WorldWideScience

Sample records for women earn phds

  1. Women's Earnings: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, women's real earnings rose whereas those of men declined. Even as the gender pay gap narrowed, earnings differences between white women and black and Hispanic women continued to grow. (Author)

  2. Earnings Differences between Women and Men. Facts on Working Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Although the gap between women's and men's wages differs slightly depending on how the gap is measured, no matter how they are measured, women's earnings are below those received by men in 97% of the occupations for which data are available. Since 1979, women's earnings have been climbing when compared with men's earnings, gaining steeply during…

  3. The Earnings Gap between Women and Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The size of the earnings gap between men and women has not changed substantially in recent years. The sustained earnings differential contrasts significantly with recent gains women have made in the job market. Several factors contribute to the wage differences: (1) The majority of women are in lower-paying occupations and lower-status jobs even…

  4. Educational Pairings, Motherhood, and Women's Relative Earnings in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bavel, Jan; Klesment, Martin

    2017-12-01

    As a consequence of the reversal of the gender gap in education, the female partner in a couple now typically has as much as or more education compared with the male partner in most Western countries. This study addresses the implications for the earnings of women relative to their male partners in 16 European countries. Using the 2007 and 2011 rounds of the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (N = 58,292), we investigate the extent to which international differences in women's relative earnings can be explained by educational pairings and their interaction with the motherhood penalty on women's earnings, by international differences in male unemployment, or by cultural gender norms. We find that the newly emerged pattern of hypogamy is associated with higher relative earnings for women in all countries and that the motherhood penalty on relative earnings is considerably lower in hypogamous couples, but neither of these findings can explain away international country differences. Similarly, male unemployment is associated with higher relative earnings for women but cannot explain away the country differences. Against expectations, we find that the hypogamy bonus on women's relative earnings, if anything, tends to be stronger rather than weaker in countries that exhibit more conservative gender norms.

  5. Drawing Women In: Engaging in Science and Engineering Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Senta

    2013-03-01

    Recent data on the participation of women in the scientific, technological, engineering, and mathematical (STEM) disciplines shows a landscape that is somewhat different from our expectations in the past. For example, women who earn bachelors' degrees in physics go on to earn PhDs, be hired to faculty positions, and achieve promotions at the same rate as their male counterparts. However, such gains do not foretell equal participation of women in physics since, although girls make up about half of high school physics classes, the fraction of bachelor's degrees earned by women has been flat at around 20% for about a decade. This remains true even with significantly increased awareness of the need to attract more women to STEM fields and despite various interventions to attract and retain talented women. This talk will present an overview of data on women's participation in STEM disciplines, provide possible explanations for the continued failure to attract women to some STEM fields, and give a brief description of some current interventions.

  6. The Wage Gap: Women's and Men's Earnings. Briefing Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Lois; Gish, Melinda; Braunstein, Jill; Allore, Sara

    After remaining virtually unchanged from 1995 through the 1970s, the wage gap between women and men began to decline in the 1980s. By the early 1990s, the ratio of the annual earnings of women employed full time year-round to the annual earnings of their male counterparts reached 72.0%. That ratio decreased slightly (to 71.4%) in 1995. The wage…

  7. Investigating MBA Degrees Earned by Women: A Decade of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Cheryl; Rush, Douglas; Gartland, Myles

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined master of business administration (MBA) degrees earned by women at U.S. higher education institutions at three specific years spanning a decade: 2003, 2008, and 2013 to determine whether there was a significant difference in the percentage of MBA degrees earned by women based on the independent variables of institutional type,…

  8. Women in Physics and Astronomy in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivie, Rachel

    2005-10-01

    I presented results from the AIP report, Women in Physics and Astronomy, 2005 (R. Ivie and K. Nies Ray, AIP Publication Number R-430.02, www.aip.org/statistics/trends/reports/women05.pdf), which was funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. Compared with other scientific fields, women are very underrepresented in physics, although their representation has increased in the last 30 years. By 2003, women earned 18% of the physics degrees in the United States, which is a record high. In 2003, women earned 26% of the PhDs in astronomy. However, minority women (African-American and Hispanic) receive very few physics and astronomy degrees in the U.S. Also troubling is the salary gap between men's and women's salaries in physics and related fields. Even within the same employment sector and controlling for years since degree, women earn 5% less than men. The percentage of newly hired part-time faculty who are women is higher than the percentages hired into tenured and tenure-track positions. Many women take physics in high school, but a smaller percentage take the Advanced Placement physics exams, and an even smaller percentage earn physics bachelor's degrees. However, once women have earned a bachelor's degree in physics, they are able to persist in academic careers. In fact, our data show that women are represented on physics and astronomy faculties at about the rates we would expect given degree production in the past. Finally, women's representation in physics varies across countries, documenting the influence of social and cultural factors on the representation of women in science.

  9. The feminization of foreign currency earnings: women's labor in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarasinghe, V

    1998-01-01

    This paper considers women's participation in foreign currency earning activities in Sri Lanka. The author first analyzes the structure of women's participation patterns in the major foreign currency earning activities in the country, including consideration of their wage levels and the impact of ethnicity, age, educational levels, and skills upon the different components of those activities in which women participate. She then probes the applicability for Sri Lanka of Guy Standing's argument that structural adjustment policies (SAP) have triggered a change in labor force practices leading to a feminization through flexible labor. Many studies have shown that cutbacks in subsidies mandated by SAPs and initiated in the 1980s among developing countries have adversely affected poor women. Women have adjusted to the new situation in a variety of ways, ranging from cutting their household budgets for basic needs to seeking income-generating work in the informal sector and participating in labor-intensive manufacturing activities. In closing, the author assesses the degree to which the new demands made upon women resulting from the effect of SAPs upon their households have stimulated women's increasing participation in foreign currency earning activities.

  10. The effects of adolescent intimate partner violence on women's educational attainment and earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Adrienne E; Greeson, Megan R; Kennedy, Angie C; Tolman, Richard M

    2013-11-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious, widespread problem that negatively affects women's lives, including their economic status. The current study explored whether the financial harm associated with IPV begins as early as adolescence. With longitudinal data from a sample of 498 women currently or formerly receiving welfare, we used latent growth curve modeling to examine the relationships between adolescent IPV, educational attainment, and women's earnings. We found that women who had been victimized by a partner during adolescence obtained less education compared with nonvictimized women, with victimization indirectly influencing women's earnings via educational attainment. The findings support the need for intervention strategies aimed at preventing IPV and promoting women's educational and career development over the life course.

  11. Women in Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemone, Margaret A.; Waukau, Patricia L.

    1982-11-01

    The names of 927 women who are or have been active in meteorology or closely related fields have been obtained from various sources. Of these women, at least 500 are presently active. An estimated 4-5% of the total number of Ph.D.s in meteorology are awarded to women. About 10% of those receiving B.S. and M.S. degrees are women.The work patterns, accomplishments, and salaries of employed women meteorologists have been summarized from 330 responses to questionnaires, as functions of age, family status, part- or full-time working status, and employing institutions. It was found that women meteorologists holding Ph.D.s are more likely than their male counterparts to be employed by universities. As increasing number of women were employed in operational meteorology, although few of them were married and fewer still responsible for children. Several women were employed by private industry and some had advanced into managerial positions, although at the present time, such positions remain out of the reach of most women.The subjective and objective effects of several gender-related factors have been summarized from the comments and responses to the questionnaires. The primary obstacles to advancement were found to be part-time work and the responsibility for children. Part-time work was found to have a clearly negative effect on salary increase as a function of age. prejudicated discrimination and rules negatively affecting women remain important, especially to the older women, and affirmative action programs are generally seen as beneficial.Surprisingly, in contrast to the experience of women in other fields of science, women Ph.D.s in meteorology earn salaries comparable of their employment in government or large corporations and universities where there are strong affirmative action programs and above-average salaries. Based on the responses to the questionnaire, the small size of the meteorological community is also a factor, enabling women to become recognized

  12. How Federal Government Policies Have Helped Women Earn College Degrees?

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Deondra

    2014-01-01

    Scholars have long recognized that higher education brings knowledge and skills that translate into economic gains and enhanced political engagement, but little attention has been paid to the shifting impact of U.S. policies on college attendance by men and women. Once a male bastion, American higher education has become much more welcoming to women since the mid twentieth century. Starting in 1981, women earned the majority of bachelor’s degrees, and by 2003 U.S. colleges enrolled 1.3 women ...

  13. Scientific Eminence: Where Are the Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagly, Alice H; Miller, David I

    2016-11-01

    Women are sparsely represented among psychologists honored for scientific eminence. However, most currently eminent psychologists started their careers when far fewer women pursued training in psychological science. Now that women earn the majority of psychology Ph.D.'s, will they predominate in the next generation's cadre of eminent psychologists? Comparing currently active female and male psychology professors on publication metrics such as the h index provides clues for answering this question. Men outperform women on the h index and its two components: scientific productivity and citations of contributions. To interpret these gender gaps, we first evaluate whether publication metrics are affected by gender bias in obtaining grant support, publishing papers, or gaining citations of published papers. We also consider whether women's chances of attaining eminence are compromised by two intertwined sets of influences: (a) gender bias stemming from social norms pertaining to gender and to science and (b) the choices that individual psychologists make in pursuing their careers. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. The Influence of Education and Family Background on Women's Earnings in Midlife: Evidence from a British National Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuh, Diana; Head, Fenny; Hardy, Rebecca; Wadsworth, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Observes that research on the influence of education on adult earnings hasn't focused on differences between women. Looks at British women born immediately after World War Two. Shows that women who were able to take advantage of expanded educational opportunities and achieve high educational qualifications earned significantly more than less…

  15. Creating opportunities for science PhDs to pursue careers in high school education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Kari M H; Vale, Ronald D

    2013-11-01

    The United States is confronting important challenges at both the early and late stages of science education. At the level of K-12 education, a recent National Research Council report (Successful K-12 STEM Education) proposed a bold restructuring of how science is taught, moving away from memorizing facts and emphasizing hands-on, inquiry-based learning and a deeper understanding of the process of science. At higher levels of training, limited funding for science is leading PhDs to seek training and careers in areas other than research. Might science PhDs play a bigger role in the future of K-12 education, particularly at the high school level? We explore this question by discussing the roles that PhDs can play in high school education and the current and rather extensive barriers to PhDs entering the teaching profession and finally suggest ways to ease the entrance of qualified PhDs into high school education.

  16. Creating opportunities for science PhDs to pursue careers in high school education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Kari M. H.; Vale, Ronald D.

    2013-01-01

    The United States is confronting important challenges at both the early and late stages of science education. At the level of K–12 education, a recent National Research Council report (Successful K–12 STEM Education) proposed a bold restructuring of how science is taught, moving away from memorizing facts and emphasizing hands-on, inquiry-based learning and a deeper understanding of the process of science. At higher levels of training, limited funding for science is leading PhDs to seek training and careers in areas other than research. Might science PhDs play a bigger role in the future of K–12 education, particularly at the high school level? We explore this question by discussing the roles that PhDs can play in high school education and the current and rather extensive barriers to PhDs entering the teaching profession and finally suggest ways to ease the entrance of qualified PhDs into high school education. PMID:24174464

  17. Personality, IQ, and Lifetime Earnings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gensowski, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Talented individuals are seen as drivers of long-term growth, but how do they realize their full potential? In this paper, I show that lifetime earnings of high-IQ men and women are substantially influenced by their personality traits, in addition to intelligence and education. Personality traits......, as identified in a factor model, significantly affect earnings, but not for young workers. The effects are furthermore heterogeneous by educational attainment. For women, personality traits do not affect family earnings in the same way as own earnings. Personality and IQ also influence earnings indirectly...... through education, which has sizeable positive rates of return for men in this sample. Women’s returns to education past a bachelor’s degree are lowered through worse marriage prospects, which offset gains to education in terms of own earnings. The causal effect of education is identified through matching...

  18. Trends in the earnings gender gap among dentists, physicians, and lawyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Le, Thanh An; Lo Sasso, Anthony T; Vujicic, Marko

    2017-04-01

    The authors examined the factors associated with sex differences in earnings for 3 professional occupations. The authors used a multivariate Blinder-Oaxaca method to decompose the differences in mean earnings across sex. Although mean differences in earnings between men and women narrowed over time, there remained large, unaccountable earnings differences between men and women among all professions after multivariate adjustments. For dentists, the unexplained difference in earnings for women was approximately constant at 62% to 66%. For physicians, the unexplained difference in earnings for women ranged from 52% to 57%. For lawyers, the unexplained difference in earnings for women was the smallest of the 3 professions but also exhibited the most growth, increasing from 34% in 1990 to 45% in 2010. The reduction in the earnings gap is driven largely by a general convergence between men and women in some, but not all, observable characteristics over time. Nevertheless, large unexplained gender gaps in earnings remain for all 3 professions. Policy makers must use care in efforts to alleviate earnings differences for men and women because measures could make matters worse without a clear understanding of the nature of the factors driving the differences. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Constraints on the Empowerment of Women : Which constraints limit women's earnings opportunities in developing countries? And can theUnited Nations and the World Bank's strategies overcome these constraints?

    OpenAIRE

    Romay, Carol Lorena Perez

    2011-01-01

    The international community has committed itself to the goal of human development and more concretely to the empowerment of women. Empowerment of women is defined as ‘improving their ability to access the constituents of development - in particular health, education, earning opportunities, rights, and political participation’ (Duflo, 2005). In this thesis I concentrate on the empowerment of women in terms of the improvement of their earning opportunities. My research questions are: ...

  20. Education, work and earnings of Peruvian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, E M

    1996-01-01

    This study describes trends in educational attainment among women in Peru, and examines the determinants of educational attainment, labor force participation and employment, and earnings. Data were obtained from the Peruvian Living Standards Survey among a sample of 5644 women aged 20-59 years. Findings indicate that parents' educational variables had a positive and statistically significant relationship with the educational attainment of their daughters. The impact declined over time from older to younger cohorts. School reforms improved women's access to education. Education became more universal and compulsory over time. Daughters of mothers with white collar occupations had higher levels of schooling than farmers' daughters. The effects of fathers' education was larger. There was a wider gap between farmers and nonfarmers. Textbooks, teachers, and number of grades offered were the only primary school inputs that showed any clear cohort trend in their effect on years of schooling. As primary schools became more available, textbooks had a greater impact on school attainment. The impact of textbooks was larger for women than for men. The number of grades offered had a large positive effect which increased across cohorts from older to younger. Findings suggest weak effects of school reforms on women's likelihood of participating in the paid or unpaid labor force. Years of schooling had a very small and negative effect on total labor force participation. Woman's paid employment was influenced by age, education and training, household characteristics, and family's unearned income. Educational attainment had a small positive effect on participation in paid employment for younger women and no effect for older women. The average rate of return in paid employment to primary education was about 12%. Primary education had the highest rate of return. The return to job tenure was higher for younger women.

  1. Sex Differences in Doctoral Student Publication Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubienski, Sarah Theule; Miller, Emily K.; Saclarides, Evthokia Stephanie

    2018-01-01

    Women in the sciences who earn PhDs are less likely than their male counterparts to pursue tenure-track positions at research universities. Moreover, among those who become STEM researchers, men have been found to publish more than women. These patterns raise questions about when sex differences in publication begin. Using data from a survey of…

  2. Why do women still earn less than men? Decomposing the Dutch gender pay gap, 1996-2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, E.; Plantenga, J.; Vlasblom, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    Despite major improvements in women’s labour market attachment, women still earn considerably less than men. International research shows that the persistence of the gender pay gap may be due to the fact that although the gap in characteristics between men and women is diminishing, changes in the

  3. Do PhDs Voluntarily Opt for Private Sector Employment? Evidence of Push and Pull Effects on Mobility Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Heidi Skovgaard

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark, policy makers have increased admissions to PhD programs to ensure the flow of researchers into the private sector, thereby increasing knowledge transfer. However, we know little about the factors influencing the sector mobility of PhD graduates. While opting for employment...... in the private sector might be driven by personal preferences, there might also be external factors pushing PhDs to choose the private sector. This article examines the push and pull effects on mobility choices using duration models to estimate the transition rates to private sector employment. The analyses show...... that the preference for and ability to do academic science reduces transition rates to the private sector, whereas being in a research position and earnings potential are attractors to the private sector. Hence, both push and pull effects determine sector mobility. Once the initial sector choice has been made...

  4. Earth and Space Science Ph.D. Class of 2003 Report released

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keelor, Brad

    AGU and the American Geological Institute (AGI) released on 26 July an employment study of 180 Earth and space science Ph.D. recipients who received degrees from U.S. universities in 2003. The AGU/AGI survey asked graduates about their education and employment, efforts to find their first job after graduation, and experiences in graduate school. Key results from the study include: The vast majority (87%) of 2003 graduates found work in the Earth and space sciences, earning salaries commensurate with or slightly higher than 2001 and 2002 salary averages. Most (64%) graduates were employed within academia (including postdoctoral appointments), with the remainder in government (19%), industry (10%), and other (7%) sectors. Most graduates were positive about their employment situation and found that their work was challenging, relevant, and appropriate for someone with a Ph.D. The percentage of Ph.D. recipients accepting postdoctoral positions (58%) increased slightly from 2002. In contrast, the fields of physics and chemistry showed significant increases in postdoctoral appointments for Ph.D.s during the same time period. As in previous years, recipients of Ph.D.s in the Earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences (median age of 32.7 years) are slightly older than Ph.D. recipients in most other natural sciences (except computer sciences), which is attributed to time taken off between undergraduate and graduate studies. Women in the Earth, atmospheric,and ocean sciences earned 33% of Ph.D.s in the class of 2003, surpassing the percentage of Ph.D.s earned by women in chemistry (32%) and well ahead of the percentage in computer sciences (20%), physics (19%), and engineering (17%). Participation of other underrepresented groups in the Earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences remained extremely low.

  5. The gender earnings gap among pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Manuel J; Armayor, Graciela M; Deziel, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    A gender earnings gap exists across professions. Compared with men, women earn consistently lower income levels. The determinants of wages and salaries should be explored to assess whether a gender earnings gap exists in the pharmacy profession. The objectives of this study were to (1) compare the responses of male and female pharmacists' earnings with human-capital stock, workers' preferences, and opinion variables and (2) assess whether the earnings determination models for male and female pharmacists yielded similar results in estimating the wage-and-salary gap through earnings projections, the influence of each explanatory variable, and gender differences in statistical significance. Data were collected through the use of a 37-question survey mailed to registered pharmacists in South Florida, United States. Earnings functions were formulated and tested separately for male and female pharmacists using unlogged and semilog equation forms. Number of hours worked, human-capital stock, job preferences, and opinion variables were hypothesized to explain wage-and-salary differentials. The empirical evidence led to 3 major conclusions: (1) men's and women's earnings sometimes were influenced by different stimuli, and when they responded to the same variables, the effect often was different; (2) although the influence of some explanatory variables on earnings differed in the unlogged and semilog equations, the earnings projections derived from both equation forms for male and female pharmacists were remarkably similar and yielded nearly identical male-female earnings ratios; and (3) controlling for number of hours worked, human-capital stock, job preferences, and opinion variables reduced the initial unadjusted male-female earnings ratios only slightly, which pointed toward the presence of gender bias. After controlling for human-capital stock, job-related characteristics, and opinion variables, male pharmacists continued to earn higher income levels than female

  6. Commentary: PhDs in Biochemistry Education--5 Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offerdahl, Erika G.; Momsen, Jennifer L.; Osgood, Marcy

    2014-01-01

    In this commentary, the discussion of PhDs in biochemistry education research is expanded to explore a number of diverse pathways leading to a competitive research program in biochemistry education research.

  7. Why do women still earn less than men? Decomposing the Dutch gender pay gap, 1996-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Fransen , Eva; Plantenga , Janneke; Vlasblom , Jan Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Despite major improvements in women?s labour market attachment, women still earn considerably less than men. International research shows that the persistence of the gender pay gap may be due to the fact that although the gap in characteristics between men and women is diminishing, changes in the wage structure counteract this change. This article will study whether this `swimming upstream? phenomenon is also playing a role in the rather slow convergence between male and f...

  8. A Debate of Work Protection Among Informal Wage Earning Women Workers in Bengal

    OpenAIRE

    Sohini Basu

    2015-01-01

    The conceptualization of work security provision in universal labor standards does not really question the reasons of powerlessness and vulnerabilities that poor households are exposed to. As a consequence, the work protection in India does not necessarily ensure work security provision to the poorest. This article captures the problem of work security from the life experiences of women workers who earn their livelihoo...

  9. The Male-Female Wage Gap: Lifetime Earnings Losses. Briefing Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Heidi; Whittaker, Julie

    Currently, the median full-time woman worker earns 74.4 percent of the annual earnings of the median man. Over their lifetime, young women stand to lose a great deal of money due to differences in the wages for women and men. Estimates are that the average 25-year-old woman who works full time year round for 40 years will earn $523,000 less than…

  10. Commentary: PhDs in biochemistry education-5 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offerdahl, Erika G; Momsen, Jennifer L; Osgood, Marcy

    2014-01-01

    In this commentary, the discussion of PhDs in biochemistry education research is expanded to explore a number of diverse pathways leading to a competitive research program in biochemistry education research. © 2013 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  11. Personality, IQ, and Lifetime Earnings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gensowski, Miriam

    2018-01-01

    This paper estimates the effects of personality traits and IQ on lifetime earnings of the men and women of the Terman study, a high-IQ U.S. sample. Age-by-age earnings profiles allow a study of when personality traits affect earnings most, and for whom the effects are strongest. I document...... a concave life-cycle pattern in the payoffs to personality traits, with the largest effects between the ages of 40 and 60. An interaction of traits with education reveals that personality matters most for highly educated men. The largest effects are found for Conscientiousness, Extraversion...

  12. Her earnings: Exploring variation in wives' earning contributions across six major Asian groups and Whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Veena S

    2015-07-01

    Previous research on understanding race-ethnic differentials in employment and economic contributions by married women has primarily focused on Blacks, Hispanics, or Whites. This study investigates variations in wives' earning contributions as measured by wives earnings as a proportion of total annual household earnings among six Asian groups, Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese relative to native born non-Hispanic White. I disaggregate the six Asian groups by their ethnicity and nativity status. Using pooled data from 2009-2011 American Community Survey, the findings show significance of human capital, hours of paid labor market engagement and nativity status. There is strong and negative association between husbands' human capital and labor supply with wives' earning contributions suggesting near universality of male-breadwinner status. Notwithstanding the commonalities, there is significant intergroup diversity. While foreign born and native born Filipina wives despite their spouses' reasonably high human capital and work hours, contribute one of the highest shares, the same cannot be said for the Asian Indians and Japanese. For foreign born Asian Indian and to some extent Japanese women, their high human capital is not translated to high earning contribution after controlling for husband's human capital. Further, nativity status impacts groups differentially. Native born Vietnamese wives contribute the greatest. Overall, the findings underscore the relevance of employing multiple conceptual frameworks in understanding earning contributions of foreign and native born Asian wives belonging to the six Asian groups, Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Obesity, Unemployment, and Earnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho Härkönen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the effects of obesity—a clear signal of weight abnormality—on unemployment and earnings among Finnish men and women. Our empirical data consist of the last four waves (waves 4 to 8 of the Finnish section of the European Community Household Panel (ECHP data collected between 1998 and 2001. According to our results, obese women have a significantly higher risk of unemployment (even after controlling for age, level of education and other related factors, than women who are not obese. Furthermore, the generally weaker occupational positions of obese women tend to translate to lower earnings. Overall, obese women are more likely to have weaker labour market attachment  and hold socio-economically weaker positions. Similar results were not found among men. Thus, our results indicate the presence of gender discrimination in the Finnish labour market. In the conclusions we further discuss weight related impacts on succeeding in the labour market, but also its role as a possible risk factor in drifting away from employment. We reflect on this issue as a form of inequality that can have an increasing significance in the future.

  14. Earnings, Uncertainty, and the Self-Employment Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Maire, Daniel; Schjerning, Bertel

    2007-01-01

    -employed can retain earnings and thereby transfer income across tax-years. Secondly, expected income level and income variance are important determinants in choice of occupation. Thirdly, men put more emphasis on expected earnings level, while women appears more risk averse, which contribute to explain why......This paper investigates the relationship between self-employment choice, expected earnings, and uncertainty. Several interesting results emerge from our analysis on Danish longitudinal register data: Firstly, self-employed (taxable) personal income bunch at kink points in the tax system since self...... fewer women are self-employed. Finally, our results suggest that non-western immigrants are marginalized into self-employment. Occupational choice, self-employment, wage-di¤erentials, income uncertainty, risk aversion, overcon…dence, self-selection, gender di¤erences.  ...

  15. Why do very unattractive workers earn so much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi; Hu, Shihao; Larere, Adrien

    2018-05-01

    Kanazawa and Still (2018) showed that very unattractive workers earned more than unattractive workers, sometimes more than average-looking or attractive workers, because they had higher levels of intelligence and education, but they did not explain why very unattractive workers had higher intelligence and education. There are both theoretical and empirical reasons to expect that some intelligent men may prefer to marry very unattractive women. The analysis of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) shows that very unattractive women were significantly more likely to be married at Age 29 than unattractive or average-looking women, and their spouses or partners earned significantly more than those of unattractive or average-looking women. If intelligent men have historically preferred to marry very unattractive women generation after generation, then, because both general intelligence and physical attractiveness are highly heritable, this can explain why very unattractive workers are more intelligent and achieve higher education, thereby earning more. It can also explain why the positive correlation between intelligence and physical attractiveness is not larger despite assortative mating of intelligent men of higher status and physically attractive women over many generations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Expanding wallets and waistlines: the impact of family income on the BMI of women and men eligible for the Earned Income Tax Credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeiser, Maximilian D

    2009-11-01

    The rising rate of obesity has reached epidemic proportions and is now one of the most serious public health challenges facing the US. However, the underlying causes for this increase are unclear. This paper examines the effect of family income changes on body mass index (BMI) and obesity using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort. It does so by using exogenous variation in family income in a sample of low-income women and men. This exogenous variation is obtained from the correlation of their family income with the generosity of state and federal Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) program benefits. Income is found to significantly raise the BMI and probability of being obese for women with EITC-eligible earnings, and have no appreciable effect for men with EITC-eligible earnings. The results imply that the increase in real family income from 1990 to 2002 explains between 10 and 21% of the increase in sample women's BMI and between 23 and 29% of their increased obesity prevalence. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Physics Doctorates: Skills Used & Satisfaction with Employment. Data from the Degree Recipient Follow-Up Survey for the Classes of 2013 and 2014. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pold, Jack; Mulvey, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    By the time people earn physics PhDs, they have learned a great deal about physics and how research is conducted. However, physics PhDs also develop skills and knowledge in a number of related areas, such as advanced mathematics, programming, modeling, and technical writing. Physics PhDs draw upon an arsenal of skills and knowledge in their…

  18. A Double-Negative Effect on the Earnings of Immigrant Women? Evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Husted, L.; Rosholm, Michael

    In this paper we investigate whether there exists a double-negative effect on the earnings of immigrant women in Denmark stemming from a combined negative effect of gender and foreign country of origin. We estimate separate wage equations for Danes and a number of immigrant groups allowing...... for individual specific effects. Considering females, correcting for possible sample selection bias due to the participation decision is essential. Based on a Danish panel of register data, we identify some groups of immigrant females that experience a strong and persistent double-negative effect on wages even...

  19. Self-Employment, Earnings, and Sexual Orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Jepsen, Christopher; Jepsen, Lisa K.

    2017-01-01

    Although many studies document differences by sexual orientation in earnings and other labor-market outcomes, little is known about differences in self-employment. Our study contributes to both the self-employment literature and sexual-orientation literature by analyzing differences in self-employment rates and earnings by sexual orientation. Gay men are less likely to be self-employed than married men, whereas lesbians are equally likely to be self-employed as married women. We find that gay...

  20. Enterprise Bargaining and the Gender Earnings Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Examination of the widening gender earnings gap in Australia indicates that women's wages continue to lag behind those of men. The main factor appears to be women's concentration in part-time work in enterprises where bargaining is less likely to occur. (JOW)

  1. The Sources of Life Chances: Does Education, Class Category, Occupation, or Short-Term Earnings Predict 20-Year Long-Term Earnings?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChangHwan Kim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In sociological studies of economic stratification and intergenerational mobility, occupation has long been presumed to reflect lifetime earnings better than do short-term earnings. However, few studies have actually tested this critical assumption. In this study, we investigate the cross-sectional determinants of 20-year accumulated earnings using data that match respondents in the Survey of Income and Program Participation to their longitudinal earnings records based on administrative tax information from 1990 to 2009. Fit statistics of regression models are estimated to assess the predictive power of various proxy variables, including occupation, education, and short-term earnings, on cumulative earnings over the 20-year time period. Contrary to the popular assumption in sociology, our results find that cross-sectional earnings have greater predictive power on long-term earnings than occupation-based class classifications, including three-digit detailed occupations for both men and women. The model based on educational attainment, including field of study, has slightly better fit than models based on one-digit occupation or the Erikson, Goldthorpe, and Portocarero class scheme. We discuss the theoretical implications of these findings for the sociology of stratification and intergenerational mobility.

  2. Earnings management to avoid earnings decreases and losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøler, Finn

    2005-01-01

    This study focuses on earnings management by investigating the frequency distribution of the reported earnings (changes) by use of the approach documented by Burgstahler & Dichev (1997). In this study, it is investigated whether Danish firms use earnings management to avoid earnings decreases (an...... losses); and second: firm managers control "manageable" accounting accruals in anticipation of managing earnings....... losses) by examining the earnings (changes) frequency distribution. This approach captures neither the magnitude nor how earnings are managed. Consequently, the relation between main "manageable" elements of working capital, current assets (among these the key components inventory and accounts receivable......) and current liabilities, and reported earnings (changes) are examined. To address the problem further the modified Jones (1991) model is used to identify and separate discretionary accruals in order to identify pre-managed earnings (changes). The frequency distribution of these calculated premanaged earnings...

  3. Who Marries Differently-Aged Spouses? Earnings, Ability and Appearance

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour, Hani; McKinnish, Terra

    2012-01-01

    In direct contrast to conventional wisdom and most economic models of gender differences in age of marriage, we present robust evidence that men and women who are married to differently-aged spouses are negatively selected. Earnings analysis of married couples in the 1970, 1980, 1990 and 2000 Decennial Censuses finds that male earnings decrease with within-couple age difference, regardless of whether the man is older or younger than his wife. In contrast, female earnings increase with within-...

  4. How Women Can Earn a Living Wage: The Effects of Pay Equity Remedies and a Higher Minimum Wage. Research-in-Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figart, Deborah M.; Lapidus, June

    Efforts to shift women from welfare into the labor market will not necessarily move women out of poverty because the wages they are likely to earn are so low. According to research tracking Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) recipients over a 2-year period, 43% of AFDC recipients combine welfare with a substantial amount of paid…

  5. A Debate of Work Protection Among Informal Wage Earning Women Workers in Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohini Basu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The conceptualization of work security provision in universal labor standards does not really question the reasons of powerlessness and vulnerabilities that poor households are exposed to. As a consequence, the work protection in India does not necessarily ensure work security provision to the poorest. This article captures the problem of work security from the life experiences of women workers who earn their livelihood from informal wage work. An important focus of the study remains on the institutional negotiations. Broadly, the article through the experiences of Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act implementation in India has focused on the changing reasons of marginalization and powerlessness.

  6. Scientific (Wo)manpower?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna; Persson, Inga

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate to what extent male and female PhDs choose academic vs non‐academic employment. Further, it analyses gender earnings differences in the academic and non‐academic labour markets. Design/methodology/approach – Rich Swedish cross‐sectional regist...... scientific human capital. Originality/value – The study is the first to investigate career‐choice and earnings of Swedish PhDs. Further, the study is the first to investigate both the academic and the non‐academic labour markets....

  7. Gender Segregation in Fields of Study at Community Colleges and Implications for Future Earnings. Fact Sheet #C395

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moughari, Layla; Gunn-Wright, Rhiana; Gault, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Postsecondary education yields myriad benefits, including increased earnings potential, higher lifetime wages, and access to quality jobs. But postsecondary degrees are not all equal in the benefits they bring to students, and women tend to obtain degrees in fields with lower earnings. Women with associate degrees earn approximately 75 percent of…

  8. Engaging in Earnings Management to Avoid Negative Earnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Subekti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the earnings management behavior of companies listed in the Indonesia Stock Exchange (ISE. Specifically, the study investigates whether companies engaging in real earnings management or accrual management intent to avoid negative earnings; it also examines whether earnings management behavior supports efficient contracting or opportunistic behavior perspective. The sample of this study comprised 166 firm-years of manufacturing industrial sector during the period 2004 – 2005. Using multiple regressions, the study finds evidence that the companies engage in both earnings management, which are discretionary expenses (proxy of real earnings management and accruals management. This evidence supports the studies of Graham, Harvey, & Rajgopal (2005 and Roychowdhury (2006. Another result shows that the real earnings management conducted by the companies is efficient partially, while the accruals management is opportunistic.

  9. THE ACCURACY OF EARNINGS FORECAST AND POST-IPO EARNINGS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanthi Hutagaol

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Prior studies showed that before IPO, many companies conducted earnings management in order to attractpotential investors through impressive earnings figures. This study aimed to investigate the tendency of earningsmanagement practice post - IPO. This practice of earnings management was motivated to preserve managers’reputation in achieving their earnings forecasts. Using a total of 165 IPOs in IDX during year 2000-2010, thisstudy employed descriptive analyses to identify the earnings management differences within the sample. A crosssectionanalysis was conducted to test the difference of earnings management indicator among the forecasters.Then, controlling for audit quality, ownership, firm size, and firm leverage, a regression analysis was performedto test the impact of earnings forecasts accuracy on the earnings management. The result of this research showedthat there was an indication that the forecasters conducted more earnings management than the non-forecasters.The study found that forecast accuracy was significantly related to managers’ behavior to manage post-IPOearnings. Further analysis showed that optimistic forecasters tended to engage more in more earning managementthan conservative forecasters. The cross section analysis confirmed that optimistic earnings forecast strengthenedthe relationship of forecast accuracy and post-IPO earnings management, while high audit quality failed toweaken it.

  10. Physical Attractiveness, Employment, and Earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Pfeifer

    2011-01-01

    Survey data is used to estimate the impact of physical attractiveness rated by the interviewer as well as by the respondent on employment probability and labor income of men and women. In addition to mean linear and non-linear effects on earnings, simultaneous quantile regressions are applied to analyze heterogeneity across the wage distribution.

  11. Crossing the borders and the cultural gaps for educating PhDs in software engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Knutas, Antti; Seffah, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    PhDs and educators. While large universities and research centres have the required expertise and infrastructure to providing a cost-effective training by research as well as covering wide spectrum of software engineering topics, the situation in small universities with limited resources...... is challenging. This is even more difficult for some countries where the discipline of software engineering is totally new, which is the case of emerging countries. This paper describes the Pathways to PhDs project funded by the European Commission. The long-term aim is to support the development, modernization...... and international visibility and excellence of higher education, namely education by research at the PhD level in Europe, while helping partner countries to develop new PhD programs and consolidate existing ones in the field of computing in the area of software engineering. This paper presents the creation...

  12. Sharing the load? : Partners' relative earnings and the division of domestic labour

    OpenAIRE

    Lyonette, Clare; Crompton, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    One of the most pressing issues contributing to the persistence of gender inequality is the gendered division of domestic labour. Despite their entry into paid employment, women still carry out more domestic work than men, limiting their ability to act on an equal footing within the workplace. This qualitative research adds to the ongoing debate concerning the reasons for the persistence of the gendered nature of domestic work, by comparing working women who earn more, those who earn around t...

  13. Telecommuting and Earnings Trajectories Among American Women and Men 1989-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Jennifer L; Noonan, Mary C

    2016-09-01

    While flexibility in the location of work hours has shown positive organizational effects on productivity and retention, less is known about the earnings effects of telecommuting. We analyze weekly hours spent working from home using the 1989-2008 panels of the National Longitudinal Study of Youth. We describe the demographic and occupational characteristics of the employees engaged in telecommuting, then track their earnings growth with fixed-effects models, focusing on gender and parental status. Results show substantial variation in the earnings effects of telecommuting based on the point in the hours distribution worked from home. Working from home rather than the office produces equal earnings growth in the first 40 hours worked, but "taking work home" or overtime telecommuting yields significantly smaller increases than overtime worked on-site. Yet most observed telecommuting occurs precisely during this low-yield overtime portion of the hours distribution. Few gender or parental status differences emerged in these processes. These trends reflect potentially widespread negative consequences of the growing capacity of workers to perform their work from any location. Rather than enhancing true flexibility in when and where employees work, the capacity to work from home mostly extends the work day and encroaches into what was formerly home and family time.

  14. Relative changes in earned income five years after diagnosis with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleal, Bryan; Panton, Ulrik Haagen; Willaing, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    $ 924 (3.03%) among women. The effect was generally largest in the youngest age-group, in lower earners and among men. CONCLUSIONS: The results clearly indicate that a diagnosis of diabetes has a significant impact on earnings. Age and earnings at the time of diagnosis appear to play a moderating role.......,090 people with diabetes were included in the study and matched to 91,090 controls in the general population. The analysis revealed highly significant loss of earnings for people with diabetes when compared with people without diabetes, with an overall relative loss of US $ 3694 (8.01%) among men and US......OBJECTIVE: With previous studies indicating that diabetes affects employment status and lifetime earnings, the aim of this study was to determine the impact on earnings in the immediate period after diagnosis. Recognising that earnings and employment status are dynamic over the life course, we...

  15. Earnings Management, Value Relevance Of Earnings and Book Value of Equity

    OpenAIRE

    Subekti, Imam

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies examining relationship between earnings management and value relevance of accounting information show that earnings management decrease value relevance of accounting information. Generally, the studies apply accruals earnings management. In contrast, the present study applies integrated earnings management proxies i.e. real and accruals earnings manage-ment. Real earnings management proxies are measured by abnormal cash flow of operation, ab-normal production cost, and abnorm...

  16. Marketization, occupational segregation, and gender earnings inequality in urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guangye; Wu, Xiaogang

    2017-07-01

    This article analyzes a large sample of the 2005 population mini-census data and prefecture-level statistics of China to investigate gender earnings inequality in the context of economic marketization, paying special attention to the changing role of occupational segregation in the process. We approximate marketization by employment sectors and also construct an index of marketization at the prefecture level. Results show that, despite the tremendous economic growth, marketization has exacerbated gender earnings inequality in urban China's labor markets. Gender earnings inequality is the smallest in government/public institutions, followed by public enterprises, and then private enterprises. The gender inequality also increases with the prefecture's level of marketization. Multilevel analyses show that occupational segregation plays an important role in affecting gender earnings inequality: the greater the occupational segregation, the more disadvantaged women are relative to men in earnings in a prefecture's labor market. Moreover, the impact of occupational segregation on gender earnings inequality increases with the prefectural level of marketization. These findings contribute to understanding the dynamics of gender earnings inequality and have important implications for policy to promote gender equality in urban China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Is the gap more than gender? A longitudinal analysis of gender, gender role orientation, and earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Timothy A; Livingston, Beth A

    2008-09-01

    This study investigated the relationships among gender, gender role orientation (i.e., attitudes toward the gendered separation of roles at work and at home), and earnings. A multilevel model was conceptualized in which gender role orientation and earnings were within-individual variables that fluctuate over time (although predictors of between-individual differences in gender role orientation were also considered). Results indicated that whereas traditional gender role orientation was positively related to earnings, gender significantly predicted the slope of this relationship: Traditional gender role orientation was strongly positively associated with earnings for men; it was slightly negatively associated with earnings for women. Occupational segregation partly explained these gender differences. Overall, the results suggest that although gender role attitudes are becoming less traditional for men and for women, traditional gender role orientation continues to exacerbate the gender wage gap.

  18. Which Firms Want PhDs? An Analysis of the Determinants of the Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Quevedo, Jose; Mas-Verdu, Francisco; Polo-Otero, Jose

    2012-01-01

    PhD graduates hold the highest education degree, are trained to conduct research and can be considered a key element in the creation, commercialization and diffusion of innovations. The impact of PhDs on innovation and economic development takes place through several channels such as the accumulation of scientific capital stock, the enhancement of…

  19. Panel Estimates of Male-Female Earnings Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon-Kak; Polachek, Solomon W.

