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Sample records for women aged 50-69

  1. [Proportion of breast cancer in women aged 50 to 69 years from Girona, Spain, according to detection method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Vives, Montse; Osca-Gelis, Gemma; Camprubí-Font, Carla; Vilardell, M Loreto; Izquierdo, Angel; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael

    2014-10-07

    The aim of this study was to determine the tumor stage, the proportion of cases and the age specific rate of breast cancer (BC) cases according to detection method. Cases of women aged 50 to 69 years diagnosed with BC in the Girona province during 1999-2006 were extracted from the population-based Girona Cancer Registry (n=1,254). BC was classified by detection method: screen-detected cancer, interval cancer and others. Proportion of cases and age-specific incidence were calculated according to detection method. During the period 2002-2006, the proportion of screen-detected cancers, interval cancers and other cancers were 42.2%, 5.8% and 52.2%, respectively. After implementation of the early detection of breast cancer program (PDPCM), the incidence of screen-detected cases raised; thereafter, interval cancers also increased and the rate of other cancers decreased. In the Girona province during the fully implemented PDPCM period (2002-2006), interval cancers represented a low proportion (5.8%) of women diagnosed with BC at 50 to 69 years old. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Vitamin D intake, month the mammogram was taken and mammographic density in Norwegian women aged 50-69.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merete Ellingjord-Dale

    Full Text Available The role of vitamin D in breast cancer etiology is unclear. There is some, but inconsistent, evidence that vitamin D is associated with both breast cancer risk and mammographic density (MD. We evaluated the associations of MD with month the mammogram was taken, and with vitamin D intake, in a population of women from Norway--a country with limited sunlight exposure for a large part of the year.3114 women aged 50-69, who participated in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP in 2004 or 2006/07, completed risk factor and food frequency (FFQ questionnaires. Dietary and total (dietary plus supplements vitamin D, calcium and energy intakes were estimated by the FFQ. Month when the mammogram was taken was recorded on the mammogram. Percent MD was assessed using a computer assisted method (Madena, University of Southern California after digitization of the films. Linear regression models were used to investigate percent MD associations with month the mammogram was taken, and vitamin D and calcium intakes, adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI, study year, estrogen and progestin therapy (EPT, education, parity, calcium intakes and energy intakes.There was no statistical significant association between the month the mammogram was taken and percent MD. Overall, there was no association between percent MD and quartiles of total or dietary vitamin D intakes, or of calcium intake. However, analysis restricted to women aged <55 years revealed a suggestive inverse association between total vitamin D intake and percent MD (p for trend = 0.03.Overall, we found no strong evidence that month the mammogram was taken was associated with percent MD. We found no inverse association between vitamin D intake and percent MD overall, but observed a suggestive inverse association between dietary vitamin D and MD for women less than 55 years old.

  3. Attitudes of women after the age of 50 towards preventive screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skórzyńska, Hanna; Krawczyk-Suszek, Marlena; Kulik, Teresa B; Pacian, Anna; Stefanowicz, Agata; Skowronek, Anna

    2017-12-23

    Prevention is one of the major branches of the health sector. The National Health Programme encompasses main risk factors, elimination of which may lead to a reduced incidence of illnesses in the society. At the same time, the criteria of selecting people eligible for preventive screening are established according to risk groups determined by sex, as well as age in the population of women. The perimenopausal and menopausal period contributes to occurrence of numerous systemic diseases and to an increased risk of illnesses, especially cancers. The objective of the research was to evaluate the performance of preventive screening tests of women after 50 aimed at early detection of cervical and breast cancer. Furthermore, the research estimated frequency of pathological lesions detected and regularity of their monitoring. The research covered 150 women after 50 years of age. The database was statistically examined with STATISTICA software. A low percentage of the respondents, in comparison to the risk increasing with age, had a Pap test (61.3%) and mammography (51.3%) in the last two years. In the case of women whose latest Pap test or mammography showed abnormalities and was the basis for diagnosing pathological lesions, 69.2% of them were under regular medical supervision if abnormalities were identified by a Pap test and 68.7% if lesions were detected in breast structure. In the examined group we observed a small percentage of women undergo Pap tests and mammography. Furthermore, medical recommendations regarding early detection of cancers are frequently ignored and disregarded by patients.

  4. [Study on the coverage of cervical and breast cancer screening among women aged 35-69 years and related impact of socioeconomic factors in China, 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, H L; Wang, L H; Wang, L M; Fang, L W; Zhang, M; Zhao, Z P; Cong, S

    2018-02-10

    Objective: To estimate the cervical and breast cancer screening coverage and related factors among women aged 35-69 years who were in the National Cervical and Breast Screening Program, to provide evidence for improving cervical and breast cancer control and prevention strategy. Methods: Data used in this study were abstracted from the 2013 Chinese Chronic Diseases and Risk Factors Surveillance Program. A total of 66 130 women aged 35-64 years and 72 511 women aged 35-69 years were included for this study. Weighted prevalence, (with 95% confidence interval, CI ) was calculated for complex sampling design. Rao-Scott χ (2) method was used to compare the screening coverage among subgroups. A random intercept equation which involved the logit-link function, was fitted under the following five levels: provincial, county, township, village and individual. Fix effects of all explanatory variables were converted into OR with 95% CI . Results: In 2013, 26.7% (95% CI : 24.6%-28.9%) of the 35-64 year-old women reported that they ever had been screened for cervical cancer and 22.5% (95% CI : 20.4%-24.6%) of the 35-69 year-olds had ever undergone breast cancer screening. Lower coverage was observed among women residing in rural and central or western China than those in urban or eastern China ( P breast cancer screening program ( P breast cancer screening ( P breast cancer screening programs, in order to increase the coverage. More attention should be paid to women aged 50 years or older, especially those socioeconomically disadvantaged ones.

  5. A study on cognitive status of 50 years and above aged non-demented women in a rural area of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sanjay Kumar; Sanyal, Debasish; Bhattacharyya, Agnihotri; Bhattacharyya, Ranjan; Barman, Neepamanjari; Mukherjee, Anindya

    2010-11-01

    The prevalence of ageing population is increasing not only in developed countries but also in developing world like India. Epidemiological reports about cognitive impairment or dementia in elderly people from developing countries are scarce. To study the cognitive status of women more than 50 years of age and to study the relationship of sociodemographic factors with cognitive status of the study subjects a descriptive epidemiological, community based cross-sectional survey was done involving 179 old women of 50 years and above in the rural field practice area of All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health, Kolkata. The data were analysed using Epi-info 6.04, software packages. The mean age of the sample was 64.0 +/- 7.6 years. In the total sample, 53 subjects (29.6%) were in 50-59 years, 83 (43.4%) in 60-69 years, 34 (19%) in 70-79 years and 9 (5%) in women who were more than 80 years old. The cognitive defect was found to be 42.4% in elderly women .The variables like age > 70 years, widowhood, low per capita income, economic dependence, non-support from children, not staying with own children and having no satisfaction with life, were found to be significantly associated with cognitive defect. On (stepwise) multiple regression analysis these factors together contributed to 37% of cognitive impairment among these women. Prevalence of cognitive defect of more than 40% in the elderly women of this study emphasises the need for more attention and more social security measures for this neglected group.

  6. Bone Health and Osteoporosis: A Guide for Asian Women Aged 50 and Older

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... D You need calcium to help maintain healthy, strong bones throughout your life. Adults up to age 50 need 1,000 mg (milligrams) of calcium every day. Women over age 50 and men over age 70 should increase their intake to ...

  7. Cancer in Women over 50 Years of Age: A Focus on Smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baccaro, Luiz Francisco; Conde, Délio Marques; Costa-Paiva, Lúcia; Machado, Vanessa de Souza Santos; Pinto-Neto, Aarão Mendes

    2015-01-01

    The increase in life expectancy worldwide has resulted in a greater prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with the occurrence of cancer among Brazilian women over the age of 50. A cross-sectional study with 622 women over the age of 50 was performed using a population survey. The outcome variable was the occurrence of a malignant tumor in any location. The independent variables were sociodemographic characteristics, self-perception of health, health-related habits and morbidities. Statistical analysis was carried out using the chi-square test and Poisson regression. The mean age of the women was 64.1 years. The prevalence of cancer was 6.8%. The main sites of occurrence of malignant tumors were the breast (31.9%), colorectal (12.7%) and skin (12.7%). In the final statistical model, the only factor associated with cancer was smoking > 15 cigarettes/day either currently or in the past: PR 2.03 (95% CI 1.06–3.89). The results have improved understanding of the prevalence and factors associated with cancer in Brazilian women aged 50 years or more. They should be encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle and pay particular attention to modifiable risk factors such as smoking

  8. Cancer in Women over 50 Years of Age: A Focus on Smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccaro, Luiz Francisco, E-mail: luiz.baccaro@gmail.com [Department of Gynecology, State University of Campinas, Rua Alexander Fleming, 101, Cidade Universitária Zeferino Vaz, Campinas, São Paulo 13.083-881 (Brazil); Conde, Délio Marques [Breast Clinic, Hospital for Maternal and Child Healthcare, Goiânia, Goiás 74.125-120 (Brazil); Costa-Paiva, Lúcia; Machado, Vanessa de Souza Santos; Pinto-Neto, Aarão Mendes [Department of Gynecology, State University of Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo 13.083-881 (Brazil)

    2015-03-17

    The increase in life expectancy worldwide has resulted in a greater prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with the occurrence of cancer among Brazilian women over the age of 50. A cross-sectional study with 622 women over the age of 50 was performed using a population survey. The outcome variable was the occurrence of a malignant tumor in any location. The independent variables were sociodemographic characteristics, self-perception of health, health-related habits and morbidities. Statistical analysis was carried out using the chi-square test and Poisson regression. The mean age of the women was 64.1 years. The prevalence of cancer was 6.8%. The main sites of occurrence of malignant tumors were the breast (31.9%), colorectal (12.7%) and skin (12.7%). In the final statistical model, the only factor associated with cancer was smoking > 15 cigarettes/day either currently or in the past: PR 2.03 (95% CI 1.06–3.89). The results have improved understanding of the prevalence and factors associated with cancer in Brazilian women aged 50 years or more. They should be encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle and pay particular attention to modifiable risk factors such as smoking.

  9. 41 CFR 50-204.69 - Nitrous oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Nitrous oxide. 50-204.69..., Vapors, Fumes, Dusts, and Mists § 50-204.69 Nitrous oxide. The piped systems for the in-plant transfer and distribution of nitrous oxide shall be designed, installed, maintained, and operated in accordance...

  10. A life style of women and men aged 50-75

    OpenAIRE

    Prusik, Katarzyna; Michałowska, Monika; Prusik, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    In 50% a lifestyle determines health and the length of one's life. 2 types may be distinguished: pro-health and antihealth. The aim of this paper is to present a lifestyle of people age 50 75 as well as to find the connection between a lifestyle and the level of pro-health behaviour. The research was conducted by the first part of the 'Canadian survey' on 74 people participating sports classes organized by the University of Physical Education and Sport in Gdańsk. In case of younger women the ...

  11. Evaluation of the attitude toward aging in women aged 50 years or more with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana de Souza Orlandi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the attitudes toward aging in women aged 50 years or more with HIV / AIDS, through the Attitudes to Aging Questionnaire (AAQ. This is a descriptive cross-sectional. All ethical guidelines were followed. Among the areas assessed by the AAQ, the domain Physical Changes was presented the worst perceptions about aging, indicating how difficult it is to grow old with an incurable and stigmatizing disease such as HIV / AIDS.

  12. Body image, aging, and identity in women over 50: The Gender and Body Image (GABI) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeier, Sara M; Runfola, Cristin D; Sala, Margarita; Gagne, Danielle A; Brownley, Kimberly A; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a qualitative study of 1,849 women over age 50 to capture the thoughts, feelings, and attitudes that women at middle age have about their bodies and the experience of aging. Via an open-ended question online survey, four primary themes emerged: (a) the physical and psychological experience of aging; (b) the injustices, inequities, and challenges of aging; (c) the importance of self-care; and (d) a plea for recognition of the need to maintain a contributory role in society. Results highlight the complexities of women's psychological and physical aspects of aging and point toward important topics worthy of further study in this growing population.

  13. Population attributable risk of modifiable risk factors associated with invasive breast cancer in women aged 45-69 years in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Louise F; Page, Andrew N; Dunn, Nathan A M; Pandeya, Nirmala; Protani, Melinda M; Taylor, Richard J

    2013-12-01

    To quantify the population attributable risk of key modifiable risk factors associated with breast cancer incidence in Queensland, Australia. Population attributable fractions (PAFs) for high body mass index (BMI), use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT), alcohol consumption and inadequate physical activity were calculated, using prevalence data from a representative survey of women attending mammographic screening at BreastScreen Queensland in 2008 and relative risk estimates sourced from published literature. Attributable cancers were calculated using 'underlying' breast cancer incidence data for 2008 based on Poisson regression models, adjusting for the inflation of incidence due to the effects of mammographic screening. Attributable burden of breast cancer due to high body mass index (BMI), use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT), alcohol consumption and inadequate physical activity. In Queensland women aged 45-69 years, an estimated 12.1% (95% CI: 11.6-12.5%) of invasive breast cancers were attributable to high BMI in post-menopausal women who have never used HRT; 2.8% (95% CI: 2.7-2.9%) to alcohol consumption; 7.6% (95% CI: 7.4-7.9%) to inadequate physical activity in post-menopausal women and 6.2% (95% CI: 5.5-7.0%) to current use of HRT after stratification by BMI and type of HRT used. Combined, just over one quarter (26.0%; 95% CI: 25.4-26.6%) of all invasive breast cancers in Queensland women aged 45-69 years in 2008 were attributable to these modifiable risk factors. There is benefit in targeting prevention strategies to modify lifestyle behaviours around BMI, physical activity, HRT use and alcohol consumption, as a reduction in these risk factors could decrease invasive breast cancer incidence in the Queensland population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of equivalent breast phantoms for different age groups of Taiwanese women: An experimental approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Shang-Lung; Chu, Tieh-Chi; Lin, Yung-Chien; Lan, Gong-Yau; Yeh, Yu-Hsiu; Chen, Sharon; Chuang, Keh-Shih

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slab is one of the mostly used phantoms for studying breast dosimetry in mammography. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the equivalence between exposure factors acquired from PMMA slabs and patient cases of different age groups of Taiwanese women in mammography. Methods: This study included 3910 craniocaudal screen/film mammograms on Taiwanese women acquired on one mammographic unit. The tube loading, compressed breast thickness (CBT), compression force, tube voltage, and target/filter combination for each mammogram were collected for all patients. The glandularity and the equivalent thickness of PMMA were determined for each breast using the exposure factors of the breast in combination with experimental measurements from breast-tissue-equivalent attenuation slabs. Equivalent thicknesses of PMMA to the breasts of Taiwanese women were then estimated. Results: The average ± standard deviation CBT and breast glandularity in this study were 4.2 ± 1.0 cm and 54% ± 23%, respectively. The average equivalent PMMA thickness was 4.0 ± 0.7 cm. PMMA slabs producing equivalent exposure factors as in the breasts of Taiwanese women were determined for the age groups 30-49 yr and 50-69 yr. For the 4-cm PMMA slab, the CBT and glandularity values of the equivalent breast were 4.1 cm and 65%, respectively, for the age group 30-49 yr and 4.4 cm and 44%, respectively, for the age group 50-69 yr. Conclusions: The average thickness of PMMA slabs producing the same exposure factors as observed in a large group of Taiwanese women is less than that reported for American women. The results from this study can provide useful information for determining a suitable thickness of PMMA for mammographic dose survey in Taiwan. The equivalence of PMMA slabs and the breasts of Taiwanese women is provided to allow average glandular dose assessment in clinical practice.

  15. Determination of equivalent breast phantoms for different age groups of Taiwanese women: An experimental approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Shang-Lung; Chu, Tieh-Chi; Lin, Yung-Chien; Lan, Gong-Yau; Yeh, Yu-Hsiu; Chen, Sharon; Chuang, Keh-Shih [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiology, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, 45 Cheng Hsin Street, Pai-Tou District, Taipei 11220, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slab is one of the mostly used phantoms for studying breast dosimetry in mammography. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the equivalence between exposure factors acquired from PMMA slabs and patient cases of different age groups of Taiwanese women in mammography. Methods: This study included 3910 craniocaudal screen/film mammograms on Taiwanese women acquired on one mammographic unit. The tube loading, compressed breast thickness (CBT), compression force, tube voltage, and target/filter combination for each mammogram were collected for all patients. The glandularity and the equivalent thickness of PMMA were determined for each breast using the exposure factors of the breast in combination with experimental measurements from breast-tissue-equivalent attenuation slabs. Equivalent thicknesses of PMMA to the breasts of Taiwanese women were then estimated. Results: The average {+-} standard deviation CBT and breast glandularity in this study were 4.2 {+-} 1.0 cm and 54% {+-} 23%, respectively. The average equivalent PMMA thickness was 4.0 {+-} 0.7 cm. PMMA slabs producing equivalent exposure factors as in the breasts of Taiwanese women were determined for the age groups 30-49 yr and 50-69 yr. For the 4-cm PMMA slab, the CBT and glandularity values of the equivalent breast were 4.1 cm and 65%, respectively, for the age group 30-49 yr and 4.4 cm and 44%, respectively, for the age group 50-69 yr. Conclusions: The average thickness of PMMA slabs producing the same exposure factors as observed in a large group of Taiwanese women is less than that reported for American women. The results from this study can provide useful information for determining a suitable thickness of PMMA for mammographic dose survey in Taiwan. The equivalence of PMMA slabs and the breasts of Taiwanese women is provided to allow average glandular dose assessment in clinical practice.

  16. Tailoring Breast Cancer Screening Intervals by Breast Density and Risk for Women Aged 50 Years or Older: Collaborative Modeling of Screening Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Kerlikowske, Karla; Stout, Natasha K; Miglioretti, Diana L; Schechter, Clyde B; Ergun, Mehmet Ali; van den Broek, Jeroen J; Alagoz, Oguzhan; Sprague, Brian L; van Ravesteyn, Nicolien T; Near, Aimee M; Gangnon, Ronald E; Hampton, John M; Chandler, Young; de Koning, Harry J; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S; Tosteson, Anna N A

    2016-11-15

    Biennial screening is generally recommended for average-risk women aged 50 to 74 years, but tailored screening may provide greater benefits. To estimate outcomes for various screening intervals after age 50 years based on breast density and risk for breast cancer. Collaborative simulation modeling using national incidence, breast density, and screening performance data. United States. Women aged 50 years or older with various combinations of breast density and relative risk (RR) of 1.0, 1.3, 2.0, or 4.0. Annual, biennial, or triennial digital mammography screening from ages 50 to 74 years (vs. no screening) and ages 65 to 74 years (vs. biennial digital mammography from ages 50 to 64 years). Lifetime breast cancer deaths, life expectancy and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), false-positive mammograms, benign biopsy results, overdiagnosis, cost-effectiveness, and ratio of false-positive results to breast cancer deaths averted. Screening benefits and overdiagnosis increase with breast density and RR. False-positive mammograms and benign results on biopsy decrease with increasing risk. Among women with fatty breasts or scattered fibroglandular density and an RR of 1.0 or 1.3, breast cancer deaths averted were similar for triennial versus biennial screening for both age groups (50 to 74 years, median of 3.4 to 5.1 vs. 4.1 to 6.5 deaths averted; 65 to 74 years, median of 1.5 to 2.1 vs. 1.8 to 2.6 deaths averted). Breast cancer deaths averted increased with annual versus biennial screening for women aged 50 to 74 years at all levels of breast density and an RR of 4.0, and those aged 65 to 74 years with heterogeneously or extremely dense breasts and an RR of 4.0. However, harms were almost 2-fold higher. Triennial screening for the average-risk subgroup and annual screening for the highest-risk subgroup cost less than $100 000 per QALY gained. Models did not consider women younger than 50 years, those with an RR less than 1, or other imaging methods. Average-risk women

  17. Breast cancer detected in screening mammography: a comparative analysis of the cases involving women aged 40 to 49 years and 50 to 64 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echevarria, J.J.; Lopez, J.A.; Segovia, M.C.; Rodriguez, M.; Zabalza, I.; Garcia, M.

    1998-01-01

    To determine and compare the prognostic criteria (tumor, size, lymph node involvement, clinical staging and histological type and grade) for breast neoplasms detected at screening mammography in women 40 to 49 and 50 to 64 years of age. We review a total of 216 unelected cases of breast carcinoma diagnosed in our hospital, 109 discovered at screening mammography (45 in women aged 40 to 40 years and 64 in women aged 50 to 64 years). We found no statistically significant differences between the two age groups with respect to tumor size, lymph node involvement or clinical staging. In all, 64.4% and 61.6% of the carcinomas detected in 40 to 49-year-old women and in 50 to 64-year-old women, respectively, corresponded to clinical stages 0 and 1. Nor did we observe significant differences with respect to the histological type or grade. Given the similarity in the major prognostic criteria for the neoplasms diagnosed in both age groups, we consider that the performance of screening mammography in women aged 40 to 49 years allows the detection of breast carcinomas at stages as early as those in which these lesions are detected in women aged 50 to 64 years. (Author) 24 refs

  18. Effect of Trospium Chloride on Cognitive Function in Women Aged 50 and Older: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Elizabeth J; Dumond, Julie B; Bowling, J Michael; Khandelwal, Christine M; Wu, Jennifer M; Busby-Whitehead, Jan; Kaufer, Daniel I

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of trospium chloride on cognitive function in postmenopausal women treated for overactive bladder (OAB). Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial conducted from April 2013 to April 2015. Women aged 50 years or older seeking treatment for OAB were randomized to either trospium chloride XR 60 mg daily or placebo. Baseline cognitive function was assessed via Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R), Mini Mental Status Exam, Mini Mental Status X, Digit Span, Trails A, Trails B, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Cognitive function was reassessed at week 1 and week 4. A priori power analysis determined that 21 subjects were needed per group. Although 59 women were enrolled and randomized (28 trospium and 31 placebo), 45 completed assessment (21 trospium and 24 placebo). Mean age was 68 years, 78% were white, and 44% had previously taken OAB medication. For the primary outcome, there was no difference in HVLT-R total score between trospium and placebo groups at week 4 (P = 0.29). There were also no differences based on the other cognitive tests. There was a correlation between age and the following week-4 tests: HVLT-R total score (r = -0.3, P = 0.02), HVLT-R total recall subscale (r = -0.4, P = 0.007), Trails A (r = 0.4, P = 0.002), and Trails B (r = 0.4, P = 0.004). A linear regression model found that HVLT-R total score decreased by 0.372 points for each increased year of age. In women aged 50 years and older, there were no changes in cognitive function between those taking trospium and placebo. Cognitive function was correlated with age.

  19. Re-Creation in the Age of Wisdom : Involuntary Job Transition in Women over 50

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyon-Dugin, Frances E.

    2017-01-01

    Re-Creation in the Age of Wisdom: Involuntary Job Transition in Women over 50 Frances Elizabeth Lyon-Dugin A large share of our time with each other is centered around employment or ‘work’, however we define it. A time of transition between jobs, especially when a job is lost through no choice of

  20. Examining the Cervical Screening Behaviour of Women Aged 50 or above and Its Predicting Factors: A Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Carmen W H; Choi, Kai Chow; Wong, Rosa S; Chow, Ka Ming; So, Winnie K W; Leung, Doris Y P; Lam, Wendy W T; Goggins, William

    2016-12-02

    Under-screening may increase the risk of cervical cancer in middle-aged women. This study aimed to investigate cervical cancer screening behaviour and its predictors among women aged 50 years or above. A population-based sample of 959 women was recruited by telephone from domestic households in Hong Kong, using random methods, and a structured questionnaire developed to survey participants. Multivariable logistic regressions were performed to examine the factors independently associated with cervical screening behaviour. Nearly half the sample (48%) had never had a cervical smear test. Multivariable analyses showed that age, educational level, marital status, family history of cancer, smoking status, use of complementary therapy, recommendation from health professionals, and believing that regular visits to a doctor or a Chinese herbalist were good for their health were predictors of cervical screening behaviour. Misconceptions concerned with menopause may reduce women's perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer, especially if they are 50 or above, and exert a negative effect on their screening behaviour. Healthcare professionals should actively approach these high-risk groups-older unmarried women, smokers, those less educated and who are generally not much concerned with their health.

  1. Examining the Cervical Screening Behaviour of Women Aged 50 or above and Its Predicting Factors: A Population-Based Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen W. H. Chan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Under-screening may increase the risk of cervical cancer in middle-aged women. This study aimed to investigate cervical cancer screening behaviour and its predictors among women aged 50 years or above. A population-based sample of 959 women was recruited by telephone from domestic households in Hong Kong, using random methods, and a structured questionnaire developed to survey participants. Multivariable logistic regressions were performed to examine the factors independently associated with cervical screening behaviour. Nearly half the sample (48% had never had a cervical smear test. Multivariable analyses showed that age, educational level, marital status, family history of cancer, smoking status, use of complementary therapy, recommendation from health professionals, and believing that regular visits to a doctor or a Chinese herbalist were good for their health were predictors of cervical screening behaviour. Misconceptions concerned with menopause may reduce women’s perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer, especially if they are 50 or above, and exert a negative effect on their screening behaviour. Healthcare professionals should actively approach these high-risk groups–older unmarried women, smokers, those less educated and who are generally not much concerned with their health.

  2. [Controversial attitude to mammography screening in asymptomatic women between 40 and 50 years of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischbier, H J

    1994-01-01

    The results of screening studies conducted in the United States and in Europe in females between the ages of 40 and 50 are analysed. It is shown, that the results of this study on mortality reduction are less favourable, the poorer the technique of mammography (foregoing of general two-view mammography) and the longer the time interval between two mammography screenings. Arguments are presented, that are brought forward when declining to perform general mammography screening in this age group. The author's own results, obtained in the Hamburg mammography screening study, which included from 1971 to 1986 also premenopausal women, show, that the survival rates of patients below 50 years of age with mammographically detected carcinomas of the breast do not differ from those in patients older than 50 years, according to a relevant age group classification. The advances in the technique of mammography in recent years are analysed on the basis of the author's own patient material. It is evident, that the positive predictive value has been doubled, especially in the age group between 40 and 50. An analysis of the distribution of diagnosed noninvasive carcinomas compared with the invasive carcinomas reveals, that particularly this age group has the highest percentage of identification of prognostically favourable carcinoma stages. Further analyses show, why the randomised European mammography studies could not yield a significant mortality rate improvement. A prerequisite for the inclusion of mammography screening in the legally prescribed early detection of carcinoma examinations, however, are the quality controls, whose realisation, in our health system, will have to be confirmed by the German mammography study.

  3. Life Satisfaction, Self-Esteem, and Subjective Age in Women across the Life Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzumato-Gainey, Christine; Kennedy, Alison; McCabe, Beth; Degges-White, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    A study of 320 women, ages 21 to 69, explored the relations among relationship status, subjective age, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Women in married or partnered relationships had higher levels of life satisfaction than did single women. Women in their 30s and 40s had significantly lower levels of life satisfaction than did other age…

  4. Socio-demographic and health conditions associated with paid work in adults (50-69 years) in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    de Castro, CMS; Mambrini, JVDM; Sampaio, RF; Macinko, J; Lima-Costa, MF

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz. All rights reserved. Factors associated with paid work were examined in a probabilistic sample of 3,320 adults (50-69 years) in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Prevalence of paid work was 62.8% in men and 35.8% in women. For both men and women, paid work was positively associated with schooling and negatively associated with self-rated health. The probability of having paid work was higher for single women and those who knew someo...

  5. A Reappraisal of Women’s Health Initiative Estrogen-Alone Trial: Long-Term Outcomes in Women 50–59 Years of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Roehm

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Women’s Health Initiative (WHI Estrogen-Alone Trial randomized postmenopausal women, 50 to 79 years of age, with prior hysterectomy, to conjugated equine estrogens (CEE or placebo with a 5.9-year median duration of CEE use. In 2013, the WHI published outcomes for additional extended follow-up. Reported here for the first time is an analysis of the number needed to treat with CEE rather than placebo for younger women (50–59 years to prevent an adverse long-term outcome. For every 76 women randomized to CEE at 50–59 years, one less myocardial infarction occurred during the 13-year cumulative long-term follow-up. For every 37 women randomized to CEE at 50–59 years, one less woman experienced a global index endpoint (including coronary heart disease, invasive breast cancer, stroke, pulmonary embolism, colorectal cancer, hip fracture, and death during the 13-year follow-up. Younger women (50–59 years, compared to older women, had more favorable cumulative long-term outcomes for MI and global index. Though a subgroup analysis is not an adequate basis for making primary prevention guideline recommendations, the WHI Estrogen-Alone Trial outcomes strongly suggest that a similar course of estrogen initiated at 50–59 years in postmenopausal women with prior hysterectomy results in significant long-term health benefit.

  6. Value of mammography screening in women under age 50 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, D.M.; Hasselblad, V.; McGivney, W.; Hendee, W.

    1988-01-01

    Two quantitative methods, Confidence Profiles and CAN*TROL, are used to analyze evidence and estimate the health and economic consequences of adding annual mammography to annual breast physical examinations in asymptomatic women aged 40 to 49 years who are at average risk for breast cancer. Such women have about a 128 in 10,000 chance of having breast cancer in the next ten years and about an 82 in 10,000 chance of dying of such a cancer. Adding annual mammograms to annual breast physical examinations each year during that age decade would reduce the probability of death to about 60 in 10,000, a reduction of about 26%. Screening would increase the expected lifetime of a woman destined to get breast cancer between ages 40 and 49 years by about 3.5 years. Ten years of screening with mammography in that age decade carries a risk of radiation-induced cancer of about one in 25,000 and a risk of a surgery recommendation for a lesion that is not cancer of about one in ten. If 25% of the women in this age group in the United States were screened every year, breast cancer mortality in the year 2000 would be decreased by about 373 deaths. In 1984 dollars, the cost of screening, workups, and continuing care in the year 2000 would be about $408 million. Treatment costs would be decreased by about $6 million, leaving a net increase in costs in the year of 2000 of approximately $402 million (1984 dollars)

  7. Relation between holiday weight gain and total energy expenditure among 40- to 69-y-old men and women (OPEN study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Chad M; Subar, Amy F; Troiano, Richard P; Schoeller, Dale A

    2012-03-01

    A significant proportion of the average annual body weight (BW) gain in US adults (~0.5-1 kg/y) may result from modest episodes of positive energy balance during the winter holiday season. We tested whether holiday BW gain was reduced in participants with high baseline total energy expenditure (TEE) or whether it varied by BMI (in kg/m(2)). In a secondary analysis of previously published data, ΔBW normalized over 90 d from mid-September/mid-October 1999 to mid-January/early March 2000 was analyzed by sex, age, and BMI in 443 men and women (40-69 y of age). TEE was measured by doubly labeled water. High or low energy expenditure was assessed as residual TEE after linear adjustment for age, height, and BW. No correlations between ΔBW and TEE or TEE residuals were found. Sixty-five percent of men and 58% of women gained ≥0.5 kg BW, with ~50% of both groups gaining ≥1% of preholiday BW. Obese men (BMI ≥30) gained more BW than did obese women. A high preholiday absolute TEE or residual TEE did not protect against BW gain during the winter holiday quarter. It is not known whether higher than these typical TEE levels would protect against weight gain or if the observed gain may be attributed to increased food consumption and/or reduced physical activity during the holiday quarter.

  8. [Gait characteristics of women with fibromyalgia: a premature aging pattern].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góes, Suelen M; Leite, Neiva; de Souza, Ricardo M; Homann, Diogo; Osiecki, Ana C V; Stefanello, Joice M F; Rodacki, André L F

    2014-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a condition which involves chronic pain. Middle-aged individuals with fibromyalgia seem to exhibit changes in gait pattern, which may prematurely expose them to a gait pattern which resembles that found in the elderly population. To determine the 3D spatial (linear and angular) gait parameters of middle-aged women with fibromyalgia and compare to elderly women without this condition. 25 women (10 in the fibromyalgia group and 15 in the elderly group) volunteered to participate in the study. Kinematics was performed using an optoelectronic system, and linear and angular kinematic variables were determined. There was no difference in walking speed, stride length, cadence, hip, knee and ankle joints range of motion between groups, except the pelvic rotation, in which the fibromyalgia group showed greater rotation (P<0.05) compared to the elderly group. Also, there was a negative correlation with pelvic rotation and gluteus pain (r = -0.69; P<0.05), and between pelvic obliquity and greater trochanter pain (r = -0.69; P<0.05) in the fibromyalgia group. Middle-aged women with fibromyalgia showed gait pattern resemblances to elderly, women, which is characterized by reduced lower limb ROM, stride length and walking speed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Mammographic screening practices among Chinese-Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Cannas; Fethney, Judith; White, Kate

    2012-03-01

    To report mammographic screening practice among Chinese-Australian women, and to examine the relationship between demographic characteristics, acculturation factors (English proficiency and length of stay in Australia), cultural beliefs, and having a mammogram as recommended. Cross-sectional and descriptive. The study was conducted in 2009 in Sydney, Australia. Of 988 Chinese-Australian women over 18 years of age invited to participate in the study, 785 (79%) completed and returned the questionnaire. Of these women, 320 (40.8%) were in the target age range of 50 to 69 years. The Chinese Breast Cancer Screening Beliefs Questionnaire (CBCSB) was used as a data collection instrument. Analysis included descriptive statistics, bivariate analysis using chi-square and t tests, and logistic regression. Of the 320 women in the targeted age range of 50 to 69 years, 238 (74.4%) had a mammogram as recommended biannually. Being married-de facto, in the 60 to 69 age group, and speaking Cantonese at home were positively associated with women's mammographic screening practice. However, no statistically significant differences in acculturation factors and having a mammogram as recommended were found. In terms of CBCSB score, women who had mammograms as recommended had more positive attitudes toward health checkups and perceived fewer barriers to mammographic screening. Effort should be focused on specific subgroups of Chinese-Australian women in order to fully understand the barriers involved in participating in mammographic screening. Nurses can use the findings from the present study to design culturally sensitive breast cancer screening programs to encourage women's participation in mammography. © 2011 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  10. Identity Formation in Adulthood: A Longitudinal Study from Age 27 to 50

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadjukoff, Päivi; Pulkkinen, Lea; Kokko, Katja

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Longitudinal patterns of identity formation were analyzed in a representative cohort group of Finnish men and women born in 1959 across ages 27, 36, 42, and 50. The data were drawn from the Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Personality. Identity status (diffused, moratorium, foreclosed, achieved) from all four ages was available for 172 participants (54% females). Marcia’s Identity Status Interview used in this research included five domains: religious beliefs, political identity, occupational career, intimate relationships, and lifestyle. The findings indicated great variability in identity status across domains at each age level, and the identity trajectories fluctuated from age 27 to 50. The developmental trend from age 27 to 50 was moderately progressive (toward achievement) for the five domains and for overall identity, with the exception of a slightly regressive trend in male religious identity. Remaining stable in the same status category across the four measurements was rare and emerged only for diffusion in the ideological domains. Women generally outnumbered men in identity achievement at earlier ages, but the gender differences diminished in most domains at age 50, except in religious identity. In women overall diffusion decreased over time, but in men it remained at about 20% at ages 42 and 50. PMID:27019650

  11. Trends in screening mammograms for women 50 years of age and older - behavioral risk factor surveillance system, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    To assess whether the media attention to breast cancer screening and the promotional efforts in 1987 were paralleled by increases in screening of women greater than or equal to 50 years of age, CDC analyzed data from 33 states that participated in the 1987 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)

  12. Protocol for Compass: a randomised controlled trial of primary HPV testing versus cytology screening for cervical cancer in HPV-unvaccinated and vaccinated women aged 25-69 years living in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfell, Karen; Saville, Marion; Caruana, Michael; Gebski, Val; Darlington-Brown, Jessica; Brotherton, Julia; Heley, Stella; Castle, Philip E

    2018-01-26

    Australia's National Cervical Screening Program (NCSP) currently recommends 2-year cytology in women aged 18-69 years. Following a review of the NCSP prompted by the implementation of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, the programme will transition in 2017 to 5-year primary HPV screening with partial genotyping for HPV16/18 in women aged 25-74 years. Compass is a sentinel experience for the renewed NCSP and the first prospectively randomised trial of primary HPV screening compared with cytology to be conducted in a population with high uptake of HPV vaccination. This protocol describes the main Compass trial, which commenced after a pilot study of ~5000 women completed recruitment. Women aged 25-69 years will be randomised at a 1:2 allocation to (1) 2.5-year image-read, liquid-based cytology (LBC) screening with HPV triage of low-grade smears (active control Arm A) or (2) 5-year HPV screening with partial genotyping and referral of HPV16/18-positive women to colposcopy (intervention Arm B). Women in Arm B positive for other oncogenic HPV (not 16/18) will undergo secondary randomisation at a 1:1 allocation to either LBC or dual-stained (p16 INK4a and Ki-67) cytology testing (dual-stained cytology). The primary outcome is cumulative CIN3+ (CIN3, adenocarcinoma in situ and invasive cervical cancer) following a 5-year HPV exit testing round in both arms, in women randomised to the HPV arm versus women randomised to the LBC arm, based on an intention-to-treat analysis. The primary outcome will first be tested for non-inferiority and if declared, the primary outcome will be tested for superiority. A total of 36 300 women in birth cohorts not offered vaccination and 84 700 women in cohorts offered vaccination will be recruited, bringing the final sample size to 121 000. The trial is powered for the secondary outcome of cumulative CIN3+ in screen-negative women, adjusted for censoring after CIN2+ treatment and hysterectomy. Approved by the Bellberry Ethics

  13. Functional Time Series Models to Estimate Future Age-Specific Breast Cancer Incidence Rates for Women in Karachi, Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farah Yasmeen[1; Sidra Zaheer[2

    2014-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common female cancer in Pakistan. The incidence of breast cancer in Pakistan is about 2.5 times higher than that in the neighboring countries India and Iran. In Karachi, the most populated city of Pakistan, the age-standardized rate of breast cancer was 69.1 per 100,000 women during 1998-2002, which is the highest recorded rate in Asia. The carcinoma of breast in Pakistan is an enormous public health concern. In this study, we examined the recent trends of breast cancer incidence rates among the women in Karachi. Methods: We obtained the secondary data of breast cancer incidence from various hospitals. They included Jinnah Hospital, KIRAN (Karachi Institute of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine), and Civil hospital, where the data were available for the years 2004-2011. A total of 5331 new cases of female breast cancer were registered during this period. We analyzed the data in 5-year age groups 15-19, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, 40-44, 45-49, 50-54, 55-59, 60-64, 65-69, 70-74, 75+. Nonparametric smoothing were used to obtained age-specific incidence curves, and then the curves are decomposed using principal components analysis to fit FTS (functional time series) model. We then used exponential smoothing statspace models to estimate the forecasts of incidence curve and construct prediction intervals. Results: The breast cancer incidence rates in Karachi increased with age for all available years. The rates increased monotonically and are relatively sharp with the age from 15 years to 50 years and then they show variability after the age of 50 years. 10-year forecasts for the female breast cancer incidence rates in Karachi show that the future rates are expected to remain stable for the age-groups 15-50 years, but they will increase for the females of 50-years and over. Hence in future, the newly diagnosed breast cancer cases in the older women in Karachi are expected to increase. Conclusion: Prediction of age

  14. Sexual activity in Brazilian women aged 50 years or older within the framework of a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadares, Ana Lúcia Ribeiro; Santos Machado, Vanessa S; da Costa-Paiva, Lúcia S; de Souza, Maria Helena; Osis, Maria José; Pinto-Neto, Aarão M

    2014-03-01

    This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of sexual activity, factors associated with being sexually active, and sexual self-perception in women 50 years or older living in a Brazilian city. This population-based study applied a questionnaire to a random sample of 622 Brazilian women 50 years or older, representative of a population of 131,800 women, to obtain data on sexual activity and women's perception of their sexual life as part of a broader study that dealt with women's health. Associations between sexual activity, women's perception of their sexual life, and demographic, behavioral, and medical characteristics were determined. Overall, 36.7% of the participants reported being sexually active. Of these, 53.5% classified their sexual life as very good or good. Multiple regression analysis showed that the main factors associated with the absence of sexual activity were not having a partner (prevalence ratio [PR], 0.16; 95% CI, 0.12-0.23; P aging (PR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.94-0.96; P sexually active was associated with the practice of physical activity (PR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.02-1.41; P = 0.032). A woman's classification of her sexual life as very poor, poor, or fair was associated with current or past use of natural remedies to treat menopausal symptoms (PR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.06-1.81; P = 0.020). The main factors associated with the absence of sexual activity are not having a sexual partner, aging, and smoking, whereas weekly physical activity is associated with being sexually active. A poorer classification of a woman's sexual life is associated with her having used natural remedies to treat menopausal symptoms.

  15. Urinary Incontinence, Its Risk Factors, and Quality of Life: A Study among Women Aged 50 Years and above in a Rural Health Facility of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Bijit; Bhattacharyya, Aritra; Dasgupta, Aparajita; Karmakar, Anubrata; Mallick, Nazrul; Sembiah, Sembagamuthu

    2017-01-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is a chronic debilitating disease which is often under reported, but laid significant impact on one's quality of life (QoL) thus is of public health importance. The aim of this study is to find out proportion of rural women have UI, its associated risk factors and treatment-seeking behavior, QoL of affected women. This was a cross-sectional clinic-based study conducted from October 2016 to January 2017 among 177 women aged 50 years or above attending a rural health facility with a structured schedule. Data were analyzed using appropriate statistical methods by SPSS (version 16). Forty-nine (27.7%) out of 177 women were found having UI. The most prevalent type of UI was stress UI (51.0%), followed by mixed UI (32.7%) and urge UI (16.3%). In bivariate analysis, study participants who were illiterate, having a history of prolonged labor, having a history of gynecological operation, normal vaginal deliveries (NVDs) (>3), diabetic, having chronic cough, having constipation, and having lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) had shown significantly greater odds of having UI. In multivariable illiteracy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] - 2.41 [1.02-5.69]), NVDs (AOR - 3.37 [1.54-7.37]), a history of gynecological operation (AOR - 3.84 [1.16-12.66]), chronic cough (AOR - 2.69 [1.21-5.99]), LUTS (AOR - 2.63 [1.15-6.00]) remained significant adjusted with other significant variable in bivariate analysis. Those with mixed UI had 5.33 times higher odds having unfavorable QoL. Only 30.6% sought medical help. Treatment-seeking behavior shown negative correlation with QoL while fecal incontinence and LUTS shown possitive correlation. The study revealed that rural women are indeed at high risk of developing UI. Majority of them did not sought treatment for UI which is matter of concern. Generating awareness regarding UI may help to improve health-seeking behavior and QoL.

  16. Urinary incontinence, its risk factors, and quality of life: A study among women aged 50 years and above in a rural health facility of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijit Biswas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Urinary incontinence (UI is a chronic debilitating disease which is often under reported, but laid significant impact on one's quality of life (QoL thus is of public health importance. Aims: The aim of this study is to find out proportion of rural women have UI, its associated risk factors and treatment-seeking behavior, QoL of affected women. Methods: This was a cross-sectional clinic-based study conducted from October 2016 to January 2017 among 177 women aged 50 years or above attending a rural health facility with a structured schedule. Data were analyzed using appropriate statistical methods by SPSS (version 16. Results: Forty-nine (27.7% out of 177 women were found having UI. The most prevalent type of UI was stress UI (51.0%, followed by mixed UI (32.7% and urge UI (16.3%. In bivariate analysis, study participants who were illiterate, having a history of prolonged labor, having a history of gynecological operation, normal vaginal deliveries (NVDs (>3, diabetic, having chronic cough, having constipation, and having lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS had shown significantly greater odds of having UI. In multivariable illiteracy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] - 2.41 [1.02–5.69], NVDs (AOR - 3.37 [1.54–7.37], a history of gynecological operation (AOR - 3.84 [1.16–12.66], chronic cough (AOR - 2.69 [1.21–5.99], LUTS (AOR - 2.63 [1.15–6.00] remained significant adjusted with other significant variable in bivariate analysis. Those with mixed UI had 5.33 times higher odds having unfavorable QoL. Only 30.6% sought medical help. Treatment-seeking behavior shown negative correlation with QoL while fecal incontinence and LUTS shown possitive correlation. Conclusions: The study revealed that rural women are indeed at high risk of developing UI. Majority of them did not sought treatment for UI which is matter of concern. Generating awareness regarding UI may help to improve health-seeking behavior and QoL.

  17. Ginga observations of the 50 millisecond pulsar PSR 0540 - 69

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagase, F.; Deeter, J.; Lewis, W.; Dotani, T.; Makino, F.

    1990-01-01

    Extensive Ginga observations of PSR 0540 - 69, the Crab-like 50-msec pulsar in the LMC, have been obtained as a side benefit of a pulsar search project for SN 1987A. Through a coherent pulse-timing analysis of data from 46 separate days between July 1987 and October 1988, precise values have been obtained for the pulse frequency and its first and second derivatives. From these values, a braking index of n = 2.02 + or = 0.01 is obtained for PSR 0540 - 69. This is the first accurate measurement of a pulsar braking index from X-ray observations and the third overall. The braking index is much smaller than those previously determined for the Crab pulsar (n = 2.51) and PSR 1509 - 58 (n = 2.83). 24 refs

  18. Age-related changes relevant to health in women: design, recruitment, and retention strategies for the Longitudinal Assessment of Women (LAW) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Soo Keat; O'Neill, Sheila; Travers, Catherine; Oldenburg, Brian

    2008-01-01

    The primary aim was to assess the age-related changes that occur in older women. This paper describes the study rationale and methods, recruitment, and retention strategies. The Longitudinal Assessment of Women (LAW) Study was a longitudinal, observational, and multidisciplinary evaluation of a population-based cohort of urban-living women, aged between 40 and 80 years at recruitment and randomly invited from a district in Brisbane (a city in Australia) via the electoral roll. Five hundred eleven women were recruited and stratified into four age groups (40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79 years) and were assessed on three or four occasions each year, using interviews and diagnostic instruments (echocardiography, applination tonometry, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry [DEXA]) Retention strategies included flexibility, accessibility, personalized attention, and feedback. From a sample frame of 1598 names, there were 1082 respondents, of whom 511 (47%) were successfully recruited from those eligible to participate. Recruitment was quickest for the oldest age group, 70-79 years, and slowest for the age group 40-49 years; all age groups achieved their required quota. A scheduling program was developed to minimize the number of visits and maximize the use of allocated time. The largest dropout was seen in year 1 of the study, with very few thereafter. Of the 9 deaths, cancer was the cause in 7. The retention rate after 5 years was 95.5%. The design of the present study, with careful attention to coordination and a personal approach, facilitated the completion of a 5-year study, enabling a collection of a set of wide-ranging data from almost all the women recruited. The information thus collected will form the basis of cross-linking analysis of the risk factors associated with health problems in aging women.

  19. A longitudinal study of gender differences in depressive symptoms from age 50 to 80

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barefoot, J C; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Helms, M J

    2001-01-01

    in women than in men at ages 50 and 60, but not at age 80. Men showed increases in depressive symptoms from age 60 to 80, but women did not (interaction p genders. Potential explanations include differential...... changes in social roles with aging....

  20. Common symptoms in middle aged women: their relation to employment status, psychosocial work conditions and social support in a Swedish setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, G; Ostergren, P O

    2000-03-01

    Over the past few decades there has been a growing interest among researchers, in women's overall life circumstances and their relation to women's health status. For example, paid employment has been considered an important part of women's living conditions in Western societies as the number of women entering the labour market has grown constantly over the past decades. When comparing men's and women's health, one of the most consistent findings is a higher rate of symptoms among women. The most commonly reported symptoms in women are depressive symptoms, symptoms of bodily tension and chronic pain from muscles and joints. The aim of this study was to investigate whether socioeconomic factors, employment status, psychosocial work conditions and social network/support are associated with middle aged women's health status in terms of common symptoms. A mailed questionnaire was used in a cross sectional design assessing socioeconomic factors, employment status, psychosocial work conditions according to the demand/control model, social network/support and an index based on the 15 most frequent symptoms presented by middle aged women when seeking health care. A rural community with 13,200 inhabitants in the western part of Sweden. Women were randomly selected from the general population in the study area, 40 to 50 years of age. The response rate was 81.7 per cent. Women who were non-employed had a significantly increased odds of a high level of common symptoms (OR = 2.82; 95% confidence intervals 1.69, 4.70), as well as women exposed to job strain (OR = 3.27; 1.92, 5.57), independently of the level of social network/support. Furthermore, exposure to low social support, low social anchorage or low social participation independently showed significantly increased odds of a high level of common symptoms (OR = 2.75; 1.71, 4.42; OR = 2.91; 1.81, 4.69 and OR = 1.69; 1.10, 2.61, respectively). Work related factors, such as non-employment and job strain, and circumstances

  1. Enhancing Women's Political Fortunes in Ghana: Is a 50/50 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 50/50 Campaign as a tool for enhancing women's political participation has gained currency in recent time. Its call for equal participation of women and men in politics and public office has reinvigorated various activisms globally. This paper examines the Campaign within the context of Ghanaian women's political ...

  2. Influence of employments physical exercises on age-dependent changes and rates of senescence of organism for women 30-50 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorokina S.A.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The special program of positive influence is developed on the general state of organism of women. The analysis of the special literature is conducted. In an experiment 26 women took part in age 30-50 years. Practical recommendations are developed in relation to employments by physical exercises. The use at health run and walking, respiratory exercises, exercises under musical accompaniment, engaged in yoga, is offered. Positive changes are fixed in the indexes of the functional state of the cardiovascular system and nervous system.

  3. Predictive effects of different clinical balance measures and the fear of falling on falls in postmenopausal women aged 50 years and over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Yuksel; MacWalter, Ronald S; Durmus, Bekir; Altay, Zuhal E; Baysal, Ozlem

    2009-01-01

    Falls among the elderly are associated with a high morbidity and mortality and can involve high-cost medical interventions. The risk of falls often remains undiagnosed until an episode occurs but if the risk is high, preventative measures could be introduced. This 6-month prospective study investigated whether different postural clinical measures and fear of falling (FOF) itself can predict future falls in postmenopausal women aged > or =50 years. 125 postmenopausal women were studied comparing the outcome of fallers vs. non-fallers within the 6-month follow-up study period. Clinical measures, history of falls and FOF data were determined at baseline and the number of falls and FOF were ascertained at the final visit or by telephone interview at 6 months. Of the clinical measures investigated, the Falls Efficacy Scale International (FES-I) >26 points (OR = 7.28, per additional point, 95% CI 2.25-23.61, p = 0.001) and Berg Balance Scale (BBS) falls. Postmenopausal women aged > or =50 years who had FES-I scores >26 points and BBS risk factors of future falls and offered preventative measures.

  4. Analysis of postural control and muscular performance in young and elderly women in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Matheus M; Reis, Júlia G; Carvalho, Regiane L; Tanaka, Erika H; Hyppolito, Miguel A; Abreu, Daniela C C

    2015-01-01

    muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20); the 60-64 age group (n=20); the 65-69 age group (n=20); and the 70-74 age group (n=20). The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM) and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05); however, these values were lower than those of the young group (ppostural control performance (ppostural control shown by these women.

  5. Effect of age on breast cancer screening using tomosynthesis in combination with digital mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Elizabeth A; Rose, Stephen L; Miller, Dave P; Durand, Melissa A; Conant, Emily F; Copit, Debra S; Friedewald, Sarah M; Plecha, Donna M; Ott, Ingrid L; Hayes, Mary K; Carlson, Kara L; Cink, Thomas M; Barke, Lora D; Greer, Linda N; Niklason, Loren T

    2017-08-01

    To determine the effect of tomosynthesis imaging as a function of age for breast cancer screening. Screening performance metrics from 13 institutions were examined for 12 months prior to introduction of tomosynthesis (period 1) and compared to those after introduction of tomosynthesis (period 2, range 3-22 months). Screening metrics for women ages 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70+ , included rates per 1000 screens for recalls, biopsies, cancers, and invasive cancers detected. Performance parameters were compared for women screened with digital mammography alone (n = 278,908) and digital mammography + tomosynthesis (n = 173,414). Addition of tomosynthesis to digital mammography produced significant reductions in recall rates for all age groups and significant increases in cancer detection rates for women 40-69. Largest recall rate reduction with tomosynthesis was for women 40-49, decreasing from 137 (95% CI 117-156) to 115 (95% CI 95-135); difference, -22 (95% CI -26 to -18; P cancer detection rate for women 40-49 from 1.6 (95% CI 1.2-1.9) to 2.7 (95% CI 2.2-3.1) with tomosynthesis (difference, 1.1; 95% CI 0.6-1.6; P cancer detection rates for women 40-69 and decreased recall rates for all age groups with largest performance gains seen in women 40-49. The similar performance seen with tomosynthesis screening for women in their 40s compared to digital mammography for women in their 50s argues strongly for commencement of mammography screening at age 40 using tomosynthesis.

  6. Role of multimedial diagnosis of breast cancer in women below 36 year of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciacco, Stefano; Brancato, Beniamino

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the sensitivity for breast cancer of different diagnostic tests performed in a consecutive series of women aged under 36 years. Materials and methods: The study analyses 155 women with breast cancer incident in the Tuscany Cancer Registry from 1985 to 2000. The sensitivity of each method was evaluated in relation to the most recent test performed during the year before diagnosis and to different variables, such as tumour size and calendar period. Results: Sensitivity was 70.3% for physical examination, 76.0% for mammography, 69.1% for ultrasonography and 80.6% for cytology (86.2% if inadequate samples are excluded). Sensitivity was associated to pT category for physical examination (pT1=60.6%; pT2=4=86.4%; χ2=10.2, p=0.001) and for ultrasonography (pT1=61.9%; pT2=4=92.0%; χ2=5.7, p=0.001) and to breast radiological density for mammography (50-100% density=75.5%; 0-50 density=91.3%; χ2=1.85, p [it

  7. Age-related differences in recommended anthropometric cut-off point validity to identify cardiovascular risk factors in ostensibly healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramoney, Sreevidya; Björkelund, Cecilia; Guo, Xinxin; Skoog, Ingmar; Bosaeus, Ingvar; Lissner, Lauren

    2014-12-01

    To investigate validity of widely recommended anthropometric and total fat percentage cut-off points in screening for cardiovascular risk factors in women of different ages. A population-based sample of 1002 Swedish women aged 38, 50, 75 (younger, middle-aged and elderly, respectively) underwent anthropometry, health examinations and blood tests. Total fat was estimated (bioimpedance) in 670 women. Sensitivity, specificity of body mass index (BMI; ≥25 and ≥30), waist circumference (WC; ≥80 cm and ≥88 cm) and total fat percentage (TF; ≥35%) cut-off points for cardiovascular risk factors (dyslipidaemias, hypertension and hyperglycaemia) were calculated for each age. Cut-off points yielding high sensitivity together with modest specificity were considered valid. Women reporting hospital admission for cardiovascular disease were excluded. The sensitivity of WC ≥80 cm for one or more risk factors was ~60% in younger and middle-aged women, and 80% in elderly women. The specificity of WC ≥80 cm for one or more risk factors was 69%, 57% and 40% at the three ages (p < .05 for age trends). WC ≥80 cm yielded ~80% sensitivity for two or more risk factors across all ages. However, specificity decreased with increasing age (p < .0001), being 33% in elderly. WC ≥88 cm provided better specificity in elderly women. BMI and TF % cut-off points were not better than WC. Validity of recommended anthropometric cut-off points in screening asymptomatic women varies with age. In younger and middle-age, WC ≥80 cm yielded high sensitivity and modest specificity for two or more risk factors, however, sensitivity for one or more risk factor was less than optimal. WC ≥88 cm showed better validity than WC ≥80 cm in elderly. Our results support age-specific screening cut-off points for women. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  8. THE PREVALENCE OF ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHIC INDICATORS AMONG MEN AND WOMEN OF OLDER AGES IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

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    G. A. Muromtseva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the prevalence of ECG ischemic disorders assessed by theMinnesota code on a sample of people over 50 years, depending on gender, age and employment.Material and methods. The results of a survey of a representative sample of the unorganized population of 13 regions, participants of the ESSE-RF program in 2012-2014, were included into the study (n=8334 people; men - 2784, women - 5550. Analysis of the prevalence of ECG changes was carried out by the Minnesota code in groups of 50-54, 55-59 and 60-64 years old, depending on gender and employment (employed and unemployed.Results. Pathological changes were recorded on the ECG more often in men compared to women – Q(QS-wave (5% vs 1.9%, atrial fibrillation (2.1% vs 0.8%; p<0.01, conduction abnormalities (2.7% vs 1.6%; p<0.002 with a maximum in 60-64 years old (4.4% vs 2.6%; p<0.01, respectively. ST segment depression and the T wave abnormalities (myocardial ischemia occurred more often in women than in men (6.9% vs 5.1%, respectively; p<0.001, with a significant increase of these changes in women after 60 years old. The prevalence of ECG abnormalities increases with age. Significant rise of ECG-changes prevalence was found in men at the age of 55-59 years (pathological QQS, myocardial ischemia, left ventricular hypertrophy; and in women – at 60-64 years (myocardial ischemia, atrial fibrillation, conduction abnormalities. Almost two-fold increase in the incidence of arrhythmias and conduction abnormalities was found in men and women aged 60-64 years, regardless of employment status.Conclusion. Given the poor prognosis of ischemic ECG abnormalities, even their low prevalence indicates to unfavorable epidemiological situation among people around retirement age (55-64. These results emphasize the need for practitioners to careful attention to the ECG-abnormalities with poor prognosis in patients pre-retirement and retirement age. They may also be useful for practical public health as a

  9. Effect of estrogen deficiency on the lipid profile in women in different age periods

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    Neyfeld I.V.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to evaluate influence of estrogen deficiency on lipid profile in women of different age. Material and Methods. 189 women with normal body weight: 44 women with premature menopause (aged <40 years, 69 women with early menopause (aged 40-45 years, and 76 women with natural menopause (aged 46-55 years have been studied. In all women identification of clinical status has been performed during clinical examination. Results. It is shown that increasing age associated with increasing total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, very low density lipoproteins (VLDL (p<0.05. We have not observed a significant association between age and level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL (p=0.117. According with increased age, atherogenic index of plasma (AIP increases from initial -0.17±0.09 (M±o to 0.09±0.47 (p<0.05 in women with premature menopause, and to 0.14±0.21 (p<0.05 in other women. Final level of AIP was similar between women aged 40-45 years and women aged 46-55 years (p=0.084. Conclusion. Lipid metabolism disorders were assessed in 73.5% of women with estrogen deficiency. According to the age factor the rate of women with normal lipid metabolism decreases (x2=10,165, p=0.026.

  10. Eating disorder symptoms and weight and shape concerns in a large web-based convenience sample of women ages 50 and above: results of the Gender and Body Image (GABI) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Danielle A; Von Holle, Ann; Brownley, Kimberly A; Runfola, Cristin D; Hofmeier, Sara; Branch, Kateland E; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2012-11-01

    Limited research exists on eating disorder symptoms and attitudes and weight and shape concerns in women in midlife to older adulthood. We conducted an online survey to characterize these behaviors and concerns in women ages 50 and above. Participants (n = 1,849) were recruited via the Internet and convenience sampling. Eating disorder symptoms, dieting and body checking behaviors, and weight and shape concerns were widely endorsed. Younger age and higher body mass index (BMI) were associated with greater endorsement of eating disorder symptoms, behaviors, and concerns. Weight and shape concerns and disordered eating behaviors occur in women over 50 and vary by age and BMI. Focused research on disordered eating patterns in this age group is necessary to develop age-appropriate interventions and to meet the developmental needs of an important, growing, and underserved population. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Women's sexuality: from aging to social representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringa, Virginie; Diter, Kevin; Laborde, Caroline; Bajos, Nathalie

    2013-10-01

    Studies designed in northern countries show that most women are still sexually active after the age of 50. Many factors other than hormones influence sexual life in and after middle age; they include social status, personal characteristics, physical and psychological conditions, relationship factors, and social representations of sexuality. This study aims to analyze various components of sexuality, including its social representations, among women aged 45-55 years, as they reach menopause. Comparison of three groups: all postmenopausal women (277), postmenopausal women not currently using hormonal treatment (HT) (209), postmenopausal women currently using HT (68), with a reference group of premenopausal women (408). All were recruited in a national general population-based survey of sexual behaviors and interviewed by telephone. Practices, sexual function, satisfaction, and representations and expectations concerning sexuality. The women did not differ according to menopausal status for sexual activity, practices (wide range of practices beyond sexual intercourse), dysfunction, or satisfaction. They also attributed equal importance to sexuality. Nevertheless, although postmenopausal women not using HT did not report less sexual activity than premenopausal women, they were less likely to consider that a 3-month period without sex is a sign of difficulty in a relationship (30.3% vs. 47.7%; odds ratio: 0.35 [0.21-0.57], P=0.000). This difference was not observed between postmenopausal women using HT and premenopausal women. Our results suggest that for middle-aged women who are at the onset of menopause, the biological/hormonal changes characterizing menopause do not negatively affect sexual life. Any negative reported effects on sexuality are more likely due to anticipation or negative representations of sexuality around menopause than to biological or hormonal effects. The effect of menopause at this point in women's lives may thus be more symbolic than biological

  12. [Socio-demographic and health conditions associated with paid work in adults (50-69 years) in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Camila Menezes Sabino de; Mambrini, Juliana Vaz de Melo; Sampaio, Rosana Ferreira; Macinko, James; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda

    2015-08-01

    Factors associated with paid work were examined in a probabilistic sample of 3,320 adults (50-69 years) in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Prevalence of paid work was 62.8% in men and 35.8% in women. For both men and women, paid work was positively associated with schooling and negatively associated with self-rated health. The probability of having paid work was higher for single women and those who knew someone that had suffered discrimination at the workplace. For men, prevalence of paid work varied from 67.2% in those with ≥ 8 years of schooling and better self-rated health, as compared to 37.8% in those with less schooling and poor self-rated health (PR = 0.56; 95%CI: 0.37-0.87). In women, the corresponding prevalence rates were 42.1% and 3.6% (PR = 0.09; 95%CI: 0.03-0.26). For women with little schooling and poor self-rated health, the likelihood of having paid work was ten times lower than for their male counterparts.

  13. Challenging social myths and stereotypes of women and aging: heterosexual women talk about sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliff, Sharron; Gott, Merryn

    2008-01-01

    Cultural representations of aging and sexuality combine to paint a particular picture of mid and later life for women: menopause is constructed as a time when women either lose or renew their interest in sex, and later life a time when sexual activity no longer assumes importance yet remains vital to healthy aging. This article examines the importance of sexual activity to "older" women, paying particular attention to how they negotiate such representations. In-depth interviews were conducted with 19 women aged 50 and older recruited from Sheffield, UK. A material-discursive analysis revealed that whilst participants rejected the asexual discourse of aging they accepted it for women older than themselves. They constructed women per se as sexually complex, in comparison to men, making sexual activity "risky business" for women, and positioned their own sexual desire as responsive, either to a man's sexual desire or to their own hormones. Finally, sexual activity was constructed as having psychological and physiological benefits for couples within committed relationships. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for research, theory and clinical practice.

  14. Association of adverse childhood experiences with lifetime mental and substance use disorders among men and women aged 50+ years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Namkee G; DiNitto, Diana M; Marti, C Nathan; Choi, Bryan Y

    2017-03-01

    Given growing numbers of older adults with mental and substance use disorders (MSUDs), this study examined the association between ten types of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and lifetime MSUDs among those aged 50+. Data (N = 14,738 for the 50+ age group) came from the 2012 to 2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Using multivariable binary logistic regression analyses, we examined relationships between ten ACEs and six lifetime MSUDs (major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety, post-traumatic stress, alcohol use, drug use, and nicotine use disorders). Gender differences were examined using tests of interaction effects and gender-separate logistic regression models. Of the sample, 53.2% of women and 50.0% of men reported at least one ACE. For both genders, parental/other adult's substance abuse was the most prevalent (22.6%), followed by physical abuse, and emotional neglect. Child abuse and neglect and parental/other adult's mental illness and substance abuse had small but consistently significant associations with MSUDs (e.g., odds ratio = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.12-1.46 for parental/other adult's substance misuse and MDD). Although the relationship between total number of ACEs and MSUDs was cumulative for both men and women, the associations of physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect, and parental separation/divorce with MSUDs were stronger among men. This study underscores the significant yet modest association between ACEs and lifetime MSUDs in late life. More research is needed to investigate why ACEs seem to have greater effects on older men and to discern the sources of gender differences in ACEs' effects.

