal sector workers. Women also need protection in the conventional work place, especially as they enter fields traditionally reserved for men. These questions are important even in the context of global unemployment because these issues

  13. Separate and unsanitary: African American women railroad car cleaners and the Women's Service Section, 1918-1920. (United States)

    Muhammad, Robin Dearmon


    The Women's Service Section (WSS) investigated federally controlled railroad stations and yards at the end of World War I. Few women worked in car cleaning before the war, and railroad management preferred to block women workers, especially African Americans, from gaining any kind of foothold in railroad work. African American women were the single largest group of railroad car cleaners during this period but they were routinely denied adequate facilities, including toilets, locker rooms, and dining facilities throughout the railroad system. By raising the issues of facilities, workers' rights, and public health, these women shaped federal policy and widened the agenda of the WSS to include a direct attack on segregated workplaces. This article argues that African American women car cleaners launched an industrial campaign that wove together concerns about racism, sexism, and health issues, and successfully removed barriers to women working in a predominately male industry.

  14. 100 Years of Accumulated Deformation at Depth Observed in the Elizabeth Lake Tunnel, Southern San Andreas Fault (United States)

    Telling, J. W.; Tayyebi, A.; Hudnut, K. W.; Davis, C. A.; Glennie, C. L.


    The Elizabeth Lake Tunnel was completed in 1911 to convey water from the Owens Valley to Los Angeles, CA. The tunnel is approximately 8-km long and crosses the San Andreas Fault (SAF) at a depth of 90 m below the surface, measured near the tunnel mid-point. If present, a tectonic signal recorded by warping or offset of this tunnel could provide an opportunity to examine the deformation at depth in this location during the 100 years since the tunnel was constructed. A temporary closure of the tunnel for inspection and repair allowed the entire 8-km length to be surveyed using terrestrial laser scanning, providing a complete high-resolution 3D model of the tunnel. Since a high-resolution survey of the tunnel after its construction is not available for comparison, we assume that the tunnel was originally straight; this assumption is substantiated by records that indicate that the two halves of the tunnel, dug from opposite ends, met within 2.9 cm in the XY-plane and 1.6 cm in the Z-direction, at an off-fault location. Our results show 20 cm of right-lateral horizontal deformation near the estimated location of the tunnel's intersection with SAF, which agrees with the SAF sense of motion. The zone of deviation is approximately 300 m south of the SAF surface trace, and is about 350 m south of where the two tunneling crews met. This observed offset is consistent with either steady-state creep of about 2 mm/yr or possibly residual afterslip following the 1857 earthquake (that may be negligible at present). The full tectonic strain accumulation at this location would be five to ten times higher than observed, so clearly the observed deformation is only part of the expected full tectonic signal. In addition to the 20 cm short-wavelength deflection, we are examining for possible subtle longer wavelength deformation of the tunnel. The lidar model also shows significantly higher density of apparent cracking in the tunnel walls near this intercept point.

  15. International Women's Leadership Conference Proceedings. (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1999


    Presents proceedings of the American Association of Dental Schools' International Women's Leadership Conference. Addresses, panel presentations, and general-sessions topics included leadership training and promotion for women in dental education, women's health issues and research, the glass ceiling, infrastructures for research and training,…

  16. Analysis of Health Behaviors and Personal Values of Childless Women, Pregnant Women and Women Who Recently Delivered (United States)

    Misztal-Okońska, Patrycja; Rudnicka-Drożak, Ewa; Młynarska, Magdalena; Czekierdowski, Artur


    Preconception lifestyle modifications and reduction of several known risk factors may have an influence on future pregnancy outcomes. The aim of the study was to analyze health behaviors and personal values as well as to assess the relationship between these factors in women without children, in pregnant women and in women who had already delivered babies. The questionnaire survey included the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI), the Personal Value List (PVL) and sociodemographic data and was conducted in 538 women. These women were divided into three groups: women who had recently delivered (n = 235), pregnant women (n = 121) and childless women (n = 182). Pregnant women demonstrated a significantly higher level of declared health behaviors, and also, they rated higher on the subscales values “positive mental attitude” and “health practices”, in comparison to women who had recently delivered and to childless women. In all tested groups, the highest rated personal value was “a successful family life”, while the most appreciated symbol of happiness was “love and friendship”. Our results suggest that the system of values and the perception of happiness symbols may influence women’s health behaviors. Positioning “health” in the hierarchy of personal values as the most important one may facilitate the introduction of healthy behaviors. This, in turn, could reduce several adverse pregnancy outcomes that are potentially modifiable with changing preconception health attitudes. Our results also identify several unanswered questions and highlight areas where new research is needed. PMID:29495488

  17. 75 FR 34183 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Granting... (United States)


    ... Bar Association Business Law Section to Elizabeth M. Murphy, Secretary, Commission, dated June 3, 2010... Harris, USC Marshall School of Business, to Elizabeth M. Murphy, Secretary, Commission, dated May 26... Ameritrade Letter''); Letter from Alexander M. Cutler, Business Roundtable to Elizabeth M. Murphy, Secretary...

  18. Sexual safety and sexual security among young Black women who have sex with women and men. (United States)

    Alexander, Kamila Anise; Fannin, Ehriel F


    To examine sexuality narratives of Black women who have sex with women and men and explore factors that influence their sexual safety and sexual security. Secondary qualitative content analysis. We recruited young self-identified Black women from beauty salons and community-based organizations. Our sample included a subset of five sexually active, Black women age 19 to 25 who reported engaging in sexual relationships with women and men. Participants were selected from a larger parent study that included sexuality narratives from 25 women. We analyzed interview transcripts in which participants described sexual relationships. We used constant comparative techniques and conventional content analysis methodology. We uncovered three themes illustrating influences on sexual safety and sexual security: institutional expectations, emotional connectedness, and sexual behaviors. From this analysis, we derive valuable insights into decision-making processes within sexual relationships from the perspectives of young Black women who have sex with women and men. Clinicians and investigators can use these findings to inform programs designed to improve the sexual health of this often invisible group of women. Nurses are uniquely positioned to support young women as they navigate societal institutions and emotional experiences that inform future sexual decisions and behaviors. © 2014 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  19. Women in Otolaryngology. (United States)

    O'Connell Ferster, Ashley P; Hu, Amanda


    Advances in gender equality have been sought in the field of medicine for centuries, including the specialty of otolaryngology. Currently, about 14.5% of practicing otolaryngologists are women. Strides have been made to support equality by the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery through the development of the Women in Otolaryngology Section in 2010, among other efforts. This article reviews the literature of women in otolaryngology, as well as current trends toward equality among otolaryngologists of all genders.

  20. Violence against women: the perspective of academic women. (United States)

    Kalaca, Sibel; Dundar, Pınar


    Opinion surveys about potential causes of violence against women (VAW) are uncommon. This study explores academic women's opinions about VAW and the ways of reducing violence. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used in this descriptive study. One hundred-and-fifteen academicians participated in the study from two universities. A questionnaire was used regarding the definition and the causes of VAW, the risk groups and opinions about the solutions. Additionally, two authors interviewed 8 academicians from universities other than that of the interviewing author. Academicians discussed the problem from the perspective of "gender-based violence" rather than "family violence". The majority of the participants stated that nonworking women of low socioeconomic status are most at risk for VAW. They indicated that psychological violence is more prevalent against educated women, whilst physical violence is more likely to occur against uneducated and nonworking women. Perpetrator related factors were the most frequently stated causes of VAW. Thirty-five percent of the academicians defined themselves as at risk of some act of VAW. Recommendations for actions against violence were empowerment of women, increasing the educational levels in the society, and legal measures. Academic women introduced an ecological approach for the explanation of VAW by stressing the importance of taking into account the global context of the occurrence of VAW. Similar studies with various community members -including men- will help to define targeted interventions.

  1. Ibuprofen 400 mg is effective in women, and women are well represented in trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore R Andrew


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent article in the New Scientist argued that women were under-represented in clinical trials which, until now, had masked the finding that ibuprofen 400 mg was ineffective in women. Methods Meta-analysis of randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trials of ibuprofen 400 mg in acute pain, and use of individual patient information were planned to test the hypothesis that ibuprofen is ineffective in women. For each trial the proportion of women participating, the number of patients with at least 50% pain relief and the overall event rate for ibuprofen 400 mg and placebo was calculated. For each patient percentage pain relief was calculated, and the numbers of women and men achieving at least 50% pain relief used to calculate number-needed-to-treat (NNT for ibuprofen 400 mg compared to placebo. Results Thirty-seven included trials had 3,577 patients, 67% of whom were women. The proportion with at least 50% pain relief was unaffected by how many women were included. In an analysis of 678 individual patients the proportion of women and men with at least 50% pain relief was the same, NNT 3.4 (2.6 to 4.6 and 2.5 (2.0 to 3.3 respectively. Conclusion There is no clinically meaningful difference in the efficacy of ibuprofen 400 mg between men and women experiencing moderate to severe postoperative pain and women were well represented.

  2. Women and AIDS. (United States)

    Seghal, P N


    In this article, Dr. P.N. Sehgal, former director of the National Institute of Communicable Diseases in Delhi, explains the steps that women need to take to protect themselves against AIDS and discusses some issues facing women who have already contracted the disease. Because of women's lack of status in the family and society, it is harder for them to ensure their safety. Women based at home often lack information on AIDS, and those women who are informed sometimes depend on their male partner for financial support, which means that they are forced to engage in unsafe sexual practices. Safer sexual practices can reduce the risk for women. Though varying in degree of safety, some safer practices include: monogamous relationships between uninfected partners; the use of condoms for all types of sexual intercourse; non-penetrative sex practices (hugging, kissing, masturbating); reducing the number of sexual partners; avoiding sex when either of the partners has open sores or any STD. Pregnant women should also receive information concerning AIDS, including: a baby born from an HIV-infected mother has a 20-40% of being infected; the risk of transmission is higher when the mother already shows signs of AIDS; and an infected baby may die within the first few years of life. the HIV transmission may occur prepartum or during birth itself, but the risk of transmission from breastfeeding is extremely low. Dr. Sehgal stresses the need for privacy and confidentiality when dealing with carriers of the disease or when carrying out HIV testing. Above all, the rights of HIV-infected people must be protected.

  3. Heritable oxidative phosphorylation differences in a pollutant resistant Fundulus heteroclitus population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Xiao; Crawford, Douglas L.; Nacci, Diane E.; Oleksiak, Marjorie F.


    Highlights: • Laboratory reared fish from a highly polluted and clean reference population were compared. • Oxidative phosphorylation (e.g., State 3, enzymes, and proton LEAK) was quantified. • Laboratory reared F3 fish from polluted population displayed higher routine metabolism and complex II activity but lower complex I enzyme activity. • Enhanced OxPhos metabolism and toxicity resistance were retained in laboratory reared F3 fish from the polluted population. - Abstract: Populations can adapt to stress including recent anthropogenic pollution. Our published data suggests heritable differences in hepatocyte oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) metabolism in field-caught killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from the highly polluted Elizabeth River, VA, USA, relative to fish from a nearby, relatively unpolluted reference site in King’s Creek VA. Consistent with other studies showing that Elizabeth River killifish are resistant to some of the toxic effects of certain contaminants, OxPhos measurements in hepatocytes from field-caught King’s Creek but not field-caught Elizabeth River killifish were altered by acute benzo [a] pyrene exposures. To more definitively test whether the enhanced OxPhos metabolism and toxicity resistance are heritable, we measured OxPhos metabolism in a laboratory-reared F3 generation from the Elizabeth River population versus a laboratory-reared F1 generation from the King’s Creek population and compared these results to previous data from the field-caught fish. The F3 Elizabeth River fish compared to F1 King’s Creek fish had significantly higher State 3 respiration (routine metabolism) and complex II activity, and significantly lower complex I activity. The consistently higher routine metabolism in the F3 and field-caught Elizabeth River fish versus F1 and field-caught King’s Creek fish implies a heritable change in OxPhos function. The observation that LEAK, E-State, Complex I and Complex II were different in laboratory bred

  4. Heritable oxidative phosphorylation differences in a pollutant resistant Fundulus heteroclitus population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Xiao, E-mail: [Marine Biology and Ecology, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL 33149 (United States); Crawford, Douglas L. [Marine Biology and Ecology, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL 33149 (United States); Nacci, Diane E. [Population Ecology Branch, Atlantic Ecology Division, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 27 Tarzwell Dr., Narragansett, RI 02882 (United States); Oleksiak, Marjorie F., E-mail: [Marine Biology and Ecology, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL 33149 (United States)


    Highlights: • Laboratory reared fish from a highly polluted and clean reference population were compared. • Oxidative phosphorylation (e.g., State 3, enzymes, and proton LEAK) was quantified. • Laboratory reared F3 fish from polluted population displayed higher routine metabolism and complex II activity but lower complex I enzyme activity. • Enhanced OxPhos metabolism and toxicity resistance were retained in laboratory reared F3 fish from the polluted population. - Abstract: Populations can adapt to stress including recent anthropogenic pollution. Our published data suggests heritable differences in hepatocyte oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) metabolism in field-caught killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from the highly polluted Elizabeth River, VA, USA, relative to fish from a nearby, relatively unpolluted reference site in King’s Creek VA. Consistent with other studies showing that Elizabeth River killifish are resistant to some of the toxic effects of certain contaminants, OxPhos measurements in hepatocytes from field-caught King’s Creek but not field-caught Elizabeth River killifish were altered by acute benzo [a] pyrene exposures. To more definitively test whether the enhanced OxPhos metabolism and toxicity resistance are heritable, we measured OxPhos metabolism in a laboratory-reared F3 generation from the Elizabeth River population versus a laboratory-reared F1 generation from the King’s Creek population and compared these results to previous data from the field-caught fish. The F3 Elizabeth River fish compared to F1 King’s Creek fish had significantly higher State 3 respiration (routine metabolism) and complex II activity, and significantly lower complex I activity. The consistently higher routine metabolism in the F3 and field-caught Elizabeth River fish versus F1 and field-caught King’s Creek fish implies a heritable change in OxPhos function. The observation that LEAK, E-State, Complex I and Complex II were different in laboratory bred

  5. American Women and the Great War. (United States)

    Dumenil, Lynn


    Provides information on the idealized images of women during World War I. Features the use of posters and propaganda during the war. Focuses on voluntary activities in which women participated, the fight for women's suffrage during the war, and the effect of the war on women working. Includes poster reproductions. (CMK)

  6. Women miners in developing countries: pit women and others

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt; Martha Macintyre [Australian National University (Australia). Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies


    Contrary to their masculine portrayal, mines have always employed women in valuable and productive roles. Yet, pit life continues to be represented as a masculine world of work, legitimizing men as the only mineworkers and large, mechanized, and capitalized operations as the only form of mining. Bringing together a range of case studies of women miners from past and present in Asia, the Pacific Region, Latin America and Africa, this book makes visible the roles and contributions of women as miners. It also highlights the importance of engendering small and informal mining in the developing world as compared to the early European and American mines. The book shows that women are engaged in various kinds of mining and illustrates how gender and inequality are constructed and sustained in the mines, and also how ethnic identities intersect with those gendered identities. Chapters dealing with coal mining include: Introduction: Where life is in the pits (and elsewhere) and gendered; Japanese coal mining: women discovered; Mining gender at work in the Indian collieries: identity construction; Women in the mining industry of contemporary China; Roti do, ya goli do! (give us bread, or give us bullets!): stories of struggles of women workers in Bhowra colliery, India and Globalization and women's work in the mine pits in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. 17 ills.

  7. Women's Issues in an Era of Inclusion. ERIC/ChESS. (United States)

    Risinger, C. Frederick


    Presents a brief annotated bibliography of sources addressing women's issues within the ERIC database. The sources include journal articles, monographs, ERIC Digests, and folksong collections. They cover aspects of women and education, including women in the curriculum, women's suffrage, and women's history. (MJP)

  8. Addressing Stillbirth in India Must Include Men. (United States)

    Roberts, Lisa; Montgomery, Susanne; Ganesh, Gayatri; Kaur, Harinder Pal; Singh, Ratan


    Millennium Development Goal 4, to reduce child mortality, can only be achieved by reducing stillbirths globally. A confluence of medical and sociocultural factors contribute to the high stillbirth rates in India. The psychosocial aftermath of stillbirth is a well-documented public health problem, though less is known of the experience for men, particularly outside of the Western context. Therefore, men's perceptions and knowledge regarding reproductive health, as well as maternal-child health are important. Key informant interviews (n = 5) were analyzed and 28 structured interviews were conducted using a survey based on qualitative themes. Qualitative themes included men's dual burden and right to medical and reproductive decision making power. Wives were discouraged from expressing grief and pushed to conceive again. If not successful, particularly if a son was not conceived, a second wife was considered a solution. Quantitative data revealed that men with a history of stillbirths had greater anxiety and depression, perceived less social support, but had more egalitarian views towards women than men without stillbirth experience. At the same time fathers of stillbirths were more likely to be emotionally or physically abusive. Predictors of mental health, attitudes towards women, and perceived support are discussed. Patriarchal societal values, son preference, deficient women's autonomy, and sex-selective abortion perpetuate the risk for future poor infant outcomes, including stillbirth, and compounds the already higher risk of stillbirth for males. Grief interventions should explore and take into account men's perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors towards reproductive decision making.

  9. Unrecognized circulation of SAT 1 foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle herds around Queen Elizabeth National Park in Uganda. (United States)

    Dhikusooka, Moses Tefula; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Namatovu, Alice; Belsham, Graham J; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Wekesa, Sabenzia Nabalayo; Balinda, Sheila Nina; Muwanika, Vincent B; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten


    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Uganda in spite of the control measures used. Various aspects of the maintenance and circulation of FMD viruses (FMDV) in Uganda are not well understood; these include the role of the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) as a reservoir for FMDV. To better understand the epidemiology of FMD at the livestock-wildlife-interface, samples were collected from young, unvaccinated cattle from 24 pastoral herds that closely interact with wildlife around Queen Elizabeth National Park in Uganda, and analysed for evidence of FMDV infection. In total, 37 (15%) of 247 serum samples had detectable antibodies against FMDV non-structural proteins (NSPs) using a pan-serotypic assay. Within these 37 sera, antibody titres ≥ 80 against the structural proteins of serotypes O, SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3 were detected by ELISA in 5, 7, 4 and 3 samples, respectively, while neutralizing antibodies were only detected against serotype O in 3 samples. Two FMDV isolates, with identical VP1 coding sequences, were obtained from probang samples from clinically healthy calves from the same herd and are serotype SAT 1 (topotype IV (EA-I)). Based on the VP1 coding sequences, these viruses are distinct from previous cattle and buffalo SAT 1 FMDV isolates obtained from the same area (19-30% nucleotide difference) and from the vaccine strain (TAN/155/71) used within Uganda (26% nucleotide difference). Eight herds had only one or a few animals with antibodies against FMDV NSPs while six herds had more substantial evidence of prior infection with FMDV. There was no evidence for exposure to FMDV in the other ten herds. The two identical SAT 1 FMDV VP1 sequences are distinct from former buffalo and cattle isolates from the same area, thus, transmission between buffalo and cattle was not demonstrated. These new SAT 1 FMDV isolates differed significantly from the vaccine strain used to control Ugandan FMD outbreaks, indicating a need for vaccine matching studies. Only

  10. The sexual harassment of uppity women. (United States)

    Berdahl, Jennifer L


    In 3 studies, the author tested 2 competing views of sexual harassment: (a) It is motivated primarily by sexual desire and, therefore, is directed at women who meet feminine ideals, and (b) it is motivated primarily by a desire to punish gender-role deviants and, therefore, is directed at women who violate feminine ideals. Study 1 included male and female college students (N = 175) and showed that women with relatively masculine personalities (e.g., assertive, dominant, and independent) experienced the most sexual harassment. Study 2 (N = 134) showed that this effect was not because women with relatively masculine personalities were more likely than others to negatively evaluate potentially harassing scenarios. Study 3 included male and female employees at 5 organizations (N = 238) and showed that women in male-dominated organizations were harassed more than women in female-dominated organizations, and that women in male-dominated organizations who had relatively masculine personalities were sexually harassed the most. ((c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Indian Women: An Historical and Personal Perspective (United States)

    Christensen, Rosemary Ackley


    Several issues relating to Indian women are discussed. These include (1) the three types of people to whom we owe our historical perceptions of Indian women, (2) role delineation in Indian society; (3) differences between Indian women and white women, and (4) literary role models of Indian women. (Author/BW)

  12. ‘It Does Not Mean Me, But a Supposed Person’:Browning, Dickinson, and the dramatic lyric


    Finnerty, Paraic


    Although scholars have explored the importance of the works of Elizabeth Barrett Browning to Emily Dickinson, very little research exists on the implications of her admiration for Robert Browning. Within the context of Browning’s nineteenth-century US reception, this essay considers the profound and seminal effect this writer had on Dickinson’s vocation as a poet and her understanding of poetry. Focusing in particular on Dickinson’s reading and response to Browning’s Men and Women (1855), it ...

  13. Research priorities: women in Africa. (United States)

    Okeyo, A P


    In December 1979, an Expert Meeting on Research and Data Collection on Women and Development was convened in Nairobi for the purpose of defining research priorities and methodological approaches for studying the role of African women in development. After reviewing current literature relevant to the subject matter, the participants developed a number of hypotheses regarding the impact of development activities on the role and status of women, and recommended that these hypotheses be tested in future reserach. In general, agrarian reform, mechanization of agriculture, the introduction of cash cropping, and modernization were hypothesized as having a negative impact on the role, status, productive activities, and nutritional standards of women. Other hypotheses stated that development programs and agricultural extension services tended to neglect women. Recommended research methodologies include: 1) efforts to involve the community members in the development and implementation of research projects undertaken in their communities; 2) increased use of local experts and community members in data collection; and 3) interdisciplinary collaboration. The participants also recommended that each country compile a statistical profile on the women in their countries. The profiles should include comparable information on: 1) fertility; 2) educational levels, employment status, and income levels for women; 3) household composition; and 4) types of services available to women.

  14. HIV infection and women's sexual functioning. (United States)

    Wilson, Tracey E; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Schwartz, Rebecca; Golub, Elizabeth T; Cohen, Mardge H; Maki, Pauline; Greenblatt, Ruth; Massad, L Stewart; Robison, Esther; Goparaju, Lakshmi; Lindau, Stacy


    To compare sexual problems among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women and describe clinical and psychosocial factors associated with these problems. Data were collected during a study visit of the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). The WIHS studies the natural and treated history of HIV among women in the United States. Between October 01, 2006, and March 30, 2007, 1805 women (1279 HIV positive and 526 HIV negative) completed a study visit that included administration of the Female Sexual Function Index. In addition, the visit included completion of standardized interviewer-administered surveys, physical and gynecological examinations, and blood sample collection. Women with HIV reported greater sexual problems than did those without HIV. Women also reported lower sexual function if they were classified as menopausal, had symptoms indicative of depression, or if they reported not being in a relationship. CD4 cell count was associated with Female Sexual Function Index scores, such that those with CD4 women's quality of life, greater attention to this issue as a potential component of women's overall HIV care is warranted.

  15. Breast cancer in young women. (United States)

    Radecka, Barbara; Litwiniuk, Maria


    Breast cancer (BC) in young women is rare, affecting only 4-6% of women under the age of 40. Regardless, BC remains the most common malignancy among younger patients. Recently, a significant increase in BC rates has been observed among pre-menopausal subjects. Breast cancer in young women requires special attention due to its specific morphologic and prognostic characteristics and unique aspects, including fertility preservation and psychosocial issues (e.g. its impact on family life and career). Young women are more likely to have tumors with higher incidence of negative clinicopathologic features (higher histological grade, more lymph node positivity, lower estrogen receptor (ER) positivity, higher rates of Her2/neu overexpression). Also, they tend to be diagnosed at more advanced stages of the disease. That, in turn, contributes to less favorable prognosis as compared to older women. Young women are generally treated similarly to older patients. Surgical management includes mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery, followed by radiation therapy (younger women have higher local recurrence rates than older women, especially after breast-conserving therapy). Although the basics of chemotherapy are the same for patients of all ages, younger women have some special considerations. It is important to consider options for fertility preservation before starting systemic treatment. Patients should have access to genetic testing as their results may affect the choice of therapy. Younger women and their families should receive adequate psychological support and counselling.

  16. Older women, work and health. (United States)

    Payne, S; Doyal, L


    Older women make up an increasingly important sector in the labour market. However, we know little about their health-the various influences on their health and the ways in which paid and unpaid work impact on both physical and mental well being. This paper reviews the available literature on older women's health in the workplace, focussing on work-specific and more general risks for older women, including stress, discrimination, physical hazards and the 'double burden' of paid work and caring responsibilities. Databases searched included Web of Science, CAS, CINAHL, Medline and ASSIA, together with UK and European statistical sources. We conclude with a three-point research agenda, calling for more empirical work on the risks faced by older women, studies that take a life-course perspective of women's occupational health and work that explores the interactions between unpaid and paid work in later life.

  17. Women's Suffrage: A Sampler of ERIC Resources. (United States)

    Risinger, C. Frederick


    Discusses the resources available from the ERIC System on issues related to women's suffrage and women's rights. Includes an annotated bibliography of six resources, including lesson plans and historiography reviews. (CFR)

  18. Violence against women: The perspective of academic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaca Sibel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Opinion surveys about potential causes of violence against women (VAW are uncommon. This study explores academic women's opinions about VAW and the ways of reducing violence. Methods Quantitative and qualitative methods were used in this descriptive study. One hundred-and-fifteen academicians participated in the study from two universities. A questionnaire was used regarding the definition and the causes of VAW, the risk groups and opinions about the solutions. Additionally, two authors interviewed 8 academicians from universities other than that of the interviewing author. Results Academicians discussed the problem from the perspective of "gender-based violence" rather than "family violence". The majority of the participants stated that nonworking women of low socioeconomic status are most at risk for VAW. They indicated that psychological violence is more prevalent against educated women, whilst physical violence is more likely to occur against uneducated and nonworking women. Perpetrator related factors were the most frequently stated causes of VAW. Thirty-five percent of the academicians defined themselves as at risk of some act of VAW. Recommendations for actions against violence were empowerment of women, increasing the educational levels in the society, and legal measures. Conclusions Academic women introduced an ecological approach for the explanation of VAW by stressing the importance of taking into account the global context of the occurrence of VAW. Similar studies with various community members -including men- will help to define targeted interventions.

  19. Iron status in pregnant women and women of reproductive age in Europe. (United States)

    Milman, Nils; Taylor, Christine L; Merkel, Joyce; Brannon, Patsy M


    Understanding the iron status in pregnant women in Europe provides a foundation for considering the role of iron screening and supplementation. However, available reports and studies have used different approaches that challenge the devising of overall summaries. Moreover, data on pregnant women are limited, and thus, data on women of reproductive age provide useful background information including baseline iron stores in pregnant women. This review considered data that are available from >15 European countries including national surveys and relevant clinical studies. In European women of reproductive age, median or geometric mean serum ferritin (SF) concentrations were estimated at 26-38 μg/L. Approximately 40-55% of this population had small or depleted iron stores (i.e., SF concentration ≤30 μg/L), and 45-60% of this population had apparently replete iron stores. The prevalence of iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) was 10-32% and 2-5%, respectively, depending on the cutoffs used. Approximately 20-35% of European women of reproductive age had sufficient iron stores (SF concentration >70 μg/L) to complete a pregnancy without supplementary iron. During pregnancy, European women in controlled supplementation trials who were not receiving iron supplements displayed increasing prevalences of ID and IDA during pregnancy, which peaked in the middle to late third trimester. Available evidence has suggested that, in gestational weeks 32-39, the median or geometric mean SF concentrations were 6-21 μg/L, and prevalences of ID and IDA were 28-85% and 21-35%, respectively. Women who were taking iron supplements had higher iron status and lower prevalences of ID and IDA, which were dependent on the dose of iron and compliance. The data suggest that, in Europe, the iron status of reproductive-aged women varies by region and worsens in pregnancy without iron supplementation. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Women: A Select Bibliography. (United States)

    Kusnerz, Peggy A., Comp.; Pollack, Ann M., Comp.

    This select bibliography lists books, monographs, journals and newsletters which relate to feminism, women's studies, and other perspectives on women. Selections are organized by topic: general, bibliographies, art and literature, biography/autobiography, economics, education, family and marriage, history, politics and sex roles. Also included is…

  1. Cost-effectiveness of breech version by acupuncture-type interventions on BL 67, including moxibustion, for women with a breech foetus at 33 weeks gestation: a modelling approach. (United States)

    van den Berg, Ineke; Kaandorp, Guido C; Bosch, Johanna L; Duvekot, Johannes J; Arends, Lidia R; Hunink, M G Myriam


    To assess, using a modelling approach, the effectiveness and costs of breech version with acupuncture-type interventions on BL67 (BVA-T), including moxibustion, compared to expectant management for women with a foetal breech presentation at 33 weeks gestation. A decision tree was developed to predict the number of caesarean sections prevented by BVA-T compared to expectant management to rectify breech presentation. The model accounted for external cephalic versions (ECV), treatment compliance, and costs for 10,000 simulated breech presentations at 33 weeks gestational age. Event rates were taken from Dutch population data and the international literature, and the relative effectiveness of BVA-T was based on a specific meta-analysis. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate the robustness of the results. We calculated percentages of breech presentations at term, caesarean sections, and costs from the third-party payer perspective. Odds ratios (OR) and cost differences of BVA-T versus expectant management were calculated. (Probabilistic) sensitivity analysis and expected value of perfect information analysis were performed. The simulated outcomes demonstrated 32% breech presentations after BVA-T versus 53% with expectant management (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.43, 0.83). The percentage caesarean section was 37% after BVA-T versus 50% with expectant management (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.59, 0.88). The mean cost-savings per woman was euro 451 (95% CI euro 109, euro 775; p=0.005) using moxibustion. Sensitivity analysis showed that if 16% or more of women offered moxibustion complied, it was more effective and less costly than expectant management. To prevent one caesarean section, 7 women had to use BVA-T. The expected value of perfect information from further research was euro0.32 per woman. The results suggest that offering BVA-T to women with a breech foetus at 33 weeks gestation reduces the number of breech presentations at term, thus reducing the number of caesarean sections

  2. Higher prevalence of anemia among pregnant immigrant women compared to pregnant ethnic Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Friis-Hansen, Lennart; Felding, Peter


    The aim of the study was to investigate whether the well-known high anemia prevalence in pregnant women from the eastern Mediterranean and Asian regions decreased when the women immigrated to a low-frequency region (Denmark). During 70 months, 1,741 pregnant immigrant women referred from primary...... status parameters were examined in the two groups. The prevalence of anemia was higher in the immigrant group (20.0%) compared to the Danish women (4.9%) (P ... indicated iron deficiency. Conclusively, the pregnant immigrant women had significantly higher prevalence of anemia compared to pregnant women of Danish origin. It indicates the need for an alternative routine screening procedure for this population group, which should also include nutritional counselling....

  3. Women and Private Pensions. (United States)

    Benson, Helene A.

    This speech focuses on women and private pension plans, such as private pension coverage and smaller benefit amounts. Pension issues affecting women as employees include participation in plans, vesting, break-in service, benefit accruals, integration with Social Security, sex-based actuarial tables, portability, inflation, and individual…

  4. Women's expectations and experiences of maternity care in NSW--what women highlight as most important. (United States)

    Jenkins, Mary G; Ford, Jane B; Morris, Jonathan M; Roberts, Christine L


    Although surveys have identified that women are generally highly satisfied with maternity care provision, those aspects of care that women highlight as most important for achieving satisfaction and a satisfactory maternity care experience have not been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate how women understand and experience their maternity care and to report which aspects of care women highlight as most important. This large qualitative study explored women's expectations and experiences of maternity care provision. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 53 women experiencing maternity care in a range of tertiary, regional, rural, remote hospitals and midwife-led practices in the state of New South Wales, Australia during 2011-2012. Included in the interview schedule was the question 'What 3 aspects would you see as most important for delivery of maternity care?' Descriptive analyses of entire transcripts and responses to the question on most important aspects of care were undertaken. Descriptive analyses of women's responses identified 5 important aspects of care: woman-focused care, staff qualities, systems and facilities, family-focused care and continuity of care/information. First-time mothers were more likely to identify woman-focused care, staff qualities and continuity of care/information as important aspects than multiparous mothers. Urban and regional mothers highlighted staff qualities as having greater importance for satisfaction with their care while rural and particularly remote women nominated systems and facilities as important. Our study showed that women from a range of settings are more concerned with staff and relational issues than facilities. Differences in perceptions among primiparous versus multiparous women, at different stages of pregnancy and among women from rural and remote compared to urban settings highlight the need to include women with a diversity of experience when trying to understand the aspects

  5. Social capital, women's autonomy and smoking among married women in low-income urban neighborhoods of Beirut, Lebanon. (United States)

    Afifi, Rema A; Nakkash, Rima T; Khawaja, Marwan


    We sought to examine the associations between social capital, women's empowerment, and smoking behavior among married women in three low-income neighborhoods in Beirut, Lebanon. Data from currently married women aged 15 to 59 years in the 2003 Urban Health Study were used. The dependent variable was cigarette smoking. The main independent variables were five social capital items and three women's empowerment indices. Other socioeconomic variables as well as mental distress, happiness, and community of residence were included as covariates. Bivariate associations were conducted on all variables using chi-square tests. Adjusted odds ratios from binary logistic regression models were then modeled on smoking behavior separately for younger and older women. More than one third (35.9%) of married women reported smoking cigarettes. At the bivariate level, a variety of socioeconomic and demographic variables predicted smoking. With respect to social capital, women who lacked trust and were dissatisfied with the number friends or relatives living nearby were more likely to smoke. As for women's autonomy, high decision making and high mobility were associated with smoking. When analyzed multivariately, social capital items were statistically significant for younger women but not for older women. And the mobility variables were significant for older women but not younger women. Our results support the conclusion that determinants of women's tobacco use are multilayered, and include social capital and women's autonomy. Our results also suggest that younger and older married women may be influenced by differential determinants. Reasons for these differences are explored. Interventions may need to be tailored to each age group separately. Copyright 2010 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Women's sexual pain disorders. (United States)

    van Lankveld, Jacques J D M; Granot, Michal; Weijmar Schultz, Willibrord C M; Binik, Yitzchak M; Wesselmann, Ursula; Pukall, Caroline F; Bohm-Starke, Nina; Achtrari, Chahin


    Women's sexual pain disorders include dyspareunia and vaginismus and there is need for state-of-the-art information in this area. To update the scientific evidence published in 2004, from the 2nd International Consultation on Sexual Medicine pertaining to the diagnosis and treatment of women's sexual pain disorders. An expert committee, invited from six countries by the 3rd International Consultation, was comprised of eight researchers and clinicians from biological and social science disciplines, for the purpose of reviewing and grading the scientific evidence on nosology, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of women's sexual pain disorders. Expert opinion was based on grading of evidence-based medical literature, extensive internal committee discussion, public presentation, and debate. Results. A comprehensive assessment of medical, sexual, and psychosocial history is recommended for diagnosis and management. Indications for general and focused pelvic genital examination are identified. Evidence-based recommendations for assessment of women's sexual pain disorders are reviewed. An evidence-based approach to management of these disorders is provided. Continued efforts are warranted to conduct research and scientific reporting on the optimal assessment and management of women's sexual pain disorders, including multidisciplinary approaches.

  7. Identifying the Barriers to Women's Agency in Domestic Violence: The Tensions between Women's Personal Experiences and Systemic Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Aldridge


    Full Text Available Despite advances in knowledge and understanding about the impacts of domestic violence on women's lives, global research on violence against women shows there is a need for research that not only places women centre stage in research praxis, but also that involves them more collaboratively in genuine dialogue about their experiences, including their agentic stances. This is especially the case for marginalised and socially excluded women victims of domestic violence, such as those who are not known or do not present to services and who survive abusive relationships alone or with little outside support. Evidence from two studies reported here—secondary analysis of women with severe and enduring mental health problems and a collaborative narrative project with unsupported women victims of domestic violence—suggest that women's capacity for agency are compromised by a number of critical factors, and that these are also reflected in the tensions between micro–macro analyses and understanding of the impact of domestic violence on women. This article considers the barriers to women's agency from the women's perspective and in the context of broader, systemic dynamics, including the denial or obscuring of abuse by governments and states and the consequences of stringent fiscal retrenchment that put women at increased risk of domestic violence.

  8. Women, gender equality, and diabetes. (United States)

    Hannan, Carolyn


    Discussion of women, gender equality, and diabetes should be placed in the context of United Nations mandates on women's health which highlight the need for equal access to information, prevention activities, services, and care across the life cycle. Gender differences and inequalities have been identified in relation to causes and consequences of diabetes and access to services and support between women and men, and among different groups of women. Appropriate gender-sensitive policy responses, including research and data collection, need to be developed. The recent United Nations resolution on diabetes provides an opportunity to strengthen the focus on women and diabetes.

  9. Violence against women: the physician's role. (United States)

    Schmuel, E; Schenker, J G


    Violence against women is one reflection of the unequal power relationship between men and women in societies. Reflections of this inequality include marriage at a very young age, lack of information or choice about fertility control and forced pregnancy within marriage. The different forms of violence against women are: domestic violence and rape, genital mutilation or, gender-based violence by police and security forces, gender-based violence against women during armed conflict, gender-based violence against women refugees and asylum-seekers, violence associated with prostitution and pornography, violence in the workplace, including sexual harassment. Violence against women is condemned, whether it occurs in a societal setting or a domestic setting. It is not a private or family matter. The FIGO Committee for the Study of Ethical Aspects of Human Reproduction released statements to physicians treating women on this issue. Physicians are ethically obliged to inform themselves about the manifestations of violence and recognize cases, to treat the physical and psychological results of violence, to affirm to their patients that violent acts toward them are not acceptable and to advocate for social infrastructures to provide women the choice of seeking secure refuge and ongoing counselling.

