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Sample records for women attempting vaginal

  1. Outcomes in women attempting vaginal birth after caesarean section ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A successful vaginal delivery was associated with lower NICU admissions and higher APGAR scores in the neonate than those delivered by caesarean section but there was no statistically significant difference between the groups for APGAR scores <7. There were 3 cases of uterine rupture discovered at caesarean section ...

  2. Attempted operative vaginal delivery vs repeat cesarean in the second stage among women undergoing a trial of labor after cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Moeun; Roy, Archana; Grobman, William A

    2017-04-01

    It is not well-characterized whether attempting operative vaginal delivery is a safe and effective alternative among women who undergo a trial of labor after cesarean delivery who are unable to complete second-stage labor with a spontaneous vaginal delivery. The purpose of this study was to compare maternal and neonatal outcomes that are associated with attempted operative vaginal delivery with those that are associated with second-stage repeat cesarean delivery without an operative vaginal delivery attempt among women who undergo a trial of labor after cesarean delivery. This is a retrospective secondary analysis of data from Cesarean Registry of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network. Women who underwent a trial of labor after cesarean delivery who were at least 36 weeks gestation were eligible for analysis if they had a live, singleton, nonanomalous gestation in cephalic presentation and reached second-stage labor (defined as complete cervical dilation) with a fetal station of at least +2. The data for women who had an attempted operative vaginal delivery with either forceps or vacuum were compared with those of women who underwent second stage repeat cesarean delivery without operative vaginal delivery attempt. Outcomes of maternal and neonatal complications were compared between groups with bivariable and multivariable analyses. Of 1230 women whose cases were eligible for analysis, 945 women (76.8%) had an attempted operative vaginal delivery. Of those who underwent attempted operative vaginal delivery, 914 women (96.7%) achieved a vaginal delivery. Women who attempted operative vaginal delivery had a lower mean body mass index (30.4±6.0 vs 31.8±5.9 kg/m2; P=.001) and gestational age (39.5±1.3 vs 39.8±1.2 weeks; P=.012) at delivery and were more likely to be of non-Hispanic black race (30.0% vs 22.1%; P=.002), to have had a previous vaginal delivery (34.9% vs 20

  3. Supporting Women Planning a Vaginal Breech Birth: An International Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovska, Karolina; Watts, Nicole P; Catling, Christine; Bisits, Andrew; Homer, Caroline S E

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of women who planned a vaginal breech birth. An online survey was developed consisting of questions regarding women's experiences surrounding planned vaginal breech birth. The survey was distributed between April 2014 and January 2015 to closed membership Facebook groups that had a consumer focus on vaginal breech birth. In total, 204 unique responses to the survey were obtained from women who had sought the option of a vaginal breech birth in a previous pregnancy. Most women (80.8%) stated that they were happy with the birth choices they made, and a significant proportion (89.4%) would attempt a vaginal breech birth in subsequent pregnancies. Less than half of women were formally referred to a clinician skilled in vaginal breech birth when their baby was diagnosed breech (41.8%), while the remainder sourced a clinician themselves. Half of the women felt supported by their care provider (56.7%) and less than half (42.3%) felt supported by family and friends. The women who responded to this international survey sought the option of a vaginal breech birth, were subsequently happy with this decision, and would attempt a vaginal breech birth in their next pregnancy. Access to vaginal breech birth is important for some women; however, this choice may be challenging to achieve. Consistent information and support from clinicians is important to assist decision-making. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Attempted and Successful Vacuum-Assisted Vaginal Delivery by Prepregnancy Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Sebastian Z; Waring, Molly E; Leung, Katherine; Amir, Nili S; Bannon, Annika L; Moore Simas, Tiffany A

    2017-02-01

    To examine rates of attempted and successful vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery by prepregnancy body mass index (BMI). We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 2,084 women with singleton gestations needing operative delivery assistance and vacuum-eligible (fully dilated, +2 station or greater, 34 weeks of gestation or greater) using 2006-2014 inpatient records. Prepregnancy BMI was categorized as underweight (less than 18.5), normal weight (18.5 to less than 25), overweight (25 to less than 30), or obese (30 or greater). Logistic regression models estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of attempted and successful vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery by prepregnancy BMI adjusted for age, race, marital status, parity, diabetes, labor induction-augmentation, episiotomy, gestational age, and neonatal birth weight. Thirty-nine percent of women requiring delivery assistance and eligible for a vacuum were overweight or obese, 79% had vacuum attempts, and 95.3% of attempted vacuum-assisted vaginal deliveries were successful. Compared with women who were normal weight prepregnancy (82.8%), women who were overweight or obese were less likely to have vacuum attempted (75.8%, OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.53-0.96 and 71.2%, OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.39-0.74, respectively). Among women with attempted vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery, successful delivery did not differ by prepregnancy BMI (92.6%, OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.21-1.37 for underweight; 94.5%, OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.57-2.00 for overweight; 96.3%, OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.51-2.33 for obese compared with 95.6% among normal-weight women). Among women in need of operative delivery assistance, prepregnancy obesity was associated with lower likelihood of attempted vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery but, if attempted, success rates were similar to rates among normal-weight women. With significant morbidity of second-stage cesarean delivery in obese women, research should examine whether vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery may be appropriate for

  5. Use of vaginal estrogen in Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meaidi, Amani; Goukasian, Irina; Lidegaard, Oejvind

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We know little about the use of vaginal estrogen in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. We aimed to assess the prevalence of vaginal estrogen use in Denmark. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was designed as a nationwide cross-sectional study of all Danish women aged 40-79 years......, living in Denmark during the period 2007-2013. The Danish Prescription Register delivered data permitting us to assess the prevalence, age and regional geographical belonging of women purchasing prescribed vaginal estradiol. The number of women using over-the-counter vaginal estriol products...... was estimated from sale statistics from the same register. RESULTS: In 2013, 10.2% of all Danish women between 40 and 79 years of age used vaginal estradiol. The prevalence of women using this type of vaginal estrogen increased from 8.5% in year 2007 to 10.2% in 2013. The use peaked at 16.5% in women aged 60...

  6. Decreased beta-carotene levels in exfoliated vaginal epithelial cells in women with vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhail, M S; Palan, P R; Basu, J; Anyaegbunam, A; Romney, S L

    1994-10-01

    Women are more susceptible to vaginal candidiasis when the host immune response is suppressed. The antioxidant nutrient beta-carotene is postulated to possess immunoenhancing properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate beta-carotene concentrations in exfoliated vaginal epithelial (EVE) cells in women with vaginal candidiasis. Beta-carotene levels in EVE cells, collected by a saline lavage technique from 22 women with vaginal candidiasis and 20 normal controls, were analyzed. The diagnosis of vaginal candidiasis was established by the presence of pruritus, white cheesy vaginal discharge, and a positive potassium hydroxide preparation. Beta-carotene levels were assayed using high pressure liquid chromatography. Vaginal cell concentrations of beta-carotene were significantly decreased in women with vaginal candidiasis (P < 0.001). Decreased beta-carotene levels, and possibly other antioxidants, may alter the local immune response resulting in disturbances in the vaginal flora, overgrowth of candida, and the development of vaginal candidiasis.

  7. Vaginitis: How Many Women Are Affected/at Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About 3% of women of childbearing age have trichomoniasis. 4 Many women with vaginal infections have no ... a yeast infection. 15 to 20 women have trichomoniasis. Who gets vaginitis and who is at risk? ...

  8. Vaginal plethysmography in women with dyspareunia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouda, JC; Hartman, Petra M; Bakker, Riksta M; Bakker, JO; van de Wiel, HBM; Schultz, WCMW

    We investigated by means of vaginal plethysmography the extent to which the genital reactions of women with dyspareunia (N = 18) differed from those of women without dyspareunia (N = 16) during sexual arousal. In addition, we used questionnaires to investigate whether the genital reaction was

  9. Women's Intention to Prevent Vesico Vaginal Fistula Recurrence in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The study purpose was to determine the association between intention to prevent Vesico-Vaginal Fistula recurrence and knowledge of the risk factors of Vesico Vaginal Fistula recurrence, attitude towards Vesico Vaginal Fistula prevention and self esteem among women with Vesico-Vaginal Fistula in two repair ...

  10. Variety of Candida in Women with Abnormal Vaginal Discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Guevara Duncan, José; Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Daniel A. Carrión" Facultad de Medicina Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú; Béjar, Vilma; Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Daniel A. Carrión" Facultad de Medicina Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú; Cáceres, Alfredo; Hospital Arzobispo Loayza Lima, Perú; Valencia, Esther; Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Daniel A. Carrión" Facultad de Medicina Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Vaginal discharge and related aymptoms are frequent complaints among young women. The aim of this study was to describe Candida species isolated from vaginal discharge samples, as well as the relationship between Candida species and some of these symptoms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A survey of consecutive patients presenting with vaginal discharge in the course of normal consultations was conducted at the Hospital Loayza. One hundred women with vaginal discharge were surveyed, with ma...

  11. Prevalence of Vaginal Candidiasis among Pregnant Women with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Pregnancy represents a risk factor in the occurrence of vaginal candidiasis. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and clinical features associated with abnormal vaginal discharge and C. albicans infection in pregnant women. METHODS: High vaginal swab samples and data on epidemiological ...

  12. Unexpected premalignant gynecological lesions in women undergoing vaginal hysterectomy for utero-vaginal prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assem A.M. Elbiaa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to estimate the incidence of unexpected premalignant gynecological lesions in women undergoing vaginal hysterectomy for utero-vaginal prolapse. Material and methods : Eighty women with asymptomatic utero-vaginal prolapse were included in this prospective study for vaginal hysterectomy after preoperative preparation and after written informed consent. Women included in this study were screened preoperatively by high vaginal swab, Pap smear, endometrial biopsy and trans-vaginal ultrasound. Surgically removed uteri and ovaries were sent for histopathological examination. Results of histopathological examination as gold standard were compared with conventional gynecological screening methods. Results : Histopathological examination of surgically removed uteri and ovaries after vaginal hysterectomy for uterovaginal prolapse showed abnormal findings in 61.25% (49/80 of studied cases (10 chronic cervicitis; 20 cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia-1 [CIN-1]; 5 CIN-2; 2 CIN-3; 10 simple endometrial hyperplasia without atypia and 2 simple serous ovarian cyst. Also, histopathological examination showed premalignant changes in 33.75% (27/80 of studied cases (20 CIN-1; 5 CIN-2 and 2 CIN-3, which mean 50% sensitivity of pre-operative Pap smear to detect premalignant cervical changes. Conclusions : Asymptomatic women with utero-vaginal prolapse may have associated premalignant lesions which may not be detected by conventional screening methods, and this should be explained preoperatively for women undergoing surgery, especially if conservative management was considered.

  13. Frequency Distribution Candidal Vaginitis in Women Referred to Health Centers in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Fattahi Bafghi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The vaginal flora is a dynamic ecosystem that can be easily altered. Although, there are four causes of vaginal discharges which cover almost 95% of vaginaitis. Candidal Vaginaitis is an infection of the vagina’s mucous membranes by Candida albicans (CA. Present study attempted to Candidal Vaginitis in women referred to health centers in Yazd and the role of innate & cell-mediated immunity against Candidal Vaginitis. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted from September 2011 to September 2012 in Yazd city. A total of 360 women were recruited. The collection of material for diagnosis is ideally performed during a comprehensive pelvic examination using a speculum for diagnosis of CA with identify vaginal pH; smear preparing and staining and culturing. Results: Finally all of 360 women that observed and tested, 120 (33.33% of them have involved and 240 (66.67% have not involved. from 120 infected women, 55paitents had Bacterial vaginosis (15.6% 40 patients had Ca (10.8% and 25 patients had Trichomonas vaginalis (5.9%. Despite the role for cell-mediated immunity in host protection against the majority of mucosal CA infections, studied has been in women with recurrent vaginitis, in HIV-infected women. Thus, current investigations have been focused specifically on innate and acquired immune responses against CA at the vaginal mucosa instead of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis being caused by defective or dysfunctional CD4+ T helper 1-type cell-mediated immune reactivity. Conclusion: Strongly suggest that distinct vaginal lymphocyte subsets participate in the adaptive anti-Candida immunity at the vaginal level, with the vaginal CD4_ T cells probably playing a major role.

  14. Prevalence of vaginal candidiasis among pregnant women with abnormal vaginal discharge in Maiduguri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, S M; Bukar, M; Mohammed, Y; Mohammed, B; Yahaya, M; Audu, B M; Ibrahim, H M; Ibrahim, H A

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy represents a risk factor in the occurrence of vaginal candidiasis. To determine the prevalence and clinical features associated with abnormal vaginal discharge and C. albicans infection in pregnant women. High vaginal swab samples and data on epidemiological characteristics were collected from 400 pregnant women with complaints of abnormal vaginal discharge at booking clinic of University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital. The data was analysed using SPSS 16.0 statistical software. The prevalence of abnormal vaginal discharge in pregnancy was 31.5%. The frequency of abnormal vaginal discharge was 183 (45.8%) among those aged 20-24 years, 291 (72.8%) in multipara, 223 (55.8%) in those with Primary education and 293 (73.2%) in unemployed. Vulval pruritus 300 (75.0%) was significantly related to abnormal vaginal discharge (P vaginal discharge in pregnancy was high in this study and C. albicans was the commonest cause. It is recommended that a pregnant woman complaining of abnormal vaginal discharge be assessed and Laboratory diagnosis done in order to give appropriate treatment.

  15. 539 Prevalence of Vaginal Candidiasis among Pregnant Women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-17

    Oct 17, 2010 ... asymptomatic women do have Candida organisms as part of their endogenous vaginal flora; hence limitations of signs and symptoms in the diagnosis of vaginal infection has been recognised (Akinbiyi et al., 2008). Thus, mere isolation of Candida in the laboratory does not show real indication that it is the ...

  16. Vaginal practices of HIV-negative Zimbabwean women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turner, Abigail Norris; Morrison, Charles S.; Munjoma, Marshall W.; Moyo, Precious; Chipato, Tsungai; van de Wijgert, Janneke H.

    2010-01-01

    Vaginal practices (VPs) may increase HIV risk by injuring vaginal epithelium or by increasing risk of bacterial vaginosis, an established risk factor for HIV. HIV-negative Zimbabwean women (n = 2,185) participating in a prospective study on hormonal contraception and HIV risk completed an ancillary

  17. Correlates of the molecular vaginal microbiota composition of African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Raju; Borgdorff, Hanneke; Jespers, Vicky; Francis, Suzanna C; Verhelst, Rita; Mwaura, Mary; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Ndayisaba, Gilles; Kyongo, Jordan K; Hardy, Liselotte; Menten, Joris; Crucitti, Tania; Tsivtsivadze, Evgeni; Schuren, Frank; van de Wijgert, Janneke H H M

    2015-02-21

    Sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical correlates of the vaginal microbiome (VMB) as characterized by molecular methods have not been adequately studied. VMB dominated by bacteria other than lactobacilli may cause inflammation, which may facilitate HIV acquisition and other adverse reproductive health outcomes. We characterized the VMB of women in Kenya, Rwanda, South Africa and Tanzania (KRST) using a 16S rDNA phylogenetic microarray. Cytokines were quantified in cervicovaginal lavages. Potential sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical correlates were also evaluated. Three hundred thirteen samples from 230 women were available for analysis. Five VMB clusters were identified: one cluster each dominated by Lactobacillus crispatus (KRST-I) and L. iners (KRST-II), and three clusters not dominated by a single species but containing multiple (facultative) anaerobes (KRST-III/IV/V). Women in clusters KRST-I and II had lower mean concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1α (p infections (STIs; ptrend = 0.07) and urinary tract infection (UTI; p = 0.06), and a higher proportion of women in clusters KRST-I and II had vaginal candidiasis (ptrend = 0.09), but these associations did not reach statistical significance. Women who reported unusual vaginal discharge were more likely to belong to clusters KRST-III/IV/V (p = 0.05). Vaginal dysbiosis in African women was significantly associated with vaginal inflammation; the associations with increased prevalence of STIs and UTI, and decreased prevalence of vaginal candidiasis, should be confirmed in larger studies.

  18. Vaginal discharge: perceptions and health seeking behavior among Nepalese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Narjis; Luby, Stephen

    2004-12-01

    To understand women's perceptions and health seeking behavior and the association between vaginal discharge, clinical signs and laboratory findings as a presentation of sexually transmitted diseases (STD). We conducted five focus group discussions with women attending the outpatient department in a large public hospital in Katmandu, Nepal, during May-June 1997. We also interviewed seventy women presenting with vaginal discharge to the same hospital, through structured questionnaire. Women presenting with discharge were also examined and investigated for six common sexually transmitted diseases and reproductive tract infections. In the focus groups vaginal discharge was identified as a common disease distinct from STDs, for which women can seek treatment. STDs were considered as social diseases transmitted to women through multiple sexual partners and not from husband. Patients with vaginal discharge preferred traditional healers and pharmacist. Clinical signs were inconclusive for type of infection. Simple laboratory tests identified etiologic agent in 64 (91%) patients and the three commonest infections were Moniliasis (78%), Bacterial Vaginosis (25%) and Trichomoniasis (17%). Vaginal discharge may be used as a risk marker for identification of STDs by Primary Health Workers. Low cost investigations should be made available at the secondary care level for identification of most common Reproductive Tract Infections. Communication campaigns should target the misconceptions that exist in the communities local context related to the prevention, treatment and control of vaginal discharge and STDs.

  19. Vaginal bacteria modify HIV tenofovir microbicide efficacy in African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatt, Nichole R; Cheu, Ryan; Birse, Kenzie; Zevin, Alexander S; Perner, Michelle; Noël-Romas, Laura; Grobler, Anneke; Westmacott, Garrett; Xie, Irene Y; Butler, Jennifer; Mansoor, Leila; McKinnon, Lyle R; Passmore, Jo-Ann S; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Burgener, Adam D

    2017-06-02

    Antiretroviral-based strategies for HIV prevention have shown inconsistent results in women. We investigated whether vaginal microbiota modulated tenofovir gel microbicide efficacy in the CAPRISA (Centre for the AIDS Program of Research in South Africa) 004 trial. Two major vaginal bacterial community types-one dominated by Lactobacillus (59.2%) and the other where Gardnerella vaginalis predominated with other anaerobic bacteria (40.8%)-were identified in 688 women profiled. Tenofovir reduced HIV incidence by 61% ( P = 0.013) in Lactobacillus- dominant women but only 18% ( P = 0.644) in women with non- Lactobacillus bacteria, a threefold difference in efficacy. Detectible mucosal tenofovir was lower in non- Lactobacillus women, negatively correlating with G. vaginalis and other anaerobic bacteria, which depleted tenofovir by metabolism more rapidly than target cells convert to pharmacologically active drug. This study provides evidence linking vaginal bacteria to microbicide efficacy through tenofovir depletion via bacterial metabolism. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. Prevalence of Vaginal Candidiasis among Pregnant Women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ninety patients were positive for vaginal candidiasis thus, giving a prevalence rate of 30%. The pregnant women aged 26 to 30 recorded the highest prevalence (13.669; df = 5) which is statistically significant (p<0.05). The women who were in their third trimester of pregnancy were mostly infected (6.163; df = 2) and the ...

  1. Vaginal yeast infections in diabetic women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overall vaginal prevalence of C. albicans was 12,8% (26/203 patients). This yeast was associated with genital symp- toms in 84,6% (22/26) ofthe patients from whom it was isolated. Only 4 patients without symptoms yielded C. albicans. One of these had classic candidiasis on clinical grounds, while the other 3 patients ...

  2. Endometrial safety of ultra-low-dose Vagifem 10 microg in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, L S G; Naessen, T; Elia, D

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the endometrial safety of a 10 microg estradiol vaginal tablet in the treatment of vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women.......The objective of the study was to evaluate the endometrial safety of a 10 microg estradiol vaginal tablet in the treatment of vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women....

  3. Factors contributing to uterine rupture in women having vaginal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ninteen (76.0%) were of low social class. Various reasons for attempting vaginal delivery at TBA's or spiritual churches included lack of funds 9(37.5%) husbands or close relative not available to take decision for hospital delivery 6(25.0%), not appreciating the need for hospital delivery 3(12.5%) and no reason 1(4.2%).

  4. The Vaginal Bacterial Communities of Japanese Women Resemble Those of Women in Other Racial Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xia; Hansmann, Melanie A.; Davis, Catherine C.; Suzuki, Haruo; Brown, Celeste J.; Schutte, Ursel; Pierson, Jacob D.; Forney, Larry J.

    2009-01-01

    To determine if different racial groups shared common types of vaginal microbiota we characterized the composition and structure of vaginal bacterial communities in asymptomatic and apparently healthy Japanese women in Tokyo, Japan and compared them with those of White and Black women from North America. The composition of vaginal communities was compared based on community profiles of terminal restriction fragments of 16S rRNA genes and phylogenetic analysis of cloned 16S rRNA gene sequences of the numerically dominant bacterial populations. The types of vaginal communities found in Japanese women were similar to those of Black and White women. As with White and Black women, most vaginal communities were dominated by lactobacilli, and only four species of Lactobacillus (L. iners, L. crispatus, L. jensenii and L. gasseri) were commonly found. Communities dominated by multiple species of lactobacilli were common in Japanese and White women, but rare in Black women. The incidence in Japanese women of vaginal communities with several non-Lactobacillus species at moderately high frequencies was intermediate between Black women and White women. The limited number of community types found among women in different ethnic groups suggests that host genetic factors, including the innate and adaptive immune systems, may be more important in determining the species composition of vaginal bacterial communities than are cultural and behavioral differences. PMID:19912342

  5. Influences on vaginal birth after caesarean section: A qualitative study of Taiwanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Man; McKellar, Lois; Pincombe, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Vaginal birth is a safe mode of birth for most women who have had a prior caesarean with a transverse incision. Despite the evidence, most Taiwanese women who have had a previous caesarean are rarely offered the opportunity to consider any possibility other than a repeat caesarean. This study explored factors affecting Taiwanese women's decisionmaking regarding vaginal birth after cesarean. Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour provided the theoretical framework to underpin the study, which adopted an interpretive descriptive methodology. Sequential semi-structured interviews were conducted with 29 women who had a previous caesarean and were pregnant between 34 and 38 weeks gestation, ten women who attempted vaginal birth in the third to fifth day postpartum, and 25 women in the fourth week postpartum. Boyatzis' method of thematic analysis was used to identify themes and codes. This paper reports the findings of the prenatal interviews with 29 participants. The major factor influencing women's decision-making was to avoid negative outcomes for themselves and their babies. Three thematic codes describe influences on the women's decisions: 'past experience of childbirth', 'anticipating the next experience of normal birth' and 'contemplation on the process of childbirth'. Women who have had a previous caesarean section are prepared to have a vaginal birth but are not always supported to carry out this decision. Changing the models of antenatal care is recommended as a strategy to overcome this difficulty therefore empowering women to make a meaningful choice about VBAC after a CS. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Anterior vaginal repair for urinary incontinence in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazener, Cathryn Ma; Cooper, Kevin; Mashayekhi, Atefeh

    2017-07-31

    Anterior vaginal repair (anterior colporrhaphy) is an operation traditionally used for moderate or severe stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women. About a third of adult women experience urinary incontinence. SUI imposes significant health and economic burden to the society and the women affected. To determine the effects of anterior vaginal repair (anterior colporrhaphy) on urinary incontinence in comparison with other management options. We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialised Trials Register (searched 1 September 2009) and the reference lists of relevant articles. Randomised or quasi-randomised trials that included anterior vaginal repair for the treatment of urinary incontinence. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. Three trial investigators were contacted for additional information. Ten trials were identified which included 385 women having an anterior vaginal repair and 627 who received comparison interventions.A single small trial provided insufficient evidence to assess anterior vaginal repair in comparison with physical therapy. The performance of anterior repair in comparison with bladder neck needle suspension appeared similar (risk ratio (RR) for failure after one year 1.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.86 to 1.56), but clinically important differences could not be confidently ruled out. No trials compared anterior repair with suburethral sling operations or laparoscopic colposuspensions, or compared alternative vaginal operations.Anterior vaginal repair was less effective than open abdominal retropubic suspension based on patient-reported cure rates in eight trials both in the medium term (failure rate within one to five years after anterior repair 97/259 (38%) versus 57/327 (17%); RR 2.29, 95% confidence Interval (CI) 1.70 to 3.08) and in the long term (after five years, (49/128 (38%) versus 31/145 (21%); RR 2.02, 95% CI 1.36 to 3.01). There was evidence from three of these trials that this

  7. Characteristics of women with continued use of vaginal pessaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewthwaite, Barbara J; Staley, Doug; Girouard, Lise; Maslow, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Vaginal pessaries have been shown to be a safe, effective treatment for pelvic organ prolapse, and in some cases, female urinary incontinence. There are limited data that predict long-term pessary use; therefore, the aim of this retrospective, exploratory study was to describe selected characteristics of women using a pessary for 12 months or longer in a nurse-run clinic.

  8. Living with vesico-vaginal fistula: experiences of women awaiting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vesico-vaginal fistula (VVF) is one of maternal health problems confronting public health workers in Nigeria today. Information on how women suffering from this condition cope is important in that it can inform the design and delivery of programmes and interventions to address the challenges that face victims of VVF.

  9. prevalence and risk factors for vaginal candidiasis among women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2005-03-01

    Mar 1, 2005 ... intercourse, number of sexual partners, marital status or antibiotic usage. Conculsion: The high prevalence of vaginal candidiasis among women with genital infections should be taken into account when updating policies concerning syndromic management of sexually transmitted diseases. More gender ...

  10. Vaginal Practices of HIV-Negative Zimbabwean Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Norris Turner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vaginal practices (VPs may increase HIV risk by injuring vaginal epithelium or by increasing risk of bacterial vaginosis, an established risk factor for HIV. Methods. HIV-negative Zimbabwean women (n=2,185 participating in a prospective study on hormonal contraception and HIV risk completed an ancillary questionnaire capturing detailed VP data at quarterly followup visits for two years. Results. Most participants (84% reported ever cleansing inside the vagina, and at 40% of visits women reported drying the vagina using cloth or paper. Vaginal tightening using cloth/cotton wool, lemon juice, traditional herbs/powders, or other products was reported at 4% of visits. Women with ≥15 unprotected sex acts monthly had higher odds of cleansing (adjusted odds ratio (aOR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.04–1.32. Women with sexually transmitted infections had higher odds of tightening (aOR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.08–1.86. Conclusion. Because certain vaginal practices were associated with other HIV risk factors, synergism between VPs and other risk factors should be explored.

  11. Prevalence and risk factors for vaginal candidiasis among women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conculsion: The high prevalence of vaginal candidiasis among women with genital infections should be taken into account when updating policies concerning syndromic management of sexually transmitted diseases. More gender specific approach to syndromic management of sexually transmitted infections in females ...

  12. 539 Prevalence of Vaginal Candidiasis among Pregnant Women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-17

    Oct 17, 2010 ... Prevalence of Vaginal Candidiasis among Pregnant Women in Nnewi Town of Anambra State, Nigeria (Pp. 539-548). Okonkwo Nnaemeka J. - Department of Parasitology and Entomology,. Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P.M.B. 5025, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria. E-mail: mumamaka@yahoo.com, ...

  13. Family planning methods among women in a vaginal microbicide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    0.93-1.75]. †Pseudo R-square=0.1039, model p<0.0001. Adjusted for clinic at recruitment. * P values from likehood ratio tests. Family planning methods among women in a vaginal microbicide feasibility study in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa ...

  14. Female sexual outcomes in primiparous women after vaginal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sexual function is an essential component of life and yet very little is known about the relationships between the female sexuality and the mode of delivery. Objective: To compare sexual outcomes after vaginal delivery and cesarean section. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on women in two ...

  15. Deep sequencing of the vaginal microbiota of women with HIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B.S. Hummelen (Ruben); A.D. Fernandes (Andrew); J.M. Macklaim (Jean); R.J. Dickson (Russell); J. Changalucha (John); G.B. Gloor (Gregory); G.K. Reid (Gregor)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground:Women living with HIV and co-infected with bacterial vaginosis (BV) are at higher risk for transmitting HIV to a partner or newborn. It is poorly understood which bacterial communities constitute BV or the normal vaginal microbiota among this population and how the microbiota

  16. Vaginal dilator therapy for women receiving pelvic radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Tracie; Johnson, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Background Many vaginal dilator therapy guidelines advocate routine vaginal dilation during and after pelvic radiotherapy to prevent stenosis (abnormal narrowing of the vagina). The UK Gynaecological Oncology Nurse Forum recommend dilation “three times weekly for an indefinite time period”. The UK patient charity Cancer Backup advises using vaginal dilators from two to eight weeks after the end of radiotherapy treatment. Australian guidelines recommend dilation after brachytherapy “as soon as is comfortably possible” and “certainly within four weeks and to continue for three years or indefinitely if possible”. However, dilation is intrusive, uses health resources and can be psychologically distressing. It has also caused rare but very serious damage to the rectum. Objectives To review the benefits and harms of vaginal dilation therapy associated with pelvic radiotherapy for cancer. Search methods Searches included the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2008, Issue 4), MEDLINE (1950 to 2008), EMBASE (1980 to 2008) and CINAHL (1982 to 2008). Selection criteria Any comparative randomised controlled trials (RCT) or data of any type which compared dilation or penetration of the vagina after pelvic radiotherapy treatment for cancer. Data collection and analysis The review authors independently abstracted data and assessed risk of bias. We analysed the mean difference in sexual function scores and the risk ratio for non-compliance at six weeks and three months in single trial analyses. No trials met the inclusion criteria. Main results Dilation during or immediately after radiotherapy can, in rare cases, cause damage and there is no persuasive evidence from any study to demonstrate that it prevents stenosis. Data from one RCT showed no improvement in sexual scores in women who were encouraged to practice dilation. Two case series and one comparative study using historical controls suggest that dilation might be

  17. Vaginal flora alterations and clinical symptoms in low-risk pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondo, Fausto; da Silva, Márcia G; Polettini, Jossimara; Tristao, Andréa da R; Peracoli, José C; Witkin, Steven S; Rudge, Marilza V C

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate associations between alterations in vaginal flora and clinical symptoms in low-risk pregnant women. Vaginal specimens from 245 pregnant women were analyzed by microscopy for vaginal flora. Signs and symptoms of vaginal infection were determined by patient interviews and gynecologic examinations. Abnormal vaginal flora was identified in 45.7% of the subjects. The final clinical diagnoses were bacterial vaginosis (21.6%), vaginal candidosis (10.2%), intermediate vaginal flora (5.2%), aerobic vaginitis (2.9%), mixed flora (2.9%) and other abnormal findings (2.9%). The percentage of women with or without clinical signs or symptoms was not significantly different between these categories. The presence of vaginal odor or vaginal discharge characteristics was not diagnostic of any specific flora alteration; pruritus was highly associated with candidosis (p vaginal odor was associated with bacterial vaginosis (p = 0.0026). The prevalence of atypical vaginal flora is common in our low-risk pregnant population and is not always associated with pathology. The occurrence of specific signs or symptoms does not always discriminate between women with different types of atypical vaginal flora or between those with abnormal and normal vaginal flora. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Deep sequencing of the vaginal microbiota of women with HIV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Hummelen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Women living with HIV and co-infected with bacterial vaginosis (BV are at higher risk for transmitting HIV to a partner or newborn. It is poorly understood which bacterial communities constitute BV or the normal vaginal microbiota among this population and how the microbiota associated with BV responds to antibiotic treatment.The vaginal microbiota of 132 HIV positive Tanzanian women, including 39 who received metronidazole treatment for BV, were profiled using Illumina to sequence the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Of note, Gardnerella vaginalis and Lactobacillus iners were detected in each sample constituting core members of the vaginal microbiota. Eight major clusters were detected with relatively uniform microbiota compositions. Two clusters dominated by L. iners or L. crispatus were strongly associated with a normal microbiota. The L. crispatus dominated microbiota were associated with low pH, but when L. crispatus was not present, a large fraction of L. iners was required to predict a low pH. Four clusters were strongly associated with BV, and were dominated by Prevotella bivia, Lachnospiraceae, or a mixture of different species. Metronidazole treatment reduced the microbial diversity and perturbed the BV-associated microbiota, but rarely resulted in the establishment of a lactobacilli-dominated microbiota.Illumina based microbial profiling enabled high though-put analyses of microbial samples at a high phylogenetic resolution. The vaginal microbiota among women living with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa constitutes several profiles associated with a normal microbiota or BV. Recurrence of BV frequently constitutes a different BV-associated profile than before antibiotic treatment.

  19. Recurrence of vaginal prolapse after total vaginal hysterectomy with concurrent vaginal uterosacral ligament suspension: comparison between normal-weight and overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappa, Carlo; Saccone, Gabriele

    2016-11-01

    Obesity is one of the most important risk factors for the development and progression of the pelvic organ prolapse. However, data regarding whether obesity is a risk factor for recurrence after pelvic organ prolapse surgery are controversial. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of recurrent prolapse in any vaginal compartment after total vaginal hysterectomy with concurrent uterosacral ligament vaginal vault suspension among normal-weight women compared with either overweight or obese women. This is a 5-year retrospective cohort study of women who underwent total vaginal hysterectomy with concurrent vaginal uterosacral ligament suspension at one referral center for pelvic organ prolapse in Italy from January 2010 to January 2015. All women who underwent total vaginal hysterectomy with concurrent uterosacral ligament suspension were included in the analysis. Laparoscopic approach was excluded. Women were classified according to the body mass index of 2 groups: (1) normal weight (body mass index, 18.5-24.9 kg/m2) and (2) either overweight (body mass index, 25.0-29.9 kg/m2) or obese (body mass index, ≥30.0 kg/m2). The primary outcome was the incidence of recurrent prolapse in any vaginal compartment (anterior, posterior, or apical). Recurrent prolapse was defined as prolapse extending beyond the hymen with straining (pelvic organ prolapse quantification points Ba, C, Bp ≥0) or repeat treatment for prolapse with either pessary or surgery. Uterosacral ligament suspensions were performed with a vaginal approach with the use of sutures placed in the intermediate uterosacral ligament, at or above the ischial spine, and affixed to the vaginal apex. Delayed absorbable sutures were used, with 2 sutures per side. Three hundred sixty women who underwent total vaginal hysterectomy with concurrent uterosacral ligament suspension with at least 6 months of follow up after surgery were included in the study. The overall incidence of recurrent prolapse in any vaginal

  20. [Effects of Electric Stimulation and Biofeedback for Pelvic Floor Muscle Exercise in Women with Vaginal Rejuvenation Women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Bok; Choi, So Young

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pelvic floor muscle exercise using electric stimulation and biofeedback on maximum pressure of vaginal contraction, vaginal contraction duration and sexual function in women who have had vaginal rejuvenation. The research design was a non-equivalent control group non-synchronized design study. Participants in this study were women who had vaginal rejuvenation at C obstetrics and gynecology hospital. The 15 participants in the experimental group were given pelvic floor muscle exercise using electric stimulation and biofeedback and the 15 participants in the control group received self pelvic floor muscle exercise. For maximum pressure of vaginal contraction, the experimental group showed a statistically significant increase compared to than the control group (t=5.96, pelectric stimulation and biofeedback after vaginal rejuvenation is effective in strengthening vaginal contraction pressure, vaginal contraction and that it also positively functions to increase women's sexual function.

  1. Pelvic Floor Disorders 6 Months after Attempted Operative Vaginal Delivery According to the Fetal Head Station: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Ducarme

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of the fetal head station at attempted operative vaginal delivery (aOVD, and specifically midpelvic or low aOVD, on urinary incontinence (UI, anal incontinence (AI, and perineal pain at 6 months.Prospective cohort study.1941 women with singleton term fetuses in vertex presentation with midpelvic or low aOVD between 2008 and 2013 in a tertiary care university hospital.Symptoms of urinary incontinence (UI using the Bristol Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms questionnaire, and symptoms of anal incontinence (AI severity using Fecal Incontinence Severity Index (FISI were assessed 6 months after aOVD. We measured the association between midpelvic or low aOVD and symptoms of UI, AI, and perineal pain at 6 months using multiple regression and adjusting for demographics, and risk factors of UI and AI, with adjusted odds ratios (aORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI.The study included 907 women (46.7% who responded to the questionnaire; 18.4% (167/907 had midpelvic aOVD, and 81.6% (740/907 low; and none of women with symptoms of UI (26.6%, and 22.4%, respectively; p = 0.31, AI (15.9%, and 21.8%; p = 0.09, the FISI score, and perineal pain (17.2%, and 12.7%; p = 0.14 differed significantly between groups. The same was true for stress, urge, and mixed-type UI, severe UI and difficulty voiding. Compared with low pelvic aOVD, the aORs for symptoms of UI in midpelvic aOVD were 0.70 (0.46-1.05 and AI 1.42 (0.85-2.39. Third- and fourth-degree tears were a major risk factor of symptoms of UI (aOR 3.08, 95% CI 1.35-7.00 and AI (aOR 3.47, 95% CI 1.43-8.39.Neither symptoms of urinary nor anal incontinence differed at 6 months among women who had midpelvic and low pelvic aOVD. These findings are reassuring and need further studies at long-term to confirm these short-term data.

  2. Muscle strength measurement of pelvic floor in women by vaginal dynamometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parezanović-Ilić Katarina

    2009-01-01

    .83- 4.37, while the value in sick women was 2.41 (95% of trust limits 2.10-4.16 (Z=-6.38; p<0.001. Conclusion The vaginal dynamometer has been presented as an attempt to overcome the limitations of the previously presented techniques for muscle force measurement. The application of the vaginal dynamometer in clinical practice makes objective and numerical assessment of pelvic floor muscle force possible, independent of the subjective assessment of the examiner. The usage of this instrument enables not only the diagnostics of women's pelvic floor muscle problem, but also the objective monitoring of rehabilitation gynecological medicine results.

  3. Anal endosonographic findings in women after vaginal delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodziejczak, Malgorzata [Department of Proctology, Hospital at Solec, Warsaw (Poland); Sudol-Szopinska, Iwona, E-mail: iwsud@ciop.pl [Department of Proctology, Hospital at Solec, Warsaw (Poland); Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Second Faculty of Warsaw Medical University, Warsaw (Poland); Stefanski, Robert [Department of Proctology, Hospital at Solec, Warsaw (Poland); Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Second Faculty of Warsaw Medical University, Warsaw (Poland); Panorska, Anna K. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Nevada, Reno (United States); Gardyszewska, Agnieszka [Second Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Warsaw (Poland); Krasnodebski, Ireneusz [Department of General and Gastroenterological Surgery and Nutrition, Medical University, Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-04-15

    Objective: To estimate a frequency of obstetric anal sphincters defects in women after vaginal delivery. Methods: The study included 102 women, aged from 16 to 40 years (mean age 28.6 years). 28 women had perineal lacerations of 3rd and 4th degree. 22 women had instrumental delivery. Anal endosonography was performed on all participants using BK Medical scanner Pro focus with a 3D endoprobe during the first week after delivery. Starck's classification was used to score sphincters defects. Results: The endosonographic images were abnormal in 8 out of 102 women (7.8%). Follow-up examinations after 6 weeks confirmed defects in 6 out of 102 women (5.8%). Five women had external anal sphincter torn, and 1 woman had both sphincters, internal and external, defected. Discordance between endosonographic diagnosis of defect and clinical assessment of sphincters continuity was demonstrated in 6 (5.9%) out of 8 initially found, including 2 (1.9%) false endosonographic results and 4 (3.9%) false clinical diagnosis (occult sphincter defects). The endosonography sensitivity and accuracy in sphincter defect diagnostic amounted to 100% and 98%, respectively. Conclusions: (1) Anal sphincters' tears in symptomatic women are not as frequent as it was believed. (2) The defect diagnosis in the first week after delivery should be verified by a follow-up endosonography in 6 weeks, after regression of the edema and hematoma.

  4. Differences in vaginal microbiome in African American women versus women of European ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettweis, Jennifer M; Brooks, J Paul; Serrano, Myrna G; Sheth, Nihar U; Girerd, Philippe H; Edwards, David J; Strauss, Jerome F; The Vaginal Microbiome Consortium; Jefferson, Kimberly K; Buck, Gregory A

    2014-10-01

    Women of European ancestry are more likely to harbour a Lactobacillus-dominated microbiome, whereas African American women are more likely to exhibit a diverse microbial profile. African American women are also twice as likely to be diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis and are twice as likely to experience preterm birth. The objective of this study was to further characterize and contrast the vaginal microbial profiles in African American versus European ancestry women. Through the Vaginal Human Microbiome Project at Virginia Commonwealth University, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis was used to compare the microbiomes of vaginal samples from 1268 African American women and 416 women of European ancestry. The results confirmed significant differences in the vaginal microbiomes of the two groups and identified several taxa relevant to these differences. Major community types were dominated by Gardnerella vaginalis and the uncultivated bacterial vaginosis-associated bacterium-1 (BVAB1) that were common among African Americans. Moreover, the prevalence of multiple bacterial taxa that are associated with microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity and preterm birth, including Mycoplasma, Gardnerella, Prevotella and Sneathia, differed between the two ethnic groups. We investigated the contributions of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including pregnancy, body mass index, diet, smoking and alcohol use, number of sexual partners, and household income, to vaginal community composition. Ethnicity, pregnancy and alcohol use correlated significantly with the relative abundance of bacterial vaginosis-associated species. Trends between microbial profiles and smoking and number of sexual partners were observed; however, these associations were not statistically significant. These results support and extend previous findings that there are significant differences in the vaginal microbiome related to ethnicity and demonstrate that these differences are pronounced even in healthy women

  5. Women's experiences of using vaginal trainers (dilators) to treat vaginal penetration difficulties diagnosed as vaginismus: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macey, Kat; Gregory, Angela; Nunns, David; das Nair, Roshan

    2015-06-20

    Recent research has highlighted controversies in the conceptualisation, diagnosis and treatment of vaginismus. Vaginal trainers are currently the most widely used treatment. Critiques have highlighted concerns that the evidence-base of its effectiveness is limited, with controlled trials reporting disappointing results, and its prescription promotes 'performance-based' sexuality which may be detrimental. Despite this, little has been done to seek women's views about their treatment. This study set out to explore women's experiences of vaginismus treatment with vaginal trainers, and to use their voices to propose guidelines for improving treatment. 13 women who had used vaginal trainers for vaginal penetration difficulties diagnosed as vaginismus were recruited through a specialist clinic, university campuses, and online forums. The women took part in semi-structured individual interviews (face-to-face/telephone/Skype), which were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using Thematic Analysis. Four superordinate themes were elicited and used to draft 'better treatment' guidelines. Themes were: (1) Lack of knowledge, (2) Invalidation of suffering by professionals, (3) Difficult journey, and (4) Making the journey easier. This paper describes themes (3) and (4). Difficult Journey describes the long and arduous 'Journey into treatment', including difficulties asking for help, undergoing physical investigations and negotiating 'the system' of medical referrals. It also describes the sometimes demoralising process of 'being in treatment', which includes emotional and practical demands of treatment. Making the journey easier highlights the importance of and limits to 'partner support'. 'Professional support' comprises personal qualities of professionals/therapeutic relationship, the value of specialist skills and knowledge and the need for facilitating couple communication about vaginismus. 'Peer support/helping each other' describes the importance of

  6. Abnormal vaginal bleeding in women with gynaecological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Tracey; Denny, Lynette

    2017-04-01

    Abnormal vaginal bleeding is a common gynaecological symptom, and most causes are benign. International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics proposed a PALM-COEIN classification in 2011 to decrease heterogeneity in studies. The gynaecological malignancies that present with abnormal bleeding vary according to the age of the patient and the origin (upper versus lower genital tract). It is important that a thorough history and examination is performed to make this distinction. The common malignancies presenting symptoms and treatment are discussed in this article according to the age of the patient. There is a considerable overlap between the reproductive age and menopause. This article focuses on children, adolescents and women in the reproductive age group. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Study to Evaluate Targeted Management and Syndromic Management in Women Presenting with Abnormal Vaginal Discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Veena; Bansal, Charu Lata

    2016-10-01

    Vaginal discharge is a commonest complaint among women in reproductive age group. Infective vaginal discharge can be broadly categorized into vaginitis or mucopurulent cervicitis. Vaginitis is predominantly caused by bacterial vaginosis, vaginal candidiasis, vaginal trichomoniasis, etc. Mucopurulent cervicitis is due to chlamydia or gonococcal infection. The targeted management is based on identification of causative organism and targeting the therapy against it, while syndromic management is based on high risk factors's presence. To study the effect of targeted management as compared to syndromic management in achieving a complete cure for abnormal vaginal discharge and to study the microbial flora of women presenting with abnormal vaginal discharge. The study is a randomized control trial conducted at tertiary health care on 200 women who presented with abnormal vaginal discharge, distributed in two groups A and B each consisted of 100 women. Group A underwent laboratory investigations, and treatment was started as soon as reports were available. Group B was given syndromic management based on high risk factors's presence. Both groups were followed up after 2 weeks. The prevalence of various organisms in vaginal discharge was candidiasis 39 %, bacterial vaginosis 28 %, trichomoniasis 5 %, N. gonorrhoeae 5 % and chlamydia 2 % among the 100 women in group A. Response to treatment for vaginitis was 76.3 % in group A, whereas it was 41 % in group B. With cervicitis, 71.4 % women responded to treatment in targeted group as compared to 54 % in syndromic management group. There is a potential disadvantage of syndromic management because of its total reliability on a subjective clinical assessment.

  8. Panamanian women׳s experience of vaginal examination in labour: A questionnaire validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla-Escobar, Francisco J; Ortega-Lenis, Delia; Rojas-Mirquez, Johanna C; Ortega-Loubon, Christian

    2016-05-01

    to validate a tool that allows healthcare providers to obtain accurate information regarding Panamanian women׳s thoughts and feelings about vaginal examination during labour that can be used in other Latin-American countries. validation study based on a database from a cross-sectional study carried out in two tertiary care hospitals in Panama City, Panama. Women in the immediate postpartum period who had spontaneous labour onset and uncomplicated deliveries were included in the study from April to August 2008. Researchers used a survey designed by Lewin et al. that included 20 questions related to a patient׳s experience during a vaginal examination. five constructs (factors) related to a patient׳s experience of vaginal examination during labour were identified: Approval (Alpha Cronbach׳s 0.72), Perception (0.67), Rejection (0.40), Consent (0.51), and Stress (0.20). it was demonstrated the validity of the scale and its constructs used to obtain information related to vaginal examination during labour, including patients' experiences with examination and healthcare staff performance. utilisation of the scale will allow institutions to identify items that need improvement and address these areas in order to promote the best care for patients in labour. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Preferred Physical Characteristics of Vaginal Film Microbicides for HIV Prevention in Pittsburgh Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Maria D; Kramzer, Lindsay F; Hillier, Sharon L; Chang, Judy C; Meyn, Leslie A; Rohan, Lisa C

    2017-05-01

    Unprotected heterosexual intercourse is the leading cause of HIV acquisition in women. Due to the complex nature of correct and consistent condom use by both men and women, developing alternative female-controlled HIV prevention options is a global health priority. Vaginal films containing antiretroviral drugs are a potential delivery system for the prevention of HIV acquisition through sexual contact. In this study, we explored women's preferences regarding physical characteristics of microbicide vaginal films through questionnaires and focus groups. Eighty-four sexually active, ethnically diverse women 18-30 years of age from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, participated in the study. Women visually and manually examined a variety of vaginal films, as well as three other vaginal products undergoing evaluation for HIV prevention: tablet, ring, and gel. Means and standard deviations or frequencies and 95 % confidence intervals were calculated for questionnaire data. Focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and coded for content analysis. Women most frequently preferred vaginal films to be smooth and thin (63 %), translucent (48 %), and 2″ × 2″ square size (36 %). Driving these preferences were five major themes: ease and accuracy of use, desire for efficacy, discretion, intravaginal comfort and minimal impact, and minimizing disruption of sexual mood/activities. Women's preferences for various microbicide vaginal film physical attributes represented a balance of multiple values. In general, women desired a comfortable, efficacious, easy to use, and minimally intrusive product.

  10. Counseling on vaginal delivery of contraceptive hormones: implications for women's body knowledge and sexual health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappi, Rossella E

    2013-12-01

    Healthcare providers (HCPs) have an important role in helping women select the contraceptive method that best matches their needs and lifestyle. Recent surveys outline the need of women to be informed about all available choices, including the newest methods (particularly those not requiring daily administration), such as vaginal contraception. The most relevant publications on combined contraceptive vaginal ring are revised in the context of counseling as an opportunity to empower women in term of vaginal health and sexual functioning. HCPs should explain the main characteristics of the combined contraceptive vaginal ring including the anatomical and physiological implications that make the vagina an ideal route of hormonal administration and the basic notions about functional modifications of the vagina during reproductive life. Clinical data on the vaginal ring should be summarized with regard to efficacy, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, cycle control and user acceptability, including recent findings on extra-contraceptive benefits (also compared to other hormonal contraceptives) on the vaginal flora and on sexual function. Vaginal contraception offers various benefits and should always be discussed during contraceptive counseling. An open dialogue about vaginal contraception will also help enhance body knowledge and sexual health.

  11. Suicide attempts by elderly women - from a gender perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Moura, Rosylaine; Hesler, Lilian Zielke; Gutierrez, Denise Machado Duran

    2015-06-01

    This article analyzes the presence of gender inequality and violence in the lives of elderly women who have attempted suicide. This survey is part of a qualitative research study developed in twelve municipal regions in Brazil with high levels of suicide, and is coordinated by Claves-Fiocruz. Information was obtained by means of semi-structured interviews with thirty-two women from a sampling of fifty-nine elderly women with a history of attempted suicide. It was decided not to identify the interviewees, and to construct a narrative based on events that have occurred in the lives of all these women. The study was based on the women's life cycle (infancy, youth, adult life and old age) to see if gender inequality had been an issue in each of these phases. The inequalities began in infancy with differentiated gender upbringing; these continued during their youth and with their sexual initiation, marriage and maturity these continued during their adult life through acts of violence committed by their partners and/ or other family members which culminates in old age, when they are deprived of their independence and have lost ties, possessions and points of reference. These lives permeated with violence result in a feeling of emptiness and unworthiness, and lead many elderly women to view death as their only solution.

  12. Pregnancy outcome in asymptomatic women with abnormal vaginal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of abnormal vaginal flora was correlated with pregnancy outcomes in terms of preterm delivery or late miscarriage, premature rupture of the membranes (PROM) and puerperal sepsis. Results. A total of 242 patients with abnormal vaginal flora for whom outcome data were complete were analysed. Intervention ...

  13. Measurement of the thickness of the urethrovaginal space in women with or without vaginal orgasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Brandetti, Fulvia; Martini, Paolo; Carosa, Eleonora; Di Stasi, Savino M; Morano, Susanna; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A

    2008-03-01

    The physiology and anatomy of female sexual function are poorly understood. The differences in sexual function among women may be partly attributed to anatomical factors. The purpose of this study was to use ultrasonography to evaluate the anatomical variability of the urethrovaginal space in women with and without vaginal orgasm. Twenty healthy, neurologically intact volunteers were recruited from a population of women who were a part of a previous published study. All women underwent a complete urodynamic evaluation and those with clinical and urodynamic urinary incontinence, idiopathic detrusor overactivity, or micturition disorders, as well as postmenopausal women and those with sexual dysfunction were excluded. The reported experience of vaginal orgasm was investigated. The urethrovaginal space thickness as measured by ultrasound was chosen as the indicator of urogenital anatomical variability. Designated evaluators carried out the measurements in a blinded fashion. The urethrovaginal space and distal, middle, and proximal urethrovaginal segments were thinner in women without vaginal orgasm. A direct correlation between the presence of vaginal orgasm and the thickness of urethrovaginal space was found. Women with a thicker urethrovaginal space were more likely to experience vaginal orgasm (r = 0.884; P = 0.015). A direct and significant correlation between the thickness of each urethrovaginal segment and the presence of vaginal orgasm was found, with the best correlation observed for the distal segment (r = 0.863; P orgasm.

  14. Maternal and perinatal outcomes in pregnant women with first trimester vaginal bleeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhila Amirkhani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To study the pregnancy outcomes in first trimester vaginal bleeding.This cross sectional study was done on 60 pregnant women with first trimester vaginal bleeding referring to university hospitals affiliated to Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran. All women were evaluated for the outcomes including abortion, preterm rapture of membranes, preterm labor, second and third trimester vaginal bleeding, low birth weight and intra uterine growth retardation and the mode of delivery. Data were analyzed using SPSS- 11.Placenta accreta, second trimester bleeding and preterm labor were significantly more prevalent in pregnant women with first trimester bleeding (P ≤ 0.05.According to results of present study vaginal bleeding in first trimester of pregnancy may predict further maternal and fetal complications. We recommend training pregnant women regarding those complications and their prevention.

  15. Identification of culturable vaginal Lactobacillus species among reproductive age women in Mysore, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyn, Harry N.; Raphael, Eva; Krupp, Karl; Ravi, Kavitha; Nebhrajani, Roshan; Arun, Anjali; Reingold, Arthur L.; Riley, Lee W.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    A healthy vaginal environment is predominated by certain Lactobacillus species, which lead to the prevention of infections of the reproductive tract. This study examined the characteristics of cultivable Lactobacillus species in both healthy women and women with bacterial vaginosis (BV). Between November 2011 and September 2013, 139 women attending a women's clinic in Mysore, India, were evaluated for BV in a cross-sectional study. BV was diagnosed using Amsel's criteria: homogeneous vaginal discharge, vaginal pH >4.5, production of amines, and presence of “clue” cells. Those with three or more of the characteristics were considered to have BV. Vaginal swabs were then cultured in Rogosa agar and de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth. Gram-positive lactobacilli generating 600–800 bp amplicons by16 sRNA were further characterized by sequencing. Cultivable vaginal samples were obtained from 132 women (94.9 %). According to the Amsel criteria, 83 women (62.1 %) were healthy, and 49 (37.1 %) had BV. Eleven different Lactobacillus species were isolated from 47 women. The common lactobacilli species found in this sample included L. crispatus (39.6 %), L. gasseri (45.8 %), and L. jensenii (14.6 %). Lactobacilli were isolated from 39 healthy women and eight with BV. L. gasseri was cultured from 18.8 % of healthy women and 6.1 % with BV. The presence of L. reuteri was significantly associated with normal vaginal microbiota (P-value = 0.026). These results further our understanding of vaginal lactobacilli colonization and richness in this particular population. Our findings showed that lactobacilli species present in the vaginas of healthy women in India do not differ from those reported from other countries. PMID:25873579

  16. Relationship between fetal station and successful vaginal delivery in nulliparous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segel, Sally Y; Carreño, Carlos A; Weiner, Steven J; Bloom, Steven L; Spong, Catherine Y; Varner, Michael W; Rouse, Dwight J; Caritis, Steve N; Grobman, William A; Sorokin, Yoram; Sciscione, Anthony; Mercer, Brian M; Thorp, John M; Malone, Fergal D; Harper, Margaret; Iams, Jay D

    2012-10-01

    To study the relationship between fetal station and successful vaginal delivery in nulliparous women. This was a secondary analysis from a previously reported trial of pulse oximetry. Vaginal delivery rates were evaluated and compared with respect to the fetal station. Spontaneous labor and induction of labor groups were evaluated separately. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to adjust for confounding factors. Successful vaginal delivery was more frequent with an engaged vertex for spontaneous labor (86.2% versus 78.6%; p = 0.01) and induced labor (87.7% versus 66.1%; p women with induced labor (OR 2.2; 95% CI 0.96 to 5.1; p = 0.06). Among nulliparous women enrolled in the FOX randomized trial in spontaneous labor or for labor induction, an engaged fetal vertex does not affect their vaginal delivery rate. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. Prevalence of vaginitis, syphilis and HIV infection in women in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV was present in 0,4% of rural and 1,5% of urban women. Ninety per cent of urban women and 74% of rural women knew AIDS was a sexually transmitted disease. Conclusions. The prevalences of trichomonas vaginitis and syphilis were unusually high, while HIV positivity was similar to that in other reports in South Africa ...

  18. Correlates of the molecular vaginal microbiota composition of African women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gautam, Raju; Borgdorff, Hanneke; Jespers, Vicky; Francis, Suzanna C.; Verhelst, Rita; Mwaura, Mary; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Ndayisaba, Gilles; Kyongo, Jordan K.; Hardy, Liselotte; Menten, Joris; Crucitti, Tania; Tsivtsivadze, Evgeni; Schuren, Frank; van de Wijgert, Janneke H. H. M.; Mandaliya, Kishor; Dierick, Lou; Jaoko, Walter; Irungu, Eunice; Katingima, Christine; Maina, Mercy; Mazera, Jane Wanjiru; Gichuru, Josephine; Onuki, Grace Aketch; Kiambi, Mary; Thiong, Mary; Wanjiku, Salome; Nduku, Patricia; Njeru, Carol; Mbogho, Bernard; Wambua, Sammy; Baya, Rachel Sidi; Onduko, Emmanuel Moffat; Kombo, Patrick Katana; Masha, Simon Chengo; John, Mary Ndinda; Odeyo, Kevin; Ngala, Dora; Odero, Collins; Edward, Vinodh Aroon; Reddy, Krishnaveni; Von Knorring, Nina; Mahabeer, Ishania; Mashilo, Johannah Nkoleleng; Mnyandu, Ntombifuthi; Mokoatle, Keneuoe; Nani, Siyabulela; Tshabalala, Gugu; Mngwevu, Thembisile Hope; Mtabane, Noxolo; Masalesa, Puseletso Maria; Kumase, Zodidi; Mohale, Sefora Dipolelo; Madi, Mavis Mantshitseng; Mlotshwa, Mandla; Maenetje, Pholo Wilson; Arjun, Nishanee; de Assis Rosa, Debra; Ubuzima, Rinda; Ndayisaba, Gilles F.; Kestelyn, Evelyne; Gasarabwe, Ammiel; van Eeckhoudt, Servaas; Agaba, Stephen; Busasa, Rosette; Nshimuyimana, Deogratias; Umutoni, Grace; Karangwa, Vincent; Bukuru, Claire; Fiat, Alice; Mwambarangwe, Lambert; Musengamana, Viateur; Nyinawabega, Jeanine; Schurmans, Céline; van Loen, Harry; Buvé, Anne; Kyongo, Jordan; Ariën, Kevin; Vanham, Guido; Abdellati, Said; Cuylaert, Vicky; Thys, Wendy; Ielegems, An; Casier, Lieve; Verstraelen, Hans; Temmerman, Marleen; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Cools, Piet; Saerens, Bart; Janssen, Friso; McCormack, Sheena; Joseph, Sarah; Francis, Suzanna; Baisley, Kathy; Hayes, Richard; Kapiga, Saidi; Andreasen, Aura; Changalucha, John; Maganja, Kaballa; Masesa, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical correlates of the vaginal microbiome (VMB) as characterized by molecular methods have not been adequately studied. VMB dominated by bacteria other than lactobacilli may cause inflammation, which may facilitate HIV acquisition and other adverse reproductive

  19. Sexual activity and vaginal topography in women with symptomatic pelvic floor disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edenfield, Autumn L; Levin, Pamela J; Dieter, Alexis A; Amundsen, Cindy L; Siddiqui, Nazema Y

    2015-02-01

    Pelvic floor disorders affect vaginal anatomy and may affect sexual function. The aims of this study were to explore the relationship between vaginal anatomy and sexual activity in women with symptomatic pelvic floor disorders and to assess whether vaginal measurements (topography) correlate with sexual function. This is a retrospective cohort study comparing sexually active and nonsexually active women planning urogynecologic surgery. Our primary outcome was the difference in vaginal topography based on Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) exam between cohorts. Correlations between POP-Q measurements and Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire short form (PISQ-12) scores were assessed in sexually active women. The POP-Q is a quantitative and standardized examination for prolapse. The PISQ-12 is a condition-specific sexual function questionnaire validated in sexually active women with pelvic floor disorders. Of 535 women, 208 (39%) were sexually active and 327 (61%) were not. Median genital hiatus (GH) and perineal body (PB) measurements and a PB:GH ratio were not significantly different between the two cohorts. Total vaginal length (TVL) was longer in sexually active women (median 9 vs. 8 cm, Ppelvic floor symptoms. There was poor correlation between TVL, GH, PB, and PB : GH ratio with PISQ-12 scores (r=0.10, -0.05, -0.09, -0.03, respectively). In women with pelvic floor disorders, sexual activity is associated with a longer vaginal length. One-quarter of women indicated they avoided sexual activity because of pelvic floor symptoms. Vaginal topography does not correlate with sexual function based on PISQ-12 scores. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  20. Subclinical alteration of the cervical-vaginal microbiome in women with idiopathic infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisciano, Giuseppina; Florian, Fiorella; D'Eustacchio, Angela; Stanković, David; Ricci, Giuseppe; De Seta, Francesco; Comar, Manola

    2017-07-01

    Biomarkers have a wide application in research and clinic, they help to choose the correct treatment for diseases. Recent studies, addressing the vaginal microbiome using next generation sequencing (NGS), reported the involvement of bacterial species in infertility. We compared the vaginal microbiome of idiopathic infertile women with that of healthy, including bacterial vaginosis affected women and non-idiopathic infertile women, to identify bacterial species suitable as biomarkers. Information on microorganisms was obtained from the V3-16S rDNA sequencing of cervical-vaginal fluids of 96 women using the Ion Torrent platform. Data were processed with QIIME and classified against the Vaginal 16S rDNA Reference Database. The analysis revealed a significant beta-diversity variation (p infertile women from the other groups. In these women, a microbial profile similar to that observed in bacterial vaginosis women has been detected. Our results suggest that the quantitative assessment and identification of specific microorganisms of the cervical-vaginal microflora could increase the accuracy of available tools for the diagnosis of infertility and improve the adoption of therapeutic protocols. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Vaginal orgasm is more prevalent among women with a prominent tubercle of the upper lip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Costa, Rui Miguel

    2011-10-01

    Recent studies have uncovered multiple markers of vaginal orgasm history (unblocked pelvic movement during walking, less use of immature psychological defense mechanisms, greater urethrovaginal space). Other markers (perhaps of prenatal origin) even without obvious mechanistic roles in vaginal orgasm might exist, and a clinical observation led to the novel hypothesis that a prominent tubercle of the upper lip is such a marker. To examine the hypothesis that a prominent tubercle of the upper lip is associated specifically with greater likelihood of experiencing vaginal orgasm (orgasm elicited by penile-vaginal intercourse [PVI] without concurrent masturbation). Women (N = 258, predominantly Scottish) completed an online survey reporting their frequencies of various sexual activities and corresponding orgasms, age, and the prominence of the tubercle of their upper lip. Social desirability response bias was also assessed. Multivariate associations of lip tubercle prominence with vaginal orgasm (ever and past month consistency) and with orgasm by other means. RESULTS.: A prominent and sharply raised lip tubercle was associated with greater odds (odds ratio = 12.3) of ever having a vaginal orgasm, and also with greater past month vaginal orgasm consistency (an effect driven by the women who never had a vaginal orgasm), than less prominent lip tubercle categories. Lip tubercle was not associated with social desirability responding, or with orgasm triggered by masturbation during PVI, solitary or partner clitoral or vaginal masturbation, vibrator, or cunnilingus. The results are discussed in light of the unique nature of vaginal orgasm and the possibility of prenatal developmental influences. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  2. Women who prefer longer penises are more likely to have vaginal orgasms (but not clitoral orgasms): implications for an evolutionary theory of vaginal orgasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rui Miguel; Miller, Geoffrey F; Brody, Stuart

    2012-12-01

    Research indicates that (i) women's orgasm during penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI) is influenced by fitness-related male partner characteristics, (ii) penis size is important for many women, and (iii) preference for a longer penis is associated with greater vaginal orgasm consistency (triggered by PVI without concurrent clitoral masturbation). To test the hypothesis that vaginal orgasm frequency is associated with women's reporting that a longer than average penis is more likely to provoke their PVI orgasm. Three hundred twenty-three women reported in an online survey their past month frequency of various sexual behaviors (including PVI, vaginal orgasm, and clitoral orgasm), the effects of a longer than average penis on likelihood of orgasm from PVI, and the importance they attributed to PVI and to noncoital sex. Univariate analyses of covariance with dependent variables being frequencies of various sexual behaviors and types of orgasm and with independent variable being women reporting vs. not reporting that a longer than average penis is important for their orgasm from PVI. Likelihood of orgasm with a longer penis was related to greater vaginal orgasm frequency but unrelated to frequencies of other sexual behaviors, including clitoral orgasm. In binary logistic regression, likelihood of orgasm with a longer penis was related to greater importance attributed to PVI and lesser importance attributed to noncoital sex. Women who prefer deeper penile-vaginal stimulation are more likely to have vaginal orgasm, consistent with vaginal orgasm evolving as part of a female mate choice system favoring somewhat larger than average penises. Future research could extend the findings by overcoming limitations related to more precise measurement of penis length (to the pubis and pressed close to the pubic bone) and girth, and large representative samples. Future experimental research might assess to what extent different penis sizes influence women's satisfaction and likelihood

  3. Vaginal Delivery under Epidural Analgesia in Pregnant Women with a Diagnosis of Moyamoya Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kimitoshi; Yamada, Masaru; Okutomi, Toshiyuki; Kato, Rie; Unno, Nobuya; Fujii, Kiyotaka; Kumabe, Toshihiro

    2015-05-01

    Moyamoya disease more commonly occurs in young people and women, so patients with this disease may experience pregnancy and delivery. Cesarean section (CS) is often chosen as the mode of delivery for these patients in Japan. No appropriate mode of delivery has yet been established for pregnant women with moyamoya disease in terms of stroke prevention. We have used vaginal delivery under epidural analgesia (EA) in such patients unless CS has been indicated for the maternal or fetal reasons. This study retrospectively analyzed our patients with moyamoya disease who gave birth to confirm the safety of vaginal delivery under EA. Twelve consecutive patients diagnosed with moyamoya disease had 14 deliveries at our hospital between September 2004 and January 2013. The incidences of intrapartum stroke were compared between cases of vaginal delivery under EA and CS cases. Ten vaginal deliveries under EA and 4 elective CSs were performed. No intrapartum stroke was observed during either vaginal delivery under EA or CS. Among the patients who underwent vaginal delivery under EA, 1 parturient who experienced 2 deliveries suffered transient ischemic attack during both postpartum periods. All 14 infants were healthy without sequelae. Vaginal delivery under EA is an option for patients with moyamoya disease, provided that close cooperation with neurosurgeons, obstetricians, and anesthesiologists is assured. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Robust Vaginal Colonization of Macaques with a Novel Vaginally Disintegrating Tablet Containing a Live Biotherapeutic Product to Prevent HIV Infection in Women: e0122730

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laurel A Lagenaur; Iwona Swedek; Peter P Lee; Thomas P Parks

    2015-01-01

      MucoCept is a biotherapeutic for prevention of HIV-1 infection in women and contains a human, vaginal Lactobacillus jensenii that has been genetically enhanced to express the HIV-1 entry inhibitor...

  5. The vaginal mycobiome: A contemporary perspective on fungi in women's health and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, L Latéy; Ravel, Jacques

    2017-04-03

    Most of what is known about fungi in the human vagina has come from culture-based studies and phenotypic characterization of single organisms. Though valuable, these approaches have masked the complexity of fungal communities within the vagina. The vaginal mycobiome has become an emerging field of study as genomics tools are increasingly employed and we begin to appreciate the role these fungal communities play in human health and disease. Though vastly outnumbered by its bacterial counterparts, fungi are important constituents of the vaginal ecosystem in many healthy women. Candida albicans, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, colonizes 20% of women without causing any overt symptoms, yet it is one of the leading causes of infectious vaginitis. Understanding its mechanisms of commensalism and patho-genesis are both essential to developing more effective therapies. Describing the interactions between Candida, bacteria (such as Lactobacillus spp.) and other fungi in the vagina is funda-mental to our characterization of the vaginal mycobiome.

  6. Defibulation during vaginal delivery for women with type III female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouzi, Abdulrahim A; Al-Sibiani, Sharifa A; Al-Mansouri, Nisma M; Al-Sinani, Nawal S; Al-Jahdali, Eetedal A; Darhouse, Khalid

    2012-07-01

    To assess the routine practice of defibulation during vaginal delivery for women who have undergone female genital mutilation or cutting. A case-control study was conducted on women from Sudan, Somalia, Ethiopia, Egypt, and Yemen who delivered at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, from January 1, 2000, to November 30, 2011. Women who had defibulation were identified, and their records were examined. For each woman who had defibulation, a woman from the same nationality who delivered without defibulation on the same day or the next days was chosen as a control. Data collected included demographics, mode of delivery, blood loss, intraoperative and postoperative complications, and labor outcome. During the study period, 388 women underwent defibulation during vaginal delivery. Women who did not have defibulation were chosen as a control group (n=388). In the defibulation group, 300 (77.3%) women were registered during pregnancy; 88 (22.7%) women were unregistered. Defibulation during vaginal delivery was successfully performed by residents and senior residents under the care of the attending on call. No cesarean delivery was performed because of female genital mutilation or cutting, and no spontaneous rupture of the scar occurred. There were no statistically significant differences between women who had defibulation with those who did not or between infibulated registered and unregistered women in the duration of labor, episiotomy rates, blood loss, Apgar score, or fetal birth weight. Defibulation during vaginal delivery is a valid management option. Labor attendants should be trained to perform it.