  15. Effect of strength training and short-term detraining on muscle mass in women aged over 50 years old

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    Maryam Delshad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The loss of muscle mass is associated with aging. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of resistance training and detraining on muscle mass in elderly women. Methods: Twenty post-menopausal women aged50 years old were enrolled. Matching for age, they were randomly assigned into control and resistance training group (RT. The intervention consisted of three sets of 10 repetitions for 10 movements with Thera-Band tubing (based on 80-100% 10-RM, three times a week, for 12 weeks and thereafter, four weeks detraining. Skinfold thickness was determined by caliper. Percentage of body fat was estimated from skinfold thickness (triceps and subscapular by McArdle method. Fat mass (FM and fat-free mass (FFM were calculated. Range of motion for trunk flexion and extension was determined. Results: During 12 weeks of intervention, significant increases were observed in 1-RM of biceps curl, FFM, trunk flexion and extension and significant decreases during four weeks detraining in RT group. The RT group demonstrated significant decreases during resistance training and increases during detraining in skinfold thickness. FFM, trunk flexion, and extension decreased and skinfold thickness, %FM, and weight of body fat increased in the control group (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Resistance training with Thera-Band enhanced strength and muscle endurance in elderly women and a 4-week detraining period had an adverse effect on muscle power. This suggests that a strength training program is an effective intervention to prevent functional reductions, and can contribute to improve neuromuscular function in older adults.

  16. Epidemiology of Substance Use in Reproductive-Age Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, R. Kathryn; Wigderson, Sara; Greenfield, Shelly F.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis A significant number of women of reproductive age in the U.S. use addictive substances. In 2012 more than 50% reported current use of alcohol, 20% used tobacco products, and approximately 13% used other drugs. Among women, use of these substances is associated with a number of significant medical, psychiatric, and social consequences, and the course of illness may progress more rapidly in women than men. The lifetime prevalence of alcohol and drug use disorders in women is 19.5% and 7.1%, respectively. In addition, as most addictive substances cross the placenta and have deleterious effects on fetal development, substance use has additional potential adverse consequences for women of reproductive age who may become pregnant. Specific barriers to accessing effective substance use treatment exist for women. The prevalence of substance use and evidence of accelerated illness progression in women highlight the importance of universal substance use screening in women in primary care settings. PMID:24845483

  17. Mammography use among women ages 40-49 after the 2009 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Lauren D; Jarlenski, Marian P; Wu, Albert W; Bennett, Wendy L

    2013-11-01

    In 2009, the U.S. Preventive Service Task Force changed its recommendation regarding screening mammography in average-risk women aged 40-49 years. To evaluate the effects of the 2009 recommendation on reported mammogram use in a population-based survey. Secondary data analysis of data collected in the 2006, 2008, and 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys. Women ages 40-74 years in the 50 states and Washington, DC who were not pregnant at time of survey and reported data on mammogram use during the 2006, 2008, or 2010 survey. Mammogram use was compared between women ages 40-49 and women ages 50-74 before and after the recommendation. We performed a difference-in-difference estimation adjusted for access to care, education, race, and health status, and stratified analyses by whether women reported having a routine checkup in the prior year. Reported prevalence of mammogram use in the past year among women ages 40-49 and 50-74 was 53.2 % and 65.2 %, respectively in 2008, and 51.7 % and 62.4 % in 2010. In 2010, mammography use did not significantly decline from 2006-2008 in women ages 40-49 relative to women ages 50-74. There was no reduction in mammography use among younger women in 2010 compared to older women and previous years. Patients and providers may have been hesitant to comply with the 2009 recommendation.

  18. [Work-related fatigue in highly-educated women older than 50].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoers, N.V.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent findings by Verdonk et al. show that the prevalence of work-related fatigue among 47,000 Dutch employees is greatest in highly-educated women, aged 50-64 years. Although the study has several limitations, the findings are alarming, demand urgent measures and should be on the shortlist of

  19. Plasma carotenoids and the risk of premalignant breast disease in women aged 50 and younger: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Kevin; Liu, Ying; Luo, Jingqin; Appleton, Catherine M; Colditz, Graham A

    2017-04-01

    To examine the association of plasma carotenoids, micronutrients in fruits, and vegetables, with risk of premalignant breast disease (PBD) in younger women. Blood samples were collected at the Siteman Cancer Center between 2008 and 2012 from 3537 women aged 50 or younger with no history of cancer or PBD. The analysis included 147 participants diagnosed with benign breast disease or breast carcinoma in situ during a 27-month follow-up and 293 controls. Cases and controls were matched on age, race/ethnicity, and date of and fasting status at blood draw. Plasma carotenoids were quantified. We used logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and linear regression to assess racial differences in plasma carotenoids. The risk reduction between the highest and lowest tertiles varied by carotenoid, with β-cryptoxanthin having the greatest reduction (OR 0.62; 95% CI, 0.62-1.09; P trend  = 0.056) and total carotenoids the least (OR 0.83; 95% CI, 0.48-1.44; P trend  = 0.12). We observed an inverse association between plasma carotenoids and risk of PBD in obese women (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m 2 ; 61 cases and 115 controls) but not lean women (BMI carotenoids and risk of PBD in younger women, consistent with inverse associations reported for invasive breast cancer. Carotenoids may play a role early in breast cancer development.

  20. Factors associated with educational mobility in mid-age Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooth, Leigh R; Mishra, Gita D

    2017-02-01

    The educational mobility of mid-age women is rarely studied. We analysed the baseline socio-economic position (SEP) and health factors associated with obtaining further education in 4117 mid-age Australian women between 1996 and 2010 (aged 45-50 at baseline, 62-67 at follow-up) from a population-based study. Women either unemployed or working part-time at baseline had higher odds of a stable low and middle education over time (ORs ranging from 1.61 to 3.86) versus educational mobility. Apart from obesity, characteristics that may signal an unhealthy lifestyle in early mid-life were not useful indicators of women's future educational mobility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Age-related changes of serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b and the relationship with bone mineral density in Chinese women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue-juan QIN; Zhen-lin ZHANG; Hao ZHANG; Wei-wei HU; Yu-juan LIU; Yun-qiu HU; Miao LI; Jie-mei GU; Jin-wei HE

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Ostcoclastic activity is mainly assessed by measurement of urinary markers (eg C-terminal cross-linked telopeptides of type I collagen, N-terminal cross-linked telopeptides of type I collagen etc), the levels of which could often be affected by renal clearance. Recently, serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP5b) has been used as an alternative serum marker to evaluate osteoclastic activity. We investigated the age-related changes of TRACP5b level and its association with bone mineral density (BMD) in Chinese women. Methods: Seven-hundred and twenty-two Chinese mainland women aged 20-79 years were recruited in the study. Serum TRACP5b level was measured using immunoassay to evaluate the state of bone resorption. Bone mineral density (BMD) (g/cm2) at lumbar spine 1-4 and proximal femur were measured by duel-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results: The serum TRACP5b level reached a bottom value in premenopausal women aged 30-39, gradually increased in women aged 40-49, rapidly rose in women aged 50-59, and culminated with a maximum value in women aged 60-69 before a slow drop in women aged 70-79. The average level of TRACPSb was significantly higher in postmenopausal women [(3.29±1.07) U/L] than in premenopausal women ([1.70±0.59] U/L). The levels of TRACP5b were inversely correlated with BMD at all measured sites (P<0.001). Furthermore, the level of TRACP5b was obviously higher in women with osteoporosis and osteopenia than those with normal bone mass (P<0.001). Conclusion: We have established the reference values of serum TRACPSb in Chinese mainland women, and found that postmenopausal women had higher TRACP5b concentration than younger women. The results showed that serum TRACPSb was a sensitive and useful parameter for the evaluation of age-related changes of bone absorption.

  2. Dietary flavonoid intake at midlife and healthy aging in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samieri, Cécilia; Sun, Qi; Townsend, Mary K; Rimm, Eric B; Grodstein, Francine

    2014-12-01

    Dietary flavonoids have been related to lower risks of various chronic diseases, but it is unclear whether flavonoid intake in midlife helps to maintain good health and wellbeing in aging. We examined the relation of flavonoid intake in midlife with the prevalence of healthy aging. We included 13,818 women from the Nurses' Health Study with dietary data and no major chronic diseases in 1984-1986 when they were aged in their late 50s (median age: 59 y); all women provided information on multiple aspects of aging an average of 15 y later. Intakes of 6 major flavonoid subclasses in midlife were ascertained on the basis of averaged intakes of flavonoid-rich foods from 2 food-frequency questionnaires (1984-1986). We defined healthy compared with usual aging as of age 70 y; healthy aging was based on survival to ≥70 y with maintenance of 4 health domains (no major chronic diseases or major impairments in cognitive or physical function or mental health). Of women who survived until ≥70 y of age, 1517 women (11.0%) met our criteria for healthy aging. Compared with women in the lowest quintile of intake, women in the highest quintile of intake of several flavonoid subclasses at midlife had greater odds of healthy aging. After multivariable adjustment, ORs were as follows: flavones, 1.32 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.58); flavanone, 1.28 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.53); anthocyanin, 1.25 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.50); and flavonol, 1.18 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.42) (all P-trend ≤ 0.02). Consistently, greater intakes of major sources of these flavonoids (i.e., oranges, berries, onions, and apples) were associated with increased odds of healthy aging. We showed no association with flavan-3-ol monomers (P-trend = 0.80) or polymers (P-trend = 0.63). Higher intake of flavonoids at midlife, specifically flavones, flavanones, anthocyanins, and flavonols, is associated with greater likelihood of health and wellbeing in individuals surviving to older ages. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Relation between speech-in-noise threshold, hearing loss and cognition from 40-69 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David R; Edmondson-Jones, Mark; Dawes, Piers; Fortnum, Heather; McCormack, Abby; Pierzycki, Robert H; Munro, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    Healthy hearing depends on sensitive ears and adequate brain processing. Essential aspects of both hearing and cognition decline with advancing age, but it is largely unknown how one influences the other. The current standard measure of hearing, the pure-tone audiogram is not very cognitively demanding and does not predict well the most important yet challenging use of hearing, listening to speech in noisy environments. We analysed data from UK Biobank that asked 40-69 year olds about their hearing, and assessed their ability on tests of speech-in-noise hearing and cognition. About half a million volunteers were recruited through NHS registers. Respondents completed 'whole-body' testing in purpose-designed, community-based test centres across the UK. Objective hearing (spoken digit recognition in noise) and cognitive (reasoning, memory, processing speed) data were analysed using logistic and multiple regression methods. Speech hearing in noise declined exponentially with age for both sexes from about 50 years, differing from previous audiogram data that showed a more linear decline from speech-in-noise hearing was especially dramatic among those with lower cognitive scores. Decreasing cognitive ability and increasing age were both independently associated with decreasing ability to hear speech-in-noise (0.70 and 0.89 dB, respectively) among the population studied. Men subjectively reported up to 60% higher rates of difficulty hearing than women. Workplace noise history associated with difficulty in both subjective hearing and objective speech hearing in noise. Leisure noise history was associated with subjective, but not with objective difficulty hearing. Older people have declining cognitive processing ability associated with reduced ability to hear speech in noise, measured by recognition of recorded spoken digits. Subjective reports of hearing difficulty generally show a higher prevalence than objective measures, suggesting that current objective methods could

  4. Obesity and its relation to depressive symptoms and sedentary lifestyle in middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blümel, Juan E; Chedraui, Peter; Aedo, Sócrates; Fica, Juan; Mezones-Holguín, Edward; Barón, Germán; Bencosme, Ascanio; Benítez, Zully; Bravo, Luz M; Calle, Andrés; Flores, Daniel; Espinoza, María T; Gómez, Gustavo; Hernández-Bueno, José A; Laribezcoa, Fiorella; Martino, Mabel; Lima, Selva; Monterrosa, Alvaro; Mostajo, Desiree; Ojeda, Eliana; Onatra, William; Sánchez, Hugo; Tserotas, Konstatinos; Vallejo, María S; Witis, Silvina; Zúñiga, María C

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity increases during female mid-life and although many factors have been identified, data from Latin America is lacking. To assess factors related to obesity among middle-aged women and determine the association with depressive symptoms, sedentary lifestyle and other factors. A total of 6079 women aged 40-59 years of 11 Latin American countries were asked to fill out the Goldberg Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Menopause Rating Scale, the Athens Insomnia Scale, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and a general questionnaire containing personal socio-demographic data, anthropometric measures and lifestyle information. Obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m(2). Obesity was observed in 18.5% and sedentary lifestyle in 63.9%. A 55.5% presented vasomotor symptoms, 12.2% had severe menopausal symptoms and 13.2% used hormone therapy for the menopause. Prevalence of depressive symptoms was 46.5% and anxiety 59.7%. Our logistic regression model found that significant factors associated to obesity included: arterial hypertension (OR: 1.87), depressive symptoms (OR: 1.57), sedentary lifestyle (OR: 1.50) diabetes mellitus (OR: 1.34), higher number of individuals living at home (OR: 1.31), sleep problems (OR:1.22), anxiety (OR: 1.21), having a stable partner (OR: 1.20), parity (OR: 1.16) and vasomotor symptoms (OR:1.14). A lower risk for obesity was found among women using hormonal contraceptives (OR: 0.69). Obesity in middle-aged women is the consequence of the interaction of multiple factors. It was associated to hypertension, depressive symptoms, sedentary lifestyle, climacteric symptoms and other factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The influence of age perception on women consumer behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damijan Mumel

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Demographic changes of inhabitants are a factor changing increasingly the situation in Europe and other developed parts of the world. People live longer and are more vital than in the past. The ageing of population affects many areas of everyday life. The number of older persons grows and their characteristics are essentially different than the characteristics of past generations. Those were the reasons for the authors’ interest in the perception of the psychological age of women older than 50. They also focused on the differences between a group of women who see themselves as younger than their actual age and a group of women who feel older. The third field of interest was how that influence on their behavior as a consumer. A total of 225 women were included in the research. To acquire the informations we use a questionnaire, which includes questions about the chronological age against the perceived age and questions about 23 values, 31 free time activities and 15 sports activities. Results show that more than a half of the women feel younger than they really are, 40% feel as old as they are and less than 5% feel older than their actual age. More than a half of the interviewed women think they look 10 years younger. Most of the women think that a person is old when he/she is over 70.

  6. Age-related decrements in bone mineral density in women over 65

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, P.; Cummings, S. R.; Black, D. M.; Spencer, N. E.; Genant, H. K.

    1992-01-01

    Age-related changes in bone density contribute to the risk of fractures. To describe the relationship between age and bone mass in elderly women, we studied a large cohort of women over age 65 years who were recruited from population-based lists in four cities in the United States. Bone density in g/cm2 was measured by single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the distal and proximal radius, the calcaneus, the lumbar spine, and the proximal femur. Centralized data collection was used to control data quality and consistency. We found a strong inverse relationship between bone density and age for most sites. Decrements in bone density between women aged 65-69 years and women 85 years and older exceeded 16% in all regions except the spine, where the difference between the two age groups was 6%. Ward's triangle and the calcaneus exhibited the largest decrements, with 26 and 21%, respectively. The estimates of annual changes in bone mineral density by linear regression at sites other than the spine ranged from -0.82% at the femoral neck and trochanter to -1.30% at Ward's triangle. Correlations between the different regions ranged from r = 0.51 between the proximal radius and Ward's triangle to r = 0.66 between the distal radius and calcaneus. We conclude that the inverse relationship between age and bone mass measured by absorptiometry techniques in white women continues into the ninth decade of life. The relationship is strongest for bone density of Ward's triangle and the calcaneus and weakest for the spine.

  7. Chronic vulvovaginitis in women older than 50 years: analysis of a prospective database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyirjesy, Paul; Leigh, Randi D; Mathew, Leny; Lev-Sagie, Ahinoam; Culhane, Jennifer F

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine differences in symptoms and diagnoses between women 50 years and younger and women older than 50 years who have chronic vulvovaginal complaints. New patients of the Drexel University Vaginitis Center with chronic vulvovaginal complaints were eligible. Participants underwent a standardized medical evaluation and completed detailed questionnaires. Data were analyzed using the t test, χ test, and the Fisher exact test. Subjects were 469 women aged 18 to 79 years. Subjects 50 years and younger (group A) were more likely to complain of vaginal itching and were less likely to complain of burning, irritation, or soreness (p ≤ .05 for all). Subjects older than 50 years (group B) were more likely to be diagnosed with atrophic vaginitis (p = .000), desquamative inflammatory vaginitis (DIV; p = .001), lichen planus (LP; p = .000), and lichen sclerosus (p = .000). Diagnosis of LS, LP, or DIV was associated with increased likelihood of multiparity and decreased likelihood of a history of systemic estrogen use. Postmenopausal women are more likely than premenopausal women to be diagnosed with DIV, LP, or LS. Both childbirth and estrogen nonuse were associated with the occurrence of these latter 3 conditions.

  8. The Prevalence of Traditional Malpractice during Pregnancy, Child Birth, and Postnatal Period among Women of Childbearing Age in Meshenti Town, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haileyesus Gedamu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cultural practices, beliefs, and taboos are often implicated in determining the care received by mothers during pregnancy and child birth which is an important determinant of maternal mortality. Objective. To assess prevalence of cultural malpractice during pregnancy, child birth, and postnatal period among women of childbearing age in Meshenti town, Amhara region, northwest Ethiopia, in 2016. Methods. Community based cross-sectional study was conducted among women of reproductive age group interviewed during the study period from May 10 to June 17, 2016. Total sample size was 318 women of reproductive age group. Systematic sampling technique was conducted. Result. Overall, 50.9% of the respondents had cultural malpractices during their pregnancy. Out of 318 women, 62 (19.5% practiced nutrition taboo, 78 (24.5% practiced abdominal massage, 87 (29.7% delivered their babies at home, 96 (32.8% avoided colostrums, 132 (45.2% washed their baby before 24 hr after delivery, and 6 (6.9% cut the cord by unclean blade. Conclusion and Recommendation. The findings of this study show that different traditional malpractice during perinatal period is still persisting in spite of modern developments in the world. Health education and promoting formal female education are important to decrease or avoid these cultural malpractices.

  9. Gender differences in hazardous drinking among middle-aged in Europe: the role of social context and women's empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosque-Prous, Marina; Espelt, Albert; Borrell, Carme; Bartroli, Montse; Guitart, Anna M; Villalbí, Joan R; Brugal, M Teresa

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the magnitude of gender differences in hazardous drinking among middle-aged people and to analyse whether these differences are associated with contextual factors, such as public policies or socioeconomic factors. Cross-sectional design. The study population included 50- to 64-year-old residents of 16 European countries who participated in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe project conducted in 2010-12 (n = 26 017). We estimated gender differences in hazardous drinking in each country. To determine whether different social context or women's empowerment variables were associated with gender differences in hazardous drinking, we fitted multilevel Poisson regression models adjusted for various individual and country-level variables, which yielded prevalence ratios and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Prevalence of hazardous drinking was significantly higher in men than women [30.2% (95% CI: 29.1-31.4%) and 18.6% (95% CI: 17.7-19.4%), respectively] in most countries, although the extent of these differences varied between countries. Among individuals aged 50-64 years in Europe, risk of becoming a hazardous drinker was 1.69 times higher (95% CI: 1.45-1.97) in men, after controlling for individual and country-level variables. We also found that lower values of the gender empowerment measure and higher unemployment rates were associated with higher gender differences in hazardous drinking. Countries with the greatest gender differences in hazardous drinking were those with the most restrictions on women's behaviour, and the greatest gender inequalities in daily life. Lower gender differences in hazardous drinking seem to be related to higher consumption among women. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  10. Evolução da aptidão física e capacidade funcional de mulheres ativas acima de 50 anos de idade de acordo com a idade cronológica, na cidade de Santos Evolution of physical fitness and functional capacity in active elderly women over 50 years of age according to chronological age in Santos city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Lopes Penha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a evolução da aptidão física, capacidade funcional e densidade mineral óssea de mulheres fisicamente ativas durante um ano. Métodos: A amostra consistiu de 78 mulheres de 50 a 79 anos de idade (c: 62,4 ± 7,1 anos, participantes de um programa de exercícios aeróbicos, duas vezes por semana, 50 minutos por sessão durante 3,4 anos e divididas em três grupos: A: 5059 (n: 38; B: 6069 (n: 28; C: 7079 (n:12. Os resultados foram comparados usando ANOVA Two Way com "post-hoc" Bonferroni e delta percentual (*pThe scope of this study was to compare the evolution of physical fitness, functional capacity and bone mineral density in active elderly women over a one-year period. The sample consisted of 78 women from 50 to 79 years of age (c:62.4 ± 7.1 participating in an aerobic program, twice a week, 50 minutes per session during 3.4 years and divided into three age groups: A: 50-59 (n:38; B: 60-69 (n:28; C: 70-79 (n:12. Results were compared using Two Way ANOVA, "post-hoc" Bonferroni and delta (D% variations (*p<.o1. The velocity of rising from a chair and gait speed revealed a significant difference in the three groups ranging from -14.3% to -45.5%; there was a significant improvement in A and B groups in walking speed (-12.1% to -13.9%, and also in maximum gait speed (-15.4% to -18.5%, elbow flexion in all the groups (18.9% to 24.1%, vertical jump (22.5% to 43.9% in groups B and C, and rising from a chair in 30 seconds (25.2% to 30.8% in groups A and B, the flexibility test showed an increase in group A (16.2% to 33.3% and stationary walking in the three groups of (16,4% 30.0% and bone mineral density (BMD presented a significant increase (3.1% to 10.2%. The results indicate the salutary effect of regular physical activity.

  11. Changes in physical functioning among men and women aged 50-79 years in Germany: an analysis of National Health Interview and Examination Surveys, 1997-1999 and 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttery, A K; Du, Y; Busch, M A; Fuchs, J; Gaertner, B; Knopf, H; Scheidt-Nave, C

    2016-12-01

    This study examines changes in physical functioning among adults aged 50-79 years in Germany based on data from two German National Health Interview and Examination Surveys conducted in 1997-1999 (GNHIES98) and 2008-2011 (DEGS1). Using cross-sectional data from the two surveys (GNHIES98, n = 2884 and DEGS1, n = 3732), we examined changes in self-reported physical functioning scores (Short Form-36 physical functioning subscale (SF-36 PF)) by sex and age groups (50-64 and 65-79 years). Covariables included educational level, living alone, nine chronic diseases, polypharmacy (≥5 prescribed medicines), body mass index, sports activity, smoking and alcohol consumption. Multimorbidity was defined as ≥2 chronic diseases. Multivariable models were fitted to examine consistency of changes in physical functioning among certain subgroups and to assess changes in mean SF-36 PF scores, adjusting for changes in covariables between surveys. Mean physical functioning increased among adults aged 50-79 years between surveys in unadjusted analyses, but this change was not as marked among men aged 65-79 years who experienced rising obesity (20.6 to 31.5%, p = 0.004) and diabetes (13.0 to 20.0%, p = 0.014). Prevalence of multimorbidity and polypharmacy use increased among men and women aged 65-79 years. In sex and age specific multivariable analyses, changes in physical functioning over time were consistent across subgroups. Gains in physical functioning were explained by improved education, lower body mass index and improved health-related behaviours (smoking, alcohol consumption, sports activity) in women, but less so among men. Physical functioning improved in Germany among adults aged 50-79 years. Improvements in the population 65-79 years were less evident among men than women, despite increases in multimorbidity prevalence among both sexes. Changes in health behaviours over time differed between sexes and help explain variations in physical functioning

  12. The age of 47 Tuc from self-consistent isochrone fits to colour-magnitude diagrams and the eclipsing member V69

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogaard, K.; VandenBerg, D. A.; Bedin, L. R.; Milone, A. P.; Thygesen, A.; Grundahl, F.

    2017-06-01

    Our aim is to derive a self-consistent age, distance and composition for the globular cluster 47 Tucanae (47 Tuc; NGC104). First, we re-evaluate the reddening towards the cluster resulting in a nominal E(B - V) = 0.03 ± 0.01 as the best estimate. The Teff of the components of the eclipsing binary member V69 is found to be 5900 ± 72 K from both photometric and spectroscopic evidence. This yields a true distance modulus (m - M)0 = 13.21 ± 0.06(random) ±0.03(systematic) to 47 Tuc when combined with existing measurements of V69 radii and luminosity ratio. We then present a new completely self-consistent isochrone fitting method to ground-based and Hubble Space Telescope cluster colour-magnitude diagrams and the eclipsing binary member V69. The analysis suggests that the composition of V69, and by extension one of the populations of 47 Tuc, is given by [Fe/H] ˜ -0.70, [O/Fe] ˜ +0.60 and Y ˜ 0.250 on the solar abundance scale of Asplund, Grevesse & Sauval. However, this depends on the accuracy of the model Teff scale that is 50-75 K cooler than our best estimate but within measurement uncertainties. Our best estimate of the age of 47 Tuc is 11.8 Gyr, with firm (3σ) lower and upper limits of 10.4 and 13.4 Gyr, respectively, in satisfactory agreement with the age derived from the white dwarf cooling sequence if our determination of the distance modulus is adopted.

  13. [MESGI50 study: description of a cohort on Maturity and Satisfactory Ageing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas Barnadas, Josep María; López-Pousa, Secundino; Vilalta-Franch, Joan; Calvó-Perxas, Laia; Juvinyà Canal, Dolors; Garre-Olmo, Josep

    To describe the demographic, health and socio-economic characteristics of the participants in the Study on Maturity and Satisfactory Ageing in Girona (MESGI50 study). Population-based Study linked to the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). The reference population was the inhabitants of the province of Girona (Spain) aged 50 and over. A probabilistic two-stage stratified cluster sampling according to the number of inhabitants and the degree of ageing of the population was used. Twenty-eight municipalities were randomly selected according to their type (demographically aged or young), and then stratified by the population size. The response rate was 65% with a mean of 1.7 eligible individuals per household and a final sample of 2,065 households and 3,331 participants. The design effect was 1.27. 52.9% were women and the mean age was 66.9 years (SD=11.5). The self-rated health status, hand grip strength, restriction in daily life activities and depressive symptomatology increased with age and more markedly in women. There were differences in alcohol consumption and eating patterns depending on the area of residence. The demographic, health and socio-economic characteristics during the ageing process differ depending on age group, gender, and area of residence. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Mortality Risk for Women on Chronic Hemodialysis Differs by Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish M Sood

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous reports have demonstrated similar survival for men and women on hemodialysis, despite women's increased survival in the general population. Objectives: To examine the effect of age on mortality in women undergoing chronic hemodialysis. Design: A retrospective cohort study using an administrative data registry, the Canadian Organ Replacement Registry (CORR from Jan. 2001 and Dec. 2009. Setting: Canada. Patients: 28,971 (Women 11,792 (40.7%, Men 17,179 (59.3% incident chronic hemodialysis patients who survived greater than 90 days on dialysis. Measurements: All-cause mortality. Methods: Cox proportional hazards and competing risks models were employed to determine the independent association between sex, age and likelihood of all-cause mortality with renal transplantation as the competing outcome. Results: During the study period, 6060 (51.4% of women and 8650 (50.4% of men initiating dialysis died. Younger women experienced higher mortality (Age 85: Women 66%, Men 70.2%, HR 0.83 95% CI 0.71–0.97 compared to men. This relationship persisted after accounting for the competing risk of transplantation. Limitations: The cause of death was unknown. Conclusions: Women's survival on chronic hemodialysis varies by age compared to men with a significantly higher mortality in women younger than 45 years old and lower mortality in woman older than 75 years of age.

  15. Applying ethnic-specific bone mineral density T-scores to Chinese women in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, J C; Kim, S; Chandra, M; Ettinger, B

    2016-12-01

    Caucasian reference data are used to classify bone mineral density in US women of all races. However, use of Chinese American reference data yields lower osteoporosis prevalence in Chinese women. The reduction in osteoporosis labeling may be relevant for younger Chinese women at low fracture risk. Caucasian reference data are used for osteoporosis classification in US postmenopausal women regardless of race, including Asians who tend to have lower bone mineral density (BMD) than women of white race. This study examines BMD classification by ethnic T-scores for Chinese women. Using BMD data in a Northern California healthcare population, Chinese women aged 50-79 years were compared to age-matched white women (1:5 ratio), with femoral neck (FN), total hip (TH), and lumbar spine (LS) T-scores calculated using Caucasian versus Chinese American reference data. Comparing 4039 Chinese and 20,195 white women (44.8 % age 50-59 years, 37.5 % age 60-69 years, 17.7 % age 70-79 years), Chinese women had lower BMD T-scores at the FN, TH, and LS (median T-score 0.29-0.72 units lower across age groups, p age 50-64 years and 43.2 to 21.0 % for age 65-79 years). Use of Chinese American BMD reference data yields higher (ethnic) T-scores by 0.4-0.5 units, with a large proportion of Chinese women reclassified from osteoporosis to osteopenia. The reduction in osteoporosis labeling with ethnic T-scores may be relevant for younger Chinese women at low fracture risk.

  16. Positives and negatives of online dating according to women 50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeweerd, Carla; Myers, Jaime; Coulter, Martha; Yalcin, Ali; Corvin, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    To understand the positives and negatives of online dating according to the lived experience of older women, telephone interviews were conducted with 45 women ages 50+ who date online. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematically team coded. The opportunity to expand one's social network for both friendships and romantic partners, the ability to control dating risks and pace of relationship formation, and knowing more about one's partner were significant reported benefits of online dating. Dating online also includes unique risks, such as pervasive lying, attempted financial exploitation in the form of scammers, and unwanted electronic sexual aggression.

  17. Clinical presentation of urinary tract infection (UTI) differs with aging in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arinzon, Zeev; Shabat, Shay; Peisakh, Alexander; Berner, Yitshal

    2012-01-01

    Uncomplicated UTI is among the most common health problems seen in general practice and typically affects immunocompetent, anatomically normal women. The aim of this study was to explore the difference in clinical presentation in acute, uncomplicated UTI in otherwise healthy community dwelling, premenopausal (Pre-M) and postmenopausal (Post-M) women. A UTI was defined as uropathogen of more than 10(3)cfu/ml in midstream urine culture. Symptoms of UTI were divided to three: during voiding, local symptoms, and generalized symptoms. A total of 196 women aged a minimum of 45 years with diagnosis of UTI were studied. The patients were divided into two groups: Pre-M (n=102, mean age 48.14 years) and Post-M (n=94, mean age 69.21 years). The predominant complaints in Pre-M women were local symptoms. The clinical presentations showed more severity in the Post-M group than in Pre-M women, predominantly generalized unspecific symptoms and storage symptoms. Advanced age positively correlated with urgency of urination, painful voiding, urinary incontinence, sexual activity, low-back pain, lower abdominal pain and negatively correlated with frequency, painful and burning of urination and bladder pain. Our study showed that clinical presentation of UTI in Pre-M and Post-M women is different. The differences are presented not only by the voiding itself and by local symptoms but also by unspecified generalized symptoms that is especially important in elderly patients. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Association between lipid profile and adiposity in women over age 60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Maressa Priscila; Hallage, Tatiane; Gama, Mirnaluci P R; Sasaki, Jeffer Eidi; Miculis, Cristiane Petra; Buzzachera, Cosme Franklin; Silva, Sergio Gregorio da

    2007-09-01

    To verify the association between lipid profiles and overall or central obesity in women over the age of 60. The sample was comprised of 388 women over the age of 60 (mean 69; standard deviation 5.9 years). The lipid profile was determined using total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) levels. Overall obesity was determined using the body mass index (BMI) and skin fold (SF) measurements. Central obesity was determined using the waist circumference (WC) and waist--hip ratio (WHR). Statistical analysis was conducted using age adjusted partial correlation and one way ANOVA (padiposity variables and lipid profile components indicate an elevated atherogenic risk. In addition, the indicators for overall and central obesity were directly related to TG levels and inversely related to HDL-C levels. The partial correlation analysis and the largest variance found for WC and WHR in comparison to the lipidogram components indicate that both methods could be useful in the early diagnosis of atherosclerosis.

  19. State of Skeletal Muscle Tissue in Women in the Ukrainian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Povoroznyuk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Today among geriatric syndromes, world scientists pay much attention to the study of sarcopenia. It was found that the evaluation of skeletal muscle strength has a significant correlation with the risk of falls, disability, deterioration in the quality of life, duration of hospitalization. It is proved that measurements of skeletal muscle strength, but not the determination of skeletal muscles mass, are strong and independent predictors of mortality in the elderly. Further researches are needed to study the characteristics of weight loss, strength and function of skeletal muscle with age in individuals of different sex and age. The objective of this study was to explore the features of strength and functionality of skeletal muscle tissue in women of all ages. The study involved 248 women, who were divided into groups by decades depending on age: 20–29, 30–39, 40–49, 50–59, 60–69, 70–79, 80–89 years. Skeletal muscle strength was evaluated using spring carpal dynamometer. Functions of skeletal muscles and the risk of falls were assessed using special tests. Fat-free mass of the whole body, upper and lower extremities was evaluated by means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Prodigy, GEHC Lunar, Madison, WI, USA. The study found that maximal values of strength and functional capacity of skeletal muscles were observed in women in the age group of 20–29 years. The significant loss of skeletal muscle strength is being detected in individuals from the age group of 60–69 years and older. When determining the functional capacity of skeletal muscles and risk of falls, significantly worse performance was established in women older than 50 years compared to those in women in the age group of 20–29 years.

  20. Do Performance-based Health Measures Reflect Differences in Frailty Among Immigrants Age 50+ in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Thomas D; Theou, Olga; Rockwood, Kenneth

    2014-09-01

    Life course influences, including country of residence and country of birth, are associated with frailty index scores. We investigated these associations using performance-based health measures. Among 33,745 participants age 50+ (mean age 64.8 ± 10.1; 55% women) in the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe, grip strength, delayed word recall, and semantic verbal fluency were assessed. Participants were grouped by country of residence (Northern/Western Europe or Southern/Eastern Europe), and by country of birth (native-born, immigrants born in low- and middle-income countries [LMICs], or immigrants born in high-income countries [HICs]). Participants in Southern/Eastern Europe had lower mean test scores than those in Northern/Western Europe, and their scores did not differ by country of birth group. In Northern/Western Europe, compared with native-born participants, LMIC-born immigrants demonstrated lower mean grip strength (32.8 ± 7.6 kg vs. 35.7 ± 7.7 kg), delayed recall (2.9 ± 1.9 vs. 3.6 ± 1.9), and verbal fluency scores (16.0 ± 6.9 vs. 20.3 ± 7.0). HIC-born immigrants had mean scores higher than LMIC-born immigrants, but lower than native-born participants (all pnational income levels of both country of residence and country of birth. This was similar to previously observed differences in frailty index scores.

  1. Analysis and comparison of breast density according to age on mammogram between Korean and Western women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hyung; Kim, Mi Hye; Oh, Ki Keun

    2000-01-01

    To compare changes in breast parenchymal density among diverse age groups in asymptomatic Korean women with those of Western women, and to evaluate the effect of different patterns of breast parenchymal density on the sensitivity of screening mammography in Korean women. We analyzed the distribution of breast parenchymal density among diverse age groups in 823 asymptomatic Korean women aged 30-64 who underwent screening mammography between January and December 1998. On the basis of ACR BI-RADS breast composition, four density patterns were designated: patterns 1 and 2 related to fatty mammograms, and patterns 3 and 4 to dense mammograms. We compared the results with those for western women. In Korean women, the frequency of dense mammogram was 88.1% (30-34 years old), 91.1% (35-39), 78.3% (40-44), 61.1% (45-49), 30.1% (50-54), 21.1% (55-59), and 7.0% (60-64). Korean women in their 40s thus showed a higher frequency of dense mammograms, but this frequency decreased abruptly between the ages of 40 and 54. In Western women, however, there was little difference between 40 and 54-year-olds: the figures were 47.2% (40-44 years), 44.8% (45-49), and 44.4% (50-54). Because the frequency of their dense mammograms shows little change between Western women in their forties and in their fifties, it is clear that between these two age groups, mammographic sensitivity is only slightly different. Because the frequency of dense mammograms is much greater among Korean women in their forties than among Western women of the same age, and among korean women this frequency decreases abruptly, it appears, however, that the mammographic sensitivity of korean women is less among those in their forties than among those in their fifties. It is therefore thought that mammography combined with ultrasonography may increase screening sensitivity among Korean women under 50, who have a relatively higher incidence of breast cancer in the younger age groups than do Western women. (author)

  2. Degenerative Inter-Vertebral Disc Disease (Osteochondrosis Intervertebralis) in Europe: Prevalence, Geographic Variation, and Radiological Correlates in Men and Women Aged 50 and Over

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbrecht, Gabriele; Felsenberg, Dieter; Ganswindt, Melanie; Lunt, Mark; Kaptoge, Stephen K; Abendroth, Klaus; Aroso Dias, Antonio; Bhalla, Ashok K; Cannata Andia, Jorge; Dequeker, Jan; Eastell, Richard; Hoszowski, Krysztoff; Lyritis, George; Masaryk, Pavol; van Meurs, Joyce; Miazgowski, Tomasz; Nuti, Ranuccio; Poór, Gyula; Redlund-Johnell, Inga; Reid, David M; Schatz, Helmut; Todd, Christopher J; Woolf, Anthony D; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Javaid, Muhammad K; Cooper, Cyrus; Silman, Alan J; O’Neill, Terence W; Reeve, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To assess the prevalence across Europe of radiological indices of degenerative inter-vertebral disc disease (DDD); and to quantify their associations with, age, sex, physical anthropometry, areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and change in aBMD with time. Methods In the population-based European Prospective Osteoporosis Study 27 age-stratified samples of men and women from across the continent aged 50+ had standardized lateral radiographs of the lumbar and thoracic spine to evaluate the severity of DDD, using the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) scale. Measurements of anterior, mid-body and posterior vertebral heights on all assessed vertebrae from T4 to L4 were used to generate indices of end-plate curvature. Results Images from 10,132 participants (56% female, mean age 63.9 years) passed quality checks. Overall, 47% of men and women had DDD grade 3 or more in the lumbar spine and 36% in both thoracic and lumbar spine. Risk ratios for DDD grades 3 and 4, adjusted for age and anthropometric determinants, varied across a three-fold range between centres, yet prevalences were highly correlated in men and women. DDD was associated with flattened, non-ovoid inter-vertebral disc spaces. KL grade 4 and loss of inter-vertebral disc space were associated with higher spine aBMD. Discussion KL Grades 3 and 4 are often used clinically to categorise radiological DDD. Highly variable European prevalences of radiologically-defined DDD Grades 3+ along with the large effects of age may have growing and geographically unequal health and economic impacts as the population ages. These data encourage further studies of potential genetic and environmental causes. PMID:28398504

  3. [Work-related fatigue in highly-educated women older than 50].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoers, Nine V A M

    2010-01-01

    Recent findings by Verdonk et al. show that the prevalence of work-related fatigue among 47,000 Dutch employees is greatest in highly-educated women, aged 50-64 years. Although the study has several limitations, the findings are alarming, demand urgent measures and should be on the shortlist of policy makers, employers, and company doctors. Reduced time pressure and emotional demand at work, adequate support for women's ambitions, and proper consideration for the work-private life balance are needed. Coaching may help women to become more assertive and generate more job control. In addition, the problem of workplace violence must be adequately addressed. I am of the strong opinion that work-related fatigue in women would significantly decrease if women were to occupy more leadership positions and top jobs. In such positions they would have greater autonomy and more opportunities to organise their work according to their own time schedules and insights. The time is ripe for women to be given a quota of top positions in the Netherlands.

  4. State of Health and Quality of Life of Women at Advanced Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkas, Jarosław; Gujski, Mariusz; Humeniuk, Ewa; Raczkiewicz, Dorota; Bejga, Przemysław; Owoc, Alfred; Bojar, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    Background Evaluation of the state of health, quality of life, and the relationship between the level of the quality of life and health status in a group of women at an advanced age (90 years of age and older) in Poland. Material/Methods The study was conducted in 2014 in an all-Polish sample of 870 women aged 90 years and older. The research instruments were: the authors’ questionnaire and several standardized tests: Katz Index of Independence in Activities of Daily Living (Katz ADL), Abbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTS), and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-BREF. The results of the study were statistically analyzed using significant t-test for mean and regression analysis. Results The majority of women at an advanced age suffered from chronic pain (76%) and major geriatric problems such as hypoacusis (81%), visual disturbances (69%) and urinary incontinence (60%); the minority of women at an advanced age suffered from falls and fainting (39%), stool incontinence (17%), severe functional impairment (24%), and cognitive impairment (10%). On a scale of 1 to 5, women at an advanced age assessed positively for overall quality of life (mean 3.3), social relationships (3.5), and environment (3.2), but negatively for general health, physical health, and psychological health (2.7, 2.7, and 2.8, respectively). The presence of chronic pain and geriatric problems, including urinary and stool incontinences, falls and faint ing, visual disturbances and hypoacusis, significantly decreased overall quality of life; general health, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment. Overall quality of life, general health, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment was correlated with functional and cognitive impairments. Conclusions Quality of life of women at an advanced age decreased if chronic pain, major geriatric problems, or functional or cognitive impairments occurred. PMID:27580565

  5. Season of birth and the risk of hip fracture in danish men and women aged 65+

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Heitmann, Berit L; Eiken, Pia Agnete

    2012-01-01

    calculated fracture rates and relative risks. The analysis covered 541,109 men and 691,522 women. In women, we observed a small but statistically significant difference between fracture rates by season of birth for all age intervals expect the youngest (age 65-69). A similar pattern was seen in men...... an epidemiological analysis of hip fracture rates as a function of season of birth, age, and sex. We retrieved information on all hip fractures in the 9-year period between 1997 and 2005 in all men and women aged 65-95, excluded hip fractures that occurred in current and recent prednisolone users, and subsequently......, but this was only statistically significant in the two oldest age groups (age 85-89 and 90-95). These findings suggest that vitamin D availability in the first and second trimester of intrauterine life could have a small but lasting impact on bone health and the risk of osteoporotic fractures. Further studies...

  6. Female scarcity reduces women's marital ages and increases variance in men's marital ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Daniel J; Fitzgerald, Carey J; Peterson, Tom

    2010-08-05

    When women are scarce in a population relative to men, they have greater bargaining power in romantic relationships and thus may be able to secure male commitment at earlier ages. Male motivation for long-term relationship commitment may also be higher, in conjunction with the motivation to secure a prospective partner before another male retains her. However, men may also need to acquire greater social status and resources to be considered marriageable. This could increase the variance in male marital age, as well as the average male marital age. We calculated the Operational Sex Ratio, and means, medians, and standard deviations in marital ages for women and men for the 50 largest Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States with 2000 U.S Census data. As predicted, where women are scarce they marry earlier on average. However, there was no significant relationship with mean male marital ages. The variance in male marital age increased with higher female scarcity, contrasting with a non-significant inverse trend for female marital age variation. These findings advance the understanding of the relationship between the OSR and marital patterns. We believe that these results are best accounted for by sex specific attributes of reproductive value and associated mate selection criteria, demonstrating the power of an evolutionary framework for understanding human relationships and demographic patterns.

  7. Female Scarcity Reduces Women's Marital Ages and Increases Variance in Men's Marital Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Kruger

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available When women are scarce in a population relative to men, they have greater bargaining power in romantic relationships and thus may be able to secure male commitment at earlier ages. Male motivation for long-term relationship commitment may also be higher, in conjunction with the motivation to secure a prospective partner before another male retains her. However, men may also need to acquire greater social status and resources to be considered marriageable. This could increase the variance in male marital age, as well as the average male marital age. We calculated the Operational Sex Ratio, and means, medians, and standard deviations in marital ages for women and men for the 50 largest Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States with 2000 U.S Census data. As predicted, where women are scarce they marry earlier on average. However, there was no significant relationship with mean male marital ages. The variance in male marital age increased with higher female scarcity, contrasting with a non-significant inverse trend for female marital age variation. These findings advance the understanding of the relationship between the OSR and marital patterns. We believe that these results are best accounted for by sex specific attributes of reproductive value and associated mate selection criteria, demonstrating the power of an evolutionary framework for understanding human relationships and demographic patterns.

  8. Health screenings for women over age 65

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health maintenance visit - women - over age 65; Physical exam - women - over age 65; Yearly exam - women - over age 65; Checkup - women - over age 65; Women's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - women - over ...

  9. Increased Working Memory-Related Brain Activity in Middle-Aged Women with Cognitive Complaints

    OpenAIRE

    Dumas, Julie A.; Kutz, Amanda M.; McDonald, Brenna C.; R.Naylor, Magdalena; Pfaff, Ashley C.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Newhouse, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals who report subjective cognitive complaints but perform normally on neuropsychological tests may be at increased risk for pathological cognitive aging. The current study examined the effects of the presence of subjective cognitive complaints on functional brain activity during a working memory task in a sample of middle-aged postmenopausal women. Twenty-three postmenopausal women aged 50–60 completed a cognitive complaint battery of questionnaires. Using 20% of items endorsed as th...

  10. Depression, anxiety, and sleep disorders in 45–69-year-old population in Russia (Siberia: Epidemiological survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Gafarov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the prevalence of depression and anxiety and the pattern of sleep disorders in 45-69-year-old population with different levels of depression and anxiety in Russia (Siberia.Patients and methods. A total of 4171 Novosibirsk dwellers were surveyed. Men and women were 42.4 and 57.6%, respectively. Depression and anxiety were assessed using the modified scales,  such as Welsh's Depression (WD and Bending's Anxiety (BA Scales, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, and the Jenkins Sleep Questionnaire (JSQ.Results. Depression, anxiety, and sleep disorders are significantly common in the Russian/Siberian population aged 45–69 years. The frequency of high depression and anxiety levels were 20.4% (51.3% of the respondents had medium and high depression and that of anxiety was 15.6% (61.8% of the respondents were found to have medium and high anxiety. The women were noted to have higher levels of depression (21.4% and anxiety (17.8% than the men (19 and 12.5%, respectively. No clear relationship was found between high depression levels and age. Apparently, the value of age after 45 years is reduced and the level of depression remains approximately the same in 45–69-year-olds. The study of the relationship between the level of anxiety and age established that it was absent in the older men aged 45–69 years and the women showed a U-distribution characterized by the maximum proportion of individuals with high and low anxiety levels in the 65–69-year age group. Impaired sleep quality and sleep duration were more common in women (24 and 62% than in men (18 and 59%. There was a relationship between the high level of depression and the duration and quality of sleep: more than 40% of the respondents with high levels of depression had impaired sleep quality and 65% had impaired sleep duration. Conclusion. The high incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Siberia (Russia is associated with the widespread of

  11. Degenerative inter-vertebral disc disease osteochondrosis intervertebralis in Europe: prevalence, geographic variation and radiological correlates in men and women aged 50 and over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbrecht, Gabriele; Felsenberg, Dieter; Ganswindt, Melanie; Lunt, Mark; Kaptoge, Stephen K; Abendroth, Klaus; Aroso Dias, Antonio; Bhalla, Ashok K; Cannata Andia, Jorge; Dequeker, Jan; Eastell, Richard; Hoszowski, Krzysztof; Lyritis, George; Masaryk, Pavol; van Meurs, Joyce; Miazgowski, Tomasz; Nuti, Ranuccio; Poór, Gyula; Redlund-Johnell, Inga; Reid, David M; Schatz, Helmut; Todd, Christopher J; Woolf, Anthony D; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Javaid, Muhammad K; Cooper, Cyrus; Silman, Alan J; O'Neill, Terence W; Reeve, Jonathan

    2017-07-01

    To assess the prevalences across Europe of radiological indices of degenerative inter-vertebral disc disease (DDD); and to quantify their associations with, age, sex, physical anthropometry, areal BMD (aBMD) and change in aBMD with time. In the population-based European Prospective Osteoporosis Study, 27 age-stratified samples of men and women from across the continent aged 50+ years had standardized lateral radiographs of the lumbar and thoracic spine to evaluate the severity of DDD, using the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) scale. Measurements of anterior, mid-body and posterior vertebral heights on all assessed vertebrae from T4 to L4 were used to generate indices of end-plate curvature. Images from 10 132 participants (56% female, mean age 63.9 years) passed quality checks. Overall, 47% of men and women had DDD grade 3 or more in the lumbar spine and 36% in both thoracic and lumbar spine. Risk ratios for DDD grades 3 and 4, adjusted for age and anthropometric determinants, varied across a three-fold range between centres, yet prevalences were highly correlated in men and women. DDD was associated with flattened, non-ovoid inter-vertebral disc spaces. KL grade 4 and loss of inter-vertebral disc space were associated with higher spine aBMD. KL grades 3 and 4 are often used clinically to categorize radiological DDD. Highly variable European prevalences of radiologically defined DDD grades 3+ along with the large effects of age may have growing and geographically unequal health and economic impacts as the population ages. These data encourage further studies of potential genetic and environmental causes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. Prospective Predictors of Mental Health after the Development of Breast Cancer in Middle-Aged Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Tracey D.; Lee, Christina

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigated the prospective predictors of mental health after breast cancer diagnosis among mid-aged Australian women (initially aged 45-50 years). Two waves of data collected 2 years apart from a longitudinal population-based survey of 12,177 women identified a group of 63 women who reported onset of BC between T1 (T1) and Time 2…

  13. Perceived effects of health status on sexual activity in women and men older than 50 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Gudrun; Berg, Kari Hansen; Haugeberg, Glenn

    2014-03-27

    Sexual activity and enjoyment are considered to be important components of quality of life (QOL) for adults of all ages. However, limited data are available on the effects of health status on sexual activity in women and men older than 50 years. Thus, our aim was to explore the perceived effects of health status on sexual activity in women and men older than 50 years. For this purpose we used data from an age and gender matched control study initially designed to study QOL in patients with low-energy wrist fracture. We investigated patients with wrist fractures older than 50 years (n = 181), as well as age- and gender-matched controls (n = 226), who participated in the QOL study. There were minimal differences between patients and controls, thus the groups were pooled (mean age 67 years (8 SD)). Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was assessed using SF-36 and 15D, and the global quality of life using the Quality of Life Scale (QOLS). To assess perceived effects of health status on sexual activity we used the question on sexuality from the 15D questionnaires. Group comparisons and logistic regression analyses were conducted. The 15D question on sexuality was not answered by 25% of the participants. Health status having a large negative effect on sexual activity was reported by only 13% of the participants. In the multivariate analyses a large negative effect of health status on sexual activity was associated with higher age (60-69 years: OR = 5.7, 95% CI = 1.62-29.2; 70-79 years: OR = 3.60, 95% CI = 0.94-13.9; ≥80 years: OR = 9.04, 95% CI = 1.29-63.4), male gender (OR = 10.8, 95% CI = 3.01-38.9), weight (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.00-1.07), low SF-36 PCS score (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.37-0.93) and a low SF-36 MCS score (OR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.88-0.96). Only a small proportion of the participants reported their health status to have a large negative effect on sexual activity. Furthermore, health

  14. Health correlates of overweight and obesity in adults aged 50 years and over: results from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Obesity and health in Europeans aged > or = 50 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peytremann-Bridevaux, Isabelle; Santos-Eggimann, Brigitte

    2008-05-03

    To examine the association between overweight/obesity and several self-reported chronic diseases, symptoms and disability measures. Data from eleven European countries participating in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe were used. 18,584 non-institutionalised individuals aged 50 years and over with BMI > or = 18.5 (kg/m2) were included. BMI was categorized into normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9), overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9) and obesity (BMI > or = 30). Dependent variables were 13 diagnosed chronic conditions, 11 health complaints, subjective health and physical disability measures. For both genders, multiple logistic regressions were performed adjusting for age, socioeconomic status and behaviour risks. The odds ratios for high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, arthritis, joint pain and swollen legs were significantly increased for overweight and obese adults. Compared to normal-weight individuals, the odds ratio (OR) for reporting > or = 2 chronic diseases was 2.4 (95% CI 1.9-2.9) for obese men and 2.7 (95% CI 2.2-3.1) for obese women. Overweight and obese women were more likely to report health symptoms. Obesity in men (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.4-0.6), and overweight (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.4-0.6) and obesity (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.3-0.5) in women, were associated with poorer subjective health (i.e. a decreased risk of reporting excellent, very good or good subjective health). Disability outcomes were those showing the greatest differences in strength of association across BMI categories, and between genders. For example, the OR for any difficulty in walking 100 metres was non-significant at 0.8 for overweight men, at 1.9 (95% CI 1.3-2.7) for obese men, at 1.4 (95% CI 1.1-1.8) for overweight women, and at 3.5 (95% CI 2.6-4.7) for obese women. These results highlight the impact of increased BMI on morbidity and disability. Healthcare stakeholders of the participating countries should be aware of the substantial burden that obesity places on the general health

  15. Effects of ballates, step aerobics, and walking on balance in women aged 50-75 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Sarah; Barnes, Cathleen; Bemben, Debra; Knehans, Allen; Bemben, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of Ballates training (strengthening of the central core musculature by the inception of balance techniques) compared to more traditional exercise programs, such as step aerobics and walking, on balance in women aged 50- 75 years. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three supervised training groups (1 hour/day, 3 days/week, 13 weeks), Ballates (n = 12), step aerobics (n = 17), or walking (n =15). Balance was measured by four different methods (modified Clinical Test for the Sensory Interaction on Balance - mCTSIB; Unilateral Stance with Eyes Open - US-EO or Eyes Closed - US-EC; Tandem Walk - TW; Step Quick Turn - SQT) using the NeuroCom Balance Master. A 2-way (Group and Trial) repeated measures ANOVA and post-hoc Bonferroni Pair-wise Comparisons were used to evaluate changes in the dependent variables used to describe stability and balance (sway velocity, turn sway, speed, and turn time). Measures of static postural stability and dynamic balance were similar for the three groups prior to training. Following the different exercise interventions, sway velocity on firm and foam surfaces (mCTSIB) with eyes closed (p risk of fall.

  16. Androgenetic alopecia in men aged 40-69 years: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severi, G; Sinclair, R; Hopper, J L; English, D R; McCredie, M R E; Boyle, P; Giles, G G

    2003-12-01

    The epidemiology of androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is not fully understood. Although a strong genetic basis has long been identified, little is known of its non-genetic causes. To estimate the prevalence of and to determine risk factors for AGA in men aged 40-69 years in Australia. Men (n = 1390) were recruited at random from the electoral rolls to serve as controls in a population-based case-control study of prostate cancer. All were interviewed in person and direct observations of AGA were made. Men were grouped into the following categories; no AGA, frontal AGA, vertex AGA and full AGA (frontal and vertex AGA). Epidemiological data collected from these men were used for an analysis of risk factors for each AGA category using unconditional logistic regression with AGA category as the response variable adjusting for age, education and country of birth. The prevalence of vertex and full AGA increased with age from 31% (age 40-55 years) to 53% (age 65-69 years). Conversely, the proportion of men with only frontal AGA was very similar across all age groups (31-33%). No associations were found between pubertal growth spurt or acne, reports of adult body size at time of interview, urinary symptom score, marital status, or current smoking status or duration of smoking and the risk of any form of AGA. The consumption of alcohol was associated with a significant increase in risk of frontal and vertex AGA but not full AGA. Men with vertex AGA had fewer female sexual partners but average ejaculatory frequency did not differ between men in different AGA categories. Reported weight and lean body mass at reaching maturity at about 21 years of age were negatively associated with vertex balding (P for trend body mass at age 21 years would be worthy of further research if they were able to be replicated in other studies.

  17. Age-related decrease in physical activity and functional fitness among elderly men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanović, Zoran; Pantelić, Saša; Trajković, Nebojša; Sporiš, Goran; Kostić, Radmila; James, Nic

    2013-01-01

    To determine differences in physical activity level and functional fitness between young elderly (60-69 years) and old elderly (70-80 years) people with the hypothesis that an age-related decline would be found. A total of 1288 participants' level of physical activity was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire: 594 were male (mean ± standard deviation: body height 175.62 ± 9.78 cm; body weight 82.26 ± 31.33 kg) and 694 female (mean ± standard deviation: body height 165.17 ± 23.12 cm; body weight 69.74 ± 12.44 kg). Functional fitness was also estimated using the Senior Fitness Test: back scratch, chair sit and reach, 8-foot up and go, chair stand up for 30 seconds, arm curl, and 2-minute step test. Significant differences (P men. Similar results were found for the women, except no significant differences were found for the chair sit and reach and the 2-minute step test. From the viewpoint of energy consumption estimated by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, moderate physical activity is dominant. In addition, with aging, among men and women older than 60 years, the value of the Metabolic Equivalent of Task in total physical activity significantly reduces (P physical activity level and functional fitness was equal for both men and women and was due to the aging process. These differences between young and old elderly people were due to the reduction of muscle strength in both upper and lower limbs and changes in body-fat percentage, flexibility, agility, and endurance.

  18. Weight suppression and weight elevation are associated with eating disorder symptomatology in women age 50 and older: Results of the gender and body image study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Erica L; Baker, Jessica H; Peat, Christine M; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Bulik, Cynthia M; Watson, Hunna J

    2018-04-25

    Weight suppression (WS), the difference between highest past non-pregnancy weight and current weight, predicts negative outcomes in eating disorders, but the impact of WS and related weight constructs are understudied in nonclinical, midlife populations. We examined WS (current weight weight) and weight elevation (WE), the opposite of WS (current weight > lowest weight) and their associations with eating psychopathology in women aged 50+. Participants were a community-based sample (N = 1,776, M age  = 59) who completed demographic and eating psychopathology questions via online survey. WS, WE, and WS × WE were tested as predictors of outcome variables; BMI and medical conditions that affect weight were controlled for. Individuals that were higher on WS and WE were most likely to engage in current weight loss attempts, dieting in the past 5 years, and extreme lifetime restriction. Individuals with higher WS were more likely to experience binge eating, greater frequency of weight checking, overvaluation of shape and weight, and lifetime fasting. Individuals with higher WE were more likely to report negative life impacts of eating and dieting. Higher WS and WE each predicted higher levels of skipping meals over the lifetime. This novel study investigated WS in midlife women and introduced a new conceptualization of weight change (WE) that may be more relevant for aging populations given that women tend to gain weight with age. The findings implicate the utility of investigating both WS and WE as factors associated with eating psychopathology in midlife women. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Breast density does not impact the ability of Videssa® Breast to detect breast cancer in women under age 50.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Reese

    Full Text Available Breast density is associated with reduced imaging resolution in the detection of breast cancer. A biochemical approach that is not affected by density would provide an important tool to healthcare professionals who are managing women with dense breasts and suspicious imaging findings. Videssa® Breast is a combinatorial proteomic biomarker assay (CPBA, comprised of Serum Protein Biomarkers (SPB and Tumor Associated Autoantibodies (TAAb integrated with patient-specific clinical data to produce a diagnostic score that reliably detects breast cancer (BC as an adjunctive tool to imaging. The performance of Videssa® Breast was evaluated in the dense (a and b and non-dense (c and d groups in a population of n = 545 women under age 50. The sensitivity and specificity in the dense breast group were calculated to be 88.9% and 81.2%, respectively, and 92.3% and 86.6%, respectively, for the non-dense group. No significant differences were observed in the sensitivity (p = 1.0 or specificity (p = 0.18 between these groups. The NPV was 99.3% and 99.1% in non-dense and dense groups, respectively. Unlike imaging, Videssa® Breast does not appear to be impacted by breast density; it can effectively detect breast cancer in women with dense and non-dense breasts alike. Thus, Videssa® Breast provides a powerful tool for healthcare providers when women with dense breasts present with challenging imaging findings. In addition, Videssa® Breast provides assurance to women with dense breasts that they do not have breast cancer, reducing further anxiety in this higher risk patient population.

  20. Prevalence of hormone replacement therapy in a sample of middle-aged women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S H; Jeune, B

    1988-01-01

    A survey based on a postal questionnaire sent to a random sample of Danish women aged 40-59 yr living on the island of Fünen (n = 401, response rate = 79%) revealed that the overall prevalence of the use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was 16%, the highest rate being in the 50-54 age group (21......%). Among post-menopausal women the rate was 21% and it was highest of all (37%) in those who had undergone an artificial menopause. The median age at the start of treatment was 44.3 yr among the artificial menopause and 48.9 yr among the natural menopause subjects. About half of the women were treated...... with natural oestrogen alone and over a third with cyclic natural oestrogen in combination with progestogens. Almost one-third of the women had consulted their doctor about climacteric complaints and two-thirds of these were current or past users of HRT. The women had ambiguous feelings towards HRT...

  1. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged men and women in Gothenburg, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson Saga

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Random samples of 50-year-old men living in Gothenburg have been examined every 10th year since 1963 with a focus on cardiovascular risk factors. The aims of the study were to acquire up-to-date information about risk factors in the fifth cohort of 50-year-old men and women, to re-examine those who were 50 years of age in 1993, and to analyse the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn using different definitions. Methods A random sample of men and women born in 1953 were examined in 2003–2004 for cardiovascular risk factors. Men born in 1943 and that participated in the examination in 1993 were also invited. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Results The participation rate among men and women born in 1953 was 60 and 67% respectively. Among men born in 1943, the participation rate was 87%. The prevalence of obesity was from 15 to 17% (body mass index, BMI ≥ 30 in the three samples. The prevalence of known diabetes was 4% among the 50-year-old men and 6% among the 60-year-old men, and 2% among the women. Increased fasting plasma glucose varied substantially from 4 to 33% depending on cut-off level and gender. Mean cholesterol was 5.4 to 5.5 mmol/l. Smoking was more common among women aged 50 (26% than among men aged 50 (22% and 60 years (15%. The prevalence of the MetSyn varied with the definition used: from 10 to 15.8% among the women, from 16.1 to 26% among 50-year-old men, and from 19.9 to 35% among the 60-year-old men. Only 5% of the men and women had no risk factors. Conclusion This study provides up-to-date information about the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and the MetSyn in middle-aged Swedish men and women. Different definitions of the MetSyn create confusion regarding which definition to use.

  2. Age-related decrease in physical activity and functional fitness among elderly men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Z

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Zoran Milanovic,1 Saša Pantelic,1 Nebojša Trajkovic,1 Goran Sporiš,2 Radmila Kostic,1 Nic James31Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Niš, Niš, Serbia; 2Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia; 3London Sport Institute, Middlesex University, London, UKAim: To determine differences in physical activity level and functional fitness between young elderly (60–69 years and old elderly (70–80 years people with the hypothesis that an age-related decline would be found.Methods: A total of 1288 participants’ level of physical activity was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire: 594 were male (mean ± standard deviation: body height 175.62 ± 9.78 cm; body weight 82.26 ± 31.33 kg and 694 female (mean ± standard deviation: body height 165.17 ± 23.12 cm; body weight 69.74 ± 12.44 kg. Functional fitness was also estimated using the Senior Fitness Test: back scratch, chair sit and reach, 8-foot up and go, chair stand up for 30 seconds, arm curl, and 2-minute step test.Results: Significant differences (P < 0.05 were found for all Senior Fitness tests between young elderly (60–69 years and old elderly (70–80 men. Similar results were found for the women, except no significant differences were found for the chair sit and reach and the 2-minute step test. From the viewpoint of energy consumption estimated by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, moderate physical activity is dominant. In addition, with aging, among men and women older than 60 years, the value of the Metabolic Equivalent of Task in total physical activity significantly reduces (P < 0.05.Conclusions: This study found that the reduction in physical activity level and functional fitness was equal for both men and women and was due to the aging process. These differences between young and old elderly people were due to the reduction of muscle strength in both upper and lower limbs and changes in body

  3. The effect of a senior jazz dance class on static balance in healthy women over 50 years of age: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallmann, Harvey W; Gillis, Carrie B; Alpert, Patricia T; Miller, Sally K

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study is to assess the impact of a senior jazz dance class on static balance for healthy women over 50 years of age using the NeuroCom Smart Balance Master System (Balance Master). A total of 12 healthy women aged 54-88 years completed a 15-week jazz dance class which they attended 1 time per week for 90 min per class. Balance data were collected using the Sensory Organization Test (SOT) at baseline (pre), at 7 weeks (mid), and after 15 weeks (post). An equilibrium score measuring postural sway was calculated for each of six different conditions. The composite equilibrium score (all six conditions integrated to 1 score) was used as an overall measure of balance. Repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were used to compare the means of each participant's SOT composite equilibrium score in addition to the equilibrium score for each individual condition (1-6) across the 3 time points (pre, mid, post). There was a statistically significant difference among the means, p jazz dance class 1 time per week was beneficial in improving static balance as measured by the Balance Master SOT.