    1994-01-01

    Application of single and simultaneous equation fixed-effects and random-effects shows that earnings appreciation with experience and depreciation with labor market interruptions are comparable for men and women. Adjusting for heterogeneity reduces the wage gap to 20%; adjusting for endogeneity reduces it nearly to zero. (SK)

  20. Science communication: a career where PhDs can make a difference

    OpenAIRE

    Irion, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Among careers for biologists with PhDs, science communication is one of the most diverse and rewarding pathways. Myriad options exist, from traditional journalism to new media, from writing for specialists to working in public outreach. Textbooks, mass-market books, and freelance writing that combines many of these pursuits are all viable choices. Communicating about science allows researchers to step away from the minutiae of a subdiscipline and to once again explore the breadth of science m...

  1. Telecommuting and Earnings Trajectories Among American Women and Men 1989–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Jennifer L.; Noonan, Mary C.

    2016-01-01

    While flexibility in the location of work hours has shown positive organizational effects on productivity and retention, less is known about the earnings effects of telecommuting. We analyze weekly hours spent working from home using the 1989–2008 panels of the National Longitudinal Study of Youth. We describe the demographic and occupational characteristics of the employees engaged in telecommuting, then track their earnings growth with fixed-effects models, focusing on gender and parental status. Results show substantial variation in the earnings effects of telecommuting based on the point in the hours distribution worked from home. Working from home rather than the office produces equal earnings growth in the first 40 hours worked, but “taking work home” or overtime telecommuting yields significantly smaller increases than overtime worked on-site. Yet most observed telecommuting occurs precisely during this low-yield overtime portion of the hours distribution. Few gender or parental status differences emerged in these processes. These trends reflect potentially widespread negative consequences of the growing capacity of workers to perform their work from any location. Rather than enhancing true flexibility in when and where employees work, the capacity to work from home mostly extends the work day and encroaches into what was formerly home and family time. PMID:27833214

  2. Essays on Earnings Predictability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Mark

    This dissertation addresses the prediction of corporate earnings. The thesis aims to examine whether the degree of precision in earnings forecasts can be increased by basing them on historical financial ratios. Furthermore, the intent of the dissertation is to analyze whether accounting standards...... forecasts are not more accurate than the simpler forecasts based on a historical timeseries of earnings. Secondly, the dissertation shows how accounting standards affect analysts’ earnings predictions. Accounting conservatism contributes to a more volatile earnings process, which lowers the accuracy...... of analysts’ earnings forecasts. Furthermore, the dissertation shows how the stock market’s reaction to the disclosure of information about corporate earnings depends on how well corporate earnings can be predicted. The dissertation indicates that the stock market’s reaction to the disclosure of earnings...

  3. Mendeteksi Earning Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahim Abdurahim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Artikel ini membahas perkembangan model-model yang dapat digunakan untuk mendeteksi adanya earnings management berdasarkan akrual (accrual-based models. Masing-masing model memiliki asumsi dan metoda yang berbeda dalam mendeteksi adanya earnings management. Masing-masing model memiliki kelemahan-kelemahan yang melekat disamping kelebihan-kelebihan yang dimilikinya. Dari keempat model yang dapat digunakan untuk mendeteksi earnings management yaitu, Healy Model, DeAngelo Model, Jones model, Modified Jones model dan Industry model, diuji oleh Dechow et al. (1995, dalam hal tingkat keakuratannya dalam mendeteksi adanya earnings management. Masing-masing model diuji tingkat kemungkinannya memiliki kesalahan dalam mengukur adanya earnings management dengan tipe kesalahan I dan tipe kesalahan II. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa sangat penting bagi para pengguna laporan keuangan untuk menginvestigasi faktor-faktor yang mendorong timbulnya earnings management yang berkaitan dengan kinerja keuangan perusahaan. Hasil lain diperoleh pula bahwa modified Jones Model (1991 memiliki kemampuan yang baik untuk mendeteksi adanya earnings management. 

  4. The Persistence of Gender Earnings Inequality in Taiwan, 1978-1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zveglich, Joseph E., Jr.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Despite rapid structural change in Taiwan, the gender earnings ratio between 1978-82 remained at 65%. Women's relative gains in education and experience were apparently offset by an increase in wage discrimination. (SK)

  5. Earning and caring: demographic change and policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderic Beaujot

    2002-12-01

    activities, we contrast theoretical orientations that see advantages to a division of labour or complementary roles, in comparison to orientations that see less risk and greater companionship in a collaborative model based on sharing paid and unpaid work, or co-providing and co-parenting. It is important to look both inside and outside of families, or at the changing gendered links between earning and caring, to understand change both in families and in the work world. It is proposed that equal opportunity by gender has advanced further in the public sphere associated with education and work, than in the private family sphere associated with everyday life. Time-use data indicate that, on average, men carry their weight in terms of total productive time (paid plus unpaid work, but that women make much more of the accommodations between family and work. Fertility is likely to be lowest in societies that offer women equal opportunity in the public sphere but where families remain traditional in terms of the division of work. Policies are discussed that would reduce the dependency between spouses, and encourage a greater common ground between men and women in earning and caring.

  6. The Dynamics of Gender Earnings Differentials: Evidence from Establishment Data

    OpenAIRE

    Barth, Erling; Pekkala Kerr, Sari; Olivetti, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    We use a unique match between the 2000 Decennial Census of the United States and the Longitudinal Employer Household Dynamics (LEHD) data to analyze how much of the increase in the gender earnings gap over the lifecycle comes from shifts in the sorting of men and women across high- and low-pay establishments and how much is due to differential earnings growth within establishments. We find that for the college educated the increase is substantial and, for the most part, due to differential ea...

  7. The Earnings Ladder. Who's at the Bottom? Who's at the Top? Statistical Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Washington, DC. Economics and Statistics Administration.

    Data collected by the March Current Population Survey were used to identify which groups of year-round, full-time civilian workers aged 16 and older were most likely to be at the top and bottom of the earnings ladder. Women, young workers, less-educated individuals, and Hispanics were most likely to earn less than $13,091 (1992 constant dollars),…

  8. Are PhDs Winners or Losers? Wage Premiums for Doctoral Degrees in Private Sector Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Heidi Skovgaard

    2016-01-01

    Policy makers expect increasing numbers of PhDs to find employment in the private sector. However, the incentive structure for completing a PhD and subsequently seeking private sector employment has not been adequately assessed in the literature. This paper investigates the financial incentives for this career choice of recent Danish PhD…

  9. Welfare family policies and gender earnings inequality: A cross-national comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mandel, Hadas; Semyonov, Moshe

    2003-01-01

    The present study examines whether and to what extent welfare-family policies are likely to affect earnings inequality between economically active men and women. Using hierarchical linear models, we combine individual-level variables (obtained from the Luxembourg Income Study) with country level data (obtained from secondary sources) to evaluate the net effects of welfare family policies on gender earnings inequality across 20 industrialized countries. The analysis reveals that net of individ...

  10. Market Response toward Accrual Earnings Management, Real Transactions, and Strategic Revenue Recognition - Earnings Management1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windy Puspita Dewi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates how the capital market response to a variety of earnings management tools i.e., accrual-based earnings management, real transaction activities, and strategic revenue recognition. We measure the market response to the information content of earnings by the earnings response coefficient (ERC. By using pooled-OLS regression from 748 firm-years data of public listed companies on the Indonesian Stock Exchange (IDX in 2004-2009, we find some evidence of a negative association between earnings response coefficients and information content of earnings that contained earnings management. Our study find that real transactions earnings management in operating activities has negative association with earnings response coefficient, but we do not find any evidence from the other earnings management tools. The findings of this study imply that the market participants are able to capture a certain kind of earnings management behaviour that may reduce the earnings response coefficient.

  11. Are PhDs Winners or Losers? Wage Premiums for Doctoral Degrees in Private Sector Employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Heidi Skovgaard

    2016-01-01

    Policy makers expect that increasing shares of PhDs will find employment within the private sector. However, the incentive structure for undertaking PhD education and subsequently seeking private sector employment has not been adequately assessed in the literature. This paper investigates...... to choose private sector employment immediately after award of the PhD degree....

  12. How Does Gender Play a Role in the Earnings Gap? An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boraas, Stephanie; Rodgers, William M., III

    2003-01-01

    In 1999, women earned 77% as much as men. Current Population Survey data indicate that personal choices, occupational crowding, and discrimination contribute to the gender gap. However, the high proportion of women in an occupation is the largest contributor to the salary differential. (Contains 16 references.) (Author/JOW)

  13. Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agogino, Alice

    2007-04-01

    Review of the report by the National Academies, with a focus on action strategies in the physical sciences. Women face barriers to hiring and promotion in research universities in many fields of science and engineering; a situation that deprives the United States of an important source of talent as the country faces increasingly stiff global competition in higher education, science and technology, and the marketplace. Eliminating gender bias in universities requires immediate, overarching reform and decisive action by university administrators, professional societies, government agencies, and Congress. Forty years ago, women made up only 3 percent of America's scientific and technical workers, but by 2003 they accounted for nearly one-fifth. In addition, women have earned more than half of the bachelor's degrees awarded in science and engineering since 2000. However, their representation on university and college faculties fails to reflect these gains. Among science and engineering Ph.D.s, four times more men than women hold full-time faculty positions. And minority women with doctorates are less likely than white women or men of any racial or ethnic group to be in tenure positions. The report urges higher education organizations and professional societies to form collaborative, self-monitoring body that would recommend standards for faculty recruitment, retention, and promotion; collect data; and track compliance across institutions. A ``report card'' template is provided in the report. To read the report online, add a comment, or purchase hard copy, go to: http://www.engineeringpathway.com/ep/learningresource/summary/index.jhtml?id=94A4929D-F1B2-432E-8167-63335569CB4E.

  14. Lightening the load for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buvinic, M

    1995-01-01

    Research is confirming the fact that women suffer more from poverty than men and that the consequences of poverty in women are felt for succeeding generations. Female poverty is linked to the rise of female-headed households with children to support. Also, between 1965 and 1988, the number of rural women living in poverty rose 51% versus 41% for men. As women have sought low-income employment or spent more of their time in unpaid community work to compensate for government cutbacks associated with structural adjustment programs, a vicious cycle of poverty has developed. Overburdened women workers hand over child care responsibilities to their oldest daughters who must then leave school, thus ensuring a continuation of the cycle of poverty. On the other hand, women's employment has a more positive effect on their children's health and nutrition than does a father's earnings. Women prefer to invest their earnings to insure the well-being of their children; therefore, the earnings of women have greater benefit to society at large than the earnings of men. It is likely that women must earn a certain level of income to avoid perpetuating poverty. Policies should be implemented that enforce the virtuous cycle of investment in children instead of the vicious cycle of deprivation. Agricultural policies should target poor farmers and give women farmers access to land, credit, and technical assistance; financial policies should promote the growth of small enterprises and foster entrepreneurship among women; and labor-intensive economic growth policies should be "pro-poor." Policy-oriented research will be necessary in such areas as the dynamics of families headed by women, the transmission of disadvantage between mothers and children, changes in women's work which occur with changes in economic conditions, and analyses of the consequences of targeting interventions to women who are heads of households and poor women.

  15. A Systematic Assessment of Employer Equal Employment Opportunity Efforts as a Means of Reducing the Gender Earnings Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Mary E.; Hotchkiss, Julie L.

    2002-01-01

    A gender earnings gap has persisted for many years in the United States. This gap is somewhat remarkable in light of reductions in gender-related occupational segregation, the narrowing of human capital differences between women and men, and government and employer-initiated efforts to enhance opportunities for women. In this article we argue that federal employment laws and current oversight mechanisms help maintain the gender earnings gap by encouraging small, separate, parts: pay discrim...

  16. Do analysts disclose cash flow forecasts with earnings estimates when earnings quality is low?

    OpenAIRE

    Bilinski, P.

    2014-01-01

    Cash flows are incrementally useful to earnings in security valuation mainly when earnings quality is low. This suggests that when earnings quality decreases, analysts will be more likely to supplement their earnings forecasts with cash flow estimates. Contrary to this prediction, we find that analysts do not disclose cash flow forecasts when the quality of earnings is low. This is because cash flow forecast accuracy depends on the accuracy of the accrual estimates and the precision of accrua...

  17. Organizational Culture, Performance and Career Choices of Ph.D.s: A Case Study of Dutch Medical Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Weijden, Inge; de Gilder, Dick; Groenewegen, Peter; Geerling, Maaike

    2008-01-01

    Increasing demands for accountability and applicability raise the question of how organizational factors affect researchers' performance and career choices. In a study of Dutch medical Ph.D. student's experiences, organizational culture and climate and attitudes towards research quality are related to performance and career choices. Ph.D.s who…

  18. Earning their keep: the productivity of older women and men in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Lisa J H; Kabir, Zarina Nahar; Khanam, Masuma Akter; Wahlin, Ake; Streatfield, Peter K

    2010-03-01

    In Bangladesh, being active and able to participate in productive activities is often essential to ensure ongoing health and survival. This study aims to describe and explore the patterns of participation in productive activities by older people in Matlab, a rural area of Bangladesh. Data from a cross sectional survey of people over 60 years of age was utilised. Six hundred and twenty five men and women participated in home based interviews providing information about their participation in productive activities including work, domestic activities and community groups. Overall, 94.4% of subjects reported participation in at least one productive activity. Men were the main participants in paid work and community groups, with 62% reporting engagement in paid work and 44% contributing to community groups. Both men (95.4%) and women (91.9%) reported performing at least one domestic activity. Performance of higher numbers of domestic tasks was associated with being younger, female, not requiring any assistance with self care, not married, not living with any children and earning between 100-999 Bangladesh Taka in the past month. Participation in community groups was low with only 26% of the sample reporting any involvement. This study indicates a high level of productivity in the older population in Matlab which benefits the individual, the family and the wider community. The safety and suitability of typical productive activities needs further investigation, in order to inform strategies protecting the older population from the effects of over work and harmful activities.

  19. Incentives and Earnings Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The career prospects of newly recruited employees differ substantially within an organization. The stars experience considerable growth in earnings; others can hardly maintain their entry salaries. This article sheds light on the mechanisms generating the observed heterogeneity in earnings growth...... by investigating the effects that explicit short-run incentives and implicit incentives have on earnings growth. The model’s predictions are tested using personnel records from a large bank and are found to be consistent with the observed earnings growth during the first half of the employees’ careers....

  20. 7 CFR 1767.25 - Retained earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retained earnings. 1767.25 Section 1767.25....25 Retained earnings. The retained earnings accounts identified in this section shall be used by all RUS borrowers. Retained Earnings 433-439 [Reserved] Retained Earnings 433-439 [Reserved] ...

  1. Science and Engineering Ph.D. Students' Career Outcomes, by Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Annamaria; Visentin, Fabiana

    2015-01-01

    We examine differences in the careers of men and women Ph.D.s from two major European universities. Having performed regression analysis, we find that women are more likely than men to be employed in public administration when the alternatives are either academia or industry. Between the latter two alternatives, women are more likely to be employed in academia. These gender differences persist after accounting for Ph.D.s' and their supervisors' characteristics. Gender gaps are smaller for Ph.D.s with large research outputs and for those who conducted applied research. Restricting the analysis to Ph.D.s who pursued postdoc training, women are less likely than men to be employed in highly ranked universities, even after controlling for their research outputs. Finally, we find gender differences in Ph.D.s' appointment to professorship, which are explained by the Ph.D.s' publication output and the quality of their postdoc training.

  2. 20 CFR 404.452 - Reports to Social Security Administration of earnings; wages; net earnings from self-employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... earnings; wages; net earnings from self-employment. 404.452 Section 404.452 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL...; net earnings from self-employment. (a) Reporting requirements and conditions under which a report of earnings, that is, wages and/or net earnings from self-employment, is required. (1) If you have not reached...

  3. Does Money Matter: Earnings Patterns Among a National Sample of the US State Governmental Public Health Agency Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrucci, Brian C; Leider, Jonathon P; Liss-Levinson, Rivka; Sellers, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Earnings have been shown to be a critical point in workforce recruitment and retention. However, little is known about how much governmental public health staff are paid across the United States. To characterize earnings among state health agency central office employees. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of state health agency central office employees in late 2014. The sampling approach was stratified by 5 (paired HHS) regions. Balanced repeated replication weights were used to correctly calculate variance estimates, given the complex sampling design. Descriptive and bivariate statistical comparisons were conducted. A linear regression model was used to examine correlates of earnings among full-time employees. A total of 9300 permanently employed, full-time state health agency central office staff who reported earnings information. Earnings are the main outcomes examined in this article. Central office staff earn between $55,000 and $65,000 on average annually. Ascending supervisory status, educational attainment, and tenure are all associated with greater earnings. Those employed in clinical and laboratory positions and public health science positions earn more than their colleagues in administrative positions. Disparities exist between men and women, with men earning more, all else being equal (P earnings levels, including disparities in earnings that persist after accounting for education and experience. Data from the survey can inform strategies to address earnings issues and help reduce disparities.

  4. Top Earnings Inequality and the Gender Pay Gap: Canada, Sweden and the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Fortin, Nicole M.; Bell, Brian; Böhm, Michael Johannes

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the consequences of the under-representation of women in top jobs for the overall gender pay gap. Using administrative annual earnings data from Canada, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, it applies the approach used in the analysis of earnings inequality in top incomes, as well as reweighting techniques, to the analysis of the gender pay gap. The analysis is supplemented by classic O-B decompositions of hourly wages using data from the Canadian and U.K. Labour Force Surveys....

  5. IMPROVING WOMEN'S LIVES Practical support for women gives ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC Communications. LASTING IMPACTS. IDRC has supported poor women in developing countries in their efforts to learn, to earn, and to take part in local decision-making. University degrees and decent jobs make it easier ... Two Palestinian women sit in classroom. Scholarships bring hope to poor Palestinian women ...

  6. Patient-Provider Communication: Experiences of Low-Wage-Earning Breast Cancer Survivors in Managing Cancer and Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Helen M; Swanberg, Jennifer E; Vanderpool, Robin C

    2018-02-26

    In 2017, there will be more than 250,000 new diagnoses of invasive breast cancer; most cases will occur in working-age women. The goal of this qualitative study was to explore low-wage-earning breast cancer survivors' experiences communicating with their oncology team about cancer and employment issues. Twenty-four low-wage-earning breast cancer survivors in the USA were interviewed in 2012 using a structured interview protocol. Sociodemographic data, cancer history, and patient-provider communication experiences regarding the management of cancer and work were collected. Interviews were analyzed using grounded theory strategy of constant comparative analysis. Low-wage-earning breast cancer survivors' experiences communicating with their oncology team about employment and cancer focused on three dimensions of patient-provider communication: extent, quality, and content. Over 70% of respondents reported no communication or only routine communication with their providers regarding work; three quarters of women reported poor or standard communication quality, and content of work-related communication covered scheduling issues, work absences, continuing to work during treatment, and financial concerns. Communication between oncology care teams and low-wage-earning cancer patients is critical to the successful management of treatment and work responsibilities given the vulnerable employment situation of these women. There is a need for education of oncology team members about how cancer and its treatment can impact employment for all workers, but especially for low-wage workers, thereby allowing the care team to address these issues proactively and help patients successfully manage both cancer treatment and work responsibilities.

  7. Market Earnings and Household Work: New Tests of Gender Performance Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    I examine the contested finding that men and women engage in gender performance through housework. Prior scholarship has found a curvilinear association between earnings share and housework that has been interpreted as evidence of gender performance. I reexamine these findings by conducting the first such analysis to use high-quality time diary…

  8. The Entrepreneurial Earnings Puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jing; Åstebro, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A review of recent evidence on relative earnings from entrepreneurship versus wage work presents a puzzle: why do individuals become entrepreneurs when entrepreneurs on average apparently earn less than employees? After considering several potential explanations, we empirically analyze one: income...

  9. Comment on ``Academic Specialties in U.S. Are Shifting: Hiring of Women Geoscientists Is Stagnating''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, John C.

    2004-02-01

    The analysis of hiring trends of women by Holmes et al. (Eos, 28 October 2003, p. 457) is a useful contribution to our understanding of employment practices in the geosciences. While their findings indicate that ``state geological surveys hired the lowest proportion of women with Ph.D.s in the geosciences; only 8% of hires in the last 10 years were female,'' some explanation for this observation is necessary lest state surveys be seen as less than anxious to hire women.

  10. The quality of accruals and earnings - and the market pricing of earnings quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøler, Finn

    2004-01-01

    of some more specific company key accruals, where especially the two balance sheet accounts, inventory and accounts receivable, are of interest. This is documented and discussed by relating empirical measures of the quality of the different specific key-accruals as well as aggregated accruals quality vs......This study focuses on earnings quality by investigating the quality of accruals using the approach introduced by Dechow & Dichev (2002). One essential element is the role of accrual estimation errors, and another is whether the equity market impounds information about the quality of earnings....... The basic assumption is that the quality of accruals and earnings is decreasing as the magnitude of estimation errors in the accruals is increasing. The paper contributes to the literature on accrual (and earnings) quality by investigating not only the quality of aggregated accruals but also the quality...

  11. Improving the Measurement of Earnings Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daly, Moira K.; Hryshko, Dmytro; Manovskii, Iourii

    The stochastic process for earnings is the key element of incomplete markets models in modern quantitative macroeconomics. We show that a simple modification of the canonical process used in the literature leads to a dramatic improvement in the measurement of earnings dynamics in administrative....... Accounting for these effects enables more accurate analysis using quantitative models with permanent and transitory earnings risk, and improves empirical estimates of consumption insurance against permanent earnings shocks....

  12. Measuring earnings quality: Evidence from New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nurul Houqe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We utilize two basic approaches to measure the quality of earnings which control two different dimensions of earnings management. The research design is structured primary on the basis of calculating two different measures of the quality of earnings on the industry level and on the company level. We calculate earnings quality for New Zealand public firms from the OSIRIS (http://www.osiris.com database for 2004-2007. This research concludes that various stakeholders should apply more than one measure for the quality of earning in order to have strong evidence about the level of quality before taking any corrective action or making any decision related to that company. If one company is having low quality of earning according to one technique and high quality of earnings according to another, the stakeholders cannot have a final conclusion about that company and they need more investigations and analysis to assess the quality of earnings

  13. Earnings Public-Use File, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Social Security Administration released Earnings Public-Use File (EPUF) for 2006. File contains earnings information for individuals drawn from a systematic random...

  14. A dual inheritance: the politics of educational reform and PhDs in art and design

    OpenAIRE

    Candlin, Fiona

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the changing relationship of art practice to academic research in higher education since 1960. Whereas art practice was often conceived of as divorced from any notion of academic or theoretical work in the post 1960 art school, by the 1990s the ground had changed to such a degree that it was possible to pursue doctoral study in art practice. This emergence of practice-based PhDs can be considered as part of a larger shift in art education and its acceptance of theory.\\ud O...

  15. The Effect of Gender and Ethnicity and their Intersection on Work Satisfaction and Earnings in Estonia, 1993-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leeni Hansson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines trends in the labour market position, defined in terms of three dimensions – earnings, perceived job security and overall job satisfaction – among four population groups in Estonia – Estonian men and women and Russian-speaking men and women. We explore how the labour market position these groups changed between 1993 and 2008. We used data from 1993 and 2008, collected in the population survey Work, Family and Leisure, designed by the Institute of International and Social Studies at Tallinn University. We carried out a two-step analysis: first, we conducted descriptive analysis to explore changes in the labour market situation of men and women of two ethnic groups in the period of 1993-2008; and second, we used models of multivariate analysis of variances to examine how gender, ethnicity and occupational status as well as the intersection of these variables are related to earnings, job security and job satisfaction.We found that Estonian men have emerged as the most successful group in the labour market, while the labour market position of Russian-speaking women is the most disadvantaged compared to other groups in terms of earnings, job security and job satisfaction. We suggest that these labour market inequalities could be increasing, and that the interaction of gender and ethnicity might become increasingly important in shaping labour market outcomes.

  16. Optimal earnings-related umemployment benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Taslimi, Mohammad

    2003-01-01

    Existing unemployment insurance systems in many OECD countries involve a ceiling on insurable earnings. The result is lower replacement rate for employees with relatively high earnings. This paper examines whether replacement rates should decrease as the level of earnings rises. The framework is a search equilibrium model where wages are determined by Nash bargaining between firms and workers, job search intensity is endogenous and workers are heterogeneous. The analysis suggests higher repla...

  17. investors behavior, earnings management and governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afraa Khzouri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the relationship between earnings management, governance and investors behavior, since this latter can inform about the nature of earnings management and can be considered as a governance mechanism to reduce accounts manipulations. On the basis of a sample of 700 American firms for the period of 1996-2006, our empirical results show that investors who take short positions, are able to interpret the information detected from the earnings management. The activity of these investors may be considered as an indicator of the quality of the governance structure and the presence and nature of earnings management. The under-reaction of investors to information leads to short-term sale of the shares of poorly governed firms and characterized by an opportunistic earnings management and to invest in firms well-governed and characterized by an informational earnings management therefore an abnormal profit can be realized.

  18. Academic specialties in U.S. are shifting; hiring of women geoscientists is stagnating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Mary Anne; O'Connell, Suzanne; Frey, Connie; Ongley, Lois K.

    Women have been receiving a greater proportion of the bachelor's and master's degrees in the geosciences over the last 10 years, reaching near 40% in 2000 (latest data available), while receiving only 28% of the Ph.D.s that year. Women are now only 20% of assistant professors at Ph.D.-granting institutions, a proportion that has not changed in the last 4 years. As part of a larger study to find what key barriers continue to prevent larger numbers of women geoscientists from becoming academics, data have been compiled from the National Science Board [NSB, 2002] and the American Geological Institute's (AGI) Directory of Geoscience Departments [Claudy, 2001] on geoscience specialty by gender.The data are broken down by the specialty of the Ph.D., and compared to hiring rates at Ph.D.-granting institutions over the last 10 years. These institutions are the focus because they are the source of future Ph.D.s, and diversity of their faculty is critical to assuring diversity and consequent intellectual vigor and strength of our future academic workforce. The data reveal both a slight shift in the subdisciplines of all geoscientists employed in tenure-track positions at Ph.D.-granting institutions, and that hiring of women into tenure-track positions in specific subdisciplines has not kept pace with their Ph.D. production during that time.

  19. Industry earnings plummet 34%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.B.; Sanders, V.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports that earnings for the first 9 months of 1992 plunged from the year ago level for a sample of U.S. oil and gas companies. However, increased natural gas prices sparked improvement in the third quarter. Year to date earnings for a group of integrated and nonintegrated companies fell 34% to $8.6 billion compared to a year ago on revenues that fell less than 1%. But third quarter earnings for the group jumped 28% to $3.3 billion on revenues that increased 7% to $119.9 billion. Special charges for restructuring, writedowns, and property dispositions continued to affect companies in the third quarter

  20. Birth Order, Schooling, and Earnings.

    OpenAIRE

    Behrman, Jere R; Taubman, Paul

    1986-01-01

    Birth-order effects are posited by many to affect earnings and schooling. The authors show how such effects can be interpreted to shift either the earnings possibility frontier for siblings or parental preferences. The authors find empirical evidence for birth- order effects on (age-adjusted) schooling and on earnings for young U.S. adults, though the latter is not robust for all specifications. The examination of intrahousehold allocations suggests that these birth-order differences occur, d...

  1. Earnings management, corporate governance and expense sticki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Xue

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cost and expense stickiness is an important issue in accounting and economics research, and the literature has shown that cost stickiness cannot be separated from managers’ motivations. In this paper, we examine the effects that earnings management has on expense stickiness. Defining small positive profits or small earnings increases as earnings management, we observe significant expense stickiness in the non-earnings-management sub-sample, compared with the earnings-management sub-sample. When we divide expenses into R&D, advertising and other general expenses, we find that managers control expenses mainly by decreasing general expenses. We further examine corporate governance’s effect on expense stickiness. Using factor analysis, we extract eight main factors and find that good corporate governance reduces expense stickiness. Finally, we investigate the interaction effects of earnings management and corporate governance on expense stickiness. The empirical results show that good corporate governance can further reduce cost stickiness, although its effect is not as strong as that of earnings management.

  2. Earnings Quality Measures and Excess Returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Pietro; Wagenhofer, Alfred

    2014-06-01

    This paper examines how commonly used earnings quality measures fulfill a key objective of financial reporting, i.e., improving decision usefulness for investors. We propose a stock-price-based measure for assessing the quality of earnings quality measures. We predict that firms with higher earnings quality will be less mispriced than other firms. Mispricing is measured by the difference of the mean absolute excess returns of portfolios formed on high and low values of a measure. We examine persistence, predictability, two measures of smoothness, abnormal accruals, accruals quality, earnings response coefficient and value relevance. For a large sample of US non-financial firms over the period 1988-2007, we show that all measures except for smoothness are negatively associated with absolute excess returns, suggesting that smoothness is generally a favorable attribute of earnings. Accruals measures generate the largest spread in absolute excess returns, followed by smoothness and market-based measures. These results lend support to the widespread use of accruals measures as overall measures of earnings quality in the literature.

  3. The role of occupational attributes in gender earnings inequality, 1970-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Hadas

    2016-01-01

    Grounded in the research on the important role of social structures in forming gender inequalities, this study examines the effect of occupational attributes on the gender earnings gap over four decades. Using the IPUMS-USA from 1970 to 2010, the paper shows that occupational attributes cannot be reduced to the aggregate attributes of their individual incumbents. Rather, the effect of occupations on the gender earnings gap goes far beyond both the distributive role of occupational segregation and the effect of individual wage-related characteristics. Furthermore, occupations not only explain a significant portion of net gender pay gaps, but have also contributed to the narrowing of the gaps over the past several decades, as occupational attributes that favor women's pay have become more dominant over time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Engaging Girls in STEM: A Discussion of Foundational and Current Research on What Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, K.; Jesse, J.; Migus, L. H.

    2012-08-01

    Diversity in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education and careers occupies center stage in national discussions on U.S. competitiveness in the 21st century. Women constitute roughly half the total workforce in the U.S., but they hold just 25% of mathematical and science jobs and 11% of engineering jobs. Women earn nearly 60% of all bachelors and masters degrees, except in physics, computer science, and engineering, where the percentages are 20-25%. This disparity is even more pronounced at the doctoral level, where women earn fewer than 20% of awarded Ph.D.'s in physics or engineering. However, at the high school level, there is far less gender disparity: both female and male students take comparable advanced physical science and math courses. What, then, accounts for the lack of gender diversity in STEM advanced education and career paths? In fact, there is no consensus even among experts. So, what information and strategies do the EPO community need to know and include as part of designing and implementing programs to encourage more girls and women to engage in STEM for the long term? The panelists will discuss foundational and current research on pressing questions on why these trends exist and what can be done to change them. They will highlight research and evaluation results from programs that are successfully engaging girls in STEM.

  5. Women, Work and Age: A Report on Older Women and Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stentzel, Cathy; Steenland, Sally, Ed.

    Fifty-four percent of all midlife and older American women are in the work force. Like their younger counterparts, most older women work in nonprofessional occupations. Regardless of their age, working women earn less than men. Sixty-five percent of working women aged 45 to 64 are married; 30 percent are widowed, divorced, or separated; and 5…

  6. How do nonprofit hospitals manage earnings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Andrew J; Van Horn, R Lawrence

    2005-07-01

    We hypothesize that, unlike for-profit firms, nonprofit hospitals have incentives to manage earnings to a range just above zero. We consider two ways managers can achieve this. They can adjust discretionary spending [Hoerger, T.J., 1991. 'Profit' variability in for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals. Journal of Health Economics 10, 259-289.] and/or they can adjust accounting accruals using the flexibility inherent in Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). To test our hypothesis we use regressions as well as tests of the distribution of earnings by Burgstahler and Dichev [Burgstahler, D., Dichev, I., 1997. Earnings management to avoid earnings decreases and losses. Journal of Accounting and Economics 24, 99-126.] on a sample of 1,204 hospitals and 8,179 hospital-year observations. Our tests support the use of discretionary spending and accounting accrual management. Like Hoerger (1991), we find evidence that nonprofit hospitals adjust discretionary spending to manage earnings. However, we also find significant use of discretionary accruals (e.g., adjustments to the third-party-allowance, and allowance for doubtful accounts) to meet earnings objectives. These findings have two important implications. First, the previous evidence by Hoerger that nonprofit hospitals show less variation in income may at least partly be explained by an accounting phenomenon. Second, our findings provide guidance to users of these financial statements in predicting the direction of likely bias in reported earnings.

  7. Gap Analysis: Application to Earned Value Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Langford, Gary O.; Franck, Raymond (Chip)

    2008-01-01

    Sponsored Report (for Acquisition Research Program) Earned Value is regarded as a useful tool to monitor commercial and defense system acquisitions. This paper applies the theoretical foundations and systematics of Gap Analysis to improve Earned Value Management. As currently implemented, Earned Value inaccurately provides a higher value for the work performed. This preliminary research indicates that Earned Value calculations can be corrected. Value Analysis, properly defined and enacted,...

  8. Exploring the spatial wage penalty for women: Does it matter where you live?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kristin E; Glauber, Rebecca

    2013-09-01

    Inequality between men and women has decreased over the past four decades in the US, but wage inequality among groups of women has increased. As metropolitan women's earnings grew by 25% over the past four decades, nonmetropolitan women's earnings only grew by 15%. In the current study we draw on data from the Current Population Survey to analyze the spatial wage gap among women. We explore differences in the spatial wage gap by education, occupation, and industry. Regression models that control for marriage, motherhood, race, education, region, age, and work hours indicate that metropolitan women earn 17% more per hour than nonmetropolitan women. Nonmetropolitan women earn less than metropolitan women who live in central cities and outside central cities. The gap in metropolitan-nonmetropolitan wages is higher for more educated women than for less educated women. The wage gap is only 5% for women without a high school degree, but it is 15% for women with a college degree and 26% for women with an advanced degree. Nonmetropolitan college graduates are overrepresented in lower-paying occupations and industries. Metropolitan college graduates, however, are overrepresented in higher-paying occupations and industries, such as professional services and finance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluating the pin money hypothesis: the relationship between women's labour market activity, family income and poverty in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, S; Machin, S; Waldfogel, J

    1997-01-01

    "In this paper we evaluate the hypothesis that the over-representation of women amongst the low paid is of little importance because women's earnings account for only a small proportion of total family income. Data from the [United Kingdom] General Household Survey (GHS), together with attitudinal evidence from three cross-sectional data sources, indicate that women's earnings are in fact an important and growing component of family income. The majority of the growth in the share of women's earnings occurs as a result of changing family labour structures; women's earnings are playing an increasingly important role in keeping their families out of poverty." excerpt

  10. Stock Prices and Earnings: A History of Research

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia M. Dechow; Richard G. Sloan; Jenny Zha

    2014-01-01

    Copyright © 2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Accounting earnings summarize periodic corporate financial performance and are key determinants of stock prices. We review research on the usefulness of accounting earnings, including research on the link between accounting earnings and firm value and research on the usefulness of accounting earnings relative to other accounting and nonaccounting information. We also review research on the features of accounting earnings that make them ...

  11. Industry Valuation Driven Earnings Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Jiao (Tao); G.M.H. Mertens (Gerard); P.G.J. Roosenboom (Peter)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates whether industry valuation impacts firms’ earnings management decisions. Existing accounting literature assumes that industry valuation has a constant impact on this decision. We argue that a higher industry valuation increases the perceived benefits of earnings

  12. Earned Value Management

    CERN Document Server

    Ferguson, J

    2002-01-01

    Earned Value Management is a methodology used to measure and communicate the real physical progress of a project and show its true cost situation. This tool was developed by the US Department of Defense in 1967 and later used successfully for monitoring DOE projects, in particular the US LHC accelerator project. A clear distinction must be made between an earned value management system and other tools under consideration or already existing at CERN which permit accurate predictions of the amount and date of future payments or a detailed follow up of contracts.

  13. Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and National Institutes of Health R01 Research Awards: Is There Evidence of a Double Bind for Women of Color?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginther, Donna K; Kahn, Shulamit; Schaffer, Walter T

    2016-08-01

    To analyze the relationship between gender, race/ethnicity, and the probability of being awarded an R01 grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The authors used data from the NIH Information for Management, Planning, Analysis, and Coordination grants management database for the years 2000-2006 to examine gender differences and race/ethnicity-specific gender differences in the probability of receiving an R01 Type 1 award. The authors used descriptive statistics and probit models to determine the relationship between gender, race/ethnicity, degree, investigator experience, and R01 award probability, controlling for a large set of observable characteristics. White women PhDs and MDs were as likely as white men to receive an R01 award. Compared with white women, Asian and black women PhDs and black women MDs were significantly less likely to receive funding. Women submitted fewer grant applications, and blacks and women who were new investigators were more likely to submit only one application between 2000 and 2006. Differences by race/ethnicity explain the NIH funding gap for women of color, as white women have a slight advantage over men in receiving Type 1 awards. Findings of a lower submission rate for women and an increased likelihood that they will submit only one proposal are consistent with research showing that women avoid competition. Policies designed to address the racial and ethnic diversity of the biomedical workforce have the potential to improve funding outcomes for women of color.

  14. Geographic Differences in the Earnings of Economics Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, John V.; Xu, Weineng

    2014-01-01

    Economics has been shown to be a relatively high-earning college major, but geographic differences in earnings have been largely overlooked. The authors of this article use the American Community Survey to examine geographic differences in both absolute earnings and relative earnings for economics majors. They find that there are substantial…

  15. Numbers of women faculty in the geosciences increasing, but slowly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, C. J.

    2001-12-01

    Why are there so few women faculty in the geosciences, while there are large numbers of women undergraduate and graduate students? According to National Science Foundation (NSF) estimates for 1995 in the Earth, atmospheric, and oceanic sciences, women made up 34% of the bachelor's degrees awarded, 35% of the graduate students enrolled, and 22% of the doctorates granted. Yet progress has been slower in achieving adequate representation of women geoscientists in academia, where women represent only 12% of the overall faculty. This talk will present the results of a survey I conducted on the status of women faculty at the 20 top-ranked geology programs, which was originally published as a feature article in Eos [Wolfe, 1999]. Data from the 1997 AGI Directory of Geoscience Departments were used to compare the numbers of women faculty at different departments, as well as to consider the distribution of men and women faculty by year of Ph.D. Strong inequities were found to exist between the individual departments. The percentages of women in the departments ranged from 0% to as high as 23%, and 37% of the departments had either one woman faculty member or none. Histograms of the faculty sorted by year of Ph.D. showed that clear generational differences existed between the sets of men and women faculty. Thirty-nine percent of the men obtained their Ph.D. prior to 1970, whereas only 3% of the women obtained their Ph.D. before this date. The majority of women faculty members (64%) received their Ph.D. after 1980, but a minority of men (31%) received their degrees after 1980. In the 1960s and 1970s, the geosciences expanded and departments employed a high percentage of recent Ph.D.s, but hiring of young faculty decreased in the 1980s and 1990s. In contrast, the numbers of women graduate students only began to rise after 1970, and thus the quantity of women Ph.D.s increased as the number of young hires decreased. Two problems appeared evident from this study using 1997 data

  16. 17 CFR 256.216 - Unappropriated retained earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... retained earnings. This account shall include the balance, either debit or credit, arising from earnings... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unappropriated retained earnings. 256.216 Section 256.216 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION...

  17. The Relationship between Age at First Birth and Mother's Lifetime Earnings: Evidence from Danish Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Yee Mallory Leung

    Full Text Available Having children creates career interruptions and reductions in labor income for women. This study documents the relation between the age at first birth (AFB and women's labor income. We study these dynamics in the short run (i.e. ratio between labor income at AFB and two years prior to AFB and long run (i.e., positive/negative differences in total lifetime labor income.Using unique Danish administrative register data for the entire Danish population, we estimate the age-income profiles separately for college and non-college women conditional on marital status, and mothers' age at first birth (AFB. We compute the lifetime labor income differentials by taking the differences between the labor income of women with and without children at each AFB.The short-run loss in labor income, defined as the difference in percentages between the income earned two years prior to AFB and income earned at AFB, ranges from 37% to 65% for college women and from 40% to 53% for non-college women. These losses decrease monotonically with respect to AFB for both education groups. Our results on the lifetime labor income differentials between mothers and women without children also show a net effect that is monotonic (from negative to positive in AFB. With AFB31. The largest gains for college women are 13% of their average annual income and this figure is 50% for non-college women.Women have a large and unambiguous short-run reduction in labor income at their AFB. In terms of lifetime labor income, both college and non-college women, compared to childless women, are associated with lower income of more than twice their respective average annual income when bearing a child at AFB31 are relatively higher.