  7. Self-collected vaginal swabs for HPV screening: An exploratory study of rural Black Mississippi women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Crosby

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: Black rural women from the deep-south are generally comfortable self-collecting cervico-vaginal swabs for HPV testing. Given that nearly 30% tested positive for oncogenic HPV, and that fatalism as well a lack of trust in doctors predicted prevalence, a reasonable screening alternative to Pap testing may be community-based testing for HPV using self-collected vaginal swabs.

  8. Identification and genotyping of bacteria from paired vaginal and rectal samples from pregnant women indicates similarity between vaginal and rectal microflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temmerman Marleen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vaginal microflora is important for maintaining vaginal health and preventing infections of the reproductive tract. The rectum has been suggested as the major source for the colonisation of the vaginal econiche. Methods To establish whether the rectum can serve as a possible bacterial reservoir for colonisation of the vaginal econiche, we cultured vaginal and rectal specimens from pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation, identified the isolates to the species level with tRNA intergenic length polymorphism analysis (tDNA-PCR and genotyped the isolates for those subjects from which the same species was isolated simultaneously vaginally and rectally, by RAPD-analysis. One vaginal and one rectal swab were collected from a total of each of 132 pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation. Swabs were cultured on Columbia CNA agar and MRS agar. For each subject 4 colonies were selected for each of both sites, i.e. 8 colonies in total. Results Among the 844 isolates that could be identified by tDNA-PCR, a total of 63 bacterial species were present, 9 (14% only vaginally, 26 (41% only rectally, and 28 (44% in both vagina and rectum. A total of 121 (91.6% of 132 vaginal samples and 51 (38.6% of 132 rectal samples were positive for lactobacilli. L. crispatus was the most frequently isolated Lactobacillus species from the vagina (40% of the subjects were positive, followed by L. jensenii (32%, L. gasseri (30% and L. iners (11%. L. gasseri was the most frequently isolated Lactobacillus species from the rectum (15%, followed by L. jensenii (12%, L. crispatus (11% and L. iners (2%. A total of 47 pregnant women carried the same species vaginally and rectally. This resulted in 50 vaginal/rectal pairs of the same species, for a total of eight different species. For 34 of the 50 species pairs (68%, isolates with the same genotype were present vaginally and rectally and a high level of genotypic diversity within species per subject was also

  9. Endometrial thickness as a test for endometrial cancer in women with postmenopausal vaginal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabor, Ann; Watt, Hilary C; Wald, Nicholas J

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the value of endometrial thickness measurement as a test for endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women with vaginal bleeding (symptomatic women). DATA SOURCES: We conducted a literature search using the MEDLINE database from 1991 to 1997, and the key words "vaginal...... ultrasonography" and "endometrial thickness measurement." The review was limited to original research reports written in English, concerning symptomatic women having vaginal ultrasonography before a diagnostic test and not receiving tamoxifen. STUDY SELECTION: A total of 48 studies were identified....... A questionnaire was sent to the corresponding author of each paper requesting supplementary information. Data were included in our analysis if the corresponding author was able to supply information on the median endometrial thickness in unaffected symptomatic women and the endometrial thickness values...

  10. Cervical cytopathological changes among women with vaginal discharge attending teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdi M Salih

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Infection is common among the illiterate group of women. Women with vaginal discharges should undergo screening tests for evaluation by cervical smear for the early detection of cervical precancer conditions. There is an urgent need to establish a screening program for cervical cancer in Sudan.

  11. Acceptability of Carraguard Vaginal Microbicide Gel among HIV-Infected Women in Chiang Rai, Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whitehead, Sara J.; McLean, Catherine; Chaikummao, Supaporn; Braunstein, Sarah; Utaivoravit, Wat; van de Wijgert, Janneke H.; Mock, Philip A.; Siraprapasiri, Taweesap; Friedland, Barbara A.; Kilmarx, Peter H.; Markowitz, Lauri E.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Few studies of microbicide acceptability among HIV-infected women have been done. We assessed CarraguardH vaginal gel acceptability among participants in a randomized, controlled, crossover safety trial in HIV-infected women in Thailand. Methodology/Principal Findings: Participants used

  12. The enhancement of vaginal vasocongestion by sildenafil in healthy premenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, Ellen; van Lunsen, Rik H. W.; Everaerd, Walter; Riley, Alan; Scott, Elizabeth; Boolell, Mitradev

    2002-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the effect of a single oral dose of sildenafil citrate (Viagra(R) Pfizer, Inc., New York, NY) on vaginal vasocongestion and subjective sexual arousal in healthy premenopausal women. Methods: Twelve women without sexual dysfunction were randomly assigned to receive

  13. Prevalence of Gardnerella vaginalis among women with lactobacillus-predominant vaginal flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebke, Jane R; Flynn, Moira S; Rivers, Charles A

    2014-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of Gardnerella vaginalis in women with normal vaginal flora. Women without symptoms or signs of vaginal infection and five or fewer lifetime sexual partners were recruited for a longitudinal study of vaginal flora. Negative Amsel criteria and a Nugent score of 0-3 were required for enrolment. Vaginal specimens were self-collected daily for Gram stain and every 3 days for PCR for G vaginalis for 30 days. Women completed daily diaries recording sexual activity, symptoms and menses. Twenty women were recruited for the study with 19 completing all specimens and 1 lost to follow-up. During the 30-day study period, 13/19 (68.4%) of women had normal Nugent scores (0-3) whereas 6/19 (31.6%) of women had at least 2 days of Nugent scores in the intermediate range (p=0.09). Among the 19 women, 9 (47%) were negative for G vaginalis by PCR throughout the study period whereas 10 (53%) had at least one specimen that demonstrated the presence of G vaginalis by PCR. Of those women with intermediate flora on Gram stain during the course of the study 5/6 (83.3%) were positive for G vaginalis while 5/13 (38.5%) of those women with only normal Nugent scores were positive for G vaginalis. Thus, 61.5% of women with normal Nugent scores had no evidence of G vaginalis by serial PCR. Gardnerella may not be part of the normal flora in women with optimal vaginal health.

  14. Phase I trial of a Lactobacillus crispatus vaginal suppository for prevention of recurrent urinary tract infection in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Christopher A; Stapleton, Ann E; Yarova-Yarovaya, Yuliya; Stamm, Walter E

    2007-01-01

    We performed a phase I trial to assess the safety and tolerance of a Lactobacillus vaginal suppository for prevention of recurrent UTI. Premenopausal women with a history of recurrent UTI were randomized to use L. crispatus CTV-05 or placebo vaginal suppositories daily for five days. 30 women were randomized (15 to L. crispatus CTV-05). No severe adverse events occurred. Mild to moderate vaginal discharge and genital irritation were reported by women in both study arms. Seven women randomized to L. crispatus CTV-05 developed pyuria without associated symptoms. Most women had high concentrations of vaginal H202-producing lactobacilli before randomization. L. crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. gasseri were the most common Lactobacillus species identified, with stable prevalence over time. L. crispatus CTV-05 can be given as a vaginal suppository with minimal sideeffects to healthy women with a history of recurrent UTI. Mild inflammation of the urinary tract was noted in some women.

  15. Evaluation of vaginal group B streptococcal culture results after digital vaginal examination and its pattern of antibiotic resistance in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, Khadijeh; Chehrei, Ali; Manavi, Mahdokht Sadat

    2013-12-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) colonizes the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract of 10-40% of pregnant women and it is a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. This study was to evaluate whether vaginal GBS culture results alter after digital vaginal examination or not. Antibiotic resistance pattern of this specie has been also assessed. A total of 186 pregnant women with gestational age of 37 weeks were enrolled to the study. Two vaginal swaps were taken before and immediately after digital vaginal examination, then third swap was taken after 48 hours of examination. The cultures were evaluated for bacterial growth and the isolated bacteria were assessed for antimicrobial drugs sensitivity. Positive culture of GBS was seen in 16.1%. Initially negative GBS result was found not to change immediately after examination. But positive cultures were negative in 1.6% of women after digital vaginal examination. After 48 hours 2.7% of initially negative GBS was positive and no one with initially positive GBS had negative culture. Sensitivity to penicillin and vancomycin was 100%, erythromycin 74%, ampicillin 65%, cefazolin 62.8%, cefotaxime 54.2% and ceftizoxime was 40%. The present investigation showed that the vaginal GBS culture result is minimally affected by digital vaginal examination. Drug of choice for GBS eradication is penicillin; vancomycin could be the choice in the case of penicillin hypersensitivity. This article extracted from M.D. thesis. (Mahdokht Sadat Manavi).

  16. Role of Oxidative Stress on Vaginal Bleeding during The First Trimester of Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüya Deveer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reactive oxygen species (ROS are produced in many metabolic and physiologic processes. Antioxidative mechanisms remove these harmful species. Our aim was to assess whether serum total antioxidant capacity and total oxidant status altered during first trimester pregnancies with vaginal bleeding. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, A group of pregnant women at less than 10 weeks of gestation with vaginal bleeding (n=25 and a control group of healthy pregnancies with similar characteristics (n=25 were included. All of the patients in the two groups were matched for age, gestational age and body mass index. Serum total antioxidant capacity and total oxidant status levels were determined using a Hitachi 912 analyzer and compared between the two groups. Results: Characteristics, including maternal age, parity, and gestational age were similar between the two groups. Serum total antioxidant capacity levels were significantly lower in the women with vaginal bleeding than in control women (1.16 ± 0.20 vs. 1.77 ± 0.08 mmol Trolox Equiv./L; p=0.001, whereas higher total oxidant status measurements were found in women with vaginal bleeding compared to the control group (4.01 ± 0.20 vs. 2.57 ± 0.65 μmol H2O2 Equiv./L; p=0.001. Conclusion: Increased total oxidant status might be involved in the pathophysiology of vaginal bleeding during early first trimester pregnancies.

  17. Comparing Quality of Life in Women after Vaginal Delivery and Cesarean Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahdi Majzoobi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Postpartum period is accompanied by significant changes in women’s quality of life. These alterations can affect the health of mothers and children. Considering the importance of postnatal quality of life and its different contributing factors, this study aimed to compare women’s quality of life after vaginal delivery and cesarean section. Methods:This retrospective cohort study included a random sample of 2100 women, referring to Hamadan health care centers for congenital hypothyroidism screening or infant vaccination. The participants’ quality of life was examined, using Short Form-36 (SF-36 questionnaire, evaluating five periods of time including one week, two months, four months, six months, and one year after delivery (either vaginal or cesarean delivery. Data were analyzed using t-test. Results: Quality of life was significantly higher in women with vaginal delivery, compared to women with cesarean section in all periods including one week (68.77 vs. 42.44, two months (69.11 vs. 54.76, four months (78.19 vs. 53.02, six months (75.62 vs. 54.94,and one year(78.43 vs. 53.77 after delivery. Conclusion: Considering women’s higher quality of life after vaginal delivery, compared to cesarean section, it seems that vaginal delivery is a safer and less expensive option, which is recommended for all pregnant women.

  18. Quality of life and sexual function of naturally postmenopausal women on an ultralow-concentration estriol vaginal gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Salvatore; Cianci, Stefano; Amore, Francesca F; Ventura, Betty; Bambili, Elisa; Spadola, Saveria; Cianci, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the sexual function and quality of life (QoL) of naturally postmenopausal women affected by genitourinary syndrome of menopause who were treated with an ultralow-concentration estriol vaginal gel (0.005%). Postmenopausal women with vulvovaginal atrophy symptoms and sexual disorders were enrolled in a case-control study. Women were treated with vaginal gel (containing 50 μg of estriol) daily for 3 weeks and then twice weekly up to 12 weeks. Determination of vaginal maturation index, evaluation of vaginal pH, and assessment of vaginal atrophy symptoms were carried out. QoL, sexual function, and distress were investigated using the Short Form 36, Female Sexual Function Index, and Female Sexual Distress Scale questionnaires. Changes between baseline and week 12 were assessed. Sixty-eight women were included in the study group, and 42 women were included in the control group. Women on estriol vaginal gel had a significant increase in vaginal maturation index and improvement of vaginal pH compared with baseline (P Sexual Function Index score improved, and Female Sexual Distress Scale score decreased from baseline to follow-up. Results from the Short Form 36 questionnaire showed a significant improvement in the overall index of somatic aspects (P sexual health and QoL of naturally postmenopausal women. These results confirm that low doses of vaginal estrogen must be considered as the first choice for the initial treatment of postmenopausal genitourinary symptoms.

  19. Determination of factors affecting relapse of vaginitis among reproductive-aged women: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsapour, Roxana; Majlessi, Fereshteh; Rahimiforoushani, Abbas; Sadeghi, Roya

    2017-01-01

    Vaginitis is a common problem for women, especially in reproductive-aged women. It is a worldwide health problem with many side effects but could be prevented by a health-promoting lifestyle related to vagina health. The aim of this study was to determine the factors affecting relapse of vaginitis. In this experimental study, 350 reproductive-aged women with vaginitis were selected from 10 health centers in Kermanshah (Iran) during 2015 and were equally included in the intervention and control groups. To collect data, a researcher-created questionnaire, which included sociodemographic and health-promoting lifestyle questions, was used. The educational intervention was performed over 20 sessions, each lasting 25-35 minutes. An intervention group was educated by face-to-face education, pamphlets, phone contacts, text messages, and social media. Another group continued the routine clinic education and treatment without contacting the intervention group. Data were analyzed through chi-square and a logistics regression model using IBM-SPSS version 20. The results of the study indicated a significant relation between sociodemographic characteristics such as women and their husbands' literacy, job, family size, income, area for each member of family, tendency of pregnancy, body mass index (BMI), and caesarean experience (prelationships between health-promoting lifestyle dimensions and prevention of vaginitis were identified. Relapse after intervention in the intervention group was 27.7% and 72.3% in the control group. According to the logistic regression analysis, chance for relapse of vaginitis in the group that did not receive intervention was more than the same chance in the intervention group (OR=5.14). Health-promoting lifestyle intervention influences prevention of vaginitis. Health-promoting lifestyle, literacy promotion, prevention of caesarian, and obesity are beneficial to improvement in lifestyle dimensions associated with vagina health could be implemented as

  20. Utility of microbiological profile of symptomatic vaginal discharge in rural women of reproductive age group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masand, Deepa Lokwani; Patel, Jaya; Gupta, Sweta

    2015-03-01

    Symptomatic vaginal discharge is the most frequent symptom in women of reproductive age group. Owing to social stigma majority of affected women hesitate to seek medical consultation. Therefore the actual incidence of vaginal discharge is much more than what is reported. The aim of the study is to determine the microbiological profile of symptomatic vaginal discharge in rural area and its utility in the management of genital tract infection. This was a descriptive type of observational study, conducted in sexually active women of reproductive age group (18-45 years) attending the OPD/IPD of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department of National Institute of Medical Sciences, Shobhanagar, Jaipur (Rajasthan), over a period of 18 months from June 2012 to December 2013. Hundred sexually active non pregnant women of reproductive age group (18-45 years) were included in the study. After taking consent general physical examination along with pelvic examination was performed. Two high vaginal swabs and blood sample were collected for various tests. Hanging drop preparation was immediately made. This was followed by gram staining and culture. Chlamydia trachomatis IgM antibody was detected by ELISA method. Out of 100 women with symptomatic vaginal discharge, specific diagnosis was obtained in 89% of cases whereas no specific aetiology was found in 11% cases. Mean age was 32.60 years. Fifty-three percent patient had Bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis was found in 14% cases, 16% had Chlamydia trachomatis infection while Trichomonas vaginalis infection was detected in 6% cases. Homogenous discharge was most prevalent (52%), followed by mucopurulant discharge in 23% of women. Patient with symptomatic vaginal discharge need to be actively managed with appropriate antimicrobial agents. Judicious management may be helpful in prevention of HIV, HPV, CIN and post infection sequelae.

  1. Phase I Trial of a Lactobacillus crispatus Vaginal Suppository for Prevention of Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher A. Czaja; Stapleton, Ann E.; Yuliya Yarova-Yarovaya; Stamm, Walter E.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: We performed a phase I trial to assess the safety and tolerance of a Lactobacillus vaginal suppository for prevention of recurrent UTI. Methods: Premenopausal women with a history of recurrent UTI were randomized to use L. crispatus CTV-05 or placebo vaginal suppositories daily for five days. Results: 30 women were randomized (15 to L. crispatus CTV-05). No severe adverse events occurred. Mild to moderate vaginal discharge and genital irritation were reported...

  2. Efficacy of vaginal danazol treatment in women with menorrhagia during fertile age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luisi, Stefano; Razzi, Sandro; Lazzeri, Lucia; Bocchi, Caterina; Severi, Filiberto M; Petraglia, Felice

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy and patient satisfaction of danazol delivered vaginally as treatment for young women with menorrhagia. Prospective study. University of Siena, Siena, Italy. Women with menorrhagia (n = 55; age range 25-35 years) after ultrasound and hysteroscopy. Low-dose danazol (200 mg/day) was daily administered by vaginal route for 6 months. Before and every month during the treatment women were requested: 1) to keep a diary of menstrual bleeding and to rate blood loss on a visual analog scale from 0 (no blood loss) to 10 (gushing-type bleeding); 2) to record side effects and their satisfaction with the therapy. Transvaginal ultrasound, blood count, serum chemistries, and serum concentration of LH, FSH, E(2), TSH, FT(3), FT(4), and PRL were evaluated before and after 6 months. The severity of blood loss was significantly reduced in all of the women after 2 months of treatment. Uterine volume was significantly reduced, and hematocrit, hemoglobin, and red blood cell count increased in all of the women after 6 months. The medical treatment did not affect hormonal parameters, and menstrual cycle remained unaffected; few local vaginal adverse effects were recorded. Vaginal danazol resulted in effective medical treatment in young women with menorrhagia, and, because of a lack of significant adverse effects, it may be proposed as an alternative treatment.

  3. [Prevalence of self-reported vaginal discharge and associated factors in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar, Juraci A; Mendoza-Sassi, Raúl A; González-Chica, David A; Menezes, Eduardo H M; Brink, Günther; Pohlmann, Marcela; Fonseca, Tania M V

    2009-12-01

    This study aims to determine the prevalence self-reported abnormal vaginal discharge and to identify associated risk factors in pregnant women in the municipality of Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A standardized questionnaire was applied to all pregnant women admitted for delivery in local maternity hospitals. The chi-square test was used to compare proportions, and Poisson regression was applied using multivariate analysis. Prevalence of vaginal discharge was 40%. Adjusted analysis showed the following prevalence ratios for vaginal discharge: 1.6 (1.4-1.8) for adolescents; 1.3 (1.1-1.6) for 8 years of schooling or less; 1.3 (1.1-1.5) for alcohol consumption; 2.0 (1.8-2.2) for vaginal discharge in the previous pregnancy; 1.4 (1.3-1.6) for urinary tract infection in the current pregnancy; and 0.8 (0.7-0.9) for history of prematurity. Local health services should target adolescent women, those with low schooling or low family income, and those with a history of vaginal discharge in the previous pregnancy or urinary tract infection in the current pregnancy.

  4. Fractional CO2 laser treatment for vulvovaginal atrophy symptoms and vaginal rejuvenation in perimenopausal women

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    Arroyo C

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available César Arroyo HM Montepríncipe University Hospital Laser Unit, Madrid, Spain Background: This study investigated a novel fractional carbon dioxide (CO2 laser for treatment of symptoms associated with vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA in perimenopausal women.Methods: The study included 21 perimenopausal women (mean age 45±7 years treated three times by CO2 laser resurfacing and coagulation of the vaginal canal tissue and mucosal tissue of the introitus. Vaginal health index (VHI scores were computed by the investigator at baseline and follow-ups. Subjects reported on sexual function, satisfaction, and improvement with treatment. A visual analog scale was used to measure discomfort with treatment.Results: Vaginal health and subject assessment of vaginal symptoms improved with successive treatments. At 12 weeks following the third treatment, 82% of the patients showed a statistically significant improvement in VHI (P<0.05. Additionally, 81% of subjects reported improvement in sexual gratification, 94% reported improvement in vaginal rejuvenation, and 100% reported satisfaction with treatment. VHI improvement remained significant at 6–8 months after treatments (P<0.01. Most patients (97% reported no to mild discomfort with treatment. Responses were mild and transient following treatment, with itching being the most commonly reported (20% side effect.Conclusion: In this study, fractional CO2 laser treatment was associated with improvement of vaginal health and amelioration of symptoms of VVA, resulting in improved sexual function in perimenopausal women. Treatment time was quick, and there was minimal discomfort associated with treatment. Investigation of clinical outcome in a larger study population is warranted. Keywords: genitourinary syndrome of menopause, vaginal rejuvenation, stress urinary incontinence, collagen remodeling, sexual dysfunction, vulvovaginal atrophy

  5. Association between Trichomonas vaginalis and vaginal bacterial community composition among reproductive-age women

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    Brotman, Rebecca M.; Bradford, L. Latey; Conrad, Melissa; Gajer, Pawel; Ault, Kevin; Peralta, Ligia; Forney, Larry J.; Carlton, Jane M.; Abdo, Zaid; Ravel, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Some vaginal bacterial communities are thought to prevent infection by sexually transmitted organisms. Prior work demonstrated that the vaginal microbiota of reproductive-age women cluster into five types of bacterial communities; 4 dominated by Lactobacillus species (L. iners, L. crispatus, L. gasseri, L. jensenii), and one (termed community state type (CST) IV) lacking significant numbers of lactobacilli and characterized by higher proportions of Atopobium, Prevotella, Parvimonas, Sneathia, Gardnerella, Mobiluncus, and other taxa. We sought to evaluate the relationship between vaginal bacterial composition and Trichomonas vaginalis. Methods Self-collected vaginal swabs were obtained cross-sectionally from 394 women equally representing four ethnic/racial groups. T. vaginalis screening was performed using PCR targeting the 18S rRNA and β-tubulin genes. Vaginal bacterial composition was characterized by pyrosequencing of barcoded 16S rRNA genes. A panel of eleven microsatellite markers was used to genotype T. vaginalis. The association between vaginal microbiota and T. vaginalis was evaluated by exact logistic regression. Results T. vaginalis was detected in 2.8% of participants (11/394). Of the eleven T. vaginalis-positive cases, eight (72%) were categorized as CST-IV, two (18%) as communities dominated by L. iners and one (9%) as L. crispatus-dominated (p-value:0.05). CST-IV microbiota were associated with an 8-fold increased odds of detecting T. vaginalis compared to women in the L. crispatus-dominated state (OR:8.26, 95% CI:1.07–372.65). Seven of the 11 T. vaginalis isolates were assigned to two genotypes. Conclusion T. vaginalis was associated with vaginal microbiota consisting of low proportions of lactobacilli and high proportions of Mycoplasma, Parvimonas, Sneathia, and other anaerobes. PMID:23007708

  6. [Vaginal infections in pregnant women at the Regional Hospital of Sokode (Togo) in 2010 and 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchelougou, D; Karou, D S; Kpotsra, A; Balaka, A; Assih, M; Bamoke, M; Katawa, G; Anani, K; Simpore, J; de Souza, C

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the major microorganisms causing vaginal infections in pregnant women consulting at the Regional Hospital of Sokodé and to assess their sensitivity to antibiotics. This prospective study took place from June 2010 through August 2011 and included 302 pregnant women from whom a sample was taken by a vaginal swab. Samples were processed for parasitic, bacterial, and fungal agents, by microscopic examination and culture. We isolated 273 germs, alone or in association in 221 women. These germs were distributed as follows: Gardnerella vaginalis (55.31%), Candida spp (30.77%), Staphylococcus aureus (5.49%), Enterobacteriaceae (4.40%), Trichomonas vaginalis (3.66%) and Mobiluncus spp (0.37%). No Streptococcus strain was isolated during the study. Over 40% of women had bacterial vaginosis and 23.08% of them were coinfected. The occurrence of coinfection was statistically influenced by the stage of pregnancy (P = 0.05). The susceptibility tests revealed that S. aureus developed a strong resistance to aminopenicillins (66.67%) and cephalosporins (>44.44%), while Enterobacteriaceae was resistant to cephalosporins and quinolones. (16.67%). This study showed that pregnant women in Sokode are still exposed to vaginal infection, caused mostly by G. vaginalis and Candida species. These results underline the need for at least one vaginal swab culture for each woman during pregnancy.

  7. Vaginal Microbiota of Healthy Pregnant Mexican Women is Constituted by Four Lactobacillus Species and Several Vaginosis-Associated Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Rodríguez, César; Romero-González, Roberto; Albani-Campanario, Mario; Figueroa-Damián, Ricardo; Meraz-Cruz, Noemí; Hernández-Guerrero, César

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To identify the microbiota communities in the vaginal tracts of healthy Mexican women across the pregnancy. Methods. Vaginal swabs were obtained during the prenatal visit of women from all trimesters (n = 64) of healthy pregnant women of Mexico City. DNA was isolated from each sample, and PCR-DGGE and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments were used to identify the bacterial communities. Results. 21 different microorganisms were identified in the vaginal samples. Lactobacillus genus was present in 98% of women studied. Four lactobacilli species were identified in vaginal samples. L. acidophilus was the predominant (78%) followed by L. iners (54%), L. gasseri (20%), and L. delbrueckii (6%). 17 different microorganisms related to bacterial vaginosis conditions were identified. Ureaplasma urealyticum was the predominant (21%) followed by BVAB1 (17%) and Gemella bergeriae (7.8%). Conclusions. Lactobacillus genus predominates in the vaginal samples of Mexican pregnant women associated with different microorganisms related to bacterial vaginosis conditions. PMID:21960733

  8. Vaginal Microbiota of Healthy Pregnant Mexican Women is Constituted by Four Lactobacillus Species and Several Vaginosis-Associated Bacteria

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    César Hernández-Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify the microbiota communities in the vaginal tracts of healthy Mexican women across the pregnancy. Methods. Vaginal swabs were obtained during the prenatal visit of women from all trimesters (=64 of healthy pregnant women of Mexico City. DNA was isolated from each sample, and PCR-DGGE and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments were used to identify the bacterial communities. Results. 21 different microorganisms were identified in the vaginal samples. Lactobacillus genus was present in 98% of women studied. Four lactobacilli species were identified in vaginal samples. L. acidophilus was the predominant (78% followed by L. iners (54%, L. gasseri (20%, and L. delbrueckii (6%. 17 different microorganisms related to bacterial vaginosis conditions were identified. Ureaplasma urealyticum was the predominant (21% followed by BVAB1 (17% and Gemella bergeriae (7.8%. Conclusions. Lactobacillus genus predominates in the vaginal samples of Mexican pregnant women associated with different microorganisms related to bacterial vaginosis conditions.

  9. Phase I Trial of a Lactobacillus crispatus Vaginal Suppository for Prevention of Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection in Women

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    Christopher A. Czaja

    2007-01-01

    Conclusions: L. crispatus CTV-05 can be given as a vaginal suppository with minimal sideeffects to healthy women with a history of recurrent UTI. Mild inflammation of the urinary tract was noted in some women.

  10. [Investigation of the situation of vaginal microflora in healthy women population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Fang; Zhang, Ning; Di, Wen; Liao, Qin-ping; Wang, Wen; Zhao, Xiao-ming; Sun, Yun; Liu, Zhao-hui

    2009-01-01

    To assess the distribution of vaginal microflora in healthy women and investigate their cognition of lower reproductive tract infection-related knowledge as well as personal hygiene habits and character of behavior in seeking medical treatment. Total of 1660 healthy women who had physical check-ups at the Medical Center of Renji Hospital were selected and received gynecologic examination, as well as routine examination, pH examination and bacterial culture of the vaginal discharge. In addition, 860 of them were randomly selected for questionnaire survey, in which reproductive tract infection -related knowledge and personal hygiene habits as well as behavior in seeking medical treatment were involved. Among the 1660 censused women, vaginal average pH was 4. 16 +/- 0.21. The positive rate of Candida in vaginal discharge routine examination was 3.86% (64/1660), which was lower than that in aerobes culture 7.71% (128/1660). Candida albicans was the most populous species 78.9% (101/128), followed by 7.8% (10/128) and 7.0% (9/128) for the Candida glabrata and Candida krusei respectively. The most populous species of vaginal microflora were hemolytic streptococcus A (63.80%, 1059/1660), Staphylococcus epidermidis (14.28%, 237/1660), and Enterococcus faecalis (D) group (11.44%, 190/1660). The questionnaire survey showed that 88.4% (760/860) of 860 women took active treatment when feeling unwell, 92.1% (792/860) of them had good hygiene practices, and only 21.2% (182/860) had the habit of vaginal douching. In addition, 50.0% (430/860) of them had the desire to obtain reproductive health knowledge through out-patient consultation. Vulvovaginal Candida disease ranks the first in all types of vaginitis, among which, Candida albicans is the most populous species followed by the Candida glabrata and Candida krusei. Hemolytic streptococcus A and Staphylococcus epidermidis are the most common species of vaginal microflora in healthy women. The censused women have high awareness of

  11. Resistance and barriers to local estrogen therapy in women with atrophic vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsberg, Sheryl A; Krychman, Michael L

    2013-06-01

    Vaginal atrophy results from a decrease in circulating estrogen and is experienced by approximately 50% of postmenopausal women. Its symptoms affect multiple dimensions of genitopelvic health, sexuality, and overall quality of life. Nonhormonal over-the-counter treatments may provide temporary symptom relief, but the condition is progressive, and hormonal treatment may be warranted. The study aims to review the literature and discuss the impact of atrophic vaginitis and various treatment options, including the resistance and barriers to the use of local estrogen therapy for atrophic vaginitis. This article also aims to provide a greater awareness of the condition and the difficulties in communicating effectively with patients, and to provide strategies to help healthcare professionals acquire effective communication skills to initiate a candid dialogue with patients who may be suffering in silence and may benefit from therapy. This review was based on peer-reviewed publications on the topic of atrophic vaginitis and local estrogen therapy identified from key word searches of PubMed, in addition to landmark studies/surveys and treatment guidelines/recommendations on menopause available in the literature and on the Internet. The main outcomes are the impact of atrophic vaginitis and the various treatment options, including the resistance and barriers to the use of local estrogen therapy. Minimally absorbed local vaginal estrogen therapy enables administration of estrogen doses much lower than systemic doses used for vasomotor symptoms. Local therapy is also the first-line pharmacologic treatment recommended by the North American Menopause and International Menopause Societies. Despite treatment options, the sensitive nature of the condition and embarrassment may prohibit or limit many women from openly discussing symptoms with healthcare professionals. Many are hesitant to initiate hormonal treatment because of safety concerns. Healthcare professionals should

  12. Intravaginal practices, vaginal flora disturbances, and acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases in Zimbabwean women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wijgert, J. H.; Mason, P. R.; Gwanzura, L.; Mbizvo, M. T.; Chirenje, Z. M.; Iliff, V.; Shiboski, S.; Padian, N. S.

    2000-01-01

    One hundred sixty-nine Zimbabwean women were studied to determine whether the use of intravaginal practices (cleaning with the fingers, wiping the vagina, and inserting traditional substances) are associated with disturbances of vaginal flora and acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).

  13. Acceptability of Sexually Transmitted Infection Testing Using Self-Collected Vaginal Swabs among College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielder, Robyn L.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the acceptability of sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing using self-collected vaginal swabs (SCVS) among college women. Participants: First-year female students ("N" = 483). Methods: Participants were offered free testing for 3 STIs using SCVS in April 2010 and later completed a survey regarding their…

  14. The effects of tibolone on vaginal blood flow, sexual desire and arousability in postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, E.; van Lunsen, R. H.; Everaerd, W.

    2001-01-01

    AIMS: To compare the effects of 3 months' tibolone treatment with the effects of placebo on sexual function (in particular, vaginal blood flow, and sexual desire and arousability) and climacteric symptoms in postmenopausal women. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, cross-over study was conducted in

  15. Candida species isolated from the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected women in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

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    Paula Matos Oliveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is the second most common vaginal infection. HIV-infection is a risk factor for this infection. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of VVC and to describe the main Candida species isolated and their susceptibility to antifungal drugs in HIV-infected patients, compared to HIV-uninfected women in Salvador, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including a group of 64 HIV-infected women and 76 uninfected women, followed up at the AIDS reference center and at the Gynecological Clinic of Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública (Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. RESULTS: Frequency of Candida spp. was higher in HIV-infected women (29.7% than in HIV-uninfected controls (14.5% (p = 0.02. The odds ratio value for vulvovaginal candidiasis in HIV-infected patients was 2.6 (95% CI: 1.07 - 6.32 p = 0.03. Candida albicans was the most commonly isolated species in both HIV-infected (52.3% and uninfected women (85.7%, followed by C. parapsolis in 17.6% and 14.3%, respectively. In HIV-infected women, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and a coinfection of C. albicans and C. glabrata were also identified. There was no significant difference between Candida species isolated from the vaginal mucosa of women with VVC and colonization of the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women. One C. glabrata isolate from an HIV-infected patient was resistant to fluconazole and other two isolates exhibited a dose-dependent susceptibility. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm a higher frequency of Candida spp. isolated from the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected women and a broader spectrum of species involved. Only Candida glabrata isolates showed decreased susceptibility to fluconazole.

  16. Cervical cytopathological changes among women with vaginal discharge attending teaching hospital.

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    Salih, Magdi M; AlHag, Fatma Tage El Sir; Khalifa, Mohammed Ahmed; El Nabi, Abdulla H

    2017-01-01

    To find cytology changes among women attending obstetrics and gynaecology clinic with complaints of vaginal discharges. This descriptive hospital-based cytological study was conducted at the outpatient clinic of the obstetrics and gynaecology department. Two hundred women with complaints of vaginal discharge were selected. Their detailed histories were documented on a special request form. Pap smears were then obtained and sent for cytological examination to the cytopathology department. All low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) cases were advised to follow-up with Pap smears in the next 6-12 months. Those with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) were further investigated by a cervical biopsy and managed accordingly. The statistical analysis was performed using, the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). Chi-square and cross-tabulation were used in this study. The cytological examination of Pap smears showed no changes (i.e. negative findings) in 88 (44%) cases, while Candida species infection was the most prevalent, which was found in 67 (33.5%) of the cases. Bacterial vaginosis was found in 39 women (19.5%); 6 women (3%) were reported with dyskaryotic changes. Two cases were found to have LSIL and 4 women had HSIL. Infection is common among the illiterate group of women. Women with vaginal discharges should undergo screening tests for evaluation by cervical smear for the early detection of cervical precancer conditions. There is an urgent need to establish a screening program for cervical cancer in Sudan.

  17. The journey from pain to power: A meta-ethnography on women's experiences of vaginal birth after caesarean.

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    Keedle, Hazel; Schmied, Virginia; Burns, Elaine; Dahlen, Hannah Grace

    2017-06-24

    Vaginal birth after caesarean can be a safe and satisfying option for many women who have had a previous caesarean, yet rates of vaginal birth after caesarean remain low in the majority of countries. Exploring women's experiences of vaginal birth after caesarean can improve health practitioners' understanding of the factors that facilitate or hinder women in the journey to have a vaginal birth after caesarean. This paper reports on a meta-ethnographic review of 20 research papers exploring women's experience of vaginal birth after caesarean in a variety of birth locations. Meta-ethnography utilises a seven-stage process to synthesise qualitative research. The overarching theme was 'the journey from pain to power'. The theme 'the hurt me' describes the previous caesarean experience and resulting feelings. Women experience a journey of 'peaks and troughs' moving from their previous caesarean to their vaginal birth after caesarean. Achieving a vaginal birth after caesarean was seen in the theme 'the powerful me,' and the resultant benefits are described in the theme 'the ongoing journey'. Women undergo a journey from their previous caesarean with different positive and negative experiences as they move towards their goal of achieving a vaginal birth after caesarean. This 'journey from pain to power' is strongly influenced by both negative and positive support provided by health care practitioners. Positive support from a health care professional is more common in confident practitioners and continuity of care with a midwife. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Women's views and experiences of their vaginal bleeding patterns: an international perspective from Norplant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Arcangues, Catherine; Jackson, Emily; Brache, Vivian; Piaggio, Gilda

    2011-02-01

    Contraceptive-induced vaginal bleeding changes may be an undesired side effect, or a welcome opportunity to alter menstrual patterns. In Europe and the US, such changes are increasingly accepted; this study explores the perceptions of women around the globe. Norplant users from five countries (Chile, China, the Dominican Republic, Indonesia and Tunisia; N = 486) were surveyed at entry into a contraceptive clinical trial regarding preferred frequency of menstruation, menses-associated symptoms, and activities during menses. Most women preferred once-monthly menstruation (81%); women in Chile, younger women, women neither married nor cohabitating, Christian women, and women experienced with hormonal contraception were more likely to accept alternative bleeding patterns. Women in Tunisia and Chile reported more symptoms associated with menses, while women in Beijing reported very few; decreased energy (32%), headaches (26%), abdominal pain (23%) and depression (22%) were most common. Avoidance of activities during menses such as physical work, sports, praying and entering religious sites, was closely tied to study centre. Across all sites, women (90%) avoided sexual intercourse during menses. Despite growing acceptance of altering bleeding patterns, women in this study preferred monthly vaginal bleeding. Understanding sociocultural contexts and individual preferences is important when addressing this issue with women from diverse backgrounds.

  19. Pathological Vaginal Discharge among Pregnant Women: Pattern of Occurrence and Association in a Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca, Tânia Maria M V; Cesar, Juraci A; Mendoza-Sassi, Raúl A; Schmidt, Elisabeth B

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence of pathological vaginal discharge and to describe risk factors associated with pregnant women. All women living in the city of Rio Grande, Southern Brazil, who gave birth in 2010 were included in the study. A standardized questionnaire was administered to collect information on demographic, reproductive, and health-related factors and morbidity during pregnancy. The chi-square test was used to compare proportions, and multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance was performed. Of the 2,395 women studied, 43% had pathological vaginal discharge during pregnancy. The adjusted analysis showed that younger women of lower socioeconomic condition, those with a past history of abortion, vaginal discharge in a previous pregnancy, and treated for depression, anemia, and urinary tract infection during their current pregnancy, were more likely to have pathological vaginal discharge. Vaginal discharge during pregnancy was highly prevalent in the sample studied calling for proper risk factor management at the primary care level.

  20. Impact of Periodic Presumptive Treatment for Bacterial Vaginosis on the Vaginal Microbiome among Women Participating in the Preventing Vaginal Infections Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkus, Jennifer E; Srinivasan, Sujatha; Anzala, Omu; Kimani, Joshua; Andac, Chloe; Schwebke, Jane; Fredricks, David N; McClelland, R Scott

    2017-03-01

    Evidence suggests that specific vaginal bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV) may increase the risk of adverse health outcomes in women. Among women participating in a randomized, double-blinded trial, we assessed the effect of periodic presumptive treatment (PPT) on detection of select vaginal bacteria. High-risk women from the United States and Kenya with a recent vaginal infection received intravaginal metronidazole 750 mg plus miconazole 200 mg or placebo for 5 consecutive nights each month for 12 months. Vaginal fluid specimens were collected via polyester/polyethylene terephthalate swabs every other month and tested for bacteria, using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. The effect of PPT on bacterium detection was assessed among all participants and stratified by country. Of 234 women enrolled, 221 had specimens available for analysis. The proportion of follow-up visits with detectable quantities was lower in the PPT arm versus the placebo arm for the following bacteria: BVAB1, BVAB2, Atopobium vaginae, Leptotrichia/Sneathia, and Megasphaera. The magnitude of reductions was greater among Kenyan participants as compared to US participants. Use of monthly PPT for 1 year reduced colonization with several bacteria strongly associated with BV. The role of PPT to improve vaginal health should be considered, and efforts to improve the impact of PPT regimens are warranted.

  1. Pelvimetry by three-dimensional computed tomography in non-pregnant multiparous women who delivered vaginally

    OpenAIRE

    Salk, Ismail; Cetin, Ali; Salk, Sultan; CETIN, Meral

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background We assessed retrospectively the reference values of pelvic dimensions by 3D CT performed for non-obstetrical indications in non-pregnant multiparous women with a successful vaginal delivery. We further aimed to evaluate the impact of maternal short stature on these parameters. Material/Methods The 3D CT pelvimetry was performed retrospectively in 203 non-pregnant women selected consecutively if they had at least one singleton term delivery with head presentation and if ther...

  2. Sexual function and postpartum depression 6 months after attempted operative vaginal delivery according to fetal head station: A prospective population-based cohort study.

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    Guillaume Ducarme

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of the fetal head station at attempted operative vaginal delivery (aOVD, and specifically midpelvic or low aOVD, on female and male sexual function and symptoms of postpartum depression (PPD at 6 months.Prospective population-based cohort study.1,941 women with singleton term fetuses in vertex presentation with midpelvic or low aOVD between 2008 and 2013 in a tertiary care university hospital.Symptoms of female sexual dysfunction using the Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence/Sexual Function Short Form Questionnaire (PISQ-12, symptoms of PPD using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS score, symptoms of male sexual dysfunction using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-15 and perineal pain were assessed 6 months after aOVD. We measured the association between midpelvic or low aOVD and symptoms of female and male sexual function and symptoms of PPD at 6 months using multiple regression and adjusting for demographics, and risk factors of sexual dysfunction, symptoms of PPD and perineal pain with adjusted odds ratios (aORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI.The study included 907 women (46.7% who responded to the questionnaire; 18.4% (167/907 had midpelvic aOVD, and 81.6% (740/907 low. Most women (873/907 [96.3%] of those with partners reported sexual activity at 6 months. No significant difference was observed for PISQ-12, EPDS, IIEF-15 scores and perineal pain between mid and low pelvic groups. Compared with low pelvic aOVD, midpelvic aOVD was not significantly associated with either female or male sexual dysfunction (p = 0.89 and p = 0.76, respectively, or maternal symptoms of PPD (p = 0.83. Perineal pain significantly increased the risk of male and female sexual dysfunction and maternal symptoms of PPD at 6 months (p = 0.02, p = 0.006, and p = 0.02, respectively.Midpelvic compared with low pelvic aOVD was not associated with an increase in sexual dysfunction, nor with symptoms of PPD at 6

  3. Clinicoetiological Characterization of Infectious Vaginitis amongst Women of Reproductive Age Group from Navi Mumbai, India

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    Anuradha Narayankhedkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaginitis is one of the commonest reproductive tract infections in sexually active women. In the present study clinicoetiological characterization of infectious vaginitis amongst 380 women of reproductive age group (18–45 years was done. Bacterial vaginosis (BV was detected by Nugent’s scoring, Candida infection by culture, and trichomoniasis (TV by wet mount. One hundred and ten (28.9% women presented with symptoms of vaginitis. The presenting symptoms were vaginal discharge 106 (96.4%, vulval itching/irritation 19 (17.3%, malodor 5 (4.5%, pain in abdomen 3 (2.7%, and dysuria 1 (0.9%. The commonest etiology detected was Candida in 33 (30% cases, of which 18 (54.5% were C. albicans and 15 (45.5% non-albicans Candida (NAC infections. The NAC isolates were C. glabrata (n=10, C. tropicalis (n=3, and C. krusei (n=2. BV and TV were observed in 19 (17.3% and 2 (1.8% cases, respectively. A statistically significant association between Candida infection and presence of curdy-white discharge (p=0.001 and vulval itching/irritation (p=0.007 was noted. To conclude, we observed the etiological predominance of Candida infection, with considerable prevalence of NAC, indicating the need for microbiological investigation up to species level in cases of Candida infections, to ensure appropriate management.

  4. A phase II randomized controlled trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Praneem polyherbal vaginal tablets compared with betadine vaginal pessary in women with symptoms of abnormal vaginal discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salhan, Sudha; Tripathi, Vrijesh; Sehgal, Raman; Kumar, Gaurav; Talwar, Gursaran P; Chatterjee, Arani

    2009-10-01

    Abnormal vaginal discharge (AVD) caused by a variety of reproductive tract infections is a widespread syndrome among women in India and in other developing countries. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a polyherbal formulation, Praneem, can be used for the regression of the syndrome. A phase IotaIota randomized controlled study was carried out with Praneem polyherbal tablets and Betadine vaginal pessary in 99 women with AVD. The authors found that 92% of women using Praneem were relieved of their symptoms of AVD as against 81.6% women using Betadine. Significant reduction was also seen with both treatments in lower abdominal pain, vaginal itching, and dysuria. Thus, the study indicates the efficacy of Praneem for the treatment of AVD and provides a rationale for planning a further Phase III study on a larger sample size for definitive conclusions.

  5. Living with Cat and Dog Increases Vaginal Colonization with E. coli in Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokholm, Jakob; Schjørring, Susanne; Pedersen, Louise; Bischoff, Anne Louise; Følsgaard, Nilofar; Carson, Charlotte G.; Chawes, Bo; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Mølgaard, Anne; Krogfelt, Karen A.; Bisgaard, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Background Furred pets in the household are known reservoirs for pathogenic bacteria, but it is not known if transmission of bacteria between pet and owner leads to significantly increased rate of infections. We studied whether cats and dogs living in the household of pregnant women affect the commensal vaginal flora, and furthermore the need for oral antibiotics and rate of urinary tract infections during pregnancy. Methods The novel unselected Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC2010) pregnancy cohort of 709 women participated in this analysis. Detailed information on pet exposure, oral antibiotic prescriptions filled at pharmacy and urinary tract infection during pregnancy was obtained and verified prospectively during clinic visits. Vaginal cultures were obtained at pregnancy week 36. Results Women, who had cat or dog in the home during pregnancy, had a different vaginal flora, in particular with increased Escherichia coli (E. coli) colonization; odds ratio after adjustment for lifestyle confounders and antibiotics 2.20, 95% CI, [1.27–3.80], p = 0.005. 43% of women living with cat and/or dog in the home used oral antibiotics compared to 33% of women with no cat or dog; adjusted odds ratio 1.51, 95% CI, [1.08–2.12], p = 0.016. Women living with cat had increased frequency of self-reported urinary tract infection; adjusted odds ratio 1.57, 95% CI, [1.02–2.43], p = 0.042. Conclusions The increased vaginal E. coli colonization in women living with cat or dog suggests a clinically important transmission of pathogenic bacteria from pet to owner substantiated by increased rate of antibiotic use and urinary tract infections which, which is of particular concern during pregnancy. PMID:23049986

  6. Living with cat and dog increases vaginal colonization with E. coli in pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Stokholm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Furred pets in the household are known reservoirs for pathogenic bacteria, but it is not known if transmission of bacteria between pet and owner leads to significantly increased rate of infections. We studied whether cats and dogs living in the household of pregnant women affect the commensal vaginal flora, and furthermore the need for oral antibiotics and rate of urinary tract infections during pregnancy. METHODS: The novel unselected Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC(2010 pregnancy cohort of 709 women participated in this analysis. Detailed information on pet exposure, oral antibiotic prescriptions filled at pharmacy and urinary tract infection during pregnancy was obtained and verified prospectively during clinic visits. Vaginal cultures were obtained at pregnancy week 36. RESULTS: Women, who had cat or dog in the home during pregnancy, had a different vaginal flora, in particular with increased Escherichia coli (E. coli colonization; odds ratio after adjustment for lifestyle confounders and antibiotics 2.20, 95% CI, [1.27-3.80], p=0.005. 43% of women living with cat and/or dog in the home used oral antibiotics compared to 33% of women with no cat or dog; adjusted odds ratio 1.51, 95% CI, [1.08-2.12], p=0.016. Women living with cat had increased frequency of self-reported urinary tract infection; adjusted odds ratio 1.57, 95% CI, [1.02-2.43], p=0.042. CONCLUSIONS: The increased vaginal E. coli colonization in women living with cat or dog suggests a clinically important transmission of pathogenic bacteria from pet to owner substantiated by increased rate of antibiotic use and urinary tract infections which, which is of particular concern during pregnancy.

  7. Luteal start vaginal micronized progesterone improves pregnancy success in women with recurrent pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Mary D; McQueen, Dana; Winter, Michelle; Kliman, Harvey J

    2017-03-01

    To assess the effectiveness of luteal start vaginal micronized P in a recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) cohort. Observational cohort study using prospectively collected data. Not applicable. Women seen between 2004 and 2012 with a history of two or more unexplained pregnancy losses pregnancy(ies). Women were excluded if concomitant findings, such as endometritis, maturation delay, or glandular-stromal dyssynchrony, were identified on EB. Vaginal micronized P was prescribed at a dose of 100-200 mg every 12 hours starting 3 days after LH surge (luteal start) if glandular epithelial nuclear cyclin E (nCyclinE) expression was elevated (>20%) in endometrial glands or empirically despite normal nCyclinE (≤20%). Women with normal nCyclinE (≤20%) who did not receive P were used as controls. Pregnancy success was an ongoing pregnancy >10 weeks in size. One hundred sixteen women met the inclusion criteria, of whom 51% (n = 59) had elevated nCyclinE and 49% (n = 57) had normal nCyclinE. Pregnancy success in the 59 women with elevated nCyclinE significantly improved after intervention: 6% (16/255) in prior pregnancies versus 69% (57/83) in subsequent pregnancies. Pregnancy success in subsequent pregnancies was higher in women prescribed vaginal micronized P compared with controls: 68% (86/126) versus 51% (19/37); odds ratio = 2.1 (95% confidence interval, 1.0-4.4). In this study, we found that the use of luteal start vaginal micronized P was associated with improved pregnancy success in a strictly defined cohort of women with RPL. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Topical 5-Fluorouracil for Women With High-Grade Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiascone, Stephen; Vitonis, Allison F; Feldman, Sarah

    2017-12-01

    To examine success rates of 5-fluorouracil, excision, and laser ablation as the initial and secondary management strategies for women with high-grade vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia. We conducted a retrospective case series of women referred to a single center for management of biopsy-proven, high-grade vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia between April 1994 and May 2016. Data including demographic characteristics, human papillomavirus risk factors, antecedent Pap cytology, concurrent or prior cervical and vulvar dysplasia, and treatment outcome including follow-up Pap cytology were recorded. All women were counseled on options of excision, laser ablation, or 5-fluorouracil, which was administered intravaginally according to a standardized regimen. Recurrence was defined as a biopsy showing any vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia diagnosis after primary treatment. Forty-seven patients were treated initially with 5-fluorouracil, 35 were treated with excision, and 22 were treated with laser ablation. Demographics were similar between groups. No recurrence was noted in 35 women treated with 5-fluorouracil (74%; 95% CI 62-87%), 20 treated with excision (57%; 95% CI 41-74%), and nine treated with laser ablation (41%; 95% CI 20-61%). Among 13 patients treated with 5-fluorouracil for recurrence, eight (62%) did not experience a second recurrence. Nine of 58 (16%) patients ever treated with 5-fluorouracil reported a side effect, most commonly irritation and dyspareunia. 5-fluorouracil was associated with a 74% success rate as the initial treatment modality for high-grade vaginal dysplasia. There is also a role for 5-fluorouracil in the management of recurrent or persistent high-grade vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia.

  9. Vaginal versus Obstetric Infection Escherichia coli Isolates among Pregnant Women: Antimicrobial Resistance and Genetic Virulence Profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Sáez-López

    Full Text Available Vaginal Escherichia coli colonization is related to obstetric infections and the consequent development of infections in newborns. Ampicillin resistance among E. coli strains is increasing, which is the main choice for treating empirically many obstetric and neonatal infections. Vaginal E. coli strains are very similar to extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli with regards to the virulence factors and the belonging to phylogroup B2. We studied the antimicrobial resistance and the genetic virulence profile of 82 E. coli isolates from 638 vaginal samples and 63 isolated from endometrial aspirate, placental and amniotic fluid samples from pregnant women with obstetric infections. The prevalence of E. coli in the vaginal samples was 13%, which was significant among women with associated risk factors during pregnancy, especially premature preterm rupture of membranes (p<0.0001. Sixty-five percent of the strains were ampicillin-resistant. The E. coli isolates causing obstetric infections showed higher resistance levels than vaginal isolates, particularly for gentamicin (p = 0.001. The most prevalent virulence factor genes were those related to the iron uptake systems revealing clear targets for interventions. More than 50% of the isolates belonged to the virulent B2 group possessing the highest number of virulence factor genes. The ampicillin-resistant isolates had high number of virulence factors primarily related to pathogenicity islands, and the remarkable gentamicin resistance in E. coli isolates from women presenting obstetric infections, the choice of the most appropriate empiric treatment and clinical management of pregnant women and neonates should be carefully made. Taking into account host-susceptibility, the heterogeneity of E. coli due to evolution over time and the geographical area, characterization of E. coli isolates colonizing the vagina and causing obstetric infections in different regions may help to develop interventions and avoid the

  10. The presence of vaginal Lactobacillus species does not contribute to a measureable difference in amniotic fluid lactate levels collected from the vaginal tract of laboring women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Beverley; Wong, Diana; Healy, Clare; Tracy, Mark B; Tracy, Sally K; Rawlinson, William D

    2017-04-01

    Amniotic fluid lactate research is based on the hypothesis that a relationship exists between fatigued uterine muscles and raised concentrations of the metabolite lactate, which is excreted into the amniotic fluid during labor. To assess potentially confounding effects of lactate-producing organisms on amniotic fluid lactate measurements, we aimed to determine if the presence of vaginal Lactobacillus species was associated with elevated levels of amniotic fluid lactate, measured from the vaginal tract of women in labor. Results from this study contribute to a large prospective longitudinal study of amniotic fluid lactate at a teaching hospital in Sydney, Australia. Amniotic fluid lactate measurement was assessed at the time of routine vaginal examination, after membranes had ruptured, using a hand-held lactate meter StatStripXPress (Nova Biomedical). Vaginal swab samples were collected at the time of the first amniotic fluid lactate measurement and stored for later detection and quantification of Lactobacillus species using a TaqMan real-time PCR assay. Swab sample and amniotic fluid lactate results were paired and analyzed. The PCR assay detected Lactobacillus species in 48 of 388 (12%) vaginal swab specimens (8% positive, 4% low positive) collected from women in labor after membranes had ruptured. There was no significant difference in median and mean (respectively) amniotic fluid lactate levels with (8.35 mmol/L; 8.95 mmol/L) or without (8.5 mmol/L; 9.08 mmol/L) Lactobacillus species detected. There was no association between the presence or level of vaginal Lactobacillus species and the measurement of amniotic fluid lactate collected from the vaginal tract of women during labor. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. Who wants a caesarean section? A study of women's personal experience of vaginal and caesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, M F; Gilmour, K; Fawdry, R D S

    2003-07-01

    The Changing Childbirth report, 1999, explicitly endorsed the right of women to be involved in childbirth decisions and to have a choice in childbirth and it has been suggested that maternal requests for a caesarean birth has been a significant factor in the recently observed increases in caesarean section rates. There have been reports of both obstetrician's views and midwives' views regarding the mode of delivery. However, there is a lack of literature reporting the views of women who have experienced personally both a caesarean section and a vaginal delivery. Fifty women in Milton Keynes who had had at least one vaginal delivery and at least one caesarean section were asked for their opinion.

  12. Vaginal prostaglandin gel to induce labour in women with one previous caesarean section.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Agnew, G

    2012-02-01

    This retrospective study reviewed the mode of delivery when vaginal prostaglandins were used to induce labour in women with a single previous lower segment caesarean section. Over a 4-year period, PGE 2 gel was used cautiously in low doses in 54 women. Induction with PGE 2 gel was associated with an overall vaginal birth after caesarean section (VBAC) rate of 74%, which compared favourably with the 74% VBAC rate in women who went into spontaneous labour (n = 1969). There were no adverse outcomes recorded after the prostaglandin inductions but the number reported are too small to draw any conclusions about the risks, such as uterine rupture. We report our results because they may be helpful in assessing the chances of a successful VBAC in the uncommon clinical circumstances where prostaglandin induction is being considered.

  13. Assessment of hot flushes and vaginal dryness among obese women undergoing bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goughnour, S L; Thurston, R C; Althouse, A D; Freese, K E; Edwards, R P; Hamad, G G; McCloskey, C; Ramanathan, R; Bovbjerg, D H; Linkov, F

    2016-01-01

    Menopausal symptoms are associated with a negative impact on the quality of life, leading women to seek medical treatment. Obesity has been linked to higher levels of menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes. This assessment will explore whether the prevalence and bother of hot flushes and vaginal dryness change from pre- to post-bariatric surgery among obese midlife women. This study is a longitudinal analysis of data from 69 women (ages 35-72 years) undergoing bariatric surgery with reported reproductive histories and menopausal symptoms at preoperative and 6-month postoperative visits. Prevalence of and degree of bother of hot flushes and vaginal dryness at pre- and post-surgery were compared using McNemar's test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The reported degree of bother of symptoms associated with hot flushes decreased from pre- to post-surgery (p hot flushes or vaginal dryness in the overall study sample. The degree of bother of symptoms associated with hot flushes among midlife women may decrease after bariatric surgery. These results highlight important secondary gains, including less bothersome menopausal symptoms, for women who choose bariatric surgery for weight loss.

  14. Women's partnered orgasm consistency is associated with greater duration of penile-vaginal intercourse but not of foreplay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Petr; Brody, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    It has been asserted that women's likelihood or consistency of partnered orgasm (her orgasm as a result of sexual activities with a partner) is determined by duration of foreplay, but not by duration of penile-vaginal intercourse. The objective was to examine the extent to which women's likelihood or consistency of partnered orgasm is associated with duration of foreplay, duration of penile-vaginal intercourse, and age. In a representative sample of the Czech population, 2,360 women reported their consistency of orgasm with a partner (from "never" to "almost every time"), and estimates of their typical durations of foreplay and of penile-vaginal intercourse. The association of consistency of partnered orgasm with typical durations of both foreplay and penile-vaginal intercourse. In univariate analyses, consistency of partnered orgasm was more associated with penile-vaginal intercourse duration than with foreplay duration (consistency also correlated negatively with age). In multivariate analysis, foreplay ceased to be a significant correlate of partnered orgasm consistency (the exclusion of respondents reporting a penile-vaginal intercourse duration of 1 minute or less did not alter the results). When both sexual activity categories are examined in tandem on a population level, women's likelihood or consistency of partnered orgasm is associated with penile-vaginal intercourse duration, but not with foreplay duration. In contrast to the assumptions of many sex therapists and educators, more attention should be given to improve the quality and duration of penile-vaginal intercourse rather than foreplay.

  15. Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaginal cancer is a rare type of cancer. It is more common in women 60 and older. You are also more likely to get it if you have had a human ... test can find abnormal cells that may be cancer. Vaginal cancer can often be cured in its ...

  16. Predicting why women have elective repeat cesarean deliveries and predictors of successful vaginal birth after cesarean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mone, Fionnuala; Harrity, Conor; Toner, Brenda; Mcnally, Aine; Adams, Beverley; Currie, Aoife

    2014-07-01

    To compare the characteristics of women who select elective repeat cesarean rather than trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC) for delivery, and to determine individual predictors for success and failure within a TOLAC group and observe differences in maternal and neonatal morbidity. The present descriptive, retrospective, observational study was performed in a regional obstetric unit in the United Kingdom. Data were collected from the Northern Ireland Maternity System database on all women who gave birth between April 2010 and April 2012, and had a previous cesarean delivery, and statistical analysis was performed. In total, 893 patients were included in the study: 385 underwent TOLAC and 493 underwent elective repeat cesarean. On comparison, women in the elective repeat cesarean group had a shorter inter-delivery interval and fewer had had a previous vaginal delivery (Psuccess in the TOLAC group included previous vaginal delivery and a longer inter-delivery interval (PSuccessful vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) did not have higher rates of maternal morbidity. The majority of patients (56%) chose elective repeat cesarean rather than TOLAC, which has long-term implications both clinically and financially. A validated prediction model might improve patient counseling and identify women with a high likelihood of successful VBAC. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Streptococcus Agalactiae Research on Secretion Vaginal and Anal Pregnant Women of a City of Paulista Northwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia Rezende

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae has great medical importance in infections associated with severe neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is the most frequent bacterium isolated from the tables of septicemia, pneumonia and neonatal meningitis. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anal and vaginal colonization of S. agalactiae in pregnant women at different gestational ages. We evaluated the incidence of colonization by S. agalactiae in 129 pregnant women of any age. Two samples of secretion were collected for culture: a perianal swab and a vaginal swab. Each of the two swabs were inoculated in test tubes containing Todd-Hewitt broth and subcultured on blood agar. After a period of 24 to 48 hours, the colonies suggestive of S. agalactiae were submitted to morfotintorial analysis and to biochemical tests for identification. Among 129 women studied, 3 (2.33% have tested positive for Streptococcus agalactiae and 126 (97.67% were negative. The results presented in this work are inferior to the data from other studies, however, the methodology used was compatible with most authors. Even so this rate is considered a relevant value taking into account the importance of Streptococcus agalactiae infections in pregnant women and newborns, emphasizing the importance of encouraging the culture of vaginal and anal secretion for the detection of Streptococcus agalactiae in surveys of prenatal care.

  18. Vaginal microbiological flora, and behavioural and clinical findings in women with vulvar pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchoudomirova, K; Mårdh, P A; Hellberg, D

    2001-05-01

    To study genital symptoms and signs in women with vulvar pain, and the association with potential risk factors such as microbiological agents, sexual behaviour and genital hygiene. Prospective cohort study of apparently healthy women attending for contraceptive advice. Two family planning clinics and one youth clinic in Sweden. Out of 996 women recruited, 79 women (7.9%) had, on request, complaints of current burning and smarting vulvar pain and/or superficial dyspareunia (our definition of vulvar pain) while 917 women without such symptoms served as controls. Complaints of dysmenorrhoea, vaginal discharge, genito-anal pruritus, dysuria, and abdominal pain were more frequent in the study group, than in the control group. In the women with vulvar pain, erythemas, superficial ulcerations, and fissures were found significantly more frequently. Vaginal candidosis was the only current genital infection that occurred more often in the study group, than among the controls. There were no differences in the history of gonorrhoea, genital chlamydial infection, genital herpes, genital warts, and candidosis between the two groups. The sexual debut of the women with vulvar pain occurred later in life, compared with the control group. Control subjects were more likely to use tampons for menstrual sanitation, than the women with vulvar pain. Neither infectious conditions caused by current known agents, with the exception of candidosis in some cases, nor behavioural factors, such as sexual behaviour and genital hygiene habits could in this study explain vulvar pain.

  19. [Vaginal discharge in pregnant women: comparison between syndromic approach and examination of clinical nursing practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Thais Marques; Teles, Liana Mara Rocha; de Oliveira, Amanda Souza; Campos, Fernanda Câmara; Barbosa, Rita de Cássia Carvalho; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra; Damasceno, Ana Kelve de Castro

    2013-12-01

    This is a study for assessment of a quantitative approach in pregnant women (N=104), in which findings of vaginal infection were compared. The findings were obtained by two means, flowchart of vaginal discharge, and typical examinations in the clinical nursing practice. Data were collected from January to July 2011 through interviews and gynecological examinations. The flowchart showed no efficacy to identify candidiasis and trichomoniasis. Furthermore, it showed low sensitivity (0.0%; 50%) and positive predictive value (0.0%; 3.6%) for both infections, and low specificity for trichomoniasis (46%). The flowchart was shown to be satisfactory for bacterial vaginosis, with high sensitivity (100%), negative predictive value (100%), and accuracy (74%). We conclude that use of the flowchart should be reassessed, as it was not able to identify important infections in pregnant women. A continuous effort must be directed for development of effective tests in order to prevent the spread of infection and reduce the number of unnecessary treatments.

  20. Low prevalence of cervical infections in women with vaginal discharge in west Africa: implications for syndromic management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pépin, J; Deslandes, S; Khonde, N; Kintin, D F; Diakité, S; Sylla, M; Méda, H; Sobéla, F; Asamoah-Adu, C; Agyarko-Poku, T; Frost, E

    2004-01-01

    To measure prevalence and risk factors for cervical infections among a large sample of women consulting for vaginal discharge in west Africa and to evaluate its syndromic management through a two visit algorithm...

  1. Prevalence Of Bacterial Vaginosis In Women With Vaginal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Almost half of patients with trichomoniasis were found to have bacterial vaginosis (P<0.05). The demonstration Clue cells in wet mount was found in significantly higher numbers (90.5%) in women with bacterial vaginosis (P<0.001, positive predictive value 90.4%) while low sensitivity and positive predictive value were seen ...

  2. Women's Intention to prevent Vesico Vaginal Fistula recurrence in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    Measures: The Ministry of Health need to introduce waiting homes in hospitals with emergency obstetric care so that repaired women .... I will go to the hospital immediately labour begins. 11 (15%). 52 (69%) 2 (3%). 6 (8%). 4(5%). 75 (100). I will deliver at the hospital. 19 (25%). 53 (71%) 3 (4%). 0 (0%). 0 (0%). 75 (100).

  3. Women's experiences of a vaginal delivery conducted by a private ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conduct this research. The focus was to obtain information that would facilitate understanding of the women's experiences of labor while under the care of a private midwife in a midwife obstetric unit. A qualitative design was used where the phenomenological method was employed. Purposeful, convenient sampling was ...

  4. Impact of Health-Promoting Educational Intervention on Lifestyle (Nutrition Behaviors, Physical Activity and Mental Health) Related to Vaginal Health Among Reproductive-Aged Women With Vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsapure, Roxana; Rahimiforushani, Abbas; Majlessi, Fereshteh; Montazeri, Ali; Sadeghi, Roya; Garmarudi, Gholamreza

    2016-10-01

    Vaginitis is one of the most common diseases in reproductive-aged women (15 - 49 years of age). Side effects of vaginitis can affect other aspects of health, which could be prevented by promoting a healthy lifestyle related to vaginal health. This study aimed at determining the impact of health-promoting educational intervention on lifestyle (nutrition behaviors, physical activities, and mental health) related to vaginal health among reproductive-aged women with vaginitis. The data set was collected as part of an experimental study conducted on 350 reproductive-aged women with vaginitis. Participants were selected through a stratified two-stage clustered sampling and simple randomization from 10 attending health centers affiliated with Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in five regions (North, South, East, West, and Center) of Kermanshah (a city in western Iran) in 2015. Two clinics in each region were selected; patients from the first center were chosen as the intervention group and patients from the second center made up the control group. To collect data, a questionnaire including socio-demographic and lifestyle questions was used. The questionnaire was designed and validated via the psychometric process. Educational intervention was performed over twenty sessions of 25 to 35 minutes. The intervention group was followed up with face-to-face education, a pamphlet, phone contact, and by social media. The control group continued the routine treatment without contacting the intervention group. Data were collected from both groups before the intervention and six months after the intervention. Data were analyzed using the SPSS-20 package, using the independent t-test, paired t-test, chi-square test, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) test. The confidence interval was 95% and P intervention group (28.48 ± 0.38) and control group (23.65 ± 1.23) was significant (P Intervention has a positive significant effect on increasing the mean scores of lifestyle in the

  5. Prevalence of vaginitis, syphilis and HIV infection in women in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ailable in er UTI,for tic to ven fatal. tics ing gents are r will need nt of arise with rivate should n. 85; 152: of. Boston, in. -289. regnant tion man-. Chemother. RF, eds. A. & Co., e survey of nd treat- t infec- matic uri-. J Med ary tract. Intern Med. Prevalence of vaginitis, syphilis and HIV infection in women in the Orange Free. State.

  6. The influence of sexual activity on the vaginal microbiota and Gardnerella vaginalis clade diversity in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodstrcil, Lenka A; Twin, Jimmy; Garland, Suzanne M; Fairley, Christopher K; Hocking, Jane S; Law, Matthew G; Plummer, Erica L; Fethers, Katherine A; Chow, Eric P F; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Bradshaw, Catriona S

    2017-01-01

    To examine the influence of sexual activity on the composition and consistency of the vaginal microbiota over time, and distribution of Gardnerella vaginalis clades in young women. Fifty-two participants from a university cohort were selected. Vaginal swabs were self-collected every 3-months for up to 12 months with 184 specimens analysed. The vaginal microbiota was characterised using Roche 454 V3/4 region 16S rRNA sequencing, and G.vaginalis clade typing by qPCR. A Lactobacillus crispatus dominated vaginal microbiota was associated with Caucasian ethnicity (adjusted relative risk ratio[ARRR] = 7.28, 95%CI:1.37,38.57,p = 0.020). An L.iners (ARRR = 17.51, 95%CI:2.18,140.33,p = 0.007) or G.vaginalis (ARRR = 14.03, 95%CI:1.22,160.69, p = 0.034) dominated microbiota was associated with engaging in penile-vaginal sex. Microbiota dominated by L.crispatus, L.iners or other lactobacilli exhibited greater longitudinal consistency of the bacterial communities present compared to ones dominated by heterogeneous non-lactobacilli (pmicrobiota of these young, relatively sexually inexperienced women. Women had consistent vaginal microbiota over time if lactobacilli were the dominant spp. present. Penile-vaginal sex did not alter the consistency of microbial communities but increased G.vaginalis clade diversity in young women with and without BV, suggesting sexual transmission of commensal and potentially pathogenic clades.