  4. Chronic pelvic pain in women of reproductive and post-reproductive age: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayorinde, A A; Bhattacharya, S; Druce, K L; Jones, G T; Macfarlane, G J

    2017-03-01

    Epidemiological studies on chronic pelvic pain (CPP) have focused on women of reproductive age. We aimed to determine the prevalence of chronic pelvic pain (CPP) in adult women and the differences in associated factors among women of reproductive age and older women. In addition, to determine whether distinct subgroups existed among CPP cases. A cross-sectional postal survey was conducted among 5300 randomly selected women aged ≥25 years resident in the Grampian region, UK. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine pregnancy-related and psychosocial factors associated with CPP. To identify subgroups of CPP cases, we performed cluster analysis using variables of pain severity, psychosocial factors and pain coping strategies. Of 2088 participants, 309 (14.8%) reported CPP. CPP was significantly associated with being of reproductive age (odds ratios (OR) 2.43, 95% CI 1.69-3.48), multiple non-pain somatic symptoms (OR 3.58 95% CI 2.23-5.75), having fatigue (OR mild 1.74 95% CI 1.24-2.44, moderate/severe 1.82, 95% CI 1.25-2.63) and having depression (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.09-2.38). CPP was less associated with multiple non-pain somatic symptoms in women of reproductive age compared to older women (interaction OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.28-0.92). We identified two clusters of CPP cases; those having little/no psychosocial distress and those having high psychosocial distress. CPP is common in both age groups, though women of reproductive age are more likely to report it. Heightened somatic awareness may be more strongly associated with CPP in older women. There are distinct groups of CPP cases characterized by the absence/presence of psychosocial distress. Heightened somatic awareness may be more strongly associated with CPP in women of post-reproductive years compared to women of reproductive years. Two subgroups of CPP cases can be differentiated by the absence/presence of psychosocial distress suggesting that stratified management approach may be more efficient.

  5. Health screenings for women ages 18 to 39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 18 to 39; Physical exam - women - ages 18 to 39; Yearly exam - ... 39; Checkup - women - ages 18 to 39; Women's health - ages 18 to 39; Preventive care - women - ages ...

  6. Health screenings for women ages 40 to 64

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 40 to 64; Physical exam - women - ages 40 to 64; Yearly exam - ... 64; Checkup - women - ages 40 to 64; Women's health - ages 40 to 64; Preventive care - women - ages ...

  7. [Marital status and place of living as social determinants of vertebral pain syndrome and disturbance of life quality in women of older age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlyk, T V; Grygorieva, N V

    2018-01-01

    In order to study the role of the marital status and place of residence, as the social determinants of the development of vertebral pain syndrome and related disorders of life activity, the results of a survey of 148 postmenopausal women aged 50-69 years were analyzed. Respondents were divided into groups depending on their marital status (living in a family with husbands and other relatives, only with husbands or alone) and places of residence (in rural or urban areas). The results of this study suggest that family status and place of residence in women of older age groups do not directly influence on the back pain, however they contribute to impairment of vital functions associated with back pain, in particular, psychological state, general activity, working capacity, and also stipulate a higher frequency of requests for medical care and hospitalizations. In single women the level of disruption of daily activity is significantly higher, although the incidence of disability in doing household chores is significantly lower than in married women. Single women reliably seek medical help more often and are hospitalized throught back pain. It was also found the significant correlations between the place of residence and the frequency of health problems related to back pain, psychological and mood disorders, general activity, relationships with others, daily disability in work, impaired ability to move and the frequency of medical help seeking throught back pain. In conclusion, ite should be taken into account in planning of treatment and rehabilitation of women of older age groups with back pain.

  8. A model-based cost-effectiveness analysis of osteoporosis screening and treatment strategy for postmenopausal Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, M; Moriwaki, K; Noto, S; Takiguchi, T

    2017-02-01

    Although an osteoporosis screening program has been implemented as a health promotion project in Japan, its cost-effectiveness has yet to be elucidated fully. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis and found that osteoporosis screening and treatment would be cost-effective for Japanese women over 60 years. The purpose of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of osteoporosis screening and drug therapy in the Japanese healthcare system for postmenopausal women with no history of fracture. A patient-level state transition model was developed to predict the outcomes of Japanese women with no previous fracture. Lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were estimated for women who receive osteoporosis screening and alendronate therapy for 5 years and those who do not receive the screening and treatments. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of the screening option compared with the no screening option was estimated. Sensitivity analyses were performed to examine the influence of parameter uncertainty on the base case results. The ICERs of osteoporosis screening and treatments for Japanese women aged 50-54, 55-59, 60-64, 65-69, 70-74, and 75-79 years were estimated to be $89,242, $64,010, $40,596, $27,697, $17,027, and $9771 per QALY gained, respectively. Deterministic sensitivity analyses showed that several parameters such as the disutility due to vertebral fracture had a significant influence on the base case results. Applying a willingness to pay of $50,000 per QALY gained, the probability that the screening option became cost-effectiveness estimated to 50.9, 56.3, 59.1, and 64.7 % for women aged 60-64, 65-69, 70-74, and 75-79 years, respectively. Scenario analyses showed that the ICER for women aged 55-59 years with at least one clinical risk factor was below $50,000 per QALY. In conclusion, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) screening and alendronate therapy for osteoporosis would be cost-effective for

  9. [Survey on menopausal age and menstruation span in women in Pudong district of Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Feng, You-ji; Shu, Hui-min; Lu, Tian-mei; Zhu, Hong-mei; Yang, Bin-lie; Xiong, Miao

    2010-06-01

    To investigate natural spontaneous menopausal age, menstruation span and their relationship with menarche age and parity in Pudong district of Shanghai. From Jan 2007 to Jul 2008, 15 083 spontaneous menopause women undergoing cervical cancer screening were enrolled in this study. The questionnaire included menarche age, parity, spontaneous menopausal age and menstruation span. Those women were divided into four groups based on age, which were group of 56 - 60, 61 - 65, 66 - 70 and more than 70.Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for comparing difference between menopausal age and menstruation span. Multiple factor regressions was used to analyze the relationship between menarche age, parity and menopausal age and menstruation span. (1) Spontaneous menopausal age: the minimum was 29 years old, the maximum was 61 years old, and the mean age was (50.6 ± 3.7) years old. The mean spontaneous menopause age were (50.9 ± 3.4), (50.7 ± 3.7), (50.0 ± 4.1), (49.6 ± 4.0) years in groups of 56 - 60, 61 - 65, 66 - 70 and more than 70 years. With the increasing age range in four groups, the increasing trends of menopausal age were observed, which the difference of 1.36 year was shown between groups of 56 - 60 and more than 70 years. (2) Menstruation span: the mean of menstruation span was (34.3 ± 4.1) years, which the minimal age of 12 years and maximal age of 48 years were recorded. (34.6 ± 3.8), (34.3 ± 4.1), (33.9 ± 4.6), (33.2 ± 4.5) were observed in groups of 56 - 60, 61 - 65, 66 - 70 and more than 70 years. With the increasing age range in four groups, the increasing trends of menstruation span were observed, which the difference of 1.41 year was shown between groups of 56 - 60 and more than 70 years. (3) The impact of menarche age on menopausal age and menstruation span: there was no correlation between menarche age and menopausal age (r = 0.02); however, menstruation span was found to be negatively correlated with the menarche age (r = -0.43). (4) The impact

  10. Mirror on the wall: a study of women's perception of facial features as they age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezgin, Billur; Findikcioglu, Kemal; Kaya, Basar; Sibar, Serhat; Yavuzer, Reha

    2012-05-01

    Facial aesthetic treatments are among the most popular cosmetic procedures worldwide, but the factors that motivate women to change their facial appearance are not fully understood. The authors examine the relationships among the facial areas on which women focus most as they age, women's general self-perception, and the effect of their personal focus on "beauty points" on their perception of other women's faces. In this prospective study, 200 women who presented to a cosmetic surgery outpatient clinic for consultation between December 2009 and February 2010 completed a questionnaire. The 200 participants were grouped by age: 20-29 years, 30-39, 40-49, and 50 or older (50 women in each group). They were asked which part of their face they focus on most when looking in the mirror, which part they notice most in other women (of different age groups), what they like/dislike most about their own face, and whether they wished to change any facial feature. A positive correlation was found between women's focal points and the areas they dislike or desire to change. Younger women focused mainly on their nose and skin, while older women focused on their periorbital area and jawline. Women focus on their personal focal points when looking at other women in their 20s and 30s, but not when looking at older women. Women presenting for cosmetic surgery consultation focus on the areas that they dislike most, which leads to a desire to change those features. The plastic surgeon must fully understand patients' expectations to select appropriate candidates and maximize satisfaction with the outcomes.

  11. Women's work, worry and fear: the portrayal of sexuality and sexual health in US magazines for teenage and middle-aged women, 2000-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Juanne

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on an exploratory content analysis of the portrayal of sexuality, sexual health and disease in select magazines designed for two groups of women: teenagers and women in the 40-50-year-old age category in the USA. The analysis found that magazine portrayal was both similar for the two groups of women and distinctly different. Neither group of magazines focused on women's sexual desire. Both kinds of magazines emphasized that it was women's work and worry to control sexual expression. Teenagers were described as responsible for avoiding sex in order to prevent pregnancy, fearsomely described STIs and untrustworthy male sexual partners. Abstinence was presented as the only viable option for young women. Women in the 40-50-year-old age group were portrayed as responsible for the emotion work and sexual relations linked to their responsibility for maintaining their marriages and fulfilling their tasks of motherhood, especially through the monitoring of the sexuality of their female children. Sex was characterized in terms akin to women's work within the home. Possible explanations for, and consequences of, these presentations of sexuality are discussed.

  12. Musculoskeletal pain among women of menopausal age in Puebla, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, Lynnette Leidy; Goode-Null, Susan K

    2005-06-01

    Worldwide, complaints of musculoskeletal pain are more frequent than complaints of hot flashes amongst women of menopausal age. The purpose of this study was to examine musculoskeletal pain among women of menopausal age in the city of Puebla, Mexico. An opportunity sample was recruited from public parks and markets, with representation from all social classes (n=755). Mean age was 50.1 years, and the majority were employed as saleswomen in small businesses. Symptom frequencies were collected by open-ended interviews and with a structured symptom list that queried symptom experience during the two weeks prior to interview. In response to open-ended questions, "dolores de huesos" (bone pain) was volunteered by 47% of respondents as a symptom associated with menopause, second only to hot flashes (53%). From the structured symptom list, 55.8% and 55.6% reported back pain and joint stiffness during the two weeks prior to interview. Women with back pain and joint stiffness were less likely to report being active during their leisure time (p<.01). The results of backwards stepwise logistic regressions indicate that women with back pain were more likely to be older, with less education, a higher BMI, and ate less meat. Women with joint pain were more likely to be post-menopausal, with less education, more children, a higher BMI, and were likely to drink milk and coffee more than once/week but less than once/day. While menopause is not necessarily a risk factor for musculoskeletal pain, it is important to recognize the pervasiveness of this complaint among women of menopausal age.

  13. 50 Years of Cognitive Aging Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nicole D; Craik, Fergus I M

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this Introduction to the Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences special issue on "50 Years of Cognitive Aging Theory" are to provide a brief overview of cognitive aging research prior to 1965 and to highlight significant developments in cognitive aging theory over the last 50 years. Historical and recent theories of cognitive aging were reviewed, with a particular focus on those not directly covered by the articles included in this special issue. Prior to 1965, cognitive aging research was predominantly descriptive, identifying what aspects of intellectual functioning are affected in older compared with younger adults. Since the mid-1960s, there has been an increasing interest in how and why specific components of cognitive domains are differentially affected in aging and a growing focus on cognitive aging neuroscience. Significant advances have taken place in our theoretical understanding of how and why certain components of cognitive functioning are or are not affected by aging. We also know much more now than we did 50 years ago about the underlying neural mechanisms of these changes. The next 50 years undoubtedly will bring new theories, as well as new tools (e.g., neuroimaging advances, neuromodulation, and technology), that will further our understanding of cognitive aging. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Employment, work hours and weight gain among middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, N; Hauck, K; Hollingsworth, B

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the influence of employment and work hours on weight gain and weight loss among middle-aged women. Quantile regression techniques were used to estimate the influence of employment and hours worked on percentage weight change over 2 years across the entire distribution of weight change in a cohort of middle-aged women. A range of controls was included in the models to isolate the effect of work status. A total of 9276 women aged 45-50 years at baseline who were present in both the 1996 and 1998 surveys of the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health. The women were a representative sample of the Australian population. Being out of the labour force or unemployed was associated with lower weight gain and higher weight loss than being employed. The association was stronger at low to moderate levels of weight gain. Among employed women, working regular (35-40), long (41-48) or very long (49+) hours was associated with increasingly higher levels of weight gain compared with working part-time hours. The association was stronger for women with greater weight gain overall. The association between unemployment and weight change became insignificant when health status was controlled for. Employment was associated with more weight gain and less weight loss. Among the employed, working longer hours was associated with more weight gain, especially at the higher levels of weight gain where the health consequences are more serious. These findings suggest that as women work longer hours they are more likely to make lifestyle choices that are associated with weight gain.

  15. Long-term safety of unopposed estrogen used by women surviving myocardial infarction: 14-year follow-up of the ESPRIT randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, N; McNamee, R; Heagerty, A; Kitchener, H; Hannaford, P

    2014-05-01

    To compare health outcomes during 14-year observational follow-up in women initially randomised to unopposed estrogen or placebo. At recruitment to the Estrogen for the Prevention of Re-Infarction Trial (ESPRIT) women were assigned to estradiol valerate: 2 mg or placebo treatment for 2 years. Women were recruited from 35 hospitals in the northwest of England and Wales in July 1996-February 2000. Women aged 50-69 surviving their first myocardial infarction. All women were followed by data linkage to UK mortality and cancer records; mean follow-up 14.1 and 12.6 years, respectively. In an intention-to-treat analysis, hazard ratios (HRs) were computed, overall and stratified by age at recruitment. Death (all-cause, cardiac disease, stroke or cancer) and cancer incidence (any, breast or endometrium). There were 418 deaths in 1017 women randomised. The all-cause mortality HR of 1.07 (95% CI 0.88-1.29) indicated no significant difference between treatment groups. Women aged 50-59 years at recruitment had lower HRs than women aged 60-69 years for all outcomes except ischaemic heart disease. Among 149 incident cancers there were seven cases of breast cancer in the intervention arm and 15 in the placebo; HR 0.47 (95% CI 0.19-1.15). There were no deaths from endometrial cancer but three incident cases, one in the active arm and two in placebo. These results suggest that unopposed estrogen may be used safely by women with an intact uterus surviving a first myocardial infarction. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  16. Prospective Relationships Between Physical Activity and Optimism in Young and Mid-aged Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavey, Toby G; Burton, Nicola W; Brown, Wendy J

    2015-07-01

    There is growing evidence that regular physical activity (PA) reduces the risk of poor mental health. Less research has focused on the relationship between PA and positive wellbeing. The study aims were to assess the prospective associations between PA and optimism, in both young and mid-aged women. 9688 young women (born 1973-1978) completed self-report surveys in 2000 (age 22 to 27), 2003, 2006, and 2009; and 11,226 mid-aged women (born 1946-1951) completed surveys in 2001 (age 50-55) 2004, 2007, and 2010, as part of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Generalized estimating equation models (with 3-year time lag) were used to examine the relationship between PA and optimism in both cohorts. In both cohorts, women reporting higher levels of PA had greater odds of reporting higher optimism over the 9-year period, (young, OR = 5.04, 95% CI: 3.85-6.59; mid-age, OR = 5.77, 95% CI: 4.76-7.00) than women who reported no PA. Odds were attenuated in adjusted models, with depression accounting for a large amount of this attenuation (young, OR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.57-2.55; mid-age, OR = 1.64 95% CI: 1.38-1.94). Physical activity can promote optimism in young and mid-aged women over time, even after accounting for the negative effects of other psychosocial indicators such as depression.

  17. Understanding aging in a Middle Eastern context: the SHARE-Israel survey of persons aged 50 and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Howard

    2009-03-01

    This article describes the development of SHARE-Israel, the survey of persons aged 50 and older in Israel, and preliminary results from an early data release. The introduction of an HRS-inspired computer-based survey into a Middle East country required linguistic and cultural adaptations of the survey mechanisms that had not been previously experienced in other countries. Preliminary findings showed that the majority group of veteran Jewish-Israelis aged 50 and over is in a favorable position in terms of health, employment status and household income compared to Arab-Israelis and to new immigrants to Israel from the Former Soviet Union. Arab-Israelis aged 50 and over are at greater risk due to greater disability and lower incomes. Recent immigrants from the former Soviet Union are at greatest risk. They report having the highest degree of depression, long term problems and activity limitation, the fewest children, low rates of home ownership and low incomes. Comparing the older Israeli population with their European counterparts revealed that Israelis are more depressed; more Israeli women are employed, and fewer Israeli men are retired; and household income in Israel is lower, but rises relatively when correcting for purchasing power parity. These trends point to several areas that will require attention in the formulation of public policy on behalf of the aging population in Israel.

  18. The impact of Nordic walking trainings on social well-being of women at the age of 50-60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soboleva Antonina A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of falls aims to increase the strength of large groups of muscles, mainly in the lower limbs, as well as to improve gait, balance, and coordination parameters. Nordic walking (NW is a new type of walking training; the main purpose of NW is to involve the muscles that are not used during normal walking, which enables the performance of high intensity exercises at a relatively low level of perceived exertion. The article deals with the relevance of the problem of raising the health level and working capacity of mature and elderly-aged population. The importance of regular physical exercises as a universal means of satisfying the human body in motion has proved to be substantial. The research results in a positive impact of NW training on the functional status and health of women under the age of 50 - 60, the optimal structure of correctly graduated exercises during Nordic walking trainings in winter and snow-free periods. The quality of women’s life is determined and improved. NW is a form of physical activity which is recommended along with physiotherapy for the elderly to prevent musculoskeletal disorders, vascular diseases, cardiovascular diseases, thus improving people’s physical, and, hence, social welfare.

  19. Alterations in age distribution of breast cancer patients over the last 20 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterok, E.M.

    1987-01-01

    Between 1963 and 1983, 2,355 breast cancer patients were treated at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Erlangen, Bavaria, West-Germany. In 1966, 1967 and 1968 we treated a total of 166 women with beast cancer. The age distribution graph shows a height in the 55 till 59 year old and in the 65 till 69 year old patient populations respectively. Although in a different magnitude, we show for the completeness the age distribution of the West German female population as well as the 1,405 women screened clinically and mammographically over this period of time. Ten years later, so between 1976 and 1978 a peak in the number of breast cancer patients is found in the 40 till 44 year old group, we see a plateau in the 50 till 60 year old and a peak in the 65 till 69 year old respectively. The total number of women investigated over this period of time was 11,197. A total number of 517 neoplasms of the breast were diagnosed

  20. Effects of self-reported age at nonsurgical menopause on time to first fracture and bone mineral density in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Shannon D; Lehman, Amy; Thomas, Fridtjof; Johnson, Karen C; Jackson, Rebecca; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Ko, Marcia; Chen, Zhao; Curb, J David; Howard, Barbara V

    2015-10-01

    Menopause is a risk factor for fracture; thus, menopause age may affect bone mass and fracture rates. We compared bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture rates among healthy postmenopausal women with varying ages at self-reported nonsurgical menopause. We compared hazard ratios for fractures and differences in BMD among 21,711 postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study cohort who had no prior hysterectomy, oophorectomy, or hormone therapy and had varying self-reported ages at menopause (menopause age groups. After multivariable adjustments for known risk factors for fracture, women who underwent menopause before age 40 years had a higher fracture risk at any site compared with women who underwent menopause at age 50 years or older (hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.44; P = 0.03). In a subset with BMD measurements (n = 1,351), whole-body BMD was lower in women who reported menopause before age 40 years than in women who reported menopause at ages 40 to 49 years (estimated difference, -0.034 g/cm; 95% CI, -0.07 to -0.004; P = 0.03) and women who reported menopause at age 50 years or older (estimated difference, -0.05 g/cm; 95% CI, -0.08 to -0.02; P menopause before age 40 years than in women who underwent menopause at age 50 years or older (estimated difference, -0.05 g/cm; 95% CI, -0.08 to -0.01; P = 0.01), and total spine BMD was lower in women who underwent menopause before age 40 years than in women who underwent menopause at age 50 years or older (estimated difference, -0.11 g/cm; 95% CI, -0.16 to -0.06; P menopause at ages 40 to 49 years (estimated difference, -0.09 g/cm; 95% CI, -0.15 to -0.04; P menopause may be a risk factor contributing to decreased BMD and increased fracture risk in healthy postmenopausal women. Our data suggest that menopause age should be taken into consideration, along with other osteoporotic risk factors, when estimating fracture risk in postmenopausal women.

  1. Ethnicity as a determinant of ovarian reserve: differences in ovarian aging between Spanish and Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Carlos; Banker, Manish; Mahajan, Nalini; Herrero, Leyre; Meseguer, Marcos; Garcia-Velasco, Juan A

    2014-07-01

    To investigate differences in ovarian reserve markers (antimüllerian hormone [AMH] and antral follicle count [AFC]) in Indian and Spanish women. Cross-sectional study. In vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics. Infertile Spanish (n=229) and Indian (n=236) women who underwent controlled ovarian stimulation for IVF from January to October 2012. None. Data on ovarian reserve markers and results after ovarian stimulation were collected. The mean age of women undergoing their first or second IVF cycle was significantly higher in Spanish than in Indian women (37.5±3.3 years vs. 31.5±3.8 years). Despite this 6-year age gap, AFCs were similar (9.5±4.7 vs. 9.9±4.6), as were day 3 FSH levels (7.5±4.5 IU/L vs. 6.9±2.3 IU/L). AMH levels were slightly lower in Spanish women (1.6±1.7 ng/mL vs. 2.5±1.6 ng/mL). Multivariate regression analysis showed that being Indian decreased AFC by 2.3, such that AFC in Indian women was similar to that in Spanish women 6.3 years older (95% confidence interval 3.39-1.10). Similar ovarian reserve markers and ovarian response were observed in women with a 6-year age difference in favor of the Spanish, suggesting ethnic differences in ovarian aging. Further research is needed to understand whether these differences are genetically induced or are caused by other variables, such as nutrition. Our results may help clinicians to counsel infertile women when discussing assisted reproductive technology outcomes according to age and ethnic background. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of 8 weeks of Circuit Resistance Training on metabolic syndrome risk factors and body composition in women over age 50 with diabetes mellitus type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyede Amene Azarmehr

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM increased significantly in the last three decades, and effective strategies to manage and prevent this disease are urgently needed. Physical activity and exercise training is an effective way for metabolic syndrome risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients. However, the effects of Circuit Resistance Training (CRT program on patients T2DM are unknown. The purpose of this study is to investigation the effect of 8 weeks of Circuit resistance training (CRT on metabolic syndrome and body composition in women over age 50 with T2DM. Methods: Twenty women over 50 years old with diabetes Referred to diabetes Center of 17 Shahrivar hospital in Amol and they were divided randomly into two groups; Circuit resistance (n=10 and Control (n=10. Resistance training consisted of 10 stations for 8 weeks and 3 sessions per week (Intensity 60-80% 1RM. Levels of Lipid profile and body composition before and after eight weeks training in both groups were measured. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out by SPSS (v. 22. Results Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS levels (P=0.021, Triglycerides (0.010, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.042, significant decreased in CRT. Also after 8 weeks circuit resistance training, BMI (P= 0.003, WHR (P=0.004 and body fat present (0.019 significant decreased in CRT. Conclusion: According to our results, CRT was an effective approach to improve the Anthropometrics, FBS, lipid profile in women over age 50 with diabetes mellitus type 2. Moreover, CRT did have influence on LDL level.  Keywords: Circuit resistance training, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, body composition

  3. Age-related normal uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP in the lower spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundkvist, G.M.G. [Dept. of Clinical Physiology, Centralsjukhuset, Kristianstad (Sweden); Lilja, B. [Dept. of Clinical Physiology, Universitetssjukhuset MAS, Malmoe (Sweden); Mattsson, S. [Dept. of Radiation Physics, Universitetssjukhuset MAS, Malmoe (Sweden)

    1997-03-01

    Aim: The uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP in the lower spine was quantified in connection with ordinary bone scintigraphy. Methods: Fifty-seven women and seventy-two men (aged 20-69 y), with no signs of metabolic or malignant disease and no history of back pain or atraumatic fractures, were included in the study. Results: The women showed an increase in {sup 99m}Tc-MDP uptake from the age of 20 y to about 45 y with a decrease from the time of menopause. In contrast to women, the uptake in men showed a slight decrease from the age of 20 y to about 50 y and thereafter a more marked decrease was seen. The major difference between men and women is the high premenopausal uptake in the female skeleton. Conclusion: An understanding of age-related changes in {sup 99m}Tc-MDP uptake, which are indices of the skeletal metabolism, is of importance especially in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, a common disorder in postmenopausal women. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: In Verbindung mit einer routinemaessigen Skelettszintigraphie wurde die Speicherung von {sup 99m}Tc-MDP in der unteren Wirbelsaeule quantifiziert. Methoden: 57 Frauen und 22 Maenner (Alter von 20-69 Jahren) ohne metabolische oder boesartige Erkrankungen sowie ohne Rueckenschmerzen oder Wirbelsinterungen wurden in die Studien aufgenommen. Ergebnisse: Bei Frauen zeigte sich ein Anstieg der {sup 99m}Tc-MDP-Speicherung zwischen den Altersabschnitten 20 bis 45 Jahre und dann ein Abfall waehrend der Menopause. Im Gegensatz hierzu zeigte sich bei Maennern ein leichter Abfall der Speicherung vom 20. bis 50. Lebensjahr und danach eine noch staerkere Abnahme. Der Hauptunterschied zwischen den Geschlechtern ist die relativ hohe Speicherung im weiblichen Skelett praemenopausal. Schlussfolgerung: Das Verstaendnis der Altersbeziehungen der {sup 99m}Tc-MDP-Speicherung als Indikator des Knochenstoffwechsels ist fuer Praevention und Behandlung der postmenopausalen Osteoporose wichtig. (orig.)

  4. Age-specific interval breast cancers in Japan. Estimation of the proper sensitivity of screening using a population-based cancer registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Akihiko; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Kawai, Masaaki

    2008-01-01

    The age-specific sensitivity of a screening program was investigated using a population-based cancer registry as a source of false-negative cancer cases. A population-based screening program for breast cancer was run using either clinical breast examinations (CBE) alone or mammography combined with CBE in the Miyagi Prefecture from 1997 to 2002. Interval cancers were newly identified by linking the screening records to the population-based cancer registry to estimate the number of false-negative cases of screening program. Among 112071 women screened by mammography combined with CBE, the number of detected cancers, false-negative cases and the sensitivity were 289, 22 and 92.9%, respectively, based on the reports from participating municipalities. The number of newly found false-negative cases and corrected sensitivity when using the registry were 34 and 83.8%, respectively. In detected cancers, the sensitivity of screening by mammography combined with CBE in women ranging from 40 to 49 years of age based on a population-based cancer registry was much lower than that in women 50-59 and 60-69 years of age (40-49: 18, 71.4%, 50-59: 19, 85.8%, 60-69: 19, 87.2%). These data suggest that the accurate outcome of an evaluation of breast cancer screening must include the use of a population-based cancer registry for detecting false-negative cases. Screening by mammography combined with CBE may therefore not be sufficiently sensitive for women ranging from 40 to 49 years of age. (author)

  5. Women, Work and Age: A Report on Older Women and Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stentzel, Cathy; Steenland, Sally, Ed.

    Fifty-four percent of all midlife and older American women are in the work force. Like their younger counterparts, most older women work in nonprofessional occupations. Regardless of their age, working women earn less than men. Sixty-five percent of working women aged 45 to 64 are married; 30 percent are widowed, divorced, or separated; and 5…

  6. Mammography for women in their 40s : to screen or not to screen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Heron, J.

    1997-01-01

    In the United States there is currently a raging controversy as to whether women in their 40s should be screened for breast cancer, with responsible medical bodies each issuing divergent recommendations. With the imminent commencement of the national breast screening programme in New Zealand, it is relevant to briefly review what underlies these differences. The evicence from international studies is that breast cancer deaths on the population of women aged 50 to 69 can be reduced by about 30% by good mammography screening programes. However the evidence in not so unequivocal for the 40 to 49 age group. Breast cancer in younger women tends to be more virulent, growing faster, and killing faster, and detection of cancer in younger breasts is more difficult than in breasts of older women due to the presence of greater amounts of glandular tissue. Where does this leave breast screening in New Zealand? The nationwide breast screening programme will commence with asymmptomatic women aged 50-64 eligible for screening. Extension to women older than 64 will be considered again once the programme is in place and running well. The Ministry of Health has not recommended routine screening for women in their 40s, but will continue to monitor the latest information and if, sufficient new evidence becomes availabe, the screening guidelines will be reassessed. (author)

  7. Age-related normal uptake of 99mTc-MDP in the lower spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundkvist, G.M.G.; Lilja, B.; Mattsson, S.

    1997-01-01

    Aim: The uptake of 99m Tc-MDP in the lower spine was quantified in connection with ordinary bone scintigraphy. Methods: Fifty-seven women and seventy-two men (aged 20-69 y), with no signs of metabolic or malignant disease and no history of back pain or atraumatic fractures, were included in the study. Results: The women showed an increase in 99m Tc-MDP uptake from the age of 20 y to about 45 y with a decrease from the time of menopause. In contrast to women, the uptake in men showed a slight decrease from the age of 20 y to about 50 y and thereafter a more marked decrease was seen. The major difference between men and women is the high premenopausal uptake in the female skeleton. Conclusion: An understanding of age-related changes in 99m Tc-MDP uptake, which are indices of the skeletal metabolism, is of importance especially in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, a common disorder in postmenopausal women. (orig.) [de

  8. Race/ethnic disparities in reproductive age: an examination of ovarian reserve estimates across four race/ethnic groups of healthy, regularly cycling women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleil, Maria E; Gregorich, Steven E; Adler, Nancy E; Sternfeld, Barbara; Rosen, Mitchell P; Cedars, Marcelle I

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether reproductive age, as indexed by a validated marker of ovarian reserve (antimüllerian hormone [AMH]), varies among women of different race/ethnic backgrounds. Cross-sectional study. Community-based sample. Multiethnic sample of 947 (277 white, 237 African American, 220 Latina, and 213 Chinese) healthy and regularly cycling premenopausal women, ages 25-45. None. AMH level. A multivariate model was fit examining race/ethnicity, covariates, nonlinear terms for age (age(2), age(3)), and body mass index (BMI(2), BMI(3)), and two-way interactions between race/ethnicity and each of the other predictor variables in relation to AMH. After backward elimination, significant effects included race/ethnicity (F = 8.45), age (F = 349.94), race/ethnicity-by-linear age interaction (F = 4.67), age(2) (F = 31.61), and BMI (F = 10.69). Inspection of the significant race/ethnicity-by-linear age interaction showed AMH levels were consistently lower among Latina women compared with white women across all ages, whereas AMH levels were lower among African American and Chinese women compared with the white women at younger and middle ages, respectively. The AMH levels were higher among African American compared with Latina and Chinese women at older ages. Although the results must be considered preliminary, the findings are twofold: African American women may have lower AMH levels at younger ages but experience less of a reduction in AMH with advancing age, and Latina and Chinese women compared with white women may have lower AMH levels, marking a lower ovarian reserve and a possibly increased risk for earlier menopause. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of early age at natural menopause on coronary heart disease and stroke in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lijun; Song, Lulu; Liu, Bingqing; Li, Hui; Zheng, Xiaoxuan; Zhang, Lina; Yuan, Jing; Liang, Yuan; Wang, Youjie

    2017-08-15

    Menopause is identified as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease because of the change of estrogen. The objective of the study was to explore the associations between early age at natural menopause (menopause at an age≤45years) and the presence of CHD and stroke. The study subjects were from the first follow-up survey of the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort study. A total of 16,515 postmenopausal women were included for the analysis. Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between age at natural menopause (≤45, 45-52, >52years) and the presence of CHD and stroke adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle, reproductive history and metabolic factors. In the fully adjusted model, for each 1-year delay in menopausal age, the prevalence of CHD and stroke was reduced by 3% (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95-0.98) and 5% (OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92-0.98), respectively. Women with early menopause (≤45years) had a higher prevalence of CHD (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.13-1.57) compared with those with menopause at ages 45-52years. Similarly, women with early menopause (≤45years) was associated with higher prevalence of stroke (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.25-2.30) compared with those with menopause at ages 45-52years. Early age at natural menopause is significantly associated with the presence of CHD and stroke among Chinese women. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Age shock: misperceptions of the impact of age on fertility before and after IVF in women who conceived after age 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Dougall, K; Beyene, Y; Nachtigall, R D

    2013-02-01

    What do older women understand of the relationship between age and fertility prior and subsequent to delivering their first child? Women who were first-time parents over the age of 40 did not accurately perceive the relationship between age and fertility prior to conceiving with IVF. While increases in women's age at their first birth have been most pronounced in relatively older women, the rapidity of fertility decline is not appreciated by most non-infertility specialist physicians, the general public or men and women who are delaying childbearing. Qualitative retrospective interviews were conducted from 2009 to 2011 with 61 self-selected women who were patients in one of two fertility clinics in the USA. All participants had delivered their first child following IVF when the woman was 40 years or older. The data include women's responses to the semi-structured and open-ended interview questions 'What information did you have about fertility and age before you started trying to get pregnant?' and 'What did you learn once you proceeded with fertility treatment?' Of the women, 30% expected their fertility to decline gradually until menopause at around 50 years and 31% reported that they expected to get pregnant without difficulty at the age of 40. Reasons for a mistaken belief in robust fertility included recollections of persistent and ongoing messaging about pregnancy prevention starting in adolescence (23%), healthy lifestyle and family history of fertility (26%), and incorrect information from friends, physicians or misleading media reports of pregnancies in older celebrity women (28%). Participants had not anticipated the possibility that they would need IVF to conceive with 44% reporting being 'shocked' and 'alarmed' to discover that their understanding of the rapidity of age-related reproductive decline was inaccurate'. In retrospect, their belated recognition of the effect of age on fertility led 72% of the women to state that they felt 'lucky' or had

  11. The effect of different training modalities on physical fitness in women over 50 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Melo Neves

    Full Text Available Abstract It is not yet clear which physical exercise protocols have greater potential to mitigate the functional decline in physical fitness (coordination, flexibility, strength, agility and cardiorespiratory capacity. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare different training modalities on physical fitness in women over 50 years of age and understand which training protocol is more effective for promoting significant improvements in physical fitness. The initial sample consisted of 79 subjects, of which 17 dropped out, resulting in a total of 62 subjects who completed the study and are included in the analysis (n = 62. The average age of the study population was 60.1±5.4 years, divided into five groups: aerobic training, concurrent training, multimodal training, functional training and control group. Physical fitness was analyzed through AAHPERD (American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance tests (0 and eighth weeks. The ANOVA analyses (aleatory effect show a main effect of time for coordination (p<0.001, strength (p = 0.004, agility (p<0.001 and cardiorespiratory capacity (p<0.001, and statistically significant interactions for coordination (p = 0.003 and cardiorespiratory capacity (p = 0.033. When comparing the average relative differences between the group (Δ%, significant improvement was observed in coordination and agility (p<0.001 in the multimodal and functional training groups. For cardiorespiratory fitness, there was a significant improvement in the aerobic, concurrent and multimodal training groups (p<0.001 and strength increased in the functional training group (p = 0.04. Functional training was demonstrated to be more effective at promoting significant improvements in physical fitness than the other investigated exercise protocols.

  12. Women of an uncertain age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, Matthias; Colvin, Christopher; McAtackney, Laura

    2017-01-01

    in order to facilitate a better assessment of sources of this productivity growth, including the relative contribution of men and women. This is done by exploiting the frequency at which age data heap at round ages, widely interpreted as an indicator of a population's basic numeracy skills. Because...... Földvári, van Leeuwen, and van Leeuwen-Li find that gender-specific trends in this measure derived from census returns are biased by who is reporting and recording the age information, any computed numeracy trends are corrected using data from prison and workhouse registers, sources in which women...... ostensibly self-reported their age. The findings show that rural Irish women born early in the nineteenth century had substantially lower levels of human capital than uncorrected census data would otherwise suggest. These results are large in magnitude and thus economically significant. The speed at which...

  13. Prevalence and risk factors of urinary incontinence in Chinese women: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jing; Yang, Peng; Zhang, Yi; Li, Xinyu; Wang, Quanyi; Lu, Yongxian

    2015-03-01

    To estimate the current prevalence rate of urinary incontinence (UI) and to identify risk factors in Chinese women, we conducted a population-based survey in 3058 women in Beijing, China, in 2009. The prevalence rate of UI was estimated to be 22.1%, with stress UI (12.9%) being more prevalent than urgency UI (1.7%) and mixed UI (7.5%). The prevalence rates of UI, urgency UI, and mixed UI increased with age, with the highest recorded in participants aged ≥70 years. However, stress UI was most commonly seen in participants aged 50 to 69 years. Risk factors for UI included aging, lower education background, older age of menarche, menstrual disorder, pregnancy history, episiotomy, chronic pelvic pain, gynecological disease, other chronic diseases, constipation, fecal incontinence, lower daily water intake, and frequency of high protein intake. UI is a common disorder in Chinese women, and many risk factors are able to affect the development of UI. © 2011 APJPH.

  14. Age, Stigma, Adherence and Clinical Indicators in HIV-Infected Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Katryna; Higgins, Melinda; Zuñiga, Julie Ann; Holstad, Marcia McDonnell

    Stigma has become a gendered phenomenon that affects increasing numbers of HIV-infected women worldwide. This study examined the role of age as a possible moderator of the relationship between stigma and antiretroviral therapy adherence, CD4% and viral load among 120 HIV-infected women. A secondary analysis was conducted using data from the Keeping Healthy and Active with Risk Reduction and Medication Adherence (KHARMA) Project, an National Institutes of Health (NIH) funded randomized controlled trial to improve Antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence and reduce risky behaviors in HIV-infected women at five clinical sites in a South-eastern city from 2005 to 2008. Stigma was measured using the Perceived Personal Stigma of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) scale. Among participants stigma was negatively associated with CD4% (r =-.26, p=.02). For the 30 participants >50 years old, age was not significantly associated with viral load, stigma or CD4%, and there was no significant association between stigma and CD4% (r=.07, p=.70). These findings indicate the need for further study regarding this potential moderating effect and possible interventions to address the susceptibility of younger women to the harmful effects of stigma.

  15. Importance of physical examination in early detection of lump in breast in women of different age groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, H.; Imran, S.; Waris, Noorul-ain-Hafeez; Khanam, A.; Khurshid, R.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The spectrum of breast lesions in adolescents varies markedly from that for adults, with the former lesions being overwhelmingly benign. Fine needle biopsy can be used to distinguish benign and malignant tumour. Study Design: This study examined the characteristics and outcome of women with different age groups in whom physical examination was their sole method of lump in breast detection. Patients and Methods: A total of 200 patients were included in the study. These were divided into 3 groups. Group A was consisting of 75 girls with age of pubescent. Group B included 69 suspected breast cancer women with age range 26-38 years. Fifty-six suspected breast cancer women with age range 41-60 year were included as group C. Study was carried out in patients admitted in the Department/Out-door of Surgery, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan. Study period was 6 months. All women received a physical examination by a breast surgeon. Proforma including demographic and clinical characteristics were filled. The diagnosis for patients in this study was achieved by core needle biopsy using a 14-gauge cutting needle. Results: It was observed that early age at menarche ( 25 may be a risk factor in peri/post menopausal women. Active life style is more important with increasing age as it decreases the risk of developing tumour state. Family history was more common in women with peri/post menopausal status as compared to other age groups. Clinical characteristics showed that lump size <2.5 cm was more common in both pubescent and reproductive age. While lump size with a range of 2.5-5.0 cm, was observed in all groups of patients. Fibroadenoma is observed in almost all women with pubescent age while both benign and malignant tumour observed in women with reproductive age. Malignant tumour was observed mostly in women with peri/post menopausal status. Conclusion: Study concluded that early detection or clinical examination with FNA cut out the patients from harassment

  16. Toward the breast screening balance sheet: cumulative risk of false positives for annual versus biennial mammograms commencing at age 40 or 50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winch, Caleb J; Sherman, Kerry A; Boyages, John

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to: (1) Estimate cumulative risk of recall from breast screening where no cancer is detected (a harm) in Australia; (2) Compare women screened annually versus biennially, commencing age 40 versus 50; and (3) Compare with international findings. At the no-cost metropolitan program studied, women attended biennial screening, but were offered annual screening if regarded at elevated risk for breast cancer. The cumulative risk of at least one recall was estimated using discrete-time survival analysis. Cancer detection statistics were computed. In total, 801,636 mammograms were undertaken in 231,824 women. Over 10 years, cumulative risk of recall was 13.3 % (95 % CI 12.7-13.8) for those screened biennially, and 19.9 % (CI 16.6-23.2) for those screened annually from age 50-51. Cumulative risk of complex false positive involving a biopsy was 3.1 % (CI 2.9-3.4) and 5.0 % (CI 3.4-6.6), respectively. From age 40-41, the risk of recall was 15.1 % (CI 14.3-16.0) and 22.5 % (CI 17.9-27.1) for biennial and annual screening, respectively. Corresponding rates of complex false positive were 3.3 % (CI 2.9-3.8) and 6.3 % (CI 3.4-9.1). Over 10 mammograms, invasive cancer was detected in 3.4 % (CI 3.3-3.5) and ductal carcinoma in situ in 0.7 % (CI 0.6-0.7) of women, with a non-significant trend toward a larger proportion of Tis and T1N0 cancers in women screened annually (74.5 %) versus biennially (70.1 %), χ (2) = 2.77, p = 0.10. Cancer detection was comparable to international findings. Recall risk was equal to European estimates for women screening from 50 and lower for screening from 40. Recall risk was half of United States' rates across start age and rescreening interval categories. Future benefit/harm balance sheets may be useful for communicating these findings to women.

  17. Age at menopause, reproductive history, and venous thromboembolism risk among postmenopausal women: the Women's Health Initiative Hormone Therapy clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canonico, Marianne; Plu-Bureau, Geneviève; O'Sullivan, Mary Jo; Stefanick, Marcia L; Cochrane, Barbara; Scarabin, Pierre-Yves; Manson, Joann E

    2014-03-01

    This study aims to investigate venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy, and time since menopause, as well as any interaction with randomized hormone therapy (HT) assignment, among postmenopausal women. Using pooled data from the Women's Health Initiative HT clinical trials including 27,035 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years who had no history of VTE, we assessed the risk of VTE in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy, and time since menopause by Cox proportional hazards models. Linear trends, quadratic relationships, and interactions of reproductive life characteristics with HT on VTE risk were systematically tested. During follow-up, 426 women reported a first VTE, including 294 non-procedure-related events. No apparent interaction of reproductive life characteristics with HT assignment on VTE risk was detected, and there was not a significant association between VTE and age at menarche, age at menopause, parity, oophorectomy, or time since menopause. However, analyses restricted to non-procedure-related VTE showed a U-shaped relationship between age at menopause and thrombotic risk that persisted after multivariable analysis (P menopause, those who had early menopause (age menopause (age >55 y) had a significantly increased VTE risk (hazard ratio [95% CI]: 1.8 [1.2-2.7] and 1.5 [1.0-2.4], respectively). Reproductive life characteristics have little association with VTE and do not seem to influence the effect of HT on thrombotic risk among postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, early and late onset of menopause might be newly identified risk factors for non-procedure-related VTE.

  18. Age at menopause, reproductive history and venous thromboembolism risk among postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canonico, Marianne; Plu-Bureau, Geneviève; O’Sullivan, Mary Jo; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Cochrane, Barbara; Scarabin, Pierre-Yves; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate VTE risk in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy and time since menopause, as well as any interaction with randomized HT assignment among postmenopausal women. Methods Using pooled data from the Women’s Health Initiative HT clinical trials including 27,035 postmenopausal women ages 50 to 79 years with no history of VTE, we assessed the risk of VTE in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy and time since menopause by Cox proportional hazard models. Linear trends, quadratic relationships and interactions of reproductive life characteristics with HT on VTE risk were systematically tested. Results During the follow-up, 426 women reported a first VTE, including 294 nonprocedure-related events. No apparent interaction of reproductive life characteristics with HT assignment on VTE risk was detected and there was any significant association of VTE with age at menarche, age at menopause, parity, oophorectomy or time since menopause. However, analyses restricted to nonprocedure-related VTE showed a U-shaped relationship between age at menopause and thrombotic risk that persisted after multivariable analysis (pmenopause, those with early menopause (agemenopause (age>55 years) had a significant increased VTE risk (HR=1.8;95%CI:1.2–2.7 and HR=1.5;95%CI:1.0–2.4, respectively). Conclusion Reproductive life characteristics have little association with VTE and do not seem to influence the effect of HT on thrombotic risk among postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, early and late onset of menopause might be newly identified risk factors for nonprocedure-related VTE. PMID:23760439

  19. A randomized trial of tamoxifen with or without breast radiation in women over 50 years of age with T1/2 N0 disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fyles, A.; Manchul, L.; McCready, D.; Merante, P.; Pintilie, M.; Trudeuau, M.; Olivotto, I.; Weir, L.

    2003-01-01

    To determine the effect of breast radiation (RT) on disease-free survival (DFS) and ipsilateral breast relapse (IBR) in women over 50 with T1 and T2 node negative breast cancer. Between December 1992 and June 2000, 769 women were randomized to RT and Tamoxifen (Tam) 20 mg daily for 5 years or Tam alone. Median age was 68 years, 639 patients had pT1 lesions and ER/PR were positive in 700 patients. Six hundred and thirty-four patients had pathologically negative nodes and 135 over age 65 were clinically node negative. Median follow-up was 5.6 years and patient and tumour characteristics were well balanced between the two arms. Overall, there were 54 relapses from breast cancer in the Tam arm and 27 in the Tam + RT arm. IBR at 5 years was 7.7% in the Tam arm compared to 0.6% in the Tam + RT group (p<0.0001). Significant factors for breast relapse and DFS at 5 years included tumour size (p=0.02 and 0.0001 respectively), hormone-receptor status (p=0.0008 and 0.0001), grade (p=0.001 and 0.003) and treatment arm (p=0.0001 and 0.004). Four-hundred and nineteen patients with low-risk features (T1, receptor-positive and grade 1/2) treated with Tam alone had a 5% risk of IBR at 5 years, increasing to 10% at 8 years. There was no difference in relapse at regional or distant sites, or in the contralateral breast. No difference was seen in the number of deaths due to breast cancer (13 and 11 for Tam + RT and Tam, respectively), nor in OS (93% at 5 years in both arms). Tamoxifen and breast RT results in a significantly lower rate of breast relapse than Tam alone in women over 50 with node-negative breast cancer. There does not appear to be a low-risk group who can be treated with Tamoxifen without breast radiation

  20. 50 CFR 32.69 - Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting... are 12-15 years of age, and by permit. C. Big Game Hunting. We allow hunting of white-tailed deer on... fishing. Leopold Wetland Management District A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. We allow hunting of migratory...

  1. Relationship Between BMD and Prevalent Vertebral Fractures in Indian Women Older Than 50 Yr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Yashdeep; Marwaha, Raman K; Kukreja, Subhash; Bhadra, Kuntal; Narang, Archana; Mani, Kalaivani; Mithal, Ambrish; Tandon, Nikhil

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to study the relationship of morphometric vertebral fractures with bone mineral density (BMD) in Indian women older than 50 yr. Four hundred fifteen healthy Indian women older than 50 yr (mean age: 62.8 yr) underwent lateral X-rays of the lumbar and thoracic spine. Genant's semiquantitative method was used to diagnose and classify morphometric vertebral fractures. BMD was measured by DXA at lumbar spine and total hip. Recruited subjects underwent anthropometric, biochemical, and hormonal evaluation. Vertebral fractures were present in 17.1% (95% confidence interval: 13.5, 20.8) subjects. Prevalence of osteoporosis based on BMD was 35.7%. By adding those with prevalent fractures, the number of women requiring therapy for osteoporosis would increase to 46.5%. The BMD measured at femur neck, total hip, and lumbar spine (L1eL4) was not found to be lower in women with vertebral fractures as compared with those without fractures. BMD was not found to be lower in women with vertebral fractures as compared with those without fractures. Significant number of additional subjects with BMD in the normal or osteopenic range become eligible for osteoporosis treatment when presence of vertebral fracture is used as an independent indication for such treatment. Copyright © 2016 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Awareness on Breast Self Examination among Reproductive Age Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Shrestha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Breast self-examination (BSE is an inspection by a woman of her breasts to detect breast problem and cancer. The objective of the study was to identify awareness on breast self-examination among the reproductive age women.Materials & Methods: A descriptive study was carried out to find out the awareness on Breast Self-Examination among Reproductive Age Group Women in Kusunti, Lalitpur. 50 women (20 to 45 years were selected by using purposive sampling technique. Semi structured interview questionnaire was used for data collection.Results: This study showed that more than three fourth respondents (78% said breast cancer is growth of extra lump in breast.  More than three fourth respondents (82% said diagnosis of breast cancer in early stage by BSE and only 10% of respondents had knowledge about diagnosing by mammogram. Nearly three fourth (72% of the respondents had knowledge about meaning of BSE. More than half of the respondents (60% got the information from health workers. One fourth of the respondents (32% said that they don’t know about palpation in circular motion.Conclusion: Based on the findings, it is concluded women have awareness on BSE but least only know how to perform it in step wise and majority of women neglects in practicing in period basis. It is recommended that further awareness program should be conducted to fulfill the gap on BSE.

  3. Age and axillary lymph node ratio in postmenopausal women with T1-T2 node positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinh-Hung, Vincent; Joseph, Sue A; Coutty, Nadege; Ly, Bevan Hong; Vlastos, Georges; Nguyen, Nam Phong

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine the relationship between age and lymph node ratio (LNR, number of positive nodes divided by number of examined nodes), and to determine their effects on breast cancer (BC) and overall mortality. Women aged50 years, diagnosed in 1988-1997 with a unilateral histologically confirmed T1-T2 node positive surgically treated primary nonmetastatic BC, were selected from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER). Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) were used to evaluate the age-LNR relationship. Cumulative incidence functions and multivariate competing risks analysis based on model selection by the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) were used to examine the effect of age and LNR on mortality. Low LNR was defined as ≤0.20, mid-LNR 0.21-0.65, and high LNR >0.65. GAMLSS showed a nonlinear LNR-age relationship, increasing from mean LNR 0.26-0.28 at age 50-70 years to 0.30 at 80 years and 0.40 at 90 years. Compared with a 9.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 8.8%-10.8%] risk of BC death at 5 years in women aged 50-59 years with low LNR, the risk in women ≥80 years with low LNR was 12.6% [95% CI 10.1%-15.0%], mid-LNR 18.1% [13.9%-22.1%], high LNR 29.8% [22.7%-36.1%]. Five-years overall risk of death increased from 40.8% [37.5%-43.9%] by low LNR to 67.4% [61.4%-72.4%] by high LNR. The overall mortality hazard ratio for age ≥80 years with high LNR was 7.49 [6.54-8.59], as compared with women aged 50-59 years with low LNR. High LNR combined with older age was associated with a threefold increased risk of BC death and a sevenfold increased hazard ratio of overall mortality.

  4. Prevalence and risk factors for falls in older men and women: The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Catharine R; Cooper, Cyrus; Aihie Sayer, Avan

    2016-11-01

    falls are a major cause of disability and death in older people. Women are more likely to fall than men, but little is known about whether risk factors for falls differ between the sexes. We used data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing to investigate the prevalence of falls by sex and to examine cross-sectionally sex-specific associations between a range of potential risk factors and likelihood of falling. participants were 4,301 men and women aged 60 and over who had taken part in the 2012-13 survey of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. They provided information about sociodemographic, lifestyle and behavioural and medical factors, had their physical and cognitive function assessed and responded to a question about whether they had fallen down in the last two years. in multivariable logistic regression models, severe pain and diagnosis of at least one chronic disease were independently associated with falls in both sexes. Sex-specific risk factors were incontinence (odds ratio (OR), 1.48; 95% CI, 1.19, 1.85) and frailty (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.06, 2.69) in women, and older age (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.04, 1.07), high levels of depressive symptoms (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.05, 1.68), and being unable to perform a standing balance test (OR 3.32, 95% CI 2.09, 5.29) in men. although we found some homogeneity between the sexes in the risk factors that were associated with falls, the existence of several sex-specific risk factors suggests that gender should be taken into account in designing fall-prevention strategies. The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.

  5. Embodied possibilities and disruptions: The emergence of the Experience of Embodiment construct from qualitative studies with girls and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piran, Niva

    2016-09-01

    There are multiple indicators of disruption in the way girls and women inhabit their bodies. The qualitative research program examined lived experiences of embodiment among girls and women by conducting 171 interviews with 69 girls and women in three different studies: (a) A life history study of 30 interviews with 11 women, ages 20-27; (b) A 5-year prospective interview study of 87 interviews with 27 girls, ages 9-14 in the first phase of the study; and (c) A life history study of 54 interviews with 31 women, ages 50-68. Data analyses used a constructivist grounded theory approach. In all three studies the emergent core construct of Experience of Embodiment had five central dimensions, each with a positive and negative pole. These dimensions included: body-self connection, agency, desire, self-attunement, and resisting objectification. The Experience of Embodiment provides a new, integrated perspective on ways girls and women inhabit their bodies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Women and exercise in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina L. Kendall

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with physiological declines, notably a decrease in bone mineral density (BMD and lean body mass, with a concurrent increase in body fat and central adiposity. Interest in women and aging is of particular interest partly as a result of gender specific responses to aging, particularly as a result of menopause. It is possible that the onset of menopause may augment the physiological decline associated with aging and inactivity. More so, a higher incidence of metabolic syndrome (an accumulation of cardiovascular disease risk factors including obesity, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high blood pressure, and high fasting glucose has been shown in middle-aged women during the postmenopausal period. This is due in part to the drastic changes in body composition, as previously discussed, but also a change in physical activity (PA levels. Sarcopenia is an age related decrease in the cross-sectional area of skeletal muscle fibers that consequently leads to a decline in physical function, gait speed, balance, coordination, decreased BMD, and quality of life. PA plays an essential role in combating physiological decline associated with aging. Maintenance of adequate levels of PA can result in increased longevity and a reduced risk for metabolic disease along with other chronic diseases. The aim of this paper is to review relevant literature, examine current PA guidelines, and provide recommendations specific to women based on current research.

  7. Plasma creatinine levels, estimated glomerular filtration rate and carotid intima media thickness in middle-aged women: a population based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, M; Panico, S; Mattiello, A; de Michele, M; Iannuzzi, A; Jossa, F; Marotta, G; Rubba, P

    2014-06-01

    The relationships between high Creatinine (Cr) levels or low estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) and common carotid Intima Media thickness (IMT) have been evaluated in a population-based cohort study in women, aged 30-69 (Progetto ATENA). Serum Cr and eGFR were measured in 310 women, as a part of 5.062. In this group carotid ultrasound examination (B-Mode imaging) was performed and mean max IMT was calculated. Women were classified by Cr levels >1 mg/dL or eGFR Women with Cr > 1 mg/dL (90th percentile of creatinine distribution) or eGFR less than 56 ml/min (5th percentile of eGFR distribution) had relatively more carotid plaques as compared to the rest of the cohort. Multivariate logistic analysis, after adjustment for age, demonstrated a significant association between Cr (>1 mg/dL) and IMT (≥1.2 mm): OR 4.12 (C.I 1.22-13.86), p = 0.022; or eGFR (women, independently of age, suggest the value of screening for early carotid disease in asymptomatic middle aged-women with mild renal insufficiency, in order to predict those at relatively higher risk for future cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Delirium symptoms are associated with decline in cognitive function between ages 53 and 69 years: Findings from a British birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Alex; Kuh, Diana; Richards, Marcus; Davis, Daniel

    2017-11-21

    Few population studies have investigated whether longitudinal decline after delirium in mid-to-late life might affect specific cognitive domains. Participants from a birth cohort completing assessments of search speed, verbal memory, and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination at age 69 were asked about delirium symptoms between ages 60 and 69 years. Linear regression models estimated associations between delirium symptoms and cognitive outcomes. Period prevalence of delirium between 60 and 69 years was 4% (95% confidence interval 3.2%-4.9%). Self-reported symptoms of delirium over the seventh decade were associated with worse scores in the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (-1.7 points; 95% confidence interval -3.2, -0.1; P = .04). In association with delirium symptoms, verbal memory scores were initially lower, with subsequent decline in search speed by the age of 69 years. These effects were independent of other Alzheimer's risk factors. Delirium symptoms may be common even at relatively younger ages, and their presence may herald cognitive decline, particularly in search speed, over this time period. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Low prevalence of iron deficiency anemia between 1981 and 2010 in Chilean women of childbearing age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Ríos-Castillo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence of anemia and iron status among Chilean women of childbearing age between 1981 and 2010. Materials and methods. Calculation of the prevalence of anemia and iron status was based on multiple cross-sectional iron absorption studies performed in 888 women during this period of time. All studies included measurements of hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, zinc protoporphyrin, percentage of transferrin saturation and serum ferritin. Data were grouped by decade (1981-1990,1991-2000, and 2001-2010. Results. Prevalence of anemia for these decades was 9, 6 and 10%, respectively (p=NS. Iron deficiency anemia was the main cause of anemia in all periods (55, 85 and 75%, respectively; p=NS. A high prevalence of women with normal iron status was observed for all periods (64, 69, and 67, respectively; p=NS. Prevalence of iron deficiency without anemia in 1981-1990, 1991-2000 and 2001-2010 was 7, 20 and 12%, respectively (p menor que 0.05. Finally, prevalence of iron depleted stores was 20, 6 and 10%, respectively (p menor que 0.05. Conclusions. Prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in Chilean women of childbearing age was mild between 1981 and 2010. More than 60% of childbearing age women presented normal iron status in all periods. However, prevalence of iron depleted stores was moderate during 1981-1990, and was mild during 1991-2000 and 2001-2010.

  10. Complement Factor H Y402H and LOC387715 A69S Polymorphisms in Association with Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari Khanamiri, Hossein; Ghasemi Falavarjani, Khalil; Sanati, Mohammad Hossein; Aryan, Hajar; Irani, Alireza; Hashemi, Masih; Modarres, Mehdi; Parvaresh, Mohammad Mehdi; Nikeghbali, Aminollah

    2014-04-01

    To determine the frequency of complement factor H (Y402H) and age related macular degeneration susceptibility gene 2 (A69S) single nucleotide polymorphisms in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and in matched non-AMD controls in an Iranian population. Seventy patients with AMD and 86 age- and sex-matched controls were recruited and examined. Peripheral blood sample was obtained from all subjects for DNA extraction and direct sequencing of Y402H and A69S genes. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of Y402H and A69S polymorphisms with AMD were determined. The frequencies of both homozygous and heterozygous genotypes were significantly higher in cases than controls for both Y402H and A69S polymorphisms. In comparison to the wild genotypes, OR for AMD associated with Y402H and A69S polymorphisms were 1.9 (95% CI, 1.1-3.2) and 2.2 (95%CI, 1.6-3.1), respectively. Joint risk analysis considering both genes revealed a higher risk of AMD when polymorphisms were present for both genes. Y402H and A69S polymorphisms were strongly associated with AMD in this Iranian population.

  11. Complement Factor H Y402H and LOC387715 A69S Polymorphisms in Association with Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Nazari Khanamiri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the frequency of complement factor H (Y402H and age related macular degeneration susceptibility gene 2 (A69S single nucleotide polymorphisms in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD and in matched non-AMD controls in an Iranian population. Methods: Seventy patients with AMD and 86 age- and sex-matched controls were recruited and examined. Peripheral blood sample was obtained from all subjects for DNA extraction and direct sequencing of Y402H and A69S genes. Odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs for the association of Y402H and A69S polymorphisms with AMD were determined. Results: The frequencies of both homozygous and heterozygous genotypes were significantly higher in cases than controls for both Y402H and A69S polymorphisms. In comparison to the wild genotypes, OR for AMD associated with Y402H and A69S polymorphisms were 1.9 (95% CI, 1.1-3.2 and 2.2 (95%CI, 1.6-3.1, respectively. Joint risk analysis considering both genes revealed a higher risk of AMD when polymorphisms were present for both genes. Conclusion: Y402H and A69S polymorphisms were strongly associated with AMD in this Iranian population.

  12. Osteosarcopenic Obesity: Prevalence and Relation With Frailty and Physical Performance in Middle-Aged and Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlejf, Claudia; Parra-Rodríguez, Lorena; Rosas-Carrasco, Oscar

    2017-08-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of osteosarcopenic obesity (OSO) and to investigate its association with frailty and physical performance in Mexican community-dwelling middle-aged and older women. Cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort. The FraDySMex study, a 2-round evaluation of community-dwelling adults from 2 municipalities in Mexico City. Participants were 434 women aged 50 years or older, living in the designated area in Mexico City. Body composition was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and OSO was defined by the coexistence of sarcopenia, osteopenia, or osteoporosis and obesity. Information regarding demographic characteristics; comorbidities; mental status; nutritional status; and history of falls, fractures, and hospitalization was obtained from questionnaires. Objective measurements of muscle strength and function were grip strength using a hand dynamometer, 6-meter gait speed using a GAIT Rite instrumented walkway, and lower extremity functioning measured by the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Frailty was assessed using the Frailty Phenotype (Fried criteria), the Gerontopole Frailty Screening Tool (GFST), and the FRAIL scale, to build 3 logistic regression models. The prevalence of OSO was 19% (n = 81). Frailty (according to the Frailty Phenotype and the GFST) and poor physical performance measured by the SPPB were independently associated with OSO, controlled by age. In the logistic regression model assessing frailty with the Frailty Phenotype, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for frailty was 4.86 (2.47-9.55), and for poor physical performance it was 2.11 (1.15-3.89). In the model assessing frailty with the GFST, it was 2.12 (1.10-4.11), and for poor physical performance it was 2.15 (1.18-3.92). Finally, in the model with the FRAIL scale, it was 1.69 (0.85-3.36) for frailty and 2.29 (1.27-4.15) for poor physical performance. OSO is a frequent condition in middle-aged and older women

  13. Intrinsic subtypes from PAM50 gene expression assay in a population-based breast cancer cohort: differences by age, race, and tumor characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Carol; Bernard, Philip S; Factor, Rachel E; Kwan, Marilyn L; Habel, Laurel A; Quesenberry, Charles P; Shakespear, Kaylynn; Weltzien, Erin K; Stijleman, Inge J; Davis, Carole A; Ebbert, Mark T W; Castillo, Adrienne; Kushi, Lawrence H; Caan, Bette J

    2014-05-01

    Data are lacking to describe gene expression-based breast cancer intrinsic subtype patterns for population-based patient groups. We studied a diverse cohort of women with breast cancer from the Life After Cancer Epidemiology and Pathways studies. RNA was extracted from 1 mm punches from fixed tumor tissue. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR was conducted for the 50 genes that comprise the PAM50 intrinsic subtype classifier. In a subcohort of 1,319 women, the overall subtype distribution based on PAM50 was 53.1% luminal A, 20.5% luminal B, 13.0% HER2-enriched, 9.8% basal-like, and 3.6% normal-like. Among low-risk endocrine-positive tumors (i.e., estrogen and progesterone receptor positive by immunohistochemistry, HER2 negative, and low histologic grade), only 76.5% were categorized as luminal A by PAM50. Continuous-scale luminal A, luminal B, HER2-enriched, and normal-like scores from PAM50 were mutually positively correlated. Basal-like score was inversely correlated with other subtypes. The proportion with non-luminal A subtype decreased with older age at diagnosis, P Trend < 0.0001. Compared with non-Hispanic Whites, African American women were more likely to have basal-like tumors, age-adjusted OR = 4.4 [95% confidence intervals (CI), 2.3-8.4], whereas Asian and Pacific Islander women had reduced odds of basal-like subtype, OR = 0.5 (95% CI, 0.3-0.9). Our data indicate that over 50% of breast cancers treated in the community have luminal A subtype. Gene expression-based classification shifted some tumors categorized as low risk by surrogate clinicopathologic criteria to higher-risk subtypes. Subtyping in a population-based cohort revealed distinct profiles by age and race. ©2014 AACR.

  14. Perception of aging and ageism among women in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; D'Souza, Reshma; Al-Roomi, Khaldoon

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find out the perceptions of age and aging among women in Qatar. Respondents consisted of 250 women aged between 20 and 70 years, selected from those attending the health centers in Doha city, the capital of Qatar. They were interviewed using a pretested validated questionnaire, and data were collected through direct face-to-face interviews using the incidental sampling method. It was found that physical appearance and mental alertness were the most important criteria for defining aging in men and women. A statistically significant association was found between age of respondents and physical criteria for aging such as hair color (p age of women studied. Both positive (socializing factors, independence, housework, retirement, and geriatric care) and negative stereotyping (care for self, learning capabilities, irritability, and worries) with regard to aging were evident among the Qatari women. In general, Qatari women had several positive attitudes toward aging. Such attitudes could be utilized in any health promotion for elderly people.