  18. Earnings, employment and income inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda, W.; Haas, C.; Salverda, W.; Nolan, B.; Checchi, D.; Marx, I.; McKnight, A.; Tóth, I.G.; van de Werfhorst, H.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter demonstrates the importance of labour earnings for income and income inequality -also among top incomes. With a focus on employees and Europe, the chapter elaborates on the relationship between the household income distribution and the individual earnings distribution. On the one hand,

  19. HMO penetration and physicians' earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, J; Mitchell, J M

    1999-11-01

    The goal of this study is to estimate whether cross-sectional variations in enrollment in health maintenance organizations (HMOs) affected physicians' earnings and hourly income in 1990. Using data from a nationally representative sample of 4,577 younger physicians (penetration is endogenous and used the instrumental variables approach to obtain unbiased estimates. HMO penetration had a negative and statistically significant impact on physicians earnings in 1990. A doubling of the average level of HMO penetration in the market is estimated to reduce annual earnings by 7% to 10.7%, and hourly earnings by approximately 6% to 9%. It appears that HMOs were successful in reducing physicians' annual and per hour earnings in 1990, presumably through a combination of fewer visits and lower payment rates for people covered by HMOs. Although these results cannot be generalized to all physicians, the experience of a younger cohort of physicians may still be a good indicator of the future effects of HMOs because younger physicians may be more susceptible to market forces than older and more established physicians. Moreover, these results may be somewhat conservative because they reflect market behavior in 1990, several years before the rapid growth and more aggressive market behavior of HMOs in recent years.

  20. An evidence-based evaluation of transferrable skills and job satisfaction for science PhDs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Sinche

    Full Text Available PhD recipients acquire discipline-specific knowledge and a range of relevant skills during their training in the life sciences, physical sciences, computational sciences, social sciences, and engineering. Empirically testing the applicability of these skills to various careers held by graduates will help assess the value of current training models. This report details results of an Internet survey of science PhDs (n = 8099 who provided ratings for fifteen transferrable skills. Indeed, analyses indicated that doctoral training develops these transferrable skills, crucial to success in a wide range of careers including research-intensive (RI and non-research-intensive (NRI careers. Notably, the vast majority of skills were transferrable across both RI and NRI careers, with the exception of three skills that favored RI careers (creativity/innovative thinking, career planning and awareness skills, and ability to work with people outside the organization and three skills that favored NRI careers (time management, ability to learn quickly, ability to manage a project. High overall rankings suggested that graduate training imparted transferrable skills broadly. Nonetheless, we identified gaps between career skills needed and skills developed in PhD training that suggest potential areas for improvement in graduate training. Therefore, we suggest that a two-pronged approach is crucial to maximizing existing career opportunities for PhDs and developing a career-conscious training model: 1 encouraging trainees to recognize their existing individual skill sets, and 2 increasing resources and programmatic interventions at the institutional level to address skill gaps. Lastly, comparison of job satisfaction ratings between PhD-trained employees in both career categories indicated that those in NRI career paths were just as satisfied in their work as their RI counterparts. We conclude that PhD training prepares graduates for a broad range of satisfying careers

  1. An evidence-based evaluation of transferrable skills and job satisfaction for science PhDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinche, Melanie; Layton, Rebekah L; Brandt, Patrick D; O'Connell, Anna B; Hall, Joshua D; Freeman, Ashalla M; Harrell, Jessica R; Cook, Jeanette Gowen; Brennwald, Patrick J

    2017-01-01

    PhD recipients acquire discipline-specific knowledge and a range of relevant skills during their training in the life sciences, physical sciences, computational sciences, social sciences, and engineering. Empirically testing the applicability of these skills to various careers held by graduates will help assess the value of current training models. This report details results of an Internet survey of science PhDs (n = 8099) who provided ratings for fifteen transferrable skills. Indeed, analyses indicated that doctoral training develops these transferrable skills, crucial to success in a wide range of careers including research-intensive (RI) and non-research-intensive (NRI) careers. Notably, the vast majority of skills were transferrable across both RI and NRI careers, with the exception of three skills that favored RI careers (creativity/innovative thinking, career planning and awareness skills, and ability to work with people outside the organization) and three skills that favored NRI careers (time management, ability to learn quickly, ability to manage a project). High overall rankings suggested that graduate training imparted transferrable skills broadly. Nonetheless, we identified gaps between career skills needed and skills developed in PhD training that suggest potential areas for improvement in graduate training. Therefore, we suggest that a two-pronged approach is crucial to maximizing existing career opportunities for PhDs and developing a career-conscious training model: 1) encouraging trainees to recognize their existing individual skill sets, and 2) increasing resources and programmatic interventions at the institutional level to address skill gaps. Lastly, comparison of job satisfaction ratings between PhD-trained employees in both career categories indicated that those in NRI career paths were just as satisfied in their work as their RI counterparts. We conclude that PhD training prepares graduates for a broad range of satisfying careers, potentially

  2. 47 CFR 32.4550 - Retained earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4550 Retained earnings. (a) This account shall include the undistributed balance of retained earnings derived from the...

  3. EARNINGS MANAGEMENT IN U.S. HOSPITALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Gang Nathan

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the hospital management practices of manipulating financial earnings within the bounds of generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). We conduct regression analyses that relate earnings management to hospital characteristics to assess the economic determinants of hospital earnings management behavior. From the CMS Cost Reports we collected hospital financial data of all U.S. hospitals that request reimbursement from the federal government for treating Medicare patients, and regress discretionary accruals on hospital size, profitability, asset liquidity, operating efficiency, labor cost, and ownership. Hospitals with higher profit margin, current ratio, working capital, days of patient receivables outstanding and total wage are associated with more earnings management, whereas those with larger size and higher debt level, asset turnover, days cash on hand, fixed asset age are associated with lower level of earnings manipulation. Additionally, managers of non-profit hospitals are more likely to undertake some form of window-dressing by manipulating accounting accruals without changing business models or pricing strategies than their public hospital counterparts. We provide direct evidence of the use of discretionary accruals to manage financial earnings among U.S. hospitals and the finding has profound policy implications in terms of assessing the pervasiveness of accounting manipulation and the overall integrity of financial reporting in this very special public and quasi-public service sector.

  4. 17 CFR 256.215 - Appropriated retained earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appropriated retained earnings... UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Liabilities and Other Credit Accounts § 256.215 Appropriated retained earnings. This account shall include the amount of retained earnings which has been appropriated or set...

  5. Science communication: a career where PhDs can make a difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irion, Robert

    2015-02-15

    Among careers for biologists with PhDs, science communication is one of the most diverse and rewarding pathways. Myriad options exist, from traditional journalism to new media, from writing for specialists to working in public outreach. Textbooks, mass-market books, and freelance writing that combines many of these pursuits are all viable choices. Communicating about science allows researchers to step away from the minutiae of a subdiscipline and to once again explore the breadth of science more fully through an ever-evolving array of stories. A doctoral degree can confer distinct advantages in the eyes of prospective editors and employers. Here I describe those advantages, possible career directions, and steps toward making such a transition. © 2015 Irion. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  6. Trends in the Presence and Roles of Women Physicists in Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapor, Agneš; Savić, Ilija; Davidović, Milena; Knezević, Dragica; Božić, Mirjana

    2009-04-01

    In general, the portion of women in physics has been increasing in recent years in Serbia, as well as their presence in research and academic institutions. The percentage of women who earned BSc degrees in physics is greater than men. In this respect the situation in Serbia is different from most other countries. But more men than women earned MSc and PhD degrees.

  7. Abnormal Retained Earnings Around The World

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Paulo; Silva, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Using a firm-level survey database covering 50 countries we evaluate firms´ abnormal retained earnings. The results of our work indicate that firms located in emerging markets retain more earnings than firms from developed countries. On the other hand, firms located on common law based countries retain earnings above the expected and higher than firms placed on civil law based countries. A possible explanation, according to our results, can be seen in the economic growth that these countries ...

  8. Intraoccupational Earnings Inequality. Human Capital and Institutional Determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorence, Jon

    1987-01-01

    Examines the distribution of earnings within occupations. Finds that these are more widely distributed than earnings among differing occupations. Suggests some gender differences in the processes generating earnings disparities within occupations. (CH)

  9. Self-Esteem and Earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Drago, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    Recent research in economics suggests a positive association between self-esteem and earnings. A major problem in this literature is that from simple cross-sectional wage regressions it is not possible to conclude that self-esteem has a causal impact on earnings. While classical measurement error leads to an attenuation bias, reverse causality and omitted variable are likely to drive the OLS coefficient on self-esteem upward. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) that adminis...

  10. 18 CFR 367.2160 - Account 216, Unappropriated retained earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Unappropriated retained earnings. 367.2160 Section 367.2160 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... retained earnings. This account must include the balances, either debit or credit, of unappropriated retained earnings arising from earnings of the service company. This account must not include any amounts...

  11. WHY DO COMPANIES FROM EMERGING COUNTRIES MANAGE EARNINGS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Callao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides evidence in terms of the incentives which lead managers from emerging European countries to manage earnings. In particular, we focused on four Eastern European countries: the Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary and Slovakia, as the majority of studies on earnings management in developing countries were based on the Asian emerging market. The market of developing European countries is still barely explored. After we confirmed that managers from emerging European companies manage earnings, we find that within the different incentives which lead managers to earnings management, the avoidance of debt covenants violations is a strong incentive for managers. Additionally, those firms considered as poor investments (with less value have incentives to manage earnings down as a consequence to opt for market niche. Moreover, emerging Eastern European companies have incentives to flatten earnings of current periods in order to benefit in the future as the source of future nonmanipulated earnings will be insufficient, as they may expect reduced, or at least lower future performance of their companies affected by increasing global competition. Finally, we confirm that privately-owned companies tend to maximize accounting earnings more than state-owned companies because they are in a weaker position related to a specific political and historical factors.

  12. The male-female earnings gap for nurses in Germany: A pooled cross-sectional study of the years 2006 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muench, Ulrike; Dietrich, Hans

    2017-07-14

    Nursing is one of the largest occupations for women in every country. Evidence suggests a substantial male-female pay gap for registered nurses in the U.S., possibly contributing to disparities between genders more broadly. Differences in motivation and skills between men and women have long been considered important factors in the gender earnings gap, but these factors are difficult to measure. Because of country specific educational pathways and limited upward job mobility in Germany, nurses tend to be more homogenous in their motivation to work and their work skills compared to the U.S. To study male-female earnings in the nursing labor market in Germany. This is a pooled cross-sectional study of survey data collected for the years 2006 and 2012. We used a representative survey of nurses (n=828) who are active labor force participants. In a multivariate ordinary least squares regression, the analysis estimated the log of monthly earnings for male and female nurses. The full model accounted for demographic, human capital, and geographic characteristics, in addition to employment characteristics, such as hours worked, additional education obtained, years of nursing experience, years of labor market experience, career inactivity, years with the employer, and responsibilities at work, among other factors. We conducted follow-up analyses to test alternative explanations for the pay gap, examining earnings for nurses who no longer worked in nursing and testing potential differences in motivation with the likelihood of working nightshifts and length of time with current employer. Unadjusted monthly earnings for full-time male nurses were 30% higher, or 700 Euros more, than monthly earnings for full-time female nurses. In the fully adjusted analysis, male nurses out-earned female nurses by approximately 9.3%, or 260 Euros per month. Follow-up analyses suggested that better outside options exist for male than female nurses in the German labor market, while we found no

  13. The Work Experience of Undocumented Mexican Women Migrants in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Rita J.; DeLey, Margo

    1984-01-01

    Undocumented Mexican women workers in Los Angeles were interviewed about their work experience in the United States. Most of them work in factories, not in domestic service. Most earn a salary above minimum wage but below that earned by documented women, and 80 percent believe their treatment at work equals that of other workers. (KH)

  14. The Earnings Management Motivation: Accrual Accounting vs. Cash Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Goel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Accrual basis of accounting has always found favour amongst corporate practitioners of earnings management. There have been extensive studies on earnings management, focusing on earnings hazards. This paper contributes to the literature by showing market inclination to accrual basis of accounting as motivated by a desire for earnings management. It analyzes the sample units’ performance in regard to accrual-indicators vs. cash-indicators and their pervasiveness on stock pricing in India. In India, the corporate ownership model is the Promoter Dominated Shareholders Model (PDSHM which makes this study unique in highlighting earnings management motivation. The units show a market preference for accrual numbers and motivation for earnings management as clear in their stock pricing behavior. I hope the study improves investors’ perception of the reliability of a firm’s performance, as measured by earnings. It is of use to the users of financial accounting and corporate finance globally for rationalizing the motivation behind earnings manipulation by the management.

  15. Credibility of management earnings forecasts and future returns

    OpenAIRE

    Norio Kitagawa; Akinobu Shuto

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of managerial discretion over their initial earnings forecasts on future performance. First, by estimating the discretionary portion of initial management earnings forecasts (defined as discretionary forecasts) based on the findings of fundamental analysis research, we find that firms with higher discretionary forecasts are more likely to miss their earnings forecast at the end of the fiscal year and revise their forecasts downward to meet their earnings for...

  16. 48 CFR 52.234-4 - Earned Value Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Earned Value Management....234-4 Earned Value Management System. As prescribed in 34.203(c), insert the following clause: Earned Value Management System (JUL 2006) (a) The Contractor shall use an earned value management system (EVMS...

  17. The Work and Wages of Single Women, 1870-1920

    OpenAIRE

    Goldin, Claudia

    1980-01-01

    Single women dominated the U.S. female labor force from 1870 to 1920. Data on the home life and working conditions of single women in 1888 and 1907 enable the estimation of their earnings functions. Work in the manufacturing sector for these women was task-oriented and payment was frequently by the piece. Earnings rose steeply with experience and peaked early; learning was mainly on-the-job. Occupational segregation by sex was a partial product of the method of payment, and the early terminat...

  18. Earned value project management

    CERN Document Server

    Fleming, Quentin W

    2010-01-01

    Organizations that follow the principles of good Earned Value Management (EVM) create an environment that allows teams to successfully operate and thrive ? even in the face of challenges that could negatively impact their projects. Earned Value Project Management (EVPM) is a methodology used to measure and communicate the real physical progress of a project taking into account the work completed, the time taken and the costs incurred to complete that work. As a result, EVPM allows more educated and effective management decision-making, which helps evaluate and control project risk by measuring project progress in monetary terms. In the first two editions of Earned Value Project Management, Quentin W. Fleming and Joel M. Koppelman provided guidance for project management practitioners already familiar with EVPM, was well as those who were new to the use of this technique. The third edition expanded the information available on of EVPM for medium and smaller projects while still being relevant for larger projec...

  19. Women Astronomers at Gemini: A Success Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Bernadette; Jorgensen, I.; Barker, N.; Edwards, M.; Trancho, G.

    2010-01-01

    Gemini Observatory has been very successful at attracting, hiring and retaining female Scientists. We present data on the growth of the scientific staff since the start of the Observatory, and science fellow recruiting from 2006-2008. At Gemini 31% of the Science Staff holding PhDs are female compared with 13.9% within the United States. The Science Management is 75% female, as is 50% of the Gemini Directorate. This critical mass of female representation within the science staff and management appears to have had a positive effect on female recruitment and hiring. The science fellow recruitment during the past 3 years has attracted 21-38% female applicants and 57% of new hires during this period have been female scientists. Perhaps even more significant, the retention rate of female science staff at Gemini is 88%, compared to 64% for male science staff. There are likely many factors that contribute to this success, but the conclusion is that Gemini has earned a reputation in the scientific community as a place where female scientists are valued and can be successful.

  20. How Sensitive is Intergenerational Earnings Mobility to Different Measures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Mohammad Azhar; D. Munk, Martin; Bonke, Jens

    2008-01-01

    The article provides various estimates of intergenerational earnings mobility based on Danish administrative register information. The aim is to calculate how sensitive the results are to different earning periods, age brackets, and earning components enabling the most accurate cross country comp...... find that intergenerational earnings mobility from father to son in Denmark is on the same level as in Sweden, Norway, and Finland, whereas the intergenerational earnings mobility in all the Nordic countries is found higher than in the UK and USA....

  1. OGJ group earnings show big gain for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.J.; Sanders, V.

    1994-01-01

    Earnings for Oil and Gas Journal's group of 22 large US oil companies advanced sharply last year, increasing 70.9% from 1992. Group profits totaled $16.1 billion, with the gain stemming largely from lack of one time charges that depressed earnings in 1992. Adoption of new accounting rules associated with future postretirement costs caused the 1992 charges. US exploration and production earnings were mixed, tied in part to oil and gas production volumes. Higher gas prices and production helped boost earnings for a number of companies. But the earnings improvement from gas was offset by reduced oil production and prices. Results from non-U.S. E and P also were mixed. Average worldwide crude oil export prices were down from year earlier levels. However, for some companies this was offset by higher production levels and lower exploration costs. Earnings from refining and marketing were improved from 1992 levels, particularly for non-US operations. Lower feedstock costs, especially in the fourth quarter, helped boost earnings in this sector. Refining earnings gains also flowed from lower costs due to restructuring and an accompanying improvement in operating efficiency. The paper discusses world trends, operations and prices, US exploration and production, non-US E and P, US and non-US refining and marketing, petrochemicals, and the forecast for future demand

  2. Earnings progression, human capital and incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders

    progression by investigating the effects of on-the-job human capital acquisition, explicit short-run incentives and career concern incentives on earnings progression. The model leads to predictions about the incentive structure and the progression in both cross-sectional and individual earnings which...

  3. Do managers manipulate earnings prior to management buyouts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, Yaping; Renneboog, Luc

    2015-01-01

    To address the question as to whether managers intending to purchase their company by means of a levered buyout transaction manipulate earnings in order to buy their firm on the cheap, we study the different types of earnings management prior to the transaction: accrual management, real earnings

  4. PENGUKURAN PERMANENT EARNINGS PADA HUBUNGAN DENGAN KEBIJAKAN DIVIDEND PERUSAHAAN : REVIEW PENELITIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Manuhara Putra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Corporate earnings divided into a permanent component of earnings and transitory earnings will be very useful in estimating the future value of the company, that will be useful in decision making stock return. Be more relevant for investors and financial analysts in analyzing the earnings based on the permanent and transitory earnings. On permanent earnings will be more focused to get the gain from investments. One focus of research is based on this component is to test the relationship with the earnings dividend payment policy. Based on several studies obtained different results concerning the relationship with the permanent earnings dividend policy. Research that focuses on permanent earnings using two approaches to determine the accuracy of the proxy of permanent earnings. Determination of permanent earnings through the stock price and the latter by using the accounting profit.

  5. Culturally Relevant Inquiry-Based Laboratory Module Implementations in Upper-Division Genetics and Cell Biology Teaching Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siritunga, Dimuth; Montero-Rojas, Maria; Carrero, Katherine; Toro, Gladys; Velez, Ana; Carrero-Martinez, Franklin A.

    2011-01-01

    Today, more minority students are entering undergraduate programs than ever before, but they earn only 6% of all science or engineering PhDs awarded in the United States. Many studies suggest that hands-on research activities enhance students' interest in pursuing a research career. In this paper, we present a model for the implementation of…

  6. Divorced women at retirement: projections of economic well-being in the near future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butrica, B A; Iams, H M

    2000-01-01

    The Modeling Income in the Near Term (MINT) data system projects retirement income for persons retiring in the 1990s through 2020. Using those data, we examine the economic well-being of divorced women at retirement. The MINT data system improves upon previous estimates of Social Security benefits by: Measuring and projecting years of marriage to determine if the 10-year requirement has been met, Projecting lifetime earnings until retirement and eligibility for Social Security retirement benefits, and Estimating lifetime earnings of former spouses. MINT also makes independent projections of each retiree's income from pensions, assets, and earnings (for working beneficiaries). As a result of changes in marital patterns, MINT projects that the proportion of women who are divorced will increase. At the same time, the proportion of those women who are eligible for auxiliary benefits is projected to decrease, for two main reasons. First, changes in women's earnings and work patterns result in more women receiving retired-worker benefits based on their own earnings. Second, an increased number of divorced women will not meet the 10-year marriage requirement for auxiliary benefits. Despite the projected decrease over time in eligibility rates for auxiliary benefits, the level of Social Security benefits is projected to change little between the older and younger birth cohorts of divorced women entering retirement. According to the MINT data, the most vulnerable of divorced women will be those who have not met the 10-year marriage requirement. Poverty rates will be higher for them than for all other divorced women. This group of divorced women is projected to grow as more and more women divorce from shorter marriages. With more women divorcing and with fewer divorced women meeting the 10-year marriage requirement, the proportion of economically vulnerable aged women will increase when the baby boom retires. Further research is warranted on this long neglected subject

  7. Occupational change, employer change, internal migration, and earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, R G

    1997-02-01

    "In this paper I use microdata from the [U.S.] Panel Study of Income Dynamics to measure the financial returns to intercounty and interstate migration for individuals in a temporal framework accounting for gains that accrue over time.... To account for the indirect effects of migration on earnings, explanatory variables are created by interacting migration status with: (1) occupational change, (2) employer change and (3) changes in both occupation and employer. These interaction terms are then included in the earnings functions. Earnings are estimated for three years subsequent to the migration decision to account for the financial returns to migration accruing over time. Results indicate that, when estimating earnings, the use of a simple migration dummy variable will mask the indirect effects of migration on earnings." excerpt

  8. Factors Determining the Career Success of Doctorate Holders: Evidence from the Spanish Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal-Domínguez, J. F.; Wall, Alan

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the determining factors of PhDs' career success. Earnings have been used as an objective measure, and a subjective measure of success was constructed based on the individuals' assessments of broader aspects of their job position. When analysing the data by field of knowledge and gender, it was found that males and PhD holders…

  9. The Ph.D. Value Proposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    Atlanta University launched its doctor of arts in humanities (DAH) programs almost 40 years ago, and, since the 1988 merger with Clark College, Clark Atlanta University has continued to award the degrees. This fall, for the first time, its students will be able to earn Ph.D.s in humanities instead. In DAH programs around the country, there's been…

  10. 18 CFR 367.4360 - Account 436, Appropriations of retained earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Appropriations of retained earnings. 367.4360 Section 367.4360 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... NATURAL GAS ACT Retained Earnings Accounts § 367.4360 Account 436, Appropriations of retained earnings. This account must include appropriations of retained earnings as follows: (a) Appropriations required...

  11. Using the Pareto Distribution to Improve Estimates of Topcoded Earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Armour; Richard V. Burkhauser; Jeff Larrimore

    2014-01-01

    Inconsistent censoring in the public-use March Current Population Survey (CPS) limits its usefulness in measuring labor earnings trends. Using Pareto estimation methods with less-censored internal CPS data, we create an enhanced cell-mean series to capture top earnings in the public-use CPS. We find that previous approaches for imputing topcoded earnings systematically understate top earnings. Annual earnings inequality trends since 1963 using our series closely approximate those found by Kop...

  12. Can earnings manipulation create value?

    OpenAIRE

    Anton Miglo

    2008-01-01

    Existing literature usually considers earnings manipulation to be a negative social phenomenon. We argue that earnings manipulation can be a part of the equilibrium relationships between firm's insiders and outsiders. We consider an optimal contract between an entrepreneur and an investor where the entrepreneur is subject to a double moral hazard problem (one being the choice of production effort and the other being intertemporal substitution, which consists of transferring cash flows between...

  13. Power Scaling of Petroleum Field Sizes and Movie Box Office Earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, J. A.; Barton, C. C.

    2017-12-01

    The size-cumulative frequency distribution of petroleum fields has long been shown to be power scaling, Mandelbrot, 1963, and Barton and Scholz, 1995. The scaling exponents for petroleum field volumes range from 0.8 to 1.08 worldwide and are used to assess the size and number of undiscovered fields. The size-cumulative frequency distribution of movie box office earnings also exhibits a power scaling distribution for domestic, overseas, and worldwide gross box office earnings for the top 668 earning movies released between 1939 and 2016 (http://www.boxofficemojo.com/alltime/). Box office earnings were reported in the dollars-of-the-day and were converted to 2015 U.S. dollars using the U.S. consumer price index (CPI) for domestic and overseas earnings. Because overseas earnings are not reported by country and there is no single inflation index appropriate for all overseas countries. Adjusting the box office earnings using the CPI index has two effects on the power functions fit. The first is that the scaling exponent has a narrow range (2.3 - 2.5) between the three data sets; and second, the scatter of the data points fit by the power function is reduced. The scaling exponents for the adjusted value are; 2.3 for domestic box office earnings, 2.5 for overseas box office earnings, and 2.5 worldwide box office earnings. The smaller the scaling exponent the greater the proportion of all earnings is contributed by a smaller proportion of all the movies: where E = P (a-2)/(a-1) where E is the percentage of earnings, P is the percentage of all movies in the data set. The scaling exponents for box office earnings (2.3 - 2.5) means that approximately 20% of the top earning movies contribute 70-55% of all the earnings for domestic, worldwide earnings respectively.

  14. A comparison of ethical perceptions of earnings-management practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Jooste

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1990, Bruns and Merchant (1990 surveyed earnings-management practices and asked the readership of the Harvard Business Review to rate the acceptability of those practices. Prior to the Bruns and Merchant (1990 study, the morality of short-term earnings-management was of little concern to researchers and accounting practitioners. However, in the light of increased financial frauds and failures, new and increased emphasis has been placed on the importance of the concepts of earnings quality and earnings-management practices. Despite increased research focusing on business ethics since 1990, there is little evidence that the profession is educating accountants about earnings-management practices. This study compares the results of studies on earnings-management practices. Students and business managers were surveyed at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University (NMMU and these results were compared to studies prior to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act 2002 in the USA. The aim of the study is to determine if there have been changes in attitudes towards earnings-management practices since the acceptance of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.

  15. Kick-off symposium series to help New Ph.D.s is a success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernys, Michael; Roughan, Moninya

    The U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) and the U.S. Office of Naval Research (ONR) recently sponsored the first of what is expected to be many symposia to be held every couple of years to help new scientists begin their research careers. The inaugural dissertation symposium, Physical Oceanography Dissertation Symposium I (PODS I), provided a forum for new Ph.D.s and doctoral candidates soon to receive their degrees in physical oceanography or a related field, to discuss science and forge future professional relationships. The next symposium is expected to be in October 2003, in Hawaii, in concert with the Dissertation Symposium for Chemical Oceanographers (DISCO); information to be posted at http://spars.aibs.org/pods/. Applications from prospective participants were sought internationally, with the sponsoring agencies and coordinators advertising by e-mail, through personal communication with established researchers, and by informing degree-granting institutions in the related fields.

  16. Comparative research on women's employment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lippe, T. van der; Dijk, L. van

    2002-01-01

    Women's employment has been widely studied in both Western countries and Eastern Europe. In this article, the most frequently used measurements and descriptions of women's paid work are given, namely, participation rate, number of hours worked, gender segregation, and the gender gap in earnings.

  17. Comparative Research on Women's Emplyment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lippe, Tanja van der; Dijk, Liset van

    2002-01-01

    Women's employment has been widely studied in both Western countries and Eastern Europe. In this article, the most frequently used measurements and descriptions of women's paid work are given, namely, participation rate, number of hours worked, gender segregation, and the gender gap in earnings.

  18. Earnings inequality and market work in husband-wife families

    OpenAIRE

    Pencavel, John H.

    2006-01-01

    Constructing pseudo-panel data from successive Current Population Surveys, this paper analyzes earnings inequality in husband and wife families over the life cycle and over time. Particular attention is devoted to the role of labor supply in influencing measures of earnings inequality. Compact and accurate descriptions of earnings inequality are derived that facilitate the analysis of the effect of the changing market employment of wives on earnings inequality. The growing propensity of marri...

  19. State-level women's status and psychiatric disorders among US women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Xuan, Ziming; Subramanian, S V; Koenen, Karestan C

    2011-11-01

    Although greater gender equality at the state-level is associated with fewer depressive symptoms in women after controlling for individual-level confounders, the extent to which state-level women's status is related to psychiatric disorders in women and gender differences in psychopathology has never been examined. We examined these associations in the current report. We used data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n=34,653), a national probability sample of US adults. Respondents completed structured diagnostic assessments of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders. We used generalized estimating equations to examine associations between four state-level indicators of women's status (political participation, employment/earnings, social/economic autonomy, and reproductive rights) and odds of 12-month mood and anxiety disorders among women. We also tested whether women's status predicted the magnitude of gender differences in psychiatric disorders. State-level political participation, employment/earnings, and social/economic autonomy were unrelated to odds of 12-month mood and anxiety disorders among women. However, the prevalence of major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder was lower in states where women have greater reproductive rights (OR 0.93-0.95), controlling for individual-level risk factors. None of the women's status indicators predicted gender differences in mood and anxiety disorder prevalence. State-level women's status was largely unrelated to mood and anxiety disorders in women or to gender differences in these disorders. Investigation of social factors that play a role in shaping the distribution of individual-level risk factors that are associated with gender disparities in psychiatric disorders represents an important avenue for future research.

  20. Earnings and bank profitability in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. N. Ugoani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bank earnings in form of retained profit help in the capital formation of banks. This is critical because capital inadequacy is often a cause of bank failures. During the banking crisis in Nigeria the gross earnings of many banks diminished considerably due to frauds and bad management. For example, in 2009 the Central Bank of Nigeria revoked the operating licences of fourteen banks which had huge nonperforming loans and were making losses. The fragility in the Nigerian banking system in the 1990s and beyond was compounded due to wide spread poor corporate governance practices and imprudent lending that led to the erosion of gross earnings and profitability. The study employed the exploratory research design. Data analyses were done through description statistics and the regression technique using the statistical package for the social sciences. The regression result was Y = 4.926 + 1.877x meaning that with an increase of 1 percent in gross earnings bank profitability increases by 1.88 percent. This is the crux of the study.

  1. Investor reaction to strategic emphasis on earnings numbers: An empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shibley Sadique

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the earnings information and stock prices of S&P500 firms and find that investors following S&P500 stocks (i respond more to pro forma earnings than to GAAP earnings, (ii respond to an emphasis on pro forma earnings, and (iii are fixated on pro forma earnings. We provide the first direct evidence that a strategic emphasis on earnings numbers may affect return volatility. Further, our results do not support the argument that a larger investor response to Street earnings might be driven by large differences between the Street numbers and GAAP numbers.

  2. Is It All about Money? Work Characteristics and Women's and Men's Marriage Formation in Early Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Janet Chen-Lan; Raley, R Kelly

    2016-06-01

    Using data from the NLSY 97, this paper investigates how work characteristics (earnings and autonomy) shape young adults' transition to first marriage separately for men and women. The results suggest that earnings are positively associated with marriage and that this association is as strong for women as men in their mid-to-late twenties. Additionally, occupational autonomy-having the control over one's own work structure-facilitates entry into first marriage for women in their mid-to late-20s but, for men, occupational autonomy is not associated with marriage at these ages. These results suggest that even as women's earnings are increasingly important for marriage, other aspects of work are also important for stable family formation.

  3. Earnings Inequality in International Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Peracchi, Franco

    1999-01-01

    The increase in dispersion of personal earnings in the USA has received considerable attention and has been analyzed extensively. The evidence for other countries is less systematic. There are a few comparative studies, but they tend to focus on descriptions of the overall distribution of income or earnings. This paper compares the USA with other countries in order to understand whether the US experience is relatively unique or is instead part of a global (or perhaps industrial countries) phe...

  4. Earnings Management: Obvious Phenomenon in Albanian Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teuta Llukani

    2013-07-01

    This paper is focused on reviewing the existing literature with regard to the Earnings Management in response to the growing pressure of investors, policy makers, and companies’ governance reform mechanisms to curb opportunistic behavior of the managers of these companies. It also examines the existence of this phenomenon in Albanian context as well as tests the importance of Modified Jones Model as an efficient tool for detection of abnormal accruals, used as a proxy for earnings management. The results show that firms in the Albanian market are engaged in earnings management initiatives.

  5. After the War: Women in Physics in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Ruth H.; Herzenberg, Caroline L.

    2015-12-01

    This book examines the lives and contributions of American women physicists who were active in the years following World War II, during the middle decades of the 20th century. It covers the strategies they used to survive and thrive in a time where their gender was against them. The percentage of woman taking PhDs in physics has risen from 6% in 1983 to 20% in 2012 (an all-time high for women). By understanding the history of women in physics, these gains can continue. It discusses two major classes of women physicists; those who worked on military projects, and those who worked in industrial laboratories and at universities largely in the late 1940s and 1950s. While it includes minimal discussion of physics and physicists in the 1960s and later, this book focuses on the challenges and successes of women physicists in the years immediately following World War II and before the eras of affirmative actions and the use of the personal computer.

  6. Why Should Women Get Less? : Evidence on the Gender Pay Gap from Multifactorial Survey Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Auspurg, Katrin; Hinz, Thomas; Sauer, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Gender pay gaps likely persist in Western societies because both men and women consider somewhat lower earnings for female employees than for otherwise similar male employees to be fair. Two different theoretical approaches explain “legitimate” wage gaps: same-gender referent theory and reward expectations theory. The first approach states that women compare their lower earnings primarily with that of other underpaid women; the second approach argues that both men and women value gender as a ...

  7. Immigrant-Native Differences in Earnings Mobility Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Esmaeilzadeh, Rayhaneh; Hansen, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    This study compares the earnings mobility between immigrants and natives within and between Denmark and Canada. Both countries have different labour market conditions and immigration history which leads to an interesting comparison of earning mobility processes. The paper employs a dynamic...

  8. Immigrant-Native Differences in Earnings Mobility Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Esmaeilzadeh, •Rayhaneh

    2009-01-01

    This study compares the earnings mobility between immigrants and natives within and between Denmark and Canada. Both countries have different labour market conditions and immigration history which leads to an interesting comparison of earning mobility processes. The paper employs a dynamic...

  9. Social Desirability Bias and Earnings Management around the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niszczota Paweł

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we test whether inter-country variation in individuals’ tendency to conform, as measured by the Lie (social desirability scale used in the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, can explain differences in the propensity to employ corporate earnings management around the world. Such a link is feasible, given that survey data suggest executives tend to be under severe pressure to meet earnings benchmarks, to which they often succumb by engaging in earnings management (to the detriment of the company’s long-term prospects. We hypothesize that in countries where the propensity to act in a socially desirable (outsider-satisfying way is stronger, earnings management should be more prevalent. Research results support our hypothesis, and demonstrate the existence of a positive relationship between the prevalence of earnings management in a country and the mean score of individuals from that country on the Eysenck Lie scale, which further evidences that capital market pressure is a significant determinant of earnings management.

  10. Social desirability of earnings tests

    OpenAIRE

    Cremer, Helmuth; Lozachmeur, Jean-Marie; Pestieau, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    In many countries pension systems involve some form of earnings test; i.e., an invidual's benefits are reduced if he has labor income. This paper examines whether or not such earning tests emerge when pension system and income tax are optimally designed. We use a simple model with individuals differing both in productivity and their health status. The working life of an individual has two 'endings': an official retirement age at which he starts drawing pension benefits (while possibly supplem...

  11. 48 CFR 252.234-7002 - Earned Value Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Earned Value Management... of Provisions And Clauses 252.234-7002 Earned Value Management System. As prescribed in 234.203(2), use the following clause: Earned Value Management System (APR 2008) (a) In the performance of this...

  12. 18 CFR 367.2150 - Account 215, Appropriated retained earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 215, Appropriated retained earnings. 367.2150 Section 367.2150 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... retained earnings. This account must include the amount of retained earnings that has been appropriated or...

  13. Measuring the effect of managerial ability on earning quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Bahri Sales

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to measure the effect of managerial ability on earning quality on selected firms listed on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2007-2013. The proposed study uses data envelopment analysis to measure the relative efficiency of selected firms where Sales is considered as output and Cost of goods (COGS, Selling, General and Administrative Expenses (SG&A, Net Property Plant and Equipment (PPE, Net operating Leases (OpsLease, Research & Development (R&D, Purchased Good will (Goodwill and Other intangible assets (OtherIntan are considered as inputs. Earning quality in this survey consists of three parts of quality of accruals, earnings and earnings forecast persistence. The results of our survey have indicated that managerial ability influences positively on earning quality.

  14. Earned print media in advancing tobacco control in Himachal Pradesh, India: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Renu; Shewade, Hemant Deepak; Gopalan, Balasubramaniam; Badrel, Ramesh Kumar; Rana, Jugdeep Singh

    2017-01-01

    The Union-Bloomberg Initiative tobacco control projects were implemented in Himachal Pradesh (a hilly state in North India) from 2007 to 2014. The project focused on the establishment of an administrative framework; increasing the capacity of stakeholders; enforcement of legislation; coalition and networking with multiple stakeholders; awareness generation with focus on earned media and monitoring and evaluation with policy-focussed research. This study aimed to systematically analyse all earned print news items related to the projects. In this cross-sectional descriptive study, quantitative content analysis of earned print news items was carried out using predetermined codes related to areas of tobacco control policies. We also carried out a cost description of the hypothetical value of this earned media. The area of the news item in cm 2 was multiplied by the average rate of space for the paid news item in that particular newspaper. There were 6348 news items: the numbers steadily increased with time. Focus on Monitoring tobacco use, Protecting people from tobacco smoke, Offering help to quit, Warning about dangers of tobacco, Enforcing a ban on tobacco advertising and promotion, Raising tax on tobacco products was seen in 24, 17, 9, 23, 22 and 3% of news items, respectively. Press releases were highest at 44% and report by correspondents at 24%. Further, 55, 23 and 21% news items focused on smoking, smokeless and both forms of tobacco use, respectively. Sixty-six per cent and 34% news items, respectively, were focused on youth and women. The news items had a hypothetical value of US$1503 628.3, which was three times more than the funds spent on all project activities. In the absence of funding for paid media, the project strategically used earned media to promote tobacco control policies in the state.

  15. Baccalaureate Origins of PhDs, 1920-1980: A New Study. College Rankings by Educational Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Todd C.

    A report on the undergraduate origins of PhD holders for the periods of 1920-1980 and 1970-1980 is presented. Its three goals are to show how many of each of the 1,200 U.S. colleges had graduates who earned the PhD during the two time periods; to calculate the proportion of each college's graduates who had earned the PhD during the two time…

  16. 48 CFR 1852.234-2 - Earned Value Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Earned Value Management... and Clauses 1852.234-2 Earned Value Management System. As prescribed in 1834.203-70(b) insert the following clause: Earned Value Management System (NOV 2006) (a) In the performance of this contract, the...