  7. Diversity and composition of vaginal microbiota of pregnant women at risk for transmitting Group B Streptococcus treated with intrapartum penicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch, Luiz Fernando Wurdig; Silveira, Rita C; Corso, Andréa L; Dobbler, Priscila Thiago; Mai, Volker; Rojas, Bruna S; Laureano, Álvaro M; Procianoy, Renato S

    2017-01-01

    Administering intravenous antibiotics during labor to women at risk for transmitting Group B Streptococcus (GBS) can prevent infections in newborns. However, the impact of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis on mothers' microbial community composition is largely unknown. We compared vaginal microbial composition in pregnant women experiencing preterm birth at ≤ 32 weeks gestation that received intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis with that in controls. Microbiota in vaginal swabs collected shortly before delivery from GBS positive women that received penicillin intravenously during labor or after premature rupture of membranes was compared to controls. Microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing using the PGM Ion Torrent to determine the effects of penicillin use during hospitalization and GBS status on its composition. Penicillin administration was associated with an altered vaginal microbial community composition characterized by increased microbial diversity. Lactobacillus sp. contributed only 13.1% of the total community in the women that received penicillin compared to 88.1% in the controls. Streptococcus sp. were present in higher abundance in GBS positive woman compared to controls, with 60% of the total vaginal microbiota in severe cases identified as Streptococcus sp. Vaginal communities of healthy pregnant women were dominated by Lactobacillus sp. and contained low diversity, while Group B Streptococcus positive women receiving intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis had a modified vaginal microbiota composition with low abundance of Lactobacillus but higher microbial diversity.

  8. Genes responsible for vaginal extracellular matrix metabolism are modulated by women's reproductive cycle and menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Shynlova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To analyze the expression of genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM biogenesis and remodeling in vaginal tissue of women with clinically normal pelvic floor support (defined as controls according to the phase of menstrual cycle and postmenopausal women with and without pelvic organ prolapse (POP. Materials and Methods This study examined the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs, and the Lysyl oxidase (LOX family genes in the anterior vaginal wall of Caucasian women by real-time RT-PCR. Initially, mRNA expression was assessed in premenopausal controls in the secretory (group 1, n = 10 vs. proliferative (group 2, n = 8 phase of menstrual cycle. In addition, we compared premenopausal controls in the proliferative phase (group 2 vs. postmenopausal controls (group 3, n = 5. Finally, we analyzed postmenopausal controls (group 3 vs. postmenopausal women with advanced POP (group 4, n = 13. Results According to the phase of menstrual cycle, MMP1 was significantly reduced (p = 0.003, whereas the expression of TIMP1 and LOXL4 was significantly up-regulated during proliferative phase (both p < 0.01 when compared to the secretory phase in premenopausal control women. Regarding menopausal status/ageing, all MMPs were down-regulated, while TIMP3, TIMP4 and LOXL2 were significantly up-regulated in postmenopausal control women when compared to premenopausal controls (p = 0.005, p = 0.01 and p < 0.001, correspondingly. TIMP4 and LOXL2 mRNA levels were significantly decreased in postmenopausal POP patients compared to asymptomatic postmenopausal controls (p < 0.01 for both. Conclusions Our results indicate that ovarian cycle and age-related changes influence the expression of genes encoding proteins responsible for ECM metabolism in human vagina. Moreover, POP is associated with alteration in vaginal ECM components after menopause.

  9. A comparison of sexual outcomes in primiparous women experiencing vaginal and caesarean births

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khajehei M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: We conducted this study to evaluate and compare postpartum sexual functioning after vaginal and caesarean births. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that was carried out in postnatal health care in a hospital. A total of 50 primiprous women who had given birth 6-12 months ago and came to the hospital for postnatal care were asked to join the study. Forty of the women completed the entire questionnaire. Among these women, 20 delivered spontaneously with mediolateral episiotomy and 20 had elective caesarean section. Sexual function was evaluated by a validated, self-created questionnaire. A statistical evaluation was carried out by SPSS v.11. A two-part self-created validated questionnaire for data collection was administered regarding sexual function prior to pregnancy and 6-12 months postpartum. Results: The median time to restart intercourse in the normal vaginal delivery with episiotomy (NVD/epi group was 40 days and in the caesarean section (C/S group was 10 days postpartum. The most common problems in the NVD/epi group was decreased libido (80%, sexual dissatisfaction (65%, and vaginal looseness (55%. In the C/S group, the most common problems were vaginal dryness (85%, sexual dissatisfaction (60%, and decreased libido (35%. There were clinically significant differences between the two groups regarding sexual outcomes, but these differences were not statically significant. Conclusion: Postnatal sexual problems were very common after both NVD/epi and C/S. Because sexual problems are so prevalent during the postpartum period, clinicians should draw more attention to the women′s sexual life and try to improve their quality of life after delivery.

  10. Vaginal Birth After Cesarean: Views of Women From Countries With High VBAC Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Christina; van Limbeek, Evelien; Vehvilainen-Julkunen, Katri; Lundgren, Ingela

    2017-02-01

    Despite the consequences for women's health, a repeat cesarean section (CS) birth after a previous CS is common in Western countries. Vaginal Birth After Cesarean (VBAC) is recommended for most women, yet VBAC rates are decreasing and vary across maternity organizations and countries. We investigated women's views on factors of importance for improving the rate of VBAC in countries where VBAC rates are high. We interviewed 22 women who had experienced VBAC in Finland, the Netherlands, and Sweden. We used content analysis, which revealed five categories: receiving information from supportive clinicians, receiving professional support from a calm and confident midwife/obstetrician during childbirth, knowing the advantages of VBAC, letting go of the previous childbirth in preparation for the new birth, and viewing VBAC as the first alternative for all involved when no complications are present. These findings reflect not only women's needs but also sociocultural factors influencing their views on VBAC.

  11. Covert use, vaginal lubrication, and sexual pleasure: a qualitative study of urban U.S. Women in a vaginal microbicide clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Susie; Morrow, Kate M; Mantell, Joanne E; Rosen, Rochelle K; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Gai, Fang

    2010-06-01

    Using data from a U.S. clinical safety trial of tenofovir gel, a candidate microbicide, we explored the intersection of sexual pleasure and vaginal lubrication to understand whether and under what circumstances women would use a microbicide gel covertly with primary partners. This study question emerged from acceptability research in diverse settings showing that even though future microbicides are extolled as a disease prevention method that women could use without disclosing to their partners, many women assert they would inform their primary partner. Participants (N = 84), stratified by HIV-status and sexual activity (active vs. abstinent), applied the gel intra-vaginally for 14 days. At completion, quantitative acceptability data were obtained via questionnaire (N = 79) and qualitative data via small group discussions (N = 15 groups, 40 women). Quantitatively, 71% preferred a microbicide that could not be noticed by a sex partner and 86% experienced greater vaginal lubrication with daily use. Based on our analysis of the qualitative data, we suggest that women's perception that their primary partners would notice a microbicide gel is a more important reason for their caution regarding covert use than may previously have been recognized. Our findings also showed that women's assessment of the possibility of discreet, if not covert, use was strongly related to their perception of how a microbicide's added vaginal lubrication would influence their own and their partner's pleasure, as well as their partner's experience of his sexual performance. A microbicide that increases pleasure for both partners could potentially be used without engendering opposition from primary partners.

  12. Hydrogen peroxide-producing Lactobacilli in the vaginal flora of pregnant women with preterm labor with intact membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y H; Kim, C H; Cho, M K; Na, J H; Song, T B; Oh, J S

    2006-04-01

    To investigate the role of vaginal infection in preterm delivery, we studied characteristics of vaginal discharge related to hydrogen peroxide-producing Lactobacilli. Vaginal specimens were obtained from 66 women with normal pregnancy and 30 women with preterm labor with intact membranes. pH, leukocyte counts on wet smear, and scores by Nugent criteria on Gram stain were measured. Lactobacilli were tested for their production of hydrogen peroxide. Leukocyte levels in wet smears and Nugent scores of Gram-stained smear of women with preterm labor with intact membranes were significantly higher than those of normal pregnant women (Pvaginal flora of women with preterm labor with intact membranes were significantly lower (Pvaginal flora as defense factors for infection may have an important role in the pathophysiology of preterm labor.

  13. Treatment seeking, vaginal discharge and psychosocial distress among women in urban Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostick, Kristin M; Schensul, Stephen L; Jadhav, Kalpita; Singh, Rajendra; Bavadekar, Amruta; Saggurti, Niranjan

    2010-09-01

    Vaginal discharge (safed pani in Hindi, meaning "white water") is one of the leading symptoms for which women in India seek care. Treatment-seeking for safed pani is disproportionately high among poor women, representing a physical, emotional and financial burden for low-income families. Safed pani is only rarely indicative of a reproductive tract or sexually transmitted infection. The discrepancy between symptom reports and observed pathology has led some researchers to characterize safed pani as a culturally based expression of more generalized negative life situation. Data are drawn from two prevention intervention studies (2002-2006 and 2007-2012) conducted in economically marginal communities in Mumbai. Results show that husbands as problem generators and spousal abusers and women's greater perceived empowerment and reported tension are significantly associated with safed pani. These results provide the basis for identifying women at greater risk for psychosocial distress and providing supports at the locations at which they seek treatment.

  14. The composition and stability of the vaginal microbiota of normal pregnant women is different from that of non-pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romero, Roberto; Hassan, Sonia S; Gajer, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was undertaken to characterize the vaginal microbiota throughout normal human pregnancy using sequence-based techniques. We compared the vaginal microbial composition of non-pregnant patients with a group of pregnant women who delivered at term. RESULTS: A retrospective case...... using pyrosequencing to characterize the structure and stability of the vaginal microbiota. Linear mixed effects models and generalized estimating equations were used to identify the phylotypes whose relative abundance was different between the two study groups. The vaginal microbiota of normal pregnant...... of species of genus Atopobium as well as the presence of Prevotella, Sneathia, Gardnerella, Ruminococcaceae, Parvimonas, Mobiluncus and other taxa previously shown to be associated with bacterial vaginosis were less frequent in normal pregnancy. The stability of the vaginal microbiota of pregnant women...

  15. [Vaginal birth versus Cesarean section on demand - which mode of delivery is preferred by pregnant women?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainer, F; Kowalcek, I

    2011-02-01

    The Cesarean section rate continues to increase across the developed nations since there are still a number possible reasons for this development including medical and non-clinical indications. The aim of this study was to analyse how pregnant women themselves think about Cesarean section and vaginal delivery, and which mode of delivery they prefer. Pregnant women booked for prenatal diagnosis at the University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Lübeck between October 2004 and January 2005 were invited to participate in the study. 534 pregnant women completed a questionnaire on their method of choice for delivery and selected background variables. Women favour a natural birth and place high importance on the criteria physiology, active birth experience and personal assistance. Characteristics of the Cesarean section that were viewed negatively include surgery and pain. The rise in Cesarean section rates cannot be explained by the patients' preferences. In terms of patient autonomy, obstetricians should respect a woman's wish for vaginal delivery, avoiding medical intervention if clinically possible. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Development and initial validation of the vaginal penetration cognition questionnaire (VPCQ) in a sample of women with vaginismus and dyspareunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Maaike; Ter Kuile, Moniek M

    2009-06-01

    Although the relevance of cognitions has been implicated in the etiology, explanatory models, and treatment of female sexual pain disorders, an instrument that assesses vaginal penetration cognitions is nonexistent. The aim of this study was to develop and to investigate the psychometric properties of the Vaginal Penetration Cognition Questionnaire (VPCQ). The VPCQ was explicitly designed to assess cognitions regarding vaginal penetration in women with vaginismus and dyspareunia. A sample of 247 Dutch women with a female sexual dysfunction (FSD; 122 women with lifelong vaginismus and 125 women with dyspareunia) and 117 women without sexual complaints completed the questionnaire. Factor analyses were only conducted in the sample of women with FSD. Validation measures were conducted in both women with and without FSD. All women completed the VPCQ and several additional questions regarding biographic and complaint characteristics. Conduction of factor analyses yielded five subscales regarding cognitions about vaginal penetration: "control cognitions,"catastrophic and pain cognitions,"self-image cognitions,"positive cognitions," and "genital incompatibility cognitions." Reliability of these five VPCQ subscales ranged from 0.70 to 0.83, and the test-retest correlations were satisfactory. The five VPCQ subscales were reasonably stable across demographic variables and demonstrated good discriminant validity. All five subscales were able to detect significant differences between women with and without FSD. Additionally, the four subscales of the VPCQ concerning negative cognitions demonstrated the ability to differentiate between the two samples of women with FSD. Women with lifelong vaginismus reported lower levels of perceived penetration control and higher levels of catastrophic and pain cognitions, negative self-image cognitions, and genital incompatibility cognitions, when compared with women with dyspareunia. The present study indicates that the VPCQ is a valid and

  17. Robust vaginal colonization of macaques with a novel vaginally disintegrating tablet containing a live biotherapeutic product to prevent HIV infection in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagenaur, Laurel A; Swedek, Iwona; Lee, Peter P; Parks, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    MucoCept is a biotherapeutic for prevention of HIV-1 infection in women and contains a human, vaginal Lactobacillus jensenii that has been genetically enhanced to express the HIV-1 entry inhibitor, modified cyanovirin-N (mCV-N). The objective of this study was to develop a solid vaginal dosage form that supports sustained vaginal colonization of the MucoCept Lactobacillus at levels previously shown, with freshly prepared cultures, to protect macaques from SHIV infection and to test this formulation in a macaque vaginal colonization model. Vaginally disintegrating tablets were prepared by lyophilizing the formulated bacteria in tablet-shaped molds, then packaging in foil pouches with desiccant. Disintegration time, potency and stability of the tablets were assessed. For colonization, non-synchronized macaques were dosed vaginally with either one tablet or five tablets delivered over five days. Vaginal samples were obtained at three, 14, and 21 days post-dosing and cultured to determine Lactobacillus colonization levels. To confirm identity of the MucoCept Lactobacillus strain, genomic DNA was extracted from samples on days 14 and 21 and a strain-specific PCR was performed. Supernatants from bacteria were tested for the presence of the mCV-N protein by Western blot. The tablets were easy to handle, disintegrated within two minutes, potent (5.7x1011 CFU/g), and stable at 4°C and 25°C. Vaginal administration of the tablets to macaques resulted in colonization of the MucoCept Lactobacillus in 66% of macaques at 14 days post-dosing and 83% after 21 days. There was no significant difference in colonization levels for the one or five tablet dosing regimens (p=0.88 Day 14, p=0.99 Day 21). Strain-specific PCR confirmed the presence of the bacteria even in culture-negative macaques. Finally, the presence of mCV-N protein was confirmed by Western blot analysis using a specific anti-mCV-N antibody.

  18. Fear of childbirth and duration of labour: a study of 2206 women with intended vaginal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, S S; Eberhard-Gran, M; Eskild, A

    2012-09-01

    To assess the association between fear of childbirth and duration of labour. A prospective study of women from 32 weeks of gestation through to delivery. Akershus University Hospital, Norway. A total of 2206 pregnant women with a singleton pregnancy and intended vaginal delivery during the period 2008-10. Fear of childbirth was assessed by the Wijma Delivery Expectancy Questionnaire (W-DEQ) version A at 32 weeks of gestation, and defined as a W-DEQ sum score ≥ 85. Information on labour duration, use of epidural analgesia and mode of delivery was obtained from the maternal ward electronic birth records. Labour duration in hours: from 3-4 cm cervical dilatation and three uterine contractions per 10 minutes lasting ≥ 1 minute, until delivery of the child. Fear of childbirth (W-DEQ sum score ≥ 85) was present in 7.5% (165) of women. Labour duration was significantly longer in women with fear of childbirth compared with women with no such fear using a linear regression model (crude unstandardized coefficient 1.54; 95% confidence interval 0.87-2.22, corresponding to a difference of 1 hour and 32 minutes). After adjustment for parity, counselling for pregnancy concern, epidural analgesia, labour induction, labour augmentation, emergency caesarean delivery, instrumental vaginal delivery, offspring birthweight and maternal age, the difference attenuated, but remained statistically significant (adjusted unstandardized coefficient 0.78; 95% confidence interval 0.20-1.35, corresponding to a 47-minute difference). Duration of labour was longer in women with fear of childbirth than in women without fear of childbirth. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  19. Characterization of the vaginal microbiota among sexual risk behavior groups of women with bacterial vaginosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina A Muzny

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of bacterial vaginosis (BV remains elusive. BV may be more common among women who have sex with women (WSW. The objective of this study was to use 454 pyrosequencing to investigate the vaginal microbiome of WSW, women who have sex with women and men (WSWM, and women who have sex with men (WSM with BV to determine if there are differences in organism composition between groups that may inform new hypotheses regarding the pathogenesis of BV.Vaginal swab specimens from eligible women with BV at the Mississippi State Department of Health STD Clinic were used. After DNA extraction, 454 pyrosequencing of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences was performed. Sequence data was classified using the Ribosomal Database Program classifer. Complete linkage clustering analysis was performed to compare bacterial community composition among samples. Differences in operational taxonomic units with an abundance of ≥ 2% between risk behavior groups were determined. Alpha and beta diversity were measured using Shannon's Index implemented in QIIME and Unifrac analysis, respectively.33 WSW, 35 WSWM, and 44 WSM were included. The vaginal bacterial communities of all women clustered into four taxonomic groups with the dominant taxonomic group in each being Lactobacillus, Lachnospiraceae, Prevotella, and Sneathia. Regarding differences in organism composition between risk behavior groups, the abundance of Atopobium (relative ratio (RR=0.24; 95%CI 0.11-0.54 and Parvimonas (RR=0.33; 95%CI 0.11-0.93 were significantly lower in WSW than WSM, the abundance of Prevotella was significantly higher in WSW than WSWM (RR=1.77; 95%CI 1.10-2.86, and the abundance of Atopobium (RR=0.41; 95%CI 0.18-0.88 was significantly lower in WSWM than WSM. Overall, WSM had the highest diversity of bacterial taxa.The microbiology of BV among women in different risk behavior groups is heterogeneous. WSM in this study had the highest diversity of bacterial taxa. Additional studies

  20. Association of microorganisms of reproductive tract of women with vaginal microbiome disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana V. Sklyar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Disorders of the microbiome of the reproductive tract of women is quite common and can have significant consequences for the woman and for her sexual partners or to the fetus during pregnancy. The study of vaginal microbiome and biological properties of same microorganisms is a necessary step for choice the treatment strategy. The aim of research was to analyze qualitative and quantitative composition of microbiome of the vagina of women using the test-system Femoflor-16 and to study the ability of staphylococci strains to biofilm-formation. Using molecular genetic methods for detecting of microorganisms disorders of vaginal microbiome was confirmed in 92.7% of the surveyed women. It our study, 21 (41.2% cases of dysbiosis were found to accompany infectious diseases. Candida spp., Mycoplasma hominis, M. genitalium and Ureaplasma (urealyticum + parvum showed overwhelming. Most of the pathogens detected were a monoinfection (71%, with two-agent associations accounting for only 29% of the cases. The predominant associations of opportunistic bacteria, detected during disorders of vaginal microbiome, were Gardnerella vaginalis + Prevotella bivia + Porphyromonas spp. that found in 50.9% of patients and Megasphaera spp. + Veillonella spp. + Dialister spp. – found in 34.5% of patients. Among cases of monoinfection the most often found opportunistic pathogens were Eubacterium spp. – 50.9% of cases and Staphylococcus spp. – 49.1% of cases: 92.6% of these were identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis and 7.4% – as Staphylococcus saprophyticus. 44% of S. epidermidis strains were able to form biofilm. None of S. saprophyticus strains was film-forming.

  1. Management of vaginal penetration phobia in Arab women: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muammar, Tarfah; McWalter, Patricia; Alkhenizan, Abdullah; Shoukri, Mohamed; Gabr, Alia; Bin, Abdulaziz AlDanah

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal penetration phobia is a common and distressing problem world.wide. It interferes with vaginal penetrative sexual relations, and leads to unconsummated marriage (UCM). This problem may be heightened in Arab women, due to cultural taboos about pain and bleeding, that may be associated with the first coital experience after marriage. Data about this problem is scarce in Arab societies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of these women and their husbands to an individualized, psychotherapeutic assessment and treatment to resolve this problem. Retrospective descriptive in a general gynecology community setting over a 6-year period. The study involved a retrospective sequential cohort of 100 Arab couples with UCM due to the woman's VPP. They were evaluated by a female gynecologist in out patient clinics. Data was collected through chart review, and telephone interviews. Final analysis was performed on 100 Arab couples, who satisfied the inclusion criteria. They were followed up to assess their response to an individualized, structured treatment protocol. The treatment combined sex education with systematic desensitization, targeting fear and anxiety as.sociated with vaginal penetration. A total of 96% of the studied group had a successful outcome after an average of 4 sessions. Penetrative intercourse was reported by the tolerance of these women; further pregnancy was achieved in 77.8 % of the infertile couples. Insufficient knowledge of sexual intercourse is a major contributor to the development of VPP in the sampled population. It appears that they respond well to an individualized, structured treatment protocol as described by Hawten 1985 (regardless of other risk factors associated with vaginismus).

  2. Comparison of cervico-vaginal colonization among sexually active women by intrauterine device use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songur Dagli, Selda; Demir, Tülin

    2015-09-27

    In this study we aimed to evaluate the effect of intrauterine devices (IUDs) on cervico-vaginal colonization. Cervico-vaginal samples of 96 patients with vaginal discharge were included in the study. Microscopic evaluation, bacteriological and fungal culture, and antigen testing for Chlamydia trachomatis using an immunochromatographic test method were performed. Trichomonas vaginalis was not detected by wet mount examination. Gram smear revealed that seven patients (7.3%) had Candida spp. and five (5.2%) had clue cell. Of the 96 swabs tested for conventional culture, pathogenic microorganisms were isolated from 24 patients. While Neisseria gonorrhoeae was not found in any of the sample, five (5.2%) were positive for Gardnerella vaginalis. Five (5.2%) were positive for C. trachomatis antigen, while three positivity only for C. trachomatis antigen, one had G. vaginalis additionally, and the other had a mixed infection. Chlamydial antigen positivity was higher among women over 30 years of age (p = 0.157). Increase in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PNL) was detected 40% and 35.2% of samples, positive and negative, for chlamydial antigen, respectively (p = 1.000). Among IUD+ cases, increase in PNL, fungal elements,  E. coli and Gram-positive bacteria and decrease in Lactobacillus spp. were observed, compared to IUD-cases. No statistically significant relationship was detected between IUD and chlamydial antigen with the reported rates of 4.8% and 5.6% for IUD+ or IUD-, respectively (p > 0.05). Statistically significant relationship was not detected between IUD and cervico-vaginal colonization. More comprehensive studies using specific test methods should be conducted to better understand the relationship.

  3. Carga viral vaginal de HIV em mulheres brasileiras infectadas pelo HIV HIV vaginal viral load in Brazilian HIV-infected women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Campos

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os fatores associados à presença de RNA-HIV na vagina. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal, em mulheres infectadas por HIV, excluindo-se aquelas com antecedente de histerectomia, as em uso de medicações vaginais nas últimas 48 horas, as que se referiram à relação sexual desprotegida há menos de 72 horas, as gestantes e aquelas com sangramento genital. Após consentimento, coletou-se amostra sanguínea para contagem de linfócitos T CD4 e carga viral plasmática de HIV, além de lavado vaginal com 10mL de solução salina, que foi centrifugado, aliquotado e armazenado em freezer -70°C para posterior quantificação de RNA-HIV livre. A mensuração de carga viral de RNA-HIV livre plasmática e vaginal foi realizada utilizando-se o kit HIV Monitor v1.5 Cobas Amplicor®, Roche. Pesquisou-se a presença de HPV de alto e baixo risco, clamídia e gonococo por Captura Híbrida II®, Digene, em amostra endocervical. Colheu-se amostra vaginal para bacterioscopia com coloração de Gram, utilizando-se os critérios de Nugent. RESULTADOS: Entre as 200 mulheres estudadas, 73,5% usavam terapia anti-retroviral (TARV com drogas múltiplas. O RNA-HIV foi detectável no lavado vaginal de 18 delas (9%, mas em apenas uma daquelas que tinham carga viral plasmática indetectável (0,5%. A prevalência de HIV vaginal foi 24 vezes maior naquelas em que HIV plasmático era detectável. Carga viral plasmática de HIV, não usar TARV, CD4 reduzido e vaginose bacteriana aumentaram a prevalência de RNA-HIV vaginal, mas apenas a carga viral plasmática se manteve significativa na análise ajustada. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de RNA-HIV vaginal foi baixa (9%. A carga viral acima de 1.500 cópias/mL foi a única variável que permaneceu como fator de risco para RNA-HIV vaginal livre.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate factors associated to presence of free RNA-HIV in the vagina. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with HIV-infected women, excluding those who had

  4. Comparing vaginal and sublingual administration of misoprostol for labour induction in women with intra-uterine fetal death.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geels, Y.P.; Gouberville, M.C. de; Visser, L.; Asten, H.A.G.H. van

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare complications and effectiveness of induction after vaginal and sublingual administration of misoprostol for labor induction in women with intra-uterine fetal death (IUFD). In a district hospital in Ghana, 23 women with IUFD who underwent labor induction

  5. Routine vaginal examinations for assessing progress of labour to improve outcomes for women and babies at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downe, Soo; Gyte, Gillian M L; Dahlen, Hannah G; Singata, Mandisa

    2013-07-15

    this is covered by another Cochrane review. However, studies where vaginal examinations were used within the context of the partogram were included if the studies were randomised according to the vaginal examination component. Three review authors assessed the studies for inclusion in the review. Two authors undertook independent data extraction and assessed the risk of bias of each included study. A third review author also checked data extraction and risk of bias. Data entry was checked. We found two studies that met our inclusion criteria but they were of unclear quality. One study, involving 307 women, compared vaginal examinations with rectal examinations, and the other study, involving 150 women, compared two-hourly with four-hourly vaginal examinations. Both studies were of unclear quality in terms of risk of selection bias, and the study comparing the timing of the vaginal examinations excluded 27% (two hourly) to 28% (four hourly) of women after randomisation because they no longer met the inclusion criteria.When comparing routine vaginal examinations with routine rectal examinations to assess the progress of labour, we identified no difference in neonatal infections requiring antibiotics (risk ratio (RR) 0.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01 to 8.07, one study, 307 infants). There were no data on the other primary outcomes of length of labour, maternal infections requiring antibiotics and women's overall views of labour. The study did show that significantly fewer women reported that vaginal examination was very uncomfortable compared with rectal examinations (RR 0.42, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.70, one study, 303 women). We identified no difference in the secondary outcomes of augmentation, caesarean section, spontaneous vaginal birth, operative vaginal birth, perinatal mortality and admission to neonatal intensive care.Comparing two-hourly vaginal examinations with four-hourly vaginal examinations in labour, we found no difference in length of labour (mean

  6. Vaginal electrical stimulation of the pelvic floor: a randomized feasibility study in urinary incontinent elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruijt, Johan; Vierhout, Mark; Verstraeten, Rob; Janssens, Jannes; Burger, Curt

    2003-11-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of intravaginal electrical stimulation (ES) of the pelvic floor for urinary incontinence in elderly women, and to determine whether ES of the pelvic floor is a preferable treatment for urinary incontinence in elderly women. Postmenopausal women (age 65 years or older) were enrolled in a randomized clinical trial and underwent every-other-day ES of the pelvic floor, or a daily Kegel exercise (KE) program. Objective outcome variables were: (1) Urinary leakage (during a standardized PAD test), (2) pelvic muscle strength (measured by a perineometer), and (3) detrusor instability (on ambulant urodynamic registration). Subjective outcome variables were women's subjective assessment of change in urinary symptoms based on the PRAFAB score. Twenty-four women treated with ES and 11 women treated with Kegel exercises completed the 8-week study program. The Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. No significant improvement in objective outcome variables was observed in the population treated with ES compared with the population treated with KE (with 29.2% vs. 36.4% of the women showing objective improvement in measured urinary leakage). Neither was subjective improvement significant, with 29.2% vs. 27.3% of the women reporting improvement in the amount of urinary leakage. Although the number of enrolled women was very small this study shows that: 1. Treating elderly women with vaginal ES of the pelvic floor has a high physical and emotional cost for the individual. 2. The effectiveness of ES of the pelvic floor in urinary incontinent elderly women is low. 3. There is no great discrepancy between objective amelioration (PAD test) and subjective amelioration (PRAFAB score/quantity of urinary leakage), if the objective improvement is adequately defined. 4. It is not reasonable to advise elderly women with urinary incontinence to undertake this treatment procedure. The effectiveness of treatment does not compensate for the long-lasting and

  7. Vaginal Delivery vs. Cesarean Section: A Focused Ethnographic Study of Women's Perceptions in The North of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakerihamidi, Maryam; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Merghati Khoei, Effat

    2015-01-01

    Cesarean section (C-section) in the North of Iran accounts for 70% of childbirths, which is higher than the national average of 55%. Understanding women's perceptions towards modes of delivery in different cultures can pave the way for promoting programs and policies in support of vaginal delivery. We aimed to investigate women's perceptions towards modes of delivery in the North of Iran. Using a focused ethnographic approach and purposive sampling, 12 pregnant women, 10 women with childbirth experience, nine non-pregnant women, seven midwives, and seven gynecologists were selected from hospitals, healthcare centers, and clinics of Tonekabon and Chaloos, Mazandaran, Iran, during 2012-2014. Data were collected through in-depth interviews and participant observation. Data analysis was performed using thematic analysis using MAXqda software. Two major themes emerged from the data including: "vaginal delivery, a facilitator of women's physical and mental health promotion", and "C-section, a surgical intervention associated with decreased labor pain". Six sub-themes subsumed within these major themes were: vaginal delivery as a safe mode of delivery, fullfilment of maternal instinct, a natural process with a pleasant ending, and C-section as a procedure associated with future complications, a surgical intervention and sometimes a life saving procedure, and a painless mode of delivery. In the North of Iran, women's justified cultural beliefs overshadow their micsconceptions, so it is hopped that through implementing appropriate training programs for raising awarness and correcting miscomceptions, vaginal delivery could be promoted even in regions with high rates of cesarean section.

  8. Correlates of vaginal colonization with group B streptococci among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsering Chomu Dechen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A study of genital colonization by group B streptococcus (GBS was conducted in pregnant women in their third trimester, which is a known risk factor of morbidity and mortality among newborns. Aims: The present study was undertaken to study the prevalence and the correlates of vaginal colonization by GBS among pregnant women. Setting and Design: This observational cross-sectional study was conducted during September 2002 to March 2004 on 524 pregnant women. Materials and Methods: Three high vaginal swabs were obtained from all the pregnant women admitted at term and in preterm labor. Two swabs were used for aerobic culture and the third one for gram staining. The first set of swabs was cultured on 5% Sheep blood agar plates. The second set of swabs were inoculated into Todd-Hewitt broth and then subcultured in 5% Sheep blood agar plates. The main outcome measures were the presence of GBS infection in comparison to the age group, gravida, gestational age, premature rupture of membrane (PROM, preterm labor and association with febrile spells of the present pregnancy. Results: The culture positivity rate of GBS was 4.77% and coexistent organisms isolated were Candida species (36%, Staphylococcus aureus (8% and Enterococcus species (8%. Culture positivity in the age group of 18-25 years was 5.71%, of which 5.74% were in their first pregnancy. The correlation between age group and gravida with GBS culture positivity was statistically insignificant. The culture positivity in <36 weeks of gestational age was 6.93%. This relation was statistically significant. Twenty-eight percent developed PROM. Sixty-four percent of culture positives had preterm labor. Conclusion: GBS infection among pregnant women was significantly correlated with the gestational age, PROM and preterm labor. In pregnancy GBS colonization causes asymptomatic bacteriuria or UTI. It is a well known cause of puerperal infections with amnionitis,endometritis and sepsis being

  9. Pathological Vaginal Discharge among Pregnant Women: Pattern of Occurrence and Association in a Population-Based Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Maria M. V. da Fonseca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the prevalence of pathological vaginal discharge and to describe risk factors associated with pregnant women. All women living in the city of Rio Grande, Southern Brazil, who gave birth in 2010 were included in the study. A standardized questionnaire was administered to collect information on demographic, reproductive, and health-related factors and morbidity during pregnancy. The chi-square test was used to compare proportions, and multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance was performed. Of the 2,395 women studied, 43% had pathological vaginal discharge during pregnancy. The adjusted analysis showed that younger women of lower socioeconomic condition, those with a past history of abortion, vaginal discharge in a previous pregnancy, and treated for depression, anemia, and urinary tract infection during their current pregnancy, were more likely to have pathological vaginal discharge. Vaginal discharge during pregnancy was highly prevalent in the sample studied calling for proper risk factor management at the primary care level.

  10. Comparative Study on the Vaginal Flora and Incidence of Asymptomatic Vaginosis among Healthy Women and in Women with Infertility Problems of Reproductive Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Geethavani; Singaravelu, Balamuru Ganvelu; Srikumar, R; Reddy, Sreenivasalu V; Kokan, Afraa

    2017-08-01

    The normal vaginal flora is highly complex, dominated by lactobacilli of doderlein that plays a vital role in maintaining the women's health and inhibits other pathogenic microorganisms. Fluctuation in local environment or exposure to any exogenous and endogenous sources changes the vaginal flora over a period of time. Disruption of the vaginal ecosystem changes the microflora of the healthy vagina, altering the pH and predisposing to lower reproductive tract infections. The change in the microflora of the female genital tract by pathogenic organisms may ascend from vagina to upper genital tract and may cause infertility. Although several studies demonstrate a higher prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in infertile population. The role of vaginal microbiome in infertility is not clear and need to be explored further. To compare the vaginal flora and analyse the incidence of asymptomatic vaginosis among healthy women and in women with infertility problems. A cross-sectional study was conducted over a period of six months at Sri Lakshmi Narayana Medical College and Hospital Puducherry, India. A total of 200 high vaginal swabs were collected from Group 1 which included 84 healthy women with regular menstrual cycles without any gynaecological disorder and from Group 2, 116 women with infertility problems attending fertility clinic within the age group of 18 to 45 years. All swabs were subjected to routine aerobic, anaerobic and fungal culture. Saline wet mount was performed for the detection of clue cells and Trichomonas vaginalis, 10% KOH was performed for demonstration of budding yeast cells and pseudo hyphae, Gram's staining to determine the presence of yeast cells, leucocytes and bacterial morphotypes. The smear was also graded using Nugent scoring system. The vaginal flora of Group 1 was dominated by Lactobacillus (40, 27.8 %) followed by Micrococcus (22, 15.3 %), Enterococcus (16, 11.1%), Coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. (12, 8.3%). Whereas in Group 2, the

  11. DO CHANGES IN ANAL SPHINCTER ANATOMY CORRELATE WITH ANAL FUNCTION IN WOMEN WITH A HISTORY OF VAGINAL DELIVERY?

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    Sthela Maria MURAD-REGADAS

    Full Text Available Objectives To evaluate anal sphincter anatomy using three-dimensional ultrasonography (3-DAUS in incontinent women with vaginal delivery, correlate anatomical findings with symptoms of fecal incontinence and determine the effect of vaginal delivery on anal canal anatomy and function. Methods Female with fecal incontinence and vaginal delivery were assessed with Wexner’s score, manometry, and 3DAUS. A control group comprising asymptomatic nulliparous was included. Anal pressure, the angle of the defect and length of the external anal sphincter (EAS, the anterior and posterior internal anal sphincter (IAS, the EAS + puborectal and the gap were measured and correlated with score. Results Of the 62, 49 had fecal incontinence and 13 were asymptomatic. Twenty five had EAS defects, 8 had combined EAS+IAS defects, 16 had intact sphincters and continence scores were similar. Subjects with sphincter defects had a shorter anterior EAS, IAS and longer gap than women without defects. Those with a vaginal delivery and intact sphincters had a shorter anterior EAS and longer gap than nulliparous. We found correlations between resting pressure and anterior EAS and IAS length in patients with defects. Conclusions Avaliar a anatomia do esfíncter anal usando ultra-sonografia tridimensional (3D-US em mulheres incontinentes com parto vaginal, correlacionar os achados anatômicos com sintomas de incontinência fecal e, determinar o efeito do parto vaginal sobre a anatomia e função do canal anal.

  12. Tension free vaginal tape in the management of genuine stress incontinence in women - the Indian experience

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    N Rajamaheswari

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study retrospectively the results of the Tension Free Vaginal Tape (TVT, a new ambulatory sur-gical procedure for the treatment of stress urinary incon-tinence (SUI among Indian women. Methods: TVT implies the implantation of a prolene tape around the mid-uretha via a minimal vaginal incision. TVT was done on 54 patients diagnosed to have Genuine Stress Incontinence (GSI. The procedure was done either under regional anaesthesia (RA or under local anaesthesia (LA with IV analgesics. Results: Thirty-eight patients underwent only the TVT procedure and in 16 patients concomitant procedures were done along with the TVT The TVT was done as the pri-mary procedure for GSI in 46 patients. Eight patients had prior surgery for stress incontinence. All patients were followed up from 6 months to 2 years. Forty-eight (88% patients reported complete cure. There was significant improvement of symptoms in 4(7.4% patients and in 2(3.7% the surgery failed. Conclusions: These results prove that the TVT proce-dure is a minimally invasive, safe and effective method for the treatment of SUI in women.

  13. Attempted breastfeeding before hospital discharge on both sides of the US-Mexico border, 2005: the Brownsville-Matamoros Sister City Project for Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrucci, Brian C; Piña Carrizales, Leticia E; D'Angelo, Denise V; McDonald, Jill A; Foulkes, Hillary; Ahluwalia, Indu B; Gossman, Ginger L; Acuña, Juan; Erickson, Tracy; Clatanoff, Kathy; Lewis, Kayan; Mirchandani, Gita; Smith, Brian

    2008-10-01

    The US-Mexico border region has a growing population and limited health care infrastructure. Preventive health behaviors such as breastfeeding ease the burden on this region's health care system by reducing morbidity and health care costs. We examined correlates of attempted breastfeeding before hospital discharge on each side of the US-Mexico border and within the border region. The cross-sectional study included women who delivered a live infant in Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico (n = 489), and Cameron County, Texas (n = 457), which includes Brownsville, Texas. We interviewed women before hospital discharge from August 21 through November 9, 2005. We used multivariate logistic regression to estimate the odds of attempted breastfeeding before hospital discharge in Cameron County, Texas, the municipality of Matamoros, Mexico, and the 2 communities combined. Prevalence of attempted breastfeeding before hospital discharge was 81.9% in Matamoros compared with 63.7% in Cameron County. After adjusting for potential confounders, the odds of attempted breastfeeding before hospital discharge were 90% higher in Matamoros than in Cameron County (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-2.84 for the combined model). In the 2 communities combined, odds of attempted breastfeeding before hospital discharge were higher among women who had a vaginal delivery than among women who had a cesarean delivery (AOR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.43-2.75) and were lower among women who delivered infants with a low birth weight than among women who delivered infants with a normal birth weight (AOR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.15-0.44). The rate of attempted breastfeeding in Matamoros was significantly higher than in Cameron County. Additional breastfeeding support and messages on the US side of the US-Mexico border are needed.

  14. Effect of vaginal spheres and pelvic floor muscle training in women with urinary incontinence: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta-Roda, Oriol; Vara-Paniagua, Jesús; Díaz-López, Miguel A; Sobrado-Lozano, Pilar; Simó-González, Marta; Díaz-Bellido, Paloma; Reula-Blasco, María C; Muñoz-Garrido, Francisco

    2015-08-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of Kegel exercises performed with or without, vaginal spheres as treatment for women with urinary incontinence. Multicentre parallel-group, open, randomized controlled trial. Women were allocated to either a pelvic floor muscle-training program consisting of Kegel exercises performed twice daily, 5 days/week at home, over 6 months with vaginal spheres, or to the same program without spheres. The primary endpoint was women's report of urinary incontinence at 6 months using the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-UI-SF). Secondary outcome measures were the 1 hr pad-test, King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ) and a five-point Likert scale for subjective evaluation. Adherence was measured with the Morisky-Green test. Thirty-seven women were randomized to the spheres group and 33 to the control group. The primary endpoint was evaluated in 65 women (35 in the spheres group vs. 30 controls). ICIQ-UI-SF results improved significantly at 1-month follow-up in the spheres group (P side effects were reported in four patients in the spheres group and one in the control group. Both treatments improved urinary incontinence but women who performed the exercises with vaginal spheres showed an earlier improvement. Vaginal spheres were well tolerated and safe. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Vaginal Self-Swab Specimen Collection in a Home-Based Survey of Older Women: Methods and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Joscelyn N.; Lundeen, Katie; Jaszczak, Angela; McClintock, Martha K.; Jordan, Jeanne A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To describe the methods used for, cooperation with, assays conducted on, and applications of vaginal specimens collected by older women in their homes. Methods Community-residing women (N = 1,550), ages 57–85 years, participated in a nationally representative probability survey. Vaginal self-swab specimen collection and in-home interviews were conducted between 2005 and 2006. Specimens were analyzed for bacterial vaginosis (BV), vaginal candidiasis (VC), high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV), and cytological characteristics. Field methods, consent procedures, the swab protocol, laboratory procedures, and results reporting are described. Results One thousand twenty-eight respondents (67.5% weighted) agreed to provide a vaginal specimen; 99.1% were successful. The specimen adequacy rates were BV and VC, 94.1%; HR-HPV, 99.7%; and cytology, 85.5%. The most common recorded reason for nonparticipation was a physical or health problem (38% of nonresponders). Responders were significantly more likely than nonresponders to be younger and more educated, and were more likely to report a recent pelvic examination, menopausal hormone use, and recent sexual activity. Discussion Collection of vaginal self-swab specimens from older women in a population-based study is feasible and provides novel data on microenvironmental characteristics of the female genital tract relevant to analyses of gynecologic health, sexual activity and problems, and immune and inflammatory function. PMID:19204072

  16. Predictors of anxiety and depression among women with vaginal bleeding referred to gynecology clinic during hajj 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Seyed Ali; Ahmadi, Maryam; Mortazavi, Seyyed Mostafa

    2014-11-01

    One of the most important complications for women during hajj trip is menstruation and most commonly spotting, which is the second important problem. This complication would cause some problems in performing religious rites as the main purpose of the trip and on the other hand, it would lead to psychologic complications for women. Controlling psychologic complications of women during and after hajj is necessary. The purpose to this study was to investigate predictors of anxiety and depression among the women with vaginal bleeding who were referred to Iranian clinic in Mecca and Medina in hajj 2011. In this cross-sectional study, 110 women with vaginal bleeding who were referred to gynecology clinic were enrolled. The Samples were selected by easy way method from all referrals on Tuesdays during hajj (October and November 2011). To evaluate the anxiety and depression signs, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaire was employed. The analyses were performed using SPSS 17.0 through parametric methods. Predictors of anxiety were observed in 22 women (20%). Moreover, 34 women (30.9%) were diagnosed from normal to abnormal, 3 (2.72%) had depression signs, and 22 (20%) showed symptoms of borderline symptoms of depression. Considering the high frequency of anxiety disorder among women with vaginal bleeding in hajj, gynecological consultation seems essential for women during Hajj.

  17. The complex vaginal flora of West African women with bacterial vaginosis.

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    Jacques Pépin

    Full Text Available The spectrum of bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV has recently expanded through taxonomic changes and the use of molecular methods. These methods have yet to be used in large-scale epidemiological studies in Africa where BV is highly prevalent.An analysis of samples obtained during a clinical trial of the management of vaginal discharge in four West African countries. Samples were available from 1555 participants; 843 (54% had BV. Nucleic acids of 13 bacterial genera or species potentially associated with BV were detected through the polymerase chain reaction.The associations between various components of the vaginal flora were complex. Excluding Lactobacillus, the other 12 micro-organisms were all associated with each other at the p≤0.001 level. The prevalence of various bacterial genera or species varied according to age, sexual activity and HIV status. In multivariate analysis, the presence of Gardnerella vaginalis, Bifidobacterium, Megasphaera elsdenii, Dialister, Mycoplasma hominis, Leptotrichia, and Prevotella were independently associated with BV as was the absence of Lactobacillus and Peptoniphilus. However, Mobiluncus, Atopobium vaginae, Anaerococcus, and Eggerthella were not independently associated with BV. Unexpectedly, after treatment with a regimen that included either metronidazole or tinidazole, the proportion of patients with a complete resolution of symptoms by day 14 increased with the number of bacterial genera or species present at enrolment.Numerous bacterial genera or species were strongly associated with each other in a pattern that suggested a symbiotic relationship. BV cases with a simpler flora were less likely to respond to treatment. Overall, the vaginal flora of West African women with BV was reminiscent of that of their counterparts in industrialized countries.

  18. Comparison of pelvic floor muscle strength between women undergoing vaginal delivery, cesarean section, and nulliparae using a perineometer and digital palpation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Elicéia Marcia; Conde, Délio Marques; Do Amaral, Waldemar Naves; Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi

    2011-11-01

    To compare pelvic floor muscle (PFM) strength between women undergoing vaginal delivery, cesarean section, and nulliparae, investigating the factors associated with PFM strength, and observing the correlation between vaginal digital palpation and use of a perineometer. A cross-sectional study was conducted, including 31 women following vaginal delivery, 30 women following cesarean section, and 30 nulliparous women. PFM strength was measured by vaginal digital palpation and use of a perineometer. Multiple linear regression analysis with adjustment for covariables was used to compare the mean PFM strength and identify its associated factors. The mean PFM strength of women undergoing vaginal delivery and cesarean section was 25.6 ± 14.5 cmH(2)O and 39.6 ± 22.0 cmH(2)O (p digital palpation and use of a perineometer (tau = 0.82; p digital palpation may be used in clinical practice because of its expressive correlation with use of a perineometer.

  19. Quality of sexual life of women using the contraceptive vaginal ring in extended cycles: preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Salvatore; Cianci, Stefano; Malandrino, Chiara; Cicero, Carla; Lo Presti, Lucia; Cianci, Antonio

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the quality of the sexual life of healthy women who are using a contraceptive vaginal ring (CVR) in extended cycles. Fifty-two women (18 to 32 years old) seeking hormonal contraception were enrolled in this prospective study. Women were to use a CVR releasing daily 15 μg of ethinylestradiol (EE) and 120 μg of etonogestrel (ENG) for 63 days, followed by a four-day hormone-free interval, for two such extended cycles. At baseline and at the first (day 63-73) and second (day 126-134) follow-ups the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and the Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaires were administered to investigate, respectively, sexual behaviour and the quality of life (QoL). The Female Sexual Distress Scale (FSDS) was used to verify whether sexual dysfunction caused significant personal distress to the woman. The FSFI and FSDS scores obtained at the first and second follow-up appointments detected an improvement with respect to the baseline score (p sexual function and the QoL of women.

  20. A qualitative study showing women's participation and empowerment in instrumental vaginal births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjödin, Marie; Rådestad, Ingela; Zwedberg, Sofia

    2017-09-21

    An instrumental birth with a ventouse or forceps is a complicated birth, possibly resulting in fear of childbirth which could influence the entire birth experience negatively. Patients who are actively involved in their care have a stronger sense of satisfaction and a sense of participation can contribute to shorter hospital stays. To describe the experience of participation for women involved in an instrumental delivery with ventouse or forceps. Qualitative semi-structured interviews with 16 women who gave birth aided by a ventouse or forceps. Their answers were analyzed through qualitative content analysis. In addition the women were asked to evaluate their experience during the delivery. Using a numerical scale (NRS) the birth experience was graded by choosing a number between 0 (worst possible experience) and 10 (best conceivable experience). Two themes were extracted from the data: To be part of a team and To feel empowered. Five categories were identified from the women's descriptions of the experience of involvement during the instrumental delivery: to cooperate; to understand; to have contact; to participate, and to not be involved. Those women who rated their experience as low grade, described a lack of involvement in their childbirth compared to those women who rated their experience as high. This study shows how cooperation and empowerment of the woman are two key factors in order for the women to have a positive experience of their instrumental vaginal births. The study also shows that empowerment is created when the woman is actively engaged and participates in the birth process which gives her the feeling of being part of the team, creating an environment based on mutual understanding. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Perceptions and practices regarding women's vaginal health following radiation therapy: A survey of radiation oncologists practicing in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachnic, Lisa A; Bruner, Deborah W; Qureshi, Muhammad M; Russo, Gregory A

    Vaginal stenosis (VS) is a recognized complication of pelvic and vaginal radiation therapy (RT). A 26-item survey assessing the signs/symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and impact of VS on women's sexual health was distributed to radiation oncologists. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Chi-square tests examined differences in categorical responses. A total of 233 (10.5%) participants completed the entire survey. Twelve percent, 21%, and 68% report treating gynecologic (GYN) tumors only, non-GYN pelvic tumors only, or both, respectively. Regarding risk factors, 78% believed that VS can be caused by pelvic RT alone, 91% by vaginal brachytherapy alone, and 98% by combined pelvic RT and vaginal brachytherapy. Approximately one-half of respondents felt that being postmenopausal and having a hysterectomy before radiation therapy were risk factors for VS, whereas the other half felt that these were not risk factors. All respondents agreed that VS is a clinical diagnosis. Respondents indicated that VS symptoms include dyspareunia, vaginal pain, dryness, and/or bleeding (100%, 90%, 85%, and 72%, respectively); 65% indicated all 4. The most commonly recommended treatment for VS is vaginal dilator use. Radiation oncologists who treat GYN-only versus non-GYN cancers were more likely to perform a vaginal examination, to distribute written instructions regarding vaginal dilator use (P = .002), to have vaginal bleeding reported after RT (P = .001), and to refer patients to a sexual counselor (P = .007). Most providers (73%) expressed willingness to participate in prospective research on the diagnosis and treatment of VS. This is the first large-scale survey of radiation oncologists' perceptions and practices regarding VS. There is agreement among providers regarding the signs/symptoms of VS and strategies for its prevention/treatment using vaginal dilators. Further prospective and observational research is needed. This survey shows a willingness on

  2. A Daily Diary Analysis of Condom Breakage and Slippage During Vaginal Sex or Anal Sex Among Adolescent Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, Devon J; Selby, Sarah; Tanner, Amanda E; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2016-09-01

    Adolescent women are disproportionately impacted by the adverse outcomes associated with sexual activity, including sexually transmitted infections (STI). Condoms as a means of prevention relies on use that is free of usage failure, including breakage and/or slippage. This study examined the daily prevalence of and predictors of condom breakage and/or slippage during vaginal sex and during anal sex among adolescent women. Adolescent women (N = 387; 14 to 17 years) were recruited from primary care clinics for a longitudinal cohort study of STIs and sexual behavior. Data were daily partner-specific sexual diaries. Random intercept mixed-effects logistic regression was used to estimate the fixed effect of each predictor on condom breakage/slippage during vaginal or during anal sex (Stata, 13.0), adjusting model coefficients for the correlation between repeated within-participant diary entries. Condom slippage and/or breakage varied across sexual behaviors and was associated with individual-specific (eg, age and sexual interest) and partner-specific factors (eg, negativity). Recent behavioral factors (eg, experiencing slippage and/or breakage in the past week) were the strongest predictors of current condom slippage and/or breakage during vaginal or anal sex. Factors associated with young women's condom breakage/slippage during vaginal or during anal sex should be integrated as part of STI prevention efforts and should be assessed as part of ongoing routine clinical care.

  3. Population differences and the effect of vaginal progesterone on preterm birth in women with threatened preterm labor*

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, Frederik Jan Robin; Karolinski, Ariel; Othenin-Girard, Véronique; Bertolino, María Victoria; Schuit, Ewoud; Salgado, Pablo; Hösli, Irene; Irion, Olivier; Laterra, Cristina; Mol, Ben Willem J; Martinez de Tejada, Begoña

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Threatened preterm labor (tPTL) is a complication of pregnancy. Identification of women and clinical definition differs between countries. This study investigated differences in tPTL and effectiveness of vaginal progesterone to prevent preterm birth (PTB) between two countries. Methods:

  4. Age of minority sexual orientation development and risk of childhood maltreatment and suicide attempts in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corliss, Heather L; Cochran, Susan D; Mays, Vickie M; Greenland, Sander; Seeman, Teresa E

    2009-10-01

    Women with minority sexual orientations (e.g., lesbian, bisexual) are more likely than heterosexual women to report histories of childhood maltreatment and attempted suicide; however, the importance of the timing of minority sexual orientation development in contributing to this increased risk is uncertain. This study investigated relationships between self-reported ages of achieving minority sexual orientation development milestones (first awareness of same-gender attractions, disclosure of a minority sexual orientation to another person, and same-gender sexual contact), and childhood maltreatment and suicide attempt experiences in a sample of 2,001 women recruited from multiple-community sources. Younger age of minority sexual orientation development milestones was positively linked to self-reported recall of childhood maltreatment experiences, and to a childhood suicide attempt. After adjusting for differences in maltreatment, the odds of suicide attempt attributable to younger age of sexual orientation development milestones was reduced by 50 to 65%, suggesting that maltreatment may account for about half of the elevated risk for childhood suicide attempts among women with early minority sexual orientation development. Implications for services, interventions, and further research to address maltreatment disparities for sexual minorities are discussed. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. The composition and stability of the vaginal microbiota of normal pregnant women is different from that of non-pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was undertaken to characterize the vaginal microbiota throughout normal human pregnancy using sequence-based techniques. We compared the vaginal microbial composition of non-pregnant patients with a group of pregnant women who delivered at term. Results A retrospective case–control longitudinal study was designed and included non-pregnant women (n = 32) and pregnant women who delivered at term (38 to 42 weeks) without complications (n = 22). Serial samples of vaginal fluid were collected from both non-pregnant and pregnant patients. A 16S rRNA gene sequence-based survey was conducted using pyrosequencing to characterize the structure and stability of the vaginal microbiota. Linear mixed effects models and generalized estimating equations were used to identify the phylotypes whose relative abundance was different between the two study groups. The vaginal microbiota of normal pregnant women was different from that of non-pregnant women (higher abundance of Lactobacillus vaginalis, L. crispatus, L. gasseri and L. jensenii and lower abundance of 22 other phylotypes in pregnant women). Bacterial community state type (CST) IV-B or CST IV-A characterized by high relative abundance of species of genus Atopobium as well as the presence of Prevotella, Sneathia, Gardnerella, Ruminococcaceae, Parvimonas, Mobiluncus and other taxa previously shown to be associated with bacterial vaginosis were less frequent in normal pregnancy. The stability of the vaginal microbiota of pregnant women was higher than that of non-pregnant women; however, during normal pregnancy, bacterial communities shift almost exclusively from one CST dominated by Lactobacillus spp. to another CST dominated by Lactobacillus spp. Conclusion We report the first longitudinal study of the vaginal microbiota in normal pregnancy. Differences in the composition and stability of the microbial community between pregnant and non-pregnant women were observed. Lactobacillus spp. were the

  6. Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in Portuguese pregnant women and vaginal colonization by Gardnerella vaginalis

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    Daniela Machado

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background We aimed to determine the prevalence of vaginal colonization by Gardnerella vaginalis and of bacterial vaginosis (BV in Portuguese pregnant women, and to identify risk factors for BV and G. vaginalis colonization in pregnancy. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women aged ≥ 18 years who were attending in two public hospitals of the Northwest region of Portugal. Epidemiological data was collected by anonymous questionnaire. BV was diagnosed by Nugent criteria and G. vaginalis presence was identified by polymerase chain reaction. Crude associations between the study variables and BV or G. vaginalis colonization were quantified by odds ratios (ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Results The prevalences of BV and of G. vaginalis colonization among Portuguese pregnant women were 3.88% and 67.48%, respectively. Previous preterm delivery and colonization by G. vaginalis were factors with very high OR, but only statistically significant for a 90% CI. Conversely, higher rates of G. vaginalis colonization were found in women with basic educational level (OR = 2.77, 95% CI [1.33–5.78], during the second trimester of pregnancy (OR = 6.12, 95% CI [1.80–20.85] and with BV flora (OR = 8.73, 95% CI [0.50–153.60]. Discussion Despite the lower number of women with BV, prevalence ratios and association with risk factors were similar to recent European studies. However, the percentage of healthy women colonized by G. vaginalis was significantly higher than many previous studies, confirming that G. vaginalis colonization does not always lead to BV development.

  7. Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in Portuguese pregnant women and vaginal colonization by Gardnerella vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Daniela; Castro, Joana; Martinez-de-Oliveira, José; Nogueira-Silva, Cristina; Cerca, Nuno

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to determine the prevalence of vaginal colonization by Gardnerella vaginalis and of bacterial vaginosis (BV) in Portuguese pregnant women, and to identify risk factors for BV and G. vaginalis colonization in pregnancy. A cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women aged ≥ 18 years who were attending in two public hospitals of the Northwest region of Portugal. Epidemiological data was collected by anonymous questionnaire. BV was diagnosed by Nugent criteria and G. vaginalis presence was identified by polymerase chain reaction. Crude associations between the study variables and BV or G. vaginalis colonization were quantified by odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The prevalences of BV and of G. vaginalis colonization among Portuguese pregnant women were 3.88% and 67.48%, respectively. Previous preterm delivery and colonization by G. vaginalis were factors with very high OR, but only statistically significant for a 90% CI. Conversely, higher rates of G. vaginalis colonization were found in women with basic educational level (OR = 2.77, 95% CI [1.33-5.78]), during the second trimester of pregnancy (OR = 6.12, 95% CI [1.80-20.85]) and with BV flora (OR = 8.73, 95% CI [0.50-153.60]). Despite the lower number of women with BV, prevalence ratios and association with risk factors were similar to recent European studies. However, the percentage of healthy women colonized by G. vaginalis was significantly higher than many previous studies, confirming that G. vaginalis colonization does not always lead to BV development.

  8. Comparison of the Effect of Vaginal Zataria multiflora Cream and Oral Metronidazole Pill on Results of Treatments for Vaginal Infections including Trichomoniasis and Bacterial Vaginosis in Women of Reproductive Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdali, Khadijeh; Jahed, Leila; Amooee, Sedigheh; Zarshenas, Mahnaz; Tabatabaee, Hamidreza; Bekhradi, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Effect of Zataria multiflora on bacterial vaginosis and Trichomonas vaginalis is shown in vivo and in vitro. We compare the effectiveness of Zataria multiflora cream and oral metronidazole pill on results of treatment for vaginal infections including Trichomonas and bacterial vaginosis; these infections occur simultaneously. The study included 420 women with bacterial vaginosis, Trichomonas vaginalis, or both infections together, who were randomly divided into six groups. Criteria for diagnosis were wet smear and Gram stain. Vaginal Zataria multiflora cream and placebo pill were administered to the experiment groups; the control group received oral metronidazole pill and vaginal placebo cream. Comparison of the clinical symptoms showed no significant difference in all three vaginitis groups receiving metronidazole pill and vaginal Zataria multiflora cream. However, comparison of the wet smear test results was significant in patients with trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis associated with trichomoniasis in the two treatment groups (p = 0.001 and p = 0.01). Vaginal Zataria multiflora cream had the same effect of oral metronidazole tablets in improving clinical symptoms of all three vaginitis groups, as well as the treatment for bacterial vaginosis. It can be used as a drug for treatment of bacterial vaginosis and elimination of clinical symptoms of Trichomonas vaginitis. PMID:26266260

  9. Comparison of the Effect of Vaginal Zataria multiflora Cream and Oral Metronidazole Pill on Results of Treatments for Vaginal Infections including Trichomoniasis and Bacterial Vaginosis in Women of Reproductive Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Abdali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Zataria multiflora on bacterial vaginosis and Trichomonas vaginalis is shown in vivo and in vitro. We compare the effectiveness of Zataria multiflora cream and oral metronidazole pill on results of treatment for vaginal infections including Trichomonas and bacterial vaginosis; these infections occur simultaneously. The study included 420 women with bacterial vaginosis, Trichomonas vaginalis, or both infections together, who were randomly divided into six groups. Criteria for diagnosis were wet smear and Gram stain. Vaginal Zataria multiflora cream and placebo pill were administered to the experiment groups; the control group received oral metronidazole pill and vaginal placebo cream. Comparison of the clinical symptoms showed no significant difference in all three vaginitis groups receiving metronidazole pill and vaginal Zataria multiflora cream. However, comparison of the wet smear test results was significant in patients with trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis associated with trichomoniasis in the two treatment groups (p=0.001 and p=0.01. Vaginal Zataria multiflora cream had the same effect of oral metronidazole tablets in improving clinical symptoms of all three vaginitis groups, as well as the treatment for bacterial vaginosis. It can be used as a drug for treatment of bacterial vaginosis and elimination of clinical symptoms of Trichomonas vaginitis.

  10. Breast cancer, endometrial cancer, and cardiovascular events in participants who used vaginal estrogen in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Carolyn J; Hovey, Kathleen M; Andrews, Christopher A; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Stefanick, Marcia L; Lane, Dorothy S; Shifren, Jan; Chen, Chu; Kaunitz, Andrew M; Cauley, Jane A; Manson, JoAnn E

    2018-01-01

    To determine the association between use of vaginal estrogen and risk of a global index event (GIE), defined as time to first occurrence of coronary heart disease (CHD), invasive breast cancer, stroke, pulmonary embolism, hip fracture, colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, or death from any cause. For this prospective observational cohort study, we used data from participants of the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study, who were recruited at 40 US clinical centers, aged 50 to 79 years at baseline and did not use systemic estrogen therapy during follow-up (n = 45,663, median follow-up 7.2 years). We collected data regarding incident CHD, invasive breast cancer, stroke, pulmonary embolism, hip fracture, colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, death, and self-reported use of vaginal estrogen (cream, tablet). We used Cox proportional-hazards regression models to adjust for covariates. Among women with an intact uterus, the risks of stroke, invasive breast cancer, colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, and pulmonary embolism/deep vein thrombosis were not significantly different between vaginal estrogen users and nonusers, whereas the risks of CHD, fracture, all-cause mortality, and GIE were lower in users than in nonusers (GIE adjusted hazard ratio 0.68, 95% confidence interval 0.55-0.86). Among hysterectomized women, the risks of each of the individual GIE components and of the overall GIE were not significantly different in users versus nonusers of vaginal estrogen (GIE adjusted hazard ratio 0.94, 95% confidence interval 0.70-1.26). The risks of cardiovascular disease and cancer were not elevated among postmenopausal women using vaginal estrogens, providing reassurance about the safety of treatment.

  11. Low prevalence of cervical infections in women with vaginal discharge in west Africa: implications for syndromic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pépin, J; Deslandes, S; Khonde, N; Kintin, D F; Diakité, S; Sylla, M; Méda, H; Sobéla, F; Asamoah-Adu, C; Agyarko-Poku, T; Frost, E

    2004-06-01

    To measure prevalence and risk factors for cervical infections among a large sample of women consulting for vaginal discharge in west Africa and to evaluate its syndromic management through a two visit algorithm. In 11 health centres in Bénin, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Guinée, and Mali 726 women who presented with a vaginal discharge without abdominal pain and who denied being a sex worker (SW) were enrolled. Cervical samples were tested for the detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. All participants were treated with single dose (2 g) metronidazole and clotrimazole cream for 3 days. They were randomised to be told either to come back on day 7 only if there was no improvement in the discharge (group A), or to come back on day 7 regardless of response to treatment (group B). Overall, the prevalence of NG and CT was only 1.9% (14/726) and 3.2% (23/726) respectively. Risk factors previously recommended by the WHO were not associated with the presence of cervical infection, with the exception of the number of sex partners in the past 3 months. When taken together, these risk factors had a positive predictive value of only 6.4% to identify cervical infections. Prevalence of cervical infection was not higher in women who came back on day 7, regardless of the strategy used. Prevalence of NG/CT was lower in Ghana and Bénin (5/280, 1.8%), where comprehensive interventions for SW have been ongoing for years, than in the three other countries (27/446, 6.1%, p = 0.01). NG and CT infections are uncommon in west African women who consult for vaginal discharge and who are not SW. Syndromic management of vaginal discharge should focus on the proper management of vaginitis. The control of gonococcal and chlamydial infection should be redesigned around interventions focusing on sex workers.

  12. Prevalence of Candida albicans and non-albicans isolates from vaginal secretions: comparative evaluation of colonization, vaginal candidiasis and recurrent vaginal candidiasis in diabetic and non-diabetic women

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    Luciene Setsuko Akimoto Gunther

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is caused by abnormal growth of yeast-like fungi on the female genital tract mucosa. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM are more susceptible to fungal infections, including those caused by species of Candida. The present study investigated the frequency of total isolation of vaginal Candida spp., and its different clinical profiles - colonization, VVC and recurrent VVC (RVVC - in women with DM type 2, compared with non-diabetic women. The cure rate using fluconazole treatment was also evaluated. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted in the public healthcare system of Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. METHODS: The study involved 717 women aged 17-74 years, of whom 48 (6.7% had DM type 2 (mean age: 53.7 years, regardless of signs and symptoms of VVC. The yeasts were isolated and identified using classical phenotypic methods. RESULTS: In the non-diabetic group (controls, total vaginal yeast isolation occurred in 79 (11.8% women, and in the diabetic group in 9 (18.8% (P = 0.000. The diabetic group showed more symptomatic (VVC + RVVC = 66.66% than colonized (33.33% women, and showed significantly more colonization, VVC and RVVC than seen among the controls. The mean cure rate using fluconazole was 75.0% in the diabetic group and 86.7% in the control group (P = 0.51. CONCLUSION: We found that DM type 2 in Brazilian women was associated with yeast colonization, VVC and RVVC, and similar isolation rates for C. albicans and non-albicans species. Good cure rates were obtained using fluconazole in both groups.

  13. Postoperative bowel function, symptoms, and habits in women after vaginal reconstructive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Alicia; Parker-Autry, Candace; Lin, Chee Paul; Markland, Alayne D; Ellington, David R; Richter, Holly E

    2015-06-01

    The objective was to characterize postoperative bowel symptoms in women undergoing vaginal prolapse reconstructive surgery randomized to preoperative bowel preparation vs a regular diet. Subjects (N = 121) completed two bowel diaries: a 7-day bowel diary immediately before surgery and a 14-day diary postoperatively. Self-reported bowel diary data and symptoms included the time to first bowel movement (BM), daily number of BMs, Bristol Stool Form Scale score, pain, and urgency associated with BM, episodes of fecal incontinence, and use of laxatives. Antiemetic use was abstracted from medical records. Outcomes of groups were compared using Chi-squared/Fisher's exact test or Student's t test as appropriate. Mean time to first postoperative BM was similar in the bowel preparation (n = 60) and control groups (n = 61), 81.2 ± 28.9 vs 78.6 ± 28.2 h, p = 0.85. With the first BM, there were no significant differences between bowel preparation and control groups regarding pain (17.2 vs 27.9 %, p = 0.17), fecal urgency with defecation (56.9 vs 52.5 %, p = 0.63), fecal incontinence (14.0 vs 15.0 %, p = 0.88) and >1 use of laxatives (93.3 vs 96.7 % p = 0.44) respectively. Antiemetic use was similar in both groups (48.3 vs 55.7 % respectively, p = 0.42). There were no differences in the return of bowel function and other bowel symptoms postoperatively between the randomized groups. Lack of bowel preparation does not have an impact on the risk of painful defecation postoperatively. This information may be used to inform patients regarding expectations for bowel function after vaginal reconstructive surgery.

  14. Characteristics of Women Enrolled into a Randomized Clinical Trial of Dapivirine Vaginal Ring for HIV-1 Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanee-Phillips, Thesla; Schwartz, Katie; Brown, Elizabeth R; Govender, Vaneshree; Mgodi, Nyaradzo; Kiweewa, Flavia Matovu; Nair, Gonasagrie; Mhlanga, Felix; Siva, Samantha; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Jeenarain, Nitesha; Gaffoor, Zakir; Martinson, Francis; Makanani, Bonus; Naidoo, Sarita; Pather, Arendevi; Phillip, Jessica; Husnik, Marla J; van der Straten, Ariane; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Baeten, Jared

    2015-01-01

    Women in sub-Saharan Africa are a priority population for evaluation of new biomedical HIV-1 prevention strategies. Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis is a promising prevention approach; however, clinical trials among young women using daily or coitally-dependent products have found low adherence. Antiretroviral-containing vaginal microbicide rings, which release medication over a month or longer, may reduce these adherence challenges. ASPIRE (A Study to Prevent Infection with a Ring for Extended Use) is a phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial testing the safety and effectiveness of a vaginal ring containing the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor dapivirine for prevention of HIV-1 infection. We describe the baseline characteristics of African women enrolled in the ASPIRE trial. Between August 2012 and June 2014, 5516 women were screened and 2629 HIV-1 seronegative women between 18-45 years of age were enrolled from 15 research sites in Malawi, South Africa, Uganda, and Zimbabwe. The median age was 26 years (IQR 22-31) and the majority (59%) were unmarried. Nearly 100% of participants reported having a primary sex partner in the prior three months but 43% did not know the HIV-1 status of their primary partner; 17% reported additional concurrent partners. Nearly two-thirds (64%) reported having disclosed to primary partners about planned vaginal ring use in the trial. Sexually transmitted infections were prevalent: 12% had Chlamydia trachomatis, 7% Trichomonas vaginalis, 4% Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and 1% syphilis. African HIV-1 seronegative women at risk of HIV -1 infection were successfully enrolled into a phase III trial of dapivirine vaginal ring for HIV-1 prevention.