  15. Age-Related Frequency of Triple Negative Breast Cancer in Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajid, M. T.; Ahmad, M.; Mustafa, Q.; Shukr, I.; Azhar, M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine frequency of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) in Pakistani women with respect to age. Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi, from July 2005 to July 2010. Methodology: Pathological records of all specimens of breast cancer were reviewed and data was obtained for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER-2 neu receptor proteins. Specimens having complete record of all three proteins were included for analysis. TNBC was defined as those who were ER, PR and HER-2 neu negative. Overall frequency as well as frequency with respect to age was calculated. Descriptive and categorical variables were analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: Eight hundred and fifteen patients out of 4715 (17.28%) were found to be TNBC. Mean age of diagnosis of TNBC was found to be 46.26 A +- 12.22 years of age while other breast cancers had a mean age 52.90 A +- 9.78 years (p 50 years while majority of patients with other breast cancers were elderly females (p < 0.001). Conclusion: TNBC comprised 17.28% of the breast cancers in Pakistani women diagnosed at the studied centre. A higher frequency of TNBC was noted in significantly younger patients. (author)

  16. Differences in age at death according to smoking and age at menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellavia, Andrea; Wolk, Alicja; Orsini, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Younger age at menopause is associated with overall mortality, and cigarette smoking is the only lifestyle factor influencing this association. However, the combined effects of age at menopause and smoking have never been quantified in terms of survival time. Our aim was to evaluate, in a large cohort of Swedish women, differences in age at death according to age at menopause and smoking status. Age at menopause and smoking were assessed, using a self-administered questionnaire, in a population-based cohort of 25,474 women aged 48 to 83 years. Laplace regression was used to calculate differences in median age at death (50th percentile difference [PD]) according to smoking and age at menopause. Across 16 years of follow-up, 5,942 participants died. The difference in median age at death between women with menopause at 40 years and women with menopause at 60 years was 1.3 years (50th PD, 1.3; 95% CI, 0.3-2.2). Compared with current smokers, former smokers and never smokers had older median age at death-2.5 years (50th PD, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.9-3.1) and 3.6 years (50th PD, 3.6; 95% CI, 3.1-4.1), respectively. When analysis was restricted to current smokers, the difference in age at death between women with menopause at 40 years and women with menopause at 60 years increased to 2.6 years (50th PD, 2.6; 95% CI, 0.8-4.5). No association among never smokers was observed. Younger age at menopause is linearly associated with shorter survival. This association tends to be stronger among current smokers.

  17. Self-reported osteoarthritis, ethnicity, body mass index, and other associated risk factors in postmenopausal women-results from the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Nicole C; Riggs, Gail Kershner; Lisse, Jeffrey R; Chen, Zhao

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this analysis was to assess risk factors for self-reported osteoarthritis (OA) in an ethnically diverse cohort of women. The participants were postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 (n=146,494) participating in the clinical trial and observational study of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). Baseline OA and risk factors were collected from WHI questionnaires. Logistic regression was used to find the association between the risk factors and OA. Risk factor distribution and ethnicity interaction terms were used to assess ethnic differences in OA risk. Forty-four percent of the participants reported OA. Older age (odds ratio (OR)(70-79 vs 50-59)=2.69, 95% confidence interval (CI)=2.60-2.78) and higher body mass index (BMI) (OR(BMI>or=40.0 vs or=30.0) was 57.9% in African Americans, 51.0% in American Indians, 41.9% in Hispanic whites, and 32.9% in non-Hispanic whites. The prevalence of other major OA risk factors was higher in African-American, American-Indian, and Hispanic white women than in non-Hispanic white women. Non-Hispanic white women who were in the extreme obese category (BMI>or=40.0 kg/m(2)) had a 2.80 times (95% CI=2.63, 2.99) greater odds of self-reported OA. The odds were even higher in American-Indian (OR=4.22, 95% CI=1.82, 9.77) and African-American (OR=3.31, 95% CI=2.79, 3.91) women, indicating a significant interactive effect of BMI and ethnicity on odds of OA. In conclusion, OA is a highly prevalent condition in postmenopausal women, and there are differential effects according to ethnicity.

  18. The cumulative effect of smoking at age 50, 60, and 70 on functional ability at age 75

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støvring, Nina; Avlund, Kirsten; Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten

    2004-01-01

    of accumulating the smoking habits over the examinations. Cumulated former smokers have a larger risk of having reduced functional ability at age 75 (OR: 1.35 (1.13-1.61)) compared with never smokers. The odds ratios of reduced functional ability were 2.46 (1.44-4.17) among cumulated smokers of 1-14 grams......AIMS: As elderly people form a steadily growing part of the population in most parts of the world we are in need of knowledge of the influence of modifiable lifestyle factors on functional ability late in life. This study aims to examine the cumulative impact of smoking from age 50 to 70...... on functional ability at age 75. METHODS: 387 men and women born in 1914 and living in seven municipalities in the western part of the County of Copenhagen were followed for 25 years with examinations in 1964, 1974, 1984, and 1989. Associations between smoking and functional ability were examined using multiple...

  19. Smoking and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Younger, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne S; Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated associations of smoking and coronary heart disease (CHD) by age. Methods. Data came from the Pooling Project on Diet and Coronary Heart Disease (8 prospective studies, 1974-1996; n = 192 067 women and 74 720 men, aged 40-89 years). Results. During follow-up, 4326 cases...... years or older. The largest absolute risk differences between current smokers and never smokers were observed among the oldest participants. Finally, the majority of CHD cases among smokers were attributable to smoking. For example, attributable proportions of CHD by age group were 88% (40-49 years), 81......% (50-59 years), 71% for (60-69 years), and 68% (70+ years) among women who smoked. Conclusions. Among smokers, the majority of CHD cases are attributable to smoking in all age groups. Smoking prevention is important, irrespective of age. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print June 13...

  20. Pregnancy rates and predictors in women with HIV/AIDS in Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Khalili Friedman

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess incidence and predictors of first pregnancy among women with HIV/AIDS. METHODS: Prospective cohort study was conducted in Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil, between 1996 and 2003. This study comprised 225 women with HIV/AIDS followed up until their first pregnancy or first censored event (hysterectomy, tubal ligation, menopause, 50 years of age, loss to follow-up, death or the end of December 2003. Pregnancy and abortion rates were estimated, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify baseline characteristics associated with pregnancy risk. RESULTS: The women were followed up for 565 person/years with a median follow-up of 3 years per women. The mean age was 32 years (SD: 7, and 54.7% were white. There were 60 pregnancies in 39 women, and 18 were terminated (induced abortions, accounting for a rate of 6.9% and 2.1% women/year, respectively. Repeated pregnancies occurred in 33.3% of the women (13/39. Higher pregnancy risk was seen among younger women (HR=3.42; 95%CI: 1.69;6.95 and those living with their partners (HR=1.89; 95%CI: 1.00;3.57. Lower pregnancy risk was associated with higher education level (HR=0.43; 95%CI: 0.19;0.99 and use of antiretroviral therapy (HR=061; 95%CI: 0.31;1.17. CONCLUSIONS: Lower pregnancy rates were found in our cohort than in the general population. Sociodemographic characteristics should be taken into consideration in the management of reproductive health in HIV-positive childbearing age women. Reproductive and family planning counseling must be incorporated into HIV/AIDS programs for women to help preventing HIV transmission to their partners and offspring.

  1. Pregravid preparation of fertile aged women with infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podolskyi Vl.V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective — to develop and assess the effectiveness of the pregravid training methods for the fertile aged women with infertility. Patients and methods. The study involved 50 fertile aged women with infertility, who were divided into groups: Group I — with primary infertility and group II — with secondary infertility. Bacteriological studies were conducted with the aim of evaluation of the species and quantitative composition of the microflora of the women's vagina after the treatment course of autonomic disorders of the nervous system. According to the obtained results about a state of microbiocenosis urogenital organs at the first stage of treatment women with inflammation of genital organs had received basic treatment which was developed especially for women with such diseases and the effectiveness of which has been proven; the second stage of included application of Api-Norm preparation in the form of vaginal suppositories and for sexual partners of these women — Api-Norm in the form of rectal suppositories. Statistical analysis of the obtained results of research was carried out by the use of standard computer packages «Data Analysis» Microsoft Excel for Windows 2007. The values of the arithmetic mean are — the value (M, the average error of the mean value (m, the level of reliability of differences (p. Evaluation of the reliability of the obtained data is carried out by the conventional manner by means of t&test. Reliability was considered established if its reliability was equal to at least 95% (0.05. Results. The obtained data are pointed on the excess of diagnostic levels of conditionally pathogenic microflora in the vast majority of women. It is noted that qualitative and quantitative indicators of pathogenic microflora in women with secondary infertility are higher than diagnostic levels and more common than in women with primary infertility, which may certifies about the presence of chronic inflammatory diseases of the

  2. Age of menopause and fracture risk in postmenopausal women randomized to calcium + vitamin D, hormone therapy, or the combination: results from the Women's Health Initiative Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Shannon D; Lehman, Amy; Nathan, Nisha K; Thomson, Cynthia A; Howard, Barbara V

    2017-04-01

    We previously reported that in the absence of hormone therapy (HT) or calcium/vitamin D (Ca/D) supplementation, earlier menopause age was associated with decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture risk in healthy postmenopausal women. Treatment with HT and Ca/D is protective against fractures after menopause. In this analysis, we asked if the age of menopause onset alters fracture risk in healthy postmenopausal women receiving HT, Ca/D, or a combination. Hazard ratios (HRs) for any fracture among 21,711 healthy postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Clinical Trial, who were treated with HT, Ca/D, or HT + Ca/D, and who reported age of nonsurgical menopause of menopause menopause 40 to 49 or ≥50 years, regardless of treatment intervention (HR [95% CI]: menopause menopause menopause age (menopause ages. The effect of menopause age on fracture risk was not altered by any of the treatment interventions (HT, Ca/D, HT + Ca/D), suggesting that early age of menopause is an independent contributor to postmenopausal fracture risk.

  3. Total bone calcium in normal women: effect of age and menopause status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, J.C.; Goldgar, D.; Moy, A.

    1987-01-01

    Bone density in different regions of the skeleton was measured in 392 normal women aged 20-80 years by dual photon absorpiometry. In premenopausal women, aged 25-50 years, multiple regression analysis of regional bone density on age, height, and weight showed a small significant decrease in total bone density (less than 0.01) but no significant change in other regions of the skeleton. In postmenopausal women there were highly significant decreases in all regions of the skeleton (p less than 0.001), and bone density in these areas decreased as a logarithmic function of years since menopause. Based on multiple regression analyses, the decrease in spine density and total bone calcium was 2.5-3.0 times greater in the 25 years after menopause than the 25 years before menopause. The largest change, however, occurred in the first five years after menopause. During this time the estimated annual change in spine density and total bone calcium was about 10 times greater than that in the premenopausal period. These results demonstrate the important effect of the menopause in determining bone mass in later life

  4. Aging women with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentland, Wendy; Miscio, Gina; Eastabrook, Shirley; Krupa, Terry

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the aging experiences of women with schizophrenia. The research focused on how participants viewed their own aging with schizophrenia, their perceived worries and concerns and how they were coping with aging with the disorder. Using a qualitative approach, data were collected using multiple in-depth interviews with six participants selected purposefully from the client list of a community mental health center. Interview transcriptions were coded and analyzed according to the study questions using QSR Nudist 4 software. Several categories and sub-categories emerged. These included the improvement in the illness over time; physical and daily living activity limitations; specific positive and negative changes that the women report have accompanied aging; the profound losses experienced by the participants when they were younger as a result of having schizophrenia; and how these losses have affected their present lives in terms of limiting available informal support, creating dependency on formal programs and services, and participants' fears of the future. Based on the study findings, implications for mental health practice and services are considered and suggestions are made to guide future research.

  5. [Utilization patterns of prevention and early diagnosis for cancer in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; Ortega-Olvera, Carolina; Ángeles-Llerenas, Angélica; Villalobos-Hernández, Aremis Litai; Salmerón-Castro, Jorge; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the utilization patterns of cancer prevention programs in women during the period 2000-2012 in Mexican women who participated in three national surveys. We analyzed data from the ENSA 2000, ENSANUT 2006 and ENSANUT 2012 that are representative of the Mexican population. Prevalences were obtained, trend tests and Poisson regression were used to determine the possibility of having more coverage. The coverage of Papanicolaou use in the last 12 months in 2012 was 45.5%, HPV testing in the last four years was 11.9% and mammography use in the past two years was 29.4% and 17.2% in women aged 50-69 years and 40-49 years, respectively. Although there was an increase in the coverage of screening programs, there should be a boost in the service quality and universal coverage.

  6. Early menarche and teenager pregnancy as risk factors for morbid obesity among reproductive-age women: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Amanda Gonçalves; Kasawara, Karina Tamy; Godoy-Miranda, Ana Carolina; Oshika, Flávio Hideki; Chaim, Elinton Adami; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate potential risk factors, including non-communicable diseases, for morbid obesity in women between 20 and 49 years of age. We performed a case-control study with 110 morbidly obese women and 110 women with adequate weight who were matched by age and with a 1:1 case to control ratio. All women were between 20 to 49 years old and non-menopausal. Possible risk factors were evaluated through a self-report questionnaire assessing socio-demographic, obstetric and gynecological characteristics, presence of non-communicable diseases and habits. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio with respective confidence intervals. Menarche under 12 years old, teenage pregnancy and lower educational level were shown to be risk factors for morbid obesity among women of reproductive age. Incidences of non-communicable diseases (diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, liver disease, lung disease, thyroid dysfunction, and joint pain) were increased in women with morbid obesity. Early menarche, teenage pregnancy and low education level are risk factors for the occurrence of morbid obesity in women of reproductive age. Some non-communicable diseases were already more prevalent in women with morbid obesity even before 50 years of age.

  7. Investigation on the average serum E2 level and menopausal age in healthy women in Wuhan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huilin; Lan Jian; Zhang Yangyang; Li Fei; Zhang Yuanji

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the average serum E 2 level and menopausal age of healthy women in Wuhan area and assess the appropriateness of hormone replacement therapy in these women. Methods: Serum E 2 levels were measured with RIA in 2020 healthy women (26-75 yr old) in Wuhan area. Results: (1) Serum E 2 levels reached peak in 31-35yr group, significantly dropped in 46-50yr group and reached menopausal level in 51-55 yr group. (2) The average menopausal age in Wuhan area was rather early-48.08yr. Conclusion: The average menopausal age in Wuhan area was 2.3yr earlier than the nationwide 1989 screening result, which should be a concern for the maternity health workers. (authors)

  8. Physical activity and bone mineral density in Italian middle-aged women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidoli, Ettore; Schinella, Domenico; Franceschi, Silvia

    1998-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health issue in postmenopausal women on account of the association between low bone mineral density and fractures. A role of physical activity in the prevention and treatment of low bone mineral density is possible but still unclear. The relationship between low spine bone mineral density measured by means of dual photon absorptiometry at lumbar spines, and levels of past and recent physical activity has been assessed by means of a population-based screening study carried out on 1373 women (age 40-64 years) in the North-East of Italy. Physical activity at work and in leisure time was investigated for three specific periods of life: at age 12, between 15 and 19 years (during bone formative years), and in the recent years prior to the interview (30-39 or 50-59 years). Data were analysed comparing low versus high bone mineral density tertile (i.e., 458 and 461 women, respectively), after controlling for other known contributory factors in the development of osteoporosis. A positive association emerged with leisure time physical activity, with significant trends at age 15-19 (odds ratio (OR) for low versus high tertile of leisure time activity: 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.8-2.4) and at most recent age (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1-2.6). Risk trends with occupational physical activity were less clear and non-statistically significant. The present Southern European cross-sectional study lends further support to the possibility that past and recent physical activity helps increasing bone mineral density in middle-aged women. Although the most beneficial type and intensity level of exercise has yet to be determined, the present results provide further evidence that participation in even moderate exercise programs should be encouraged

  9. The gender difference in the brain FDG distribution with aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakabeppu, Yoshiaki; Tanabe, Hiroaki; Jinguji, Megumi; Umanodan, Tomokazu; Nakajo, Masayuki; Nakajo, M.; Tateno, T.; Jinnouchi, S.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the change in brain fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) distribution with aging. Subjects were 85 men and 116 women who had no mental abnormality and no evidence of cancer in the whole body FDG-positron emission tomography (PET) study for cancer checkup. The brain data were extracted from whole body data, and stratified according to the age: 30-39 (M: 10, F: 18), 40-49 (M: 11, F: 14), 50-59 (M: 10, F: 27), 60-64 (M: 11, F: 13), 65-69 (M: 11, F: 11), 70-74 (M: 11, F: 10), 75-79 (M: 13, F: 11), over 80 (M: 8, F: 12) years. Forties or more male and female stratified age groups were compared with each gender 30's age data using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM)2. In the man, the FDG activity of the bilateral temporal and frontal lobes decreased and the decreased domains were expanded with aging. But in the females, the decreased domains were complicated in 40-69 years old. Dynamic changes of sex hormones in the individual female menopause may affect the complicated results in the females. Further studies are needed to confirm it. (author)

  10. Breast screening policy: Are we heading in the right direction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.; Whelehan, P.

    2011-01-01

    There is a large body of evidence supporting 2-yearly screening of women aged 50-69 years. There is good evidence for a mortality reduction from mammographic screening in women aged 40 to 49 years but a 1-year interval is required. The lack of specificity of screening in young women does remain a problem. There is no evidence to suggest that a single screen between the ages of 47 and 50 years within a programme screening at 3-year intervals will reduce mortality; the trials showing a mortality benefit in women in their 40s included multiple screening episodes and shorter screening intervals. There is no randomized, controlled trial evidence to support screening in women aged above 70 years and screening this age group will cause greater harm than in younger women through higher rates of over-diagnosis and consequent over-treatment. The randomized phase of the screening age extension, which at the moment is planned to last only 6 years, should not be immediately followed by general implementation of the policy. Only if and when additional mortality reductions and an acceptable balance between benefit and harms are shown to be achieved by the extra screens should the 2007 Cancer Reform Strategy policy on age extension be implemented. Resources saved by delaying or abandoning the roll-out of the age extension could potentially be redirected towards reducing the current 3 year screening interval to 2 years in women aged 50-69 years. However, reducing the screening interval to 2 years for women aged 50-69 years would require significantly more screening invitations and resources than the proposed age extension.

  11. Breast screening policy: Are we heading in the right direction?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, A., E-mail: a.z.evans@dundee.ac.uk [Dundee Cancer Centre, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, University of Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom); Whelehan, P. [Dundee Cancer Centre, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, University of Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    There is a large body of evidence supporting 2-yearly screening of women aged 50-69 years. There is good evidence for a mortality reduction from mammographic screening in women aged 40 to 49 years but a 1-year interval is required. The lack of specificity of screening in young women does remain a problem. There is no evidence to suggest that a single screen between the ages of 47 and 50 years within a programme screening at 3-year intervals will reduce mortality; the trials showing a mortality benefit in women in their 40s included multiple screening episodes and shorter screening intervals. There is no randomized, controlled trial evidence to support screening in women aged above 70 years and screening this age group will cause greater harm than in younger women through higher rates of over-diagnosis and consequent over-treatment. The randomized phase of the screening age extension, which at the moment is planned to last only 6 years, should not be immediately followed by general implementation of the policy. Only if and when additional mortality reductions and an acceptable balance between benefit and harms are shown to be achieved by the extra screens should the 2007 Cancer Reform Strategy policy on age extension be implemented. Resources saved by delaying or abandoning the roll-out of the age extension could potentially be redirected towards reducing the current 3 year screening interval to 2 years in women aged 50-69 years. However, reducing the screening interval to 2 years for women aged 50-69 years would require significantly more screening invitations and resources than the proposed age extension.

  12. [Risk factors of endometriosis associated ovarian carcinoma in women aged 45 years and older].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Z X; Wang, S; Li, Z F; Zhu, L; Leng, J H; Lang, J H

    2017-05-25

    Obiective: To explore the risk factors of endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer (EAOC) in women with ovarian endometriosis aged 45 years and older in China. Methods: The medical records of total 1 038 women aged 45 years and older with a surgicopathological diagnosis of ovarian endometriosis treated at Peking Union Medical College Hospital from December 1994 to December 2014 were reviewed. Histology evaluation determined ovarian endometriosis with ( n =30) or without ( n =1 008) ovarian cancer. Results: (1) There were 30 (2.9%, 30/1 018) cases confirmed as having EAOC. Clear cell carcinoma (63.3%, 17/30) and endometrioid adenocarcinoma (23.3%, 7/30) were commonly observed subtypes and 70.0% of EAOC patients were at stage Ⅰ. (2) Compared women with ovarian endometriosis in the same age group, patients with EAOC were older (50.8 vs 48.5 years, P =0.002). There were more in postmenopausal status at diagnosis of EAOC ( P 0.05). Conclusions: For women with ovarian endometriosis aged 45 years and older, the subgroup of patients characterized by postmenopausal status and ovarian endometrioma (≥8 cm) have a higher risk of EAOC. Active intervention or intensive follow-up should be considered for this population group, especially for those concurrent with endometrial disorders.

  13. Prevalence of eating disorders in middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangweth-Matzek, Barbara; Hoek, Hans W; Rupp, Claudia I; Lackner-Seifert, Kerstin; Frey, Nadja; Whitworth, Alexandra B; Pope, Harrison G; Kinzl, Johann

    2014-04-01

    Little is known about the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders (ED) in middle-aged women. We mailed anonymous questionnaires to 1,500 Austrian women aged 40-60 years, assessing ED (defined by DSM-IV), subthreshold ED, body image, and quality of life. We broadly defined "subthreshold ED" by the presence of either (1) binge eating with loss of control or (2) purging behavior, without requiring any of the other usual DSM-IV criteria for frequency or severity of these symptoms. Of the 715 (48%) responders, 33 [4.6%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.3-6.4%] reported symptoms meeting full DSM-IV criteria for an ED [bulimia nervosa = 10; binge eating disorder = 11; eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) = 12]. None displayed anorexia nervosa. Another 34 women (4.8%; CI: 3.4-6.6%) displayed subthreshold ED. These women showed levels of associated psychopathology virtually equal to the women with full-syndrome diagnoses. ED appear common in middle-aged women, with a preponderance of binge eating disorder and EDNOS diagnoses as compared to the "classical" diagnoses of anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Interestingly, middle-aged women with even very broadly defined subthreshold ED showed distress and impairment comparable to women with full-scale ED. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages Past Issues / Winter ... weeks of a heart attack. For Women with Heart Disease: About 6 million American women have coronary heart ...

  15. Going solo: Findings from a survey of women aging without a partner and who do not have children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafford-Letchfield, Trish; Lambert, Nicky; Long, Ellouise; Brady, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Greater longevity in the UK population has led to the increasing diversity of women experiencing aging in a multitude of ways. Internationally, gender inequalities in aging are still relatively invisible within both government policy and everyday life for particular groups of women. This article explores the concept of women growing older "solo"-by which we mean women who find themselves nonpartnered and aging without children as they move into later life. We report on the findings from a mixed-methods survey of 76 solo women in the UK aged 50 years and over, used to provide a broader overview of the issues and challenges they face as they move into later life. Qualitative data from the survey captured respondents' perspectives about the links between their relationships status and well-being in later life and highlighted specific cumulative disadvantages emerging for some women as a result of their solo lifestyles. We discuss two key themes that were identified, "solo-loneliness" and "meaningful futures," in conjunction with the relevant literature and make suggestions for future research within gender and aging studies that could enhance more positive approaches to solo lifestyles.

  16. Why some women look young for their age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Gunn

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The desire of many to look young for their age has led to the establishment of a large cosmetics industry. However, the features of appearance that primarily determine how old women look for their age and whether genetic or environmental factors predominately influence such features are largely unknown. We studied the facial appearance of 102 pairs of female Danish twins aged 59 to 81 as well as 162 British females aged 45 to 75. Skin wrinkling, hair graying and lip height were significantly and independently associated with how old the women looked for their age. The appearance of facial sun-damage was also found to be significantly correlated to how old women look for their age and was primarily due to its commonality with the appearance of skin wrinkles. There was also considerable variation in the perceived age data that was unaccounted for. Composite facial images created from women who looked young or old for their age indicated that the structure of subcutaneous tissue was partly responsible. Heritability analyses of the appearance features revealed that perceived age, pigmented age spots, skin wrinkles and the appearance of sun-damage were influenced more or less equally by genetic and environmental factors. Hair graying, recession of hair from the forehead and lip height were influenced mainly by genetic factors whereas environmental factors influenced hair thinning. These findings indicate that women who look young for their age have large lips, avoid sun-exposure and possess genetic factors that protect against the development of gray hair and skin wrinkles. The findings also demonstrate that perceived age is a better biomarker of skin, hair and facial aging than chronological age.

  17. EFFECTS OF BALLATES, STEP AEROBICS, AND WALKING ON BALANCE IN WOMEN AGED 50-75 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Clary

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effectiveness of Ballates training (strengthening of the central core musculature by the inception of balance techniques compared to more traditional exercise programs, such as step aerobics and walking, on balance in women aged 50- 75 years. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three supervised training groups (1 hour/day, 3 days/week, 13 weeks, Ballates (n = 12, step aerobics (n = 17, or walking (n =15. Balance was measured by four different methods (modified Clinical Test for the Sensory Interaction on Balance - mCTSIB; Unilateral Stance with Eyes Open - US-EO or Eyes Closed - US-EC; Tandem Walk - TW; Step Quick Turn - SQT using the NeuroCom Balance Master. A 2-way (Group and Trial repeated measures ANOVA and post-hoc Bonferroni Pair-wise Comparisons were used to evaluate changes in the dependent variables used to describe stability and balance (sway velocity, turn sway, speed, and turn time. Measures of static postural stability and dynamic balance were similar for the three groups prior to training. Following the different exercise interventions, sway velocity on firm and foam surfaces (mCTSIB with eyes closed (p < 0.05 increased for the Ballates group while the other two exercise groups either maintained or decreased their sway velocity following the training, therefore suggesting that these two groups either maintained or improved their balance. There were significant improvements in speed during the TW test (p < 0.01, and turn time (p < 0.01 and sway (p < 0.05 during the SQT test for each of the three groups. In general, all three training programs improved dynamic balance, however, step aerobics and walking programs resulted in be better improvements in postural stability or static balance when compared to the Ballates program

  18. Gender and Ageing at Work in Chile: Employment, Working Conditions, Work-Life Balance and Health of Men and Women in an Ageing Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vives, Alejandra; Gray, Nora; González, Francisca; Molina, Agustín

    2018-04-18

    In Chile, working after retirement age has grown substantially over the last years. This, in addition to the country's current discussion about extending retirement age, motivates the need of generating evidence on the occupational health and safety of the working old, with a special focus on women, who are critically disadvantaged in Chile's labour market. The objective of this paper is to describe and compare the ageing workforce of women and men in Chile in terms of labour market participation, employment and working conditions, work-life balance, and health. The social determinants of health and employment sustainability frameworks guide this study. Cross-sectional data from three publicly available sources: the Chilean Labour Force Survey, NENE (2010); the first Chilean Employment and working conditions survey, ENETS (2009-2010) and the second National Health Survey, ENS (2009). Participation rates and employment conditions (NENE and ENETS), working conditions, occupational health and work-life balance (ENETS) and chronic health conditions (ENS) were described by 5-year age groups separately for women and men. Descriptions cover all age groups in order to identify trends and patterns characteristic of older workers. Rates of occupation decrease sharply after age 54 in women and 59 in men. Ageing women and men who continue to work are more likely to be in own-account (self-employed) work than younger workers; in the case of women, in households as domestic workers, and men, in agriculture. Social protection and workplace rights are markedly reduced in older workers. Part-time work increases from the age of 50 onwards, especially among women, but average working hours do not decrease under 30 h a week for either women or men. Interestingly, between ages 60 and 64, there is a peak increase of day and night shift-work among women, which co-occurs with a peak in domestic work, possibly corresponding to women working as caretakers of elderly people. Several

  19. Determinants and health consequences of domestic violence among women in reproductive age at zagazig district, egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmy, Howaida H; Abd El-Rahman, Seham I

    2008-01-01

    Violence against women is a global phenomenon that cuts across all social and economic classes, it has recently drawn attention in the medical field as a leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality. The present study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of domestic violence, to identify socio-demographic and behavioral risk factors and to investigate the relationship between the women's psychological health status and violence exposure. This is a comparative cross-sectional study using a multistage random sampling technique. The sample comprised 500 women aged 18-50y. Data was collected via a structured interview questionnaire including the socio-demographic characteristics of the women and their husbands, some of the husbands' habits, attitude and history of chronic illnesses. Also, the questionnaire assesses different forms of domestic violence, women's reaction to it and its consequences on psychological well-being of women. A depression anxiety scale was used to assess the women's psychological status. The study revealed that the overall prevalence of domestic violence among the studied group was (62.2%); the commonest form (74.0%) was psychological abuse, followed by social (26.8%) one, then the physical (22.4%) and lastly sexual abuse (19.6%). On studying the socio-demographic variables, a significantly higher percentage of younger ( pound 30 years) non-educated, low income and those having any property ownership were more exposed to violence. Also exposure to abuse was more prevalent among women whose husbands were young, non-educated, skilled workers, drug abuser, with positive history of family troubles and chronic illness. The majority of women reported that they react to violence by crying loudly or screaming, while a minority may seek medical care or call the police. Regarding the psychological effect of violence exposure, the most common effects were anxiety (69.2%) and depression (52.2%), with a highly statistically significant

  20. Sexual Problems Among Older Women by Age and Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Anne K; Rostant, Ola S; Pelon, Sally

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine the prevalence of sexual problems by age and race among older women in the United States and to examine quality of life correlates to sexual dysfunction among non-Hispanic white and African American older women. A cross-sectional study using self-report surveys was conducted among community-dwelling U.S. women, aged 60 years and over. A total of 807 women aged 61-89 years were included. Self-administered questionnaires assessed sexual dysfunction, satisfaction with life, depressive symptomatology, and self-rated health. Analyses included multivariate logistic regression. The mean age of the sample was 66 years. Two-thirds of the sample had at least one sexual dysfunction; the most common for both African American and non-Hispanic white women were lack of interest in sex and vaginal dryness. Prevalence varied by age for each of the sexual dysfunctions. The odds of experiencing sexual dysfunction varied with age and race. Compared with non-Hispanic white women, African American women had lower odds of reporting lack of interest in sex or vaginal dryness. Poor self-rated health, depressive symptomatology, and lower satisfaction with life were associated with higher odds of having some sexual dysfunction. Improved understanding of how sexual dysfunction affects women across multiple age ranges and racial/ethnic groups can assist providers in making recommendations for care that are patient centered. The associations that we identified with quality of life factors highlight the need to assess sexual health care in the aging female population.

  1. Increased working memory-related brain activity in middle-aged women with cognitive complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Julie A; Kutz, Amanda M; McDonald, Brenna C; Naylor, Magdalena R; Pfaff, Ashley C; Saykin, Andrew J; Newhouse, Paul A

    2013-04-01

    Individuals who report subjective cognitive complaints but perform normally on neuropsychological tests might be at increased risk for pathological cognitive aging. The current study examined the effects of the presence of subjective cognitive complaints on functional brain activity during a working memory task in a sample of middle-aged postmenopausal women. Twenty-three postmenopausal women aged 50-60 completed a cognitive complaint battery of questionnaires. Using 20% of items endorsed as the threshold, 12 women were categorized as cognitive complainers (CC) and 11 were noncomplainers (NC). All subjects then took part in a functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning session during which they completed a visual-verbal N-back test of working memory. Results showed no difference in working memory performance between CC and NC groups. However, the CC group showed greater activation relative to the NC group in a broad network involved in working memory including the middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann area [BA] 9 and 10), the precuneus (BA 7), and the cingulate gyrus (BA 24 and 32). The CC group recruited additional regions of the working memory network compared with the NC group as the working memory load and difficulty of the task increased. This study showed brain activation differences during working memory performance in a middle-aged group of postmenopausal women with subjective cognitive complaints but without objective cognitive deficit. These findings suggest that subjective cognitive complaints in postmenopausal women might be associated with increased cortical activity during effort-demanding cognitive tasks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Iron Deficiency Anaemia In Reproductive Age Women Attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iron Deficiency Anaemia In Reproductive Age Women Attending Obstetrics And ... prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in reproductive age women, and their relation to ... Thus iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy in well-educated set up ...

  3. Seroprevalence of rubella among Jordanian women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarour, Najwa; Hayajneh, Wail A; Balbeesi, Adel; Otoom, Haidar; Al-Shurman, Abdullah; Kharabsheh, Sa'ad

    2007-05-04

    This study was conducted to assess immunity (seroprevalence) to rubella among Jordanian women of childbearing age. A multistage cluster sampling was used to recruit 1125 women of childbearing age (15-49 year) from the 12 Governorates of Jordan. Anti-rubella antibody titers were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays. The overall immunity rate to rubella among women in childbearing age was 90.9% (CI: 88.8-92.9). However, the immunity rate was significantly lower in younger women aged 15-19 years (83%) compared to the whole cohort (Ppre-marriage counseling regarding rubella and CRS for young females.

  4. Iron status in pregnant women and women of reproductive age in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milman, Nils; Taylor, Christine L; Merkel, Joyce; Brannon, Patsy M

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the iron status in pregnant women in Europe provides a foundation for considering the role of iron screening and supplementation. However, available reports and studies have used different approaches that challenge the devising of overall summaries. Moreover, data on pregnant women are limited, and thus, data on women of reproductive age provide useful background information including baseline iron stores in pregnant women. This review considered data that are available from >15 European countries including national surveys and relevant clinical studies. In European women of reproductive age, median or geometric mean serum ferritin (SF) concentrations were estimated at 26-38 μg/L. Approximately 40-55% of this population had small or depleted iron stores (i.e., SF concentration ≤30 μg/L), and 45-60% of this population had apparently replete iron stores. The prevalence of iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) was 10-32% and 2-5%, respectively, depending on the cutoffs used. Approximately 20-35% of European women of reproductive age had sufficient iron stores (SF concentration >70 μg/L) to complete a pregnancy without supplementary iron. During pregnancy, European women in controlled supplementation trials who were not receiving iron supplements displayed increasing prevalences of ID and IDA during pregnancy, which peaked in the middle to late third trimester. Available evidence has suggested that, in gestational weeks 32-39, the median or geometric mean SF concentrations were 6-21 μg/L, and prevalences of ID and IDA were 28-85% and 21-35%, respectively. Women who were taking iron supplements had higher iron status and lower prevalences of ID and IDA, which were dependent on the dose of iron and compliance. The data suggest that, in Europe, the iron status of reproductive-aged women varies by region and worsens in pregnancy without iron supplementation. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Hard Times, Expedient Measures: Women Teachers in Queensland Rural Schools, 1920-50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadmore, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Examines women teachers who taught in one-teacher schools in Queensland, Australia, from 1920-50. Discusses the research and provides a historical context. Focuses on topics such as teaching as a career, women teachers and marriage, unequal pay, and living conditions of women teachers. (CMK)

  6. Determinants of undernutrition among women of reproductive age in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-01

    May 1, 2015 ... child undernutrition, millions of children and women of reproductive age still suffer from ... enough to resolve the issue unless the nutritional status of poor women is also well ..... women in the reproductive age group of India.

  7. What kind of sexual dysfunction is most common among overweight and obese women in reproductive age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiepoor, S; Khalkhali, H R; Sadeghi, E

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) and sexual health and determine what kind of sexual dysfunction is most common among overweight and obese women in reproductive age from Iran. A cross-sectional descriptive design was adopted. The data of 198 women who referred to health centers during 2014-2015 in Iran were collected through convenient sampling. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire, female sexual function and sexual satisfaction indexes. Participants' heights and weights were recorded in centimeters and kilogram. Data were analyzed applying descriptive statistics, one-way analysis of variance, regression logistic analysis and χ 2 . P-valuessexual dysfunction, and 69.7% had dissatisfaction and low satisfaction. According to our evaluations, orgasm dysfunction had the most frequency; on the other hand, desire dysfunction and pain dysfunction had the lowest frequency among overweight and obese women, respectively. Using logistic regression analysis, we have shown that BMI affected on sexual satisfaction, but there was not significant differences between BMI and sexual function. This article concludes that all women especially women with overweight and obesity should be counseled about health outcomes related to sexual activity. This article concludes that all women especially women with overweight and obesity should be counseled about health outcomes related to sexual activity.

  8. Women Living with HIV over Age of 65: Cervical Cancer Screening in a Unique and Growing Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Aserlind

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Women living with HIV are at increased risk of human papillomavirus (HPV infection, which can lead to cervical cancer. New guidelines recommend indefinite screening. The objective of this study is to describe cervical cancer screening practices and colposcopy results in a cohort of women living with HIV over age of 65 who were followed before the new guidelines. Comorbidities, sexually transmitted infections (STIs, and other risk factors were evaluated. Methods. We conducted a retrospective chart review on 75 women aged 65 or older living with HIV with at least one Pap smear. Results. The mean age of the cohort was 66.5 and at HIV diagnosis was 56. The majority of women were immunocompetent. 80% had serial Pap smears. Of these, 86% of 238 were negative or ASCUS. No women progressed to HSIL. 92% of colposcopies had negative or CIN I results. Three women were treated successfully for high-grade dysplasia. More than half of women had other STIs. 72% were screened for HPV; 50% were positive. Conclusion. The majority of women had negative and low-grade Pap smears. Questions remain regarding the utility of continued Pap screening and the added value of HPV testing in this unique population of older women living with HIV.

  9. Medical and obstetric complications among pregnant women aged 45 and older.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad A Grotegut

    Full Text Available The number of women aged 45 and older who become pregnant is increasing. The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of medical and obstetric complications among women aged 45 and older.The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used to identify pregnant woman during admission for delivery. Deliveries were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9-CM codes. Using ICD-9-CM codes, pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications were identified in women at the time of delivery and were compared for women aged 45 years and older to women under age 35. Outcomes among women aged 35-44 were also compared to women under age 35 to determine if women in this group demonstrated intermediate risk between the older and younger groups. Logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications for both older groups relative to women under 35. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were also developed for outcomes at delivery among older women, while controlling for pre-existing medical conditions, multiple gestation, and insurance status, to determine the effect of age on the studied outcomes.Women aged 45 and older had higher adjusted odds for death, transfusion, myocardial infarction/ischemia, cardiac arrest, acute heart failure, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, acute renal failure, cesarean delivery, gestational diabetes, fetal demise, fetal chromosomal anomaly, and placenta previa compared to women under 35.Pregnant women aged 45 and older experience significantly more medical and obstetric complications and are more likely to die at the time of a delivery than women under age 35, though the absolute risks are low and these events are rare. Further research is needed to determine what associated factors among pregnant women aged 45 and older may contribute to these

  10. Examining the sexual function and related attitudes among aged women: A cross- sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Safieh; Rahmanian, Afifeh; Javadpour, Shohreh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sexual function and its subsequent satisfaction are among the most important aspects of women’s life. However, this instinct could be influenced by some factors such as diseases, drug using, aging, and hormonal and physiologic changes associated with menopause, and sexual behavior. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence rates of sexual dysfunction, and related attitudes among aged women in Jahrom, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 746 postmenopausal women aged between 50 and 89 years old who had referred to obstetric and gynecologic clinic in Jahrom, from April to October 2014. Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire was used order to assess the sexual function. The cases were classified into three categories according to the attitude scores: negative (17-32), medium (33-38), and positive (39-48). One-way ANOVA test was used to determine the relationship between FSFI and attitude scores. Results: The participants’ mean±SD age was 60.10±6.89 years and the total mean score of FSFI was 19.31±8.5. In addition, 81.5% of the women had sexual dysfunction (FSFIsexual function (FSFI> 26.55). Almost 62.1% the women displayed a negative attitude towards sexuality and only 18.8% women had positive attitude. Feeling of dyspareunia (p= 0.02), lubrication (psexuality, respectively Conclusion: Our data showed that sexual disorders were highly prevalent among postmenopausal women. The most affected problems were arousal, dyspareunia, and lubrication. More than half of the women had negative attitude towards sexual function consequently this could affect their sexual function. So, it seems screening of sexual dysfunction for finding the causes in women should be the main sexual health program. Also, it would be important to emphasis the role of physicians and experts on education and counseling in this subject. PMID:27141546

  11. The influence of age on posterior pelvic floor dysfunction in women with obstructed defecation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad-Regadas, S M; Rodrigues, L V; Furtado, D C; Regadas, F S P; Olivia da S Fernandes, G; Regadas Filho, F S P; Gondim, A C; de Paula Joca da Silva, R

    2012-06-01

    Knowledge of risk factors is particularly useful to prevent or manage pelvic floor dysfunction but although a number of such factors have been proposed, results remain inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of aging on the incidence of posterior pelvic floor disorders in women with obstructed defecation syndrome evaluated using echodefecography. A total of 334 patients with obstructed defecation were evaluated using echodefecography in order to quantify posterior pelvic floor dysfunction (rectocele, intussusception, mucosal prolapse, paradoxical contraction or non-relaxation of the puborectalis muscle, and grade III enterocele/sigmoidocele). Patients were grouped according to the age (Group I = patients up to 50 years of age; Group II = patients over 50 years of age) to evaluate the isolated and associated incidence of dysfunctions. To evaluate the relationship between dysfunction and age-related changes, patients were also stratified into decades. Group I included 196 patients and Group II included 138. The incidence of significant rectocele, intussusception, rectocele associated with intussusception, rectocele associated with mucosal prolapse and 3 associated disorders was higher in Group II, whereas anismus was more prevalent in Group I. The incidence of significant rectocele, intussusception, mucosal prolapse and grade III enterocele/sigmoidocele was found to increase with age. Conversely, anismus decreased with age. Aging was shown to influence the incidence of posterior pelvic floor disorders (rectocele, intussusception, mucosa prolapse and enterocele/sigmoidocele), but not the incidence of anismus, in women with obstructed defecation syndrome.

  12. Women's attitudes to beauty, aging, and the place of cosmetic procedures: insights from the QUEST Observatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlinger-Martin, Agnès; Cohen-Letessier, Anny; Taïeb, Maryna; Azoulay, Elisabeth; du Crest, Dominique

    2016-03-01

    The quest for beauty has been a constant theme in human history since the earliest civilizations. The QUEST Observatory, an online observational study, investigated how women continue the pursuit of beauty in the 21st century by examining women's perceptions of facial attractiveness and the strategies they adopt to combat the effects of time on their faces. To investigate women's attitudes toward beauty, aging, and the place of minimally invasive cosmetic procedures and anti-aging skincare. An in-depth questionnaire was developed by experts in dermatology, esthetic medicine, and social anthropology as the basis for this online, observational study. A nationally representative sample of 1000 French women aged between 25 and 70 years took part in the study. The main criteria for beauty were identified as a natural look, self-confidence, and attractive skin. A woman is considered to be at the peak of beauty in her mid-thirties just before early signs of facial aging begin to appear. Approximately 50% of women contemplate cosmetic procedures, but less than 10% go ahead. Confidence in the practitioner and good postprocedure follow-up are as influential as efficacy, safety, and cost in decisions about cosmetic procedures. The QUEST Observatory sheds valuable light on factors that affect women's choices regarding strategies for anti-aging and cosmetic procedures. These findings will help esthetic practitioners to better understand their patients and to meet their expectations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Dependency of cardiovascular risk on reproductive stages and on age among middle-aged Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y; Ruan, X; Mueck, A O

    2017-10-01

    To assess the 10-year cardiovascular risk in middle-aged Chinese women living in the same community and the impact of reproductive aging and age. This was a cross-sectional study in the Yuetan Community of Beijing. Data on lifestyle habits, prevalence and treatment of chronic diseases with significance for cardiovascular disease (CVD) development were collected by interview. CVD risk factors were assessed by physical examination and laboratory tests. The 10-year cardiovascular risk was calculated using the Framingham 10-year risk score. STRAW +10 criteria were used for the stages of reproductive aging. A total of 536 women, aged 40-60 years, were enrolled. The incidences of hypertension, dyslipidemia, abdominal obesity, glucose intolerance and diabetes were 32.6%, 45.7%, 65.5%, 37.9% and 10.1%, respectively. After adjustment, the incidence of hypertension and diabetes increased with age and with reproductive aging. Dyslipidemia and glucose intolerance were only associated with age. Abdominal obesity was related neither to age nor to reproductive aging. The 10-year cardiovascular risk ranged from 1% to 24.8%; 11.6% of women had a moderate or high Framingham 10-year risk score. CVD risk factors were frequent and more than 10% of the women were at moderate or high risk of developing cardiovascular disease within the next 10 years. To our knowledge, this was demonstrated for the first time in middle-aged Chinese women. Thus, women should maintain a healthy lifestyle and physicians should monitor them to prevent CVD.

  14. A UK clinical audit addressing the quality of prescribing of sodium valproate for bipolar disorder in women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, Carol; Cookson, John; Ferrier, I Nicol; Bhatti, Sumera; Fagan, Elizabeth; Barnes, Thomas R E

    2018-04-12

    To review prescribing practice concerning valproate, an established human teratogen, for the management of bipolar disorder in women of childbearing age. The Prescribing Observatory for Mental Health conducted a baseline clinical audit in the UK, as part of a quality improvement programme. Six hundred and forty-eight clinical teams from 55 mental health Trusts submitted retrospective treatment data relating to patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Of the audit sample of 6705 patients, 3854 were 50 years of age or younger. Valproate was prescribed for 24% of women and 43% men in this age group, and the mean dose of valproate was lower in women (1196 mg) than in men (1391 mg). For only half of such women was there documented evidence that information had been provided on the risks for the unborn child and the need for adequate contraception. Valproate was more often used in men to treat mania and aggression, while the most common treatment targets in women were hypomania and relapse prevention. Despite explicit recommendations in national treatment guidelines and published safety alerts and warnings regarding the use of valproate in women of childbearing age, current prescribing of this medication to such women in the context of the treatment of bipolar disorder falls short of best practice, particularly with regard to provision of information regarding the risks associated with exposure to valproate during pregnancy. While women younger than 50 years of age were less likely to be prescribed valproate than men in the same age group, and at a lower dosage, it is unclear to what extent this reflects clinicians' concerns about teratogenicity or is driven by perceptions of the indication for valproate, and the dosage required, for the treatment of different phases of the disorder in men and women. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless

  15. Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) surgery among Danish women hysterectomized for benign conditions: age at hysterectomy, age at subsequent POP operation, and risk of POP after hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Rune; Blaakær, Jan; Ottesen, Bent

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to describe the incidence of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) surgery after hysterectomy from 1977 to 2009, the time interval from hysterectomy to POP surgery, and age characteristics of women undergoing POP surgery after hysterectomy and to estim......INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to describe the incidence of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) surgery after hysterectomy from 1977 to 2009, the time interval from hysterectomy to POP surgery, and age characteristics of women undergoing POP surgery after hysterectomy...... women was high the first 2 years of the follow-up period with almost 800 women operated yearly. More than one third (n = 2,872) of all women operated for POP were operated less than 5 years after the hysterectomy with a median of 8.6 years. The cumulated incidence of POP surgery after hysterectomy...... with follow-up of up to 32 years was 12 %; 50 % (n = 5,451) of all POP surgeries were in the posterior compartment. The mean age of women undergoing a first POP surgery after hysterectomy was 60 years. CONCLUSIONS: POP after hysterectomy occurs as a long-term complication of hysterectomy; 12...

  16. Changes with age in left ventricular function and volumes at rest and postexercise in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Kiyoyasu; Isobe, Satoshi; Hirai, Makoto

    2006-01-01

    In postmenopausal women, it has been reported that the plasma estrogen levels diminish immediately after menopause, and that this phenomenon affects left ventricular (LV) function and volumes. However, the effects of age on LV function and volumes for a relatively short period in the postmenopausal women remain to be established. Electrocardiographically gated-myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has recently provided accurate estimations of perfusion, cardiac systolic and diastolic functions. We investigated the age-related changes in LV function and volumes in postmenopausal women using electrocardiographically gated-myocardial scintigraphy. Twenty-two consecutive healthy postmenopausal women (mean age of 63.8±9.4 years, from 42 to 77 years) without cardiac disease underwent stress/rest technetium-99m tetrofosmin gated-myocardial SPECT with 16 frames per cardiac cycle at baseline and follow-up (1.0±0.3 years later). LV ejection fraction (LVEF) and LV volumes were calculated by quantitative gated SPECT (QGS) software. Fourier series were retained for the analysis of the volume curve. From this volume curve, we derived the following diastolic indices: peak filling rate (PFR) and time to PFR (TPFR). End-systolic volume index (ESVI) significantly decreased at postexercise (p=0.02) and tended to decrease at rest (p=0.06) from the baseline to the follow-up study. LVEF significantly increased at both postexercise (p=0.01) and rest (p=0.03) from the baseline to the follow-up study. The TPFR at rest tended to be prolonged from the baseline to the follow-up study (p=0.07). The absolute increase in LVEF at postexercise tended to decrease with age [4.8% (50s) vs. 3.4% (60s) vs. 1.2% (70s)]. An age-related change in cardiac performance is apparent at an approximately 1 year follow-up in postmenopausal women. In particular, the increase in LV systolic function tends to show the greatest value in the 50s subjects among the 3 generations. (author)

  17. Natural menopause among women below 50 years in India: A population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallikadavath, Saseendran; Ogollah, Reuben; Singh, Abhishek; Dean, Tara; Dewey, Ann; Stones, William

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: The age at which menopause naturally occurs may reflect nutritional and environmental circumstances as well as genetic factors. In this study we examined natural menopause as a marker of women's health at the population level in India and in some major States. Methods: Data from the Indian District Level Household Survey (DLHS) carried out during 2007-2008 covering 643,944 ever-married women aged 15-49 yr were used; women of older ages were not included in this survey. Since not all women in this age group had achieved natural menopause at the time of survey, Cox proportional hazard regression models were employed to obtain the median age of women reporting a natural menopause, excluding those who underwent hysterectomy. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated for key socio-economic and reproductive variables that could potentially affect the age at natural menopause menopause prior to age 40 was reported by approximately 1.5 per cent of women. In the national data set, significant associations with age at natural menopause were identified with marriage breakdown or widowhood, poverty, Muslim religious affiliation, ‘scheduled caste’ status, not having received schooling, rural residence, having never used contraceptive pills, not been sterilized or had an abortion, low parity and residence in the western region. Within data from five selected States examined separately, the strength of these associations varied. Interpretation & conclusions: Associations of natural menopause with sociocultural, family planning and demographic variables were noted. Most importantly, there was an association with poverty that would require further investigation as to causality. The proportion of women experiencing early menopause may represent a useful overall indicator of women's health. The data are reassuring with regard to possible late effects of sterilization on ovarian function. PMID:28139535

  18. Validation of the Diagnostic Score for Acute Lower Abdominal Pain in Women of Reproductive Age

    OpenAIRE

    Jearwattanakanok, Kijja; Yamada, Sirikan; Suntornlimsiri, Watcharin; Smuthtai, Waratsuda; Patumanond, Jayanton

    2014-01-01

    Background. The differential diagnoses of acute appendicitis obstetrics, and gynecological conditions (OB-GYNc) or nonspecific abdominal pain in young adult females with lower abdominal pain are clinically challenging. The present study aimed to validate the recently developed clinical score for the diagnosis of acute lower abdominal pain in female of reproductive age. Method. Medical records of reproductive age women (15–50 years) who were admitted for acute lower abdominal pain were collec...

  19. Natural menopause among women below 50 years in India: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallikadavath, Saseendran; Ogollah, Reuben; Singh, Abhishek; Dean, Tara; Dewey, Ann; Stones, William

    2016-09-01

    The age at which menopause naturally occurs may reflect nutritional and environmental circumstances as well as genetic factors. In this study we examined natural menopause as a marker of women's health at the population level in India and in some major States. Data from the Indian District Level Household Survey (DLHS) carried out during 2007-2008 covering 643,944 ever-married women aged 15-49 yr were used; women of older ages were not included in this survey. Since not all women in this age group had achieved natural menopause at the time of survey, Cox proportional hazard regression models were employed to obtain the median age of women reporting a natural menopause, excluding those who underwent hysterectomy. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated for key socio-economic and reproductive variables that could potentially affect the age at natural menopause women. In the national data set, significant associations with age at natural menopause were identified with marriage breakdown or widowhood, poverty, Muslim religious affiliation, 'scheduled caste' status, not having received schooling, rural residence, having never used contraceptive pills, not been sterilized or had an abortion, low parity and residence in the western region. Within data from five selected States examined separately, the strength of these associations varied. Associations of natural menopause with sociocultural, family planning and demographic variables were noted. Most importantly, there was an association with poverty that would require further investigation as to causality. The proportion of women experiencing early menopause may represent a useful overall indicator of women's health. The data are reassuring with regard to possible late effects of sterilization on ovarian function.

  20. Correlates of anemia among women of reproductive age in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Globally, 41.8% of pregnant women and 30.2% of non-pregnant women are anemic. Previous studies which attempted to identify determinants of anemia among women of reproductive age reported conflicting findings. Objective: To assess the correlates of anemia among women of reproductive age in ...

  1. Prevalence of eating disorders in middle-aged women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangweth-Matzek, Barbara; Hoek, Hans W.; Rupp, Claudia I.; Lackner-Seifert, Kerstin; Frey, Nadja; Whitworth, Alexandra B.; Pope, Harrison G.; Kinzl, Johann

    Objective: Little is known about the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders (ED) in middle-aged women. Method: We mailed anonymous questionnaires to 1,500 Austrian women aged 40-60 years, assessing ED (defined by DSM-IV), subthreshold ED, body image, and quality of life. We broadly defined

  2. Cervical cytology and the diagnosis of cervical cancer in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, Rebecca; Castanon, Alejandra; Dudding, Nick; Lim, Anita Wey Wey; Hollingworth, Antony; Hamilton, Willie; Sasieni, Peter D

    2015-12-01

    Most non-screen-detected cervical cancers are advanced stage. We assess the potential for cytology to expedite diagnosis when used outside of routine call and recall screening for cervical cancer. Two cohorts of women with cytology that did not appear to have been taken as part of routine screening, nested within a census of cervical cytology, in England between April 2007 and March 2010 were studied: 93,322 women aged 40-69 at first cytology, and 14,668 women aged ≥70. The diagnostic performance of high grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) or worse cytology was estimated. We also estimated case-fatality from stage distribution in women aged ≥66 with and without cytology in the year prior to diagnosis. There were 259 cancers diagnosed in women aged 40-69 at first cytology, and 78 in women aged ≥70. The sensitivity of cytology ≥ HSIL for cancer was 89% and 83% respectively, and the number of women needed to test to identify one cancer was 404 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 355-462) and 226 (95% CI: 177-292) respectively. Women aged ≥66 with cytology within a year of diagnosis had earlier stage cancers than those without, corresponding to a 17-22% reduction in case fatality. Cervical cytology is an excellent identifier of cancer among women tested outside routine screening call and recall. Its use as a triage tool, for instance in women with vague gynaecological symptoms, could facilitate earlier stage diagnosis and reduce cervical cancer mortality. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Pregnancy Outcome of Multiparous Women Aged over 40 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Seda; Batmaz, Gonca; Sevket, Osman; Molla, Taner; Dane, Cem; Dane, Banu

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of maternal age on prenatal and obstetric outcome in multiparaous women. Materials and Methods. A retrospective case control study was conducted, including women aged 40 years and over (study group, n = 97) who delivered at 20 week's gestation or beyond and women aged 20–29 years (control group, n = 97). Results. The mean age of women in the study group was 41.2 ± 1.7 years versus 25.4 ± 2.3 years in the control group. Advanced maternal age was associated with a significantly higher rate of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, fetal complication, and 5-minute Apgar scores <7 (P < 0.05). Caeserean section rate, incidence of placental abruption, preterm delivery, and neonatal intensive care unit admission were more common in the older group, but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions. Advanced maternal age is related to maternal and neonatal complications. PMID:25954770

  4. Dry eye following cataract surgery in Women Over 50 Years Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bazzazi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dry eye is a common problem amongst post-menopausal women. Cataract surgery may worsen symptoms of dry eye and this can inflence the quality of life in patients. Ths study was performed to evaluate the incidence and severity of dry eye symptoms aftr phacoemulsifiation surgery. Methods: Ths case-series study was performed on 43 women aged over 50 years during 2013-2014. Patients underwent phacoemulsifiation surgery on one eye. Symptoms of the operated and contra lateral eye were analyzed by χ2 statistical test and SPSS softare, preoperative and one month aftr the surgery. Results: One month aftr the surgery, the mean value of incidence and severity of dry eye in operated and non-operated eyes were 90.06 ± 3.5, 80.96 ± 3.55, 71.11 ± 3.52, and 63.51 ± 3.04, respectively. Th diffrence between the two groups was signifiant (P > 0.001. Schirmer’s test, TBUT and corneal staining showed no signifiant diffrence (P ≥ 0.05. conclusions: Cataract surgery may lead to worsening of dry eye symptoms. Treatment of dry eye before cataract surgery is an important issue to prevent ocular surface damage.

  5. Ageing/Menopausal Status in Healthy Women and Ageing in Healthy Men Differently Affect Cardiometabolic Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campesi, Ilaria; Occhioni, Stefano; Tonolo, Giancarlo; Cherchi, Sara; Basili, Stefania; Carru, Ciriaco; Zinellu, Angelo; Franconi, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    Gender medicine requires a global analysis of an individual's life. Menopause and ageing induce variations of some cardiometabolic parameters, but, it is unknown if this occurs in a sex-specific manner. Here, some markers of oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction are analysed in men younger and older than 45 years and in pre- and postmenopausal women. Serum and plasma sample were assayed for TNF-α and IL-6, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls and for methylated arginines using ELISA kits, colorimetric methods and capillary electrophoresis. Before body weight correction, men overall had higher creatinine, red blood cells and haemoglobin and lower triglycerides than women. Men younger than 45 years had lower levels of TNF-α and malondialdehyde and higher levels of arginine than age-matched women, while postmenopausal women had higher IL-6 concentrations than men, and higher total cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine and IL-6 levels than younger women. Men younger than 45 years had lower total cholesterol and malondialdehyde than older men. After correction, some differences remained, others were amplified, others disappeared and some new differences emerged. Moreover, some parameters showed a correlation with age, and some of them correlated with each other as functions of ageing and ageing/menopausal status. Ageing/menopausal status increased many more cardiovascular risk factors in women than ageing in men, confirming that postmenopausal women had increased vascular vulnerability and indicating the need of early cardiovascular prevention in women. Sex-gender differences are also influenced by body weight, indicating as a matter of debate whether body weight should be seen as a true confounder or as part of the causal pathway.

  6. Physical activity in middle-aged women and hip fracture risk: the UFO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, U; Nordström, P; Nilsson, J; Bucht, G; Björnstig, U; Hallmans, G; Svensson, O; Pettersson, U

    2011-02-01

    In a population-based case-control study, we demonstrate that middle-aged women who were active with walking or in different physical spare time activities were at lower risk of later sustaining a hip fracture compared to more sedentary women. In middle-aged women participating in the Umeå Fracture and Osteoporosis (UFO) study, we investigated whether physical activity is associated with a subsequent decreased risk of sustaining a hip fracture. The UFO study is a nested case-control study investigating associations between bone markers, lifestyle, and osteoporotic fractures. We identified 81 female hip fracture cases that had reported lifestyle data before they sustained their fracture. Each case was compared with two female controls who were identified from the same cohort and matched for age and week of reporting data, yielding a total cohort of 237 subjects. Mean age at baseline was 57.2 ± 5.0 years, and mean age at fracture was 65.4 ± 6.4 years. Conditional logistic regression analysis with adjustments for height, weight, smoking, and menopausal status showed that subjects who were regularly active with walking or had a moderate or high frequency of physical spare time activities (i.e. berry/mushroom picking and snow shovelling) were at reduced risk of sustaining a hip fracture (OR 0.14; 95% CI; 0.05-0.53 for walking and OR 0.19; 95% CI; 0.08-0.46, OR 0.17, 95% CI; 0.05-0.64 for moderate and high frequency of spare time activities, respectively) compared to more sedentary women. An active lifestyle in middle age seems to reduce the risk of future hip fracture. Possible mechanisms may include improved muscle strength, coordination, and balance resulting in a decreased risk of falling and perhaps also direct skeletal benefits.

  7. Physical activity and sexual function in middle-aged women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Uchôa Leitão Cabral

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the relationship between physical activity level and sexual function in middle-aged women. Methods A cross-sectional study with a sample of 370 middle-aged women (40-65 years old, treated at public health care facilities in a Brazilian city. A questionnaire was used containing enquiries on sociodemographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics: the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, short form, and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI. Results The average age of the women studied was 49.8 years (± 8.1, 67% of whom exhibited sexual dysfunction (FSFI ≤ 26.55. Sedentary women had a higher prevalence (78.9% of sexual dysfunction when compared to active (57.6% and moderately active (66.7% females (p = 0.002. Physically active women obtained higher score in all FSFI domains (desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain and total FSFI score (20.9, indicating better sexual function than their moderately active (18.8 and sedentary (15.6 counterparts (p <0.05. Conclusion Physical activity appears to influence sexual function positively in middle-aged women.

  8. Difference between age-related macular degeneration and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy in the hereditary contribution of the A69S variant of the age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 gene (ARMS2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Suiho; Kondo, Naoshi; Miki, Akiko; Matsumiya, Wataru; Kusuhara, Sentaro; Tsukahara, Yasutomo; Honda, Shigeru; Negi, Akira

    2011-01-01

    To investigate whether the A69S variant of the age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 gene (ARMS2) has a different hereditary contribution in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). We initially conducted a comparative genetic analysis of neovascular AMD and PCV, genotyping the ARMS2 A69S variant in 181 subjects with neovascular AMD, 198 subjects with PCV, and 203 controls in a Japanese population. Genotyping was conducted using TaqMan technology. Results were then integrated into a meta-analysis of previous studies representing an assessment of the association between the ARMS2 A69S variant and neovascular AMD and/or PCV, comprising a total of 3,828 subjects of Asian descent. The Q-statistic test was used to assess between-study heterogeneity. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a fixed effects model. The genetic effect of the A69S variant was stronger in neovascular AMD (allelic summary OR=3.09 [95% CI, 2.71-3.51], fixed effects parchitecture of this phenotypically heterogeneous disorder.

  9. Determinants of vitamin D status in fair-skinned women of childbearing age at northern latitudes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linnea Hedlund

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Poor vitamin D status during pregnancy has been associated with unfavorable outcomes for mother and child. Thus, adequate vitamin D status in women of childbearing age may be important. The aim of this study is to investigate the determinants of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD serum concentrations in women of childbearing age living in Sweden, at latitude 57-58° north. METHOD: Eighty four non-pregnant, non-lactating, healthy, fair-skinned women aged between 25-40 years were included. All subjects provided blood samples, four day food records and answered questionnaires about sun exposure and lifestyle. Total serum 25(OHD was analyzed using Roche Cobas® electrochemoluminiescent immunoassay. RESULTS: Mean 25(OHD was 65.8±19.9 nmol/l and 23% of the subjects had concentrations <50 nmol/l. Only 1% had concentrations <25 nmol/l. Determinants of 25(OHD concentrations were recent sunbed use, recent travel to southern latitude, season, estrogen contraceptive use and use of supplementary vitamin D (R(2 = 0.27. CONCLUSION: Every fifth woman had 25(OHD concentrations <50 nmol/l. About 30% of the variation in vitamin D status was explained by sun exposure, use of vitamin D supplements and use of estrogen contraceptives. Cutaneous vitamin D synthesis seems to be a major contributor to vitamin D status, even at northern latitudes. Thus, recommendations on safe UV-B exposure could be beneficial for vitamin D status.