  17. Gender Inequalities in Employment and Wage-earning among Economic Migrants in Chinese Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Min

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent trends show an unprecedented feminisation of migration in China, triggered by the increasing demand for cheap labour in big cities and the availability of women in the labour market. These trends corroborate the evidence that non-agricultural work and remittance from urban labour migrants have become the major sources of rural household income. Objective: This paper investigates the extent of gender inequalities in job participation and wage earning among internal labour migrants in China. We hypothesize that female migrants in cities are economically more disadvantaged than male migrants in the job market. Methods: We use data from the 2010 National Migrant Dynamics Monitoring Survey conducted in 106 cities representing all 31 provinces and geographic regions. The study applies the standard Heckman two-step Probit-OLS method to model job participation and wage-earning, separately for 59,225 males and 41,546 females aged 16-59 years, adjusting for demographic and social characteristics and potential selection effects. Results: Female migrants have much lower job-participation and wage-earning potential than male migrants. Male migrants earn 26Š higher hourly wages than their female counterparts. Decomposition analysis confirms potential gender discrimination, suggesting that 88Š of the gender difference in wages (or 12Š of female migrant wage is due to discriminatory treatment of female migrants in the Chinese job market. Migrants with rural hukou status have a smaller chance of participation in the job market and they earn lower wages than those with urban hukou, regardless of education advantage. Conclusions: There is evidence of significant female disadvantage among internal labour migrants in the job market in Chinese cities. Household registration by urban and rural areas, as controlled by the hukou status, partly explains the differing job participation and wage earning among female labour migrants in urban China

  18. Thoughts on Earned Value Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pido, Kelle

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the concepts of Earned Value reporting and Earned Value Metrics (EVM) and the implementation for the Constellation Program. EVM is used to manage both the contract and civil service workforce, and used as a measure of contractor costs and performance. The Program EVM is not as useful for Level of Effort tasking, for either contractor, or civil service employees. Some issues and concerns in reference to EVM and the process for the use of EVM for Mission assurance are reviewed,

  19. Roster of Astronomy Departments with Enrollment and Degree Data, 2010: Results from the 2010 Survey of Enrollments and Degrees. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Starr; Mulvey, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    Academic year 2009-10 produced more astronomy bachelor's than in any other time in US history. The 382 astronomy physics bachelor's degrees earned in the class of 2010 represent a 19% increase from the previous class and an increase of 89% from a decade earlier. The number of astronomy PhDs conferred has remained at around 150 for the last 3…

  20. Lifetime earnings for physicians across specialties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, J Paul; Tancredi, Daniel; Jerant, Anthony; Romano, Patrick S; Kravitz, Richard L

    2012-12-01

    Earlier studies estimated annual income differences across specialties, but lifetime income may be more relevant given physicians' long-term commitments to specialties. Annual income and work hours data were collected from 6381 physicians in the nationally representative 2004-2005 Community Tracking Study. Data regarding years of residency were collected from AMA FREIDA. Present value models were constructed assuming 3% discount rates. Estimates were adjusted for demographic and market covariates. Sensitivity analyses included 4 alternative models involving work hours, retirement, exogenous variables, and 1% discount rate. Estimates were generated for 4 broad specialty categories (Primary Care, Surgery, Internal Medicine and Pediatric Subspecialties, and Other), and for 41 specific specialties. The estimates of lifetime earnings for the broad categories of Surgery, Internal Medicine and Pediatric Subspecialties, and Other specialties were $1,587,722, $1,099,655, and $761,402 more than for Primary Care. For the 41 specific specialties, the top 3 (with family medicine as reference) were neurological surgery ($2,880,601), medical oncology ($2,772,665), and radiation oncology ($2,659,657). The estimates from models with varying rates of retirement and including only exogenous variables were similar to those in the preferred model. The 1% discount model generated estimates that were roughly 150% larger than the 3% model. There was considerable variation in the lifetime earnings across physician specialties. After accounting for varying residency years and discounting future earnings, primary care specialties earned roughly $1-3 million less than other specialties. Earnings' differences across specialties may undermine health reform efforts to control costs and ensure adequate numbers of primary care physicians.

  1. [Comment on] Statistical discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Douglas

    In the December 8, 1981, issue of Eos, a news item reported the conclusion of a National Research Council study that sexual discrimination against women with Ph.D.'s exists in the field of geophysics. Basically, the item reported that even when allowances are made for motherhood the percentage of female Ph.D.'s holding high university and corporate positions is significantly lower than the percentage of male Ph.D.'s holding the same types of positions. The sexual discrimination conclusion, based only on these statistics, assumes that there are no basic psychological differences between men and women that might cause different populations in the employment group studied. Therefore, the reasoning goes, after taking into account possible effects from differences related to anatomy, such as women stopping their careers in order to bear and raise children, the statistical distributions of positions held by male and female Ph.D.'s ought to be very similar to one another. Any significant differences between the distributions must be caused primarily by sexual discrimination.

  2. FEMALE EARNINGS AND DIVORCE RATES:SOME AUSTRALIAN EVIDENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce Phillips; William Griffiths

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine whether female earnings have influenced divorce rates in Australia, using state-level data for the past four decades. Following a recent study by Ressler and Waters (2000), which concludes from comparable US data that female earnings and divorce rates may be jointly endogenous, initial testing is performed to identify whether female earnings can be treated as exogenous. A Hausman specification error test finds no evidence of a simultaneous relationship ...

  3. The practice and earnings of preventive medicine physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salive, M E

    1992-01-01

    A shortage of preventive medicine (PM) physicians exists in the United States. Researchers know little about these physicians' earnings and practice characteristics. The American College of Preventive Medicine (ACPM) mailed a survey to all self-identified PM physicians on the American Medical Association (AMA) Physician Masterfile. A total of 3,771 (54%) responded; respondents' sex and region of residence were typical for PM physicians in general, with a slight excess of older physicians and those reporting board certification. A total of 2,664 (71%) were working full time, with median earnings of $85,000 (mean $90,000). Among full-time physicians, relatively higher earnings were associated with the following characteristics: male sex; age 45 to 64 years; major source of income from clinical, business, or industrial sources, rather than governmental or academic; and PM board certification. Full-time PM physicians earned much less than office-based private practitioners in several primary care specialties in 1989. The gap in earnings between PM specialists in government positions and those in the private sector is also substantial. Both disparities may require creative solutions.

  4. Insult to Injury: Disability, Earnings, and Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Perry

    2012-01-01

    This study measures the longitudinal effect of disability on earnings, marriage, and divorce. The data come from the Survey of Income and Program Participation matched to administrative data on longitudinal earnings. Using event-study methods, the results show that the onset of a work-preventing disability is associated with a precipitous decline…

  5. Post-Service Earnings of Vietnam-Era Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    vets, for ihany faictors that civilian waces . 1contribLitC to earnings. f5 S. Bolin. Hess & Little Reereosion analysis Use of military trainingiI! %1...changes in the economy on the lifetime earnings of the sample members. He concluded that average annual income had increased while the returns to an

  6. The Earnings/Price Risk Factor in Capital Asset Pricing Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Falcão Noda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article integrates the ideas from two major lines of research on cost of equity and asset pricing: multi-factor models and ex ante accounting models. The earnings/price ratio is used as a proxy for the ex ante cost of equity, in order to explain realized returns of Brazilian companies within the period from 1995 to 2013. The initial finding was that stocks with high (low earnings/price ratios have higher (lower risk-adjusted realized returns, already controlled by the capital asset pricing model's beta. The results show that selecting stocks based on high earnings/price ratios has led to significantly higher risk-adjusted returns in the Brazilian market, with average abnormal returns close to 1.3% per month. We design asset pricing models including an earnings/price risk factor, i.e. high earnings minus low earnings, based on the Fama and French three-factor model. We conclude that such a risk factor is significant to explain returns on portfolios, even when controlled by size and market/book ratios. Models including the high earnings minus low earnings risk factor were better to explain stock returns in Brazil when compared to the capital asset pricing model and to the Fama and French three-factor model, having the lowest number of significant intercepts. These findings may be due to the impact of historically high inflation rates, which reduce the information content of book values, thus making the models based on earnings/price ratios better than those based on market/book ratios. Such results are different from those obtained in more developed markets and the superiority of the earnings/price ratio for asset pricing may also exist in other emerging markets.

  7. Effects of Intermittent Labor Force Attachment on Women's Earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Joyce P.; Levin, Laurence M.

    1995-01-01

    Women who leave the labor market for family reasons often return to wages lower than those of women who did not. They lose seniority and are less likely to receive on-the-job training, their jobs may depreciate, and employers may believe they will again take a leave. (Author)

  8. Mentoring women in academic surgery: overcoming institutional barriers to success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Eddie L

    2006-09-01

    Women now comprise 50% of Caucasian matriculants to medical school; 66.6% of African Americans, 48% of Hispanics and 51.3% of Asians beginning medical school are also women. This trend is likely to continue since women now earn 57% of all undergraduate degrees, and they earn more degrees in the health professions and biological sciences than men. Black and Hispanic women now earn 66% and 60% of bachelor's degrees in their respective ethnic groups. Overall, women are concentrated at the lowest faculty ranks at medical schools, with 70% holding the rank of instructor or assistant professor. Women continue to experience difficulty with recruitment, retention, promotion and pay issues compared to men. They also experience additional gender-specific issues, including primary responsibility for rearing families and quality-of-life issues in some specialties, including most of the surgical disciplines. Clearly, there is an evolving population shift at work here; the pool of candidates for medical school faculty positions is likely to be evenly split between men and women for Caucasians, Hispanics and Asians, while the African-American pool is likely heavily weighted in favor of the women. Women are beginning to garner more Latin honors recognition at graduation as well and the definition of the "best and the brightest" is being redefined. Therefore, institutions must continue to identify the barriers that deter women from entering surgery, to develop research tools to understand how to improve the process of developing leadership skills among women and to insure a "buy-in" of their male counterparts when components of the plan are being implemented.

  9. Ambitious Mothers--Successful Daughters: Mothers' Early Expectations for Children's Education and Children's Earnings and Sense of Control in Adult Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Hawkes, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Background: Mothers' expectations for their children's educational attainment are related to children's educational and occupational attainment. Studies have yet to establish, however, the long-term links between maternal expectations and offspring earnings, which are not always related to occupational attainment especially in women, or between…

  10. THE GIFT AND REQUEST NETWORK - DIFFERENCES BETWEEN WOMEN AND MEN IN THE RECEIPT AND THE EFFECT OF INFORMATION CONCERNING THE LABOR-MARKET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SANDERS, K

    Women and men differ in their earnings. Even when the data are controlled for education, age and experience, differences in earnings between women and men are still found. In this study differences in search behaviour between women and men are examined as an explanation for this gender wage gap. To

  11. Earned Value Management System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — EVMS is a system for measuring project performance and progress in an objective manner by supporting earned value management. EVMS has the ability to combine...

  12. Cameco sees improved earnings through nine months

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Cameco Corporation says it had net earnings of $29 million in the first nine months of this year, compared to a profit of $5.4 million in the same period last year. The 1990 earnings do not include a $60.2 million gain on the sale of Cameco's Rabbit Lake assets. The increased earnings, the company says, reflected lower interest expense, gains on foreign exchange and improved product margins. Uranium concentrate sales volumes were virtually unchanged from last year, but sales revenues rose 5.6%, largely due to the mix of contracts, as Cameco continued to avoid the spot market, as it has since 1988, in favour of seeking longer term contracts at better prices

  13. EARNINGS MANAGEMENT, AUDIT QUALITY AND LEGAL ENVIRONMENT: AN INTERNATIONAL COMPARISON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Unsal Memis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between earnings management-audit quality and earnings management-legal system quality by using 1507 firms’ observations from listed companies in private firms across different 8 emerging countries. Consistent with previous research, differentiation between Big 4 and non-Big 4 audit firms are used as a audit quality proxy and discretionary accruals are used to measure the earnings management. According to the results, only for Brazilian and Mexican companies, there is significant relationship between the discretionary accruals and audit quality. For the other countries there is not significant relationship. Furthermore efficiency of the legal system helps decrease earnings management incentives. Along with results, the big four auditors do not constrain the earnings management incentives in every emerging country but effective legal system does. In this analysis we used other earnings management related variables like the size of the firms, leverage, lagged ROA of the firms which have loss in the previous year and Tobin Q as control variables.

  14. Empowering women to tackle cattle lung disease | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-06

    Jun 6, 2016 ... While Somali women play a key role in cattle rearing, only men tend to ... addressing gender inequalities and empowering women are vital to ... to farmers earning US$160 from milk sales during the first lactation, ... Solutions.

  15. PENGARUH PREMANAGED EARNINGS DAN DIVIDEN YANG DIHARAPKAN TERHADAP PRAKTIK MANAJEMEN LABA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalia Anita Wibiksono

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine whether the companies paying dividend in the previous year (payers are more likely to perform earnings management than companies that do not (non-payers in order to meet the expected dividend. The study also examines the impact of premanaged earnings and expected dividend on earnings management practices. Sample used in this research are manufacturing companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2010-2012. The findings suggest that there is a significant negative relationship between premanaged earnings and discretionary accruals, and a significant positive relationship between the expected dividends and discretionary accruals. This study concludes that dividend is important determinant of earnings thresholds. However, dividend is not a unique motivation to perform earnings management.

  16. 18 CFR 367.4390 - Account 439, Adjustments to retained earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 439, Adjustments to retained earnings. 367.4390 Section 367.4390 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... NATURAL GAS ACT Retained Earnings Accounts § 367.4390 Account 439, Adjustments to retained earnings. (a...

  17. THE INFLUENCE OF AUDIT COMMITTEE CHARACTERISTICS ON REAL EARNINGS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyaningsih Supriyaningsih

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Current study tests the impact of audit committees to the real earnings management.Using the manufacturing public listed companies from Indoensia Stock Exchange from 2012 until 2014, we found that that financial and accounting expertise of audit committee members and audit committee size have positive effect on real earnings management. Furthermore, we also found that the dual positions of the audit committee chairman have a negative effect on earnings management. The Tenure of audit committee chairman however, has no impact on real earnings management.

  18. Corporate Governance Quality and Earnings Management: Evidence from Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan S. Abbadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of corporate governance quality on earnings management in Jordan. Using a panel data set of all industrial and service firms listed on Amman Stock Exchange (ASE during the period 2009-2013; this paper provides evidence that earnings management is affected negatively by corporate governance quality. In particular; the results show that earnings management is affected negatively by overall categories of governance index represented by board of director, board meeting, Audit and nomination and compensation committee. Furthermore, results suggest that corporate governance quality has increased over time. Thus, its ability to constrain earnings management has also increased. It is recommended to industrial and service companies to boost their compliance with corporate governance code to improve the integrity and reliability of financial reports. This paper fills a gap in the literature by providing evidence about the effect of corporate governance quality on earnings management in Jordan as an emerging economy.

  19. Information asymmetry, mutual funds and earnings management: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhao Dai

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates how information asymmetry and mutual fund ownership affect listed companies’ earnings management. We show that (1 reducing information asymmetry improves firms’ earnings management behavior; (2 relative to short-term mutual funds, long-term mutual funds promote earnings quality by adopting a monitoring role; and (3 by dividing firms into high/low information asymmetry groups, we find that the information environment significantly increases the effect of long-term mutual funds on firms’ earnings management. In this paper, we provide new evidence for the role that institutional investors play in a typical emerging capital market. Our results have clear policy implications: to increase earnings quality, it is essential to improve information transparency and develop long-term institutional investors.

  20. Roster of Astronomy Departments with Enrollment and Degree Data, 2011. Results from the 2011 Survey of Enrollments and Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Starr; Mulvey, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    The number of astronomy bachelor's conferred in the U.S. continues to climb. The academic year 2010-11 produced more astronomy bachelor's than in any other time in U.S. history. The 408 astronomy bachelor's degrees earned in the class of 2011 more than doubled the class of 2000, and the number of astronomy PhDs conferred (160) is…

  1. Women's Land Rights and Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Mehra, Rekha

    1997-01-01

    Unequal and insecure access to land undermind women's farm productivity, limit employment options, depress their earnings, and degrade the environment. Factors limiting women's access to land include legal discrimination, land scarcity, inappropriate government policies, and lack of political power and social status. Policies to promote sustainalbe development rather than focusing on family planning, as is commonly done, should directly support women's economic activities. Especially needed o...

  2. Internal migration, earnings, and the importance of self-selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A M; Sirageldin, I

    1994-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of internal migration on earnings within the human capital model framework. Since migrants constitute a non-random sample of population, the endogenous nature of migration decision warrants necessary correction for the selectivity bias in their earnings function. The Mincer-type earnings model is thus augmented to determine the extent of this bias. Besides estimating the standard Mincerian earnings model, the paper also attempts to verify the learn-as-you-go proposition by introducing migration duration variables in the earnings model. Based on the household level Population, Labor Force, and Migration (1979-80) survey data, the analysis yields the following important conclusions: (i) the data allowed a meaningful estimation of Mincerian earnings function for migrants and non-migrants; (ii) the level of schooling was one of the important determinants of the distribution of income both for migrants and nonmigrants--the four categorical variables of education were in general statistically significant with expected signs, implying that the hypothesis of a positive relationship between income and education was accepted; (iii) the rates of return to education improved systematically with higher levels of education, thus confirming the notion that education serves as a signalling device; (iv) the age-income profile was almost linear for migrants but showed concavity for nonmigrants; (v) the presence of sample-selection was observed for migrants; and (vi) even after controlling for the influence of personal characteristics, i.e., education and experience, the long-standing migrants earned relatively more at the destination than the more recent migrants.

  3. Post-earnings announcement drift in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Forbes, William; Giannopoulos, George

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents evidence regarding the post-earnings announcement drift (PEAD) anomaly for the Greek market in the years 2000–2006 (covering earnings announcements in the years 2001–2007). The impact of the introduction of International Financial Reporting Standards on the size and prevalence of the PEAD anomaly is examined. Unlike recent evidence for the US market we find PEAD to be\\ud alive and well, and of growing importance in our Greek sample. It may be the adoption of international ...

  4. BOARD OF DIRECTORS STRUCTURE AND EARNINGS MANAGEMENT: BIST MANUFACTURING CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin TEMİZ

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate association between firms’ board structure (independent members, audit comittee, female membership and board of directors size and earnings management. For the purpose of investigating associations four different earnings management models were used. In addition, four hypotheses were tested in the context of the study.  Within the scope of the study, data covering the years 2012 - 2016 belonging to the firms operating in the BIST Manufacturing Sector were used. According to results there is a relationship between the proportion of independent members in the board and earnings management practices based on accrual and sales manipulation. Obtained results confirm that the increase in the proportion of female members on the board reduces earnings management practices based on cash flow and sales manipulation. There is also evidence that an increase in the size of the board reduces earnings management practices based on cash flow and income manipulation. There is no supporting evidence that the proportion of audit comittee members reduces earnings management practices.

  5. FAIR VALUE ACCOUNTING AND EARNINGS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Hui Hsu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Many have argued that measuring financial instruments at fair value might not reflect firms’ financial condition. Prior study finds that managers manipulate the “disclosure” of fair value measurement (Song et al. 2010. In this study, we attempt to provide evidence regarding manager’s incentive to manipulate the disclosure of fair value measurements by examining whether the disclosure of less relevant fair value measurement is related to the odds of earnings management. We find that firms with more Level 3 assets and liabilities (i.e., less value relevant fair value measurement are more likely to recognize positive unrealized gains to meet or beat analyst forecast target. In addition, we find that only firms with weak corporate governance disclose more Level 3 fair value liabilities and recognize unrealized gains into reported earnings to meet or beat analyst forecast target. This evidence suggests that managers manipulate the disclosure of fair value measurement in order to manage reported earnings via the adoption of fair value option.

  6. Accounting ethics – an empirical investigation of managing short-term earnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Jooste

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Short-term earnings are managed in most, if not all, companies. The management of short-term earnings is vulnerable to misinterpretation, manipulation or deliberate deception even if these misleading accounting practices are prohibited by accounting regulations. Hence, the problem with managing short-term earnings is that it becomes an ethical practice, regardless of who is or may be affected by the practice or the information that flows from it. As a result of the publicity received by Enron and WorldCom on financial failures and fraud, and the subsequent legislation, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in 2002, students are expected to understand the morality issues of earnings-management practices. Therefore, the ethics of earnings-management practices affects the accounting educator. Accounting students and business managers were surveyed and the findings indicated that there is no significant difference between gender regarding the ethicality of twenty earning management practices. The results, however, show that there is a significant difference between the perceptions of business managers and students regarding the morality of earnings-management practices. However, no significant differences were found between genders.

  7. The Audit Committee Characteristics and Earnings Quality: Evidence from Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allam Mohammed Mousa Hamdan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to investigate the relationship between audit committee characteristics and earnings management. Samples in the study included 50 industrial companies listed on the Amman Stock Exchange ASE. Two models were used to measure earnings quality: one which depends on earnings continuity as an indication of quality, and one which depends on the decrease of discretionary accruals of quality, using pooled data regression for the two tests (Ordinary Least Squares OLS and Binary Logit. The study found that there was an influence of some standard characteristics of the audit committee on earnings quality.

  8. Reply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Robin; Kastens, Kim; Cane, Mark; Miller, Roberta B.; Mutter, John C.; Pfirman, Stephanie

    2004-03-01

    In our article ``On Gender Equity in the Geosciences'' (Eos, 5 August 2003, p. 292), we are not advocating a quota of 50% women in the geosciences, but rather, suggesting that the field would be strengthened if all the individuals with doctorates in the geosciences (including the 28% of all Ph.D.s who are women) were to remain active in these fields. Currently, only about 13% of employed Ph.D.s in these fields are women, which means that there is a considerable loss of trained scientists in the Earth, atmospheric, and oceanographic sciences. Even the entry-level hires at Ph.D.-granting institutions are only 20% female. As to Floyd Herbert's argument that hiring more women would lower the quality of the academic workforce, we know of no study showing that the women Ph.D.s who choose not to continue in academia are less qualified than either the women or the men who do choose to continue. To the contrary, we know of many excellent female scientists who are lost to the field. Creating work environments that keep these women as active scientists has the potential to raise, not lower, the capability of the workforce.

  9. 18 CFR 367.2161 - Account 216.1, Unappropriated undistributed subsidiary earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., either debit or credit, of undistributed retained earnings of subsidiary companies since their... account, this account must be debited and account 216, Unappropriated retained earnings (§ 367.2160..., Unappropriated undistributed subsidiary earnings. 367.2161 Section 367.2161 Conservation of Power and Water...

  10. Earnings management environment : with the case of Troms Kraft

    OpenAIRE

    Nødset, Ingrid Foss

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I examine the topic of earnings management and use a case example. In the first part of the paper I review theory on two closely related topics - earnings management and fraud - and present and discuss incentives, methods, typical indications and frequency of earnings management in the financial statements. I continue to describe the frameworks and laws that apply to revenue recognition and how income is recognized in the power industry, as this is especially relevant for the ca...

  11. The impact of mothers' earnings on health inputs and infant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocan, Naci; Raschke, Christian; Unel, Bulent

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates the impact of mothers' earnings on birth weight and gestational age of infants in the U.S. It also analyzes the impact of earnings on mothers' consumption of prenatal medical care, and their propensity to smoke and drink during pregnancy. The paper uses census division-year-specific skill-biased technology shocks as an instrument for mothers' earnings and employs a two-sample instrumental variables strategy. About 14 million records of births between 1989 and 2004 are used from the Natality Detail files along with the CPS Annual Demographic Files from the same period. The results reveal that an increase in weekly earnings prompts an increase in prenatal care of low-skill mothers (those who have at most a high school degree) who are not likely to be on Medicaid, and that earnings have a small positive impact on birth weight and gestational age of the newborns of these mothers. Specifically, if a mother's earnings double, this produces a weight gain of the newborn by about 100g and an increase in gestational age by 0.7 weeks. An increase in earnings does not influence the health of newborns of high-skill mothers (those with at least some college education). Variations in earnings have no impact on birth weight for mothers who are likely to be on Medicaid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Family migration and relative earnings potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Mette

    2016-01-01

    of husband centered migration. Couples are more likely to migrate if household earnings potential is disproportionally due to one partner, and families react equally strongly to a male and a female relative advantage in educational earnings potential. These results are driven by households with a strong......A unitarian model of family migration in which families may discount wives’ private gains is used to derive testable predictions regarding the type of couples that select into migrating. The empirical tests show that gender neutral family migration cannot be rejected against the alternative...

  13. The Islamic Capital Market Response to the Real Earnings Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Yuliana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to prove the effect of the company's status, i.e membership on the Islamic capital market and the status as suspect firm, as a determinant of real earnings management (REM. REM is conducted by abnormally increasing sales, increasing production and reducing discretionary costs in order to achieve a certain earnings target. This study uses Earnings Distribution Analysis (EDA technique, which refers to the Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979 to identify the suspect firms. Suspect firms are companies that have small positive earnings. The samples of this research are companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2011 and 2012. Based on the result of regression analysis, hypothesis testing results show that the suspect firms conduct real earnings management in all three types of activities more aggressively than the non-suspect firms. Furthermore, this study also showed empirical evidence that there are differences in real earnings management actions between companies listed in the Islamic capital market compared to conventional capital markets. Then, this study also showed that the Islamic capital market is more appropriate in response to the REM than the conventional capital market.

  14. EARNINGS MANAGEMENT: DETERMINANT FACTORS AND STOCK PRICE IN DEVELOPING MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenal Fanani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to prove whether manager coped its earnings for the purpose ofinformative or target opportunistic. Research also investigated whether investment opportunity setinfl uenced the choice of manager to report as opportunistic to hide performance, or to report earningmore informative concerning with debt, political cost, market share, and earning. Sample of thisresearch was chosen by using purposive sampling of 350 manufacturing business listed in the JakartaStock Exchange, started from 1997 up to 2002. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM by using programof Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS was considered as the appropriate statistical technique toexamine pattern relation of formed model. The results showed that earning management conductedby manager in Developing Market such as Indonesia represented informative earning managementwhich meant all investors had more own belief in earning reporting, but this research could notprove that company owning high investment opportunity set tended to conduct informative earningmanagement.

  15. The Links between Childcare and Women's Empowerment ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    fdieudonne

    2016-03-08

    Mar 8, 2016 ... Childcare and Women's Economic Empowerment. March 8th, 2016 ... Could day care and pre-school be the missing link to ... influence a women's ability to work and earn. .... and gender equality to raise awareness of the problems ... Universal Low Fees Policy 10 Years After: Effects, Costs, and Benefits.

  16. The influence of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems' performance on earnings management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Hsien; Lee, Kuen-Chang; Liu, Jau-Yang; Lin, Sin-Jin; Chou, Yu-Wei

    2012-11-01

    We analyse whether there is a linkage between performance measures of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems and earnings management. We find that earnings management decreases with the higher performance of ERP systems. The empirical result is as expected. We further analyse how the dimension of the DeLone and McLean model of information systems success affects earnings management. We find that the relationship between the performance of ERP systems and earnings management depends on System Quality after ERP implementation. The more System Quality improves, the more earnings management is reduced.

  17. 5 CFR 844.402 - Restoration of earning capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... occupied immediately before retirement. The income limitation for most disability annuitants is based on... same as income for the purposes of the Internal Revenue Code. (2) Income earned from one source is not offset by losses from another source. Income earned as wages is not reduced by a net loss from self...

  18. Corporate Social Responsibility Reporting and Earnings Management: The Role of Political Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Yip

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Francis, Nanda and Olsson (2008 proposed that earnings quality influence firms’ disclosure decisions. We examine whether Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR disclosure is related to earnings management and if the relationship is mitigated by political cost considerations or by the firm’s ethical predisposition. We argue that the relationship between CSR reporting and earnings management is context-specific and we consider one particular context, the political environment. We test our hypotheses by regressing earnings management on CSR disclosure while controlling for other factors that may affect the level of earnings management. We find a significant relationship between CSR reporting and earnings management, and more specifically, we find evidence of a negative (complementary relationship in the oil and gas industry while we find evidence of a positive (substitutive relationship in the food industry. The evidence supports the view that the relationship between CSR reporting and earnings management is affected by the political environment and not by ethical considerations.

  19. Women in Engineering: Insight into Why Some Engineering Departments Have More Success in Recruiting and Graduating Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossart, Jean; Bharti, Neelam

    2017-01-01

    Universities across the United States (U.S.) are perplexed as to why fewer women than men study engineering and why even fewer complete the curriculum and earn an undergraduate degree in engineering. The percentage of undergraduate engineering degrees awarded annually to women in the U.S. since 2000 has remained relatively constant at around 20%.…

  20. Labor Force Experience and Earnings: Women with Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Victor; Moock, Peter R.

    1984-01-01

    Examines the influence of child-related reductions in past hours worked on current wage rate of married women with children. The study reveals that differences in "intensity" of prior work experience account for half of the sex-related wage gap. (TE)

  1. 5 CFR 630.303 - Part-time employees; earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Part-time employees; earnings. 630.303... AND LEAVE Annual Leave § 630.303 Part-time employees; earnings. A part-time employee for whom there... workweek, and a part-time employee on a flexible work schedule for whom there has been established only a...

  2. Informativeness of accounting earnings in family firms

    OpenAIRE

    DOMINGO JAVIER SANTANA MARTÍN; JERÓNIMO PÉREZ ALEMÁN; CAROLINA BONA SÁNCHEZ

    2009-01-01

    This work examines the relationship between the family control and informativeness of accounting earnings in listed non-financial Spanish companies between 1997 and 2003. The results reveal a negative relationship between the family nature of the controlling shareholder and the credibility of accounting information. Moreover, as the level of voting rights in the hands of the family ultimate owner increases, the informativeness of earnings decreases. Only in family firms where the CEO is hired...

  3. The effect of non-recurring items on analysts’ earnings forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the effects of non-recurring profits and losses on statement users’ decision-making processes from the perspective of securities analysts. We examine the relationship between analysts’ forecast revisions and firms’ non-recurring earnings. We find that 1 non-recurring gains and losses can influence analysts’ earnings forecast revision; 2 compared with non-recurring items resulting from policy changes, analysts are more concerned about those attributed to changes in business scope; 3 if listed companies use non-recurring items to turn losses into gains during earnings management, it will weaken the effects of non-recurring items on analysts’ earnings forecast revision. The results suggest that non-recurring items that result from changes in business scope incorporate information that users need for the future operation of the business. This article verifies the information relevance of non-recurring items and provides evidence for the necessity of non-recurring item disclosure. Keywords: Non-recurring items, Earnings forecasts, Revisions

  4. A Digital Analysis Of The Reported Earnings Of Asian Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Kathy H.Y. Hsu; Thomas E. Wilson, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Prior research (Carslaw, 1988; Thomas, 1989) has noted unusual patterns in the frequency of occurrence of certain digits contained in reported earnings. Employing digital analysis, studies have found that managers in the U.S. and Australia may round reported earnings numbers to achieve income-smoothing objectives. This study extends prior literature by examining whether reported earnings of firms from six Asian countries: South Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and China follo...

  5. Examining sexism in the geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    Do women geoscientists face worse obstacles because of their gender than women in other sciences? A recent survey by the Committee on Professionals in Science and Technology showed that women with geoscience bachelor's degrees start off at only 68% of their male colleagues' salaries, much lower than women in biology (92%), engineering (102%), chemistry (103%), and physics (111%).Women still lag behind men in geoscience degrees as well. In 1990, women received about one-third of geoscience bachelor's degrees, one-quarter of masters, and about one-fifth of Ph.D.'s, reports the American Geological Institute. In the sciences overall, women received about half of bachelor's degrees, 42% of masters, and about a third of Ph.D.'s in 1989, according to the National Research Council.

  6. Management Information & Control for Earnings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Provides the ability to track and manage earnings inquiries from the general public by automated selection of cases for quality review. It also provides Management...

  7. Influencing Factors on Earnings Management, Empirical Evidence from Listed German and Austrian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Dilger

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Since the 1960s earnings management has been a widely researched area and became presumably known by the current accounting scandals. This paper aims at empirically showing which factors affect earnings management. Design/methodology/approach – According to former research literature factors are derived, which might influence the companies' earnings management behavior. These factors are the applied accounting standard, the industry sector and the country of official quotation. Although several measurements for earnings management like abnormal accruals or income smoothing exist, this paper is predominantly using the distribution of net income scaled by total assets (RoA respectively total sales (RoS as earnings management measure. These earnings management measures have been selected as they can measure the frequency of earnings management in reality and no estimates are necessary. Findings – In general, analyses show that the distribution in earnings management intervals differ from the total population. Most noteworthy is that by adoption of principle-based accounting standards (IFRS/US-GAAP, in case of this study no differences of earnings quality was observable. The other two variables yield in mixed results due to the robustness checks, which indeed questions the scaling variables for data-sets including the financial industries. Research limitations/implications – First, according to the chosen measurement parameter no distinct assertion concerning the reasons for execution or non-execution of earnings management can be deduced. Second, the method of earnings management's identification is not dividable and therefore real-, accounting-, legal- and illegal- earnings management cannot be identified. Third, the research results are just partially generalizable concerning representativity (e.g. other countries, non-market listed companies and taken for granted just for similar data-sets. Originality/value – Although prior

  8. Gender pay gap and employment sector: sources of earnings disparities in the United States, 1970-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Hadas; Semyonov, Moshe

    2014-10-01

    Using data from the IPUMS-USA, the present research focuses on trends in the gender earnings gap in the United States between 1970 and 2010. The major goal of this article is to understand the sources of the convergence in men's and women's earnings in the public and private sectors as well as the stagnation of this trend in the new millennium. For this purpose, we delineate temporal changes in the role played by major sources of the gap. Several components are identified: the portion of the gap attributed to gender differences in human-capital resources; labor supply; sociodemographic attributes; occupational segregation; and the unexplained portion of the gap. The findings reveal a substantial reduction in the gross gender earnings gap in both sectors of the economy. Most of the decline is attributed to the reduction in the unexplained portion of the gap, implying a significant decline in economic discrimination against women. In contrast to discrimination, the role played by human capital and personal attributes in explaining the gender pay gap is relatively small in both sectors. Differences between the two sectors are not only in the size and pace of the reduction but also in the significance of the two major sources of the gap. Working hours have become the most important factor with respect to gender pay inequality in both sectors, although much more dominantly in the private sector. The declining gender segregation may explain the decreased impact of occupations on the gender pay gap in the private sector. In the public sector, by contrast, gender segregation still accounts for a substantial portion of the gap. The findings are discussed in light of the theoretical literature on sources of gender economic inequality and in light of the recent stagnation of the trend.

  9. Session chair "Women's leadership on energy justice in productive sectors"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, Joy S.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing energy access for productive use will generate opportunities for women to earn a living for themselves and their families, but the debate thus far has been mainly focused on women's domestic needs. At this side-event, we will look beyond the household door and discuss how to empower women

  10. Accounting standards and investor perception of earnings quality: IAS/IFRS vs. German Gaap

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari Mascia; Momentè Francesco; Reggiani Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the earnings quality under the IAS/IFRS and German GAAP by evaluating the earnings management degree in IAS and HGB adopters and by investigating what is the level of uncertainty (reliability) that investors perceive from the earnings announced. Our results show that IAS and HGB adopters do not present any significant differences in earnings management, if we examine the working capital accruals, while IAS/IFRS sub-sample is less engaged in earnings management, considering the tota...

  11. Accrual-based and real earnings management and political connections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, G.J.M.; Nandy, M.; Weitzel, G.U.; Lodh, S.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether the trade-off between real and accrual-based management strategies differs between firms with and without political connections. We argue that politically connected firms are more likely to substitute real earnings management for accrual-based earnings management than

  12. Disparities in earnings and education in India

    OpenAIRE

    Rani, P. Geetha

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of different levels of education, religion, caste as well as the impact of living in urban and rural communities on earnings in India. Besides these conventional stratification, yet another academic caste which influence earnings-the English language ability, is also examined. The paper uses a large cross-section sample of India Human Development Survey to estimate Mincer and augmented Mincer equations. The rates of return estimates obtained in these data and met...

  13. Impact of external job mobility and occupational job mobility on earnings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, C.; Cheng, M.Y.; Lau, T.C.

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to examine the relationship between external job mobility and occupational job mobility on earnings among engineers in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: Using curricular vitae data from a job agency, this paper tracks job mobility through job histories and examine how it affects earnings. Findings: Results obtained from regression analysis indicate that higher external job mobility will contribute to higher earnings, but occupational mobility will have adverse effect on earnings. Research limitations/implications: Limitation of the study is that the results are extrapolated from a self-report dataset. Practical implications: Nonetheless, the results give important implications to the Malaysian job market on how firm-specific skills and occupational specific skills are rewarded among engineers who actively seek for alternative employment online, and a guide to job applicants in career planning. Originality/value: The findings has also revealed important variables to be included in explaining high skill labor earnings in the context of Malaysian engineers, it serves as an important reference for future in modeling earnings.

  14. Impact of external job mobility and occupational job mobility on earnings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.; Cheng, M.Y.; Lau, T.C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to examine the relationship between external job mobility and occupational job mobility on earnings among engineers in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: Using curricular vitae data from a job agency, this paper tracks job mobility through job histories and examine how it affects earnings. Findings: Results obtained from regression analysis indicate that higher external job mobility will contribute to higher earnings, but occupational mobility will have adverse effect on earnings. Research limitations/implications: Limitation of the study is that the results are extrapolated from a self-report dataset. Practical implications: Nonetheless, the results give important implications to the Malaysian job market on how firm-specific skills and occupational specific skills are rewarded among engineers who actively seek for alternative employment online, and a guide to job applicants in career planning. Originality/value: The findings has also revealed important variables to be included in explaining high skill labor earnings in the context of Malaysian engineers, it serves as an important reference for future in modeling earnings.

  15. Pioneering women in American mathematics the pre-1940 PhD's

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Judy

    2008-01-01

    More than 14 percent of the PhD's awarded in the United States during the first four decades of the twentieth century went to women, a proportion not achieved again until the 1980s. This book is the result of a study in which the authors identified all of the American women who earned PhD's in mathematics before 1940, and collected extensive biographical and bibliographical information about each of them. By reconstructing as complete a picture as possible of this group of women, Green and LaDuke reveal insights into the larger scientific and cultural communities in which they lived and worked. The book contains an extended introductory essay, as well as biographical entries for each of the 228 women in the study. The authors examine family backgrounds, education, careers, and other professional activities. They show that there were many more women earning PhD's in mathematics before 1940 than is commonly thought. Extended biographies and bibliographical information are available from the companion website fo...

  16. Earnings management through loss avoidance: Does South Africa have a good story to tell?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangakane Lehlogonolo Pududu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine whether South African managers manage earnings to avoid reporting small losses (small earnings decreases. The study covers all the companies listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE from 2003 to 2011. In line with Burgstahler and Dichev (1997, the cross-sectional distributions of earnings and changes in earnings are examined and the distributions are shown in histograms. Previous research (using data from the United States has shown that the distribution curve for both the earnings and the change in earnings variable had noticeably fewer observations just below zero than would normally be expected, and a significantly higher number of observations just above zero. This pattern in the distributions suggests that managers manage reported earnings to ensure that earnings do not fall below a specific threshold, this being zero or the previous year’s performance. Interestingly, and in contrast with  the previous  literature, using the Burgstahler and Dichev (1997 research model of analysis, our results show no evidence in South Africa of managers managing earnings to avoid reporting small losses or small decreases in earnings. A possible reason for this could be the relatively smaller size of the JSE (compared with stock exchanges in the United States. In addition, and more important, is the possibility that investors and analysts in South Africa may be fixated on other performance indicators, such as revenue and headline earnings per share, rather than on earnings (profits.  This study adds to the limited research on earnings management in South Africa, which is a developing economy. Furthermore, previous research shows an inverse relationship between earnings management and earnings quality. The results of this study may therefore be useful to the users and the regulators of financial reports, both are concerned with earnings for the purposes of assessing the cost of capital and how companies

  17. Personality, Education and Earnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silles, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    Economists are only beginning to understand the relationship between personality traits and economic outcomes. This paper examines the influence of childhood social maladjustment on cognitive development, labor market earnings and career progression using longitudinal data drawn from the National Child Development Study. Net of differences in…

  18. Earned Income Tax Credit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. van Oers; R.A. de Mooij (Ruud)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractIn recent policy discussions in the Netherlands, the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) has been put forward as an effective instrument to reduce the unemployment rate among low-skilled workers. Using the MIMIC model, this article shows that a targeted EITC at low incomes indeed seems

  19. The Working Women's Forum: organizing for credit and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M

    1983-01-01

    The Working Women's Forum (WWF), established in Madras in 1978, has brought together over 13,000 poor urban women around the issue of credit. Most women who live in the slums of Madras work as small-scale traders and vendors, their earnings often providing over half the family income. Interviews with these women revealed that their primary concern was increasing their earning capacity. The WWF was set up to enable these women to obtain low interest loans to expand their businesses. The key element in the WWF structure is the neighborhood loan group, comprised of 10-20 women from the same area who act as mutual guarantors for the loans of all group members. Over 7000 women have received loans and the repayment rate has been over 90%. About 2800 new jobs or businesses have been created, and earnings have increased an average of 50% in existing enterprises. Women report that they are eating better quality and more varied foods as a result of their increased income. The WWF is expanding its activities to address the political and social problems of working women as well. The Forum operates day care centers, skills training centers, and remedial classes for schoolchildren. In 1980 the WWF launched a family planning program in which field workers (who are drawn from the WWF membership and paid $18 per month) disseminate information on health, nutrition, and family planning to families in their communities. According to a staff member, this program was an outcome of the realization that "income generation and large families do not go together." The WWF also promotes intercaste, no dowry marriages and lobbies for public services. Women have become more confident of the possibility of gaining control over their lives, including their fertility. The WWF experience demonstrates that an organization does not need a lot of money, educated staff, or technical expertise to reach poor women. The Forum's success is attributed to its selection of one critical issue, utilization of

  20. Danwei Profitability and Earnings Inequality in Urban China*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Wu, Xiaogang

    2009-01-01

    Prior research has debated the relative importance of such factors as human capital, political capital and region in determining workers’ earnings in reform-era urban China. This article argues that a main agent of social stratification in contemporary China continues to be the danwei, the work unit. Using data from a 1999 survey we conducted in three large Chinese cities, Wuhan, Shanghai and Xi’an, we assess the extent to which workers’ earnings (including regular wages, bonuses and subsidies) depend on the profitability of their danwei. Results show that the financial situation of the danwei is one of the most important determinants of earnings in today’s urban China. Furthermore, the importance of danwei profitability does not vary by city or by employment sector. PMID:20445771

  1. HIV-prevention studies: Educate smarter, boost women's earning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conception, taking risks and unwanted pregnancy, STDs and HIV, safer sex and condoms, gender-based violence, motivations for sexual behaviour and communication skills. Two years after the start of the study, Herpes Simplex Virus 2. (HSV-2) infections were reduced by a third in men and women and men's perpetration.