  15. Y Chromosome DNA in Women's Vaginal Samples as a Biomarker of Recent Vaginal Sex and Condom Use With Male Partners in the HPV Infection and Transmission Among Couples Through Heterosexual Activity Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagón, Talía; Burchell, Ann; El-Zein, Mariam; Guénoun, Julie; Tellier, Pierre-Paul; Coutlée, François; Franco, Eduardo L

    2017-08-04

    Y chromosome DNA from male epithelial and sperm cells was detected in vaginal samples after unprotected sex in experimental studies. We assessed the strength of this association in an observational setting to examine the utility of Y chromosome DNA as a biomarker of recent sexual behaviors in epidemiological studies. The HPV (human papillomavirus) Infection and Transmission Among Couples Through Heterosexual Activity cohort study enrolled 502 women attending a university or college in Montréal, Canada, and their male partners from 2005 to 2010. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires. We used real-time polymerase chain reaction to test women's baseline vaginal samples for Y chromosome DNA and assessed which sexual behaviors were independent predictors of Y chromosome DNA positivity and quantity with logistic and negative binomial regression. Y chromosome DNA positivity decreased from 77% in women in partnerships reporting vaginal sex 0 to 1 day ago to 13% in women in partnerships reporting last vaginal sex of 15 or more days ago (adjusted odds ratio, 0.09; 95% confidence interval, 0.02-0.36). The mean proportion of exfoliated vaginal sample cells with Y chromosome DNA was much lower for women who reported always using condoms (0.01%) than for women who reported never using condoms (2.07%) (adjusted ratio, 26.8; 95% confidence interval, 8.9-80.5). No association was found with reported oral/digital sex frequency or concurrency of partnerships. Y chromosome DNA quantity is strongly associated with days since last vaginal sex and lack of condom use in observational settings. Y chromosome DNA quantity may prove useful as a correlate of recent vaginal sex in observational studies lacking data on sexual behavior, such as surveillance studies of human papillomavirus infection prevalence.

  16. Introduction and history of the Hungarian project for monitoring suicide attempts in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, M S; Czeizel, A E

    2008-01-01

    The introduction describes the series of manuscripts resulting from the Hungarian Project for monitoring suicide attempts in pregnant women, as well as a history of the project, its various phases and participating individuals. This unique database contains information on all patients who attempted suicide by "self-poisoning" and were cared for at central toxicological inpatient clinic in Budapest, between 1960 and 1993. A total of 1044 patients were pregnant women, of which 19 died and 411 delivered live-born babies. Of these 411 live-born children, 367 exposed children were examined and/or evaluated. This is the first report of data on the human teratogenic potential of 93 medicinal products separately used for a suicide attempt during pregnancy. Each manuscript presents results for drugs used by at least 10 pregnant women for a suicide attempt, whereas the final paper summarizes the data of drugs used rarely for suicide attempt by pregnant women. Each patient consented to participate in the study. Critical information collected under medical supervision included examination of the patients upon admittance, stage of pregnancy at suicide attempt, blood levels of the drug(s) taken for the suicide attempt (at admittance), evaluation of the infant at birth for gestational age, weight and congenital abnormalities, and follow-up studies for 2 years after a child's birth. These studies provide insight into the potential effects of a high dose of a drug or drugs taken during pregnancy because it is well accepted that "pulse high doses" of a drug during the initial susceptible period of pregnancy are those most likely to result in congenital abnormality. Although it is obvious that these data are not sufficient to ensure safety, and that it is necessary to have a larger population of exposed children, to achieve better statistical power, as well as to include data on other populations, this collection of papers provides an important introduction of the so-called disaster

  17. Adverse childhood experiences among women prisoners: relationships to suicide attempts and drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friestad, Christine; Åse-Bente, Rustad; Kjelsberg, Ellen

    2014-02-01

    Women prisoners are known to suffer from an accumulation of factors known to increase the risk for several major health problems. This study examines the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and the relationship between such experiences and suicide attempts and drug use among incarcerated women in Norway. A total of 141 women inmates (75% of all eligible) were interviewed using a structured interview guide covering information on demographics and a range of ACE related to abuse and neglect, and household dysfunction. The main outcome variables were attempted suicide and adult drug abuse. Emotional, physical and sexual abuse during childhood was experienced by 39%, 36% and 19%, respectively, and emotional and physical neglect by 31% and 33%, respectively. Looking at the full range of ACE, 17% reported having experienced none, while 34% reported having experienced more than five ACEs. After controlling for age, immigrant background and marital status, the number of ACEs significantly increased the risk of attempted suicide and current drug abuse. The associations observed between early life trauma and later health risk behaviour indicate the need for early prevention. The findings also emphasize the important role of prison health services in secondary prevention among women inmates.

  18. Effects of sea buckthorn oil intake on vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmo, Petra S; Yang, Baoru; Hyssälä, Juha; Kallio, Heikki P; Erkkola, Risto

    2014-11-01

    Vaginal atrophy, the thinning and drying of vaginal mucosa, is associated with menopause. The standard estrogen treatment is not suitable for all women. To investigate the effects of oral sea buckthorn (SB) oil supplementation on vaginal atrophy. A total of 116 postmenopausal women experiencing symptoms of vaginal dryness, itching or burning were randomized to this placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Ninety-eight participants completed the intervention of three months, during which they consumed 3g of SB or placebo oil daily. At the beginning and end, factors of vaginal health were scored by a gynecologist, vaginal pH and moisture were measured and vaginal health index was calculated. Symptoms of atrophy and menopause were evaluated at study visits and by daily logbooks. Serum samples were collected for the analysis of circulating lipids, liver enzymes and C-reactive protein. Compared to placebo, there was a significantly better rate of improvement in the integrity of vaginal epithelium in the SB group when both compliant and noncompliant participants were included (odds ratio (OR)=3.1, 95% CI 1.11-8.95). A beneficial trend was observed when only the compliant participants were included (OR=2.9; 95% CI 0.99-8.35). There was a tendency (P=0.08) toward better improvement of vaginal health index from baseline to the end in the SB group [(0.8 (SD 2.8)] compared to placebo [-0.1 (SD 2.0)]. SB oil showed beneficial effects on vaginal health, indicating it is a potential alternative for mucosal integrity for those women not able to use estrogen treatment for vaginal atrophy. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Pilot study of vaginal plethysmography in women treated with radiotherapy for gynecological cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pras, E; Wouda, J; Willemse, PHB; Midden, ME; Zwart, M; de Vries, EGE; Schultz, WCMW

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. After pelvic radiotherapy for gynecological cancer, changes in the vaginal epithelium might influence sexual arousal and satisfaction, leading to dyspareunia and relational problems. The aim of the study was to determine the feasibility of vaginal plethysmography in order to measure

  20. Abnormal vaginal bleeding in women with venous thromboembolism treated with apixaban or warfarin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brekelmans, Marjolein P. A.; Scheres, Luuk J. J.; Bleker, Suzanne M.; Hutten, Barbara A.; Timmermans, Anne; Büller, Harry R.; Middeldorp, Saskia

    2017-01-01

    Abnormal vaginal bleeding can complicate direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) treatment. We aimed to investigate the characteristics of abnormal vaginal bleeding in patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) receiving apixaban or enoxaparin/warfarin. Data were derived from the AMPLIFY trial. We compared

  1. High Diversity and Variability in the Vaginal Microbiome in Women following Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes (PPROM): A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramel Jayaprakash, Teenus; Wagner, Emily C; van Schalkwyk, Julie; Albert, Arianne Y K; Hill, Janet E; Money, Deborah M

    2016-01-01

    To characterize the vaginal microbiota of women following preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), and determine if microbiome composition predicts latency duration and perinatal outcomes. A prospective cohort study. Canada. Women with PPROM between 24+0 and 33+6 weeks gestational age (GA). Microbiome profiles, based on pyrosequencing of the cpn60 universal target, were generated from vaginal samples at time of presentation with PPROM, weekly thereafter, and at delivery. Vaginal microbiome composition, latency duration, gestational age at delivery, perinatal outcomes. Microbiome profiles were generated from 70 samples from 36 women. Mean GA at PPROM was 28.8 wk (mean latency 2.7 wk). Microbiome profiles were highly diverse but sequences representing Megasphaera type 1 and Prevotella spp. were detected in all vaginal samples. Only 13/70 samples were dominated by Lactobacillus spp. Microbiome profiles at the time of membrane rupture did not cluster by gestational age at PPROM, latency duration, presence of chorioamnionitis or by infant outcomes. Mycoplasma and/or Ureaplasma were detected by PCR in 81% (29/36) of women, and these women had significantly lower GA at delivery and correspondingly lower birth weight infants than Mycoplasma and/or Ureaplasma negative women. Women with PPROM had mixed, abnormal vaginal microbiota but the microbiome profile at PPROM did not correlate with latency duration. Prevotella spp. and Megasphaera type I were ubiquitous. The presence of Mollicutes in the vaginal microbiome was associated with lower GA at delivery. The microbiome was remarkably unstable during the latency period.

  2. Ages at Initiation of Cigarette Smoking and Quit Attempts Among Women: A Generation Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabia, Alfredo; Costanza, Michael C.; Bernstein, Martine S.; Rielle, Jean-Charles

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This study sought to determine whether the age at initiation of regular cigarette smoking and the likelihood of quitting smoking through age 35 differ among women from younger versus older generations. Methods. Annual population-based, random surveys (total of 3676 female residents of Geneva, Switzerland, aged 35–74 years) were conducted from 1992 to 1998. Results. Women younger than 55 years were more likely to be past or current smokers, began smoking earlier (median age < 20 years), and smoked more cigarettes per day than older women, yet attempted to quit smoking more often before age 35 (log-rank P < .001). Conclusions. Young female smokers have a higher propensity to quit smoking compared with older women. Encouraging young smokers to quit—in addition to preventing nonsmokers from starting—may be an important facet of reducing cigarette smoking prevalence among adolescents. PMID:11772764

  3. Quantification of bacterial species of the vaginal microbiome in different groups of women, using nucleic acid amplification tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jespers, Vicky; Menten, Joris; Smet, Hilde; Poradosú, Sabrina; Abdellati, Saïd; Verhelst, Rita; Hardy, Liselotte; Buvé, Anne; Crucitti, Tania

    2012-05-30

    The vaginal microbiome plays an important role in urogenital health. Quantitative real time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) assays for the most prevalent vaginal Lactobacillus species and bacterial vaginosis species G. vaginalis and A. vaginae exist, but qPCR information regarding variation over time is still very limited. We set up qPCR assays for a selection of seven species and defined the temporal variation over three menstrual cycles in a healthy Caucasian population with a normal Nugent score. We also explored differences in qPCR data between these healthy women and an 'at risk' clinic population of Caucasian, African and Asian women with and without bacterial vaginosis (BV), as defined by the Nugent score. Temporal stability of the Lactobacillus species counts was high with L. crispatus counts of 108 copies/mL and L. vaginalis counts of 106 copies/mL. We identified 2 types of 'normal flora' and one 'BV type flora' with latent class analysis on the combined data of all women. The first group was particularly common in women with a normal Nugent score and was characterized by a high frequency of L. crispatus, L. iners, L. jensenii, and L. vaginalis and a correspondingly low frequency of L. gasseri and A. vaginae. The second group was characterized by the predominance of L. gasseri and L. vaginalis and was found most commonly in healthy Caucasian women. The third group was commonest in women with a high Nugent score but was also seen in a subset of African and Asian women with a low Nugent score and was characterized by the absence of Lactobacillus species (except for L. iners) but the presence of G. vaginalis and A. vaginae. We have shown that the quantification of specific bacteria by qPCR contributes to a better description of the non-BV vaginal microbiome, but we also demonstrated that differences in populations such as risk and ethnicity also have to be taken into account. We believe that our selection of indicator organisms represents a feasible strategy

  4. Quantification of bacterial species of the vaginal microbiome in different groups of women, using nucleic acid amplification tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jespers Vicky

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vaginal microbiome plays an important role in urogenital health. Quantitative real time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR assays for the most prevalent vaginal Lactobacillus species and bacterial vaginosis species G. vaginalis and A. vaginae exist, but qPCR information regarding variation over time is still very limited. We set up qPCR assays for a selection of seven species and defined the temporal variation over three menstrual cycles in a healthy Caucasian population with a normal Nugent score. We also explored differences in qPCR data between these healthy women and an ‘at risk’ clinic population of Caucasian, African and Asian women with and without bacterial vaginosis (BV, as defined by the Nugent score. Results Temporal stability of the Lactobacillus species counts was high with L. crispatus counts of 108 copies/mL and L. vaginalis counts of 106 copies/mL. We identified 2 types of ‘normal flora’ and one ‘BV type flora’ with latent class analysis on the combined data of all women. The first group was particularly common in women with a normal Nugent score and was characterized by a high frequency of L. crispatus, L. iners, L. jensenii, and L. vaginalis and a correspondingly low frequency of L. gasseri and A. vaginae. The second group was characterized by the predominance of L. gasseri and L. vaginalis and was found most commonly in healthy Caucasian women. The third group was commonest in women with a high Nugent score but was also seen in a subset of African and Asian women with a low Nugent score and was characterized by the absence of Lactobacillus species (except for L. iners but the presence of G. vaginalis and A. vaginae. Conclusions We have shown that the quantification of specific bacteria by qPCR contributes to a better description of the non-BV vaginal microbiome, but we also demonstrated that differences in populations such as risk and ethnicity also have to be taken into account. We believe

  5. Trichomonas vaginalis is very rare among women with vaginal discharge in Podlaskie province, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serwin, Agnieszka Beata; Bulhak-Koziol, Violetta; Sokolowska, Marianna; Golparian, Daniel; Unemo, Magnus

    2017-09-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the most common curable sexually transmitted pathogen globally. However, in the European Union (EU), trichomoniasis appears to be a rare condition. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of T. vaginalis among females attending an STI centre in Bialystok, Poland, using the highly sensitive and specific APTIMA T. vaginalis assay. Consecutive females, referred by gynaecologists mainly because of abnormal vaginal discharge, were diagnosed using wet mount microscopy, culture and APTIMA T. vaginalis assay. Among 272 women studied, 82% were pre- and 18% postmenopausal. The average age was 36.0 ± 13.9 (range: 18-86) years. Abnormal discharge (alone or accompanied by itch or vulvovaginal burning) was the most frequent complain in both groups (66.2% and 48.0%). Erythema and discharge were the most frequent abnormal signs (58.6% and 56.0%). Not a single T. vaginalis-positive sample was detected using wet mount microscopy, culture or APTIMA T. vaginalis assay. Despite using the highly sensitive APTIMA T. vaginalis assay for detection, the pathogen could not be identified in females in the studied setting, similar to results from other EU settings. The need for general screening using NAAT for this pathogen while diagnosing vulvovaginal symptoms in females in Poland appears to be low. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Tension-Free Vaginal Taping in Pakistani Women with Stress Urinary Incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Ayesha

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and determine the peroperative and postoperative complications of tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) sling for urinary stress incontinence (USI) and contributing factors to complications. Descriptive study. Kidney Centre Postgraduate Institute, Karachi, from January 2009 to December 2010. One hundred consecutive patients underwent TVT as per Ulmsten Technique for urinary stress incontinence and patients were followed for 3 years. The subjective cure rate and improvement rate was based on the international consultation on incontinence questionnaire for evaluating female lower urinary tract symptoms (ICIQ - FLUS). The subjective cure was defined as the statement of the woman not experiencing any loss of urine upon physical stress and improvement rate was defined as occasional leakage during stress. Patients at 1- and 3-year up follow-up showed subjective cure rate and improvement rate of 98% and 2%, and 95% and 5%, respectively. Mean operative time was 32 minutes. UTI was the commonest complication observed in 7 (7%) patients. Women with voiding dysfunction preoperatively had 9-fold odds of difficulty postoperatively (0incontinence. Bladder perforation, voiding dysfunction, supra-pubic discomfort and UTI are the commonest complications. Risk factors for perforation include preoperative hysterectomy. Pre-existing voiding dysfunction and UTI lead to persistent similar postoperative problems.

  7. Risk factors of suicidal ideation and attempt in women with drug user spouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Noori

    2013-11-01

    Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that a personal history of drug use, an elevated anxiety score, and depression and exposure to physical abuse by their spouse may act as predictors of suicidal ideation or attempt in women with a drug user spouse. These findings may serve to benefit and support healthcare systems, associated with ongoing efforts to develop preventive programs for suicidal behavior in this population.

  8. Vaginal microbicides for reducing the risk of sexual acquisition of HIV infection in women: systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Obiero Jael

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Each year more than two million people are newly infected with HIV worldwide, a majority of them through unprotected vaginal sex. More than half of new infections in adults occur in women. Male condoms and male circumcision reduce the risk of HIV acquisition; but the uptake of these methods is out of the control of women. We therefore aimed to determine the effectiveness of vaginal microbicides (a potential female-controlled method for prevention of sexual acquisition of HIV in women. Methods We conducted a comprehensive search of peer-reviewed and grey literature for publications of randomised controlled trials available by September 2012. We screened search outputs, selected studies, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data in duplicate; resolving differences by discussion and consensus. Results We identified 13 eligible trials that compared vaginal microbicides to placebo. These studies enrolled 35,905 sexually active HIV-negative women between 1996 and 2011; in Benin, Cameroon, Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, India, Thailand, and the United States of America. A small trial of 889 women found that tenofovir (a nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor significantly reduces the risk of HIV acquisition (risk ratio [RR] 0.63, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.43 to 0.93. Effectiveness data are not yet available from follow-up tenofovir trials being conducted in South Africa, Uganda, and Zimbabwe (1 trial and multiple sites in South Africa (1 trial. We found no evidence of a significant effect for nonoxynol-9 (5 trials, cellulose sulphate (2 trials, SAVVY (2 trials, Carraguard (1 trial, PRO 2000 (2 trials, and BufferGel (1 trial microbicides. The pooled RR for the effect of current experimental vaginal microbicides on HIV acquisition in women was 0.97, 95%CI 0.87 to 1.08. Although study results were homogeneous across the different drug classes (heterogeneity P

  9. Risk factors for cesarean section and instrumental vaginal delivery after successful external cephalic version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hundt, Marcella; Vlemmix, Floortje; Bais, Joke M J; de Groot, Christianne J; Mol, Ben Willem; Kok, Marjolein

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this article is to examine if we could identify factors that predict cesarean section and instrumental vaginal delivery in women who had a successful external cephalic version. We used data from a previous randomized trial among 25 hospitals and their referring midwife practices in the Netherlands. With the data of this trial, we performed a cohort study among women attempting vaginal delivery after successful ECV. We evaluated whether maternal age, gestational age, parity, time interval between ECV and delivery, birth weight, neonatal gender, and induction of labor were predictive for a vaginal delivery on one hand or a CS or instrumental vaginal delivery on the other hand. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios were calculated with univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Among 301 women who attempted vaginal delivery after a successful external cephalic version attempt, the cesarean section rate was 13% and the instrumental vaginal delivery rate 6%, resulting in a combined instrumental delivery rate of 19%. Nulliparity increased the risk of cesarean section (OR 2.7 (95% CI 1.2-6.1)) and instrumental delivery (OR 4.2 (95% CI 2.1-8.6)). Maternal age, gestational age at delivery, time interval between external cephalic version and delivery, birth weight and neonatal gender did not contribute to the prediction of failed spontaneous vaginal delivery. In our cohort of 301 women with a successful external cephalic version, nulliparity was the only one of seven factors that predicted the risk for cesarean section and instrumental vaginal delivery.

  10. Genital panics: constructing the vagina in women's qualitative narratives about pubic hair, menstrual sex, and vaginal self-image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahs, Breanne

    2014-06-01

    An emerging body of research targets women's relationship to their genitals, particularly as pubic hair removal and the promotion of female genital surgeries increase in popularity and visibility. This study asked women to discuss their subjective feelings about three related but distinct genital attitudes: pubic hair grooming, sex during menstruation, and genital/vaginal self-image. Specifically, this study applied thematic analysis to qualitative interviews with a community sample of 20 women (mean age=34, SD=13.35) from diverse ages, races, and sexual identity backgrounds to illuminate seven themes in women's narratives about their vaginas: (1) "dirty" or "gross"; (2) needing maintenance; (3) unknown or frustrating; (4) unnatural; (5) comparative; (6) ambivalent; (7) affirmative. Overwhelmingly, women used strong emotional language when discussing their genitals, often evoking descriptions of anxiety, excess, and need for control. Fusions between sexuality and body image, and connections between "genital panics" and internalized racism, sexism, and homophobia, also appeared. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Risk factors for urinary incontinence 1 year after the first vaginal delivery in a cohort of primiparous Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svare, Jens A; Hansen, Bent B; Lose, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The objective was to examine the relationship between maternal and perinatal factors and the occurrence of stress (SUI) or mixed (MUI) urinary incontinence (UI) 1 year after the first vaginal delivery in primiparous women. METHODS: Participants in this prospective...... cohort were recruited consecutively from June 2003 to July 2005 from all eligible women who delivered in the department. A validated questionnaire, the International Consultation of Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form (ICIQ-SF) was completed by all participants 2-3 days after delivery, and a similar...

  12. The feeling of discomfort during vaginal examination, history of abuse and sexual abuse and post-traumatic stress disorder in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güneş, Gizem; Karaçam, Zekiye

    2017-08-01

    To examine the feeling of discomfort during vaginal examinations, history of abuse and sexual abuse and post-traumatic stress disorder in women to determine the correlation between these variables. Women who have experienced abuse or sexual abuse may feel more discomfort during vaginal examinations and may perceive a sensation similar to what they experienced during sexual abuse. Cross-sectional. This study included 320 women receiving a vaginal examination. The data were collected using a questionnaire composed of items related to descriptive characteristics, vaginal examinations and violence, a visual analogue scale of discomfort, and the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Scale-civilian version. The mean score for the feeling of discomfort during vaginal examinations was 3·92 ± 3·34; 26·3% of the women described discomfort. Thirty-eight (12%) of the 320 women had experienced emotional violence, 25 (8%) had experienced physical violence, and 25 (8%) had been forced into sexual intercourse by their spouses. Of the women, 64·7% suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder, and physical, emotional and sexual violence were found to increase the possibility of this disorder. Exposure to emotional violence increased the possibility of discomfort during vaginal examinations by 4·5 (OR = 4·482; 95% CI = 1·421-14·134). Post-traumatic stress disorder (OR = 1·038; 95% CI = 1·009-1·066) was found to increase the possibility of discomfort during vaginal examinations; however, as the number of live births increases, women reported a reduction in their discomfort with vaginal examinations. This study revealed a positive correlation between discomfort during vaginal examinations and emotional violence and post-traumatic stress disorder but a negative correlation between discomfort during vaginal examinations and the number of live births. In addition, having a history of abuse and sexual abuse was found to increase post-traumatic stress disorder. Considering

  13. Effect of belly dancing on urinary incontinence-related muscles and vaginal pressure in middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, So-Young; Kim, Seung-Suk; Han, Gunsoo

    2017-03-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effect of belly dancing on the urinary incontinence-related muscles and vaginal pressure in middle-aged women to provide fundamental data for establishing an effective training program focusing on mitigating and preventing urinary incontinence. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects included 24 middle-aged women, who have been diagnosed with urinary incontinence. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups, viz. the experimental group (N=12) and control group (N=12). The experimental group underwent a belly dancing program focusing on pelvis moves. [Results] In the experimental group, the urinary incontinence-related muscle strength and vaginal pressure were increased, while the control group showed no significant change. [Conclusion] Belly dancing focusing on pelvis moves had a positive effect on the urinary incontinence-related muscle strength and vaginal pressure, suggesting that a recreational dance program focusing on pelvic exercise can be used to prevent and relieve the symptoms of urinary incontinence as a non-surgical treatment.

  14. Efficacy, tolerability and safety of a new medical device, Monurelle Biogel(®) vaginal gel, in the treatment of vaginal dryness: a randomized clinical trial in women of reproductive age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappi, Rossella E; Benedetto, Chiara; Campolo, Federica; Martella, Silvia; Tosti, Claudia; Cianci, Antonio; Caruso, Salvatore; Guaschino, Secondo; Grimaldi, Eva; Bagolan, Massimo; Sardina, Marco

    2016-08-01

    To prove the efficacy, tolerability and safety of Monurelle Biogel(®) (ZP-025) vaginal gel, which contains a purified, dialyzed, lyophilized bovine colostrum, in women of reproductive age suffering from vaginal dryness. Randomized clinical trial (RCT) (Z7213M01). Five University Gynaecological Units. Ninety-five subjects were allocated at random to receive either ZP-025 (n=48) for about 23 intermenstrual days (1 or 2 times/daily intra-vaginally) or no treatment (lubricants on demand were allowed). Change of Verbal Rating Scale (VRS) total and single score for vaginal symptoms, Vaginal Health Index (VHI) score, Female Sexual Function index (FSFI) and Female Sexual Distress Scale-revised (FSDS-R) scores. A total number of 85 subjects was evaluable for primary analyses. Symptoms (VRS) of vaginal discomfort improved significantly already after 11 days, as compared to the control arm (psexual distress (≤11 points) was more prominent in the ZP-025 arm [10 subjects (40%) in the ZP-025 arm (psexual function was also evident. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Vaginal fluid pH and buffer capacity for predicting false preterm labor in Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Taketoshi; Sado, Toshiyuki; Naruse, Katsuhiko; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    To determine the relationship between preterm labor and delivery, and the pH and buffer capacity of vaginal secretions. Between January 1, 2009 and March 31, 2012, two cohorts of patients at 22-36weeks of pregnancy were enrolled in a prospective cohort study at Nara Medical University Hospital, Japan. Patients experiencing preterm contractions and a control group of patients experiencing normal pregnancies were included. The pH and buffer capacity of vaginal secretions were measured and compared. Of the 237 patients enrolled, 48 (20.3%) were experiencing symptoms of preterm labor and 189 (79.7%) were included in the control group. The pH was higher (Pbuffer capacity was lower (P=0.0135) in the vaginal secretions of the patients experiencing preterm contractions compared with the control group. There was no difference in the pH and buffer capacity of the vaginal secretions of symptomatic patients who would experience preterm delivery and those who would not. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses demonstrated that vaginal-secretion pH and buffer capacity could differentiate between patients experiencing preterm contractions and those not, but could not differentiate between patients who would experience preterm delivery and those who would not. Vaginal-secretion pH and buffer capacity could be useful in diagnosing preterm labor; further studies are needed to determine potential practical diagnostic criteria. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Factors associated with successful vaginal birth in women with a cesarean section history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda-Mendoza, Denisse Lorena; Galván-Caudillo, Marisol; Soto-Fuenzalida, Gonzalo Andrés; Méndez-Lozano, Daniel Humberto

    2015-12-01

    BAKCGROUND: Caesarean section is the main proceedings for ending of pregnancy in the world, and currently represents a public health problem. Some factors that benefit the likelihood of vaginal birth after a previous C-section have been described in literature, with scoring tools designed to predict success for trial of labor after a previous cesarean. There are few studies that identify predictors of success for vaginal delivery in Latin-American patients. To identify predictive factors associated to vaginal delivery success in patients with a prior cesarean delivery. Case-control study. We included patients with one previous cesarean delivery admitted at our hospital. The variables analyzed with a logistic regression system to predict vaginal delivery success probabilities. A total of 11 60 patients were included, 668 underwent C-section (considered control group), and 492 patients had a vaginal delivery (considered study group). The Factors associated to vaginal birth after cesarean delivery were maternal age (25.1±5.4 vs 24.7±5.5 years old, OR 0.967, psuccess in patients with a previous cesarean delivery.

  17. Vaginal and Rectal Clostridium sordellii and Clostridium perfringens Presence Among Women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Erica; Winikoff, Beverly; Charles, Dyanna; Agnew, Kathy; Prentice, Jennifer L; Limbago, Brandi M; Platais, Ingrida; Louie, Karmen; Jones, Heidi E; Shannon, Caitlin

    2016-02-01

    To characterize the presence of Clostridium sordellii and Clostridium perfringens in the vagina and rectum, identify correlates of presence, and describe strain diversity and presence of key toxins. We conducted an observational cohort study in which we screened a diverse cohort of reproductive-aged women in the United States up to three times using vaginal and rectal swabs analyzed by molecular and culture methods. We used multivariate regression models to explore predictors of presence. Strains were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and tested for known virulence factors by polymerase chain reaction assays. Of 4,152 participants enrolled between 2010 and 2013, 3.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.9-4.0) were positive for C sordellii and 10.4% (95% CI 9.5-11.3) were positive for C perfringens at baseline. Among the 66% with follow-up data, 94.7% (95% CI 88.0-98.3) of those positive for C sordellii and 74.4% (95% CI 69.0-79.3) of those positive for C perfringens at baseline were negative at follow-up. At baseline, recent gynecologic surgery was associated with C sordellii presence, whereas a high body mass index was associated with C perfringens presence in adjusted models. Two of 238 C sordellii isolates contained the lethal toxin gene, and none contained the hemorrhagic toxin gene. Substantial strain diversity was observed in both species with few clusters and no dominant clones identified. The relatively rare and transient nature of C sordellii and C perfringens presence in the vagina and rectum makes it inadvisable to use any screening or prophylactic approach to try to prevent clostridial infection. ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01283828.

  18. The preference of Iranian women to have normal vaginal or cesarean deliveries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharlouei, Najmeh; Rezaianzadeh, Abbas; Hesami, Elham; Moradi, Fariba; Mazloomi, Ezat; Joulaei, Hassan; Khodayari, Mohammad; Lankarani, Kamran B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The cesarean section (C-section) has higher risk compared to normal vaginal delivery (NVD). The aim of this population-based study was to evaluate the frequency of mothers’ tendency toward the mode of delivery and the factors that can affect this inclination. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from August 2011 to June 2012 in Fars Province, Iran, and comprised mothers in their 20th to 30th weeks of pregnancy. A questionnaire was designed to include, sociodemographic information, maternal knowledge, main sources of knowledge, attitude of the mother, husband, parents, close friends, and gynecologist, regarding the route of delivery, convenience factors, and barriers to choosing NVD, and mother's preference for the route of delivery. Results: Of 6921 participants, 2197 (31.7%) preferred C-section and 4308 (62.2%) favored NVD while 416 (6%) had no idea regarding the preferred route of delivery. Score of knowledge in 904 (13.1%) participants was zero, and 1261 women (18.2%) achieved an acceptable level of knowledge. Using binary logistic regression, positive history of previous abortion and/or infertility, higher education level of mother and husband, mother's unacceptable level of knowledge regarding complications of C-section, and mother's and husband's positive attitude toward C-section were determinant factors in choosing C-section as a preferred route of delivery. Conclusion: Appropriate measures should be taken to raise awareness and knowledge of mothers and all families about complications of the C-section. Establishment of clinics for painless NVD and assuring mothers of benefits and lower complications of NVD can reduce the tendency for C-sections. PMID:24523780

  19. The preference of Iranian women to have normal vaginal or cesarean deliveries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Maharlouei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cesarean section (C-section has higher risk compared to normal vaginal delivery (NVD. The aim of this population-based study was to evaluate the frequency of mothers′ tendency toward the mode of delivery and the factors that can affect this inclination. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from August 2011 to June 2012 in Fars Province, Iran, and comprised mothers in their 20 th to 30 th weeks of pregnancy. A questionnaire was designed to include, sociodemographic information, maternal knowledge, main sources of knowledge, attitude of the mother, husband, parents, close friends, and gynecologist, regarding the route of delivery, convenience factors, and barriers to choosing NVD, and mother′s preference for the route of delivery. Results: Of 6921 participants, 2197 (31.7% preferred C-section and 4308 (62.2% favored NVD while 416 (6% had no idea regarding the preferred route of delivery. Score of knowledge in 904 (13.1% participants was zero, and 1261 women (18.2% achieved an acceptable level of knowledge. Using binary logistic regression, positive history of previous abortion and/or infertility, higher education level of mother and husband, mother′s unacceptable level of knowledge regarding complications of C-section, and mother′s and husband′s positive attitude toward C-section were determinant factors in choosing C-section as a preferred route of delivery. Conclusion: Appropriate measures should be taken to raise awareness and knowledge of mothers and all families about complications of the C-section. Establishment of clinics for painless NVD and assuring mothers of benefits and lower complications of NVD can reduce the tendency for C-sections.

  20. Comparison of Tension-free Vaginal Tape Versus Transobturator Tape in Women with Stress Urinary Incontinence

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    Zinat Ghanbari

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study compared the Tension-free vaginal tape (TVT and Transobturator tape (TOT procedures for surgical treatment of stress urinary incontinence in women.Materials and methods: This prospective non randomized clinical trial was conducted in Vali-e-asr hospital from March 2001 to March 2005. A total of 71 patients with clinical and urodynamic diagnosis of Stress urinary incontinence (SUI were enrolled in the study. Patients were divided into two groups and underwent TVT or TOT procedures. Mean operation time, cure rate, post operative urinary retention, bleeding and infection were compared between two groups. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. Chi square and fisher exact test calculated the effects of the nominal variables. Mean difference of quantitative variables were compared by student's T- test. P ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: There was no significant difference in mean time of operation and peri-operative complications among groups. Urinary retention was 13.8% (n=5 in the TVT group versus 2.8% (n=1 in TOT group (NS. The rates of cure (91.6% vs 91.4%, improvement (5.6% vs 8.6% and failure (2.8% vs 0 were similar for the TVT and TOT groups. The rate of hemorrhagic complications was 5.5% in TVT and 2.8% in TOT group (NS.Conclusion: TOT appears to be equally efficient to TVT for surgical treatment of stress urinary incontinence after 30 months follow-up.

  1. Detection of Trichomonas Vaginalis in Vaginal Speciemens from Women by Wet Mount, Culture and PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnaz Culha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Trichomoniasis, a sexually transmitted infection (STI caused by Trichomonas vaginalis, affects 180 million people worldwide and causes significant morbidity. Infection with T. vaginalis has been associated with vaginitis, exocervicitis, and urethritis in women. Material and Method: In this study, we aim to investigate the presence of T. vaginalis by using three different methods for comparing the results. Two hundred T. vaginalis isolates taken from swap samples were collected in Medical Faculty, Department of Gynecology, Mustafa Kemal University Polyclinic, and examined genotypically and phenotypically to identify T. vaginalis in Parasitology Department. This research is unique in terms of its contribution to patient treatment, being the first molecular study in Turkey/Hatay to determine Trichomonas (TV genes stemming from Trichomonas vaginalis strains. Result: 56 out of 200 patients examined were identified as positive and 24 (42.8% of these were identified through microscopy, 18 (32,1% with culture and 24 (42,8% with PCR. The number of those identified through all these methods is 14 (25%. In this study, difference was calculated using three methods (p=0.022 with Cochran%u2019s Q test. When compared with McNemar two by two, no superiority in T. vaginalis diagnosis was found between microscopy and culture (p=0.5, microscopy and PCR (p=0.063, or culture and PCR (p=0.25 methods. Discussion: Culture method is not used in routine laboratory procedures and has contamination risk. PCR method shows directly the parasite of DNAs, and so it is thought to be more reliable compared to the other two methods.

  2. Vaginal estrogen use and effects on quality of life and urogenital morbidity in postmenopausal women after publication of the Women's Health Initiative in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setty, Prathima; Rekedal, Laura; Redekal, Laura; Warren, Michelle P

    2016-01-01

    In the years after the 2002 publication of results from the Women's Health Initiative study, there has been a reluctance to prescribe hormone therapy to symptomatic postmenopausal women and confusion over its duration and method of prescription. The main concerns are the risks of cardiovascular events and breast cancer. However, local vaginal estrogen (VE) may provide benefits without systemic effects. This study investigates the use and effects of VE on quality of life and urogenital morbidity among women who stopped hormone therapy after the Women's Health Initiative and compares them with women who continued hormone therapy. Three groups were compared: group 1, women who have remained on HT/ET; group 2, women who have resumed HT/ET after stopping for at least 6 months, and group 3, women who have stopped HT/ET and have not resumed. Overall, ever use and present use of VE were most prevalent in women who reported dyspareunia (ever, P = 0.003; present, P = 0.005) and vaginal dryness (ever, P = 0.001; present, P = 0.004). VE use was significantly more probable for women in group 3 than for women in the other groups (group 3 [3.5%] vs. group 1 [17.7%] and group 2 [16.7%]; P = 0.002). Women in group 3 who used VE reported significantly higher sexual quality of life (using the sexual domain of the Utian Quality of Life Scale) compared with women in group 3 who did not use VE (P = 0.007). There was no difference in the incidence of urinary tract infections between the three groups (group 1, 22.9%; group 2, 26.3%; group 3, 25.5%). The percentage of women who were either married or living in a marriage-like relationship did not differ between the three groups (group 1, 68.4%; group 2, 78.6%; group 3, 78.8%). Women who report dyspareunia and vaginal dryness are more likely to use VE. Women who do not use systemic therapy but use VE score significantly higher on the sexual quality-of-life scale than women not using VE.

  3. Impact of the Dapivirine Vaginal Ring on Sexual Experiences and Intimate Partnerships of Women in an HIV Prevention Clinical Trial: Managing Ring Detection and Hot Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborde, Nicole D; Pleasants, Elizabeth; Reddy, Krishnaveni; Atujuna, Millicent; Nakyanzi, Teopista; Chitukuta, Miria; Naidoo, Sarita; Palanee-Phillips, Thesla; Baeten, Jared M; Montgomery, Elizabeth T

    2017-11-18

    Vaginally-inserted HIV prevention methods have been reported to impact the sexual experience for women and their partners, and hence impacts acceptability of and adherence to the method. We analyzed in-depth interviews and focus group discussions about participants' sexual experiences while wearing the ring, collected during the MTN-020/ASPIRE phase 3 safety and effectiveness trial of a dapivirine vaginal ring for HIV prevention in Malawi, South Africa, Uganda, and Zimbabwe. Most women reported that partners did not feel the ring during sex, however, women felt they had to manage their partners' interaction with or reaction to the ring. In maintaining positive relationships, women were concerned about partners' discovering ring use and about ensuring that partners had a good sexual experience with them. Finally women were concerned about how they themselves experienced sex with the ring. Some found that the ring made the vaginal environment more desirable for their partners and themselves.

  4. Vaginal cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of tissue. It can be filled with air, fluid, pus, or other material. A vaginal cyst occurs on or under the vaginal lining. ... There are several types of vaginal cysts. Vaginal inclusion cysts ... may collect fluid and develop into a vaginal wall cyst later ...

  5. Menstrual hygiene practices and its association with reproductive tract infections and abnormal vaginal discharge among women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Enu; Singh, Jayakant; Unisa, Sayeed

    2015-12-01

    The objective was to explore the determinants of menstrual hygienic practices and its effect on Reproductive Tract Infections (RTI) among ever married women in India. District Level Household and Facility Survey-3 (DLHS) India data have been used in the study. The respondents constituted ever married women (N = 577,758) in the age group of 15-49. Bivariate and multivariate techniques were employed using IBM SPSS statistics 20. Individual effects of socio economic, demographic and gynecological factors on menstrual hygienic practices, RTIs and abnormal vaginal discharged respectively were calculated using binary logistic regression. A meager 15% of women used sanitary pad/locally prepared napkins during menstruation in India. Both RTI and Vaginal discharge were positively related with non-use of hygienic methods. The women who used unhygienic method during menstruation were more likely to have any symptom of RTI (OR = 1.046, p vaginal discharge (OR = 1.303, p < 0.001, CI = 1.266-1.341). The reason for the symptoms of RTI may be diverse and not only limited to the unhygienic menstrual practices although this may be one of the reasons causing reproductive morbidity. Awareness, affordability and privacy are some of the major concerns that need immediate attention to promote the use of sanitary pad during the time of menstruation. Establishing relation between menstrual practices and RTI is in its initial stage of investigation and hence needs further research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Acceptability of vaginal film, soft-gel capsule, and tablet as potential microbicide delivery methods among African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, Annalene M; Mitchnick, Lynne B; Risha, Peter; Muungo, Lungwani Tyson Makoye; Norick, Pamela M

    2011-08-01

    Vaginal microbicides are in development for the prevention of HIV transmission to women via sexual intercourse. Acceptability of the microbicide delivery method in the targeted population is important to product adherence and, therefore, product effectiveness. It is anticipated that multiple delivery methods will be required to satisfy personal preferences among future microbicide users. A total of 526 sexually active women aged 18-30 years participated in a consumer product preference study in Burkina Faso, Tanzania, and Zambia. Screened women who had given consent were instructed to use each of the three products (placebo formulations of a vaginal tablet, film, and soft-gel capsule) once daily for 7 consecutive days for a total of 21 days. Women were interviewed about their impressions of the product at the completion of each 7-day trial period. Over 80% of women reported they liked using each dosage form, and over 85% said they would definitely use it. The film and soft-gel capsule were chosen significantly more often than the tablet as the preferred dosage form (39% and 37% vs. 25%, respectively) mainly because of faster dissolving time and easier insertion. Women in Burkina Faso and Tanzania preferred the soft-gel capsule (42%-46%), whereas Zambian women preferred the film (51%). Age, socioeconomic status, and marital status did not significantly affect product preference. All three dosage forms were acceptable to the women surveyed. Preferred dosage forms varied by country. These data suggest that the availability of microbicides in multiple dosage forms may increase acceptability, adherence, and, therefore, effectiveness.

  7. Maternal obesity and postpartum haemorrhage after vaginal and caesarean delivery among nulliparous women at term: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fyfe Elaine M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing rates of postpartum haemorrhage in developed countries over the past two decades are not explained by corresponding changes in risk factors and conjecture has been raised that maternal obesity may be responsible. Few studies investigating risk factors for PPH have included BMI or investigated PPH risk among nulliparous women. The aim of this study was to determine in a cohort of nulliparous women delivering at term whether overweight and obesity are independent risk factors for major postpartum haemorrhage (PPH ≥1000ml after vaginal and caesarean section delivery. Methods The study population was nulliparous singleton pregnancies delivered at term at National Women’s Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand from 2006 to 2009 (N=11,363. Multivariable logistic regression was adjusted for risk factors for major PPH. Results There were 7238 (63.7% women of normal BMI, 2631 (23.2% overweight and 1494 (13.1% obese. Overall, PPH rates were increased in overweight and obese compared with normal-weight women (n=255 [9.7%], n=233 [15.6%], n=524 [7.2%], p Conclusion Nulliparous obese women have a twofold increase in risk of major PPH compared to women with normal BMI regardless of mode of delivery. Higher rates of PPH among obese women are not attributable to their higher rates of caesarean delivery. Obesity is an important high risk factor for PPH, and the risk following vaginal delivery is emphasised. We recommend in addition to standard practice of active management of third stage of labour, there should be increased vigilance and preparation for PPH management in obese women.

  8. Diverse vaginal microbiomes in reproductive-age women with vulvovaginal candidiasis.

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    Mu-Biao Liu

    Full Text Available Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is one of the most prevalent vaginal infectious diseases, and there are controversial reports regarding the diversity of the associated vaginal microbiota. We determined the vaginal microbial community in patients with VVC, bacterial vaginosis (BV, and mixed infection of VVC and BV using Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA tags. Our results revealed for the first time the highly variable patterns of the vaginal microbiome from VVC patients. In general, the alpha-diversity results of species richness and evenness showed the following order: normal control < VVC only < mixed BV and VVC infection < BV only. The beta-diversity comparison of community structures also showed an intermediate composition of VVC between the control and BV samples. A detailed comparison showed that, although the control and BV communities had typical patterns, the vaginal microbiota of VVC is complex. The mixed BV and VVC infection group showed a unique pattern, with a relatively higher abundance of Lactobacillus than the BV group and higher abundance of Prevotella, Gardnerella, and Atopobium than the normal control. In contrast, the VVC-only group could not be described by any single profile, ranging from a community structure similar to the normal control (predominated with Lactobacillus to BV-like community structures (abundant with Gardnerella and Atopobium. Treatment of VVC resulted in inconsistent changes of the vaginal microbiota, with four BV/VVC samples recovering to a higher Lactobacillus level, whereas many VVC-only patients did not. These results will be useful for future studies on the role of vaginal microbiota in VVC and related infectious diseases.

  9. The differences between pregnant women who request elective caesarean and those who plan for vaginal birth based on Health Belief Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsareh, Fatemeh; Aghamolaei, Teamur; Rajaei, Minoo; Madani, Abdoulhossain; Zare, Shahram

    2016-12-01

    Although vaginal birth is the safest type of childbirth, sometimes caesarean is necessary for the safety of the mother or the infant. The problem is that low-risk, healthy women are choosing caesarean as a birth option despite the fact that it is fraught with possible complications. To determine the differences and identify the predictors for the way women plan their childbirth based on Health Belief Model. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Bandar abbas city, Iran, from May to October 2015. The study recruited eligible women who self identified themselves as requesting a caesarean or vaginal birth in their response to a questionnaire. Of 470 recruited women, 183 (38.9%) planned to have a caesarean without medical indication. Maternal characteristics (age, level of education, occupational status, involvement in a medical profession, and household income) and obstetric variables (health provider type, place of prenatal care, and the number of children planned for the future) influenced the decisions made by the women. There was a significant difference between women planning a caesarean and those planning vaginal birth in terms of childbirth knowledge. Significant differences were observed regarding maternal self-efficacy, with women planning a caesarean reporting significantly lower self-efficacy than women planning a vaginal birth. Women planning a caesarean birth were also significantly less likely to perceive themselves as being at risk for caesarean-related side effects than women planning a vaginal birth. Comprehensive childbirth knowledge can lead to positive maternal attitude towards vaginal birth and may improve birth confidence. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Diversity of Vaginal Lactic Acid Bacterial Microbiota in 15 Algerian Pregnant Women with and without Bacterial Vaginosis by using Culture Independent Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alioua, Souad; Abdi, Akila; Fhoula, Imène; Bringel, Françoise; Boudabous, Abdelatif; Ouzari, Imene Hadda

    2016-09-01

    Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) is the most common lower genital tract disorder among women of reproductive age (pregnant and non-pregnant) and a better knowledge of Lactobacillus species richness in healthy and infected vaginal microbiota is needed to efficiently design better probiotic products to promote the maintenance of normal flora which will help prevent bacterial vaginosis. To evaluate and compare the diversity of lactic acid bacterial species in pregnant women with and without BV. A pilot study was carried out during November-2014 to March-2015 in University Badji Mokhtar, Annaba, Algeria. Vaginal swabs were collected from 15 pregnant women aged between 19 and 35 years (mean 27.6 years; n=15) living in the East of Algeria visiting Gynecology service, hospital Abdallah Nouaouria- El bouni, Annaba. Vaginal samples were gram-stained, and scored by the Nugent method. The cohort included cases of women with healthy "normal" vaginal flora, infected flora with bacterial vaginosis and women with "intermediate" flora. The vaginal LAB community from pregnant women was identified by culture independent method based on Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), with the 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A majority of LAB affiliated to the genus Lactobacillus was found in "normal" and "intermediate" flora (87.5% and 43.75% respectively), while a majority of LAB affiliated to the genus Enterococcus was identified in women with bacterial vaginosis and intermediate flora (60% and 46.75% respectively). Our results showed that the presence of Lactobacillus iners and Lactobacillus delbruekii promotes stability of the vaginal microbiota. This result confirms the findings of previous studies suggesting that the occurrence of predominant Lactobacillus negatively correlates with bacterial vaginosis incidence and their current use as probiotics. Lactobacillus iners and Lactobacillus delbruekii can be defined as critical for defense of the vagina. In addition, Enterococcus feacalis can be

  11. First characterization of Candida albicans by random amplified polymorphic DNA method in Nicaragua and comparison of the diagnosis methods for vaginal candidiasis in Nicaraguan women

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    Bello Martha Darce

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 106 women with vaginitis in Nicaragua were studied. The positive rate for the identification of Candida species was 41% (44 positive cultures out of 106 women with vaginitis. The sensitivity of microscopic examination of wet mount with the potassium hydroxide (KOH was 61% and 70% with Gram's stain when using the culture of vaginal fluid as gold standard for diagnosis of candidiasis. Among the 44 positives cultures, isolated species of yeast from vaginal swabs were C. albicans (59%, C. tropicalis (23%, C. glabrata (14% and C. krusei (4%. This study reports the first characterization of 26 C. albicans stocks from Nicaragua by the random amplified polymorphic DNA method. The genetic analysis in this small C. albicans population showed the existence of linkage disequilibrium, which is consistent with the hypothesis that C. albicans undergoes a clonal propagation.

  12. [Surgical management of pelvic organ prolapse in women: laparoscopic or vaginal sacrocolpopexy?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descargues, G; Collard, P; Grise, P

    2008-10-01

    To compare the safety and the efficacy of the laparoscopic and vaginal technique for the surgical management of pelvic organ prolapse, with systematic support of the three compartments and prosthetic reinforcements. Retrospective study of 154 patients presenting a stage 3 or 4 prolapse on one of the three compartments. Laparoscopic procedures were performed with subtotal hysterectomy, double synthetic prosthesis attached to promontory, and douglassectomy. Vaginal procedures were performed with vaginal hysterectomy, anterior colporrhaphy with a hammock using porcine skin collagen implant fixed by transobturator passages, unilateral sacral colpopexy and posterior colporrhaphy. Monitoring was performed at six months and then annually. The laparoscopic technique requires a more important operating time, but a shorter hospitalization. The discovery of three carcinoma reinforces the idea of the interest of uterine radical surgery in these patients. The tolerance of prostheses by laparoscopy is safe. The biological prostheses, introduced vaginally, offer the same advantages. The anatomical results in the medium term (30 months) seem more favorable to laparoscopy than transvaginal approach, as well as functional results but they still need to better evaluated. The two techniques must coexist, ideally without competing with each other but rather complementarily, as the overall rate of recurrence, requiring additional procedure does not exceed 2%. It is therefore important that surgeons, who support prolapse, have a good comprehensive training of the laparoscopic and vaginal techniques.

  13. Vaginal Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... urinary signs and symptoms: Vaginal dryness Vaginal burning Vaginal discharge Genital itching Burning with urination Urgency with urination More urinary tract infections Urinary incontinence Light bleeding after intercourse Discomfort with ...

  14. HPV vaginal self-sampling among women non-adherent to Papanicolaou screening in Chile Autotoma vaginal para detección de virus del papiloma humano en mujeres no adherentes a tamizaje con Papanicolaou en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javiera Léniz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate acceptance, preference and compliance with referral of vaginal self-sampling for the detection of Human papillomavirus (HPV among women non-adherent to Papanicolaou (Pap screening in Santiago, Chile. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using multistage sampling we identified women aged 30-64 years who reported not receiving a Pap test in the previous three years and offered them Pap testing at the health center or vaginal self-sampling for HPV testing at home. Self-collected samples were analyzed with hybrid capture. All HPV+ women were referred for colposcopy, biopsy and treatment when needed. RESULTS: 1 254 eligible women were contacted; 86.5% performed self-sampling and 8.1% refused; 124 women were HPV+ (11.4%: 95%CI 9.6-13.5 of whom 85.5% attended colposcopy; 12 had CIN2+ (1.1%: 95 %CI 0.5-1.7. CONCLUSION: HPV vaginal self-sampling can be easily implemented in Chile and could improve coverage, successfully reaching women who drop out of the screening program.OBJETIVO: Evaluar la aceptación, preferencia y adherencia a seguimiento de la autotoma vaginal para detección del virus del papiloma humano (VPH en mujeres inasistentes a Papanicolaou (Pap en Santiago, Chile. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Mediante un muestreo polietápico se identificaron mujeres entre 30 y 64 años inasistentes a Pap por < 3 años, invitándolas a realizarse un Pap en su centro de salud o una autotoma vaginal a domicilio. Las muestras fueron analizadas con captura de híbridos. Las mujeres VPH+ fueron referidas a colposcopía, biopsia y tratamiento en caso necesario. RESULTADOS: 1 254 mujeres elegibles fueron contactadas; 86.5% aceptó la autotoma vaginal y 8.1% la rechazó; 124 mujeres resultaron VPH+ (11.4%: IC95% 9.6-13.5 de las que 85.5% asistió a colposcopía; 12 tenían CIN2+ (1.1%: IC95% 0.5-1.7. CONCLUSIÓN: La autotoma vaginal para detección de VPH es implementable en Chile y su utilización podría mejorar la cobertura del programa rescatando a mujeres

  15. Role of apical support defect: correction in women undergoing vaginal prolapse surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alas, Alexandriah N; Anger, Jennifer T

    2014-10-01

    The aim was to review most recent literature and provide updates in clinical management and surgical treatment of apical pelvic organ prolapse. In patients who decline surgical intervention, formal referral to pelvic floor muscle training is beneficial over self-directed Kegel exercises. Systematic reviews revealed that sacrocolpopexy has better long-term outcomes than vaginal approaches. Uterosacral ligament suspension and sacrospinous ligament suspension have equal efficacy at 1 year. These procedures should be considered as acceptable alternatives to sacrocolpopexy. Two randomized controlled trials have demonstrated equal efficacy between robotic and laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy. Minimally invasive sacrocolpopexy should be considered the gold standard for apical prolapse, but these techniques are associated with longer operating times and higher complication rates and longer convalescence than nonmesh vaginal surgery. Surgeons must individualize surgical technique for each patient and should consider a vaginal approach in patients who do not desire laparotomy and are not candidates for minimally invasive surgery.

  16. Utility of Laboratory Diagnosis for Confirmation of the Syndromic Case Management in Married Indian Women with Vaginal Discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Prabhav; Bhattar, Sonali; Sahani, Satyendra Kumar; Bhalla, Preena

    2016-10-01

    WHO and NACO recommend treatment of STIs/RTIs on the basis syndromic case management (SCM), even without laboratory confirmation, which may lead to over-treatment. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the utility of laboratory diagnosis for confirmation of patients with vaginal discharge diagnosed on the basis of SCM. 234 married women in reproductive age group, diagnosed as having vaginal discharge syndrome were included. Normal saline wet-mount slide preparations were made for detection of motile trichomonads. Gram stained smear were prepared and scored as per classification developed by Nugent. The presence of pseudohyphae and/or budding yeast cells was considered diagnostic of candidal infection. VDRL, TPHA and HIV testing were also done as per protocol. The median age of the study population was 34 years. Most common cause was bacterial vaginosis (positive= 21.4%, 95% CI= 16.6-27.1%; intermediate score= 17.5%, 95% CI= 13.2-22.9%), followed by candidiasis (13.7%, 95% CI= 98-18.7%) and trichomoniasis (0.4%, 95% CI= 0-2.6%). No etiological diagnosis for vaginal discharge could be established in approximately half of the women. Only two women were HIV positive; one was reactive by VDRL and TPHA tests. Our study highlights the possible lacunae in SCM. Large number of patients may be over-treated if only syndromic management is followed, with financial, medical and social implications. Thus we recommend, the treatment maybe initiated on the basis of SCM, but it is essential that laboratory diagnosis is sought for and the treatment modified accordingly.

  17. Violence against women is strongly associated with suicide attempts: evidence from the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, Karen; Watts, Charlotte; Yoshihama, Mieko; Kiss, Ligia; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Deyessa, Negussie; Heise, Lori; Durand, Julia; Mbwambo, Jessie; Jansen, Henrica; Berhane, Yemane; Ellsberg, Mary; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia

    2011-07-01

    Suicidal behaviours are one of the most important contributors to the global burden of disease among women, but little is known about prevalence and modifiable risk factors in low and middle income countries. We use data from the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence against women to examine the prevalence of suicidal thoughts and attempts, and relationships between suicide attempts and mental health status, child sexual abuse, partner violence and other variables. Population representative cross-sectional household surveys were conducted from 2000-2003 in 13 provincial (more rural) and city (urban) sites in Brazil, Ethiopia, Japan, Namibia, Peru, Samoa, Serbia, Thailand and Tanzania. 20967 women aged 15-49 years participated. Prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts, lifetime suicidal thoughts, and suicidal thoughts in the past four weeks were calculated, and multivariate logistic regression models were fit to examine factors associated with suicide attempts in each site. Prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts ranged from 0.8% (Tanzania) to 12.0% (Peru city); lifetime thoughts of suicide from 7.2% (Tanzania province) to 29.0% (Peru province), and thoughts in the past four weeks from 1.9% (Serbia) to 13.6% (Peru province). 25-50% of women with suicidal thoughts in the past four weeks had also visited a health worker in that time. The most consistent risk factors for suicide attempts after adjusting for probable common mental health disorders were: intimate partner violence, non-partner physical violence, ever being divorced, separated or widowed, childhood sexual abuse and having a mother who had experienced intimate partner violence. Mental health policies and services must recognise the consistent relationship between violence and suicidality in women in low and middle income countries. Training health sector workers to recognize and respond to the consequences of violence may substantially reduce the health burden associated with

  18. Cross-Sectional Analysis of Selected Genital Tract Immunological Markers and Molecular Vaginal Microbiota in Sub-Saharan African Women, with Relevance to HIV Risk and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyongo, Jordan K; Crucitti, Tania; Menten, Joris; Hardy, Liselotte; Cools, Piet; Michiels, Johan; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Mwaura, Mary; Ndayisaba, Gilles; Joseph, Sarah; Fichorova, Raina; van de Wijgert, Janneke; Vanham, Guido; Ariën, Kevin K; Jespers, Vicky

    2015-05-01

    Data on immune mediators in the genital tract and the factors that modulate them in sub-Saharan women are limited. Cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) samples from 430 sexually active women from Kenya, South Africa, and Rwanda were analyzed for 12 soluble immune mediators using Bio-Plex and Meso Scale Discovery multiplex platforms, as well as single enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Ten bacterial species were quantified in vaginal swab samples. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) was defined by Nugent scoring. CVL samples from HIV-infected women showed a clear-cut proinflammatory profile. Pregnant women, adolescents, and women engaging in traditional vaginal practices differed in specific soluble markers compared to reference groups of adult HIV-negative women. Cervical mucus, cervical ectopy, abnormal vaginal discharge, and having multiple sex partners were each associated with an increase in inflammatory mediators. The levels of interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12(p70), and IL-8 were elevated, whereas the IL-1RA/IL-1(α+β) ratio decreased in women with BV. The level of gamma interferon-induced protein 10 was lower in BV-positive than in BV-negative women, suggesting its suppression as a potential immune evasion mechanism by BV-associated bacteria. Lactobacillus crispatus and Lactobacillus vaginalis were associated with decreased proinflammatory cytokines and each BV-associated species with increased proinflammatory cytokines. Remarkably, the in vitro anti-HIV activity of CVL samples from BV-positive women was stronger than that of BV-negative women. In conclusion, we found significant associations of factors, including vaginal microbiota, which can influence immune mediators in the vaginal environment in sexually active women. These factors need to be considered when establishing normative levels or pathogenic cutoffs of biomarkers of inflammation and associated risks in African women. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Prevalence of Trichomoniasis, Vaginal Candidiasis, Genital Herpes, Chlamydiasis, and Actinomycosis among Urban and Rural Women of Haryana, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brij Bala Arora

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite being curable reproductive tract infections (RTIs including sexually transmitted infections continue to be a major health problem in developing countries. The present study was undertaken to know the prevalence of trichomoniasis, vaginal candidiasis, genital herpes, chlamydiasis, and actinomycosis in rural and urban women of Haryana by using wet mount, PAP smear, and fluorescent microscopic examination. Patients suspected of suffering from bacterial vaginosis were given treatment and were not included in the study. RTIs were seen in 16.6% of urban and 28.7% of rural women. The highest prevalence seen was that of trichomoniasis in both rural (24.2% and urban (15.7% women, followed by candidiasis (4.2% in rural and 0.6% in urban women, genital herpes (0.3% in rural and 0.2% in urban women, and chlamydiasis (0.02% in rural and 0.05% in urban women. Pelvic actinomycosis was seen in 1.4% of rural and 0.06% of urban women using intrauterine contraceptive devices. Mixed infection of Trichomonas vaginalis with Candida spp. was seen in 6.3% of rural women only. It is desirable to have a baseline profile of the prevalence of various agents causing RTIs in a particular geographic area and population which will help in better syndromic management of the patients.

  20. Which is the safer method of labor induction for oligohydramnios women? Transcervical double balloon catheter or dinoprostone vaginal insert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, WenYan; Zheng, Jianlan; Fu, JingLi; Zhang, XiaoQiong; Ma, QinLing; Yu, ShuiLan; Li, MeiYing; Hou, Li

    2014-11-01

    To compare the effectiveness and safety of two cervical ripening methods in term primiparous women with unfavorable cervices and oligohydramnios. Women (126 cases) with oligohydramnios [amniotic fluid index (AFI) ≤5 cm] and a low Bishop Score (≤6) were assigned randomly to use double balloon catheter (mechanical method group, 67 cases) or dinoprostone 10 mg controlled-release vaginal insert (pharmacological method group, 59 cases) for induction of labor. The study's primary outcome was caesarean section rate (CSR). The secondary outcome measures included maternal and neonatal morbidity, an incremental changes in Bishop Score, and intrapartum interventions. There was no significant difference between the mechanical method group and the pharmacological method group in CSR and change in Bishop Score. Tacysystole, non-reassuring fetal heart patterns, and cases of newborn umbilical-cord arterial blood pHlabor complications, but more frequent use of oxytocin and amniotomy. Compared with dinoprostone vaginal insert, double balloon catheter use may be less problematic in women with oligohydramnios.

  1. Vaginal progesterone decreases preterm birth and neonatal morbidity and mortality in women with a twin gestation and a short cervix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romero, Roberto; Conde-Agudelo, Agustin; El-Refaie, Waleed

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of vaginal progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth and neonatal morbidity and mortality in asymptomatic women with a twin gestation and a sonographic short cervix (cervical length ≤25 mm) in the midtrimester. METHODS: Updated systematic review and meta......, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Research Registers of ongoing trials, Google scholar, and conference proceedings were searched. The primary outcome measure was preterm birth reviewers independently selected studies, assessed the risk of bias, and extracted...

  2. Attempts at weight loss in U.S. women with and without a history of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katon, Jodie; Maynard, Charles; Reiber, Gayle

    2012-09-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Relatively modest weight loss can delay or prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes. The objective of this study was to determine, using a nationally representative survey, whether among women without diabetes, those with a history of GDM (hGDM) were more likely than those without hGDM to be currently attempting weight loss. This study used data from the 2003 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a national, population-based, random-sample telephone survey. Women aged 18 to 44 years without diabetes who answered questions related to current weight loss activity were included in the analysis. The primary outcome was currently attempting weight loss. Logistic regression was used to analyze the association between hGDM and currently attempting weight loss. We included 53,608 women without diabetes: 1,260 (2%) with hGDM, and 52,348 (98%) without hGDM. Among women with hGDM, 53% were currently attempting weight loss compared with 47% of women without hGDM. Overall, after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, and medical insurance, compared with women without hGDM, those with hGDM had 20% higher odds of currently attempting weight loss (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97-1.49); however, among obese women (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2)), compared with women without hGDM, those with hGDM had 46% lower odds of currently attempting weight loss (95% CI, 0.35-0.82). Obese women with hGDM are less likely to be currently attempting weight loss compared with those without hGDM. Effective interventions for obese women with hGDM are needed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Using vaginal Group B Streptococcus colonisation in women with preterm premature rupture of membranes to guide the decision for immediate delivery: a secondary analysis of the PPROMEXIL trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tajik, P.; Ham, D. van der; Zafarmand, M.; Hof, M.; Morris, J.; Franssen, M.; Groot, C. de; Duvekot, J.; Oudijk, M.; Willekes, C.; Bloemenkamp, K.; Porath, M.; Woiski, M.D.; Akerboom, B.; Sikkema, J.; Bijvank, B.N.; Mulder, A.; Bossuyt, P.; Mol, B.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether vaginal Group B Streptococcus (GBS) colonisation or other baseline characteristics of women with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) can help in identifying subgroups of women who would benefit from immediate delivery. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of the

  4. Using vaginal Group B Streptococcus colonisation in women with preterm premature rupture of membranes to guide the decision for immediate delivery: a secondary analysis of the PPROMEXIL trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tajik, P.; van der Ham, D. P.; Zafarmand, M. H.; Hof, M. H. P.; Morris, J.; Franssen, M. T. M.; de Groot, C. J. M.; Duvekot, J. J.; Oudijk, M. A.; Willekes, C.; Bloemenkamp, K. W. M.; Porath, M.; Woiski, M.; Akerboom, B. M.; Sikkema, J. M.; Nij Bijvank, B.; Mulder, A. L. M.; Bossuyt, P. M.; Mol, B. W. J.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate whether vaginal Group B Streptococcus (GBS) colonisation or other baseline characteristics of women with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) can help in identifying subgroups of women who would benefit from immediate delivery. Secondary analysis of the PPROMEXIL trials.

  5. Using vaginal Group B Streptococcus colonisation in women with preterm premature rupture of membranes to guide the decision for immediate delivery : a secondary analysis of the PPROMEXIL trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tajik, P.; van der Ham, D. P.; Zafarmand, M. H.; Hof, M. H. P.; Morris, J.; Franssen, M. T. M.; de Groot, C. J. M.; Duvekot, J. J.; Oudijk, M. A.; Willekes, C.; Bloemenkamp, K. W. M.; Porath, M.; Woiski, M.; Akerboom, B. M.; Sikkema, J. M.; Bijvank, B. Nij; Mulder, A. L. M.; Bossuyt, P. M.; Mol, B. W. J.

    Objective To investigate whether vaginal Group B Streptococcus (GBS) colonisation or other baseline characteristics of women with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) can help in identifying subgroups of women who would benefit from immediate delivery. Design Secondary analysis of the

  6. Weight loss expectations and body dissatisfaction in young women attempting to lose weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siervo, M; Montagnese, C; Muscariello, E; Evans, E; Stephan, B C M; Nasti, G; Papa, A; Iannetti, E; Colantuoni, A

    2014-04-01

    Unrealistic weight loss expectations (WLEs) and greater body dissatisfaction may be associated with the poor long-term outcomes of dietary and lifestyle weight loss treatments. We evaluated the association between body size, WLEs and body dissatisfaction in young women attempting to lose weight. Forty-four young healthy women [age range 18-35 years, body mass index (BMI) range 23-40 kg/m2] were recruited. Women were classified as obese (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m2) and non-obese (BMI Body Dissatisfaction scale of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 and the Body Image Assessment for Obesity silhouette charts were used to assess body dissatisfaction. WLEs were categorised according to personal (ideal, happiness, satisfaction, weight history), lifestyle (fitness) and social (career, family acceptance, peer acceptance, mass media, social pressure) factors. Individual WLEs were compared with recommended clinical targets (5%, 10% and 20%) for weight loss. Body dissatisfaction was lower in non-obese subjects and was directly associated with BMI (P body weight, whereas the proportion was significantly higher in the obese group (17 subjects; 74%). Subjects derived the greatest WLEs from mass media, whereas they perceived that family and friends were supportive of a lesser degree of weight loss. We observed a mismatch between clinical and personal expectations, and social pressure and interpersonal relationships appear to have a prominent role with respect to influencing the association. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  7. Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts About Gynecologic Cancer campaign. The campaign helps women get the facts about gynecologic cancer, providing important “inside knowledge” about their bodies and health. What are vaginal and vulvar cancers? Cancer is ...

  8. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet and IVF success rate among non-obese women attempting fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayiannis, Dimitrios; Kontogianni, Meropi D; Mendorou, Christina; Mastrominas, Minas; Yiannakouris, Nikos

    2018-01-30

    Is adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) associated with better IVF performance in women attempting fertility? Greater adherence to the MedDiet, defined using the validated Mediterranean diet score (MedDietScore), was associated with a higher likelihood of achieving clinical pregnancy and live birth among non-obese women IVF treatment in an Assisted Conception Unit in Athens, Greece, between November 2013 and September 2016. The study was designed to evaluate the influence of habitual dietary intake and lifestyle on fertility outcomes. Diet was assessed before the IVF treatment via a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Adherence to the MedDiet was assessed through the MedDietScore (range: 0-55), with higher scores indicating greater adherence. Intermediate outcomes (oocyte yield, fertilization rate and embryo quality measures) and clinical endpoints (implantation, clinical pregnancy and live birth) were abstracted from electronic medical records. Associations between MedDietScore and IVF outcomes were analysed using generalized linear models adjusting for age, ovarian stimulation protocol, BMI, physical activity, anxiety levels, infertility diagnosis, caloric intake and supplements use. No association of MedDietScore with any of the intermediate outcomes or with implantation was found. However, compared with women in the highest tertile of the MedDietScore (≥36, n = 86), women in the lowest tertile (≤30, n = 79) had significantly lower rates of clinical pregnancy (29.1 vs 50.0%, P = 0.01) and live birth (26.6 vs 48.8%, P = 0.01). The multivariable-adjusted relative risk (95% CI) for clinical pregnancy comparing women in the lowest with women in the highest tertile of the MedDietScore was 0.35 (0.16-0.78; P-trend=0.01), and for live birth it was 0.32 (0.14-0.71; P-trend = 0.01). These associations were significantly modified by women's age (P-interaction IVF treatment. This work was partially supported by a grand from Harokopio University (KE321

  9. Longitudinal analysis of vaginal microbiome dynamics in women with recurrent bacterial vaginosis: recognition of the conversion process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet A Lambert

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis (BV affects ∼ 30% of women of reproductive age, has a high rate of recurrence, and is associated with miscarriage, preterm birth, and increased risk of acquiring other sexually transmitted infections, including HIV-1. Little is known of the daily changes in the vaginal bacterial composition as it progresses from treatment to recurrence, or whether any of these might be useful in its prediction or an understanding of its causes. We used phylogenetic branch-inclusive quantitative PCR (PB-qPCR and Lactobacillus blocked/unblocked qPCR (Lb-qPCR to characterize longitudinal changes in the vaginal microbiota in sequential vaginal self-swabs from five women with recurrent BV, from diagnosis through remission to recurrence. Both patients with acute BV samples dominated by G. vaginalis recurred during the study with similar profiles, whereas the three patients with acute BV samples dominated by other anaerobes did not recur or recurred to an intermediate Nugent score. L. iners dominated remission phases, with intermittent days of abnormal microbial profiles typically associated with menses. The exception was a newly discovered phenomenon, a sustained period of abnormal profiles, termed conversion, which preceded symptomatic acute BV. Species known to have antagonistic activity towards Lactobacillus were detected in pre-conversion samples, possibly contributing to the decline in Lactobacillus. Lb-qPCR scores define two categories of response in the initial post-treatment visit samples; scores 8 may predict delayed or no recurrence. Amsel criteria or Nugent scores did not have this potential predictive capability. Larger studies are warranted to evaluate the prognostic potential of detecting conversion and poor Lb-qPCR scores at the post-treatment visit of recurrent BV patients.