  10. Risk prediction for breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancer in white women aged 50 y or older: derivation and validation from population-based cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth M Pfeiffer

    Full Text Available Breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers share some hormonal and epidemiologic risk factors. While several models predict absolute risk of breast cancer, there are few models for ovarian cancer in the general population, and none for endometrial cancer.Using data on white, non-Hispanic women aged 50+ y from two large population-based cohorts (the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial [PLCO] and the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study [NIH-AARP], we estimated relative and attributable risks and combined them with age-specific US-population incidence and competing mortality rates. All models included parity. The breast cancer model additionally included estrogen and progestin menopausal hormone therapy (MHT use, other MHT use, age at first live birth, menopausal status, age at menopause, family history of breast or ovarian cancer, benign breast disease/biopsies, alcohol consumption, and body mass index (BMI; the endometrial model included menopausal status, age at menopause, BMI, smoking, oral contraceptive use, MHT use, and an interaction term between BMI and MHT use; the ovarian model included oral contraceptive use, MHT use, and family history or breast or ovarian cancer. In independent validation data (Nurses' Health Study cohort the breast and ovarian cancer models were well calibrated; expected to observed cancer ratios were 1.00 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.96-1.04 for breast cancer and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.97-1.19 for ovarian cancer. The number of endometrial cancers was significantly overestimated, expected/observed = 1.20 (95% CI: 1.11-1.29. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs; discriminatory power were 0.58 (95% CI: 0.57-0.59, 0.59 (95% CI: 0.56-0.63, and 0.68 (95% CI: 0.66-0.70 for the breast, ovarian, and endometrial models, respectively.These models predict absolute risks for breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers from easily obtainable risk factors and may

  11. PREDISPOSING FACTORS AND AETIOLOGY OF URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Prakash

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common infection in pregnant women. It is responsible for range of complications causing perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. AIM To assess the associated risk factors, aetiology and their antibiogram of UTI among pregnant women. METHODOLOGY This is a cross-sectional study carried out in Department of Microbiology & Department of Obstetrics from March 2015 to February 2016. The patient details and risk factors were recorded. Midstream & catheter urine specimens from pregnant women with symptoms of UTI were collected and sent for routine microscopy, culture and sensitivity. RESULTS In 550 pregnant women, 122(22.18% had significant bacteriuria and 72(17.72% had low colony count UTI. The most affected number age group was 25-35 years (58.85% followed by 15-25 years. Of the associated risk factors, multiparity 45.31%, low socioeconomic status 42.18%, anaemia 39.06% etc. were important. Escherichia coli was most frequently isolated with a percentage of 29.14%, followed by Klebsiella species (17.49%, S. aureus (14.34% etc. Other isolated micro-organisms included Enterococci, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter species. The antibiotics with more than 50% sensitivity against Gram-negative isolates were Imipenem (74.7%, Levofloxacin (73.17%, Ciprofloxacin (69.10%, Amikacin (57.72%, Amoxiclav (55.28%, and Cefoperazone/Sulbactam (50.40%. The antibiotics for Gram-positive isolates were Linezolid (88.46%, Cefoxitin (78.84%, Teicoplanin (69.23% and Vancomycin (65.22%. CONCLUSION We found associated risk factors such as multiparity, low socioeconomic status, etc. E. coli was the most common bacteria isolated in our setting. Therefore, pregnant women should be assessed for associated risk factors and evaluated for the pathogenic organism during their regular follow-up. The drug sensitivity should be taken into consideration with their side effects related to pregnancy.

  12. Valproic Acid in Women and Girls of Childbearing Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotlib, Dorothy; Ramaswamy, Rachel; Kurlander, Jacob E; DeRiggi, Alana; Riba, Michelle

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate recent literature on valproic acid (VPA) in women and girls of childbearing age and to emphasize new findings. Recent research confirms VPAs teratogenicity and risk of hormone disruption. VPA exposure in utero increases the risk for a variety of major congenital malformations (MCMs), reduced IQ and behavioral problems. In girls and women, VPA increases the risk of hormone abnormalities, obesity, and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Despite guidelines recommending caution, VPA use continues to be prescribed to reproductive-aged women and girls. Despite significant and well-documented risk, adherence to guidelines in VPA use in reproductive-aged girls and women remains low.

  13. The Relationship of Age, Body Mass Index, and Individual Habit to Bone Mineral Density in Adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soung Ock; Lee, In Ja; Shin, Gwi Soon

    2008-01-01

    We studied the change of bone mineral density (BMD) by age, body mass index (BMI), coffee, carbonated drink, alcohol, smoking, and exercise in adults who checked in health center. The number of study subjects was total 268 persons (women of 136 persons and men of 132 persons). The BMD was determined in lumbar spine and femoral neck by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. And we got some results as below : 1. In women, mean body height was , mean body weight was 155.8±6.0 cm, and mean BMI was 56.8±7.9 kg. In men, mean body height was 169.1±6.0 cm, mean body weight was 69.0±9.5 kg, and mean BMI was 24.1±2.7 kg/m 2 . 2. BMD decreased as age increased, and the age was the most determinant factor for BMD (p<0.01). Women's BMD decreased rapidly in the groups aged50s, while men's BMD decreased gradually with age. In addition, for both sex, lower BMD was measured in lumbar spine than in femoral neck. 3. BMD increased in high BMI, and BMD with BMI increased distinctly in the group aged 50s. But their relationship was not significant. 4. In view of the distribution by three BMD categories, women's BMD was mostly normal in the groups aged ≥40s but the rate of osteopenia and osteoporosis was similar in the group aged 50s, and the rate of osteoporosis was the highest in the groups aged 60s and 70s. Men's BMD was mostly normal through all groups except the group aged 70s. 5. Coffee and carbonated drink were not influenced in BMD. But alcohol-drinking group showed higher BMD than non-drinking group, and alcohol was statistically significant determinant for BMD (p<0.05). Smoking and exercise were not statistically significant determinant of BMD.

  14. The Relationship of Age, Body Mass Index, and Individual Habit to Bone Mineral Density in Adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soung Ock; Lee, In Ja; Shin, Gwi Soon [Dept. of Radiologic Techology, Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    We studied the change of bone mineral density (BMD) by age, body mass index (BMI), coffee, carbonated drink, alcohol, smoking, and exercise in adults who checked in health center. The number of study subjects was total 268 persons (women of 136 persons and men of 132 persons). The BMD was determined in lumbar spine and femoral neck by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. And we got some results as below : 1. In women, mean body height was , mean body weight was 155.8{+-}6.0 cm, and mean BMI was 56.8{+-}7.9 kg. In men, mean body height was 169.1{+-}6.0 cm, mean body weight was 69.0{+-}9.5 kg, and mean BMI was 24.1{+-}2.7 kg/m{sup 2}. 2. BMD decreased as age increased, and the age was the most determinant factor for BMD (p<0.01). Women's BMD decreased rapidly in the groups aged {>=}50s, while men's BMD decreased gradually with age. In addition, for both sex, lower BMD was measured in lumbar spine than in femoral neck. 3. BMD increased in high BMI, and BMD with BMI increased distinctly in the group aged 50s. But their relationship was not significant. 4. In view of the distribution by three BMD categories, women's BMD was mostly normal in the groups aged {>=}40s but the rate of osteopenia and osteoporosis was similar in the group aged 50s, and the rate of osteoporosis was the highest in the groups aged 60s and 70s. Men's BMD was mostly normal through all groups except the group aged 70s. 5. Coffee and carbonated drink were not influenced in BMD. But alcohol-drinking group showed higher BMD than non-drinking group, and alcohol was statistically significant determinant for BMD (p<0.05). Smoking and exercise were not statistically significant determinant of BMD.

  15. Women's age at first marriage and postmarital agency in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, AliceAnn; VanderEnde, Kristin; Cheong, Yuk Fai; Dodell, Sylvie; Yount, Kathryn M

    2016-05-01

    Early - or child - marriage (before age 18) may diminish women's ability to exercise agency, or their capacity to act upon their goals. Using a propensity score adjustment approach, we analyzed data from 2394 married women ages 35-49 years who participated in the 2006 Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey (ELMPS). We examined whether women's first marriage at age 18 or older was associated with their post-marital agency, measured in terms of their influence in family decisions, freedom of movement in public spaces, and unfavorable views about intimate partner violence against wives. In bivariate analyses, women's age at first marriage was positively associated with their decision-making and more equitable gender attitudes. However, once we controlled for selection into age-at-first-marriage groups, there were no significant differences between the two age-at-first-marriage groups in any dimension of women's agency. We examined the sensitivity of the non-significant age-at-first-marriage effects to possible violations of the strong ignorability assumption and the results did not alter our conclusions. The assumption that women's age at first marriage is a proxy for their post-marital agency, as defined here, warrants further study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Health benefits of dancing activity among Korean middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, Chul Won

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the health benefits of line dancing activity in Korean middle-aged women. This study explored how Korean middle-aged women perceive health benefits through lived experiences of line dancing in their leisure time. Three themes emerged related to health benefits: (1) psychological benefit, (2) physical benefit, and (3) social benefit. This finding suggested that serious leisure experience aids health enhancements in the lives of Korean middle-aged women. This study also discusses the research implication that continuous participation in leisure activity is necessary for health improvement in Korean middle-aged women.

  17. Health benefits of dancing activity among Korean middle-aged women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, Chul Won

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the health benefits of line dancing activity in Korean middle-aged women. This study explored how Korean middle-aged women perceive health benefits through lived experiences of line dancing in their leisure time. Three themes emerged related to health benefits: (1) psychological benefit, (2) physical benefit, and (3) social benefit. This finding suggested that serious leisure experience aids health enhancements in the lives of Korean middle-aged women. This study also discusses the research implication that continuous participation in leisure activity is necessary for health improvement in Korean middle-aged women. PMID:27389818

  18. Health benefits of dancing activity among Korean middle-aged women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jeong Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to understand the health benefits of line dancing activity in Korean middle-aged women. This study explored how Korean middle-aged women perceive health benefits through lived experiences of line dancing in their leisure time. Three themes emerged related to health benefits: (1 psychological benefit, (2 physical benefit, and (3 social benefit. This finding suggested that serious leisure experience aids health enhancements in the lives of Korean middle-aged women. This study also discusses the research implication that continuous participation in leisure activity is necessary for health improvement in Korean middle-aged women.

  19. AIDS in adults 50 years of age and over: characteristics, trends and spatial distribution of the risk1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Jordana de Almeida; Silva, Antônia Oliveira; de Sá, Laísa Ribeiro; de Almeida, Sandra Aparecida; Monroe, Aline Aparecida; Villa, Tereza Cristina Scatena

    2014-01-01

    Objective to analyze the sociodemographic characteristics, epidemic trend and spatial distribution of the risk of AIDS in adults 50 years of age and over. Method population-based, ecological study, that used secondary data from the Notifiable Disease Information System (Sinan/AIDS) of Paraíba state from the period January 2000 to December 2010. Results during the study period, 307 cases of AIDS were reported among people 50 years of age or over. There was a predominance of males (205/66, 8%), mixed race, and low education levels. The municipalities with populations above 100 thousand inhabitants reported 58.5% of the cases. There was a progressive increase in cases among women; an increasing trend in the incidence (positive linear correlation); and an advance in the geographical spread of the disease, with expansion to the coastal region and to the interior of the state, reaching municipalities with populations below 30 thousand inhabitants. In some locations the risk of disease was 100 times greater than the relative risk for the state. Conclusion aging, with the feminization and interiorization of the epidemic in adults 50 years of age and over, confirms the need for the induction of affirmative policies targeted toward this age group. PMID:25029044

  20. Hearing in middle age: a population snapshot of 40–69 year olds in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Piers; Fortnum, Heather; Moore, David R.; Emsley, Richard; Norman, Paul; Cruickshanks, Karen; Davis, Adrian; Edmondson-Jones, Mark; McCormack, Abby; Lutman, Mark; Munro, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report population-based prevalence of hearing impairment based on speech recognition in noise testing in a large and inclusive sample of UK adults aged 40 to 69 years. The present study is the first to report such data. Prevalence of tinnitus and use of hearing aids is also reported. Design The research was conducted using the UK Biobank resource. The better-ear unaided speech reception threshold was measured adaptively using the Digit Triplet Test (n = 164,770). Self-report data on tinnitus, hearing aid use, noise exposure as well as demographic variables were collected. Results Overall, 10.7% of adults (95%CI 10.5–10.9%) had significant hearing impairment. Prevalence of tinnitus was 16.9% (95%CI 16.6–17.1%) and hearing aid use was 2.0% (95%CI 1.9–2.1%). Odds of hearing impairment increased with age, with a history of work- and music-related noise exposure, for lower socioeconomic background and for ethnic minority backgrounds. Males were at no higher risk of hearing impairment than females. Conclusion Around 1 in 10 adults aged 40 to 69 years have substantial hearing impairment. The reasons for excess risk of hearing impairment particularly for those from low socioeconomic and ethnic minority backgrounds require identification, as this represents a serious health inequality. The underutilization of hearing aids has altered little since the 1980s, and is a major cause for concern. PMID:24518430

  1. Attitudes toward Cosmetic Surgery in Middle-Aged Women: Body Image, Aging Anxiety, and the Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slevec, Julie; Tiggemann, Marika

    2010-01-01

    Our study investigated factors that influence attitudes toward cosmetic surgery in middle-aged women. A sample of 108 women, aged between 35 and 55 years, completed questionnaire measures of body dissatisfaction, appearance investment, aging anxiety, media exposure (television and magazine), and attitudes toward cosmetic surgery (delineated in…

  2. Age-related changes in pre- and post-conization HPV genotype distribution among women with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannella, Luca; Fodero, Cristina; Boselli, Fausto; Rubino, Teresa; Mfuta, Kabala; Prandi, Sonia

    2017-04-01

    To assess the effect of age on pre- and post-conization HPV genotype distribution. The present retrospective observational study included consecutive women with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia who underwent conization at the Cervical Cancer Screening Centre of Reggio Emilia, Italy, and University Hospital of Modena, Italy, between February 1, 2012, and October 31, 2014. Pre-conization and 6-month post-conization HPV genotyping results were compared between four age groups (<30, 30-39, 40-49, and ≥50 years) and age-related changes in the HPV genotypes present were evaluated. There were 162 patients included. The lowest occurrence of pre-conization high-risk and probable high-risk HPV genotypes was observed among patients aged at least 50 years when compared with younger patients (P=0.017). Conversely, women aged at least 50 years exhibited the highest level of post-conization high-risk and probable high-risk HPV genotypes (P=0.043). Additionally, an increasing incidence of recording identical pre- and post-conization HPV genotypes was associated with increasing age (P=0.024), as was increasing post-treatment recurrence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+ (P=0.030). The presence of high-risk and probable high-risk HPV genotypes was lowest among older patients before conization and was highest among these patients post-conization; post-treatment HPV clearance decreased with age and increasing age could be a risk factor for post-conization recurrence. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  3. Examining the sexual function and related attitudes among aged women: A cross- sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safieh Jamali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexual function and its subsequent satisfaction are among the most important aspects of women’s life. However, this instinct could be influenced by some factors such as diseases, drug using, aging, and hormonal and physiologic changes associated with menopause, and sexual behavior. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence rates of sexual dysfunction, and related attitudes among aged women in Jahrom, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 746 postmenopausal women aged between 50 and 89 years old who had referred to obstetric and gynecologic clinic in Jahrom, from April to October 2014. Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire was used order to assess the sexual function. The cases were classified into three categories according to the attitude scores: negative (17-32, medium (33-38, and positive (39-48. One-way ANOVA test was used to determine the relationship between FSFI and attitude scores. Results: The participants’ mean±SD age was 60.10±6.89 years and the total mean score of FSFI was 19.31±8.5. In addition, 81.5% of the women had sexual dysfunction (FSFI 26.55. Almost 62.1% the women displayed a negative attitude towards sexuality and only 18.8% women had positive attitude. Feeling of dyspareunia (p= 0.02, lubrication (p< 0.0001, orgasm (p= 0.002 and satisfaction (p= 0.002 were significantly different between three categories of attitudes regarding sexuality, respectively Conclusion: Our data showed that sexual disorders were highly prevalent among postmenopausal women. The most affected problems were arousal, dyspareunia, and lubrication. More than half of the women had negative attitude towards sexual function consequently this could affect their sexual function. So, it seems screening of sexual dysfunction for finding the causes in women should be the main sexual health program. Also, it would be important to emphasis the role of physicians and experts on

  4. Working Life Expectancy at Age 50 in the United States and the Impact of the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudel, Christian; Myrskylä, Mikko

    2017-12-01

    A key concern about population aging is the decline in the size of the economically active population. Working longer is a potential remedy. However, little is known about the length of working life and how it relates to macroeconomic conditions. We use the U.S. Health and Retirement Study for 1992-2011 and multistate life tables to analyze working life expectancy at age 50 and study the impact of the Great Recession in 2007-2009. Despite declines of one to two years following the recession, in 2008-2011, American men aged 50 still spent 13 years, or two-fifths of their remaining life, working; American women of the same age spent 11 years, or one-third of their remaining life, in employment. Although educational differences in working life expectancy have been stable since the mid-1990s, racial differences started changing after the onset of the Great Recession. Our results show that although Americans generally work longer than people in other countries, considerable subpopulation heterogeneity exists. We also find that the time trends are fluctuating, which may prove troublesome as the population ages. Policies targeting the weakest performing groups may be needed to increase the total population trends.

  5. Expected lifetime numbers, risks, and burden of osteoporotic fractures for 50-year old Chinese women: a discrete event simulation incorporating FRAX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yawen; Ni, Weiyi

    2016-11-01

    This work was undertaken to provide an estimation of expected lifetime numbers, risks, and burden of fractures for 50-year-old Chinese women. A discrete event simulation model was developed to simulate the lifetime fractures of 50-year-old Chinese women at average risk of osteoporotic fracture. Main events in the model included hip fracture, clinical vertebral fracture, wrist fracture, humerus fracture, and other fracture. Fracture risks were calculated using the FRAX ® tool. Simulations of 50-year-old Chinese women without fracture risks were also carried out as a comparison to determine the burden of fractures. A 50-year-old Chinese woman at average risk of fracture is expected to experience 0.135 (95 % CI: 0.134-0.137) hip fractures, 0.120 (95 % CI: 0.119-0.122) clinical vertebral fractures, 0.095 (95 % CI: 0.094-0.096) wrist fractures, 0.079 (95 % CI: 0.078-0.080) humerus fractures, and 0.407 (95 % CI: 0.404-0.410) other fractures over the remainder of her life. The residual lifetime risk of any fracture, hip fracture, clinical vertebral fracture, wrist fracture, humerus fracture, and other fracture for a 50-year-old Chinese woman is 37.36, 11.77, 10.47, 8.61, 7.30, and 27.80 %, respectively. The fracture-attributable excess quality-adjusted life year (QALY) loss and lifetime costs are estimated at 0.11 QALYs (95 % CI: 0.00-0.22 QALYs) and US $714.61 (95 % CI: US $709.20-720.02), totaling a net monetary benefit loss of US $1,104.43 (95 % CI: US $904.09-1,304.78). Chinese women 50 years of age are at high risk of osteoporotic fracture, and the expected economic and quality-of-life burden attributable to osteoporotic fractures among Chinese women is substantial.

  6. Increased breast cancer screening and downstaging in Colombian women: A randomized trial of opportunistic breast-screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Raúl; Díaz, Sandra; Perry, Fernando; Poveda, César; Piñeros, Marion; Sánchez, Oswaldo; Buitrago, Lina; Gamboa, Oscar; Lozano, Teófilo; Yu, Hsiang; Wang, Ching-Yun; Duggan, Catherine; Thomas, David B; Anderson, Benjamin O

    2016-02-01

    The lack of breast cancer screening in low and middle-income countries results in later stage diagnosis and worsened outcomes for women. A cluster randomized trial was performed in Bogotá, Colombia between 2008 and 2012 to evaluate effects of opportunistic breast cancer screening. Thirteen clinics were randomized to an intervention arm and 13 to a control arm. Physicians in intervention clinics were instructed to perform clinical breast examination on all women aged 50-69 years attending clinics for non-breast health issues, and then refer them for mammographic screening. Physicians in control clinics were not explicitly instructed to perform breast screening or mammography referrals, but could do so if they thought it indicated ("usual care"). Women were followed for 2-years postrandomization. 7,436 women were enrolled and 7,419 (99.8%) screened in intervention clinics, versus 8,419 enrolled and 1,108 (13.1%) screened in control clinics. Incidence ratios (IR) of early, advanced and all breast cancers were 2.9 (95% CI 1.1-9.2), 1.0 (0.3-3.5) and 1.9 (0.9-4.1) in the first (screening) year of the trial, and the cumulative IR for all breast cancers converged to 1.4 (0.7-2.8) by the end of follow-up (Year 2). Eighteen (69.2%) of 26 women with early stage disease had breast conservation surgery (BCS) versus 6 (42.5%) of 14 women with late-stage disease (p = 0.02). Fifteen (68.2%) of 22 women with breast cancer in the intervention group had BCS versus nine (50.0%) of 18 women in the control group (p = 0.34). Well-designed opportunistic clinic-based breast cancer screening programs may be useful for early breast cancer detection in LMICs. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of UICC.

  7. Aging of Indian women in India: the experience of older women in formal care homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalavar, Jyotsna M; Jamuna, D

    2011-01-01

    The feminization of aging is a process that has begun in India but is not occurring uniformly throughout India. Older women are more likely to be widowed, poor, and suffer vulnerability to adverse outcomes like poor health. With the changing social landscape of India, middle-income older women are increasingly opting for 'pay and stay homes', an emerging type of old age home in India. Majority of the 97 women residents of 'pay and stay' homes reported being widowed (68%), and 25% were childless. Childlessness and widowhood were important considerations in the decision to relocate to an old age home. Older women reported higher degrees of psychological closeness and contact with daughters than sons, and the overall social network size was small. High prevalence of diabetes rates among older women carries implications for potential functional disability. Strong advocacy measures for empowering older women in India should be a priority policy directive.

  8. Age at First Childbirth and Hypertension in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangshin

    2017-05-01

    Whether age at first childbirth has an effect on hypertension incidence is unclear. The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between age at first childbirth and hypertension and to examine whether degree of obesity, measured as body mass index, mediates age at first childbirth-related hypertension in postmenopausal women. This study analyzed 4779 postmenopausal women data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2012. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate relationship between age at first childbirth and hypertension. Mediation analysis was performed to examine the contribution of body mass index to age at first childbirth-related hypertension. Mean of participants' age at first childbirth and current age were 23.8 and 63.4 years, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension was 51.1%. Age at first childbirth was significantly associated with the prevalence of hypertension (odds ratio, 0.963; 95% confidence interval, 0.930-0.998; P =0.036). Women with age at first childbirth ≤19 years had significantly higher risk of hypertension (odds ratio, 1.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.23; P =0.004) compared with those >19 years. Multivariable-adjusted prevalence of hypertension was significantly lower in women who delivered the first infant at 20 to 24 (45.5%), 25 to 29 (46.1%), and ≥30 (39.9%) years compared with those at ≤19 years (58.4%). Body mass index completely mediated age at first childbirth-hypertension relationship (indirect effect: odds ratio, 0.992; 95% confidence interval, 0.987-0.998; P =0.008). Age at first childbirth was significantly associated with hypertension in postmenopausal women. Body mass index mediated the effects of age at first childbirth on hypertension. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Nutritional status as assessed by nutrient intakes and biomarkers among women of childbearing age--is the burden of nutrient inadequacies growing in America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Deshanie; Bird, Julia K; McBurney, Michael I; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen M

    2015-06-01

    Understanding nutrient intakes among women of childbearing age within the USA is important given the accumulating evidence that maternal body weight gain and nutrient intakes prior to pregnancy may influence the health and well-being of the offspring. The objective of the present study was to evaluate nutritional status in women of childbearing age and to ascertain the influence of ethnicity and income on nutrient intakes. Nutritional status was assessed using data on nutrient intakes through foods and supplements from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Biomarker data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were used to assess nutritional status for selected nutrients. Poverty-income ratio was used to assess family income. White (n 1560), African-American (n 889) and Mexican-American (n 761) women aged 19-30 and 31-50 years were included. A nationally representative sample of non-pregnant women of childbearing age resident in the USA. African-American women had the lowest intakes of fibre, folate, riboflavin, P, K, Ca and Mg. Women (31-50 years) with a poverty-income ratio of ≤ 1.85 had significantly lower intakes of almost all nutrients analysed. Irrespective of ethnicity and income, a significant percentage of women were not consuming the estimated recommended amounts (Estimated Average Requirement) of several key nutrients: vitamin A (~80%), vitamin D (~78%) and fibre (~92%). Nutrient biomarker data were generally reflective of nutrient intake patterns among the different ethnic groups. Women of childbearing age in the USA are not meeting nutrient intake guidelines, with differences between ethnic groups and socio-economic strata. These factors should be considered when establishing nutrition science advocacy and policy.

  10. Randomized controlled trial on effectiveness of ultrasonography screening for breast cancer in women aged 40-49 (J-START). Research design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohuchi, Noriaki; Ishida, Takanori; Kawai, Masaaki; Narikawa, Yoko; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2011-01-01

    In cancer screening, it is essential to undertake effective screening with appropriate methodology, which should be supported by evidence of a reduced mortality rate. At present, mammography is the only method for breast cancer screening with such evidence. However, mammography does not achieve sufficient accuracy in breasts with high density at ages below 50. Although ultrasonography achieves better accuracy in Breast Cancer detection even in dense breasts, the effectiveness has not been verified. We have planned a randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of ultrasonography in women aged 40-49, with a design to study 50,000 women with mammography and ultrasonography (intervention group), and 50,000 controls with mammography only (control group). The participants are scheduled to take second round screening with the same modality 2 years on. The primary endpoints are sensitivity and specificity, and the secondary endpoint is the rate of advanced breast cancers. (author)

  11. [Hepatitis B prevalence among women in child-bearing age in Shandong Province, China, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Liu, J Y; Lyu, J J; Yan, B Y; Feng, Y; Wu, W L; Song, L Z; Xu, A Q

    2017-06-06

    Objective: To know the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) among women in child-bearing age in Shandong Province, China, providing references to the improvement of HBV control strategy. Methods: The participants were randomly selected by two-stage sampling method from 12 counties which were representative for the whole province. Firstly two townships were selected from each county by probability proportional to size sampling (PPS) method. Then participants aged 1-4 years, 5-14 years, 15-29 years and 30-59 years were selected by stratified random sampling method. The women in child-bearing age (20-49 years) were involved in this study. Questionnaire survey and 5 ml blood collection were conducted among all participants. Blood samples were detected for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody against HBsAg (anti-HBs) and antibody against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc). Those who were positive for HBsAg were further detected for hepatitis e antigen (HBeAg), antibody against HBeAg (anti-HBe) and the load of HBV DNA. The basic information of the participants including age, gender, occupation, nationality and residence place were collected. The prevalence of HBV infection indicators after weight adjustment were calculated and compared between participants with different demographic characteristics. Results: A total of 1 151 women in child-bearing age were involved in this study. Twenty-seven participants were positive for HBsAg and the prevalence rate was 2.10% (95 % CI: 0.97%-3.23%). Five participants were positive for both HBsAg and HBeAg and the prevalence rate was 0.36% (95 % CI: 0-0.84%). There were 567 and 291 participants who were positive for anti-HBs and anti-HBc respectively and the corresponding prevalence rates were 47.72% (95 %CI: 41.68%-53.75%) and 24.40% (95 % CI: 18.50%-30.30%). The number of participants susceptible for HBV was 527 and the percentage of HBV susceptible women was 47.55% (95 % CI: 41.63%-53.47%). Conclusion: HBV infection among

  12. Age at Death in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvio, Maria; Salokivi, Tommi; Bjelogrlic-Laakso, Nina

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to ascertain the average age at death (AD) in the intellectual disability population for each gender and compare them to those of the general population during 1970-2012. By analysing medical records, we calculated the ADs of all deceased clients (N = 1236) of two district organizations responsible for intellectual disability services. Statistics Finland's database generated data regarding ADs of all inhabitants who had died after having resided in same district. During the follow-up, average ADs for the intellectual disability population and general population increased, and simultaneously the AD difference between these populations decreased. In the 2000s, the AD difference between the intellectual disability population and the whole population was 22 years for men (95% CI: -24 to -20) and 30 years for women (95% CI: -33 to -27). In 2000s, the mean AD of those with mild-to-moderate intellectual disability (IQ 50-69) for women and men was 56 (SD17) and 54 (SD18), and those with severe to profound intellectual disability (IQ<50), 44 (SD23) and 43 (SD21). Intellectual disability is still a considerable risk factor for early death. Among the intellectual disability population, unlike in general population, the lifespans of women and men are equal. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Rib fracture as a predictor of future fractures in young and older postmenopausal women: National Osteoporosis Risk Assessment (NORA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjan, S. G.; Barrett-Connor, E.; McHorney, C. A.; Miller, P. D.; Sen, S. S.; Siris, E.

    2013-01-01

    Summary A rib fracture history after age 45 was associated with a 5.4-fold increase in new rib fracture risk and a 2.4-fold increase in risk of any new clinical fracture in 155,031 postmenopausal women. A rib fracture history suggests osteoporosis and should be considered when evaluating patients for interventions to prevent fractures. Introduction Until recently, little attention was paid to rib fracture as an osteoporosis marker. Emerging evidence suggests rib fracture may be an osteoporotic fracture in men and women. We report the 5-year independent association between baseline rib fracture histories and self-reported future fractures by age (decade) in the NORA cohort (155,031 postmenopausal women, 50–99 years). Methods Participants reported fracture history and responded to follow-up surveys at years 1, 3, or 6. Women with a baseline rib fracture history without other fractures were compared with women with no fracture. Results At baseline, 4,758 (3.07%) women reported a rib fracture history without other fractures; 6,300 women reported 6,830 new clinical fractures, including wrist (2,271), rib (1,891), spine (1,136), hip (941), and forearm (591). Adjusted relative risk (ARR) values (95% confidence interval [CI]) for future fractures in women with rib fracture history versus women with no fracture history were 5.4 (4.8–6.1) at the rib, 2.1 (1.7–2.6) at the spine, and 1.4 (1.1–1.7) at the wrist, and not significant for forearm or hip fractures. Future fracture risk was at least doubled in women with a rib fracture history in all ages: ARR (95% CI) 3.4 (2.8–4.0) for ages 50–59, 2.5 (2.1–3.0) for ages 60–69, 2.0 (1.7–2.3) for ages 70–79, and 2.0 (1.6–2.6) for ages >80. Conclusions Rib fracture, the second most common clinical fracture in women (after wrist fracture), predicted future fractures of the rib, wrist, and spine at all ages. Women presenting with rib fractures should be evaluated for appropriate management to prevent future

  14. Work and women's well-being: religion and age as moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Noraini M

    2008-12-01

    Religion has been found to moderate the stress-strain relationship. This moderator role, however, may be dependent on age. The present study tested for the three-way interaction between work experience, age, and religiosity in the prediction of women's well-being, and predicted that work experience and religiosity will combine additively in older women, while in younger women religiosity is predicted to moderate the relationship between work experience and well-being. In a sample of 389 married Malay Muslim women, results of the regression analyses showed significant three-way interactions between work experience, age, and religiosity in the prediction of well-being (measured by distress symptoms and life satisfaction). While in younger women the results were in line with the predictions made, in the older women, both additive and moderator effects of religiosity were observed, depending on the well-being measures used. These results are discussed in relation to the literature on work and family, with specific reference to women's age, religion, as well as the issue of stress-strain specificity.

  15. Age-related changes in pre- and postmenopausal women investigated with {sup 18}F-fluoride PET - a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurata, Seiji; Ishibashi, Masatoshi [Kurume University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Shizukuishi, Kazuya; Tateishi, Ukihide; Yoneyama, Tomohiro; Hino, Ayako; Inoue, Tomio [Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    To evaluate the relationship between age and regional skeletal uptake at sites consisting of either predominantly trabecular or cortical bone using {sup 18}F-fluoride positron emission tomography (PET) in pre- and postmenopausal women. Thirty-two women (40.6 {+-} 12.3 years; age range 25-72 years) were assigned to one of two groups: group 1 comprised 22 premenopausal women (33 {+-} 6.5 years; age range 25-48 years) and group 2 comprised 10 postmenopausal women (56 {+-} 6.7 years; age range 49-72 years). The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was determined from the lumbar spine and the humeral shaft. Student's t-test for each unpaired dataset was used to evaluate statistical differences between the two groups. The SUVmax values for the humeral shaft and the lumbar spine were compared with aging. The SUVmax (mean {+-} SD) was 1.2 {+-} 0.5 in the humeral shaft and 4.7 {+-} 1.0 in the lumbar spine. The SUVmax in the humeral shaft correlated significantly with advancing age (r = 0.67, P < 0.01). The SUVmax in the lumbar spine declined significantly with advancing age (r = -0.50, P < 0.01). The humeral shaft of women in group 1 exhibited a significantly lower SUVmax compared to that in group 2 (1.1 {+-} 0.4 versus 1.6 {+-} 0.6; P < 0.05). On the other hand, the lumbar spine of women in group 1 exhibited a significantly higher SUVmax compared to that in group 2 (5.1 {+-} 0.7 versus 4.0 {+-} 1.1; P < 0.05). The mean SUVmax in the lumbar spine was 2.5 times greater than that in the humeral shaft in group 2. Semiquantitative analysis with {sup 18}F-fluoride PET might be a useful tool for analyzing age-related changes in pre- and postmenopausal women. (orig.)

  16. Prevalence of Food Addiction Among Low-Income Reproductive-Aged Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenson, Abbey B; Laz, Tabassum H; Pohlmeier, Ali M; Rahman, Mahbubur; Cunningham, Kathryn A

    2015-09-01

    Hyperpalatable foods (i.e., high in salt, sugar, or fat) have been shown to have addictive properties that may contribute to overeating. Prior studies conducted on food addiction behaviors are mostly based on white and middle-aged women. Data are not available, however, on reproductive-aged women from other races/ethnicities or low-income women. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of food addiction among multiethnic women of low socioeconomic status. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of health behaviors, including food addiction according to the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) between July 2010 and February 2011 among 18- to 40-year-old low-income women attending reproductive-health clinics (N = 1,067). Overall, 2.8% of women surveyed met the diagnosis of food addiction. The prevalence of food addiction did not differ by age group, race/ethnicity, education, income, or body mass index categories, tobacco and alcohol use, or physical activity. However, it did differ by level of depression (p addiction among low-income, reproductive-aged women. Racial differences were observed in the YFAS symptom count score, but not in the overall prevalence of food addition. Additionally, women with food addiction had higher levels of depression than women without food addiction.

  17. Consumo de energía y nutrimentos en mujeres mexicanas en edad reproductiva Energy and nutrient intake in mexican women of reproductive age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIO FLORES

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Analizar el consumo de energía y nutrimentos de mujeres mexicanas de 12 a 49 años de edad. Material y métodos. La información dietética se obtuvo por recordatorio de 24 horas en 9 101 mujeres participantes en la Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición de 1988 y se contrastó con características sociodemográficas y estado fisiológico. El consumo de nutrimentos se comparó con las recomendaciones de ingestión dietética (RID. Resultados. La mediana del consumo energético fue de 1 568 kcal/día. La dieta estuvo conformada por 15% de proteína, 60% de hidratos de carbono y 25% de grasa. La proporción de mujeres con una ingestión inferior a la mitad de las RID fue de 70% para vitamina A, 75% para B6, 56% para vitamina C, 33% para B12, 69% para folato, 33% para calcio y 22% para hierro. Conclusiones. Los hallazgos muestran deficiencias importantes en la dieta, las cuales son más acentuadas en mujeres embarazadas o nodrizas, en las de menor nivel socioeconómico, en las que habitan en áreas predominantemente rurales o indígenas y en las de la región sur.Objective. To analyze energy and nutrient consumption in Mexican women from 12 to 49 years of age. Material and methods. Dietetic information was gathered by a 24 h recall from 9 101 women who participated in the National Nutrition Survey conducted in 1988. These data were compared with sociodemographic and physiologic characteristics. Nutrient consumption was compared with the Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA. Variance analysis and t-test were used to evaluate group differences. Results. Mean energy consumption was 1 721 kcal per day. The diet consisted of 15% protein, 60% carbohydrates and 25% fat. The proportion of women with dietary intakes lower than 50% of the RDA was 70% for vitamin A, 75% for vitamin B6, 56% for vitamin C, 33% for vitamin B12, 69% for folate, 33% for calcium and 22% for iron. Conclusion. Results show important deficiencies in the diet, predominantly in

  18. Age at marriage is rising for Asian women and men, according to new data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspan, A

    1992-09-01

    The social transformations in Asia are described: delayed age at marriage and the proportions marrying. Policy implications are ascertained. The norm for female age at marriage has risen from 15 years to 17-18 years in south Asia, and from 18 years to 24 years and older in east Asia. Men's marriage age has also risen but not as much. Concurrent changes have occurred with fertility declines and small family sizes and lower population growth, with changing roles for women, and with emergent youth subcultures and increased prevalence of premarital sexual behavior. The number of singles is rising and expected to continue to rise. Examples are given of marriage age changes for Nepal and Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, South Korea, and regional totals. Southeast Asian countries experienced less dramatic changes, and changes primarily in the 20-24 year old group (from 30% to 74% of single women). Change for men has been less regular and with less magnitude. In Southeast Asia, the rise in marriage age for men has risen only 1-2 years compared with women. East Asia patterns vary by country, i.e., South Korean increases of 6 years, Taiwanese increases of 4 years, and 2 years in Japan. Single males have been common in South and Southeast Asia, while in East Asia married male teens 25 years are rare. Marriage timing for men is not as closely associated as for women with social and cultural change. Downturns for men follow momentous, temporary disruptions such as happen during wars and periods of migration, while women's patterns are more reflective of structural change. The trend for never marrying is on the increase, particularly for men in Japan (1.1% in the 1920s to 18% in the early 1980s for men 50 years). Women not ever marrying are increasing in Thailand, Bangladesh, and Hong Kong. Never marrying is common in urban or educated populations, i.e., Singapore, Thailand, and Philippines. The implications are a longer gap between successive generations and a shorter period of

  19. Knowledge and Attitude of Married Women in the Reproductive Age Group Regarding Emergency Contraception in Selected Rural Areas of Udupi District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preethi Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unwanted pregnancy is still a major problem in the modern world despite the widely available contraception services. This study was conducted to determine the knowledge and attitude of married women in the reproductive age group regarding emergency contraception in selected rural areas of Udupi district, India. Material and Methods: The study group comprised of 350 married women in the reproductive age group residing in rural areas of Udupi district, India. A structured questionnaire and an attitude scale were used to assess the knowledge and the attitude. Results: Majority, 69.1% of the married women belonged to Hindu religion, 46.9% had an educational qualification of 10th standard and below. About 13.1% of the married women had undergone abortion. Nearly 96.9% of the married women had heard about emergency contraceptives and only 2% of the married women had used emergency contraceptive pills. About 63.7% out of 339 married women had got information about emergency contraceptive pills from health personnel and about 77.7% from television. Majority 84% had poor knowledge on emergency contraception. About 99.7% had favourable attitude on the use of emergency contraceptives. There was a significant association between knowledge scores and selected variable like education, knowledge and the attitude scores had a correlation. Conclusion: The study identifies the knowledge and attitude of the rural married women regarding emergency contraception, hence to help them to plan future pregnancies and prevent any unwanted or unintended pregnancies.

  20. Urogenital consequences in ageing women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumouchtsis, Stergios K; Chrysanthopoulou, Eleftheria L

    2013-10-01

    Various anatomical, physiological, genetic, lifestyle and reproductive factors interact throughout a woman's life span and contribute to pelvic floor disorders. Ageing affects pelvic floor anatomy and function, which can result in a variety of disorders, such as pelvic organ prolapse, lower urinary tract symptoms, dysfunctional bowel and bladder evacuation, and sexual dysfunction. The exact mechanisms and pathophysiological processes by which ageing affects pelvic floor and lower urinary and gastrointestinal tract anatomy and function are not always clear. In most cases, it is difficult to ascertain the exact role of ageing per se as an aetiological, predisposing or contributing factor. Other conditions associated with ageing that may co-exist, such as changes in mental status, can result in different types of pelvic floor dysfunction (e.g. functional incontinence). Pelvic organ dysfunction may be associated with significant morbidity and affect quality of life. These groups of patients often pose difficult diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas owing to complex medical conditions and concurrent morbidities. In this chapter, we summarise the current evidence on the management of pelvic floor disorders, with emphasis on elderly women and the associations between the ageing process and these disorders. Clinicians with an understanding of the affect of ageing on the pelvic floor and lower urinary and gastrointestinal tract anatomy and function, and the complex interplay of other comorbidities, will be able to investigate, diagnose and treat appropriately there women. A holistic approach may result in substantial improvements in their quality of life. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Physical activity and depression symptom profiles in young men and women with major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKercher, Charlotte; Patton, George C; Schmidt, Michael D; Venn, Alison J; Dwyer, Terence; Sanderson, Kristy

    2013-05-01

    This study explored whether young adults with major depression who are physically active differ in their depression symptom profile from those physically inactive. Analyses included data from 950 (47.6%) men and 1045 women (mean [standard deviation] age = 31.5 [2.6] years) participating in a national study. Participants reported leisure physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire) and ambulatory activity (pedometer steps per day). Diagnosis and symptoms of major depression were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Prevalence of major depression was 5.5% (n = 52) for men and 11.6% (n = 121) for women. Interactions between physical activity and sex were observed for depressed mood, appetite changes, vacillating thoughts, and suicidality (all, p physically active men were significantly less likely to endorse the presence of insomnia (prevalence ratio [PR] = 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.63-0.96), fatigue (PR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.69-0.99), and suicidality (PR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.49-0.96) compared with inactive men. Physically active women were significantly less likely to endorse hypersomnia (PR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.27-0.95), excessive/irrational guilt (PR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.59-0.97), vacillating thoughts (PR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.58-0.95), and suicidality (PR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.20-0.89) compared with inactive women. Associations were adjusted for age, physical health, educational attainment, depression severity, and other depressive symptoms. Among adults with major depression, those physically active seem to differ in their depression symptom profile from those physically inactive.

  2. Impact of beverage consumption, age, and site dependency on dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) measurements in perimenopausal women: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Huan-Chu; Kuo, Duen-Pang; Chen, Yen-Lin

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the best site for bone mineral density (BMD) measurements based on T -scores, age, and beverage consumption. In this prospective study, 271 women stratified by age (average age: 61.9 years) underwent dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scanning of their lumbar spine, hips, and forearms. Osteoporosis was defined as a BMD of 2.5 standard deviations or more below the mean peak bone mass based on a reference population of adult women (translated as a T -score ≤ -2.5), as measured by DEXA. Participants were also evaluated regarding alcohol and caffeine consumption by a semiquantitative questionnaire. A significant discrepancy was observed in the classification of osteoporosis at different locations, with hip and forearm showing the best correlation (Pearson's r = 0.627, p consumption. In the group ≤ 50 years of age, lumbar spine and forearm T -scores were only associated with alcohol consumption. In the group over 50 years of age, hip and forearm T -scores were only associated with caffeine consumption. Bone mineral density measurements at the hip and forearm correlated with caffeine consumption in elderly Taiwanese women. This is an important finding since age and caffeine consumption are known risk factors for osteoporosis.

  3. Dental age estimation in a Brazilian adult population using Cameriere’s method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana de Cássia Silva AZEVEDO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to develop a specific formula to estimate age in a Brazilian adult population and to compare the original formula from Cameriere to this Brazilian formula. The sample comprised 1,772 periapical radiographs from 443 subjects (219 men, 224 women that were organized into 12 groups according to sex (men or women and age (20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70 years and older. The films were analyzed using the criteria described by Cameriere et al. (2004 and Adobe Photoshop®. We obtained a mean error of 8.56 (SD = 5.80 years for tooth 13, 7.99 (SD = 5.78 years for tooth 23, 8.38 (SD = 6.26 years for tooth 33, and 8.20 (SD = 6.54 years for tooth 43. When teeth were combined in the analysis, we observed lower mean errors. The Brazilian formula developed from this sample group was more accurate than Cameriere’s formula. However, other factors must be considered to improve age estimates in adults.

  4. Oxidative Stress Function in Women over 40 Years of Age, Considering Their Lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves Mota, Maria Paula; Santos, Zirlene; Soares, Jorge; Pereira, Ana; Fonseca, Sandra; Peixoto, Francisco; Gaivão, Isabel; Oliveira, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Aging is dependent on biological processes that determine the aging of the organism at the cellular level. The Oxidative Stress Theory of Aging might explain some of the age-related changes in cell macromolecules. Moreover, exposome and lifestyle may also induce changes in cell damage induced by oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to analyze the related redox changes in lymphocyte function of healthy women over 40 years old. Three groups: younger (YG: 40-49 years), middle aged (MAG: 50-59 years), and older (OG: ≥60 years) were evaluated on anthropometric variables, blood pressure, cardiovascular fitness, lifestyle habits, perceived stress, DNA damage, malondialdehyde, catalase activity, and total antioxidant capacity. Physical activity and cardiovascular fitness were significantly higher in YG and MAG as compared to the OG. Systolic blood pressure increased significantly with group age. Frequency and total amount of alcohol intake were lower in the OG and higher in the MAG. No significant differences were observed between the three groups in oxidative stress parameters. Only alcohol consumption was associated with the higher DNA FPG-sensitive sites, and only in the YG ( p  stress parameters measured in the healthy women over the age of 40 who took part in the study. Conscious lifestyle behaviors (decrease in alcohol and smoking habits) could have impaired the expected age-related oxidative stress increase.

  5. How discrimination and stress affects self-esteem among Dominican immigrant women: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchanadeswaran, Subadra; Dawson, Beverly Araujo

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the factors that contribute to the health disparities among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States is very important given the growing Latina population. Although researchers have investigated the health and mental health status among Latinas, the relationship between mental health and self-esteem has not been given a lot of attention. Given that self-esteem is a proxy for mental health status, investigations exploring the factors that can negatively affect self-esteem are needed. Therefore, the current study examined the influence of discrimination and stress on self-esteem among Dominican immigrant women. A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 235 immigrant Dominican women in New York City. Women (age 18-49 years) and in the United States for fewer than 20 years were more likely to report experiencing discrimination compared to women older than age 50 years and in the United States for more than 20 years. After controlling for age, time in the United States, educational level, and income, high levels of discrimination (-0.09, p < 0.01) and stress (-0.69, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with reduced self-esteem. Interventions with Latino/a populations, especially women, need to acknowledge their individual evaluations of the discriminatory and stressful experiences that negatively influence their self-esteem and subsequently their mental health status.

  6. Reproductive hormone levels and anthropometry in postmenopausal women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): a 21-year follow-up study of women diagnosed with PCOS around 50 years ago and their age-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Johanna; Brännström, Mats; Landin-Wilhelmsen, Kerstin; Dahlgren, Eva

    2011-07-01

    The hormonal and anthropometric profile of premenopausal women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is well described, but there is a lack of data concerning changes in these variables into the postmenopausal period. Our objective was to examine whether PCOS women differ from normal women regarding levels of reproductive hormones, anthropometry, and presence of hirsutism/climacteric symptoms also after menopause. In this prospective study, women with PCOS (61-79 yr) and age-matched controls, examined in 1987, were reinvestigated at a university hospital. Twenty-five PCOS patients (Rotterdam criteria) and 68 controls (randomly allocated from the Gothenburg WHO MONICA study) participated. Reexamination and hormonal measurements were done 21 yr after previous visit. FSH, LH, TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibodies, prolactin, estrone, estradiol, SHBG, androstenedione, total testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, free androgen index, and anthropometry were determined. Presence of climacteric symptoms, hirsutism, and menopausal age were recorded. PCOS women had higher free androgen index (P = 0.001) but lower FSH (P PCOS and controls. Women with PCOS reported hirsutism more frequently (P symptoms (P PCOS women differ from controls with regard to levels of certain reproductive hormones also after menopause, but the established premenopausal increase in waist to hip ratio in PCOS patients disappeared after menopause, mainly due to weight gain among controls. A novel finding was the lower prevalence of hypothyroidism in PCOS women.

  7. Food-based diet quality score in relation to depressive symptoms in young and middle-aged Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hiroka; Murakami, Kentaro; Kobayashi, Satomi; Suga, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2017-06-01

    Only a few studies have focused on the association between overall diet, rather than intakes of individual nutrients or foods, and depressive symptoms in Japanese. This cross-sectional study examined associations between a diet quality score and depressive symptoms in 3963 young (age 18 years) and 3833 middle-aged (mean age 47·9 (sd 4·2) years) Japanese women. Dietary information was collected using a diet history questionnaire. A previously developed diet quality score was computed mainly based on the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 22·0 % for young women and 16·8 % for middle-aged women, assessed as a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) score ≥23 and ≥19, respectively. As expected, the diet quality score was associated positively with intakes of 'grain dishes', 'vegetable dishes', 'fish and meat dishes', 'milk' and 'fruits' and inversely with intakes of energy from 'snacks, confection and beverages' and Na from seasonings. After adjustment for potential confounders, OR for depressive symptoms in the highest v. lowest quintiles of the diet quality score was 0·65 (95 % CI 0·50, 0·84) in young women (P for trend=0·0005). In middle-aged women, the corresponding value was 0·59 (95 % CI 0·45, 0·78) (P for trenddiet quality and CES-D scores were treated as continuous variables also showed inverse associations. In conclusion, this cross-sectional study showed that a higher diet quality score was associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms in young and middle-aged Japanese women. Prospective studies are needed to confirm a public health relevance of this finding.

  8. Attitudes of women in their forties toward the 2009 USPSTF mammogram guidelines: a randomized trial on the effects of media exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, AuTumn S; Liao, Xun; Magee, B Dale

    2011-07-01

    The objective of the study was to assess women's attitudes toward 2009 US Preventive Services Task Force mammography screening guideline changes and evaluate the role of media in shaping opinions. Two hundred forty-nine women, aged 39-49 years, presenting for annual examinations randomized to read 1 of 2 articles, and survey completion comprised the design of the study. Eighty-eight percent overestimated the lifetime breast cancer (BrCa) risk. Eighty-nine percent want yearly mammograms in their 40s. Eighty-six percent felt the changes were unsafe, and even if the changes were doctor recommended, 84% would not delay screening until age 50 years. Those with a friend/relative with BrCa were more likely to want annual mammography in their forties (92% vs 77%, P = .001), and feel changes unsafe (91% vs 69%, P ≤ .0001). Participants with previous false-positive mammograms were less likely to accept doctor-recommended screening delay until age 50 years (8% vs 21%, P = .01). Women overestimate BrCa risk. Skepticism of new mammogram guidelines exists, and is increased by exposure to negative media. Those with prior false-positive mammograms are less likely to accept changes. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Age-specific prevalence of human papilloma virus infection among Nigerian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akarolo-Anthony, Sally N; Famooto, Ayo O; Dareng, Eileen O; Olaniyan, Olayinka B; Offiong, Richard; Wheeler, Cosette M; Adebamowo, Clement A

    2014-06-27

    Inconsistent trends in HPV prevalence by age have been described in Africa. We examined the age prevalence pattern and distribution of 37 HPV-DNA types among urban Nigerian women. The study population was a sample of 278 women who presented to cervical cancer screening programs in Abuja, Nigeria, between April and August 2012. Using a nurse administered questionnaire, information on demographic characteristics and risk factors of cervical cancer was collected and samples of cervical exfoliated cells were obtained from all participants. Roche Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test® was used to characterize prevalent HPV and log-binomial regression models were used to examine the association between potential correlates and the prevalence of HPV infection. The mean age (SD) of the women enrolled was 38 (8) years. The overall prevalence of HPV was 37%. HPV 35 was the most prevalent HPV type in the study population. Among women age ≤ 30 years, 52% had HPV infection compared to 23% of those women who were older than 45 years (p = 0.006). We observed a significant linear association between age and the prevalence of HPV infections. The prevalence ratio (PR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) was 2.26 (1.17, 4.34) for any HPV infection, 3.83 (1.23, 11.94) for Group 1 HPV (definite carcinogens), and 2.19 (0.99, 4.84) for Group 2a or 2b HPV (probable or possible carcinogens) types, among women aged 18-30 years, compared to women who were older than 45 years. The prevalence of HPV infection was highest among younger women and decreased steadily with age among this population of urban Nigerian women.

  10. [OVARIAN RESERVE AND EFFECTIVENESS OF IVF IN WOMEN OF VARIOUS AGE GROUPS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayadyan, A; Totoyan, E

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is a comparative assessment of ovarian reserve parameters and the effect of these indices on the features of follicle and oogenesis in women of different age groups. A retrospective analysis of IVF results was conducted in 101 patients aged 21 to 49 years. All patients were divided into 4 groups according to age: I group up to 30 y.o. - 45 women, II group - 31-35 y.o - 14 women, III group - 36-40 y.o. - 26 women, IV Group - 41 or more - 16 women. A low ovarian reserve was found in the majority (84,6%) of women in group III and in all women in group IV. It was found that the lowest total dose of rFSH / hMG was used in women aged 21-30 years and 31-35 years, and in women in the age range of 36-40 years, the consumption of drugs was significantly higher and tended to further increase in the age group 41 аnd more years. A large consumption of rFSH/hMG is necessary to overcome the growing FSH level in the process of aging of the reproductive system and the reduced AMH level. However, at the same time, compared age groups had significant differences in the number of oocytes and embryos obtained. With age, a significant reduction in the number of mature oocytes and embryos obtained after follicle puncture and fertilization has been identified. The most promising in terms of pregnancy were the I and II groups. With age, the frequency of pregnancy decreased. The number of pregnancies was statistically lower in the III age group compared to groups I and II. In the IV group, no cases of pregnancy were recorded. Thus, it can be concluded that age is a statistically significant factor affecting the success of infertility treatment by IVF.

  11. Neighborhood socioeconomic status at the age of 40 years and ischemic stroke before the age of 50 years: A nationwide cohort study from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Axel C; Li, Xinjun; Holzmann, Martin J; Ärnlöv, Johan; Wändell, Per; Gasevic, Danijela; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2017-10-01

    Objective We aimed to study the association between neighborhood socioeconomic status at the age of 40 years and risk of ischemic stroke before the age of 50 years. Methods All individuals in Sweden were included if their 40th birthday occurred between 1998 and 2010. National registers were used to categorize neighborhood socioeconomic status into high, middle, and low and to retrieve information on incident ischemic strokes. Hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were estimated. Results A total of 1,153,451 adults (women 48.9%) were followed for a mean of 5.5 years (SD 3.5 years), during which 1777 (0.30%) strokes among men and 1374 (0.24%) strokes among women were recorded. After adjustment for sex, marital status, education level, immigrant status, region of residence, and neighborhood services, there was a lower risk of stroke in residents from high-socioeconomic status neighborhoods (hazard ratio 0.87, 95% confidence interval 0.78-0.96), and an increased risk of stroke in adults from low-socioeconomic status neighborhoods (hazard ratio 1.16, 95% confidence interval 1.06-1.27), compared to their counterparts living in middle-socioeconomic status neighborhoods. After further adjustment for hospital diagnoses of hypertension, diabetes, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation prior to the age of 40, the higher risk in neighborhoods with low socioeconomic status was attenuated, but remained significant (hazard ratio 1.12, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.23). Conclusions In a nationwide study of individuals between 40 and 50 years, we found that the risk of ischemic stroke differed depending on neighborhood socioeconomic status, which calls for increased efforts to prevent cardiovascular diseases in low socioeconomic status neighborhoods.

  12. Factors Associated with Bone Health in Malaysian Middle-Aged and Elderly Women Assessed via Quantitative Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Low, Nie Yen; Dewiputri, Wan Ilma; Ima-Nirwanaa, Soelaiman

    2017-07-06

    Risk factors for osteoporosis may vary according to different populations. We aimed to investigate the relationship between risk factors of osteoporosis and bone health indices determined via calcaneal quantitative ultrasound (QUS) in a group of Malaysian women aged 50 years or above. A cross-sectional study was performed on 344 Malaysian women recruited from a tertiary medical centre in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. They answered a self-administered questionnaire on their social-demographic details, medical history, lifestyle, and physical activity status. Their height was measured using a stadiometer, and their body composition estimated using a bioelectrical impedance device. Their bone health status was determined using a water-based calcaneal QUS device that generated three indices, namely speed of sound (SOS), broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), and stiffness index (SI). A T-score was computed from SI values using a reference database from a mainland Chinese population. Women with three or more lifetime pregnancies, who were underweight and not drinking coffee had a significantly lower BUA. Stepwise multiple linear regression showed that SOS was predicted by age alone, BUA and SI by years since menopause, body mass index (BMI), and number of lifetime pregnancies, and T-score by years since menopause and percentage of body fat. As a conclusion, suboptimal bone health in middle-aged and elderly Malaysian women as indicated by QUS is associated with old age, being underweight, having a high body fat percentage, and a high number of lifetime pregnancies. Women having several risk factors should be monitored more closely to protect their bones against accelerated bone loss.

  13. A comparison of folate status in women of child-bearing age in Korea and in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Taisun Hyun,1 Suguna Badiga,2 Han Byul Jang,1 Young-Hee Han,1 Chandrika J Piyathilake21Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Korea; 2Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USABackground: Even though several studies have demonstrated that periconceptional supplementation with folic acid (FA reduces the occurrence of neural tube defects, FA fortification has been a topic of intense debate due to the possible adverse effects of higher folate status on several health conditions. Several countries, including Korea, have been indecisive as to whether fortification is warranted or not. It is therefore helpful for these countries to compare folate concentrations in their populations with populations exposed to mandatory FA fortification.Purpose: To evaluate the differences in the distribution of circulating concentrations of folate in Korea and the United States (US at different time points.Methods: The Korean study populations consisted of women of child-bearing age recruited in 1999 and in 2009. The US study populations consisted of women of child-bearing age recruited in the post FA fortification era (2005 and 2009. Plasma and red blood cell (RBC folate concentrations were measured using the Lactobacillus casei microbiological assay.Results: The percentage of US women with neural tube defect-protective levels of RBC folate was significantly higher compared to Korean women in 1999 and 2009. However, in 2009, when FA supplements became readily available for Koreans, 50% of Korean women in the study achieved the neural tube defect-protective level of RBC folate; 11% of them demonstrating supraphysiologic concentrations of plasma folate. Even though FA fortification in the US resulted in more than 80of women achieving >400 ng/mL of RBC folate by 2009, nearly 50% also demonstrated having supraphysiologic concentrations of plasma folate, which prompted some researchers to

  14. Diagnostic efficacy of mammography in various age groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekkel, M.Yu.

    1991-01-01

    The diagnostic efficacy of 935 mammographies from the mammology service for self-referred symptomatic women was assessed for the period of 1975-1988. Breast cancer was detected in 200 women. The paper is concerned with the distribution of true- or false-positive and true- or false-negative mammagraphic diagnoses in the age groups of women under 40, 40 to 49 and over 49. The sensitivity of mammomgraphy in these age groups was 87.5, 72.4 and 89 %, the specificity was 83.5, 76.4 and 83 %, and the positive predictive values were 42, 38,2 and 69.5 %, respectively

  15. Analysis of real-world health care costs among immunocompetent patients aged 50 years or older with herpes zoster in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Juliana L; Madhwani, Shweta; Rausch, Debora; Candrilli, Sean D; Krishnarajah, Girishanthy; Yan, Songkai

    2017-08-03

    Few peer-reviewed publications present real-world United States (US) data describing resource utilization and costs associated with herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). The primary objective of this analysis (GSK study identifier: HO-14-14270) was to assess direct costs associated with HZ and PHN in the US using a retrospective managed care insurance claims database. Patients ≥ 50 y at HZ diagnosis were selected. Patients were excluded if they were immunocompromised before diagnosis or received an HZ vaccine at any time. A subsample of patients with PHN was identified. Each patient with HZ was matched to ≤ 4 controls without HZ based on age, sex, and health plan enrollment. Incremental differences in mean HZ-related costs ("incremental costs") were assessed overall and stratified by age. Multivariable regression models controlled for the effect of demographic characteristics, prediagnosis costs, and comorbidity burden on costs using a recycled predictions approach. Overall, 142,519 patients with HZ (9,470 patients [6.6%] had PHN) and 357,907 matched controls without HZ were identified. Resource utilization was greater among patients with HZ than controls. After adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics, annual incremental health care costs for HZ patients vs. controls were $1,210 for patients aged 50-59 years, $1,629 for those 60-64 years, $1,876 for those 65-69 years, $2,643 for those 70-79 years, and $3,804 for those 80+ years; adjusted annual incremental costs among PHN patients vs. controls were $4,670 for patients 50-59 years, $6,133 for those 60-64 years, $6,451 for those 65-69 years, $8,548 for those 70-79 years, and $11,147 for those 80+ years. HZ is associated with a significant cost burden, which increases with advancing patient age. Vaccination may reduce costs associated with HZ through case avoidance.

  16. Osteoprotegerin autoantibodies do not predict low bone mineral density in middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaziri-Sani, Fariba; Brundin, Charlotte; Agardh, Daniel

    2017-12-01

    Autoantibodies against osteoprotegerin (OPG) have been associated with osteoporosis. The aim was to develop an immunoassay for OPG autoantibodies and test their diagnostic usefulness of identifying women general population with low bone mineral density. Included were 698 women at mean age 55.1 years (range 50.4-60.6) randomly selected from the general population. Measurement of wrist bone mineral density (g/cm 2 ) was performed of the non-dominant wrist by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A T-score density. Measurements of OPG autoantibodies were carried by radiobinding assays. Cut-off levels for a positive value were determined from the deviation from normality in the distribution of 398 healthy blood donors representing the 99.7th percentile. Forty-five of the 698 (6.6%) women were IgG-OPG positive compared with 2 of 398 (0.5%) controls ( p  density between IgG-OPG positive (median 0.439 (range 0.315-0.547) g/cm 2 ) women and IgG-OPG negative (median 0.435 (range 0.176-0.652) g/cm 2 ) women ( p  = 0.3956). Furthermore, there was neither a correlation between IgG-OPG levels and bone mineral density (r s  = 0.1896; p  = 0.2068) nor T-score (r s  = 0.1889; p  = 0.2086). Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of IgG-OPG for low bone mineral density were 5.7% and 92.9%, and positive and negative predictive values were 7.4% and 90.8%, respectively. Elevated OPG autoantibody levels do not predict low bone mineral density in middle-aged women selected from the general population.

  17. Statistical methods for determining the effect of mammography screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lophaven, Søren

    2016-01-01

    In an overview of five randomised controlled trials from Sweden, a reduction of 29% was found in breast cancer mortality in women aged 50-69 at randomisation after a follow up of 5-13 years. Organised, population based, mammography service screening was introduced on the basis of these resultsin...... in 2007-2008. Women aged 50-69 were invited to screening every second year. Taking advantage of the registers of population and health, we present statistical methods for evaluating the effect of mammography screening on breast cancer mortality (Olsen et al. 2005, Njor et al. 2015 and Weedon-Fekjær etal...

  18. [Prevalence of anemia in reproductive-age Mexican women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Villalpando, Salvador; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; De la Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa; Mejía-Rodríguez, Fabiola; Méndez Gómez-Humarán, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    To update the prevalence of anemia and its trend in Mexican women of childbearing age over the past 13 years using information from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012 and 2006 (ENSANUT 2012 and ENSANUT 2006, respectively) and from the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (ENN 99). Data came from three national probabilistic surveys, representative at regional and rural / urban level. Hemoglobin (Hb) in women was measured using a HemoCue photometer and classified as anemia according to the WHO criteria. Frequencies and CI95% were estimated for each survey (ENSANUT 2012, ENSANUT 2006 and ENN 99) as well as percentage changes in anemia prevalence among pregnant and non-pregnant women in this survey sequence. The national prevalence of anemia in 2012 in non-pregnant women was 11.6% and in pregnant women was 17.9%. Between 1999 and 2012, a 10 percentage point (pp) decreasing in anemia prevalence was observed in the first ones and a 13.5 pp in the second ones. Although it has declined in the past 13 years, anemia in women of childbearing age remains as a serious public health problem. It is considered necessary to design strategies to prevent iron deficiency and for the early detection of anemia in women.

  19. The impact of asymptomatic vertebral fractures on quality of life in older community-dwelling women: the São Paulo Ageing & Health Study

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    Jaqueline B. Lopes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of asymptomatic vertebral fractures on the quality of life in older women as part of the Sao Paulo Ageing & Health Study. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional study with a random sample of 180 women 65 years of age or older with or without vertebral fractures. The Quality of Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis was administered to all subjects. Anthropometric data were obtained by physical examination, and the body mass index was calculated. Lateral thoracic and lumbar spine X-ray scans were obtained to identify asymptomatic vertebral fractures using a semi-quantitative method. RESULTS: Women with asymptomatic vertebral fractures had lower total scores [61.4(15.3 vs. 67.1(14.2, p = 0.03] and worse physical function domain scores [69.5(20.1 vs. 77.3(17.1, p = 0.02] for the Quality of Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis compared with women without fractures. The total score of this questionnaire was also worse in women classified as obese than in women classified as overweight or normal. High physical activity was related to a better total score for this questionnaire (p = 0.01. Likewise, lower physical function scores were observed in women with higher body mass index values (p<0.05 and lower physical activity levels (p,0.05. Generalized linear models with gamma distributions and logarithmic link functions, adjusted for age, showed that lower total scores and physical function domain scores for the Quality of Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis were related to a high body mass index, lower physical activity, and the presence of vertebral fractures (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Vertebral fractures are associated with decreased quality of life mainly physical functioning in older community-dwelling women regardless of age, body mass index, and physical activity. Therefore, the results highlight the importance

  20. Social adaptation and quality of life in reproductive-aged women with epilepsy

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    Diana Viktorovna Dmitrenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality-of-life indicators are integral characteristics of treatment and diagnostic measures in modern epileptology.Objective: to assess the social adaptation and quality of life in reproductive-aged women with epilepsy.Subjects and methods. A sociological survey using the Quality of Life Satisfaction questionnaire and the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D was carried out in 352 women living in the Krasnoyarsk Territory.Results. At the time of the study, 21.3% of the patients were unemployed. Disability related to epilepsy was in 13.1% of women, mainly in those with cryptogenic (22.3% and symptomatic (14.4% epilepsy. Most of the women were unsatisfied with their job activity (55.1%, financial status (64.6%, and physical health (65.3%. Mainly the patients with symptomatic epilepsy reported dissatisfaction with their psychological status. The patients had employment problems (12.5%, inability to work in their specialty (12.5% and to get the desired specialty (10.3%, and labor maladaptation (8.8%. There was a preponderance of women with higher education (40.3% and 21.3% continued their studies. Warm family relations and help from relatives and friends (65.4%, hope for their recovery (50.7%, contacts with their friends (30.1%, and plans for future (34.6% were important for the women to control the disease.Conclusions. The findings suggest that family, personal, maternity problems are more important causes of social maladaptation in epileptic women.