  10. Prevalence of human papilloma virus infection in pregnant Turkish women compared with non-pregnant women. (United States)

    Aydin, Y; Atis, A; Tutuman, T; Goker, N


    We aimed to find a prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV) in order to define the 100 genotypes and subset of 14 oncogenic genotypes in pregnant Turkish women and to compare these with non-pregnant women. Cervical thin-prep specimens were obtained from 164 women in the first trimester pregnancy and 153 non pregnant women. 29.2% of pregnant versus 19.6% of non-pregnant Turkish women had at least one of the 100 types of HPV infection--a statistically significant difference. The rate of 14 high-risk HPV genotype infections was significantly higher in pregnant (14.6) compared to non-pregnant Turkish women (9.6%). Pregnant Turkish women are at higher risk for all HPV infections including high-risk cervical cancer genotypes.

  11. Climate for women in climate science: Women scientists and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (United States)

    Gay-Antaki, Miriam; Liverman, Diana


    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is an authoritative and influential source of reports on climate change. The lead authors of IPCC reports include scientists from around the world, but questions have been raised about the dominance of specific disciplines in the report and the disproportionate number of scholars from the Global North. In this paper, we analyze the as-yet-unexamined issue of gender and IPCC authorship, looking at changes in gender balance over time and analyzing women's views about their experience and barriers to full participation, not only as women but also at the intersection of nationality, race, command of English, and discipline. Over time, we show that the proportion of female IPCC authors has seen a modest increase from less than 5% in 1990 to more than 20% in the most recent assessment reports. Based on responses from over 100 women IPCC authors, we find that many women report a positive experience in the way in which they are treated and in their ability to influence the report, although others report that some women were poorly represented and heard. We suggest that an intersectional lens is important: not all women experience the same obstacles: they face multiple and diverse barriers associated with social identifiers such as race, nationality, command of English, and disciplinary affiliation. The scientific community benefits from including all scientists, including women and those from the Global South. This paper documents barriers to participation and identifies opportunities to diversify climate science. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  12. Various Political and Social Challenges Including Wars and Displacement in Empowering Women and Girls in Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilüfer Narli


    Full Text Available Poor gender ratio in science and engineering has been a global concern, despite growing number of female scientists in the world. Women’s empowerment in science is key to achieve human progress and dignity and directly related to accomplishing SDG 16: "Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels". What are the challenges that hinder women and girls’ progress in science? Added to several challenges discussed below, wars and displaced population create obstacles for female education and women’s advancement in science and technology. There are some challenges that have prevailed for the last two decades (e.g. economic insecurity and new challenges that are the results of the new forms wars, civil wars and extremism (e.g., large scale armed conflicts that involves state and non-state actors which have produced large numbers of displaced women in the Middle East who lost their jobs and isolated elsewhere, many young displaced females and refugees and who have no access to formal education and who face health risks in conflict and displacement settings, and new forms of gender discrimination produced by religious extremism.......

  13. Branding Icarus: The Construction of Identity and Diversity at The United States Air Force Academy (United States)


    in the RAAF, Australia’s Sex Discrimina- tion Commissioner Elizabeth Broderick provided further insight into the construction of these five critical...Weber. 60 Unpublished statement by Elizabeth Broderick at Chief of Air Force New Horizon Call, RAAF... Broderick , Elizabeth. Unpublished Statement at Chief of Air Force New Horizon Call, Royal Australian Air Force Base Glenbrook, August 2013

  14. Long-term performance monitoring for a permeable reactive barrier at the U.S. Coast Guard Support Center, Elizabeth City, North Carolina. (United States)

    Puls, R W; Blowes, D W; Gillham, R W


    A continuous hanging iron wall was installed in June, 1996, at the U. S. Coast Guard (USCG) Support Center near Elizabeth City, NC, United States, to treat overlapping plumes of chromate and chlorinated solvent compounds. The wall was emplaced using a continuous trenching machine whereby native soil and aquifer sediment was removed and the iron simultaneously emplaced in one continuous excavation and fill operation. To date, there have been seven rounds (November 1996, March 1997, June 1997, September 1997, December 1997, March 1998, and June 1998) of performance monitoring of the wall. At this time, this is the only full-scale continuous 'hanging' wall installed as a permeable reactive barrier to remediate both chlorinated solvent compounds and chromate in groundwater. Performance monitoring entails the following: sampling of 10-5 cm PVC compliance wells and 15 multi-level samplers for the following constituents: TCE, cis-dichloroethylene (c-DCE), vinyl chloride, ethane, ethene, acetylene, methane, major anions, metals, Cr(VI), Fe(II), total sulfides, dissolved H(2), Eh, pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, alkalinity, and turbidity. Electrical conductivity profiles have been conducted using a Geoprobe to verify emplacement of the continuous wall as designed and to locate upgradient and downgradient wall interfaces for coring purposes. Coring has been conducted in November, 1996, in June and September, 1997, and March, 1998, to evaluate the rate of corrosion on the iron surfaces, precipitate buildup (particularly at the upgradient interface), and permeability changes due to wall emplacement. In addition to several continuous vertical cores, angled cores through the 0.6-m thick wall have been collected to capture upgradient and downgradient wall interfaces along approximate horizontal flow paths for mineralogic analyses.

  15. Conservation of Peary caribou based on a recalculation of the 1961 aerial survey on the Queen Elizabeth Islands, Arctic Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank L. Miller


    Full Text Available The estimate of 25 845 Peary caribou (Rangifer tarandus pearyi on the Queen Elizabeth Islands (QEI in the Canadian High Arctic in summer 1961 is the only nearly range-wide 'benchmark' for the past number of caribou. No variances or confidence intervals were calculated for this estimate and no estimates were calculated for Peary caribou on the three major islands of Ellesmere, Devon, and Axel Heiberg. We reexamined the 1961 raw data by grouping the QEI into five island-complexes ('eco-units' and calculating, for each unit, the estimated number of caribou and the standard error, and the 95% confidence interval of the estimate, using a 'bootstrap' technique with 100 000 replications. Our goal was to provide an ecological basis for evaluating subsequent changes in numbers rather than relying on single-island evaluations. Our bootstrap reanalysis produced an estimate of 28 288 ± 2205 SE with a 95% CI of 20 436—37 031 Peary caribou on the QEI in summer 1961. Substantial differences in density were apparent among the five eco-units, with about a 50-fold difference from 0.01 caribou • km-2 in the Eastern eco-unit to 0.5 caribou • km-2 in the Northwestern eco-unit. The 1961 findings, with our subsequent reexamination, are crucial to any evaluation of trends for the number of Peary caribou on the QEI and the relative importance of individual eco-units for these animals. These findings also allow a more accurate evaluation of the magnitude of the subsequent decline of Peary caribou on the QEI during the last four decades and may help predict future potential levels for caribou in each of the five eco-units.

  16. Associations between selective attention and soil-transmitted helminth infections, socioeconomic status, and physical fitness in disadvantaged children in Port Elizabeth, South Africa: An observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Gall


    Full Text Available Socioeconomically deprived children are at increased risk of ill-health associated with sedentary behavior, malnutrition, and helminth infection. The resulting reduced physical fitness, growth retardation, and impaired cognitive abilities may impede children's capacity to pay attention. The present study examines how socioeconomic status (SES, parasitic worm infections, stunting, food insecurity, and physical fitness are associated with selective attention and academic achievement in school-aged children.The study cohort included 835 children, aged 8-12 years, from eight primary schools in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods of Port Elizabeth, South Africa. The d2-test was utilized to assess selective attention. This is a paper and pencil letter-cancellation test consisting of randomly mixed letters d and p with one to four single and/or double quotation marks either over and/or under each letter. Children were invited to mark only the letters d that have double quotation marks. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed via the 20 m shuttle run test and muscle strength using the grip strength test. The Kato-Katz thick smear technique was employed to detect helminth eggs in stool samples. SES and food insecurity were determined with a pre-tested questionnaire, while end of year school results were used as an indicator of academic achievement.Children infected with soil-transmitted helminths had lower selective attention, lower school grades (academic achievement scores, and lower grip strength (all p<0.05. In a multiple regression model, low selective attention was associated with soil-transmitted helminth infection (p<0.05 and low shuttle run performance (p<0.001, whereas higher academic achievement was observed in children without soil-transmitted helminth infection (p<0.001 and with higher shuttle run performance (p<0.05.Soil-transmitted helminth infections and low physical fitness appear to hamper children's capacity to pay attention

  17. Associations between selective attention and soil-transmitted helminth infections, socioeconomic status, and physical fitness in disadvantaged children in Port Elizabeth, South Africa: An observational study (United States)

    Müller, Ivan; Walter, Cheryl; Seelig, Harald; Steenkamp, Liana; Pühse, Uwe; du Randt, Rosa; Smith, Danielle; Adams, Larissa; Nqweniso, Siphesihle; Yap, Peiling; Ludyga, Sebastian; Steinmann, Peter; Utzinger, Jürg; Gerber, Markus


    Background Socioeconomically deprived children are at increased risk of ill-health associated with sedentary behavior, malnutrition, and helminth infection. The resulting reduced physical fitness, growth retardation, and impaired cognitive abilities may impede children’s capacity to pay attention. The present study examines how socioeconomic status (SES), parasitic worm infections, stunting, food insecurity, and physical fitness are associated with selective attention and academic achievement in school-aged children. Methodology The study cohort included 835 children, aged 8–12 years, from eight primary schools in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods of Port Elizabeth, South Africa. The d2-test was utilized to assess selective attention. This is a paper and pencil letter-cancellation test consisting of randomly mixed letters d and p with one to four single and/or double quotation marks either over and/or under each letter. Children were invited to mark only the letters d that have double quotation marks. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed via the 20 m shuttle run test and muscle strength using the grip strength test. The Kato-Katz thick smear technique was employed to detect helminth eggs in stool samples. SES and food insecurity were determined with a pre-tested questionnaire, while end of year school results were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Principal findings Children infected with soil-transmitted helminths had lower selective attention, lower school grades (academic achievement scores), and lower grip strength (all p<0.05). In a multiple regression model, low selective attention was associated with soil-transmitted helminth infection (p<0.05) and low shuttle run performance (p<0.001), whereas higher academic achievement was observed in children without soil-transmitted helminth infection (p<0.001) and with higher shuttle run performance (p<0.05). Conclusions/Significance Soil-transmitted helminth infections and low physical

  18. Envisioning Women-Centered HIV Care: Perspectives from Women Living with HIV in Canada. (United States)

    O'Brien, Nadia; Greene, Saara; Carter, Allison; Lewis, Johanna; Nicholson, Valerie; Kwaramba, Gladys; Ménard, Brigitte; Kaufman, Elaina; Ennabil, Nourane; Andersson, Neil; Loutfy, Mona; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Kaida, Angela

    Women comprise nearly one-quarter of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Canada. Compared with men, women living with HIV experience inequities in HIV care and health outcomes, prompting a need for gendered and tailored approaches to HIV care. Peer and academic researchers from the Canadian HIV Women's Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study conducted focus groups to understand women's experience of seeking care, with the purpose of identifying key characteristics that define a women-centered approach to HIV care. Eleven focus groups were conducted with 77 women living with HIV across Quebec, Ontario, and British Columbia, Canada. Women envisioned three central characteristics of women-centered HIV care, including i) coordinated and integrated services that address both HIV and women's health care priorities, and protect against exclusion from care due to HIV-related stigma, ii) care that recognizes and responds to structural barriers that limit women's access to care, such as violence, poverty, motherhood, HIV-related stigma, and challenges to safe disclosure, and iii) care that fosters peer support and peer leadership in its design and delivery to honor the diversity of women's experiences, overcome women's isolation, and prioritize women's ownership over the decisions that affect their lives. Despite advances in HIV treatment and care, the current care landscape is inadequate to meet women's comprehensive care needs. A women-centered approach to HIV care, as envisioned by women living with HIV, is central to guiding policy and practice to improve care and outcomes for women living with HIV in Canada. Copyright © 2017 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Perceptions among women with gestational diabetes. (United States)

    Parsons, Judith; Ismail, Khalida; Amiel, Stephanie; Forbes, Angus


    Women with gestational diabetes are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes, which could be prevented or delayed by lifestyle modification. Lifestyle interventions need to take into account the specific situation of women with gestational diabetes. We aimed to gain a deeper understanding of women's experiences of gestational diabetes, their diabetes risk perceptions, and their views on type 2 diabetes prevention, to inform future lifestyle interventions. We conducted a metasynthesis that included 16 qualitative studies and identified 11 themes. Factors that require consideration when developing a type 2 diabetes prevention intervention in this population include addressing the emotional impact of gestational diabetes; providing women with clear and timely information about future diabetes risk; and offering an intervention that fits with women's multiple roles as caregivers, workers, and patients, and focuses on the health of the whole family.

  20. Violence against women in North America. (United States)

    Erlick Robinson, G


    Although North America is viewed as a place where women have equal rights and status, violence against women is still rampant. Forty to 51% of women experience some type of violence in their lifetime including child abuse, physical violence, rape and domestic violence. The perpetrator is most likely to be a current or former partner. Such violence stems from historical views of women as property and may flourish because of the public's reluctance to get involved in family matters. The concept of violence has been expanded to include non-traditional types such as sexual harassment, breeches of fiduciary trust and stalking. Treatment of victims of violence must include ensuring their safety, encouraging them to make healthy choices and helping them to understand they are not at fault. Education at all levels is required to change attitudes which perpetuate violence despite laws which forbid it.

  1. Involve women at many levels. (United States)

    Huq, N


    The organizers of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) realize that slowing the rate of population growth requires the involvement of women at many levels. The planning processes in countries leading up to the ICPD were required to include women, and funds became available for women to attend regional and international preparatory meetings. National delegations at the ICPD also included many more women than the previous two world population conferences in 1974 and 1984. Space was also provided at the ICPD for the involvement of nongovernmental organizations. Naripokkho, a women's advocacy organization in Bangladesh, was therefore able to communicate its message at the conference. In preparation, the organization held consultations and workshops with grassroots women in thirteen regions of Bangladesh. Approximately one third of the women in the workshops had more children than they desired, many felt that they had to have at least two sons, poor services led women to discontinue contraceptive use, and very few women reported that a lack of access to contraception or method failure was responsible for their large families. It was also determined during the preparatory phase that environmental damage cannot be linked to population in a simplistic manner, history, politics, geography, business, and economics play important roles. Once at the ICPD, Naripokkho they negotiated and lobbied the governments to influence the ICPD program of action. Gains for women were made in both language and substance. Indeed, the program of action is the most progressive population document ever issued by a mainstream institution, gives women's goals new legitimacy, and is a powerful tool for groups working at the grassroots level. Governments must now be held to their commitments made in the program.

  2. Career Development of Women. (United States)

    Gorman, Anna M., Ed.; Vetter, Louise, Ed.

    The five major papers whose full texts are included address themselves to various topics that can influence the lives of women in their career choices and advancement. Federal Legislation: Impact on Women's Careers, Mary Allen Jolley, discusses sex discrimination, legal gains made over the past 10 years, sex role stereotyping, and vocational…

  3. Local foods can meet micronutrient needs for women in urban Burkina Faso, but only if rarely consumed micronutrient-dense foods are included in daily diets: A linear programming exercise. (United States)

    Arimond, Mary; Vitta, Bineti S; Martin-Prével, Yves; Moursi, Mourad; Dewey, Kathryn G


    Women of reproductive age are at nutritional risk due to their need for nutrient-dense diets. Risk is further elevated in resource-poor environments. In one such environment, we evaluated feasibility of meeting micronutrient needs of women of reproductive age using local foods alone or using local foods and supplements, while minimizing cost. Based on dietary recall data from Ouagadougou, we used linear programming to identify the lowest cost options for meeting 10 micronutrient intake recommendations, while also meeting energy needs and following an acceptable macronutrient intake pattern. We modeled scenarios with maximum intake per food item constrained at the 75th percentile of reported intake and also with more liberal maxima based on recommended portions per day, with and without the addition of supplements. Some scenarios allowed only commonly consumed foods (reported on at least 10% of recall days). We modeled separately for pregnant, lactating, and nonpregnant, nonlactating women. With maxima constrained to the 75th percentile, all micronutrient needs could be met with local foods but only when several nutrient-dense but rarely consumed items were included in daily diets. When only commonly consumed foods were allowed, micronutrient needs could not be met without supplements. When larger amounts of common animal-source foods were allowed, all needs could be met for nonpregnant, nonlactating women but not for pregnant or lactating women, without supplements. We conclude that locally available foods could meet micronutrient needs but that to achieve this, strategies would be needed to increase consistent availability in markets, consistent economic access, and demand. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Proceedings of the LLNL technical women`s symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Holtz, E. [ed.


    Women from institutions such as LLNL, LBL, Sandia, and SLAC presented papers at this conference. The papers deal with many aspects of global security, global ecology, and bioscience; they also reflect the challenges faced in improving business practices, communicating effectively, and expanding collaborations in the industrial world. Approximately 87 ``abstracts`` are included in six sessions; more are included in the addendum.

  5. Women and smoking. (United States)

    Amos, A


    Smoking kills over half a million women each year and is the most important preventable cause of female premature death in several developed countries. However, in many countries, cigarette smoking still tends to be regarded as a mainly male problem. This paper explores the reasons why more attention needs to be paid to issues around smoking and women, even in countries which currently have low levels of female cigarette smoking. The article includes an overview of current patterns and trends of smoking among women, and the factors which influence smoking uptake and cessation in women compared to men. The experience of countries with the longest history of widespread female smoking is used to identify some of the key challenges facing developed and developing countries. Tobacco companies have identified women as a key target group, therefore particular attention is given to the ways in which they have attempted to reach women through advertising and other marketing strategies. It is concluded that in order to halt and ultimately reverse the tobacco epidemic among women, tobacco control policies need to encompass both gender-specific and gender-sensitive approaches. Examples are given of the types of action that are needed in relation to research, public policy and legislation, and education.

  6. How a deliberative approach includes women in the decisions of screening mammography: a citizens' jury feasibility study in Andalusia, Spain (United States)

    Baena-Cañada, José M; Luque-Ribelles, Violeta; Quílez-Cutillas, Alicia; Rosado-Varela, Petra; Benítez-Rodríguez, Encarnación; Márquez-Calderón, Soledad; Rivera-Bautista, Juan Manuel


    Objectives To verify whether a citizens' jury study is feasible to the Andalusian population and to know if women, when better informed, are able to answer the research question of whether the Andalusian Public Health System must continue offering screening mammography to women aged 50–69. The reasons for the pertinent decision and recommendations to the political authorities will be stated. Design Qualitative research study with the methodology of citizens' jury. Setting Breast cancer screening programme in Andalusia (Spain). Participants Thirteen women aged 50–69 with secondary school or higher education accepted to participate as a jury. Two epidemiologists were the expert witnesses. The main researcher was the neutral moderator. Interventions Jury met on Monday, 15 February 2016. The moderator indicated to the jury that it had to assess the screening programme’s key benefits and main harm. On Tuesday, 16 February, the expert witnesses positioned for and against the programme. On Thursday, 18 February, the jury deliberated, reached final conclusions, submitted its vote and stated its recommendations to politicians. The deliberation session was transcribed and analysed with the support of ATLAS.ti.5.2 software. Primary and secondary outcome measures Feasibility in the Andalusian population, women’s vote and opinion, reasons for votes and recommendations to political authorities. Results Eleven participants voted yes and two voted no. There are three reasons to vote ‘yes’: health, the test nature, and individual freedom. Some women invoke the lack of efficacy and the cost to justify their negative vote, at least in universal terms. On completion, they made suggestions to be submitted to the pertinent authorities for the improvement of information, psychology services and research. Conclusions The deliberative strategy is feasible and causes a favourable positioning regarding screening mammography, although information changes the opinion of some women

  7. Short-term contracts: Descending the career ladder (United States)

    Griffin, Elizabeth


    Elizabeth Griffin brings a personal insight to the hurdles that women seeking a scientific career face, arguing that the only gender differences are those of attitude, tradition and style. The policy of employing some but not all academic researchers through short-term contracts is highly divisive, in that it creates a two-tier system not only of opportunities and expectations but also of personal worth and value. Far more women than men are trapped in these career cul-de-sacs, and a seriously large fraction is unable to stay in research until retirement. It is the employment policy that is at fault, not the potential of the researchers or the quality of their research.

  8. Wandering in the dark: women's experiences with depression. (United States)

    Schreiber, R


    In North America, rates of depression for women are consistently higher than for men. This phenomenon is poorly understood; nonetheless, the use of grounded theory to investigate women's experiences with depression, treatment, and recovery revealed some unexpected findings. In this article I discuss findings resulting from examination of data from three grounded theory studies of women and depression. In all, data were collected through participant observation and more than 70 interviews and the study sample included participants varying in race, marital status, cultural background, and sexual orientation between 18 to 69 years of age, and included both mothers and nonmothers. Findings included the presence in women of an internal dialogue, reinforcing the philosophical origins of the method in symbolic interactionism; oppression and marginalization of women's experiences; the impact of violence in women's lives; the roles of treatment and learning; and the hope of recovery. I will finish by identifying some questions arising from the findings.

  9. Women in science and engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauker, Lynn.


    Women constitute nearly half of Canada's graduates in law, medicine and commerce, but only 28% in mathematics and physical sciences, and only 13% in engineering and applied sciences. Reasons may include: a lack of role models, a lack of encouragement and financial assistance, and the prevalence of sexist attitudes. Remedies may include: promotional material, banning of sexual harassment, and the inclusion in coursed of social and ethical issues and of information about women scientists

  10. Women of Hispanic Origin in the United States Labor Force. Facts on Working Women. Fact Sheet No. 85-11. (United States)

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    A four-page synposis of data on women of Hispanic origin in the labor force is presented. Data included are numbers of Hispanic women in the labor force; percentage of Hispanics among women in labor force; percentage of Hispanic women in the labor force; median ages; unemployment rate; education level; income levels; types of jobs occupied…

  11. Acute hepatitis e viral infection in pregnancy and maternal morbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaskheli, M.N.; Baloch, S.


    To determine the maternal morbidity in pregnant women with acute hepatitis E viral infection. Study Design: Observational, cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Medicine, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Red Crescent General Hospital and Saint Elizabeth Hospital, Hyderabad, from January 2011 to December 2013. Methodology: The study population was pregnant women with acute hepatitis E infection confirmed by ELIZA technique. Pregnant women with other hepatic viral infections were excluded. All medical and obstetric conditions, and mortality were noted on the predesigned proforma. Results: Out of the total 45 admitted pregnant women with hepatitis E viral infection, 22 women (48.9%) had severe morbidity. The most common were hepatic coma in 8 (36.36%) cases and disseminated intravascular coagulation in 14 (63.63%) cases. Highest mortality rate was seen in women with hepatic coma (100%), while in those with disseminated intravascular coagulation, one out of the 14 cases (7.14%) died. Conclusion: The acute viral hepatitis E infection in pregnant women is associated with maternal morbidities and high mortality rate. (author)

  12. The Children's Tumour Clinic in Port Elizabeth*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Aug 14, 1971 ... medical schools. ... inevitable benefit to the sufferers and their parents is obvious: a certain ... Where treatment of a single disease varies in the hands of different ... Details of histories taken include the usual age, sex, place.

  13. Women's Experience of Orgasm During Intercourse: Question Semantics Affect Women's Reports and Men's Estimates of Orgasm Occurrence. (United States)

    Shirazi, Talia; Renfro, Kaytlin J; Lloyd, Elisabeth; Wallen, Kim


    Most women report reliably experiencing orgasm from masturbation, but a smaller proportion of women report regularly experiencing orgasm from intercourse. Research suggests that concurrent clitoral stimulation during intercourse increases the likelihood of orgasm, yet most surveys of orgasm during intercourse leave unspecified whether vaginal intercourse does or does not include concurrent clitoral stimulation (assisted intercourse or unassisted intercourse, respectively). Using an online sample of 1569 men and 1478 women, we tested whether phrasing of questions about the occurrence of orgasm in intercourse modulates women's reported frequency and men's estimates of women's frequency of orgasm in intercourse. Participants provided estimates of orgasm when asked explicitly about intercourse with stimulation unspecified, assisted intercourse, and unassisted intercourse. Women's reports of orgasm occurrence were highest in response to assisted intercourse (51-60%), second highest in response to intercourse with clitoral stimulation unspecified (31-40%), and lowest in response to unassisted intercourse (21-30%). Men's estimates of women's orgasms were highest in response to assisted intercourse (61-70%), and lowest in response to unassisted intercourse (41-50%); in both conditions, men's estimates were significantly higher than women's reports. When clitoral stimulation was unspecified, women interpreted "orgasm in intercourse" in three ways: as from intercourse alone, as including concurrent clitoral stimulation though it was unspecified, or as an average of assisted and unassisted intercourse. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the phrasing of questions about women's orgasm produces markedly different orgasm estimates, and suggest that concurrent clitoral stimulation increases the likelihood of women experiencing orgasm in intercourse.

  14. Investment finance: off limits for women. (United States)

    Chilangwa-n'gambi, C Y


    In Zambia, women's access to finance is limited because 1) women lack collateral, 2) administrative practices discriminate against women, 3) women lack knowledge and information, and 4) women fail to maintain required financial records because their incomes are so low. Women have invested in areas which would be categorized as "feminine," however, including garment-making and flower-growing. The UNIP Women's League, which was the government's official body charged with ensuring gender awareness in policy-making and planning failed to survive the transition to a multiparty democracy. Some churches and nongovernmental organizations have attempted to promote gender-aware projects to help women survive the current economic crisis, but these programs are few and far between and suffer from a lack of capital. Organizations must adopt a business-like approach to help women move from welfare to economic empowerment.

  15. Heart Disease and Stroke in Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This women's health podcast focuses on the impact of heart disease and stroke in women and includes steps to prevent these conditions.  Created: 5/11/2009 by Office of Women’s Health (OWH) and National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/11/2009.

  16. An International Perspective on Women in Physics (United States)

    Michelman-Ribeiro, Ariel


    The 1^st International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) Conference on Women in Physics, held in 2002 in Paris, France, highlighted a number of issues facing women physicists around the world. A second conference was held in May 2005 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with the goal of examining the progress made since the last conference and also to provide an opportunity for the delegates to present their research, both physics research and gender-related research, and to make contacts for future collaborations. The conference was attended by 145 delegates from 42 countries, including a very diverse delegation of 22 women and men from the U.S. The conference was organized by the Working Group on Women in Physics of IUPAP, which is charged with making recommendations to IUPAP on how to attract, retain, and increase the participation of women in physics at all levels. The conference included a round table discussion on ``Research Funding and Women in Physics,'' several plenary talks, a poster session on women in physics in each country, a poster session on research by individual delegates, and discussion groups on six topics including attracting girls into physics, launching a successful career, getting women into leadership, improving the institutional climate, learning from regional differences, and balancing family and career. Conference proceedings have been published that include research abstracts, summaries from the discussion groups, articles on the plenary talks, and papers from each country on the status of women in physics in their country (proceedings can be found at This talk will discuss the U. S. delegation and their country paper on the situation for women in physics in the U.S. as well as highlights from the information presented by the delegates from other nations. The outcomes of the 2002 conference will be described briefly and then the signs of progress noted in 2005 will be summarized.

  17. Population and women's health. (United States)

    Abernethy, V


    Explanations of cultural patterns can be found in the economic context (carrying capacity) in which they develop. Population pressure explains the abuse of women throughout history and in modern times because overpopulation leads to devaluation of women's reproductive capacity. A cultural response to overpopulation includes practices that limit the numbers of women of reproductive age. Such practices foster son preference, which results in selective abortion, female infanticide, neglect and overwork of girls, dowry deaths, and discrimination against widows. The results of these practices are manifest in sex ratios that are culturally rather than naturally controlled and in demographic facts such as the calculation that 60 million females are missing in Asia alone (and perhaps more than 100 million worldwide). Women are also removed from a reproductive setting by being kidnapped or sold into prostitution or by being forced to adopt prostitution for economic survival. In cases where survival is threatened by environmental degradation and population growth, the most harsh cultural practices will emerge to adapt the population to the resources at hand. This situation creates an ethical dilemma posed by the problem of imposing Western values on a culture that is undertaking adaptive practices to insure its very survival. Ways to help women in these situation include limiting population growth humanely through family planning, provision of paid work to women, and creation of an environment that supports a small family ideal. Prosperity itself, through modernization, sometimes causes family sizes to increase. The most important intervention appears to be the provision of paid employment outside the home for women. On the other hand, large-scale wealth transfers and liberal immigration policies simply send signals that population pressure is a regional problem that can be alleviated by the international community. Increasing immigration to developed countries will place

  18. Up-date on Specificities of Stroke in Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Krarup; Bentsen, Line; Christensen, Louisa


    depending both on cultural factors and the overall access to care; in especially lower income countries though data is very scarce the impression is that women's access to care is restricted in comparison to men. Specific female risk factors including pregnancy or sex hormone therapy are rare causes......Abstract The majority of strokes occur in women who in crude numbers have poorer outcome including higher mortality from stroke than men. This may, however, to a large degree be explained by the preponderance of women in the older age groups. Nevertheless, incidence of stroke is higher in men than...... in women. Overall rates of stroke decline, but more in men than in women; consequently the excess number of strokes in women will be on the rise in the years to come. Risk factors differ between men and women: e.g. rates of atrial fibrillation and hypertension are higher in women with stroke, while rates...

  19. Pregnancy Among Women With Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S V


    Full Text Available Problems related to pregnancy and birth defects in the baby are major concerns for women with epilepsy. Hardly any data from this country is available in this regards to provide factual information to people with epilepsy. This study was undertaken to survey the outcome of pregnancies in women with epilepsy in this part of the country. Women with epilepsy (20to55 year of age who had attended this institute between March 1997 and march 1997 were sent a questionnaire by post regarding their martial status, reproductive history and outcome of pregnancies including any birth defects in their children. The data on clinical aspects and treatment were extracted from their medical records. 184 women (mean age 28.5 + 8 years were included in this study. 108 (58.7% of them were married. Women with epilepsy had three times higher rate of abortions (24.1% than general population(8%. Their mean family size (1.6 was lower than that is Kerala State (2.3. The proportion of women without children (13.9% was also higher than that for the state (9.8%. The frequency of birth defects among their children was twice (4% that in the community (2%. Women taking sodium valproate had higher frequency of birth defects in their children (15% as compared to other drugs but this was not statistically significant. There is a tendency for lower fertility among women with epilepsy. There is a slight increase in the frequency of birth defects among children born to mothers with epilepsy.

  20. An Overview of Depression among Transgender Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Hoffman


    Full Text Available Rates of depression are higher in transgender women than in the general population, warranting an understanding of the variables related to depression in this group. Results of the literature review of depression in transgender women reveal several variables influencing depression, including social support, violence, sex work, and gender identity. The theoretical constructs of minority stress, coping, and identity control theory are explored in terms of how they may predict depression in transgender women. Depression and depressive symptoms have been used to predict high-risk sexual behaviors with mixed results. The implications of the findings on treating depression in transgender women include taking into account the stress of transition and the importance of supportive peers and family. Future studies should explore a model of depression and high-risk behaviors in transgender women.

  1. Health risk factors and mental health among US women with and without chronic physical disabilities by whether women are currently pregnant. (United States)

    Iezzoni, Lisa I; Yu, Jun; Wint, Amy J; Smeltzer, Suzanne C; Ecker, Jeffrey L


    Growing numbers of reproductive-age US women with chronic physical disabilities (CPD) raise questions about their pregnancy experiences. Little is known about the health risks of women with versus without CPD by current pregnancy status. We analyzed cross-sectional, nationally-representative National Health Interview Survey data from 2006 to 2011, which includes 47,629 civilian, noninstitutionalized women ages 18-49. NHIS asks about specified movement difficulties, current pregnancy, and various health and health risk indicators, including tobacco use and body mass index (BMI). We used responses from eight movement difficulty and other questions to identify women with mobility difficulties caused by chronic physical health conditions. Across all women regardless of CPD, women reporting current pregnancy are significantly less likely to currently smoke tobacco and report certain mental health problems. Among currently pregnant women only, women with CPD are more likely to smoke cigarettes every day (12.2 %) versus 6.3 % for pregnant women without CPD (p ≤ 0.001). Among currently pregnant women, 17.7 % of women with CPD have BMIs in the non-overweight range, compared with 40.1 % of women without CPD (p ≤ 0.0001). Currently pregnant women with CPD are significantly more likely to report having any mental health problems, 66.6 % compared with 29.7 % among women without CPD (p ≤ 0.0001). For all women, currently pregnant women appear to have fewer health risks and mental health concerns than nonpregnant women. Among pregnant women, women with CPD have higher rates than other women of health risk factors that could affect maternal and infant outcomes.

  2. Women's Perceptions of Participation in an Extended Contact Text Message-Based Weight Loss Intervention: An Explorative Study. (United States)

    Job, Jennifer R; Spark, Lauren C; Fjeldsoe, Brianna S; Eakin, Elizabeth G; Reeves, Marina M


    messages (during the extended contact intervention). Text message support was perceived as acceptable for the majority of women as a way of extending intervention contact for weight loss and behavioral maintenance. Text messages supported the maintenance of healthy behaviors established in the intervention phase and kept the women accountable to their goals. A combination of telephone calls and text message support was suggested as a more acceptable option for some of the women for an extended contact intervention. ©Jennifer R Job, Lauren C Spark, Brianna S Fjeldsoe, Elizabeth G Eakin, Marina M Reeves. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (, 27.02.2017.

  3. Gender-Specific Health Challenges Facing Women (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Gender-Specific Health Challenges Facing Women Global Research Global ... adverse reactions to the drugs. Women also suffer gender-specific consequences of HIV, including recurrent vaginal yeast ...

  4. Women in Management. (United States)

    Crampton, Suzanne M.; Mishra, Jitendra M.


    Major issues surrounding women in management include the glass ceiling and prevalence of myths and stereotypes. Organizational and individual responses to improve use of the diversity of their skills and talents include mentors, sponsors, role models, networks, alternative schedules, family leave, employee assistance, and child care. (JOW)

  5. Women Superintendents in Illinois: Gender Barriers and Challenges (United States)

    VanTuyle, Vicki; Watkins, Sandra G.


    Women face unique challenges as superintendents. This study determined barriers women face as superintendents and elicited reasons why these women would consider leaving the superintendent's position. Thirty-nine PreK-12 women superintendents in Illinois participated in a web-based survey in January 2008. Survey items included information…

  6. One dozen considerations when working with women in substance abuse groups. (United States)

    Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Osborne, Victoria A; Greif, Geoffrey L


    Women and men have different histories, presentations, and behaviors in substance abuse groups. Twelve considerations are offered for the beginning group leader when encountering women with substance abuse issues. These include understanding sexism, what brings women to treatment, and how women behave in group treatment. Implications for clinical practice with women in single-gender and mixed-gender groups are included.

  7. American Indian Women and Cardiovascular Disease (United States)

    Struthers, Roxanne; Savik, Kay; Hodge, Felicia Schanche


    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is currently the number one killer of American women. Consequently, CVD is a concern for all women, including ethnic women. However, little is known about CVD behaviors and responses to CVD symptomology among minority women, especially American Indian women. Response behaviors to chest pain require important actions. This article examines response behaviors to chest pain in a group of American Indian women participants of the Inter-Tribal Heart Project. In 1992 to 1994, 866 American Indian women, aged 22 years and older, participated in face-to-face interviews to answer survey questions on multiple areas related to cardiovascular disease on 3 rural reservations in Minnesota and Wisconsin. A secondary data analysis was conducted on selected variables including demographic characteristics, healthcare access, rating of health status, personal and family history of cardiovascular disease, and action in response to crushing chest pain that lasted longer than 15 minutes. Research findings report that 68% of women would actively seek healthcare immediately if experiencing crushing chest pain that lasted longer than 15 minutes. However, 264 women (32%) would take a passive action to crushing chest pain, with 23% reporting they would sit down and wait until it passed. Analysis revealed women reporting a passive response were younger in age (under age 45) and had less education (less than a high school education). These findings have implications for nurses and other healthcare providers working in rural, geographically isolated Indian reservations. How to present CVD education in a culturally appropriate manner remains a challenge. PMID:15191257

  8. Haiti's progress in achieving its 10-year plan to eliminate cholera: hidden sickness cannot be cured


    Koski-Karell V; Farmer PE; Isaac B; Campa EM; Viaud L; Namphy PC; Ternier R; Ivers LC


    Victoria Koski-Karell,1,2 Paul E Farmer,2–4 Benito Isaac,5 Elizabeth M Campa,5 Loune Viaud,5 Paul C Namphy,6 Ralph Ternier,5 Louise C Ivers2–4 1Department of Anthropology, University of Michigan, and University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, 2Partners In Health, 3Department of Global Health and Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 4Department of Medicine, Division of Global Health Equity, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; 5Zanmi Lasante, Cange, 6Di...

  9. Haiti’s progress in achieving its 10-year plan to eliminate cholera: hidden sickness cannot be cured


    Koski-Karell, Victoria; Farmer, Paul E; Isaac, Benito; Campa, Elizabeth M; Viaud, Loune; Namphy, Paul C; Ternier, Ralph; Ivers, Louise C


    Victoria Koski-Karell,1,2 Paul E Farmer,2–4 Benito Isaac,5 Elizabeth M Campa,5 Loune Viaud,5 Paul C Namphy,6 Ralph Ternier,5 Louise C Ivers2–4 1Department of Anthropology, University of Michigan, and University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, 2Partners In Health, 3Department of Global Health and Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 4Department of Medicine, Division of Global Health Equity, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; 5Zanmi Lasante...