  2. Making Meaning of Adversity: Experiences of Women Leaders in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Amy B.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that women now earn more bachelor's, master's and doctorates than men, a gender gap for women leaders persists in the field of higher education. Women hold only 26 percent of all college and university presidencies with a large variance by type of institution. Women lead 33 percent of associate's level institutions but only 22…

  3. Family Control and Earnings Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Bona Sánchez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo analiza la relación entre el control familiar y la calidad de la información contable en un contexto en el que el tradicional conflicto de agencia entre directivos y accionistas se desplaza a la divergencia de intereses entre accionistas controladores y minoritarios. Los resultados alcanzados muestran que, en comparación con las no familiares, las empresas de naturaleza familiar divulgan unos resultados de mayor calidad, tanto en términos de menores ajustes por devengo discrecionales como de mayor capacidad de los componentes actuales del resultado para predecir los cash flows futuros. Además, el aumento en los derechos de voto en manos de la familia controladora incrementa la calidad de los resultados contables. La evidencia obtenida se muestra consistente con la presencia de un efecto reputación/vinculación a largo plazo asociado a la empresa familiar. Adicionalmente, el trabajo refleja que a medida que disminuye la divergencia entre los derechos de voto y de cash flow en manos de la familia controladora, aumenta la calidad de la información contable.PALABRAS CLAVE: derechos de voto, divergencia, empresa familiar, calidad delresultado, reputación, beneficios privados.This work examines the relationship between family control and earnings quality in a context where the salient agency problem shifts away from the classical divergence between managers and shareholders to conflicts between the controlling owner and minority shareholders. The results reveal that, compared to non-family firms, family firms reveal higher earnings quality in terms of both lower discretionary accruals and greater predictability of future cash flows. They also show a positive relationship between the level of voting rights held by the controlling family and earnings quality. The evidence is consistent with the presence of a reputation/long-term involvement effect associated with the family firm. Moreover, the work reflects that, as the divergence

  4. Earning on Response Coefficient in Automobile and Go Public Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisdawati Arifin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze factors that influence earnings response coefficients (ERC, simultaneously and partially, composed of leverage, the systematic risk (beta, growth opportunities (market to book value ratio, and the size of the firm (firm size, selection of the sample in this study the author take 12 automakers and components that meet the criteria of completeness of the data from the year 2008 to 2012, entirely based on consideration of the following criteria: (1 the company's automotive and components are listed on the stock exchange, (2 have the financial statements years 2008-2012 (3 has a return data (closing price the first day after the date of issuance of the financial statements. This study uses secondary data applying multiple linear regression models to analyze and test the effect of independent variables on the dependent variable partially (t-test, simultaneous (f-test, and the goodness of fit (R-square on a research model. The result shows that leverage, beta, growth opportunities (market to book value ratio and size along with (simultaneously the effect on the dependent variable (dependent variable earnings response coefficients. Partially leverage negatively affect earnings response coefficients, partially beta negatively correlated earnings response coefficients, partially growth opportunities (market to book value ratio significant effect on earnings response coefficients, partially sized companies (firm size significantly influence earnings response coefficients.

  5. Financial Planning for Retirement: An Imperative for Baby Boomer Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, J. Conrad, Jr.; Kilpatrick, Beverly B.

    1998-01-01

    Many women fail to plan for retirement due to economic constraints, interrupted career paths, lower earnings, gender bias, gender-role socialization, self-esteem, role definition, locus of control, or risk tolerance. Retirement education must address women's specific issues regarding financial planning. (SK)

  6. Global health worker salary estimates: an econometric analysis of global earnings data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serje, Juliana; Bertram, Melanie Y; Brindley, Callum; Lauer, Jeremy A

    2018-01-01

    Human resources are consistently cited as a leading contributor to health care costs; however the availability of internationally comparable data on health worker earnings for all countries is a challenge for estimating the costs of health care services. This paper describes an econometric model using cross sectional earnings data from the International Labour Organization (ILO) that the World Health Organizations (WHO)-Choosing Interventions that are Cost-effective programme (CHOICE) has used to prepare estimates of health worker earnings (in 2010 USD) for all WHO member states. The ILO data contained 324 observations of earnings data across 4 skill levels for 193 countries. Using this data, along with the assumption that data were missing not at random, we used a Heckman two stage selection model to estimate earning data for each of the 4 skill levels for all WHO member states. It was possible to develop a prediction model for health worker earnings for all countries for which GDP data was available. Health worker earnings vary both within country due to skill level, as well as across countries. As a multiple of GDP per capita, earnings show a negative correlation with GDP-that is lower income countries pay their health workers relatively more than higher income countries. Limited data on health worker earnings is a limiting factor in estimating the costs of global health programmes. It is hoped that these estimates will support robust health care intervention costings and projections of resources needs over the Sustainable Development Goal period.

  7. Jobs: women's double burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Whereas international conventions and national laws provide equal opportunities for women in employment, the reality of women's lives keeps a disproportionate number of women unemployed, underemployed, and living in poverty. The UN itself, which officially is working toward equity among its employees, has a staff composed of just 32.6% women, and women comprise only 10.5% of the top end of the hierarchy. In areas where women's labor force participation has increased dramatically, women typically earn 30-40% less than men doing the same job or else their employment is limited to "traditional female" service positions. The fact that women and girls have received an inadequate education makes it extremely difficult to break the barriers of discrimination in developing countries. The empowerment of women will break the education barrier, and, when that falls, many other barriers will follow suit. Efforts are already underway to break structural barriers caused by economic and social policies. For example, a more flexible pattern of work has been proposed which will include the voluntary assumption of flexible hours, job-sharing, and part-time work. The concept of work is also being broadened to include the important human services that women traditionally provide on a volunteer basis. This will lead to a valuation of women's contribution to society which can be added to calculations of gross domestic product. Women also need protection as they attempt to eke out a living in the informal sector which has been the traditional avenue for women to earn money. This sector is not protected by law and is subject to extortion by officials and by male competitors. A variety of measures is under consideration to increase the protection of informal sector workers. Women also need protection in the conventional work place, especially as they enter fields traditionally reserved for men. These questions are important even in the context of global unemployment because these issues

  8. How have people responded to changes in the retirement earnings test in 2000?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae G; Manchester, Joyce

    2007-01-01

    This article describes responses to removing the retirement earnings test in 2000 for persons at the full retirement age or older. We examine annual earnings and retirement benefit claims from Social Security administrative data that cover the 4 years before and after the change. Three findings emerge from the study. First, the effect on earnings of removing the earnings test is uneven across people with different earnings levels. We find little effect on earnings at lower levels, but the effect on earnings in the mid to upper levels (50th to 80th percentiles) is large and significant. Such a finding indicates that the removal most affects people with earnings levels above the earnings test threshold. The largest increases in earnings are found at the 70th percentile for persons who have attained ages 65-69 and at the 60th percentile for those turning 65. Second, there is no clear evidence of the effect of the test's removal on the overall rate of labor force participation. A small rise in work participation among individuals aged 65-69 may be at least partially attributable to the trend already under way. Increases in work participation that do occur are mostly attributable to retaining older workers rather than inducing older workers back into the workforce. The effect appears to increase over time, suggesting that the removal has long-lasting effects on work participation. Third, the removal of the earnings test accelerated applications for benefits by 2 to 5 percentage points among individuals aged 65-69 and by 3 to 7 percentage points among those reaching age 65.

  9. The Market Work Behavior and Wages of Women 1975-94.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pencavel, John

    1998-01-01

    A study examined schooling, weekly and annual working hours, and hourly earnings of women organized into nine birth cohorts, 1920 to 1964. Many more women are working now than did 20 years ago. The gap between the work of married and unmarried women has narrowed. Schooling and wage differences have widened in recent cohorts. (SK)

  10. Within- and cross-firm mobility and earnings growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Halliday, Timothy; Koch, Alexander Karl

    While it is well established that both promotions within firms and mobility across firms lead to substantial earnings progression, few studies offer an integrated analysis of the effects of these two types of mobility on earnings growth. To do this, we exploit a large Danish panel data set and te...... deductable pension contributions and more expensive real estate or financed consumption where interest is tax deductable....

  11. Gender Earnings Gap among Young European Higher Education Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Aracil, Adela

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the composition of the gender earnings gap among young European higher education graduates, with a particular focus on competencies controlling for individual background and job characteristics. The results show that much of the female worker's earnings advantage can be explained by job characteristics. With respect to the…

  12. Share price reaction to earnings announcement on the JSE-ALtX: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of testing this concept has been the observation of stock market reaction to corporate ... earnings. Earnings also display management's competitiveness in profitably running a company ... drifts positively in the case of good announcements or negatively in the case of bad ... the gains from trading on annual earnings strategy.

  13. Earnings Management and Valuation of Biological Assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Luiz Menezes da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of fair value to measure the worth of biological assets allows discretionary choices when using discounted cash flow in the absence of an active market, influencing the quality of accounting information. The objective of this study was to investigate evidence of earnings management among Brazilian companies that have adopted fair value based on the discounted cash flow method. The firms were investigated with regard to: a disclosure of the discount rate, b BM&FBovespa corporate governance levels; and c adherence to disclosure requirements in the Brazilian accounting standard CPC 29 (IAS 41. We analyzed 31 firms with significant biological assets from 2010 to 2012. The earnings management measurements were calculated according to the modified Jones, the Teoh, Welch and Wong (1998, and the KS models. The Mann-Whitney test of the means was applied and revealed evidence of greater earnings management for companies that use discounted cash flow, and the ones that least meet CPC 29 disclosure requirements, considering the KS model estimates. Regarding the other proposals, testing did not offer enough evidence of differences in discretionary accruals. In this sense, only hypotheses 1 and 4 are partially accepted, demanding more research in this area. We also present evidence in favor of adopting Exposure Draft ED/2013/08 Agriculture: Bearer Plants, Proposed amendments to IAS 16 and IAS 41, which proposes to measure biological assets at cost, because firms already following these rules showed lower earnings management in this study.

  14. Listed companies’ income tax planning and earnings management: Based on China’s capital market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanwei Hu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The Ministry of Finance issued the new China accounting standards on February 15, 2006(CAS2006, which require the listed companies to use the balance sheet liability method for the income tax accounting. Thus, it give us an opportunity to investigate the earnings management of listed companies from the perspective of income tax. Under the balance sheet liability method, because conforming earnings management strategies and nonconforming earnings management strategies have different income tax cost and the current income payable will also vary, the listed companies need to choose conforming earnings management and nonconforming earnings management. Our research just try to investigate the relationship between the listed companies’ income tax planning and earnings management on the background of this new system.Design/methodology/approach: Our research approach combines theoretical analysis and empirical analysis. This paper first make a deep theoretical analysis on the listed companies’ choice between pretax earnings management activities that have current income tax consequences (book-tax ‘conforming earnings management’ and earnings management activities that do not have current income tax consequences (book-tax ‘nonconforming earnings management’,and then we exemplify our theory. Next, we come up with two hypotheses based on the theoretical analysis, build up a restatement model and conduct the empirical examination. The empirical analysis employs the method of descriptive statistics and logistic regression.Findings: When engaging in earnings management, listed companies will trade off conforming and nonconforming earnings management from the perspective of income tax cost. We find that managers’ motivations and purposes will influence the choice. On the one hand, when companies are facing the punishment of the suspension or termination of the listing for three consecutive losses, they will have a great incentive to

  15. Ethnic and gender earning gaps in a liberalized economy: The case of Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bental, Benjamin; Kraus, Vered; Yonay, Yuval

    2017-03-01

    During the 1990s and the 2000s Israel, a country ethnically divided into a dominant Jewish majority and a disadvantaged mostly Muslim Palestinian minority, underwent a transition from a heavily regulated to a neo-liberal economy. This paper makes use of the Israeli case to shed light on the effect of liberalization on earning gaps in the public and private sectors across dominant and disadvantaged population groups. The data, drawn from the 1995 and 2008 censuses-years that encompass the transition period, enable a dynamic investigation of the liberalization process by comparing labor market outcomes for Israeli Jews and Muslims of both genders working in the public or private sector. Liberalization reduced the protective role of the public sector, especially hurting women of both ethnic groups. In the private sector this process improved the position of the strongest group of Jewish men and of the weakest group of Muslim women. Discrimination against Jewish women and Muslim men in the private sector increased. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Reconciling Estimates of Earnings Processes in Growth Rates and Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daly, Moira; Hryshko, Dmytro; Manovskii, Iourii

    The stochastic process for earnings is the key element of incomplete markets models in modern quantitative macroeconomics. It determines both the equilibrium distributions of endogenous outcomes and the design of optimal policies. Yet, there is no consensus in the literature on the relative...... magnitudes of the permanent and transitory innovations in earnings. When estimation is based on the earnings moments in levels, the variance of transitory shocks is found to be relatively high. When the moments in differences are used, the variance of the permanent component is relatively high instead. We...

  17. The Benefits of Peer-to-Peer Mentoring: Lessons from The Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, T.; Steiner, A.; Fiore, A.; Hastings, M.; McKinley, G.; Staudt, A.; Wiedinmyer, C.

    2007-12-01

    The Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN) is a grassroots organization that began with the meeting of six women graduate students and recent Ph.D.s at the Spring 2002 AGU meeting in Washington, DC. Since then, the group has grown to over 400 members, completely by word of mouth. We provide an informal, peer-to-peer network developed to promote and support careers of women in the Earth sciences. Through the network, women have found jobs, established research collaborations, shared strategies on work/life balance, and built a community stretching around the world. We maintain an email list for members to develop an expanded peer network outside of their own institution, and we have recently launched a co-ed jobs list to benefit the wider geoscience community. We will present a summary of strategies that have been discussed by group members on how to transition to a new faculty position, build a research group, develop new research collaborations, and balance career and family.

  18. Improving women's lives in Cambodia through fish on farms

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Household food insecurity in Cambodia is high. The diet ... at 40% and anemia among women of reproductive age is over 50%. ... Over 70% of households ... Monthly monitoring has shown that the household ... agriculture and food production but earn 30% ... Figure 2: Percentage of women who have their own money and ...

  19. A Hierarchical Linear Model for Estimating Gender-Based Earnings Differentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberfield, Yitchak; Semyonov, Moshe; Addi, Audrey

    1998-01-01

    Estimates of gender earnings inequality in data from 116,431 Jewish workers were compared using a hierarchical linear model (HLM) and ordinary least squares model. The HLM allows estimation of the extent to which earnings inequality depends on occupational characteristics. (SK)

  20. THE ROLE OF EARNINGS PERSISTENCE IN VALUATION ACCURACY AND THE TIME HORIZON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renê Coppe Pimentel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the assumption that earnings persistence has implications for both financial analysis and compensation contracts, the aim of this paper is to investigate the role of earnings persistence assuming that (i more persistent earnings are likely to be a better input to valuation models and (ii more persistent earnings are likely to serve as a proxy for long-term market and managerial orientation. The analysis is based on Brazilian listed firms from 1995 to 2013, and while we document strong support for the relevance of earnings persistence in financial analysis and valuation, we fail to document a significant relationship between earnings persistence and long-term value orientation. These results are sensitive to different specifications, and additional results suggest that firms’ idiosyncratic risk (total risk is relevant to explain the focus on short-term outcomes (short-termism across firms. The main contribution of this paper is to offer empirical evidence for the relevance of accounting numbers in both valuation and contractual theories in an emergent market.

  1. Earning management in Brazilian financial institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bruscato Bortoluzzo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study aims to study earnings management in a significant sample of 123 banks in the Brazilian market between 2001 and 2012. Given the important role that banks play in a country's economy, it is important to understand that there are discretionary factors involved in the reporting of a financial institution's profitability. Credit provisioning guidelines for Brazilian financial institutions are described in Resolution 2682/99 of the National Monetary Council (Conselho Monetário Nacional. Because of the discretion allowed in this resolution, loan loss provision is used as instrument of earnings management, which is not an illegal practice, but this behavior does affect the risk perception of agents and analysts, and they should be aware of it and understand it. We found that credit provisioning is used as an earnings management mechanism to smooth the net income of Brazilian financial institutions. Brazilian banks tend to avoid not only negative net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes, but also negative net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes in relation to the previous period. Contrary to the previous studies, it is not clear if banks avoid lower net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes than a given peer group.

  2. Ownership Structure and Earnings Management in periods of Executive Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Rasmus S.

    This paper reports evidence of earnings management associated with non-routine executive changes in a Danish context. It is hypothesised that incoming executives in non-owner-controlled companies decrease earnings by means of discretionary accruals in the financial statements relating to the period...

  3. Presentation of 2004 earnings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-03-01

    This presentation offers financial information on the AREVA Group earnings for the year 2004. With manufacturing facilities in over 40 countries and a sales network in over 100, Areva offers customers technological solutions for nuclear power generation and electricity transmission and distribution. The Group also provides interconnect systems to the telecommunications, computer and automotive markets. (A.L.B.)

  4. Earning management: analysis of publications in brazilian accounting journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Gomes Machado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to identify characteristics, from the perspective of social networks, of the scientific literature on earning management in Brazilian accounting journals. Specifically, were identified: a authors and their social networks of scientific production; b researched topics, models for accruals detection, authors’ networks and the period studied; c methodological procedures used. A bibliometric survey, with a quantitative approach was performed through the analysis of 17 Brazilian accounting journals, since their first edition until the year 2010. Out of them, 10 published articles having the theme earning management in the title, abstract or keywords. The 32 identified articles were submitted to content analysis and then the data were presented from the perspective of social networks. The survey results show that: the authors and their social networks of production originates mostly from Universidade de São Paulo (USP; the most researched theme was the methods or means to conduct earnings management, and accruals measurement models, with emphasis on Kang and Sivaramakrishnan Model; the descriptive research, based on document and quantitative approach were the most commonly used forms in the articles researched. It is noteworthy that structural gaps are the topics, such as compensation plans, political costs and earnings management in different contractual environments. The research results can contribute to academia to highlight some features of the earnings management theme and its researchers, in the field of publications in Brazilian accounting journals.

  5. Women in IT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campus Technology, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Today, female students outnumber males on campus, earn a higher number of BA degrees, and surpass men in completing advanced degrees. So there is a certain irony in the fact that executive roles on campus are still dominated by men--and IT is no exception. "Campus Technology" asked three women (Pam McQuesten, Dana Hoover, and Jill Albin-Hill)…

  6. Financial Risk Ratios and Earnings Management: Reducing Uncertainties in Shariah-compliant Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Kazemian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether Shariah-compliant companies practice earnings management by investigating the relationship among the risk of financial distress, leverage, and free cash flow in discretionary accruals, which function as a substitute for earnings management. This empirical research is conducted on a sample of Malaysian Shariah-compliant companies from all industries in Bursa Malaysia from 2012 to 2014. Results show that Shariah-compliant companies are highly influenced by the risk of financial distress, leverage, and free cash flow. This study argues that working as either Shariah-compliant or non-Shariah-compliant does not affect the level of earnings management through financial distress, high leverage, and free cash flow by managers. Results should be of interest to stakeholders, shareholders, and regulatory bodies (i.e., the Shariah Advisory Council and the Securities Commission that oversee the accountability of corporate financial reporting to prevent earnings management in Shariah-compliant companies. Findings can also aid relevant authorities (i.e., the Shariah Advisory Council and the Security Commission in Malaysia in overcoming or reducing problems related to earnings management. This study is one of the most significant works in Malaysia in terms of sample size and methodology. It argues that the three elements of earnings management (i.e., financial distress, high leverage, and free cash flow influence better disclosure of reported earnings.

  7. Growth Opportunities, Earnings Permanence and the Valuation of Free Cash Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsan Habib

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines empirically the effect of firm growth opportunities and earnings quality on the market valuation of free cash flow, defined as the difference between operating cash flows and capital expenditures. Equity valuation theory prescribes that free cash flow should not be associated with stock returns because itdoes not add value. However, free cash flow could become a value-relevant construct in certain contexts. This study considers growth opportunities and transitory earnings as two such contexts and examines the valuation of free cash flow. An accounting-based valuation framework is developed where stock returns are regressed onfree cash flow interacted with growth and earnings quality proxies, after controlling for book values, dividends, and current earnings realisations. Findings reveal that firms with a positive free cash flow and attractive growth opportunities command a valuation premium. Furthermore, free cash flow is found to be positively associatedwith stock returns when earnings are transitory. The results are robust to alternative definitions of both free cash flow and growth opportunities.

  8. Learning How to Ask: Women and Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Lauren H; Bajaj, Anureet K

    2017-03-01

    Women are less likely to reach top-level leadership positions, and more likely to leave academic positions, than men, and are likely to earn less money than men. Women are also less likely to initiate a negotiation-a process that is crucial for professional advancement. This reluctance to ask hinders their advancement and can have long-lasting consequences-both financial and professional. The reasons that women do not ask are multifactorial. In this article, we will explore reasons why women are less likely to negotiate, the barriers they face when they do, and strategies that women can apply to improve their negotiation skills.

  9. 48 CFR 352.234-4 - Partial earned value management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... management system. 352.234-4 Section 352.234-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN....234-4 Partial earned value management system. As prescribed in 334.203-70(d), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Partial Earned Value Management System (October 2008) (a) The...

  10. Earnings Management and Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Uyagu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study lies at the heart of the issue of reliability of financial statements. Reliability is the accountant’s terminology for integrity of financial statements. This study focused on the impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on earnings management in the Nigerian manufacturing sectors. The study is motivated by the paucity of research on subject matter in manufacturing sub-sector in Nigeria. The study employed the ordinary least square multivariate regression technique. A sample of fifty- two manufacturing firms was used. The result shows that there is a positive relationship between CSR and earnings management. This study recommended that statutory bodies should put a ceiling on the amount to be expended on CSR which must be exceeded by any firm.

  11. Must producers earn a resource rent?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    In petroleum producing countries it has been a prevailing opinion that a resource rent should be earned by petroleum producers due to the commodities' non-renewable nature. An important element in this logic is that the supply of oil and natural gas is limited to relatively few places in the world. As the resources are exploited, the remaining reserves are reduced. What is extracted today cannot be extracted tomorrow. Rationing of the scarce resource takes place through pricing mechanisms. Due to the scarcity the consumers must pay a higher price than the marginal production costs, so that the amounts supplied and demanded become equal. Most producers of oil and gas and not just the ones that produce the cheapest, have therefore until now earned an economic rent

  12. Annual earnings announcements and market reaction: The case of a small capital market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønroth, Helle Langhoff; Møller, Peder Fredslund; Thinggaard, Frank

    suggest that only a model based on reported IBES-estimates of earnings per share shortly before earnings release is descriptive of the market´s expectations. Some of these findings contradict the results in the only published 17 year old Danish event study on annual earnings announcements...

  13. Women's status and depressive symptoms: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Yeh; Subramanian, S V; Acevedo-Garcia, Doloros; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2005-01-01

    The effects of state-level women's status and autonomy on individual-level women's depressive symptoms were examined. We conducted a multi-level analysis of the 1991 longitudinal follow up of the 1988 National Maternal Infant Health Survey (NMIHS), with 7789 women nested within the fifty American states. State-level women's status was assessed by four composite indices measuring women's political participation, economic autonomy, employment & earnings, and reproductive rights. The main outcome measure was symptoms of depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, CES-D). The participants were a nationally representative stratified random sample of women in the USA aged between 17 and 40 years old who gave birth to live babies in 1988, were successfully contacted again in 1991 and provided complete information on depressive symptoms. Women who were younger, non-white, not currently married, less educated or had lower household income tended to report higher levels of depressive symptoms. Compared with states ranking low on the employment & earnings index, women residing in states that were high on the same index scored 0.85 points lower on the CES-D (peconomic autonomy index scored 0.83 points lower in depressive symptoms (p<0.01), compared with women who lived in states low on the same index. Finally, women who resided in states with high reproductive rights scored 0.62 points lower on the CES-D (p<0.05) compared with women who lived in states with lower reproductive rights. Gender inequality appears to contribute to depressive symptoms in women.

  14. Market liquidity around earnings announcements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, M.

    2002-01-01

    Prior literature indicates that bid-ask spreads are higher and depths are lower around earnings announcements than during non-announcement periods. This thesis investigates two important aspects of this drop in market liquidity, namely (a) the ability of management to mitigate the drop in market

  15. Women planning to major in computer science: Who are they and what makes them unique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Kathleen J.; Sax, Linda J.; Zimmerman, Hilary B.

    2016-12-01

    Despite the current growing popularity of the computer science (CS) major, women remain sorely underrepresented in the field, continuing to earn only 18% of bachelor's degrees. Understanding women's low rates of participation in CS is important given that the demand for individuals with CS training has grown sharply in recent years. Attracting and retaining more women to high-paying fields like CS may also help narrow the gender pay gap. Further, it is important that women participate in developing new technology so that technology advances serve the needs of both women and men. This paper explores the background characteristics, career aspirations, and self-perceptions of 1636 female first-year college students in the United States who intend to major in CS and compares them with 4402 male CS aspirants as well as with 26,642 women planning to major in other STEM sub-fields. The findings reveal a unique profile of women who pursue the CS major and notes many significant differences between men and women in CS and between women in CS and those in other STEM fields. For instance, women in CS tend to earn lower high school grades than women in other STEM fields, but earn higher SAT verbal scores. They also rate themselves higher than men in CS and women in other STEM fields on measures of their artistic ability, but rate themselves lower on other self-ratings, including academic and leadership ability. Further, women in CS are more likely to be undecided in their career plans than men in CS and women in other STEM fields. Understanding the unique characteristics of women in CS will help inform policies and recruitment programs designed to address the gender gap in computing.

  16. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) Earnings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Each year the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) sends SSA a file to be verified and matched against the Master Earnings File (MEF) and Employer Information File...

  17. Selection, Language Heritage, and the Earnings Trajectories of Black Immigrants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Tod G.

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that immigrants from the English-speaking Caribbean surpass the earnings of U.S.-born blacks approximately one decade after arriving in the United States. Using data from the 1980–2000 U.S. censuses and the 2005–2007 American Community Surveys on U.S.-born black and non-Hispanic white men as well as black immigrant men from all the major sending regions of the world, I evaluate whether selective migration and language heritage of immigrants’ birth countries account for the documented earnings crossover. I validate the earnings pattern of black immigrants documented in previous studies, but I also find that the earnings of most arrival cohorts of immigrants from the English-speaking Caribbean, after residing in the United States for more than 20 years, are projected to converge with or slightly overtake those of U.S.-born black internal migrants. The findings also show three arrival cohorts of black immigrants from English-speaking African countries are projected to surpass the earnings of U.S.-born black internal migrants. No arrival cohort of black immigrants is projected to surpass the earnings of U.S.-born non-Hispanic whites. Birth-region analysis shows that black immigrants from English-speaking countries experience more rapid earnings growth than immigrants from non-English-speaking countries. The arrival-cohort and birth-region variation in earnings documented in this study suggest that selective migration and language heritage of black immigrants’ birth countries are important determinants of their initial earnings and earnings trajectories in the United States. PMID:24854004

  18. ANALISIS FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG BERPENGARUH TERHADAP EARNINGS MANAGEMENT PADA PERUSAHAAN GO PUBLIC DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Utari Widyaningdyah

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Earnings management is a management act in financial statement preparing process in order to obtain whether his personality welfare or his company's value. This research is a replication from Dechow et.al (1996 who had tested causes and consequences of earnings manipulation in firms subject to AAER (Accounting and Auditing Enforcement Release by SEC (Securities Exchange Commission. Purpose of this research is to give empirically evidence the influence of auditor reputation, board of directors, leverage, and public offering stock percentage at IPO time to the earnings management in initial public offering's firms which was listed in Jakarta Stock Exchange at 1994 until 1997.Statistical analysis method used is multiple regression. This research's result shows that leverage has significant influence to earnings management. It is mean that earnings management has a relation with external financing, especially debt. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Earnings management merupakan tindakan manajemen yang berupa campur tangan dalam proses penyusunan laporan keuangan dengan maksud untuk meningkatkan kesejahteraannya secara personel maupun untuk meningkatkan nilai perusahaan. Penelitian ini merupakan hasil replikasi dari penelitian Dechow et.al (1996 yang menguji sebab dan konsekuensi earnings management pada perusahaan yang menjadi subjek diberlakukannya AAER(Accounting and Auditing Enforcement Release oleh SEC (Securities Exchange Commision. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuktikan secara empiris pengaruh reputasi auditor, jumlah dewan direksi, leverage, dan persentase saham yang ditawarkan kepada publik saat IPO terhadap earnings management pada perusahaan yang melakukan IPO (Initial Public Offerring di Bursa Efek Jakarta pada tahun 1994 sampai dengan 1997. Metode analisis statistik yang digunakan adalah multiple regression. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa hanya faktor leverage yang berpengaruh signifikan terhadap earnings management. Hal ini

  19. The Frequency of "Brilliant" and "Genius" in Teaching Evaluations Predicts the Representation of Women and African Americans across Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storage, Daniel; Horne, Zachary; Cimpian, Andrei; Leslie, Sarah-Jane

    2016-01-01

    Women and African Americans-groups targeted by negative stereotypes about their intellectual abilities-may be underrepresented in careers that prize brilliance and genius. A recent nationwide survey of academics provided initial support for this possibility. Fields whose practitioners believed that natural talent is crucial for success had fewer female and African American PhDs. The present study seeks to replicate this initial finding with a different, and arguably more naturalistic, measure of the extent to which brilliance and genius are prized within a field. Specifically, we measured field-by-field variability in the emphasis on these intellectual qualities by tallying-with the use of a recently released online tool-the frequency of the words "brilliant" and "genius" in over 14 million reviews on RateMyProfessors.com, a popular website where students can write anonymous evaluations of their instructors. This simple word count predicted both women's and African Americans' representation across the academic spectrum. That is, we found that fields in which the words "brilliant" and "genius" were used more frequently on RateMyProfessors.com also had fewer female and African American PhDs. Looking at an earlier stage in students' educational careers, we found that brilliance-focused fields also had fewer women and African Americans obtaining bachelor's degrees. These relationships held even when accounting for field-specific averages on standardized mathematics assessments, as well as several competing hypotheses concerning group differences in representation. The fact that this naturalistic measure of a field's focus on brilliance predicted the magnitude of its gender and race gaps speaks to the tight link between ability beliefs and diversity.

  20. The Frequency of "Brilliant" and "Genius" in Teaching Evaluations Predicts the Representation of Women and African Americans across Fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Storage

    Full Text Available Women and African Americans-groups targeted by negative stereotypes about their intellectual abilities-may be underrepresented in careers that prize brilliance and genius. A recent nationwide survey of academics provided initial support for this possibility. Fields whose practitioners believed that natural talent is crucial for success had fewer female and African American PhDs. The present study seeks to replicate this initial finding with a different, and arguably more naturalistic, measure of the extent to which brilliance and genius are prized within a field. Specifically, we measured field-by-field variability in the emphasis on these intellectual qualities by tallying-with the use of a recently released online tool-the frequency of the words "brilliant" and "genius" in over 14 million reviews on RateMyProfessors.com, a popular website where students can write anonymous evaluations of their instructors. This simple word count predicted both women's and African Americans' representation across the academic spectrum. That is, we found that fields in which the words "brilliant" and "genius" were used more frequently on RateMyProfessors.com also had fewer female and African American PhDs. Looking at an earlier stage in students' educational careers, we found that brilliance-focused fields also had fewer women and African Americans obtaining bachelor's degrees. These relationships held even when accounting for field-specific averages on standardized mathematics assessments, as well as several competing hypotheses concerning group differences in representation. The fact that this naturalistic measure of a field's focus on brilliance predicted the magnitude of its gender and race gaps speaks to the tight link between ability beliefs and diversity.

  1. Wo(men) at work? The impact of cohabiting and married partners' earning on women's work hours

    OpenAIRE

    Triebe, Doreen

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the determinants of women's labor supply in the household context. The main focus is on the effect of a change in male partner's wages on women's work hours. This is linked to the broader question of whether married and cohabiting women make different economic decisions and respond differently to changes in their partners' wages. In addition, this study seeks to connect the working behavior of married and cohabiting individuals to the "tax-splitting" benefit for marrie...

  2. 48 CFR 352.234-3 - Full earned value management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... management system. 352.234-3 Section 352.234-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN....234-3 Full earned value management system. As prescribed in 334.203-70(c), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Full Earned Value Management System (October 2008) (a) The Contractor...

  3. Earnings Management Surrounding CEO Turnover: Evidence from Korea

    OpenAIRE

    JONG-SEO CHOI; YOUNG-MIN KWAK; CHONGWOO CHOE

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the empirical relation between CEO turnover and earnings management in Korea using a sample of 317 CEO turnovers and 634 non-turnover control firms during the period of 2001-2008. We classify CEO turnovers into four types depending on whether the departure of outgoing CEO is peaceful or forced and the incoming CEO is promoted from within or recruited from outside the firm. We measure earnings management by both discretionary accruals and real activities management. We al...

  4. How Working Time Reduction Affects Employment and Earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Raposo, P.M.; van Ours, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    December 1, 1996 Portugal introduced a new law on working hours which gradually reduced the standard workweek from 44 hours to 40 hours. We study how this mandatory working hours reduction affected employment and earnings of workers involved. We find for workers who were affected by the new law that working hours decreased, while hourly wages increased, keeping monthly earnings approximately constant. We also find that the working hours reduction did not lead to an increased job loss of worke...

  5. Impact of external job mobility and occupational job mobility on earnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Wai Wong

    2016-11-01

    Originality/value: The findings has also revealed important variables to be included in explaining high skill labor earnings in the context of Malaysian engineers, it serves as an important reference for future in modeling earnings.

  6. Racial Earnings Differentials and Performance Pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, John S.; O'Halloran, Patrick L.

    2005-01-01

    A comparative analysis between output-based payment and time rates payment is presented. It is observed that racial or gender earnings discrimination is more likely in time rates payment and supervisory evaluations.

  7. R&D EXPENDITURES AND EARNINGS TARGETS: EVIDENCE FROM FRANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Guidara, Rihab; Boujelbene, Younes

    2015-01-01

    Research and development (R&D) investments reduce current-period earnings while the benefits associated with the investments occur in the future. This problem implies an earnings management tool to boost short-term performance. While there is much evidence regarding managerial discretion through R&D capitalization, empirical studies that directly examine managerial discretion through R&D expenditure adjusting have not been widely provided in the European context. This ...

  8. Sexual orientation, disclosure and earnings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plug, E.; Berkhout, P.

    2008-01-01

    Gay/bisexual workers tend to earn less than other men. Does this occur because of discrimination or because of selection? In this paper we address this question and collect new information on workplace disclosure to separate out discrimination effects from selection effects. Using a large sample of

  9. 26 CFR 1.857-11 - Non-REIT earnings and profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Non-REIT earnings and profits. 1.857-11 Section 1.857-11 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.857-11 Non-REIT earnings and profits...

  10. Hawaii Bottomfish Cost-Earnings Survey 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent a cost-earnings study of the Main Hawaiian Islands bottomfish fishery for the 2010 operating year. Data collected include fisher classification,...

  11. ZNJPrice/Earnings Ratio Model through Dividend Yield and Required Yield Above Expected Inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Mihalina

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Price/earnings ratio is the most popular and most widespread evaluation model used to assess relative capital asset value on financial markets. In functional terms, company earnings in the very long term can be described with high significance. Empirically, it is visible from long-term statistics that the demanded (required yield on capital markets has certain regularity. Thus, investors first require a yield above the stable inflation rate and then a dividend yield and a capital increase caused by the growth of earnings that influence the price, with the assumption that the P/E ratio is stable. By combining the Gordon model for current dividend value, the model of market capitalization of earnings (price/earnings ratio and bearing in mind the influence of the general price levels on company earnings, it is possible to adjust the price/earnings ratio by deriving a function of the required yield on capital markets measured by a market index through dividend yield and inflation rate above the stable inflation rate increased by profit growth. The S&P 500 index for example, has in the last 100 years grown by exactly the inflation rate above the stable inflation rate increased by profit growth. The comparison of two series of price/earnings ratios, a modelled one and an average 7-year ratio, shows a notable correlation in the movement of two series of variables, with a three year deviation. Therefore, it could be hypothesized that three years of the expected inflation level, dividend yield and profit growth rate of the market index are discounted in the current market prices. The conclusion is that, at the present time, the relationship between the adjusted average price/earnings ratio and its effect on the market index on one hand and the modelled price/earnings ratio on the other can clearly show the expected dynamics and course in the following period.

  12. Adolescent mental health and earnings inequalities in adulthood: evidence from the Young-HUNT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evensen, Miriam; Lyngstad, Torkild Hovde; Melkevik, Ole; Reneflot, Anne; Mykletun, Arnstein

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that adolescent mental health problems are associated with lower employment probabilities and risk of unemployment. The evidence on how earnings are affected is much weaker, and few have addressed whether any association reflects unobserved characteristics and whether the consequences of mental health problems vary across the earnings distribution. A population-based Norwegian health survey linked to administrative registry data (N=7885) was used to estimate how adolescents' mental health problems (separate indicators of internalising, conduct, and attention problems and total sum scores) affect earnings (≥30 years) in young adulthood. We used linear regression with fixed-effects models comparing either students within schools or siblings within families. Unconditional quantile regressions were used to explore differentials across the earnings distribution. Mental health problems in adolescence reduce average earnings in adulthood, and associations are robust to control for observed family background and school fixed effects. For some, but not all mental health problems, associations are also robust in sibling fixed-effects models, where all stable family factors are controlled. Further, we found much larger earnings loss below the 25th centile. Adolescent mental health problems reduce adult earnings, especially among individuals in the lower tail of the earnings distribution. Preventing mental health problems in adolescence may increase future earnings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. The effect of environmental performance and accounting characteristics to earnings informativeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herawaty, V.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this empirical study is to analyze the influence of environmental performance and company’s accounting characteristics to earnings informativeness proxied by earnings response coefficient (ERC) on manufacturing companies listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange and consistently follow the PROPER assessment in 2010-2014. One of the company’s considerations is to create the green environment reflecting its environmental measures, drawing investors to respond to the company’s environmental performance. The data were obtained from Indonesian Capital Market Directory (ICMD), the Indonesia Stock Exchange homepage, the company’s annual reports, the decree of the Minister of Environment. The samples used in this research are 27 go public manufacturing companies listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange that consistently follow the PROPER in 2010-2014. The sampling technique used was the purposive method. This research uses multiple regression analysis. The results show that the environmental performance and profitability have a positive influence to earnings informativeness, while leverage has a negative influence to earnings informativeness. Growth opportunities as a control variable has a positive effect on earnings informativeness. This research has proved that the environmental performance is crucial through observing the investors’ reaction in the capital market.

  14. The Earnings Differential between Formal and Informal Employees in Urban China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zuo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Few studies in the field of labor economics have analyzed the earnings differential between formal and informal employees in urban China. Due to data limitations, previous studies on this subject have not yielded accurate and widely acceptable results. This study seeks to obtain more accurate results by analyzing the earnings differential based on the conceptual framework of informal employment developed by the 17th International Conference of Labor Statisticians. We analyzed data from the 2006 Chinese General Social Survey, using the Lee model to correct for selection bias and decomposing the earnings differential between formal and informal employees in urban China in terms of the effects of employee characteristics, employment, and working hours. The latter two of these comprise the segmentation effect. We found that only 33% of the observed earnings differential can be explained by employee characteristics; the remaining 67% is attributable to the segmentation effect. The working hours effect narrows the earnings differential. Based on the results of our analysis, we conclude that informal employees in urban China, especially female informal employees, suffer from segmentation and that policies to address segmentation issues are needed.

  15. Essays on the statistical mechanics of the labor market and implications for the distribution of earned income

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Markus P. A.