  1. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Women of Reproductive Age: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Northwestern Mexican City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Corella-Madueno, Maria Alba Guadalupe; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Rascon-Careaga, Antonio; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Martinez-Robinson, Karla Guadalupe; Aldana-Madrid, Maria Lourdes; Quizan-Plata, Trinidad; Canez-Carrasco, Maria Guadalupe; Perez-Martinez, Cinthia Jhovanna

    2018-01-01

    Background Through a cross-sectional survey, we determined the seroprevalence and correlates of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection in women of reproductive age in Hermosillo City, Mexico. Methods We studied 445 women of reproductive age in Hermosillo City in the northwestern Mexican state of Sonora. Women were enrolled in the University of Sonora. Sera of women were examined for IgG and IgM antibodies to T. gondii by commercially available enzyme immunoassays. The association of T. gondii seropositivity with the characteristics of the pregnant women was determined by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Of the 445 women (mean age: 22.18 ± 5.6 years) studied, 16 (3.6%) had IgG antibodies to T. gondii, and two (12.5%) were also positive for IgM antibodies to T. gondii. Of the 16 anti-T. gondii IgG-positive women, six (37.5%) had IgG levels higher than 150 IU/mL, four (25.0%) between 100 and 150 IU/mL, and six (37.5%) between 9 and 99 IU/mL. Multivariate analysis of socio-demographic and behavioral variables showed that T. gondii seropositivity was associated with older age (odds ratio (OR): 5.30; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.37 - 20.50; P = 0.01) and boar meat consumption (OR: 6.86; 95% CI: 1.27 - 37.07; P = 0.02). Conclusions Women of reproductive age in Hermosillo City had a low seroprevalence of T. gondii infection. However, this finding indicates that most of these women were susceptible to a primary infection. Factors associated with T. gondii infection found in this study may be useful for the optimal planning of preventive measures against T. gondii infection and its sequelae. PMID:29416579

  2. The Effect of 8 Weeks of Aerobic Training on Adiponectin Levels and Quality of Life in Inactive Middle-Aged Women

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    Saba Sadegh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Middle aged is a sensitive period of life and paying attention to the issues and needs of this period is a social necessity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks aerobic training on levels of adiponectin and quality of life in middle aged women. Methods: 21 subjects with range of 50-60 year and BMI 22-25 kg/m2 were selected by convenience sampling method. Volunteers were randomly assigned into experimental (n=10 and control (n=11 groups. The eight weeks aerobic training included (3 times a week, 60 minutes per session, with intensity of 50-70 percent of reserve heart rate. Quality of life and adiponectin levels were taken at baseline and at the end of the study. Data were analyzed using paired and independent t-test for comparison of means within and between groups respectively. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. Results: Eight weeks aerobic exercise lead to the increase in adiponectin levels and subscales of quality of life such as: job, sensation, sexual scales and quality of life in inactive middle aged women (p<0.05. Significant difference was observed between active and inactive middle aged woman in weight, BMI, job, sensation and sexual scales(p<0.05. Conclusion: Eight weeks of aerobic training through improving the adiponectin levels among middle aged women can prevent the incidence of atherosclerosis diseases.

  3. A Lower-Limb Training Program to Improve Balance in Healthy Elderly Women Using the T-Bow (R) Device

    OpenAIRE

    Chulvi-Medrano, Iván; Colado, Juan Carlos; Pablos Abella, Carlos; Naclerio Ayllón, Fernando José; Garcia-Massó, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Ageing impairs balance, which increases the risk of falls. Fall-related injuries are a serious health problem associated with dependency and disability in the elderly and results in high costs to public health systems. This study aims to determine the effects of a training program to develop balance using a new device called the T-Bow (R). A total of 28 women > 65 years were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG) (n = 18; 69.50 [0.99] years), or a control group (CG) (n = 10; 70.70 [2...

  4. Detection of breast diseases in various age groups among women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vapnik, T.N.

    1981-01-01

    A comprehensive study among women in various age groups provided data on the detection of dyshormonal and tumorous diseases of the breast which are necessary for organizing preventive measures and identifying groups for screening. Data on the distribution of breast pathology in various age groups are presented. The highest percentage of pathology is marked in women aged 31 to 40, with focal lesions 4 times as many as in the previous age group [ru

  5. Immune activation in HIV-infected aging women on antiretrovirals--implications for age-associated comorbidities: a cross-sectional pilot study.

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    Maria L Alcaide

    Full Text Available Persistent immune activation and microbial translocation associated with HIV infection likely place HIV-infected aging women at high risk of developing chronic age-related diseases. We investigated immune activation and microbial translocation in HIV-infected aging women in the post-menopausal ages.Twenty-seven post-menopausal women with HIV infection receiving antiretroviral treatment with documented viral suppression and 15 HIV-negative age-matched controls were enrolled. Levels of immune activation markers (T cell immune phenotype, sCD25, sCD14, sCD163, microbial translocation (LPS and biomarkers of cardiovascular disease and impaired cognitive function (sVCAM-1, sICAM-1 and CXCL10 were evaluated.T cell activation and exhaustion, monocyte/macrophage activation, and microbial translocation were significantly higher in HIV-infected women when compared to uninfected controls. Microbial translocation correlated with T cell and monocyte/macrophage activation. Biomarkers of cardiovascular disease and impaired cognition were elevated in women with HIV infection and correlated with immune activation.HIV-infected antiretroviral-treated aging women who achieved viral suppression are in a generalized status of immune activation and therefore are at an increased risk of age-associated end-organ diseases compared to uninfected age-matched controls.

  6. [Comparative biochemistry of process of ageing in men and women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miakotnykh, V S; Berezina, D A; Borovkova, T A; Gavrilov, I V

    2014-01-01

    In the research of a number of biochemical indicators in 858 men and 899 women aged from 20 till 70 years divided into 6 compared groups depending on age and gender clear distinctions in the dynamics of the components of the lipid status, status of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activity of the blood system, the content of middlemolecular peptides are revealed. Simultaneous determination of the biological age of the subjects also revealed a distinct gender differencies testifying to lower rate of aging of men, despite the probability of earlier, in comparison with women, development of dislipidemia and atherosclerosis. Association of the received gender distinctions both with changes of level of estrogen in women due to menopause and with the peculiarities of stressful impacts on male and female organism in different age periods is supposed.

  7. Intimate Partner Violence among Women of Childbearing Age in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the prevalence and characteristics of intimate partner violence among women of childbearing age in a primary health centre. With interviewer-administered questionnaire, information on partner violence was elicited from three hundred women of childbearing age selected by systematic sampling in a ...

  8. Aging Impairs Whole-Body Heat Loss in Women under Both Dry and Humid Heat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notley, Sean R; Poirier, Martin P; Hardcastle, Stephen G; Flouris, Andreas D; Boulay, Pierre; Sigal, Ronald J; Kenny, Glen P

    2017-11-01

    This study was designed to determine whether age-related impairments in whole-body heat loss, which are known to exist in dry heat, also occur in humid heat in women. To evaluate this possibility, 10 young (25 ± 4 yr) and 10 older (51 ± 7 yr) women matched for body surface area (young, 1.69 ± 0.11; older, 1.76 ± 0.14 m, P = 0.21) and peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak) (young, 38.6 ± 4.6; older, 34.8 ± 6.6 mL·kg·min, P = 0.15) performed four 15-min bouts of cycling at a fixed metabolic heat production rate (300 W; equivalent to ~45% V˙O2peak), each separated by a 15-min recovery, in dry (35°C, 20% relative humidity) and humid heat (35°C, 60% relative humidity). Total heat loss (evaporative ± dry heat exchange) and metabolic heat production were measured using direct and indirect calorimetry, respectively. Body heat storage was measured as the temporal summation of heat production and loss. Total heat loss was lower in humid conditions compared with dry conditions during all exercise bouts in both groups (all P body heat storage in young and older women, respectively (both P body heat storage was 29% and 16% greater in older women compared with young women in dry and humid conditions, respectively (both P < 0.05). Increasing ambient humidity reduces heat loss capacity in young and older women. However, older women display impaired heat loss relative to young women in both dry and humid heat, and may therefore be at greater risk of heat-related injury during light-to-moderate activity.

  9. Metabolic syndrome and its components in Polish women of childbearing age: a nationwide study

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    Dorota Szostak-Węgierek

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormal body mass and related metabolic disorders may affect female reproductive health. The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight, obesity, lipid and glucose metabolism disorders, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome, among Polish women of childbearing age. Methods One thousand five hundred eighty-eight non-pregnant Polish women of childbearing age (20–49 years who participated in the Multi-Centre National Population Health Examination Survey (WOBASZ II study in 2013–2014, were assigned to 3 age groups: 20–29 years (n = 403, 30–39 years (n = 600 and 40–49 years (n = 585. Measurements of weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood lipids, and blood glucose were taken. For statistical analysis, the Kruskal-Wallis, Chi-Square, and Cohran-Armitage tests were used. Results Of the participants, 4.3% were determined to be underweight, 25.2% were overweight, 15% were obese, and 53.1% had abdominal obesity. With age, the prevalence of both excessive body mass and abdominal obesity tended to increase, and that of underweight to decrease. Frequency of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia found in the whole group were 50% and 12.6% respectively, and also tended to rise with age. Low serum HDL-cholesterol (high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were found in 15.1% of the participants. Prevalence of impaired fasting glucose in the whole group was 8.2% and tended to increase with age. Diabetes was found in 1.2% of the participants and its prevalence also tended to rise with age, at the borderline of significance. Frequency of arterial hypertension and metabolic syndrome in the whole group was 15.7% and 14.1% respectively and both tended to increase with age. Conclusions Overweight and obesity, especially of abdominal type, and the related metabolic abnormalities are common in Polish women of childbearing age. Their prevalence tends to increase with

  10. Metabolic syndrome and its components in Polish women of childbearing age: a nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak-Węgierek, Dorota; Waśkiewicz, Anna; Piotrowski, Walerian; Stepaniak, Urszula; Pająk, Andrzej; Kwaśniewska, Magdalena; Nadrowski, Paweł; Niklas, Arkadiusz; Puch-Walczak, Aleksandra; Drygas, Wojciech

    2017-07-13

    Abnormal body mass and related metabolic disorders may affect female reproductive health. The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight, obesity, lipid and glucose metabolism disorders, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome, among Polish women of childbearing age. One thousand five hundred eighty-eight non-pregnant Polish women of childbearing age (20-49 years) who participated in the Multi-Centre National Population Health Examination Survey (WOBASZ II study) in 2013-2014, were assigned to 3 age groups: 20-29 years (n = 403), 30-39 years (n = 600) and 40-49 years (n = 585). Measurements of weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood lipids, and blood glucose were taken. For statistical analysis, the Kruskal-Wallis, Chi-Square, and Cohran-Armitage tests were used. Of the participants, 4.3% were determined to be underweight, 25.2% were overweight, 15% were obese, and 53.1% had abdominal obesity. With age, the prevalence of both excessive body mass and abdominal obesity tended to increase, and that of underweight to decrease. Frequency of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia found in the whole group were 50% and 12.6% respectively, and also tended to rise with age. Low serum HDL-cholesterol (high density lipoprotein cholesterol) levels were found in 15.1% of the participants. Prevalence of impaired fasting glucose in the whole group was 8.2% and tended to increase with age. Diabetes was found in 1.2% of the participants and its prevalence also tended to rise with age, at the borderline of significance. Frequency of arterial hypertension and metabolic syndrome in the whole group was 15.7% and 14.1% respectively and both tended to increase with age. Overweight and obesity, especially of abdominal type, and the related metabolic abnormalities are common in Polish women of childbearing age. Their prevalence tends to increase with age. Underweight is relatively common in the youngest age group.

  11. Assessment of musculoskeletal system in women with jumping mechanography

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    Yannis Dionyssiotis

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Yannis Dionyssiotis1,2, Antonios Galanos1, Georgios Michas1, Georgios Trovas1, Georgios P Lyritis11Laboratory for Research of the Musculoskeletal System, University of Athens, KAT Hospital, Kifissia, Greece; 2Rehabilitation Department, Rhodes General Hospital, Rhodes, GreeceAbstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate and add reference data about the musculoskeletal system in women. The mechanography system of the Leonardo™ platform (Novotec, Germany was used to measure parameters of movement (velocity, force, power in 176 healthy Greek women aged 20–79 years, separated according to age decade in six groups: group 1 (n = 12, 20–29 years; group 2 (n = 14, 30–39 years; group 3 (n = 33, 40–49 years; group 4 (n = 59, 50–59 years including 21 postmenopausal; group 5 (n = 31, 60–69 years including 12 postmenopausal; and group 6 (n = 27, 70–79 years all postmenopausal. This system measures forces applied to the plate over time, calculates through acceleration the vertical velocity of center of gravity and using force and velocity it calculates power of vertical movements. All women performed a counter-movement jump (brief squat before the jump with freely moving arms. Weight was recorded on the platform before the jump and height was measured with a wall-mounted ruler. Body weight and body mass index were gradually increased; on the contrary height and all movement parameters except force (velocity, power were statistically decreased during aging and after menopause.Keywords: biomechanics, ground reaction force, power, women, menopause

  12. "The Pleasure Is Better as I've Gotten Older": Sexual Health, Sexuality, and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Older Women Living With HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tonya N; Munoz-Plaza, Corrine E; Goparaju, Lakshmi; Martinez, Omar; Holman, Susan; Minkoff, Howard L; Karpiak, Stephen E; Gandhi, Monica; Cohen, Mardge H; Golub, Elizabeth T; Levine, Alexandra M; Adedimeji, Adebola A; Gonsalves, Rebecca; Bryan, Tiffany; Connors, Nina; Schechter, Gabrielle; Wilson, Tracey E

    2017-05-01

    There is limited research examining the sexual health and well-being of older women living with HIV (OWLH). Most studies focus on sexual dysfunction, leaving aside the richer context of sexuality and sexual health, including the effect of age-related psychosocial and interpersonal changes on sexual health behaviors. Guided by the integrative biopsychosocial model and the sexual health model, this study explored the importance of sex and sexuality among OWLH to identify their sexual health and HIV prevention needs for program planning. A purposive sample (n = 50) of OWLH was selected from a parent study (n = 2052). We conducted 8 focus groups and 41 in-depth interviews with 50 African American and Latina OWLH aged 50-69 years old in three U.S. cities. The triangulation approach was used to synthesize the data. Six salient themes emerged: sexual pleasure changes due to age, sexual freedom as women age, the role of relationships in sexual pleasure, changes in sexual ability and sexual health needs, sexual risk behaviors, and ageist assumptions about older women's sexuality. We found that sexual pleasure and the need for intimacy continue to be important for OWLH, but that changing sexual abilities and sexual health needs, such as the reduction of sexual desire, as well as increased painful intercourse due to menopause-associated vaginal drying, were persistent barriers to sexual fulfillment and satisfaction. Particular interpersonal dynamics, including low perceptions of the risk of HIV transmission as related to gender, viral suppression, and habitual condomless sex with long-term partners without HIV transmission have resulted in abandoning safer sex practices with serodiscordant partners. These findings suggest that HIV prevention for OWLH should focus on how sexual function and satisfaction intersect with sexual risk. HIV prevention for OWLH should promote ways to maintain satisfying and safe sex lives among aging women.

  13. Health and socio-demographic profile of women of reproductive age in rural communities of southern Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacoor, Charfudin; Payne, Beth; Augusto, Orvalho; Vilanculo, Faustino; Nhacolo, Ariel; Vidler, Marianne; Makanga, Prestige Tatenda; Munguambe, Khátia; Lee, Tang; Macete, Eusébio; von Dadelszen, Peter; Sevene, Esperança

    2018-01-01

    Reliable statistics on maternal morbidity and mortality are scarce in low and middle-income countries, especially in rural areas. This is the case in Mozambique where many births happen at home. Furthermore, a sizeable number of facility births have inadequate registration. Such information is crucial for developing effective national and global health policies for maternal and child health. The aim of this study was to generate reliable baseline socio-demographic information on women of reproductive age as well as to establish a demographic surveillance platform to support the planning and implementation of the Community Level Intervention for Pre-eclampsia (CLIP) study, a cluster randomized controlled trial. This study represents a census of all women of reproductive age (12–49 years) in twelve rural communities in Maputo and Gaza provinces of Mozambique. The data were collected through electronic forms implemented in Open Data Kit (ODK) (an app for android based tablets) and household and individual characteristics. Verbal autopsies were conducted on all reported maternal deaths to determine the underlying cause of death. Between March and October 2014, 50,493 households and 80,483 women of reproductive age (mean age 26.9 years) were surveyed. A total of 14,617 pregnancies were reported in the twelve months prior to the census, resulting in 9,029 completed pregnancies. Of completed pregnancies, 8,796 resulted in live births, 466 resulted in stillbirths and 288 resulted in miscarriages. The remaining pregnancies had not yet been completed during the time of the survey (5,588 pregnancies). The age specific fertility indicates that highest rate (188 live births per 1,000 women) occurs in the age 20–24 years old. The estimated stillbirth rate was 50.3/1,000 live and stillbirths; neonatal mortality rate was 13.3/1,000 live births and maternal mortality ratio was 204.6/100,000 live births. The most common direct cause of maternal death was eclampsia and

  14. Health and socio-demographic profile of women of reproductive age in rural communities of southern Mozambique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charfudin Sacoor

    Full Text Available Reliable statistics on maternal morbidity and mortality are scarce in low and middle-income countries, especially in rural areas. This is the case in Mozambique where many births happen at home. Furthermore, a sizeable number of facility births have inadequate registration. Such information is crucial for developing effective national and global health policies for maternal and child health. The aim of this study was to generate reliable baseline socio-demographic information on women of reproductive age as well as to establish a demographic surveillance platform to support the planning and implementation of the Community Level Intervention for Pre-eclampsia (CLIP study, a cluster randomized controlled trial. This study represents a census of all women of reproductive age (12-49 years in twelve rural communities in Maputo and Gaza provinces of Mozambique. The data were collected through electronic forms implemented in Open Data Kit (ODK (an app for android based tablets and household and individual characteristics. Verbal autopsies were conducted on all reported maternal deaths to determine the underlying cause of death. Between March and October 2014, 50,493 households and 80,483 women of reproductive age (mean age 26.9 years were surveyed. A total of 14,617 pregnancies were reported in the twelve months prior to the census, resulting in 9,029 completed pregnancies. Of completed pregnancies, 8,796 resulted in live births, 466 resulted in stillbirths and 288 resulted in miscarriages. The remaining pregnancies had not yet been completed during the time of the survey (5,588 pregnancies. The age specific fertility indicates that highest rate (188 live births per 1,000 women occurs in the age 20-24 years old. The estimated stillbirth rate was 50.3/1,000 live and stillbirths; neonatal mortality rate was 13.3/1,000 live births and maternal mortality ratio was 204.6/100,000 live births. The most common direct cause of maternal death was eclampsia and

  15. Outcomes of hip arthroscopy in patients aged 50 years or older compared with a matched-pair control of patients aged 30 years or younger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domb, Benjamin G; Linder, Dror; Finley, Zachary; Botser, Itamar B; Chen, Austin; Williamson, Joseph; Gupta, Asheesh

    2015-02-01

    Age has been suggested as a negative prognostic factor for hip arthroscopy. The purpose of this study was to compare patient characteristics and outcomes after hip arthroscopy in patients aged 50 years or older with a matched control group of patients aged 30 years or younger at a minimum postoperative follow-up of 2 years. Between September 2008 and March 2010, data were prospectively collected on all patients aged 50 years or older undergoing primary hip arthroscopy. Fifty-two patients met our inclusion and matching criteria, of whom all 52 (100%) were available for follow-up at a minimum of 2 years. This cohort was compared with a matched-pair control group of patients aged 30 years or younger who underwent similar procedures. The mean age of the study group was 54.8 years (range, 50 to 69 years), and that of the control group was 20.3 years (range, 13 to 30 years). The groups were matched at a 1:1 ratio, including 18 male patients (34.6%) and 34 female patients (65.4%) in each group, with a mean follow-up period of 32 months (range, 24 to 54 months). In the younger control group, the score improvement from preoperatively to 2 years' follow-up was 62.9 to 84.2 for the modified Harris Hip Score, 60.5 to 84.2 for the Non-Arthritic Hip Score, 63.1 to 86.5 for the Hip Outcome Score-Activities of Daily Living, and 42.2 to 72.7 for the Hip Outcome Score-Sport-Specific Subscale. In the older study group, the score improvement from preoperatively to 2 years' follow-up was 61.2 to 82.2 for the modified Harris Hip Score, 59.9 to 80.4 for the Non-Arthritic Hip Score, 63.9 to 83 for the Hip Outcome Score-Activities of Daily Living, and 41.2 to 64.6 for the Hip Outcome Score-Sport-Specific Subscale. All improvements in both groups were statistically significant at the 2-year postoperative follow-up (P arthroscopy should be considered a valid treatment option when treating hip pain in patients aged 50 years or older with a Tönnis arthritic grade of 0 or 1. Older patients

  16. Muscle strength reduction is related to muscle loss in women over the age of 40. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n1p36

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Lera Orsatti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the influence of age on muscle mass (MM and muscle strength (MS of the upper and lower limbs in women older than 40 years. Fifty-two volunteers were divided into three age groups: 40-49 years (G40, n = 16, 50-59 years (G50, n = 18, and 60-70 years (G60, n = 18. MM was evaluated by bioelectrical impedance and MS by the 1RM test. One-way analysis of variance, Duncan’s test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient were used for statistical analysis. There was a significant difference in MM (p < 0.05 of 10.1% between G40 and G50 and of 7.5% between G50 and G60, corresponding to 16.8% in the two decades (G40/G60. Lower limb MS was 16.4% lower between G40 and G50 and 12.5% between G50 and G60, corresponding to 25.3% in the two decades (p < 0.05. In the upper limbs, there was no significant difference in MS between G40 and G50 (3.3% and 2.5% bench curl or between G50 and G60 (17.5% and 9.6%, corresponding to 20.2% and 12.2% in the two decades, respectively. The sum of MS was corrected by MM (MS/MM and no significant differences were observed between groups. Comparison of MM and MS showed a closer correlation in the lower limbs (r = 0.57 when compared to the upper limbs (r = 0.42 and r = 0.41, respectively. In conclusion, women presented lower MM and MS in the lower limbs as early as in the fifth decade of life. MS/MM does not change in women between 40 and 60 years when compared according to age group. Reduced MM seems to be an important for the lower MS observed in women between 40 and 60 years of age.

  17. Muscle strength reduction is related to muscle loss in women over the age of 40 DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n1p36

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Lera Orsatti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the influence of age on muscle mass (MM and muscle strength (MS of the upper and lower limbs in women older than 40 years. Fifty-two volunteers were divided into three age groups: 40-49 years (G40, n = 16, 50-59 years (G50, n = 18, and 60-70 years (G60, n = 18. MM was evaluated by bioelectrical impedance and MS by the 1RM test. One-way analysis of variance, Duncan’s test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient were used for statistical analysis. There was a significant difference in MM (p < 0.05 of 10.1% between G40 and G50 and of 7.5% between G50 and G60, corresponding to 16.8% in the two decades (G40/G60. Lower limb MS was 16.4% lower between G40 and G50 and 12.5% between G50 and G60, corresponding to 25.3% in the two decades (p < 0.05. In the upper limbs, there was no significant difference in MS between G40 and G50 (3.3% and 2.5% bench curl or between G50 and G60 (17.5% and 9.6%, corresponding to 20.2% and 12.2% in the two decades, respectively. The sum of MS was corrected by MM (MS/MM and no significant differences were observed between groups. Comparison of MM and MS showed a closer correlation in the lower limbs (r = 0.57 when compared to the upper limbs (r = 0.42 and r = 0.41, respectively. In conclusion, women presented lower MM and MS in the lower limbs as early as in the fifth decade of life. MS/MM does not change in women between 40 and 60 years when compared according to age group. Reduced MM seems to be an important for the lower MS observed in women between 40 and 60 years of age.

  18. Childhood conditions and current physical performance among non-institutionalized individuals aged 50+ in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Galit

    2016-12-01

    Adverse socioeconomic conditions in childhood have been previously linked with high risk of various health conditions. However, the association with future physical function has been less studied. Hand grip strength and chair-rising time are objective measures of physical capability indicating current and future health outcomes. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that perceived socio-economic status in childhood is related to current measures of physical function, among Israeli participants of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe project. The study included 2300 participants aged 50 years or older (mean age 68 ± 10; 56 % women). Generalized linear regression models were used to examine the associations of childhood wealth and number of books in residence with grip strength and time to complete five rises from a chair. Logistic regression models were used to assess the relationships between the early life conditions and the ability to perform the physical tests. Adjustment was made for current income or household wealth, and for demographic, anthropometric, health, and life-style measures. Being wealthy and having a large number of books at home in childhood was associated with a stronger hand grip and a better chair-rise test performance. These associations were more robust in women compared to men, and persisted after adjustment for potential covariates. In addition, childhood wealth and number of books were associated with lower risk of being unable to perform the tests. Thus, early-life programming may contribute to physical function indicators in mid- and late-life.

  19. Screening mammography in women 65 years old and older

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, E.; Mulligan, S.A.; Han, S.Y.; Bernreuter, W.K.; Stanley, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper compares the results of mammographic screening in women aged 65 years and older to those of women aged 50--64 years, to define risk factors and prior use of mammography in these women, and to determine whether mammographic abnormalities are managed differently in the two age groups. Historical data, mammographic findings, and biopsy results were analyzed for all women over 50 years of age screened during 1988 (2,862 patients) at a university hospital-based outpatient center and mobile van, excluding those referred by oncologists. The following factors were determined for patients screened at the outpatient center and the mobile van, with both groups divided according to patient age (50--64 vs ≥ 65 years): presence of risk factors, previous biopsy, exogenous hormones, percentage of black patients, previous mammography, biopsy rate, cancer detection rate, positive nodes, and presence of tumors smaller than 1 cm or ductal carcinoma in-situ

  20. Beliefs about menopause of general practitioners and mid-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, K; Hunter, M S; White, P

    1994-12-01

    Recent general population studies suggest that experience of the normal menopause transition is relatively unremarkable for the majority of women, but negative stereotyped beliefs about menopause remain pervasive. This study explored GPs' beliefs and opinions about menopause in general, and compared the GPs' beliefs with those of their mid-aged female patients. All GPs at five general practices (n = 24) and 101 45-year-old women registered at the same practices took part. Large proportions of both groups believed that most women experience somatic and psychological difficulties during menopause. GPs expressed more negative beliefs than patients but were also more likely to express positive/neutral beliefs. Some causal attributions of menopausal problems were shared by the two groups, but they differed on others. When both GPs and patients hold negative social stereotypes about menopause, problems of mid-aged women may be misattributed to menopause. Health information on menopause may be biased towards negative images of menopause and of aging women.

  1. Proinsulin, adiponectin and hsCRP in reproductive age women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)--the effect of metformin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruszyńska, Aleksandra; Słowińska-Srzednicka, Jadwiga; Jeske, Wojciech; Zgliczyński, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) often suffer from obesity and insulin resistance. The role of proinsulin, which is known to be an indicator of fertility outcomes in PCOS women, and that of adiponectin, in the pathogenesis of PCOS is not well elucidated. Our objective was to determine proinsulin, adiponectin, hsCRP and other hormonal and metabolic parameters in PCOS women before and after metformin treatment. Two PCOS groups of patients of reproductive age (90 lean and 88 obese or overweight) with two control groups, adjusted for body mass index (BMI), were compared at baseline. 32 PCOS women were studied at baseline, after three and six months of metformin (1,000 mg/day) treatment. Clinical, anthropometric, biochemical and hormonal parameters were assessed. Proinsulin and hsCRP levels were the highest in obese PCOS women and were statistically different than in lean PCOS women (proinsulin: 11.4 v. 6.9 pmol/L; hsCRP 2.46 v. 0.47 mg/L, p treatment only in obese PCOS women. PCOS, when accompanied by obesity, is associated with elevated proinsulin concentrations, which correlates with higher hsCRP and increased FAI. Proinsulin level decreases due to metformin treatment. Our results suggest that obese or overweight PCOS and lean PCOS are characterised by different hormonal and metabolic parameters and have a different response to metformin treatment.

  2. Predictors of Bone Mineral Density in African-American and Caucasian College Aged Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea K. Johnson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research regarding risk factors and prevalence of low bone min-eral density (BMD among African-American and Caucasian college-aged wom-en are limited. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine if selected predictors of BMD in African-American and Caucasian college-aged women differ by race.Methods: A total of 101 local African-American (n=50 and Caucasian (n=51 females, ages 18 to 30 years, were in this study. All data were collected in the Bone Density and Body Composition Laboratory. BMD was measured using DXA technology. Race, family history of osteoporosis, BMI, current physical activity, osteoporosis knowledge, length of time on oral contraceptives, age at menarche and calcium intake were included in the multiple regression analyses with spinal and femoral BMD as dependent variables.Results: Overall, 38.6% had low spinal BMD and 7.9% had low femoral BMD. BMI (β=0.073, R2 = .148, P = .001, 95% CI [0.030, 0.116] and current physical activity (β=0.071, R2 = .148, P = .017, 95% CI [0.013, 0.129] were the only variables that were statistically significant in predicting spinal BMD. BMI (β=0.056, R2 = .13, P = .010, 95% CI [0.014, 0.098] and current physical activ-ity (β=0.078, R2 = .13, P = .007, 95% CI [0.022, 0.134] were also the only varia-bles that were statistically significant in predicting femoral BMD. Race was not a significant predictor of spinal or femoral BMD.Conclusion: It is imperative for both African-American and Caucasian women to engage in osteoporosis-preventive behaviors.

  3. Incidence and Management of Uncomplicated Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in a National Sample of Women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suskind, Anne M; Saigal, Christopher S; Hanley, Janet M; Lai, Julie; Setodji, Claude M; Clemens, J Quentin

    2016-04-01

    To determine the incidence and characteristics of women with uncomplicated recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) and to explore whether the use of culture-driven treatment affects rates of UTI-related complications and resource utilization. Using MarketScan claims from 2003 to 2011, we identified UTI-naive women ages 18-64 with incident-uncomplicated recurrent UTIs. Recurrent UTIs were defined as 3 UTI visits associated with antibiotics during a 12-month period. Cases were excluded if they had a UTI in the preceding year, or if they had any complicating factors (eg, abnormality of the urinary tract, neurologic condition, pregnancy, diabetes, or currently taking immunosuppression). We next assessed use of urine cultures, imaging, and cystoscopy, and performed propensity score matching with logistic regression to determine whether having a urine culture associated with >50% of UTIs affected rates of complications and downstream resource utilization. We identified 48,283 women with incident-uncomplicated recurrent UTIs, accounting for an overall incidence of 102 per 100,000 women, highest among women ages 18-34 and 55-64. Sixty-one percent of these women had at least 1 urine culture, 6.9% had imaging, and 2.8% had cystoscopy. Having a urine culture >50% of the time was associated with fewer UTI-related hospitalizations and lower rates of intravenous antibiotic use, whereas demonstrating higher rates of UTI-related office visits and pyelonephritis. The incidence of uncomplicated recurrent UTIs increases with age. Urine culture-directed care is beneficial in reducing high-cost services including UTI-related hospitalizations and intravenous antibiotic use, making urine cultures a valuable component to management of these patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Change in bone mineral density as a function of age in women and men and association with the use of antiresorptive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Claudie; Langsetmo, Lisa; Joseph, Lawrence; Hanley, David A; Davison, K Shawn; Josse, Robert; Kreiger, Nancy; Tenenhouse, Alan; Goltzman, David

    2008-06-17

    Measurement of bone mineral density is the most common method of diagnosing and assessing osteoporosis. We sought to estimate the average rate of change in bone mineral density as a function of age among Canadians aged 25-85, stratified by sex and use of antiresorptive agents. We examined a longitudinal cohort of 9423 participants. We measured the bone mineral density in the lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck at baseline in 1995-1997, and at 3-year (participants aged 40-60 years only) and 5-year follow-up visits. We used the measurements to compute individual rates of change. Bone loss in all 3 skeletal sites began among women at age 40-44. Bone loss was particularly rapid in the total hip and was greatest among women aged 50-54 who were transitioning from premenopause to postmenopause, with a change from baseline of -6.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] -7.5% to -4.9%) over 5 years. The rate of decline, particularly in the total hip, increased again among women older than 70 years. Bone loss in all 3 skeletal sites began at an earlier age (25-39) among men than among women. The rate of decline of bone density in the total hip was nearly constant among men 35 and older and then increased among men older than 65. Use of antiresorptive agents was associated with attenuated bone loss in both sexes among participants aged 50-79. The period of accelerated loss of bone mineral density in the hip bones occurring among women and men older than 65 may be an important contributor to the increased incidence of hip fracture among patients in that age group. The extent of bone loss that we observed in both sexes indicates that, in the absence of additional risk factors or therapy, repeat testing of bone mineral density to diagnose osteoporosis could be delayed to every 5 years.

  5. High prevalence of thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency in early childhood among a nationally representative sample of Cambodian women of childbearing age and their children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Kyly C; Smith, Geoffry; Chamnan, Chhoun

    2017-01-01

    the thiamine status (measured as erythrocyte thiamine diphosphate concentrations; eThDP) among a representative sample of Cambodian women of childbearing age (15-49 y) and their young children (6-69 mo). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Samples for this cross-sectional analysis were collected as part...... of a national micronutrient survey linked to the Cambodian Demographic and Health Survey (CDHS) 2014. One-sixth of households taking part in the CDHS were randomly selected and re-visited for additional blood sampling for eThDP analysis (719 women and 761 children). Thiamine status was assessed using different...... cut-offs from literature. Women were mean (SD) 30 (6) y, and children (46% girls) were 41 (17) mo. Women had lower mean (95% CI) eThDP of 150 nmol/L (146-153) compared to children, 174 nmol/L (171-179; P

  6. Contraceptive prevalence and determinants among women of reproductive age group in Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeyemi AS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Adewale S Adeyemi,1 Adenike I Olugbenga-Bello,2 Oluwatosin A Adeoye,3 Moshood O Salawu,3 Adesola A Aderinoye,3 Michael A Agbaje1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 2Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH, Osogbo, Osun State, 3Department of Community Medicine, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria Background: The fertility rate in Nigeria is 5.7 children per woman. The contraceptive prevalence rate has been found to be low at 15% in 2013, compared to other countries such as the US and Pakistan. Objective: The study aimed to assess the contraceptive prevalence among women of reproductive age in Ogbomoso town, and determinants of use, with a view to make appropriate recommendations that will enhance the uptake of family planning services. Materials and methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted with 560 respondents, using a multistage sampling technique. Data were retrieved using a semi-structured, pretested questionnaire. Results: All the respondents were aware of contraception; however, only 49.7% (271 had ever used any method, while 25.4% (69 of the number who had ever used contraception were currently using a method. The methods being used were the traditional type (four [5.9%], natural type (two [3.0%], and modern type (63 [91.1%]. The predictors of contraception use included the age group of 40–49 years (odds ratio [OR] 14.1; confidence interval [CI] 3.06–73.24; P=0.0001; the married women were approximately four times more likely to use contraception than the single women (OR 4.5; CI 3.03–6.72; P<0.0001. The women with tertiary level of education were three times more likely to use contraception than those without formal education (OR 3.1; CI 1.13–9.95; P=0.0268, and the odds ratio of respondents with a positive attitude to using contraception more than those with negative attitude was 2

  7. Attitudes towards and knowledge about intrauterine contraceptive devices among women in the reproductive age group in a resourceconstrained setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Monji Builu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. One of the strategies to reduce maternal mortality includes accessible and appropriate contraceptive services to all women. The intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD has been identified as a cheap and effective means of contraception by the South African National Department of Health.Objective. To explore knowledge about the IUCD among women using the public health sector and identify any misconceptions.Methods. A sample of 150 women attending antenatal/postnatal clinics were interviewed using a structured questionnaire.Results. Forty-six percent (n=69 had some experience with the injectable form of contraception, and 2.7% (n=4 had used the IUCD; 70.7% (n=106 knew that the device does not prevent HIV transmission, 40.7% (n=61 knew that HIV-positive women can use the IUCD, 75.3% (n=113 believed that the IUCD causes heavy bleeding, 36.7% (n=55 knew that the device does not stop fertility indefinitely, 33.3% (n=50 knew that the IUCD can be inserted in the immediate postpartum period, and 26.7% (n=40 knew that the duration of use is 10 years. In terms of attitudes, 40.0% (n=60 expressed concern about the pain during insertion, 33.3% (n=50 believed the IUCD can cause cancer, and 32.0% (n=48 believed that the device interferes with normal sexual activities. Most participants 77.3% (n=116 acquired the information they had about the IUCD from the clinic during teaching and counselling sessions.Conclusion. This survey documented poor knowledge about the IUCD among women using the public health sector. However, the fact that there are few misconceptions and that clients rely on the clinic information should be seen as an opportunity to improve the situation. 

  8. 15 CFR 50.5 - Fee structure for age search and citizenship information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... THE CENSUS § 50.5 Fee structure for age search and citizenship information. Type of service Fee... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fee structure for age search and citizenship information. 50.5 Section 50.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and...

  9. Lifelong physical activity in maintaining bone strength in older men and women of the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rianon, N J; Lang, T F; Sigurdsson, G; Eiriksdottir, G; Sigurdsson, S; Garcia, M; Pajala, S; Koster, A; Yu, B; Selwyn, B J; Taylor, W C; Kapadia, A S; Gudnason, V; Launer, L J; Harris, T B

    2012-09-01

    We examined if lifelong physical activity is important for maintaining bone strength in the elderly. Associations of quantitative computerized tomography-acquired bone measures (vertebral and femoral) and self-reported physical activity in mid-life (mean age, 50 years), in old age (≥65 years), and throughout life (recalled during old age) were investigated in 2,110 men and 2,682 women in the AGES-Reykjavik Study. Results conclude lifelong physical activity with continuation into old age (≥65 years) best maintains better bone health later in life. Skeletal loading is thought to modulate the loss of bone in later life, and physical activity is a chief means of affecting bone strength by skeletal loading. Despite much discussion regarding lifelong versus early adulthood physical activity for preventing bone loss later in life, inconsistency still exists regarding how to maintain bone mass later in life (≥65 years). We examined if lifelong physical activity is important for maintaining bone strength in the elderly. The associations of quantitative computerized tomography-acquired vertebral and femoral bone measures and self-reported physical activity in mid-life (mean age, 50 years), in old age (≥65 years), and throughout life (recalled during old age) were investigated in 2,110 men and 2,682 women in the AGES-Reykjavik Study. Our findings conclude that lifelong physical activity with continuation into old age (≥65 years) best maintains better bone health in the elderly.

  10. A population based study of variations in operation rates for breast cancer, of comorbidity and prognosis at diagnosis: failure to operate for early breast cancer in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, T; Evans, T; Lagord, C; Monypenny, I; Kearins, O; Lawrence, G

    2014-10-01

    Older women are less likely to have surgery for operable breast cancer. This population-based study examines operation rates by age and identifies groups which present with early or late disease. 37 000 cancer registrations for 2007 were combined with Hospital Episode Statistics comorbidity data for England. Operation rates were examined by age, ethnicity, deprivation, comorbidity, screen-detection, tumour size, grade and nodal status. Early and late presentation were correlated with Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI) groups and tumour size. The proportion of women not having surgery increased from 7-10% at ages 35-69 to 82% from age 90. From age 70, the proportion not having surgery rose by an average of 3.1% per year of age. Women with a Charlson Comorbidity Index score of ≥1 (which increased with age), with tumours >50 mm or who were node positive, were less likely to have surgery. Although women aged 70-79 were more likely to have larger tumours, their tumours were also more likely to have an excellent or good NPI (p ethnic groups (p ethnic groups presented with more advanced tumours. Older women had larger tumours which were otherwise of good prognosis, and this would not account for the failure to operate which may in part be related to comorbidity in this age group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Functional abilities in aging women with Rett syndrome - the Danish cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schönewolf-Greulich, Bitten; Stahlhut, Michelle; Larsen, Jane Lunding

    2017-01-01

    though the syndrome causes severe psychomotor disability, women with RTT can live long into adulthood. PURPOSE: We aim to describe what to expect from aging women with RTT regarding some of the basic functional abilities that are used in daily activities and that could have an impact on quality of life...... that can be difficult to recognize. Implications for rehabilitation 3/4 of aging RTT women are household ambulators - daily training of motor functions and focus on assisting the initiation of movements are needed lifelong to maintain walking ability and participation in daily activities More than half...... in these women. METHODS: A team of two medical doctors, a physiotherapist and an educational psychological adviser, performed clinical evaluations of 27 women with RTT in Denmark above 30 years of age and confirmed MECP2 mutation. RESULTS: We found that 63% of the women were able to walk outside their homes...

  12. Post-School-Age Training among Women: Training Methods and Labor Market Outcomes at Older Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Elizabeth T.

    2001-01-01

    Uses the NLS Mature Women's Cohort to examine Labor Market effects of education and training at preretirement age. Younger, more educated women tend to train more than older women. On-the-job training is more strongly associated with wage growth than is formal education. (Contains 18 references.) (MLH)

  13. [Melatonin secretion in women of advanced reproductive age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolenko, K S; Rapoport, S I; Solov'eva, A V

    2013-01-01

    The patient's age is a key factor determining success of in vitro fertilization. The ovarian reserve and oocyte quality are known to decrease with age. Much attention has been given recently to the role of epiphysis and its hormone, melatonin, in synchronization of daily and seasonal biorhythms in anti-stress protection and neuroregulation of reproductive processes. The aim of our work was to study melatonin levels in infertile women of reproductive age. We also measured sex hormones, anti-Mullerian hormone, FSH, and LH in blood and melatonin sulfate in urine at 8 points (RIA). Women of advanced reproductive age showed markedly reduced melatonin secretion due to functional disorders in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Results of the study suggest the necessity of prescription of exogenous melatonin to the patients included in assisted reproduction programs for the improvement of their efficacy.

  14. Pregnancy Weight Gain by Gestational Age in Women with Uncomplicated Dichorionic Twin Pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Platt, Robert W; Abrams, Barbara; Braxter, Betty J; Eckhardt, Cara L; Himes, Katherine P; Bodnar, Lisa M

    2018-03-01

    Twin pregnancies are at increased risk for adverse outcomes and are associated with greater gestational weight gain compared to singleton pregnancies. Studies that disentangle the relationship between gestational duration, weight gain and adverse outcomes are needed to inform weight gain guidelines. We created charts of the mean, standard deviation and select percentiles of maternal weight gain-for-gestational age in twin pregnancies and compared them to singleton curves. We abstracted serial prenatal weight measurements of women delivering uncomplicated twin pregnancies at Magee-Womens Hospital (Pittsburgh, PA, 1998-2013) and merged them with the hospital's perinatal database. Hierarchical linear regression was used to express pregnancy weight gain as a smoothed function of gestational age according to pre-pregnancy BMI category. Charts of week- and day-specific values for the mean, standard deviation, and percentiles of maternal weight gain were created. Prenatal weight measurements (median: 11 [interquartile range: 9, 13] per woman) were available for 1109 women (573 normal weight, 287 overweight, and 249 obese). The slope of weight gain was most pronounced in normal weight women and flattened with increasing pre-pregnancy BMI (e.g. 50th percentiles of 6.8, 5.7, and 3.6 kg at 20 weeks and 19.8, 18.1, and 14.4 at 37 weeks in normal weight, overweight, and obese women, respectively). Weight gain patterns in twins diverged from singletons after 17-19 weeks. Our charts provide a tool for the classification of maternal weight gain in twin pregnancies. Future work is needed to identify the range of weight gain associated with optimal pregnancy health outcomes. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Gender and age differences in mixed metal exposure and urinary excretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, Marika, E-mail: Marika.Berglund@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Lindberg, Anna-Lena [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Rahman, Mahfuzar; Yunus, Mohammad [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research (Bangladesh); Grander, Margaretha [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Loennerdal, Bo [Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Vahter, Marie [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-11-15

    Background: Little is known about the variation in exposure to toxic metals by age and gender and other potential modifying factors. We evaluated age and gender differences by measurements of metal/element concentrations in urine in a rural population in Matlab, Bangladesh, in three age groups: 8-12 (N=238), 14-15 (N=107) and 30-88 (N=710) years of age, living in an area with no point sources of metal exposure but where elevated water arsenic concentrations are prevalent. Results: We found marked differences in urine concentrations of metals and trace elements by gender, age, tobacco use, socioeconomic and nutritional status. Besides a clearly elevated urinary arsenic concentration in all age groups (medians 63-85 {mu}g As/L), and despite the low degree of contamination from industries and traffic, the urine concentrations of toxic metals such as cadmium and lead were clearly elevated, especially in children (median 0.31 {mu}g Cd/L and 2.9 {mu}g Pb/L, respectively). In general, women had higher urinary concentrations of toxic metals, especially Cd (median 0.81 {mu}g/L) compared to men (0.66 {mu}g/L) and U (median 10 ng/L in women, compared to 6.4 ng/L in men), while men had higher urinary concentrations of the basic and essential elements Ca (69 mg/L in men, 30-50 years, compared to 52 mg/L in women), Mg (58 mg/L in men compared to 50 mg/L in women), Zn (182 {mu}g/L in men compared to 117 {mu}g/L in women) and Se (9.9 {mu}g/L in men compared to 8.7 {mu}g/L in women). Manganese was consistently higher in females than in males in all age groups, suggesting a biological difference between females and males in Mn metabolism. Increasing socioeconomic status decreased the toxic metal exposure significantly in children and especially in men. Poor iron status was detected in 17% of children, adolescents and women, but only in 6% of men. Also zinc deficiency was more prevalent in females than in males. Conclusions: Women and children seemed to be more at risk for toxic

  16. Gender and age differences in mixed metal exposure and urinary excretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, Marika; Lindberg, Anna-Lena; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Yunus, Mohammad; Grandér, Margaretha; Lönnerdal, Bo; Vahter, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the variation in exposure to toxic metals by age and gender and other potential modifying factors. We evaluated age and gender differences by measurements of metal/element concentrations in urine in a rural population in Matlab, Bangladesh, in three age groups: 8–12 (N=238), 14–15 (N=107) and 30–88 (N=710) years of age, living in an area with no point sources of metal exposure but where elevated water arsenic concentrations are prevalent. Results: We found marked differences in urine concentrations of metals and trace elements by gender, age, tobacco use, socioeconomic and nutritional status. Besides a clearly elevated urinary arsenic concentration in all age groups (medians 63–85 μg As/L), and despite the low degree of contamination from industries and traffic, the urine concentrations of toxic metals such as cadmium and lead were clearly elevated, especially in children (median 0.31 μg Cd/L and 2.9 μg Pb/L, respectively). In general, women had higher urinary concentrations of toxic metals, especially Cd (median 0.81 μg/L) compared to men (0.66 μg/L) and U (median 10 ng/L in women, compared to 6.4 ng/L in men), while men had higher urinary concentrations of the basic and essential elements Ca (69 mg/L in men, 30–50 years, compared to 52 mg/L in women), Mg (58 mg/L in men compared to 50 mg/L in women), Zn (182 μg/L in men compared to 117 μg/L in women) and Se (9.9 μg/L in men compared to 8.7 μg/L in women). Manganese was consistently higher in females than in males in all age groups, suggesting a biological difference between females and males in Mn metabolism. Increasing socioeconomic status decreased the toxic metal exposure significantly in children and especially in men. Poor iron status was detected in 17% of children, adolescents and women, but only in 6% of men. Also zinc deficiency was more prevalent in females than in males. Conclusions: Women and children seemed to be more at risk for toxic metal

  17. Assessment of self-esteem in mid-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chedraui, Peter; Pérez-López, Faustino R; Mendoza, Marcela; Leimberg, María L; Martinez, María A; Vallarino, Varinia; Hidalgo, Luis

    2010-05-01

    To assess self-esteem and affecting factors in a middle-aged Ecuadorian female population using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). This was a cross-sectional study in which 149 women (40-59 years) were requested to fill out the RSES and a general socio-demographic form containing personal and partner data. Mean age of sample was 47.6+/-5.5 years, a 67.8% had less than 12 years of schooling and 33.6% were postmenopausal. At the moment of the survey 2.7% were on hormone therapy, and 2% were taking psychotropic drugs. Mean total RSES score was 26.6+/-3.1 (median 26, range 17-35). A 35.6% and 18.1% of women respectively presented total RSES scores below 26 (median) and 25 (25th percentile) suggesting lower self-esteem. Total scores did not differ when comparing older age, menopausal phases or time since the menopause. Logistic regression analysis determined that women with lower parity and an unhealthy partner were related to lower total RSES scores (below the 25th percentile) suggesting lower self-esteem. In this mid-aged series lower self-esteem was not related to the aging process per se yet to socio-demographic female/male aspects. More research is needed in this regard that incorporates other sociological aspects. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The impact of obesity on foot morphology in women aged 48 years or older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristína Tománková

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is major risk factor for many diseases within society and represents extensive loads for the feet which lead to various foot disorders and deformities. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of obesity as represented by percent body fat (PBF on foot morphology. Methods: The study sample included 139 Czech women aged 48-69 years. The women were divided into two groups by PBF: non-obese women (NOW (n = 66; PBF < 35% and obese women (OW (n = 73; PBF > 35%. Measurements included % PBF and width, length and angle dimensions of foot. The Chippaux-Smirak index (CSI was calculated for each foot. Results: We found significant differences between OW and NOW in these parameters: direct forefoot width (sin. p = .02, rpb = .20, direct heel width (sin. p = .01, rpb = .22; dex. p < .01, rpb = .22, hallux angle (sin. p = .01, rpb = .25 and CSI (sin. p < .01, rpb = .26; dex. p < .01, rpb = .27. The results showed that the mean values of the heel width and CSI were significantly higher in OW on both feet, the mean values of forefoot width only on the left foot. Conclusions: Results proved that obesity impacts all parts of the foot (heel, longitudinal foot arch, forefoot. Despite significant differences of the CSI between NOW and OW, the number of subjects with flat feet was in both groups negligible.

  19. Intimate partner violence and prescription of potentially addictive drugs: prospective cohort study of women in the Oslo Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyb, Grete; Tverdal, Aage; Jacobsen, Geir Wenberg; Schei, Berit

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the prescription of potentially addictive drugs, including analgesics and central nervous system depressants, to women who had experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). Design Prospective population-based cohort study. Setting Information about IPV from the Oslo Health Study 2000/2001 was linked with prescription data from the Norwegian Prescription Database from 1 January 2004 through 31 December 2009. Participants The study included 6081 women aged 30–60 years. Main outcome measures Prescription rate ratios (RRs) for potentially addictive drugs derived from negative binomial models, adjusted for age, education, paid employment, marital status, chronic musculoskeletal pain, mental distress and sleep problems. Results Altogether 819 (13.5%) of 6081 women reported ever experiencing IPV: 454 (7.5%) comprised physical and/or sexual IPV and 365 (6.0%) psychological IPV alone. Prescription rates for potentially addictive drugs were clearly higher among women who had experienced IPV: crude RRs were 3.57 (95% CI 2.89 to 4.40) for physical/sexual IPV and 2.13 (95% CI 1.69 to 2.69) for psychological IPV alone. After full adjustment RRs were 1.83 (1.50 to 2.22) for physical/sexual IPV, and 1.97 (1.59 to 2.45) for psychological IPV alone. Prescription rates were increased both for potentially addictive analgesics and central nervous system depressants. Furthermore, women who reported IPV were more likely to receive potentially addictive drugs from multiple physicians. Conclusions Women who had experienced IPV, including psychological violence alone, more often received prescriptions for potentially addictive drugs. Researchers and clinicians should address the possible adverse health and psychosocial impact of such prescription and focus on developing evidence-based healthcare for women who have experienced IPV. PMID:22492384

  20. Can an evidence-based book club intervention delivered via a tablet computer improve physical activity in middle-aged women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Diane K; Huberty, Jennifer L; de Vreede, Gert-Jan

    2015-02-01

    Fewer than 50% of middle-aged women participate in regular physical activity (PA). Innovative approaches that engage women who may not otherwise participate in PA programs are warranted. The purpose of this study was to explore the acceptability and feasibility of a 12-week tablet-based book club for improving middle-aged women's PA. Thirty women (35-64 years of age) were randomized to the Fit Minded Tablet (n=15) and the Standard Fit Minded (i.e., face-to-face intervention) (n=15) groups. The Fit Minded Tablet was adapted from the Standard Fit Minded, a previously tested, theory-based book club intervention using books as a platform for discussion and group support to help women adopt regular PA. Both interventions met weekly for 3 months, for a total of 12 sessions. Tablet group participants accessed materials (e.g., e-books, workbook, live/recorded videoconferencing) via a tablet computer; Standard group participants received materials (e.g., printed books, workbook, live face-to-face meetings) in person. Feasibility (i.e., implementation and expansion) was assessed using process evaluation, qualitative interviews, satisfaction surveys, and quantitative outcome assessments. Women in the Tablet group attended fewer meetings (mean, 8.25) than women in the Standard group (mean, 9.9). Videoconferencing, digital literacy, and participant engagement limitations were observed in the Tablet group. Tablet participants enjoyed the e-books but thought technology barriers hindered their engagement during meetings. Women in both groups valued the support they received from other group members. Standard participants cited this support as a key contributor to their PA changes, whereas Tablet participants reported needing in-person contact to feel more connected. Given the popularity of tablet computers and the value that middle-aged women place on group interaction to support their PA behaviors, additional research is warranted to determine best strategies for optimizing

  1. Diabetes and modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease: the prospective Million Women Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Elizabeth A.; Pirie, Kirstin L.; Stevens, Richard J.; Beral, Valerie; Brown, Anna; Liu, Bette; Green, Jane; Reeves, Gillian K.

    2008-01-01

    To compare the effect of potentially modifiable lifestyle factors on the incidence of vascular disease in women with and without diabetes. In 1996-2001 over one million middle-aged women in the UK joined a prospective study, providing medical history, lifestyle and socio-demographic information. All participants were followed for hospital admissions and deaths using electronic record-linkage. Adjusted relative risks (RRs) and incidence rates were calculated to compare the incidence of coronary heart disease and stroke in women with and without diabetes and by lifestyle factors. At recruitment 25,915 women (2.1% of 1,242,338) reported current treatment for diabetes. During a mean follow-up of 6.1 years per woman, 21,928 had a first hospital admission or death from coronary heart disease (RR for women with versus without diabetes = 3.30, 95% CI 3.14-3.47) and 7,087 had a first stroke (RR = 2.47, 95% CI 2.24-2.74). Adjusted incidence rates of these conditions in women with diabetes increased with duration of diabetes, obesity, inactivity and smoking. The 5-year adjusted incidence rates for cardiovascular disease were 4.6 (95% CI 4.4-4.9) per 100 women aged 50-69 in non-smokers with diabetes, 5.9 (95% CI 4.6-7.6) in smokers with diabetes not using insulin and 11.0 (95% CI 8.3-14.7) in smokers with diabetes using insulin. Non-smoking women with diabetes who were not overweight or inactive still had threefold increased rate for coronary disease or stroke compared with women without diabetes. Of the modifiable factors examined in middle aged women with diabetes, smoking causes the greatest increase in cardiovascular disease, especially in those with insulin treated diabetes

  2. Indications for breast imaging in women under age 35

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, V.J.; Jackson, V.P.

    1988-01-01

    Many women under age 35 years undergo breast imaging, and the vast majority of studies are normal or compatible with benign disease. In our series of 649 patients aged 13 - 34, the only significant indicators were a palpable mass or infection. In the 383 patients with either of these indications, mammographic and/or US findings were normal in 53%, compatible with benign disease in 14%, and suggestive of malignancy in 33%. Biopsy performed in 80 of these women revealed breast cancer in five (6%). None of the 266 women with low-yield indications (pain, modularity, galactorrhea, fibrocystic disease, screening) had significant imaging findings or clinical or surgical evidence of breast cancer

  3. Age, wage, and job placement: older women's experiences entering the retail sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank-Miller, Ellen G; Lambert, Susan J; Henly, Julia R

    2015-01-01

    Older women seeking employment often find opportunities limited to low-wage jobs, such as those in retail. We report findings about job placement and starting wages for hourly workers hired at a women's apparel retailer from August 2006 to December 2009. We examine competing hypotheses regarding the role of age in explaining women's job placement and starting wages. Although newly hired women age 55+ earn higher wages and are placed in higher-quality jobs than the youngest women (ages 18-22), they are less likely to be placed in better-quality jobs than their midlife counterparts. Overall, wage differences are largely explained by job quality.

  4. Age-specific effects of estrogen receptors' polymorphisms on the bone traits in healthy fertile women: the BONTURNO study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirazzoli Antonella

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skeletal characteristics such as height (Ht, bone mineral density (BMD or bone turnover markers are strongly inherited. Common variants in the genes encoding for estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1 and beta (ESR2 are proposed as candidates for influencing bone phenotypes at the population level. Methods We studied 641 healthy premenopausal women aged 20–50 years (yrs participating into the BONTURNO study. Exclusion criteria were irregular cyclic menses, low trauma fracture, metabolic bone or chronic diseases. Serum C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX, osteocalcin (OC, and N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (P1NP were measured in all enrolled subjects, who underwent to lumbar spine (LS, total hip (TH and femoral neck (FN BMD evaluation by DXA. Five hundred seventy Caucasian women were genotyped for ESR1 rs2234693 and rs9340799 and ESR2 rs4986938 polymorphisms. Results Although no genotype differences were found in body parameters, subjects with combined ESR1 CCGG plus ESR2 AA-AG genotype were taller than those with opposite genotype (P = 0.044. Moreover, ESR1 rs2234693 genotypes correlated with family history of osteoporosis (FHO and hip fracture (FHF (P When clustered by age, 20–30 yrs old subjects, having at least one ESR1 rs2234693 C allele presented lower LS- (P = 0.008 and TH-BMD (P = 0.047 than TT genotypes. In 41–50 yrs age, lower FN-BMD was associated with ESR2 AA (P = 0.0180 subjects than in those with the opposite genotype. ESR1 rs2234693 and rs9340799 and ESR2 rs4986938 polymorphisms did not correlate with age-adjusted values of OC, CTX and P1NP. Conclusion These findings support the presence of age-specific effects of ESR1 and ESR2 polymorphisms on various skeletal traits in healthy fertile women.

  5. Temporal trend of anemia among reproductive-aged women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharati, Susmita; Pal, Manoranjan; Som, Suparna; Bharati, Premananda

    2015-03-01

    Anemia is one of the major leading nutritional deficiencies in India, and the most vulnerable groups are preschool and adolescent children and pregnant and lactating women. The main objective of the study is to determine the temporal trend of anemia among reproductive-aged women of age 15-49 years. The study uses data from second and third rounds of the National Family Health Surveys (NFHS-2, 1998-1999, and NFHS-3, 2005-2006), conducted by the International Institute for Population Sciences. The dependent variable was the status of anemia of women. The determining variables were type of residence, age group, religion and castes, educational status, marital status, and household standard of living index. Anemia was most prevalent in the east zone for both the periods. The changes at the all India level were not much, but the north-east zone improved very well, whereas the south zone deteriorated drastically. The occurrence of severely anemic women in India varied between 1% and 2%. The highest prevalence rates were observed among women who were 15 to 24 years of age, illiterate, from non-Christian scheduled tribes (STs), unmarried, and whose standard of living was low. Rates of anemia have increased over time except in the case of Buddhists, Parsees, Jains, and the STs. From the viewpoint of our study, illiteracy and low standard of living may be the main causes of anemia among women in India. It is also necessary to take appropriate steps to curb anemia in women in their early adulthood. © 2012 APJPH.

  6. Epidemiology of mixed, stress, and urgency urinary incontinence in middle-aged/older women: the importance of incontinence history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komesu, Yuko M; Schrader, Ronald M; Ketai, Loren H; Rogers, Rebecca G; Dunivan, Gena C

    2016-05-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is common and the relationship among its subtypes complex. Our objective was to describe the natural history and predictors of the incontinence subtypes stress, urgency, and mixed, in middle-aged and older US women. We tested our hypothesis that UI subtype history predicted future occurrence, evaluating subtype incidence/remission over multiple time points in a stable cohort of women. We analyzed longitudinal urinary incontinence data in 10,572 community-dwelling women aged50 in the 2004-2010 Health and Retirement Study. Mixed, stress, and urgency incontinence prevalence (2004, 2006, 2008, 2010) and 2-year cumulative incidence and remissions (2004-2006, 2006-2008, 2008-2010) were estimated. Patient characteristics and incontinence subtype status 2004-2008 were entered into a multivariable, transition model to determine predictors for incontinence subtype occurrence in 2010. The prevalence of each subtype in this population (median age 63-66) was 2.6-8.9 %. Subtype incidence equaled 2.1-3.5 % and remissions for each varied between 22.3 and 48.7 %. Incontinence subtype incidence predictors included ethnicity/race, age, body mass index, and functional limitations. Compared with white women, black women had decreased odds of incident stress incontinence and Hispanic women had increased odds of stress incontinence remission. The age range 80-90 and severe obesity predicted incident mixed incontinence. Functional limitations predicted mixed and urgency incontinence. The strongest predictor of incontinence subtype was subtype history. The presence of the respective incontinence subtypes in 2004 and 2006 strongly predicted 2010 recurrence (odds ratio [OR] stress incontinence = 30.7, urgency OR = 47.4, mixed OR = 42.1). Although the number of remissions was high, a previous history of incontinence subtypes predicted recurrence. Incontinence status is dynamic, but tends to recur over the longer term.

  7. Sexual Health and Well-being Among Older Men and Women in England: Findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David M; Nazroo, James; O'Connor, Daryl B; Blake, Margaret; Pendleton, Neil

    2016-01-01

    We describe levels of sexual activity, problems with sexual functioning, and concerns about sexual health among older adults in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), and associations with age, health, and partnership factors. Specifically, a total of 6,201 core ELSA participants (56 % women) aged 50 to >90 completed a comprehensive Sexual Relationships and Activities questionnaire (SRA-Q) included in ELSA Wave 6 (2012/13). The prevalence of reporting any sexual activity in the last year declined with age, with women less likely than men at all ages to report being sexually active. Poorer health was associated with lower levels of sexual activity and a higher prevalence of problems with sexual functioning, particularly among men. Difficulties most frequently reported by sexually active women related to becoming sexually aroused (32 %) and achieving orgasm (27 %), while for men it was erectile function (39 %). Sexual health concerns most commonly reported by women related to their level of sexual desire (11 %) and frequency of sexual activities (8 %). Among men it was level of sexual desire (15 %) and erectile difficulties (14 %). While the likelihood of reporting sexual health concerns tended to decrease with age in women, the opposite was seen in men. Poor sexual functioning and disagreements with a partner about initiating and/or feeling obligated to have sex were associated with greater concerns about and dissatisfaction with overall sex life. Levels of sexual activity decline with increasing age, although a sizable minority of men and women remain sexually active until the eighth and ninth decades of life. Problems with sexual functioning were relatively common, but overall levels of sexual health concerns were much lower. Sexually active men reported higher levels of concern with their sexual health and sexual dissatisfaction than women at all ages. Older peoples' sexual health should be managed, not just in the context of their age, gender

  8. Medicalization of women's third age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufert, P A; Lock, M

    1997-06-01

    Medicalization usually refers to the process whereby the normal processes of pregnancy, childbirth, menstruation and menopause have been claimed and redefined by medicine. Rather than discussing medicalization and menopause in terms of the number of women taking hormones, or the percentage of physicians convinced they should prescribe them, this paper looks at the visual image of the menopausal woman as portrayed in the pharmaceutical literature and in the mass media. Unlike the depressed and sickly looking women shown in the pharmaceutical advertisements in the 1970s, this 1990s version of the menopausal woman is shown glowing with fitness, with well-maintained teeth, hair and skin, far too fit to break a hip, have a heart attack, or witness the slow destruction of their minds by Alzheimer's disease. This image is not to be confused with the reality of being a menopausal woman, yet the two are intimately intertwined, for the image determines how menopausal women see themselves and how they are seen in the wider society. The final section of the paper discusses how health is the new virtue for women as they age as each individual is held responsible for what happens to her body, particularly in terms of the decisions made at the time of menopause.