  10. Common causes of vaginal infections and antibiotic susceptibility of aerobic bacterial isolates in women of reproductive age attending at Felegehiwot Referral Hospital, Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulu, Wondemagegn; Yimer, Mulat; Zenebe, Yohannes; Abera, Bayeh

    2015-05-13

    Bacterial vaginosis, candidal, trichomonal and Gonococcal vaginal infections are a major health problems associated with gynecologic complications and increase in replication, shedding and transmission of HIV and other STIs in women of reproductive age. The study aimed at determining the prevalence of common vaginal infections and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of aerobic bacterial isolates in women of reproductive age, attending Felegehiwot referral Hospital. A hospital based cross sectional study was conducted from May to November, 2013. Simple random sampling technique was used. Demographic variables were collected using a structured questionnaire. Clinical data were collected by physicians. Two vaginal swab specimens were collected from each participant. Wet mount and Gram staining were carried out to identify motile T.vaginalis, budding yeast and clue cells. All vaginal specimens were cultured for aerobic bacterial isolates using standard microbiology methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed using disc diffusion technique as per the standard by Kirby-Bauer method. The results were analyzed using descriptive, chi-square and fisher's exact test as appropriate. A total of 409 women in reproductive age (15 - 49 years) participated in the study. The median age of the women was 28 years. Overall, 63 (15.4 %) of women had vaginal infections. The proportion of vaginal infection was higher in non-pregnant (17.3 %) than pregnant women (13.3 %) (P = 0.002). The most common identified vaginal infections were candidiasis (8.3 %) and bacterial vaginosis (2.8 %) followed by trichomoniasis (2.1 %). The isolation rate of N. gonorrhoeae and group B Streptococcus colonization was 4 (1 %) and 6 (1.2 %), respectively. Bacterial vaginosis was higher in non-pregnant (5.6 %) than pregnant women (0.5 %) (P = 0.002). Religion, age, living in rural area and having lower abdominal pain were significantly associated with bacterial vaginosis and

  11. Bacterial vaginosis, human papilloma virus and herpes viridae do not predict vaginal HIV RNA shedding in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessman, Maria; Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Jensen, Jørgen S.

    2017-01-01

    in the genital tract despite undetectable HIV RNA plasma viral load. We examined the prevalence and diagnostic predictors of BV and HIV-1 RNA vaginal shedding in women living with HIV (WLWH) in Denmark, taking into account the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and herpes viridae. Methods: WLWH between 18......-51 years were recruited from six Departments of Infectious Diseases in Denmark during enrolment in the SHADE cohort; a prospective cohort study of WLWH attending regular outpatient care. BV was diagnosed by microscopy of vaginal swabs and PCR was used for detection of BV-associated bacteria, HPV, herpes...... RNA. Both before and after adjustment for BV, age, ethnicity, plasma HIV RNA, CD4 cell count, herpes viridae and HPV, we found no significant predictors of HIV RNA vaginal shedding. Conclusion: In well-treated WLWH, BV, herpes viridae or HPV do not predict vaginal HIV RNA shedding. This implies...

  12. Correlates of unprotected vaginal or anal intercourse with women among substance-using men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Emily; Frye, Victoria; Mansergh, Gordon; Colfax, Grant N; Hudson, Sharon M; Flores, Stephen A; Hoover, Donald R; Bonner, Sebastian; Koblin, Beryl A

    2013-03-01

    The role men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) play in heterosexual HIV transmission is not well understood. We analyzed baseline data from Project MIX, a behavioral intervention study of substance-using men who have sex with men (MSM), and identified correlates of unprotected vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse, or both with women (UVAI). Approximately 10 % (n = 194) of the men reported vaginal sex, anal sex, or both with a woman; of these substance-using MSMW, 66 % (129) reported UVAI. Among substance-using MSMW, multivariate analyses found unemployment relative to full/part-time employment (OR = 2.28; 95 % CI 1.01, 5.17), having a primary female partner relative to no primary female partner (OR = 3.44; CI 1.4, 8.46), and higher levels of treatment optimism (OR = 1.73; 95 % CI 1.18, 2.54) increased odds of UVAI. Strong feelings of connection to a same-race gay community (OR = 0.71; 95 % CI 0.56, 0.91) and Viagra use (OR = 0.31; 95 % CI 0.10, 0.95) decreased odds of UVAI. This work suggests that although the proportion of substance-using MSM who also have sex with women is low, these men engage in unprotected sex with women, particularly with primary female partners. This work highlights the need for further research with the substance using MSMW population to inform HIV prevention interventions specifically for MSMW.

  13. [Prevalence of 7 microorganisms in abnormal vaginal secretions (vaginitis)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roupas, A; Wyss, R; Anner, R

    1985-10-19

    Seven microorganisms (N. gonorrhoeae, C. albicans, T. vaginalis, G. vaginalis, M. hominis, U. urealyticum and Streptococcus of group B) have been assayed in genital samplings of 164 asymptomatic women (control group) and of 374 women suffering from abnormal vaginal secretions (vaginitis group). All these bacteria except group B Streptococci were isolated in the vaginitis group more frequently than in the control group (p less than 0.01). The proportion of negative cultures for all tested bacteria was 39% in the control group and 6.4% in the vaginitis group (p less than 0.01). This shows an association of these bacteria with 70% of the patients of the vaginitis group and with only 26% of the women of the control group (p less than 0.01). It is to be noted that the pH values are higher in the group of women with vaginitis than in the control group (p less than 0.01). Comparison of the microbial flora during "specific" an "non-specific" vaginitis indicates that G. vaginalis is isolated more frequently in patients with non-specific vaginitis than among those with specific vaginitis (p less than 0.01). Likewise, M. hominis is isolated more frequently in groups of women with either non-specific vaginitis or T. vaginalis vaginitis, than in groups of patients with a C. albicans vaginitis (p less than 0,01). The results of this study indicate that there is a causal relationship between vaginitis and the presence of T. vaginalis. C. albicans, G. vaginalis, M. hominis or N. gonorrhoeae, either as a single or a mixed infection, and that there is a relationship between increased pH values and abnormal vaginal secretions.

  14. The Risk of Repetition of Attempted Suicide Among Iranian Women with Psychiatric Disorders as Quantified by the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire

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    Jalal Shakeri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The factors associated with repetition of attempted suicide are poorly categorized in the Iranian population. In this study, the prevalence of different psychiatric disorders among women who attempted suicide and the risk of repetition were assessed. Methods: Participants were women admitted to the Poisoning Emergency Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences following failed suicide attempts. Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV symptom checklist. Risk of repetition was evaluated using the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R. Results: About 72% of individuals had a SBQ-R score >8 and were considered to be at high risk for repeated attempted suicide. Adjustment disorders were the most common psychiatric disorders (40.8%. However, the type of psychiatric disorder was not associated with the risk of repetition (p=0.320. Marital status, educational level, employment, substance use, history of suicide among family members, and motivation were not determinant factors for repetition of suicide attempt (p=0.220, 0.880, 0.220, 0.290, 0.350 and 0.270, respectively. Younger women were associated with violent methods of attempted suicide, such as self-cutting, whereas older individuals preferred consumption of poison (p<0.001. Drug overdose was more common among single and married women whereas widows or divorcees preferred self-burning (p=0.004. Conclusion: About 72% of patients with failed suicide attempts were at high risk for repeated attempts. Age, marital status, and type of psychiatric disorder were the only determinants of suicide method. Adjustment disorders were the most common psychiatric disorders among Iranian women. However, this did not predict the risk of further attempts.

  15. Are women who work in bars, guesthouses and similar facilities a suitable study population for vaginal microbicide trials in Africa?

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    Andrew Vallely

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A feasibility study was conducted to investigate whether an occupational at-risk cohort of women in Mwanza, Tanzania are a suitable study population for future phase III vaginal microbicide trials.1573 women aged 16-54 y working in traditional and modern bars, restaurants, hotels, guesthouses or as local food-handlers were enrolled at community-based reproductive health clinics, provided specimens for HIV/STI and pregnancy testing, and asked to attend three-monthly clinical follow-up visits for 12-months. HIV positive and negative women were eligible to enter the feasibility study and to receive free reproductive health services at any time. HIV prevalence at baseline was 26.5% (417/1573. HIV incidence among 1156 sero-negative women attending at baseline was 2.9/100PYs. Among 1020 HIV sero-negative, non-pregnant women, HIV incidence was 2.0/100PYs, HSV-2 incidence 12.7/100PYs and pregnancy rate 17.8/100PYs. Retention at three-months was 76.3% (778/1020. Among 771 HIV sero-negative, non-pregnant women attending at three-months, subsequent follow-up at 6, 9 and 12-months was 83.7%, 79.6%, and 72.1% respectively. Older women, those who had not moved home or changed their place of work in the last year, and women working in traditional bars or as local food handlers had the highest re-attendance.Women working in food outlets and recreational facilities in Tanzania and other parts of Africa may be a suitable study population for microbicide and other HIV prevention trials. Effective locally-appropriate strategies to address high pregnancy rates and early losses to follow-up are essential to minimise risk to clinical trials in these settings.

  16. Self-collected vaginal sampling for the detection of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) using careHPV among Ghanaian women.

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    Obiri-Yeboah, Dorcas; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Djigma, Florencia; Hayfron-Benjamin, Anna; Abdul, Latif; Simpore, Jacques; Mayaud, Philippe

    2017-09-26

    Detection of genital HPV DNA is recommended as an important strategy for modern cervical cancer screening. Challenges include access to services, the reliance on cervical samples taken by clinicians, and patient's preference regarding provider gender. The objective of this research was to determine the acceptability, feasibility and performance of alternative self-collected vaginal samples for HPV detection among Ghanaian women. A comparative frequency-matched study was conducted in a systematic (1:5) sample of women attending HIV and outpatient clinics in the Cape Coast Teaching Hospital, Ghana. Participants were instructed on self-collection (SC) of vaginal samples using the careHPV brush and a clinician-collected (CC) cervical sample was obtained using a similar brush. Paired specimens were tested for HPV DNA (14 high-risk types) by careHPV assay (Qiagen) and by HPV genotyping (Anyplex II, Seegene). Overall, 194 women of mean age 44.1 years (SD ± 11.3) were enrolled and 191 paired SC and CC results were analysed. The overall HPV detection concordance was 94.2% (95%CI: 89.9-97.1), Kappa value of 0.88 (p < 0.0001), showing excellent agreement. This agreement was similar between HIV positive (93.8%) and negative (94.7%) women. Sensitivity and specificity of SC compared to CC were 92.6% (95%CI: 85.3-97.0) and 95.9% (95%CI: 89.8-98.8) respectively. The highest sensitivity was among HIV positive women (95.7%, 95%CI: 88.0-99.1) and highest specificity among HIV negative women (98.6%, 95%CI: 92.4-100). Overall, 76.3% women found SC very easy/easy to obtain, 57.7% preferred SC to CC and 61.9% felt SC would increase their likelihood to access cervical cancer screening. The feasibility, acceptability and performance of SC using careHPV support the use of this alternative form of HPV screening among Ghanaian women. This could be a potential new affordable strategy to improve uptake of the national cervical cancer screening program.

  17. Prediction of successful trial of labor after cesarean - the benefit of prior vaginal delivery.

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    Ashwal, Eran; Wertheimer, Avital; Aviram, Amir; Wiznitzer, Arnon; Yogev, Yariv; Hiersch, Liran

    2016-01-01

    To determine predictive factors for vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC). A retrospective cohort study of all women with singleton pregnancies and a prior single low transverse cesarean section (CS) who attempted vaginal delivery in a tertiary hospital (2010-2014). Pregnancy outcome of women with VBAC was compared to those who failed vaginal delivery. Sub-analysis for women with no prior vaginal deliveries was performed. Pregnancies with non-cephalic presentation, estimated fetal weight >4000 g and any contraindications for vaginal delivery were excluded. Of the 40 714 deliveries, 1767 women met inclusion criteria. Among them 1563 (88.5%) had a VBAC and 204 (11.5%) failed. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding maternal age, comorbidities and pregnancy complications. Predictors for VBAC were (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval) interval from prior CS (1.13, 1.04-1.22, p=0.004), previous VBAC (2.77, 1.60-4.78, p women with no prior vaginal birth, only birthweight was associated with VBAC (0.99, 0.99-1.00, p = 0.02). While different variables may influence the rate of VBAC, the predictive ability of VBAC for women with no previous vaginal deliveries remains poor.

  18. Rectal Lactobacillus species and their influence on the vaginal microflora: a model of male-to-female transsexual women.

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    Petricevic, Ljubomir; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Domig, Konrad J; Kraler, Manuel; Marschalek, Julian; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Kiss, Herbert

    2014-11-01

    Based on Lactobacillus species co-colonizing the vagina and rectum, it has been hypothesized that the rectum may be an important reservoir for vaginal colonization by lactobacilli. There are no data on this issue in male-to-female transsexual women. We undertook this observational study to characterize the Lactobacillus species present in the neovagina and rectum of male-to-female transsexual women and to determine the degree of neovaginal-rectal co-colonization in order to gain a better understanding of the potential role of the gut as a reservoir for genital lactobacilli. Sixty-one male-to-female transsexual women with penile skin lined neovagina without clinical signs of infection were recruited on an ongoing basis from among male-to-female transsexual outpatients. Neovaginal and rectal smears were taken for molecular Lactobacillus species profiling by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Matching Lactobacillus species between neovagina and rectum. Forty-three of the 61 male-to-female transsexual women (70.5%) simultaneously harbored the same lactobacilli in both the neovagina and rectum. We found 276 neovaginal and 258 rectal DGGE bands representing 11 Lactobacillus species, with 201 matches of the same Lactobacillus species in neovagina and rectum. 37 of the 61 women (61%) had two or more matching Lactobacillus species. These data support the hypothesis that the rectum may play an important role as source of Lactobacillus species that colonies neovagina of male-to-female transsexual women. In view of the specific anatomical circumstances of the study population, these findings may be extended to the general population of women. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  19. The predictive value of demonstrable stress incontinence during basic office evaluation and urodynamics in women without symptomatic urinary incontinence undergoing vaginal prolapse surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, J. Marinus; Zwolsman, Sandra E.; Posthuma, Selina; Wiarda, Hylco S.; van der Vaart, C. Huub; Roovers, Jan-Paul W. R.

    2017-01-01

    Women with pelvic organ prolapse without symptoms of urinary incontinence (UI) might demonstrate stress urinary incontinence (SUI) with or without prolapse reduction. We aimed to determine the value of demonstrable SUI during basic office evaluation or urodynamics in predicting SUI after vaginal

  20. Lactobacillus iners-dominated vaginal microbiota is associated with increased susceptibility to Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Dutch women: a case-control study

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    van Houdt, Robin; Ma, Bing; Bruisten, Sylvia M.; Speksnijder, Arjen G. C. L.; Ravel, Jacques; de Vries, Henry J. C.

    2017-01-01

    This prospective study aimed to study the composition and structure of the vaginal microbiota prior to Chlamydia trachomatis infection. A nested case-control study was performed in 122 women, half of which acquired C. trachomatis within a year after their first visit. At the first visit, the

  1. One Year Outcomes of Tension-Free Vaginal Tape (TVT) Mid-Urethral Slings in Overweight and Obese Women

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    Killingsworth, Lindsay B.; Wheeler, Thomas L.; Burgio, Kathryn L.; Martirosian, Tovia E.; Redden, David T.; Richter, Holly E.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of body mass index (BMI) on tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) success rates, patient satisfaction, and complications one year following surgery. Methods Baseline and one-year post-surgery outcomes were abstracted, including Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6) scores, Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ-7) scores, and patient satisfaction ratings. Multivariable logistic and linear regression analyses were performed to examine relationships between outcomes and BMI. Results 195 subjects with a mean age of 59.3 ±12.6 were included. There was significant improvement within each group (all p-values 0.05) Conclusion Differential counseling of overweight or obese women regarding outcomes of the TVT procedure is not supported by these results; longer follow-up is warranted. PMID:19448965

  2. Effects of Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT on the body weight, blood pressure and vaginal bleeding in menopausal women

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    Ali Baziad

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was a descriptive, retrospective trial conducted in 29 menopausal women. Each patient received treatment with conjugated equine estrogen (CEE 0.625 mg/day + medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA 5 mg/hari continuously for the period of 6 months. The average age of menopause was 53.7 years with duration of menopause of 5.5 years. The education level of patients was Senior High School and higher. During the period of 6 months of continuous combined HRT, a significant increase of body weight and systolic blood pressure was found, while diastolic blood pressure did not have any significant change. Vaginal bleeding in the form of spotting occurred in 69% of the patients during the use of continuous combined HRT. (Med J Indones 2002; 11:11-4Keywords: continuous HRT, menopause, body weight, blood pressure, bleeding

  3. Could we have known? A qualitative analysis of data from women who survived an attempted homicide by an intimate partner.

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    Nicolaidis, Christina; Curry, Mary Ann; Ulrich, Yvonne; Sharps, Phyllis; McFarlane, Judith; Campbell, Doris; Gary, Faye; Laughon, Kathryn; Glass, Nancy; Campbell, Jacquelyn

    2003-10-01

    To examine in-depth the lives of women whose partners attempted to kill them, and to identify patterns that may aid in the clinician's ability to predict, prevent, or counsel about femicide or attempted femicide. Qualitative analysis of 30 in-depth interviews. Six U.S. cities. Thirty women, aged 17-54 years, who survived an attempted homicide by an intimate partner. All but 2 of the participants had previously experienced physical violence, controlling behavior, or both from the partner who attempted to kill them. The intensity of the violence, control, and threats varied greatly, as did the number of risk factors measured by the Danger Assessment, defining a wide spectrum of prior abuse. Approximately half (14/30) of the participants did not recognize that their lives were in danger. Women often focused more on relationship problems involving money, alcohol, drugs, possessiveness, or infidelity, than on the risk to themselves from the violence. The majority of the attempts (22/30) happened around the time of a relationship change, but the relationship was often ending because of problems other than violence. Clinicians should not be falsely reassured by a woman's sense of safety, by the lack of a history of severe violence, or by the presence of few classic risk factors for homicide. Efforts to reduce femicide risk that are targeted only at those women seeking help for violence-related problems may miss potential victims.

  4. A randomized comparison of vaginal prostaglandin E2 with oxytocin plus amniotomy for induction of labour in women with intermediately ripe cervices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parazzini, F; Benedetto, C; Danti, L; Zanini, A; Facchinetti, F; Ettore, G; Franchi, M; Bertulessi, C; Caruso, A

    1998-10-01

    To compare the effects of oxytocin and amniotomy or vaginal prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) for induction of labour. We conducted a randomized clinical trial. Eligible for the trial were women with normal pregnancy, parity 0-3, with intact membranes, >40 weeks of gestation documented by ultrasound examination before 20 weeks gestation, observed in a network of 13 general and teaching hospitals in Italy. Inclusion criteria were cervical Bishop's score 5-7, less than six uterine contractions per hour, single pregnancy, cephalic presentation, no history of cesarean section and uterine surgery. Eligible women were randomly assigned by phone to oxytocin plus amniotomy (163 women) or vaginal PGE2 2 mg, two doses at 6-h intervals (157 women). Overall, 50 women (15.6%) delivered by cesarean section, 22 (13.5%) randomized to oxytocin, and 28 (17.8%) randomized to PGE2 (not significant). Twelve hours after randomization, induction had failed in 26 women of the 163 randomized to oxytocin plus amniotomy (21.6%) and 34 out of the 157 randomized to PGE2 (15.9%): the difference was not significant. Neonatal outcome was similar in the two groups. This study did not find marked differences in labour and neonatal outcome between women randomized to oxytocin plus amniotomy or vaginal PGE2. A shorter induction delivery interval in the group receiving amniotomy and oxytocin after PGE2 priming was observed.

  5. Prevalência e fatores associados à percepção de ocorrência de corrimento vaginal patológico entre gestantes Prevalence of self-reported vaginal discharge and associated factors in pregnant women

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    Juraci A. Cesar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo medir a prevalência e identificar fatores associados à percepção de corrimento vaginal patológico por gestantes residentes em Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Aplicou-se questionário padronizado a todas as parturientes nas maternidades do município em 2007. Utilizou-se teste do qui-quadrado para comparar proporções e análise multivariável por regressão de Poisson. A prevalência de corrimento vaginal foi de 40%. Análise ajustada mostrou as seguintes razões de prevalência: 1,6 (1,4-1,8 para adolescentes; 1,3 (1,1-1,6 para aquelas com até oito anos de escolaridade; 1,3 (1,1-1,5 para aquelas que ingeriram álcool; 2,0 (1,8-2,2 para aquelas que referiram corrimento vaginal em gestação anterior; 1,4 (1,3-1,6 para infecção urinária na gestação atual; prematuridade em gestação anterior mostrou-se protetor com RP = 0,8 (0,7-0,9. Os serviços de saúde deveriam priorizar diagnóstico e tratamento de corrimento vaginal entre gestantes adolescentes, de baixa renda familiar e escolaridade, com história prévia de corrimento em gravidez anterior e infecção urinária na gravidez atual.This study aims to determine the prevalence self-reported abnormal vaginal discharge and to identify associated risk factors in pregnant women in the municipality of Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A standardized questionnaire was applied to all pregnant women admitted for delivery in local maternity hospitals. The chi-square test was used to compare proportions, and Poisson regression was applied using multivariate analysis. Prevalence of vaginal discharge was 40%. Adjusted analysis showed the following prevalence ratios for vaginal discharge: 1.6 (1.4-1.8 for adolescents; 1.3 (1.1-1.6 for 8 years of schooling or less; 1.3 (1.1-1.5 for alcohol consumption; 2.0 (1.8-2.2 for vaginal discharge in the previous pregnancy; 1.4 (1.3-1.6 for urinary tract infection in the current pregnancy; and 0.8 (0

  6. Clarifying the role of neuroticism in suicidal ideation and suicide attempt among women with major depressive disorder.

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    Rappaport, L M; Flint, J; Kendler, K S

    2017-10-01

    Prior research consistently demonstrates that neuroticism increases risk for suicidal ideation, but the association between neuroticism and suicidal behavior has been inconsistent. Whereas neuroticism is recommended as an endophenotype for suicidality, the association of neuroticism with attempted suicide warrants clarification. In particular, prior research has not distinguished between correlates of attempted suicide, correlates of suicidal ideation, and correlates of comorbid psychopathology. The present study used the CONVERGE study, a sample of 5864 women with major depressive disorder (MD) and 5783 women without MD throughout China. Diagnoses, suicidal ideation, and attempted suicide were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Neuroticism was assessed with the neuroticism portion of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Results replicate prior findings on the correlates of suicidal ideation, particularly elevated neuroticism among individuals who report prior suicidal ideation. Moreover, as compared with individuals who reported having experienced only suicidal ideation, neuroticism was associated with decreased likelihood of having attempted suicide. The association of neuroticism with suicidality is more complicated than has been previously described. Whereas neuroticism increases risk for suicidal ideation, neuroticism may decrease risk for a suicide attempt among individuals with suicidal ideation. These results have implications for the assessment of risk for a suicide attempt among individuals who report suicidal ideation and addresses prior discordant findings by clarifying the association between neuroticism and attempted suicide.

  7. Bacterial vaginosis, human papilloma virus and herpes viridae do not predict vaginal HIV RNA shedding in women living with HIV in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessman, Maria; Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Jensen, Jørgen S; Storgaard, Merete; Rönsholt, Frederikke F; Johansen, Isik S; Pedersen, Gitte; Nørregård Nielsen, Lars; Bonde, Jesper; Katzenstein, Terese L; Weis, Nina; Lebech, Anne-Mette

    2017-05-31

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been found to be associated with HIV acquisition and transmission. This is suggested to be due to higher HIV RNA levels in cervicovaginal fluids in women living with HIV (WLWH) with BV, as bacteria associated with BV may induce viral replication and shedding in the genital tract despite undetectable HIV RNA plasma viral load. We examined the prevalence and diagnostic predictors of BV and HIV-1 RNA vaginal shedding in women living with HIV (WLWH) in Denmark, taking into account the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and herpes viridae. WLWH between 18-51 years were recruited from six Departments of Infectious Diseases in Denmark during enrolment in the SHADE cohort; a prospective cohort study of WLWH attending regular outpatient care. BV was diagnosed by microscopy of vaginal swabs and PCR was used for detection of BV-associated bacteria, HPV, herpes viridae, and vaginal HIV viral load. Median age of the 150 included women was 41 years; ethnicity was predominantly White (35%) or Black (47%). The majority (96%) was on ART and had undetectable (85%) plasma HIV RNA (<40 copies/mL). BV was diagnosed in 32%. Overall, 11% had detectable vaginal HIV RNA. Both before and after adjustment for BV, age, ethnicity, plasma HIV RNA, CD4 cell count, herpes viridae and HPV, we found no significant predictors of HIV RNA vaginal shedding. In well-treated WLWH, BV, herpes viridae or HPV do not predict vaginal HIV RNA shedding. This implies that HIV shedding does not seem to be increased by BV.

  8. Composition of the vaginal microbiota in women of reproductive age--sensitive and specific molecular diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis is possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipitsyna, Elena; Roos, Annika; Datcu, Raluca; Hallén, Anders; Fredlund, Hans; Jensen, Jørgen S; Engstrand, Lars; Unemo, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal disorder, characterized by depletion of the normal lactobacillus-dominant microbiota and overgrowth of commensal anaerobic bacteria. This study aimed to investigate the composition of the vaginal microbiota in women of reproductive age (healthy women and women with BV), with the view of developing molecular criteria for BV diagnosis. Vaginal samples from 163 women (79 control, 73 BV and 11 intermediate (Lactobacillary grade II flora) cases) were analyzed using 454 pyrosequencing of the hypervariable regions V3-V4 of the 16S rRNA gene and 16 quantitative bacterial species/genus-specific real-time PCR assays. Sensitivities and specificities of potential BV markers were computed using the Amsel criteria as reference standard for BV. The use of quantitative thresholds for prediction of BV, determined for both relative abundance measured with 454 pyrosequencing and bacterial load measured with qPCR, was evaluated. Relative to the healthy women, the BV patients had in their vaginal microbiota significantly higher prevalence, loads and relative abundances of the majority of BV associated bacteria. However, only Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, Eggerthella, Prevotella, BVAB2 and Megasphaera type 1 detected at or above optimal thresholds were highly predictable for BV, with the best diagnostic accuracy shown for A. vaginae. The depletion of Lactobacillus species combined with the presence of either G. vaginalis or A. vaginae at diagnostic levels was a highly accurate BV predictor. Quantitative determination of the presence of G. vaginalis, A. vaginae, Eggerthella, Prevotella, BVAB2 and Megasphaera type 1 as well as the depletion of Lactobacillus was highly accurate for BV diagnosis. Measurements of abundance of normal and BV microbiota relative to total bacteria in vaginal fluid may provide more accurate BV diagnosis, and be used for test-of-cure, rather than qualitative detection or absolute counts of BV related

  9. Composition of the Vaginal Microbiota in Women of Reproductive Age – Sensitive and Specific Molecular Diagnosis of Bacterial Vaginosis Is Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipitsyna, Elena; Roos, Annika; Datcu, Raluca; Hallén, Anders; Fredlund, Hans; Jensen, Jørgen S.; Engstrand, Lars; Unemo, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal disorder, characterized by depletion of the normal lactobacillus-dominant microbiota and overgrowth of commensal anaerobic bacteria. This study aimed to investigate the composition of the vaginal microbiota in women of reproductive age (healthy women and women with BV), with the view of developing molecular criteria for BV diagnosis. Materials and Methods Vaginal samples from 163 women (79 control, 73 BV and 11 intermediate (Lactobacillary grade II flora) cases) were analyzed using 454 pyrosequencing of the hypervariable regions V3–V4 of the 16S rRNA gene and 16 quantitative bacterial species/genus-specific real-time PCR assays. Sensitivities and specificities of potential BV markers were computed using the Amsel criteria as reference standard for BV. The use of quantitative thresholds for prediction of BV, determined for both relative abundance measured with 454 pyrosequencing and bacterial load measured with qPCR, was evaluated. Results Relative to the healthy women, the BV patients had in their vaginal microbiota significantly higher prevalence, loads and relative abundances of the majority of BV associated bacteria. However, only Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, Eggerthella, Prevotella, BVAB2 and Megasphaera type 1 detected at or above optimal thresholds were highly predictable for BV, with the best diagnostic accuracy shown for A. vaginae. The depletion of Lactobacillus species combined with the presence of either G. vaginalis or A. vaginae at diagnostic levels was a highly accurate BV predictor. Conclusions Quantitative determination of the presence of G. vaginalis, A. vaginae, Eggerthella, Prevotella, BVAB2 and Megasphaera type 1 as well as the depletion of Lactobacillus was highly accurate for BV diagnosis. Measurements of abundance of normal and BV microbiota relative to total bacteria in vaginal fluid may provide more accurate BV diagnosis, and be used for test

  10. Composition of the vaginal microbiota in women of reproductive age--sensitive and specific molecular diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis is possible?

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    Elena Shipitsyna

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Bacterial vaginosis (BV is the most common vaginal disorder, characterized by depletion of the normal lactobacillus-dominant microbiota and overgrowth of commensal anaerobic bacteria. This study aimed to investigate the composition of the vaginal microbiota in women of reproductive age (healthy women and women with BV, with the view of developing molecular criteria for BV diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Vaginal samples from 163 women (79 control, 73 BV and 11 intermediate (Lactobacillary grade II flora cases were analyzed using 454 pyrosequencing of the hypervariable regions V3-V4 of the 16S rRNA gene and 16 quantitative bacterial species/genus-specific real-time PCR assays. Sensitivities and specificities of potential BV markers were computed using the Amsel criteria as reference standard for BV. The use of quantitative thresholds for prediction of BV, determined for both relative abundance measured with 454 pyrosequencing and bacterial load measured with qPCR, was evaluated. RESULTS: Relative to the healthy women, the BV patients had in their vaginal microbiota significantly higher prevalence, loads and relative abundances of the majority of BV associated bacteria. However, only Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, Eggerthella, Prevotella, BVAB2 and Megasphaera type 1 detected at or above optimal thresholds were highly predictable for BV, with the best diagnostic accuracy shown for A. vaginae. The depletion of Lactobacillus species combined with the presence of either G. vaginalis or A. vaginae at diagnostic levels was a highly accurate BV predictor. CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative determination of the presence of G. vaginalis, A. vaginae, Eggerthella, Prevotella, BVAB2 and Megasphaera type 1 as well as the depletion of Lactobacillus was highly accurate for BV diagnosis. Measurements of abundance of normal and BV microbiota relative to total bacteria in vaginal fluid may provide more accurate BV diagnosis, and be

  11. Vaginal estrogens for the treatment of dyspareunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krychman, Michael L

    2011-03-01

    Vaginal atrophy, which is associated with vaginal itching, burning, dryness, irritation, and pain, is estimated to affect up to 40% of postmenopausal women. Estrogens play a key role in maintaining vaginal health; women with low serum estradiol are more likely to experience vaginal dryness, dyspareunia, and reduced sexual activity compared with women who have higher estradiol levels. The purpose of this review is to assess the prevalence and impact of dyspareunia, a symptom of vaginal atrophy, on the health of postmenopausal women and to evaluate treatment options using vaginal estrogens (U.S. Food and Drug Administration [FDA] approved). Relevant published literature was identified by searching Index Medicus using the PubMed online database. The search terms dyspareunia, vaginal estrogen, vaginal hormone therapy, vaginal atrophy, and atrophic vaginitis were the focus of the literature review. Current treatment guidelines for vaginal atrophy recommend the use of minimally absorbed local vaginal estrogens, along with non-hormonal lubricants or moisturizers, coupled with maintenance of sexual activity. Vaginal estrogen therapy has been shown to provide improvement in the signs and symptoms of vaginal or vulvar atrophy. Vaginal tablets, rings, and creams are indicated for the treatment of vaginal atrophy, and the FDA has recently approved a low-dose regimen of conjugated estrogens cream to treat moderate-to-severe postmenopausal dyspareunia. The use of low-dose vaginal estrogens has been shown to be effective in treating symptoms of vaginal atrophy without causing significant proliferation of the endometrial lining, and no significant differences have been seen among vaginal preparations in terms of endometrial safety. Women should be informed of the potential benefits and risks of the treatment options available, and with the help of their healthcare provider, choose an intervention that is most suitable to their individual needs and circumstances. © 2010

  12. Corrimento vaginal referido entre gestantes em localidade urbana no Sul do Brasil: prevalência e fatores associados Self-reported vaginal discharge among pregnant women in an urban area in Southern Brazil: prevalence and associated factors

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    Tânia M. V. da Fonseca

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Por intermédio de delineamento transversal, buscou-se determinar a prevalência e identificar fatores associados à ocorrência de corrimento vaginal referido entre gestantes da cidade de Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Utilizando-se de questionário padrão, foram investigadas características sócio-econômicas, demográficas, reprodutivas, condições de moradia, assistência recebida e ocorrência de corrimento vaginal referido entre estas gestantes. Para as comparações entre proporções utilizou-se teste do qui-quadrado e para análise multivariada regressão de Poisson. Dentre as 339 gestantes estudadas, 51,6% referiram corrimento vaginal na gestação. As seguintes variáveis mostraram-se significativamente associadas à ocorrência de corrimento vaginal referido: idade (razão de prevalências: RP= 1,49, estado civil (RP = 1,31, ocorrência de infecção urinária (RP = 1,56, hiperglicemia na gestação atual (RP = 1,48, uso de dispositivo intra-uterino (RP = 2,35, ocorrência prévia de parto prematuro (RP = 1,37 e utilização de anticoncepcional oral como fator de proteção (RP = 0,79. Este estudo mostrou prevalência elevada de corrimento vaginal referido entre as gestantes estudadas e permitiu identificar aquelas com maior risco de adoecer por esta causa, o que pode contribuir para a adoção de medidas preventivas.The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with self-reported vaginal discharge among pregnant women in the city of Rio Grande, South Brazil. Using a cross-sectional design, a standard interview was applied to pregnant women at home by previously trained interviewers, covering the following: demographic, reproductive, and socioeconomic data, household conditions, health care, and illnesses during pregnancy, including vaginal discharge. The chi-square test was used to compare proportions, and Poisson regression was used in the multivariate analysis. Among the 339

  13. Impact of eating probiotic yogurt on colonization by Candida species of the oral and vaginal mucosa in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haihong; Merenstein, Daniel J; Wang, Cuiwei; Hamilton, Pilar R; Blackmon, Mandy L; Chen, Hui; Calderone, Richard A; Li, Dongmei

    2013-10-01

    Candidiasis in HIV/AIDS patients continues to be a public health problem. Antifungal therapies are not always effective and may result in complications, such as the development of drug-resistant strains of Candida species. This study evaluated the impact of probiotic consumption on Candida colonization of the oral and vaginal mucosa. A pilot study was conducted in 24 women (17 HIV-infected, 7 HIV-uninfected) from the Women's Interagency HIV Study. The women underwent a 60-day initiation period with no probiotic consumption, followed by two 15-day consumption periods, with a different probiotic yogurt (DanActive™ or YoPlus™ yogurt) during each interval. There was a 30-day washout period between the two yogurt consumption periods. Oral and vaginal culture swabs were collected on days 0, 60, 74, and 120. Candida was detected by inoculating each swab in both Sabouraud's dextrose agar with or without chloramphenicol and CHROMagar. Less fungal colonization among women was observed when the women consumed probiotic yogurts (54 % of the women had vaginal fungal colonization during the non-probiotic yogurt consumption period, 29 % during the DanActive™ period, and 38 % during YoPlus™ yogurt consumption period), and HIV-infected women had significantly lower vaginal fungal colonization after they consumed DanActive™ yogurt compared to the non-intervention periods (54 vs 29 %, p = 0.03). These data are promising, but as expected in a small pilot study, there were some significant changes but also some areas where colonization was not changed. This type of conflicting data is supportive of the need for a larger trial to further elucidate the role of probiotic yogurts in fungal growth in HIV-infected women.

  14. Differentials in health-related quality of life of employed and unemployed women with normal vaginal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinweuba, Anthonia U; Okoronkwo, Ijeoma L; Anarado, Agnes N; Agbapuonwu, Noreen E; Ogbonnaya, Ngozi P; Ihudiebube-Splendor, Chikaodili N

    2018-01-10

    The combination of child care and domestic work demands on both housewives and the employed (hired) women may impact their health-related quality-of-life. There is paucity of studies to ascertain this. This study investigated the differences in health-related quality of life of employed and unemployed women with normal vaginal delivery and associated socio-demographic variables. This longitudinal study was done from March, 2012 to June, 2013. Modified SF-36v2™ health-related quality of life questionnaire was administered to 234 newly delivered women drawn from six selected hospitals in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria at 6, 12 and 18 weeks postpartum. Respondents were reached for data collection through personal contacts initially at the hospitals of delivery, and subsequently by visits to their homes/workplaces or cell-phone calls. Women were asked to indicate how each of 36 items applied to them at each of the three times. Data collection lasted for six calendar months and 17 days (from September 3rd 2012 to 20th March, 2013). All the women had their best HrQoL at 12 weeks postpartum. Employed women reported lower health-related quality-of-life than the unemployed at the three time-points, the lowest mean score being at 18 weeks postpartum (Mean = 73.9). Multiple comparison of scores of the two groups using Tukey HSD Repeated Mean showed significant variation on the eight subscales of the health-related quality-of-life. Physical functioning (p = 0.045), Physical role limitation (p = 0.000), bodily pain (p = 0.000), social functioning (p = 0.000) and general health (p = 0.000) were unequal guaranteeing type 1 error. Women with higher education and personal income reported higher health-related quality-of-life (p quality-of-life post-partum. The traditionally accepted paid 3 months maternity leave should be elongated by extra months to help women balance their daily work with baby care. Gender sensitive employment opportunities in favour of

  15. An innovative approach to treating vaginal mesh exposure after abdominal sacral colpopexy: endoscopic resection of mesh and platelet-rich plasma; initial experience in three women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, Daniele; Valloni, Alessandra; Piccirilli, Angela; Paradiso Galatioto, Giuseppe; Vicentini, Carlo

    2017-02-01

    Polypropylene mesh exposure is uncommon after abdominal sacral colpopexy (ASC), but in case of symptomatic vaginal mesh exposure, surgery is needed. When treating it, care must be taken to completely remove the exposed mesh (EM), saving as much vaginal tissue as possible to avoid a subsequent shortened and narrowed vagina. In this video, we present a minimally invasive technique for treating EM after ASC using endoscopic mesh resection and autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) technology. Three women were referred to our outpatient clinic for vaginal vault mesh exposure after laparoscopic ASC with concomitant hysterectomy. All women underwent endoscopic bipolar PlasmaKinetic resection (BPR) of EM, and PRP gel was delivered in the surgical site to cover the gap left by the resection. Mean operative time was 39.6 min. Surgery was uneventful in all cases. All women recovered sexual function, and nobody experienced relapsed pelvic organ prolapse at 1-year follow-up. Our preliminary results show that BPR and PRP are safe, effective, and feasible for treating vaginal mesh exposure with conservation of anatomy and sexual function.

  16. Bacterial vaginosis, human papilloma virus and herpes viridae do not predict vaginal HIV RNA shedding in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessman, Maria; Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Jensen, Jørgen Skov

    2017-01-01

    in the genital tract despite undetectable HIV RNA plasma viral load. We examined the prevalence and diagnostic predictors of BV and HIV-1 RNA vaginal shedding in women living with HIV (WLWH) in Denmark, taking into account the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and herpes viridae. METHODS: WLWH between 18......BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been found to be associated with HIV acquisition and transmission. This is suggested to be due to higher HIV RNA levels in cervicovaginal fluids in women living with HIV (WLWH) with BV, as bacteria associated with BV may induce viral replication and shedding...... viridae, and vaginal HIV viral load. RESULTS: Median age of the 150 included women was 41 years; ethnicity was predominantly White (35%) or Black (47%). The majority (96%) was on ART and had undetectable (85%) plasma HIV RNA (HIV...

  17. Prevalence of vaginitis, syphilis and HIV infection in women in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and HIV infection in women in the Orange Free State. Method. By cluster sampling, 120 rural (fann) and 120 urban (local authority) clusters, each containing 4 women, were selected. ... A. Muir, R.N.. P. Divall. C.F:I.CA. R. H. Barn, B.SC. HONS, M.B. CH.B. Health Services Branch, Provincial Administration of the Orange Free.

  18. Endometrial safety of ultra-low-dose estradiol vaginal tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, James; Nachtigall, Lila; Ulrich, Lian G

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma rate after 52-week treatment with ultra-low-dose 10-microgram 17β-estradiol vaginal tablets in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy.......To evaluate the endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma rate after 52-week treatment with ultra-low-dose 10-microgram 17β-estradiol vaginal tablets in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy....

  19. Endometrial safety of ultra-low-dose estradiol vaginal tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, James; Nachtigall, Lila; Ulrich, Lian G

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma rate after 52-week treatment with ultra-low-dose 10-microgram 17ß-estradiol vaginal tablets in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy.......To evaluate the endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma rate after 52-week treatment with ultra-low-dose 10-microgram 17ß-estradiol vaginal tablets in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy....

  20. Factors associated with vaginal birth after previous cesarean section in Brazilian women Factores relacionados con el parto vaginal en mujeres brasileñas con cesárea anterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guilherme Cecatti

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with a vaginal second delivery in women who had one previous cesarean section. METHODS: A nested case-control study was carried out as a secondary data analysis of an original retrospective, population-based cohort study of women who delivered their first child during 1985 in the city of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, and who were interviewed 10 years later in 1995. The study population consisted of 1 352 women who had their first delivery by cesarean section and who had also had at least one subsequent delivery. The group of cases (150 women, around 11% of the sample consisted of women who had a vaginal second delivery, and the control group was made up of 1 202 women who had a cesarean section at second delivery. For each possible associated factor we calculated the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval. For ordered categorical variables the c² test for trend was used. Unconditional multivariate regression analysis was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratio for each associated factor. RESULTS: The factors significantly associated with vaginal delivery were monthly family income below 5-fold the Brazilian minimum monthly wage, reliance on the Brazilian national health system for healthcare, low maternal age, and first cesarean section indicated because of fetal breech or transverse presentation, or twin pregnancy. Among those women who also had a cesarean section at their second delivery, only 11% had undergone a trial of labor. CONCLUSIONS: The main determining factors for a vaginal second delivery in women with a previous cesarean section were unfavorable social and economic factors.OBJETIVO: Determinar qué factores se asocian con el parto vaginal en mujeres que han tenido una cesárea. MÉTODOS: Un estudio anidado de casos y testigos se llevó a cabo en forma de un análisis de datos secundarios procedentes de un estudio de cohorte -original, retrospectivo y de carácter poblacional- en mujeres

  1. Detection and Type-Distribution of Human Papillomavirus in Vulva and Vaginal Abnormal Cytology Lesions and Cancer Tissues from Thai Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamkham, Jarunya; Boonmark, Krittika; Phansri, Thainsang

    2016-01-01

    Vulva and Vaginal cancers are rare among all gynecological cancers worldwide, including Thailand, and typically affect women in later life. Persistent high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection is one of several important causes of cancer development. In this study, we focused on HPV investigation and specific type distribution from Thai women with abnormality lesions and cancers of the vulva and Vaginal. A total of ninety paraffin-embedded samples of vulva and Vaginal abnormalities and cancer cells with histologically confirmed were collected from Thai women, who were diagnosed in 2003-2012 at the National Cancer Institute, Thailand. HPV DNA was detected and genotyped using polymerase chain reaction and enzyme immunoassay with GP5+/ bio 6+ consensus specific primers and digoxigenin-labeled specific oligoprobes, respectively. The human β-globin gene was used as an internal control. Overall results represented that HPV frequency was 16/34 (47.1%) and 8/20 (40.0%) samples of vulva with cancer and abnormal cytology lesions, respectively, while, 3/5 (60%) and 16/33 (51.61%) samples of Vaginal cancer and abnormal cytology lesions, respectively, were HPV DNA positive. Single HPV type and multiple HPV type infection could be observed in both type of cancers and abnormal lesion samples in the different histological categorizes. HPV16 was the most frequent type in all cancers and abnormal cytology lesions, whereas HPV 18 was less frequent and could be detected as co-infection with other high risk HPV types. In addition, low risk types such as HPV 6, 11 and 70 could be detected in Vulva cancer and abnormal cytology lesion samples, whereas, all Vaginal cancer samples exhibited only high risk HPV types; HPV 16 and 31. In conclusion, from our results in this study we suggest that women with persistent high risk HPV type infection are at risk of developing vulva and Vaginal cancers and HPV 16 was observed at the highest frequent both of these, similar to the cervical

  2. Last Suicide Attempt before Completed Suicide in Severe Depression: An Extended Suicidal Process May Be Found in Men Rather Than Women.

    OpenAIRE

    Brådvik, Louise

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the time from last suicide attempt to suicide in men and women with major depressive disorder with melancholic and/or psychotic features. The case records of 100 suicide victims with severe depression were evaluated. All suicide attempts during the course of depression were noted. The time from last suicide attempt to suicide was compared as well as the occurrence of suicide attempt during the last depressive episode, by gender. Male suicide attempte...

  3. Comparison of sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 levels in maternal serum and vaginal secretion between pregnant women with preterm prelabour ruptures of membranes and healthy pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sak, Sibel; Barut, Mert; Incebiyik, Adnan; Ağaçayak, Elif; Kirmit, Adnan; Koyuncu, Ismail; Sak, Muhammet

    2017-11-02

    The study aims to evaluate the maternal serum and the vaginal fluid levels of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecular (sICAM-1) in pregnant women complicated by preterm prelabour ruptures of membranes (PPROM). The prospective case control study included 34 pregnant women with PPROM and 34 healthy pregnant women. Patients with additional diseases, a smoking habit and vaginal bleeding, as well as those using antibiotics, during the study period were not included in the study. Cervicovaginal fluid and serum samples were taken during the patients' admission. The demographic data, maternal serum and vaginal fluid sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1, C reactive protein (CRP) and leukocyte counts were noted for all pregnant women included in the study. The sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. In pregnant women with PPROM, the serum leukocyte (mean ± SD =11.41 ± 1.067 versus 9.18 ± 1.56, p 1), serum sVCAM-1 (median 771.20 versus 704.60 ng/ml, p 1), sICAM-1 (mean ± SD 213.10 ± 35.59 ng/ml versus 188.11 ± 37.35 ng/ml, p = .06), vaginal sVCAM-1 (median 208.00 versus 140.20 ng/ml, p = .014) and sICAM-1 (mean ± SD 32.32 ± 6.49 ng/ml versus 24.87 ± 6.79 ng/ml, p 1) values were found to be significantly higher in pregnant women with PPROM than in healthy pregnant women. A positive and significant correlation was observed between the leukocyte count and the vaginal sVCAM-1 level (r = 0.850; p 1). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating the levels of sICAM-1 in maternal serum in pregnant women with PPROM. The maternal serum and vaginal fluid sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 levels can be used as biochemical markers supporting the PPROM diagnosis because of the increase in both maternal serum and vaginal fluid sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 levels in pregnant women with PPROM.

  4. Prevalencia de candidiasis vaginal en embarazadas: Identificación de levaduras y sensibilidad a los antifúngicos Prevalence of vaginal candidiasis in pregnant women: Identification of yeasts and susceptibility to antifungal agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. García Heredia

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available La mujer embarazada es más susceptible tanto a la colonización como a la infección vaginal por levaduras. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la prevalencia de levaduras aisladas de exudados vaginales de mujeres embarazadas y evaluar la sensibilidad a los antifúngicos de uso frecuente. Se estudiaron 493 pacientes en el período comprendido desde diciembre de 1998 hasta febrero de 2000. La prevalencia de Candida spp. fue 28% (Candida albicans 90,4%, Candida glabrata 6,3%, Candida parapsilosis 1,1%, Candida kefyr 1,1%, especies no identificadas 1,1%. Se determinó la sensibilidad a fluconazol, ketoconazol, itraconazol y nistatina por el método de difusión en agar Shadomy. Todos los aislamientos de C. albicans, C. kefyr y C. parapsilosis fueron sensibles in vitro a los antifúngicos probados, mientras que 1 de 6 aislamientos de C. glabrata presentó resistencia extendida a todos los azoles, pero sensibilidad a nistatina. En mujeres embarazadas C. albicans fue la levadura más frecuentemente aislada de exudados vaginales y continúa siendo ampliamente sensible a los antifúngicos; sólo en C. glabrata se observó resistencia a los azoles. Se recomienda la identificación de la levadura a nivel de especie particularmente en el caso de falla terapéutica y en infecciones recidivantes o crónicas.Pregnant women are more susceptible to both vaginal colonization and infection by yeast. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence in pregnant women of yeasts isolated from vaginal exudates and their susceptibility to current antifungal drugs. A total of 493 patients was studied between December 1998 and February 2000. The prevalence of Candida spp. was 28% (Candida albicans 90.4%; Candida glabrata 6.3%; Candida parapsilosis 1.1%, Candida kefyr 1.1%; unidentified species 1.1%. The diffusion test in Shadomy agar was employed to determine the susceptibility to fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole and nistatine. All C. albicans, C. kefyr and

  5. Evaluation of psychosocial and biological parameters in women seeking for a caesarean section and women who are aiming for vaginal delivery: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuschy, Benjamin; Berlit, Sebastian; Stützer, Paul; Lis, Stefanie; Schmahl, Christian; Baumgärtner, Ulf; Sütterlin, Marc

    2018-01-17

    To investigate psychosocial and biological parameters that may influence decision-making concerning the mode of delivery in women with caesarean section on maternal request (CSMR). Two hundred and two women were enrolled prospectively. The study sample (n = 93) consisted of women who aimed for CSMR, the control sample were women who seeked for vaginal delivery (n = 109). Parturients of both samples were enrolled during the pre-birth counselling at the delivery room at the University Medical Centre Mannheim, University Heidelberg, Germany. Women completed standardised questionnaires regarding psychosocial burden (SCL-R 90), fear of childbirth (W-DEQ) and anxiety (STAI), personality structure (HEXACO-Pi-R), and ambiguity tolerance (PFI, PNS, and NFC), social support (F-SozU) as well as one questionnaire assessing demographic parameters and further factors potentially influencing their choice of the mode of delivery. Hair cortisol concentration as a marker for chronic psychological stress and pressure pain threshold with a pressure algometer was assessed. Women in the CSMR sample had less social support (F-SozU: 2.99 ± 0.52 vs. 3.12 ± 0.32; p = 0.043) and were less educated (high school or university degree: 37 vs. 71%, p = 0.001) compared to parturients of the control sample. Women who underwent CSMR were less open-minded (HEXACO-Pi-R: 3.08 ± 0.57 vs. 3.26 ± 0.50; p = 0.016) and less extroverted (HEXACO-Pi-R: 3.34 ± 0.36 vs. 3.46 ± 0.41; p = 0.041). The control collective showed higher scores in negative appraisal of the birth ('W-DEQ-negative appraisal': 2.5 ± 0.8 vs. 2.2 ± 0.9; p = 0.006), whereas "lack of positive anticipation" was higher in the study collective ('W-DEQ-lack of positive anticipation': 3.2 ± 1.2 vs. 2.8 ± 0.8; p = 0.015). The study collective had higher pressure pain threshold values (5.07 ± 2.06 vs. 4.35 ± 1.38; p = 0.007), while no significant differences were observed in hair cortisol

  6. Observational study of Streptococcus pyogenes isolated from vaginal swabs of adult women in a hospital and community laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, Arlo; Taylor, Susan

    2013-12-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes or group A streptococcus (GAS) is a common cause of vulvo-vaginitis in pre-pubertal females but is uncommonly isolated from the vaginal swabs of adult females. We aimed to describe the clinical and laboratory findings of adult females with GAS isolated from vaginal swabs in a community and hospital laboratory. Over a 19 week period the two laboratories identified females ≥ 15 years of age with GAS isolated from vaginal swabs. At least 2 weeks after reporting, the referring doctor or midwife was telephoned by the authors for clinical information or the clinical notes were reviewed. Laboratory data were also collected. One hundred adult females with GAS isolated from vaginal swabs were identified from approximately 4500-5000 community laboratory, and 20 from approximately 2000 hospital laboratory swabs. Community patients were more likely to have presented with vaginal symptoms such as discharge, while hospital patients were more likely to have ascending infection related to pregnancy/recent delivery. Of the community patients, 15% were asymptomatic compared with 5% of the hospital patients. Review of Gram stain and culture quantification was not found to be particularly useful for discriminating between clinical infection and asymptomatic colonisation. Isolation of GAS from the vaginal swabs of adult females is uncommon. In the community setting it may represent infection with vulvo-vaginitis or asymptomatic colonisation. In the hospital setting, its isolation is frequently associated with pregnancy-related infectious complications.

  7. Vaginal douching and racial/ethnic disparities in phthalates exposures among reproductive-aged women: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Francesca; Woodruff, Tracey J; Mitro, Susanna D; Zota, Ami R

    2015-07-15

    Diethyl phthalate (DEP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) are industrial chemicals found in consumer products that may increase risk of adverse health effects. Although use of personal care/beauty products is known to contribute to phthalate exposure, no prior study has examined feminine hygiene products as a potential phthalate source. In this study, we evaluate whether vaginal douching and other feminine hygiene products increase exposure to phthalates among US reproductive-aged women. We conducted a cross-sectional study on 739 women (aged 20-49) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2004 to examine the association between self-reported use of feminine hygiene products (tampons, sanitary napkins, vaginal douches, feminine spray, feminine powder, and feminine wipes/towelettes) with urinary concentrations of monoethyl phthalate (MEP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), metabolites of DEP and DnBP, respectively. A greater proportion of black women than white and Mexican American women reported use of vaginal douches, feminine spray, feminine powder, and wipes/towelettes in the past month whereas white women were more likely than other racial/ethnic groups to report use of tampons (p product was significantly associated with either MEP or MnBP. We observed a dose-response relationship between douching frequency and MEP concentrations (p(trend) women had 48.4% (95% CI: 16.8%, 88.6%; p = 0.0002) higher MEP levels than white women. Adjustment for douching attenuated this difference to 26.4% (95% CI:-0.9%, 61.2%; p = 0.06). Mediation effects of douching were statistically significant for black-white differences (z = 3.71, p < 0.001) but not for differences between Mexican Americans and whites (z = 1.80, p = 0.07). Vaginal douching may increase exposure to DEP and contribute to racial/ethnic disparities in DEP exposure. The presence of environmental chemicals in vaginal douches warrants further examination.

  8. Living with Cat and Dog Increases Vaginal Colonization with E. coli in Pregnant Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jakob; Schjørring, Susanne; Pedersen, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Furred pets in the household are known reservoirs for pathogenic bacteria, but it is not known if transmission of bacteria between pet and owner leads to significantly increased rate of infections. We studied whether cats and dogs living in the household of pregnant women affect the commensal vag...

  9. Effect of bidet toilet use on preterm birth and vaginal flora in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Keiko; Nakano, Makiko; Yamada, Mutsuko; Takahashi, Kaori; Sueoka, Kou; Omae, Kazuyuki

    2013-06-01

    To estimate the association between bidet toilet use and preterm birth, as well as the effect of bidet toilet use on bacterial vaginosis, in pregnant women. Questionnaires about bidet toilet usage were sent to 2,545 women who gave birth between 2006 and 2010 in Tokyo. Crude and multivariable adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for the incidence of preterm birth (delivery at less than 37 completed weeks of gestation) and the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis between users and nonusers of the bidet toilet were calculated using data from the questionnaire and delivery records. Bacterial vaginosis was estimated by the balance of lactobacilli and nonlactobacillus microbes based on routine prenatal microbiologic test results. Of 1,293 women who responded to the questionnaire, 63.3% were users of the bidet toilet. The incidence of preterm birth was 15.8% among bidet users and 16.0% among nonusers (adjusted OR 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.72-1.48). Additionally, no association was found between bidet toilet use and bacterial vaginosis (adjusted OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.70-1.33). Normal use of the bidet toilet by pregnant women poses no clinical health risk for preterm birth and bacterial vaginosis.

  10. Differential profiles of immune mediators and in vitro HIV infectivity between endocervical and vaginal secretions from women with Chlamydia trachomatis infection: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Rhoda; Kraus, Thomas A; Ding, Jian; Veretennikova, Alina; Lorde-Rollins, Elizabeth; Singh, Tricia; Lo, Yungtai; Quayle, Alison J; Chang, Theresa L

    2013-09-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection is one of the most prevalent bacterial STIs in the USA and worldwide, and women with C. trachomatis infection are at increased risk of acquiring HIV. Because immune activation at the genital mucosa facilitates HIV/SIV infection, C. trachomatis-mediated cytokine induction may contribute to increased HIV transmission in asymptomatic women. To begin to elucidate the mechanisms, we longitudinally analyzed profiles of innate immune factors and HIV infectivity in genital secretions from anatomically specific sites in asymptomatic women during C. trachomatis infection and post-antibiotic treatment. We found higher levels of cytokines and chemokines in endocervical secretions than vaginal secretions. Compared with the convalescent state, G-CSF, IL-1α, and RANTES were elevated in endocervical secretions, IFN-γ and TNF-α were elevated in vaginal secretions, and IFNγ, IL-1β, and MIP1-α were elevated in cervicolavage fluid (CVL), before adjustment of multiple comparisons. Elevated endocervical levels of IP-10 and MCP-1 were associated with the use of hormonal contraception in infected women after successful treatment, suggesting the role of hormonal contraception in inflammation independent of STIs. Importantly, soluble factors found in endocervical secretions during infection enhanced HIV infectivity while no difference in HIV infectivity was found with vaginal secretions or CVL during infection or at convalescence. Taken together, the profiles of immune mediators and in vitro HIV infectivity indicate that the endocervical and vaginal mucosa are immunologically distinct. Our results underscore the importance of considering anatomical site and local sampling methodology when measuring mucosal responses, particularly in the presence of C. trachomatis infection. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Why women attempt suicide: the role of mental illness and social disadvantage in a community cohort study in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maselko, J; Patel, V

    2008-09-01

    The relative importance of illness (physical and mental) and social disadvantage as risk factors for suicide is controversial. To describe the risk for attempted suicide in women when it is associated with social disadvantage and physical and mental illness. Data were analysed from a population-based cohort study of women aged 18-50, in Goa, India (n = 2494). Baseline information was collected on socioeconomic factors, gender disadvantage and physical and mental illness. The main outcome was self-report attempted suicide (AS) over a 12-month study period. ORs were calculated using exact logistic regression. One-year incidence of AS was 0.8% (n = 18+1 completed suicide) and seven of these women had baseline common mental disorders (CMDs) (37%). In unadjusted models, CMDs (OR 8.71, 95% CI 2.86 to 24.43), exposure to violence (OR 7.70, 95% CI 2.80 to 22.21) and recent hunger (OR 6.59, 95% CI 1.83 to 19.77) were the strongest predictors of incident AS cases. However, in a multivariate model, exposure to violence (OR 5.18, 95% CI 1.55 to 18.75) and physical illness (OR 3.77, 95% CI 1.05 to 12.37) emerged as independent predictors of AS. Multi-pronged strategies to reduce domestic violence, provide poverty relief and improve treatment of mental and physical disorders are needed to reduce the population burden of attempted suicide.

  12. Clinical performance of the Solana® Point-of-Care Trichomonas Assay from clinician-collected vaginal swabs and urine specimens from symptomatic and asymptomatic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaydos, C A; Schwebke, J; Dombrowski, J; Marrazzo, J; Coleman, J; Silver, B; Barnes, M; Crane, L; Fine, P

    2017-03-01

    Solana® (Quidel) is a new rapid (Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) DNA. The assay has two steps: 1) specimen preparation, and 2) amplification and detection using isothermal Helicase-Dependent Amplification (HDA). The objective was to demonstrate the performance of Solana for vaginal swabs and female urines based on comparison to wet mount and TV culture. Performance was also compared to the Aptima-TV assay. Urine and four clinician-collected vaginal swabs were collected. The first two were used for FDA composite reference (wet mount; InPouch TV Culture). The third swab was used for Solana. Sensitivity/specificity were based on the reference method. A specimen was considered positive if either test was positive. The fourth swab was for Aptima-TV. Vaginal swabs and urines were obtained from 501 asymptomatic and 543 symptomatic women. Prevalence of TV by was 11.5%. For swabs, Solana® demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity from asymptomatic (100%/98.9%) and symptomatic (98.6%/98.5%) women, as well as for urines from asymptomatic (98.0%/98.4%) and symptomatic (92.9%/97.9%) women, compared to the reference method. Compared to Aptima-TV, the sensitivity/specificity was 89.7%/99.0% for swabs and 100%/98.9% for urines. The Solana® assay performed well compared to the reference assays.

  13. Vibrating vaginal balls to improve pelvic floor muscle performance in women after childbirth: a protocol for a randomised controlled feasibility trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oblasser, Claudia; McCourt, Christine; Hanzal, Engelbert; Christie, Janice

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a feasibility trial protocol the purpose of which is to prepare for a future randomised controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of vibrating vaginal pelvic floor training balls for postpartum pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation. Vibrating vaginal pelvic floor training balls are available in Austria to enhance women's pelvic floor muscles and thus prevent or treat urinary incontinence and other pelvic floor problems following childbirth. Nonetheless, there is currently little empirical knowledge to substantiate their use or assess their relative effectiveness in comparison to current standard care, which involves pelvic floor muscle exercises. Single blind, randomised controlled feasibility trial with two parallel groups. It is planned to recruit 56 postpartum women in Vienna, who will be randomised into one of two intervention groups to use either vibrating vaginal balls or a comparator pelvic floor muscle exercises for 12 weeks. As this is a feasibility study, study design features (recruitment, selection, randomisation, intervention concordance, data collection methods and tools) will be assessed and participants' views and experiences will be surveyed. Tested outcome measures, collected before and after the intervention, will be pelvic floor muscle performance as reported by participants and measured by perineometry. Descriptive and inferential statistics and content analysis will serve the preparation of the future trial. The results of this feasibility trial will inform the design and conduct of a full randomised controlled trial and provide insight into the experiences of women regarding the interventions and study participation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Risk of selected postpartum infections after cesarean section compared with vaginal birth: A five-year cohort study of 32,468 women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Rita Andersen; Møller, Jens Kjølseth; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich

    2009-01-01

    to elective CS (OR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.13-1.97). More than 75% (697/907) of postpartum infections appeared after hospital discharge. Conclusions. The risk of postpartum infection seems to be nearly five-fold increased after CS compared with vaginal birth. This may be of concern since the prevalence of CS......Objectives. To compare the risk of postpartum infections within 30 days after vaginal birth, emergency, or elective cesarean section (CS). Design. Register-based cohort study in Denmark. Participants. A total of 32,468 women giving birth in hospitals in the County of Aarhus, Denmark, during....... Within 30 days postpartum, 7.6% of women who had underwent CS and 1.6% of women having a vaginal birth acquired an infection, yielding an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 4.71, 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.08-5.43. The prevalence of postpartum urinary tract infection (UTI) was 2.8%, after CS and 1.5% after...

  15. Greater tactile sensitivity and less use of immature psychological defense mechanisms predict women's penile-vaginal intercourse orgasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Houde, Stephanie; Hess, Ursula

    2010-09-01

    Previous research has suggested that diminished tactile sensitivity might be associated with reduced sexual activity and function. Research has also demonstrated significant physiological and psychological differences between sexual behaviors, including immature psychological defense mechanisms (associated with various psychopathologies) impairing specifically women's orgasm from penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI). To examine the extent to which orgasm triggered by PVI (distinguished from other sexual activities) is associated with both greater tactile sensitivity and lesser use of immature psychological defenses. Seventy French-Canadian female university students (aged 18-30) had their finger sensitivity measured with von Frey type microfilaments, completed the Defense Style Questionnaire and a short form of the Marlowe-Crowne social desirability scale, and provided details of the 1 month (and ever) frequencies of engaging in, and having an orgasm from, PVI, masturbation, anal intercourse, partner masturbation, and cunnilingus. Logistic and linear regression prediction of orgasm triggered by PVI from tactile sensitivity, age, social desirability responding, and immature psychological defenses. Having a PVI orgasm in the past month was associated with greater tactile sensitivity (odds ratio=4.0 for each filament point) and less use of immature defense mechanisms (odds ratio=5.1 for each scale point). Lifetime PVI orgasm was associated only with less use of immature defense mechanisms (and lower social desirability responding score). Orgasms triggered by other activities were not associated with either tactile sensitivity or immature defense mechanisms. Tactile sensitivity was also associated with greater past month PVI frequency (inclusion of PVI frequency in a logistic regression model displaced tactile sensitivity), and lesser use of immature defenses was associated with greater past month PVI and PVI orgasm frequencies. Both diminished physical sensitivity and the

  16. Characterisation of the vaginal microflora of human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lactobacilli predominate normal vaginal microflora and are important in maintenance of vaginal health. The current study set out to identify and compare culture isolates of vaginal microflora of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive (HIV+) and HIV negative (HIV-) women at different phases during menstrual cycle ...

  17. Symptomatic vaginal discharge is a poor predictor of sexually transmitted infections and genital tract inflammation in high-risk women in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlisana, Koleka; Naicker, Nivashnee; Werner, Lise; Roberts, Lindi; van Loggerenberg, Francois; Baxter, Cheryl; Passmore, Jo-Ann S; Grobler, Anneke C; Sturm, A Willem; Williamson, Carolyn; Ronacher, Katharina; Walzl, Gerhard; Abdool Karim, Salim S

    2012-07-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is a public health priority, particularly in regions where the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is high. In most developing countries, STIs are managed syndromically. We assessed the adequacy of syndromic diagnosis of STIs, compared with laboratory diagnosis of STIs, and evaluated the association between STI diagnosis and the risk of HIV acquisition in a cohort of high-risk women. HIV-uninfected high-risk women (n = 242) were followed for 24 months. Symptoms of STIs were recorded, and laboratory diagnosis of common STI pathogens was conducted every 6 months. Forty-two cytokines were measured by Luminex in cervicovaginal lavage specimens at enrollment. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection was evaluated monthly. Only 12.3% of women (25 of 204) who had a laboratory-diagnosed, discharge-causing STI had clinically evident discharge. Vaginal discharge was thus a poor predictor of laboratory-diagnosed STIs (sensitivity, 12.3%; specificity, 93.8%). Cervicovaginal cytokine concentrations did not differ between women with asymptomatic STIs and those with symptomatic STIs and were elevated in women with asymptomatic STIs, compared with women with no STIs or bacterial vaginosis. Although laboratory-diagnosed STIs were associated with increased risk of HIV infection (hazard ratio, 3.3 [95% confidence interval, 1.5-7.2)], clinical symptoms were not. Syndromic STI diagnosis dependent on vaginal discharge was poorly predictive of laboratory-diagnosed STI. Laboratory-diagnosed STIs were associated with increased susceptibility to HIV acquisition, while vaginal discharge was not.

  18. Thermosensitive bioadhesive gels for the vaginal delivery of sildenafil citrate: in vitro characterization and clinical evaluation in women using clomiphene citrate for induction of ovulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Ghareb M; Fetih, Gihan; Abbas, Ahmed M

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study is to develop and characterize in situ thermosensitive gels for the vaginal administration of sildenafil as a potential treatment of endometrial thinning occurring as a result of using clomiphene citrate for ovulation induction in women with type II eugonadotrophic anovulation. While sildenafil has shown promising results in the treatment of infertility in women, the lack of vaginal pharmaceutical preparation and the side effects associated with oral sildenafil limit its clinical effectiveness. Sildenafil citrate in situ forming gels were prepared using different grades of Pluronic® (PF-68 and PF-127). Mucoadhesive polymers as sodium alginate and hydroxyethyl cellulose were added to the gels in different concentrations and the effect on gel properties was studied. The formulations were evaluated in terms of viscosity, gelation temperature (Tsol-gel), mucoadhesion properties, and in vitro drug release characteristics. Selected formulations were evaluated in women with clomiphene citrate failure due to thin endometrium (Clinicaltrial.gov identifier NCT02766725). The Tsol-gel decreased with increasing PF-127 concentration and it was modulated by addition of PF-68 to be within the acceptable range of 28-37 °C. Increasing Pluronic® concentration increased gel viscosity and mucoadhesive force but decreased drug release rate. Clinical results showed that the in situ sildenafil vaginal gel significantly increased endometrial thickness and uterine blood flow with no reported side effects. Further, these results were achieved at lower frequency and duration of drug administration. Sildenafil thermosensitive vaginal gels might result in improved potential of pregnancy in anovulatory patients with clomiphene citrate failure due to thin endometrium.

  19. Long-term follow-up of sexual function in women after tension-free vaginal tape operation for stress urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glavind, Karin; Lindquist, Anna Sofie Inger

    INTRODUCTION: This prospective study investigates sexual function in women after a tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) operation and compares short-term and long-term effects. METHODS: Sixty-three women had a TVT operation performed at Aalborg University Hospital, Department of Gynecology...... negative emotional reactions during intercourse, less coital incontinence, and less fear of being incontinent during intercourse after the TVT operation. CONCLUSION: This study shows that a woman's sex life does not deteriorate after a TVT operation, that their sexual function improves somewhat...