  10. Status, population fluctuations and ecological relationships of Peary caribou on the Queen Elizabeth Islands: Implications for their survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank L. Miller


    Full Text Available The Peary caribou (Rangifer tarandus pearyi was recognized as 'Threatened' by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada in 1979 and 'Endangered' in 1991. It is the only member of the deer family (Cervidae found on the Queen Elizabeth Islands (QEI of the Canadian High Arctic. The Peary caribou is a significant part of the region's biodiversity and a socially important and economically valuable part of Arctic Canada's natural heritage. Recent microsatellite DNA findings indicate that Peary caribou on the QEI are distinct from caribou on the other Arctic Islands beyond the QEI, including Banks Island. This fact must be kept in mind if any translocation of caribou to the QEI is proposed. The subspecies is too gross a level at which to recognize the considerable diversity that exists between Peary caribou on the QEI and divergent caribou on other Canadian Arctic Islands. The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada should take this considerable diversity among these caribou at below the subspecies classification to mind when assigning conservation divisions (units to caribou on the Canadian Arctic Islands. In summer 1961, the first and only nearly range-wide aerial survey of Peary caribou yielded a population estimate on the QEI of 25 845, including about 20% calves. There was a strong preference for range on the western QEI (WEQI, where 94% (24 363 of the estimated caribou occurred on only 24% (ca. 97 000 km2 of the collective island-landmass. By summer 1973, the overall number of Peary caribou on the QEI had decreased markedly and was estimated at about 7000 animals. The following winter and spring (1973-74, the Peary caribou population declined 49% on the WQEI. The estimated number dropping to <3000, with no calves seen by us in summer 1974. Based on estimates from several aerial surveys conducted on the WQEI from 1985 to 1987, the number of Peary caribou on the QEI as a whole was judged to be 3300-3600 or only

  11. Exercise prescription for Iranian midlife women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadigeh Mirzaii Najmabadi


    Full Text Available Khadigeh Mirzaii NajmabadiShahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, IranObjectives: The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of a multimodal intervention (including the Women’s Wellness Program on increasing levels of physical activity in Iranian midlife women.Study design: This 12-week study was conducted in women aged 50–65 years living in the general population. Women who were allocated to the intervention group (n = 40 received an intervention, which combined a multimodal program of physical activity and health education. Women in the control group continued their normal physical activities (n = 45.Mean outcome measure: The women completed a questionnaire that included measures for items of interest for this analysis, such as menopausal status, sociodemographic, and exercise and activity levels.Results: Analysis of covariance indicated that the intervention was effective in improving women’s physical activity. The test showed that there was a significant difference between intervention and control in current vigorous activity.Conclusion: Physical activity should be encouraged for prevention and reduction of risks for chronic disease and for improvement of health in midlife women. The multimodal intervention program may offer implications for designing and implementing exercise interventions in further studies.Keywords: midlife women, intervention, physical activity, menopause

  12. Does cultural context make a difference to women?s experiences of maternity care? A qualitative study comparing the perspectives of breast?feeding women of Bangladeshi origin and health practitioners


    McFadden, Alison; Renfrew, Mary J; Atkin, Karl


    Abstract Background? Maternity services struggle to provide culturally appropriate care that meets the needs of women from diverse populations. Problems include simplistic understandings of ethnicity and the role of culture in women?s lives, and stereotypes held by health practitioners. Objective? To explore the extent to which cultural context makes a difference to experiences of breast?feeding support for women of Bangladeshi origin and to consider the implications for the provision of cult...

  13. Women in public life. (United States)


    The UN Division for the Advancement of Women publication has devoted an issue to the role of women in public lie based on an analysis of women's status in industrialized countries presented in Vienna, Austria, in May 1991. Women already contribute to political life and make a difference in politics, but societal institutions and government processes have not yet adapted to this fact. Women's nongovernmental organizations promote women's interests at the governmental level, but often do not have the economic or political power as do other interests groups such as trade unions. Women often participation public life via their membership in women's organizations, community action groups, voluntary organizations, and other close to home groups. They prefer to participate in activities which are problem solving rather than institution building. These activities and groups operate outside established political institutions and are not considered as part of public and political life. Society's exclusion of women from leadership positions in public life keeps it from benefiting from the special contributions that women bring to decision making. Women show a tendency to have different leadership styles than men (e.g., ability to relate to people affected by their decisions), which are most needed for the modern world. They often do not campaign just for women's issues, but, once in office, they do tend to become more involved in women's issues. Women have affected positive changes in career and child care, often on a non-Socialist agenda, in various countries (e.g. Norway). This effect is referred to as the politics of motherhood. More access to politics and public life calls for removal of structural and situational barriers including the glass ceiling, discrimination, insufficient funds, and bearing most of the responsibility for child care. The UN women's groups has drafted a platform for interregional consultation on women's role in public life and scheduled the 4th

  14. Rethinking a women's health care agenda. (United States)

    Palley, M L; Palley, H A


    The baby boom population has entered middle age. In addition many people, especially women, are living into old age. These are large population cohorts that are politically engaged. Also there is money to be made by commercial stakeholders in responding to the health risks of these women. The definition of women's health care needs has changed in the past decade. Traditionally the defining characteristics of women's health policy were reproduction, childbearing and a woman's role as a sexual partner. Today it also includes the way that different diseases affect women and the best way to reach women at risk for a wide range of conditions, e.g., heart disease, cancer and depression.

  15. First Mayan Women's Congress. (United States)

    Teissedre, S


    In October 1997, over 200 participants attended the First Mayan Women's Congress in Mexico and called for financial assistance, capacity building, and training to help Mayan women escape poverty. The Congress was initiated by the UN Development Fund for Women in collaboration with the Small Grants Program of the UN Development Program. Traditionally, Mayan women and men have played distinct roles in society, and efforts are underway to increase gender sensitivity and achieve a new balance of power. Mayan women attending the Congress reported that they face daily challenges in gaining their husbands' approval for participation in income-generating activities outside of the home. Eventually, however, some husbands also start working in these enterprises and are learning to assume their share of domestic responsibilities. Mayan women have been forced to reevaluation their role in society by a prevailing agricultural and environmental crisis as well as a high unemployment rate. Crafts that were once produced only for household consumption are now considered for export. Because the women need funds to initiate income-generating activities, the Conference linked women's groups with development practitioners, policy-makers, and donors. The women requested financial aid for more than 30 specific projects, and Congress participants agreed to pursue innovate strategies to support the enterprises with funds, training, and technical assistance. The Congress also encouraged environmental nongovernmental organizations to include Mayan women in mainstream development activities. This successful Congress will be duplicated in other Mexican states.

  16. Evaluation and management of overactive bladder: strategies for optimizing care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willis-Gray MG


    Full Text Available Marcella G Willis-Gray, Alexis A Dieter, Elizabeth J Geller Division of Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Abstract: Overactive bladder (OAB is a common condition affecting millions of men and women worldwide. It is an embarrassing condition with far-reaching consequences. Although many treatment options exist, no single treatment has been proven to be most effective. Often a combination of therapy is required to successfully manage OAB symptoms. In this review, we provide an overview of OAB, including risk factors for development of OAB; keys to diagnosis; therapeutic options including conservative and medical management, as well as treatments for refractory OAB; when to consider referral to a specialist; and resources for clinicians and patients. The aim of this review is to inform clinicians regarding OAB management in order to improve patient counseling and care. Keywords: overactive bladder, urge incontinence, urinary incontinence, bladder training, lifestyle modifications

  17. [Postmenopausal osteoporosis in obese women]. (United States)

    Izmozherova, N V; Popov, A A


    assessment of frequency of obesity and comorbidities in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis (OP). cross-sectional study included 243 postmenopausal symptomatic women with OP diagnosed by dual energy lumbar spine absorptiometry. normal body mass was found in 74 women (30.5%), 105 persons (43.2%) had overweight and 64 patients (26.3%) were obese. Obese OP patients had significantly higherfrequency of arterial hypertension, chronic heart failure, osteoarthritis and glucose metabolism disorders than those with normal body mass. Obese persons also had more severe menopausal symptoms than women with normal body mass. There was no difference in non-traumatic fractures between obese, overweight and slim patients. Thus, postmenopausal OP in obese women was associated with numerous comorbidities and more severe menopausal symptoms.

  18. Women Leaders in Oxford House. (United States)

    Timpo, Phyllis; Price, Temple; Salina, Doreen; Witek, Caroline; Pommer, Nicole; Jason, Leonard A


    This qualitative study examined women assuming leadership roles in Oxford Houses, which are communal, democratically run recovery settings for substance use disorder. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 women Oxford House leaders who shared their thoughts and experiences on leadership. Several themes emerged from qualitative data analysis, most notably that stepping up and accepting a leadership role in Oxford House had a positive effect on self-esteem, which is vital to women with a history of substance abuse. Barriers to leadership were also identified such as negative interpersonal relationships with other women. A number of methods mentioned to increase the number of women leaders included: developing workshops, providing positive encouragement, and accessing existing female role models. The implications of this study are discussed.

  19. Black and White Women Managers: Access to Opportunity (United States)

    Hite, Linda M.


    This study explores the differing views of Black and White female managers regarding access to key career opportunities for White women and women of color. Items addressed include access to hiring, promotions, key assignments, salary increases, acknowledgment for work, and mentors. Access to each is described by comparing White women and women of…

  20. Women's Land Rights and Sustainable Development


    Mehra, Rekha


    Unequal and insecure access to land undermind women's farm productivity, limit employment options, depress their earnings, and degrade the environment. Factors limiting women's access to land include legal discrimination, land scarcity, inappropriate government policies, and lack of political power and social status. Policies to promote sustainalbe development rather than focusing on family planning, as is commonly done, should directly support women's economic activities. Especially needed o...

  1. Obesity and nutrition in women throughout adulthood. (United States)

    Morin, Karen H; Stark, Mary Ann; Searing, Kimberly


    Nutritional challenges are particularly relevant to women. Almost 62% of women are overweight; of these women, 33% are obese. The incidence of obesity is even greater in non-Hispanic Black and Mexican American women. Women who are overweight or obese experience a greater number of adverse health outcomes, including an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease and breast and colon cancer. Dietary patterns influence health outcomes, with a heart-healthy pattern having the most positive health outcomes. Health care providers should encourage women to consume a diet high in fruits and vegetables and low in total and saturated fats.

  2. Some unsung heroines (and a few heroes) of cosmic ray physics (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia


    The women physicists whose work will be featured are Marietta Blau, Madelaine Forro Barnothy, Phyllis Freier, and Connie Dilworth. The "gluons" that connected their lives to each other (and to the author) included Georges Lemaitre, Manuel Sandoval Vallarta, Cecil Powell, Guiseppi Occhialini, Ken Greisen, Beatrice Tinsley, Hannelore Sexl, and perhaps Elizabeth Rona. Most of the stories are not entirely happy ones. For instance it was Sandoval Vallarta who offered Blau (and her mother) refuge in Mexico when they had to leave Vienna. Vallarta was also Lemaitre's collaborator in calculations of how cosmic rays got to us through the earth's magnetic field. The sad part there is that somehow Lemaitre was never disabused of the view that cosmic rays were direct remnants of his primordial atom and not primarily protons. The result was his gradual exile from main-stream scientific communities.

  3. Understanding women's experiences with medical abortion: In-depth interviews with women in two Indian clinics. (United States)

    Ganatra, B; Kalyanwala, S; Elul, B; Coyaji, K; Tewari, S


    We explored women's perspectives on using medical abortion, including their reasons for selecting the method, their experiences with it and their thoughts regarding demedicalisation of part or all of the process. Sixty-three women from two urban clinics in India were interviewed within four weeks of abortion completion using a semi-structured in-depth interview guide. While women appreciated the non-invasiveness of medical abortion, other factors influencing method selection were family support and distance from the facility. The degree of medicalisation that women wanted or felt was necessary also depended on the way expectations were set by their providers. Confirmation of abortion completion was a source of anxiety for many women and led to unnecessary interventions in a few cases. Ultimately, experiences depended more on women's expectations about the method, and on the level of emotional and logistic support they received rather than on inherent characteristics of the method. These findings emphasise the circumstances under which women make reproductive choices and underscore the need to tailor service delivery to meet women's needs. Women-centred counselling and care that takes into consideration individual circumstances are needed.

  4. Group A Streptococcus vulvovaginitis in breastfeeding women. (United States)

    Rahangdale, Lisa; Lacy, Judith; Hillard, Paula A


    Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus-associated vulvovaginitis is uncommon in adult women. Clinicians should include group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus as a possible cause of vulvovaginal symptoms in breastfeeding women. Along with appropriate antibiotic therapy, vaginal estrogen therapy may be considered to diminish susceptibility to recurrent infection in women with vaginal atrophy.

  5. Increasing Retention of Women in Engineering at WSU: A Model for a Women's Mentoring Program (United States)

    Poor, Cara J.; Brown, Shane


    Concerns with the retention of women in engineering have led to the implementation of numerous programs to improve retention, including mentoring programs. The college of engineering at Washington State University (WSU) started a novel women's mentoring program in 2008, using professional engineers who graduated from WSU as mentors. The program is…

  6. Global communications: democratic access for women. (United States)


    In preparation for the 1995 World Conference on Women, women of the Latin American Information Agency prepared a statement for the UN about the importance of communications and information in the contemporary world and the role of women in the media. The statement includes the following specific suggestions: 1) that the UN promote the democratization of communications with a gender focus, 2) that women be assured access to new communications technologies that empower their communicational capacity, 3) that steps be taken to ensure that media content projects a positive and nondiscriminatory image of women, and 4) that guidelines be drawn up to promote labor equality between the genders and a greater presence of women in decision-making positions in the media.

  7. The Devaluation of Women's Competence. (United States)

    Lott, Bernice


    Research on the evaluation of eminent academic women supports the hypothesis that typical responses (of men, primarily) to competent women include prejudice, stereotyped beliefs, and overt or subtle discrimination. A competent woman is most likely to be devalued when potential consequences exist for the evaluator and when the woman is unfamiliar.…

  8. Women's status and the health of women and men: a view from the States. (United States)

    Kawachi, I; Kennedy, B P; Gupta, V; Prothrow-Stith, D


    We examined the status of women in the 50 American states in relation to women's and men's levels of health. The status of women in each state was assessed by four composite indices measuring women's political participation, economic autonomy, employment and earnings, and reproductive rights. The study design was cross-sectional and ecologic. Our main outcome measures were total female and male mortality rates, female cause-specific death rates and mean days of activity limitations reported by women during the previous month. Measures of women's status were strikingly correlated with each of these health outcomes at the state level. Higher political participation by women was correlated with lower female mortality rates (r = -0.51), as well as lower activity limitations (-0.47). A smaller wage gap between women and men was associated with lower female mortality rates (-0.30) and lower activity limitations (-0.31) (all correlations, P women's status were also strongly correlated with male mortality rates, suggesting that women's status may reflect more general underlying structural processes associated with material deprivation and income inequality. However, the indices of women's status persisted in predicting female mortality and morbidity rates after adjusting for income inequality, poverty rates and median household income. Associations were observed for specific causes of death, including stroke, cervical cancer and homicide. We conclude that women experience higher mortality and morbidity in states where they have lower levels of political participation and economic autonomy. Living in such states has detrimental consequences for the health of men as well. Gender inequality and truncated opportunities for women may be one of the pathways by which the maldistribution of income adversely affects the health of women.

  9. Four perspectives of women's health. Workshop participants talk about women's health issues in four countries. [Malaysia]. (United States)

    Kaur, P


    The program officer of the SIEC Project of the Federation of Family Planning Associations, Malaysia (FFPA,M) granted an interview to JOICFP News during JOICFP's IEC Workshop for the Production of Video Script for Women's Health in Tokyo, Japan. FFPA,M provides comprehensive reproductive health services, including family planning services, pap smear screenings, breast examination, annual medical checkups, and premarital and marital counseling for women. Around 50% of married women use family planning. More than 90% of contraceptive users are familiar with at least one family planning method. FFPA,M is focusing on marginalized women. As Malaysia industrializes, rural-urban migration occurs. Young women comprise many of the new factory workers. FFPA,M provides family life education for these women and strives to help them achieve reproductive health and rights. The enthusiasm for women's issues exhibited at the workshop by both male and female participants pleased FFPA,M's program officer.

  10. 77 FR 61755 - Performance Review Board Members (United States)



  11. Advancing Women's Health and Women's Leadership With Endowed Chairs in Women's Health. (United States)

    Carnes, Molly; Johnson, Paula; Klein, Wendy; Jenkins, Marjorie; Bairey Merz, C Noel


    Gender-based bias and conflation of gender and status are root causes of disparities in women's health care and the slow advancement of women to leadership in academic medicine. More than a quarter of women physicians train in internal medicine and its subspecialties, and women physicians almost exclusively constitute the women's health focus within internal medicine. Thus, internal medicine has considerable opportunity to develop women leaders in academic medicine and promote women's health equity.To probe whether holding an endowed chair-which confers status-in women's health may be an effective way to advance women leaders in academic medicine and women's health, the authors explored the current status of endowed chairs in women's health in internal medicine. They found that the number of these endowed chairs in North America increased from 7 in 2013 to 19 in 2015, and all were held by women. The perceptions of incumbents and other women's health leaders supported the premise that an endowed chair in women's health would increase women's leadership, the institutional stature of women's health, and activities in women's health research, education, and clinical care.Going forward, it will be important to explore why not all recipients perceived that the endowed chair enhanced their own academic leadership, whether providing women's health leaders with fundraising expertise fosters future success in increasing the number of women's health endowed chairs, and how the conflation of gender and status play out (e.g., salary differences between endowed chairs) as the number of endowed chairs in women's health increases.

  12. Using Images of Women in American History (United States)

    Bennett, Linda B.; Williams, Frances Janeene


    Research on the inclusion of women in textbooks found severe inequalities in the way women were included in text and illustration. The use of carefully and purposefully selected images in the classroom can address both the lack of images of women in textbooks as well as the stereotypical portrayal of woman in textbook images.

  13. "Women and children first". Introducing a gender strategy into disaster preparedness. (United States)

    Meyers, M


    Women have been included in development strategies, but women's issues and women's involvement have been missing from centrally planned government programs of disaster relief. The axiom of putting women and children first has been lost in the maelstrom of immediate need planning without consideration of consequences. The UN developed a training manual and seminars for disaster management. Included in one of the UN manuals are directives that emphasized priorities for nine main components of disaster relief: 1) vulnerability assessment, 2) planning, 3) institutional framework, 4) information systems, 5) resource base, 6) warning systems, 7) response mechanisms, 8) public education and training, and 9) rehearsals. Gender issues should be addressed for each of these components. The question of whether gender was included in a disaster assessment must be answered. Male planners may not be sufficiently informed of how women are affected; therefore, women need to be consulted at the planning stage. A national ministry of women should be involved in disaster relief planning. Women's needs and coping strategies must be accounted for in data-gathering instruments. Emergency supplies must include gynecological and obstetric supplies. The media must be able to reach women and children with disaster warnings. Relief plans must consider whether women will be unduly burdened by the strategy. The inclusion of women in disaster relief efforts not only helps women in crises but helps to break down gender inequalities and imbalances in general.

  14. Women in Chemistry: Their Changing Roles from Alchemical Times to the Mid-Twentieth Century (by Marelene Rayner-Canham and Geoffrey Rayner-Canham) (United States)

    Caserio, Marjorie C.


    such women pursued higher education. The role of women as "chemical assistants" to leading chemists of the day is well illustrated in the lives of du Chatelet, Paulze-Lavoisier, Picardet, and Necker de Saussure. Sadly, all this ended with the French Revolution when the woman intellectual became unacceptable. Chapter 3 focuses on a few exceptional women of the 1800-1900s who succeeded independently in their scientific work in an era when, without access to universities and financial resources, it was almost impossible to function other than as a "chemical assistant". This chapter gives a fascinating account of the life and work of five women, including Elizabeth Fulhame, who is credited with the discovery of photoreduction and the concept of catalysis, and Agnes Pockels, who, without formal education or laboratory facilities, pioneered research in surface films. By the 1850s, access to advanced education for women began in earnest. Chapter 4 tells of this radical change and its ramifications. This most readable account of the cultural conflicts that existed in Europe and the United States over educating women, admitting them to professional societies, and gaining faculty appointments is exemplified in the biographies of four U.S. women (Ellen Swallow Richards, Rachel Lloyd, Laura Linton, Ida Freund) and two Russian women (Yulya Lermontova and Vera Bogdanovskaia). Much of the content of the book resides in the remaining chapters (5-10) and covers 20th century science through 1950. The titles, Women in: Crystallography (Chapter 5), Radioactivity (Chapter 6), Biochemistry (Chapter 7), Industrial Chemistry (Chapter 8), Analytical, Education and History (Chapter 9), suggest that women favored some areas of chemistry over others. Why did they tend to congregate in certain fields? The authors give cogent reasons why this was so. They observe that, in developing fields, there was initially a collegiality among colleagues and the support of senior mentors that established a

  15. Pricing fair trade products to include unpaid labour and empower women – the example of Nicaraguan sesame and coffee cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity Butler


    Full Text Available The paper discusses an initiative taking place in two cooperatives in Nicaragua. This involves the incorporation of a component for women’s unpaid work into the cost structures of Fair Trade contracts for coffee and sesame. The argument is that the unpaid work which is done mainly by women in the household and community represents an important input into production and one which should be valued and remunerated. Its recognition can both empower women and provide a fresh demonstration of the power of the cooperatives and Fair Trade in innovating so as to improve the conditions of disadvantaged people in their supply chains.The funding which has now been in place for two years has led to a number of very different projects for women. The involvement has spread not only to women doing unpaid work but also to women in low paid and marginalised jobs within the cooperatives. In particular, this raises the question of to whom the money allocated under this scheme should be paid, and whether it should primarily be used for collective or individual projects. This is an innovative development with the power fundamentally to change gender relations and empower women. It is significant that it is being pioneered in a poor country in the South rather than in the rich North. Este artículo analiza una iniciativa que tiene lugar en dos cooperativas de Nicaragua. Se incorpora al estudio el componente del trabajo no remunerado de las mujeres en el coste de las estructuras del comercio justo con contratos para el café y el sésamo. El argumento que se esgrime es que el trabajo no remunerado realizado principalmente por mujeres en el ámbito doméstico y de la comunidad representa un aporte importante a la producción, que se debe valorar y remunerar. Su reconocimiento puede investir de poder a las mujeres y demostrar el poder de las cooperativas y el comercio justo para innovar y mejorar las condiciones de personas desfavorecidas en las cadenas de producci

  16. Vitamin D supplementation for women during pregnancy (United States)

    De-Regil, Luz Maria; Palacios, Cristina; Ansary, Ali; Kulier, Regina; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo


    Background Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is thought to be common among pregnant women. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy has been suggested as an intervention to protect against adverse gestational outcomes. Objectives To examine whether supplements with vitamin D alone or in combination with calcium or other vitamins and minerals given to women during pregnancy can safely improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 October 2011), the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (31 October 2011), the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (28 October 2011) and also contacted relevant organisations (8 April 2011). Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised trials with randomisation at either individual or cluster level, evaluating the effect of supplementation with vitamin D alone or in combination with other micronutrients for women during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently i) assessed the eligibility of studies against the inclusion criteria ii) extracted data from included studies, and iii) assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. Data were checked for accuracy. Main results The search strategy identified 34 potentially eligible references. We included six trials assessing a total of 1023 women, excluded eight studies, and 10 studies are still ongoing. Five trials involving 623 women compared the effects of vitamin D alone versus no supplementation/placebo and one trial with 400 women compared the effects of vitamin D and calcium versus no supplementation. Only one trial with 400 women reported on pre-eclampsia: women who received 1200 IU vitamin D along with 375 mg of elemental calcium per day were as likely to develop pre-eclampsia as women who received no supplementation (average risk ratio (RR) 0.67; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33 to 1.35). Data from four trials

  17. Violence against women. (United States)


    Domestic violence constitutes historical behavior in accord with patriarchal systems. Family and domestic violence includes female infanticide, higher female mortality, female genital mutilation, bride burning, rape, wife battering, and early marriage. These practices are commonly integrated into values and beliefs. Women accept domestic violence in violation of their basic human rights due to social prejudice and low self esteem. Mothers who perpetuate female genital mutilation believe that they are acting in the best interests of the child by adhering to centuries-long traditions. Women who allow female infanticide or female abortion are motivated to do so in order to maintain the security of their marriage. Women are in unequal power relationships and submit to their own detriment. Negative attitudes against women are perpetuated through incorrect interpretations of religious principles and myths. Economic self-reliance gives women the courage to stand up against domestic violence. Empowerment through education and appropriate and protective legislation also gives women the means to fight violence. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) at the national, regional, and international levels are active in creating awareness of domestic violence and influencing policy change. The NGO Working Group on Traditional Practices and the Inter-African Committee have a 10-year history of fighting against practices such as female genital mutilation. In order to bring about change, there must be cooperative and joint action among governmental and inter-governmental groups and NGOs.

  18. Where Are the Women? The Underrepresentation of Women Physicians Among Recognition Award Recipients From Medical Specialty Societies. (United States)

    Silver, Julie K; Slocum, Chloe S; Bank, Anna M; Bhatnagar, Saurabha; Blauwet, Cheri A; Poorman, Julie A; Villablanca, Amparo; Parangi, Sareh


    Membership in medical societies is associated with a number of benefits to members that may include professional education, opportunities to present research, scientific and/or leadership training, networking, and others. In this perspective article, the authors address the value that medical specialty society membership and inclusion have in the development of an academic physician's career and how underrepresentation of women may pose barriers to their career advancement. Because society membership itself is not likely sufficient to support the advancement of academic physicians, this report focuses on one key component of advancement that also can be used as a measure of inclusion in society activities-the representation of women physicians among recipients of recognition awards. Previous reports demonstrated underrepresentation of women physicians among recognition award recipients from 2 physical medicine and rehabilitation specialty organizations, including examples of zero or near-zero results. This report investigated whether zero or near-zero representation of women physicians among recognition award recipients from medical specialty societies extended beyond the field of physical medicine and rehabilitation. Examples of the underrepresentation of women physicians, as compared with their presence in the respective field, was found across a range of additional specialties, including dermatology, neurology, anesthesiology, orthopedic surgery, head and neck surgery, and plastic surgery. The authors propose a call for action across the entire spectrum of medical specialty societies to: (1) examine gender diversity and inclusion data through the lens of the organization's mission, values, and culture; (2) transparently report the results to members and other stakeholders including medical schools and academic medical centers; (3) investigate potential causes of less than proportionate representation of women; (4) implement strategies designed to improve

  19. Women's sexuality: from aging to social representations. (United States)

    Ringa, Virginie; Diter, Kevin; Laborde, Caroline; Bajos, Nathalie


    Studies designed in northern countries show that most women are still sexually active after the age of 50. Many factors other than hormones influence sexual life in and after middle age; they include social status, personal characteristics, physical and psychological conditions, relationship factors, and social representations of sexuality. This study aims to analyze various components of sexuality, including its social representations, among women aged 45-55 years, as they reach menopause. Comparison of three groups: all postmenopausal women (277), postmenopausal women not currently using hormonal treatment (HT) (209), postmenopausal women currently using HT (68), with a reference group of premenopausal women (408). All were recruited in a national general population-based survey of sexual behaviors and interviewed by telephone. Practices, sexual function, satisfaction, and representations and expectations concerning sexuality. The women did not differ according to menopausal status for sexual activity, practices (wide range of practices beyond sexual intercourse), dysfunction, or satisfaction. They also attributed equal importance to sexuality. Nevertheless, although postmenopausal women not using HT did not report less sexual activity than premenopausal women, they were less likely to consider that a 3-month period without sex is a sign of difficulty in a relationship (30.3% vs. 47.7%; odds ratio: 0.35 [0.21-0.57], P=0.000). This difference was not observed between postmenopausal women using HT and premenopausal women. Our results suggest that for middle-aged women who are at the onset of menopause, the biological/hormonal changes characterizing menopause do not negatively affect sexual life. Any negative reported effects on sexuality are more likely due to anticipation or negative representations of sexuality around menopause than to biological or hormonal effects. The effect of menopause at this point in women's lives may thus be more symbolic than biological

  20. Role of women in Indian shrimp farming


    Gopalakrishnan, A.


    Women in India are involved in various facets of shrimp (Penaeus monodon; Penaeus indicus) farming, including pond construction, seed collection, collection of feed materials and preparation of feeds, pond maintenance and post-harvest handling. This study indicates that 40% of laborers involved in shrimp farm construction are women. The various roles of women in shrimp farming are also described.

  1. Reflections on a life in biomedicine: leading change. (United States)

    Nabel, Elizabeth G


    Dr. Elizabeth Nabel delivered the following presentation as the Lee E. Farr Lecturer on May 7, 2013, which served as the culmination of the annual Student Research Day at Yale School of Medicine. Dr. Nabel is President of the Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, and Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School. Her lecture to Yale medical students portrayed her own personal and professional journey through medicine as a series of opportunities. Dr. Nabel focused on the roles and responsibilities of physicians to recognize need and to make change through focused advocacy.

  2. Boekbesprekings/Book Review: "Pioneers of the Waterberg: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. ELIZABETH HUNTER (samesteller) Pioneers of the Waterberg: a photographic journey. Lephalale: Elizabeth Hunter (uitgewer); Johannesburg: Camera Press (drukker&binder), 2010 128 pp. ISBN: 978-0-620-49969-9 ...

  3. Women and Smoking: Global Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taru Kinnunen


    Full Text Available Global tobacco control has led to a reduction in smoking prevalence and mortality in men, while the rates among women have not followed the same declining rates or patterns. Tobacco-induced diseases, including those unique to women (reproductive complications, cervical and breast cancer are becoming increasingly prevalent among women. Unfortunately, many tobacco control policies and cessation programs have been found to be less effective for women than men. This is alarming as disease risk for lung cancer, CVD, osteoporosis, and COPD, associated with smoking, is higher among women. Women are also more likely to be exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke and subsequent morbidity. Finally, quitting smoking appears to be harder for women than men. Current tobacco control and surveillance data come primarily from high resource countries. WHO estimates that in 2030, in low and medium resource countries, 7 out of 10 deaths will be smoking-related. While the prevalence of smoking in women is relatively low in these countries, more information is needed regarding their patterns of tobacco use uptake, and subsequent health outcomes, as theirs differ from men. Tobacco use in women is greatly influenced by social, cultural and political determinants, and needs to be conceptualized within an intersectional framework.

  4. Women's Initiative for Nonsmoking-VII: evaluation of health service utilization and costs among women smokers with cardiovascular disease. (United States)

    Froelicher, Erika Sivarajan; Sohn, Min; Max, Wendy; Bacchetti, Peter


    The Women's Initiative for Nonsmoking (WINS), a randomized clinical trial of a smoking cessation intervention for women with cardiovascular disease, permitted an assessment of the types and costs of health services women used during the 30 months after their hospitalization with cardiovascular disease. A prospective design nested within WINS was used for this study. A structured telephone interview guide included questions about medical services and 15 categories of prevention services, including cardiac rehabilitation at 6, 12, 24, and 30 months. Costs were estimated from state and national databases. The 277 women studied had a mean age of 60.7 +/- 10 years. They had smoked approximately 40 +/- 11.4 years. More than 50% of the women had one or more risk factors for cardiovascular disease. During the first 6 months after the index hospitalization, 94% had a physician visit, 39% had an emergency-room visit, and 36% had a hospital admission. Prevention services used were home healthcare by nurse or home health aide (26%), a cardiac rehabilitation program, including Multifit and Heart Smart (19%), and physical therapy (14%). Usage decreased over the 30 months. For the women who used any service, the mean total monthly cost per woman was 913 dollars +/- 1204 dollars. This is the first report on health service use by women smokers with cardiovascular disease. Data collection using a telephone interview guide proved feasible for evaluating health service use. The greatest costs resulted from hospital admissions and physician and emergency-room visits. Considering the high prevalence of risk factors in this cohort, secondary prevention services were severely underutilized. By increasing referrals to such services, physicians and nurses might influence women to reduce their risk for subsequent cardiovascular disease.

  5. Panamanian women׳s experience of vaginal examination in labour: A questionnaire validation. (United States)

    Bonilla-Escobar, Francisco J; Ortega-Lenis, Delia; Rojas-Mirquez, Johanna C; Ortega-Loubon, Christian


    to validate a tool that allows healthcare providers to obtain accurate information regarding Panamanian women׳s thoughts and feelings about vaginal examination during labour that can be used in other Latin-American countries. validation study based on a database from a cross-sectional study carried out in two tertiary care hospitals in Panama City, Panama. Women in the immediate postpartum period who had spontaneous labour onset and uncomplicated deliveries were included in the study from April to August 2008. Researchers used a survey designed by Lewin et al. that included 20 questions related to a patient׳s experience during a vaginal examination. five constructs (factors) related to a patient׳s experience of vaginal examination during labour were identified: Approval (Alpha Cronbach׳s 0.72), Perception (0.67), Rejection (0.40), Consent (0.51), and Stress (0.20). it was demonstrated the validity of the scale and its constructs used to obtain information related to vaginal examination during labour, including patients' experiences with examination and healthcare staff performance. utilisation of the scale will allow institutions to identify items that need improvement and address these areas in order to promote the best care for patients in labour. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Application of the Putting Women First protocol in a study on violence against immigrant women in Spain. (United States)

    Torrubiano-Domínguez, Jordi; Vives-Cases, Carmen


    In this paper, we describe our experience of using the Putting Women First protocol in the design and implementation of a cross-sectional study on violence against women (VAW) among 1607 immigrant women from Morocco, Ecuador and Romania living in Spain in 2011. The Putting Women First protocol is an ethical guideline for VAW research, which includes recommendations to ensure the safety of the women involved in studies on this subject. The response rate in this study was 59.3%. The prevalence of VAW cases last year was 11.7%, of which 15.6% corresponded to Ecuadorian women, 10.9% to Moroccan women and 8.6% to Romanian women. We consider that the most important goal for future research is the use of VAW scales validated in different languages, which would help to overcome the language barriers encountered in this study. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Women and AIDS: introduction. (United States)

    Krieger, N; Margo, G


    Around the world, more and more women--principally poor women of color--are being diagnosed with and are dying of AIDS, the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Yet, effective and appropriate prevention programs for women are sorely missing from the global program to control AIDS. To help us understand why this gap exists, and what we must do to close it, the three articles in this issue focus on women and AIDS. Examining the situation in such countries as Zimbabwe and South Africa, as well as in other economically underdeveloped and developed regions, the authors argue that women with the least control over their bodies and their lives are at greatest risk of acquiring AIDS. For example, the high rate of infection among women in Africa cannot be understood apart from the legacy of colonialism (including land expropriation and the forced introduction of a migrant labor system) and the insidious combination of traditional and European patriarchal values. Only by recognizing the socioeconomic and cultural determinants of both disease and sexual behavior, and only by incorporating these insights into our AIDS prevention programs, will we be able to curb the spread of this lethal disease.