  9. Evolução do perfil neuromotor e capacidade funcional de mulheres fisicamente ativas de acordo com a idade cronológica Evolución del perfil neuromotor y la capacidad funcional de mujeres fisicamente activas de acuerdo con la edad cronológica Evolution of neuromotor profile and functional capacity of physically active women according to chronological age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mahecha Matsudo

    2003-11-01

    é comparar la evolución del perfil neuromotor y la capacidad funcional de mujeres activas en el período de un año de acuerdo con la edad cronológica. MÉTODOS: La muestra estuvo compuesta por 117 mujeres de 50 a 79 años de edad (: 65 ± 6,6 años participantes de un programa de ejercicios aeróbicos, dos veces por semana, 50 minutos por sesión durante 5,4 ± 3,0 años y divididas por la edad: 50-59 (n: 23; 60-69 (n: 60; 70-79 (n: 34. Los tests neuromotores y de movilidad incluyeron: fuerza muscular de los miembros inferiores y superiores, agilidad, flexibilidad de tronco, velocidad de levantarse de la silla, equilíbrio estático, velocidad normal de andar y velocidad máxima de andar. Los resultados iniciales de las dos evaluaciones siguientes, realizadas intérvalos de 6 meses, fueron comparados usando ANOVA two way, con post-hoc Bonferroni. RESULTADOS: En un ano no hubo ninguna alteración del desempeño neuromotor, ya que la velocidad de levantar de la silla y la velocidad de andar no evidenciaron diferencias significativas en los grupos de 50-59 e 60-69 años, presentando resultados un 10-20% mejores; en cuanto a la velocidad máxima de andar hubo una mejora (8% en los grupos de 60 a 79 años. CONCLUSIÓN: La evolución de la aptitud física y la capacidad funcional tuvo un comportamiento similar, en mujeres físicamente activas independientemente de la edad cronológica. Esta evolución fortalece la hipótesis de un efecto favorable de la actividad física regular en la promoción de la salud, estrategia fundamental del envejecimiento saludable.BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There are few longitudinal studies to determine the effect of aging on physical fitness and functional capacity of physically active women. The purpose of this study was to compare the evolution of neuromotor profile and functional capacity in active elderly women in one-year period as related to chronological age at the base line. METHODS: Sample consisted of 117 women from 50 to 79 years of age

  10. At what age should screening mammography be recommended for Asian women?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchida, Junko; Nagahashi, Masayuki; Rashid, Omar M; Takabe, Kazuaki; Wakai, Toshifumi

    2015-01-01

    Although regular screening mammography has been suggested to be associated with improvements in the relative survival of breast cancer in recent years, the appropriate age to start screening mammography remains controversial. In November 2009, the United States Preventive Service Task Force published updated guidelines for breast cancer, which no longer support routine screening mammography for women aged 40–49 years, but instead, defer the choice of screening in that age group to the patient and physician. The age to begin screening differs between guidelines, including those from the Task Force, the American Cancer Society and the World Health Organization. It remains unclear how this discrepancy impacts patient survival, especially among certain subpopulations. Although the biological characteristics of breast cancer and peak age of incidence differ among different ethnic populations, there have been few reports that evaluate the starting age for screening mammography based on ethnicity. Here, we discuss the benefits and harm of screening mammography in the fifth decade, and re-evaluate the starting age for screening mammography taking ethnicity into account, focusing on the Asian population. Breast cancer incidence peaked in the fifth decade in Asian women, which has been thought to be due to a combination of biological and environmental factors. Previous reports suggest that Asian women in their 40s may receive more benefit and less harm from screening mammography than the age-matched non-Asian US population. Therefore, starting screening mammography at age 40 may be beneficial for women of Asian ethnicity in well-resourced countries, such as Japanese women who reside in Japan

  11. An exploration of health concerns & health-promotion behaviors in pregnant women over age 35.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viau, Paula A; Padula, Cynthia A; Eddy, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    To explore the specific health concerns and health-promotion behaviors of childbearing women 35 years of age or older. Semistructured interviews with women ( = 50) ages > or =35 in their third trimester of pregnancy. Interviews lasted approximately 1 hour, were conducted by two nursing faculty, and were scheduled to accommodate participant needs. Process recording was used to document participant responses. Verbatim statements were recorded, and subjects were redirected to clarify responses when necessary. Content analysis and coding were completed by an independent researcher, based upon techniques derived from Miles and Huberman (1994). Data reduction was accomplished by the identification of categories of responses that described the participants' meaning. Study participants reported concerns reflecting both fetal well-being and maternal health-related issues. The majority of childbearing women (86%) reported engaging in multiple health-promotion behaviors focusing on daily nutritional intake, lifestyle activities, and rest patterns. Participants reported conscientious decisions to eliminate substances recognized as harmful, and to alter exercise, employment, or daily responsibilities to accommodate physical changes during pregnancy. Participants were "proactive healthcare seekers," accessing information from a variety of sources and seeking services to meet their individualized needs. The multitude and frequency of health-promotion behaviors adopted by those > or =35 years of age during pregnancy is indicative of this group's ability to independently initiate change, and exceeds the percentages previously reported. The nurse can be influential in supporting lifestyle modifications adopted during the childbearing period as permanent health-promotion behaviors.

  12. Mammography use among women aged 18-39 years in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jin; White, Mary C; Sabatino, Susan A; Febo-Vázquez, Isaedmarie

    2018-04-01

    Recommendations for breast cancer screening using mammography target asymptomatic women aged ≥ 40 years who are not at increased risk for breast cancer. Evidence is not available to demonstrate benefits of screening with mammography at younger ages, and little is known about mammography use among younger women. This study described mammography use among women aged 18-39 years. We analyzed data from the 2011-2015 National Survey of Family Growth, an in-person survey of a nationally representative sample of the U.S. household population. We estimated the prevalence of ever receiving a mammogram and examined reasons for the first mammograms among women aged 18-39 years without personal cancer history (n = 8324). We classified the first mammogram as a screening examination if it was performed either as part of a routine exam or because of family history of cancer. Among women aged 18-39 years, 14.3% (95% CI 13.2-15.4) reported ever having a mammogram. Prevalence of mammography use was highest among women aged 35-39 years (31.0%, 95% CI 27.8-34.5), and was higher among non-Hispanic black women than in other race/ethnicity groups. Women with a family history of breast cancer reported a higher prevalence of mammography use than women without this family history. For both women with and without a family history of breast cancer, about half of all first mammograms were performed for screening reasons. Among U.S. women aged 18-39 years with no personal cancer history, one in seven reported having received a mammogram. Women with no family history of breast cancer were as likely as those with a family history to initiate breast cancer screening with mammography before age 40. Our findings provide evidence that supports further research to examine factors that prompt young women to receive screening mammograms.

  13. Prevalence and risk factors for HIV among people aged 50 years ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: It is estimated that over ten percent of the 36.7 million people living with HIV (PLWHIV) globally, are those aged50 years. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for HIV among adult aged 50 years and above in Rombo district, northern Tanzania. Methods: This cross ...

  14. How a deliberative approach includes women in the decisions of screening mammography: a citizens' jury feasibility study in Andalusia, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena-Cañada, José M; Luque-Ribelles, Violeta; Quílez-Cutillas, Alicia; Rosado-Varela, Petra; Benítez-Rodríguez, Encarnación; Márquez-Calderón, Soledad; Rivera-Bautista, Juan Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Objectives To verify whether a citizens' jury study is feasible to the Andalusian population and to know if women, when better informed, are able to answer the research question of whether the Andalusian Public Health System must continue offering screening mammography to women aged 5069. The reasons for the pertinent decision and recommendations to the political authorities will be stated. Design Qualitative research study with the methodology of citizens' jury. Setting Breast cancer screening programme in Andalusia (Spain). Participants Thirteen women aged 5069 with secondary school or higher education accepted to participate as a jury. Two epidemiologists were the expert witnesses. The main researcher was the neutral moderator. Interventions Jury met on Monday, 15 February 2016. The moderator indicated to the jury that it had to assess the screening programme’s key benefits and main harm. On Tuesday, 16 February, the expert witnesses positioned for and against the programme. On Thursday, 18 February, the jury deliberated, reached final conclusions, submitted its vote and stated its recommendations to politicians. The deliberation session was transcribed and analysed with the support of ATLAS.ti.5.2 software. Primary and secondary outcome measures Feasibility in the Andalusian population, women’s vote and opinion, reasons for votes and recommendations to political authorities. Results Eleven participants voted yes and two voted no. There are three reasons to vote ‘yes’: health, the test nature, and individual freedom. Some women invoke the lack of efficacy and the cost to justify their negative vote, at least in universal terms. On completion, they made suggestions to be submitted to the pertinent authorities for the improvement of information, psychology services and research. Conclusions The deliberative strategy is feasible and causes a favourable positioning regarding screening mammography, although information changes the opinion of some women

  15. No Excess Mortality in Patients Aged 50 Years and Older Who Received Treatment for Ductal Carcinoma In Situ of the Breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Bastiaannet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The incidence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS has increased at a fast rate.The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and treatment in the Netherlands and estimate the excess mortality risk of DCIS. Methods. From the Netherlands Cancer Registry, adult female patients (diagnosed 1997–2005 with DCIS were selected. Treatment was described according to age. Relative mortality at 10 years of follow-up was calculated by dividing observed mortality over expected mortality. Expected mortality was calculated using the matched Dutch general population. Results. Overall, 8421 patients were included in this study. For patients aged 50–64, and 65–74 an increase in breast-conserving surgery was observed over time (50 years experienced no excess mortality regardless of treatment (relative mortality 1.0. Conclusion. The present population-based study of almost 8500 patients showed no excess mortality in surgically treated women over 50 years with DCIS.

  16. Age at Menarche and the Menstrual Pattern of Igbo Women of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    elearning

    1209 women of reproductive age ... reproductive life. For many women ... result in work-related economic adversity. In many ... of Southeast Nigeria, and none for the women of Ebonyi State .... women, may be attributed to the delicate balance.

  17. Knowledge and attitudes towards breast cancer among women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vihar

    Results: Of the 150 women who participated in the study, 64.7% had either never ... Fifty percent were in dilemma on whether one can detect lumps (mass on ... above 30 years of age, the mean and ... were 60-69 years, 6.1 % were 70-79 years and ... Total. 150. Only 16 out of I5O women assessed. (10.7%) could mention at ...

  18. Socioeconomic status and lifetime risk for workplace eye injury reported by a us population aged 50 years and over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Huabin; Beckles, Gloria L A; Fang, Xiangming; Crews, John E; Saaddine, Jinan B; Zhang, Xinzhi

    2012-04-01

    To examine whether socioeconomic status, as measured by educational attainment and annual household income, is associated with lifetime risk for workplace eye injury in a large US population. In analyses of data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (2005-2007, N = 43,510), we used logistic regression analysis and propensity score matching to assess associations between socioeconomic measures and lifetime risk for workplace eye injury among those aged50 years. The lifetime prevalence of self-reported workplace eye injury was significantly higher among men (13.5%) than women (2.6%) (P workplace eye injury than those with more than a high school education. Men with an annual household income workplace eye injury than those whose income was >$50,000 (adjusted OR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.07-1.95). After adjusting for other factors, no statistically significant associations between education, income, and lifetime workplace eye injury were found among women. Socioeconomic status was associated with lifetime risk for workplace eye injury among men but not women. Greater public awareness of individual and societal impacts of workplace eye injuries, especially among socioeconomically disadvantaged men, could help support efforts to develop a coordinated prevention strategy to minimize avoidable workplace eye injuries.

  19. Older women in an aging world: achieving health across the life course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonita, R; Howe, A L

    1996-01-01

    This article, based on a report (Women, aging and health: achieving health across the life span) prepared for the WHO Global Commission on Women's Health under the guidance of WHO's Aging and Health Programme, presents demographic data that clearly demonstrate the need for recognition of the health of aging women as a global issue of major public health concern. The authors show that, while female life expectancy at birth is significantly different in developed and developing countries (because of high infant and maternal mortality in the latter), these differences tend to decrease for women in developing countries who reach middle age. The authors review the various facets of the "gender transition" brought about by demographic and epidemiological transitions, drawing attention to contrasts between the situation in developing countries in Asia and Latin America and that in Eastern Europe, for example. The role of older women as care-givers is discussed, as is the likelihood of a future increase in the proportion of older women living alone in the developing world (a factor which renders them particularly vulnerable in many socioeconomic and health respects). Suggestions are made on methodologies for monitoring health trends in aging women, and on the role of WHO in this respect. A basic goal for global strategies relating to the health of older women is formulated: reduction of the inequities in life expectancy between developed and developing countries.

  20. Understanding age-induced cortical porosity in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Christina Møller; Delaisse, Jean-Marie; van der Eerden, Bram C J

    2018-01-01

    of a histomorphometric analysis of sections of iliac bone specimens from 35 women (age 16-78 years). Firstly, the study shows that the aging-induced cortical porosity reflects an increased pore size rather than an increased pore density. Secondly, it establishes a novel histomorphometric classification of the pores...... initiation of the subsequent bone formation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  1. Religion, Ethnicity and Contraceptive Use among Reproductive age Women in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Edomwonyi Obasohan, MEd, MBA, MSc; 1

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Religion and Ethnicity are the two most important factors that shape the behavioral pattern especially health seeking behaviors of the people of Nigeria. This study seeks to examine the mediatory effects of the linkage between ethnicity and religion with selected socio-demographic variables on the current use of contraception (CUC among women of reproductive age in Nigeria. Methods: Nationally representative sample of 39,948 women of reproductive age (15-49 years in the 2013 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS was used. Chi-square was used to analyze the bivariate relationship between exposure variables and CUC. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the odds ratio with the 95% confi dence interval. Results: The prevalence of CUC was generally low for women of reproductive age in Nigeria, highest among the Yoruba women and lowest among the Hausa/Fulani/Kanuri/Seriberi (HFKS women; highest among other Christian women and lowest for Muslim women and highest for Yoruba/other religion and lowest for women of Hausa/Fulani/Kanuri/Seriberi/Islam. The odds ratios showed that disparity across ethno-religious boundaries is significant. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Globally, and especially in sub-Saharan African countries, maternal mortality resulting from the abortion of unintended pregnancies pose a major challenge in health delivery system. In Nigeria, a cultural and religious heterogeneous society, current use of contraceptives by women of reproductive age is found not to be a matter of independent effects of ethnicity, religiosity and other socio-demographic variables but also dependent on the effects of interactions between the ethnicity and religion.

  2. Ageism and sexism at work: the middle-aged women of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, K L

    2000-01-01

    Employment discrimination against middle-aged women has recently captured public attention in Hong Kong. One reason is the economic slowdown and increasing unemployment since the 1993-94 and the 1997-to date economic downturns. This paper looks at sex and age discrimination against middle-aged women in colonial Hong Kong where they faced such problems as low labor force participation, occupational and industrial segregation and wage differentials, which in turn left them vulnerable to unemployment and poverty. Rampant age and sex discrimination in the workplace is due to a number of factors: traditional values and cultural devaluation of women's work and need for education, economic restructuring and labor importation, a legal vacuum, inefficient retraining policy, and the weak position of women in the labor movement. The postcolonial government under Tung Chee Hwa is heavily influenced by business interests. Women in the age group of 30-39 and above are hardest hit. They are not targeted as special groups of trainees who require special assistance. Given the limited concern for gender development on the part of the new government, the prospect for women workers does not look good.

  3. Changes in spinal mobility with increasing age in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einkauf, D K; Gohdes, M L; Jensen, G M; Jewell, M J

    1987-03-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine changes in spinal mobility for women aged 20 to 84 years. Anterior flexion, right and left lateral flexion, and extension were measured on 109 healthy women. The modified Schober method was used to measure anterior flexion. Standard goniometry was used to measure lateral flexion and extension. The results of the study indicated that spinal mobility decreases with advancing age. The most significant (p less than .05) differences occurred between the two youngest and the two oldest age categories. Data gathered in this study indicate that physical therapists should consider the effects of age on spinal mobility when assessing spinal range of motion. A simple, objective method for measuring spinal mobility is presented. Suggestions for future research are given.

  4. Mode of detection: an independent prognostic factor for women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofvind, Solveig; Holen, Åsne; Román, Marta; Sebuødegård, Sofie; Puig-Vives, Montse; Akslen, Lars

    2016-06-01

    To investigate breast cancer survival and risk of breast cancer death by detection mode (screen-detected, interval, and detected outside the screening programme), adjusting for prognostic and predictive tumour characteristics. Information about detection mode, prognostic (age, tumour size, histologic grade, lymph node status) and predictive factors (molecular subtypes based on immunohistochemical analyses of hormone receptor status (estrogen and progesterone) and Her2 status) were available for 8344 women in Norway aged 50-69 at diagnosis of breast cancer, 2005-2011. A total of 255 breast cancer deaths were registered by the end of 2011. Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate six years breast cancer specific survival and Cox proportional hazard model to estimate hazard ratio (HR) for breast cancer death by detection mode, adjusting for prognostic and predictive factors. Women with screen-detected cancer had favourable prognostic and predictive tumour characteristics compared with interval cancers and those detected outside the screening programme. The favourable characteristics were present for screen-detected cancers, also within the subtypes. Adjusted HR of dying from breast cancer was two times higher for women with symptomatic breast cancer (interval or outside the screening), using screen-detected tumours as the reference. Detection mode is an independent prognostic factor for women diagnosed with breast cancer. Information on detection mode might be relevant for patient management to avoid overtreatment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Vertebral fracture prevalence among Greek healthy middle-aged postmenopausal women: association with demographics, anthropometric parameters, and bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Flokatoula, Maria; Armeni, Eleni; Pliatsika, Paraskevi; Augoulea, Areti; Antoniou, Aris; Alexandrou, Andreas; Creatsa, Maria; Panoulis, Constantinos; Dendrinos, Spyridon; Papacharalambous, Xenofon

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of skeletal fractures shows a marked geographic variability; however, data regarding the Greek population remain limited. To evaluate the frequency of asymptomatic vertebral fractures (VFs), and potential risk factors, in a large sample of Greek postmenopausal women. A cross-sectional study at the University Menopause Clinic. Four hundred fifty-four postmenopausal women aged 35 to 80 years, with an average menopausal age of 9.2±7.1 years. They included medical history, anthropometric and biochemical parameters, bone mineral density (BMD) at lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN), and LS lateral radiographs. Lumbar spine lateral radiographs were evaluated according to quantitative procedures, aiming to identify VFs. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters and values of BMD were compared according to the presence of VFs. A total of 37 (8.15%) women had at least one VF. Lumbar spine and FN-osteoporosis was identified in up to 23.1% and 40.9% subjects with prevalent VFs, respectively. The prevalence of VFs was largely associated with age, with women aged 60 years or more presenting an up to fourfold risk compared with younger women. Moreover, the presence of VFs was associated with higher menopausal age, advanced age at menarche, a history of early menopause, and prolonged lactation. Lower LS-BMD and, especially, FN-BMD were negatively associated with VF prevalence (prevalent VF vs. no VF: LS-BMD, 0.89±0.16 g/cm(2) vs. 0.98±0.16 g/cm(2), p=.010; FN-BMD, 0.72±0.10 g/cm(2) vs. 0.81±0.12 g/cm(2), p=.008). Asymptomatic VFs are common among Greek healthy middle-aged postmenopausal women. More than 50% subjects with prevalent VFs present with normal BMD or osteopenia. Age and bone density classification at the FN presented the strongest association with the prevalence of VFs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Intelligence in youth and health at age 50

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wraw, Christina; Deary, Ian J.; Gale, Catharine R.; Der, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Background The link between intelligence in youth and all-cause mortality in later-life is well established. To better understand this relationship, the current study examines the links between pre-morbid intelligence and a number of specific health outcomes at age 50 using the NLSY-1979 cohort. Methods Participants were the 5793 participants in the NLSY-79 who responded to questions about health outcomes at age 50. Sixteen health outcomes were examined: two were summary measures (physical health and functional limitation), 9 were diagnosed illness conditions, 4 were self-reported conditions, and one was a measure of general health status. Linear and logistic regressions were used, as appropriate, to examine the relationship between intelligence in youth and the health outcomes. Age, sex and both childhood and adult SES, and its sub-components – income, education, & occupational prestige – are all adjusted for separately. Results & conclusion Higher pre-morbid intelligence is linked with better physical health at age 50, and a lower risk for a number of chronic health conditions. For example, a 1 SD higher score in IQ was significantly associated with increased odds of having good, very good, or excellent health, with an odds ratio of 1.70 (C.I. 1.55–1.86). Thirteen of the illness outcomes were significantly and negatively associated with IQ in youth; the odds ratios ranged from 0.85 for diabetes/high blood sugar to 0.65 for stroke, per one standard deviation higher score in IQ. Adjustment for childhood SES led to little attenuation but adult SES partially mediated the relationship for a number of conditions. Mediation by adult SES was not consistently explained by any one of its components—income, education, and occupation status. The current findings contribute to our understanding of lower intelligence as a risk factor for poor health and how this may contribute to health inequalities. PMID:26766880

  7. Evidence for Cognitive Aging in Midlife Women: Study of Women's Health Across the Nation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun S Karlamangla

    Full Text Available Although cross-sectional studies suggest that cognitive aging starts in midlife, few longitudinal studies have documented within-individual declines in cognitive performance before the seventh decade. Learning from repeat testing, or practice effects, can mask the decline in younger cohorts. In women, the menopause transition also affects test performance and can confound estimates of underlying decline. We designed this study to determine if, after controlling for practice effects, the menopause transition, and the symptoms associated with it, there is evidence of cognitive aging in midlife women. We used data from a longitudinal observational study in 2,124 participants from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Outcomes examined were scores on annual tests of processing speed, verbal episodic memory (immediate and delayed, and working memory. To reduce the impact of practice effects and of the menopause transition, we used the third cognition testing visit as the baseline. Average age at this baseline was 54 years, and the majority of the women were postmenopausal; half the cohort was 2 or more years beyond the final menstrual period. There were 7,185 cognition assessments with median follow-up time of 6.5 years. In mixed effects regression, adjusted for practice effects, retention, menopause symtoms (depressive, anxiety, vasomotor, and sleep disturbance, and covariates, scores on 2 of 4 cognition tests declined. Mean decline in cognitive speed was 0.28 per year (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.20 to 0.36 or 4.9% in 10 years, and mean decline in verbal episodic memory (delayed testing was 0.02 per year (95% CI: 0.00 to 0.03 or 2% in 10 years. Our results provide strong, longitudinal evidence of cognitive aging in midlife women, with substantial within-woman declines in processing speed and memory. Further research is needed to identify factors that influence decline rates and to develop interventions that slow cognitive aging.

  8. At what age should screening mammography be recommended for Asian women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, Junko; Nagahashi, Masayuki; Rashid, Omar M; Takabe, Kazuaki; Wakai, Toshifumi

    2015-07-01

    Although regular screening mammography has been suggested to be associated with improvements in the relative survival of breast cancer in recent years, the appropriate age to start screening mammography remains controversial. In November 2009, the United States Preventive Service Task Force published updated guidelines for breast cancer, which no longer support routine screening mammography for women aged 40-49 years, but instead, defer the choice of screening in that age group to the patient and physician. The age to begin screening differs between guidelines, including those from the Task Force, the American Cancer Society and the World Health Organization. It remains unclear how this discrepancy impacts patient survival, especially among certain subpopulations. Although the biological characteristics of breast cancer and peak age of incidence differ among different ethnic populations, there have been few reports that evaluate the starting age for screening mammography based on ethnicity. Here, we discuss the benefits and harm of screening mammography in the fifth decade, and re-evaluate the starting age for screening mammography taking ethnicity into account, focusing on the Asian population. Breast cancer incidence peaked in the fifth decade in Asian women, which has been thought to be due to a combination of biological and environmental factors. Previous reports suggest that Asian women in their 40s may receive more benefit and less harm from screening mammography than the age-matched non-Asian US population. Therefore, starting screening mammography at age 40 may be beneficial for women of Asian ethnicity in well-resourced countries, such as Japanese women who reside in Japan. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. CHRONIC MEDICAL CONDITIONS AND REPRODUCIBILITY OF SELF-REPORTED AGE AT MENOPAUSE AMONG COMMUNITY DWELLING WOMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Heather F.; Northington, Gina M.; Kaye, Elise M.; Bogner, Hillary R.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the association between chronic medical conditions and reproducibility of self-reported age at menopause among community-dwelling women. METHOD Age at menopause was assessed in a population-based longitudinal survey of 240 women twice, in 1993 and 2004. Women who recalled age at menopause in 2004 within one year or less of the age at menopause recalled in 1993 (concordant) were compared with women who did not recall of age at menopause in 2004 within 1 year of age at menopause recalled in 1993 (discordant). Type of menopause (surgical or natural) and chronic medical conditions were assessed by self-report. RESULTS One hundred and forty three women (59.6%) reported surgical menopause and 97 (40.4%) reported natural menopause. In all, 130 (54.2%) of women recalled age at menopause in 2004 within one year or less of recalled age at menopause in 1994 while 110 (45.8%) women did not recall age at menopause in 2004 within one year or less of recalled age at menopause in 1994. Among women with surgical menopause, women with three or more medical conditions were less likely to have concordant recall of age at menopause than women with less than three chronic medical conditions (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.15, 0.91]) in multivariate models controlling for potentially influential characteristics including cognition and years from menopause. CONCLUSIONS Among women who underwent surgical menopause, the presence of three or more medical conditions is associated with decreased reproducibility of self-reported age at menopause. PMID:21971208

  10. Chronic medical conditions and reproducibility of self-reported age at menopause among community-dwelling women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Heather F; Northington, Gina M; Kaye, Elise M; Bogner, Hillary R

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between chronic medical conditions and reproducibility of self-reported age at menopause among community-dwelling women. Age at menopause was assessed in a population-based longitudinal survey of 240 women twice, in 1993 and 2004. Women who recalled age at menopause in 2004 within 1 year or less of age at menopause recalled in 1993 (concordant) were compared with women who did not recall age at menopause in 2004 within 1 year of age at menopause recalled in 1993 (discordant). Type of menopause (surgical or natural) and chronic medical conditions were assessed by self-report. One hundred forty-three women (59.6%) reported surgical menopause, and 97 (40.4%) reported natural menopause. In all, 130 (54.2%) women recalled age at menopause in 2004 within 1 year or less of recalled age at menopause in 1994, whereas 110 (45.8%) women did not recall age at menopause in 2004 within 1 year or less of recalled age at menopause in 1994. Among the women with surgical menopause, the women with three or more medical conditions were less likely to have concordant recall of age at menopause than the women with less than three chronic medical conditions (adjusted odds ratio, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.15-0.91) in multivariate models controlling for potentially influential characteristics including cognition and years since menopause. Among women who underwent surgical menopause, the presence of three or more medical conditions is associated with decreased reproducibility of self-reported age at menopause.

  11. Popliteal Artery Aneurysm in Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Hans; Pansell-Fawcett, Karin; Björck, Martin

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Ninety-five per cent of those operated on for popliteal artery aneurysm (PA) are men. Thus, PAs in women are difficult to investigate. The aim was to study the disease in women. METHODS: Women treated for PA in 1987-2012, prospectively registered in the Swedish vascular registry......, Swedvasc, supplemented by case records, were compared with the larger male cohort. Survival was determined through cross linkage with the National Population Registry. RESULTS: 1509 patients (men and women), 1872 legs, were identified; of these 74 patients (4.9%) were women, 81 legs (4.3%). The median age...... was 70 years in women versus 69 in men. Twenty-nine centres operated on women (range 1-7 women/centre). There were no time trends in the proportion of women operated on (p=.5). Bilateral PA occurred in 9.5% of women and 27.0% of men (p=.002). For symptomatic aneurysms, there was a larger proportion...

  12. Associations between vaginal pathogenic community and bacterial vaginosis in Chinese reproductive-age women.

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    Zongxin Ling

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV is one of the most common urogenital infections among women of reproductive age that represents shifts in microbiota from Lactobacillus spp. to diverse anaerobes. The aim of our study was to evalute the diagnostic values of Gardnerella, Atopobium, Eggerthella, Megasphaera typeI, Leptotrichia/Sneathia and Prevotella, defined as a vaginal pathogenic community for BV and their associations with vaginal pH and Nugent scores. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We investigated the vaginal pathogenic bacteria and Lactobacillus spp. with species-specific real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR in 50 BV-positive and 50 BV-negative Chinese women of reproductive age. Relative to BV-negative subjects, a siginificant decline in Lactobacillus and an obvious increase in bacteria in the vaginal pathogenic community were observed in BV-postive subjects (P<0.05. With the exception of Megasphaera typeI, other vaginal pathogenic bacteria were highly predictable for BV with a better sensitivity and specificity. The vaginal pathogenic community was positively associated with vaginal pH and Nugent scores, while Lactobacillus spp., such as L. iners and L. crispatus was negatively associated with them (P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Our data implied that the prevalance of vaginal pathogenic bacteria as well as the depletion of Lactobacillus was highly accurate for BV diagnosis. Vaginal microbiota shifts, especially the overgrowth of the vaginal pathogenic community, showed well diagnostic values in predicting BV. Postive correlations between those vaginal pathogenic bacteria and vaginal pH, Nugent score indicated the vaginal pathogenic community rather than a single vaginal microorganism, was participated in the onset of BV directly.

  13. Slimmer women's waist is associated with better erectile function in men independent of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Weiss, Petr

    2013-10-01

    Previous research has indicated that men generally rate slimmer women as more sexually attractive, consistent with the increased morbidity risks associated with even mild abdominal adiposity. To assess the association of women's waist size with a more tangible measure of perceived sexual attractiveness (as well as reward value for both sexes), we examined the association of women's age and waist circumference with an index of men's erectile function (IIEF-5 scores), frequency of penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI), and sexual satisfaction in a representative sample of Czechs (699 men and 715 women) aged 35-65 years. Multivariate analyses indicated that better erectile function scores were independently associated with younger age of self and partner and women's slimmer waist. PVI frequency was independently associated with women's younger age and women's slimmer waist. Sexual satisfaction was independently associated with men's younger age and slimmer waist for both sexes. Better erectile function, greater PVI frequency, and greater sexual satisfaction were associated with women's slimmer waist, independently of both sexes' ages. Possible reasons for the waist effects were discussed, including women's abdominal body fat decreasing their own desire through neurohormonal mechanisms and decreasing their partner's desire through evolutionarily-related decreased sexual attractiveness.

  14. The effect of monthly 50,000 IU or 100,000 IU vitamin D supplements on vitamin D status in premenopausal Middle Eastern women living in Auckland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazahery, H; Stonehouse, W; von Hurst, P R

    2015-03-01

    Middle Eastern female immigrants are at an increased risk of vitamin D deficiency and their response to prescribed vitamin D dosages may not be adequate and affected by other factors. The objectives were to determine vitamin D deficiency and its determinants in Middle Eastern women living in Auckland, New Zealand (Part-I), and to determine serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (serum-25(OH)D) response to two prescribed vitamin D dosages (Part-II) in this population. Women aged ⩾20 (n=43) participated in a cross-sectional pilot study during winter (Part-I). In Part-II, women aged 20-50 years (n=62) participated in a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial consuming monthly either 50,000, 100,000 IU vitamin D3 or placebo for 6 months (winter to summer). All women in Part-I and 60% women in Part-II had serum-25(OH)D<50 nmol/l. Serum-25(OH)D was higher in prescribed vitamin D users than nonusers (P=0.001) and in Iranians than Arab women (P=0.001; Part-I). Mean (s.d.) serum-25(OH)D increased in all groups (time effect, P<0.001) and differed between groups (time × dosage interaction, P<0.001; 50,000 IU: from 44.0±16.0 to 70.0±15.0 nmol/l; 100,000 IU: 48.0±11.0 to 82.0±17.0 nmol/l; placebo: 45.0±18.0 to 54.0±18.0 nmol/l). Only 32% and 67% achieved serum-25(OH)D⩾75 nmol/l with 50,000 and 100,000 IU/month, respectively. Predictors of 6-month change in serum-25(OH)D were dose (B-coefficient±s.e.; 14.1±2.4, P<0.001), baseline serum-25(OH)D (-0.6±0.1, P<0.001) and body fat percentage (-0.7±0.3, P=0.01). Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is highly prevalent in this population. Monthly 100,000 IU vitamin D for 6 months is more effective than 50,000 IU in achieving serum-25(OH)D ⩾75 nmol/l; however, a third of women still did not achieve these levels.

  15. Alloantibodies, Anti-D, Childbearing age, Women, Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    negative phenotype rates among Cameroonian women of reproductive age (15 – 44 years), in order to evaluate the importance of. D alloimmunization. Analysis of the haematology laboratory records from January 2006 to December 2007 ...

  16. Cancer Screening Practice among Iranian Middle-aged Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Enjezab

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers are the leading causes of mortality among women, the incidence rate of which has an upward trend with advancing age. Although cost-effective, easy, and available screening programs can help control these types of cancer in their early stages, it seems that cancer screening programs have not been implemented effectively. In this study, we investigated the rate of cancer screening practice in middle-aged women and explained the influential factors. Methods: This cross-sectional study with a sequential mixed method approach was conducted on 483 middle-age women selected through cluster random sampling in Yazd, Iran. Data were obtained by a research made questionnaire and analyzed with descriptive statistics and performing Pearson product-moment correlation, Student’s t-test, and One-way ANOVA tests, using SPSS version 16. In the second phase of the study, qualitative, semi-structured interviews were performed and data were analyzed through content analysis. Results: The majority of the subjects had never been screened for cancer through mammogram (87.7%, Pap test (64.2%, or fecal occult blood test (FOBT (89.8%. Educational level, employment status, perceived adequacy of income, perceived health status, and the number of children were significantly associated with breast and colon cancer screening practice. Qualitative data showed that lack of knowledge, the cost of screening exams, lack of financial independence, negligence of spouse, fear of cancer, embarrassment, and belief in destiny were the main reasons for non-adherence to cancer screening tests. In addition, knowledge and observing cancer in acquaintances and relatives were the main motivators of cancer screening. Conclusion: Middle-aged housewives, as well as women with low educational level and income were the most vulnerable groups, who did not adhere to cancer screening. Planning and management of cancer preventive programs and

  17. Contraception and pregnancy then and now: examining the experiences of a cohort of mid-age Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Christine; Bateson, Deborah; Weisberg, Edith; Estoesta, Jane

    2009-08-01

    More than 50% of women who have an unplanned pregnancy report using a contraceptive method. Since the launch of the pill 50 years ago, a number of cross-sectional surveys have examined contraceptive use in the Australian context. There is, however, little data on contraceptive use and efficacy over a woman's reproductive years. To determine the pattern of contraceptive use of Australian women over their reproductive lifespan, with particular emphasis on the relationship between contraceptive use and pregnancy. One thousand women from the mid-age cohort of the Australian Women's Longitudinal Study were invited to participate in the Family Planning survey by completing a questionnaire about their reproductive histories. Completed questionnaires were received for 812 women. The contraceptive pill was the most commonly ever used contraceptive method at 94% and also the most commonly used method prior to all pregnancies. Contraceptive failure increased with increasing gravidity; 11.4% with the first pregnancy to 23.0% with the fourth pregnancy, while 28.8% of the respondents reported an 'accidental' pregnancy due to stopping contraception for reasons such as concern about long-term effects and media stories. While surveys indicate that 66-70% of Australian women use a contraceptive method, more than half of unplanned pregnancies apparently occur in women using contraception. The modern Australian woman, in common with her predecessors, still faces significant challenges in her fertility management. This survey provides a longitudinal perspective on contraceptive use in relation to pregnancy and highlights the issue of efficacy of contraceptives in real-life situations.

  18. Age-related changes in the structural parameters of the heart and myocardial remodeling in chronic heart failure in women with overweight and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Bidzilya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available According to different authors, the representation of women in the structure of chronic heart failure (CHF ranges from 50% to 60%, however, in clinical studies the number of participants in the female reaches only 20–30%. Aim. To study age-related changes in the structural parameters of the heart and myocardial remodeling in CHF. 216 women of different age groups who have had CHF I–III functional class on the background of normal, overweight and abdominal obesity I–III degree were examined. Methods and results. Structural parameters of the heart and the condition of cardiac remodeling were estimated with echocardiography. Found that in CHF in women with overweight and obesity with age increasing is a more significant dilatation of cardiac chambers, myocardial hypertrophy of the left ventricle and the calcination of valve apparatus. In most cases myocardial remodeling were presented by concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle. Conclusion. This demonstrates negative impact of increasing age on the restructuring of the heart in conditions of CHF in women with overweight and obesity.

  19. Age-specific and sex-specific prevalence of cerebral β-amyloidosis, tauopathy, and neurodegeneration in cognitively unimpaired individuals aged 50-95 years: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Clifford R; Wiste, Heather J; Weigand, Stephen D; Therneau, Terry M; Knopman, David S; Lowe, Val; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Mielke, Michelle M; Roberts, Rosebud O; Machulda, Mary M; Senjem, Matthew L; Gunter, Jeffrey L; Rocca, Walter A; Petersen, Ronald C

    2017-06-01

    A+ group versus the corresponding A- group. White matter hyperintensity volume (pgroup. Tau PET and neurodegeneration biomarkers were discordant in most individuals who would be categorised as stage 2 or 3 preclinical Alzheimer's disease (A+T+N-, A+T-N+, and A+T+N+; 86% at age 65 years and 51% at age 80 years) or with suspected non-Alzheimer's pathophysiology (A-T+N-, A-T-N+, and A-T+N+; 92% at age 65 years and 78% at age 80 years). From age 50 years, A-T-N- prevalence declined and A+T+N+ and A-T+N+ prevalence increased. In both men and women, A-T-N- was the most prevalent until age late 70s. After about age 80 years, A+T+N+ was most prevalent. By age 85 years, more than 90% of men and women had one or more biomarker abnormalities. Biomarkers of fibrillar tau deposition can be included with those of β-amyloidosis and neurodegeneration or neuronal injury to more fully characterise the heterogeneous pathological profiles in the population. Both amyloid- dependent and amyloid-independent pathological profiles can be identified in the cognitively unimpaired population. The prevalence of each ATN group changed substantially with age, with progression towards more biomarker abnormalities among individuals who remained cognitively unimpaired. National Institute on Aging (part of the US National Institutes of Health), the Alexander Family Professorship of Alzheimer's Disease Research, the Mayo Clinic, and the GHR Foundation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Why some women look young for their age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunn, David A; Rexbye, Helle; Griffiths, Christopher E M

    2009-01-01

    The desire of many to look young for their age has led to the establishment of a large cosmetics industry. However, the features of appearance that primarily determine how old women look for their age and whether genetic or environmental factors predominately influence such features are largely u...

  1. Comparison of pain threshold and duration of pain perception in men and women of different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Soares Leonel de Nazaré

    Full Text Available Introduction Pain is a sensory and emotional experience that occurs with the presence of tissue injury, actual or potential. Pain is subjective, and its expression is primarily determined by the perceived intensity of the painful sensation, called the pain threshold. Objective To evaluate whether there are differences in pain threshold (LD and time to pain perception (TPED between the gender in different age groups and to analyze the correlation between age and pain threshold in each gender. Methods and procedures Participants were 60 volunteers divided into 6 groups (n = 10 each according to gender and age (18–33, 34–49, and 50–64 years. The evaluation of perception and pain tolerance was performed by immersing the container with one hand in water at a temperature of 0 °C–2 °C; the latency to withdrawal of the hand from ice water was measured in seconds and was considered a measure of LD. The TPED was reported by each participant as the start time of the painful stimulus. Results We found differences between the LD for G1 (men aged between 18 and 33 years and G2 (women aged 18 to 33 years with greater LD for G1 (p = 0.0122 and greater LD for women (p = 0.0094; for other comparisons of LD and TPED, there were no differences (p > 0.05 for all comparisons. Low correlation was found between age progression with increased LD and the TPED only in men (p = 0.01 and r = 0.45 and p = 0.05 and r = 0.34, respectively. Conclusion We conclude that women have a higher pain threshold than men especially when these groups are aged between 18 and 33 years, and in men increasing age correlates with increased TPED and LD.

  2. Facebook Use and Disordered Eating in College-Aged Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Morgan; Thornton, Laura; De Choudhury, Munmun; Teevan, Jaime; Bulik, Cynthia M; Levinson, Cheri A; Zerwas, Stephanie

    2015-08-01

    Disordered eating behavior-dieting, laxative use, fasting, binge eating-is common in college-aged women (11%-20%). A documented increase in the number of young women experiencing eating psychopathology has been blamed on the rise of engagement with social media sites such as Facebook. We predicted that college-aged women's Facebook intensity (e.g., the amount of time spent on Facebook, number of Facebook friends, and integration of Facebook into daily life), online physical appearance comparison (i.e., comparing one's appearance to others' on social media), and online "fat talk" (i.e., talking negatively about one's body) would be positively associated with their disordered eating behavior. In an online survey, 128 college-aged women (81.3% Caucasian, 6.7% Asian, 9.0% African-American, and 3.0% Other) completed items, which measured their disordered eating, Facebook intensity, online physical appearance comparison, online fat talk, body mass index, depression, anxiety, perfectionism, impulsivity, and self-efficacy. In regression analyses, Facebook intensity, online physical appearance comparison, and online fat talk were significantly and uniquely associated with disordered eating and explained a large percentage of the variance in disordered eating (60%) in conjunction with covariates. However, greater Facebook intensity was associated with decreased disordered eating behavior, whereas both online physical appearance comparison and online fat talk were associated with greater disordered eating. College-aged women who endorsed greater Facebook intensity were less likely to struggle with disordered eating when online physical appearance comparison was accounted for statistically. Facebook intensity may carry both risks and benefits for disordered eating. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Age at natural menopause in women on long-term methotrexate therapy for rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banas, Tomasz; Hajdyla-Banas, Iwona; Pitynski, Kazimierz; Niewegłowska, Dorota; Juszczyk, Grzegorz; Ludwin, Artur; Knafel, Anna; Ludwin, Inga

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the natural menopause ages of healthy women with those of women with methotrexate (MTX)-treated rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to specifically assess the effect of disease onset and activity and the use of MTX on the age of the last menstruation. We performed a retrospective review of medical records to identify the ages at which menopause occurred in women with premenopausal RA treated with MTX and in women with postmenopausal onset, irrespective of therapy. Natural menopause ages were also compared between participants with and without RA. Women with premenopausal onset of RA underwent menopause at a significantly younger age than did healthy women (P Menopause also occurred at younger ages in participants with postmenopausal disease onset than in healthy controls (P = 0.012). The study suggested that menopause age was positively correlated with the age at which RA was diagnosed (R = 0.51; P menopause (P = 0.008). The age at which menopause occurs in a patient with RA depends on the patient's age at the time of disease onset and its duration, but is not influenced by MTX treatment.

  4. The prevalence of chronic diseases and major disease risk factors at different ages among 150 000 men and women living in Mexico City: cross-sectional analyses of a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peto Richard

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While most of the global burden from chronic diseases, and especially vascular diseases, is now borne by low and middle-income countries, few large-scale epidemiological studies of chronic diseases in such countries have been performed. Methods From 1998–2004, 52 584 men and 106 962 women aged ≥35 years were visited in their homes in Mexico City. Self reported diagnoses of chronic diseases and major disease risk factors were ascertained and physical measurements taken. Age- and sex-specific prevalences and means were analysed. Results After about age 50 years, diabetes was extremely common – for example, 23.8% of men and 26.9% of women aged 65–74 reported a diagnosis. By comparison, ischaemic heart disease was reported by 4.8% of men and 3.0% of women aged 65–74, a history of stroke by 2.8% and 2.3%, respectively, and a history of cancer by 1.3% and 2.1%. Cancer history was generally more common among women than men – the excess being largest in middle-age, due to breast and cervical cancer. At older ages, the gap narrowed because of an increasing prevalence of prostate cancer. 51% of men and 25% of women aged 35–54 smoked cigarettes, while 29% of men and 41% of women aged 35–54 were obese (i.e. BMI ≥30 kg/m2. The prevalence of treated hypertension or measured blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg increased about 50% more steeply with age among women than men, to 66% of women and 58% of men aged 65–74. Physical inactivity was highly prevalent but daily alcohol drinking was relatively uncommon. Conclusion Diabetes, obesity and tobacco smoking are highly prevalent among adults living in Mexico City. Long-term follow-up of this and other cohorts will establish the relevance of such factors to the major causes of death and disability in Mexico.

  5. The relationship between stressors and mental health among Japanese middle-aged women in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Junko; Takeda, Fumi; Kishi, Kaori; Monma, Takafumi

    2017-04-27

    In middle age, some people may become mentally or emotionally unstable. Additionally, in Japan, mood disorders, such as depressive symptoms, occur mostly among middle-aged women (i.e., aged 40-49 years). However, few studies have examined stressors related to mental health. In the present study, we developed a stressor scale for middle-aged women and examined stressors correlated with middle-aged women's mental health. In January 2015, an anonymous, self-administered survey was mailed to 1,000 randomly selected women aged 45 through 64 years living in Tokyo, Japan. Completed questionnaires were obtained from 329 women (32.9 percent). Factor analysis identified the following stressor categories: "relationship with my husband," "uneasiness about old age," "health concerns," "work-life balance," and "relationship with my friends." "Uneasiness about old age" and "health concerns" were correlated negatively with participants' mental health. Improving middle-aged women's health requires interventions that relieve stressors resulting from age-related problems and promote a positive image of old age.

  6. [Assessment of comprehensive nutritional status and eating behavior among 311 middle aged and aged women with osteoporosis in Chengdu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R P; Wang, W Z; Cheng, G P; Zhang, H J; Zhou, F M; Li, Y Y; Wu, C; Yang, L Q; Zeng, G

    2017-06-06

    Objective: To investigate the comprehensive nutritional status and diet behavior of middle aged and elderly women with osteoporosis, and thereby to explore the relationship between diet behavior and comprehensive nutritional status. Methods: 311 middle-aged and elderly women with osteoporosis in Chengdu were included in this study. Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) was applied to assess their comprehensive nutritional status. Information of social-demographic characteristics and diet behavior (about meals, snacks and water drinking, etc.) of the subjects was collected by questionnaire. Chi square test was used to assess the differences in nutritional status among patients who have different eating behaviors. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between diet behaviors and comprehensive nutritional status. Results: The mean MNA score of subjects was 25.8±2.5. 20.3% (63/311) of the subjets were at risk of potential malnutrition, but there was no malnourished subjects found. 46.9% (46/311) of the subjects were in good appetite. 95.2% (296/311) of them had a fixed food intake each meal. 65.8% (198/311) of them had snacks every day, and the most common choice was fruit (86.4% (248/287)). 54.8% (165/311) of them had initiative drinking water habits, and the most common choice was plain boiled water (79.9%, 246/308). 76.5% (238/311) of them had daily portable water less than 1 500 ml. After adjusting the effects of age, occupation and education level, bad appetite ( OR= 3.50, 95% CI: 1.18-10.62), unfixed food intake ( OR= 7.27, 95% CI: 1.40-35.83), and seldom or never intake of snack ( OR= 3.71, 95% CI: 1.42-9.72) were risk factors for malnutrition risk, while tea drinking was protective factor( OR= 0.31, 95% CI: 0.11-0.93). Conclusion: Risk of potential malnutrition and unhealthy diet behavior among the middle aged and elderly women with osteoporosis should be paid more attention. Unhealtghy diet behavior has a negative effect on their

  7. Do cycle disturbances explain the age-related decline of female fertility? Cycle characteristics of women aged over 40 years compared with a reference population of young women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonneveld, P. van; Scheffer, G.J.; Broekmans, F.J.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Jong, F.H. de; Looman, C.W.; Habbema, J.D.F.; Velde, E.R. te

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The cause of declining fertility with age, in women who still have regular menstrual cycles, is not clear. METHODS: Follicle development, endometrial growth and hormonal patterns were evaluated in cycles of older women (aged 41-46 years; n = 26) who previously were normally fertile, and

  8. Fertility in Women of Reproductive Age After Breast Cancer Treatment: Practice Patterns and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCray, Devina K S; Simpson, Ashley B; Flyckt, Rebecca; Liu, Yitian; O'Rourke, Colin; Crowe, Joseph P; Grobmyer, Stephen R; Moore, Halle C; Valente, Stephanie A

    2016-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently occurring cancer in women of reproductive age, and systemic treatments may adversely affect childbearing plans. Use of assisted reproductive technologies and therapies for ovarian protection improve fertility prospects. We evaluated whether patients had a documented fertility discussion (FD) with their oncology physician prior to therapy, what options were chosen, and if pregnancy was achieved. A retrospective chart review from 2006 to 2014 was performed to evaluate women aged 40 years and younger who were diagnosed with breast cancer and treated with chemotherapy and/or antihormonal therapy. Patient demographics, treatment regimens, presence or absence of FD, in vitro fertilization (IVF) consultation, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist use, and subsequent successful pregnancy were analyzed. Among 303 patients meeting the inclusion criteria, 80 (26 %) had an FD with their physician documented; 71 of these 80 women (89 %) sought further fertility consultation and options. Sixteen (20 %) women were prescribed a GnRH agonist only for ovarian protection during chemotherapy, 50 (63 %) underwent IVF consultation only, and 5 (6 %) had both a GnRH agonist prescribed and an IVF consultation. The overall pregnancy rate was 7 % at a mean of 3 years post breast cancer treatment. Pregnancy after treatment was more common among those pursuing IVF consultation or prescribed a GnRH agonist. In treating young breast cancer patients, it is important to assess fertility desire, discuss treatment risks relating to fertility, and discuss preservation options. Although not every woman in this group desired pregnancy, 71/80 (89 %) women having a documented FD sought further fertility consultation and options.

  9. Health Behavioral Patterns Associated with Psychologic Distress Among Middle-Aged Korean Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Sook Shin, PhD, RN

    2007-06-01

    Conclusion: The study found cultural characteristics of middle-aged Korean women in psychologic distress. Health care providers should consider marital satisfaction, self-actualization, nutrition, and interpersonal relations, in particular, among Korean middle-aged women.

  10. The burden of obesity in women of reproductive age and in pregnancy in a middle-income setting: A population based study from Jamaica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovney Kanguru

    Full Text Available Obesity is rising globally and is associated with increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. This study aims to investigate overweight and obesity and its consequences among Jamaican women of reproductive age, particularly development of diabetes, hypertension and the risk of maternal death.A national lifestyle survey (2007/8 of 1371 women of reproductive age provided data on the prevalence of high BMI, associated risk factors and co-morbidities. A national maternal mortality surveillance database (1998-2012 of 798 maternal deaths was used to investigate maternal deaths in obese women. Chi-squared and Fisher exact tests were used.High BMI (> = 25kg/m2 occurred in 63% of women aged between 15 and 49 years. It was associated with increasing age, high gravidity and parity, and full time employment (p<0.001. Of those with high BMI, 5.5% were diabetic, 19.3% hypertensive and 2.8% were both diabetic and hypertensive. Obesity was recorded in 10.5% of maternal deaths, with higher proportions of deaths due to hypertension in pregnancy (27.5%, circulatory/ cardiovascular disorders (13.0%, and diabetes (4.3% compared to 21.9%, 6.9% and 2.6% respectively in non-obese women.This is one of a few studies from a middle-income setting to explore maternal burden of obesity during pregnancy, which contributes to improving the knowledge base, identifying the gaps in information and increasing awareness of the growing problem of maternal overweight and obesity. While survey diagnostic conditions require cautious interpretation of findings, it is clear that obesity and related medical conditions present a substantial public health problem for emerging LMICs like Jamaica. There is an urgent need for global consensus on routine measures of the burden and risk factors associated with obesity and development of culturally appropriate interventions.

  11. No major effect of estrogen receptor gene polymorphisms on bone mineral density or bone loss in postmenopausal Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Y Z; Jørgensen, H L; Heegaard, Anne-Marie

    2000-01-01

    The polymorphisms of the estrogen receptor (ER) gene defined by the restriction enodonucleases PvuII and XbaI have recently been reported to be associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. To investigate the possible relation of the PvuII and XbaI restriction fragment......-length polymorphisms of the ER gene with BMD in Danish postmenopausal women, two studies were undertaken: 1) a cross-sectional study of 499 postmenopausal women, where the ER genotypes and alleles were related to BMD of the hip, spine, and lower forearm; and 2) a longitudinal study of 101 postmenopausal women followed...... up for 18 years. In the latter study, late postmenopausal bone loss in the hip and spine was determined over a period of 6 years in women (mean age of 63 to 69 years), and long-term postmenopausal bone loss in the lower forearm was determined over a period of 18 years in women (mean age of 51 to 69...

  12. The Women's international study of long-duration oestrogen after menopause (WISDOM: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meade Tom W

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At the time of feasibility work and final design of the trial there was no randomised control trial evidence for the long-term risks and benefits of hormone replacement therapy. Observational studies had suggested that long term use of estrogen was likely to be associated, amongst other things, with reduced risks of osteoporosis and ischaemic heart disease and increased risks of breast and endometrial cancer. Concomitant use of progestogens had been shown to protect against endometrial cancer, but there were few data showing how progestogen might affect estrogen actions on other conditions. Disease specific risks from observational studies suggested that, overall, long-term HRT was likely to be beneficial. Several studies showed that mortality from all causes was lower in HRT users than in non-users. Some secondary cardiovascular prevention trials were ongoing but evidence was also required for a range of outcomes in healthy women. The WISDOM trial was designed to compare combined estrogen and progestogen versus placebo, and estrogen alone versus combined estrogen and progestogen. During the development of WISDOM the Women's Health Initiative trial was designed, funded and started in the US. Design Randomised, placebo, controlled, trial. Methods The trial was set in general practices in the UK (384, Australia (94, and New Zealand (24. In these practices 284175 women aged 5069 years were registered with 226282 potentially eligible. We sought to randomise 22300 postmenopausal women aged 5069 and treat for ten years. The interventions were: conjugated equine estrogens, 0.625 mg orally daily; conjugated equine estrogens plus medroxyprogesterone acetate 2.5/5.0 mg orally daily; matched placebo. Primary outcome measures were: major cardiovascular disease, osteoporotic fractures, breast cancer and dementia. Secondary outcomes were: other cancers, all cause death, venous thromboembolism and cerebro-vascular disease. Results

  13. Geographical variation in cardiovascular incidence: results from the British Women's Heart and Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Shah

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD in women shows regional variations not explained by common risk factors. Analysis of CVD incidence will provide insight into whether there is further divergence between regions with increasing age. Methods Seven-year follow-up data on 2685 women aged 59-80 (mean 69 at baseline from 23 towns in the UK were available from the British Women's Heart and Health Study. Time to fatal or non-fatal CVD was analyzed using Cox regression with adjustment for risk factors, using multiple imputation for missing values. Results Compared to South England, CVD incidence is similar in North England (HR 1.05 (95% CI 0.84, 1.31 and Scotland (0.93 (0.68, 1.27, but lower in Midlands/Wales (0.85 (0.64, 1.12. Event severity influenced regional variation, with South England showing lower fatal incident CVD than other regions, but higher non-fatal incident CVD. Kaplan-Meier plots suggested that regional divergence in CVD occurred before baseline (before mean baseline age of 69. Conclusions In women, regional differences in CVD early in adult life do not further diverge in later life. This may be due to regional differences in early detection, survivorship of women entering the study, or event severity. Targeting health care resources for CVD by geographic variation may not be appropriate for older age-groups.

  14. Organic solvent exposure and contrast sensitivity: comparing men and women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, A.R.; Campos, A.A.; de Andrade, M.J.O.; de Medeiros, P.C.B.; dos Santos, N.A.

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the visual contrast sensitivity (CS) of men and women exposed and not exposed to organic solvents. Forty-six volunteers of both genders aged between 18 and 41 years (mean±SD=27.72±6.28) participated. Gas station attendants were exposed to gas containing 46.30 ppm of solvents at a temperature of 304±274.39 K, humidity of 62.25±7.59% and ventilation of 0.69±0.46 m/s (a passive gas chromatography-based sampling method was used considering the microclimate variables). Visual CS was measured via the psychophysical method of two-alternative forced choice using vertical sinusoidal gratings with spatial frequencies of 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0, 10.0, and 16.0 cpd (cycles per degree) and an average luminance of 34.4 cd/m2. The results showed that visual CS was significantly lower (P<0.05) in the following groups: i) exposed men compared to unexposed men at frequencies of 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 cpd; ii) exposed women compared to unexposed women at a frequency of 5.0 cpd; and iii) exposed women compared to exposed men at a frequency of 0.5 cpd, even at exposures below the tolerance limit (300 ppm). These results suggest that the visual CS of exposed men was impaired over a wider range of spatial frequencies than that of exposed women. This difference may have been due to the higher body fat content of women compared to that of men, suggesting that body fat in women can serve as a protective factor against neurotoxic effects. PMID:29340521

  15. Age differences in empathy: Multidirectional and context-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieck, Cornelia; Kunzmann, Ute

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated age differences in empathy, focusing on empathic accuracy (the ability to perceive another's emotions accurately), emotional congruence (the capacity to share another's emotions), and sympathy. Participants, 101 younger (Mage = 24 years) and 101 older (Mage = 69 years) women, viewed 6 film clips, each portraying a younger or an older woman reliving and thinking aloud about an autobiographical memory. The emotional quality (anger, sadness, happiness) and the age relevance (young, old) of the memorized events were systematically varied. In comparison to their younger counterparts, older women were less accurate in perceiving the protagonists' emotions, but they reported similar levels of emotional congruence and greater sympathy. In addition, age deficits in empathic accuracy were moderated by the age relevance of the task, that is, younger and older women's empathic accuracy did not differ if the protagonists' memorized personal experience was of high relevance to older adults. These findings speak for multidirectional and context-dependent age differences in empathy. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Stability of physical fitness and functional capacity in physically active women aged 50 to 89 years. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n1p8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Pedro Silva Júnior

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a physical activity program and the stability of physical fitness and functional capacity in physically active adult women. Thirty-four adult women aged 50-89 years, who participated in a physical activity group at Camilo Castelo Branco University, were studied. Criteria for inclusion were attendance of at least 75% of the classes (3x/week and undergoing at least one assessment per year between 2005 and 2007. All evaluations were conducted in June. Anthropometric (body weight, height, waist-hip ratio, neuromotor (rising from a chair in seconds, rising from a chair in 30 seconds, elbow flexion, shuttle-run, static and dynamic balance, and metabolic parameters (2-min step in place test according to the CELAFISCS standard were evaluated. One-way ANOVA followed by the post hoc Scheffe test, delta percentage and Spearman’s rho correlation were used for data analysis, with the level of significance set at p<0.05. In the three evaluations, body weight, body mass index and waist-hip ratio indicated overweight. Analysis of functional capacity showed a significant increase in upper (42% and lower (5.2% limb strength and in balance (14.1% when comparing the results from 2005 to 2007. The same was not observed for agility (2.1%. For body mass index, waist-hip ratio, strength and static balance, stability ranged from 0.26 to 0.91 (p<0.05. The physical activity program contributed to the maintenance of physical fitness and functional capacity in adult women.

  17. Stability of physical fitness and functional capacity in physically active women aged 50 to 89 years. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n1p8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio dos Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a physical activity program and the stability of physical fitness and functional capacity in physically active adult women. Thirty-four adult women aged 50-89 years, who participated in a physical activity group at Camilo Castelo Branco University, were studied. Criteria for inclusion were attendance of at least 75% of the classes (3x/week and undergoing at least one assessment per year between 2005 and 2007. All evaluations were conducted in June. Anthropometric (body weight, height, waist-hip ratio, neuromotor (rising from a chair in seconds, rising from a chair in 30 seconds, elbow flexion, shuttle-run, static and dynamic balance, and metabolic parameters (2-min step in place test according to the CELAFISCS standard were evaluated. One-way ANOVA followed by the post hoc Scheffe test, delta percentage and Spearman’s rho correlation were used for data analysis, with the level of significance set at p<0.05. In the three evaluations, body weight, body mass index and waist-hip ratio indicated overweight. Analysis of functional capacity showed a significant increase in upper (42% and lower (5.2% limb strength and in balance (14.1% when comparing the results from 2005 to 2007. The same was not observed for agility (2.1%. For body mass index, waist-hip ratio, strength and static balance, stability ranged from 0.26 to 0.91 (p<0.05. The physical activity program contributed to the maintenance of physical fitness and functional capacity in adult women.

  18. Socioeconomic position and variations in coping strategies in musculoskeletal pain: a cross-sectional study of 1,287 40- and 50-year-old men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Schmidt, Lone; Hougaard, Charlotte Ørsted

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between socioeconomic position and coping strategies in musculoskeletal pain. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Cross-sectional study of a random sample of 40- and 50-year-old Danes, participation rate 69%, n=7,125. The study included 1,287 persons who reported functional...... position, measured by occupational social class. RESULTS: Among women, there was no correlation between social class and avoidant coping, but a significant decrease in the use of problem-solving coping by decreasing social class, adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.64 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1...... for clinicians who advise and support patients in their response to musculoskeletal pain to be aware of socioeconomic differences in coping strategies. Gender differences in the association between socioeconomic factors and coping should be further investigated....

  19. Serum Retinol Concentrations, Race, and Socioeconomic Status in of Women of Childbearing Age in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrine Hanson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin A is an essential nutrient during pregnancy and throughout the lifecycle due to its role in the development of critical organ systems. Because maternal tissue is progressively depleted of vitamin A to supply fetal demands, women who become pregnant while possessing marginal vitamin A reserves are at increased risk of vitamin A inadequacy as pregnancy progresses. Few studies have assessed the relationship between socioeconomic factors and retinol status in women of childbearing age. Methods: We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES to assess the relationship between serum retinol concentrations and socioeconomic factors in women of childbearing age. Women 14–45 years of age (n = 3170 from NHANES cycles 2003–2004 and 2005–2006 were included. Serum retinol concentrations were divided into categories according to World Health Organization criteria. All statistical procedures accounted for the weighted data and complex design of the NHANES sample. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The poverty score and race were significantly associated with vitamin A status after adjustment for confounders. Odds of retinol concentrations of <1.05 µmol/L were 1.85 times higher for those of lower socioeconomic status when compared to those of higher status (95% CI: 1.12–3.03, p = 0.02, and 3.1 times higher for non-Hispanic blacks when compared to non-Hispanic whites (95% CI: 1.50–6.41, p = 0.002. Dietary intakes of retinol activity equivalents were significantly lower in groups with higher poverty scores (p = 0.004. Conclusion There appear to be disparities in serum vitamin A levels in women of childbearing age related to income and race in the United States.

  20. Association between sleep and overweight/obesity among women of childbearing age in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tests of the relationship between sleep and overweight/obesity (OW/OB) among women have been inconsistent. Few studies reporting such associations have focused on women of childbearing age. This paper investigates this association among Canadian women of childbearing age. Data were from the Canadian...

  1. Psychosocial determinants of contraceptive use among women of reproductive age in a rural area of Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhas S, Sekhon H

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organisation reports that an estimated 94 per cent of the population of the world lives in countries with policies that favour family planning. Despite this, five of every six couples of reproductive age do not use adequate measures of fertility regulation. Gender inequalities in patriarchal societies ensure that men play a critical role in the decisions on family matters. The present study was undertaken to study the nature of acceptance of contraceptive practices and the psychosocial determinants. Methods: This was a community based cross sectional descriptive study. The anticipated prevalence of contraceptive practices among the 206 women in the age group of 15-49 years was 50%. Considering a margin of error of 10%, with finite correction and 10% of non-response and 95% CI, the sample size was calculated. 90 married women in the reproductive age group of 15-49 years residing at the village were studied after drawing the sample with simple random sampling method. Results: There were 55 (61.11% women who practised contraception. In case of 03 (3.33% couples, husbands used condoms, while in case of remaining 52 (57.78%, wife had undergone tubectomy. Conclusion: From the present study, it was concluded that the most common method of contraception practiced in the study population was tubectomy and a range of psychosocial factors played an important role in decision making.

  2. Exploring sexual behaviors and health communication among older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Caroline D; Goltz, Heather Honoré; Szucs, Leigh E; Reyes, Jovanni V; Wilson, Kelly L; Ory, Marcia G; Smith, Matthew Lee

    2017-12-01

    Older women around the globe are generally depicted as asexual beings, which may impact patient-provider discussions about sex. We examined data on 703 aging women in the United States to compare factors associated with women perceiving sex as important and women discussing sex with their physicians since turning 50. While 65.1% of participants perceived sex to be important, only 23.8% discussed sex with their providers since turning 50. Factors related to discussing sex included age, education, having a chronic condition, and consuming alcohol. Provider training and tools about sexual health communication could help launch those discussions about sex and increase advocacy for older women's sexual health.