  20. Vaginitis: current microbiologic and clinical concepts.

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, L V; Embil, J A

    1986-01-01

    Infectious vaginitis occurs when the normal vaginal flora is disrupted; it may arise when saprophytes overwhelm the host immune response, when pathogenic organisms are introduced into the vagina or when changes in substrate allow an imbalance of microorganisms to develop. Examples of these types of vaginitis include the presence of chronic fungal infection in women with an inadequate cellular immune response to the yeast, the introduction of trichomonads into vaginal epithelium that has a suf...

  1. Early pregnancy vaginal microbiome trends and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Molly J; Zhou, Yanjiao; Wylie, Kristine M; Tarr, Phillip I; Macones, George A; Tuuli, Methodius G

    2017-09-01

    Despite decades of attempts to link infectious agents to preterm birth, an exact causative microbe or community of microbes remains elusive. Nonculture 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing suggests important racial differences and pregnancy specific changes in the vaginal microbial communities. A recent study examining the association of the vaginal microbiome and preterm birth documented important findings but was performed in a predominantly white cohort. Given the important racial differences in bacterial communities within the vagina as well as persistent racial disparities in preterm birth, it is important to examine cohorts with varied demographic compositions. To characterize vaginal microbial community characteristics in a large, predominantly African-American, longitudinal cohort of pregnant women and test whether particular vaginal microbial community characteristics are associated with the risk for subsequent preterm birth. This is a nested case-control study within a prospective cohort study of women with singleton pregnancies, not on supplemental progesterone, and without cervical cerclage in situ. Serial mid-vaginal swabs were obtained by speculum exam at their routine prenatal visits. Sequencing of the V1V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene was performed on the Roche 454 platform. Alpha diversity community characteristics including richness, Shannon diversity, and evenness as well as beta diversity metrics including Bray Curtis Dissimilarity and specific taxon abundance were compared longitudinally in women who delivered preterm to those who delivered at term. A total of 77 subjects contributed 149 vaginal swabs longitudinally across pregnancy. Participants were predominantly African-American (69%) and had a preterm birth rate of 31%. In subjects with subsequent term delivery, the vaginal microbiome demonstrated stable community richness and Shannon diversity, whereas subjects with subsequent preterm delivery had significantly decreased vaginal richness

  2. “Seek any means, and keep it your secret”: Young women's attempts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Young mothers, whether married or not, generally had much more access to modern contraceptives than childless single women, because they visited health facilities for prenatal check-ups and their children's health care, and health facility staff specifically targeted them for contraceptive advice. However, only a minority of ...

  3. At pains to consent: A narrative inquiry into women's attempts of natural childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happel-Parkins, Alison; Azim, Katharina A

    2016-08-01

    With only 1.2% of all annual U.S. births registered as out-of-hospital births, national trends show an increase in medicalised hospital births. Caesarean sections have become the most common surgical procedure in the U.S.; Caesarean section rates have increased from 20.6% in 1997 to 31.5% in 2009. Furthermore, in 2009, 67% of hospital births utilised epidural analgesia and 26% used oxytocin augmentation. In response to the increased medicalisation of childbirth within the U.S., some women resist standardised medical procedures and instead choose to labour and birth without medical intervention. The purpose of this study was to understand and contextualise the childbirth experiences of first-time mothers who planned to have a natural childbirth (without medical intervention) in the Midsouthern United States. Using narrative inquiry, we collected data from six participants through semi-structured life-story interviews. Utilising thematic analysis, four recurring themes emerged: (1) benefits and limitations of pre-labour self-education; (2) labouring women's experiences of relationality; (3) the importance of birth stories and expectations; and (4) the creation of false dilemmas and complexities of "informed choice." The women's stories suggest that U.S. medical establishments, the media, and society need to empower pregnant and birthing women by creating new narratives of labour and positive spaces of relationality. Furthermore, health care professionals need to critically examine their usage of the medical model of care while respecting women's choices and agency. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Perinatal outcomes in women with preterm rupture of membranes between 24 and 32 weeks of gestation and a history of vaginal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnat, Michael D; Mercer, Brian M; Thurnau, Gary; Goldenberg, Robert; Thom, Elizabeth A; Meis, Paul J; Moawad, Atef H; Iams, Jay D; Van Dorsten, J Peter

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare perinatal outcomes among women with conservatively treated preterm premature rupture of membranes at 24 to 32 weeks of gestation in the presence or absence of vaginal bleeding. This is a secondary analysis of 581 women with and without vaginal bleeding within 1 week of admission with preterm premature rupture of membranes at 24 to 32 weeks of gestation who were enrolled in a multicenter trial of antibiotic therapy during conservative treatment. The main outcome was latency to delivery. Other outcome variables included clinical abruptio placentae, amnionitis, perinatal death, severe intraventricular hemorrhage, and respiratory distress syndrome. Outcome data were available for 581 patients (n=50 with bleeding). Latency to delivery was not affected by the presence or absence of bleeding. In general, a history of bleeding was associated with higher frequencies of subsequently diagnosed abruptio placentae (12% vs 3.5%; P=.01), perinatal death (16% vs 4.9%; P=.006), intraventricular hemorrhage (14.3% vs 5.9%; P=.03), and respiratory distress syndrome (69.4% vs 40.4%; P<.0001), when compared with those women with nonbleeding events. Women with bleeding were less likely to be black (42% vs 60%; P=.002) and had a lower mean gestational age at preterm premature rupture of membranes (27.6 vs 28.5 weeks; P=.02) when compared with white, Hispanic, and other. After an adjustment of data was made for potentially confounding factors, women with recent bleeding were more likely to be diagnosed with abruptio placentae at delivery (odds ratio, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.03-7.8; P=.04), and their infants were more likely to have respiratory distress syndrome (odds ratio, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.5-6.6; P=.004). Vaginal bleeding before preterm premature rupture of membranes is associated with increased rates of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome and abruptio placentae, but not with reduced latency to delivery.

  5. Quantification of bacterial species of the vaginal microbiome in different groups of women, using nucleic acid amplification tests

    OpenAIRE

    Jespers Vicky; Menten Joris; Smet Hilde; Poradosú Sabrina; Abdellati Saïd; Verhelst Rita; Hardy Liselotte; Buvé Anne; Crucitti Tania

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The vaginal microbiome plays an important role in urogenital health. Quantitative real time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) assays for the most prevalent vaginal Lactobacillus species and bacterial vaginosis species G. vaginalis and A. vaginae exist, but qPCR information regarding variation over time is still very limited. We set up qPCR assays for a selection of seven species and defined the temporal variation over three menstrual cycles in a healthy Caucasian population...

  6. Caracterização fenotípica de leveduras isoladas da mucosa vaginal em mulheres adultas Phenotypic characterization of yeasts isolated from the vaginal mucosa of adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula dos Reis Corrêa

    2009-04-01

    , Candida tropicalis, e Candida guillermondii, o que pode ser explicado pelo uso inadequado de medicamentos e tratamento empírico.PURPOSE: to characterize, phenotypically, yeasts isolated from the vaginal content of 223 symptomatic (S and asymptomatic (A adult women with vulvovaginitis, and to determine the clinical indicators which may lead to the appearance of signs and symptoms related to the mucosa involvement by this pathology. METHODS: a questionnaire with open and closed questions on epidemiological clinical data was applied initially. Then, mycological diagnosis with sowing in Chrom Agar Candida was done, followed by micro-morphological and biochemical identification. Specific methods for the detection of the virulence factors, proteinase and phospholipase were employed. Statistical analysis was performed through χ2 and Pearson's χ2 tests. RESULTS: the most prevalent species found was Candida albicans (87%, S and 67%, A followed by Candida glabrata (4%, S e 17% A. The number of women reporting the use of contraceptives was higher among the symptomatic, 77%. In the two groups studied, about 87% of the women presented regular menstrual cycles and 57% were married with ages between 30 to 40 years old. Concerning the sexual practices, there has been concomitance among anal, oral and vaginal habits from the patients. Only Candida albicans produced the virulence factor phospholipase in 37.5% of them. Proteinase has been detected in Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis. This latter virulence factor was mainly associated to isolates from symptomatic patients. CONCLUSIONS: it is a fact that the vaginal mucosa can be colonized and infected by yeasts, with several Candida species present. Nevertheless, Candida albicans is the most prevalent in the vaginal mucosa of adult women. It is evident the emergence of non-albicans Candida species, some of them with intrinsic resistance to azolics, such as Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, Candida

  7. Vaginal evisceration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Y.C.; Lindenauer, S.M. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor (USA) Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)

    1981-08-01

    A patient with vaginal evisceration due to prior radiation treatment of cervical carcinoma is presented, together with a review to reported cases. The salient features, predisposing causes and management of this unusual problem are discussed.

  8. Vaginal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker NF. Vulvar and vaginal cancer. In: Hacker NF, Gambone JC, Hobel CJ, eds. Hacker and Moore's Essentials of Obstetrics and Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 40. Jhingran ...

  9. Metronidazole Vaginal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metronidazole is used to treat vaginal infections such as bacterial vaginosis (an infection caused from too much of certain bacteria in the vagina). Metronidazole is in a class of medications called nitroimidazole ...

  10. Freqüência de Gardnerella vaginalis em esfregaços vaginais de pacientes histerectomizadas Frequency of Gardnerella Vaginalis in vaginal smears of hysterectomized women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Alborghetti Nai

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a freqüência de Gardnerella vaginalis em esfregaços cérvico-vaginais de pacientes com histerectomia prévia comparados com os esfregaços de pacientes não histerectomizadas. MÉTODOS: Realizamos um estudo retrospectivo no Laboratório de Anatomia Patológica da Unoeste, sendo revisados 39.447 laudos de citologia cérvico-vaginal. Destes, 1934 pacientes eram histerectomizadas totais e 37.513 não histerectomizadas. Dentre as pacientes não histerectomizadas foram coletados os dados apenas das pacientes com Gardnerella vaginalis (n=755. RESULTADOS: Com relação à microbiota vaginal das pacientes histerectomizadas, houve um predomínio de lactobacilos (60% dos casos; Gardnerella vaginalis ocorreu em 7,08% dos casos, com predomínio entre 41 a 50 anos (38%. Entre as pacientes não histerectomizadas, 755 (2% dos casos apresentavam Gardnerella vaginalis e a maioria estava na faixa etária abaixo de 40 anos (62%. CONCLUSÃO: A chance de uma mulher histerectomizada ter Gardnerella vaginalis é 3,71 vezes maior. Nas pacientes histerectomizadas, Gardnerella vaginalis predomina naquelas entre 41 e 50 anos, enquanto nas não histerectomizadas predomina em mulheres abaixo de 40 anos. A manutenção do pH vaginal é importante para a prevenção de infecções por Gardnerella vaginalis e pacientes histerectomizadas devem tomar medidas de prevenção contra esta infecção.OBJECTIVE: This work intended to evaluate the frequency of Gardnerella vaginallis in cervicalvaginal smears of hysterectomized women when compared to smears of non-hysterectomized women. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in the laboratory of pathology of the Western São Paulo University - Unoeste and 39.447 cervical/vaginal cytology reports were reviewed. Of these, 1934 women were totally hysterectomized and 37,513 were non-hysterectomized. Only data from Gardnerella vaginalis patients were collected (n=755 among the non-hysterectomized patients. RESULTS

  11. Vaginal reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesavoy, M.A.

    1985-05-01

    Vaginal reconstruction can be an uncomplicated and straightforward procedure when attention to detail is maintained. The Abbe-McIndoe procedure of lining the neovaginal canal with split-thickness skin grafts has become standard. The use of the inflatable Heyer-Schulte vaginal stent provides comfort to the patient and ease to the surgeon in maintaining approximation of the skin graft. For large vaginal and perineal defects, myocutaneous flaps such as the gracilis island have been extremely useful for correction of radiation-damaged tissue of the perineum or for the reconstruction of large ablative defects. Minimal morbidity and scarring ensue because the donor site can be closed primarily. With all vaginal reconstruction, a compliant patient is a necessity. The patient must wear a vaginal obturator for a minimum of 3 to 6 months postoperatively and is encouraged to use intercourse as an excellent obturator. In general, vaginal reconstruction can be an extremely gratifying procedure for both the functional and emotional well-being of patients.

  12. Statistical model predicting a short duration to birth in women with preterm labor at 22-35 weeks' gestation: the importance of large vaginal Gram-positive rods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Rie; Ohkuchi, Akihide; Matsubara, Shigeki; Suzuki, Mitsuaki

    2009-01-01

    To identify risk factors for a short interval to birth in women with preterm labor, and to construct a statistical model to predict birth within seven days from the diagnosis of preterm labor at 22-35 weeks of gestation. Vaginal flora was obtained from 126 singleton pregnant women hospitalized for preterm labor at 22-35 weeks' gestation. The amount of vaginal large Gram-positive rods (GPR) was counted in a bright field under x400 magnification and classified semiquantitively as loss of GPRs, decreased GPRs (GPRs, cervical dilatation, and previous history of preterm birth on the subsequent occurrence of birth were analyzed using proportional hazards model, and the effects on birth within seven days from the diagnosis of preterm labor were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Fifty-four women (42.9%) delivered preterm. Both loss of GPRs and decreased GPRs were independent risk factors for a short interval from threatened preterm labor to birth, after adjusting the effect of cervical dilatation and past history of preterm birth (hazard ratio 3.4 [95% CI 2.0-5.5] and 2.0 [95% CI 1.1-3.6], respectively). Cervical dilatation of GPRs and decreased GPRs, and cervical dilatation of GPRs and decreased GPRs may be independently important for developing birth in women with preterm labor.

  13. Risk factors for suicide attempt in pregnancy and the post-partum period in women with serious mental illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressier, Florence; Guillard, Virginie; Cazas, Odile; Falissard, Bruno; Glangeaud-Freudenthal, Nine M-C; Sutter-Dallay, Anne-Laure

    2017-01-01

    Suicide is a major public health concern worldwide, and mental disorders have been identified as a main risk factor. Suicide is also one of the leading causes of perinatal maternal mortality, but very few studies have focused on suicide attempts (SA) in the perinatal period. This work aims to assess risk factors associated with SA in pregnancy and in the post-partum period in women with mental health disorders. Women (n = 1439) with psychiatric disorders jointly admitted with their infant to 16 psychiatric Mother-Baby Units over 10 years (2001-2010) were assessed retrospectively for the occurrence of SA in pregnancy or the postpartum period. Multinomial logistic regression was used to explore the independent impact of maternal sociodemographic characteristics, history of childhood maltreatment and abuse, current mental illness and pregnancy data on SA in pregnancy and/or postpartum. One hundred and fifty-four women (11.68%) attempted suicide: 49 in pregnancy (3.71%) and 105 (7.97%) in the post-partum period. SA in pregnancy was related to alcohol use (OR = 2.37[1.02-5.53]; p = 0.04) and smoking during pregnancy (OR = 1.87[1.01-3.49]; p = 0.04) and also to a history of miscarriage (OR = 2.29[1.18-4.41]; p = 0.01). SA in the post-partum period was associated with major depressive episode (OR = 2.72[1.40-5.26]; p = 0.003) or recurrent depression (OR = 4.12[2.25-7.51], p suicide is needed during pregnancy for women with severe mental illness and a history of miscarriage, alcohol or cigarette use, young age and depression in the perinatal period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Vaginitis: current microbiologic and clinical concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, L V; Embil, J A

    1986-02-15

    Infectious vaginitis occurs when the normal vaginal flora is disrupted; it may arise when saprophytes overwhelm the host immune response, when pathogenic organisms are introduced into the vagina or when changes in substrate allow an imbalance of microorganisms to develop. Examples of these types of vaginitis include the presence of chronic fungal infection in women with an inadequate cellular immune response to the yeast, the introduction of trichomonads into vaginal epithelium that has a sufficient supply of glycogen, and the alteration in bacterial flora, normally dominated by Lactobacillus spp., and its metabolites that is characteristic of "nonspecific vaginitis". The authors review microbiologic and clinical aspects of the fungal, protozoal and bacterial infections, including the interactions of bacteria thought to produce nonspecific vaginitis, that are now recognized as causing vaginitis. Other causes of vaginitis are also discussed.

  15. Effect of Training Preparation for Childbirth on Fear of Normal Vaginal Delivery and Choosing the Type of Delivery Among Pregnant Women in Hamadan, Iran: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumi, Seyedeh Zahra; Kazemi, Farideh; Oshvandi, Khodayar; Jalali, Mozhgan; Esmaeili-Vardanjani, Ali; Rafiei, Hossein

    2016-09-01

    Objective: To examine effect of an educational program on pregnant women's fear of normal vaginal delivery. Fear of natural childbirth during pregnancy may increase the risk of caesarean section. Educational programs may be effective in reducing women fear of natural childbirth. Materials and methods: This randomized controlled trial conducted from September 2012 to January 2013 in Hamadan, Iran. One hundred fifty eligible women were randomly assigned to group "A" (Intervention group, n = 75) or group "B" (Control group, n = 75). Women in group A, participated in an antenatal educations program for physiologic childbirth in 8 two-hour sessions. A self-designed questionnaire was used to examine women's fear of natural childbirth. Data were analyzed with SPSS.16 software. Results: Baseline characteristics of women were similar in both groups. After intervention the mean fear score in group A compared to group B was significantly reduced (51.7 ± 22.4 vs. 58.7 ± 21.7) (p = 0.007). Physiologic delivery was the first choice of type of child birth after training in pregnant women in group A (58.7%). But delivery in physiologic form had lowest rate in group A (8%). Conclusion: Results of present study showed that educational program could be serving as an important tool in reducing women fear from natural childbirth and in choosing of physiologic birth. And for delivery as a physiological, education and counseling of pregnant women, doctors and midwives are required.

  16. Twin pregnancy outcomes after increasing rate of vaginal twin delivery: retrospective cohort study in a Hong Kong regional obstetric unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hiu Tung; Liu, Ah Lai; Chan, Sum Yee; Lau, Chin Ho; Yung, Wai Kuen; Lau, Wai Lam; Leung, Wing Cheong

    2016-01-01

    To determine any change in adverse neonatal/maternal outcomes after increasing the rate of vaginal twin delivery by comparing vaginal twin delivery and caesarean delivery with our previous cohort study. In a retrospective cohort study, all twins booked at a Hong Kong regional obstetrics unit were evaluated during a 3-year period from 1 April 2009 to 31 March 2012. Out of the 269 sets of twins who eventually delivered in our unit, 68 (25.3%) of them were delivered vaginally, compared to 15.8% in our previous cohort study (p = 0.02). For those who were suitable for vaginal delivery, significantly more women attempted vaginal delivery: 93/133 (69.9%) versus 47/100 (47%) (p = 0.0005). The success rate for vaginal delivery and rate of requiring caesarean delivery for the 2nd twin were similar between these two periods. There were significantly more 2nd twins with cord blood pH delivery. Otherwise, there was no significant difference between other neonatal/maternal morbidities. With proper counseling, significantly more women who were suitable for vaginal twin delivery would opt to do so. There was no significant increase in neonatal/maternal morbidities despite the increased rate of vaginal twin delivery.

  17. Vaginal Microbiota of Adolescent Girls Prior to the Onset of Menarche Resemble Those of Reproductive-Age Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Roxana J.; Zhou, Xia; Settles, Matthew L.; Erb, Julie; Malone, Kristin; Hansmann, Melanie A.; Shew, Marcia L.; Van Der Pol, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Puberty is an important developmental stage wherein hormonal shifts mediate the physical and physiological changes that lead to menarche, but until now, the bacterial composition of vaginal microbiota during this period has been poorly characterized. We performed a prospective longitudinal study of perimenarcheal girls to gain insight into the timing and sequence of changes that occur in the vaginal and vulvar microbiota during puberty. The study enrolled 31 healthy, premenarcheal girls between the ages of 10 and 12 years and collected vaginal and vulvar swabs quarterly for up to 3 years. Bacterial composition was characterized by Roche 454 pyrosequencing and classification of regions V1 to V3 of 16S rRNA genes. Contrary to expectations, lactic acid bacteria, primarily Lactobacillus spp., were dominant in the microbiota of most girls well before the onset of menarche in the early to middle stages of puberty. Gardnerella vaginalis was detected at appreciable levels in approximately one-third of subjects, a notable finding considering that this organism is commonly associated with bacterial vaginosis in adults. Vulvar microbiota closely resembled vaginal microbiota but often exhibited additional taxa typically associated with skin microbiota. Our findings suggest that the vaginal microbiota of girls begin to resemble those of adults well before the onset of menarche. PMID:25805726

  18. An attempt to assess the accepted model of family in a group of Polish women

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    Andrzej Brodziak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The authors in their subsequent study on the causes of the fall in the birth rate, based on data obtained by means of questionnaires attempt to verify their next hypotheses, concerning low fertility, observed in most European countries. Material and methods. Data were collected by means of a set of open questions concerning the preferred model of family, and then the characteristic types of responses were identified. Also short complementary questionnaires were used by means of which we tried to assess the pessimistic attitude, low resourcefulness and lack of energy and engagement as well as the intensity of the so-called type D personality pattern. Results. The results led the authors to conclude that young people in Poland are not convinced of the benefits from any specific pattern of the family. The various possible arguments against having children or against having two children discourage easily young couples. Conclusions. The authors think that today there is no “source” of message convincing young people of the proper model of the family in Poland. Theoretically, desirable model of the family (parents + 2 children is not convincingly promoted by any sources such as parents, school, neighbours or media.

  19. Effects of a novel estrogen-free, progesterone receptor modulator contraceptive vaginal ring on inhibition of ovulation, bleeding patterns and endometrium in normal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brache, Vivian; Sitruk-Ware, Regine; Williams, Alistair; Blithe, Diana; Croxatto, Horacio; Kumar, Narender; Kumar, Sushma; Tsong, Yun-Yen; Sivin, Irving; Nath, Anita; Sussman, Heather; Cochon, Leila; Miranda, Maria Jose; Reyes, Verónica; Faundes, Anibal; Mishell, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    Progesterone receptor modulators (PRMs) delivered by contraceptive vaginal rings provide an opportunity for development of an estrogen-free contraceptive that does not require daily oral intake of steroids. The objective of this proof-of-concept study was to determine whether continuous delivery of 600-800 mcg of ulipristal acetate (UPA) from a contraceptive vaginal ring could achieve 80% to 90% inhibition of ovulation. This was a prospective, controlled, open-labeled, multicenter international trial to examine the effectiveness and safety of this prototype vaginal ring. Thirty-nine healthy women, 21-40 years old and not at risk of pregnancy, were enrolled at three clinic sites. Volunteers participated in a control cycle, a 12-week treatment period and a post-treatment cycle. Pharmacodynamic effects on follicular function and inhibition of ovulation, effects on endometrium, bleeding patterns and serum UPA levels were evaluated. Mean UPA levels during treatment were nearly constant, approximately 5.1 ng/mL throughout the study. Ovulation was documented in 32% of 111 "4-week treatment cycles." A correlation was observed between serum UPA and degree of inhibition of ovarian activity. There was no evidence of hyperplasia of endometrium, but PRM-associated endometrial changes were frequently observed (41%). In this study, the minimum effective contraceptive dose was not established. Further studies are required testing higher doses of UPA to attain ovulation suppression in a higher percentage of subjects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of flaxseed and Hypericum perforatum on hot flash, vaginal atrophy and estrogen-dependent cancers in menopausal women: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Ghazanfarpour, Masumeh; Sadeghi, Ramin; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Khadivzadeh, Talat; Khorsand, Imaneh; Afiat, Maliheh; Esmaeilizadeh, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed at evaluation of the efficacy of Hypericum perforatum and flaxseed on hot flash, vaginal atrophy and estrogen-dependent cancers in menopausal women. We searched MEDLINE, Scopus, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (RCT) to explore trials that assessed the effectiveness of H. perforatum and flaxseed on hot flash, vaginal atrophy and estrogen-dependent cancers. In this regard, the following terms were used "menopause AND H. perforatum OR flaxseed OR Linum usitatissimum. Only randomized controlled trials were included in the study. Nine RCTs were included in this systematic review. Based on the literature, flaxseed showed beneficial effect on hot flash frequency and intensity, which was not statistically significant. According to two trials, flaxseed showed estrogenic effects; however, no conclusion regarding cancer promoting or protecting effects can be made. The evidence of the efficacy of the flaxseed on alleviating vaginal atrophy was also limited due to inconsistent findings in this regard. One trial declared that Vitex agnus-castus and H. perforatum showed comparable decrease in the frequency of hot flashes. The results of our systematic review suggest beneficial effect on vasomotor symptom with both of flaxseed and H. perforatum. Consistent conclusion regarding estrogen-dependent cancers and maturation value is limited due to small number of trials related to flaxseed. Further trials are still needed to confirm the results of our systematic review.

  1. [Microscopic examination of vaginal discharge specimens for Trichomonas vaginalis and other micro-organisms in 18-45 age group women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keşli, Recep; Pektaş, Bayram; Ozdemir, Mehmet; Günenc, Oğuzhan; Coşkun, Erkan; Baykan, Mahmut; Baysal, Bülent

    2012-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoon that causes trichomoniasis which is characterised by a foamy yellowish odorous discharge and superficial defects and necrotic ulcers in vaginal mucosa. Trichomoniasis is transmitted from human to human by sexual contact and can be seen in almost every part of the world. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of Trichomonas vaginalis in 18-45 years age group women with vaginal discharge complaints who applied to the Gynaecology Outpatient Clinic of Konya Social Insurance Instution Hospital during September 1-December 15 2003. Samples were taken from posterior fornix of the vagina with the aid of a speculum and sterile cotton swabs. All the samples were examined by wet mount preparations, Gram and Giemsa staining method under the light microscope. Of seventy samples 6 (9%) were positive for Trichomonas vaginalis, 9 (13%) for Gardnerella vaginalis, one for Mobiluncus spp. and 11 (16%) for Candida spp. It is possible to say that, in spite of a definite diagnosis of trichomoniasis made by cultivation method, examining the vaginal smear by direct microscope also has an important role in the diagnosis of infection. Direct microscopic examination will help in deciding whether to begin the treatment of trichomoniasis.

  2. Oral and Vaginal Tenofovir for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Shedding in Immunocompetent Women: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Cross-over Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender Ignacio, Rachel A; Perti, Tara; Magaret, Amalia S; Rajagopal, Sharanya; Stevens, Claire E; Huang, Meei-Li; Selke, Stacy; Johnston, Christine; Marrazzo, Jeanne; Wald, Anna

    2015-12-15

    Tenofovir is a potent anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) agent that decreased risk of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) acquisition in HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis trials. Whether tenofovir has utility in established HSV-2 disease is unclear. We randomized immunocompetent women with symptomatic HSV-2 infection to oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/placebo vaginal gel, oral placebo/tenofovir (TFV) vaginal gel, or double placebo (ratio 2:2:1) in a one-way cross-over trial. Women collected genital swabs twice daily for HSV PCR during 4-week lead-in and 5-week treatment phases. The primary intent-to-treat end point was within-person comparison of genital HSV shedding and lesion rates. 64 women completed the lead-in phase and were randomized. Neither TDF nor TFV gel decreased overall shedding or lesion rate in the primary analysis; TFV gel decreased quantity of HSV DNA by -0.50 (-0.86-0.13) log10 copies/mL. In the per-protocol analysis, TDF reduced shedding (relative risk [RR] = 0.74, P = .006) and lesion rates (RR = 0.75, P = .032); quantity of virus shed decreased by 0.41 log10 copies/mL. Oral TDF modestly decreased HSV shedding and lesion rate, and quantity of virus shed when used consistently. Vaginal TFV gel decreased quantity of virus shed by 60%. In contrast to effects on HSV-2 acquisition, tenofovir is unlikely to provide clinically meaningful reductions in the frequency of HSV shedding or genital lesions. NCT01448616. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Potential Use of Antimicrobial Peptides as Vaginal Spermicides/Microbicides

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    Nongnuj Tanphaichitr

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The concurrent increases in global population and sexually transmitted infection (STI demand a search for agents with dual spermicidal and microbicidal properties for topical vaginal application. Previous attempts to develop the surfactant spermicide, nonoxynol-9 (N-9, into a vaginal microbicide were unsuccessful largely due to its inefficiency to kill microbes. Furthermore, N-9 causes damage to the vaginal epithelium, thus accelerating microbes to enter the women’s body. For this reason, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs, naturally secreted by all forms of life as part of innate immunity, deserve evaluation for their potential spermicidal effects. To date, twelve spermicidal AMPs have been described including LL-37, magainin 2 and nisin A. Human cathelicidin LL-37 is the most promising spermicidal AMP to be further developed for vaginal use for the following reasons. First, it is a human AMP naturally produced in the vagina after intercourse. Second, LL-37 exerts microbicidal effects to numerous microbes including those that cause STI. Third, its cytotoxicity is selective to sperm and not to the female reproductive tract. Furthermore, the spermicidal effects of LL-37 have been demonstrated in vivo in mice. Therefore, the availability of LL-37 as a vaginal spermicide/microbicide will empower women for self-protection against unwanted pregnancies and STI.

  4. Effect of Training Preparation for Childbirth on Fear of Normal Vaginal Delivery and Choosing the Type of Delivery Among Pregnant Women in Hamadan, Iran: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Seyedeh Zahra Masoumi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine effect of an educational program on pregnant women’s fear of normal vaginal delivery. Fear of natural childbirth during pregnancy may increase the risk of caesarean section. Educational programs may be effective in reducing women fear of natural childbirth.Materials and methods: This randomized controlled trial conducted from September 2012 to January 2013 in Hamadan, Iran. One hundred fifty eligible women were randomly assigned to group "A" (Intervention group, n = 75 or group "B" (Control group, n = 75. Women in group A, participated in an antenatal educations program for physiologic childbirth in 8 two-hour sessions. A self-designed questionnaire was used to examine women's fear of natural childbirth. Data were analyzed with SPSS.16 software.Results: Baseline characteristics of women were similar in both groups. After intervention the mean fear score in group A compared to group B was significantly reduced (51.7 ± 22.4 vs. 58.7 ± 21.7 (p = 0.007. Physiologic delivery was the first choice of type of child birth after training in pregnant women in group A (58.7%. But delivery in physiologic form had lowest rate in group A (8%.Conclusion: Results of present study showed that educational program could be serving as an important tool in reducing women fear from natural childbirth and in choosing of physiologic birth. And for delivery as a physiological, education and counseling of pregnant women, doctors and midwives are required.

  5. Vaginal progesterone pessaries for pregnant women with a previous preterm birth to prevent neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (the PROGRESS Study): A multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Caroline A; Ashwood, Pat; McPhee, Andrew J; Flenady, Vicki; Tran, Thach; Dodd, Jodie M; Robinson, Jeffrey S

    2017-09-01

    Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, as a consequence of preterm birth, is a major cause of early mortality and morbidity. The withdrawal of progesterone, either actual or functional, is thought to be an antecedent to the onset of labour. There remains limited information on clinically relevant health outcomes as to whether vaginal progesterone may be of benefit for pregnant women with a history of a previous preterm birth, who are at high risk of a recurrence. Our primary aim was to assess whether the use of vaginal progesterone pessaries in women with a history of previous spontaneous preterm birth reduced the risk and severity of respiratory distress syndrome in their infants, with secondary aims of examining the effects on other neonatal morbidities and maternal health and assessing the adverse effects of treatment. Women with a live singleton or twin pregnancy between 18 to placebo (n = 389). Participants and investigators were masked to the treatment allocation. The primary outcome was respiratory distress syndrome and severity. Secondary outcomes were other respiratory morbidities; other adverse neonatal outcomes; adverse outcomes for the woman, especially related to preterm birth; and side effects of progesterone treatment. Data were analysed for all the 787 women (100%) randomised and their 799 infants. Most women used their allocated study treatment (740 women, 94.0%), with median use similar for both study groups (51.0 days, interquartile range [IQR] 28.0-69.0, in the progesterone group versus 52.0 days, IQR 27.0-76.0, in the placebo group). The incidence of respiratory distress syndrome was similar in both study groups-10.5% (42/402) in the progesterone group and 10.6% (41/388) in the placebo group (adjusted relative risk [RR] 0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64-1.49, p = 0.912)-as was the severity of any neonatal respiratory disease (adjusted treatment effect 1.02, 95% CI 0.69-1.53, p = 0.905). No differences were seen between study groups for

  6. Comparison of Risk of Preterm Labor between Vaginal Progesterone and17-Alpha-Hydroxy-Progesterone Caproate in Women with Threatened Abortion: A Randomized Clinical Trial

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    Beigi Abootaleb

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective Threatened miscarriage is a common complication in pregnancy that leads to adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm labor. This study aimed to compare the vaginal progesterone (Cyclogest versus 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (Proluton on preventing preterm labor in pregnant women with threatened abortion at less than 34 weeks’ gestational age. Materials and methods This balanced randomized, double-blind, single-center controlled clinical trial included 190 women with threatened abortion. They were then randomly allocated into Cyclogest (n=95 and 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (Proluton, n=95 groups. Interested outcome was preterm labor less than 34 weeks. The Pearson chi-square and Student’s t test were used to compare two groups. The data were analyzed by Stata software version 13. Results The risks of preterm labor less than 34 weeks in Proluton and Cyclogest groups were 8.6 and 6.52%, respectively. There was no significant difference for risk of preterm labor less than 34 weeks [relative ratio (RR: 1.31, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.47- 3.66, P=0.59] between two groups. Conclusion Risk of preterm labor in the vaginal progesterone group and 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate group in pregnant women with threatened abortion is the same (Registration Number: IRCT2014123120504N1.

  7. Characterization of vaginal lactobacilli from HIV-negative and HIV-positive Indian women and their association with genital HIV-1 shedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mane, Arati; Angadi, Mansa; Vidhate, Pallavi; Bembalkar, Shilpa; Khan, Ishrat; Bichare, Shubhangi; Ghate, Manisha; Thakar, Madhuri

    2017-10-01

    One of the crucial determinants for successful administration of lactobacilli to the vaginal niche is the use of appropriate Lactobacillus species. In this cross-sectional study 54 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative and 76 HIV-positive antiretroviral treatment-naïve women were evaluated for culturable vaginal lactobacilli and their association with genital HIV-1 shedding. Lactobacillus species were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing while cervical and plasma HIV-1 viral load was determined by Abbott real-time PCR. Lactobacilli were isolated in 77.8 % HIV-negative and 73.7 % HIV-positive women. The mean log10 plasma and cervical HIV-1 viral loads (RNA copies ml(-1)) were 3.73±1.02 and 2.85±0.32 respectively. We observed that presence of L. crispatus, L. gasseri or L. jensenii species was associated with undetectable cervical HIV-1 (P=0.046) and reduced genital HIV-1 shedding (P=0.048) compared to other species. Our findings endorse using Lactobacillus-based strategies to aid the prevention of HIV-1 transmission among Indian women, however confirmation by future prospective studies is indeed warranted.

  8. 3-D volumetric and vascular analysis of the urethrovaginal space in young women with or without vaginal orgasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Cesare; Nappi, Rossella Elena; Mancini, Fulvia; Alvisi, Stefania; Del Forno, Simona; Battaglia, Bruno; Venturoli, Stefano

    2010-04-01

    The existence of the G-spot is controversial. To evaluate, by the use of three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasonography, the anatomic structures of the urethrovaginal space. Nineteen (Group I) eumenorrheic young women who experienced, and 20 (Group II) who did not experience a vaginal orgasm underwent two-dimensional (2-D) and 3-D ultrasonography and color Doppler analysis of the urethrovaginal space and of the clitoris during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. 2-D ultrasonographic evaluation of the urethrovaginal space, and color Doppler evaluation of the urethrovaginal main feeding artery and dorsal clitoral arteries; 3-D volume calculation of the urethrovaginal space, and 3-D power Doppler analysis of vascular indices of the urethrovaginal space and clitoral body (vascularization index, flow index, vascularization flow index); hormonal evaluation. The 3-D reconstruction of the urethrovaginal space demonstrated a gland-like aspect with small feeding vessels. The total length (19.1 + or - 2.7 mm vs. 17.5 + or - 2.1 mm; P = 0.047), measured with 2-D ultrasound, and the 3-D mean volume (0.59 + or - 0.13 mL vs. 0.26 + or - 0.07 mL; P < 0.001) of the structures contained in the urethrovaginal space were significantly higher in Group I than in Group II. The mean time since the last intercourse was 31 + or - 9 hours in Group I and 18 + or - 3 hours (P = 0.033) in Group II. The urethrovaginal space vascularization, the clitoral volume and vascularization, and the circulating hormonal values did not significantly differ among the two groups. The mean volume of the structures contained in the urethrovaginal space was correlated with time since intercourse (r = 0.685; P = 0.021) and with serum testosterone (r = 0.637; P = 0.032) and androstenedione (r = 0.744; P = 0.011). The structures we observed in the urethrovaginal space have a gland-like aspect and their volume is correlated with both serum androgen concentrations and time since intercourse.

  9. Investigating vaginal bleeding in postmenopausal women found to have an endometrial thickness of equal to or greater than 10 mm on ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Hilary L; Akrivos, Nikolaos; Simpson, Paul; Duncan, Timothy J; Nieto, Joaquin J; Burbos, Nikolaos

    2017-02-01

    This aim of this study is to determine the risk of endometrial cancer in symptomatic postmenopausal women, when endometrial thickness on transvaginal ultrasonography is equal to or greater than 10 mm, and subsequent office-based endometrial sampling histology is negative. This is a prospective cross-sectional study, performed in a gynaecological oncology centre in the United Kingdom between February 2008 and July 2012. All postmenopausal women presenting with vaginal bleeding were investigated using transvaginal ultrasonography. Women with endometrial thickness measurements equal to or greater than 10 mm and negative office-based endometrial biopsy underwent hysteroscopy and endometrial biopsies. Over a 52-month period, 4148 women were investigated for postmenopausal vaginal bleeding. 588 (14.2%) women were found to have endometrial thickness measurements of equal to or greater than 10 mm on transvaginal ultrasonography. 170 (28.9%) cases of endometrial cancer were diagnosed in this group: 149 (87.6%) of the cancer cases were diagnosed in the outpatient setting with a Pipelle® endometrial sampler, whilst 21 (12.4%) had a negative Pipelle® sample and were diagnosed with hysteroscopy. The group diagnosed with hysteroscopy had lower BMI (32.7 kg/m2 versus 39.7 kg/m2, p < 0.001) whilst the group diagnosed with Pipelle was more likely to have a history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus (p = 0.019 for both). The sensitivity of Pipelle was 87.65%. For women presenting with postmenopausal bleeding and where the endometrial thickness is equal to or greater than 10 mm and Pipelle sampling is negative, hysteroscopic evaluation with directed biopsy is strongly recommended.

  10. Presence and resistance of Streptococcus agalactiae in vaginal specimens of pregnant and adult non-pregnant women and association with other aerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numanović, Fatima; Smajlović, Jasmina; Gegić, Merima; Delibegović, Zineta; Bektaš, Sabaheta; Halilović, Emir; Nurkić, Jasmina

    2017-02-01

    Aim To determine the prevalence rate and resistance profile of Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) in vaginal swabs of pregnant and adult non-pregnant women in the Tuzla region, Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H), as well as its association with other aerobic bacteria. Methods This prospective study included 200 women, 100 pregnant and 100 adult non-pregnant. The research was conducted at the Institute of Microbiology, University Clinical Center Tuzla from October to December 2015. Standard aerobic microbiological techniques were used for isolation and identification of S. agalactiae and other aerobic bacteria. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the disk diffusion and microdilution method(VITEK 2/AES instrument). Results Among 200 vaginal swabs, 17 (8.50%) were positive for S. agalactiae, e. g., 7% (7/100) of pregnant and 10% (10/100) of adult non-pregnant women. In the pregnant group, 71.4% (5/7) of S. agalactiae isolates were susceptible to clindamycin and 85.7%(6/7) to erythromycin. In the adult non-pregnant group, only resistance to clindamycin was observed in one patient (1/10; 10%). S. agalactiae as single pathogen was isolated in 57.14% (4/7) of pregnant and 60% (6/10) of adult non-pregnant S. agalactiae positive women. In mixed microbial cultures S. agalactiae was most frequently associated with Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli. Conclusion The rate of S. agalactiae positive women in the population of pregnant and adult non-pregnant women of Tuzla Canton, B&H is comparable with other European countries. Large studies are needed to develop a common national strategy for the prevention of S. agalactiae infection in B&H, especially during pregnancy. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  11. Vaginal Fibroblastic Cells from Women with Pelvic Organ Prolapse Produce Matrices with Increased Stiffness and Collagen Content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Zapata, A.M.Kerkhof, M.H.; Ghazanfari, S.; Zandieh-Doulabi, B.; Stoop, R.; Smit, T.H.; Helder, M.N.

    2016-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is characterised by the weakening of the pelvic floor support tissues, and often by subsequent prolapse of the bladder outside the body, i.e. cystocele. The bladder is kept in place by the anterior vaginal wall which consists of a dense extracellular matrix rich in

  12. Sexually transmitted infections in women: A correlation of clinical and laboratory diagnosis in cases of vaginal discharge syndrome

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    Vidyalaxmi Chauhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study compares the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of vaginal discharge syndrome. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study was carried out at the gynaecology outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital in Gujarat, India. Material and Methods: Total of 180 females diagnosed as vaginal discharge or cervicitis based on syndromic approach and were recruited for the study. Their clinical profile was noted and they were investigated for bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, candidiasis, gonorrhoea and chlamydia infection. Results: Lower abdominal pain (35% followed by burning micturition (23.9% were the common associated complaints. Bacterial vaginosis was the most common clinical diagnosis, while trichomoniasis was least common. Upon laboratory investigation, 35.6% of cases of vaginal discharge and 12% of cases of cervicitis tested positive. Percentage of cases confirmed by laboratory investigation was 50, 27.8 and 41.7 for bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and candidiasis respectively. Conclusion: Among all the females diagnosed as vaginal discharge syndrome, a very small percentage actually turned out to be positive upon laboratory testing.

  13. Sexually transmitted infections in women: A correlation of clinical and laboratory diagnosis in cases of vaginal discharge syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Vidyalaxmi; Shah, Maitri; Thakkar, Sejal; Patel, Sangita V; Marfatia, Yogesh

    2014-11-01

    This study compares the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of vaginal discharge syndrome. This cross-sectional study was carried out at the gynaecology outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital in Gujarat, India. Total of 180 females diagnosed as vaginal discharge or cervicitis based on syndromic approach and were recruited for the study. Their clinical profile was noted and they were investigated for bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, candidiasis, gonorrhoea and chlamydia infection. Lower abdominal pain (35%) followed by burning micturition (23.9%) were the common associated complaints. Bacterial vaginosis was the most common clinical diagnosis, while trichomoniasis was least common. Upon laboratory investigation, 35.6% of cases of vaginal discharge and 12% of cases of cervicitis tested positive. Percentage of cases confirmed by laboratory investigation was 50, 27.8 and 41.7 for bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and candidiasis respectively. Among all the females diagnosed as vaginal discharge syndrome, a very small percentage actually turned out to be positive upon laboratory testing.

  14. Vulvovaginites em mulheres infectadas pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana Vaginal infections in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women

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    Paula Matos Oliveira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar a freqüência de vulvovaginites em mulheres infectadas pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV com mulheres não infectadas. MÉTODOS: estudo de corte transversal com 64 mulheres infectadas pelo HIV e 76 não infectadas. Foram calculadas as freqüências de vaginose bacteriana, candidíase e tricomoníase, que foram diagnosticadas por critérios de Amsel, cultura e exame a fresco, respectivamente. Para análise dos dados, utilizaram-se o teste do c2, teste exato de Fisher e regressão múltipla para verificar a independência das associações. RESULTADOS: a infecção vaginal foi mais prevalente em pacientes infectadas pelo HIV quando comparadas ao Grupo Controle (59,4 versus 28,9%, pPURPOSE: to compare the frequency of vulvovaginitis in women infected with human imunnodeficiency virus (HIV with the frequency in non-infected women. METHODS: a transversal study including 64 HIV infected women and 76 non-infected ones. The frequencies of bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis and trichomoniasis, diagnosed by Amsel's criteria, culture and fresh exam, respectively, were calculated. Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test and multiple regressions to verify the independence of associations were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: the vaginal infection was more prevalent in HIV infected patients, as compared to the control group (59.4 versus 28.9%, p<0,001; Odds Ratio=2.7, IC95%=1.33-5.83, p=0.007. Bacterial vaginosis occurred in 26.6% of the positive-HIV women; vaginal candidiasis, in 29.7% and trichomoniasis, in 12.5% of them. All the infections were significantly more frequent in the group of HIV infected women (p=0.04, 0.02 e 0.04, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: vulvovaginitis is more frequent in HIV infected women.

  15. Functional MRI of the pelvic floor: postpartum changes of primiparous women after spontaneous vaginal delivery; Funktionelle Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) des Beckenbodens: Postpartale Veraenderungen bei Erstgebaerenden nach vaginaler Spontangeburt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienemann, A.; Fischer, T.; Reiser, M. [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Klinikum der Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Anthuber, C. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde, Klinikum der Univ. Muenchen/Grosshadern (Germany)

    2003-08-01

    Purpose: Detection of morphological and functional changes of the pelvic floor with functional MRI in primiparous women after spontaneous vaginal delivery. Methods and Materials: The study comprises 26 primiparous women after vaginal delivery and a control group of 41 healthy asymptomatic nulliparous volunteers. MRI was performed on a 1.5 T system in supine position with vagina and rectum opacified with Sonogel. The static images consisted of sagittal and axial T{sub 2}-weighted SE sequences and functional images of true FISP sequences in midsagittal and axial planes acquired with the patient at rest, straining and during defecation. Evaluation of morphometric parameters included pelvimetry, thickness of the puborectal muscle and width of the urogenital hiatus as well as position and movement of the pelvic organs relative to the pubococcygeal reference line. Results: The configuration of the bony pelvis did not differ for both groups. The puborectal muscle was significantly thinner in the study group (0.8 cm vs 0.6 cm). The functional images showed no significant differences between both groups at rest but a significantly increased incidence in the descent of the bladder neck, vaginal fornix and anorectal junction in the study group during straining. In addition, the primiparous women had more prominent rectoceles (0.6 cm vs 1.5 cm). Conclusion: Static imaging alone fails to demonstrate relevant pelvic floor changes and a functional method is necessary to evaluate the interactions of the pelvic organs regarding organ descent. Functional MRI of the pelvic floor is an excellent method to reveal the significant changes of the pelvic floor after vaginal birth without exposing the uterus to radiation. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Darstellung von morphologischen und funktionellen Veraenderungen am Beckenboden bei Erstgebaerenden nach spontanvaginaler Entbindung mittels funktioneller MRT. Methodik: Funktionelle MRT des Beckenbodens von 26 Erstgebaerenden nach vaginaler

  16. Contraceptives for lactating women: a comparative trial of a progesterone-releasing vaginal ring and the copper T 380A IUD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivin, I; Díaz, S; Croxatto, H B; Miranda, P; Shaaban, M; Sayed, E H; Xiao, B; Wu, S C; Du, M; Alvarez, F; Brache, V; Basnayake, S; McCarthy, T; Lacarra, M; Mishell, D R; Koetsawang, S; Stern, J; Jackanicz, T

    1997-04-01

    From approximately one week before normal ovulation resumes, lactating women require protection against pregnancy by a contraceptive that is safe for both infant and mother in a multicenter one-year study, the natural hormone, progesterone, delivered vaginally by a sequence of four contraceptive rings designed for continuous use, was evaluated as a contraceptive for nursing mothers in comparison with the Copper T 380A IUD. Individual rings release in effective average dose of 10 mg day for a 3 month period. Evaluation included measures of lactational performance as well as of contraceptive efficacy and safety to mother and child. Nine participating clinics enrolled 802 ring users and 734 IUD acceptors between postpartum days 29 and 63. Life table analyses were performed with parallel decrements for ring and IUD subjects. Continuation in the study and analysis required that subjects not stop breastfeeding. The ring, with a one-year pregnancy rate of 1.5 per 100, did not differ significantly from the IUD with respect to contraceptive effectiveness (p > 0.05). More than half of the ring subjects were continuing at 6 months post admission and a quarter (23.5 per hundred) were still using the ring and breastfeeding one year after admission. Women with the IUD, however, had higher continuation rates (p single decrement for each method was that for weaning. Ring users had more complaints of vaginal problems but had fewer vaginal disorders on examination. At 12 months postpartum, 46 per 100 continuing ring users remained in amenorrhea. Lactation performance and the health and weight gain of the infants were similar among users of either regimen.

  17. Vaginal practices among women at high risk of HIV infection in Uganda and Tanzania: recorded behaviour from a daily pictorial diary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanna C Francis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intravaginal practices (IVP are highly prevalent in sub-Saharan African and have been implicated as risk factors for HIV acquisition. However, types of IVP vary between populations, and detailed information on IVP among women at risk for HIV in different populations is needed. We investigated IVP among women who practice transactional sex in two populations: semi-urban, facility workers in Tanzania who engage in opportunistic sex work; and urban, self-identified sex workers and bar workers in Uganda. The aim of the study was to describe and compare IVP using a daily pictorial diary. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two hundred women were recruited from a HIV prevention intervention feasibility study in Kampala, Uganda and in North-West Tanzania. Women were given diaries to record IVP daily for six weeks. Baseline data showed that Ugandan participants had more lifetime partners and transactional sex than Tanzanian participants. Results from the diary showed that 96% of Tanzanian participants and 100% of Ugandan participants reported intravaginal cleansing during the six week study period. The most common types of cleansing were with water only or water and soap. In both countries, intravaginal insertion (e.g. with herbs was less common than cleansing, but insertion was practiced by more participants in Uganda (46% than in Tanzania (10%. In Uganda, participants also reported more frequent sex, and more insertion related to sex. In both populations, cleansing was more often reported on days with reported sex and during menstruation, and in Uganda, when participants experienced vaginal discomfort. Participants were more likely to cleanse after sex if they reported no condom use. CONCLUSIONS: While intravaginal cleansing was commonly practiced in both cohorts, there was higher frequency of cleansing and insertion in Uganda. Differences in IVP were likely to reflect differences in sexual behaviour between populations, and may warrant

  18. Sexual Assault Victimization and Mental Health Treatment, Suicide Attempts, and Career Outcomes Among Women in the US Army.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosellini, Anthony J; Street, Amy E; Ursano, Robert J; Chiu, Wai Tat; Heeringa, Steven G; Monahan, John; Naifeh, James A; Petukhova, Maria V; Reis, Ben Y; Sampson, Nancy A; Bliese, Paul D; Stein, Murray B; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Kessler, Ronald C

    2017-05-01

    To examine associations of administratively recorded sexual assault victimization during military service with subsequent mental health and negative career outcomes among US Army women controlling for nonrandom victimization exposure. We used data from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers to apply propensity score methods to match all 4238 female Regular Army soldiers with administratively recorded sexual assault victimization during 2004 to 2009 to 5 controls per case with similar composite victimization risk. We examined associations of this victimization measure with administratively recorded mental health treatment, suicide attempt, and Army career outcomes over the subsequent 12 months by using survival analysis for dichotomous outcomes and conditional generalized linear models for continuous outcomes. Women with administratively recorded sexual assault had significantly elevated odds ratios (ORs) of subsequent mental health treatment (any, OR = 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.4, 2.6; specialty, OR = 3.1; 95% CI = 2.9, 3.3; inpatient, OR = 2.8; 95% CI = 2.5, 3.1), posttraumatic stress disorder treatment (any, OR = 6.3; 95% CI = 5.7, 6.9; specialty, OR = 7.7; 95% CI = 6.8, 8.6; inpatient, OR = 6.8; 95% CI = 5.4, 8.6), suicide attempt (OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 2.5, 3.6), demotion (OR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.9, 2.3), and attrition (OR = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.1, 1.2). Sexual assault victimization is associated with considerable suffering and likely decreased force readiness.

  19. HIV-1 specific IgA detected in vaginal secretions of HIV uninfected women participating in a microbicide trial in Southern Africa are primarily directed toward gp120 and gp140 specificities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly E Seaton

    Full Text Available Many participants in microbicide trials remain uninfected despite ongoing exposure to HIV-1. Determining the emergence and nature of mucosal HIV-specific immune responses in such women is important, since these responses may contribute to protection and could provide insight for the rational design of HIV-1 vaccines.We first conducted a pilot study to compare three sampling devices (Dacron swabs, flocked nylon swabs and Merocel sponges for detection of HIV-1-specific IgG and IgA antibodies in vaginal secretions. IgG antibodies from HIV-1-positive women reacted broadly across the full panel of eight HIV-1 envelope (Env antigens tested, whereas IgA antibodies only reacted to the gp41 subunit. No Env-reactive antibodies were detected in the HIV-negative women. The three sampling devices yielded equal HIV-1-specific antibody titers, as well as total IgG and IgA concentrations. We then tested vaginal Dacron swabs archived from 57 HIV seronegative women who participated in a microbicide efficacy trial in Southern Africa (HPTN 035. We detected vaginal IgA antibodies directed at HIV-1 Env gp120/gp140 in six of these women, and at gp41 in another three women, but did not detect Env-specific IgG antibodies in any women.Vaginal secretions of HIV-1 infected women contained IgG reactivity to a broad range of Env antigens and IgA reactivity to gp41. In contrast, Env-binding antibodies in the vaginal secretions of HIV-1 uninfected women participating in the microbicide trial were restricted to the IgA subtype and were mostly directed at HIV-1 gp120/gp140.

  20. Value of bacterial culture of vaginal swabs in diagnosis of vaginal infections

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    Nenadić Dane

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Vaginal and cervical swab culture is still very common procedure in our country’s everyday practice whereas simple and rapid diagnostic methods have been very rarely used. The aim of this study was to show that the employment of simple and rapid diagnostic tools [vaginal fluid wet mount microscopy (VFWMM, vaginal pH and potassium hydroxide (KOH test] offers better assessment of vaginal environment than standard microbiologic culture commonly used in Serbia. Methods. This prospective study included 505 asymptomatic pregnant women undergoing VFWMM, test with 10% KOH, determination of vaginal pH and standard culture of cervicovaginal swabs. Combining findings from the procedures was used to make diagnoses of bacterial vaginosis (BV and vaginitis. In addition, the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN was determined in each sample and analyzed along with other findings. Infections with Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis were confirmed or excluded by microscopic examination. Results. In 36 (6% patients cervicovaginal swab cultures retrieved several aerobes and facultative anaerobes, whereas in 52 (11% women Candida albicans was isolated. Based on VFWMM findings and clinical criteria 96 (19% women had BV, 19 (4% vaginitis, and 72 (14% candidiasis. Of 115 women with BV and vaginitis, pH 4.5 was found in 5, and of 390 with normal findings 83 (21% had vaginal pH 4.5. Elevated numbers of PMN were found in 154 (30% women - in 83 (54% of them VFWMM was normal. Specificity and sensitivity of KOH test and vaginal pH determination in defining pathological vaginal flora were 95% and 81%, and 79% and 91%, respectively. Conclusion. Cervicovaginal swab culture is expensive but almost non-informative test in clinical practice. The use of simpler and rapid methods as vaginal fluid wet mount microscopy, KOH test and vaginal pH offers better results in diagnosis, and probably in the treatment and prevention of sequels of vaginal

  1. Contraceptive vaginal rings: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brache, Vivian; Faundes, Anibal

    2010-11-01

    Development efforts on contraceptive vaginal rings were initiated over 40 years ago based on two principles: the capacity of the vaginal epithelium to absorb steroids and the capacity of elastomers to release these hormones at a nearly constant rate. Numerous models of contraceptive vaginal rings (CVRs) have been studied, but only two have reached the market: NuvaRing, a combined ring that releases etonogestrel (ENG) and ethinylestradiol (EE), and Progering, a progesterone-releasing ring for use in lactating women. The main advantages of CVRs are their effectiveness (similar to or slightly better than the pill), ease of use without the need of remembering a daily routine, user's ability to control initiation and discontinuation, nearly constant release rate allowing for lower doses, greater bioavailability and good cycle control with the combined ring. The main disadvantages are related to the mode of delivery; CVRs may cause vaginal discharge and complaints, ring expulsion is not uncommon, the ring may be felt during coitus and vaginal insertion may be unpleasant for some women. The studies reviewed in this article provide evidence that CVRs are safe, effective and highly acceptable to women. There is no doubt that CVRs offer a new, effective contraceptive option to women, expanding their available choices of hormonal contraception. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Multipurpose treatment of vaginal infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolov, A; Masseva, A; Shopova, E; Georgiev, S

    2012-01-01

    Untreated bacterial vaginosis is related with many complications for non-pregnant women in reproductive age, most common from them are vaginal discharge and postoperative infections. The aim of our investigation was to compare the effectiveness of two therapeutic regimes which consist in Macmiror/Macmiror Complex alone and in combination with Feminella Vagi C for treatment of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and/or mycotic infection. 117 non-pregnant women with symptoms of vaginal infection were prospectively enrolled into two groups according their treatment. First group consist 66 women treated with Macmiror tablets and vaginal capsules followed with local application of Feminella Vagi C, the second group consist 54 women treated with Macmiror tablets and vaginal capsules only. The impact of treatment on clinical symptoms was observed at the end of medication and 20 days after it. Microbiological testing was repeated 20 days after treatment. Over than 80% (78.6 divided by 86.7%) of the cases with vaginal infection (BV and mycotic one) were successfully treated with Macmiror/Macmiror Complex. Supplement treatment with Feminella Vagi C lead to higher percentage of clinically recovery (86.7% vs 84.6%), better microbiological cleaning (86.7% vs 82.1%) and longer effect of treatment. Used medication showed higher efficacy against BV than to fungal infection. According obtained results we may conclude that bacterial vaginosis was better treated with multipurpose treatment (Nifuratel, Nistatin and vit. C) than with Macmiror alone.

  3. Intra-rater reliability and diagnostic accuracy of a new vaginal dynamometer to measure pelvic floor muscle strength in women with urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Cullerés, Georgia; Peña-Pitarch, Esteban; Jané-Feixas, Celia; Arnau, Anna; Montesinos, Jesus; Abenoza-Guardiola, Montserrat

    2017-02-01

    The first choice treatment in urinary incontinence (UI) is rehabilitation of the pelvic floor in order to improve muscle strength. However, no entirely reliable instruments for quantifying pelvic floor muscle (PFM) strength are currently available. Our aim was to test the intra-rater reliability and diagnostic accuracy of a new vaginal dynamometer for measuring PFM strength. Test-retest reliability study. One hundred and four women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) were recruited. Patients were excluded if they had a history consistent with urge urinary incontinence or pelvic organ prolapse, pregnancy, previous urogynecological surgery, severe vaginal atrophy, or neurological conditions. The examination comprised digital palpation quantified by the modified Oxford scale and by two consecutive dynamometry measurements obtained using a new prototype dynamometer. This instrument comprises a speculum in which an inductive displacement sensor (LVDTSM210.10.2.KTmodel, Schreiber) is attached to a spring of known stiffness constant (k). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to assess intra-rater reliability. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed using Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves analysis. Of the 104 subjects included, 59.6% presented scores between 0-2 on the Oxford scale. Intra-rater reliability was 0.98 (95%CI: 0.97-0.99). In the Bland & Altman plot, the distribution of disagreements was similar in the lowest and the highest strength values. The diagnostic accuracy of the dynamometer with regard to digital palpation showed an area under the curve of 0.85 (95%CI: 0.77-0.93). Our results suggest that this new vaginal dynamometer is a reliable and valid instrument for quantifying PFM strength. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:333-337, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Predictors of the vaginal microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, E R; Piper, J M; Shain, R N; Perdue, S T; Peairs, W

    2001-04-01

    Our purpose was to define influences on the patterns of the vaginal microflora. We enrolled 617 African American and Mexican American women in a 1-year longitudinal study of sexual behaviors and the vaginal microflora on the basis of the presence of gonorrhea, chlamydial infection, trichomoniasis, or syphilis at the initial visit. The patients were assigned randomly to a behavioral intervention or standard counseling regarding sexually transmitted disease. We reevaluated 508 (82%) and 549 (89%) women at 6 and 12 months, respectively. A comprehensive survey of lower genital tract organisms was conducted at baseline and at 6 and 12 months. Behavioral and microbiologic associations were screened by bivariate analysis. All variables associated with an organism at P 3 times a week, and cunnilingus, fellatio, and anal intercourse at the last sexual encounter. M hominis (but not Ureaplasma urealyticum ), Gardnerella vaginalis, and Lactobacillus species were associated with bacterial vaginosis. Lactobacillus species appeared to protect against bacterial vaginosis and infection with G vaginalis. Sexually transmitted diseases (caused by M hominis, N gonorrhoeae, C trachomatis, and T vaginalis ) were associated with each other. In contrast, hormonal status, vaginal blood, and foreign bodies had little effect. The presence of other microorganisms and race have a more consistent association with the presence or absence of a cervical-vaginal organism than sexual behavior, hormonal status, vaginal devices, or the presence of abnormal vaginal bleeding.

  5. Development and validation of the multidimensional vaginal penetration disorder questionnaire (MVPDQ for assessment of lifelong vaginismus in a sample of Iranian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Molaeinezhad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vaginismus is considered as one of the most common female psychosexual dysfunctions. Although the importance of using a multidisciplinary approach for assessment of vaginal penetration disorder is emphasized, the paucity of instruments for this purpose is clear. We designed a study to develop and investigate the psychometric properties of a multidimensional vaginal penetration disorder questionnaire (MVPDQ, thereby assisting specialists for clinical assessment of women with lifelong vaginismus (LLV. Materials and Methods: MVPDQ was developed using the findings from a thematic qualitative research conducted with 20 unconsummated couples from a former study, which was followed by an extensive literature review. Then, during a cross-sectional design, a consecutive sample of 214 women, who were diagnosed as LLV based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR criteria completed MVPDQ and additional questions regarding their demographic and sexual history. Validation measures and reliability were tested by exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach′s alpha coefficient via Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 16. Results: After conducting exploratory factor analysis, MVPDQ emerged with 72 items and 9 dimensions: Catastrophic cognitions and tightening, helplessness, marital adjustment, hypervigilance, avoidance, penetration motivation, sexual information, genital incompatibility, and optimism. Subscales of MVPDQ showed a significant reliability that varied between 0.70 and 0.87 and results of test-retest were satisfactory. Conclusion: The present study shows that MVPDQ is a valid and reliable self-report questionnaire for clinical assessment of women complaining of LLV. This instrument may assist specialists to make a clinical judgment and plan appropriately for clinical management.

  6. Development and validation of the multidimensional vaginal penetration disorder questionnaire (MVPDQ) for assessment of lifelong vaginismus in a sample of Iranian women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaeinezhad, Mitra; Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad; Yousefy, Alireza; Salehi, Mehrdad; Khoei, Effat Merghati

    2014-01-01

    Background: Vaginismus is considered as one of the most common female psychosexual dysfunctions. Although the importance of using a multidisciplinary approach for assessment of vaginal penetration disorder is emphasized, the paucity of instruments for this purpose is clear. We designed a study to develop and investigate the psychometric properties of a multidimensional vaginal penetration disorder questionnaire (MVPDQ), thereby assisting specialists for clinical assessment of women with lifelong vaginismus (LLV). Materials and Methods: MVPDQ was developed using the findings from a thematic qualitative research conducted with 20 unconsummated couples from a former study, which was followed by an extensive literature review. Then, during a cross-sectional design, a consecutive sample of 214 women, who were diagnosed as LLV based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV-TR criteria completed MVPDQ and additional questions regarding their demographic and sexual history. Validation measures and reliability were tested by exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha coefficient via Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16. Results: After conducting exploratory factor analysis, MVPDQ emerged with 72 items and 9 dimensions: Catastrophic cognitions and tightening, helplessness, marital adjustment, hypervigilance, avoidance, penetration motivation, sexual information, genital incompatibility, and optimism. Subscales of MVPDQ showed a significant reliability that varied between 0.70 and 0.87 and results of test–retest were satisfactory. Conclusion: The present study shows that MVPDQ is a valid and reliable self-report questionnaire for clinical assessment of women complaining of LLV. This instrument may assist specialists to make a clinical judgment and plan appropriately for clinical management. PMID:25097607

  7. Development and validation of the multidimensional vaginal penetration disorder questionnaire (MVPDQ) for assessment of lifelong vaginismus in a sample of Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaeinezhad, Mitra; Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad; Yousefy, Alireza; Salehi, Mehrdad; Khoei, Effat Merghati

    2014-04-01

    Vaginismus is considered as one of the most common female psychosexual dysfunctions. Although the importance of using a multidisciplinary approach for assessment of vaginal penetration disorder is emphasized, the paucity of instruments for this purpose is clear. We designed a study to develop and investigate the psychometric properties of a multidimensional vaginal penetration disorder questionnaire (MVPDQ), thereby assisting specialists for clinical assessment of women with lifelong vaginismus (LLV). MVPDQ was developed using the findings from a thematic qualitative research conducted with 20 unconsummated couples from a former study, which was followed by an extensive literature review. Then, during a cross-sectional design, a consecutive sample of 214 women, who were diagnosed as LLV based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV-TR criteria completed MVPDQ and additional questions regarding their demographic and sexual history. Validation measures and reliability were tested by exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha coefficient via Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16. After conducting exploratory factor analysis, MVPDQ emerged with 72 items and 9 dimensions: Catastrophic cognitions and tightening, helplessness, marital adjustment, hypervigilance, avoidance, penetration motivation, sexual information, genital incompatibility, and optimism. Subscales of MVPDQ showed a significant reliability that varied between 0.70 and 0.87 and results of test-retest were satisfactory. The present study shows that MVPDQ is a valid and reliable self-report questionnaire for clinical assessment of women complaining of LLV. This instrument may assist specialists to make a clinical judgment and plan appropriately for clinical management.

  8. Vaginal Pessary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... editorial staff Categories: Drugs, Procedures & Devices, Procedures & Devices, Women, Your Health ResourcesTags: female, gynecologic Drugs, Procedures & Devices, Procedures & Devices, Women, Your Health ...

  9. Sacrospinous hysteropexy versus vaginal hysterectomy with suspension of the uterosacral ligaments in women with uterine prolapse stage 2 or higher: multicentre randomised non-inferiority trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Detollenaere, R.J.; Boon, J. den; Stekelenburg, J.; Hout, J. in't; Vierhout, M.E.; Kluivers, K.B.; Eijndhoven, H.W. van

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether uterus preserving vaginal sacrospinous hysteropexy is non-inferior to vaginal hysterectomy with suspension of the uterosacral ligaments in the surgical treatment of uterine prolapse. DESIGN: Multicentre randomised controlled non-blinded non-inferiority trial.

  10. More frequent vaginal orgasm is associated with experiencing greater excitement from deep vaginal stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Klapilova, Katerina; Krejčová, Lucie

    2013-07-01

    Research indicated that: (i) vaginal orgasm (induced by penile-vaginal intercourse [PVI] without concurrent clitoral masturbation) consistency (vaginal orgasm consistency [VOC]; percentage of PVI occasions resulting in vaginal orgasm) is associated with mental attention to vaginal sensations during PVI, preference for a longer penis, and indices of psychological and physiological functioning, and (ii) clitoral, distal vaginal, and deep vaginal/cervical stimulation project via different peripheral nerves to different brain regions. The aim of this study is to examine the association of VOC with: (i) sexual arousability perceived from deep vaginal stimulation (compared with middle and shallow vaginal stimulation and clitoral stimulation), and (ii) whether vaginal stimulation was present during the woman's first masturbation. A sample of 75 Czech women (aged 18-36), provided details of recent VOC, site of genital stimulation during first masturbation, and their recent sexual arousability from the four genital sites. The association of VOC with: (i) sexual arousability perceived from the four genital sites and (ii) involvement of vaginal stimulation in first-ever masturbation. VOC was associated with greater sexual arousability from deep vaginal stimulation but not with sexual arousability from other genital sites. VOC was also associated with women's first masturbation incorporating (or being exclusively) vaginal stimulation. The findings suggest (i) stimulating the vagina during early life masturbation might indicate individual readiness for developing greater vaginal responsiveness, leading to adult greater VOC, and (ii) current sensitivity of deep vaginal and cervical regions is associated with VOC, which might be due to some combination of different neurophysiological projections of the deep regions and their greater responsiveness to penile stimulation. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  11. VULVO-VAGINAL CANDIDIASIS ASSOCIATED WITH ACITRETIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STURKENBOOM, MCJM; MIDDELBEEK, A; VANDENBERG, LTWD; VANDENBERG, PB; STRICKER, BHC; WESSELING, H

    The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of vulvo-vaginal candidiasis among the users of acitretin. The incidence rate ratio of vulvo-vaginal candidiasis was estimated in a cohort of acitretin users by using prescription sequence analysis. Study subjects were 196 women between 15 and 45 years

  12. Vaginal sponge and spermicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... counter; Contraceptives - over the counter; Family planning - vaginal sponge; Contraception - vaginal sponge ... Spermicides and vaginal sponges do not work as well at preventing pregnancy as some other forms of birth control. However, using a spermicide ...

  13. Vaginitis test - wet mount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wet prep - vaginitis; Vaginosis - wet mount; Trichomoniasis - wet mount; Vaginal candida - wet mount ... a rash, painful intercourse, or odor after intercourse. Trichomoniasis , a sexually transmitted disease. Vaginal yeast infection .