  8. The relationship is everything: Women׳s reasons for choosing a privately practising midwife in Western Australia. (United States)

    Davison, Clare; Hauck, Yvonne L; Bayes, Sara J; Kuliukas, Lesley J; Wood, Jennifer


    the purpose of this study was to describe women׳s reasons for choosing to birth with a privately practising midwife. a modified grounded theory methodology was used. the sample comprised 14 Western Australian women who had received maternity care from a privately practising midwife within the previous five years. data analysis revealed three categories: the first was conceptualised as 'I knew what I wanted from my caregiver', which included sub-categories of: I wanted continuity of care; I wanted a relationship with my care provider; and I wanted a care provider with the same childbirth philosophy as me. The second encapsulated 'I knew what I wanted from my pregnancy and birth experience,' with two sub-categories, I wanted a natural, active, intervention free pregnancy and birth and I wanted my partner and family to be included. The final category was labelled 'I was willing to get the research to get what I wanted' and incorporated two sub-categories, I researched my care options and I researched my care provider options and the evidence around pregnancy and birth to be actively involved. findings offer insight around women׳s reasons for choosing this model of midwifery care and highlight that women know exactly what they want from their caregiver. Women valued working with their midwife towards a shared goal of an intervention-free, normal birth, researched their options and found mainstream services restrictive and focused on medical risk status rather than on the individual woman. findings will be of interest to maternity care practitioners and policy makers, as they highlight why some women prefer a social model of midwifery care that reflects a family centred, individualised and holistic approach. This insight can inform the development of maternity health care practices to recognise and accommodate the needs and values of all childbearing women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Point-of-care lactate and creatinine analysis for sick obstetric patients at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital in Blantyre, Malawi: A feasibility study. (United States)

    Glasmacher, S A; Bonongwe, P; Stones, W


    To achieve good outcomes in critically ill obstetric patients, it is necessary to identify organ dysfunction rapidly so that life-saving interventions can be appropriately commenced. However, timely access to clinical chemistry results is problematic, even in referral institutions, in the sub-Saharan African region. Reliable point-of-care tests licensed for clinical use are now available for lactate and creatinine. We aimed to assess whether implementation of point-of-care testing for lactate and creatinine is feasible in the obstetric unit at the Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH) in Blantyre, Malawi, by obtaining the opinions of clinical staff on the use of these tests in practice. During a two-month evaluation period nurse-midwives, medical interns, clinical officers, registrars, and consultants were given the opportunity to use StatStrip® and StatSensor® (Nova Biomedical, Waltham, USA) devices, for lactate and creatinine estimation, as part of their routine clinical practice in the obstetric unit. They were subsequently asked to complete a short questionnaire. Thirty-seven questionnaires were returned by participants: 22 from nurse-midwives and the remainder from clinicians. The mean satisfaction score for the devices was 7.6/10 amongst clinicians and 8.0/10 amongst nurse-midwives. The majority of participants stated that the obstetric high dependency unit (HDU) was the most suitable location for the devices. For lactate, 31 participants strongly agreed that testing should be continued and 24 strongly agreed that it would influence patient management. For creatinine, 29 strongly agreed that testing should be continued and 28 strongly agreed that it would influence their patient management. Twenty participants strongly agreed that they trust point-of-care devices. Point-of-care clinical chemistry testing was feasible, practical, and well received by staff, and was considered to have a useful role to play in the clinical care of sick obstetric patients at

  10. Gender-specific mental health care needs of women veterans treated for psychiatric disorders in a Veterans Administration Women's Health Clinic. (United States)

    Miller, Laura J; Ghadiali, Nafisa Y


    This pilot study aims to ascertain the prevalence of self-reported premenstrual, perinatal, and perimenopausal influences on mental health, and of gynecologic conditions that could interact with psychiatric conditions, among women veterans receiving psychiatric care within a Veterans Administration (VA) Women's Health Clinic (WHC). Participants included all women veterans (N=68) who received psychiatric evaluations within a VA WHC over a 5-month period. This setting encompasses colocated and coordinated primary care, gynecologic and mental health services. Evaluations included a Women's Mental Health Questionnaire, a psychiatric interview, and medical record review. Deidentified data were extracted from a clinical data repository for this descriptive study. High proportions of study participants reported that their emotional problems intensified premenstrually (42.6%), during pregnancy (33.3%), in the postpartum period (33.3%), or during perimenopause (18.2%). Unintended pregnancy (70.0% of pregnancies) and pregnancy loss (63.5% of women who had been pregnant) were prominent sex-linked stressors. Dyspareunia (22.1% of participants) and pelvic pain (17.6% of participants) were frequent comorbidities. Among women veterans receiving psychiatric care within a VA WHC, there are high rates of self-reported premenstrual, perinatal, and perimenopausal influences on mental health. This population also has substantial comorbidity of psychiatric disorders with dyspareunia and pelvic pain. This underscores the importance of recognizing and addressing women veterans' sex-specific care needs, including interactions among reproductive cycle phases, gynecologic pain, and psychiatric symptoms. The findings support the need for greater awareness of the sex-specific mental health needs of women veterans, and for more definitive studies to further characterize these needs.

  11. Role of therapeutic fasting in women's health: An overview


    Pradeep M.K Nair; Pranav G Khawale


    Fasting is a therapeutic tool practiced since millennia by different cultures and medical systems heterogeneously. PubMed and Google Scholar search engines were searched using the keywords ?fasting,? ?intermittent fasting,? ?calorie restriction,? ?women?s health,? ?women?s disorders,? ?fasting and aging,? and ?fasting and health.? All the animal and human studies which address women?s health and disorders were included in the review. Fasting has shown to improve the reproductive and mental he...

  12. Reklama Alžbětiných lázní


    Zelenková, Petra


    Elizabeth Bath Inc. is one of the biggest spa facilities in the Czech Republic. The target of the graduation theses is the analyses, evaluation and proposal of reformative arrangements in connection with the marketing of Elizabeth Bath, especially with the focus on communication in marketing. Within the instrument of the marketing mix is the detailed focus orientated on advertising and its importance for the Elizabeth Bath. The end of the graduation theses is composed of a chapter related to ...

  13. Women School Executives Get Serious about Success. (United States)

    Rist, Marilee C.


    Summarizes the business and discussions of the Chicago convention of the National Conference of Women School Executives. Includes tips on how women can swim in the shark-infested waters of administration--and survive. (JW)

  14. Spirituality of South Asian Women: Implications for Adult Learning. (United States)

    Marshall, Jody L.

    The implications of the spirituality of South Asian women for adult learning were examined through semistructured interviews of five South Asian women who resided in Canada. The women, who included students, working professionals, mothers, and single women, originated from Nepal, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka and were from Hindu, Moslem, and…

  15. Stable ischemic heart disease in women: current perspectives. (United States)

    Samad, Fatima; Agarwal, Anushree; Samad, Zainab


    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women accounting for 1 in every 4 female deaths. Pathophysiology of ischemic heart disease in women includes epicardial coronary artery, endothelial dysfunction, coronary vasospasm, plaque erosion and spontaneous coronary artery dissection. Angina is the most common presentation of stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) in women. Risk factors for SIHD include traditional risks such as older age, obesity (body mass index [BMI] >25 kg/m 2 ), smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cerebrovascular and peripheral vascular disease, sedentary lifestyle, family history of premature coronary artery disease, metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus, and nontraditional risk factors, such as gestational diabetes, insulin resistance/polycystic ovarian disease, pregnancy-induced hypertension, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, menopause, mental stress and autoimmune diseases. Diagnostic testing can be used effectively to risk stratify women. Guidelines-directed medical therapy including aspirin, statins, beta-blocker therapy, calcium channel blockers and ranolazine should be instituted for symptom and ischemia management. Despite robust evidence regarding the adverse outcomes seen in women with ischemic heart disease, knowledge gaps exist in several areas. Future research needs to be directed toward a greater understanding of the role of nontraditional risk factors for SIHD in women, gaining deeper insights into the sex differences in therapeutic effects and formulating a sex-specific algorithm for the management of SIHD in women.

  16. Androgenic alopecia in women: an Indian perspective. (United States)

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Srivastava, Govind; Aggarwal, Ashok K; Midha, Reshmi


    The authors sought to investigate androgenic alopecia (AA) utilizing clinical and investigative procedures to establish the pattern of AA in the Indian subcontinent. A total of 35 consecutive women presenting with AA were included. After obtaining informed consent, a detailed history/examination, hair pull test, trichogram, and a scalp biopsy were performed in patients. AA classification was attempted across Ludwig and Norwood guidelines. Of 35 women, 16 had grade I, 10 had grade II, and 1 had grade III Ludwig classification. In addition, 6 other women had Christmas tree baldness: 1 each of fronto-parietal and male pattern baldness. Several investigations including hormonal profile were inconclusive; however, hair pull test and trichogram may be helpful in understanding the sequence in AA in women. AA has infrequently been reported, particularly India and in Asia in general.

  17. Hepatic manifestations of women with polycystic ovary syndrome. (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Jou; Ho, Hong-Nerng


    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have a higher prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) than the general population. The link between NAFLD/NASH and PCOS is not just a coincidence. Indeed, both of these disorders comprise common risk factors, including central obesity, insulin resistance, chronic low-grade inflammation, and hyperandrogenemia. The characteristics of hyperandrogenemia in women with PCOS include elevated total and free testosterone levels and low sex hormone-binding globulin levels and are reported to be associated with NAFLD and elevated liver enzymes; however, not all elevated androgen levels in women with PCOS have the same adverse effects on the liver. With the exception of weight loss and encouraging exercise in obese women, few evidence-based effective treatments target NAFLD/NASH in women with PCOS. Selective antiandrogens and insulin sensitizers might be beneficial in treating NAFLD/NASH in women with PCOS, but further elucidation is needed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Excellent women : the novels of Barbara Pym and Anita Brookner / Elizabeth Susanna van Aswegen


    Van Aswegen, E. S. (Elizabeth Susanna)


    From 1950, until her death in 1980, Barbara Pym published ten novels. The social climate of the 'sixties and early 'seventies was not receptive to her subtle literary style, and her writing suffered an eclipse of 16 years. A renaissance in her fortunes came in January 1977, when the Times Literary Supplement asked a selection of critics to say which writers they considered the most underrated of the twentieth century; both Philip Larkin and Lord David Cecil selected Pym as o...

  19. On Campus With Women, Number 31. (United States)

    Association of American Colleges, Washington, DC. Project on the Status and Education of Women.

    News concerning women students and staff at colleges and universities, equity in education, and nontraditional careers for women is presented. Specific topics include: sexual harassment litigation; surveys concerning sexual harassment within the university and in the federal workplace; a reverse discrimination case in which a white female…

  20. AIDS prevention project among women in Uruguay. (United States)

    Pesce, L


    The recommendations of a staff member of the Paulina Luisi Movement and member of the Women's Global Network for Reproductive Rights were six-fold. Being a woman was considered a risk factor for AIDS. AIDS and HIV infection prevention must concentrate on prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). 1) Women's organizations have the responsibility for sensitizing health professionals about STDs and AIDS and break the "culture of silence." 2) Women's health focus must actively include prevention of AIDS/HIV. 3) The Pap test must be included routinely as part of public and individual health services and conducted with high quality standards. 4) The flow of communication about women's health issues must be initiated between health professionals and women advocates with the objective of changing concepts and attitudes and of developing complementary strategies. 5) The strategy of promoting condom use and quality information does not address the larger issue of discrimination against women. Gender relations between spouses and between patient and doctor must be based on responsibility, reciprocity, and autonomy. Strategies must aim to combat the negativity in society that prevents responsible gender relations. 6) Professional women who have an awareness of gender issues must be engaged in international and governmental institutions with decision making power. Sex and women's health have been lesser priorities. The health system has responded to women as "objects" rather than subjects of attention. Women's position sexually and socially makes them more vulnerable to AIDS and HIV infections, which may be transmitted through a single sexual contact. STDs increase the risk of AIDS. Latin American women feel shame about STDS, while men respond to STDs as a condition of their sexual virility or potency. Treatment of STDS, much less AIDS prevention, is inadequate. The health system must stop treating women as objects and give them their right to health.

  1. Depression in women in Indian context. (United States)

    Bohra, Neena; Srivastava, Shruti; Bhatia, M S


    The estimate of the global burden of disease predicts that depression will be the second-leading cause of disability worldwide by 2020. Depression is widely prevalent in women in all age groups especially in India where 1.2 billion population lives. In the current scenario of underdiagnosed, untreated cases of females suffering from depression, the hurdles faced by Indian women include inadequate number of mental health professionals, lack of awareness, stigma, disadvantaged position of women, multiple roles, increased levels of stress, and domestic violence. The literature search included an electronic database, published materials, and standard textbooks. The authors have provided a brief overview of different types of depression in females. Epidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation, and management linked to the reproductive cycle of women have been covered. Awareness through public education, early detection, organized national mental health programs, comprehensive management, with judicious utilization of the limited resources would tackle the rising number of cases of female depression, in a cost effective manner, thereby preventing suicide.

  2. Identification of seventeen microsatellite loci for conservation genetic studies of the endemic wrasse Coris bulbifrons

    KAUST Repository

    Van Der Meer, Martin H.; Gardner, Mike; Berumen, Michael L.; Hobbs, Jean Paul Adrian; Van Herwerden, Lynne Van


    Coral reefs around the world are in decline, in part due to various anthropogenic factors, including fishing pressure. Coris bulbifrons is a large wrasse endemic to only four oceanic locations off Australia's east coast: Middleton Reef, Elizabeth

  3. On Campus with Women, Number 27, Summer 1980. (United States)

    Association of American Colleges, Washington, DC.

    A newsletter on issues pertaining to women's rights on campuses and in employment is presented. Developments and issues include the following: initiation of intercollegiate athletic championships for women in nine sports; a charge of unequal pay for women coaches; university cases of alleged sex discrimination in athletic programs; reference to…

  4. 12 CFR 906.12 - What outreach efforts are included in this program? (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What outreach efforts are included in this program? 906.12 Section 906.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE... Minorities, Women, or Individuals With Disabilities § 906.12 What outreach efforts are included in this...

  5. Circadian rhythms of women with fibromyalgia (United States)

    Klerman, E. B.; Goldenberg, D. L.; Brown, E. N.; Maliszewski, A. M.; Adler, G. K.


    Fibromyalgia syndrome is a chronic and debilitating disorder characterized by widespread nonarticular musculoskeletal pain whose etiology is unknown. Many of the symptoms of this syndrome, including difficulty sleeping, fatigue, malaise, myalgias, gastrointestinal complaints, and decreased cognitive function, are similar to those observed in individuals whose circadian pacemaker is abnormally aligned with their sleep-wake schedule or with local environmental time. Abnormalities in melatonin and cortisol, two hormones whose secretion is strongly influenced by the circadian pacemaker, have been reported in women with fibromyalgia. We studied the circadian rhythms of 10 women with fibromyalgia and 12 control healthy women. The protocol controlled factors known to affect markers of the circadian system, including light levels, posture, sleep-wake state, meals, and activity. The timing of the events in the protocol were calculated relative to the habitual sleep-wake schedule of each individual subject. Under these conditions, we found no significant difference between the women with fibromyalgia and control women in the circadian amplitude or phase of rhythms of melatonin, cortisol, and core body temperature. The average circadian phases expressed in hours posthabitual bedtime for women with and without fibromyalgia were 3:43 +/- 0:19 and 3:46 +/- 0:13, respectively, for melatonin; 10:13 +/- 0:23 and 10:32 +/- 0:20, respectively for cortisol; and 5:19 +/- 0:19 and 4:57 +/- 0:33, respectively, for core body temperature phases. Both groups of women had similar circadian rhythms in self-reported alertness. Although pain and stiffness were significantly increased in women with fibromyalgia compared with healthy women, there were no circadian rhythms in either parameter. We suggest that abnormalities in circadian rhythmicity are not a primary cause of fibromyalgia or its symptoms.

  6. The role of Circle women in curbing violence against women and girls in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Owusu-Ansah


    Full Text Available The article looks at the role Circle of Concerned African Women Theologians (the Circle have played in the struggle to end or reduce the rate at which violence against women and girls occurs in West Africa by highlighting the contributions of older Circle women, especially the initiator of the Circle, Mercy Amba Oduyoye. The initiator of the Circle and other older Circle women have left a remarkable legacy that needs to continue by the current and future generations of the Circle. The background information examines the leadership and mentorship of Mercy Amba Oduyoye and the impact she has made in the lives of African women. The essay then looks at the types of violence that women face in West Africa with the specific contributions of Circle women in the struggle to end violence against women and girls. It then argues that Circle women have played very significant roles both in setting the pace and giving the platform for women activities to minimise gender-based violence against women and girls. Circle women have written and presented papers that have addressed many challenges including HIV and/or AIDS, Girl Child trafficking, Marriage of Minors, and almost all kinds of violence against women and girls. Currently, religious violence threatens the fabric of African nations causing insecurity and panic, women and girls being the most vulnerable. The challenge to the present and future Circle members is to contribute in significant ways towards religious harmony in Africa and beyond. The Circle acknowledges the leadership role of women and encourages them to spearhead the liberation of women as well as empower them to be able to aspire to get to the top or become independent. No one understands what someone else feels better than the person experiencing the ordeal. Women can better understand what they go through and also have the passion to strive towards liberation.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: In this article, the

  7. Political Communication and Women: A Course Proposal. (United States)

    Trent, Judith S.


    Presents a course proposal for an undergraduate course entitled "Political Communication and Women." Includes six units with instructional objectives, bibliographies, and student activities. The course is designed to identify the special needs of women in elective politics. (JMF)

  8. Reproductive Issues in Women with Turner Syndrome. (United States)

    Folsom, Lisal J; Fuqua, John S


    Turner syndrome is one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities affecting female infants. The severity of clinical manifestations varies and it affects multiple organ systems. Women with Turner syndrome have a 3-fold increase in mortality, which becomes even more pronounced in pregnancy. Reproductive options include adoption or surrogacy, assisted reproductive techniques, and in rare cases spontaneous pregnancy. Risks for women with Turner syndrome during pregnancy include aortic disorders, hepatic disease, thyroid disease, type 2 diabetes, and cesarean section delivery. Providers must be familiar with the risks and recommendations in caring for women with Turner syndrome of reproductive age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Women in the Army (United States)


    Army womenpower re- quirements with no apparent end in sight. No country, not even Russia or Israel, has ever made a conscious decision to include...provide a basis for decision making. iiI CHAPTER ONE AN HISTORICAL OVERVIEW Few books have been written which outline the history of military women...with a bill introducing the Women’s Army Auxillary Corps (WAAC). In order 7 that the Army could maintain control over this sensitive issue, General

  10. Mexican-Origin Women's Employment Instability. Working Paper No. 51. (United States)

    De Anda, Roberto M.

    This paper compares the causes and consequences of employment instability among Mexican-origin women, White women, and White men. Data came from the work experience supplement in the March 1995 file of the Current Population Survey for a sample that included 1,399 Mexican-origin women, 17,092 White women, and 24,440 White men. All were experienced…

  11. 35 Years of Experience From the American Association for Women Radiologists: Increasing the Visibility of Women in Radiology. (United States)

    Spalluto, Lucy B; Arleo, Elizabeth K; Macura, Katarzyna J; Rumack, Carol M


    Women radiologists remain in minority, unchanged for the past several decades. In 1981, the American Association for Women Radiologists (AAWR) was founded to address the problems that women radiologists were experiencing in being subordinate to male radiologists in the workplace and at the national level in organizations with respect to political power and financial compensation, as well as additional issues unique to women in radiology. The AAWR defined goals to meet the needs of women in radiology: improve the visibility of women radiologists, advance the professional and academic standing of women in radiology, and identify and address issues faced by women in radiology. AAWR efforts have included providing opportunities for career development and award recognition, hosting educational programs at national meetings, and publishing numerous manuscripts on issues faced by women in radiology. The AAWR recognizes that although there has been significant progress in the standing of women in radiology over the past 35 years, there is much room for improvement. The AAWR will continue to advocate for the needs of women in radiology. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dyslipidemia in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. (United States)

    Kim, Jin Ju; Choi, Young Min


    Dyslipidemia is a very common metabolic abnormality in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Insulin resistance is a key pathophysiology of PCOS, thus dyslipidemia in women with PCOS may be consistent with those found in an insulin resistant state. In recent meta-analysis, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels were 26 mg/dL and 12 mg/dL higher, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration was 6 mg/dL lower in women with PCOS than those of controls. Alterations in LDL quality also have been reported in women with PCOS: women with PCOS have an increased proportion of atherogenic small dense LDL or decreased mean LDL particle size. However, in a recent Korean study, non-obese Korean women with PCOS had no significant quantitative or qualitative changes in LDL cholesterol profile. Lipoprotein (a) has been identified as an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease, and its elevation in PCOS patients has been consistently reported in diverse studies including non-obese Korean population. Some studies have investigated apolipoprotein (Apo) A-I and ApoC-I levels in women with PCOS and levels of ApoA-I, which has cardio-protective effects, were significantly lower in women with PCOS than those of controls. ApoC-I is known to increase the postprandial serum lipid level that is common in coronary artery disease patients, and one study reported that such an elevation may be the earliest variation of lipid abnormality in women with PCOS. In conclusion, women with PCOS should receive a complete lipid test, and lifestyle modification, including diet and exercise, is the first line therapy for all women with PCOS and is particularly important for those with dyslipidemia.

  13. Perception of Propertied Women on Marriage Forms, Widowhood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR Nneka

    remarkably in all facets of life including the status of women and widows in the last three decades. ... Its roles in the institutional arrangement governing the ... for the analysis of men-women relation in a male dominated society through the ... essentially the preserve of women's work, the third implies a means by which.

  14. Koos Briti kuningannaga sügiseses Kadriorus / Ingvar Bärenklau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bärenklau, Ingvar, 1967-


    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 20. okt. lk. 2-3. Briti kuninganna Elizabeth II riigivisiidist Eestisse. Kadrioru presidendilossis kohtusid kuninganna ja prints Philipiga president Toomas Hendrik Ilves ja teised riigitegelased. Lisa: Elizabeth II

  15. Seasonal variation in the diet of common quail Coturnix coturnix in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jun 3, 1996 ... University of Port Elizabeth, POBox 1600, Port Elizabeth,. 6000 South Africa ..... Seed identitleation manual. University of California Press. Berkley. McALLISTER, H.l. ... Fieldguide to butterflies of Southern Africa. Struik, Cape ...

  16. Women's series: by women, for women?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuitert, L.; Spiers, J.


    One of the striking phenomena in the 19th century publishing history is the abundant publication of publisher''s series. This contribution concerns series specifically meant for women. The focus is on Dutch literary series for women, mostly 19th century.

  17. Women in development : issues for economic and sector analysis


    Women in Development Division


    This paper highlights issues and action plans concerning women in economic and sector analysis and in project design. The paper focuses on the majority of women who are poor. It emphasizes measures to include women in development that contribute to economic performance, poverty reduction, slower population growth, and other broad development objectives. The paper concludes that women already contribute far more economically than is usually recognized. By expanding women's economic choices, ou...

  18. Maintaining women's oral health. (United States)

    McCann, A L; Bonci, L


    Women must adopt health-promoting strategies for both general health and the oral cavity, because the health of a woman's body and oral cavity are bidirectional. For general health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should actively advise women to minimize alcohol use, abstain from or cease smoking, stay physically active, and choose the right foods to nourish both the body and mind. For oral health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should advise women on how to prevent or control oral infections, particularly dental caries and periodontal diseases. Specifically, women need to know how to remove plaque from the teeth mechanically, use appropriate chemotherapeutic agents and dentifrices, use oral irrigation, and control halitosis. Dental practitioners also need to stress the importance of regular maintenance visits for disease prevention. Adolescent women are more prone to gingivitis and aphthous ulcers when they begin their menstrual cycles and need advice about cessation of tobacco use, mouth protection during athletic activities, cleaning orthodontic appliances, developing good dietary habits, and avoiding eating disorders. Women in early to middle adulthood may be pregnant or using oral contraceptives with concomitant changes in oral tissues. Dental practitioners need to advise them how to take care of the oral cavity during these changes and how to promote the health of their infants, including good nutrition. Older women experience the onset of menopause and increased vulnerability to osteoporosis. They may also experience xerostomia and burning mouth syndrome. Dental practitioners need to help women alleviate these symptoms and encourage them to continue good infection control and diet practices.

  19. Life time income of men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens


    Life-time income is estimated here including the money value of household work. A modified opportunity principle is used, which means that non-employed women's price of time is found by calculating reservation wage rates. The overall results demonstrate that Danish women's ‘loss' of labour income...... during the child caring period is difficult for them to regain, and just to reach the same level of income as childless Danish women seems impossible; furthermore Danish men get a higher life-time income than Danish women even when we add the money value of household work...

  20. Body Composition in Military or Military Eligible Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library



    ...; specifically percent body fat (% fat). To date, data collection includes 128 white women and 111 black women who participated in a multi-compartment assessment of fat free mass (FFM) and % fat...

  1. Sexually compulsive/addictive behaviors in women: a women's healthcare issue. (United States)

    Roller, Cyndi Gale


    Sexually compulsive/addictive behavior is a pattern of sexual behaviors that cause distress and/or impairment of social functioning. It is marked by obsessive thoughts, compulsive behaviors, and the individual's inability to stop the behaviors despite negative consequences. Women experiencing sexually compulsive/addictive behavior are preoccupied with sex not as a response to desire but rather as a behavior that serves the purpose of anxiety reduction. Sexually compulsive/addictive behavior is associated with a number of health consequences, including sexually transmitted infections, unwanted pregnancies, abortions, and violence. It is important for providers to have an understanding of the addiction process, assessment, diagnosis, and interventions for these women.

  2. The Phenomenon of the Olympic Games. Women in the Games. (United States)

    Johnson, Karen M., Ed.; Fritz, Harry, Ed.


    A collection of articles is offered that examines the history and current status of women in the Olympic Games. Included is a brief historical account of women's participation, criteria for adding sports, examination of women's status, and an explanation of rhythmic gymnastics which was recently added for women. (DF)

  3. IPPF Charter on Sexual and Reproductive Rights. International Planned Parenthood Federation. (United States)

    Newman, K; Helzner, J F


    For most of human existence and in most societies, women have been considered to be property and subject to men. Throughout history, with such notable exceptions as Queen Boadicea, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Elizabeth I of England, and Catherine the Great of Russia, women had little or no power until early in the 20th century when the women's suffrage movement was successful in the United States and in some European countries. As women have gained political rights, groups of women have sought sexual and reproductive rights, as exemplified by the feminist movement of the past few decades in the United States. Although marked strides toward achievement of reproductive choice have been taken in high-income countries, there remain major strictures to reproductive freedom for women in low-income countries. This area, which is replete with ethical and moral issues, has been addressed by the International Planned Parenthood Foundation (IPPF), which has worked to improve the sexual and reproductive health of women throughout the world. The IPPF Charter on Sexual and Reproductive Rights is a paradigm for both women's rights and human rights. Karen Newman is policy adviser with the IPPF and has codrafted the IPPF Charter on Sexual and Reproductive Rights together with two lawyers. She has held several positions within the IPPF, including medical researcher, press officer, and programme adviser in Europe, where she had responsibility for working with new family planning associations (FPAs) in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. At present, she is working to increase the capacity of IPPF member FPAs to undertake human rights-based advocacy for sexual and reproductive health and rights. Judith F. Helzner is director of Sexual and Reproductive Health at International Planned Parenthood Federation/Western Hemisphere Region, Inc., where she has worked since 1987. She holds M.A. degrees from the University of Pennsylvania in International Relations and Demography. Her previous employment

  4. Prevalence of falls in elderly women. (United States)

    Vitor, Priscila Regina Rorato; de Oliveira, Ana Carolina Kovaleski; Kohler, Renan; Winter, Gabriele Regiane; Rodacki, Cintia; Krause, Maressa Priscila


    To verify prevalence of falls and fear of falling, and to compare functional fitness among elderly women fallers and non-fallers. Seventy-eight elderly women participated in this study. Cases of falls and the fear of falling were self-reported by the elderly women, while the functional fitness was measured by a set of functional tests. Mean and standard deviation were used to describe the sample. Independent t-test was used to compare functional fitness between groups. The prevalence of falls in this sample was 32.4%. Among women fallers, 40% self-reported a high fear of falling. It is recommended that functional and resistance exercises are included in the preventive strategies for reducing risk factors for falls and its determinants in elderly women. Level of Evidence II, Prognostic-Prospective Study.

  5. Women surgeons in the new millennium. (United States)

    Troppmann, Kathrin M; Palis, Bryan E; Goodnight, James E; Ho, Hung S; Troppmann, Christoph


    Women are increasingly entering the surgical profession. To assess professional and personal/family life situations, perceptions, and challenges for women vs men surgeons. National survey of American Board of Surgery-certified surgeons. A questionnaire was mailed to all women and men surgeons who were board certified in 1988, 1992, 1996, 2000, or 2004. Of 3507 surgeons, 895 (25.5%) responded. Among these, 178 (20.3%) were women and 698 (79.7%) were men. Most women and men surgeons would choose their profession again (women, 82.5%; men, 77.5%; P = .15). On multivariate analysis, men surgeons (odds ratio [OR], 2.5) and surgeons of a younger generation (certified in 2000 or 2004; OR, 1.3) were less likely to favor part-time work opportunities for surgeons. Most of the surgeons were married (75.6% of women vs 91.7% of men, P women surgeons (OR, 5.0) and surgeons of a younger generation (OR, 1.9) were less likely to have children. More women than men surgeons had their first child later in life, while already in surgical practice (62.4% vs 32.0%, P women surgeons vs 79.4% of men surgeons (P women surgeons than men surgeons thought that maternity leave was important (67.8% vs 30.8%, P work (86.5% vs 69.7%, P Women considering a surgical career should be aware that most women surgeons would choose their profession again. Strategies to maximize recruitment and retention of women surgeons should include serious consideration of alternative work schedules and optimization of maternity leave and child care opportunities.

  6. Perceptions of care in women sent home in latent labor. (United States)

    Hosek, Claire; Faucher, Mary Ann; Lankford, Janice; Alexander, James


    To assess perceptions of care from woman discharged from an obstetrical (OB) triage unit or a labor and delivery unit with a diagnosis of false or latent labor in order to determine factors that may increase or decrease the woman's satisfaction with care. Descriptive, convenience sample. One hundred low-income pregnant women at term presenting for care in latent labor consented to participate in a telephone survey. The survey was based on the relevant research about care of women in early labor and the Donabedian quality improvement framework assessing structure, process, and outcomes of care. Forty-one percent of women did not want to be discharged home in latent labor. Common reasons included women stating they were in too much pain or they were living too far from the birth setting. Eating, drinking, and comfort measures were the most common measures women cited that would have made them feel better when in the hospital. A reoccurring response from women was their desire for very clear and specific written instructions about how to stay comfortable at home and when to return to the hospital. Comfort measures in the birth setting, including in triage, should include a variety of options including ambulation and oral nutrition. Detailed and specific written instructions about early labor and staying comfortable while at home have value for women in this survey regarding their perceptions of care. Results from this survey of low-income women suggest that a subset of women in latent labor just do not want to go home and this may be related to having too much pain and/or travel distance to the hospital. Hospital birth settings also have an opportunity to create a care environment that provides services and embodies attributes that women report as important for their satisfaction with care in latent labor.

  7. Women Administrators: Careers, Self-Perceptions, and Mentors. (United States)

    Hepner, Marilyn M.; Faaborg, Linda W.

    This report presents an analysis and interpretation of responses from women administrators in higher education concerning influences on their careers, professional mobility, and self-perceptions. Issues discussed include the inadequacy of information concerning women administrators, influences on career growth, differences between academic and…

  8. Korean Mature Women Students' Various Subjectivities in Relation to Their Motivation for Higher Education: Generational Differences amongst Women (United States)

    Lee, Sunghoe


    This qualitative case study attempts to conceptualize certain "patterns" and "processes" of which 28 mature women undergraduates give meanings to their motivation for higher education in their life contexts. Particular attention has been paid to include diverse groups of women according to their age, prior educational…

  9. Asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract infections in special patient groups: women with diabetes mellitus and pregnant women. (United States)

    Schneeberger, Caroline; Kazemier, Brenda M; Geerlings, Suzanne E


    Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and urinary tract infections (UTIs) in women with diabetes mellitus and during pregnancy are common and can have far-reaching consequences for the woman and neonate. This review describes epidemiology, risk factors, complications and treatment of UTI and ASB according to recent developments in these two groups. Most articles addressing the epidemiology and risk factors of ASB and UTI in diabetic and pregnant women confirmed existing knowledge. New insights were obtained in the association between sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, as medication for diabetes mellitus type 2, and a small increased risk for UTI due to glucosuria and the possible negative effects of UTI, including urosepsis,on bladder and kidney function in diabetic women. Predominantly, potential long-term effects of antibiotic treatment of ASB or UTI during pregnancy on the neonate have received attention, including antibiotic resistance and epilepsy. SGLT2 inhibitors were associated with a small increased risk for UTI, UTI in diabetic women may lead to bladder and kidney dysfunction, and antibiotic treatment of ASB and UTI during pregnancy was associated with long-term effects on the neonate. Up-to-date research on the effectiveness and long-term effects of ASB screening and treatment policies, including group B Streptococcus bacteriuria in pregnancy, is warranted to inform clinical practice.

  10. Biomedical Approaches to HIV Prevention in Women. (United States)

    Heumann, Christine L


    Effective HIV prevention techniques for women are of critical importance, as nearly half of all HIV infections globally are in women. This article reviews the recent literature on biomedical approaches to HIV prevention in women. In trials in which women were adherent to oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), PrEP was equally efficacious in men and women. However, in studies of oral PrEP exclusively in women, adherence was low, and it was not efficacious. In trials of topical PrEP, including vaginal tenofovir gel and the monthly dapivirine ring, efficacy was also dependent upon adherence. Treatment as prevention (TasP) is a very effective HIV prevention strategy, though limited in that it is not controlled by the HIV-uninfected partner. Adherence is an important factor in the efficacy of biomedical interventions for HIV prevention in women; continued research is needed to identify the most efficacious and acceptable agents for women. Oral PrEP is currently recommended for the following groups of HIV-negative women: heterosexual women in ongoing sexual relationships with a partner infected with or at substantial risk of HIV infection and women who inject drugs and share injection or drug preparation equipment.

  11. make up.contents pg

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    gannets has been rationalized in terms of its potential ... Formerly Department of Zoology, University of Port Elizabeth, P. O. Box 1600, Port Elizabeth 6000, South Africa; now School of Life ... weighed, colour-banded and marked with dye.

  12. Women's development key to MCH/FP. (United States)


    The Sri Lankan government has included women in its development process thereby raising literacy levels to 91% for urban women and 87% for rural women. Their successful participation has in turn resulted in improvements in maternal and child health (MCH) and family planning (FP) acceptance. Indeed MCH/FP promotion could not have occurred without their participation in development. Since the 1960s, the Health and Women's Affairs Ministry continues to provide broad support for grass roots health care, such as strengthening the capacity of local clinics to increase coverage of health monitoring for women and children. There fore infant mortality in Sri Lanka has decreased from 47.5 in 1970 to 34 in 1980 to 19 in 1989. In addition, the total fertility rate fell from 5 in 1962-1964 to 3.4 in 1980-1982 to 2.8 in 1982-1987. The Ministry initiated its Integrated FP, Nutrition, and Parasite Control Project (IP) in 8 pilot areas in 1981. IP continues to encourage women's developed and MCH/FP at the grass roots level. In fact, FP acceptance rates increased from 31.8% in 1980 to 59% in 1989 in Nakulugamuwa and from 2.3% in 1980 to 70.5% in 1989 in Galnewa. The MCH component operating from community level clinics includes growth monitoring and immunization. Project activities include construction of latrines and wells, promotion of regular health examinations for mothers and children, FP education, counseling, nutrition promotion for children, and training programs for health staff, community volunteers, mothers' groups, and teachers. The volunteers form a link between the community and government health workers. Mothers' groups participate in school nutrition programs, home gardening, and income generation. Parasite control is consequently accomplished by community health and environmental sanitation promotion.

  13. Psychiatric morbidity in perimenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswajit L Jagtap


    Full Text Available Background: Women in the perimenopausal period are reported to be vulnerable to psychiatric disorders. Aim: To assess the psychiatric morbidity in perimenopausal women aged 45–55 years. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, observational, hospital-based study was conducted at the Department of Psychiatry in a tertiary care hospital attached to a medical college. The study sample consisted of consecutive women in perimenopause as diagnosed by a gynecologist and written informed consent for inclusion in the study. Women with a previous history of psychiatric illnesses, with a major medical illness, or who had undergone surgical menopause were excluded from the study. All women were evaluated with a brief questionnaire for collecting demographic and clinical information and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for assessing psychiatric disorders. Results: Of the 108 women in perimenopause included in the study, 31% had depressive disorder, 7% had anxiety, while 5% had depressive disorder with anxiety features. Psychiatric morbidity was significantly more in women having lesser education, from rural background, with a history of psychiatric illness in the family, a later age of menarche, and in the late stage of perimenopause. Conclusions: Women in the perimenopause affected by psychiatric morbidity were most commonly diagnosed with depression. As perimenopause is a time of vulnerability in women, attention to signs and symptoms of depression may be required so that they may lead a more productive life.

  14. Urinary tract infection in postmenopausal women. (United States)

    Raz, Raul


    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infection in women in general and in postmenopausal women in particular. Two groups of elderly women with recurrent UTI should be differentiated regarding age and general status: healthy, young postmenopausal women aged 50 to 70 years who are neither institutionalized or catheterized and elderly institutionalized women with or without a catheter. Bacteriuria occurs more often in elderly functionally impaired women, but in general it is asymptomatic. However, the risk factors associated with recurrent UTI in elderly women are not widely described. In a multivariate analysis it was found that urinary incontinence, a history of UTI before menopause, and nonsecretor status were strongly associated with recurrent UTI in young postmenopausal women. Another study described the incidence and risk factors of acute cystitis among nondiabetic and diabetic postmenopausal women. Independent predictors of infection included insulin-treated patients and a lifetime history of urinary infection. Borderline associations included a history of vaginal estrogen cream use in the past month, kidney stones, and asymptomatic bacteriuria at baseline. Another important factor in postmenopausal women is the potential role that estrogen deficiency plays in the development of bacteriuria. There are at least two studies showing a beneficial effect of estrogen in the management of recurrent bacteriuria in elderly women. One of these studies showed that vaginal estrogen cream reduced vaginal pH from 5.5±0.7 to 3.6±1.0, restored lactobacillus, and decreased new episodes of UTI. Another study reported similar results using an estriol vaginal ring. However, contradictory results are found in the literature. For example, additional studies found that the use of estriol-containing vaginal pessaries was less effective than oral nitrofurantoin macrocrystals in preventing UTI in postmenopausal women. Two other studies also did not find any

  15. Role of women in population. (United States)

    Srivasdava, T N

    Population control through voluntary adoption of family planning is emphasized in India's family planning policy. The 1981 census figures have not shown an arresting rate of population growth. The social and attitudinal barriers to promoting the concept of the small family are great where men and women are not exposed to new ideas. The target groups for family planning include the 75% of the population residing in rural areas. The literacy rate for women in rural areas in 1971 was 18.69. Motivation is difficult unless supported by systematic education. Women play an important role in the determination of family size. Participation in social and economic activities may help to promote small family size by meeting the necessary conditions of emotional and social fulfillment of women outside the family context. Adquate education for women in rural as well as urban areas can elucidate alternatives to childbearing and enable women to appreciate the need for and use of contraception. Employment opportunities enhance women's familial decision making power through the acquisition of an alternative social and economic role, which may help them to adopt birth control practices, space their children, and limit family size. Motivational schemes may change the attitudes of a small number of families, however, greater gains could be achieved through an investment in women's education and employment.