    This dissertation contributes to two areas in economics: the understanding of the distribution of earned income and to Bayesian analysis of distributional data. Recently, physicists claimed that the distribution of earned income is exponential (see Yakovenko, 2009). The first chapter explores the perspective that the economy is a statistical mechanical system and the implication for labor market outcomes is considered critically. The robustness of the empirical results that lead to the physicists' claims, the significance of the exponential distribution in statistical mechanics, and the case for a conservation law in economics are discussed. The conclusion reached is that physicists' conception of the economy is too narrow even within their chosen framework, but that their overall approach is insightful. The dual labor market theory of segmented labor markets is invoked to understand why the observed distribution may be a mixture of distributional components, corresponding to different generating mechanisms described in Reich et al. (1973). The application of informational entropy in chapter II connects this work to Bayesian analysis and maximum entropy econometrics. The analysis follows E. T. Jaynes's treatment of Wolf's dice data, but is applied to the distribution of earned income based on CPS data. The results are calibrated to account for rounded survey responses using a simple simulation, and answer the graphical analyses by physicists. The results indicate that neither the income distribution of all respondents nor of the subpopulation used by physicists appears to be exponential. The empirics do support the claim that a mixture with exponential and log-normal distributional components ts the data. In the final chapter, a log-linear model is used to fit the exponential to the earned income distribution. Separating the CPS data by gender and marital status reveals that the exponential is only an appropriate model for a limited number of subpopulations, namely

  16. [Study on the history of exchange in pharmaceutical science between Japan and Korea after the Modern period: focus on Korean students sent to Japan with expenses funded by the Japanese government].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Chang-Koo; Son, Il-Sun; Choi, Eung-Chil; Nam, Young-Hee; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Tsutani, Kiichiro

    2009-01-01

    According to an old historical text, Nihonshoki [Chinese and Korean characters: see text]), there are records of medical doctors ([Chinese and Korean characters: see text]) and herbal pharmacists ([Chinese and Korean characters: see text]) being dispatched to Japan as early as 554 A.D. ([Chinese and Korean characters: see text]). More recently, a clinic ([Chinese and Korean characters: see text]) for Japanese residents in Pusan was established in 1877. Advanced modern pharmacy from Japan began to be introduced to Korea after 1909. Based on an agreement between the Korean and Japanese governments, Korean students sent to Japan with expenses funded by the Japanese government became a systematic program after 1965. As a result, Koreans who earned Ph.D.s from Japanese universities became a majority in the faculties of Korean schools of pharmacy. However, this trend drastically shifted in the years after 1990, at which time the primary nation for earning Ph.D.s became the United States; the number of students studying in Japan has become very low recently. In this study, six ex-students who studied in Japan were interviewed and the results were analyzed. Furthermore, the past, present and future perspectives of Korean students in Japan were discussed while focusing on the system of Korean students being sent to Japan with expenses funded by the Japanese government.

  17. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(2)-1 - Earnings and profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Earnings and profits. 1.381(c)(2)-1 Section 1.381(c)(2)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Insolvency Reorganizations § 1.381(c)(2)-1 Earnings and profits. (a) In...

  18. A Study on the Relationship of Earnings and Cash Flows: Evidence of Finance Sector in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Salehi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study is investigating the quality of annual accounting earnings in banking firms that have been listed in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE and it evaluates the most important information of accounting that is earnings and cash flows. The study also intends to investigate the relationship between earnings and cash flows regarding their relationship with the expected return of stocks and the extent of informing in the analysis of the inevitable return of stocks. The analyses of data during 6 years revealed that the earnings in comparison to the cash flows are very important as they have positive effects on the stock. Moreover, in the case of the relations of earnings and earnings changes with the expected return of stocks and the relation of cash flows and cash flow changes with the expected return of stock, it was found that there is only a meaningful relationship between earning changes and the expected return of stock in banking groups. However, there is no meaningful relationship between earning and cash flows with the expected return of stock. The result was that the informational content test didn’t support the value relation of earning and cash flows. Furthermore, the classifying of information through banking group indicated that the changes of earning was in the first rank and next were earning, the changes of cash flow and cash flows.Keywords: Earnings; Cash flows; expected return; Value relevance; Banking risks

  19. R&D EXPENDITURES AND EARNINGS TARGETS: EVIDENCE FROM FRANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Guidara, Rihab; Boujelbene, Younes

    2015-01-01

    Research and development (R&D) investments reduce current-period earnings while the benefits associated with the investments occur in the future. This problem implies an earnings management tool to boost short-term performance. While there is much evidence regarding managerial discretion through R&D capitalization, empirical studies that directly examine managerial discretion through R&D expenditure adjusting have not been widely provided in the European context. This paper seeks ...

  20. The PE Ratio and the Predicted Earnings Growth – the Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurach Radosław

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We examine the components of equity returns on the Polish capital market. To analyse the underlying complexity of returns we took into consideration the model designed by Leibowitz (1999. This model captures three factors: dividend yield, expected growth in earnings and expected change in price-to-earnings (PE ratio. We applied this model to analyse the average discount/premium not only to particular shares but to market averages as well. Firstly, we examined the variation of PE across the companies (as adapted from Penman (1996 to analyse the average rate of return and their striking distance of individual stocks from a ‘normal’ level. Then we checked the transitory earnings in the portfolios of high PE, whereby a fall in current earnings relative to sustainable level of earnings leads to a transitory high PE ratio. We expect that the effect of transience in current year earnings can be significant. Lastly, we analysed the individual companies in order to check what percentage of companies give a “correct” signal about future prospects.

  1. The Meaning of "Dokuji-ikko no Seikei" : How the idea of economic independence for women has changed

    OpenAIRE

    奥村, 則子

    2011-01-01

    This paper explains how the idea of economic independence has changed. It focuses on the Social Reports by Osaka City from the Showa Period. The 1920's reports stated that women have the right to earn enough money to be independent. This conclusion was supported by economist Shiro Kawada. He asserted that the “individual unit social system” is best: everyone has the right to earn the living wage. The “family social system” is not endorsed because it leads to problems for both women and societ...

  2. Cost Earnings Data 1993 - Hawaii Longline

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were collected to support the first cost-earnings study of this fleet. Operational and vessel costs were collected by in-person interviews with vessel...

  3. Wage Offers and Full-Time and Part-Time Employment by British Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermisch, John F.; Wright, Robert E.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of British married women's employment decisions indicates that differences in wage offers between full- and part-time employment are important determinants of working full-time. Women who work despite low earning power, husbands' high income, or discouraging family circumstances tend to work part-time. (SK)

  4. Banking system reform, earnings quality and credit allocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuli Zhu; Lianjun Li; Yunkui Xue

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates credit allocation before and after the 2003 banking system reform in China. We find that relationships between earnings quality and new short-term loans, long-term loans and total loans in listed companies changed significantly after the banking system reform, especially in stateowned listed companies. Further investigation shows that due to the influence of rent-seeking, banks have eased the earnings requirements of non-stateowned listed companies. These findings enhance our understanding of the economic consequences of the banking system reform and of credit discrimination under the new regime.

  5. Righting the balance: Gender diversity in the geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Robin E.; Kastens, Kim A.; Cane, Mark; Muller, Roberta B.; Mutter, John C.; Pfirman, Stephanie

    The blatant barriers are down. Women are now routinely chief scientists on major cruises, lead field parties to all continents, and have risen to leadership positions in professional organizations, academic departments, and funding agencies. Nonetheless, barriers remain. Women continue to be under-represented in the Earth, ocean, and atmospheric sciences. Let's do the numbers: As of 1997, women received 41% of all Ph.D.s in science and engineering, but only 29% of the doctorates in the Earth, atmospheric, and oceanographic sciences [NSF, 1999a]. Women were 23% of employed Ph.D.s across all fields of science, but only accounted for 13% in the geosciences. Women's salaries also lag: the median salary for all Ph.D. geoscientists was $60,000; for women, the figure is $47,000 [NSF, 1999b]. The growing number of women students is a step in the right direction, but only a step.

  6. Earnings and Job Satisfaction of Employed Spanish Doctoral Graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Canal Domínguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for highly qualifi ed workers in developed countries has raised a new interest in analysing whether doctoral training meets the needs of the European labour market. Job satisfaction enables an approach to both the relationship between training and job position and to a company?s successful management of its relationship with those workers who are PhD holders. The results indicate that an analysis based on earnings is relevant, as it makes it possible to identify two clear job satisfaction behaviours: on the one hand, as earnings increase, so does job satisfaction, although this is found to a lesser extent in the higher earnings range; on the other hand, when moving up in the salary range, the relative assessment of job satisfaction components changes, as well as their signifi cance in explaining the variations in job satisfaction.

  7. Women in Physics in Perú

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loayza, María Luisa Cerón; Vásquez, Yezeña Huaypar; Cabrejos, Jorge Aurelio Bravo

    2009-04-01

    The numbers of women receiving undergraduate and master's degrees in physics from San Marcos National University and undergraduate physics degrees from San Luis Gonzaga National University in Perú are reported. The number of undergraduate degrees in physics has increased for women in San Marcos University, but not for women earning master's degrees. Why don't women complete their post-degree studies? Economics and gender stereotypes are factors that women in Perú have to fight each day. Perú does not have a good scholar program in science, so few students are interested in beginning their university careers in science. Improvements in science education are needed for our country to reach its potential.

  8. A study on relationship between audit quality and earnings management in Iranian banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Masihi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between audit quality and earnings management in Iranian banking industry. The proposed study gathers the necessary information from 18 different Iranian banks over the period 2005-2012. The study considers the effects of three independent variables including type of auditing, tenure of auditing and size of bank on earning managements. The result of our survey has indicated that there was a meaningful and reverse relationship between type of accounting and earnings management. In addition, the longer an auditing firm perform auditing program, the better the firm reports earnings management. Finally, as the size of firm increases, there is a better earnings management.

  9. 20 CFR 416.1112 - Earned income we do not count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income Earned Income § 416.1112 Earned income we do not count. (a) General... receive it. (3) If you are under age 22 and a student who is regularly attending school as described in... not blind) and under age 65 or you are disabled (but not blind) and received SSI as a disabled...

  10. Some effects of overall rate of earning reinforcers on run lengths and visit durations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonall, James S

    2006-07-01

    In a concurrent schedule, responding at each alternative is controlled by a pair of schedules that arrange reinforcers for staying at that alternative and reinforcers for switching to the other alternative. Each pair of schedules operates only while at the associated alternative. When only one pair of stay and switch schedules is presented, the rates of earning reinforcers for staying divided by the rates of earning reinforcers for switching controls the mean number responses in a visit and the mean duration of visits. The purpose of the present experiment was to see whether the sum of the rates of earning stay and switch reinforcers changed the way that run length and visit duration were affected by the ratio of the rates of stay to switch reinforcers. Rats were exposed to pairs of stay and switch schedules that varied both the ratio of the rates of earning stay and switch reinforcers and the sum of the rates of earning stay and switch reinforcers. Run lengths and visit durations were joint functions of the ratio of the rates of earning stay and switch reinforcers and the sum of the rates of earning stay and switch reinforcers. These results shows that the effect of the ratio of the sum of the rates of earning stay and switch reinforcers results from processes operating at the alternative, rather than from processes operating at both alternatives.

  11. Why does the Job Corps increase gender earnings inequality?

    OpenAIRE

    Strittmatter, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Several studies considering the Job Corps find more positive earnings effects for males than for females. This effect heterogeneity in favor of males contrasts with the results of the majority of other training program evaluations. Applying the translated quantile approach of Bitler, Hoynes, and Domina (2014), I show that an important mechanism behind the surprising findings for the Job Corps operates through existing gender earnings inequality rather than Job Corps trainability differences b...

  12. Can Technical Analysis Signals Detect Price Reactions Around Earnings Announcement?: Evidence from Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Dedhy Sulistiawan; Jogiyanto Hartono

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether technical analysis signals can detect price reactions before and after earnings announcement dates in Indonesian stock market. Earnings announcements produce reactions, both before and after the announcements. Informed investors may use private information before earnings announcements (Christophe, Ferri and Angel, 2004; Porter, 1992). Using technical analysis signals, this study expects that retail investors (uninformed investors) can detect preannouncements react...

  13. Understanding the Experience of Women in Undergraduate Engineering Programs at Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Jessica Ohanian

    2017-01-01

    Women earn bachelor's degrees in engineering at a rate of less than 17% at public universities in California. The purpose of this study was to understand how women experience undergraduate engineering programs at public universities. To understand this lack of attainment, a qualitative methodology and Feminist Poststructuralist perspective were…

  14. The effect of leverage increases on real earnings management

    OpenAIRE

    Zagers-Mamedova, Irina

    2009-01-01

    textabstractMain subject of this paper is to understand whether there could be an incentive for managers to manipulate cash flow from operating activities (CFO) through the use of real earnings management (REM), in situations with increasing leverage. Based upon a study of Jelinek (2007) who researched the correlation between increasing levels of leverage and accrual earnings management, I developed my main hypothesis with respect to the effect of leverage increases on REM to influence CFO. R...

  15. Associations of gender role attitudes with fertility intentions: A Japanese population-based study on single men and women of reproductive ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Tsuguhiko

    2018-06-01

    Japan has been experiencing low fertility for many years. In this study, I investigated the relationship between gender role attitudes and fertility intentions among Japanese single men and women of reproductive ages. Utilizing the Longitudinal Survey of Adults in the 21st Century data, 8944 men and 7924 women aged 20-34 years with single, childless status were analyzed. Gender role attitudes were assessed by participants' preferences for the division of labor between a man and a woman: income earning, housework, and childcare. Those who preferred men to earn income and women to perform housework and childcare were considered to have traditional attitudes, whereas those who preferred women and men to share these responsibilities were considered to have egalitarian attitudes. Outcomes were fertility intentions measured by a desire to have children and ideal number of children. Logistic regression analyses were conducted. Egalitarian attitudes about income earning and housework were associated with low fertility intentions (a lesser desire for children) compared to traditional attitudes: adjusted odds ratios were 1.56 [1.36, 1.80] for men and 1.47 [1.26, 1.72] for women with income earning. Men's preference for sharing childcare responsibility was associated with high fertility intentions. Japanese society has not shifted away from the traditional division of labor despite the increase in female labor force participation. Low fertility intentions among Japanese men and women with egalitarian attitudes suggest that institutional support for balancing work and family may be necessary to improve the low fertility trend. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Role of Social Relations of Outside Directors with CEO in Earnings Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shaique

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of social relations among the board members on earnings management in Pakistani listed companies. Specifically, we have analyzed the social networks between CEO and outside board members. The modified Jones model has been used in this study to measure earnings management and we have captured social relations through SOCIAL (Social networking index. Our results suggest that firms with more connected boards show a positive relationship between board independence and earnings management. Further, we have shown that firms with CEO duality exhibit a higher association between social connections of the board and earnings management than firms with non-duality. Social relations among the board members undermine monitoring ability of outside directors and the impact becomes more severe in the presence of CEO duality.

  17. Banking system reform, earnings quality and credit allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuli Zhu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates credit allocation before and after the 2003 banking system reform in China. We find that relationships between earnings quality and new short-term loans, long-term loans and total loans in listed companies changed significantly after the banking system reform, especially in state-owned listed companies. Further investigation shows that due to the influence of rent-seeking, banks have eased the earnings requirements of non-state-owned listed companies. These findings enhance our understanding of the economic consequences of the banking system reform and of credit discrimination under the new regime.

  18. International Financial Reporting Standards and Earnings Management in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Augusto Timm Rathke

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the level of earnings management in Latin America after the adoption of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS and analyzes the role of cross-listing in the United States. The literature on earnings management in less developed countries is still under construction, and few studies focus on this issue, especially with respect to Latin America, despite its relevant role in the global economy. This paper fills this gap in the literature as it analyzes the level of IFRS earnings management regarding the first and main Latin American countries applying IFRS (Brazil and Chile, when compared to the main Anglo-Saxon countries with IFRS tradition (United Kingdom and Australia, and with the main Continental European economies (France and Germany. The results show that Latin American firms present a higher level of earnings management than Continental European and Anglo-Saxon firms, and this opportunistic behavior remains significant when only global players with cross-listing in the United States are analyzed. Thus, even with a unique set of high quality accounting standards (IFRS and strong reporting incentives, countries’ specific characteristics still play an important role in the way IFRS is implemented in each country.

  19. Factors Influencing the Earnings Expectations among Macedonian Students: A Comparative Perspective with the EU Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Andonova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the earnings expectations of Macedonian students and the main factors that shape their expectations. Previous research has shown that earnings expectation is a major determinant that influences a decision on schooling (Williams and Gordon, 1981; Betts, 1996; Wolter and Zbinden, 2001. Given that the main pathway to developing individual human capital is schooling, learning about factors that affect individual’s decision on whether to acquire more education can contribute towards better educational policy. We employ similar empirical approach as Brunello et al. (2001, 2004. We use available information to regress: i expected future earnings right after university graduation and ii expected future earnings 10 years after graduation, on a set of variables: characteristics of the individual, socio-economic background, field of study, year of study, academic performance, sources of information for future earnings, etc. Our findings show that expected earnings are significantly correlated with the education of the father, year of study, sources of information on earnings in the labor market, gender, ethnicity, having a regular job during studies, perceived employability, field of study, and the country of future employment. In other words, Macedonian students form their earnings expectations in a similar vein as their European counterparts.

  20. Separating the Stock Market′s Reaction to Simultaneous Dividend and Earnings Announcements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sponholtz, Carina Margit

    asymmetries between shareholders and management. We find that the stock market reacts to surprise in management forecasts of next year's earnings and the current dividend. Additional breakdowns reveal that the signalling models and free cash flow hypothesis provide explanations for separate components......We analyze simultanous announcements of current dividends, current earnings and managment forecasts of next year's earnings. By conducting the empirical analysis using Danish data, this study is the first not to suffer from problems related to low levels of agency costs and informational...

  1. Peran Praktek Corporate Governance Sebagai Moderating Variable dari Pengaruh Earnings Management Terhadap Nilai Perusahaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinola Herawaty

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the empirical study is to examine the role of Corporate Governance Practices as a variable that moderates the effect of Earnings Management to the value of the firm. The result gives the evidence that corporate governance practices that have a significant impact to the value the firm are outside independent director and institutional ownership, in the model regression with moderating variable. It also indicates that Independent director, audit quality and institutional ownership are moderating variables of the relationship between earnings management and the value of the firm, but not the managerial ownership. Thus, earnings Management can be minimized with the monitoring mechanism i.e. (1 independent director that can monitor the management of the company in aligning the interest of principal and agent, (2 institutional ownership shareholders - the sophitisticed investor that also monitor the management to decrease the motivation of management to manipulate Earnings and (3 audit quality with the role of auditors to give the credibility of the reported financial statement by management. Abstract in Bahasa Indoesia: Tujuan penelitian ini untuk menge¬tahui secara empiris pengaruh earnings management terhadap nilai perusahaan, praktek corporate governance nilai perusahaan dan pengaruh praktek corporate governance terhadap hubungan antara earnings management dan nilai perusahaan dan memahami peranan praktek corporate governance terhadap praktek earnings management yang dilakukan yang perusahaan dalam upaya meningkatkan nilai perusahaan. Hasil penelitian membuktikan corporate governance berpengaruh secara signifikan terhadap nilai perusahaan dengan variabel komisaris inde¬penden dan kepemilikan institusional. Kepemilikan manajerial akan menurunkan nilai perusahaan sedangkan kualitas audit akan meningkatkan nilai perusahaan. Komisaris independen, kualitas audit dan kepemilikan institusional merupakan variabel pemoderasi antara

  2. Auditor report and earnings management: Evidence from FTSE 350 companies in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Alhadab

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between audit report and real-based and accrual-based earnings management based on a UK sample. Prior research has mostly focused on US data and examined the relationship between auditor report (qualified vs. non-qualified and earnings management (proxied by discretionary accruals, and found evidence that qualified audit report is positively associated with the level of discretionary accruals. Despite the importance of the role of audit firms to constrain the use of earnings management, there is no research to date has examined the relationship between auditor reports and real earnings management activities based on UK sample. This paper therefore fills this gap in the literature by providing the first evidence for UK FTSE 350 companies that auditor report is positively associated with real and accrual earnings management. The paper also provide evidence that firms received qualified audit report share different characteristics as compared to firms received un-qualified audit report

  3. Women in Physics: Self-Actualization and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunitsyna, E. V.; Murashova, A. V.; Sokolova, Z. N.; Shmidt, N. M.; Vitman, R. F.

    2005-10-01

    The status of women physicists at the Ioffe Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences is analyzed. In the Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute (PTI), just 20% of the researchers are female. They work in all of the departments: in theoretical groups, 13% in technological laboratories. up to 30%. Women account for 18% among PhDs and about 11% among Doctors of Science. From 1991 to 2001 there was a trend of growth in the fraction of young women at PTI (from 7% up to 20%). For the last 3 years the percentage of women among postgraduate students has held at 20%. There seems to be the following social phenomenon in the sciences in Russia: against a background of the aging of scientists as a whole, the younger the scientists are, the more likely they are to be women. Women scientists of Ioffe Institute take a hand in organizing the conferences, the physics schools, and the Physics of the Solid State and Semiconductors journals. It is very important to note that careful and reliable results of pseudo-routine work of the PTI women are not always published. This fact exposes them to the ``publications gap.'' In spite of their high research levels, the PTI women physicists give talks at conferences and seminars much more seldom than their male colleagues. In the institute and the departments the male staff of the Academic Councils make decisions without taking gender issues into consideration. In addition, women account for only 3% of the laboratory heads. Now Russian young people are free from archaic gender stereotypes. We can say with certainty that the cultural and professional potential of women scientists is a considerable potential for the 21st century.

  4. Influencing Factors on Earnings Management, Empirical Evidence from Listed German and Austrian Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Dilger; Sabine Graschitz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – Since the 1960s earnings management has been a widely researched area and became presumably known by the current accounting scandals. This paper aims at empirically showing which factors affect earnings management. Design/methodology/approach – According to former research literature factors are derived, which might influence the companies' earnings management behavior. These factors are the applied accounting standard, the industry sector and the country of official quotation. ...

  5. A Comparison of Danish and International Findings on Intergenerational Earnings Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Azhar, Hussain; D. Munk, Martin

    a comparison with analyses on a Danish register data set. The earnings mobility between fathers/mothers and their sons/daughters is investigated, and shows that the father-son earnings persistence effect is found to be smaller in Denmark, Finland and Sweden than in the United States, but higher than in Norway....

  6. Labor market outcomes of immigrant women in the United States: 1970 to 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeni, R F

    1998-01-01

    42% of immigrant workers in the US are women. Data from the 1970, 1980, and 1990 US censuses are analyzed in the study of differences in labor market outcomes between US-born and immigrant women, and among immigrant women born in different countries or regions of the world. There was little difference between US-born and immigrant women as a whole in 1970. However, over the next 20 years, immigrants women's labor force participation rate and weekly earnings relative to natives became lower, and their unemployment rates became higher. By 1990, the wage gap was 14%. At the same time, the share of self-employed women and the amount of time worked among employed women were almost the same for immigrant women and the US-born throughout the period 1970-90. Immigrants born in the UK, Canada, Europe, Japan, Korea, China, the Philippines, and the Middle East have had steady or improved wages and unemployment relative to US-born women. Immigrants from Mexico and Central America have experienced relatively high unemployment and low earnings, with the wage gap reaching 35% in 1990. Disparities in the number of completed years of schooling explains a substantial share of the observed differences in labor market outcomes.

  7. An Exploratory Study of the Ascendancy of Women to the Position of K-12 Superintendent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Karen M.

    2011-01-01

    Despite earning over half of the doctoral degrees in education, women are underrepresented in the position of K-12 superintendent. In 2000, although 72% of all classroom teachers were female, only 14% of all superintendents in the United States were women. Research indicates that women experience barriers in their ascendancy to superintendent.…

  8. An empirical study of the relationship between earnings forecasts and risk profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malekian Esfandiar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to examine the relationship between the excess of forecast based on characteristics toward management forecast and business risk is provided in this research at companies listed on the stock exchange in Tehran.The customary (traditional (approach is based on the regression of management forecast errors of past years. Therefore, the observable and unobservable inputs, such as managements, incentive misalignment, are used to predict management forecast errors. In this study, the future earnings is at first estimated by using characteristics including earnings per share, loss indicator, Neg. accruals per share , Pos. accruals per share ,asset growth , dividend indicator (non-payment of the dividend, Book-to-market value, share price and dividend per share for companies. Based on that, a criterion (CO for estimating the earnings forecast error was developed, which is the alternative forecasted errors. One should notice that, business risk is considered as a measure of company performance. In this study, measures of business risk are volatility of earnings and dividend ratio. Research findings show that, there is a significant relationship between the CO and volatility of earnings, on the contrary there is no significant relationship between this criteria and dividend ratio

  9. Audit Committee Attributes and Earnings Management: Evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afensimi Elijah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Using the agency theoretical framework, the  study postulates that audit committee attributes can impact significantly, constraining accrual-based distortion of financial reporting credibility and thus improve the quality of financial reporting. To assess our arguments, audit committee size, audit committee financial literacy, audit committee attendance at meetings, audit committee independence and audit meetings frequency of meeting were regressed on financial reporting quality measured by discretionary accruals. The findings for the full sample and negative discretionary accruals sample confirm our expectation that audit committee characteristics have a constraining effect on earnings management. Specifically, audit committee financial expertise, audit committee size, audit committee independence and diligence showed an inverse and significant relationship with earnings management. This is in tandem with theoretical expectations and suggest that increases in these variables we exert a declining influence on earnings management. The study concludes that there is the need for companies to focus on attributes that strengthen the effectiveness of their audit committees.

  10. The impact of paternity leave on fathers' future earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rege, Mari; Solli, Ingeborg F

    2013-12-01

    Using Norwegian registry data, we investigate the effect of paternity leave on fathers' long-term earnings. If the paternity leave increased long-term father involvement, then we should expect a reduction in fathers' long-term earnings as they shift time and effort from market to home production. For identification, we use the Norwegian introduction of a paternity-leave quota in 1993, reserving four weeks of the total of 42 weeks of paid parental leave exclusively for the father. The introduction of the paternity-leave quota led to a sharp increase in rates of leave-taking for fathers. We estimate a difference-in-differences model that exploits differences in fathers' exposure to the paternity-leave quota by the child's age and year of observation. Our analysis suggests that four weeks of paternity leave during the child's first year decreases fathers' future earnings, an effect that persists through our last point of observation, when the child is 5 years old. A battery of robustness tests supports our results.

  11. DETERMINANTS OF RETAINED EARNINGS IN PROFITABLE STEEL COMPANIES IN INDIA: A STUDY OF STEEL SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Sohaib Masood

    2018-01-01

    In this paper an attempt has been made to identify the important determinants of retained earnings in profitable steel companies in steel sector of India and which have impact on the retention of earnings of steel companies under study. Multiple linear regression is used to identify the determinants of retained earnings for a period of sixteen years. Also the importance of retained earnings as a source of finance for steel sector companies is also studied in the paper.

  12. Universities Report $1.8-Billion in Earnings on Inventions in 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2012-01-01

    Universities and their inventors earned more than $1.8-billion from commercializing their academic research in the 2011 fiscal year, collecting royalties from new breeds of wheat, from a new drug for the treatment of HIV, and from longstanding arrangements over enduring products like Gatorade. Northwestern University earned the most of any…

  13. The retirement prospects of divorced women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butrica, Barbara A; Smith, Karen E

    2012-01-01

    For decades, policymakers have discussed how to remedy the high poverty rates of older widows. Yet older divorced women are more likely to be poor than older widows, and historical divorce and remarriage trends suggest that in the future a larger share of retired women will be divorced. This article uses the Social Security Administration's Modeling Income in the Near Term (version 6) to project the retirement resources and wellbeing of divorced women. We find that Social Security benefits and retirement incomes are projected to increase for divorced women and that their poverty rates are projected to decline, due in large part to women's increasing lifetime earnings. However, not all divorced women will be equally well off economic well-being in retirement varies by Social Security benefit type.

  14. A Study on the Determinants of Earnings Response Coefficient in an Emerging Market

    OpenAIRE

    Bita Mashayekhi; Zeynab Lotfi Aghel

    2016-01-01

    The determinants of Earnings Response Coefficient (ERC), including firm size, earnings growth, and earnings persistence are studied in this research. These determinants are supposed to be moderator variables that affect ERC and Return Response Coefficient. The research sample contains 82 Iranian listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) from 2001 to 2012. Gathered data have been processed by EVIEWS Software. Results show a significant positive relation between firm size and ERC, and als...

  15. Hawaii Charter Fishing Cost Earnings Survey 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent a cost-earnings study of the main Hawaiian Island Charter fishing fleet in 2012. Data collected include fisher classification, vessel...

  16. The Quality of Accounting Earnings and Change in Political Power Map: Evidence from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harymawan Iman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the earnings quality of politically connected firms listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange during 2006-2010. This study compare two definition (Soeharto Dependency Index (SDI and Politically Exposed Person (PEP of political connections to capture the effect of the changes of political power map on the earnings quality of politically connected firms in Indonesia. The finding shows that the quality of accounting earnings of politically connected firms which were formerly closely related to President Soeharto in 1998 are not significantly different to other firms. Furthermore, when this study employ politically exposed person as a proxy of political connections, the findings shows that connected firms have significantly lower quality accounting earnings. Consistent with prior findings, this study shows that change in political power map in Indonesia affect the level of earnings quality of politically connected firms.

  17. Economic and demographic effects on working women in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psaharopoulos, G; Tzannatos, Z

    1993-01-01

    This analysis of women's work conditions in Latin America includes a description of general trends in female labor force participation in 15 Latin American countries based on census data between 1950 and 1990. Also examined are pay differentials by gender and whether gender alone or individual characteristics of women workers accounted for the sex-wage gap. More extensive treatment is available in the author's other 1992 publications. Trends indicate that marriage and children were important factors determining whether women were in the labor force or not. The probability of being in the labor force was reduced by 50% for married women, and each child reduced the probability by 5%. When marriage and children were controlled for, age had a positive effect on probability of participation. Urban female heads of household had a positive effect on women's labor force participation. The higher a woman's educational qualification, the greater the probability of being in the work force. Earnings increased with increased educational level. An increase of 1 year of schooling for women contributed to an increase in female earnings of 13.1. Investment in education for women has a higher yield for women than for men. Policies that directly or indirectly improve women's employment opportunities, particularly when families are being formed, can have wide distributional effects. Also unresolved was an explanation for why female participation increased during periods of recession and why women are rewarded more for educational effort than men. The suggestion was that public sector employment, which included many women in the labor force, is distorting results.

  18. Hawaii Small Boat Cost-Earnings Data: 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent a cost-earnings study of the Hawaii small boat fishery in 2014. Data collected include fisher classification, vessel characteristics, levels of...

  19. Earnings among young and mature Danish university graduates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Trond Beldo

    2016-01-01

    wages among private sector employees. This applies to both genders, but the differences are stronger among male employees. The analyses of long-term wages reveal a more homogeneous pattern. Mature graduates earn less in all the years investigated. The wage differences are greatest among male graduates...... for a longer period of time and to control for more labour market-relevant variables than any previous study of graduation age and earnings. The results show that graduation age has either a slightly positive or an insignificant impact on starting wages within the public sector or a negative impact on starting...... employed in private enterprises, and the gap increases throughout their careers....

  20. WOMEN'S EMPLOYMENT | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... there's nothing you can do to help, that feeling is very hard for a mother,” said the 34-year-old, whose husband's part-time work was not enough to support the family. “We had no money for medicine. I was always afraid.” Read more about Could affordable daycare be the key to unlocking women's earning power in Africa?

  1. Studying the Relationship between Economic Massive Changes with Earnings Management of Listed Companies in Tehran Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    RAHMANİ SERYASAT, Hamid; PİRAYESH, Reza; NOORALİDOKHT, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. This study investigates the relationship between earnings management and profitability of companies listed in Tehran stock exchange and its purpose is to examine the existence of earnings management phenomenon of listed companies in Tehran stock exchange. One of the executives' main objectives about earning management is creation a more stable flow, in order to support higher earning payments. More stable earnings flow can be perceived as a lower risk that leads to higher stock pric...

  2. Using an inflation-augmented price-earnings ratio to guide tactical asset allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Saville

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Asset allocation plays a central role in determining investment outcomes, and available evidence shows that portfolio results can be enhanced through tactical asset allocation if managers use the simple price-earnings ratio as a predictor of equity returns. Recently, some international evidence has emerged which shows that, by augmenting the price-earnings metric with information about consumer price inflation, further enhancements can be achieved in tactical asset allocation.  This study reviews these arguments  as they apply to South Africa, and finds that an inflation-augmented price-earnings ratio is more successful in forecasting equity returns than is the simple price-earnings ratio.  Moreover, the metric is found to be significant in explaining relative asset class returns. On a risk-adjusted basis, however, the tool fails to improve the portfolio results when compared to a buy-and-hold strategy.

  3. Using an inflation-augmented price-earnings ratio to guide tactical asset allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Saville

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Asset allocation plays a central role in determining investment outcomes, and available evidence shows that portfolio results can be enhanced through tactical asset allocation if managers use the simple price-earnings ratio as a predictor of equity returns. Recently, some international evidence has emerged which shows that, by augmenting the price-earnings metric with information about consumer price inflation, further enhancements can be achieved in tactical asset allocation.  This study reviews these arguments  as they apply to South Africa, and finds that an inflation-augmented price-earnings ratio is more successful in forecasting equity returns than is the simple price-earnings ratio.  Moreover, the metric is found to be significant in explaining relative asset class returns. On a risk-adjusted basis, however, the tool fails to improve the portfolio results when compared to a buy-and-hold strategy.

  4. PENGARUH PENGUNGKAPAN CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY TERHADAP EARNING RESPONSE COEFFICIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MI Mitha Dwi Restuti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh negatif pengungkapan Corporate Sosial Responsibility (CSR disclosure terhadap Earning Response Coefficient (ERC. Alat analisis yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini menggunakan metode analisis regresi berganda.Sampel yang digunakan adalah sebanyak 150 perusahaan yang terdaftar pada Bursa Efek Indonesia pada tahun 2010. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian ditemukan bahwa pengungkapan Corporate Social Responsibility tidak berpengaruh terhadap Earning Response Coefficient (ERC. Hal ini dapat dikatakan bahwa investor belum memperhatikan informasi-informasi sosial yang diungkapkan dalam laporan tahunan perusahaan sebagai informasi yang dapat mempengaruhi investor dalam melakukan keputusan investasi. Investor masih mengganggap informasi laba lebih bermanfaat dalam menilai perusahaan dan dianggap lebih mampu memberikan informasi untuk mendapatkan return saham yang diharapkan oleh investor dibandingkan dengan informasi sosial yang diungkapkan oleh perusahaan.The purpose of this study is to determine the negative effect of Corporate Social Responsibility disclosure (CSR disclosure of Earnings Response Coefficient (ERC. Multiple regressions were used to analyze the data. The samples were 150 companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2010. Based on the research, the result was the disclosures of Corporate Social Responsibility did not influence Earning Response Coefficient (ECR. It can be said that investors did not pay attention to social information that was disclosed in the company’s annual report as information that could affect investors in making investment decisions. Investor did not consider sosial information; they only consider profit information to assess the company value and their investment return

  5. Marianas Boat Fishing Cost Earnings Study 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent a cost-earnings study of the boat based fishing in the Mariana Archipelago fielded in 2011. Data collected include fisher classification, vessel...

  6. Earnings volatility and the role of cash flows in the capital markets: Empirical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Melita Charitou

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent global financial crisis brought to the forefront of the capital markets the importance of firm fundamentals and especially, the valuation role of cash flows. In this study, we examine the role of earnings and cash flows in two major capital markets, namely, USA and France. We hypothesize that the relationship between cash flows and security returns improves when earnings are transitory and this robustness is country specific. The dataset consists of more than 37,000 USA and French firm-year observations over an eight-year period. Multivariate statistical regression analysis is undertaken to test the major research hypotheses. Results indicate that when earnings are transitory (unstable, investors pay more attention to cash flows and less attention to earnings, a result indicating that investors penalize firms with unstable earnings. In summary, the evidence provided in this study supports that there are substantial differences in the way investors and financial analysts perceive financial information such as earnings and cash flows in France and USA. These results should be of great importance to the major stakeholders such as investors, creditors, financial analysts, especially after the recent global financial crisis and the collapse of giant organizations worldwide.

  7. An Empirical Examination of Ownership Structure, Earnings Management and Growth Opportunities in Mexican Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel San Martín Reyna

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the influence of ownership structure, board and leverage on the earnings management when companies either face, or do not face, profitable growth opportunities for a sample of 90 listed Mexican firms during the period 2005-2009. The results confirm the relevance of debt and board of directors in terms of earnings management by showing a positive relationship between earnings management and both board of directors and leverage in the presence of growth opportunities. In contrast, this relationship becomes negative when firms have no profitable investment projects. The results also demonstrate the relevance of controlling shareholders on earnings management under a growth opportunity setting.Therefore, our results show that ownership structure, composition and size of board and leverage play a dual role: reduce the earnings management when there are no investments projects, but impact positively in presence of growth opportunities.

  8. The Feminization of Poverty: Women, Work, and Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Diane

    1978-01-01

    Statistics are presented which show that women are accounting for an increasingly large proportion of the economically disadvantaged. Different sources of income (earned, public, and private transfer income) and the welfare system are discussed in terms of their roles in the perpetuation of female poverty. (Author/GC)

  9. THE IMPACT OF IFRS ADOPTION ON EARNINGS MANAGEMENT IN BANKING COMPANIES IN INDONESIA STOCK EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prima Santy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the IFRSadoption as a standard that can lead to a reduction of earnings management. The research aimed to give empirical evidence concerning the impact of the IFRS adoption on earnings management, and the test of the difference level of earnings management between before and after the IFRS adoption. The research scope focused on the implementation of IFRS adoption particularly in PSAK No. 50 and PSAK No. 55 (revised 2006 concerningfinancial instruments. The research objects were the banking companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange for 4 years (2008-2011, i.e. as many as 23 banks. Samples were taken by using the purposive sampling technique. The main variables in this research are IFRS and earnings management,and includes several control variable, among others are, size, financial leverage, market to book value and institutional investors. The data were analyzed usingmultiple regression analysis and different t-test analysis. The research result indicates that the IFRS adoption has not effect the decreaseon the earnings management.Among the four control variables, the variable institutional investor is found not to have theeffect on earnings management, whereas the other three variables haveeffect.The result of the different t-test analysis also indicates that statistically there is not significant difference on the level of the earnings management between before and after IFRS adoption. Thus, based on this study concluded that the adoption of IFRS still allow for the occurrence of earnings management.

  10. The Labor Market Integration of Immigrant Men and Women

    OpenAIRE

    Taryn Ann Galloway

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: Out of necessity, the earliest studies of immigrants' performance in the labor market in Western countries focused solely on men. However, as the employment rates of women in Western countries rise and approach those of men, questions about the labor market adjustments of immigrant women also become increasingly relevant. Furthermore, studies of earnings assimilation have typically analyzed only those individuals actually employed (full-time) in the labor market. Henc...

  11. The Part-Time Pay Penalty for Women in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Manning, Alan; Petrongolo, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Women in Britain who work part-time have, on average, hourly earnings about 25% less than that of women working full-time. This gap has widened greatly over the past 30 years. This paper tries to explain this part-time pay penalty. It shows that a sizeable part of the penalty can be explained by the differing characteristics pf FT and PT women. Inclusion of standard demographics halves the estimate of the pay penalty. But inclusion of occupation makes the pay penalty very small, suggesting th...