  14. Minority Stress, Smoking Patterns, and Cessation Attempts: Findings From a Community-Sample of Transgender Women in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamarel, Kristi E; Mereish, Ethan H; Manning, David; Iwamoto, Mariko; Operario, Don; Nemoto, Tooru

    2016-03-01

    Research has demonstrated associations between reports of minority stressors and smoking behaviors among lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations; however, little is known about how minority stressors are related to smoking behaviors and cessation attempts among transgender women. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to examine the associations between transgender-based discrimination and smoking patterns among a sample of transgender women; and (2) to identify barriers to smoking cessation in a sample of transgender women with a history of smoking. A community sample of 241 transgender women completed a one-time survey. Binary and multinomial logistic regression models examined associations between minority stressors and (1) smoking behaviors and (2) cessation attempts. Both models adjusted for income, education, race/ethnicity, recent sex work, HIV status, depression, alcohol use, and current hormone use. Overall, 83% of participants indicated that they had smoked a cigarette in the last month. Of these women, 62.3% reported daily smoking and 51.7% reported an unsuccessful quit attempt. Discrimination was positively associated with currently smoking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01, 1.08). Discrimination was positively associated with unsuccessful cessation (AOR = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.18) and never attempting (AOR = 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.11) compared to successful cessation. Discrimination was also positively associated with never attempting compared to unsuccessful cessation (AOR = 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.03). Smoking cessation may be driven by unique transgender-related minority stressors, such as discrimination. Future research is warranted to address unique stigmatizing contexts when understanding and providing tailored intervention addressing smoking among transgender women. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government

  15. Vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy and associations with physical, psychological and environmental factors among Chinese women: from the C-ABC cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lu; Tao, Fangbiao; Hao, Jiahu; Su, Puyu; Xu, Rong; Liu, Fang

    2012-01-01

    To examine sociodemographic, physical, psychological and environmental factors that may be associated with vaginal bleeding (VB) in the first trimester. A questionnaire survey was conducted on 14,752 women by trained doctors, when pregnant women came for the first antenatal examination, including sociodemographic characteristics, prior adverse pregnancy outcomes, diseases history, life event stress, adverse environmental exposure and detailed information on VB. VB occurred among 3,466 pregnant women, the prevalence of VB was 23.4% in the first trimester, 35.9% of whom did not see a doctor, 59.7% of whom went to clinic and only 4.4% of whom were hospitalized for VB. Multinomial logistic regression demonstrated that the following risk factors may be associated with VB with seeing a doctor: age >25 years, education greater than primary school, urban residence, prior spontaneous abortion, prior surgical abortion and previous stillbirth, having gynecological inflammation, chest X-ray examination and life events stress score >2 during the periconception period. Age >25 years, urban residence, prior surgical abortion, having gynecological inflammation and a life event stress score >2 during the periconception period may be related to VB without seeing a doctor. This epidemiologic study provided more information on predictors of VB: physical, psychological and adverse environmental exposure were all associated with VB in the first trimester. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. An audit of instrumental vaginal delivery in Aminu Kano Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Operative vaginal delivery is used to shorten the second stage of labour. Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the incidence of instrumental vaginal deliveries in a large teaching hospital. Study design and setting: Descriptive study involving 354 women, who either had forceps or vacuum operative vaginal ...

  17. Vaginal vault prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzoma, Azubuike; Farag, K A

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. Vaginal vault prolapse is a common complication following vaginal hysterectomy with negative impact on women's quality of life due to associated urinary, anorectal and sexual dysfunction. A clear understanding of the supporting mechanism for the uterus and vagina is important in making the right choice of corrective procedure. Management should be individualised, taking into consideration the surgeon's experience, patients age, comorbidities, previous surgery and sex life. Result. Preexisting pelvic floor defect prior to hysterectomy is the single most important risk factor for vault prolapse. Various surgical techniques have been advanced at hysterectomy to prevent vault prolapse. Studies have shown the McCall's culdoplasty under direct visualisation to be superior. Vault prolapse repair rely on either the use of patient's tissue or synthetic materials and can be carried out abdominally or vaginally. Sacrospinous fixation and abdominal sacrocolpopexy are the commonly performed procedures, with literature in favour of abdominal sacrocolpopexy over sacrospinous fixation due to its reported higher success rate of about 90%. Other less commonly performed procedures include uterosacral ligament suspension and illiococcygeal fixation, both of which are equally effective, with the former having a high risk of ureteric injury. Colpoclesis will play a greater role in the future as the aging population increases. Mesh procedures are gaining in popularity, and preliminary data from vaginal mesh procedures is encouraging. Laparoscopic techniques require a high level of skill and experience. There are many controversies on the mechanism of prolapse and management techniques, which we have tried to address in this article. Conclusion. As the aging population increases, the incidence of prolapse will also rise, older techniques using native tissue will continue, while new techniques using the mesh needs to be studied further. The later may well be the way forward

  18. Vaginal microbicides: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany Abdel-Aleem

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that more than 340 million new cases of curable sexually transmitted infections occur every year throughout the world in men and women age (15–49years. Women bear an increasing burden of the epidemic as both caregivers for the ill and because of their heightened risk of infection due to biological, economic and social vulnerabilities. There is an urgent need for new prevention strategies that women can use themselves and initiate. A vaginal microbicide defined as substances intended to reduce or prevent transmission of HIV and/or other sexually transmitted infections (STIs when applied topically to genital mucosal surfaces, provides a woman-controlled method applied before sex that could kill, neutralize, or block HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases.

  19. Receipt of vaginal brachytherapy is associated with improved survival in women with stage I endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterus: A National Cancer Data Base study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydzewski, Nicholas R; Strohl, Anna E; Donnelly, Eric D; Kanis, Margaux J; Lurain, John R; Nieves-Neira, Wilberto; Strauss, Jonathan B

    2016-12-01

    Randomized controlled trials have consistently shown that the use of postoperative radiotherapy (RT) for stage I endometrial cancer leads to a reduction in the incidence of pelvic recurrences without a corresponding reduction in overall mortality. It was hypothesized that a reduction in mortality associated with the receipt of RT could be identified in a large data set with greater statistical power. Women with surgically staged IA or IB endometrial adenocarcinoma who were treated with total hysterectomy between 2003 and 2011 were identified in the National Cancer Data Base. Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression were performed to analyze factors associated with the treatment type. A survival analysis was performed with log-rank testing, Cox proportional hazards regression, and Kaplan-Meier estimates. A total of 44,309 eligible women were identified (33,380 at stage IA and 10,929 at stage IB): 88.4% of the women with stage IA tumors and 51.6% of the women with stage IB tumors received no RT. Older age, comorbid disease, a higher histologic grade, and a larger tumor size were independently associated with an increase in mortality. The receipt of vaginal brachytherapy (VB) was independently associated with a reduction in mortality for both stage IA disease (hazard ratio [HR], 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67-0.97) and stage IB disease (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.51-0.74). Analyses of this large database support the utility of postoperative VB for many women with stage I endometrial cancer. Unfortunately, RT appears to be underused in this population. Greater adherence to consensus guidelines may lead to improved outcomes. Cancer 2016;122:3724-31. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  20. Spectrum of vaginal discharge in a tertiary care setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaranjini, R; Jaisankar, TJ; Thappa, Devinder Mohan; Kumari, Rashmi; Chandrasekhar, Laxmisha; Malathi, M; Parija, SC; Habeebullah, S

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Vaginal discharge is one of the common reasons for gynecological consultation. Many of the causes of vaginitis have a disturbed vaginal microbial ecosystem associated with them. Effective treatment of vaginal discharge requires that the etiologic diagnosis be established and identifying the same offers a precious input to syndromic management and provides an additional strategy for human immunodeficiency virus prevention. The present study was thus carried out to determine the various causes of vaginal discharge in a tertiary care setting. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 women presenting with vaginal discharge of age between 20 and 50 years, irrespective of marital status were included in this study and women who had used antibiotics or vaginal medication in the previous 14 days and pregnant women were excluded. Results: Of the 400 women with vaginal discharge studied, a diagnosis was established in 303 women. Infectious causes of vaginal discharge were observed in 207 (51.75%) women. Among them, bacterial vaginosis was the most common cause seen in 105 (26.25%) women. The other infections observed were candidiasis alone (61, 15.25%), trichomoniasis alone (12, 3%), mixed infections (22, 5.5%) and mucopurulent cervicitis (7 of the 130 cases looked for, 8.46%). Among the non-infectious causes, 72 (18%) women had physiological vaginal discharge and 13 (3.3%) women had cervical in situ cancers/carcinoma cervix. Conclusion: The pattern of infectious causes of vaginal discharge observed in our study was comparable with the other studies in India. Our study emphasizes the need for including Papanicolaou smear in the algorithm for evaluation of vaginal discharge, as it helps establish the etiology of vaginal discharge reliably and provides a valuable opportunity to screen for cervical malignancies. PMID:24470998

  1. Physical domestic violence exposure is highly associated with suicidal attempts in both women and men. Results from the national public health survey in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufort, Mariana; Stenbacka, Marlene; Gumpert, Clara Hellner

    2015-06-01

    Studies on a national level concerning domestic violence (DV) among both men and women are few. DV and its relation to other social and health outcomes within the framework of the Swedish Public Health Survey have remained unexplored. To compare women and men regarding their social situation and health status in relation to self-reported exposure to physical DV as measured in the Swedish National Public Health Survey. This study used cross-sectional data from the Swedish Public Health Survey, years 2004-09 with a total sample of 50 350 respondents, of which 205 women and 93 men reported DV exposure. Logistic regression analyses stratified by sex with physical DV exposure as the outcome measure were conducted, and the multivariate models were fitted using the likelihood ratio test. Being foreign-born [women odds ratio (OR) = 1.52, men OR = 1.92] and lack of social support (women OR = 2.81, men OR = 1.92) were associated with DV exposure among both sexes. Higher psychological distress (women OR = 2.81, men OR = 1.92) and hazardous drinking (women OR = 1.61, men OR = 2.33) were also associated with DV exposure. Among women, financial problems were associated with DV exposure (OR = 1.83), whereas among men, sum of medicines used and higher odds of DV were associated (OR = 1.17). Further, suicidal attempts were associated with DV exposure among both women (OR = 5.59) and men (OR = 8.34). In this national survey, prevalence rates of violence exposure were lower than in other studies, but despite this, both women and men exposed to physical DV reported increased odds of having attempted suicide. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  2. Effectiveness of Retropubic Tension-Free Vaginal Tape and Transobturator Inside-Out Tape Procedures in Women With Overactive Bladder and Stress Urinary Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ji-Yeon; Choo, Myung-Soo; Lee, Young-Suk; Seo, Ju Tae; Kim, Jang Hwan; Kim, Young Ho

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We compared the effectiveness of the retropubic tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) and the transobturator inside-out tape (TVT-O) in treating symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB) in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Methods Women with urodynamic SUI and OAB (mean urgency episodes ≥1 and frequency ≥8/24 hours on a 3-day voiding diary) were assigned to the TVT or TVT-O group. Preoperative measures were based on a urodynamic study, 3-day voiding diary, the Bristol Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms questionnaire (BFLUTSSF), and the urgency perception scale (UPS). At 12 postoperative months, the 3-day voiding diary, symptoms questionnaire, patient satisfaction, and standing stress test were assessed. The primary endpoint was change in the number of urgency episodes/24 hours from baseline to 12 months. Results In this group of 132 women, 42 received TVT and 90 received TVT-O. The mean urgency episodes/24 hours decreased from 6.3±5.5 to 1.6±3.2 in the TVT group and from 5.1±4.4 to 1.8±3.0 in the TVT-O group. The mean percent change was significantly greater after TVT than after TVT-O (73% vs. 60%, P=0.049). All subscales of BFLUTSSF and UPS were significantly improved using either method, with significantly greater improvement seen in the quality of life (QoL) domain after TVT (P=0.002). There were no significant differences in the cure and satisfaction rates between the two groups. Conclusions Intervention with the TVT or the TVT-O significantly improved symptoms of OAB in women with SUI and OAB. Urgency and QoL significantly improved after TVT compared with that after TVT-O. PMID:24143294

  3. Vaginal orgasm is associated with vaginal (not clitoral) sex education, focusing mental attention on vaginal sensations, intercourse duration, and a preference for a longer penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Weiss, Petr

    2010-08-01

    Evidence was recently provided for vaginal orgasm, orgasm triggered purely by penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI), being associated with better psychological functioning. Common sex education and sexual medicine approaches might undermine vaginal orgasm benefits. To examine the extent to which women's vaginal orgasm consistency is associated with (i) being told in childhood or adolescence that the vagina was the important zone for inducing female orgasm; (ii) how well they focus mentally on vaginal sensations during PVI; (iii) greater PVI duration; and (iv) preference for above-average penis length.   In a representative sample of the Czech population, 1,000 women reported their vaginal orgasm consistency (from never to almost every time; only 21.9% never had a vaginal orgasm), estimates of their typical foreplay and PVI durations, what they were told in childhood and adolescence was the important zone for inducing female orgasm, their degree of focus on vaginal sensations during PVI, and whether they were more likely to orgasm with a longer than average penis. The association of vaginal orgasm consistency with the predictors noted above. Vaginal orgasm consistency was associated with all hypothesized correlates. Multivariate analysis indicated the most important predictors were being educated that the vagina is important for female orgasm, being mentally focused on vaginal sensations during PVI, and in some analyses duration of PVI (but not foreplay) and preferring a longer than average penis. Focusing attention on penile-vaginal sensation supports vaginal orgasm and the myriad benefits thereof. Brody S, and Weiss P. Vaginal orgasm is associated with vaginal (not clitoral) sex education, focusing mental attention on vaginal sensations, intercourse duration, and a preference for a longer penis. © 2009 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  4. Characteristics Associated With Successful Fitting of a Vaginal Bowel Control System for Fecal Incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Catherine A; Varma, Madhulika G; Takase-Sanchez, Michelle M; Hale, Douglas S; Van Drie, Douglas; Muir, Tristi; Wells, Ellen; Jannelli, Mary; Richter, Holly E

    2016-01-01

    We previously showed that management with a novel vaginal bowel control system was efficacious in women with moderate to severe fecal incontinence. The objective of this secondary analysis was to evaluate the clinical characteristics associated with device-fitting success. This is a secondary analysis of an institutional review board-approved, multicenter, prospective, open-label clinical study of women aged 19 to 75 years with 4 or more episodes of fecal incontinence recorded on a 2-week baseline bowel diary. Those successfully fitted with the vaginal bowel control device entered a 1-month treatment period, and efficacy was assessed with a repeat bowel diary. Demographic data, medical and surgical history, and pelvic examination findings were compared across women with successful and unsuccessful completion of the fitting period. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Six clinical sites in the United States recruited from August 2012 through October 2013. Overall, 110 women underwent attempted fitting, of which 61 (55.5%) of 110 were successful and entered the treatment portion of the study. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that previous prolapse surgery (P = 0.007) and shorter vaginal length (P = 0.041) were independently associated with unsuccessful fitting. Women who have not undergone previous prolapse surgery had 4.7 times the odds (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.53-14.53) of a successful fit. In addition, for every additional centimeter of vaginal length, women had 1.49 times the odds (95% CI, 1.02-2.17) of a successful fit. Shorter vaginal length and previous prolapse surgery were associated with an increased risk of fitting failure. These findings may be used to inform patients regarding their expectation of successful fitting.

  5. Suicide Ideation and Suicide Attempt Among Young Lesbian and Bisexual Filipina Women: Evidence for Disparities in the Philippines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eric Julian Manalastas

    2016-01-01

    .... Similar to previous results from young Filipino men and to findings in the global LGBT mental health literature, sexual-minority status was associated with both suicide ideation and suicide attempt...

  6. Ovulation inhibition following vaginal administration of pills containing norethindrone and mestranol

    OpenAIRE

    Coutinho, Elsimar Metzker; Silva, A R; Carreira, C; Barbosa, Ione Cristina

    1984-01-01

    Texto completo. Acesso restrito. p. 197 – 202 Plasma levels of estradiol and progesterone were investigated in women using daily vaginal pills containing 1 mg norethindrone and 50 mcg mestranol. Of 13 treatment cycles in ten women using one vaginal pill daily, six were ovulatory and seven anovulatory. All 12 cycles in ten women using two vaginal pills daily were anovulatory.

  7. [Psychological femininity and masculinity, self-appeal, attachment styles, coping styles and strategies of self-presentation among women with suicide attempts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Eugenia; Zalewska, Karolina

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to diagnose particular personality characteristics of women with suicide attempts: psychological femininity and masculinity, self-appeal, attachment styles, self-presentation strategies and coping styles. A group of 35 adult women who attempted suicide and the control group (35 women) were submitted to a research. The following measures were used: Inventory of Gender Identity (IPP), Strategies of Self-presentation Questionnaire (KSA), Attachment Style Test, Sense of Self-Appeal Scale (SPWA), Coping Inventory of Stressful Situations (CISS). Female suicide-attempters had a lower index of psychological masculinity and a lower sense of self-appeal than women in the control group. They were characterised by an avoidant attachment style, used a strategy of self-depreciation in self-presentation and an emotion-oriented style of coping. The predictors of risk of suicide behaviours that mainly showed: avoidant-attachment style and strategy of self-depreciation in self-presentation. Parasuicides were characterised by lower self-esteem and weak interpersonal skills, which reduced their ways of coping in difficult situations.

  8. A discussion of key values to inform the design and delivery of services for HIV-affected women and couples attempting pregnancy in resource-constrained settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee Heffron

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: HIV-affected women and couples often desire children and many accept HIV risk in order to attempt pregnancy and satisfy goals for a family. Risk reduction strategies to mitigate sexual and perinatal HIV transmission include biomedical and behavioural approaches. Current efforts to integrate HIV and reproductive health services offer prime opportunities to incorporate strategies for HIV risk reduction during pregnancy attempts. Key client and provider values about services to optimize pregnancy in the context of HIV risk provide insights for the design and implementation of large-scale “safer conception” programmes. Discussion: Through our collective experience and discussions at a multi-disciplinary international World Health Organization–convened workshop to initiate the development of guidelines and an algorithm of care to support the delivery of services for HIV-affected women and couples attempting pregnancy, we identified four values that are key to the implementation of these programmes: (1 understanding fertility care and an ability to identify potential fertility problems; (2 providing equity of access to resources enabling informed decision-making about reproductive choices; (3 creating enabling environments that reduce stigma associated with HIV and infertility; and (4 creating enabling environments that encourage disclosure of HIV status and fertility status to partners. Based on these values, recommendations for programmes serving HIV-affected women and couples attempting pregnancy include the following: incorporation of comprehensive reproductive health counselling; training to support the transfer and exchange of knowledge between providers and clients; care environments that reduce the stigma of childbearing among HIV-affected women and couples; support for safe and voluntary disclosure of HIV and fertility status; and increased efforts to engage men in reproductive decision-making at times that align with

  9. A discussion of key values to inform the design and delivery of services for HIV-affected women and couples attempting pregnancy in resource-constrained settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffron, Renee; Davies, Natasha; Cooke, Ian; Kaida, Angela; Mergler, Reid; van der Poel, Sheryl; Cohen, Craig R; Mmeje, Okeoma

    2015-01-01

    HIV-affected women and couples often desire children and many accept HIV risk in order to attempt pregnancy and satisfy goals for a family. Risk reduction strategies to mitigate sexual and perinatal HIV transmission include biomedical and behavioural approaches. Current efforts to integrate HIV and reproductive health services offer prime opportunities to incorporate strategies for HIV risk reduction during pregnancy attempts. Key client and provider values about services to optimize pregnancy in the context of HIV risk provide insights for the design and implementation of large-scale "safer conception" programmes. Through our collective experience and discussions at a multi-disciplinary international World Health Organization-convened workshop to initiate the development of guidelines and an algorithm of care to support the delivery of services for HIV-affected women and couples attempting pregnancy, we identified four values that are key to the implementation of these programmes: (1) understanding fertility care and an ability to identify potential fertility problems; (2) providing equity of access to resources enabling informed decision-making about reproductive choices; (3) creating enabling environments that reduce stigma associated with HIV and infertility; and (4) creating enabling environments that encourage disclosure of HIV status and fertility status to partners. Based on these values, recommendations for programmes serving HIV-affected women and couples attempting pregnancy include the following: incorporation of comprehensive reproductive health counselling; training to support the transfer and exchange of knowledge between providers and clients; care environments that reduce the stigma of childbearing among HIV-affected women and couples; support for safe and voluntary disclosure of HIV and fertility status; and increased efforts to engage men in reproductive decision-making at times that align with women's desires. Programmes, policies and guidelines

  10. A discussion of key values to inform the design and delivery of services for HIV-affected women and couples attempting pregnancy in resource-constrained settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffron, Renee; Davies, Natasha; Cooke, Ian; Kaida, Angela; Mergler, Reid; van der Poel, Sheryl; Cohen, Craig R; Mmeje, Okeoma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction HIV-affected women and couples often desire children and many accept HIV risk in order to attempt pregnancy and satisfy goals for a family. Risk reduction strategies to mitigate sexual and perinatal HIV transmission include biomedical and behavioural approaches. Current efforts to integrate HIV and reproductive health services offer prime opportunities to incorporate strategies for HIV risk reduction during pregnancy attempts. Key client and provider values about services to optimize pregnancy in the context of HIV risk provide insights for the design and implementation of large-scale “safer conception” programmes. Discussion Through our collective experience and discussions at a multi-disciplinary international World Health Organization–convened workshop to initiate the development of guidelines and an algorithm of care to support the delivery of services for HIV-affected women and couples attempting pregnancy, we identified four values that are key to the implementation of these programmes: (1) understanding fertility care and an ability to identify potential fertility problems; (2) providing equity of access to resources enabling informed decision-making about reproductive choices; (3) creating enabling environments that reduce stigma associated with HIV and infertility; and (4) creating enabling environments that encourage disclosure of HIV status and fertility status to partners. Based on these values, recommendations for programmes serving HIV-affected women and couples attempting pregnancy include the following: incorporation of comprehensive reproductive health counselling; training to support the transfer and exchange of knowledge between providers and clients; care environments that reduce the stigma of childbearing among HIV-affected women and couples; support for safe and voluntary disclosure of HIV and fertility status; and increased efforts to engage men in reproductive decision-making at times that align with women's desires

  11. Randomized comparison of bleeding patterns in women using a combined contraceptive vaginal ring or a low-dose combined oral contraceptive on a menstrually signaled regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Edith; Merki-Feld, Gabriele S; McGeechan, Kevin; Fraser, Ian S

    2015-02-01

    To compare bleeding patterns for 12 months continuous use of a contraceptive ring [contraceptive vaginal ring (CVR)] and pill [combined oral contraceptive (COC)] on a menstrually signaled regimen and the effectiveness of 4 days "treatment withdrawal" to stop bleeding. Women, 66 to each group, were randomized to continuous use of a CVR (15 mcg ethinyl estradiol/150 mcg etonogestrel) or a low-dose pill (20 mcg ethinyl estradiol/100 mcg levonorgestrel) for 360 days on a menstrually signaled regimen. Bleeding/spotting days, daily use of ring or pill, was recorded. Endpoint was the total number of bleeding/spotting days for each method over four 90-day reference periods (RP) plus the analysis of bleeding patterns using modified World Health Organization criteria. There was a reduction in the mean (±S.D.) number of bleeding/spotting days from RP1 (CVR 14.2±10; pill 16.6±10.9) to RP4 (CVR 8.8±9.6; pill 8.8±9.1). Fifteen percent of CVR and 4% COC users experienced amenorrhea or infrequent bleeding throughout the study. Amenorrhea increased over time (RP1 vs. RP4: CVR 10% vs. 21% and COC 2% vs. 30%). Compliance with the menstrually signaled regimen was poor. Ceasing hormones for 4 days stopped a bleeding episode within 5 days in the majority of episodes and many stopped spontaneously. Bleeding patterns with continuous use of the CVR and COC are similar and improve over 1 year of use. The unpredictability, but short duration, of bleeding episodes should be stressed during counseling. This information for clinicians and women about breakthrough bleeding patterns with use of a CVR or combined pill over 12 months using a menstrually signaled regimen will give women an indication of what to expect with continuous use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Microflora composition of urogenital tracts of women with nonspecific vulvo-vaginitis and vaginosis in Dnipropetrovsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Ponedilok

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of causative agents of nonspecific infections of the women urogenital tracts is studied. It is established that the typical etiological agents of the vaginosis are yeast-like fungi Candida albicans (35.7 % and Escherichia coli (30.2 %, and the clinical isolates of E. coli (47.3 % and Proteus mirabilis (15.8 % are usual for vulvovaginitis. The frequency of detection of the causative agents of inflammatory genito-urinary diseases in women of different age groups varies: strains of E. coli are often found in patients of 1–12 years (47.3 % and in women of 43–66 years old (36.0 %, but C. albicans – in patients of 18–42 years (39.0 %. High levels of the resistance to penicilline, tetracycline and fluoroquinolone antibiotics in selected clinical isolates of opportunistic microorganisms are determined.

  13. Uterine Natural Killer Cell and Human Leukocyte Antigen-G1 and Human Leukocyte Antigen-G5 Expression in Vaginal Discharge of Threatened-Abortion Women: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh Sadat Shobeiri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The immunotolerant human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G molecules have a major role in fetal-maternal tolerance during pregnancy. Interaction between these molecules and uterine natural killer (uNK cells inhibitory receptors prevents NK cell invasion against fetus trophoblast cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the percentages of uNK cells and HLA-G1 and HLA-G5 isoforms expression in vaginal discharge of threatened-abortion women in comparison with control. In a case-control study, we investigated 30 threatened-abortion women with bleeding or spotting less than 20 weeks of pregnancy as compared to 30 normal pregnant women. uNK cells percentage was assessed by flow cytometry. Furthermore, we evaluated HLA-G1 and HLA-G5 isoforms expression by Real-Time PCR in these groups. The results of this study showed that threatened-abortion women had increased uNK cells and decreased T cells percentage in vaginal discharge in comparison with normal pregnant women (p=0.01, p=0.003, resp.. In addition, HLA-G1 isoform had lower expression in threatened-abortion women in comparison with control group p=0.0001. The increase of uNK cells level with the decrease of HLA-G expression in vaginal discharge of threatened-abortion pregnant women is an indicator of mother’s immune dysregulation. It is concluded that HLA-G expression level with uNK cells percentage can be determined as a diagnostic marker for threatened-abortion women.

  14. Qualitative accounts of patients' determinants of vaginal dilator use after pelvic radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Rinske M; Vermeer, Willemijn M; Creutzberg, Carien L; Mens, Jan Willem M; Nout, Remi A; Ter Kuile, Moniek M

    2015-03-01

    Treatment with pelvic external beam radiotherapy with brachytherapy (EBRT/BT) for gynecological cancers may cause sexual dysfunction because of vaginal shortening and tightening. Regular vaginal dilator use is thought to reduce vaginal shortening and/or tightening, but compliance is poor. This study identified determinants of patients' adherence with dilator use after EBRT/BT. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 women, aged 32-67 years, treated with EBRT/BT for gynecological cancers at two university medical centers in the past 36 months. Transcriptions were coded and analyzed with N-Vivo software. Determinants of dilator use were clustered based on the Health Action Process Approach, which describes (i) motivation processes that lead to a behavioral intention and (ii) volition processes that lead to the initiation or maintenance of actual behavior. Almost all women attempted to perform long-term regular vaginal dilator use. Intended dilator use was determined by the expectation that it would prevent the development of vaginal adhesions and stenosis. Planning dilator use and making it part of a routine, using it under the shower, using lubricants, a smaller dilator size, or vibrators helped women. Others reported a lack of time or privacy, forgetting, or feeling tired. Women self-regulated dilator use by rotating the dilator and timing dilator use. Influencing factors were negative emotions regarding dilator use or its hard plastic design, (being anxious for) pain or blood loss, and an association with EBRT/BT. Some women mentioned a lack of instrumental support, for example, lubricants. Others received reassurance through informational support or were supported socially. Motivation and volition processes that determined dilator use were identified and used in the development of a sexual rehabilitation intervention. It is important to provide sufficient patient information and support, and enlarge patients' perceived self-efficacy. © 2014

  15. Does vaginal estrogen treatment with support pessaries in vaginal prolapse reduce complications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulchandani, Supriya; Toozs-Hobson, Philip; Verghese, Tina; Latthe, Pallavi

    2015-12-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse is often co-existant with atrophy of the genital tract in older women who tend to prefer vaginal pessaries for prolapse. Vaginal estrogen therapy is used by some along with a support pessary for prolapse with no robust evidence to back this practice. We aimed to evaluate differences in complications of support pessaries for vaginal prolapse in postmenopausal women, with and without vaginal estrogen use. We prospectively assessed postmenopausal women attending the urogynaecology clinic for a pessary change. We asked them about the level of discomfort during pessary change (visual analogue scale for pain), discharge, bleeding and infection. Ethics approval was not required as this was a service evaluation project. Statistical analysis for relative risk was performed, including sub-group analysis for 'ring pessary' and 'non-ring group' (Shelf, Gellhorn, Shaatz). Between July 2013 and December 2014, we assessed 120 postmenopausal women using support pessaries for prolapse. The mean age was 70 years; 45% of the patients used vaginal estrogen. There were no statistically significant differences in complications with or without vaginal estrogen use, although the trend was higher amongst non-users. The 'non-ring' sub-group not using vaginal estrogen had a higher risk of vaginal ulceration, bleeding and discharge. Postmenopausal women may have lesser complications when using vaginal estrogen with a support pessary for prolapse, particularly with pessaries other than the ring. An adequately powered randomised controlled trial is needed to assess conclusively whether vaginal estrogen enhances comfort and reduces complications of support pessaries for prolapse. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Vaginal Approaches Using Synthetic Mesh to Treat Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Jei Won; Chae, Hee Dong

    2016-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a very common condition in elderly women. In women with POP, a sacrocolpopexy or a vaginal hysterectomy with anterior and posterior colporrhaphy has long been considered as the gold standard of treatment. However, in recent decades, the tendency to use a vaginal approach with mesh for POP surgery has been increasing. A vaginal approach using mesh has many advantages, such as its being less invasive than an abdominal approach and easier to do than a laparoscopic ...

  17. Usefulness of anorectal and endovaginal 3D ultrasound in the evaluation of sphincter and pubovisceral muscle defects using a new scoring system in women with fecal incontinence after vaginal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad-Regadas, Sthela M; da S Fernandes, Graziela Olivia; Regadas, Francisco Sergio Pinheiro; Rodrigues, Lusmar Veras; Filho, Francisco Sergio Pinheiro Regadas; Dealcanfreitas, Iris Daiana; da Silva Vilarinho, Adjra; da Cruz, Mariana Murad

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to evaluate pubovisceral muscle and anal sphincter defects in women with previous vaginal delivery and fecal incontinence and to correlate the findings with the severity of symptoms using the combined anorectal and endovaginal 3D ultrasonography with a new ultrasound scoring system. Consecutive female patients with previous vaginal delivery and fecal incontinence symptoms were screened. Fecal incontinence was assessed with the Cleveland Clinic Florida fecal incontinence scale, and the extent of defects was assessed by an ultrasound score based on results of anorectal and endovaginal 3D ultrasound. Fecal incontinence was assessed with the Cleveland Clinic Florida fecal incontinence scale. Of 84 women with previous vaginal delivery and fecal incontinence, 21 (25%) had intact pubovisceral muscles and anal sphincters; 63 (75%) had a pubovisceral muscle or anal sphincter defect, or both. Twenty-eight (33%) had a pubovisceral muscle defect [23% with an external anal sphincter (EAS) defect or combined EAS/internal anal sphincter defects; 11% with intact anal sphincters]. Thirty-five (42%) had intact pubovisceral muscles and an anal sphincter defect. Compared with women with intact pubovisceral muscles/anal sphincter defects, patients with pubovisceral muscle defects had significantly higher incontinence scores and significantly higher ultrasound scores indicating more extensive defects. Incontinence symptoms correlated positively with the ultrasound score, measurements of sphincter defects, and area of the levator hiatus. Evaluation of both pubovisceral muscles and anal sphincters is important to identify defects and determine treatment for women with fecal incontinence after vaginal delivery. The severity of fecal incontinence symptoms is significantly related to the extent of defects of the pubovisceral muscles and anal sphincters.

  18. Maternal and foetal outcomes following natural vaginal versus caesarean section (c-section) delivery in women with bleeding disorders and carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanth, Laxminarayan; Kanagasabai, Sachchithanantham; Abas, Adinegara Bl

    2017-08-04

    Bleeding disorders are uncommon but may pose significant bleeding complications during pregnancy, labour and following delivery for both the woman and the foetus. While many bleeding disorders in women tend to improve in pregnancy, thus decreasing the haemorrhagic risk to the mother at the time of delivery, some do not correct or return quite quickly to their pre-pregnancy levels in the postpartum period. Therefore, specific measures to prevent maternal bleeding and foetal complications during childbirth, are required. The safest method of delivery to reduce morbidity and mortality in these women is controversial. This is an update of a previously published review. To assess the optimal mode of delivery in women with, or carriers of, bleeding disorders. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Coagulopathies Trials Register, compiled from electronic database searches and handsearching of journals and conference abstract books. We also searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register as well as trials registries and the reference lists of relevant articles and reviews.Date of last search of the Group's Trials Registers: 16 February 2017. Randomised controlled trials and all types of controlled clinical trials investigating the optimal mode of delivery in women with, or carriers of, any type of bleeding disorder during pregnancy were eligible for the review. No trials matching the selection criteria were eligible for inclusion MAIN RESULTS: No results from randomised controlled trials were found. The review did not identify any randomised controlled trials investigating the safest mode of delivery and associated maternal and foetal complications during delivery in women with, or carriers of, a bleeding disorder. In the absence of high quality evidence, clinicians need to use their clinical judgement and lower level evidence (e.g. from observational trials, case studies) to decide upon the optimal mode of delivery to ensure

  19. Pregnancy incidence and risk factors among women participating in vaginal microbicide trials for HIV prevention: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Musekiwa

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Pregnancy is contraindicated in vaginal microbicide trials for the prevention of HIV infection in women due to the unknown maternal and fetal safety of the microbicides. Women who become pregnant are taken off the microbicide during pregnancy period but this result in reduction of the power of the trials. Strategies to reduce the pregnancy rates require an understanding of the incidence and associated risk factors of pregnancy in microbicide trials. This systematic review estimates the overall incidence rate of pregnancy in microbicide trials and describes the associated risk factors. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was carried out to identify eligible studies from electronic databases and other sources. Two review authors independently selected studies and extracted relevant data from included studies. Meta-analysis of incidence rates of pregnancy was carried out and risk factors of pregnancy were reported narratively. RESULTS: Fifteen studies reporting data from 10 microbicide trials (N=27,384 participants were included. A total of 4,107 participants (15.0% fell pregnant and a meta-analysis of incidence rates of pregnancy from 8 microbicide trials (N=25,551 yielded an overall incidence rate of 23.37 (95%CI: 17.78 to 28.96 pregnancies per 100 woman-years. However, significant heterogeneity was detected. Hormonal injectable, intra-uterine device (IUD or implants or sterilization, older age, more years of education and condom use were associated with lower pregnancy. On the other hand, living with a man, history of pregnancy, self and partner desire for future baby, oral contraceptive use, increased number of unprotected sexual acts and inconsistent use of condoms were associated with higher pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence rate of pregnancy in microbicide trials is high and strategies for its reduction are urgently required in order to improve the sample size and power of these trials.

  20. Outcomes of vaginal hysterectomy and constricting colporrhaphy with concurrent levator myorrhaphy and high perineorrhaphy in women older than 75 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Töz E

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Emrah Töz, Aykut Özcan, Nesin Apaydin, İbrahim Uyar, Betül Kocakaya, Gülin Okay Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tepecik Education and Research Hospital, İzmir, Turkey Objectives: We performed constricting anterior and posterior colporrhaphy, levator myorrhaphy, and high perineorrhaphy with concurrent hysterectomy, and investigated the intraoperative complications, and short-term outcomes of these constricting procedures in patients aged 75 years or older.Methods: We searched our hospital database for cases, between January 2011 and January 2014, of women aged over 75 years who underwent surgery for pelvic organ prolapse of stage 2 or higher, via vaginal hysterectomy, constricting anterior and posterior colporrhaphy, levator myorrhaphy, and high perineorrhaphy, with or without treatment of urinary incontinence. All volunteers were evaluated via pelvic examination using the pelvic organ prolapse quantification system, the modified Decision Regret Scale–Pelvic Floor Disorders form, the Satisfaction Decision Scale–Pelvic Floor Disorders form, and the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory form.Results: Fifty-four patients were included in the study. The mean follow-up time was 24.4 months after constricting surgery (range: 8–44 months. There were four cases (7% of de novo urge incontinence (the symptoms resolved upon prescription of anticholinergic medication. Two patients developed de novo stress urinary incontinence after the procedure and were treated via transobturator sling surgery using Safyre T® polypropylene monofilament slings. No anatomical or subjective recurrence of prolapse was noted during the follow-up period. No patient required additional surgery for recurrence of prolapse.Conclusion: Constricting anterior and posterior colporrhaphy, levator myorrhaphy, and high perineorrhaphy with concurrent hysterectomy is a feasible, safe, and effective surgical option in elderly patients at low anesthesiological risk. The decision

  1. Antifungal susceptibility profiles and risk factors of vaginal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vaginal candidiasis (VC) is second to bacterial vaginitis, as the most common opportunistic mucosal infection that affects large numbers of otherwise healthy women of childbearing age. The incidence of VC is significantly modified by dressing patterns and aberrant health-care practices. Contemporary young women often ...

  2. Functional and anatomical outcome of anterior and posterior vaginal prolapse repair with prolene mesh

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Milani, Rodolfo; Salvatore, Stefano; Soligo, Marco; Pifarotti, Paola; Meschia, Michele; Cortese, Marina

    2005-01-01

    ...  Women requiring prolapse repair for anterior or posterior vaginal prolapse. Methods  All women were assessed for urinary, bowel, prolapse symptoms and dyspareunia pre- and post-operatively...

  3. Prevalência de cândida na flora vaginal de mulheres atendidas num serviço de planejamento familiar Prevalence of candida in the vagina of women attended at a family planning service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Aleixo Neto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar a prevalência de Candida sp. e a distribuição de suas espécies na flora vaginal de mulheres numa clínica de planejamento familiar. Método: estudo transversal no qual se avaliaram prospectivamente 72 mulheres não-grávidas, com ou sem queixas específicas, sendo coletadas amostras de secreção vaginal para cultura de leveduras, efetuada a medição do pH vaginal e anotados dados de achados do exame ginecológico. Resultados: leveduras pertencentes ao gênero Candida foram encontradas em 18 casos (25%. A C. albicans foi a espécie mais prevalente (77,8% e conseqüentemente 22,2% foram não-albicans. Entre as não-albicans a espécie mais prevalente foi a C. glabrata (16,7% seguida pela C. parapsilosis (5,6%. Prurido e ardor foram os únicos sintomas relacionados significativamente com a presença de cândida. Foi observado que a C. glabrata, ao contrário da C. albicans, não causa corrimento clinicamente verificável ao exame ginecológico. Não foram verificadas associações de alguns fatores predisponentes (idade, escolaridade e uso de contraceptivos com a presença ou não de cândida. Conclusões: nossos resultados sugerem: a uma alta prevalência de Candida sp. entre as mulheres (25%; b que as espécies não-albicans desempenham um papel importante no meio vaginal; c que prurido e ardor são os sintomas mais comuns na presença de cândida e d que a C. glabrata não costuma causar corrimento vaginal ao exame ginecológico. Finalmente, é importante observar que nossos resultados são consistentes com o que a literatura internacional tem mostrado nos últimos anos.SUMMARY Purpose: to estimate the prevalence of Candida sp. and the distribution of its species in the vagina of women attended at a family planning Service. Methods: a cross-sectional study evaluating prospectively 72 nonpregnant women, with or without specific complaints. Samples were checked for the presence of yeast and vaginal pH. Data obtained

  4. Single incision device (TVT Secur) versus retropubic tension-free vaginal tape device (TVT) for the management of stress urinary incontinence in women: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Sue; Tang, Selphee; Schulz, Jane; Murphy, Magnus; Goncalves, Jose; Kaye, Stephen; Dederer, Lorel; Robert, Magali

    2014-12-22

    In 2006, Ethicon Inc. introduced a new minimally invasive single incision sling device for the surgical treatment of stress urinary incontinence, the Gynecare TVT Secur®. For device licensing, no new evidence of TVT Secur efficacy and safety was needed: rather evidence was provided of the long-term follow-up of patients who had a procedure using a predecate retropubic tension-free vaginal tape device. Before adopting TVT Secur into our routine clinical practice, we decided to evaluate it. The objective of our Canadian multi-centre pragmatic randomized controlled trial was to compare the effectiveness of the new single-incision device, TVT Secur, to the established TVT device, in terms of objective cure of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) at 12 months postoperatively. Other outcomes included: complications, symptoms, and incontinence-related quality of life. The sample size estimate for our trial was 300, but the trial stopped early because of poor recruitment. 74 women participated (40 allocated to TVT Secur, 34 to TVT). At 12 months postoperatively, 27/33(82%) of TVT Secur group were cured, compared with 25/28(89%) of the TVT group (relative risk 0.92, 95% confidence interval 0.75 to 1.13, p=0.49). Most women reported little or no SUI symptoms (35/37(95%) vs 29/30(97%), >0.999). Quality of life improved significantly from baseline for both groups (IIQ-7 mean change -25 for both groups) but did not differ between groups (p=0.880). Our small randomized trial did not find statistically significant differences in outcomes between women allocated to the TVT Secur device versus those allocated to the TVT device for stress urinary incontinence. Despite the discontinuation of TVT Secur in March 2013 for commercial reasons, the importance of our study lies in making evidence available for the many women who had a TVT Secur device implanted and their physicians who may be considering alternative treatments. Our experience illustrates the difficulty of undertaking research

  5. Assessment of voluntary pelvic floor muscle contraction in continent and incontinent women using transperineal ultrasound, manual muscle testing and vaginal squeeze pressure measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Judith A; O'Sullivan, Peter B; Briffa, N Kathryn; Neumann, Patricia

    2006-11-01

    The aims of the study were: (1) to assess women performing voluntary pelvic floor muscle (PFM) contractions, on initial instruction without biofeedback teaching, using transperineal ultrasound, manual muscle testing, and perineometry and (2) to assess for associations between the different measurements of PFM function. Sixty continent (30 nulliparous and 30 parous) and 60 incontinent (30 stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and 30 urge urinary incontinence (UUI)) women were assessed. Bladder neck depression during attempts to perform an elevating pelvic floor muscle (PFM) contraction occurred in 17% of continent and 30% of incontinent women. The UUI group had the highest proportion of women who depressed the bladder neck (40%), although this was not statistically significant (p=0.060). The continent women were stronger on manual muscle testing (p=0.001) and perineometry (p=0.019) and had greater PFM endurance (pelevation than the incontinent women (p=0.051). There was a moderate correlation between bladder neck movement during PFM contraction measured by ultrasound and PFM strength assessed by manual muscle testing (r=0.58, p=0.01) and perineometry (r=0.43, p=0.01). The observation that many women were performing PFM exercises incorrectly reinforces the need for individual PFM assessment with a skilled practitioner. The significant correlation between the measurements of bladder neck elevation during PFM contraction and PFM strength measured using MMT and perineometry supports the use of ultrasound in the assessment of PFM function; however, the correlation was only moderate and, therefore, indicates that the different measurement tools assess different aspects of PFM function. It is recommended that physiotherapists use a combination of assessment tools to evaluate the different aspects of PFM function that are important for continence. Ultrasound is useful to determine the direction of pelvic floor movement in the clinical assessment of pelvic floor muscle function

  6. Sexual Health Issues in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer treatments such as chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and radiation may cause sexual problems in women. Conditions may include vaginal dryness, vaginal stenosis, and vaginal atrophy. Learn how to manage and treat these sexual problems.

  7. Surgical management of stress urinary incontinence in women: safety, effectiveness and cost-utility of trans-obturator tape (TOT) versus tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) five years after a randomized surgical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background We recently completed a randomized clinical trial of two minimally invasive surgical procedures for stress urinary incontinence, the retropubic tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) versus the trans-obturator tape (TOT) procedure. At one year postoperatively, we were concerned to find that a significant number of women had tape that was palpable when a vaginal examination was undertaken. Because the risk factors for adverse outcomes of tape surgery are not clearly understood, we are unable to say whether palpable tapes will lead to vaginal erosions or whether they merge into vaginal tissue. We do not know whether patients go on to have further adverse consequences of surgery, leading to additional cost to patients and healthcare system. Our current study is a 5 year follow-up of the women who took part in our original trial. Methods/Design All 199 women who participated in our original trial will be contacted and invited to take part in the follow-up study. Consenting women will attend a clinic visit where they will have a physical examination to identify vaginal erosion or other serious adverse outcomes of surgery, undertake a standardized pad test for urinary incontinence, and complete several health-related quality of life questionnaires (15D, UDI-6, IIQ-7). Analyses will compare the outcomes for women in the TOT versus TVT groups. The cost-effectiveness of TOT versus TVT over the 5 years after surgery, will be assessed with the use of disease-specific health service administrative data and an objective health outcome measure. A cost-utility analysis may also be undertaken, based on economic modeling, data from the clinical trial and inputs obtained from published literature. Discussion This study is needed now, because TOT and TVT are among the most frequently conducted surgical procedures for stress urinary incontinence in Canada. Because stress urinary incontinence is so common, the impact of selecting an approach that causes more adverse events, or is

  8. Surgical management of stress urinary incontinence in women: safety, effectiveness and cost-utility of trans-obturator tape (TOT versus tension-free vaginal tape (TVT five years after a randomized surgical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasziw Misha

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We recently completed a randomized clinical trial of two minimally invasive surgical procedures for stress urinary incontinence, the retropubic tension-free vaginal tape (TVT versus the trans-obturator tape (TOT procedure. At one year postoperatively, we were concerned to find that a significant number of women had tape that was palpable when a vaginal examination was undertaken. Because the risk factors for adverse outcomes of tape surgery are not clearly understood, we are unable to say whether palpable tapes will lead to vaginal erosions or whether they merge into vaginal tissue. We do not know whether patients go on to have further adverse consequences of surgery, leading to additional cost to patients and healthcare system. Our current study is a 5 year follow-up of the women who took part in our original trial. Methods/Design All 199 women who participated in our original trial will be contacted and invited to take part in the follow-up study. Consenting women will attend a clinic visit where they will have a physical examination to identify vaginal erosion or other serious adverse outcomes of surgery, undertake a standardized pad test for urinary incontinence, and complete several health-related quality of life questionnaires (15D, UDI-6, IIQ-7. Analyses will compare the outcomes for women in the TOT versus TVT groups. The cost-effectiveness of TOT versus TVT over the 5 years after surgery, will be assessed with the use of disease-specific health service administrative data and an objective health outcome measure. A cost-utility analysis may also be undertaken, based on economic modeling, data from the clinical trial and inputs obtained from published literature. Discussion This study is needed now, because TOT and TVT are among the most frequently conducted surgical procedures for stress urinary incontinence in Canada. Because stress urinary incontinence is so common, the impact of selecting an approach that causes

  9. The fact and the fiction: A prospective study of internet forum discussions on vaginal breech birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovska, Karolina; Sheehan, Athena; Homer, Caroline S E

    2017-04-01

    Women with a breech baby late in pregnancy may use the internet to gather information to assist in decision-making for birth. The aim of this study was to examine how women use English language internet discussion forums to find out information about vaginal breech birth and to increase understanding of how vaginal breech birth is perceived among women. A descriptive qualitative study of internet discussion forums was undertaken. Google alerts were created with the search terms "breech birth" and "breech". Alerts were collected for a one-year period (January 2013-December 2013). The content of forum discussions was analysed using thematic analysis. A total of 50 forum discussions containing 382 comments were collected. Themes that arose from the data were: Testing the waters-which way should I go?; Losing hope for the chance of a normal birth; Seeking support for options-who will listen to me?; Considering vaginal breech birth-a risky choice?; Staying on the 'safe side'-caesarean section as a guarantee; Exploring the positive potential for vaginal breech birth. Women search online for information about vaginal breech birth in an attempt to come to a place in their decision-making where they feel comfortable with their birth plan. This study highlights the need for clinicians to provide comprehensive, unbiased information on the risks and benefits of all options for breech birth to facilitate informed decision-making for the woman. This will contribute to improving the woman's confidence in distinguishing between "the fact and the fiction" of breech birth discussions online. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Vaginal reconstruction with sigmoid colon in patients with congenital absence of vagina and menses retention: a report of treatment experience in 22 young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Shulan; Wang, Mingqian

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the surgical feasibility, sexual satisfaction and complications of vaginal reconstruction with sigmoid colon in patients with congenital absence of vagina and menses retention. Retrospective analysis of surgical techniques and long-term postoperative follow-up was performed for 22 patients who underwent vaginal reconstruction with sigmoid colon at a single hospital between 1977 and 2011 to treat congenital absence of vagina with menses retention. All patients achieved satisfactory sexual function after marriage. No patients experienced enterospastic abdominal pain during sexual intercourse. The neovaginas accommodated two or more fingers and had depths >10 cm. The mucous membranes were soft and flexible, and secretions of the sigmoid mucosa provided adequate and acceptable lubrication. No patient required vaginal stents, and none developed vaginal stenosis or reported pain with vaginal expansion. Fifteen of the 22 patients underwent hysterectomies due to cervical agenesis; seven retained their uterus and had onset of normal menses postoperatively. Two patients became pregnant 1 year after marriage; one achieved 38-week gestation, underwent cesarean section due to premature rupture of membranes, and delivered a healthy boy. The other experienced natural incomplete abortion and underwent curettage at her local hospital. This study confirms that sigmoid colon vaginal reconstruction is a good choice for treating congenital absence of vagina and menses retention and results in the closest approximation to the physical function of a normal female vagina. Reproductive ability can be retained in many cases for patients with a well-developed uterus and cervix.

  11. Randomized, double-blind crossover study of vaginal microflora and epithelium in women using a tampon with a "winged" apertured film cover and a commercial tampon with a nonwoven fleece cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, David J; Schenkel, Berenike P; Fahr, Anne-Marie; Eigner, Ulrich

    2010-04-01

    This study compared the safety of a new tampon with a four-winged apertured film cover over its nonwoven cover to improve leakage performance with that of a commercial tampon with a nonwoven cover only. Healthy women (evaluable, n = 69) were randomized to crossover between test and reference tampons in two consecutive menstrual cycles. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of vaginal cultures were conducted pre-, mid-, and postmenstrually for a broad panel of microorganisms, and colposcopy was performed. Similar to previous studies, prevalence and mean colony counts of the majority of microorganisms generally increased midmenstrually and returned or began to return postmenstrually. In contrast to most previous studies, Lactobacillus species remained at similar levels throughout the cycles with both tampons. Neither tampon was associated with clinically significant microbiological changes or abnormalities or with vaginal/cervical epithelial integrity changes on colposcopy. Microbiological and colposcopic evaluations indicate that the apertured film-covered tampon is safe.

  12. Randomized, Double-Blind Crossover Study of Vaginal Microflora and Epithelium in Women Using a Tampon with a “Winged” Apertured Film Cover and a Commercial Tampon with a Nonwoven Fleece Cover ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, David J.; Schenkel, Berenike P.; Fahr, Anne-Marie; Eigner, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the safety of a new tampon with a four-winged apertured film cover over its nonwoven cover to improve leakage performance with that of a commercial tampon with a nonwoven cover only. Healthy women (evaluable, n = 69) were randomized to crossover between test and reference tampons in two consecutive menstrual cycles. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of vaginal cultures were conducted pre-, mid-, and postmenstrually for a broad panel of microorganisms, and colposcopy was performed. Similar to previous studies, prevalence and mean colony counts of the majority of microorganisms generally increased midmenstrually and returned or began to return postmenstrually. In contrast to most previous studies, Lactobacillus species remained at similar levels throughout the cycles with both tampons. Neither tampon was associated with clinically significant microbiological changes or abnormalities or with vaginal/cervical epithelial integrity changes on colposcopy. Microbiological and colposcopic evaluations indicate that the apertured film-covered tampon is safe. PMID:20164274

  13. Vaginal hydrolysis of retinyl acetate: increase in plasma retinol and retinol binding protein in women with cervical dysplasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palan, P R; Basu, J; Romney, S L

    1988-12-01

    We previously reported the clinical feasibility of a Phase I trial involving the topical administration of a RA gel applied cervicovaginally in women with mild or moderate cervical dysplasia. Now, we report hydrolysis and systemic absorption of the RA gel from the vagina. HPLC analysis of samples of residual gel obtained from the cervical canal after topical bolus application indicate that the RA undergoes prompt in vivo hydrolysis yielding retinol as a major metabolite. Venous blood samples of 41 subjects, who self-administered a RA gel, were analyzed for plasma retinol and RBP concentrations prior to and upon completion of a 7-day treatment course and upon return for follow-up examinations. An increase in both the concentrations of plasma retinol and RBP were detected after topical application of the RA gel. These elevated values receded after the gel administration was discontinued. No significant changes were observed in plasma retinol or RBP concentrations in placebo-treated subjects. The efficacy of RA as a chemopreventive agent in treating cervical dysplasias remains to be determined.

  14. Vaginal cuff closure: a comparison between the vaginal route and laparoscopic suture in patients undergoing total laparoscopic hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jong Ha; Lee, Jae Kwan; Lee, Nak Woo; Lee, Kyu Wan

    2011-01-01

    To compare the vaginal route and laparoscopic suture for vaginal cuff closure (VCC) in patients undergoing a total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH). A total of 471 women who required hysterectomy were allocated to two groups. 261 women had TLH via VCC by the vaginal route and 210 women had TLH via VCC by laparoscopic suture. All TLHs were performed by the same laparoscopic surgeon. The cuff-related complications included vaginal disruption (3.4%), dehiscence (1.27%), vaginal vault bleeding (1.91%), vaginal spotting (19.32%), granulation (1.27%), cuff infection (1.49%), and yellowish vaginal discharge (6.16%). No difference in vaginal cuff complications was found between the laparoscopic and vaginal approach. The median operation time was significantly shorter for the laparoscopic suture (76.74 min, range 40-220; 95% CI 74.84-83.45) than the vaginal route for VCC (85.77 min, range 45-290; 95% CI 86.87-95.36) after hysterectomy (p < 0.001). For VCC with TLH, laparoscopic suture was a safe and less time-consuming procedure. The cuff-related complications were similar in the two groups. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. PCR based diagnostic assay targeting the beta tubulin gene for the detection of Trichomonas vaginalis infection in vaginal swab samples of symptomatic and asymptomatic women in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Prakash Dwivedi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop an in-house PCR based diagnostic assay for identification of strains isolated from symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects of India, targeting the 毬 -tubulin gene using specific primers. Methods: In the present study a primer set is designed to target a well-conserved region in the beta-tubulin gene of Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis. All strains of T. vaginalis were tested and successfully detected by PCR yielding a single predicted product of 198 bp in gel electrophoresis, while there was negative response with DNA from Giardia lamblia, Toxoplasma gondii, Leishmania donovani and Entamoeba histolytica. The sensitivity and specificity for a single T. vaginalis cell per PCR was achieved. Axenic Culture, performed with long term axenized T. vaginalis culture system, was routinely examined to identify T. vaginalis. Results: The PCR based investigations with 498 vaginal swab samples from women attending OPD clinics of Halberg Hospital Moradabad and Queen Mary ’s Hospital, Lucknow, India and 17 long term axenic cultures maintained at PGIMER, Chandigarh, India using primer set BTUB 1 & BTUB 2 showed sensitivity and specificity response of 98% and 100%, respectively, while wet preparation in clinically isolated samples responded up to 62.5%. The PCR product sequencing result of symptomatic strains (SS1 of T. vaginalis (744 bp long was submitted to NCBI (Accession No: JF513200. It shows maximum identity 98 % with XM_001284521 Trichomonas vaginalis G-3 beta-tubulin (btub putative partial mRNA. Conclusions: The data gathered in the present study entail that the diagnosis of T. vaginalis infection by PCR may be established as a sensitive and specific protocol, to be incorporated into a joint strategy for the screening of multiple STDs by employing molecular amplification technique. The merits and precautions of the protocol have been discussed.

  16. The vaginal microbiome: Associations with sexually transmitted infections and the mucosal immune response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgdorff, H.

    2016-01-01

    A healthy vaginal microbiota is dominated by lactobacilli. Disturbance of the microbiological vaginal microbiota balance ("dysbiosis") is associated with an increased risk of acquisition of sexually transmitted infections including HIV, and preterm birth in pregnant women. Since 2002, studies have

  17. Detection of Candida spp. in the vagina of a cohort of nulliparous pregnant women by culture and molecular methods: Is there an association between maternal vaginal and infant oral colonisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Matthew S; Cullinane, Meabh; Garland, Suzanne M; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Donath, Susan M; Bennett, Catherine M; Amir, Lisa H

    2016-04-01

    Most studies describing vaginal Candida spp. in pregnancy focus on symptomatic vaginitis, rather than asymptomatic colonisation, and solely utilise microbiological culture. The extent to which asymptomatic vaginal carriage may represent a reservoir for infant oral colonisation has been highly debated. This study formed part of the Candida and Staphylococcus Transmission Longitudinal Evaluation (CASTLE) study, in Melbourne, Australia, from 2009 to 2011 and used culture and molecular methods to examine vaginal swabs collected late in the third trimester of pregnancy for Candida spp. Oral swabs from infants were also examined using culture methods. Overall, 80 of 356 (22%) women were positive for Candida spp; the majority being Candida albicans (83%). Candida glabrata and other Candida spp. were also identified, but in much lower numbers. Molecular analysis identified numerous positive samples not detected by culture, including 13 cases of C. albicans. In addition, some positive samples only recorded to genus level by culture were accurately identified as either C. albicans or C. glabrata following molecular analyses. Eighteen infants recorded positive Candida spp. cultures, predominantly C. albicans. However, there were only four (25%) mother/infant dyads where C. albicans was detected. This study provides valuable data on asymptomatic colonisation rates of Candida spp. within an asymptomatic population of women late in pregnancy. The utilisation of molecular methods improved the rate of detection and provided a more accurate means for identification of non-albicans Candida spp. The low mother/infant colonisation rate suggests that non-maternal sources are likely involved in determining infant oral colonisation status. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  18. Vaginal spasm, pain, and behavior: an empirical investigation of the diagnosis of vaginismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissing, Elke D; Binik, Yitzchak M; Khalifé, Samir; Cohen, Deborah; Amsel, Rhonda

    2004-02-01

    This study investigated the roles of vaginal spasm, pain, and behavior in vaginismus and the ability of psychologists, gynecologists, and physical therapists to agree on a diagnosis of vaginismus. Eighty-seven women, matched on age, relationship status, and parity, were assigned to one of three groups: vaginismus, dyspareunia resulting from vulvar vestibulitis syndrome (VVS), and no pain with intercourse. Diagnostic agreement was poor for vaginismus; vaginal spasm and pain measures did not differentiate between women in the vaginismus and dyspareunia/VVS groups; however, women in the vaginismus group demonstrated significantly higher vaginal/pelvic muscle tone and lower muscle strength. Women in the vaginismus group also displayed a significantly higher frequency of defensive/avoidant distress behaviors during pelvic examinations and recalled past attempts at intercourse with more affective distress. These data suggest that the spasm-based definition of vaginismus is not adequate as a diagnostic marker for vaginismus. Pain and fear of pain, pelvic floor dysfunction, and behavioral avoidance need to be included in a multidimensional reconceptualization of vaginismus.

  19. A prospective, randomized, double-blind study of vaginal microflora and epithelium in women using a tampon with an apertured film cover compared with those in women using a commercial tampon with a cover of nonwoven fleece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, David J; Schenkel, Berenike P; Fahr, Anne-Marie; Eigner, Ulrich

    2007-04-01

    Healthy women with normal menstrual cycles were randomly assigned to use either a test tampon during cycle 1 and a reference tampon during cycle 2 or a reference tampon during cycle 1 and a test tampon during cycle 2. Tampons were identical except for their cover materials: apertured film for the test tampon and nonwoven fleece for the reference tampon. Product use was doubly blinded. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of vaginal cultures were done pre-, mid-, and postmenstrually for a broad panel of microorganisms, colposcopy was performed, and diary reports were collected; 101 of 105 enrolled subjects completed the study. Midmenstrual findings for a variety of organisms differed from pre- and postmenstrual observations whether subjects were using test or reference tampons. No statistically significant differences were noted in prevalence or colony counts at premenstrual versus mid- and postmenstrual visits for most microorganisms. Prevalences of Gardnerella and anaerobic gram-negative rods were significantly different between tampons at the premenstrual visit, when unusually low values were observed for the test and reference tampons, respectively. None of the changes or differences in microflora were considered to be clinically significant. It is noteworthy, however, that declines in the prevalence and abundance of Lactobacillus during the menstrual periods were less pronounced during the use of both test and reference tampons than those reported from previous studies. Colposcopy showed no abnormal findings with either tampon and no changes in vaginal or cervical epithelial integrity. Thus, all evidence from both microbiological and colposcopic evaluations indicates that the apertured film cover of the test tampon is as safe as the nonwoven cover of the reference tampon.

  20. A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Study of Vaginal Microflora and Epithelium in Women Using a Tampon with an Apertured Film Cover Compared with Those in Women Using a Commercial Tampon with a Cover of Nonwoven Fleece▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, David J.; Schenkel, Berenike P.; Fahr, Anne-Marie; Eigner, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Healthy women with normal menstrual cycles were randomly assigned to use either a test tampon during cycle 1 and a reference tampon during cycle 2 or a reference tampon during cycle 1 and a test tampon during cycle 2. Tampons were identical except for their cover materials: apertured film for the test tampon and nonwoven fleece for the reference tampon. Product use was doubly blinded. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of vaginal cultures were done pre-, mid-, and postmenstrually for a broad panel of microorganisms, colposcopy was performed, and diary reports were collected; 101 of 105 enrolled subjects completed the study. Midmenstrual findings for a variety of organisms differed from pre- and postmenstrual observations whether subjects were using test or reference tampons. No statistically significant differences were noted in prevalence or colony counts at premenstrual versus mid- and postmenstrual visits for most microorganisms. Prevalences of Gardnerella and anaerobic gram-negative rods were significantly different between tampons at the premenstrual visit, when unusually low values were observed for the test and reference tampons, respectively. None of the changes or differences in microflora were considered to be clinically significant. It is noteworthy, however, that declines in the prevalence and abundance of Lactobacillus during the menstrual periods were less pronounced during the use of both test and reference tampons than those reported from previous studies. Colposcopy showed no abnormal findings with either tampon and no changes in vaginal or cervical epithelial integrity. Thus, all evidence from both microbiological and colposcopic evaluations indicates that the apertured film cover of the test tampon is as safe as the nonwoven cover of the reference tampon. PMID:17287327

  1. Lactobacillus for Vaginal Microflora Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saule Saduakhasova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Despite the significant progress made in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, there is still a high rate of vaginal dysbiosis in Kazakh women. The use of antibiotics in the treatment of vaginal dysbiosis contributes to the elimination of pathogens as well as microflora, which can lead to a decrease in local immunity and more favorable conditions for infection spread. The most physiologically safe and promising method for the restoration of vaginal biocenosis is the use of probiotics administered by a vaginal route.Methods. We have allocated 64 of cultures of Lactobacillus from the vaginal epithelium of healthy women of reproductive age and women with diagnosed bacterial vaginosis (BV. Identification of cultures was performed by PCR analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA.  Evaluation of biological significance was determined by the following criteria: high antagonistic activity against Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella ozaenae, and Staphylococcus aureus; and production of hydrogen peroxide, resistance to antibiotics, adhesive activity. We studied the symbiotic relationship of selected biologically active of cultures to each other and received options for consortiums with  properties of  probiotics through co-cultivation.Results. Results of genotyping  showed that the isolated lactobacilli belong to the seven species: L. fermentum, L. salivarius, L. gasseri, L. crispatus, L. jensenii, L. plantarum, and L. delbrueskii. L. fermentum, L. salivarius, L. gasseri, and L. jensenii occur in women with suspected BV. The highest percentage of occurrence in the vagina of healthy women was L. fermentum (28%. Most strains of lactobacilli possess high inhibitory activity for all test-strains, except Candida albicans (37.5%. 56% of studied cultures revealed high adhesion to human erythrocytes. All lactobacillus strains were resistant to metronidazole, 80% to kanamycin, 57%  to vancomycin, and

  2. Vaginal progesterone decreases preterm birth and neonatal morbidity and mortality in women with a twin gestation and a short cervix: an updated meta-analysis of individual patient data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, R; Conde-Agudelo, A; El-Refaie, W; Rode, L; Brizot, M L; Cetingoz, E; Serra, V; Da Fonseca, E; Abdelhafez, M S; Tabor, A; Perales, A; Hassan, S S; Nicolaides, K H

    2017-03-01

    To assess the efficacy of vaginal progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth and neonatal morbidity and mortality in asymptomatic women with a twin gestation and a sonographic short cervix (cervical length ≤ 25 mm) in the mid-trimester. This was an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data (IPD) from randomized controlled trials comparing vaginal progesterone with placebo/no treatment in women with a twin gestation and a mid-trimester sonographic cervical length ≤ 25 mm. MEDLINE, EMBASE, POPLINE, CINAHL and LILACS (all from inception to 31 December 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Research Registers of ongoing trials, Google Scholar, conference proceedings and reference lists of identified studies were searched. The primary outcome measure was preterm birth < 33 weeks' gestation. Two reviewers independently selected studies, assessed the risk of bias and extracted the data. Pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. IPD were available for 303 women (159 assigned to vaginal progesterone and 144 assigned to placebo/no treatment) and their 606 fetuses/infants from six randomized controlled trials. One study, which included women with a cervical length between 20 and 25 mm, provided 74% of the total sample size of the IPD meta-analysis. Vaginal progesterone, compared with placebo/no treatment, was associated with a statistically significant reduction in the risk of preterm birth < 33 weeks' gestation (31.4% vs 43.1%; RR, 0.69 (95% CI, 0.51-0.93); moderate-quality evidence). Moreover, vaginal progesterone administration was associated with a significant decrease in the risk of preterm birth < 35, < 34, < 32 and < 30 weeks' gestation (RRs ranging from 0.47 to 0.83), neonatal death (RR, 0.53 (95% CI, 0.35-0.81)), respiratory distress syndrome (RR, 0.70 (95% CI, 0.56-0.89)), composite neonatal morbidity and mortality (RR, 0.61 (95% CI, 0.34-0.98)), use of mechanical

  3. Severe primary postpartum hemorrhage due to genital tract laceration after operative vaginal delivery: successful treatment with transcatheter arterial embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fargeaudou, Yann; Soyer, Philippe; Sirol, Marc; Dref, Olivier le; Boudiaf, Mourad; Dahan, Henri; Rymer, Roland [Hopital Lariboisiere-APHP-GHU Nord et Universite Diderot-Paris 7, Department of Abdominal and Interventional Imaging, Paris (France); Morel, Olivier [Hopital Lariboisiere-APHP-GHU Nord et Universite Diderot-Paris 7, Department of Obstetrics, Paris (France)

    2009-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to report our experience in the management of severe primary postpartum hemorrhage due to genital tract laceration following operative vaginal delivery with forceps using pelvic transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE). Ten women (mean age, 31.9 years) with severe primary postpartum hemorrhage due to genital tract laceration after operative delivery with forceps were treated with TAE. TAE was indicated because of intractable bleeding that could not be controlled with uterotonic drugs, blood transfusion, attempted suturing and packing in all patients. Postdelivery perineal examination showed cervical or vaginal tears in all women and associated paravaginal hematoma in four. Angiography revealed extravasation of contrast material in six patients. TAE performed with gelatin sponge allowed to control the bleeding in all patients. Cervical and vaginal suturing was made possible and successfully achieved in the six women who had failed suturing attempts before TAE. Paravaginal hematoma was successfully evacuated in four patients in whom it was present after TAE. No complications related to TAE were noted. We conclude that in women with severe primary postpartum hemorrhage due to genital tract laceration after operative delivery with forceps, TAE is effective and safe for stopping the bleeding and helps genital tract suturing and evacuation of hematoma. (orig.)

  4. CLarifying vaginal atrophy's impact On SEx and Relationships (CLOSER) survey in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidozzi, F; Thomas, C; Smith, T; Nappi, R E

    2017-02-01

    With a paucity of information from sub-Saharan Africa, the impact of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy on women and male partners in South Africa was investigated. Four hundred individuals in South Africa (200 postmenopausal women who had experienced symptoms of vaginal atrophy, and 200 male partners) completed a structured questionnaire. Sixty-eight percent of women had avoided intimacy because of vaginal discomfort; 62% of men described observing this behavior in their partners. Consequently, 52% of women and 51% of men reported decreased sexual activity - 20% of women and 18% of men believed vaginal discomfort had 'caused a big problem'. Significantly higher proportions of women than men (p South Africa.