  16. Emerging models of power among South African women business leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Kinnear


    Research purpose: The purpose was to critically analyse emerging models of power among South African women business leaders to include their perspectives in the process of theory building. Motivation for the study: Women in senior leadership positions are not necessarily enabling the transformation of organisations to include greater representation of women at senior levels. A critical understanding of women’s models of power may highlight unconscious processes contributing to this as well as emerging models that can facilitate change. Research design, approach and method: Qualitative research was conducted within a feminist social constructionist framework, using the method of discourse analysis of narrative texts to identify emerging models of power. The 10 women in the study included executives within corporations across a range of industry sectors in South Africa. Practical/managerial implications: The findings may guide approaches to gender transformation efforts in organisations and raise women leaders’ awareness of their conscious and unconscious impact on gender empowerment. Contribution/value-add: A novel contribution of this study is the emerging transformative model of power and the tensions women experience in asserting this power.

  17. Systematic review of women veterans' mental health. (United States)

    Runnals, Jennifer J; Garovoy, Natara; McCutcheon, Susan J; Robbins, Allison T; Mann-Wrobel, Monica C; Elliott, Alyssa


    Given recent, rapid growth in the field of women veterans' mental health, the goal of this review was to update the status of women veterans' mental health research and to identify current themes in this literature. The scope of this review included women veterans' unique mental health needs, as well as gender differences in veterans' mental health needs. Database searches were conducted for relevant articles published between January 2008 and July 2011. Searches were supplemented with bibliographic reviews and consultation with subject matter experts. The database search yielded 375 titles; 32 met inclusion/exclusion criteria. The women veterans' mental health literature crosses over several domains, including prevalence, risk factors, health care utilization, treatment preferences, and access barriers. Studies were generally cross-sectional, descriptive, mixed-gender, and examined Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care users from all service eras. Results indicate higher rates of specific disorders (e.g., depression) and comorbidities, with differing risk factors and associated medical and functional impairment for female compared with male veterans. Although satisfaction with VA health care is generally high, unique barriers to care and indices of treatment satisfaction exist for women. There is a breadth of descriptive knowledge in many content areas of women veterans' mental health; however, the research base examining interventional and longitudinal designs is less developed. Understudied content areas and targets for future research and development include certain psychiatric disorders (e.g., schizophrenia), the effects of deployment on woman veterans' families, and strategies to address treatment access, attrition, and provision of gender-sensitive care. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Botanicals and Their Bioactive Phytochemicals for Women's Health. (United States)

    Dietz, Birgit M; Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dunlap, Tareisha L; Bolton, Judy L


    Botanical dietary supplements are increasingly popular for women's health, particularly for older women. The specific botanicals women take vary as a function of age. Younger women will use botanicals for urinary tract infections, especially Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry), where there is evidence for efficacy. Botanical dietary supplements for premenstrual syndrome (PMS) are less commonly used, and rigorous clinical trials have not been done. Some examples include Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Angelica sinensis (dong quai), Viburnum opulus/prunifolium (cramp bark and black haw), and Zingiber officinale (ginger). Pregnant women have also used ginger for relief from nausea. Natural galactagogues for lactating women include Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) and Silybum marianum (milk thistle); however, rigorous safety and efficacy studies are lacking. Older women suffering menopausal symptoms are increasingly likely to use botanicals, especially since the Women's Health Initiative showed an increased risk for breast cancer associated with traditional hormone therapy. Serotonergic mechanisms similar to antidepressants have been proposed for Actaea/Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh) and Valeriana officinalis (valerian). Plant extracts with estrogenic activities for menopausal symptom relief include Glycine max (soy), Trifolium pratense (red clover), Pueraria lobata (kudzu), Humulus lupulus (hops), Glycyrrhiza species (licorice), Rheum rhaponticum (rhubarb), Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Linum usitatissimum (flaxseed), Epimedium species (herba Epimedii, horny goat weed), and Medicago sativa (alfalfa). Some of the estrogenic botanicals have also been shown to have protective effects against osteoporosis. Several of these botanicals could have additional breast cancer preventive effects linked to hormonal, chemical, inflammatory, and/or epigenetic pathways. Finally, although botanicals are perceived as natural safe remedies, it is important for women and

  19. Coping and posttraumatic growth in women with limb amputations. (United States)

    Stutts, Lauren A; Bills, Sarah E; Erwin, Savannah R; Good, Jessica J


    While ample research has examined the psychological experiences of men with limb amputations, minimal research has examined the psychological experiences of women with limb amputations. The present study utilizes a qualitative design to examine coping and posttraumatic growth in women with limb amputations. Thirty women completed the posttraumatic growth inventory (PTGI) and provided open-ended responses about coping, social support, discrimination, support groups, and acceptance. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to discern emergent and superordinate themes in qualitative responses. Superordinate themes included social support (friendships/family and community), self-beliefs, resources, physical complications, spirituality, specific strategies, and acceptance. Concerns related specifically to participants' gender identity included appearance and motherhood. Overall, women reported moderate-to-high PTGI scores. The current findings address a void in the literature by illuminating the unique perspective of women with amputations. Future research should use quantitative methodology to expand on our research findings, as well as assess interventions to assist women adjusting to limb loss.

  20. Measuring consumer attitudes towards gambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Rousseau


    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to measure consumer attitudes towards gambling amongst various sociodemographic groups in Port Elizabeth. The study was based on past research and used a modified version of a questionnaire developed by various authors. The sample (N=355 was drawn, using a non-probability sampling technique from English, Afrikaans and Xhosa speaking respondents in the Port Elizabeth Uitenhage area. Fieldwork was carried out by students of Industrial Psychology at the University of Port Elizabeth. Results showed significant differences between socio-demographic groups regarding attitudes towards gambling. Cultural influences deduced from home language and religion seems to influence gambling attitudes in particular. These results have important implications for the gaming industry and welfare organisations. Opsomming Die hoof doelstelling van hierdie studie was om verbruikerhoudings ten opsigte van dobbel onder verskeie sosiodemografiese groepe in Port Elizabeth te ondersoek. Die studie is gegrond op vorige navorsing in die veld en maak gebruik van n aangepaste vraelys, ontwikkel deur verskeie outeurs. ‘n Nie-ewekansige steekproef (N=355 is getrek uit Engels, Afrikaans en Xhosa-sprekende respondente in die Port Elizabeth Uitenhage gebied. Veldwerk is uitgevoer deur Bedryfsielkunde studente van die Universiteit van Port Elizabeth. Bevindinge toon beduidende verskille tussen sosio-demografiese groepe ten opsigte van houdings oor dobbel. Kultuurinvloede afgelei uit taal en godsdiens blyk om dobbelhoudings te beinvloed. Die resultate het belangrike implikasies vir die dobbelspelbedryf en welsynsorganisasies.

  1. Continuous support for women during childbirth. (United States)

    Bohren, Meghan A; Hofmeyr, G Justus; Sakala, Carol; Fukuzawa, Rieko K; Cuthbert, Anna


    Historically, women have generally been attended and supported by other women during labour. However, in hospitals worldwide, continuous support during labour has often become the exception rather than the routine. The primary objective was to assess the effects, on women and their babies, of continuous, one-to-one intrapartum support compared with usual care, in any setting. Secondary objectives were to determine whether the effects of continuous support are influenced by:1. Routine practices and policies in the birth environment that may affect a woman's autonomy, freedom of movement and ability to cope with labour, including: policies about the presence of support people of the woman's own choosing; epidural analgesia; and continuous electronic fetal monitoring.2. The provider's relationship to the woman and to the facility: staff member of the facility (and thus has additional loyalties or responsibilities); not a staff member and not part of the woman's social network (present solely for the purpose of providing continuous support, e.g. a doula); or a person chosen by the woman from family members and friends;3. Timing of onset (early or later in labour);4. Model of support (support provided only around the time of childbirth or extended to include support during the antenatal and postpartum periods);5. Country income level (high-income compared to low- and middle-income). We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 October 2016),, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (1 June 2017) and reference lists of retrieved studies. All published and unpublished randomised controlled trials, cluster-randomised trials comparing continuous support during labour with usual care. Quasi-randomised and cross-over designs were not eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. We sought

  2. International Women's Day observed in Malaysia. (United States)


    On the eve of International Women's Day, 80 women representing five women's groups in Malaysia, including Persatuan Sahabat Wanita, CAW's network member, marched from Petaling Jaya to Penang to attend the Women's Day celebration. The group had organized the visitation in order to strengthen its networking. During their meeting with some reporters before their departure to Penang, they demanded that the women's groups be consulted before any guideline on the prevention and handling of sexual harassment at the workplace is drawn up. They said that they have been handling several complaints and their input would help the Human Resource Ministry formulate a comprehensive set of guidelines. This demand by the women's group was in response to the announcement by the Human Resource Minister Datuk Lim Ah Lek that in a month time a code would be ready on guidelines about the establishment and implementation of in-house preventive and redress mechanisms for dealing with sexual harassment. full text

  3. Rape avoidance behavior among Slovak women. (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol


    Rape has been a recurrent adaptive problem for many species, including humans. Rape is costly to women in terms of disease transmission, partner abandonment, and unwanted pregnancy (among other costs). Therefore, behavioral strategies which allow women to avoid coercive men may have been favored by selection. In line with this evolutionary reasoning, the current research documented that physically stronger women and those in a committed romantic relationship reported more rape avoidance behavior. In addition, virgin women tended to perform more rape avoidance behavior compared with their non-virgin counterparts. Women with high conception risk perceived themselves as physically stronger, which may protect them against a potential rapist. Fear of unwanted pregnancy from rape decreased as age increased, reflecting higher fertility among younger participants. However, older women reported more rape avoidance behavior, which contradicts evolutionary predictions. The results provide some support for evolutionary hypotheses of rape avoidance behavior which suggest that woman's perception of rape is influenced by parental investment and perceived physical condition.

  4. Women in European Culture and Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonton, Deborah Leigh

    and Germany to Estonia, Spain and Russia, organized in a broad chronological spread, the diversity of the sources included in the book is unique. Each section of the volume includes a interpretive essays analyzing the sources and putting them into context. Many of the sources are translated from the original...... language into English for the first time. Ideal for use on its own or as a companion volume to Women in European Culture and Society: Gender, Skill and Identity since 1700, this sourcebook is an invaluable and essential collection showing how women lived throughout Europe....

  5. Technology transfer for women entrepreneurs: issues for consideration. (United States)

    Everts, S I


    This article discusses the effectiveness of technology transfers to women entrepreneurs in developing countries. Most women's enterprises share common characteristics: very small businesses, employment of women owners and maybe some family members, limited working capital, low profit margins, and flexible or part-time work. Many enterprises do not plan for growth. Women tend to diversify and use risk-avoidance strategies. Support for women's enterprises ignores the characteristics of women's enterprises. Support mechanisms could be offered that would perfect risk-spreading strategies and dynamic enterprise management through other means than growth. Many initiatives, since the 1970s, have transferred technologies to women. Technologies were applied to only a few domains and were viewed as appropriate based on their small size, low level of complexity, low cost, and environmental friendliness. Technology transfers may not be viewed by beneficiaries as the appropriate answer to needs. The bottleneck in transfers to women is not in the development of prototypes, but in the dissemination of technology that is sustainable, appropriate, and accessible. Key features for determining appropriateness include baseline studies, consumer linkages, and a repetitive process. Institutional factors may limit appropriateness. There is a need for long-term outputs, better links with users, training in use of the technology, grouping of women into larger units, and technology availability in quantities large enough to meet demand. Guidelines need to be developed that include appropriate content and training that ensures transfer of knowledge to practice.

  6. Countries with women inequalities have higher stroke mortality. (United States)

    Kim, Young Dae; Jung, Yo Han; Caso, Valeria; Bushnell, Cheryl D; Saposnik, Gustavo


    Background Stroke outcomes can differ by women's legal or socioeconomic status. Aim We investigated whether differences in women's rights or gender inequalities were associated with stroke mortality at the country-level. Methods We used age-standardized stroke mortality data from 2008 obtained from the World Health Organization. We compared female-to-male stroke mortality ratio and stroke mortality rates in women and men between countries according to 50 indices of women's rights from Women, Business and the Law 2016 and Gender Inequality Index from the Human Development Report by the United Nations Development Programme. We also compared stroke mortality rate and income at the country-level. Results In our study, 176 countries with data available on stroke mortality rate in 2008 and indices of women's rights were included. There were 46 (26.1%) countries where stroke mortality in women was higher than stroke mortality in men. Among them, 29 (63%) countries were located in Sub-Saharan African region. After adjusting by country income level, higher female-to-male stroke mortality ratio was associated with 14 indices of women's rights, including differences in getting a job or opening a bank account, existence of domestic violence legislation, and inequalities in ownership right to property. Moreover, there was a higher female-to-male stroke mortality ratio among countries with higher Gender Inequality Index (r = 0.397, p Gender Inequality Index was more likely to be associated with stroke mortality rate in women than that in men (p gender inequality status is associated with women's stroke outcomes.

  7. Anal endosonographic findings in women after vaginal delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodziejczak, Malgorzata [Department of Proctology, Hospital at Solec, Warsaw (Poland); Sudol-Szopinska, Iwona, E-mail: [Department of Proctology, Hospital at Solec, Warsaw (Poland); Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Second Faculty of Warsaw Medical University, Warsaw (Poland); Stefanski, Robert [Department of Proctology, Hospital at Solec, Warsaw (Poland); Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Second Faculty of Warsaw Medical University, Warsaw (Poland); Panorska, Anna K. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Nevada, Reno (United States); Gardyszewska, Agnieszka [Second Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Warsaw (Poland); Krasnodebski, Ireneusz [Department of General and Gastroenterological Surgery and Nutrition, Medical University, Warsaw (Poland)


    Objective: To estimate a frequency of obstetric anal sphincters defects in women after vaginal delivery. Methods: The study included 102 women, aged from 16 to 40 years (mean age 28.6 years). 28 women had perineal lacerations of 3rd and 4th degree. 22 women had instrumental delivery. Anal endosonography was performed on all participants using BK Medical scanner Pro focus with a 3D endoprobe during the first week after delivery. Starck's classification was used to score sphincters defects. Results: The endosonographic images were abnormal in 8 out of 102 women (7.8%). Follow-up examinations after 6 weeks confirmed defects in 6 out of 102 women (5.8%). Five women had external anal sphincter torn, and 1 woman had both sphincters, internal and external, defected. Discordance between endosonographic diagnosis of defect and clinical assessment of sphincters continuity was demonstrated in 6 (5.9%) out of 8 initially found, including 2 (1.9%) false endosonographic results and 4 (3.9%) false clinical diagnosis (occult sphincter defects). The endosonography sensitivity and accuracy in sphincter defect diagnostic amounted to 100% and 98%, respectively. Conclusions: (1) Anal sphincters' tears in symptomatic women are not as frequent as it was believed. (2) The defect diagnosis in the first week after delivery should be verified by a follow-up endosonography in 6 weeks, after regression of the edema and hematoma.

  8. Preventing urinary incontinence in women. (United States)

    Newman, Diane K; Cardozo, Linda; Sievert, Karl-Dietrich


    This review examines the evidence to date, analyzes specific risk factors and assesses the ability to prevent urinary incontinence in women, while providing clinical recommendations. More extraordinary risk factors such as ethnicity and race, mixed and fecal incontinence, iatrogenic and neurogenic factors should be discussed in a follow-up report. Studies have revealed that certain factors place women at risk for developing urinary incontinence, including age, obesity, diabetes, pregnancy and delivery, high-impact physical exercise factors and estrogen deficiency. Healthcare providers should screen women who are at risk for developing urinary incontinence and institute specific interventions, specifically behavioral and even rehabilitative techniques, to prevent this prevalent and distressing condition.

  9. Rules of the Game for Women (United States)

    Canty, Becky


    In "Play Like a Man, Win Like a Woman," Gail Evans' matter-of-fact directness contributes so many helpful hints about success that women need to learn. Playing to their strengths and characteristics as women is important to enhance their professional success. In the author's working life as a superintendent (which included three years as a theatre…

  10. Intimate partner violence among speaking immigrant adult Portuguese women in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella Queiroga Souto

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE This study was conducted to understand the experiences of intimate partner violence among women from Portuguese-speaking countries living in the Greater Toronto Area. METHOD A social phenomenological study was conducted with ten Portuguese-speaking women who had experienced intimate partner violence who were selected by community centre leaders. The interviews were transcribed, translated and analysed by categories. RESULTS The consequences of violence included health problems, effects on children, and negative feelings among the victims. Factors preventing the women from leaving abusive partners included religious beliefs, challenging daily jobs, and the need to take care of their husband. Factors that encouraged them to leave included getting support and calling the police. Some women expressed hope for the future either with their husband. Others, desired divorce or revenge. Their plans to rebuild their lives without their husband included being happy, learning English, and being financially stable. CONCLUSION Using these findings can implicate in the improvement of care for these women.

  11. Teaching strategies to facilitate breast cancer screening by African-American women. (United States)

    Gibson, Lynette M


    The objective of this paper is to report on the recent literature concerning coverage of breast cancer epidemiology, the barriers to breast cancer screening, and the strategies to facilitate screening by African-American women. Based on these findings, the author suggests culturally appropriate techniques to be used to promote breast cancer screening in African-American women. Barriers to breast cancer screening in African-American women include emotional reasons, spiritual/religious reasons, fatalism, logistic concerns, lack of knowledge, and lack of follow-up by health-care professionals. Numerous strategies that have been targeted toward African-American women are reported. These include storytelling, witnessing, and testimonies; providing social support and having social support networks; and conducting multifaceted programs that include culturally specific breast health information. Based on the literature reviewed, the author suggests some examples of creative and culturally appropriate techniques that have been implemented with African-American women and that have resulted in positive feedback. These examples include the use of testimonies, photographs, prose, narratives, poetry, and quotations.

  12. Cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus


    Mai, Caiyuan; Hou, Minming; Chen, Rong; Duan, Dongmei; Xu, Huikun; Lin, Xiaohong; Wen, Jiying; Lv, Lijuan; Lei, Qiong; Niu, Jianmin


    Background: Women with a history of gestational diabetes (GDM) are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases compared with normal women. This study aimed to evaluate the cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese women with GDM. Methods: 453 women with GDM (cases) and 1,180 healthy women (controls) were included in this study. The post-partum examinations included 2 h 75 g oral glucose tolerance tests, lipid profiles, anthropometric measurements (blood pressure, height, weight) and ...

  13. The association between role overload and women's mental health. (United States)

    Glynn, Keva; Maclean, Heather; Forte, Tonia; Cohen, Marsha


    To determine the importance of role overload (the extent to which a person feels overwhelmed by her total responsibilities) relative to other known social determinants of women's mental health. A Canadian national, random sample, cross-sectional telephone survey in 2003 assessed the association among role overload, types and quality of roles (parent, employee, spouse), sociodemographics, and mental health (using the SF-12) using linear regression. Analysis included 716 women aged 25-54 who indicated that their youngest child living in the household was aged < or =17 years. Perceptions of greater role overload were associated with poorer mental health (p < 0.0001). Women working <35 hours per week (p = 0.04) or 35-40 hours per week (p 5 0.002) reported better mental health than nonemployed women, as did women with the highest annual household income ($70,000+)(p = 0.001). Also associated with better mental health were higher marital status quality scores for both married and single women (p < 0.001), higher job quality scores among employed women (p = 0.02), greater homemaking quality scores among unemployed women (p = 0.03), and women reporting high parental quality (p = 0.04) Role overload showed a stronger relationship to mental health than other sociodemographic variables, including income. Our findings indicate the importance of measuring women's experience of their multiple roles rather than focusing on single roles. More research is warranted on the totality of women's experiences of their many social role obligations.

  14. Flax reinforced thermoset composites from polyfurfuryl alcohol

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumar, R


    Full Text Available Composites from Polyfurfuryl Alcohol Rakesh Kumar and Rajesh Anandjiwala CSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing, Nonwovens and Composites Group, Port Elizabeth Port Elizabeth 11th ICAM, Rio de Janerio, Brazil, September 20-25, 2009 © CSIR 2007...

  15. A comparative study of bone mineral density between premenopausal women with hyperthyroidism and healthy premenopausal women. (United States)

    Boonya-Ussadorn, Trirat; Punkaew, Boondharika; Sriassawaamorn, Narongchai


    To compare bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine (L1-L4), total hip (TH), and femoral neck (FN) analyzed by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) in premenopausal women with hyperthyroidism and in healthy premenopausal women. Cross-sectional study included 49 premenopausal women with hyperthyroidism and 49 healthy premenopausal women. Age, weight and body mass index (BMI) were comparable in both groups. All subjects had a BMD measurement by DXA in the region of L1-L4, TH and FN and the unpaired t-test was used to analyze. The mean BMD of premenopausal women with hyperthyroidism at L1-L4, TH and FN was 0.928, 0.838 and 0.774 g/cm2, which were lower than those of healthy premenopausal women; 0.991, 0.917 and 0.832 g/cm2 respectively (p-value is less than 0.05). Time interval that had elapsed for active hyperthyroidism was not associated with the decrease of BMD at L1-L4, TH and FN in hyperthyroid women. The BMD of L1-L4, TH and FN in premenopausal women with hyperthyroidism were significantly lower than those of healthy premenopausal women. Therefore, overt hyperthyroidism could be associated with bone loss and may be a risk factor for the development of osteoporosis. However, time interval of active hyperthyroidism was not related to the decrease of BMD in hyperthyroid women.

  16. Vaccination recommended for pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Magdalena Skolarczyk


    Full Text Available A vaccine is a formulation of biological origin that contains substances capable of inducing immune processes without the ability to cause a disease. Vaccination is considered the best mean to prevent infectious diseases and their serious complications. Vaccination of a pregnant women can provide protection against severe infectious diseases of both pregnant women and their children. The aim of the study is to present currently available types of vaccines recommended for pregnant women and indications for their use by analyzing the data available in the PubMed, and Medline electronic databases. In the United States, vaccination recommendations for pregnant women include inactivated influenza vaccine and tetanus and diphtheria toxoid vaccine (Tdap. In some countries, pregnant women also receive a vaccine against hepatitis B as well as anti hepatitis A and E. There are also studies on vaccines against the RSV virus and pneumococci. Vaccination is the most effective form of prevention of infectious diseases and their use during pregnancy does not entail any additional risk to the mother or her baby. The benefits of vaccination are huge, so pregnant women should take  recommended vaccination and shouldn’t  be afraid of using them.

  17. Women Entrepreneurs in Indonesia : A Pathway to Increasing Shared Prosperity


    World Bank Group


    The world today believes that supporting women entrepreneurs is vital for economic growth. As economic opportunities increase, unprecedented numbers of women are entering the world of business and entrepreneurship. The number of women entrepreneurs has risen in global economy including in developing countries. However, the majority of women entrepreneurs in developing countries are still o...

  18. Experiences of Cigarette Smoking among Iranian Educated Women: A Qualitative Study. (United States)

    Baheiraei, Azam; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Mohammadi, Eesa; Majdzadeh, Reza


    Smoking is a well-known public health problem in women as well as men. In many countries including Iran, there is an increase in tobacco use among women. Exploring the experience of smoking by educated women in order to develop effective tobacco prevention programs in these women is necessary. This study aimed to explore the experiences of smoking among Iranian educated women. This study used a method of qualitative content analysis with the deep individual, semi-structured interviews on a sample of 14 educated female smokers, selected purposefully. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis with conventional approach while being collected. The data analysis led to 16 subcategories which were divided into four main categories: (1) Personal factors including subcategories of imitation, show-off and independence, inexperience and curiosity, personal interest and desire, improved mood, and social defiance; (2) family factors including smokers in the family, intrafamily conflicts, and family strictures and limitations; (3) social factors including subcategories of effects of work and school environment, gender equality symbols, peer pressure, and acceptance among friends; and (4) negative consequences of smoking including subcategories of a sense of being physically hurt, psychological and emotional stress, and being looked upon in a negative and judgmental manner. The findings of this study showed that smoking among Iranian educated women is a multifactorial problem. Thus, it is necessary to address smoking among educated women in a holistic approach that focuses on different determinants including personal, family, and social factors particularly the gender roles and stereotypes.

  19. Health and human rights of women imprisoned in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todrys Katherine W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The healthcare needs and general experience of women in detention in sub-Saharan Africa are rarely studied and poorly understood. Methods A mixed-methods study was conducted including in-depth interviews with 38 adult female prisoners and 21 prison officers in four Zambian prisons to assess the health and human rights concerns of female detainees. Key informant interviews with 46 officials from government and non-governmental organizations and a legal and policy review were also conducted. Results Despite special protection under international and regional law, incarcerated women's health needs–including prenatal care, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, and nutritional support during pregnancy and breastfeeding–are not being adequately met in Zambian prisons. Women are underserved by general healthcare programs including those offering tuberculosis and HIV testing, and reported physical and sexual abuse conducted by police and prison officers that could amount to torture under international law. Conclusions There is an urgent need for women's healthcare services to be expanded, and for general prison health campaigns, including HIV and tuberculosis testing and treatment, to ensure the inclusion of female inmates. Abuses against women in Zambian police and prison custody, which violate their rights and compromise their health, must be halted immediately.

  20. Stable ischemic heart disease in women: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad F


    Full Text Available Fatima Samad,1 Anushree Agarwal,2 Zainab Samad3 1Aurora Cardiovascular Services, Aurora Sinai/Aurora St Luke’s Medical Centers, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Milwaukee, WI, 2Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, 3Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women accounting for 1 in every 4 female deaths. Pathophysiology of ischemic heart disease in women includes epicardial coronary artery, endothelial dysfunction, coronary vasospasm, plaque erosion and spontaneous coronary artery dissection. Angina is the most common presentation of stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD in women. Risk factors for SIHD include traditional risks such as older age, obesity (body mass index [BMI] >25 kg/m2, smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cerebrovascular and peripheral vascular disease, sedentary lifestyle, family history of premature coronary artery disease, metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus, and nontraditional risk factors, such as gestational diabetes, insulin resistance/polycystic ovarian disease, pregnancy-induced hypertension, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, menopause, mental stress and autoimmune diseases. Diagnostic testing can be used effectively to risk stratify women. Guidelines-directed medical therapy including aspirin, statins, beta-blocker therapy, calcium channel blockers and ranolazine should be instituted for symptom and ischemia management. Despite robust evidence regarding the adverse outcomes seen in women with ischemic heart disease, knowledge gaps exist in several areas. Future research needs to be directed toward a greater understanding of the role of nontraditional risk factors for SIHD in women, gaining deeper insights into the sex differences in therapeutic effects and formulating a sex-specific algorithm for the

  1. Swartkops (CSE3)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Baird, D


    Full Text Available The Swartkops Estuary is an exceptionally valuable environment feature for the Port Elizabeth metropolitan area. Just as Cape Town has Table mountain, so Port Elizabeth has the Swartkops Estuary as a natural area. Despite the intensive urban...

  2. Women with Childhood ADHD: Comparisons by Diagnostic Group and Gender


    Babinski, Dara E.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Yu, Jihnhee; Sibley, Margaret H.; Biswas, Aparajita


    This study compared adult women with childhood ADHD to adult women without childhood ADHD and to adult men with childhood ADHD. The participants, all from a larger longitudinal study, included 30 women and 30 men (approximately age 23 to 24) with childhood ADHD, and 27 women without ADHD. Women with childhood ADHD were matched to comparison women on age, ethnicity, and parental education, and to men with childhood ADHD on age, ethnicity, and IQ. Self- and parent-reports of internalizing, inte...

  3. Effects of Anthropogenic Pollution on the Oxidative Phosphorylation Pathway of Hepatocytes from Natural Populations of Fundulus heteroclitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Xiao; Crawford, Douglas L.; Oleksiak, Marjorie F., E-mail:


    Highlights: • Fish from a highly polluted and clean reference population were compared. • Oxidative phosphorylation (e.g., State 3, enzymes, and proton LEAK) was quantified. • Polluted fish had lower LEAK, enzyme III and enzyme IV but higher enzyme I. • Exposures to PAH and PCB only affected individuals from the reference population. - Abstract: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), potentially target mitochondria and cause toxicity. We compared the effects of POPs on mitochondrial respiration by measuring oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) metabolism in hepatocytes isolated from lab-depurated Fundulus heteroclitus from a Superfund site contaminated with PAHs (Elizabeth River VA, USA) relative to OxPhos metabolism in individuals from a relatively clean, reference population (King’s Creek VA, USA). In individuals from the polluted Elizabeth River population, OxPhos metabolism displayed lower LEAK and lower activities in complex III, complex IV, and E State, but higher activity in complex I compared to individuals from the reference King’s Creek population. To test the supposition that these differences were due to or related to the chronic PAH contamination history of the Elizabeth River population, we compared the OxPhos functions of undosed individuals from the polluted and reference populations to individuals from these populations dosed with a PAH {benzo [α] pyrene (BaP)} or a PCB {PCB126 (3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl)}, respectively. Exposure to PAH or PCB affected OxPhos in the reference King’s Creek population but had no detectable effects on the polluted Elizabeth River population. Thus, PAH exposure significantly increased LEAK, and exposure to PCB126 significantly decreased State 3, E state and complex I activity in the reference King’s Creek population. These data strongly implicate an evolved tolerance in the Elizabeth River fish where dosed

  4. Effects of Anthropogenic Pollution on the Oxidative Phosphorylation Pathway of Hepatocytes from Natural Populations of Fundulus heteroclitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Xiao; Crawford, Douglas L.; Oleksiak, Marjorie F.


    Highlights: • Fish from a highly polluted and clean reference population were compared. • Oxidative phosphorylation (e.g., State 3, enzymes, and proton LEAK) was quantified. • Polluted fish had lower LEAK, enzyme III and enzyme IV but higher enzyme I. • Exposures to PAH and PCB only affected individuals from the reference population. - Abstract: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), potentially target mitochondria and cause toxicity. We compared the effects of POPs on mitochondrial respiration by measuring oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) metabolism in hepatocytes isolated from lab-depurated Fundulus heteroclitus from a Superfund site contaminated with PAHs (Elizabeth River VA, USA) relative to OxPhos metabolism in individuals from a relatively clean, reference population (King’s Creek VA, USA). In individuals from the polluted Elizabeth River population, OxPhos metabolism displayed lower LEAK and lower activities in complex III, complex IV, and E State, but higher activity in complex I compared to individuals from the reference King’s Creek population. To test the supposition that these differences were due to or related to the chronic PAH contamination history of the Elizabeth River population, we compared the OxPhos functions of undosed individuals from the polluted and reference populations to individuals from these populations dosed with a PAH {benzo [α] pyrene (BaP)} or a PCB {PCB126 (3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl)}, respectively. Exposure to PAH or PCB affected OxPhos in the reference King’s Creek population but had no detectable effects on the polluted Elizabeth River population. Thus, PAH exposure significantly increased LEAK, and exposure to PCB126 significantly decreased State 3, E state and complex I activity in the reference King’s Creek population. These data strongly implicate an evolved tolerance in the Elizabeth River fish where dosed

  5. Retaining STEM women with community-based mentoring (United States)

    Lozier, M.


    While women have been graduating from physical oceanography programs in increasing numbers for the past two decades, the number of women occupying senior positions in the field remains relatively low. Thus, the disparity between the percentages of women at various career stages seems to be related to the retention of those completing graduate school in physical oceanography, not in recruiting women to the field. Studies indicate that a positive mentoring experience is strongly correlated with success in science, and as such, MPOWIR (Mentoring Physical Oceanography Women to Increase Retention) provides this essential mentoring to physical oceanographers from late graduate school through their early careers. Our network includes over 400 scientists at 70 institutions participating in a variety of online and face-to-face mentoring opportunities. The MPOWIR website ( includes resources for junior scientists, ways to get involved, data and career profiles, and a blog with job postings and relevant information. In October 2011, we will hold the third Pattullo conference to bring mentors and mentees together. The 43 participants at this conference will share their research, attend professional development sessions, and openly discuss issues related to the retention of young scientists in the field.

  6. Stressful Life Event Experiences of Homeless Adults: A Comparison of Single Men, Single Women, and Women with Children (United States)

    Zugazaga, Carole


    This article describes stressful life events experienced by a multi-shelter sample of 162 homeless adults in the Central Florida area. Participants included homeless single men (n = 54), homeless single women (n = 54), and homeless women with children (n = 54). Subjects were interviewed with a modified version of the List of Threatening…

  7. Status of Indian Women in Higher Education (United States)

    Ghara, Tushar Kanti


    Women education and empowerment are the indicators of development. Women education ensures the holistic and long development. It includes equitable and increased access to technical and vocational education and training, higher education and research with due attention to quality assurance. This communication has taken a look on women…

  8. Integration of Women into Management Positions: A Research Review. (United States)

    Terborg, James R.

    This paper reviews the literature on the psychological and social processes involved in the integration of women into management positions. The author concentrates on two areas. First is the entry of women into management (including women's career choices, choice of organization, and the effects of these choices on the organization. These effects…

  9. Disordered Eating in Women of Color: Some Counseling Considerations (United States)

    Talleyrand, Regine M.


    There is little attention devoted to studying eating disorder symptoms in racially and ethnically diverse groups despite the fact that the prevalence rates among women of color for eating disorder symptoms are similar to those of European American women. This article reviews research related to eating disorders in women of color, including a…

  10. Plans of Implementation and Methods for Increasing Student Enrollment in the Earth Systems Science Course at Elizabeth City State University (United States)

    Porter, W.


    This presentation reviews the experience of Elizabeth City State University (ECSU) in offering the Earth Systems Science (ESS) online course sponsored the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) and how it relates to our plans to offer the course in the Spring Semester of 2002. The course was offered for the first time at ECSU during the Fall semester 2000. Eight students were enrolled in the course, which may not be considered a large number; however, we felt the administration of the course was successful because of the staff's learning experience. The small number is also a reflection of the nature of ECSU's primary recruitment region of northeastern North Carolina; this area is extremely rural with a smaller population, lower economic development, and fewer cultural amenities than most regions of the state. Our approach to this project is for a long-term effective offering of a course that is much needed, especially in this area of the state. The ultimate goal is to develop ESS as our online offering of courses in the Geoscience Department curriculum as to recruit students who might not have the opportunity to take college-level courses because of daytime work commitments and/or inaccessibility to a local college or university. A major component of ESS is its focus on problem-based learning built upon the life experiences of participating students. Having learned from the previous offering of the course, the following are objectives related to the Spring Semester 2002: 1. To get ESS to become a part of the Geoscience curriculum so that it will be listed on the schedule of classes for the Spring Semester 2002 and each succeeding semester; 2. To aggressively reach out to the public school teachers, especially in the recruitment region of ECSU in northeastern North Carolina, by using effective recruitment strategies; 3. To have an active and continuous communication with prospective students prior to and immediately after the enrollment, as well as being

  11. The International Society for the Study of Women's Sexual Health Process of Care for Management of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder in Women. (United States)

    Clayton, Anita H; Goldstein, Irwin; Kim, Noel N; Althof, Stanley E; Faubion, Stephanie S; Faught, Brooke M; Parish, Sharon J; Simon, James A; Vignozzi, Linda; Christiansen, Kristin; Davis, Susan R; Freedman, Murray A; Kingsberg, Sheryl A; Kirana, Paraskevi-Sofia; Larkin, Lisa; McCabe, Marita; Sadovsky, Richard


    The International Society for the Study of Women's Sexual Health process of care (POC) for management of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) algorithm was developed to provide evidence-based guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of HSDD in women by health care professionals. Affecting 10% of adult females, HSDD is associated with negative emotional and psychological states and medical conditions including depression. The algorithm was developed using a modified Delphi method to reach consensus among the 17 international panelists representing multiple disciplines. The POC starts with the health care professional asking about sexual concerns, focusing on issues related to low sexual desire/interest. Diagnosis includes distinguishing between generalized acquired HSDD and other forms of low sexual interest. Biopsychosocial assessment of potentially modifiable factors facilitates initiation of treatment with education, modification of potentially modifiable factors, and, if needed, additional therapeutic intervention: sex therapy, central nervous system agents, and hormonal therapy, guided in part by menopausal status. Sex therapy includes behavior therapy, cognitive behavior therapy, and mindfulness. The only central nervous system agent currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for HSDD is flibanserin in premenopausal women; use of flibanserin in postmenopausal women with HSDD is supported by data but is not FDA approved. Hormonal therapy includes off-label use of testosterone in postmenopausal women with HSDD, which is supported by data but not FDA approved. The POC incorporates monitoring the progress of therapy. In conclusion, the International Society for the Study of Women's Sexual Health POC for the management of women with HSDD provides a rational, evidence-based guideline for health care professionals to manage patients with appropriate assessments and individualized treatments. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical

  12. Cardiac Risk and Disordered Eating: Decreased R Wave Amplitude in Women with Bulimia Nervosa and Women with Subclinical Binge/Purge Symptoms. (United States)

    Green, Melinda; Rogers, Jennifer; Nguyen, Christine; Blasko, Katherine; Martin, Amanda; Hudson, Dominique; Fernandez-Kong, Kristen; Kaza-Amlak, Zauditu; Thimmesch, Brandon; Thorne, Tyler


    The purpose of the present study was threefold. First, we examined whether women with bulimia nervosa (n = 12) and women with subthreshold binge/purge symptoms (n = 20) showed decreased mean R wave amplitude, an indicator of cardiac risk, on electrocardiograph compared to asymptomatic women (n = 20). Second, we examined whether this marker was pervasive across experimental paradigms, including before and after sympathetic challenge tasks. Third, we investigated behavioural predictors of this marker, including binge frequency and purge frequency assessed by subtype (dietary restriction, excessive exercise, self-induced vomiting, and laxative abuse). Results of a 3 (ED symptom status) × 5 (experimental condition) mixed factorial ANCOVA (covariates: body mass index, age) indicated women with bulimia nervosa and women with subclinical binge/purge symptoms demonstrated significantly reduced mean R wave amplitude compared to asymptomatic women; this effect was pervasive across experimental conditions. Multiple regression analyses showed binge and purge behaviours, most notably laxative abuse as a purge method, predicted decreased R wave amplitude across all experimental conditions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  13. Refugee women: the forgotten half. (United States)

    Ogata, S


    The Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing 1995 presented a global Platform for Action on the consequences of conflict and violence for women. The UN High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) was given the task of providing international protection and seeking solutions for refugees. Refugees included those who had fled their country, returnees who had come home but were not fully reintegrated and civilians displaced inside their own country. Demographic data was designed for appropriate protection and assistance programs that could be implemented at the outset of any humanitarian crisis. The sample covered Yugoslavian refugees, 64% of whom were female, and Somali women in northern Kenya aged 19-44 years. In humanitarian crises the focus has been on providing basic health care and meeting urgent needs; however, reproductive health has been ignored. Thus, since women have been dynamic actors of change, efforts should be redoubled to ensure that women have access to food, education, health and basic material needs, which would result in the improvement of the health of the whole refugee population.