  12. Do Survey Data Estimate Earnings Inequality Correctly? Measurement Errors among Black and White Male Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, ChangHwan; Tamborini, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have considered how earnings inequality estimates may be affected by measurement error in self-reported earnings in surveys. Utilizing restricted-use data that links workers in the Survey of Income and Program Participation with their W-2 earnings records, we examine the effect of measurement error on estimates of racial earnings…

  13. Is There a Doctorate in the House? With Such a Significant Shortfall of African Americans with PH.D.s in Science, Engineering and Technology, More HBCUs Are Taking on the Challenge of Offering the Terminal Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kendra

    2004-01-01

    In the battle to increase the numbers of African American Ph.D.s in science, technology and engineering, the nation may just have a secret weapon: historically Black colleges and universities. The statement may sound improbable. After all, only a handful of the nation's HBCUs offer doctoral programs. And education has long been the field of choice…

  14. MEDIUM-TERM CHANGES IN THE STRUCTURE OF THE MONTHLY EARNINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion GHIZDEANU

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents a study of the labour market functionality through the employment degree and how much of the employment improvement is reflected in the wage revenues. The study is based on the analysis and forecast of the earnings structure by branches and regions and also by property forms, being structured in 4 chapters. Within the study the earning is analyzed starting from two reasons: first, the wage synthetically reflects the structural evolution of the labour market and, second, the wage conditions and influences the employment possibilities. An important part of the study is represented by the analysis of the correlation between employment and earnings, marking out some features. First, 2002-2006 represented the period with structural changes in employment, the wages evolution being independent of the economic context or of the labour market imbalances. Second, in regional and county profile the correlation between the employment structure and the evolution of the earnings is more lax than the national economy level. If for the regions the main explanation could be the structural homogeneity of the regional economies, at county level the determinant element is the economic gap. In the first years of the actual development cycle, even if the intercounty economic gaps have maintained or deepened, the improvement of the employment has adequately been reflected in the increase in the average wage revenues. The paper also presents some perspectives on the earnings structure, marking out the fact that until 2010 the gaps between regions – from the net average earnings point of view – will not significantly improve, but there will be created the conditions for a future decrease. This fact can be explained, on one hand, by the absorption of the community funds which will be more consistent after 2009 (it is about the project implementation, not the contract, and, on the other hand, because – in a first stage – the more developed

  15. The Effects of Unemployment on the Earnings of Young Australians

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Gray

    2000-01-01

    The high rates of youth unemployment experienced in a number of OECD economies has raised concerns about the effect of this on subsequent earnings. Using the Australian Youth Survey (AYS) a longitudinal survey of Australian youth, we estimate the effects of unemployment on subsequent hourly and weekly earnings. The estimates suggest that, when unobserved heterogeneity is taken into account, it is only long histories of unemployment which have a negative effect on hourly wages. On the other ha...

  16. The Balance Sheet As an Earnings Management Constraint (Case Study In Indonesia Manufacture Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Sudaryati

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research has the purpose to examine the balance sheet existence as an earnings management constraint. This research use the secondary which it is taken from the quarterly financial statement of manufacture companies listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX during 2008-2009 periods. This research used 68 manufacture companies as its sample. Then, the obtained data has regression analyzed by Generalized Ordered Logit Model. The Output of regression indicates that there is significant relation between net assets with the earnings surprise. The reporting earnings surprise smaller negative or larger positive decrease when the value of net asset is overstated. So, it can be concluded that balance sheet is as an earnings management constraint.

  17. On Campus with Women, Number 29, Winter 1981. [Employment, Education, Sex Discrimination, Health Services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of American Colleges, Washington, DC. Project on the Status and Education of Women.

    Developments concerning women in the workplace, the courts, and schools are reported. Among the issues related to employment are the following: female faculty members earn less in salary than males, despite receiving slightly higher raises than males; unemployment among women doctorates in the humanities is higher than that of males; age…

  18. The effects of financial risks on the relationship between earnings and stock returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Akhavi Babi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of financial risks on the relationship between earnings per share and stock returns. The statistical population of the study consisted of the companies accepted by Tehran Stock Exchange. According to the conditions for sampling, 65 companies were selected during a period of six years from 2008 to 2013 (i.e., 390 fiscal years, and four hypotheses were set forth to achieve the purposes of the study. The first hypothesis tried to assess the relationship between earnings per share and stock returns. The second, third, and fourth hypotheses investigated the significance of the effects of three financial risks, namely liquidity, credit, and solvency risks on the relationship between earnings per share and stock returns. The hypotheses of the study were tested using linear and multiple regressions. The findings of the study indicated that there was a positive and significant relationship between earnings per share and stock returns. In addition, the results proved that the credit and solvency risks had negative and significant effects on the relationship between earnings per share and stock returns, but the effect of liquidity risk on this relationship was not significant.

  19. Business Administration and Computer Science Degrees: Earnings, Job Security, and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Kamlesh; Uhlig, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the potential of business administration vs. computer science degrees in terms of earnings, job security, and job satisfaction. The paper focuses on earnings potential five years and ten years after the completion of business administration and computer science degrees. Moreover, the paper presents the income changes with…

  20. 76 FR 10944 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Tuesday...

  1. Career goals and expectations of men and women pharmacy residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, C M; Oliver, E J; Jeffrey, L P

    1982-11-01

    Personal and professional characteristics of men and women hospital pharmacy residents were studied to identify differences that could affect future hospital pharmacy practice. Residents in 111 ASHP-accredited pharmacy residency programs received a survey containing questions on demographic information, reasons for selecting a residency, areas of professional interest, postresidency career goals, responsibilities to home and family, and advantages and disadvantages associated with gender. Of 286 residents receiving questionnaires, 226 responded; the percentages of men and women responding corresponded to the ratio of men and women in hospital pharmacy residencies. While men and women expressed educational goals that were not significantly different, more men than women had earned or were in the process of earning advanced degrees. No significant differences were evident between men's and women's plans for marriage and children, but 73% of the women indicated that they would take time out from their practice to raise children, compared with only 9% of the men. The majority of residents did not think their gender affected them in their residency programs, but in professional interactions more men saw gender as an advantage and more women as a disadvantage. Significantly more than women aspired to be hospital pharmacy directors. The results suggest that men are obtaining advanced training closer to the time they graduate from pharmacy school and that in the future women competing for promotions may be older than men competing for comparable positions. Those planning pharmacy staffing should consider the needs of women, and men, who expect to take time out from their careers for family responsibilities and possibly seek part-time positions when they return to the work force.

  2. The Effects of Military Change-of-Station Moves on Spousal Earnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-02

    Career Advancement Accounts program, available to assist some Figure 1. Impact of PCS Moves on Military Spousal Earnings NOTES: The “working spouses...Spouses’ career earnings may be especially affected by permanent change-of-station (PCS) moves. Job-specific skills and knowledge gained while one is...Finally, the inherently disruptive nature of moving could have negative effects on productivity , thereby lowering wages. To date, our understanding of

  3. Career Paths for Physics Degree Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Patrick

    Physics degree holders have a diverse set of career opportunities open to them. So what are these opportunities? Where are they employed? How much do they earn? What skills will they need? Physics degrees make up a small proportion of the degrees conferred in the US but they play an important role in meeting workforce needs at many levels. This talk will give an overview of the employment outcomes of physics bachelors, masters and PhDs. It will discuss the diverse set fields they work in and the skills they use.

  4. Women's rights and access to water and sanitation in Delhi | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-04-24

    Apr 24, 2012 ... ... chores keeps women from earning wages or girls from going to school. ... The challenge is to motivate local governments to provide safe water and ... and filthy with excrement, and lacking both privacy and proper security.

  5. Is Economics a Good Major for Future Lawyers? Evidence from Earnings Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, John V.

    2016-01-01

    This study reports descriptive data on earnings differences for practicing lawyers by undergraduate major with a focus on economics majors. Some majors do much better than others. Economics majors tend to do very well in both median and mean earnings. Electrical engineering, accounting, finance, and some other majors also do relatively well. This…

  6. 26 CFR 1.312-15 - Effect of depreciation on earnings and profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of depreciation on earnings and profits... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Effects on Corporation § 1.312-15 Effect of depreciation on earnings and profits. (a) Depreciation for taxable years beginning after June 30, 1972—(1) In general...

  7. 76 FR 45006 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Monday, September 26, 2011, at 3 p.m...

  8. Analysts' earnings forecasts and international asset allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, Carel; Plantinga, Auke

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate whether financial analysts’ earnings forecasts are informative from the viewpoint of allocating investments across different stock markets. Therefore we develop a country forecast indicator reflecting the analysts’ prospects for specific stock markets. The

  9. The Role of Corporate Governance as a Leverage Moderating and Free Cash Flow on Earnings Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reni Yendrawati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available According to agency theory there were separation of function between principal and agent. This separation created different interest between principal and agent. This condition occurs because of the asymmetric information that agent more knew company information than principal. Therefore, it was interesting to study the actions of management.This research aimed to analyze the influence of leverage and free cash flow to earning management and the ability to analyze the influence corporate governance consisting of managerial ownership, institutional ownership, independent commissioner, and audit committee in influencing earnings management on the listed manufacturing companies in Indonesia Stock Exchange during years 2010-2014. The results showed that leverage significantly influence to earnings management and free cash flow significantly influence to earnings management moderating variables that influence the relationship of leverage to earnings management is managerial ownership, independent commissioner,audit committee, and moderating variables that influence the relationship of free cash flow to earning management was managerial ownership and institutional ownership.

  10. The Power of Numbers: Grades and Female Density in Influencing the Persistence of Women in Engineering Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stine, Michelle L.

    2010-01-01

    Female participation in engineering has never topped 20% nationally for the proportion of bachelor's degrees earned by women. Research on this topic, as well as related self-esteem literature, suggest that women may be more likely than men to leave engineering if they have unmet grade expectations. Additionally, the presence of more women in…

  11. Aplicação do earned value em projetos complexos - um estudo de caso na EMBRAER On the use of the earned value management system approach for complex projects in the brazilian aircraft industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Abdala Giacometti

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O gerenciamento do Earned Value vem obtendo aceitação crescente nas empresas e entre profissionais tais como gerentes de projetos e funcionais, devido à sua efetividade no controle dos resultados do projeto. Earned Value é definido como uma ferramenta de controle que permite avaliar simultaneamente de maneira quantitativa como se encontram os custos e prazos em uma data de controle, permitindo também prever a data de término e o valor gasto (VARGAS, 2005. Este artigo avalia a aplicabilidade do earned value como ferramenta de controle de projetos aeronáuticos na EMBRAER. Contribui também para a aplicação do earned value no controle de projetos complexos. Utilizam-se como técnicas de coleta de dados: entrevistas, observações e análise documental. Conclui-se que o earned value é utilizado apenas nos projetos da área de aviação de defesa, por ser uma exigência contratual. O uso do earned value nas áreas de programas executivos e comerciais restringe-se às fases de definição conjunta, projeto detalhado e certificação, pois o escopo do projeto é bem definido, o cronograma é detalhado e os custos são previstos e obtidos com maior acuidade. Nas demais fases de desenvolvimento do produto, o uso do earned value é restrito, devido principalmente às constantes alterações de escopo do produto e do projeto.Earned value management has been increasingly used by companies as well as by functional and project managers due to its effectiveness in controlling project results. It is defined as a control tool that enables a quantitative and simultaneous evaluation of the costs and process time within a pre-scheduled date as well as predicting the deadline and the total value spent (VARGAS, 2005.This study evaluates the earned value applicability as a tool to control aeronautical projects at EMBRAER, A Brazilian Aeronautical Company. It is also concerned with the application of earned value in the control of complex projects. The data

  12. Physics Teachers and Students: A Statistical and Historical Analysis of Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Amanda

    2009-10-01

    Historically, women have been denied an education comparable to that available to men. Since women have been allowed into institutions of higher learning, they have been studying and earning physics degrees. The aim of this poster is to discuss the statistical relationship between the number of women enrolled in university physics programs and the number of female physics faculty members. Special care has been given to examining the statistical data in the context of the social climate at the time that these women were teaching or pursuing their education.

  13. 76 FR 22171 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  14. 76 FR 32024 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  15. 75 FR 33894 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  16. 76 FR 2197 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee. AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  17. 76 FR 56879 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Monday, October 24, 2011, at 3 p.m. Eastern Time...

  18. 75 FR 7540 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  19. 76 FR 17995 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  20. 75 FR 18955 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee. AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  1. 76 FR 63716 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Monday, November 28, 2011, at 3 p.m. Eastern Time...

  2. 76 FR 6188 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Monday, March 28, 2011, at 2 p.m., Eastern...

  3. 75 FR 25316 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  4. Pengaruh Luas Ungkapan Sukarela dalam Laporan Tahunan terhadap Earnings Response Coefficient (ERC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harjanti Widiastuti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether voluntary corporate disclosure level published in annual report affects the relation between current stock return and contemporaneous annual earnings. The purpose of the study is to investigate whether the variances in corporate disclosure level published in annual report of companies listed on the Jakarta Stock Exchange (the JSX affects the value-relevance of earnings information proxied by earnings response coefficient (the ERC. This study is preliminary attempt to combine two research issues: the informativeness of earnings (ERC and the informativeness of disclosures, which have been separately investigated by previous studies. The findings are expected to give preliminary evidence about cross-sectional differences in current ERC associated with voluntary corporate disclosure level published in annual report. It is hypothesized that voluntary corporate disclosure level published in annual report has a negative effect on the ERC. To test the hypothesis, current stock returns are regressed against current earnings changes. The sample consists of 67 of annual reports of companies listed on the JSX as of December 31, 1995. The study finds evidence that voluntary corporate disclosure level published in annual report have a statistically positive effect on the ERC at 0.10 significant levels. This result remains consistent after controlling for other factors that have been shown to influence the earnings response coefficient. The result does not support the hypothesis that voluntary corporate disclosure level published in annual report has a negative effect on the ERC. The possible reason is that disclosures in annual report insufficiently reveal the information about companies’ future prospect. However, the result of sensitivity analysis using fundamental return model shows that voluntary corporate disclosure level published in annual report has a negative effect on the ERC, but not statistically significant.

  5. 25 CFR 115.710 - Does money in a trust account earn interest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does money in a trust account earn interest? 115.710 Section 115.710 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES TRUST... Interests § 115.710 Does money in a trust account earn interest? Yes, all money deposited in a trust account...

  6. Does Human Capital Investment Impact the Earning Mobility of the Near Poor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasik, Bradley

    2012-01-01

    This secondary analysis of the earning mobility of the near poor examined the impact of human capital investment on the earning mobility of the near poor between 2005 and 2009. The theory framing this study is Human Capital Theory (Shultz, 1961). Other demographic and socioeconomic variables were included in this study to further explore factors…

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF EARNING MANAGEMENT TO FIRM VALUE IN INDONESIA MANUFACTURING COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitha FILANDARI

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Firm value is one of the indicators in determining whether the company is in health state and deservesto invest in it. This makes the manager to act appropriately by performing earnings management practicesto increase the firm value but with the implementation of GCG it is expected to reduce the earningsmanagement practices. This study aimed to examine the effect of GCG mechanisms (independentcommissioner, managerial ownership, institutional ownership, and audit quality as moderating variablesin the relationship between earnings management and firm value. The object in this study is a manufacturingcompany listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange period in 2010-2014. This study uses purposive samplingmethod so that 31 companies were obtained as study sample. Data used in this study are secondary whichare financial statement and annual report. Data analysis in this study uses multiple linear regressionanalysis and Moderated Regression Analysis with SPSS 21. The results show that GCG mechanisms whichcan be moderating variable between earnings management and firm value are independent commissionerand audit qualities whereas managerial ownership and institutional ownership cannot moderate therelationship between earnings management and firm value.

  8. Board of Commisioner Duality Role, Governance and Earnings Management of Initial Public Offerings in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widi Prasetiawati

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Public firm is required to implement good corporate governance as assurance to reduce information asymmetry between firm and its stockholders. Corporate governance mechanism should be able to limit any improper actions of the firm’s management. This study investigates whether the duality role of the board affects earnings management practice of firms making initial public offering at Indonesian Stock Exchange. The study also examines other corporate governance mechanism factors, namely the number of board of commission-ners, the proportion of independent board of commissioners, size of firm, financial leverage, and profitability. Earnings management was measured using Cross-Sectional Modified Jones model. The study employs a total of 60 firms that went public from 2000 to 2006. The results show that duality status of board of commissioners positively and significantly affects earnings management in IPO firms. This could be interpreted that board of directors with duality role had a lower function in monitoring the firms’ performance so that management have opportunity to manage reported earnings. When board of commissioners have dual role, the level of earnings management is getting intense, and vice versa. Size of board of commissioners and profitability are positively related to earnings management.

  9. Military service and military vocational training effects on post-service earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Bolin, Phil Warren

    1980-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The influence of military service and military vocational training on post-service earnings was analyzed using the National Longitudinal Survey of young men (14-24 years of age in 1966) . When individuals were classified by their propensity to use training neither military service nor military vocational training was a significant determinant of post-service earnings. A disaggregation of the sample IQ revealed that m...

  10. The Effect of Cash Dividend, Retained Earnings, and Stock Price of Manufacturing Company Listed In Indonesia Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Margaretha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effect of cash dividends per share, retained earnings per share, earnings per share, and leverage on the stock price of manufacture industry in Indonesia from 2008-2012. Research used secondary data in which the source was obtained indirectly through an intermediary medium or data processed from literatures and reports associated with this research. Independent variables in this study (x are cash dividends per share, retained earnings per share, earnings per share, and leverage, while the dependent variable (y is stock price. The samples used were 23 companies with purposive sampling method. The empirical results of this study indicate that cash dividends per share, retained earnings per share, earnings per share, and leverage has significant effect on the stock price. It is therefore the higher stock price will attract investors to invest their money. Hence, companies and investors need to attend cash dividends per share, retained earnings per share, earnings per share, and leverage as factors that affect the increase or decrease of the stock price. 

  11. Voluntary Management Earnings Forecasts and Discretionary Accruals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramlich, Jeffrey; Sørensen, Ole Vagn

    2004-01-01

    This paper seeks to determine whether Danish managers exercise discretionary accruals to reach earnings forecast targets they voluntarily specify in conjunction with initial public offerings (IPOs). Because the Danish accounting and legal environment is more permissive than the US, we use Denmark...

  12. 75 FR 11998 - Open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Issue Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Issue Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Issue... Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Issue Committee will be held Tuesday, April 20, 2010 from 8 a.m. to...

  13. Income Smoothing and Earnings Informativeness : A matter of institutional characteristics or accounting standards?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Tudor (Alexandra)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractExecutive Summary This study investigates the level of income smoothing and its impact on the informativeness of earnings. The main contribution of this research is that as well IFRS as investor protection are considered to examine the association between income smoothing and earnings

  14. Hawaii Small Boat Cost-Earnings Data: 2007-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent a cost-earnings study of the Hawaii small boat fishery in 2007-2008. Data collected include fisher classification, vessel characteristics,...

  15. Hawaii Small Boat Cost-Earnings Data: 1995-1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent a cost-earnings study of the Hawaii small boat fishery in 1995-1996. Data collected include fisher classification, vessel characteristics,...

  16. Improving crop yields for Sahelian Women | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-07

    Jun 7, 2016 ... Less is more: Improving yields for Sahelian women with tiny dozes of fertilizer Farmers living in the semi-arid Sahel belt of West Africa are increasing the yields and income earned from their crops, thanks to a simple technique that combines small quantities of fertilizers (microdosing) with improved ...

  17. Networking Skills as a Career Development Practice: Lessons from the Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, M. G.; Kontak, R.; Holloway, T.; Marin-Spiotta, E.; Steiner, A. L.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Adams, A. S.; de Boer, A. M.; Staudt, A. C.; Fiore, A. M.

    2010-12-01

    Professional networking is often cited as an important component of scientific career development, yet there are few resources for early career scientists to develop and build networks. Personal networks can provide opportunities to learn about organizational culture and procedures, expectations, advancement opportunities, and best practices. They provide access to mentors and job placement opportunities, new scientific collaborations, speaker and conference invitations, increased scientific visibility, reduced isolation, and a stronger feeling of community. There is evidence in the literature that a sense of community positively affects the engagement and retention of underrepresented groups, including women, in science. Thus women scientists may particularly benefit from becoming part of a network. The Earth Science Women’s Network (ESWN) began in 2002 as an informal peer-to-peer mentoring initiative among a few recent Ph.D.s. The network has grown exponentially to include over 1000 women scientists across the globe. Surveys of our membership about ESWN report positive impacts on the careers of women in Earth sciences, particularly those in early career stages. Through ESWN, women share both professional and personal advice, establish research collaborations, communicate strategies on work/life balance, connect with women at various stages of their careers, and provide perspectives from cultures across the globe. We present lessons learned through the formal and informal activities promoted by ESWN in support of the career development of women Earth scientists.

  18. Management Earnings Forecasts as a Performance Target in Executive Compensation Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Shota Otomasa; Atsushi Shiiba; Akinobu Shuto

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates whether and how Japanese firms use management earnings forecasts as a performance target for determining executive cash compensation. Consistent with the implications of the principal-agent theory, we find that the sensitivity of executive cash compensation varies with the extent to which realized earnings exceed initial management forecasts. In particular, we find that, for a sample of Japanese firms comprising 14,899 firm-year observations from 2005 to 2012, the exec...

  19. The Influence of Higher Moments of Earnings Distributions on Career Decisions.

    OpenAIRE

    Flyer, Fredrick A

    1997-01-01

    A model where choice of occupation is sequential is applied to college graduates from the National Longitudinal Study of High School Class of 1972 to investigate how higher moments of occupational earnings distributions influence initial field of work. Individual specific life-cycle earnings projections that incorporate option values of occupational mobility are generated, and the relationship between these pay measures and choice of initial occupation is explored within a multinomial logit f...

  20. KEPEMILIKAN INSTITUSIONAL DAN KUALITAS AUDIT TERHADAP PENGUNGKAPAN INFORMASI DAN FUTURE EARNINGS RESPONSE COEFFICIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etty Murwaningsari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to analyze the direct effects of institutional ownership and audit qualitytowards future earnings response coefficient, as well as their indirect effects towards future earnings responsecoefficient through disclosure as intervening variable. This research used secondary data from manufacturingcompanies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX between 2002-2011. The number of samples used in thisresearch were 111companies. The method used in this research was Structure Equation Model (SEM processedusing AMOS 6. The results of this research demonstrated that institutional ownership and disclosure hadpositive significant effect while audit quality had negative significant effects towards future earnings responsecoefficient. On the other hand, institutional ownership had positive significant effect while audit quality hadnegative significant effects towards disclosure. Further testing proved that indirect effect was very weak.Control variable which had positive significant effect was profitability towards disclosure while leverage andlong term investment had negative significant towards future earnings response coefficient. Liquidity variableswere proven that they had no effect towards disclosure.

  1. The Dark Side of Valuation: Firms with No Earnings, No History and No Comparables

    OpenAIRE

    Aswath Damodaran

    1999-01-01

    In traditional valuation models, we begin by forecasting earnings and cash flows and discount these cash flows back at an appropriate discount rate to arrive at the value of a firm or asset. This task is simpler when valuing firms with positive earnings, a long history of performance and a large number of comparable firms. In this paper, we look at valuation when one or more of these conditions does not hold. We begin by looking ways of dealing with firms with negative earnings, and note that...

  2. Audit Committee Accounting Expert and Earnings Management with “Status” Audit Committee as Moderating Variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Suprianto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the effect of accounting expert of audit committee on earnings management. This research also assesses the role of audit committee on earnings management with audit committee status as moderating variable. The population is all of firm’s which listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange. Purposive sampling is used to collect data. Data used financial statements and annual report companies from Indonesia Stock Exchange website. Moderated regression analysis (MRA is used to analyze the hypothesis. The result shows that accounting expert of audit committee has negative effect on earnings management. Yet, variable of audit committee status cannot moderate the relationship between accounting expert of audit committee and earnings management in Indonesia.

  3. Internationalism, Empire and Peace in the Women Teacher, 1920-1939

    OpenAIRE

    Goodman, Joyce

    2017-01-01

    The vibrant political agenda that drove political and professional discussion in The Woman Teacher, the ‘official organ’ of the National Union of Women Teachers (NUWT)(1) was rooted in the Union’s demand for equality on the same terms as men (King 1987: 35). The Woman Teacher challenged the view that a right to earn a living had been won as long as posts were closed to women and the statute book was ‘littered up with restrictions which class women with non-adults’ and contested Virginia Woolf...

  4. CEO origin and accrual-based earnings management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuang, Y.F.; Qin, B.; Wielhouwer, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the influence of CEO origin on accrual-based earnings management and how these effects evolve over the CEO's tenure in office. Compared with CEOs promoted from within the company, CEOs recruited from outside have a stronger incentive to demonstrate their abilities in the initial

  5. 'Amal' as in 'Hope': An Argan Oil Cooperative is Changing Women's ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-11-01

    Nov 1, 2010 ... Today, I am earning an income and can send my children to school. ... 'Amal' as in 'Hope': An Argan Oil Cooperative is Changing Women's ... At the heart of the campaign is a research project supported by the International ...

  6. Paying for Prejudice: A Report on Midlife and Older Women in America's Labor Force. 1991 Mother's Day Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Christine L.; Koblenz, Esther

    Although midlife and older women comprise an increasing portion of the work force, gains in work force participation will not mean a decent living, security, or equal opportunity in the workplace of the future. Several factors influence the wage gap for older women: higher education does not mean higher earnings; women are less likely than men to…

  7. ACCRUAL DAN REAL EARNING MANAGEMENT DALAM MERESPON PENURUNAN TARIF PAJAK PENGHASILAN BADAN TAHUN 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setiadi Alim Lim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Research conducted by Guenther (1994 shows the behavior of management to conduct income decreasingearning management in the period of one year before the income tax rate reduction in order to obtain relief theburden of income tax paid. The research of Alim (2009 showed indications of income decreasing earningmanagement in the 2008 financial statements of business entities in Indonesia Stock Exchange responding toa decrease in income tax corporate tax-payers in 2009. This study aimed to investigate whether there is anindication of income decreasing earning management and also on the 2009 financial statements of businessentities in Indonesia Stock Exchange responding to reduced income tax rate for corporate tax-payers in 2010.To detect the presence of income decreasing earning management variables to discretionary accruals will beused to indicate the presence of accrual/accounting earnings management and abnormal variable cash flowsfrom operations and abnormal discretionary expenses that may indicate the presence of real earning management.The results showed an indication of income decreasing earning management is detected through avariable discretionary accruals and abnormal cash flow from operations but not found through variableabnormal discretionary expenses.

  8. Does Accrual Management Impair the Performance of Earnings-Based Valuation Models?

    OpenAIRE

    Lucie Courteau; Jennifer L. Kao; Yao Tian

    2013-01-01

    This study examines empirically how the presence of accrual management may affect firm valuation. We compare the performance of earnings-based and non-earnings-based valuation models, represented by Residual Income Model (RIM) and Discounted Cash Flow (DCF), respectively, based on the absolute percentage pricing and valuation errors for two subsets of US firms: “Suspect” firms that are likely to have engaged in accrual management and “Normal” firms matched on industry, year and size. Results ...

  9. Beneish M-score and detection of earnings management in Italian SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Corsi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Accounting literature on the reliability of financial information presents several mathematical models whose purpose is to identify the existence of values manipulations. The phenomenon is described as earnings management and presents a broad discussion concerning the search for suitable models to measure the distortions in values. In this respect, the present paper aims to compare the ability of two versions of the same mathematical model of classify the risk of earnings manipulation in a discriminant way.

  10. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-2 - Computation of net earnings from self-employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(a)-2 Computation of net earnings from self-employment. (a) General rule. In general, the gross income and... ascertaining his net earnings from self-employment, are to be determined by reference to the provisions of law...

  11. Economics of Education and Work Life Demand in Terms of Earnings and Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Belle Selene; Liitiäinen, Elia

    2014-01-01

    This article uses data from a major international survey to construct earnings functions in terms of learning outcomes and variables related to working life in different European countries. In order to complement the extended earnings regression model, the authors have used partial correlation analysis and the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to…

  12. Severe postwar malnutrition did not have a negative impact on the earnings and subsequent pensions of German men born in 1945-1948.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanussen, M; Weick, S; Scheffler, C

    2017-10-01

    Poverty has often been associated with malnutrition, stunted growth, impaired cognitive development and poor earnings. We studied whether these associations were found in German men born and raised shortly after World War II during severe and long-standing nationwide malnutrition. We analysed German old-age pension payments, as a rough measure of lifetime earnings, in German men born from 1932 to 1960 and compared the at-risk-of-poverty rates of German men born in 1945-1948 versus 1935-1938 and 1955-1958. Substantially fewer women worked during this period and their longer life expectancy makes their pension payments difficult to interpret. We therefore limited our analysis to men. Men born in the 1930s received the highest monthly old-age pensions and these declined slightly in men born from 1945 to 1948, indicating a minute impairment in work-related income in cohorts born shortly after the war. We also found that there was no evidence for increased at-risk-of-poverty rates in men born in 1945-1948 versus those born in 1935-1938 and in 1955-1958. Being born and raised following World War II was associated with a minute work and pension impairment that was not visible in the at-risk-of-poverty rates. These findings question statements associating early childhood nutrition and future lifetime earnings. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. ANALISIS PENGARUH PERUBAHAN EARNINGS DAN RISIKO PASAR TERHADAP STRUKTUR MODAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endi Sarwoko

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji perbedaan rata-rata struktur modal antar industri, menguji pengaruh perubahan earnings perusahaan terhadap struktur modal, dan menguji pengaruh risiko pasar dengan struktur modal perusahaan. Struktur modal dalam penelitian ini diproksikan dengan debt to equity ratio dan debt to total assets. Data diperoleh dari Pojok Bursa Efek Jakarta (BEJ Universitas Brawijaya, sampel sebanyak 40 perusahaan yang diambil secara Purposive dengan kriteria perusahaan-perusahaan tersebut aktif mencatatkan laporan keuangannya di BEJ dan aktif melakukan perdagangan saham selama 6 tahun terakhir. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa terdapat pengaruh terbalik antara perubahan earnings perusahaan terhadap D/E tetapi perubahan earnings ternyata tidak berpengaruh signifikan terhadap D/A. Risiko pasar tidak berpengaruh signifikan terhadap debt to equity, hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa ketika akan melakukan pembelian saham investor tidak mempertimbangkan risiko pasar. Sedangkan berdasarkan pengaruh terhadap D/A diperoleh hasil risiko pasar berpengaruh signifikan terhadap debt to total assets,  manajemen perusahaan sangat memperhatikan dampak risiko pasar dalam menentukan kebijakan struktur modal perusahaan, karena dalam memberikan pinjaman kreditur biasanya sangat mempertimbangkan aset yang dimiliki perusahaan didanai dari mana, hutang atau modal sendiri.

  14. CEO Origin and Accrual-Based Earnings Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuang, Y.; Qin, B.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the influence of CEO origin on accrual-based earnings management and how these effects evolve over the CEO’s tenure in office. Compared with CEOs promoted from within the company, CEOs recruited from outside have a stronger incentive to demonstrate their abilities in the initial

  15. Rising U.S. Earnings Inequality and Family Labor Supply: The Covariance Structure of Intrafamily Earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Dean R. Hyslop

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies the labor supply contributions to individual and family earnings inequality during the period of rising wage inequality in the early 1980's. Working couples have positively correlated labor market outcomes, which are almost entirely attributable to permanent factors. An intertemporal family labor supply model with this feature is used to estimate labor supply elasticities for husbands of 0.05, and wives of 0.40. This implies that labor supply explains little of the rising a...

  16. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE MECHANISMS AND EARNINGS MANAGEMENT: A STATE OF THE ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladu Alina Beattrice

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Extant research have for long identified that corporate governance has the potential to affect both financial performance and the opportunistic behavior of managers. Studies on the influence of corporate governance mechanisms on firm performance do not often assess the possibility that reported earnings can be misrepresented by managers with the scope of achieving various objectives. This paper examines the relationship between corporate governance mechanisms and earnings management practices. According to prior empirical studies in the field, corporate governance can reduce the extent of manipulative practices and increase the quality of financial reporting. As stated above, this study examined prior research investigating different corporate governance mechanisms that can have negative impact on earnings management practices. In this regard the legal system and the effects of takeover were examined as external mechanisms of corporate governance on manipulative behavior of managers. Internal mechanisms of corporate governance were also assessed. Board independence was found to enhance certain monitoring behaviors of managers while an audit committee can oversee the internal control for financial reporting and the quality of financial information. This paper contributes to corporate governance literature by providing detailed reviews of different corporate governance mechanisms on the most documented practice of creative accounting: earnings management. Limits of the current research are explored as well as the scope for future research.

  17. A Tough Year Ahead for Women at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Families across the country are facing hard times. With inflation rising much faster than earnings, unemployment stubbornly high and the government about to embark on the most severe programme of fiscal austerity since the Second World War, living standards are being squeezed and women are on the frontline. With 80 billion British pounds set to be…

  18. Job Search and Earnings Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    David Turchick

    2014-01-01

    Measures of social mobility provide an extra dimension for testing job search models. The present note tests the dynamic model in [Acemoglu, D., 1999. Changes in unemployment and wage inequality: an alternative theory and some evidence. American Economic Review 89, 1259-1278] with respect to Fields’ mobility-as-an-equalizer-of-longer-term-incomes index. The 1980s in the U.S. were not only a period of raising inequality, but also one of longer-term earnings becoming even more unequal than shor...

  19. Earnings Inequality and the Intersectionality of Gender and Ethnicity in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case of Tanzanian Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Juliet U. Elu; Linda Loubert

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates quantile earnings functions with data from the 2004 Tanzanian Household Worker Survey to determine if ethnicity and gender--being female--matters per se and across the distribution of earnings. We find that in the Tanzanian manufacturing sector gender intersects with ethnicity to condition earnings and the return to schooling across the distribution of earnings. This suggests that in Sub-Saharan Africa--at least in Tanzania--labor market policies aimed at eradicating gend...

  20. The Role of Analysts as Gatekeepers: Enhancing Transparency and Curbing Earnings Management in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lopo Martinez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship of analysts’ coverage, forecasting errors and earnings management. It corroborates the role of analysts as gatekeepers by finding that analysts enhance transparency and reduce the scope of earnings management. To identify analysts’ coverage we used the I/B/E/S, from where we also obtained information on the consensus projections of analysts for listed Brazilian companies. The results indicated a negative correlation between the number of analysts covering firms and the magnitude of their discretionary accruals in absolute terms, indicating that more scrutiny inhibits earnings management. We also found a negative correlation between analysts’ coverage and forecasting errors. Multivariate regressions showed statistically significant results in the same sense. Therefore, market analysts, despite the severe criticism they receive from the specialized press, actually have a beneficial effect on corporate governance by monitoring managers and inhibiting earnings management.

  1. Annual Earnings Announcements and Market Reaction: The Influence of Screening Criteria for Thin Trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Peder Fredslund; Thinggaard, Frank; Lønroth, Helle L.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of an event study of the Danish stock market price reactions to annual earnings announcements in the period 1993-1997, with a dual purpose. The primary purpose is to find out how market reactions vary with different screening criteria for thin trading. Our findings...... on this point suggest that the Danish stock market, although small, seems to have different segments of shares in relation to earnings announcements. Applying different screening criteria we find differences both in terms of how quickly the market reacts to earnings announcements and the relative quality...... purpose of our study is briefly to compare our findings with those of a similar study for the period 1971-1981. The aim is to find indications of developments in the Danish market's reactions to earnings announcements since that study. We find distinct indications that the Danish stock market in some...

  2. 26 CFR 1.611-4 - Depletion as a factor in computing earnings and profits for dividend purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Depletion as a factor in computing earnings and....611-4 Depletion as a factor in computing earnings and profits for dividend purposes. For rules with respect to computation of earnings and profits where depletion is a factor in the case of corporations...

  3. Pension-Spiking, Free-Riding, and the Effects of Pension Reform on Teachers’ Earnings*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Maria D.

    2017-01-01

    In many states, local school districts are responsible for setting the earnings that determines the size of pensions, but are not required to make contributions to cover the resulting state pension fund liabilities. In this paper, I document evidence that this intergovernmental incentive inherent in public sector defined benefit pension systems distorts the amount and timing of income for public school teachers. I use the introduction of a policy that required experience-rating on earnings increases above a certain limit in a differences-in-differences framework to identify whether districts are willing to pay the full costs of their earnings promises. Because of the design of the policy, overall earnings of teachers near retirement did not change. Instead, districts that previously provided one-time pay increases shifted to smaller increments spread out over several years. In addition, some districts that did not practice pension-spiking prior to the reform appear to begin providing payments up to the new, lower limit, perhaps due to increased salience of the fiscal incentive. Therefore, the policy was ineffective at decreasing pension costs. PMID:28983134

  4. Women's Autonomy and Skilled Attendance During Pregnancy and Delivery in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kc, Situ; Neupane, Subas

    2016-06-01

    Objectives This study aims to explore the association between women's autonomy and skilled attendance during pregnancy and delivery in Nepal. Methods We adopt data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS, 2011). We include only married women who gave birth in the 5 years preceding the survey (N = 4148). Women's autonomy was assessed on the basis of four indicators of decision making: healthcare, visiting friends or relatives, household purchases and spending earned money. Each indicator was dichotomized (yes/no) and then summarized into a single variable to measure overall autonomy. Next, we measured health attendance (skilled vs. unskilled) during antenatal and delivery care. The association between women's autonomy and skilled attendance was analysed using a logistic regression model. Results Most women had a medium (40 %) and high (35 %) level of overall autonomy. The proportion of women accessing skilled providers during antenatal and delivery care was 51 and 36 %. Women with autonomy in healthcare, visiting friends or relatives, making household purchases and spending money earned were associated with a higher likelihood of receiving care from skilled providers during antenatal care and delivery. An elevated probability of access to skilled attendance during antenatal (aOR 1.33; 95 % CI 1.10-1.59) and delivery care (aOR 1.38; 95 % CI 1.12-1.70) was reported among women with higher levels of overall autonomy. Conclusion Women's autonomy was significantly associated with the maternal health care utilization by skilled attendants. This study will provide insights for policy makers to develop strategies in improving maternal health.

  5. The Effect of Cash Dividend, Retained Earnings, and Stock Price of Manufacturing Company Listed In Indonesia Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Farah Margaretha

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the effect of cash dividends per share, retained earnings per share, earnings per share, and leverage on the stock price of manufacture industry in Indonesia from 2008-2012. Research used secondary data in which the source was obtained indirectly through an intermediary medium or data processed from literatures and reports associated with this research. Independent variables in this study (x) are cash dividends per share, retained earnings per share, earnings per ...

  6. 26 CFR 1.1248-2 - Earnings and profits attributable to a block of stock in simple cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Gains and Losses § 1.1248-2 Earnings and profits attributable to a block of stock in simple cases. (a... United States shall not be excluded under this subdivision from earnings and profits accumulated for a... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Earnings and profits attributable to a block of...

  7. Multilevel Analysis of the Effects of Antidiscrimination Policies on Earnings by Sexual Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klawitter, Marieka

    2011-01-01

    This study uses the 2000 U.S. Census data to assess the impact of antidiscrimination policies for sexual orientation on earnings for gays and lesbians. Using a multilevel model allows estimation of the effects of state and local policies on earnings and of variation in the effects of sexual orientation across local labor markets. The results…

  8. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-1 - Definition of net earnings from self-employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of net earnings from self-employment... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(a)-1 Definition of net earnings from self-employment. (a) Subject to the special rules set forth in §§ 1.1402(a)-3...

  9. Education and Synthetic Work-Life Earnings Estimates. American Community Survey Reports. ACS-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Tiffany; Kominski, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between education and earnings is a long-analyzed topic of study. Generally, there is a strong belief that achievement of higher levels of education is a well established path to better jobs and better earnings. This report provides one view of the economic value of educational attainment by producing an estimate of the amount of…

  10. Accounting for Changes in Labor Force Participation of Married Women: The Case of the U.S. since 1959

    OpenAIRE

    Bar, Michael; Leukhina, Oksana

    2005-01-01

    Using a model of family decision-making with home production and individual heterogeneity, we quantitatively investigate the role of changes in several aspects of the joint earnings distribution of husbands and wives (gender earnings gap, gender-specific inequality and assortativeness of matching) and the decline in prices of home appliances in accounting for the dramatic rise in labor force participation of married women since 1959. The implications of the factors examined are tested agai...

  11. Women Physicists Speak: The 2001 International Study of Women in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivie, Rachel; Czujko, Roman; Stowe, Katie

    2002-09-01

    The Working Group on Women in Physics of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) subcontracted with the Statistical Research Center of the American Institute of Physics (AIP) to conduct an international study on women in physics. This study had two parts. First, we conducted a benchmarking study to identify reliable sources and collect data on the representation of women in physics in as many IUPAP member countries as possible. Second, we conducted an international survey of individual women physicists. The survey addressed issues related to both education and employment. On the education side, we asked about experiences and critical incidents from secondary school through the highest degree earned. On the employment side, we asked about how the respondents' careers had evolved and their self-assessment of how well their careers had progressed. In addition, the questionnaire also addressed issues that cut across education and employment, such as the impact of marriage and children, the factors that contributed the most toward the success they had achieved to date, and suggestions for what could be done to improve the situation of women physicists.