  5. Vaginal Biogenic Amines: Biomarkers of Bacterial Vaginosis or Precursors to Vaginal Dysbiosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffanie Maree Nelson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis (BV is the most common vaginal disorder among reproductive age women. One clinical indicator of BV is a ‘fishy’ odor. This odor has been associated with increases in several biogenic amines (BAs that may serve as important biomarkers. Within the vagina, BA production has been linked to various vaginal taxa, yet their genetic capability to synthesize BAs is unknown. Using a bioinformatics approach, we show that relatively few vaginal taxa are predicted to be capable of producing BAs. Many of these taxa (Dialister, Prevotella, Parvimonas, Megasphaera, Peptostreptococcus, and Veillonella spp. are more abundant in the vaginal microbial community state type (CST IV, which is depleted in lactobacilli. Several of the major Lactobacillus species (L. crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. gasseri were identified as possessing gene sequences for proteins predicted to be capable of putrescine production. Finally, we show in a small cross sectional study of 37 women that the BAs putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine are significantly higher in CST IV over CSTs I and III. These data support the hypothesis that BA production is conducted by few vaginal taxa and may be important to the outgrowth of BV-associated (vaginal dysbiosis vaginal bacteria.

  6. A Novel Technique for Anterior Vaginal Wall Prolapse Repair: Anterior Vaginal Wall Darn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Köse

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study is to introduce a new technique, anterior vaginal wall darn (AVWD, which has not been used before to repair the anterior vaginal wall prolapse, a common problem among women. Materials and Methods. Forty-five women suffering from anterior vaginal wall prolapse were operated on with a new technique. The anterior vaginal wall was detached by sharp and blunt dissection via an incision beginning from the 1 cm proximal aspect of the external meatus extending to the vaginal apex, and the space between the tissues that attach the lateral walls of the vagina to the arcus tendineus fascia pelvis (ATFP was then darned. Preoperation and early postoperation evaluations of the patients were conducted and summarized. Results. Data were collected six months after operation. Cough stress test (CST, Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q evaluation, Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ-7, and Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6 scores indicated recovery. According to the early postoperation results, all patients were satisfied with the operation. No vaginal mucosal erosion or any other complications were detected. Conclusion. In this initial series, our short-term results suggested that patients with grade II-III anterior vaginal wall prolapsus might be treated successfully with the AVWD method.

  7. The vaginal microflora in relation to gingivitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Gingivitis has been linked to adverse pregnancy outcome (APO). Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been associated with APO. We assessed if bacterial counts in BV is associated with gingivitis suggesting a systemic infectious susceptibilty. Methods Vaginal samples were collected from 180 women (mean age 29.4 years, SD ± 6.8, range: 18 to 46), and at least six months after delivery, and assessed by semi-quantitative DNA-DNA checkerboard hybridization assay (74 bacterial species). BV was defined by Gram stain (Nugent criteria). Gingivitis was defined as bleeding on probing at ≥ 20% of tooth sites. Results A Nugent score of 0–3 (normal vaginal microflora) was found in 83 women (46.1%), and a score of > 7 (BV) in 49 women (27.2%). Gingivitis was diagnosed in 114 women (63.3%). Women with a diagnosis of BV were more likely to have gingivitis (p = 0.01). Independent of gingival conditions, vaginal bacterial counts were higher (p gingivitis had higher counts of Prevotella bivia (p 1.0 × 104 cells) and a diagnosis of gingivitis was 3.9 for P. bivia (95% CI 1.5–5.7, p gingivitis in comparison to women with BV but not gingivitis. P. bivia and P. disiens may be of specific significance in a relationship between vaginal and gingival infections. PMID:19161595

  8. A randomized trial comparing a polyherbal pessary (a complementary and alternative medicine) with Ginlac-V pessary (containing clotrimazole, tinidazole and lactobacilli) for treatment of women with symptomatic vaginal discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Yamal; Gopalan, Sarala; Bagga, Rashmi; Sharma, Meera; Chopra, Seema; Sethi, Sunil

    2008-10-01

    Most women with abnormal vaginal discharge have infection due to candida species, bacterial vaginosis or trichomoniasis and often seek treatment without laboratory confirmation. In this context, a single agent effective against these infections would be useful. To compare the efficacy of two such agents: Praneem polyherbal pessary; a complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) with Ginlac-V pessary (containing clotrimazole, tinidazole and lactobacilli) for treatment of abnormal vaginal discharge. A randomized study in a tertiary care hospital in North India. One hundred women were randomized for treatment with either of the two pessaries. Clinical examination and laboratory evaluation was done before and after treatment. Mc-Nemar test and Chi-square test. Overall, 82% (82/100) reported symptomatic relief; 78% (39/50) with Praneem and 86% (43/50) with Ginlac-V. Only 36% (18/50 in each group) had laboratory-confirmed infection; 18% (18/100) candidosis, 17% (17/100) bacterial vaginosis, 1% (1/100) both; none had trichomoniasis. Among these, symptomatic improvement was seen in 72% (13/18) and laboratory cure in 78% (14/18) with Praneem; symptomatic improvement in 78% (14/18) and laboratory cure in 78% (14/18) with Ginlac-V. Clinical or laboratory criteria could assess treatment efficacy equally. Neither drug was efficacious in candidosis. Ginlac-V was efficacious in bacterial vaginosis (100%) and though Praneem showed a similar trend, it was not statistically significant. Vaginal irritation was more frequent with Praneem (16% vs 4% with Ginlac-V). Both Praneem and Ginlac-V provided symptomatic relief in most of the women. Either clinical or laboratory criteria could assess treatment efficacy of both drugs. Ginlac-V was efficacious for treating bacterial vaginosis.

  9. Relationship among vaginal palpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, electromyographic and ultrasonographic variables of female pelvic floor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Vanessa S; Hirakawa, Humberto S; Oliveira, Ana B; Driusso, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The proper evaluation of the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) is essential for choosing the correct treatment. Currently, there is no gold standard for the assessment of female PFM function. To determine the correlation between vaginal palpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, and electromyographic and ultrasonographic variables of the female PFM. This cross-sectional study evaluated 80 women between 18 and 35 years of age who were nulliparous and had no pelvic floor dysfunction. PFM function was assessed based on digital palpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, electromyographic activity, bilateral diameter of the bulbocavernosus muscles and the amount of bladder neck movement during voluntary PFM contraction using transperineal bi-dimensional ultrasound. The Pearson correlation was used for statistical analysis (ppalpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, and electromyographic and ultrasonographic variables of the PFM in nulliparous women. The strong correlation between digital palpation and PFM contraction pressure indicated that perineometry could easily be replaced by PFM digital palpation in the absence of equipment.

  10. Cervicovaginal aerobic microflora of women with spontaneous abortion or preterm delivery in Araraquara-Brazil Microbiota aeróbica cérvico-vaginal de mulheres com aborto espontâneo ou prematuridade fetal em Araraquara - Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Stella G. Raddi

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological routine exams of endocervix and vaginal specimens of 22 women with clinical history of recent spontaneous abortion or premature rupture of membranes were accomplished. Chlamydia trachomatis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Candida sp and Gardnerella vaginalis were recovered from 54.5% (12 of the women. Ureaplasma urealyticum was frequently isolated (45.5% but 5 out of 22 had U. urealyticum only. Our report stands for the importance of quantitative as well as qualitative investigation on genital microflora in pregnant women, since it is likely to influence on pregnancy outcome.Rotina bacteriológica do conteúdo vaginal e cervical de 22 mulheres com histórico de aborto recente ou ruptura precoce das membranas foi realizada. Chlamydia trachomatis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Candida sp e Gardnerella vaginalis foram isolados em 54,5% (12 das pacientes. Apesar de Ureaplasma urealyticum ter sido frequentemente encontrado (45,5%, somente em 5 das 22 mulheres foi o único microrganismo presente nos materiais analisados. Esses resultados chamam a atenção para a importância de investigação quantitativa bem como qualitativa da microbiota genital em gestantes, tendo em vista ter consequências na gestação.

  11. Effects of intrauterine contraception on the vaginal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassis, Christine M; Allsworth, Jenifer E; Wahl, Heather N; Sack, Daniel E; Young, Vincent B; Bell, Jason D

    2017-09-01

    There have been conflicting reports of altered vaginal microbiota and infection susceptibility associated with contraception use. The objectives of this study were to determine if intrauterine contraception altered the vaginal microbiota and to compare the effects of a copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD) and a levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) on the vaginal microbiota. DNA was isolated from the vaginal swab samples of 76 women using Cu-IUD (n=36) or LNG-IUS (n=40) collected prior to insertion of intrauterine contraception (baseline) and at 6 months. A third swab from approximately 12 months following insertion was available for 69 (Cu-IUD, n=33; LNG-IUS, n=36) of these women. The V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA-encoding gene was amplified from the vaginal swab DNA and sequenced. The 16S rRNA gene sequences were processed and analyzed using the software package mothur to compare the structure and dynamics of the vaginal bacterial communities. The vaginal microbiota from individuals in this study clustered into 3 major vaginal bacterial community types: one dominated by Lactobacillus iners, one dominated by Lactobacillus crispatus and one community type that was not dominated by a single Lactobacillus species. Changes in the vaginal bacterial community composition were not associated with the use of Cu-IUD or LNG-IUS. Additionally, we did not observe a clear difference in vaginal microbiota stability with Cu-IUD versus LNG-IUS use. Although the vaginal microbiota can be highly dynamic, alterations in the community associated with the use of intrauterine contraception (Cu-IUD or LNG-IUS) were not detected over 12 months. We found no evidence that intrauterine contraception (Cu-IUD or LNG-IUS) altered the vaginal microbiota composition. Therefore, the use of intrauterine contraception is unlikely to shift the composition of the vaginal microbiota such that infection susceptibility is altered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effectiveness of the two microorganisms Lactobacillus fermentum LF15 and Lactobacillus plantarum LP01, formulated in slow-release vaginal tablets, in women affected by bacterial vaginosis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicariotto, Franco; Mogna, Luca; Del Piano, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common reason for abnormal vaginal discharge in reproductive-age women and one of its most important causative agents is the gram-variable bacterium Gardnerella vaginalis. BV is not accompanied by significant local inflammation, whereas the "fishy odor" test is always positive. In contrast, aerobic vaginitis (AV) is predominantly associated with Escherichia coli, but Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus are also involved. Standard treatment of BV consists of oral or intravaginal antibiotics, although these are unable to spontaneously restore normal flora characterized by a high concentration of lactobacilli. The main limitation is the inability to offer a long-term defensive barrier, thus facilitating relapses and recurrences. This study was undertaken firstly to assess the ability of selected lactobacilli to in vitro antagonize G. vaginalis to determine an association with a strain able to inhibit E. coli, thus identifying a possible use in AV. The second step of the study was to conduct a human pilot trial in women affected by BV using an association of the most promising and active bacteria. For this purpose, neutralized supernatants of individual lactobacilli were tested at percentages ranging from 0.5% to 4% to determine their ability to hinder the growth of G. vaginalis American Type Culture Collection 10231. The bacterium that was able to exert the strongest inhibition was subsequently tested with Lactobacillus plantarum LP01 in a human intervention, placebo-controlled, pilot trial involving 34 female subjects (aged between 18 and 50, mean 34.7±8.9, no menopausal women) diagnosed with BV. The 2 microorganisms Lactobacillus fermentum LF15 (DSM 26955) and L. plantarum LP01 (LMG P-21021) were delivered to the vagina by means of slow-release vaginal tablets, also containing 50 mg of tara gum. The amount of each strain was 400 million live cells per dose. The women were instructed to apply a vaginal tablet once

  13. Leech as a cause of abnormal vaginal bleeding: Presentation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bleeding stopped soon. The patient was discharged in a good condition with hemoglobin on 8gm% on iron tablets. Leech as a cause of abnormal vaginal bleeding: Presentation of three cases in adults. Kibreab Asrat MD. Orotta National referral Maternity Hospital, Asmara, Eritrea. Abstract. Vaginal bleeding in women ...

  14. Systemic uptake of miconazole during vaginal suppository use and effect on CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 associated enzyme activities in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærstad, Mia Birkhøj; Nielsen, Flemming; Nøhr-Jensen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    To investigate if the ordinary use of a vaginal suppository containing miconazole results in systemic absorption that is sufficient to affect the activities of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4, which are major drug- and steroid-metabolising enzymes....

  15. Paediatric vaginal discharge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vaginal discharge in the prepubertal patient is a common symptom, and can be a source of distress for the caregiver and con- cern for the healthcare worker. Several factors predispose these patients to the development of recurrent vaginal discharge. Unless noticed by the caregiver, this problem can persist for long periods ...

  16. Trial of labour and vaginal birth after previous caesarean section: A population based study of Eastern African immigrants in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belihu, Fetene B; Small, Rhonda; Davey, Mary-Ann

    2017-03-01

    Variations in caesarean section (CS) between some immigrant groups and receiving country populations have been widely reported. Often, African immigrant women are at higher risk of CS than the receiving population in developed countries. However, evidence about subsequent mode of birth following CS for African women post-migration is lacking. The objective of this study was to examine differences in attempted and successful vaginal birth after previous caesarean (VBAC) for Eastern African immigrants (Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan) compared with Australian-born women. A population-based observational study was conducted using the Victorian Perinatal Data Collection. Pearson's chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were performed to generate adjusted odds ratios for attempted and successful VBAC. Victoria, Australia. 554 Eastern African immigrants and 24,587 Australian-born eligible women with previous CS having singleton births in public care. 41.5% of Eastern African immigrant women and 26.1% Australian-born women attempted a VBAC with 50.9% of Eastern African immigrants and 60.5% of Australian-born women being successful. After adjusting for maternal demographic characteristics and available clinical confounding factors, Eastern African immigrants were more likely to attempt (ORadj 1.94, 95% CI 1.57-2.47) but less likely to succeed (ORadj 0.54 95% CI 0.41-0.71) in having a VBAC. There are disparities in attempted and successful VBAC between Eastern African origin and Australian-born women. Unsuccessful VBAC attempt is more common among Eastern African immigrants, suggesting the need for improved strategies to select and support potential candidates for vaginal birth among these immigrants to enhance success and reduce potential complications associated with failed VBAC attempt. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalência da colonização vaginal e anorretal por estreptococo do grupo B em gestantes do terceiro trimestre Prevalence of vaginal and anorectal colonization by group B streptococcus in pregnant women in the last three months of gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Beraldo

    2004-08-01

    materna inferior a 20 anos e nível sócio econômico baixo e a prevalência da infecção.PURPOSE: to study the prevalence of colonization by group B Streptococcus in pregnant women in the last three months of gestation, and to evaluate the association of colonization with demographic and clinical maternal variables. METHODS: from October 8, 2002 to March 26, 2003, a transversal study of prevalence of colonization by group B Streptococcus was carried out in 309 pregnant women in the last three months of gestation. Samples of vaginal and anorectal secretions were collected and were tested for presumptive identification of group B Streptococcus. The pregnant women were studied according to race, age, level of instruction, family income, number of gestations, gestational age, history of urinary tract infection during present pregnancy, premature rupture of membranes and duration of ruptured membranes, intrapartum fever, chorioamnionitis, meconium in the amniotic fluid, spontaneous or cesarean section delivery, postpartum fever, and postpartum endometritis. RESULTS: fourty-six pregnant women were diagnosed with group B Streptococcus: 26 of them (56.5% had positive vaginal culture, 8 (17.4% positive anorectal culture and 12 (26.5% had both vaginal and anorectal positive cultures. None of the maternal variables were statistically significant with respect to group B Streptococcus colonization. The results were submitted to chi2 bivariate analysis and, when appropriate, Fisher's exact test. CONCLUSION: the prevalence rate of vaginal and anorectal colonization by group B Streptococcus in pregnant women in the last three months of gestation, in Londrina - Paraná, was 14.9%.

  18. [Frequency of epidural analgesia for vaginal delivery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanassova, M; Nikolov, A

    2011-01-01

    To establish the frequency of epidural analgesia for vaginal delivery. The research includes 51 632 deliveries for 16 years period. Total frequency of vaginal delivery with EA, compared to total number of vaginal deliveries for period is 11.77%. The frequency shows tendency to slowly increase in the beginning of the period, probably because of getting experienced among some of the obstetricians, after then frequency stay relatively constant. Except care of somatic health of mother and foetus, modern obstetrics requires to ensure maximum comfort of parturient, to satisfy requirements of modern women for "painless" delivery and leave a positive memory of birth. That is why more frequently use of EA for vaginal delivery is necessary. EA is an approved method for anesthetizing vaginal delivery. It is established slowly increasing frequency of EA for anesthetizing vaginal delivery. The frequency of EA in University hospital "Maichin dom" is relatively low in comparison with mentioned in literature values, which raises the question of finding ways to further promote and increase the application of EA.

  19. Cytology for the detection of early recurrence of gynecologic cancer in the vaginal vault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Lucia A S; de Andrade, Jurandyr M; Dos Reis, Francisco J C

    2014-01-01

    The real benefit of follow-up cervical cytology in women treated for gynecological cancer is unclear. This study was designed to assess the rate of success of cytological examinations in the detection of early vaginal recurrence of gynecological cancer in women found by other methods to have vaginal recurrence of cervical and endometrial cancer. Records of cytological examinations. Thirty-three women treated for early and invasive cervical and endometrial cancer with recurrence in the vaginal vault were retrospectively analyzed. Records from 1979 to 2010. Sixteen women (48.5%) had symptomatic vaginal recurrence associated with distant metastases, whereas 17 (51.5%) had vaginal recurrence only. Cytology was negative in 12 women (36.4%) with both symptomatic and asymptomatic recurrence and positive in the other 21 (63.6%). In 9 of these 21 women (42.9%), the disease was limited to the vaginal vault, whereas the remaining 12 (57.1%) presented with vaginal lesions associated with distant metastases. Cytology was positive in 9 of the 17 (52.9%) women whose recurrence was limited to the vaginal vault and negative in 8 (47.1%). Vaginal cytology yielded false-negative results in almost half of the women with vaginal recurrence of gynecological cancer. Patents of methods used for early diagnosis and detection of immortalization of cervical cancer are also reviewed in this article.

  20. Management of Vaginal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, S B L; Agrawal, Gaurav; Mittal, Megha; Mishra, Priyanshi

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal cancer is a rare gynecologic cancer with very little documentation. Literature search to have useful information for the management of vaginal cancer and share. We have searched the PUBMED database, Google search engine and other database. A total of 26 references were taken into account. Once spread from primary other cancers or vulva is ruled out, vaginal cancer is designated to be primary in origin. It was revealed that majority of vaginal cancers reported are squamous cell carcinomas. The most common risk factors implicated are Human Papiloma Virus, age. Most common presenting symptoms were abnormal vaginal bleeding,. Diagnosis requires pathological confirmation. Management depends on staging work-up. Vaginal cancer is staged by FIGO system of staging and TNM staging. There are many prognostic factors influencing the choice of treatment. Lymph node metastasis is one of the important prognostic factors, others to mention are histology, size, age. In a recent SEER analysis of over 2000 patients, the 5 year disease specific survival was 84% for stage 1, 75% for stage II and 57% for advanced tumors. Early carcinomas are generally treated with either surgery or radiation therapy. Advanced cancers are treated with radiation therapy with simultaneous administration of combined chemotherapy. Preventive strategies include safe sex and HPV vaccination. Primary vaginal cancer is a rare entity, if there is no history of cancer cervix or vulva in past or absence of cervical squamous cell carcinoma or vulvar carcinoma within 5 years is usually considered as primary vaginal cancer. Though early stage vaginal cancers have better outcome treated with surgery or radiotherapy or surgery followed by radiotherapy, radiotherapy alone is preferred mode of treatment in vaginal cancers.

  1. Prevalência e caracterização de espécies de lactobacilos vaginais em mulheres em idade reprodutiva sem vulvovaginites Prevalence and characterization of vaginal lactobacillus species in women at reproductive age without vulvovaginitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Melo Brolazo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: identificar espécies de lactobacilos isolados do conteúdo vaginal de mulheres saudáveis e assintomáticas; determinar as espécies mais prevalentes e caracterizá-las fenotipicamente. MÉTODOS: lactobacilos foram isolados em meio seletivo a partir de amostras de conteúdo vaginal de 135 mulheres, sem queixa de corrimento e com diagnóstico laboratorial negativo para infecções vaginais, acompanhadas em um ambulatório de Planejamento Familiar. Os isolados foram identificados por PCR multiplex e, quando necessário, submetidos ao sequenciamento do gene RNAr 16S. Foram também avaliados quanto à acidificação do meio de cultura, à produção de ácido láctico, de H2O2, bacteriocinas e a capacidade de adesão às células epiteliais. RESULTADOS: oitenta e três cepas de lactobacilos foram isoladas e identificadas, sendo as espécies predominantes L. crispatus (30,1%, L. jensenii (26,5%, L. gasseri (22,9% e L. vaginalis (8,4%. Apenas 20 destes isolados não produziram H2O2 em quantidades detectáveis. Das 37 linhagens selecionadas para teste de adesão a células epiteliais, 12 apresentaram adesão entre 50 a 69%, 10 apresentaram 70% ou mais, e as restantes pouca ou nenhuma adesão. Nenhum dos isolados produziu bacteriocinas. CONCLUSÕES: as espécies de lactobacilos mais prevalentes em mulheres sem vulvovaginites, isoladas em meio de cultura seletivo e identificadas por métodos moleculares, foram L. crispatus, L. jensenii e L. gasseri. Além de mais frequentes, tais linhagens também apresentaram melhor produção de H2O2 e atingiram menores valores de pH em meio de cultura.PURPOSE: to identify species of lactobacillus isolated from the vaginal contents of healthy and asymptomatic women, determining the most prevalent species and characterizing them phenotypically. METHODS: lactobacillus have been isolated in selective milieu from samples of the vaginal contents of 135 women without complaints of vaginal secretion, and with

  2. assisted vaginal hysterectomy versus abdominal hysterectomy on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J Gynecol Surg 1989;. 5: 213-216. 2. Garry R. Various approaches to laparoscopic hysterectomies. Curr Opin Obstet. Gynecol 1994; 6: 215-222. 3. Dickec RC, Greenspan J. Strauss LT, et al. Complications of abdominal and vaginal hysterectomy among women of reproductive age in the United States. Am J Obstet. Gynecol ...

  3. No reduction in instrumental vaginal births and no increased risk for adverse perineal outcome in nulliparous women giving birth on a birth seat: results of a Swedish randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensson Kyllike

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The WHO advises against recumbent or supine position for longer periods during labour and birth and states that caregivers should encourage and support the woman to take the position in which she feels most comfortable. It has been suggested that upright positions may improve childbirth outcomes and reduce the risk for instrumental delivery; however RCTs of interventions to encourage upright positions are scarce. The aim of this study was to test, by means of a randomized controlled trial, the hypothesis that the use of a birthing seat during the second stage of labor, for healthy nulliparous women, decreases the number of instrumentally assisted births and may thus counterbalance any increase in perineal trauma and blood loss. Methods A randomized controlled trial in Sweden where 1002 women were randomized to birth on a birth seat (experimental group or birth in any other position (control group. Data were collected between November 2006 and July 2009. The primary outcome measurement was the number of instrumental deliveries. Secondary outcome measurements included perineal lacerations, perineal edema, maternal blood loss and hemoglobin. Analysis was by intention to treat. Results The main findings of this study were that birth on the birth seat did not reduce the number of instrumental vaginal births, there was an increase in blood loss between 500 ml and 1000 ml in women who gave birth on the seat but no increase in bleeding over 1000 ml and no increase in perineal lacerations or perineal edema. Conclusions The birth seat did not reduce the number of instrumental vaginal births. The study confirmed an increased blood loss 500 ml - 1000 ml but not over 1000 ml for women giving birth on the seat. Giving birth on a birth seat caused no adverse consequences for perineal outcomes and may even be protective against episiotomies. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov.ID: NCT01182038

  4. Trénink konzistence vaginálního orgasmu u žen

    OpenAIRE

    Formánek, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To confirm the correlation between the ability to focus attention on vaginal sensations during penile-vaginal intercourse and the consistency of vaginal orgasm (Brody & Weiss, 2010) in our sample. To create a psychological method which would help women to improve their ability to focus the attention on vaginal sensations during PVI. The core of the method consists of mindfulness-based techniques and the Kegel exercise. In the next step we empirically verify the effectivity of such train...

  5. Long-term results of vaginal construction with the use of Frank dilation and a peritoneal graft (Davydov procedure) in patients with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemsen, Wim N P; Kluivers, Kirsten B

    2015-01-01

    To describe long-term outcomes after nonsurgical and surgical treatment of vaginal agenesis in a cohort of girls and women with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster (MRK) syndrome. Retrospective cohort study using a standardized case record form. University hospital. All girls and women with vaginal agenesis due to MRK syndrome, presenting during a 40-year period (1962-2012). Frank dilation and surgical treatment (with the use of a peritoneal graft, i.e., the Davydov method) for vaginal agenesis. Functional vaginal depth and complications. Two hundred fifty-four women with MRK visited the department. Urinary tract anomalies were found in 72 patients (31%), and other congenital anomalies in 59 (32%) of the patients with available data. One hundred sixty women were treated for vaginal agenesis. The mean follow-up time was 90 months (range 0-560 months). Sixty-eight patients had surgical treatment for vaginal agenesis with the use of a peritoneal graft (Davydov method) and reached a functional depth of the vagina of 7.8 cm (range 1-13 cm) Surgical therapy preceded by nonsurgical Frank dilation and/or attempted sexual intercourse did not result in more functional depth of the neovagina. The formation of granulation tissue (23%) and the tendency to obliterate (12%) were the major problems when using a peritoneal graft. Long-term results of both Frank dilation and Davydov neovagina procedure in experienced hands were good. The use of a peritoneal graft may be regarded as a good alternative to other widely used neovagina techniques using a graft, such as split-thickness skin graft or sigmoid neovagina. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Efficacy of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV among women with abnormal vaginal microbiota: a post-hoc analysis of the randomised, placebo-controlled Partners PrEP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffron, Renee; McClelland, R Scott; Balkus, Jennifer E; Celum, Connie; Cohen, Craig R; Mugo, Nelly; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Donnell, Deborah; Lingappa, Jairam; Kiarie, James; Fiedler, Tina; Munch, Matthew; Fredricks, David N; Baeten, Jared M

    2017-10-01

    Daily oral tenofovir-based pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is high efficacious for HIV prevention among women with high adherence. However, the effect of abnormal vaginal microbiota on PrEP efficacy is of concern. We investigated whether bacterial vaginosis modified the efficacy of oral PrEP. We used prospectively collected data from women in the Partners PrEP Study, a placebo-controlled trial of daily oral PrEP (either tenofovir monotherapy or a combination of tenofovir and emtricitabine) in HIV serodiscordant couples aged 18 years or older in Kenya and Uganda that showed high efficacy in women. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to assess PrEP efficacy among subgroups of women defined by bacterial vaginosis status based on yearly microscopy and Nugent scoring (0-3 indicated healthy microbiota, 4-6 intermediate, and 7-10 bacterial vaginosis). In separate efficacy analyses, we also investigated individual components of the score (ie, detection of Gardnerella vaginalis or Bacteroides spp and non-detection of Lactobacillus spp) as markers of abnormal microbiota. Of 1470 women (median age 33 years), 357 (24%) had bacterial vaginosis at enrolment. 45 women seroconverted to HIV. The HIV prevention efficacy of PrEP did not differ significantly among women with healthy microbiota (incidence 0·6 per 100 person years in PrEP group and 2·5 per 100 person-years in the placebo group; efficacy 76·55% [95% CI 43·09 to 90·37]), intermediate microbiota (HIV incidence 1·8 per 100 person-years in the PrEP group and 3·5 per 100 person-years in the placebo group; efficacy 62·72% [95% CI -66·59 to 91·66]), or bacterial vaginosis (HIV incidence 0·9 per 100 person-years in the PrEP group and 3·5 per 100 person-years in the placebo group; efficacy 72·50% [95% CI 5·98 to 91·95]; pinteraction=0·871). PrEP efficacy was not significantly different between women with detected G vaginalis or Bacteroides spp morphotypes and those without these morphotypes (efficacy 68

  7. Sexual functioning and vaginal changes after radical vaginal trachelectomy in early stage cervical cancer patients: a longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froeding, LP; Ottesen, C; Rung-Hansen, H

    2014-01-01

    Radical vaginal trachelectomy (RVT) offers low complication rate, good survival, and possibility for future childbearing for young women with early stage cervical cancer. However, the literature on quality of life (QOL) and sexual functioning in patients undergoing RVT is scarce....

  8. Probiotics in the Prevention and Treatment of Postmenopausal Vaginal Infections: Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Mo; Park, Yoo Jin

    2017-12-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) and complicated vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) are frequently occurring vaginal infections in postmenopausal women, caused by an imbalance in vaginal microflora. Postmenopausal women suffer from decreased ovarian hormones estrogen and progesterone. A normal, healthy vaginal microflora mainly comprises Lactobacillus species (spp.), which act beneficially as a bacterial barrier in the vagina, interfering with uropathogens. During premenopausal period, estrogen promotes vaginal colonization by lactobacilli that metabolizing glycogen and producing lactic acid, and maintains intravaginal health by lowering the intravaginal pH level. A lower vaginal pH inhibits uropathogen growth, preventing vaginal infections. Decreased estrogen secretion in postmenopausal women depletes lactobacilli and increases intravaginal pH, resulting in increased vaginal colonization by harmful microorganisms (e.g., Enterobacter , Escherichia coli , Candida , and Gardnerella ). Probiotics positively effects on vaginal microflora composition by promoting the proliferation of beneficial microorganisms, alters the intravaginal microbiota composition, prevents vaginal infections in postmenopausal. Probiotics also reduce the symptoms of vaginal infections (e.g., vaginal discharge, odor, etc.), and are thus helpful for the treatment and prevention of BV and VVC. In this review article, we provide information on the intravaginal mechanism of postmenopausal vaginal infections, and describes the effectiveness of probiotics in the treatment and prevention of BV and VVC.

  9. Pregnancy and Vaginal Delivery after Sacrohysteropexy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Balsak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy and birth after a Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP surgery is a rare condition and less is known about the method for delivery. A 31-year-old women with gravida 3 para 3 underwent abdominal sacrohysteropexy and transobturatuar tape (TOT procedures for stage III prolapse who delivered via vaginal birth and showed no relapse. Sacrohysteropexy is a good option for women with POP who desire fertility with a long term follow-up period.

  10. Delivery mode and neonatal outcome after a trial of external cephalic version (ECV): a prospective trial of vaginal breech versus cephalic delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Joscha; Sänger, Nicole; Hanker, Lars; Reichenbach, Lena; Yuan, Juping; Herrmann, Eva; Louwen, Frank

    2013-04-01

    To examine the delivery mode and neonatal outcome after a trial of external cephalic version (ECV) procedures. This is an interim analysis of an ongoing larger prospective off-centre randomised trial, which compares a clinical hypnosis intervention against neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) of women with a singleton breech foetus at or after 37(0/7) (259 days) weeks of gestation and normal amniotic fluid index. Main outcome measures were delivery mode and neonatal outcome. On the same day after the ECV procedure two patients (2 %), who had unsuccessful ECVs, had Caesarean sections (one due to vaginal bleeding and one due to pathological CTG). After the ECV procedure 40.4 % of women had cephalic presentation (n = 38) and 58.5 % (n = 55) remained breech presentation. One patient remained transverse presentation (n = 1; 1.1 %). Vaginal delivery was observed by 73.7 % of cephalic presentation (n = 28), whereas 26.3 % (n = 10) had in-labour Caesarean sections. Of those, who selected a trial of vaginal breech delivery, 42.4 % (n = 14) delivered vaginally and 57.6 % (n = 19) delivered via Caesarean section. There is a statistically significant difference between the rate of vaginal birth between cephalic presentation and trial of vaginal breech delivery (p = 0.009), however, no difference in neonatal outcome was observed. ECV is a safe procedure and can reduce not only the rate of elective Caesarean sections due to breech presentation but also the rate of in-labour Caesarean sections even if a trial of vaginal breech delivery is attempted.

  11. Vaginal delivery of breech presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotaska, Andrew; Menticoglou, Savas; Gagnon, Robert

    2009-06-01

    To review the physiology of breech birth; to discern the risks and benefits of a trial of labour versus planned Caesarean section; and to recommend to obstetricians, family physicians, midwives, obstetrical nurses, anaesthesiologists, pediatricians, and other health care providers selection criteria, intrapartum management parameters, and delivery techniques for a trial of vaginal breech birth. Trial of labour in an appropriate setting or delivery by pre-emptive Caesarean section for women with a singleton breech fetus at term. Reduced perinatal mortality, short-term neonatal morbidity, long-term infant morbidity, and short- and long-term maternal morbidity and mortality. Medline was searched for randomized trials, prospective cohort studies, and selected retrospective cohort studies comparing planned Caesarean section with a planned trial of labour; selected epidemiological studies comparing delivery by Caesarean section with vaginal breech delivery; and studies comparing long-term outcomes in breech infants born vaginally or by Caesarean section. Additional articles were identified through bibliography tracing up to June 1, 2008. The evidence collected was reviewed by the Maternal Fetal Medicine Committee of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC) and quantified using the criteria and classifications of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. This guideline was compared with the 2006 American College of Obstetrician's Committee Opinion on the mode of term singleton breech delivery and with the 2006 Royal College of Obstetrician and Gynaecologists Green Top Guideline: The Management of Breech Presentation. The document was reviewed by Canadian and International clinicians with particular expertise in breech vaginal delivery. The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. SUMMARY STATEMENTS: 1. Vaginal breech birth can be associated with a higher risk of perinatal mortality and short-term neonatal morbidity than

  12. Anterior vaginal wall repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may have you: Learn pelvic floor muscle exercises ( Kegel exercises ) Use estrogen cream in your vagina Try ... repair; Urinary incontinence - vaginal wall repair Patient Instructions Kegel exercises - self-care Self catheterization - female Suprapubic catheter ...

  13. Vaginal Yeast Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Yeast Infections Print A A A en español Infecciones vaginales por hongos What Are Vaginal Yeast Infections? ... keep the amount in a person's body under control. But yeast in the vagina can sometimes "overgrow" ...

  14. Vaginal birth - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/presentations/100198.htm Vaginal birth - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  15. Vaginal bleeding between periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Inflammation or infection of the cervix (cervicitis) or uterus (endometritis) Injury or disease of the vaginal opening (caused by intercourse, trauma, infection, polyp, genital warts , ulcer, or varicose veins) ...

  16. Yeast Infection (Vaginal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vaginal discharge with a cottage cheese appearance Complicated yeast infection You might have a complicated yeast infection ... have an uncomplicated or a complicated infection. Uncomplicated yeast infection For mild to moderate symptoms and infrequent ...

  17. The aetiology of vaginal symptoms in rural Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Claire C; Desgrottes, Tania; Cutler, Lauren; Cutler, David; Devarajan, Karthika; Ocheretina, Oksana; Pape, Jean William; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2014-08-01

    Vaginal symptoms are a common chief complaint amongst women visiting outpatient clinics in rural Haiti. A systematic sample of 206 consecutive women over age 18 with gynaecological symptoms underwent gynaecologic examination and laboratory testing for chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis, HIV infection, trichomoniasis, candidiasis, and bacterial vaginosis. Among 206 women, 174 (84%) presented with vaginal discharge, 165 (80%) with vaginal itching, 123 (60%) with vaginal pain or dysuria, and 18 (9%) with non-traumatic vaginal sores or boils. Laboratory results were positive forChlamydia trachomatisin 5.4% (11/203), syphilis in 3.5% (7/202), HIV in 1.0% (2/200), andNeisseria gonorrhoeaein 1.0% (2/203). Among those that had microscopy, hyphae suggestive of candidiasis were visualized in 2.2% (1/45) and no cases of trichomoniasis were diagnosed 0% (0/45). Bacterial vaginosis was diagnosed in 28.3% (13/46). The prevalence of chlamydia was 4.9 (95% CI: 1.3-17.7) times greater among those 25 years of age and under (10.8%) than those older (2.3%). Chlamydia and bacterial vaginosis were the most common sexually transmitted infection and vaginal condition, respectively, in this study of rural Haitian adult women. The higher risk of chlamydia in younger women suggests education and screening programmes in young women should be considered. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  18. Pre-puncture ultrasound guided epidural insertion before vaginal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Mahmoud; Abdelazim, Ibrahim A

    2015-10-01

    Palpation method is widely used in clinical practice to identify the puncture site during combined spinal-epidural (CSE) blocks. Tuffier's line, is an anatomical landmark between two iliac crests (inter-cristal), which is widely used to identify the puncture site during CSE blocks is not always an indicator for specific vertebral level or inter-vertebral space. One hundred and Ten (110) women were scheduled for normal vaginal delivery and were randomized into two equal groups; palpation group and an ultrasound guided group to detect the efficacy of puncture ultrasound before CSE blocks to increase chances of successful CSE procedure on the first attempt and to reduce the number of attempts or punctures during insertion of CSE catheter. There were no significant differences between two studied groups regarding; maternal age, weight and height, while, there was a significant difference between two studied groups regarding; parity. Percentage of successful CSE procedure on the first attempt was significantly higher (67.27%) in ultrasound compared to palpation group (40%). Number of punctures (attempts) were significantly less in ultrasound (1.2 ± 0.6) compared to palpation group (2.3 ± 0.8) and the number of redirections was also significantly less in ultrasound (1.4 ± 0.5) compared to palpation group (2.8 ± 1.6). Although, time to identify puncture site was significantly longer in ultrasound compared to palpation group and total procedure time was longer in ultrasound (9.1 ± 1.5 min) compared to palpation group (6.2 ± 1.2 min), there was no significant difference between two studied groups regarding; time to identify puncture site and total procedure time. Two cases of dural puncture in palpation versus no cases in ultrasound group and two cases of intravascular catheter placement (one in each group), with no significant difference between two groups. Pre- puncture ultrasound guided epidural insertion before vaginal delivery, increases the chance of a

  19. Rescreening for abnormal vaginal flora in pregnancy and re-treating with clindamycin vaginal cream significantly increases cure and improvement rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamont, R F; Taylor-Robinson, D; Bassett, P

    2012-01-01

    We investigated 199 pregnant women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) who received clindamycin vaginal cream (CVC) for three days and compared with 205 women treated with placebo. The vaginal flora was assessed at each visit. At the second visit, 71% in the CVC group were cured/improved, compared...

  20. Pregnancy's stronghold on the vaginal microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina R S Walther-António

    Full Text Available To assess the vaginal microbiome throughout full-term uncomplicated pregnancy.Vaginal swabs were obtained from twelve pregnant women at 8-week intervals throughout their uncomplicated pregnancies. Patients with symptoms of vaginal infection or with recent antibiotic use were excluded. Swabs were obtained from the posterior fornix and cervix at 8-12, 17-21, 27-31, and 36-38 weeks of gestation. The microbial community was profiled using hypervariable tag sequencing of the V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene, producing approximately 8 million reads on the Illumina MiSeq.Samples were dominated by a single genus, Lactobacillus, and exhibited low species diversity. For a majority of the patients (n = 8, the vaginal microbiome was dominated by Lactobacillus crispatus throughout pregnancy. Two patients showed Lactobacillus iners dominance during the course of pregnancy, and two showed a shift between the first and second trimester from L. crispatus to L. iners dominance. In all of the samples only these two species were identified, and were found at an abundance of higher than 1% in this study. Comparative analyses also showed that the vaginal microbiome during pregnancy is characterized by a marked dominance of Lactobacillus species in both Caucasian and African-American subjects. In addition, our Caucasian subject population clustered by trimester and progressed towards a common attractor while African-American women clustered by subject instead and did not progress towards a common attractor.Our analyses indicate normal pregnancy is characterized by a microbiome that has low diversity and high stability. While Lactobacillus species strongly dominate the vaginal environment during pregnancy across the two studied ethnicities, observed differences between the longitudinal dynamics of the analyzed populations may contribute to divergent risk for pregnancy complications. This helps establish a baseline for investigating the role of the microbiome in

  1. A prospective trial comparing tension-free vaginal tape and transobturator vaginal tape inside-out for the surgical treatment of female stress urinary incontinence: 1-year followup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu-Sung; Han, Deok Hyun; Choi, Yang Su; Yum, Seung Hee; Song, Seung Hun; Doo, Chin Kyung; Choo, Myung-Soo

    2007-01-01

    We prospectively compared the efficacy and safety of tension-free vaginal tape and transobturator vaginal tape inside-out for female stress urinary incontinence. A total of 120 women with stress urinary incontinence were alternately assigned to the tension-free vaginal tape group (60) or the transobturator vaginal tape inside-out group (60). Preoperative evaluation included urodynamic study and a Korean version of the incontinence quality of life questionnaire. One year after operation the surgical result, patient satisfaction, incontinence quality of life questionnaire, long-term complications and uroflowmetry were evaluated in the 2 groups. Patient characteristics were comparable in the 2 groups. Mean +/- SD operative time was significantly shorter in the transobturator vaginal tape inside-out vs the tension-free vaginal tape group (11 +/- 1.4 vs 15 +/- 1.8 minutes). In the transobturator vaginal tape inside-out and the tension-free vaginal tape groups the rates of cure (86.8% and 86.8%), improvement (6.6% and 8.2%) and failure (6.6% and 5.0%, respectively) were similar. Incontinence quality of life questionnaire parameters 1 year after surgery were improved significantly in each group and there was no difference between the 2 groups (p 0.05, respectively). There was no long-term complication in either group. Preoperative urge incontinence resolved in 80% of the tension-free vaginal tape group and in 100% of the transobturator vaginal tape inside-out group. De novo urgency developed in 4 patients (6.6%) in the transobturator vaginal tape inside-out group. The tension-free vaginal tape and transobturator vaginal tape inside-out procedures were minimally invasive and similar in operation related morbidity. Transobturator vaginal tape inside-out appeared to be as effective and safe as tension-free vaginal tape for the surgical treatment of stress urinary incontinence in women at 1-year followup.

  2. A woman's history of vaginal orgasm is discernible from her walk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Aurelie; Brody, Stuart; de Sutter, Pascal; de Carufel, François

    2008-09-01

    Research has demonstrated the association between vaginal orgasm and better mental health. Some theories of psychotherapy assert a link between muscle blocks and disturbances of both character and sexual function. In Functional-Sexological therapy, one focus of treatment is amelioration of voluntary movement. The present study examines the association of general everyday body movement with history of vaginal orgasm. The objective was to determine if appropriately trained sexologists could infer women's history of vaginal orgasm from observing only their gait. Women with known histories of either vaginal orgasm or vaginal anorgasmia were videotaped walking on the street, and their orgasmic status was judged by sexologists blind to their history. The concordance between having had orgasms triggered by penile-vaginal intercourse (not orgasm from direct clitoral stimulation) and raters' inferences of vaginal orgasm history based on observation of the woman's walk was the main outcome measure. In the sample of healthy young Belgian women (half of whom were vaginally orgasmic), history of vaginal orgasm (triggered solely by penile-vaginal intercourse) was diagnosable at far better than chance level (81.25% correct, Fisher's Exact Test P orgasm history was unrelated to both ratings and to vaginal orgasm history. Exploratory analyses suggest that greater pelvic and vertebral rotation and stride length might be characteristic of the gait of women who have experienced vaginal orgasm (r = 0.51, P women's experience of vaginal orgasm from a gait that comprises fluidity, energy, sensuality, freedom, and absence of both flaccid and locked muscles. Results are discussed with regard to previous research on gait, the effect of the musculature on sexual function, the special nature of vaginal orgasm, and implications for sexual therapy.

  3. Influência do conteúdo vaginal de gestantes sobre a recuperação do estreptococo do grupo B nos meios de transporte Stuart e Amies Influence of vaginal environment of pregnant women on the recovery of group B streptococcus in Stuart and Amies transport media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Simões

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a influência do meio vaginal de gestantes na sobrevivência do estreptococo do grupo B (EGB mantido por 8, 24 e 48 horas nos meios de transporte Amies e Stuart. MÉTODOS: foram coletados três swabs vaginais de 30 gestantes atendidas no Ambulatório de Pré-Natal do Centro de Atenção Integral à Saúde da Mulher (CAISM, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP. O primeiro swab foi mergulhado diretamente no meio seletivo de Todd-Hewitt; o segundo foi utilizado para a realização da bacterioscopia corada pelo Gram e o terceiro foi mergulhado em 2 mL de solução salina à qual foram acrescentados 200 µL de uma suspensão contendo EGB na concentração de 1-2 x 10(8 unidades formadoras de colônia. Desta última suspensão de EGB, foram colhidos três swabs do meio Amies e três do meio Stuart, os quais foram mantidos em temperatura ambiente por 8, 24 e 48 horas, para posterior semeadura em ágar sangue. A leitura do crescimento das placas foi realizada após 24 horas de incubação e classificada semiquantitativamente (0-3 cruzes de acordo com o número de colônias observadas. A análise estatística foi efetuada com o teste exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: a recuperação do EGB nos meios de transporte Amies e Stuart após 48 horas de estocagem foi de 97 e 87%, respectivamente. Em um dos quatro casos em que não houve a recuperação do EGB após 48 horas de armazenamento, o pH vaginal foi superior a 4,5 e em dois casos havia a presença de vaginose citolítica. CONCLUSÕES: ambos os meios de transporte mostraram-se adequados para a recuperação do EGB em gestantes até 48 horas após a coleta. As características do meio vaginal não influenciaram a recuperação do EGB no presente estudo.PURPOSE: to evaluate the influence of vaginal environment of pregnant women on group B streptococcus (GBS survival after 8, 24 e 48 h in Amies and Stuart transport media. METHODS: Three vaginal samples were collected from 30 pregnant

  4. Vaginal Primary Malignant Melanoma: A Rare and Aggressive Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Androutsopoulos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaginal primary malignant melanoma is a rare and very aggressive tumor. It most commonly occurs in postmenopausal women, with a mean age of 57 years. Our patient is an 80-year-old, postmenopausal Greek woman presented with a complaint of abnormal vaginal bleeding. On gynecologic examination there was a pigmented, raised, ulcerated, and irregular lesion  cm in the upper third of anterior vaginal wall. She underwent a wide local excision of the lesion. The histopathology revealed vaginal primary malignant melanoma with ulceration and no clear surgical margins. She denied any additional surgical interventions and underwent to postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy. Follow up 5 months after initial diagnosis revealed no evidence of local recurrence or distant metastasis. The prognosis of vaginal primary malignant melanoma is very poor despite treatment modality, because most of the cases are diagnosed at advanced stage. Particularly patients with no clear surgical margins and tumor size >3 cm needed postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy.

  5. The Comparison of vaginal cream of mixing yogurt, honey and clotrimazole on symptoms of vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvishi, Maryam; Jahdi, Fereshteh; Hamzegardeshi, Zeinab; Goodarzi, Saied; Vahedi, Mohsen

    2015-04-03

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is known as one of the most common fungal infection among women of reproductive age and considered as an important public health problem. In recent years, due to resistance to common antifungal medication, the use of traditional medicine of anti-fungal and herbal treatment increased. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine the effects of vaginal cream, mixture of yogurt and honey and comparing it with clotrimazole vaginal cream on symptoms of Vulvovaginal candidiasis in patients. In this randomized, triple blind clinical trial of 70 non-pregnant women infected with Candidal vulvovaginitis were placed in two groups of Vaginal cream mixed of yogurt and honey recipients (N=35) and clotrimazole vaginal cream (N=35). Both groups were treated for 7 days. At the beginning of study, Clinical and laboratory signs and symptoms were registered 7 and 14 days after treatment by questionnaire, observation form and secretions culture results. Data by chi-square test, t test, McNemar tests were analyzed by SPSS version 21. Significance level of 0.05 was considered. The result of present study reveals the significant differences in symptom improvement of ' yogurt and honey, than clotrimazole group (Pyogurt and honey" and clotrimazole (20% versus 8.6%) and second time cultivation (14 days after treatment) (17/1% versus 8.6%) were similar and there was no significant differences between the two groups. (P>0.05) CONCLUSION: This study indicated that he therapeutic effects of vaginal cream, yogurt and honey is not only similar with clotrimazole vaginal cream but more effective in relieving some symptoms of vaginal candidiasis. Therefore, the use of this product can be suggested as an herbal remedy for candida infection treatment.

  6. Aerobic vaginal pathogens and their sensitivity pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Shamim; Ahmad, Mumtaz; Aftab, Irum; Akhtar, Naeem; ul Hassan, Masood; Hamid, Abdul

    2008-01-01

    The vaginal flora is a complicated environment, containing dozens of microbiological species in variable quantities and relative proportions. The frequent cause of vaginal discharge is an infection or colonization with different microorganisms. Some pathologic conditions causing vaginitis are well defined yet, 7-72% of women with vaginitis may remain undiagnosed and such forms of abnormal vaginal flora neither considered as normal, nor can be called bacterial vaginosis have been termed as 'intermediate flora' and its management probably differ from that of bacterial vaginosis. It is of crucial importance in pregnant females at risk of preterm delivery. The present study has been conducted especially to elucidate this type of aerobic vaginal isolates and their culture and sensitivity towards currently used antibiotics. This study was conducted at the Microbiology Department of Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi over a period of two years (April 2004-March 2006). One thousand, nine hundred and twenty three high vaginal swabs, both from indoor and outdoor patients were collected, cultured and their susceptibility to various antibiotics was determined. Significant growth was obtained in 731 samples. The highest frequency of infection (39.5%) was observed at 31-40 years followed by 41-50 years (35.8%). About 76% were from outdoor and 24% were from indoor patients. Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent vaginal pathogen at 11-60 yrs & with highest prevalence at 31-40 years followed by 41-50 years. It was a predominant pathogen in both indoor (35%) as well as outdoor (41.6%) patients, followed by enteric gram-negative bacilli and other gram-positive cocci. There were very few antibiotics among the conventionally available aminoglycosides, third generation cephalosporins, penicillin, quinolones, sulfonamides and tetracyclines possessing good sensitivity (> 80%) against any one the common aerobic vaginal pathogens. The effective chemotherapeutics agents belong to

  7. Relationship among vaginal palpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, electromyographic and ultrasonographic variables of female pelvic floor muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa S. Pereira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The proper evaluation of the pelvic floor muscles (PFM is essential for choosing the correct treatment. Currently, there is no gold standard for the assessment of female PFM function. Objective: To determine the correlation between vaginal palpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, and electromyographic and ultrasonographic variables of the female PFM. Method: This cross-sectional study evaluated 80 women between 18 and 35 years of age who were nulliparous and had no pelvic floor dysfunction. PFM function was assessed based on digital palpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, electromyographic activity, bilateral diameter of the bulbocavernosus muscles and the amount of bladder neck movement during voluntary PFM contraction using transperineal bi-dimensional ultrasound. The Pearson correlation was used for statistical analysis (p<0.05. Results: There was a strong positive correlation between PFM function and PFM contraction pressure (0.90. In addition, there was a moderate positive correlation between these two variables and PFM electromyographic activity (0.59 and 0.63, respectively and movement of the bladder neck in relation to the pubic symphysis (0.51 and 0.60, respectively. Conclusions: This study showed that there was a correlation between vaginal palpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, and electromyographic and ultrasonographic variables of the PFM in nulliparous women. The strong correlation between digital palpation and PFM contraction pressure indicated that perineometry could easily be replaced by PFM digital palpation in the absence of equipment.

  8. Lactobacilli Dominance and Vaginal pH: Why is the Human Vaginal Microbiome Unique?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Miller

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The human vaginal microbiome is dominated by bacteria from the genus Lactobacillus, which create an acidic environment thought to protect women against sexually transmitted pathogens and opportunistic infections. Strikingly, lactobacilli dominance appears to be unique to humans; while the relative abundance of lactobacilli in the human vagina is typically >70%, in other mammals lactobacilli rarely comprise more than 1% of vaginal microbiota. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain humans' unique vaginal microbiota, including humans' distinct reproductive physiology, high risk of STDs, and high risk of microbial complications linked to pregnancy and birth. Here, we test these hypotheses using comparative data on vaginal pH and the relative abundance of lactobacilli in 26 mammalian species and 50 studies (N=21 mammals for pH and 14 mammals for lactobacilli abundance. We found that non-human mammals, like humans, exhibit the lowest vaginal pH during the period of highest estrogen. However, the vaginal pH of non-human mammals is never as low as is typical for humans (median vaginal pH in humans = 4.5; range of pH across all 21 non-human mammals = 5.4 to 7.8. Contrary to disease and obstetric risk hypotheses, we found no significant relationship between vaginal pH or lactobacilli abundance and multiple metrics of STD or birth injury risk (P-values ranged from 0.13 to 0.99. Given the lack of evidence for these hypotheses, we discuss two alternative explanations: the common function hypothesis and a novel hypothesis related to the diet of agricultural humans. Specifically, with regard to diet we propose that high levels of starch in human diets have led to increased levels of glycogen in the vaginal tract, which, in turn, promotes the proliferation of lactobacilli. If true, human diet may have paved the way for a novel, protective microbiome in human vaginal tracts. Overall, our results highlight the need for continuing research on non

  9. Influência da posição de parto vaginal nas variáveis obstétricas e neonatais de mulheres primíparas The influence of vaginal birth position on obstetric and neonatal variables in primiparous women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Mattos Baracho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: determinar a prevalência de fatores obstétricos associados à posição de parto vaginal (PPV - vertical ou horizontal; investigar correlações entre PPV e fatores obstétricos, bem como sua influência sobre as características neonatais. MÉTODOS: foi realizado um estudo de corte transversal. A amostra foi composta por 176 mulheres primíparas que realizaram parto vaginal, entre julho/2006 e fevereiro/2007. Foi investigada a correlação entre PPV e as seguintes variáveis obstétricas: ocorrência e grau de laceração perineal espontânea, episiotomia, sutura perineal, uso de ocitocina e instrumentação cirúrgica. Os neonatos foram classificados quanto à idade gestacional, peso, estatura, perímetro cefálico e Apgar 1º e 5º minutos. Teste qui quadrado foi aplicado para investigar correlação entre PPV e variáveis obstétricas e o teste t-student para investigar a influência da PPV nas características neonatais. RESULTADOS: não foi observada correlação entre PPV e sutura perineal, laceração perineal, uso de ocitocina, episiotomia e utilização de instrumentação cirúrgica (uso de fórceps ou vácuo-extrator. Houve correlação entre PPV e episiotomia e maior prevalência de episiotomia na posição horizontal. Não houve influência da PPV nas características neonatais. CONCLUSÕES: houve maior ocorrência de episiotomia na posição de parto horizontal, embora ambas as posições de parto tenham sido satisfatórias para os neonatos.OBJECTIVES: to determine the prevalence of obstetric factors associated with vaginal birth posi tion (VBP-vertical or horizontal; to investigate correlations between VBP and obstetric factors and neonatal characteristics. METHODS: a cross-sectional study was carried out. The sample comprised 176 primiparous women who had given birth vaginally, between july 2006 and february 2007. The correlation was investigated between VBP and the following obstetric variables: occurrence and

  10. Moyamoya disease and pregnancy: case reports and criteria for successful vaginal delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Sei, Kiguna; Sasa, Hidenori; Furuya, Kenichi

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Based on our experience with seven deliveries (five cesarean and two vaginal deliveries) in five women with Moyamoya disease, we discussed the appropriate method of delivery and anesthesia for patients with Moyamoya disease. In certain conditions, women with Moyamoya disease can successfully undergo vaginal delivery.

  11. The vaginal microbiota, host defence and reproductive physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Steven B; Ravel, Jacques

    2017-01-15

    The interaction between the human host and the vaginal microbiota is highly dynamic. Major changes in the vaginal physiology and microbiota over a woman's lifetime are largely shaped by transitional periods such as puberty, menopause and pregnancy, while daily fluctuations in microbial composition observed through culture-independent studies are more likely to be the results of daily life activities and behaviours. The vaginal microbiota of reproductive-aged women is largely made up of at least five different community state types. Four of these community state types are dominated by lactic-acid producing Lactobacillus spp. while the fifth is commonly composed of anaerobes and strict anaerobes and is sometimes associated with vaginal symptoms. The production of lactic acid has been associated with contributing to the overall health of the vagina due to its direct and indirect effects on pathogens and host defence. Some species associated with non-Lactobacillus vaginal microbiota may trigger immune responses as well as degrade the host mucosa, processes that ultimately increase susceptibility to infections and contribute to negative reproductive outcomes such as infertility and preterm birth. Further studies are needed to better understand the functional underpinnings of how the vaginal microbiota affect host physiology but also how host physiology affects the vaginal microbiota. Understanding this fine-tuned interaction is key to maintaining women's reproductive health. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  12. On the Biomechanics of Vaginal Birth and Common Sequelae

    OpenAIRE

    Ashton-Miller, James A.; DeLancey, John O. L.

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 11% of U.S. women undergo surgery for pelvic floor dysfunction, including genital organ prolapse and urinary and fecal incontinence. The major risk factor for developing these conditions is giving vaginal birth. Vaginal birth is a remarkable event about which little is known from a biomechanical perspective. We first review the functional anatomy of the female pelvic floor, the normal loads acting on the pelvic floor in activities of daily living, and the functional capacity of ...

  13. MANAGEMENT OF VAGINAL DISCHARGE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Northern Branch. He has conducted numerous clinical trials and has a research interest in infectious diseases with special emphasis on sexually transmitted infections. He is a recipi- ent of the NRFs grant for research in sexually transmitted diseases and is also the principal investigator for a phase III vaginal microbicide.

  14. Vaginal rejuvenation: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara G

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Giussy Barbara,1 Federica Facchin,2 Laura Buggio,3 Daniela Alberico,3 Maria Pina Frattaruolo,3 Alessandra Kustermann1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Service for Sexual and Domestic Violence (SVSeD, Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 2Faculty of Psychology, Catholic University of Milan, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, University of Milan, Milan, Italy Abstract: Female genital cosmetic surgery includes several procedures aimed at reaching better female genital appearance and/or improved sexual functioning. Among these procedures, vaginal rejuvenation is considered as one of the most controversial genital cosmetic surgical interventions and involves a range of surgical procedures performed by gynecologists or plastic surgeons to decrease the average diameter of the vagina, mainly for sexual reasons. In this narrative review, vaginal rejuvenation outcomes are examined in order to clarify the current scenario of the different vaginal rejuvenation techniques, as well as their effectiveness and associated complications. Psychological and ethical issues linked to these procedures are also addressed. Keywords: vaginal rejuvenation, female genital cosmetic surgery, vaginoplasty 

  15. A common clinical dilemma: Management of abnormal vaginal cytology and human papillomavirus test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Michelle J; Massad, L Stewart; Kinney, Walter; Gold, Michael A; Mayeaux, E J; Darragh, Teresa M; Castle, Philip E; Chelmow, David; Lawson, Herschel W; Huh, Warner K

    2016-05-01

    Vaginal cancer is an uncommon cancer of the lower genital tract, and standardized screening is not recommended. Risk factors for vaginal cancer include a history of other lower genital tract neoplasia or cancer, smoking, immunosuppression, and exposure to diethylstilbestrol in utero. Although cervical cancer screening after total hysterectomy for benign disease is not recommended, many women inappropriately undergo vaginal cytology and/or human papillomavirus (hrHPV) tests, and clinicians are faced with managing their abnormal results. Our objective is to review the literature on vaginal cytology and hrHPV testing and to develop guidance for the management of abnormal vaginal screening tests. An electronic search of the PubMed database through 2015 was performed. Articles describing vaginal cytology or vaginal hrHPV testing were reviewed, and diagnostic accuracy of these tests when available was noted. The available literature was too limited to develop evidence-based recommendations for managing abnormal vaginal cytology and hrHPV screening tests. However, the data did show that 1) the risk of vaginal cancer in women after hysterectomy is extremely low, justifying the recommendation against routine screening, and 2) in women for whom surveillance is recommended, e.g. women post-treatment for cervical precancer or cancer, hrHPV testing may be useful in identification of vaginal cancer precursors. Vaginal cancer is rare, and asymptomatic low-risk women should not be screened. An algorithm based on expert opinion is proposed for managing women with abnormal vaginal test results. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Human Vaginal Bacterial Biota and Bacterial Vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha Srinivasan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial biota of the human vagina can have a profound impact on the health of women and their neonates. Changes in the vaginal microbiota have been associated with several adverse health outcomes including premature birth, pelvic inflammatory disease, and acquisition of HIV infection. Cultivation-independent molecular methods have provided new insights regarding bacterial diversity in this important niche, particularly in women with the common condition bacterial vaginosis (BV. PCR methods have shown that women with BV have complex communities of vaginal bacteria that include many fastidious species, particularly from the phyla Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. Healthy women are mostly colonized with lactobacilli such as Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus jensenii, and Lactobacillus iners, though a variety of other bacteria may be present. The microbiology of BV is heterogeneous. The presence of Gardnerella vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae coating the vaginal epithelium in some subjects with BV suggests that biofilms may contribute to this condition.

  17. EFECTO DE LA RECOLONIZACIÓN VAGINAL POR LACTOBACILLUS SP. PROBIÓTICO POTENCIAL EN MUJERES CON VAGINOSIS BACTERIANA

    OpenAIRE

    HURTADO ESCAMILO, STEVE TONY

    2015-01-01

    The vaginal microflora of healthy women is dominated by Lactobacillus species, which prevent the growth and invasion of pathogenic bacteria and their decrease is associated with increased incidence of vaginal infections. Objective: To evaluate the effect of vaginal re-colonization by a potential probiotic Lactobacillus strain, Lactobacillus sp. BMP9, in women with bacterial vaginosis (BV). Methods: Women categorized by Nugent criteria: 16 with bacterial vaginosis (Nugent: 7-10 points) ...

  18. Angioembolisation in vaginal vascular malformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava D

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaginal arteriovenous malformations are rare entities and their most common presentation is vaginal haemorrhage. This case report describes a 22-year-old woman who presented at 20 weeks of gestation with slow growing soft and tender swelling at anterior vaginal wall. Diagnosis was confirmed as vaginal vascular malformation on contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. The mass did not subside after delivery and patient developed dyspareunia. It was successfully treated by angioembolisation using polyvinyl alcohol particles. Angioembolisation being safe and effective should be the treatment of first choice for symptomatic vaginal vascular malformation.

  19. Representações e experiências das mulheres sobre a assistência ao parto vaginal e cesárea em maternidades pública e privada Women's representations and experiences with vaginal and cesarean delivery in public and private maternity hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa de Sousa Gama

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisa as diferentes representações e experiências quanto ao parto vaginal e cesárea de mulheres de diferentes estratos sócio-econômicos, bem como a natureza das relações profissionais de saúde/usuárias no contexto institucional em que estão inseridas. A pesquisa de natureza qualitativa foi desenvolvida em três maternidades do Município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, sendo uma pública, uma conveniada com o SUS e uma particular, com mulheres que tiveram os dois tipos de parto. Os resultados revelam que o modelo de organização dos serviços público e privado apresentam variações que produzem diferentes tipos de assistência e de relação entre os profissionais de saúde e as usuárias, dando forma a experiências distintas entre as mulheres pesquisadas. Todavia, ao empreendermos uma crítica assentada nas relações de gênero, podemos verificar que o modelo de assistência ao parto permanece submetendo quem deve ser sujeito e reproduzindo o projeto da medicalização - mesmo que este processo se manifeste de formas diferenciadas entre os grupos estudados -, o que reduz o campo da assistência e inviabiliza um lugar de poder diferenciado das usuárias.This study analyzes the different representations and experiences of women from different social classes, including issues related to their relations with hospital staff in different institutional settings. This qualitative study focused on women who had experienced both types of delivery, in three maternity hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (one public, one fully private, and another private under an outsourcing agreement with the public health system. The study showed that variations in public and private service models result in different types of delivery care and different relations with staff, and are reflected in different birthing experiences for the women. However, a critical gender perspective shows that in both cases, the service models reproduce the

  20. [Significance of laparoscopic assistance in vaginal hysterectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Andrzej; Bobin, Leszek; Maciołek-Blewniewska, Grazyna

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this publication was the analysis of laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomies (LAVH) performed in Department of Surgical and Endoscopic Gynecology of Polish Mother Health Centre Research Institute. There was the analysis of 57 LAVHs performed from June 2002 to December 2003. Following parameters were evaluated: indications to LAVH, operating time, weight of the removed uterus, complications, blood loss, duration of postoperative hospitalisation, the day of introducing general diet, anesthetic and antibiotic demand in postoperative period. There were indications to LAVH: fibroid uterus, endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial cancer, adnexal mass, cervix dysplasia. Previous laparotomy and caesarean section, endometriosis, narrow vagina of non-parous women were additional indications to use of laparoscopy during the operation. Complications were found in two (3,5%) cases: bleeding to abdominal cavity from infundibulo-pelvic ligament demanding reoperation and superficial epigastric artery injury no demanding reoperation. There were no infection, conversion to laparotomy, abdominal cavity organs injury and other complications. It was observed short time of introducing general diet, low anesthetic consumption and short post-operation stay in hospital (mean 3,6 days). Laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy is an operation with a small risk of intra- and postoperative complications, quick return to general diet and full life activity, short post-operation stay in hospital, low anesthetic consumption and good cosmetic effect. Use of laparoscopic stage in vaginal hysterectomy make possible evasion of laparotomy in the situation of impossible performance of ordinary vaginal hysterectomy.

  1. Efficacy of tension-free vaginal tape compared with transobturator tape in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence in women: analysis of learning curve, perioperative changes of voiding function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background In this study, by comparing TVT surgery and TOT surgery for stress urinary incontinence in women, the characteristics and learning curves of both operative methods were studied. Methods A total of 83 women with stress urinary incontinence treated with tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) (n = 38) or transobturator tape (TOT) (n = 45) at Saiseikai Central Hospital between April 2004 and September 2009 were included. We compare the outcomes and learning curves between TVT surgery and TOT surgery. In statistical analysis, Student's t test, Fisher's exact test, and Mann-Whitney's U test were used. Results The surgical durations were 37.4 ± 15.7 minutes with TVT surgery and 31.0 ± 8.3 minutes with TOT surgery. A longer period of time was required for TVT surgery (p = 0.025). The residual urine at post-operative day 1 was higher in TVT surgery (25.9 ± 44.2 ml) than in TOT surgery (10.6 ± 19.2 ml) (p = 0.0452). The surgical duration of TVT surgery was shortened after the operator had performed 15 operations (p = 0.019). Conclusions In comparison of TVT surgery and TOT surgery, the surgical duration of TVT surgery was longer and the residual urine of TVT surgery was higher at post-operative day 1. Surgical experience could shorten the duration of TVT surgery. PMID:21726448

  2. Efficacy of tension-free vaginal tape compared with transobturator tape in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence in women: analysis of learning curve, perioperative changes of voiding function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanai Kunimitsu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, by comparing TVT surgery and TOT surgery for stress urinary incontinence in women, the characteristics and learning curves of both operative methods were studied. Methods A total of 83 women with stress urinary incontinence treated with tension-free vaginal tape (TVT (n = 38 or transobturator tape (TOT (n = 45 at Saiseikai Central Hospital between April 2004 and September 2009 were included. We compare the outcomes and learning curves between TVT surgery and TOT surgery. In statistical analysis, Student's t test, Fisher's exact test, and Mann-Whitney's U test were used. Results The surgical durations were 37.4 ± 15.7 minutes with TVT surgery and 31.0 ± 8.3 minutes with TOT surgery. A longer period of time was required for TVT surgery (p = 0.025. The residual urine at post-operative day 1 was higher in TVT surgery (25.9 ± 44.2 ml than in TOT surgery (10.6 ± 19.2 ml (p = 0.0452. The surgical duration of TVT surgery was shortened after the operator had performed 15 operations (p = 0.019. Conclusions In comparison of TVT surgery and TOT surgery, the surgical duration of TVT surgery was longer and the residual urine of TVT surgery was higher at post-operative day 1. Surgical experience could shorten the duration of TVT surgery.

  3. Bakri balloon in vaginal-perineal hematomas complicating vaginal delivery: a new therapeutic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizzo, Salvatore; Saccardi, Carlo; Patrelli, Tito Silvio; Di Gangi, Stefania; D'Antona, Donato; Battista Nardelli, Giovanni

    2013-04-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of Bakri balloon as a hemostatic device in severe postpartum hemorrhage due to complicated vaginal-perineal hematoma not responsive to standard surgical treatments. The article discusses an effective and minimally invasive technique for resolving a case of massive vaginal-perineal bleeding after vaginal delivery complicated by ischiorectal fossa hematoma. A 36-year-old primipara white woman, 41 weeks 1 day pregnant, was admitted to our unit for beginning of labor. She experienced a precipitous delivery of a healthy male baby (3.72 kg, 51 cm in length), and spontaneous complete afterbirth of placenta and membranes. The intervention involved positioning of an hemostatic Bakri balloon device in the vagina, to compress the vaginal wall, ensuring that the draining apex was well positioned into the uterine cervix. The patient was discharged after having a puerperal course without further complications. Vaginal hemostatic Bakri balloon device shows hemostatic efficacy immediately assessable, is promptly removable, not interfering with subsequent surgical or radiological procedures, does not increase the risk of infections as other compressive procedures, allows flow of lochia, does not cause pain or discomfort in women, and permits adjustable compression when a drainage is placed during surgery. Despite the high cost, it does not show disadvantages.

  4. Comparison of vaginal and oral misoprostol, for the induction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More women (10/18) who received oral misoprostol required oxytocin augmentation to complete the induction of labour compared with 4/20 women in the vaginal group (p< 0.05; Odds Ratio 2.8; 95% Cl 1.36 - 4.24). There were no cases of failed induction. The systemic side effects (shivering, diarrhoea, vomiting and ...

  5. Association between absence of vaginal lactobacilli PCR products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: The most common cause of abnormal vaginal discharge in women of childbearing age is bacterial vaginosis (BV). This condition predisposes women to increased susceptibility to sexually transmitted diseases, in