  14. Knowledge and behaviour regarding osteoporosis in women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamran, M.; Iftikhar, A.; Awan, A.A.


    To evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding osteoporosis in women belonging to different educational status Study Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Dist. Hattian Bala of Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) from Oct 2015 to Dec 2015. Material and Methods: A total of 410 women between 12-45 years of age were included in the study and grouped according to educational qualification. Women who were health-care workers, already diagnosed with the disease or those who had never heard of the disease were not included in the study. A self-made, pre-validated questionnaire including demographic data and 24 items assessing knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding osteoporosis was administered after obtaining verbal informed consent. The scores ranged from 0-15 in knowledge section, 0-4 in attitude section and 0-8 in practice section. The results in each section of KAP were cross tabulated with educational status of the respondents. Results: Books and teachers (34.60 percent) were the main source of information followed by television/ radio (22.40 percent). The mean score for knowledge section was 5.12 +- 1.11, for attitude section 1.65 +- 0.64, and for practice 3.79 +- 2.61. All the three dimensions had significantly better results in women with higher educational status (graduate or more). Conclusion: Women with higher education demonstrated better knowledge, positive attitude and healthier practice than those with lower education. (author)

  15. Ectopic pregnancy in women with recurrent miscarriage. (United States)

    Ticconi, Carlo; Capogna, Maria V; Martelli, Federica; Borelli, Barbara; Bruno, Valentina; Ergasti, Raffaella; Sorge, Roberto; Piccione, Emilio; Pietropolli, Adalgisa


    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible association between recurrent miscarriage (RM) and ectopic pregnancy (EP). In this case-control retrospective study, the clinical cards of women followed as outpatients in the RM and low-risk pregnancy offices of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit at the Policlinico Tor Vergata University Hospital were carefully reviewed for the occurrence of EP. Overall, 598 women with RM and 2043 normal women without RM (controls) were included in the study. Among these women, 4974 pregnancies were analyzed, in which 2028 miscarriages occurred. The EP rate (3.51%) was significantly higher in RM than in control women (1.51%) [odds ratio = 2.31 (95% confidence interval: 2.3-2.4)]; it was particularly high in women with primary RM (5.11%). However, when EP rates were calculated not by women but by overall pregnancies, no differences could be found between RM and control women. In control women, the absence of a miscarriage in the reproductive history was associated with a lower rate of EP. Women with RM, particularly primary RM, are at increased risk of EP. This increased risk seems to be dependent on the high number of pregnancies occurring in women with RM rather than to specific characteristics of these women. © 2018 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. The power of women on April 27. (United States)

    Khumalo, B


    Women make up 54% of voters in South Africa. A delegation of 80 groups representing 2 million women under the Women' National Coalition delivered many research reports on women's issues (e.g., rape, violence, women's status, women workers' rights) to the Transitional Executive Council. If political parties want women to support them, they need to address the inequalities and discrimination women encounter at work, in their homes, and in society. The research findings were a result of 23 focus groups and will be used to draft a Women's Charter. The Coalition will use the Charter to bring about maximum equality within the constitutional framework. The research revealed that sexual harassment at work was more common than was recognized. Black women reported that men of all races in responsible positions seek sex for jobs or for promotion. 50% of women are raped. 1 of 6 women are beaten by their partner. In the past, women's groups were not well supported because White women tended to be satisfied with the status quo. Specifically, they had a servant, leisure time, and a high standard of living. Women are starting to understand that they can be forces of change. A common thread among the diversity of women in the research was a desire for control of their lives. Other issues emerging from the research were women and law, women at work, women and violence, and political awareness among women. The women call for changes in marital law to make sure that women are considered as majors. For example, they should be able to buy property and sign contracts. Women want equal pay for work of equal value, equal treatment when applying for a job. Women want society, including family members, not to ignore domestic violence. They also call on authorities and police to respond more vigorously to domestic violence. Women are becoming more involved in politics, locally, regionally, and nationally.

  17. Beyond Pregnancy Gingivitis: Bringing a New Focus to Women's Oral Health. (United States)

    Redford, Maryann


    Research on women's dental health and on differences between men's and women's dental health issues is reviewed. Factors specifically influencing women's health, including medical, economic, social, psychological, and behavioral factors, are also examined. It is argued that the clustering of risk factors for women indicates a need for more…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The indeterminacy/attestation model of metathesis. Language 80.2. Hume, Elizabeth, 2007. The interaction of internal and external factors in metathesis and deletion. Conference on Precedence Relations, CUNY Phonology Forum 9. Hume, Elizabeth and Jeff Mielke, 2001. Consequences of word recognition for metathesis.

  19. 77 FR 71652 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.; Order Granting Approval to Proposed Rule... (United States)


    ... differently from order flow submitted by other market participants, such segmentation would not be... Markets Association, to Elizabeth M. Murphy, Secretary, Commission, dated September 26, 2012 (``SIFMA... Letter from Eric Swanson, Senior Vice President and General Counsel, BATS Global Markets, to Elizabeth M...

  20. A different voice: Mary Hays's the Memoirs of Emma Courtney. (United States)

    Sharma, A


    Mary Hays wrote in the decade of the 1790s, a period of intense creative flowering in England. Writing in a period enshrined to the works of the canonical Wordsworth and Coleridge, Hays explored through her Jacobinical novel, The Memoirs of Emma Courtney, the contentious relationship between self and society. Like other Jacobin women writers - Elizabeth Inchbald, Charlotte Smith and Mary Wollstonecraft - Mary Hays too used her novel to explode the insidious connection between education and gender construction. Emma Courtney is a landmark novel that wrestles with the paradigm of decorum and propriety which disallows women from voicing their aspirations. In the process, Hays merges the plots of the domestic novel of courtship and love with the novel of ideas to create a searing portrait of women's intellectual confinement and psychic dissonance in a society that only projects them in terms of their gender construction. Memoirs of Emma Courtney is a remarkable novel in its depiction of the emotional imbalance created by thwarted desire: intellectual and sexual.

  1. Comparison of Levels of Antibodies against Chlamydia Trachomatis in Infertile Women Due to Tubal Factors and Fertile Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ghalmbor


    Full Text Available Introduction: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a common pathogen in sexual transmitted disease, but most of female patients with this infection are asymptomatic. Sequealae include pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility and ectopic pregnancy. The aim of the study was to determine the association between Chlamydia trachomatis and tubal factor infertility, if significant. Methods: This prospective, case -control study was done in April 2005-April2006. The study group consisted of 125 patients with tubal factor infertility and the control group included 125 fertile women. The level of antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis was determined in both groups by ELIZA method. Results: Antibody to Chlamydia trachomatis was present in 29 women in the study group (23.2% and in15 women in the control group ( 12%, respectively, (P< 0.005. The mean level of antibody in both groups was 0.76 and 0.49, respectively (P<0.0005. Conclusion: The study showed that the level of antibody against Chlamydia is significantly more in tubal factor infertile women. We therefore suggest the screening of Chlamydia antibody testing is necessary for tubal factor infertility workup.

  2. Women's challenges with postpartum weight loss. (United States)

    Montgomery, Kristen S; Bushee, Tracy D; Phillips, Jennifer D; Kirkpatrick, Terrie; Catledge, Courtney; Braveboy, Kristin; O'Rourke, Carol; Patel, Neema; Prophet, Malshundria; Cooper, Anita; Mosley, Lori; Parker, Christie; Douglas, Gaye M


    This study was designed to examine women's experiences of weight loss during the postpartum period. Understanding women's positive and negative experiences can assist health care providers to successfully intervene in helping women lose weight following pregnancy and avoid long-term weight gain and obesity development. Phenomenology, according to Husserl's perspective. Private location of the women's choosing. Twenty-six women, who ranged in age from 25 to 35 years, and had given birth within the last 5 years, were interviewed regarding their experiences with postpartum weight loss. The majority of the sample was Caucasian. Interviews were transcribed and themes were identified from each of the interviews. Comparisons were made between interviews to identify common experiences between women. Data were analyzed according to the Giorgi method. The women in the study had a wide range of experiences. Themes that emerged from the interviews related to women's challenges with return to prepregnancy weight. These included: time and motivation issues, the need for support, and weight and other struggles. This study provides a look inside the lives of women faced with the reality of losing weight after childbirth. Losing weight after delivery is multi-faceted and influenced by many factors. Interventions to assist women with weight loss should target the challenges described in this paper. When effective strategies are developed, education can be done during pregnancy to prepare for the postpartum period. Ultimately, future research efforts can help us to eliminate pregnancy as a risk factor for obesity in women.

  3. What women want from women's reproductive health research: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Pandey, Shilpi; Porter, Maureen; Bhattacharya, Siladitya


    Researchers are being urged to involve patients in the design and conduct of studies in health care with limited insight at present into their needs, abilities or interests. This is particularly true in the field of reproductive health care where many conditions such as pregnancy, menopause and fertility problems involve women who are otherwise healthy. To ascertain the feasibility of involving patients and members of the public in research on women's reproductive health care (WRH). University and tertiary care hospital in north-east Scotland; 37 women aged 18-57. Four focus groups and one individual interview were audio-recorded and verbatim transcripts analysed thematically by two researchers using a grounded theory approach. Most participants were interested in WRH, but some participated to promote a health issue of special concern to them. Priorities for research reflected women's personal concerns: endometriosis, polycystic ovary syndrome, menopause, fertility risks of delaying parenthood and early post-natal discharge from hospital. Women were initially enthusiastic about getting involved in research on WRH at the design or delivery stage, but after discussion in focus groups, some questioned their ability to do so or the time available to commit to research. None of the respondents expected payment for any involvement, believing that the experience would be rewarding enough in itself. Involving patients and public in research would include different perspectives and priorities; however, recruiting for this purpose would be challenging. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A day with the women physicists of Pakistan (United States)

    Hasnain, Aziz Fatima; Islam, Aquila; Ali, Asima; Qureshi, Riffat Mehmood; Qamar, Anisa


    The Working Group on Women in Physics successfully organized a national-level meeting of women physicists at the National Centre for Physics, Quaid-e-Azam University, to discuss the agenda for the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics. This report describes the outcome of the meeting and the status of female physicists in Pakistan. It also includes a comparative study of the enrollment of women in undergraduate and graduate programs in physics, along with a brief description of factors that create hurdles for female students opting for higher education in this field.

  5. Women's vital voices. The costs of exclusion in Eastern Europe. (United States)

    Hunt, S


    In the newly independent states of Eastern Europe, the low status of women is hindering economic development and the transition to democracy. The transition from communism to capitalism has caused women to suffer from diminished labor market access, increased vulnerability to crime (including trafficking in women), loss of family-oriented social benefits, and exceedingly low representation in parliaments. These factors have combined to produce the striking feminization of poverty evident in many countries. Many countries also have not yet established laws and mechanisms to protect women from sexual harassment in employment, rape, or domestic violence. All of this ignores the fact that women create the essential social elements of political stability and fuel economies because they are reliable employees and innovative entrepreneurs. In response, women have formed new alliances, (including some that reached across enemy lines in Bosnia) and scores of nongovernmental organizations. The US has responded by taking actions that focus on women's economic enterprises, such as directing management training to women farmers in Albania and Russia and advocating the creation of microcredit schemes for women. The US is also supporting efforts to harmonize national and international policies and legislation to stop trafficking in women and is taking steps to support and develop women leaders in the region. It is in the best interest of the US to magnify the voices of women who are echoing US values in postcommunist Europe.

  6. Sexual risk behavior, alcohol use, and social media use among secondary school students in informal settlements in Cape Town and Port Elizabeth, South Africa. (United States)

    Kaufman, Z A; Braunschweig, E N; Feeney, J; Dringus, S; Weiss, H; Delany-Moretlwe, S; Ross, D A


    South Africa's HIV prevalence among young people remains among the highest in the world. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2012 to estimate prevalences of sexual risk behavior and hazardous alcohol use (HAU) (via the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test) as well as to investigate potential associations between these outcomes and social media use. In all, 4485 students (mean age 15.66 years, SD 1.39) at 46 secondary schools in informal settlements in Cape Town and Port Elizabeth completed mobile-phone-assisted, self-administered baseline questionnaires within a cluster-randomized trial. In all, 312 females (12.5 %) and 468 males (23.5 %) screened positive for HAU (AOR = 1.98, 95 % CI 1.69-2.34). 730 males (39.9 %) and 268 females (11.8 %) reported having had two or more partners in the last year (AOR = 3.46, 95 % CI 2.87-4.16). Among females, having a Facebook account was associated with reported multiple partnerships in the last year (AOR = 1.81, 95 % CI 1.19-2.74), age-disparate sex in the last year (AOR = 1.96, 95 % CI 1.16-3.32) and HAU (AOR = 1.97, 95 % CI 1.41-2.74). Using Mxit-a popular mobile instant messaging application-was associated with higher odds of reported multiple partnerships in the last year among both males (AOR = 1.70, 95 % CI 1.35-2.14) and females (AOR = 1.45, 95 % CI 1.07-1.96) and with HAU among both males (AOR = 1.47, 95 % CI 1.14-1.90) and females (AOR = 1.50, 95 % CI 1.18-1.90). Further longitudinal and qualitative research should explore in more depth the observed links between social media and risk behavior.

  7. Gestational surrogacy: Viewpoint of Iranian infertile women. (United States)

    Rahmani, Azad; Sattarzadeh, Nilofar; Gholizadeh, Leila; Sheikhalipour, Zahra; Allahbakhshian, Atefeh; Hassankhani, Hadi


    Surrogacy is a popular form of assisted reproductive technology of which only gestational form is approved by most of the religious scholars in Iran. Little evidence exists about the Iranian infertile women's viewpoint regarding gestational surrogacy. To assess the viewpoint of Iranian infertile women toward gestational surrogacy. This descriptive study was conducted at the infertility clinic of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. The study sample consisted of 238 infertile women who were selected using the eligible sampling method. Data were collected by using a researcher developed questionnaire that included 25 items based on a five-point Likert scale. Data analysis was conducted by SPSS statistical software using descriptive statistics. Viewpoint of 214 women (89.9%) was positive. 36 (15.1%) women considered gestational surrogacy against their religious beliefs; 170 women (71.4%) did not assume the commissioning couple as owners of the baby; 160 women (67.2%) said that children who were born through surrogacy would better not know about it; and 174 women (73.1%) believed that children born through surrogacy will face mental problems. Iranian infertile women have positive viewpoint regarding the surrogacy. However, to increase the acceptability of surrogacy among infertile women, further efforts are needed.

  8. Great expectations: challenges for women as mental health administrators. (United States)

    Scheidt, S D


    Although women have made many strides in the area of leadership, stereotypes still exist that limit their power. Traditional concepts of femininity have not typically been associated with strength and competence. This article describes an inpatient unit at San Francisco General Hospital, University of California, San Francisco, which is led by a group of women. The unit houses a women-focused treatment team specializing in treating women who have serious mental illness with histories of severe trauma, including poverty and violence. The article describes the challenges and rewards available to women leaders in this type of setting. Four areas of women's leadership are explored: the stereotypes women have about each other as leaders, the expectations and biases of staff and trainees, the projections of patients onto women leaders, and women's leadership in relation to department administration. Strategies for addressing biases in these areas and developing women's leadership conclude the article.

  9. The second wave: Toward responsible inclusion of pregnant women in research. (United States)

    Lyerly, Anne Drapkin; Little, Margaret Olivia; Faden, Ruth


    Though much progress has been made on inclusion of non-pregnant women in research, thoughtful discussion about including pregnant women has lagged behind. We outline resulting knowledge gaps and their costs and then highlight four reasons why ethically we are obliged to confront the challenges of including pregnant women in clinical research. These are: the need for effective treatment for women during pregnancy, fetal safety, harm from the reticence to prescribe potentially beneficial medication, and the broader issues of justice and access to benefits of research participation. Going forward requires shifting the burden of justification from inclusion to exclusion and developing an adequate ethical framework that specifies suitable justifications for excluding pregnant women from research.

  10. Caries risk assessment in pregnant women using cariogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolić Olivera


    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. “Cariogram” takes into account interactions between caries-related factors and expresses a graphic assessment of the caries risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between caries risk and different variables of Cariogram in pregnant women. Methods. This study included 96 pregnant women. At baseline, data on general health, diet, oral hygiene, and fluoride exposure were obtained. DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled teeth index was calculated by clinical examination. Saliva analyses included mutans streptococci and lactobacilli counts, buffer capacity, and secretion rate. Scores were entered and caries risk was assessed. The women were divided into five groups according to their Cariogram caries risk. Results. The results of the study showed that 29.17% (28 of the pregnant women had high caries risk, 21.88% (21 – medium, 17.71% (17 – low, 16.67% (16 – very high, and 14.58% (14 – very low caries risk. In an average caries risk profile of pregnant women, the dominant sector was “Bacteria” (18.85% of the risk structure profile, followed by “Diet” (17.97%, “Circumstances” (15.68%, and “Susceptibility” sector (14.65%. Conclusion. Cariogram shows that pregnant women in Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina, had 46.14% chance of avoiding caries in the future. The Cariogram model can successfully determine caries risk profiles for pregnant women.

  11. Breast cancer characteristics at diagnosis and survival among Arab-American women compared to European- and African-American women. (United States)

    Hensley Alford, Sharon; Schwartz, Kendra; Soliman, Amr; Johnson, Christine Cole; Gruber, Stephen B; Merajver, Sofia D


    Data from Arab world studies suggest that Arab women may experience a more aggressive breast cancer phenotype. To investigate this finding, we focused on one of the largest settlements of Arabs and Iraqi Christians (Chaldeans) in the US, metropolitan Detroit- a SEER reporting site since 1973. We identified a cohort of primary breast cancer cases diagnosed 1973-2003. Using a validated name algorithm, women were identified as being of Arab/Chaldean descent if they had an Arab last or maiden name. We compared characteristics at diagnosis (age, grade, histology, SEER stage, and marker status) and overall survival between Arab-, European-, and African-Americans. The cohort included 1,652 (2%) women of Arab descent, 13,855 (18%) African-American women, and 63,615 (80%) European-American women. There were statistically significant differences between the racial groups for all characteristics at diagnosis. Survival analyses overall and for each SEER stage showed that Arab-American women had the best survival, followed by European-American women. African-American women had the poorest overall survival and were 1.37 (95% confidence interval: 1.23-1.52) times more likely to be diagnosed with an aggressive tumor (adjusting for age, grade, marker status, and year of diagnosis). Overall, Arab-American women have a distribution of breast cancer histology similar to European-American women. In contrast, the stage, age, and hormone receptor status at diagnosis among Arab-Americans was more similar to African-American women. However, Arab-American women have a better overall survival than even European-American women.

  12. Women scientists reflections, challenges, and breaking boundaries

    CERN Document Server

    Hargittai, Magdolna


    Magdolna Hargittai uses over fifteen years of in-depth conversation with female physicists, chemists, biomedical researchers, and other scientists to form cohesive ideas on the state of the modern female scientist. The compilation, based on sixty conversations, examines unique challenges that women with serious scientific aspirations face. In addition to addressing challenges and the unjustifiable underrepresentation of women at the higher levels of academia, Hargittai takes a balanced approach by discussing how some of the most successful of these women have managed to obtain professional success and personal happiness. Women Scientists portrays scientists from different backgrounds, different geographical regions-eighteen countries from four continents-and leaders from a variety of professional backgrounds, including eight Nobel laureate women. The book is divided into three sections: "Husband and Wife Teams," "Women at the Top," and "In High Positions." Hargittai uses her own experience to introduce her fi...

  13. Advancing HIV research with pregnant women: navigating challenges and opportunities. (United States)

    Krubiner, Carleigh B; Faden, Ruth R; Cadigan, R Jean; Gilbert, Sappho Z; Henry, Leslie M; Little, Margaret O; Mastroianni, Anna C; Namey, Emily E; Sullivan, Kristen A; Lyerly, Anne D


    Concerns about including pregnant women in research have led to a dearth of evidence to guide safe and effective treatment and prevention of HIV in pregnancy. To better understand why these evidence gaps persist and inform guidance for responsible inclusion of pregnant women in the HIV research agenda, we aimed to learn what HIV experts perceive as barriers and constraints to conducting this research. We conducted a series of group and one-on-one consultations with 62 HIV investigators and clinicians to elicit their views and experiences conducting HIV research involving pregnant women. Thematic analysis was used to identify priorities and perceived barriers to HIV research with pregnant women. Experts discussed a breadth of needed research, including safety, efficacy, and appropriate dosing of: newer antiretrovirals for pregnant women, emerging preventive strategies, and treatment for coinfections. Challenges to conducting research on pregnancy and HIV included ethical concerns, such as how to weigh risks and benefits in pregnancy; legal concerns, such as restrictive interpretations of current regulations and liability issues; financial and professional disincentives, including misaligned funder priorities and fear of reputational damage; and analytical and logistical complexities, such as challenges recruiting and retaining pregnant women to sufficiently power analyses. Investigators face numerous challenges to conducting needed HIV research with pregnant women. Advancing such research will require clearer guidance regarding ethical and legal uncertainties; incentives that encourage rather than discourage investigators to undertake such research; and a commitment to earlier development of safety and efficacy data through creative trial designs.

  14. Is There a War on Women in Psychoanalysis? The Disappearance of a Group of Women Leaders. (United States)

    Notman, Malkah T


    Some older members of the Boston Psychoanalytic Society remarked that in the 1950s and 1960s there was a group of prominent women analytic leaders at BPSI. They were training analysts, writers, and teachers active in the society and in the community. They were succeeded primarily by men. The question arose Was that an expression of "the war on women"? This paper explores and discusses this question. Although there were some expressions of resentment at being "dominated" by women, the answer appears to be more complex. For various reasons there was not a group of younger women available to move into this role at that time. The reasons for this are described--including the need for a medical degree for psychoanalytic training, the cultural postwar pressures in the United States for women not to work, and the institutional structural problems making it difficult for women candidates, such as ambivalence about pregnancy and the delays in changes in theory to enter the curriculum. This made for discrepancies between theory and the experience of candidates. The earlier group of women were mostly trained in Europe and the implications of this are described. In the years when the leadership was primarily male, decisions subtly reflected this.

  15. Women and development: future directions. (United States)


    In 1995 the UN celebrated its 50th anniversary, and the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing was held. INSTRAW's acting director, Martha Duenas-Loza, gives her overview of INSTRAW's future role and identifies some major issues regarding the advancement of women. INSTRAW is mandated as a UN group to accomplish research on and training of women. Some initial findings are now becoming available. The delay was due to the attention given to pressing problems of health care, nutrition, and education. In the future the international community will not have the option of neglecting women's status issues, which currently are secondary concerns. Some urgent issues are identified as the impact of rapid population growth on the elderly in the world, particularly the majority of elderly women. Migration will have an increasing impact on economic and social infrastructures of all countries. Problems of the elderly must be addressed as individual components within development plans and programs. Other articles in this issue of "INSTRAW News" discuss the situation of elderly women and women migrants. New efforts focus on a new phase of research on women's access to credit. The research aim is to analyze the experiences of current credit mechanisms, to assess the impact on individuals and families, and to consider gender effects. A progress report is available in this issue on gender statistics and a valuation of unpaid work by women. A new module is available for training women in environmental management; a description of this module is available in this issue. The new model is based on prior modules on energy and water, but includes improvements. The future agenda reflects the complexity of problems and solutions today and in the future.

  16. Association of Childhood Abuse with Homeless Women's Social Networks (United States)

    Green, Harold D., Jr.; Tucker, Joan S.; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P.; Ryan, Gery W.; Zhou, Annie J.


    Objective: Childhood abuse has been linked to negative sequelae for women later in life including drug and alcohol use and violence as victim or perpetrator and may also affect the development of women's social networks. Childhood abuse is prevalent among at-risk populations of women (such as the homeless) and thus may have a stronger impact on…

  17. Combating Terrorism via the Womb: Empowering Iraqi Women (United States)


    influence the decision- making within the home.7 Women are much more powerful than their outward appearances portray to westerners, and it is...households that originated in developing countries where it successfully enables women have been forced to be the breadwinners of the should not be just financial but should include training programmes [sic] to help women find jobs in the public and private sectors.”23 She

  18. Women's role for public acceptance - WEN activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asada, Kiyoe


    WEN (Women's Energy Network) is a national network of women working professionally in the field of public relations or technologies in various energy-related companies and organizations or interested in energy public acceptance (PA) activities including nuclear PA. This paper describes goals, organization, activities of WEN, and survey on public consciousness. 10 figs

  19. The Women's Health Care Empowerment Model as a Catalyst for Change in Developing Countries. (United States)

    Mitroi, Lavinia R; Sahak, Medina; Sherzai, Ayesha Z; Sherzai, Dean


    Women's empowerment has been attempted through a number of different fields including the realms of politics, finance, and education, yet none of these domains are as promising as health care. Here we review preliminary work in this domain and introduce a model for women's empowerment through involvement in health care, titled the "women's health care empowerment model." Principles upon which our model is built include: acknowledging the appropriate definition of empowerment within the cultural context, creating a women's network for communication, integrating local culture and tradition into training women, and increasing the capability of women to care for their children and other women.

  20. 77 FR 22623 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To... (United States)


    ..., Panama, Peru, South Africa, the Philippines, Turkey, Russia, Ukraine and Mexico. CDX.EM Contracts... to [email protected] . Please include File Number SR-ICC-2012-04 on the subject line. Paper Comments Send paper comments in triplicate to Elizabeth M. Murphy, Secretary, Securities and Exchange...

  1. Cultural Strengths to Persevere: Native American Women in Higher Education (United States)

    Waterman, Stephanie J.; Lindley, Lorinda S.


    Beginning with an overview of historical perspectives of Native American women, this article includes some discussion of values and practices of contemporary Native American women, data pertaining to Native American women's participation in higher education, and an introduction of familial cultural capital, community cultural wealth, Native…

  2. Effects of Health Insurance Interruption on Loss of Hypertension Control in Women With and Women Without HIV. (United States)

    Edmonds, Andrew; Ludema, Christina; Eron, Joseph J; Cole, Stephen R; Adedimeji, Adebola A; Cohen, Mardge H; Cooper, Hannah L; Fischl, Margaret; Johnson, Mallory O; Krause, Denise D; Merenstein, Dan; Milam, Joel; Wilson, Tracey E; Adimora, Adaora A


    Among low-income women with and without HIV, it is a priority to reduce age-related comorbidities, including hypertension and its sequelae. Because consistent health insurance access has been identified as an important factor in controlling many chronic diseases, we estimated the effects of coverage interruption on loss of hypertension control in a cohort of women in the United States. We analyzed prospective, longitudinal data from the Women's Interagency HIV Study. HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women were included between 2005 and 2014 when they reported health insurance at consecutive biannual visits and had controlled hypertension, and were followed for any insurance break and loss of hypertension control. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) by Cox proportional hazards regression with inverse-probability-of-treatment-and censoring weights (marginal structural models), and plotted the cumulative incidence of hypertension control loss. Among 890 HIV-infected women, the weighted HR for hypertension control loss comparing health insurance interruption to uninterrupted coverage was 1.37 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.99-1.91). Inclusion of AIDS Drug Assistance Program (ADAP) participation with health insurance modestly increased the HR (1.47; 95% CI, 1.04-2.07). Analysis of 272 HIV-uninfected women yielded a similar HR (1.39; 95% CI, 0.88-2.21). Additionally, there were indications of uninterrupted coverage having a protective effect on hypertension when compared with the natural course in HIV-infected (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.61-1.11) and HIV-uninfected (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.52-1.19) women. This study provides evidence that health insurance continuity promotes hypertension control in key populations. Interventions that ensure coverage stability and ADAP access should be a policy priority.

  3. 75 FR 56608 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving... (United States)


    ... Counsel, Secretary, Chief Compliance Officer, Accenture plc to Elizabeth M. Murphy, Secretary, Commission..., Accenture plc to Elizabeth M. Murphy, Secretary, Commission, dated June 3, 2010; and Letter from Karrie... criticized various aspects of the application of the proposed rule change to ETPs. One commenter described...

  4. "The war against women". Media representations of men's violence against women in Australia. (United States)

    Howe, A


    This article analyzes how a newspaper in Victoria, Australia, represented violence against women in a special series entitled, "The War Against Women." True to the series title, the series appropriated all of the metaphors of war and dealt with violence against women in much the same fashion as it would report a war, speculating as to its causes, mapping its prevalence, reporting deaths, and referring to "explosions" of violence. As in war coverage, the series included findings of a poll of public opinion, told a story of contrition from an enemy who surrendered (a man in counseling), and offered editorials. While it drew attention to one of society's most pressing and intractable social problems, the paper ignored its own previous reports on domestic violence to gain the shock value of the "new" and, therefore, perpetuated a pattern of "discovery, forgetting, and rediscovery" of violence against women. The paper also failed to apply the feminist notion of a continuum of male violence or to breach the chasm between feminist and public understanding of male violence. Finally, the paper used editorial disclaimers to minimalize men's responsibility and distance itself from feminists. Thus, it placed its critique of men's pervasive violence against women within the hegemonic narratives of gender relations, which hold that women acquiesce in domestic violence, feminists vilify men, and men are a much-maligned group not responsible for the bad behavior of a minority. The paper, thus, conveys that idea that this war will not be won.

  5. Women's experiences of postnatal distress: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Coates, Rose; Ayers, Susan; de Visser, Richard


    Women can experience a range of psychological problems after birth, including anxiety, depression and adjustment disorders. However, research has predominantly focused on depression. Qualitative work on women's experiences of postnatal mental health problems has sampled women within particular diagnostic categories so not looked at the range of potential psychological problems. The aims of this study were to explore how women experienced and made sense of the range of emotional distress states in the first postnatal year. A qualitative study of 17 women who experienced psychological problems in the first year after having a baby. Semi-structured interviews took place in person (n =15) or on the telephone (n =2). Topics included women's experiences of becoming distressed and their recovery. Data were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Themes were developed within each interview before identifying similar themes for multiple participants across interviews, in order to retain an idiographic approach. Psychological processes such as guilt, avoidance and adjustment difficulties were experienced across different types of distress. Women placed these in the context of defining moments of becoming a mother; giving birth and breastfeeding. Four superordinate themes were identified. Two concerned women's unwanted negative emotions and difficulties adjusting to their new role. "Living with an unwelcome beginning" describes the way mothers' new lives with their babies started out with unwelcome emotions, often in the context of birth and breastfeeding difficulties. All women spoke about the importance of their postnatal healthcare experiences in "Relationships in the healthcare system". "The shock of the new" describes women's difficulties adjusting to the demands of motherhood and women emphasised the importance of social support in "Meeting new support needs". These findings emphasise the need for exploration of psychological processes such as

  6. Hormonal levels among HIV-1-seropositive women compared with high-risk HIV-seronegative women during the menstrual cycle. Women's Health Study (WHS) 001 and WHS 001a Study Team. (United States)

    Cu-Uvin, S; Wright, D J; Anderson, D; Kovacs, A; Watts, D H; Cohn, J; Landay, A; Reichelderfer, P S


    There is a paucity of normative data on hormonal levels among HIV-infected women. Hormonal levels may influence fertility and HIV-related immunological and virological factors. The objective of this study was to determine progesterone and estradiol levels during the menstrual cycle in HIV-seropositive women compared with high-risk seronegative women. The study enrolled 55 HIV-infected and 10 high-risk uninfected women with self-reported regular menstrual cycles (25-30-day cycles). Progesterone and estradiol levels were determined on a weekly basis for 8 weeks. The analysis included evaluations from the first complete menstrual cycle for the 54 HIV-infected and 9 uninfected women who had at least one complete cycle. The median age was 35 years for HIV-infected women and 36 years for uninfected women. The median CD4+ count for HIV-seropositive women was 210 cells/mm3. The median menstrual cycle length was 28 days (range 22-49 days) for HIV-infected women and 25 days (range 24-44 days) for uninfected women. The maximum progesterone level during the luteal phase was normal (>3.0 ng/ml) for 52 (96%) of 54 HIV-seropositive women and 7 (78%) of 9 HIV-seronegative women (p = 0.09, Fisher's exact test). The median maximum progesterone level was 12.2 ng/ml in HIV-seropositive women and 7.2 ng/ml in HIV-seronegative women (p = 0.07, Wilcoxon test). The median maximum estradiol value during the follicular phase was 148 pg/ml for HIV-seropositive women and 111 pg/ml for HIV-seronegative women (p = 0.04, Wilcoxon test). Among HIV-infected women, there were no significant differences in progesterone and estradiol levels by antiretroviral therapy, baseline plasma viral load, or median CD4+ cell count. We conclude that HIV-infected women with self-reported normal menstrual cycles have normal levels of progesterone and estradiol during the menstrual cycle.

  7. Rural Women Veterans' Use and Perception of Mental Health Services. (United States)

    Ingelse, Kathy; Messecar, Deborah


    While the total number of veterans in the U.S. is decreasing overall, the number of women veterans is significantly increasing. There are numerous barriers which keep women veterans from accessing mental health care. One barrier which can impact receiving care is living in a rural area. Veterans in rural areas have access to fewer mental health services than do urban residing veterans, and women veterans in general have less access to mental health care than do their male colleagues. Little is known about rural women veterans and their mental health service needs. Women, who have served in the military, have unique problems related to their service compared to their male colleagues including higher rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and military sexual trauma (MST). This qualitative study investigated use of and barriers to receiving mental health care for rural women veterans. In-depth interviews were conducted with ten women veterans who have reported experiencing problems with either MST, PTSD, or combat trauma. All ten women had utilized mental health services during active-duty military service, and post service, in Veterans Administration (VA) community based-outpatient clinics. Several recurring themes in the women's experience were identified. For all of the women interviewed, a sentinel precipitating event led to seeking mental health services. These precipitating events included episodes of chronic sexual harassment and ridicule, traumatic sexual assaults, and difficult combat experiences. Efforts to report mistreatment were unsuccessful or met with punishment. All the women interviewed reported that they would not have sought services without the help of a supportive peer who encouraged seeking care. Barriers to seeking care included feeling like they were not really a combat veteran (in spite of serving in a combat unit in Iraq); feeling stigmatized by providers and other military personnel, being treated as crazy; and a lack of interest

  8. Cancer treatment: fertility and sexual side effects in women (United States)

    ... Cancer treatment: fertility and sexual side effects in women To use the sharing features on this page, ... Bladder cancer Types of Sexual Side Effects For women, the most common sexual side effects include: Loss ...

  9. Perceptions and attitude towards violence against women by their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    burning, emotional blackmail, mockery or ridicule, threats of abandonment ... did not bring to surface how men and women themselves define and make sense of ... against women by interviewing different stakeholders including victims and ...

  10. Women in Space — Following Valentina

    CERN Document Server

    Shayler, David J


    Space exploration has developed from early, unmanned space probes through the pioneering years of the ‘Manned’ Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo missions, to missions that now include women in the crew as a matter of course. Dave Shayler tells the story of the first woman balloonist in 1784 to their breakthrough as astronauts and cosmonauts in a range of professional roles. He covers the contribution women have made to space exploration and draws on interviews with Shuttle and Mir crew members who were women. These interviews detail the achievements of the first female Shuttle commander and the first female resident crew member of the International Space Station. These and many other events are presented in a detailed and highly readable account that recalls the difficult path to space exploration by women.

  11. Pelvic floor muscle strength and sexual function in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinara Sacomori

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction : Pelvic floor (PF muscles react to sexual stimuli with increased local blood circulation and involuntary contractions during orgasm. The training of the PF musculature helps in the improvement of the female sexual function. Objective : To verify the association between PF muscle strength and sexual function in women, controlling age and parity. Method : Cross-sectional study based on associations. The study included women who attended a reference center in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, for a uterine cancer smear test. The Functional Evaluation of the Pelvic Floor and the Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire were used. Statistical procedures included Mann-Whitney U tests, Spearman correlation and Poisson Regression Analysis, with p < .05. Results : The mean age of the women (n = 177 was 39.05 years (SD = 13.3. Regarding PF function, 53.7% of participants presented weak or not palpable PF muscle function. Women with "good" muscle function (able to maintain contraction under examiner's resistance had significantly better indexes of sexual desire, excitement, lubrication and orgasm than women with weak/poor function. We identified that 52.5% of the women presented sexual dysfunction. Women with "poor" PF function and aged over 50 years had, respectively, 1.36 (CI95% 1.01 - 1.82 and 1.77 (CI95% 1.41 - 2.23 higher prevalence of sexual dysfunction than women with "good" PF function. Conclusions : Adult women with better PF muscle function also presented better sexual function.