  12. Women's and men's career choices in astronomy and astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivie, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    In order to understand gender differences in persistence and attrition from astronomy and physics, the Longitudinal Study of Astronomy Graduate Students follows a cohort of people who were graduate students in astronomy or astrophysics during 2006-07. The first survey was conducted during 2007-08 and the second during 2012-13, when many of the respondents had left graduate school and were working. For respondents who had completed PhDs and were not postdocs, we tested the effects of four major concepts on attrition from physics and astronomy. These concepts included: the imposter syndrome, mentoring and advising during graduate school, work-family balance, and being female. We hypothesized that women would be more likely than men to work outside of astronomy and physics. However, results from the study show that there is no direct independent effect of being female on attrition. Rather, women are more likely to leave astronomy because they are more likely than men to (1) experience difficulties related to the need to find a job for a spouse or partner in the same geographical area, and (2) report less than satisfactory advising during graduate school. This research identifies specific areas of concern that can be addressed by the scientific community to increase the retention of all people, but especially women, in astronomy, physics, and related fields. Funded by National Science Foundation AST-1347723.

  13. Do Managers Manipulate Earnings Prior to Management Buyouts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, Y.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: To address the question as to whether managers manipulate accounting numbers downwards prior to management buyouts (MBOs), we implement an industry-adjusted buyout-specific approach and receive an affirmative answer. In UK buyout companies, negative earnings manipulation (understating the

  14. An investigate on relationship between moral hazard and corporate governance with earning forecast quality in the Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed ahmad Khalifehsultani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Moral hazard and corporate governance are important factors in determining market transparency. The proposed study of this paper investigates the effects of these two factors on earning quality as well as forecasted earning in Tehran Stock Exchange. We have selected some stocks based on some predefined circumstances and extracted some necessary information over the period of 2005-2010. Based on these criteria, the information of 132 firms are qualified for the proposed study of this paper using 792 years/firm from 23 industries. There are two hypotheses associated with this study. According to the first hypothesis, we investigate whether there is a relationship between board of director independency and quality of forecasted earning. In the second hypothesis, we look to find out whether there is a relationship between the size of board of directors and quality of forecasted earning. We have used three models and using ordinary regression analysis tried to test the models. Based on the results of the survey, we have concluded that moral hazard does not influence forecasted earning, significantly. However, the results of this survey concluded that there is a meaningful relationship between forecasted earning and quality of earning. In terms of members of editorial board, quality of earning has a reverse relationship with absolute deviation of forecasted earning. In other words, as the number of editorial board increases, we may expect a more precise earning estimation. The other observation is that non-board member's duties have better motivation to contribute to firms and could make some changes.

  15. Does Book Values and Earnings Affect Equity Values of Corporate Entities in Nigeria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edirin Jeroh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: In this study, we appraised the effect which book values and earnings would have on equity values of quoted corporate entities in Nigeria. In view of this, we obtained secondary data from the published reports of 105 firms selected for this study. The study period was 10 years (2005–2014. Methodology/methods: The regression technique was employed to scrutinize the data sourced from sampled entities’ annual accounts. Additionally, the Breusch-Pagan/ Cook-Weisberg Test was employed along with the VIF Test to verify whether the sourced data were normally distributed or whether there was the presence or otherwise of multicollinearity amid the explanatory (independent variables. Scientific aim: This study aims to empirically establish with available statistics, the extent in which variations in equity values of quoted corporate entities in Nigeria could be accounted for by changes in book values and earnings. Findings: Results from our analysis revealed inter alia, that book value per share and earnings jointly had significant and positive effect on equity values of Nigerian quoted firms. Conclusion: Since earnings was significant in attempting to ascertain equity values of Nigerian firms, it was thus recommend that regulatory bodies like the Financial Reporting Council of Nigeria among others should develop enforceable strategies and sanctions that would discourage and eliminate all forms of earnings manipulation that may distort the information reported in the financial statements of quoted corporate entities in Nigeria

  16. Household income and earnings losses among 6,396 persons with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Frederick; Michaud, Kaleb; Choi, Hyon K; Williams, Rhys

    2005-10-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) causes disability and reduced productivity. There are no large quantitative studies of earnings and productivity losses in patients with clinical RA, and no studies of household income losses. We describe methods for obtaining earnings and household income losses that are applicable to working as well as nonworking RA patients, and we perform such studies using these methods. We estimated cross-sectional expected annual earnings and household income losses in 6,649 persons with RA from Current Populations Survey (CPS) and O*NET (Occupational Information Network) data, and we estimated expected household income and earnings losses based on demographic characteristics after adjustment to Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 (SF-36) population norms (internal method). Workplace productivity was measured by the Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ). 27.9% of patients aged Productivity losses were 6% based on work limitations identified by the WLQ. Household income loss (percentage loss) including transfer payments was USD 6,287 (11.8%) for all patients, USD 4,247 (6.9%) for employed patients, and USD 7,374 (14.8%) for nonworking patients. Among nonworking nondisabled patients aged status, education, age, ethnicity, and marital status. Income loss is predicted by the HAQ, HAQ-II, Modified HAQ, and SF-36.

  17. Proposing a model for limiting earning management practices: The case of Jordanian listed firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dea’a Al-Deen Al-Sraheen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The key objective of this paper is to propose a model for limiting earning management practices among manufacturing firms in Jordan. In order to do so, two independent variables are examined in this paper, namely, political influence and CEO Duality. Discretionary total accruals according to the modified Jones model (1991 was used in order to estimate the level of earnings management, which is the dependent variable. The sample comprised 64 companies for the financial year 2013. The results suggest that a positive and significant association existed among both political influence and CEO duality and earning management. This means that both independent variables exacerbated earnings management. Further research is required to determine what urgent legislation should be developed to restrict the presence of members who have political connections on the board of directors. Also, the need exists for the separation of roles of Chairman and CEO to ensure the independence and complying with the requirements of corporate governance.

  18. Cash Flows versus Accounting Earnings in Managing Exchange Rate Exposures: An Empirical Study of Non-Financial Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom

    Financial theory argues that companies should manage cash flows and not accounting earnings when they hedge exchange rate exposures. Still, empirical evidence shows that a number of companies choose to manage accounting earnings. This empirical study of Danish, non-financial companies finds (1......) that when hedging the majority of companies expect to add value to their company by avoiding financial distress (reduce down side risk), (2) that when hedging managing cash flows versus managing accounting earnings as a first priority splits the companies in two, (3) a lack of difference (except...... for profitability) in company characteristics between the group of companies that manage cash flows versus the group of companies that manage accounting earnings as a first priority. The decision in real business on whether to manage cash flows or accounting earnings when hedging exchange rate exposures seems...

  19. Earnings management and financial reporting fraud: can external auditors spot the difference?

    OpenAIRE

    Kassem, Rasha

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to increase external auditors’ knowledge about earnings management and help them spot the difference between earnings management and financial reporting fraud. A thorough literature review was undertaken to achieve the paper’s aim. The secondary data used in this paper was obtained from different databases like Ebscohost, Business Search Premier, Academic Search Premier, Emerlad, Sciencedirect, and Jstor. The current paper suggests a new approach and way of thinking f...

  20. Keterkaitan Antara Nilai Etika Dengan Akuntansi Keuangan (Tinjauan Atas Praktik Earnings Management)

    OpenAIRE

    Widodo, H.Y. Sri

    2009-01-01

    Started in 1990s, Accounting practices introduced many terms like: Creative Accounting, Aggressive Accounting, Earnings Management and Financial Shenanigans. Creative Accounting has a positive meaning in terms of language, that is why so many people accepted and justified this Accounting practice as a good idea. Many Academicians argued that creative accounting is permissible as long as it is not contrary to the rule. In this article we will evaluate Earnings Management from th...

  1. Using an inflation-augmented price-earnings ratio to guide tactical asset allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Saville

    2011-01-01

    Asset allocation plays a central role in determining investment outcomes, and available evidence shows that portfolio results can be enhanced through tactical asset allocation if managers use the simple price-earnings ratio as a predictor of equity returns. Recently, some international evidence has emerged which shows that, by augmenting the price-earnings metric with information about consumer price inflation, further enhancements can be achieved in tactical asset allocation.  This study rev...

  2. Using historic earnings to value hydro energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robson, I.A.; Whittington, H.W.

    1993-01-01

    This article briefly presents a technique for assigning a value to the water held in and removed from the hydro reservoir. Using historic earnings as the basis for a series of equations, it aims to give engineers trading energy a reliable means of placing a value on what is effectively a ''free'' resource. (Author)

  3. Age, wage, and job placement: older women's experiences entering the retail sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank-Miller, Ellen G; Lambert, Susan J; Henly, Julia R

    2015-01-01

    Older women seeking employment often find opportunities limited to low-wage jobs, such as those in retail. We report findings about job placement and starting wages for hourly workers hired at a women's apparel retailer from August 2006 to December 2009. We examine competing hypotheses regarding the role of age in explaining women's job placement and starting wages. Although newly hired women age 55+ earn higher wages and are placed in higher-quality jobs than the youngest women (ages 18-22), they are less likely to be placed in better-quality jobs than their midlife counterparts. Overall, wage differences are largely explained by job quality.

  4. 26 CFR 1.956-1 - Shareholder's pro rata share of a controlled foreign corporation's increase in earnings invested...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... earnings invested in United States property by A Corporation attributable to the stock acquired by M... foreign corporation's increase in earnings invested in United States property. 1.956-1 Section 1.956-1... foreign corporation's increase in earnings invested in United States property. (a) In general. Section 956...

  5. Degree Progress of Women Doctoral Students: Factors that Constrain, Facilitate, and Differentiate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Michelle A.; Ford, Martin E.; Thompson, Candace M.

    2004-01-01

    Using survey and qualitative data, this study identified emergent themes that remain consistent across or differentiate among reports of women earning their doctoral degree relatively quickly ("early-finishers") and those taking considerably longer ("late-finishers"). Emergent themes included commitment to timely degree completion, faculty…

  6. Under-performance of listed companies? Real earnings management and M&A: Chinese empirical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziqiao Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine whether acquiring firms attempt to adopt real earnings management strategy to upward reported earnings in the period of M&A announcement and provide an explanation for the underperformance of post-M&A in share payment M&A affairs occurring in China’s capital market from 2008-2010. Design/methodology/approach: The author uses Roychowdhury’s(2006 methodology to measure the magnitude of real earnings management of acquiring firms in stock for stock M&A by exploiting financial date from 2006 to 2011. The methodology includes three models, which are cash ?ow from operations, production costs and discretionary expenditures, respectively. Findings: It was found that firms using stock as a financing medium exhibit significant negative abnormal cash flows and abnormal discretionary expenses yet abnormal production costs significantly positive during the current period of M&A. Moreover, it was also documented that acquiring firms use real activities manipulation to overstate earnings for the purpose of improving market confidence. Finally, a negative association was found between REM and under-performance of post-M&A. Research limitations/implications: To some extent, these results explain the puzzle of performance decline over the following period of post-M&A. Meanwhile, our study adds to prior literature that capital market pressures induce acquiring firms inflate reported earnings by manipulating real activities in stock-financed M&A occurring in China’s capital market. Practical implications: The author’s result imply that investors, analysts and regulators cannot ignore more undetectable opportunism behaviors underlying reported earnings than accrual-based earnings management and the impact on the performance of post-M&A when they use financial statements to evaluate acquiring firms. Social implications: Our study plays important role in making public policies. Furthermore, it is necessary to

  7. Earnings management behavior of the initial public offering (IPO) firms during pre-IPO, IPO, and post-IPO years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Benali, Meryem

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the pattern of earnings management around the IPO year in Morocco during the period between 2001 and 2007. Our results show that earnings management reaches its maximum level during the year of an IPO followed earnings management during the pre-IPO years and the post-IPO years...

  8. Japan's Teachers Earn Tenure on Day One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ruth; Asanuma, Shigeru; Mori, Hisayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Teachers in Japan earn tenure on their first day of employment--not after two years of experience based on evaluations of teaching performance or student test scores. This is almost too good to be true. If tenure is so easy to attain, how do the Japanese make sure their teachers, especially novice teachers hired with little teaching experience,…

  9. Cost Earnings Survey of NWHI Bottomfish Fleets (1993): Obsolete

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study collected cost-earnings information for the 12 vessels which had reported bottomfish landings from Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 1993 in order to...

  10. TESTING OF PECKING ORDER THEORY THROUGH THE RELATIONSHIP: EARNINGS, CAPITAL STRUCTURE, DIVIDEND POLICY, AND FIRM’S VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmono Harmono

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to test the pecking order theory through its correlation among earnings dimension, capitalstructure, dividend policy and firm’s value perspective. By loading the correlation between dimension one toanother, it indicated that management behavior tended to retained earnings accumulation or to debt collectionin financing the operation of the firm. The pecking order theory were tested when the management behaviortended to retained earnings in accumulating sources of the fund equity rather than borrowing liabilities fromcreditors. Therefore, rationally if the capital structure was optimum, management tended to external financinguntil any trade off between earnings and debt financing. Based on the testing hypothesis, it indicated that therole of capital structure dimension had significance as intervening variable between earnings dimension andfirm’s value. On the other hand, the dividend policy had no significance to become intervening variable.Empirically, it could be concluded that the management behavior in Indonesia tended to leverage rather thanretained earnings accumulation in supporting the pecking order theory. Furthermore, the variable had the roleto differentiate the characteristic of industries represented by the capital structure dimension, especially, debtto assets and debt to equity ratio.

  11. A Study on the Relationship of Earnings and Cash Flows: Evidence of Finance Sector in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Salehi; Mirsohrab Seyedghorbani

    2013-01-01

    The present study is investigating the quality of annual accounting earnings in banking firms that have been listed in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) and it evaluates the most important information of accounting that is earnings and cash flows. The study also intends to investigate the relationship between earnings and cash flows regarding their relationship with the expected return of stocks and the extent of informing in the analysis of the inevitable return of stocks. The analyses of data dur...

  12. Evaluation of Earning Performance of Female Owned Leather ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tools for data analyses were descriptive statistics, income statement and an econometric model involving Ordinary Least Square regression analyses. The earning performance evaluation indicated that the enterprises have performed creditably considering the value of the gross margin analysis which is high and gross ...

  13. Goodwill Impairment as a Tool for Earnings Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D. Lemans (Jamilla)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractExecutive summary This research examines whether or not goodwill impairments are being used by Dutch listed firms to manipulate earnings. Two different regression models are used for this purpose which include firm-specific factors as well as proxies for big bath accounting, income

  14. Consequences of Partner Incarceration for Women's Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Angela

    2017-10-01

    Research has documented the limited opportunities men have to earn income while in prison and the barriers to securing employment and decent wages upon release. However, little research has considered the relationship between men's incarceration and the employment of the women in their lives. Economic theory suggests that family members of incarcerated individuals may attempt to smooth income fluctuation resulting from incarceration by increasing their labor supply. This study used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study ( N = 3,780) to investigate how men's incarceration is associated with the number of hours their female partners work as well as variation in this association. Results showed that, on average, women's hours of work were not significantly impacted by the incarceration of their partners. However, there was a positive relationship between partner incarceration and employment among more advantaged groups of women (e.g., married women, white women).

  15. Medical Expenditures and Earnings Losses Among US Adults With Arthritis in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Louise B; Cisternas, Miriam G; Pasta, David J; Helmick, Charles G; Yelin, Edward H

    2018-06-01

    We estimated the economic impact of arthritis using 2013 US Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data. We calculated arthritis-attributable and all-cause medical expenditures for adults age ≥18 years and arthritis-attributable earnings losses among those ages 18-64 years who had ever worked. We calculated arthritis-attributable costs using multistage regression-based methods, and conducted sensitivity analyses to estimate costs for 2 other arthritis definitions in MEPS. In 2013, estimated total national arthritis-attributable medical expenditures were $139.8 billion (range $135.9-$157.5 billion). Across expenditure categories, ambulatory care expenditures accounted for nearly half of arthritis-attributable expenditures. All-cause expenditures among adults with arthritis represented 50% of the $1.2 trillion national medical expenditures among all US adults in MEPS. Estimated total national arthritis-attributable earning losses were $163.7 billion (range $163.7-$170.0 billion). The percentage with arthritis who worked in the past year was 7.2 percentage points lower than those without arthritis (76.8% [95% confidence interval (95% CI)] 75.0-78.6 and 84.0% [95% CI 82.5-85.5], respectively, adjusted for sociodemographics and chronic conditions). Total arthritis-attributable medical expenditures and earnings losses were $303.5 billion (range $303.5-$326.9 billion). Total national arthritis-attributable medical care expenditures and earnings losses among adults with arthritis were $303.5 billion in 2013. High arthritis-attributable medical expenditures might be reduced by greater efforts to reduce pain and improve function. The high earnings losses were largely attributable to the substantially lower prevalence of working among those with arthritis compared to those without, signaling the need for interventions that keep people with arthritis in the workforce. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.

  16. Developments in the production of economics PhDs at four research-intensive universities in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip de Jager

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a national drive to increase PhD production, yet we know little about how this imperative takes shape within different disciplines. We therefore set out to explore recent developments and the current status of the PhD in economics at four South African research-intensive universities. A data set of all economics PhDs produced in these commerce faculties during the period 2008-2014 was analysed to determine whether the departments of economics responded to the call for increased doctoral production, and the role the PhD by publication might have played in the process. How an increase in quantity might influence doctoral education in the respective academic departments was also considered by supplementing the quantitative data with perspectives from heads of department at the four institutions. The notable increase in doctoral production over the time period studied shows that national and international trends have influenced doctoral education in economics departments within South African research-intensive universities. Increased usage of the PhD by publication has implications for policy and pedagogical practice within these departments, especially as there seems to be limited available supervisory capacity. Other changes in departmental practices, such as the entrenchment of a research culture and the promotion of collaborative research amongst students and staff, also contributed to maintain quality in doctoral education.

  17. 26 CFR 1.857-7 - Earnings and profits of a real estate investment trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Earnings and profits of a real estate investment... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.857-7 Earnings and profits of a real estate investment trust. (a) Any real estate investment trust whether or not such trust...

  18. 25 CFR 115.713 - When does money in a trust account start earning interest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When does money in a trust account start earning interest? 115.713 Section 115.713 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL... and Interests § 115.713 When does money in a trust account start earning interest? Funds must remain...

  19. Earnings Management and Corporate Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Uyagu; Alexander Olawumi Dabor

    2017-01-01

    This study lies at the heart of the issue of reliability of financial statements. Reliability is the accountant’s terminology for integrity of financial statements. This study focused on the impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on earnings management in the Nigerian manufacturing sectors. The study is motivated by the paucity of research on subject matter in manufacturing sub-sector in Nigeria. The study employed the ordinary least square multivariate regression technique. A sample of fi...

  20. Two-Sample Two-Stage Least Squares (TSTSLS estimates of earnings mobility: how consistent are they?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jerrim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Academics and policymakers have shown great interest in cross-national comparisons of intergenerational earnings mobility. However, producing consistent and comparable estimates of earnings mobility is not a trivial task. In most countries researchers are unable to observe earnings information for two generations. They are thus forced to rely upon imputed data from different surveys instead. This paper builds upon previous work by considering the consistency of the intergenerational correlation (ρ as well as the elasticity (β, how this changes when using a range of different instrumental (imputer variables, and highlighting an important but infrequently discussed measurement issue. Our key finding is that, while TSTSLS estimates of β and ρ are both likely to be inconsistent, the magnitude of this problem is much greater for the former than it is for the latter. We conclude by offering advice on estimating earnings mobility using this methodology.

  1. The role of discretionary accruals in earnings management: Evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Maranjory

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Earnings management via discretionary accruals is a manager's instrument for changing stock holders’ expectations. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of discretionary accruals in the earnings management of Iranian firms. There are two hypotheses associated with this study on the relationship between income smoothness and discretionary accruals and the proposed study is implemented on selected firms from Tehran Stock Exchange. The result of the first hypothesis indicates the relationship between earnings smoothness and discretionary accruals variables. It means that discretionary accruals (DA leads to the converse relationship among discretionary accruals variation and current and future cash flow. The result of the second hypothesis indicates that the firms with high variation in Iran utilize more discretionary accruals compared with the firms with lower variation.

  2. Heterogeneity in earnings quality between different classes of companies after IFRS adoption: evidence from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Black

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper aims to investigate the existence of heterogeneity in earnings quality between different classes of companies after the adoption of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS. IFRS adoption is generally associated with an increase in the quality of financial statements. However, companies within the same country are likely to have different economic incentives regarding the disclosure of information. Thus, treating companies equally, without considering the related economic incentives, could contaminate earnings quality investigations. The case of Brazil is analyzed, which is a country classified as code-law, in which tax laws determined accounting practice and in which IFRS adoption is mandatory. First, Brazilian companies listed on the São Paulo Stock, Commodities, and Futures Exchange (BM&FBOVESPA were separated into two classes: companies issuing American Depositary Receipts (ADRs before IFRS adoption and companies that did not issue ADRs until the adoption of IFRS. Then, this second class of companies was grouped, using cluster analysis, into two different subclasses according to economic incentives. Based on the groups identified, the quality of accounting earnings is tested for each class of the companies before and after IFRS adoption. This paper uses timely recognition of economic events, value relevance of net income, and earnings management as proxies for the quality of accounting earnings. The results indicate that a particular class of companies began showing conditional conservatism, value relevance of net income, and lower earnings management after IFRS adoption. On the other hand, these results were not found for the two other classes of companies.

  3. Management decisions based on the measurement of enterprise performance through “Earnings per share“ indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Bogdan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Earnings per share indicator does not provide though the possibility to compare all the enterprises which compute it due to the difficulties in interpreting the differences noticed from one enterprise to another, differences which can result from the different number of shares issued by each of them and from the different categories of shares issued. The accounting policy of IASB regarding the determination and interpretation of earnings per share of the enterprise is implemented through IAS 33. The main objective of our paper has in view the description and exemplification of the computing model of the Earnings per share indicator.

  4. Conservatism Accountancy, Profit Persistence and Systematic Risk Towards The Earnings Responses Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Agustina Basuki

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to understand the influence of investor reaction towards profit that measured by the earning response coefficient with the variable of conservatism accountancy, persistence of profit and the systematic risk at the company, which have high market capitalization and listed in the LQ 45 index.  Population in the research are companies, which are listed in the LQ 45 index from the period of 2011 to 2015 that have complete financial information, and have financial notation in the form of Rupiah and excluded from the banking sector. The analysis method that being used is multiple linier regressions analysis and the result shows that conservatism accountancy partially significant affecting the Earning Response Coefficient. It shows that there is an investor reaction towards companies in the Index LQ 45, which applies conservatism accountancy in gaining profit.  Profit persistence and the systematic risk is not significantly affecting earnings response coefficient.

  5. Impact of the corporate governance characteristics and ownership on earnings quality of the Islamic private banks in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khodaei Valahzaghard

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates corporate governance and ownership effects on earning quality in Iranian private banks. The study uses the information of 12 private banks from year 2005 to 2010 using regression analysis based on panel data. Among different factors, the effect of big five shareholder are considered to be significant and positive on earning quality. In addition, the effect of one variable regression test reveals that institutional ownership has positive impact on earning quality. However, the impacts of other variables including percentage of ownership concentration, the size of board of directors, reliance on debt, logarithm of sum of assets, return of assets, logarithm of operating cash flow on earning quality are not meaningful. The result of this survey indicates that institutional ownership plays an important role earning quality simply because institutions normally have the access on professionals to control management.

  6. Can "Some College" Help Reduce Future Earnings Inequality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitterman, Daniel P.; Moulton, Jeremy G.; Bono-Lunn, Dillan; Chrisco, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the policy debate over "college for all" versus "college for some" in the United States and analyzes the relationship between "some college" (as a formal education attainment category) and earnings. Our evidence confirms--using data from the American Community Survey (ACS), the Panel Study on…

  7. A risk augmented mincer earnings equation? Taking stock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, J.

    2009-01-01

    We survey the literature on the Risk Augmented Mincer equation that seeks to estimate the compensation for uncertainty in the future wage to be earned after completing an education. There is wide empirical support for the predicted positive effect of wage variance and the negative effect of wage

  8. A risk augmented Mincer earnings equation? Taking stock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, J.

    2011-01-01

    We survey the literature on the Risk Augmented Mincer equation that seeks to estimate the compensation for uncertainty in the future wage to be earned after completing an education. There is wide empirical support for the predicted positive effect of wage variance and the negative effect of wage

  9. Timing of Earnings and Capital Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Miglo, Anton

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows that asymmetric information about the timing of earnings can affect corporate capital structure. It sheds some new light on two following questions: why may profitable firms be interested in issuing equity, and why does debt not necessarily signal a firm quality. These issues seem to be puzzling from the classical pecking-order theory or signalling theory point of view. The paper also contributes to the analysis of the link between debt-equity choice and subsequent performanc...

  10. FAIR VALUE ACCOUNTING AND EARNINGS MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Pei-Hui Hsu; Youan (Robert) Lin

    2016-01-01

    Many have argued that measuring financial instruments at fair value might not reflect firms’ financial condition. Prior study finds that managers manipulate the “disclosure” of fair value measurement (Song et al. 2010). In this study, we attempt to provide evidence regarding manager’s incentive to manipulate the disclosure of fair value measurements by examining whether the disclosure of less relevant fair value measurement is related to the odds of earnings management. We find that firms ...

  11. The income and property of women in the agriculture and tourism sectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, M.M.M.

    2003-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the task of earning an income and amassing property has shifted from the level of the household to that of its individual members. This also applies to agriculture and tourism-based family businesses in rural areas. The consequences of individualisation may be different for women

  12. Does managerial behavior of managing earnings mitigate the relationship between corporate governance and firm value? Evidence from an emerging market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian Sajid Nazir

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between corporate governance and managerial choices for value creation is a topic of continuing interest for researchers. One of most significant managerial decisions that affect value is Discretionary Earnings Management (DEM which is the judgmental adjustments in firm's reported accounting earnings by managers to upsurge firm value temporarily. Effective corporate governance structure to control this opportunistic behavior of mangers can presumably make accounting earnings more reliable and more informative for the stakeholders and hence, increase firm value. Based on 1944 firm year observations for listed firms in Pakistan, this study aims at to analyze the role of corporate governance in enhancing firm value along with the moderating role of DEM using models proposed by Kasznik (1999 and Beatty, Ke, & Petroni (2002 for detecting earnings management practices of managers. The results report that corporate governance significantly and positively influences firm value confirming the positive role of corporate governance in mitigating agency problem and enhancing the firm value. Moreover, corporate governance mechanisms may mitigate the managers’ opportunistic behavior of manipulating the reported earnings. Furthermore, the results report that the behavior of managers is opportunistic towards managing earnings and they are destroying the current and subsequent firm value by manipulating the reported accounting earning. Finally, this opportunistic behavior of managers to manipulate earnings is negatively moderating the well-established positive relationship of corporate governance and firm value. Keywords: Corporate governance, Firm value, Discretionary earnings management, Opportunistic behavior, Kasznik model, Moderating effect

  13. Executive Women and the Myth of Having It All.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewlett, Sylvia Ann

    2002-01-01

    A survey of the top 10% of high-earning women ages 28-55 found that only 60% of the older group are married; 29-34% work over 50 hours per week; at least one-third are childless; the situation appears to be worsening for younger generations. Even with supportive company policies, attitudes and job pressures in corporate culture are constraining…

  14. Underneath It All: Gender Role Identification and Women Chemists' Career Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunert, Megan L.; Bodner, George M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes results from a study on the career choices of women earning doctorates in chemistry in the United States. Presented here are findings related to the participants' identification with traditional female gender roles and expectations for behavior in the male-dominated field of chemistry. Underlying a career decision-making model…

  15. The impact of credit ratings and CEOs’ work experience on earnings management and post-issue performance of U.S. IPOs

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Hang Minh

    2016-01-01

    The IPO market is characterised by a high level of information asymmetry; thus, self-interested managers have strong incentives to overstate earnings during the IPO to inflate stock prices. Prior literature has provided evidence of earnings manipulation by managers around IPOs. If managers opportunitically manipulate earnings in the IPO year, the reported earnings will not be sustainable, and the IPO firms will exhibit negative abnormal stock returns in subsequent periods due to investors’ do...

  16. Graduating to a Pay Gap: The Earnings of Women and Men One Year after College Graduation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Christianne; Hill, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Women are paid significantly less than men are in nearly every occupation. Because pay equity affects women and their families in all walks of life, it is not surprising that many women consider the issue important. For more than 130 years, the American Association of University Women (AAUW) has advocated for gender equity in education and the…

  17. 26 CFR 1.312-6 - Earnings and profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... exclude from earnings and profits that portion of any premium which is unearned under the provisions of section 832(b)(4) and which is segregated accordingly in the unearned premium reserve. (b) Among the items... items includible in gross income under section 61 or corresponding provisions of prior revenue acts...

  18. How Working Time Reduction Affects Employment and Earnings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos Raposo, P.M.; van Ours, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    December 1, 1996 Portugal introduced a new law on working hours which gradually reduced the standard workweek from 44 hours to 40 hours. We study how this mandatory working hours reduction affected employment and earnings of workers involved. We find for workers who were affected by the new law that

  19. Is There a Penalty for Becoming a Woman? Is There a Premium for Becoming a Man? Evidence from a Sample of Transsexual Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Geijtenbeek, Lydia; Plug, Erik

    2015-01-01

    We study the earnings of transsexuals using Dutch administrative labor force data. First, we compare transsexuals to other women and men, and find that transsexuals earn more than women and less than men. Second, we compare transsexuals before and after transition using worker fixed effects models, and find a fall in earnings for men who become women and a smaller rise (if any) in earnings for women who become men. These earnings patterns, which hold for annual as well as hourly earnings, are...

  20. Does stock price synchronicity effect information content of reported earnings? Evidence from the MENA region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Farooq

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents the effect of stock price synchronicity on the value relevance of reported earnings in the MENA region during the period between 2009 and 2013. Our results show that the information content of reported earnings increases with increase in stock price synchronicity. We document higher impact of earnings on returns for firms with higher stock price synchronicity. We argue that firms with high synchronicity have better information environment. As a result, these firms disclose information that is of high quality. We also show that information conveyed through stock price synchronicity is more important than information conveyed through traditional governance mechanisms

  1. 26 CFR 1.312-7 - Effect on earnings and profits of gain or loss realized after February 28, 1913.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in determining invested capital; and (2) The computation of earnings and profits of the corporation... stock in the hands of Corporation R for purposes of computing earnings and profits, however, will be... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect on earnings and profits of gain or loss...

  2. Estimating the Effect of Personality on Male-Female Earnings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Mueller; E.J.S. Plug (Erik)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper uses the Five-Factor Model of personality structure as an organizing framework to explore the effects of personality on earnings. Using data from a longitudinal survey of American high school graduates, we find that extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism

  3. Earnings Management and CSR Disclosure. Family vs. Non-Family Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Gavana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Building on Institutional theory and Signaling theory, integrated with the socioemotional wealth (SEW approach, we studied the effect of earnings management (EM practices on a firm’s Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR disclosure behavior. In so doing, we analyzed a sample of 226 non-financial, family and non-family listed firms for the period, 2006–2015. Our results suggest that family firms, in instances of downward earnings management, are more prone to diverting attention from these practices by means of CSR disclosure, compared to non-family firms, although the level of family ownership exerts a moderating effect. Moreover, we found that a firm’s visibility, in terms of size, significantly enhances this behavior and that the effect is higher for family firms.

  4. Evaluation of Building Projects Using Earned Value Technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates building construction projects using the Earned Value Analysis technique, the Experimental Approach, and Value Concept Analysis. The aim was to compare the cost incurred for an identified amount of work done on a project with the cost budgeted for the same work. The results were used to calculate ...

  5. Earnings quality and P/E ratio: Evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ghodrati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the impacts of earnings quality criteria on the ratio of price to earnings per share (P/E on 88 accepted companies in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE over the period 2007- 2012. The results indicate that there was a positive and significant relationship between the P/E ratio and cash dividend. There is also a positive and significant relationship between P/E ratio as dependent variable and the gross profit ratio to sales. On the other hand, there is a significant reverse relationship between P/E ratio and the profit variability. However, no significant relationship exists between P/E as dependent variable and deferrals (accruals variable.

  6. Is women's human capital valued more by markets than by planners?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Münich, Daniel; Švejnar, Jan; Terrell, K.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 2 (2005), s. 278-299 ISSN 0147-5967 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA403/03/0340 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : women * earnings * markets Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.086, year: 2005 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jce.2005.03.009

  7. Discretionary Actions in Measuring Derivatives as a Mechanism for Earnings Management in Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alves Dantas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper has the purpose of identifying whether Brazilian banks use discretionary accounting choices when recognizing and measuring derivatives for practicing earnings management and which are the determinants of this practice. Using a two-stage model to segregate the discretionary part in the estimated fair value of derivatives and based on information from the third quarter of 2002 to the fourth quarter of 2010, the empirical results confirm the reversing nature of these discretionary actions, show that banks utilize this type of action as a mechanism for earnings smoothing, and disclose that this practice is more common in private institutions, smaller in asset size and with lower capitalization. The evidence advances with respect to the previous literature, which have identified the use of derivatives in practicing earnings management by banks, but have not associated this practice to discretionary actions by the management.

  8. Labor Market Institutions and the Dispersion of Wage Earnings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda, W.; Checchi, D.; Atkinson, A.B.; Bourguignon, F.

    2015-01-01

    Considering the contribution of the distribution of individual wages and earnings to that of household incomes we find two separate literatures that should be brought together, and bring “new institutions” into play. Growing female employment, rising dual-earnership and part-time employment

  9. Audit firm rotation, audit firm tenure and earnings conservatism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, S.T.; Georgakopoulos, G.; Sotiropoulos, I.; Vasileiou, K.Z.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to contribute to the debate around the possibility of mandating audit firm rotation. Specifically, it examines conservatism as an attribute of earnings quality, which has not attracted particular attention in the auditor rotation research. Applying regression analyses on a sample,

  10. Earnings and Financial Compensation from Social Security Systems Correlate Strongly with Disability for Multiple Sclerosis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavaliunas, Andrius; Wiberg, Michael; Tinghög, Petter; Glaser, Anna; Gyllensten, Hanna; Alexanderson, Kristina; Hillert, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients earn lower incomes and receive higher benefits. However, there is limited knowledge of how this is correlated with their disability. To elucidate sources and levels of income among MS patients with different disability, assessed with the Expanded Disability Status Scale. A total of 7929 MS patients aged 21-64 years and living in Sweden in 2010 were identified for this cross-sectional study. Descriptive statistics, logistic and truncated linear regression models were used to estimate differences between MS patients regarding earnings, disability pension, sickness absence, disability allowance, unemployment compensation, and social assistance. The average level of earnings was ten times lower and the average level of health- related benefits was four times higher when comparing MS patients with severe and mild disability. MS patients with severe disability had on average SEK 166,931 less annual income from earnings and SEK 54,534 more income from benefits compared to those with mild disability. The combined average income for MS patients was 35% lower when comparing patients in the same groups. The adjusted risk ratio for having earnings among MS patients with severe disability compared to the patients with mild disability was 0.33 (95% CI 0.29-0.39), while the risk ratio for having benefits was 1.93 (95% CI 1.90-1.94). Disease progression affects the financial situation of MS patients considerably. Correlations between higher disability and patient income were observed, suggesting that earnings and benefits could be used as measures of MS progression and proxies of disability.

  11. Why should women get less? Evidence on the gender pay gap from multifactorial survey experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auspurg, K.; Hinz, T.; Sauer, C.G.

    2017-01-01

    Gender pay gaps likely persist in Western societies because both men and women consider somewhat lower earnings for female employees than for otherwise similar male employees to be fair. Two different theoretical approaches explain "legitimate" wage gaps: same-gender referent theory and reward

  12. 75 FR 4140 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION... Tax Credit Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public... Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Wednesday, February 24, 2010, at 1 p...

  13. American Samoa Small Boat and Spear Cost-Earnings Data: 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent a cost-earnings study of the American Samoa small boat and spear fishery in 2015. Data collected include fisher classification, vessel...

  14. Do Women Really Face Wage Discrimination on the Labour Market? An Analysis Using Intra-household Specialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Hedija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to estimate the gender pay gap, cleansed at least partially of the effect of intra-household specialization on productivity. The estimate is based on EU-SILC data for 19 member countries of the European Union. We use an estimate of the average treatment effect on the treated, supplemented by a matching procedure to estimate the unexplained part of the gender pay gap and use a subsample of employees earning more than their partners, thus minimizing the impact of child- and family-care on the gender pay gap. We conclude that the unexplained gender pay gap amounts approximately 10 percent working to the disadvantage of women. If we assume that the dominant role in family- and child-care is taken up by the partner earnings a lower wage, then this difference could neither be explained by differences in the observed personal and company characteristics nor by the dominant role of women in care for the household and children and could actually be due to wage discrimination against women.

  15. Women's status and child well-being: a state-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenen, Karestan C; Lincoln, Alisa; Appleton, Allison

    2006-12-01

    We conducted an ecologic analysis of the relation between women's status and child well-being in the 50 United States. State-level women's status was assessed via four composite indices: women's political participation, economic autonomy, employment and earnings, and reproductive rights. Child well-being was measured via five outcomes: percentage of low birthweight babies, infant mortality, teen mortality, high school dropout rate, and teen birth rate. Higher state-level women's status on all indicators was associated with significantly better state-level child well-being in unadjusted analyses. Several associations remained significant after adjusting for income inequality and state racial composition. Women's political participation was associated with a significantly lower percentage of low birthweight babies (peconomic and social autonomy for women was associated with better child outcomes on all measures (ppolitical, economic, and social status. Women's status is an important aspect of children's social context which may impact their well-being. Multi-level analyses of the association between state-level women's status and child well-being are needed.

  16. Hit Twice? Danish Evidence on the Double-Negative Effect on the Earnings of Immigrant Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael; Smith, Nina

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate whether there is a double-negative effect on the wages of immigrant women in Denmark stemming from a negative effect from both gender and foreign country of origin. We estimate separate wage equations for Danes and a number of immigrant groups correcting for sample s...... selection and individual specific effects. Based on a Danish panel of register data, we find that all women are affected by a substantial gender discrimination in wages, but only Pakistani women experience a double-negative effect.......In this paper, we investigate whether there is a double-negative effect on the wages of immigrant women in Denmark stemming from a negative effect from both gender and foreign country of origin. We estimate separate wage equations for Danes and a number of immigrant groups correcting for sample...

  17. Hit Twice? Danish Evidence on the Double-Negative Effect on the Earnings of Immigrant Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael; Smith, Nina

    In this paper, we investigate whether there is a double-negative effect on the wages of immigrant women in Denmark stemming from a negative effect from both gender and foreign country of origin. We estimate separate wage equations for Danes and a number of immigrant groups correcting for sample s...... selection and individual specific effects. Based on a Danish panel of register data, we find that all women are affected by a substantial gender discrimination in wages, but only Pakistani women experience a double-negative effect.......In this paper, we investigate whether there is a double-negative effect on the wages of immigrant women in Denmark stemming from a negative effect from both gender and foreign country of origin. We estimate separate wage equations for Danes and a number of immigrant groups correcting for sample...

  18. When does the tone of earnings press releases matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boudt, Kris; Thewissen, James; Torsin, Wouter

    2018-01-01

    The tone of a firm's financial disclosure is increasingly used as a variable in panel data regressions to predict future performance and explain investors’ reaction at earnings announcement. We investigate when tone is informative, and argue that the informativeness of tone increases with the

  19. 75 FR 47349 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Wednesday, September 22, 2010, at 1 p.m. Eastern Time...

  20. Dividend Per Share, Retained Earnings, Book Value And Total Debt On Stock Price: Approximation Valuation Model Dividend Per Share, Retained Earnings, Book Value, dan Total Debt terhadap Harga Saham: Pendekatan Valuation Model.

    OpenAIRE

    khikmah, Khoirul

    2011-01-01

    This study examines to dividend per share, retained earnings, book valueand total debt on stock price: approximation valuation model. Data in this studyare manufacture firms listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2005 – 2008. Linearregression analysis used to analysis this data. Result of regression analysis findsthat dividend per share, retained earnings, book value and total debt on stock pricehave significant effect to stock price. Dividend per share and book value havesignificant effect in...