  12. National Survey Results: Retention of Women in Collegiate Aviation (United States)

    Turney, Mary Ann; Bishop, James C.; Karp, Merrill R.; Niemczyk, Mary; Sitler, Ruth L.; Green, Mavis F.


    Since the numbers of women pursuing technical careers in aviation continues to remain very low, a study on retention of women was undertaken by a team of university faculty from Embry Riddle Aeronautical University, Arizona State University, and Kent State University. The study was initiated to discover the factors that influence women once they have already selected an aviation career and to ascertain what could be done to support those women who have demonstrated a serious interest in an aviation career by enrolling in a collegiate aviation program. This paper reports preliminary results of data collected in the first and second years of the study. The data was collected from surveys of 390 college students (195 women and 195 men) majoring in aviation programs in nine colleges and universities, representing widely varied geographic areas and including both two- and four-year institutions. Results revealed significant areas of concern among women in pilot training. When queried about these concerns, differences were evident in the responses of the male and female groups. These differences were expected. However, a surprising finding was that women in early stages of pilot training responded differently from women in more experienced stages, These response differences did not occur among the men surveyed. The results, therefore, suggest that women in experienced stages of training may have gone through an adaptation process and reflect more male-like attitudes about a number of objects, including social issues, confidence, family, and career.

  13. Women's expectations and experiences regarding e-health treatment: A systematic review. (United States)

    Verhoeks, Carmen; Teunissen, Doreth; van der Stelt-Steenbergen, Anke; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine


    There is a gap in knowledge of women's perceptions of e-health treatment. This review aims to investigate women's expectations and experiences regarding e-health. A search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycInfo in March 2016. We included articles published between 2000 and March 2016, reporting on e-health interventions. The initial search yielded 2987 articles. Eventually, 16 articles reporting on 16 studies were included. Barriers to e-health treatment were lower for women than barriers to face-to-face treatment, such as feelings of shame and time constraints. Women were able to develop an online therapeutic relationship. As reduced feelings of obligation and lack of motivation were women's greatest challenges in completing e-health treatment, they expressed a wish for more support during e-health treatment, preferably blended care. e-Health lowers the threshold for women to seek healthcare. Combining e-health interventions with face-to-face sessions may enhance women's motivation to complete treatment.

  14. The neural correlates of intimate partner violence in women | Flegar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To examine hippocampal volume and white matter tracts in women with and without intimate partner violence (IPV). Method: Nineteen women with IPV exposure in the last year, and 21 women without IPV exposure in the last year underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion tensor ...

  15. Lessons learned from women in leadership positions. (United States)

    Elias, Eileen


    Eileen Elias has decades of experience in leadership positions within government and nongovernmental organizations. As the first female Commissioner for Mental Health in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and the US in the early 1990s, Elias gained experience on navigating gender-based challenges to attain recognized performance outcomes. From lessons learned from women leaders, educate young women entering their careers on attaining leadership positions. Comprehensive research of literature from 2012 through 2017 and interviews with women leaders representing non-Fortune 500 companies including academia, research, non-profit, for-profit, and primary and secondary education. Interviewees included:1.Gail Bassin, Co-Chief Executive Officer and Treasurer, JBS International Inc.2.Jeri Epstein, Executive Director, The Ambit Foundation3.Valerie Fletcher, Executive Director, Institute for Human Centered Design4.Christine James-Brown, President and CEO, Child Welfare League of America5.Daria Mochly-Rosen, PhD, Professor and Fellow, Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine6.Eileen O'Keefe, MD, MPH, Clinical Associate Professor and Director, Boston University Health Sciences7.Jeri Shaw, President and Co-Chief Executive Officer, JBS International Inc. A comprehensive understanding of key women leaders' lessons learned and recommendations targeting young women as they assess leadership opportunities in the public or private sectors.

  16. A chronological overview of women empowerment initiatives in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The implication of empowerment initiatives is focused on women farmers. In conclusion, the paper upholds that women empowerment struggles have recorded great success across many contexts in the world, including Nigeria, although much remains to be done. Keywords: Beijing Conference, Gender equality, Nigeria, ...

  17. Self-esteem Among Young Bisexual Women in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buer, Liliana; Anderssen, Norman; Malterud, Kirsti


    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between self-esteem, perception of social acceptance and feeling of loneliness in a sample of young bisexual, lesbian and heterosexual women, including assessing self-esteem longitudinally across 13 years. The analyses were based on self......-completed questionnaires from the longitudinal study “Young in Norway” (13 years follow-up, 1992-2005). N=1,598 female participants at baseline and follow-up (45 bisexual women, 21 lesbian women, 1,532 heterosexual women), age 25-32 years at follow-up. At baseline, there were no differences in self-esteem, but at follow......-up bisexual women reported lower self-esteem, lower levels of perceived acceptance, and higher levels of loneliness. For bisexual women, self-esteem did not increase from adolescence to adulthood. At follow-up, loneliness had a stronger connection with self-esteem among bisexual women compared to lesbian...


    Hilsabeck, Robin C.; Martin, Eileen M.


    The number of women in neuropsychology has been increasing over the past 20 years while the number of women in senior and leadership positions within neuropsychology has not. The field of neuropsychology has much to gain by facilitating the advancement of women into leadership roles, including access to some of the brightest and creative minds in the field. The purpose of this article is to offer practical advice about how to overcome barriers and advance within neuropsychology. Suggestions for professional organizations, women, and mentors of women are provided that will likely benefit trainees and junior colleagues regardless of their gender. PMID:18841516

  19. Women and advancement in neuropsychology: real-life lessons learned. (United States)

    Hilsabeck, Robin C; Martin, Eileen M


    The number of women in neuropsychology has been increasing over the past 20 years while the number of women in senior and leadership positions within neuropsychology has not. The field of neuropsychology has much to gain by facilitating the advancement of women into leadership roles, including access to some of the brightest and creative minds in the field. The purpose of this article is to offer practical advice about how to overcome barriers and advance within neuropsychology. Suggestions for professional organizations, women, and mentors of women are provided that will likely benefit trainees and junior colleagues regardless of their gender.

  20. [Human cloning and the protection of women's interests]. (United States)

    Canabes, Marcela Ahumada


    The Human Cloning, both therapeutic and full birth cloning, involves and affects women in a special way. The United Nation's Declaration on the Cloning of Human Beings includes a special clause referred to them. Also the Spanish law does it. This works pretend to analyse the meaning of the inclusion of women's interests in this document. At the same time, I will consider the foundations and the importance of the reference to the women.

  1. Risk perception in women with high-risk pregnancies


    Lee, S.


    Risk perception in women with high risk pregnancies affects the decisions they make about antenatal care and so may therefore influence the wellbeing of mother and baby. This article addresses the factors which influence women when making risk assessments and how these assessments may differ from those of healthcare professionals.\\ud \\ud Women use multiple sources of information to determine their risk status including advice from professionals, from other trusted sources, and their own intui...

  2. Nutrition interventions in women in low-income groups in the UK. (United States)

    Anderson, Annie S


    In the UK the mental and physical health and well-being of millions of women are influenced by living in poverty. Low educational attainment, unemployment, low pay and poor areas of residence exacerbate the challenges of obtaining optimal food choices, dietary intake and healthy eating patterns. Poorer women are more likely to eat low amounts of fruits and vegetables, whole grains and fish, and higher amounts of sugar and sweetened drinks compared with more affluent women. Diet contributes to the health inequalities evident in high rates of diet-related morbidity (including obesity) and mortality (including IHD and stroke) and in maternal and child health considerations (including breast-feeding and family diet practices). There is a dearth of research on effective interventions undertaken with low-income women, reflecting some of the challenges of engaging and evaluating programmes with this 'hard to reach' subpopulation. Intervention programmes from the USA, including WISEWOMAN, the Women's Health Initiative, the American Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants and Children and the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program provide models for changing behaviour amongst women in the UK, although overall effects of such programmes are fairly modest. Lack of evidence does not mean that that policy work should be not be undertaken, but it is essential that policy work should be evaluated for its ability to engage with target groups as well as for the behavioural change and health outcomes.

  3. Online and in-person networking among women in the Earth Sciences Women's Network at (United States)

    Kontak, R.; Adams, A. S.; De Boer, A. M.; Hastings, M. G.; Holloway, T.; Marin-Spiotta, E.; Steiner, A. L.; Wiedinmyer, C.


    The Earth Science Women's Network is an international peer-mentoring network of women in the Earth Sciences, many of whom are in the early stages of their careers. Membership is free and has grown through "word of mouth," and includes upper-level undergraduates, graduate students, professionals in a range of environmental fields, scientists working in public and private institutions. Our mission is to promote career development, build community, provide informal mentoring and support, and facilitate professional collaborations. Since 2002 we have accomplished this trough online networking, including over email and a listserv, on facebook, in-person networking events, and professional development workshops. Now in our 10th year, ESWN is debuting a new web-center that creates an online space exclusively for women in any discipline of the Earth (including planetary) sciences. ESWN members can connect and create an online community of support and encouragement for themselves as women in a demanding career. Many women in Earth Science fields feel isolated and are often the only woman in their department or work environments. ESWN is a place to meet others, discuss issues faced in creating work-life balance and professional success and share best practices through peer mentoring. Now on ESWN's new web-center, members can create and personalize their profiles and search for others in their field, nearby, or with similar interests. Online discussions in the members-only area can also be searched. Members can create groups for discussion or collaboration, with document sharing and password protection. Publicly, we can share gained knowledge with a broader audience, like lessons learned at our professional development workshops and collected recommendations from members. The new web center allows for more connectivity among other online platforms used by our members, including linked-in, facebook, and twitter. Built in Wordpress with a Buddpress members-only section, the new

  4. Routledge History of Women in Modern Europe, 1700 to the present

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    scholars and rising stars of the discipline to provide a ground-breaking and unique contribution to the historical study of women. Chapters include:European Women's History at the Crossroads, Writing Women in(to) European History, At Home in the Family, Female Sexuality, Learning to be good girls and women......The Routledge History of Women in Europe since 1700 is a landmark publication that provides an over view of women's role and place in Western Europe, spanning three centuries. Drawing on new research and provoking valuable new insights, this comprehensive edited collection brings together renowned......, Women Workers, Working women, Women Religious and religious women, Women as citizens, Women in War and Peace, Home and Away, popular culture and Leisure, Mistresses of creation, women as producers and consumers of culture....

  5. 75 FR 25291 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Mid-Atlantic Proposed Oil and Gas Lease Sale 220 (United States)


    ... 27 at Elizabeth City State University Fine Arts Complex in Elizabeth City, North Carolina. These..., 1201 Elmwood Park Boulevard, New Orleans, LA 70123-2394, telephone (504) 736-3233. SUPPLEMENTARY... period and made announcements in a press release and other media. On January 7, 2009, MMS published a...

  6. Aspects of the biology of three benthic-feeding teleosts from King's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspects of the biology of three benthic-feeding teleosts from King's Beach, Algoa Bay. Theresa A. Lasiak. Department of Zoology, University of Port Elizabeth, Port Elizabeth. The lengths, abundance pattems and feeding habits of three species of benthic·feeding teleosts, Lithognathus mormyrus,. Lithognathus lithognathus ...

  7. 75 FR 22890 - Notice of Extension of Public Comment Period for the Proposed Keystone XL Pipeline Project Draft... (United States)


    ... notice that listed the public comment meetings and additional information on the DEIS was published in.... By mail addressed to: Elizabeth Orlando, Keystone XL Project Manager, U.S. Department of State, OES... screening. Fax to: (202) 647-1052, attention Elizabeth Orlando. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For...

  8. Domestic Violence against Married Women in Edirne (United States)

    Tokuc, Burcu; Ekuklu, Galip; Avcioglu, Serap


    The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence and risk factors of domestic violence against married women in Edirne, Turkey. This is a cross-sectional study which included a representative sample of the married women living in the Provincial Center of Edirne. The total past year prevalence of some forms of physical domestic violence is 34% in…

  9. Developing a gender-based approach to chronic conditions and women's health: a qualitative investigation of community-dwelling women and service provider perspectives. (United States)

    DiGiacomo, Michelle; Green, Anna; Rodrigues, Emma; Mulligan, Kathryn; Davidson, Patricia M


    Chronic conditions contribute to over 70 % of Australia's total disease burden, and this is set to increase to 80 % by 2020. Women's greater longevity means that they are more likely than men to live with disability and have unique health concerns related to their gender based roles in society. Cultural and social issues can impact on women's health and are important to consider in health services planning and research. In this study, we aimed to identify barriers and facilitators to providing a gender-based approach to chronic conditions and women's health in an eastern metropolitan region of Australia. Focus groups were used to engage both community-dwelling women who had chronic conditions and relevant professional stakeholders in the target area. Recorded proceedings underwent thematic analysis. Five focus groups were conducted with professional stakeholders and women community members in February and March 2014. Resultant themes included: women's disempowerment through interactions with health systems; social and economic constraints and caregiving roles act to exclude women from participating in self-care and society; and empowerment can be achieved through integrated models of care that facilitate voice and enable communication and engagement. This study underscores the importance of including perspectives of sex and gender in health care services planning. Tailoring services to socio-demographic and cultural groups is critical in promoting access to health care services. Unique epidemiological trends, particularly the ageing of women and new migrant groups, require particular attention.

  10. [Trichological examinations in women suffering from diabetes mellitus]. (United States)

    Brzezińska-Wcisło, L; Bogdanowski, T; Koślacz, E; Hawrot, A


    The lack of data on the process of alopecia in women suffering from diabetes mellitus made us undertake research in this area. The aim of this paper was the assessment of the state of head hair in trichological and clinical examinations, and on the basis of questionnaire. 50 women (age 44-82 years) were included in the study. Alopecia in women with diabetes mellitus is diffuse, located on the apex of the head and basic hair loss lies in telogenic pathomechanism. The highest percentage of telogenic hair is found in women treated with biguanides, and the lowest one in female patients taking insulin.

  11. [Hypertension: is the actual definition adapted to women?]. (United States)

    Wuerzner, G; Bochud, M; Jaunin-Stalder, N; Pechère-Bertschi, A


    The control of blood pressure in men and women differs due to different physiological pathways. Moreover, conditions increasing the risk of hypertension, such as pre-eclampsia, exposure to oral contraceptives are specific to women. Men have a higher blood pressure than women from pubertal growth to advanced age. However, the definition of hypertension (blood pressure--140/90 mmHg) is the same for adult men and women. The management of hypertension should be based not only on the level of blood pressure, but also on the global cardiovascular risk. Sex is included in the global evaluation of the cardiovascular risk.

  12. [Pulmonary arterial hypertension in women]. (United States)

    Sanchez, O; Marié, E; Lerolle, U; Wermert, D; Israël-Biet, D; Meyer, G


    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare condition characterized by sustained elevation in pulmonary arterial resistance leading to right heart failure. PAH afflicts predominantly women. Echocardiography is the initial investigation of choice for non-invasive detection of PAH but right-heart catheterization is necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Conventional treatment includes non-specific drugs (warfarin, diuretics, oxygen). The endothelin-1 receptor antagonist bosentan, the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor sildenafil, and prostanoids have been shown to improve symptoms, exercise capacity and haemodynamics. Intravenous prostacyclin is the first-line treatment for the most severely affected patients. Despite the most modern treatment the overall mortality rate of pregnant women with severe PAH remains high. Therefore, pregnancy is contraindicated in women with PAH and an effective method of contraception is recommended in women of childbearing age. Therapeutic abortion should be offered, particularly when early deterioration occurs. If this option is not accepted, intravenous prostacyclin should be considered promptly. Recent advances in the management of PAH have markedly improved prognosis and have resulted in more women of childbearing age considering pregnancy. A multidisciplinary approach should give new insights into cardiopulmonary, obstetric and anaesthetic management during pregnancy, delivery and the post-partum period.

  13. Should women be "All About That Bass?": Diverse body-ideal messages and women's body image. (United States)

    Betz, Diana E; Ramsey, Laura R


    While most body image research emphasizes the thin ideal, a wider variety of body-ideal messages pervade U.S. popular culture today, including those promoting athleticism or curves. Two studies assessed women's reactions to messages conveying thin, athletic, and curvy ideals, compared to a control message that emphasized accepting all body types. Study 1 (N=192) surveyed women's responses to these messages and found they perceived body-acceptance and athletic messages most favorably, curvy messages more negatively, and thin messages most negatively. Further, greatest liking within each message category came from women who identified with that body type. Study 2 (N=189) experimentally manipulated exposure to these messages, then measured self-objectification and body satisfaction. Messages promoting a body-ideal caused more self-objectification than body-acceptance messages. Also, athletic messages caused more body dissatisfaction than thin messages. Together, these findings reveal the complexity of women's responses to diverse messages they receive about ideal bodies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cervical cancer knowledge and screening practices among women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer remains a major public health challenge in developing countries including Nigeria and contributes signi cantly as a major cause of death among women of reproductive age. This study was conducted to assess knowledge and cervical cancer screening practices among women of reproductive ...

  15. Treatment of post-partum depression: a review of clinical, psychological and pharmacological options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Fitelson


    Full Text Available Elizabeth Fitelson1, Sarah Kim4, Allison Scott Baker3, Kristin Leight21Director, 2Attending Psychiatrist, TheWomen's Program, 3Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Fellow, Division of Child Psychiatry, 4PGY-I Resident in Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Postpartum depression (PPD is a common complication of childbearing, and has increasingly been identified as a major public health problem. Untreated maternal depression has multiple potential negative effects on maternal-infant attachment and child development. Screening for depression in the perinatal period is feasible in multiple primary care or obstetric settings, and can help identify depressed mothers earlier. However, there are multiple barriers to appropriate treatment, including concerns about medication effects in breastfeeding infants. This article reviews the literature and recommendations for the treatment of postpartum depression, with a focus on the range of pharmacological, psychotherapeutic, and other non-pharmacologic interventions. Keywords: postpartum depression, postnatal depression, lactation, antidepressant, hormone therapy, psychotherapy, bright light therapy, omega-3

  16. Women, sexuality, ecology, and the church. (United States)

    Ruether, R R


    This abridged article originally was given as a lecture at Seattle University. The view presented is that women's status within the Catholic Church is subordinate to men's status, and that the Church is misguided in its notion of protection of and support for life. Affirmation of life is not promoted by isolated acts of giving birth, but exists in a social and ecological system in a community over time. The fit between children being born and the network to sustain their lives is misaligned. The minority of the world's population has control over the majority of the world's resources, while the majority live in misery, poverty, and starvation. The affirmation of the value of human life must be both qualitative and quantitative. The woman must be empowered, and not continually defined and controlled by male decision makers. Being prolife means to change the conditions of women and the conditions that deny most humans adequate food, clear air and water, housing, and land to sustain life. The American Catholic Bishops confuse teachings on abortion and teachings on nuclear arms buildup. American Catholic Bishops have had great difficulty formulating a pastoral letter on women, which is unfair to the growing number of women who are alienated by the treatment of the church. The denigration of women is deeply imbedded within Catholicism and Christianity, in general, in spirituality and practice. The issue of abortion has more to do with paternalism and women's sexuality and reproduction than valuing or nonvaluing fetal life. Women are denied leadership within the church because of women's sinful nature and the need for paternalism as a punishment for self-determination. St. Augustine stated that two men were not created in God's image and lack personhood. Thomas Aquinas agreed with Aristotle that women are defective due to a gestational process which deprives women of full mental, moral, or physical humanity. Only a man can fulfill the role of priest. The taboo of woman

  17. The role of adding metformin in insulin-resistant diabetic pregnant women: a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Ibrahim, Moustafa Ibrahim; Hamdy, Ahmed; Shafik, Adel; Taha, Salah; Anwar, Mohammed; Faris, Mohammed


    The aim of the present study is to assess the impact of adding oral metformin to insulin therapy in pregnant women with insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus. The current non-inferiority randomized controlled trial was conducted at Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital. The study included pregnant women with gestational or pre-existing diabetes mellitus at gestations between 20 and 34 weeks, who showed insulin resistance (defined as poor glycemic control at a daily dose of ≥1.12 units/kg). Recruited women were randomized into one of two groups: group I, including women who received oral metformin without increasing the insulin dose; and group II, including women who had their insulin dose increased. The primary outcome was maternal glycemic control. Secondary outcomes included maternal bouts of hypoglycemia, need for another hospital admission for uncontrolled diabetes during pregnancy, gestational age at delivery, mode of delivery, birth weight, birth trauma, congenital anomalies, 1- and 5-min Apgar score, neonatal hypoglycemia, need for neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission and adverse neonatal outcomes. A total number of 154 women with diabetes mellitus with pregnancy were approached; of them 90 women were eligible and were randomly allocated and included in the final analysis. The recruited 90 women were randomized into one of two groups: group I (metformin group) (n = 46), including women who received oral metformin in addition to the same initial insulin dose; and group II (control group) (n = 44), including women who had their insulin dose increased according to the standard protocol. The mean age of included women was 29.84 ± 5.37 years (range 20-42 years). The mean gestational age at recruitment was 28.7 ± 3.71 weeks (range 21-34 weeks). Among the 46 women of group I, 17 (36.9 %) women reached proper glycemic control at a daily metformin dose of 1,500 mg, 18 (39.2 %) at a daily dose of 2,000 mg, while 11 (23.9 %) received metformin at a daily

  18. Understanding women's experience of memory over the menopausal transition: subjective and objective memory in pre-, peri-, and postmenopausal women. (United States)

    Unkenstein, Anne E; Bryant, Christina A; Judd, Fiona K; Ong, Ben; Kinsella, Glynda J


    Many women complain of forgetfulness during the menopausal transition. This study aimed to examine women's subjective perception of memory and their objective memory performance across the menopausal transition. One hundred thirty women, aged 40 to 60 years were recruited from outpatient Menopause and Gynaecological clinics at the Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne. Women were divided into menopausal stage groups according to the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop criteria based on menstrual patterns. All women completed self-report measures of depressive, anxiety, vasomotor, and sleep symptoms; attitude to menopause; and various aspects of memory, including memory contentment, frequency of forgetting, sense of control over memory, and use of memory strategies. Women also completed a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation assessing memory and executive function. Comprehensive neuropsychological assessment showed no difference between premenopausal (n = 36), perimenopausal (n = 54), and postmenopausal (n = 40) groups in performance on memory and executive tasks. Perimenopausal women, however, reported significantly more frequent forgetting (η = 0.09, P memory (η = 0.08, P memory. During the menopausal transition women with a more negative attitude to menopause and more intense depressive, anxiety, vasomotor, and sleep symptoms are more vulnerable to feeling less content with their memory.

  19. Forgotten women the scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Tsjeng, Zing


    The women who shaped and were erased from our history. The Forgotten Women series will uncover the lost histories of the influential women who have refused over hundreds of years to accept the hand they've been dealt and, as a result, have formed, shaped and changed the course of our futures. The Scientists celebrates 48* unsung scientific heroines whose hugely important, yet broadly unacknowledged or incorrectly attributed, discoveries have transformed our understanding of the scientific world. Mary Anning, the amateur paleontologist whose fossil findings changed scientific thinking about prehistoric life Emmy Noether, dubbed "The Mighty Mathematician You've Never Heard Of" Ynés Mexía, the Mexican-American botanist who discovered over 500 new plant species Wangari Maathai, who started an environmental and ecological revolution in Kenya Margaret Sanger, the maverick nurse who paved the way for the legalization of contraception Chapters including Earth & Universe; Biology & N...

  20. Women's empowerment and reproductive experiences over the lifecourse. (United States)

    Lee-Rife, Susan M


    This paper examines the complex interplay between reproductive experiences and women's empowerment using rich life history data from a survey in India. Previous research has examined the influence of a rather limited range of reproductive events, focusing on how many children or sons a woman has borne, and has only superficially incorporated the insights of lifecourse theory. Furthermore, it has often conceptualized empowerment as a static characteristic rather than a time-varying one, and has often failed to examine the influence of empowerment resources or previous empowerment levels. I focus on the cumulative influence of less-studied reproductive events-including unwanted or mistimed pregnancy, stillbirths, miscarriages, and abortions-on several dimensions of women's empowerment, including mobility, financial decision-making, experiences of violence, and threats of abandonment or homelessness using data collected from 2435 women in Madhya Pradesh, India during a 2002 household-based probability sample survey. Logistic regression revealed that, notably, few reproductive events have an impact on women's current empowerment, but rather, the extent of empowerment immediately after marriage emerges as a strong determinant of their current empowerment. However, women who have had abortions have higher odds of experiencing domestic violence, and experiencing mistimed pregnancies lowers the odds of violence. Incorporating the potential influence of prior life events and conditions, accounting for the possibility that experiences may accumulate to shape women's current empowerment portrays women's lives more completely and helps to identify key points of intervention. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Tobacco Industry Marketing to Low Socio-economic Status Women in the US (United States)

    Brown-Johnson, Cati G.; England, Lucinda J.; Glantz, Stanton A.; Ling, Pamela M.


    Objectives Describe tobacco companies’ marketing strategies targeting low socioeconomic-status (SES) females in the US. Methods Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. Results Tobacco companies focused marketing on low SES women starting in the late 1970s, including military wives, low-income inner-city minority women, “discount-susceptible” older female smokers, and less-educated young white women. Strategies included distributing discount coupons with food stamps to reach the very poor, discount offers at point-of-sale and via direct mail to keep cigarette prices low, developing new brands for low SES females, and promoting luxury images to low SES African American women. More recently, companies integrated promotional strategies targeting low-income women into marketing plans for established brands. Conclusions Tobacco companies used numerous marketing strategies to reach low SES females in the US for at least four decades. Strategies to counteract marketing to low SES women could include: 1) counter-acting price discounts and direct mail coupons that reduce the price of tobacco products, 2) instituting restrictions on point-of-sale advertising and retail display, and 3) creating counter-advertising that builds resistance to psychosocial targeting of low SES women. To achieve health equity, tobacco control efforts are needed to counteract the influence of tobacco industry marketing to low-income women. PMID:24449249

  2. 77 FR 3515 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Instituting... (United States)


    ... orders in this market sector.'' Id. Specifically, FINRA proposed that the minimum quotation size required... economic analysis to study the expected impact of the proposed tier sizes on market liquidity (including... Markets Group Inc. to Elizabeth M. Murphy, Secretary, Commission, dated November 10, 2011 (``OTC Markets...

  3. Selecting, Evaluating and Creating Policies for Computer-Based Resources in the Behavioral Sciences and Education. (United States)

    Richardson, Linda B., Comp.; And Others

    This collection includes four handouts: (1) "Selection Critria Considerations for Computer-Based Resources" (Linda B. Richardson); (2) "Software Collection Policies in Academic Libraries" (a 24-item bibliography, Jane W. Johnson); (3) "Circulation and Security of Software" (a 19-item bibliography, Sara Elizabeth Williams); and (4) "Bibliography of…

  4. No comfort in the rural South: women living depressed. (United States)

    Hauenstein, Emily J


    Despite the widespread notion of the bucolic life in the country, major depressive disorder (MDD) is common among impoverished women in the rural South. Women with MDD seldom get treated because of the paucity of treatment available, the inability to pay for services because of no insurance, and the distance they must travel to reach care. Even if treatment was available, impoverished rural Southern women are unlikely to seek services because of cultural and social prohibitions. These include incongruence between the biomedical model of MDD and sociocultural explanations for its causes and manifestations, stigma, and traditional viewpoints of women that keep them isolated and invisible. Innovative treatment strategies must be devised for these women that are based on local views of MDD and its treatment, and people and monetary resources available in poor rural economies. Needed research with this population include ethnographic studies to gain understanding of the cultural factors associated with MDD and its treatment and evaluation of outreach, and other novel paradigms of rural service delivery including the use of nonprofessional personnel. Although the problems of treatment and research with this population are daunting, there is an opportunity for imagination, innovation, and creativity in devising local solutions to local problems. Copyright 2003, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing missed opportunities for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in an Eastern Cape local service area. (United States)

    Rispel, L C; Peltzer, K; Phaswana-Mafuya, N; Metcalf, C A; Treger, L


    Prevention of new HIV infections is a critical imperative for South Africa; the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) is one of the most efficacious HIV prevention interventions. Assessment of a PMTCT programme to determine missed opportunities. The Kouga local service area (LSA), bordering Nelson Mandela Bay Municipality (Port Elizabeth) in the Eastern Cape. An assessment was conducted in 2007 before implementing technical support for strengthening the PMTCT programme, including: interviews with 20 PMTCT managers, 4 maternity staff and 27 other health workers on service provision, management, infrastructure, human resources and the health information system; 296 antenatal clinic users on their service perceptions; 70 HIV-positive women on HIV knowledge, infant feeding, coping, support and service perceptions; 8 representatives from community organisations and 101 traditional health practitioners (THPs). Observations were conducted during site visits to health facilities, and the District Health Information System (DHIS) data were reviewed. Staff had high levels of awareness of HIV policies and most had received some relevant training. Nevirapine uptake varied by clinic, with an average of 56%. There were many missed opportunities for PMTCT, with 67% of pregnant women tested for HIV and only 43% of antenatal care attendees tested during a previous pregnancy. Only 6% of HIV-positive women reported support group participation. Reducing missed opportunities for PMTCT requires strengthening of the formal health sector, intersectoral liaison, and greater community support. Priority areas that require strengthening in the formal health sector include HIV counselling and testing; family planning and nutrition counselling; infant follow-up; human resources; and monitoring and evaluation.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats .... to the four international conferences which started in New Mexico in 1975 to 1979 when it was adopted. ... 9 An illustrative listing (such as marital rape, sexual harassment etc.) has been provided by Article ...

  7. Exploring Coping Strategies Among Young Asian American Women Breast Cancer Survivors. (United States)

    Yoo, Grace J; Sudhakar, Anantha; Le, Mai Nhung; Levine, Ellen G


    In recent years, breast cancer rates among young Asian American women have been increasing. Despite increases in breast cancer among young Asian American women, little is known about how this population copes throughout diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship. This study was a qualitative exploration of how young Asian American women cope with breast cancer diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship. In-depth interviews with 22 young (under the age of 50) Asian American women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer were conducted. Through qualitative data analysis, three major themes emerged including moving from managing the emotions of others to expressing emotional vulnerability, moving from work and productivity to work-life balance, and moving beyond the family and reaching out to breast cancer survivors. At diagnosis, participants worked to maintain normalcy including caring for others and working during treatment. Once treatment was over, women worked to find ways to use their experience as a transformative one and also to develop more positive coping skills including expressing emotional vulnerability and reaching out to others. Further studies are needed to create and test culturally tailored supportive interventions that enhance positive coping tools among young Asian American women diagnosed by breast cancer.

  8. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in antenatal women with bad obstetric history. (United States)

    Chintapalli, Suryamani; Padmaja, I Jyothi


    The occurrence of fetal death is one of the tragedies that confront the physician providing obstetric care. Among the various agents associated with infections of pregnancy, viruses are the most important followed by bacteria and protozoa. Among protozoal infections in pregnancy, toxoplasmosis is reported to have a high incidence, sometimes causing fetal death. The study was intended to observe the seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis in pregnant women presenting with bad obstetric history (BOH). A total of 92 antenatal women were included in the study (80 in the study group and 12 in control group). The study group comprised of antenatal women with BOH in the age group of 20-35 years. Antenatal women with Rh incompatibility, pregnancy induced hypertension, diabetes mellitus, renal disorders and syphilis were not included in the study. The control group included women in reproductive age group without BOH. All the samples were screened by enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) for Toxoplasma specific Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. Of the 80 antenatal women in the study group, 36 (45%) were seropositive for Toxoplasma specific IgG antibodies (P habits, illiteracy, socio-economic status and residential status were also studied. We conclude that toxoplasmosis during pregnancy causes congenital fetal infection with possible fetal loss. ELISA was found to be a sensitive serological test for diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis in pregnant women with BOH. Major cause of fetal loss in BOH cases in the study group was abortion.

  9. Unique vaginal microbiota that includes an unknown Mycoplasma-like organism is associated with Trichomonas vaginalis infection. (United States)

    Martin, David H; Zozaya, Marcela; Lillis, Rebecca A; Myers, Leann; Nsuami, M Jacques; Ferris, Michael J


    The prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis infection is highest in women with intermediate Nugent scores. We hypothesized that the vaginal microbiota in T. vaginalis-infected women differs from that in T. vaginalis-uninfected women. Vaginal samples from 30 T. vaginalis-infected women were matched by Nugent score to those from 30 T. vaginalis-uninfected women. Equal numbers of women with Nugent scores categorized as normal, intermediate, and bacterial vaginosis were included. The vaginal microbiota was assessed using 454 pyrosequencing analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence of an unknown organism was obtained by universal bacterial polymerase chain reaction amplification, cloning, and sequencing. Principal coordinates analysis of the pyrosequencing data showed divergence of the vaginal microbiota in T. vaginalis-infected and T. vaginalis-uninfected patients among women with normal and those with intermediate Nugent scores but not among women with bacterial vaginosis. Cluster analysis revealed 2 unique groups of T. vaginalis-infected women. One had high abundance of Mycoplasma hominis and other had high abundance of an unknown Mycoplasma species. Women in the former group had clinical evidence of enhanced vaginal inflammation. T. vaginalis may alter the vaginal microbiota in a manner that is favorable to its survival and/or transmissibility. An unknown Mycoplasma species plays a role in some of these transformations. In other cases, these changes may result in a heightened host inflammatory response.

  10. Women's labour and economic globalisation: a participatory workshop created by Alternative Women in Development (Alt-WID). (United States)

    Barton, C; Nazombei, E


    This article describes the aims, methods, materials and topics used in a participatory workshop created by Alternative Women in Development. The organization aims to bridge the gaps in analyzing human rights and economic justice in both North and South from a feminist perspective through a workshop. This workshop considers the varied roles that women play in the global economy and features a series of anecdotes to illustrate the diverse ways in which globalization affects women in all regions worldwide. The workshop runs for a minimum of 3 hours and is structured as follows: introduction; plenary: identifying the human rights of the women; small-group work, plenary: building a group analysis and discussion of alternatives to the existing policies; and individual and plenary evaluations. Furthermore, four anecdotes used at the workshop are presented. Among the outcomes of the workshop included the identification of the problem causes and development of strategies for action.

  11. Biocultural perspectives on women's health. (United States)


    During the 1997 meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, a session was devoted to biocultural perspectives on women's health in developing countries. The topics covered included female circumcision conducted as part of the traditional wedding ceremony of the Rendille people of Kenya and the deleterious effect of sociocultural factors such as acceptance of premarital sexual intercourse and early child-bearing on the health of adolescent girls in West Africa. A study in Bangladesh sought information on women's health during pregnancy and lactation. Using 19,000 paired questionnaires and urine samples from 493 women representing all reproductive states, pregnancy-related sickness (such as nausea and vomiting) was correlated to hormone levels, maternal age, and fetal loss. Preliminary results contradict a popular belief that incidence of pregnancy-related sickness is associated with a lowered risk of early fetal loss. Another study in Bangladesh revealed that previous research indicating that women in Bangladesh experience menopause eight years sooner than US women was inaccurate. The two-year earlier onset of menopause found in Bangladesh is likely caused by stress-related anovulation. A preliminary literature review has also shown that Bangladeshi women lack significant amounts of phytoestrogens in their diet. Improved knowledge of biocultural factors is sought as a prerequisite for improving medical treatment in developed and developing countries.

  12. Family Planning Needs of Women Experiencing Severe Maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women with severe maternal morbidity represent an important group to target for increasing contraceptive uptake. Our objective was to explore the future fertility intentions, use of family planning including methods and reasons for not wanting to use contraception among a group of women who had traumatic delivery ...

  13. Domestic Violence and Women's Mental Health in Chile (United States)

    Ceballo, Rosario; Ramirez, Cynthia; Castillo, Marcela; Caballero, Gabriela Alejandra; Lozoff, Betsy


    Domestic violence against women is a pervasive, global health problem. This study investigates the correlates and psychological outcomes of domestic abuse among women in a semi-industrial country. The participants included 215 mothers residing in working-class communities located on the outskirts of Santiago, Chile. We utilized structural equation…

  14. Risk Perception in Young Women's Collective Alcohol Consumption (United States)

    Dresler, Emma; Anderson, Margaret


    Purpose: Heavy episodic drinking in young women has caused concern among many groups including public health professionals. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the experiences of young women's alcohol consumption so as to facilitate better health education targeting. Design/methodology/approach: This qualitative descriptive study examines…

  15. Brazil's Higher Education Responses to the Global Challenges of the 21st Century. Thinking Brazil. No. 23 (United States)

    Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 2006


    "Thinking Brazil" is an electronic publication of the Brazil Institute. This issue of "Thinking Brazil" highlights the research of Elizabeth Balbachevsky. On July 24, 2006, Elizabeth Balbachevsky, Woodrow Wilson Center Public Policy Scholar and Associate Professor of Political Science, Universidade de Sao Paulo, presented her research on the…

  16. 100 History-Making Ethnic Women (United States)

    York, Sherry


    A list of hundred history-making ethnic women who have created history in their respective fields and become successful writers is presented. The list includes Alma Flor Ada, Julia Alvarez and Oprah Winfrey.

  17. Calcium Intake in Elderly Australian Women Is Inadequate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin W. Binns


    Full Text Available The role of calcium in the prevention of bone loss in later life has been well established but little data exist on the adequacy of calcium intakes in elderly Australian women. The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intake including calcium of elderly Australian women with the Australian dietary recommendation, and to investigate the prevalence of calcium supplement use in this population. Community-dwelling women aged 70–80 years were randomly recruited using the Electoral Roll for a 2-year protein intervention study in Western Australia. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline by a 3-day weighed food record and analysed for energy, calcium and other nutrients. A total of 218 women were included in the analysis. Mean energy intake was 7,140 ± 1,518 kJ/day and protein provided 19 ± 4% of energy. Mean dietary calcium intake was 852 ± 298 mg/day, which is below Australian recommendations. Less than one quarter of women reported taking calcium supplements and only 3% reported taking vitamin D supplements. Calcium supplements by average provided calcium 122 ± 427 mg/day and when this was taken into account, total calcium intake increased to 955 ± 504 mg/day, which remained 13% lower than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR, 1,100 mg/day for women of this age group. The women taking calcium supplements had a higher calcium intake (1501 ± 573 mg compared with the women on diet alone (813 ± 347 mg. The results of this study indicate that the majority of elderly women were not meeting their calcium requirements from diet alone. In order to achieve the recommended dietary calcium intake, better strategies for promoting increased calcium, from both diet and calcium supplements appears to be needed.

  18. Economic and demographic effects on working women in Latin America. (United States)

    Psaharopoulos, G; Tzannatos, Z


    This analysis of women's work conditions in Latin America includes a description of general trends in female labor force participation in 15 Latin American countries based on census data between 1950 and 1990. Also examined are pay differentials by gender and whether gender alone or individual characteristics of women workers accounted for the sex-wage gap. More extensive treatment is available in the author's other 1992 publications. Trends indicate that marriage and children were important factors determining whether women were in the labor force or not. The probability of being in the labor force was reduced by 50% for married women, and each child reduced the probability by 5%. When marriage and children were controlled for, age had a positive effect on probability of participation. Urban female heads of household had a positive effect on women's labor force participation. The higher a woman's educational qualification, the greater the probability of being in the work force. Earnings increased with increased educational level. An increase of 1 year of schooling for women contributed to an increase in female earnings of 13.1. Investment in education for women has a higher yield for women than for men. Policies that directly or indirectly improve women's employment opportunities, particularly when families are being formed, can have wide distributional effects. Also unresolved was an explanation for why female participation increased during periods of recession and why women are rewarded more for educational effort than men. The suggestion was that public sector employment, which included many women in the labor force, is distorting results.

  19. Mentoring women in academic surgery: overcoming institutional barriers to success. (United States)

    Hoover, Eddie L


    Women now comprise 50% of Caucasian matriculants to medical school; 66.6% of African Americans, 48% of Hispanics and 51.3% of Asians beginning medical school are also women. This trend is likely to continue since women now earn 57% of all undergraduate degrees, and they earn more degrees in the health professions and biological sciences than men. Black and Hispanic women now earn 66% and 60% of bachelor's degrees in their respective ethnic groups. Overall, women are concentrated at the lowest faculty ranks at medical schools, with 70% holding the rank of instructor or assistant professor. Women continue to experience difficulty with recruitment, retention, promotion and pay issues compared to men. They also experience additional gender-specific issues, including primary responsibility for rearing families and quality-of-life issues in some specialties, including most of the surgical disciplines. Clearly, there is an evolving population shift at work here; the pool of candidates for medical school faculty positions is likely to be evenly split between men and women for Caucasians, Hispanics and Asians, while the African-American pool is likely heavily weighted in favor of the women. Women are beginning to garner more Latin honors recognition at graduation as well and the definition of the "best and the brightest" is being redefined. Therefore, institutions must continue to identify the barriers that deter women from entering surgery, to develop research tools to understand how to improve the process of developing leadership skills among women and to insure a "buy-in" of their male counterparts when components of the plan are being implemented.

  20. Women's Path to Management in the Hotel and Catering Industry. (United States)

    Hotel and Catering Training Board, Wembley (England).

    A study examined the employment patterns of women working in the United Kingdom's hotel and catering industry and the opportunities for vocational education that would lead to careers in management. Sixty-four women from different sectors of the industry were interviewed (including women in senior and middle management and some still looking to be…

  1. Women and the University Curriculum: Towards Equality, Democracy, and Peace. (United States)

    Kearney, Mary-Louise, Ed.; Ronning, Anne Holden, Ed.

    This collection of 15 essays focuses on the role of women in higher education around the world, analyzing the gender dimension of the university curriculum in light of the United Nations' World Conference on Women held in Beijing, China, in 1995. The essays include: (1) "Women, Higher Education, and Development" (Mary-Louise Kearney); (2) "The…

  2. She Got Game! Women in Sports. (United States)

    Ruffle, Kathy


    Focuses on library collection development in the area of women in sports. Discusses Title IX, selecting titles, and prominent publishers in the field; and includes an annotated bibliography that includes encyclopedias, history, athletes, how-to books, coaching, general sports, magazines, and Web sites. (LRW)

  3. Exploring sexual behaviors and health communication among older women. (United States)

    Bergeron, Caroline D; Goltz, Heather Honoré; Szucs, Leigh E; Reyes, Jovanni V; Wilson, Kelly L; Ory, Marcia G; Smith, Matthew Lee


    Older women around the globe are generally depicted as asexual beings, which may impact patient-provider discussions about sex. We examined data on 703 aging women in the United States to compare factors associated with women perceiving sex as important and women discussing sex with their physicians since turning 50. While 65.1% of participants perceived sex to be important, only 23.8% discussed sex with their providers since turning 50. Factors related to discussing sex included age, education, having a chronic condition, and consuming alcohol. Provider training and tools about sexual health communication could help launch those discussions about sex and increase advocacy for older women's sexual health.

  4. Evaluating risk communication about fish consumption advisories: efficacy of a brochure versus a classroom lesson in Spanish and English. (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; McDermott, Melanie Hughes; Chess, Caron; Bochenek, Eleanor; Perez-Lugo, Marla; Pflugh, Kerry Kirk


    Presentation format can influence the way target audiences understand risk-related information. Brochures or fish fact sheets are the methods traditionally used by state agencies to inform the public about fish consumption advisories and the risks from consuming fish. This study examines the efficacy of presenting information about the risks from consuming contaminated fish and shellfish in two different formats: a brochure and classroom presentation. The two instruments were developed and tested in Spanish and English, reflecting the local ethnic composition in the Newark Bay Complex. The instruments were tested on women of child-bearing age at the Women, Infants, and Children Center in Elizabeth, New Jersey. Detailed diagrams were used in both presentations, including contaminated fish species, fish preparation methods, and food chain bioaccumulation and transmission to the fetus. There were few language-related differences in the efficacy of the classroom lesson, and the main ideas were understood by both groups. Where there were significant differences in understanding about the risks from consuming fish or crabs from the contaminated waters of Newark Bay, in all cases the women exposed to the classroom lesson had a better understanding than those who read the brochure. Ninety-six percent of the women who heard the lesson understood that it was unsafe to eat fish from the port, compared to 72% of those reading the brochure. Both formats succeeded in imparting information to most women about the area under advisories, the fish species under advisories, and transmission of toxins to the fetus. Information on fish preparation was recalled less clearly, partly because women were asked to relate methods to reduce the risk from consuming fish from 11 presented, and most recalled only two or three of the list. The advantages and disadvantages of conducting short classes to women of child-bearing age are discussed.

  5. Alcohol production as an adaptive livelihood strategy for women farmers in Tanzania and its potential for unintended consequences on women's reproductive health. (United States)

    McCoy, Sandra I; Ralph, Lauren J; Wilson, Wema; Padian, Nancy S


    Although women occupy a central position in agriculture in many developing countries, they face numerous constraints to achieving their full potential including unequal access to assets and limited decision-making authority. We explore the intersection of agricultural livelihoods, food and economic security, and women's sexual and reproductive health in Iringa Region, Tanzania. Our goal was to understand whether the benefits of supporting women in the agricultural sector might also extend to more distal outcomes, including sexual and reproductive health. Using the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework to guide data collection, we conducted 13 focus group discussions (FGD) with female (n = 11) and male farmers (n = 2) and 20 in-depth interviews with agricultural extension officers (n = 10) and village agro-dealers (n = 10). Despite providing the majority of agricultural labor, women have limited control over land and earned income and have little bargaining power. In response to these constraints, women adopt adaptive livelihood strategies, such as alcohol production, that allow them to retain control over income and support their households. However, women's central role in alcohol production, in concert with the ubiquitous nature of alcohol consumption, places them at risk by enhancing their vulnerability to unsafe or transactional sex. This represents a dangerous confluence of risk for female farmers, in which alcohol plays an important role in income generation and also facilitates high-risk sexual behavior. Alcohol production and consumption has the potential to both directly and indirectly place women at risk for undesirable sexual and reproductive health outcomes. Group formation, better access to finance, and engaging with agricultural extension officers were identified as potential interventions for supporting women farmers and challenging harmful gender norms. In addition, joint, multi-sectoral approaches from health and agriculture and

  6. Pregnant women's perspectives on umbilical cord blood banking. (United States)

    Sugarman, J; Kaplan, L; Cogswell, B; Olson, J


    Promising clinical results suggest that umbilical cord blood (UCB) collected after delivery of a child may have many advantages over bone marrow for transplantation. As there are an increasing number of options regarding the collection of UCB, including private and public banking, more pregnant women are likely to be asked to make decisions about UCB collection. We conducted three focus groups with pregnant women to learn about their perspectives on this emerging technology. All the women in these focus groups indicated that they would choose to have UCB collected. Reasons leading to this choice were that the UCB would otherwise be discarded and altruism. Participants indicated that possible reasons to decide not to have UCB collected include concerns about the safety of the mother and neonate, beliefs about the placenta, threats against confidentiality, rejection of UCB, and the influence of fathers. While feeling confident in making an anticipatory decision about UCB collection, women expressed a clear desire to learn much more about the collection, storage (including distinctions between public and private banking), and use of UCB. In addition, they believed that recruitment for UCB collection should occur after sufficient education about UCB and certainly not after delivery and collection. These data will be useful in guiding efforts to help women make decisions about having UCB collected and in developing an appropriate recruitment and informed consent process for donating UCB to a public bank.

  7. Women's Sexual Pain Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lankveld, Jacques J. D. M.; Granot, Michal; Schultz, Willibrord C. M. Weijmar; Binik, Yitzchak M.; Wesselmann, Ursula; Pukall, Caroline F.; Bohm-Starke, Nina; Achtrari, Chahin

    Introduction. Women's sexual pain disorders include dyspareunia and vaginismus and there is need for state-of-the-art information in this area. Aim. To update the scientific evidence published in 2004, from the 2nd International Consultation on Sexual Medicine pertaining to the diagnosis and

  8. Pattern of vitamin D among Pakistani pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasir, J.A.; Zaidi, S.A.A.


    Vitamin D deficiency is an emerging health concern around the world, highly prevalent in south Asian population, despite abundant sunlight. In Pakistan, all age groups are vulnerable to Vitamin D deficiency including pregnant women. This systematic review aimed to determine the pattern of Vitamin D deficiency among Pakistani pregnant women as well as exploring the causes and possible interventions that have had a substantial effect on improving the vitamin D level. Three databases (PubMed, Pub Get and Google Scholar), for the present review up to 2016, were used for the identification of published peer reviewed original relevant studies regarding Vitamin D deficiency among Pakistani pregnant women with the keywords Vitamin D or 25-hydroxyvitamin D or 25(OH)D in combination with pregnant women. Five studies were included for the final analysis. Vitamin D deficiency was common and highly prevalent among Pakistani pregnant women and their neonates. The main reasons for this were found to be avoiding sun exposure, quality of diet, and lower intake of calcium. Maternal vitamin D supplementation was found to be a key intervention to improve the maternal and neonatal vitamin D status. These review findings can be emerging in ensuring the adequate vitamin D level for Pakistani pregnant women during pregnancy, ultimately to achieve positive maternal and neonate's health outcomes. (author)

  9. American Indian working women: correlates of subclinical depression among American Indian women. (United States)

    Napholz, L


    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which role conflict, life satisfaction, self-esteem, instrumentality, expressiveness, age and education predicts ambulatory depression among a community based sample of urban American Indian working women. The convenience sample consisted of a total of 148 Midwestern American Indian working women, ranging in age from 18 to 65 years. Participants completed five instruments assessing gender-related traits of instrumentality and expressiveness, self-esteem, depression, life satisfaction, role conflict, and socio-demographic information. A forced entry stepwise multiple regression was conducted which included all the designated predictor variables. The significant negative Beta in Step 1 indicated that women scoring on the Masculinity (instrumentality) sub-scale were less likely to have a high depression score. The prediction of depression by the Masculinity sub-scale was no longer significant after the life satisfaction and self-esteem variables were added to the equation in Step 2. There was a significant inverse relationship for life satisfaction and self-esteem in predicting the criterion variable, depression. Thirty-two percent of the variance in the prediction of the dependent variable (depression scores) was accounted for by the six variables. In counselling urban American Indian women, supporting instrumentality, enhancing self-esteem and life satisfaction, can positively impact on ambulatory dysphoria.

  10. Sexual Health Issues in Women (United States)

    Cancer treatments such as chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and radiation may cause sexual problems in women. Conditions may include vaginal dryness, vaginal stenosis, and vaginal atrophy. Learn how to manage and treat these sexual problems.

  11. Strategies for Strengthening Women's Participation in Trade Union Leadership. (United States)

    Trebilcock, Anne


    Union efforts to increase representation of women in leadership include (1) strong policy commitment; (2) identification of factors/barriers affecting women's leadership; (3) intensified training; and (4) organizational/structural changes such as alteration of rules and adoption of quotas. (SK)

  12. Risk assessment for psychological disorders in postmenopausal women. (United States)

    Tamaria, Anuradha; Bharti, Rekha; Sharma, Manjula; Dewan, Rupali; Kapoor, Garima; Aggarwal, Abha; Batra, Achla; Batra, Aruna


    Psychological symptoms are common & bothersome in post menopausal women. Hence, screening these women for risk factors for psychological disorders is an important measure to improve their health. To study the risk assessment for psychological disorders in postmenopausal women Material & Methods: This was a prospective and observational study conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of a North Indian tertiary care hospital. It included a cross-section of 200 postmenopausal women attending gynecology OPD and menopausal clinic. Psychological symptoms were present in 32% postmenopausal women while sleep disturbance and decreased concentration were reported by nearly 34%. Irritability, nervousness and depression were the presenting complaints in 31.5%, 28.5% and 23.5% women respectively. Mild depression was present in 41.5%, whereas 3% women suffered from clinical (moderate to severe) depression. Depression was significantly associated with vasomotor symptoms (p=0.000), past history of depression (p=0.048) and psychosocial stressors (p=0.000). Women during postmenopausal years are at increased risk of psychological disorders; hence assessment of mental health and address of related issues should be an integral part of comprehensive evaluation of these women.

  13. Violence Against Displaced Syrian Women in Lebanon. (United States)

    Usta, Jinan; Masterson, Amelia Reese; Farver, JoAnn M


    This study used focus group discussions to explore 29 Syrian women's experiences of being displaced refugees in Lebanon. Women reported intimate partner violence (IPV), harassment, and community violence. They experienced difficult living conditions characterized by crowding and lack of privacy, adult unemployment, and overall feelings of helplessness. Most frequently, they used negative coping strategies, including justification and acceptance of IPV and often physically harmed their own children due to heightened stress. Some sought support from other Syrian refugee women. Although the study did not address the root causes of IPV, the results shed light on women's experiences and indicate that training them in positive coping strategies and establishing support groups would help them face IPV that occurs in refugee settings.

  14. Fair Inclusion of Pregnant Women in Clinical Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zande, I.S.E.


    Background: There has always been a reluctance to include pregnant women in clinical research, due to a fear of harm to the foetus. At the same time, there is a need for evidence-based information on medications and treatments for pregnant women who are or become ill during their pregnancy, which

  15. The features of endometrium receptor apparatus in women with missed abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александра Николаевна Тищенко


    Full Text Available A new complex of modern methods of investigation, both the endometrium and immune system changes in local and hormonal status is developed in this article, rehabilitation of reproductive function in patients with the missed abortion is proposed.Methods. The study involved 124 women, including 64 women with diagnosed missed abortion. The comparison group included 30 women with physiological pregnancy who were performed artificial abortion. 30 healthy women in pregravidae period were examined. The clinical and anamnestic, histological and immunological features of the endometrium and its functional activity were investigated.Results. Pathogenetic mechanisms of menstrual dysfunction were defined in women with the missed abortion. The changes in the secretory transformation of the endometrium, a sharp decrease in its receptor and functional activity, confirming the lack of development of the luteal phase are observed. Based on the research, an algorithm for the restoration of menstrual function in women in the postgravidae period is developed and implemented in practice.Conclusions. The data confirmed the feasibility of implementing the proposed examination and treatment of women with the missed abortion

  16. Resilience in Women who Experience Domestic Violence. (United States)

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos; Łuczak, Joanna


    Violence in the family constitutes a serious social and psychological problem with harmful consequences leading, among others, to changes in the psychological functioning of the victim and, secondarily, also the perpetrator. The aim of this study was to examine resilience in women experiencing domestic violence. The "Ego Resiliency Scale" (ERS) was used to study the group of women suffering domestic violence. The study group included 52 women aged 30-65 years (mean age: 40.15) using assistance of the Crisis Intervention Centre due to experienced domestic violence. They most often reported suffering psychological and physical violence, with the husband or intimate partner being the most common perpetrator. Study women experiencing domestic violence obtained significantly lower scores on the ERS. The lowest scores on the ERS were achieved by women suffering paternal violence, while the highest - by women experiencing violence on the part of the intimate partner. Resilience of study women suffering domestic violence was lower than resilience of the general population, i.e. individuals not experiencing domestic violence. Suffered violence inflicted by the father exerted the greatest adverse impact on resilience. It seems advisable to consider resilience in the process of providing women experiencing domestic violence with psychosocial help.

  17. The Case for Women Mentoring Women (United States)

    Block, Betty Ann; Tietjen-Smith, Tara


    The authors argue that there will be a critical mass of women in leadership positions in kinesiology and across higher education for substantial gender-based mentoring to take place in the 21st century. First, the current state of women in higher education leadership, trends in mentoring, and the reasons it is important for women who have…

  18. Gestational surrogacy: Viewpoint of Iranian infertile women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Rahmani


    Full Text Available Background: Surrogacy is a popular form of assisted reproductive technology of which only gestational form is approved by most of the religious scholars in Iran. Little evidence exists about the Iranian infertile women′s viewpoint regarding gestational surrogacy. Aim: To assess the viewpoint of Iranian infertile women toward gestational surrogacy. Setting and Design: This descriptive study was conducted at the infertility clinic of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 238 infertile women who were selected using the eligible sampling method. Data were collected by using a researcher developed questionnaire that included 25 items based on a five-point Likert scale. 0 Statistical Analysis: Data analysis was conducted by SPSS statistical software using descriptive statistics. 0 Results: Viewpoint of 214 women (89.9% was positive. 36 (15.1% women considered gestational surrogacy against their religious beliefs; 170 women (71.4% did not assume the commissioning couple as owners of the baby; 160 women (67.2% said that children who were born through surrogacy would better not know about it; and 174 women (73.1% believed that children born through surrogacy will face mental problems. Conclusion: Iranian infertile women have positive viewpoint regarding the surrogacy. However, to increase the acceptability of surrogacy among infertile women, further efforts are needed.

  19. Success Stories: Biographical Narratives of Three Women School Principals in Kenya (United States)

    Mayienga, Damaris Moraa


    Studies indicate that women are poorly represented in school leadership across the various regions of the world particularly in developing countries. Most studies explain this underrepresentation in terms of external or institutional factors that have impeded women's advancement onto school leadership. Such factors include women's lack of…

  20. Can South Asia address barriers to women's paid work? | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Jan 22, 2018 ... As women find paid jobs, they are also reducing the gender gap in labour force participation. ... Women may be less able or willing to enter the labour force and they ... Training and education reform are needed to respond to changing ... on the demand side, including the priority given to men over women ...

  1. The influence of age perception on women consumer behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damijan Mumel


    Full Text Available Demographic changes of inhabitants are a factor changing increasingly the situation in Europe and other developed parts of the world. People live longer and are more vital than in the past. The ageing of population affects many areas of everyday life. The number of older persons grows and their characteristics are essentially different than the characteristics of past generations. Those were the reasons for the authors’ interest in the perception of the psychological age of women older than 50. They also focused on the differences between a group of women who see themselves as younger than their actual age and a group of women who feel older. The third field of interest was how that influence on their behavior as a consumer. A total of 225 women were included in the research. To acquire the informations we use a questionnaire, which includes questions about the chronological age against the perceived age and questions about 23 values, 31 free time activities and 15 sports activities. Results show that more than a half of the women feel younger than they really are, 40% feel as old as they are and less than 5% feel older than their actual age. More than a half of the interviewed women think they look 10 years younger. Most of the women think that a person is old when he/she is over 70.

  2. Risk factors for myocardial infarction in women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lene Rørholm; Frestada, Daria; Michelsen, Marie Mide


    physically active than women while women have healthier dietary habits. Genetic factors also affect cardiovascular risk but no sex differences have been seen. Increased cardiovascular risk attributed to psychosocial distress is similar in men and women, but since women are more prone to psychosocial distress......Background: Cardiovascular disease has been the leading cause of death in both sexes in developed countries for decades. In general, men and women share the same cardiovascular risk factors. However, in recent trials including both men and women sexspecific analyses have raised awareness of sex...... differences in cardiovascular risk factors due to both biological and cultural differences. Results: Women experience their first myocardial infarction (MI) 6-10 years later than men and a protective effect of their natural estrogen status prior to menopause has been suggested. Female sex hormones have been...

  3. Giving birth: the voices of Ecuadorian women. (United States)

    Callister, Lynn Clark; Corbett, Cheryl; Reed, Shelly; Tomao, Cassidy; Thornton, Katie G


    The purpose of this ethnographic study was to describe the perceptions of Ecuadorian childbearing women No studies published in English could be found documenting the perspectives of Ecuadorian childbearing women about their birth experiences. Thirty-two women who had recently given birth in Guayaquil, Ecuador participated in audiotaped interviews, which were analyzed as appropriate for ethnographic inquiry. "Enduring birth to obtain the gift" was the overarching theme. Supporting themes included caring for self and accessing prenatal care to have a healthy newborn; relying on God to ensure positive maternal/newborn outcomes; submission of self to healthcare providers because of fear, pain, and lack of education; and valuing motherhood. The focus was on the well-being of the child rather than the quality of the birth experience. With a growing population of women of childbearing age immigrating into the United States from Central and South America, the need for culturally competent care is increasing. Sensitivity to the cultural beliefs and practices of Hispanic and other culturally diverse childbearing women is critical. Women's reliance on God to ensure positive outcomes should be respected. The provision of education and supportive care will help ensure positive outcomes in culturally diverse women.

  4. "We will not rest." Filipino women want a fertility management program that respects women's dignity, women's bodies and women's choices. (United States)

    Alvarez, R O


    The program officer for the Institute for Social Studies and Action presents 1) her views on women's fertility management under different political administrations in the Philippines, 2) the political postures of influential groups, 3) the goals of women's and health groups, and 4) the actions taken by Filipino women. Under Ferdinand Marcos, the official family planning (FP) program emphasized reduction of population growth and established a quota system and incentives for the number of new acceptors. Women, as a result, became victims; e.g. IUDs were inserted without prior knowledge, and inadequate information and follow-up were provided on oral contraceptive use. Efforts were criticized for treating women as program targets and not as individuals capable of making choices. Under Corazon Aquino, the Roman Catholic hierarchy dominated and would have banned all forms of artificial contraception had women's and health groups not blocked the effort. Only in 1989 did President Aquino finally announce that multiple methods of family planning (FP) would be promoted. There was a transition in program services during the transfer to the Department of Health. Currently the government promotes FP within the safe motherhood and child survival context, but adolescents and unmarried women and couples are excluded from FP services. Population control advocates believe FP is a health issue. The Roman Catholic Church accepts only natural methods and believes artificial methods interfere with the natural processes of procreation. Anti-FP groups promote only natural FP methods and wage campaigns to discredit contraceptive methods. Women's and FP groups contend that it is a woman's right to regulate her own fertility. Safe abortion should be made available to those who need it. Women's networks are mobilizing to talk about the issues, to hold public activities to change laws and policies and to encourage women's involvement in decision making affecting their lives, and to conduct

  5. I-Cyborg: Disability, Affect and Public Pedagogy (United States)

    Christie, Elizabeth; Bloustien, Geraldine


    In 2008 Elizabeth underwent a cochlear implant. The necessary but traumatic operation was approached in her usual creative way. To begin, Elizabeth researched the medical process and the ways other individuals had experienced the procedure and its aftermath. Then she set about documenting her personal response through "Facebook", providing often…

  6. Inshore small-mesh trawling survey of the Cape south coast. Part 5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inshore small-mesh trawling survey of the Cape south coast. Part 5. Crustacea, Stomatopoda, Isopoda and. Decapoda. B. Kensley and C.D. Buxton. Port Elizabeth Museum, Port Elizabeth. Forty-six species of Crustacea from the shallow marine waters of the southern Cape coast are listed. Five new records for the area.

  7. When Organization Fails: Why Authority Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaschke, Steffen


    Review of: James R. Taylor and Elizabeth J. Van Every / When Organization Fails: Why Authority Matters. (New York: Routledge, 2014. 220 pp. ISBN: 978 0415741668)......Review of: James R. Taylor and Elizabeth J. Van Every / When Organization Fails: Why Authority Matters. (New York: Routledge, 2014. 220 pp. ISBN: 978 0415741668)...

  8. 78 FR 26368 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company (United States)


    ...; Jackson Duane Fager Trust; Gabrielle Elizabeth Fager Trust; Kaitlin Elizabeth Hiestand Trust; Ella Claire Hiestand Trust and Blake Michael Hiestand Trust; and the Emery E. Fager Trust; the Duane Fager Special.... Michael J. Lewandowski, Assistant Secretary of the Board. [FR Doc. 2013-10671 Filed 5-3-13; 8:45 am...

  9. 33 CFR 117.833 - Pasquotank River. (United States)


    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.833 Pasquotank River. (a) The draw of the Albemarle & Chesapeake railroad bridge, mile 47.7, at Elizabeth City, North Carolina, shall... the train has cleared the bridge. (b) The draw of the US 158 Highway Bridge, mile 50.7, at Elizabeth...

  10. Economic solvency in the context of violence against women: a concept analysis. (United States)

    Gilroy, Heidi; Symes, Lene; McFarlane, Judith


    The aim of this concept analysis is to define economic solvency in the context of violence against women. Poverty, or lack of resources, is often discussed as a risk factor for intimate partner violence. The concept of economic solvency, which may be a protective factor for women, is less often discussed and not well defined. Databases searched for the analysis included EBSCOhost, CINAHL, PubMed and Gender Watch. The Rodgers evolutionary method was used to perform the concept analysis. A total of 134 articles were retrieved, using the specified search terms 'economic solvency and women', 'economic self-reliance and women' and 'economic self-sufficiency and women'. Articles were included if they were peer reviewed, contained the keywords with sufficient context to determine the author's intended meaning, and focused on women only or contrasted men to women. Thirty-five articles were used in the concept analysis. The definition of economic solvency drawn from the concept analysis is: a long-term state that occurs when there is societal structure that supports gender equity and external resources are available and can be used by a woman who has necessary human capital, sustainable employment and independence. Just as poverty and violence are cyclical, so are economic solvency and empowerment of women. To decrease women's risk of intimate partner violence around the world and further improve the status of women, we recommend continued research on economic solvency, including the individual, family, community and societal resources required to obtain economic solvency and the human capital characteristics needed for sustainability. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Treatments for breast abscesses in breastfeeding women. (United States)

    Irusen, Hayley; Rohwer, Anke C; Steyn, D Wilhelm; Young, Taryn


    The benefits of breastfeeding are well known, and the World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life and continuing breastfeeding to age two. However, many women stop breastfeeding due to lactational breast abscesses. A breast abscess is a localised accumulation of infected fluid in breast tissue. Abscesses are commonly treated with antibiotics, incision and drainage (I&D) or ultrasound-guided needle aspiration, but there is no consensus on the optimal treatment. To assess the effects of different treatments for the management of breast abscesses in breastfeeding women. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trial Register (27 February 2015). In addition we searched African Journals Online (27 February 2015), Google Scholar (27 February 2015), ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Databases (27 February 2015) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) search portal (27 February 2015). We also checked reference lists of retrieved studies and contacted experts in the field as well as relevant pharmaceutical companies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating any intervention for treating lactational breast abscesses compared with any other intervention. Studies published in abstract form, quasi-RCTs and cluster-RCTs were not eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. We included six studies. Overall, trials had an unclear risk of bias for most domains due to poor reporting. Two studies did not stratify data for lactational and non-lactational breast abscesses, and these studies do not contribute to the results. This review is based on data from four studies involving 325 women. Needle aspiration (with and without ultrasound guidance) versus incision and drainage (I&D) Mean time (days) to complete resolution of breast abscess (three studies) - there was

  12. IMPROVING WOMEN'S LIVES Practical support for women gives ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IMPROVING WOMEN'S LIVES Practical support for women gives communities a better future. October 26 ... Organized into small cooperatives, the women produce and market argan oil using a mix of traditional and modern methods. At the same time ... arts and craft. Technology helps Asian women balance family and work.

  13. 77 FR 50016 - Extension of Interim Final Temporary Rule on Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions; Correction (United States)


    ... file number should be included on the subject line if email is used. To help the Commission to process... and the pertinent addresses. List of Subjects in 17 CFR Part 240 Brokers, Consumer protection, Currency, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. Dated: August 10, 2012. By the Commission. Elizabeth M...

  14. Real Heroes. (United States)

    Denenberg, Dennis


    Presents stories taken from the book, "50 American Heroes Every Kid Should Meet," explaining that children need to learn about the value of real-life human accomplishments (versus those of athletes, television personalities, and rock stars). The heroes include Elizabeth Blackwell, first American woman doctor; George C. Marshall,…

  15. Characteristics and screening outcome of women referred twice at screening mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setz-Pels, Wikke; Duijm, Lucien E.M.; Jansen, Frits H.; Louwman, Marieke W.J.; Roumen, Rudi M.H.; Voogd, Adri C.


    To determine the characteristics and screening outcome of women referred twice at screening mammography. We included 424,703 consecutive screening mammograms and collected imaging, biopsy and surgery reports of women with screen-detected breast cancer. Review of screening mammograms was performed to determine whether or not an initial and second referral comprised the same lesion. The overall positive predictive value of referral for cancer was 38.6% (95% CI 37.3-39.8%). Of 147 (2.6%) women referred twice, 86 had been referred for a different lesion at second referral and 32 of these proved malignant (37.2%, 95% CI 27.0-47.4%). Sixty-one women had been referred twice for the same lesion, of which 22 proved malignant (36.1%, 95% CI 24.1-48.0%). Characteristics of these women were comparable to women with cancer diagnosed after first referral. Compared with women without cancer at second referral for the same lesion, women with cancer more frequently showed suspicious densities at screening mammography (86.4% vs 53.8%, P = 0.02) and work-up at first referral had less frequently included biopsy (22.7% vs 61.5%, P = 0.004). Cancer risk in women referred twice for the same lesion is similar to that observed in women referred once, or referred for a second time but for a different lesion. (orig.)

  16. Developing Federal Clinical Care Recommendations for Women. (United States)

    Godfrey, Emily M; Tepper, Naomi K; Curtis, Kathryn M; Moskosky, Susan B; Gavin, Loretta E


    The provision of family planning services has important health benefits for the U.S. Approximately 25 million women in the U.S. receive contraceptive services annually and 44 million make at least one family planning-related clinical visit each year. These services are provided by private clinicians, as well as publicly funded clinics, including specialty family planning clinics, health departments, Planned Parenthoods, community health centers, and primary care clinics. Recommendations for providing quality family planning services have been published by CDC and the Office of Population Affairs of the DHHS. This paper describes the process used to develop the women's clinical services portion of the new recommendations and the rationale underpinning them. The recommendations define family planning services as contraceptive care, pregnancy testing and counseling, achieving pregnancy, basic infertility care, sexually transmitted disease services, and preconception health. Because many women who seek family planning services have no other source of care, the recommendations also include additional screening services related to women's health, such as cervical cancer screening. These clinical guidelines are aimed at providing the highest-quality care and are designed to establish a national standard for family planning in the U.S. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Steroid hormone profiling in obese and nonobese women with polycystic ovary syndrome


    Deng, Yuying; Zhang, Yifei; Li, Shengxian; Zhou, Wenzhong; Ye, Lei; Wang, Lihua; Tao, Tao; Gu, Junjie; Yang, Zuwei; Zhao, Dandan; Gu, Weiqiong; Hong, Jie; Ning, Guang; Liu, Wei; Wang, Weiqing


    The study explored differences in the steroidogenic pathway between obese and nonobese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). 1044 women with PCOS (including 350 lean, 312 overweight and 382 obese) and 366 control women without PCOS (including 203 lean, 32 overweight and 131 obese) were enrolled. The differences in steroid hormones were amplified in lean PCOS versus lean controls compared with obese PCOS versus obese contro...

  18. Ensuring the success of women faculty at AMCs: lessons learned from the National Centers of Excellence in Women's Health. (United States)

    Morahan, P S; Voytko, M L; Abbuhl, S; Means, L J; Wara, D W; Thorson, J; Cotsonas, C E


    Since the early 1970s, the numbers of women entering medical school and, subsequently, academic medicine have increased substantially. However, women faculty have not advanced at the expected rate to senior academic ranks or positions of leadership. In 1996, to counter this trend, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) Office on Women's Health included women's leadership as a required component of the nationally funded Centers of Excellence in Women's Health to identify effective strategies and initiate model programs to advance women faculty in academic medicine. The authors describe the experience of Centers at seven U.S. medical schools in initiating and sustaining leadership programs for women. The processes used for program formation, the current programmatic content, and program evaluation approaches are explained. Areas of success (e.g., obtaining support from the institution's leaders) and difficulties faced in maintaining an established program (such as institutional fiscal constraints and the diminishing time available to women to participate in mentoring and leadership activities) are reviewed. Strategies to overcome these and other difficulties (e.g., prioritize and tightly focus the program with the help of an advisory group) are proposed. The authors conclude by reviewing issues that programs for women in academic medicine will increasingly need to focus on (e.g., development of new kinds of skills; issues of recruitment and retention of faculty; and increasing faculty diversity).

  19. Exploring How Nigerian Women Foster Action to Be Taken to Involve More Women Participation in Technical and Vocational Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Akor


    Full Text Available Despite the documented benefits to economic and social development of women and the constitutional guarantee for equal right under the law to all citizens, the advancement of the status of women in Nigeria is still far from satisfactory. The participation of women in technical and vocational education is abysmally low. Recent literature describing education of women in technical and vocational education in Nigeria, still need more equality of access to the program. As the Nigerian transition to knowledge economy, information age and vision 20:2020 technologically literate workforce is vital. Likewise the contribution of women to technical and vocational education profession in vital, yet the number of women considering entering historically dominated profession remain at unacceptable level. Employment prospects for women have increased dramatically in the late 20th century. Yet in technical and vocational education profession, a profession that holds promise and opportunity for one to positively impact society-the lack of women in the field seems baffling. In order to examine how Nigerian women foster action to be taken to resolve misrepresentation of women in technical and vocational education in Polytechnic institution a study was important. The purpose of this study was to identify action to be taken so that more women can participate in the program from the perspective of women who are currently enrolled in technical and vocational education program in Polytechnic institution. One major Polytechnic was selected with twelve participants. The descriptive and exploratory research analyzed the interview responses of the participants in order to examine their perceptions. Recommendations made as a result of this study include: a need to formulate specific strategies, policy and program to promote women participation in technical and vocational education, women representation in policymaking bodies; increase number of women lecturers; encourage

  20. Breastfeeding practices of ethnic Indian immigrant women in Melbourne, Australia. (United States)

    Maharaj, Natasha; Bandyopadhyay, Mridula


    The health benefits of breastfeeding are well documented in public health and medical literature worldwide. Despite this, global rates of breastfeeding steadily decline during the first couple of months postpartum. Although immigrant women have higher initiation rates and a longer duration of breastfeeding overall, breastfeeding practices are compromised because of a myriad of socioeconomic and cultural factors, including the acculturation process. The objective of this study was to show how acculturation and cultural identity influenced breastfeeding practices among Indian immigrants in Melbourne, Australia. Twelve case studies were employed to gather narratives of women's lived experiences. Ethnographic field research methods were used to collect data, including participant observation, semi-structured interviews, case studies, and life histories. This provided in-depth information from women on various aspects of the immigrant experience of motherhood, including infant care and feeding. Participants were opportunistically recruited from Indian obstetricians and gynaecologists. Women identifying as ethnic Indian and in their third trimester of pregnancy were recruited. Interviews were conducted in women's homes in metropolitan Melbourne over a 12 month period between 2004 and 2005. Data were coded and analysed thematically. All women identified as ethnic Indian and initiated breastfeeding in accordance with their cultural identity. Social support and cultural connectivity impacted positively on duration of breastfeeding. However, acculturation (adopting Australian cultural values and gender norms, including returning to paid employment) negatively influenced breastfeeding duration. In addition, the high reliance of recent immigrants on the advice of healthcare professionals who gave inconsistent advice negatively affected exclusive breastfeeding. For ethnic Indian immigrant women breastfeeding practice is closely linked to acculturation and identity construction