  3. A study of radiological protection for women of reproductive age in diagnostic radiology. Questionnaire for medical radiation technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsubone, Chie; Ban, Nobuhiko; Kai, Michiaki

    2005-01-01

    There has been great concern regarding the radiation protection for women of reproductive age when exposed to diagnostic radiation. The 10-day-rule proposed by the ICRP has not been recommended since 1983 because the risk to embryo and fetus within four weeks after menstruation may be small. However, some expects see that incomplete abandon of the 10-day-rule might cause confusion among the medical doctors and patients, and consequently unwarranted abortion happens. This paper surveyed the views of radiation technologies in hospitals and discussed how radiation exposure of women of reproductive age in medicine should be controlled. We found that the views to be 10-day-rule were spilt 50:50 and that radiation technologists do not necessarily think the 10-day-rule should be abandoned. Even the radiation technologists who are supposed to be able to explain to the patients the health risk following diagnostic exposure do not fully understand the risk involved. In conclusion, although a low-dose risk of diagnostic exposure should be sufficiently educated in order to obtain an exact understanding, the 10-day-rule may be useful in order to actually avoid any trouble in diagnostic radiology. (author)

  4. Reconceptualizing successful aging among black women and the relevance of the strong black woman archetype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Tamara A; Buchanan, NiCole T; Mingo, Chivon A; Roker, Rosalyn; Brown, Candace S

    2015-02-01

    Although there are multiple pathways to successful aging, little is known of what it means to age successfully among black women. There is a growing body of literature suggesting that black women experience a number of social challenges (sexism and racism) that may present as barriers to aging successfully. Applying aspects of the Strong Black Women ideal, into theoretical concepts of successful aging, may be particularly relevant in understanding which factors impair or promote the ability of black women to age successfully. The Strong Black Women archetype is a culturally salient ideal prescribing that black women render a guise of self-reliance, selflessness, and psychological, emotional, and physical strength. Although this ideal has received considerable attention in the behavioral sciences, it has been largely absent within the gerontology field. Nevertheless, understanding the dynamics of this cultural ideal may enhance our knowledge while developing an appreciation of the black woman's ability to age successfully. Rather than summarize the social, physical, and mental health literature focusing on health outcomes of black women, this conceptual review examines the Strong Black Women archetype and its application to the lived experiences of black women and contributions to current theories of successful aging. Focusing on successful aging exclusively among black women enhances our understanding of this group by considering their identity as women of color while recognizing factors that dictate their ability to age successfully. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Screening, prevalence, and risk factors for cervical lesions among HIV positive and HIV negative women in Swaziland

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    Pauline E. Jolly

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical Cancer (CC is the number one cancer among women in sub-Saharan Africa. Although CC is preventable, most women in developing countries do not have access to screening. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for cervical lesions using visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA among 112 HIV positive and 161 negative women aged 18–69 years. Results The presence of cervical lesions was greater among HIV positive (22.9% than HIV negative women (5.7%; p < 0.0001. In logistic models, the risk of cervical lesions among HIV positive women was 5.24 times higher when adjusted by age (OR 5.24, CI 2.31–11.88, and 4.06 times higher in a full model (OR 4.06, CI 1.61–10.25, than among HIV negative women. In the age-adjusted model women who had ≥2 lifetime sexual partners were 3 times more likely (OR 3.00, CI 1.02–8.85 to have cervical lesions compared to women with one lifetime partner and the odds of cervical lesions among women with a history of STIs were 2.16 greater (OR 2.16, CI 1.04–4.50 than among women with no previous STI. In the fully adjusted model women who had a previous cervical exam were 2.5 times more likely (OR 2.53, CI 1.06–6.05 to have cervical lesions than women who had not. Conclusions The high prevalence of HIV infection and the strong association between HIV and cervical lesions highlight the need for substantial scale-up of cervical screening to decrease the rate of CC in Swaziland.

  6. Breast Density Awareness and Knowledge, and Intentions for Breast Cancer Screening in a Diverse Sample of Women Age Eligible for Mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Rivas, Marimer; Benjamin, Shayna; Andrews, Janna Z; Jandorf, Lina

    2017-08-14

    The objectives of this study were to assess breast density knowledge and breast density awareness, and to identify information associated with intention to complete routine and supplemental screening for breast cancer in a diverse sample of women age eligible for mammography. We quantitatively (self-report) assessed breast density awareness and knowledge (N = 264) in black (47.7%), Latina (35.2%), and white (17%) women recruited online and in the community. Most participants reported having heard about breast density (69.2%); less than one third knew their own breast density status (30.4%). Knowing their own breast density, believing that women should be notified of their breast density in their mammogram report, and feeling informed if being provided this information are associated with likelihood of completing mammogram. Intending mammogram completion and knowledge regarding the impact of breast density on mammogram accuracy are associated with likelihood of completing supplemental ultrasound tests of the breast. These findings help inform practitioners and policy makers about information and communication factors that influence breast cancer screening concerns and decisions. Knowing this information should prepare practitioners to better identify women who may have not been exposed to breast density messages.

  7. Older women and sexuality: Narratives of gender, age, and living environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Little research has explored the intersection of aging and sexuality. This qualitative study is informed by a life course approach and narrative gerontology methods. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 13 women age 55 and older to explore the effects of gender, aging, and living environment on past and current sexual experiences. Subthemes from each major theme are discussed, including: (a) messages about and perceived effects of gender, (b) perceived effects of aging, and (c) perceived effects of living environment. Findings support the use of dynamical systems theory to study women's sexual experiences.

  8. QuickStats: Percentage* of Adults Aged ≥18 Years Who Currently Use E-Cigarettes,† by Sex and Age Group - National Health Interview Survey,§ 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-05

    In 2016, 3.8% of men and 2.6% of women aged ≥18 years currently used e-cigarettes. Among men, current e-cigarette use decreased with advancing age, from 7.1% among men aged 18-24 years to 4.8% among men aged 25-49 years, 2.6% among men 50-64 years, and 1.1% among men aged ≥65 years. Among women, current e-cigarette use increased between ages 18-24 years (2.3%) and 25-49 years (3.3%) and decreased between ages 50-64 years (3.0%) and ≥65 years (0.9%). A greater percentage of men aged 18-24 years and 25-49 years currently used e-cigarettes compared with women in the same age groups.

  9. Alcohol Consumption Among Ghanaian Women of Child Bearing Age – What are the Correlates?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nketiah-Amponsah Edward

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the demographic and socio-economic correlates of alcohol consumption and drinking frequency among Ghanaian women aged 15-49 years. The study utilizes the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey data, which remains the most recent DHS for studying the phenomenon in Ghana. Using logistic regression, our findings indicate that alcohol consumption among Ghanaian women is influenced by age, education, and wealth status. In addition, while health insurance ownership significantly affects alcohol consumption among urban women, employment status is reported to be a significant determinant among rural women. Results from the ordered logistic regression show that age, wealth status, pregnancy status, and place of residence are significant predictors of alcohol drinking frequency among Ghanaian women. Moreover, while secondary educational attainment is significant among urban women, primary educational attainment is significant among rural women. The study concludes that the predictors of alcohol consumption and drinking frequency among women of childbearing age in Ghana vary by place of residence (i.e., rural vs urban.

  10. Psychological well-being and incident frailty in men and women: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, C R; Cooper, C; Deary, I J; Aihie Sayer, A

    2014-03-01

    Observations that older people who enjoy life more tend to live longer suggest that psychological well-being may be a potential resource for healthier ageing. We investigated whether psychological well-being was associated with incidence of physical frailty. We used multinomial logistic regression to examine the prospective relationship between psychological well-being, assessed using the CASP-19, a questionnaire that assesses perceptions of control, autonomy, self-realization and pleasure, and incidence of physical frailty or pre-frailty, defined according to the Fried criteria (unintentional weight loss, weakness, self-reported exhaustion, slow walking speed and low physical activity), in 2557 men and women aged 60 to ≥ 90 years from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Men and women with higher levels of psychological well-being were less likely to become frail over the 4-year follow-up period. For a standard deviation higher score in psychological well-being at baseline, the relative risk ratio (RR) for incident frailty, adjusted for age, sex and baseline frailty status, was 0.46 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.40-0.54]. There was a significant association between psychological well-being and risk of pre-frailty (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.63-0.77). Examination of scores for hedonic (pleasure) and eudaimonic (control, autonomy and self-realization) well-being showed that higher scores on both were associated with decreased risk. Associations were partially attenuated by further adjustment for other potential confounding factors but persisted. Incidence of pre-frailty or frailty was associated with a decline in well-being, suggesting that the relationship is bidirectional. Maintaining a stronger sense of psychological well-being in later life may protect against the development of physical frailty. Future research needs to establish the mechanisms underlying these findings.

  11. [Sexuality of aging couples--from women's point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Chineko

    2005-09-01

    The Sexuality Study Group (chairperson: Chineko Araki) has researched the sexuality of middle-aged to elderly men and women who were having problems with their spouse, and suggestions for an improved sexual life. According to the result of the survey, the problem seemed to lie in the gap between men and women; men want sexual intercourse with women, while many women are satisfied with emotional affection. Discontinuance of intercourse is mainly caused by the loss of women's interest in sex. The responses to 'What kind of sexual relationship do you want to have with your spouse?' and other questions showed that whether women want to have sexual intercourse or not is not simply caused by a physical problem such as decrease of sexual desire or pain during intercourse, but is affected by various factors such as the affection to the spouse, physical and mental satisfaction by intercourse and a different way of thinking about sex. Also the survey showed even though both men and women wanted to have a 'casual conversation' or 'showing affection daily', in actual life they lacked having conversations and had little physical contact except for sex. For aging couples to keep matured sexual relations, it is more desirable to build the couples' relationship with casual conversation and physical contact, and also enjoy slow sex, such as pillow talk or caressing one another and not focusing on sex only.

  12. Combined effect of short stature and socioeconomic status on body mass index and weight gain during reproductive age in Brazilian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sichieri R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Short stature, a marker for undernutrition early in life, has been associated with obesity in Brazilian women, but not in men. We tested the hypothesis that weight gain during the reproductive years could explain this gender difference. A national two-stage household survey of mothers with one or more children under five years of age was conducted in Brazil in 1996. The subjects were women aged 20 to 45 years (N = 2297, with last delivery seven months or more prior to the interview. The regions of the country were divided into rural, North/Northeast (urban underdeveloped and South/Southeast/Midwest (urban developed. The dependent variables were current body mass index (BMI measured, BMI prior to childbearing (reported, and BMI change. Socioeconomic variables included mother's years of education and family purchasing power score. A secondary analysis was restricted to primiparous women. The prevalence of current overweight and overweight prior to childbearing (BMI > or = 25 kg/m² was higher among shorter women (<1.50 m compared to normal stature women only in the urban developed region (P < 0.05. After adjustment for socioeconomic variables, age, parity, BMI prior to childbearing, and age at first birth, current BMI was 2.39 units higher (P = 0.008 for short stature women living in the urban developed area compared with short stature women living in the urban underdeveloped area. For both multiparous and primiparous women, BMI gain compared to the value prior to childbearing was significantly higher among short stature women living in the urban developed region (P <= 0.04. These results provide clear evidence that short stature was associated with a higher BMI and with an increased risk of weight gain/retention with pregnancy in the developed areas of Brazil, but not in the underdeveloped ones.

  13. The Female Stroke Survival Advantage: Relation to Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Dehlendorff, Christian; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2009-01-01

    Background: Age-related hormonal factors are thought to be related to the gender gap in longevity. Testing the hypothesis that survival is best in young premenopausal women we studied the effect of age on 1-week mortality in stroke patients. Methods: A registry was started in 2001 with the aim...... in women. While mortality increased almost linearly in women over the entire age range, it increased steeply in men from the age of 50 and at the age of 80 years survival was 80% better in women. Conclusion: The female stroke survival advantage applies to all ages. It increases with age due to a steeply...

  14. Age at menarche and age at natural menopause in East Asian women: a genome-wide association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiajun; Zhang, Ben; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Gao, Yu-Tang; Li, Huaixing; Lu, Wei; Long, Jirong; Kang, Daehee; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Wen, Wanqing; Park, Sue K; Ye, Xingwang; Noh, Dong-Young; Zheng, Ying; Wang, Yiqin; Chung, Seokang; Lin, Xu; Cai, Qiuyin; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2016-12-01

    Age at menarche (AM) and age at natural menopause (ANM) are complex traits with a high heritability. Abnormal timing of menarche or menopause is associated with a reduced span of fertility and risk for several age-related diseases including breast, endometrial and ovarian cancer, cardiovascular disease, and osteoporosis. To identify novel genetic loci for AM or ANM in East Asian women and to replicate previously identified loci primarily in women of European ancestry by genome-wide association studies (GWASs), we conducted a two-stage GWAS. Stage I aimed to discover promising novel AM and ANM loci using GWAS data of 8073 women from Shanghai, China. The Stage II replication study used the data from another Chinese GWAS (n = 1230 for AM and n = 1458 for ANM), a Korean GWAS (n = 4215 for AM and n = 1739 for ANM), and de novo genotyping of 2877 additional Chinese women. Previous GWAS-identified loci for AM and ANM were also evaluated. We identified two suggestive menarcheal age loci tagged by rs79195475 at 10q21.3 (beta = -0.118 years, P = 3.4 × 10 -6 ) and rs1023935 at 4p15.1 (beta = -0.145 years, P = 4.9 × 10 -6 ) and one menopausal age locus tagged by rs3818134 at 22q12.2 (beta = -0.276 years, P = 8.8 × 10 -6 ). These suggestive loci warrant a further validation in independent populations. Although limited by low statistical power, we replicated 19 of the 98 menarche loci and 5 of the 20 menopause loci previously identified in women of European ancestry in East Asian women, suggesting a shared genetic architecture for these two traits across populations.

  15. “The pleasure is better as I’ve gotten older”: Sexual Health, Sexuality, and Sexual Risk Behaviors among Older Women Living with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tonya N.; Munoz-Plaza, Corrine E.; Goparaju, Lakshmi; Martinez, Omar; Holman, Susan; Minkoff, Howard L.; Karpiak, Stephen E.; Gandhi, Monica; Cohen, Mardge H.; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Levine, Alexandra M.; Adedimeji, Adebola A.; Gonsalves, Rebecca; Bryan, Tiffany; Connors, Nina; Schechter, Gabrielle; Wilson, Tracey E.

    2016-01-01

    There is limited research examining the sexual health and wellbeing of older women living with HIV (OWLH). Most studies focus on sexual dysfunction, leaving aside the richer context of sexuality and sexual health, including the effect of age-related psychosocial and interpersonal changes on sexual health behaviors. Guided by the integrative biopsychosocial model and the sexual health model, this study explored the importance of sex and sexuality among OWLH to identify their sexual health and HIV prevention needs for program planning. A purposive sample (n=50) of OWLH was selected from a parent study (n=2,052). We conducted 8 focus groups and 41 in-depth interviews with 50 African American and Latina OWLH aged 5069 years old in three U.S. cities. The triangulation approach was used to synthesize the data. Six salient themes emerged: sexual pleasure changes due to age, sexual freedom as women age, the role of relationships in sexual pleasure, changes in sexual ability and sexual health needs, sexual risk behaviors, and ageist assumptions about older women’s sexuality. We found that sexual pleasure and the need for intimacy continue to be important for OWLH, but that changing sexual abilities and sexual health needs, such as the reduction of sexual desire, as well as increased painful intercourse due to menopause-associated vaginal drying, were persistent barriers to sexual fulfillment and satisfaction. Particular interpersonal dynamics, including low perceptions of the risk of HIV transmission as related to gender, viral suppression and habitual condomless sex with long term partners without HIV transmission have resulted in abandoning safer sex practices with serodiscordant partners. These findings suggest that HIV prevention for OWLH should focus on how sexual function and satisfaction intersect with sexual risk. HIV prevention for OWLH should promote ways to maintain satisfying and safe sex lives among aging women. PMID:27220311

  16. Depressive symptoms in middle-aged women are more strongly associated with physical health and social support than with socioeconomic factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aro, A R; Nyberg, N; Absetz, P

    2001-01-01

    The association of socioeconomic factors, health-related factors, and social support with depressive symptoms has been extensively studied. However, most epidemiological studies have focused on a few factors such as marital status, social class, and employment. In this study of middle-aged women we...... analyzed both univariate and multivariate associations of socioeconomic factors, perceived physical health factors, and social support with self-rated depressive symptoms measured with the Beck Depression Inventory. A nationwide sample (n = 1851) of Finnish women aged 48-50 years was analyzed....... Socioeconomic, health-related, and social support factors were all measured with single items. All variables, except level of urbanization, were significantly associated with depressive symptoms in univariate analyses. Multivariate associations were examined with standard multiple regression analyses in three...

  17. Diet, nutritional knowledge and health status of urban middle-aged Malaysian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pon, L W; Noor-Aini, M Y; Ong, F B; Adeeb, N; Seri, S S; Shamsuddin, K; Mohamed, A L; Hapizah, N; Mokhtar, A; Wan, H Wh

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess nutritional and health status as well as nutritional knowledge in urban middle-aged Malaysian women. The impact of menopause on diet and health indices was also studied. The study included 360 disease free women, non users of HRT,aged > or =45 years with an intact uterus recruited from November 1999 to October 2001. Personal characteristics, anthropometric measurements and blood sample were acquired followed by clinical examination. Nutrient intake and nutritional knowledge was determined by a quantitative FFQ and KAP. The findings showed that urban middle-aged women, aged 51.65+/-5.40 years had energy intakes (EI) 11% below RDA, consisting of 53% carbohydrates, 15% protein and a 32% fat which declined with age. The sample which comprised of 42.5% postmenopausal women had a satisfactory diet and healthy lifestyle practices. Premenopausal women consumed more dietary fat (6%) with other aspects of diet comparable to the postmenopausal women. Iron intake was deficient in premenopausal women, amounting to 56% RDA contributing to a 26% prevalence of anaemia. Overall, calcium intake reached 440 mg daily but dairy products were not the main source. The postmenopaused had a more artherogenic lipid profile with significantly higher total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C, but more premenopausal women were overweight/obese (49% versus 35%). EI was the strongest predictor for BMI and waist circumference (WC), with WC itself an independent predictor of fasting blood sugar and TC with BMI strongly affecting glucose tolerance. High nutritional knowledge was seen in 39% whereas 20% had poor knowledge. Newspapers and magazines, followed by the subject's social circle, were the main sources of nutritional information. Nutritional knowledge was positively associated with education, household income, vitamin/ mineral supplementation and regular physical activity but inversely related to TC. In conclusion, middle-aged urban women had an adequate diet

  18. Evaluation of physical activity measures used in middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettee Gabriel, Kelley; McClain, James J; Lee, Chong D; Swan, Pamela D; Alvar, Brent A; Mitros, Melanie R; Ainsworth, Barbara E

    2009-07-01

    To evaluate the reliability and validity of five commonly used physical activity questionnaires (PAQ) in women aged 45-65 yr with varying physical activity (PA) levels. Data were obtained from the Evaluation of Physical Activity Measures in Middle-aged Women (PAW) Study and included 66 women (aged 52.6 +/- 5.4 yr). PAQ evaluated include Modifiable Activity Questionnaire (past week and past month version), Nurses' Health Study PAQ, Active Australia Survey, and Women's Health Initiative PAQ. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) between administrations of the PAQ were used to assess test-retest reliability. Spearman rank-order correlation coefficients were used to examine the associations of PA and physical fitness data with PAQ summary estimates. Accelerometer-determined median (25th, 75th percentiles) times (min.d) spent in moderate-lifestyle [760-1951 counts (ct)], moderate-walk (1952-5724 ct), vigorous (> or =5725 ct), and combined moderate and vigorous PA (MVPA > or = 1952 ct) during the 35 d of observation were 66.0 (51.2, 81.3), 23.1 (14.1, 34.6), 0.4 (0.0, 2.3), and 24.3 (15.9, 41.6) min, respectively. The PAQ were shown to be reproducible and relatively stable over time (ICC = 0.32 to 0.91) and were associated with total counts per day (ct.d, 0.46 to 0.60, all P PAQ evaluated in this study were shown to be reliable and associated with PA and physical fitness measures. Current findings support the utility of these PAQ for PA assessment in research studies of middle-aged women.

  19. Risk of sick leave and disability pension in working-age women and men with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubertsson, Jenny; Petersson, Ingemar F; Thorstensson, Carina A; Englund, Martin

    2013-03-01

    To investigate sick leave and disability pension in working-age subjects with knee osteoarthritis (OA) compared with the general population. Population-based cohort study: individual-level inpatient and outpatient Skåne Health Care Register data were linked with data from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency. In 2009 all working-age (16-64 years) Skåne County residents who in 1998-2009 had been diagnosed with knee OA (International Classification of Diseases-10 code M17) were identified and their sick leave and disability pension in 2009 related to those of the general working-age population (n=789 366) standardised for age. 15 345 working-age residents (49.6% women) with knee OA were identified. Compared with the general population, the RR (95% CI) of having had one or more episodes of sick leave during the year was 1.82 (1.73 to 1.91) for women and 2.03 (1.92 to 2.14) for men with knee OA. The corresponding risk for disability pension was 1.54 (1.48 to 1.60) for women and 1.36 (1.28 to 1.43) for men with knee OA. The annual mean number of sick days was 87 for each patient with knee OA and 57 for the general population (age- and sex-standardised). Of all sick leave and disability pension in the entire population, 2.1% of days were attributable to knee OA or associated comorbidity in the patients with knee OA (3.1% for sick leave and 1.8% for disability pension). Subjects with doctor-diagnosed knee OA have an almost twofold increased risk of sick leave and about 40-50% increased risk of disability pension compared with the general population. About 2% of all sick days in society are attributable to knee OA.

  20. Preimplantation development of embryos in women of advanced maternal age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Chaplia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to reveal the influence of genetic component on the early embryo development, the retrospective study of morphokinetic characteristics of 717 embryos subjected to preimplantation genetic testing was conducted. Blastomere biopsy for FISH-based preimplantation genetic screening of 7 chromosomes was performed on the third day of culture, while embryo developmental potential and morphological features at the cleavage and blastulation stage were studied regarding maternal age particularly in the group of younger women and patients older than 36. Results of genetic testing revealed that euploid embryos rate gradually decreased with maternal age comprising 39.9% in young women group and 25.3% of specimen belonging to elder patients. At the cleavage stage, morphological characteristics of aneuploid and euploid embryos didn’t differ significantly regardless of the age of patients that could be accounted for the transcriptional silence of embryo genome till the third day of its development. However, in case of prolonged culture chromosomally balanced embryos rarely faced developmental arrest (in 7.9% and formed blastocysts half more frequently compared to aberrant embryos (respectively 75.6 versus 49.8%. Nevertheless, no substantial difference was found between blastocyst formation rate among embryos with similar genetic component regardless of the maternal age. Taking into consideration high rate of chromosomally unbalanced embryos specific to patients of advanced maternal age, the relative proportion of aneuplouid blastocysts was significantly higher in this group of embryos. Thus, without genetic screening there is a possibility of inaccurate selection of embryos for women of advanced reproductive age for transfer procedure even in case of prolonged culture. Consequently, increase of aneuploid embryos frequency associated with permanent preimplantation natural selection effectiveness along with the postimplantation natural selection failure

  1. The Long-Term Benefits of Increased Aspirin Use by At-Risk Americans Aged 50 and Older.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Agus

    Full Text Available The usefulness of aspirin to defend against cardiovascular disease in both primary and secondary settings is well recognized by the medical profession. Multiple studies also have found that daily aspirin significantly reduces cancer incidence and mortality. Despite these proven health benefits, aspirin use remains low among populations targeted by cardiovascular prevention guidelines. This article seeks to determine the long-term economic and population-health impact of broader use of aspirin by older Americans at higher risk for cardiovascular disease.We employ the Future Elderly Model, a dynamic microsimulation that follows Americans aged 50 and older, to project their lifetime health and spending under the status quo and in various scenarios of expanded aspirin use. The model is based primarily on data from the Health and Retirement Study, a large, representative, national survey that has been ongoing for more than two decades. Outcomes are chosen to provide a broad perspective of the individual and societal impacts of the interventions and include: heart disease, stroke, cancer, life expectancy, quality-adjusted life expectancy, disability-free life expectancy, and medical costs. Eligibility for increased aspirin use in simulations is based on the 2011-2012 questionnaire on preventive aspirin use of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. These data reveal a large unmet need for daily aspirin, with over 40% of men and 10% of women aged 50 to 79 presenting high cardiovascular risk but not taking aspirin. We estimate that increased use by high-risk older Americans would improve national life expectancy at age 50 by 0.28 years (95% CI 0.08-0.50 and would add 900,000 people (95% CI 300,000-1,400,000 to the American population by 2036. After valuing the quality-adjusted life-years appropriately, Americans could expect $692 billion (95% CI 345-975 in net health benefits over that period.Expanded use of aspirin by older Americans with

  2. The Long-Term Benefits of Increased Aspirin Use by At-Risk Americans Aged 50 and Older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agus, David B; Gaudette, Étienne; Goldman, Dana P; Messali, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The usefulness of aspirin to defend against cardiovascular disease in both primary and secondary settings is well recognized by the medical profession. Multiple studies also have found that daily aspirin significantly reduces cancer incidence and mortality. Despite these proven health benefits, aspirin use remains low among populations targeted by cardiovascular prevention guidelines. This article seeks to determine the long-term economic and population-health impact of broader use of aspirin by older Americans at higher risk for cardiovascular disease. We employ the Future Elderly Model, a dynamic microsimulation that follows Americans aged 50 and older, to project their lifetime health and spending under the status quo and in various scenarios of expanded aspirin use. The model is based primarily on data from the Health and Retirement Study, a large, representative, national survey that has been ongoing for more than two decades. Outcomes are chosen to provide a broad perspective of the individual and societal impacts of the interventions and include: heart disease, stroke, cancer, life expectancy, quality-adjusted life expectancy, disability-free life expectancy, and medical costs. Eligibility for increased aspirin use in simulations is based on the 2011-2012 questionnaire on preventive aspirin use of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. These data reveal a large unmet need for daily aspirin, with over 40% of men and 10% of women aged 50 to 79 presenting high cardiovascular risk but not taking aspirin. We estimate that increased use by high-risk older Americans would improve national life expectancy at age 50 by 0.28 years (95% CI 0.08-0.50) and would add 900,000 people (95% CI 300,000-1,400,000) to the American population by 2036. After valuing the quality-adjusted life-years appropriately, Americans could expect $692 billion (95% CI 345-975) in net health benefits over that period. Expanded use of aspirin by older Americans with elevated risk

  3. Diabetes mellitus type 2 and subsite-specific colorectal cancer risk in men and women: results from the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kort, Sander; Simons, C C J M; van den Brandt, Piet A; Goldbohm, R Alexandra Sandra; Arts, Ilja C W; de Bruine, Adriaan P; Janssen-Heijnen, Maryska L G; Sanduleanu, Silvia; Masclee, Ad A M; Weijenberg, Matty P

    2016-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC); however, studies differentiating between subsites of CRC are limited. We investigated how diabetes mellitus (DM) was associated with subsite-specific CRC risk in men and women. The Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer is a prospective study among 120 852 men and women aged 55-69 years old at baseline in 1986. Information on DM, anthropometric, dietary and lifestyle factors was self-reported at baseline. T2DM was defined as the diagnosis of DM after 30 years of age. Incident CRC cases were identified by record linkage with the Netherlands cancer registry and the Dutch pathology registry. After 17.3 years of follow-up, 1735 incident male CRC cases and 1321 female CRC cases were available for analyses. Subsite-specific hazard ratios (HRs) for CRC were estimated in case-cohort analyses using Cox regression. At baseline, 3.1% of subcohort members reported T2DM, of whom 80% were diagnosed after 50 years of age. Multivariable-adjusted models showed that the risk of proximal colon cancer was significantly increased in women with T2DM versus women without T2DM (HR=1.80, 95% confidence interval: 1.10-2.94). There was no association between T2DM and the risk of overall CRC, distal colon cancer and rectal cancer in women. In men, T2DM was not associated with overall CRC (HR=0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.64-1.50), or with risk at any subsite. This prospective study showed an increased risk of proximal colon cancer in women with T2DM compared with non-T2DM women.

  4. The individual determinants of care-seeking among middle-aged women reporting urinary incontinence: analysis of a 2273-woman cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritel, Xavier; Panjo, Henri; Varnoux, Noëlle; Ringa, Virginie

    2014-09-01

    Our main objective was to analyze individual determinants that lead middle-aged women to seek medical care for urinary incontinence (UI). Observational longitudinal study among GAZEL cohort participants: 2,640 women aged 50-62 completed a self-administered questionnaire at baseline. Eight years later (2008) 2,273 (86%) responded to a follow-up questionnaire. Seeking care for UI was defined as any consultation for UI during the 8-year follow-up period. Individual determinants considered in the regression analysis were social and demographic characteristics, social relations, UI type and severity, and other health factors. Among 1,192 women reporting incontinence at baseline, 24.4% had visited a physician at least once for UI during the follow-up period (56.0% of those reporting severe UI). The care-seeking rate increased with age at baseline. Multivariate analysis showed that women who reported severe UI (OR = 4.1; 95% CI 2.6-6.5), mixed UI (2.0; 1.3-3.0), or neurologic disease (1.6; 1.1-2.6), had weak social support (1.4; 1.0-2.0), or talked about their UI with close friends or family (1.5; 1.0-2.1) were more likely to seek care for UI. A model including these factors had a 78% probability of correctly differentiating women with incontinence who chose to seek care from those who did not. Our analysis could not take factors related to the organization of health services into account. Women do not always seek care for UI, even when it is severe. Besides UI severity and type, consultation is associated with aging, weak social support, conversation about it with close friends and family, and neurologic disorders. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Important Underrecognised Cardiometabolic Risk Factor in Reproductive-Age Women

    OpenAIRE

    Baldani, Dinka Pavicic; Skrgatic, Lana; Ougouag, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder amongst women of reproductive age. Although PCOS is diagnosed exclusively based on reproductive criteria, it is also a metabolic disorder. Insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and dyslipidemia are more common in women with PCOS than in age-comparable women without PCOS. Many of the metabolic abnormalities that manifest in PCOS are worsened by the concurrent incidence of obesity...

  6. Sexuality in older Spanish women: voices and reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freixas, Anna; Luque, Barbara; Reina, Amalia

    2015-01-01

    Our research has been aimed at understanding the experience, practice, and sexual life in a group of Spanish women over 50 years of age. We studied a sample of 729 women between 50 and 80 years old. Our results provide qualitative and quantitative information and important insights about the sexual life of Spanish women and identify differences in the experience and reality of sexual life after the age of 70. The status of having or lacking a partner, and a personal interest in emotional relationships and sexual practices, are elements that determine the possibility of enjoying a satisfying postmenopausal sexuality.

  7. Indian women of childbearing age do not metabolically conserve arginine as do American and Jamaican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Christina C; Hsu, Jean W; Dwarkanath, Pratibha; Karnes, Jeffrey M; Baker, Tameka M; Bohren, Kurt M; Badaloo, Asha; Thame, Minerva M; Kurpad, Anura V; Jahoor, Farook

    2015-05-01

    In a previous study in pregnant American women, we reported that arginine flux and nitric oxide synthesis increased in trimester 2. More recently, we reported that Indian women do not increase arginine flux during pregnancy as their American or Jamaican counterparts do. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Indian women of childbearing age are producing less arginine and/or catabolizing more arginine and therefore have less available for anabolic pathways than do Jamaican and American women. Thirty healthy women aged 28.3 ± 0.8 y from the United States, India, and Jamaica (n = 10/group) were given 6 h primed, constant intravenous infusions of guanidino-¹⁵N₂-arginine, 5,5-²H₂-citrulline, ¹⁵N₂-ornithine, and ring-²H₅-phenylalanine, in addition to primed, oral doses of U-¹³C₆-arginine in both the fasting and postprandial states. An oral dose of deuterium oxide was also given to determine fat-free mass (FFM). Compared with American women, Indian and Jamaican women had greater ornithine fluxes (μmol · kg fat FFM⁻¹ · h⁻¹) in the fasting and postprandial states (27.3 ± 2.5 vs. 39.6 ± 3.7 and 37.2 ± 2.0, respectively, P = 0.01), indicating greater arginine catabolism. However, Jamaican women had a higher endogenous arginine flux than did Indian and American women in the fasting (66.1 ± 3.1 vs. 54.2 ± 3.1 and 56.1 ± 2.1, respectively, P = 0.01) and postprandial (53.8 ± 2.2 vs. 43.7 ± 4.9 and 42.8 ± 3.1, respectively, P = 0.06) states. As a consequence, Indian women had lower arginine bioavailability (μmol · kg FFM⁻¹ · h⁻¹) in the fasting state (42.0 ± 2.6) than did American (49.9 ± 1.3, P = 0.045) and Jamaican (55.5 ± 3.5, P = 0.004) women, as well as in the postprandial state (40.7 ± 3.5 vs. 51.8 ± 1.2 and 57.5 ± 3.2, respectively, P = 0.001). Compared with American and Jamaican women, Indian women of childbearing age have a decreased arginine supply because of increased arginine catabolism without an

  8. Smoking Prevalance in Women Aged Over 15 in Mardin City Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunay Saka

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM/BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to determine prevalence of smoking and factors associated with it, in women aged over 15 years in Mardin city center. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study. The study population were 21 890 women aged over 15 years living in the area of five primary health centers (PHC in city center of Mardin. Minimum sample size was calculated 759 by using Epi Info2000. Health school students interviewed with women face to face by using questionnaire in April –May 2005. We randomly selected 12 streets from each PCH. From each street first 25 woman were included to the study. Because of data failure, 29 women’s questionnaires excluded and totally 1471 women composed the main source of our study data. Data were recorded and analysed by computer. Percentage and khi square test were used for statistical analyses. RESULTS: Smoking prevalence rate and giving up smoking rates were 22,9% and 3.9% respectively. Smoking prevalence was the highest in 25-34 age group (31.8% and the lowest in 55 years and over age group (10% (p<0.01. In terms of education the highest prevalence of smoking was among university graduates (34.3% while the lowest prevalence was among non-educated group (16.0% (p<0.01. Smoking prevalence was 30.4% in divorced women, 24.4% in married and 22.4 in unmarried group (p<0.05. Prevalence of smoking in working women (40.2% was higher than in non working group (21.7% (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: Smoking prevalence was high in women in Mardin and it was significant public health concern. The risky groups were young, higher educated, divorced and working woman. Detailed research must plan in these groups. Smoking cessation programs should target the population subgroups of women at highest risk of smoking. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(2.000: 141-146

  9. Smoking Prevalance in Women Aged Over 15 in Mardin City Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasfiye Deger

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM/BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to determine prevalence of smoking and factors associated with it, in women aged over 15 years in Mardin city center. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study. The study population were 21 890 women aged over 15 years living in the area of five primary health centers (PHC in city center of Mardin. Minimum sample size was calculated 759 by using Epi Info2000. Health school students interviewed with women face to face by using questionnaire in April –May 2005. We randomly selected 12 streets from each PCH. From each street first 25 woman were included to the study. Because of data failure, 29 women’s questionnaires excluded and totally 1471 women composed the main source of our study data. Data were recorded and analysed by computer. Percentage and khi square test were used for statistical analyses. RESULTS: Smoking prevalence rate and giving up smoking rates were 22,9% and 3.9% respectively. Smoking prevalence was the highest in 25-34 age group (31.8% and the lowest in 55 years and over age group (10% (p<0.01. In terms of education the highest prevalence of smoking was among university graduates (34.3% while the lowest prevalence was among non-educated group (16.0% (p<0.01. Smoking prevalence was 30.4% in divorced women, 24.4% in married and 22.4 in unmarried group (p<0.05. Prevalence of smoking in working women (40.2% was higher than in non working group (21.7% (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: Smoking prevalence was high in women in Mardin and it was significant public health concern. The risky groups were young, higher educated, divorced and working woman. Detailed research must plan in these groups. Smoking cessation programs should target the population subgroups of women at highest risk of smoking. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2008; 7(2: 141-146

  10. Hearing in menopausal women and in women with Turner syndrome, a model for hearing matured in an estrogen-deficient environment

    OpenAIRE

    Hederstierna, Christina Forshell

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that women have better high-frequency hearing than men in virtually all age groups, regardless of noise-exposure, and that agerelated hearing decline starts after age 30 in men but not until after the age of 50 in women. This coincides with the menopausal transition in most women, thus leading us to hypothesize that the menopause triggers auditory deterioration. This may be due to reduced levels of endogenous circulating estrogens, which ar...

  11. Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance in patients with HPV positive DNA testing and correlation with disease progression by age group: an institutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Erika F; Reynolds, Jordan P; Jenkins, Sarah M; Winter, Stephanie M; Henry, Michael R; Nassar, Aziza

    2012-01-01

    Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) is a broad diagnostic category that could be attributed to human papillomavirus infection (HPV), malignant neoplasia and reactive conditions. We evaluated our institutional experience with ASC-US in women who are positive for high risk HPV (HRHPV+) by the Digene hybrid capture method from 2005-2009 to identify the risk of progression to squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in association with age. We reviewed cytologic and follow-up surgical pathology reports for all specimens available. Progression was defined as a diagnosis of at least CINI on follow-up biopsy or resection or SIL on cytology. We identified 2613 cases and follow-up was available in 1839 (70.4%). Of these 74.2% had just one follow-up, 16.2% had a total of 2 follow-ups, 5.3% had a total of 3 follow-ups, and the remaining had as many as 6 follow-ups. Among the 1839 patients, 69.4% were age 30 or younger, 16.0% were between 31 to 40, 9.0% were between 41 to 50, and 5.6% were 51 or older. Among these, 25-30% progressed to dysplasia. The risk of progression varied by age (p=0.04) and was lowest among women between the ages of 41-50. Our findings highlight the importance of continued cytologic follow-up in women with HRHPV+ ASC-US in order to detect progression of disease, although the risk of progression is age dependent.

  12. Assessment of association of smoking with bone mineral density (BMD) and fragility fractures in a cohort of pakistani males ages <= 50 years and postmenopausal females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhlaq, U.; Ayaz, S.B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The study aimed to determine the association between smoking, bone mineral density (BMD), and fragility fractures in a cohort of Pakistani males aged > 50 years and postmenopausal females. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional survey carried out at Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (AFIRM), Rawalpindi from Jan 2010 to Jan 2011. Through non-probability purposive sampling, we included male patients of age > 50 years and postmenopausal women. All subjects were submitted to dual energy X-Ray absorptiometery at lumbar spine (L2 > L4) and at both femoral by Hologic Discovery-A machine . The lowest BMD was noted and expressed in the form of T-score.Using SPSS V 20, descriptive statistics were calculated for the various variables. Independent samples t-test was used to determine the significance of difference between mean T-score in between smokers and non-smokers. Association between smoking and the risk of fracture was carried out using Fisher exact test. A p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Out of a total of 328 patients, 142 (43.3%) were male (mean age 64 ± 8, range: 50 - 82 years) and 186 (56.7%) were female (mean age 61 ± 8, range: 43 - 92 years). Sixteen (8.6%) females and 52 (36.6%) males were smokers. In males, the mean T-score was -1.6 ± 1.3 in non-smokers and -1.9 ± 1.2 in smokers (p=0.17). Two of the non-smokers and nine of the smokers had a fracture. (p=0.002). In females, the mean T-score was -2.9 ± 1.9 in smokers and -2.3 ± 1.4 in non-smokers (p=0.23). Twelve of the non-smokers and 15 smokers had a fracture. (p<0.001) Conclusion: Smoking was significantly associated with increased percentage of fragility fractures but not with a reduction in BMD in our sample of postmenopausal women and men of age > 50 years. (author)

  13. Work after age 65: A prospective study of Australian men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Tazeen; Forder, Peta M; Tavener, Meredith; Vo, Kha; Byles, Julie

    2017-06-01

    This study describes hours in paid work for Australian men and women aged over 65, focusing on associations between work and education. Data were analysed separately for men and women, from baseline and first follow-up surveys of the 45 and Up Study. Generalised estimating equation models were used to identify associations between work, education and other factors over time. The odds of doing paid work increased with higher education level and decreased with time, age, poorer physical function and having health conditions (high blood pressure, diabetes, stroke and breast cancer). Un-partnered women were more likely to work in later life than partnered women. This study quantifies the importance of education and health factors in determining continued participation of Australian men and women in paid work in later life. These factors need to be considered for policies aiming to increase workforce participation beyond 65 years of age. © 2017 AJA Inc.

  14. Nurses aged over 50 years and their experiences of shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clendon, Jill; Walker, Leonie

    2013-10-01

    The Late Career Nurse project examined views and characteristics of nurses working in New Zealand who were born before 1960. This paper focuses on the experiences of such nurses who undertake shift work. The mean age of registered nurses in New Zealand has been rising steadily, and 40% are now aged 50 years or over. While there is substantial literature on the phenomenon and consequences of the ageing nursing workforce, little is known of the particular experiences of nurses aged over 50 years who work shifts. An anonymous online survey was emailed to eligible nurse New Zealand Nurses Organisation members aged over 50 years in February 2012. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the 3273 responses received were undertaken. Over 45% of respondents worked shifts or flexible hours. While shift work suited many, others noted deleterious effects on family and social relationships, physical and mental health (notably sleep patterns and fatigue), and decreasing tolerance for shift work as they age. Poor scheduling practices were particularly detrimental. Worldwide, workforce ageing means strategies are required to retain older nurses in the workforce. Improved scheduling practices including increasing access to flexible and part time work hours, and development of resources on coping with shift work are recommended. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Outcomes of childhood asthma to the age of 50 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Andrew; Tran, Haily; Roberts, Mary; Clarke, Nadeene; Gibson, Anne-Marie; Vidmar, Suzanna; Wilson, John; Robertson, Colin F

    2014-06-01

    In 1964, The Melbourne Asthma Study was established to describe the spectrum and natural history of childhood asthma. To describe the clinical and lung function outcome of childhood asthma to the age of 50 years. Subjects were invited to complete an interviewer-administered questionnaire, skin prick testing, and measurement of lung function from the age of 7 years to the age of 50 years at 7-year intervals. Of 458 survivors (from the original 484 subjects at recruitment), 346 subjects (76%) participated, of whom, 197 completed lung function measurement. Asthma remission at the age of 50 years was 64% in those with wheezy bronchitis, 47% for those with persistent asthma, and 15% for those with severe asthma in childhood. Multivariable analysis identified severe asthma in childhood (odds ratio [OR] 11.9 [95% CI, 3.4-41.8]), female sex (OR 2.0 [95% CI, 1.1-3.6]), and childhood hay fever (OR 2.0 [95% CI, 1.0-4.0]) as risk factors for "current asthma" at age 50 years. There was no evidence of a difference in the rate of decline in FEV1 (mL/y, 95% CI) between the severe asthma group (15 mL/y [95% CI, 9-22 mL/y]) and all the other recruitment groups: control (16 mL/y [95% CI, 12-20 mL/y]), mild wheezy bronchitis (14 mL/y [95% CI, 8-19 mL/y]), wheezy bronchitis (16 mL/y [95% CI, 11-20 mL/y]), and persistent asthma (19 mL/y [95% CI, 13-24 mL/y]). The clinical and lung function outcome in adult life is strongly determined by asthma severity in childhood. The reduced lung function seen in adults is established in childhood and does not appear to decline more rapidly in adult years despite continuing symptoms. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Development and Initial Reliability Testing of NAK-50+: A Nutrition Attitude and Knowledge Questionnaire for Adults 50+ Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducak, Kate; Keller, Heather

    2016-03-01

    Few questionnaires to test nutrition knowledge and attitudes of older adults living independently in the community have been developed and tested to assess self-management tools such as Nutri-eSCREEN and other education programs. This study is a first step in the development of a questionnaire designed to evaluate the nutrition knowledge and attitudes of independent older adults (NAK-50+). The steps involved in this study were: (i) drafting initial questions based on the content of the Nutri-eSCREEN education material, (ii) using cognitive interviewing to determine if these questions were understandable and relevant (n = 9 adults ≥50 years of age), and (iii) completing test-retest reliability in a convenient community sample (n = 60 adults ≥50 years of age). Intra-class coefficients (ICC) and kappa were used to determine reliability. A 33-item questionnaire resulted from this development and analysis. ICC for the total score was 0.68 indicating good agreement and thus initial reliability. NAK-50+ is a face valid and reliable questionnaire that assesses nutrition knowledge and attitudes in independent adults aged50 years. Further work to determine construct validity and to refine the questionnaire is warranted. Availability of the questionnaire for this age group will support rigorous evaluation of education and self-management interventions for this segment of the population.

  17. Impact of Workplace Physical Activity Interventions on Physical Activity and Cardiometabolic Health Among Working-Age Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jennifer L; Prince, Stephanie A; Elliott, Cara G; Mullen, Kerri-Anne; Tulloch, Heather E; Hiremath, Swapnil; Cotie, Lisa M; Pipe, Andrew L; Reid, Robert D

    2017-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among women in high-income Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. Physical activity is protective for cardiovascular disease. The realities of modern life require working-age women to address work-related, family, and social demands. Few working-age women meet current moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) recommendations. Given that working-age women spend a substantial proportion of their waking hours at work, places of employment may be an opportune and a controlled setting to implement programs, improving MVPA levels and enhancing cardiometabolic health. Eight electronic databases were searched to identify all prospective cohort and experimental studies reporting an MVPA outcome of workplace interventions for working-age women (mean age, 18-65 years) in high-income Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool; quality of the evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. A qualitative synthesis was performed for all studies, and meta-analyses were conducted where possible. Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria; 20 studies were included in the meta-analyses. Workplace interventions significantly increased minutes per week of metabolic equivalents (4 studies; standardized mean differences, 2.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.44 to 2.69), but not minutes per week of MVPA (13 studies; standardized mean differences, 0.38; 95% CI, -0.15 to 0.92) or metabolic equivalents per week (3 studies; standardized mean differences, 0.11; 95% CI, -0.48 to 0.71). Workplace interventions also significantly decreased body mass (7 studies; mean differences, -0.83 kg; 95% CI, -1.64 to -0.02), body mass index (6 studies; mean differences, -0.35 kg/m 2 ; 95% CI, -0.62 to -0.07), low-density lipoprotein (4 studies; mean differences, -0

  18. Interventions to increase physical activity in middle-age women at the workplace: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Marcos Ausenka; Martins, Milton Arruda; Carvalho, Celso R F

    2014-01-01

    A four-group randomized controlled trial evaluated the impact of distinct workplace interventions to increase the physical activity (PA) and to reduce anthropometric parameters in middle-age women. One-hundred and ninety-five women age 40-50 yr who were employees from a university hospital and physically inactive at their leisure time were randomly assigned to one of four groups: minimal treatment comparator (MTC; n = 47), pedometer-based individual counseling (PedIC; n = 53), pedometer-based group counseling (PedGC; n = 48), and aerobic training (AT; n = 47). The outcomes were total number of steps (primary outcome), those performed at moderate intensity (≥ 110 steps per minute), and weight and waist circumference (secondary outcomes). Evaluations were performed at baseline, at the end of a 3-month intervention, and 3 months after that. Data were presented as delta [(after 3 months-baseline) or (after 6 months-baseline)] and 95% confidence interval. To detect the differences among the groups, a one-way ANOVA and a Holm-Sidak post hoc test was used (P Women submitted to AT did not modify PA daily life activity but reduced anthropometric parameters after 3 and 6 months (P workplace setting, pedometer-based PA intervention with counseling is effective increasing daily life number of steps, whereas AT is effective for weight loss.

  19. Vitamin D deficiency in UK South Asian Women of childbearing age: a comparative longitudinal investigation with UK Caucasian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, A L; Hart, K H; Macdonald, H M; Horton, K; Kang'ombe, A R; Berry, J L; Lanham-New, S A

    2013-02-01

    This is the first 1-year longitudinal study which assesses vitamin D deficiency in young UK-dwelling South Asian women. The findings are that vitamin D deficiency is extremely common in this group of women and that it persists all year around, representing a significant public health concern. There is a lack of longitudinal data assessing seasonal variation in vitamin D status in young South Asian women living in northern latitudes. Studies of postmenopausal South Asian women suggest a lack of seasonal change in 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D], although it is unclear whether this is prevalent among premenopausal South Asians. We aimed to evaluate, longitudinally, seasonal changes in 25(OH)D and prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in young UK-dwelling South Asian women as compared with Caucasians. We also aimed to establish the relative contributions of dietary vitamin D and sun exposure in explaining serum 25(OH)D. This is a 1-year prospective cohort study assessing South Asian (n = 35) and Caucasian (n = 105) premenopausal women living in Surrey, UK (51° N), aged 20-55 years. The main outcome measured was serum 25(OH)D concentration. Secondary outcomes were serum parathyroid hormone, self-reported dietary vitamin D intake and UVB exposure by personal dosimetry. Serum 25(OH)D Asians in the winter (81 %) and autumn (79.2 %). Deficient status (below 50 nmol/L) was common in Caucasian women. Multi-level modelling suggested that, in comparison to sun exposure (1.59, 95 %CI = 0.83-2.35), dietary intake of vitamin D had no impact on 25(OH)D levels (-0.08, 95 %CI = -1.39 to 1.23). Year-round vitamin D deficiency was extremely common in South Asian women. These findings pose great health threats regarding the adverse effects of vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy and warrant urgent vitamin D public health policy and action.

  20. Cardiovascular responses to postural changes: differences with age for women and men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, M. A.; Tomaselli, C. M.; Hoffler, W. G.

    1994-01-01

    The cardiovascular responses to postural change, and how they are affected by aging, are inadequately described in women. Therefore, the authors examined the influence of age and sex on the responses of blood pressure, cardiac output, heart rate, and other variables to change in posture. Measurements were made after 10 minutes each in the supine, seated, and standing positions in 22 men and 25 women who ranged in age from 21 to 59 years. Several variables differed, both by sex and by age, when subjects were supine. On rising, subjects' diastolic and mean arterial pressures, heart rate, total peripheral resistance (TPR), and thoracic impedance increased; cardiac output, stroke volume, and mean stroke ejection rate decreased; and changes in all variables, except heart rate, were greater from supine to sitting than sitting to standing. The increase in heart rate was greater in the younger subjects, and increases in TPR and thoracic impedance were greater in the older subjects. Stroke volume decreased less, and TPR and thoracic impedance increased more, in the women than in the men. The increase in TPR was particularly pronounced in the older women. These studies show that the cardiovascular responses to standing differ, in some respects, between the sexes and with age. The authors suggest that the sex differences are, in part, related to greater decrease of thoracic blood volume with standing in women than in men, and that the age differences result, in part, from decreased responsiveness of the high-pressure baroreceptor system.

  1. Healthy Aging in Older Women Living with HIV Infection: a Systematic Review of Psychosocial Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubtsova, Anna A; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Taylor, Tonya N; Konkle-Parker, Deborah; Wingood, Gina M; Holstad, Marcia McDonnell

    2017-02-01

    Due to life-enhancing effects of antiretroviral therapy, HIV-positive persons have the potential for long life comparable to their uninfected peers. Older women (age 50+) living with HIV (OWLH) are often an under-recognized aging group. We conducted a systematic review to examine psychosocial factors that impact how OWLH live, cope, and age with HIV. Initial key word search yielded 1527 records, and 21 studies met our inclusion criteria of original quantitative or qualitative research published between 2013 and 2016 with results specific to OWLH. These focused on health care and self-management, sexual health and risk, stigma, loneliness, mental health (depression, substance use), and protective factors (coping, social support, well-being). Due to the scarcity of studies on each topic and inconclusive findings, no clear patterns of results emerged. As the number of OWLH continues to grow, more research, including longitudinal studies, is needed to fully characterize the psychosocial factors that impact aging with HIV.

  2. Graduation at age 50+: Contested efforts to construct "third age" identities and negotiate cultural age stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isopahkala-Bouret, Ulpukka

    2015-12-01

    The cultural and social contexts of aging have changed a great deal during the last two decades and aging experiences have become more differentiated. However, pervasive age stereotypes still exist that limit the agency and self-perception of older people, and part of the experience of new aging is to actively combat such negative stereotypes. The purpose of this study is to explore how lifelong learning and a degree attainment in midlife become embedded into new aging practices. The study will focus on a specific group of aging workers who attained a Master's degree from Finnish universities in their fifties. In order to better understand the aging experiences of these older graduates, this study seeks to address how they construct the meaning of aging in relation to their own educational and professional status. The data consist of 14 life-history interviews, which were analyzed as narrative identity performances. Differentiating oneself from the stereotype of physical and mental decline and positioning oneself in a favorable way in inter-generational relations were common ways of approaching aging. Age-negotiation and ambivalence about aging were expressed by structuring narratives around clear oppositions and contradictions. University studies at age 50+ became a talking point in countering cultural age-stereotypes, because it showed that aging workers could still accomplish significant goals and "renew" oneself intellectually. University studies also enabled collaboration with the younger generation and the breaking of narrow age boundaries. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Outcome after discontinuing anticoagulant therapy in women with venous thromboembolism during hormonal use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Molina, Ángeles; Trujillo-Santos, Javier; Pesavento, Raffaele; Rosa, Vladimir; Falgá, Conxita; Tolosa, Carles; Mazzolai, Lucia; Sampériz, Ángel; Duce, Rita; Monreal, Manuel

    2017-03-01

    Whether women developing venous thromboembolism (VTE) while using hormonal therapy should be classified as having "unprovoked" or "provoked" VTE is controversial. We used the RIETE (Registro Informatizado Enfermedad TromboEmbólica) database to compare the rate of symptomatic VTE recurrences after discontinuing anticoagulation in 3 subgroups of women aged50years without cancer, pregnancy or puerperium: (1) those with hormonal therapy and no additional risk factors (hormonal users only); (2) those with unprovoked VTE; and (3) those with additional risk factors, with or without hormonal therapy. As of March 2016, 1513 women had been followed-up for at least one month after discontinuing anticoagulation. Of these, 654 (43%) were hormonal users only, 390 (26%) had unprovoked VTE and 469 (31%) had transient risk factors with or without hormonal therapy. After discontinuing anticoagulation, the rate of VTE recurrences in women with hormonal use only (2.44 per 100 patient-years; 95% CI: 1.53-3.69) was significantly lower than in those with unprovoked VTE (6.03; 95% CI: 3.97-8.77) and similar to those with transient risk factors (2.58; 95% CI: 1.50-4.13). Interestingly, the rate of VTE recurrences presenting as pulmonary embolism in women with hormonal use only (0.55 per 100 patient-years; 95% CI: 0.18-1.29) was similar to those with transient risk factors (0.46; 95% CI: 0.09-1.33) and 4-fold lower than in women with unprovoked VTE (2.23; 95% CI: 1.07-4.10). After discontinuing anticoagulation, the rate of VTE recurrences in hormonal users only was significantly lower than in women with unprovoked VTE and similar to the rate in women with additional risk factors. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Menopause-related symptoms in middle-aged women residing in the Zaragoza Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Roncero, Gonzalo Ramón; Martínez-Dearth, Rebeca; López-Baena, María Teresa; Ornat-Clemente, Lía

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess menopausal symptoms and related sociodemographic conditions in middle-aged women from the Spanish province of Zaragoza. This was a cross-sectional study in which 241 women (40-59 years old) from the Zaragoza province completed the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) and a sociodemographic questionnaire containing personal and partner data to assess symptoms associated with the menopause. The most prevalent symptoms were musculoskeletal, followed by hot flushes and perspiration. Somatic, psychological and urogenital symptoms were more severe in post-menopausal women. Somatic and urogenital symptoms worsen with age, body mass index, age at menopause, and partner age. Multiple linear regression analysis (MA) for somatic symptoms was related with the menopausal status, psychiatric treatment, problems with sexual relationships, and history of gender violence. The MA for psychological symptoms was associated with menopausal status, psychiatric treatment and a history of gender violence. The MA for urogenital symptoms was associated with menopausal status, problems with sexual relationships, urinary incontinence and partner alcohol abuse. A history of gender violence was reported by 11.6% of the women. In this sample of middle-aged women, menopausal symptoms were related to menopausal status, and other factors associated with their partner factors, including gender violence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  5. Association between the metabolic syndrome and its components and gait speed among U.S. adults aged 50 years and older: a cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strine Tara W

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the relationship between the metabolic syndrome and its components and gait speed among older U.S. men and women. Whether these associations are independent of physical activity was also explored. Methods Eight hundred and thirty-five men and 850 women aged50 years from the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2002 were examined. We used the definition of the metabolic syndrome developed by the U.S. National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. Gait speed was measured with a 6.10-meter timed walk examination. Results The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 40.2% in men and 45.6% in women (P = .127. The prevalence of gait speed impairment was 29.3% in men and 12.5% in women (P Conclusion Among women, gait speed impairment is associated with low HDL cholesterol and inversely with abdominal obesity. These associations may be sex-dependent and warrant further research.

  6. Use of cancer screening services in Greece and associated social factors: results from the nation-wide Hellas Health I survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakaki, Christine; Boulamatsis, Dimitris; Mariolis, Anargiros; Kontodimopoulos, Nick; Niakas, Dimitris; Tountas, Yannis

    2009-06-01

    This study estimated the rates of age-appropriate screening practices for breast, cervical, colon and prostate cancer within the general population in Greece and explored the influences of social factors on their use. Data were based on the cross-sectional Hellas Health I survey (2006) conducted on a representative sample of 1005 adults, aged 18-69 years. The percentage of women aged 21-69 years having received the papanicolaou smear test within the past 3 years was 59.4%, and the percentage of women aged 50-69 years having received mammography and the faecal occult blood test (FOBT) within the past 3 years was 53.8 and 8.3%, respectively. There were significant effects of age, education and marital status on carrying out the papanicolaou smear test, age on carrying out mammography, and existence of a family doctor on carrying out the FOBT. In men aged 50-69 years, 40.6% had received the prostate-specific antigen test and 10.9% of men had received the FOBT during the past 3 years. The percentage of men aged 50-69 years who had undergone digital rectal examination within the past 5 years was 20.3%. Multivariate analyses showed significant effects of age, social class, smoking status and type of insurance on carrying out the prostate-specific antigen test and of age on carrying out the digital rectal examination. No effects were revealed for the FOBT in men. The percentage of the population in Greece receiving screening services recommended by the European Council is low and seriously affected by social factors. Public health policies should direct their efforts towards introducing good-quality universal cancer screening and find culturally sensitive ways of addressing the barriers that prevent Greek people from adopting poor-quality cancer screening practices.

  7. Sociodemographic and dietary profile of 4,471 childbearing-age women planning a pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuervo, Marta; Goni, Leticia; Santiago, Susana; Zazpe, Itziar; García, Aquilino; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2014-02-01

    The maintenance of healthy lifestyles is of great importance to prevent pregnancy-related diseases at early stages. For this reason, the knowledge of the overall wellbeing of women at childbearing-age is necessary to provide appropriate advice to maintain or improve the nutritional status. The aim of this research was to assess the lifestyles of childbearing-age women planning a pregnancy and to examine the difference between primiparae and multiparae women on these lifestyles. This cross-sectional survey involved 4,471 Spanish women at childbearing-age that were planning a pregnancy. Information was collected through a questionnaire by community health professionals. The profile of childbearing-age recruited women planning a pregnancy were in her early thirties (31.4 ± 4.8 years) and 72.5% were seeking for her first baby. They had a good self-perception of their nutritional and health status and followed a balanced diet. Interestingly, primiparae women had lower risk of health complications but they were greater consumers of tobacco and alcohol (p pregnancies underlying modifiable or preventable factors. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  8. Breast cancer screening behavior, attitude, barriers among middle-aged Chinese women in Macao, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Yan Xiang; Lao, Cheng-Kin; Chan, Alexandre

    2018-05-08

    Breast cancer is the third leading cause of death from cancer among females in Macao, but little is known about local practice of breast cancer screening. The study aims to evaluate breast cancer screening behaviors and to identify the predictors of insufficient knowledge and attitudes towards breast cancer and its screening among female residents. This was a cross-sectional study conducted from April to June 2016 in Macao. Quota sampling of women completed the modified Chinese Breast Cancer Screening Beliefs questionnaire (CBCSB) to assess their breast cancer-related perceptions, screening attitudes and behaviors. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify the predictors of poor-screening practices, attitudes, knowledge and perceived barriers to mammography. A total of 417 women (mean age±SD: 50.5±5.7) completed surveys, with 160 (38.4%), 196 (47.0%) and 103 (24.7%) women received breast self-examination, clinical breast examination and mammography as recommended, respectively. Nulliparity (OR=2.56, 95% CI = 1.14-5.73) and low education (OR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.04-2.84) were significantly associated with negative attitude towards health check-ups. Women did not know anyone with breast cancer (OR = 2.30, 95% CI = 1.50-3.55) were more likely to have insufficient knowledge about breast cancer. Low education (OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.25-3.04) and not knowing anyone with breast cancer (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.31-3.13) were identified as predictors for perceived barriers to mammography. Recommendations for breast cancer screening are poorly followed by the residents in Macao, and a culturally tailored educational program is urgently needed to raise the public's awareness of the disease and the screening practices.

  9. Perceived age is associated with bone status in women aged 25-93 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Barbara Rubek; Linneberg, Allan; Christensen, Kaare

    2015-01-01

    ) or "looking young" (LY). Linear mixed models and general linear models fitted with BMD/TBS as outcome and either RPACA or LO/LY as an independent variable, considering chronological age. Estimates of RPACA were all negative; i.e., an increase in RPAC is associated with lower BMD, consistent......Higher perceived age (PA) is reported to be associated with age-related diseases. Because osteoporosis is considered an age-related disease, we hypothesized that age perceived from photographs is associated with bone mineral density (BMD)/trabecular bone score (TBS) when controlled...... for chronological age. This is a cross-sectional study of 460 women aged 25-93 years. BMD/TBS was measured. Twenty physicians assessed age from facial and whole-body photographs. Residual PA (RPACA) was calculated from the regression of PA on chronological age. Participants were divided into "looking old" (LO...

  10. Self-Reported Osteoarthritis, Ethnicity, BMI and other Associated Risk Factors in Postmenopausal Women---Results from the Women’s Health Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Nicole C.; Riggs, Gail Kershner; Lisse, Jeffrey R.; Chen, Zhao

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this analysis was to assess risk factors for self-reported osteoarthritis (OA) in an ethnically diverse cohort of women. The participants were postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 (n=146,494) participating in the clinical trial and observational study of the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI). Baseline OA and risk factors were collected from WHI questionnaires. Logistic regression was used to find the association between the risk factors and OA. Risk factor distribution and ethnicity interaction terms were used to assess ethnic differences in OA risk. Forty-four percent of the participants reported OA. Older age (odds ratio (OR)70–79 vs 50–59=2.69, 95% confidence interval (CI)=2.60–2.78) and higher body mass index (BMI) (ORBMI≥40.0 vs <24.9=2.80, 95% CI=2.63–2.99) were found to be the strongest risk factors associated with self-reported OA. The prevalence of obesity (BMI≥30.0) was 57.9% in African Americans, 51.0% in American Indians, 41.9% in Hispanic whites, and 32.9% in non-Hispanic whites. The prevalence of other major OA risk factors was higher in African-American, American-Indian, and Hispanic white women than in non-Hispanic white women. Non-Hispanic white women who were in the extreme obese category (BMI≥40.0λkg/m2) had a 2.80 times (95% CI=2.63, 2.99) greater odds of self-reported OA. The odds were even higher in American-Indian (OR=4.22, 95% CI=1.82, 9.77) and African-American (OR=3.31, 95% CI=2.79, 3.91) women, indicating a significant interactive effect of BMI and ethnicity on odds of OA. In conclusion, OA is a highly prevalent condition in postmenopausal women, and there are differential effects according to ethnicity. PMID:18662212

  11. Prevalence of human papilloma virus and their high-risk genotypes in Sri Lankan women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanaka, K A S N; Wilathgamuwa, S; Gunawardene, Y I N S; Dassanayake, R S

    2018-03-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) causes cervical cancer in women and approximately 700 deaths have been reported annually in Sri Lanka due to this cancer. Despite, attempts have not been made to investigate the prevalence of HPV amongst Sri Lankan women with normal cytology. In this study, a polymerase chain reaction based assay was set up to detect HPV in both normal and abnormal cytology and the positive samples were then tested for the genotypes, HPV 16 and HPV 18 as they have been identified as the high-risk types associating with cervical cancer. Eighty-four (number = 84) clinical samples (age range 27-69) analyzed in this study indicated that the prevalence of HPV, regardless of cytological abnormalities was 15.5%, (n = 13, 95% class interval ± 7.7) while it was 100% (n = 3) for those with abnormal cytology. Association of HPV 16 and HPV 18 among the abnormal cytology was 0 and 50% (n = 1), respectively and further, the prevalence of HPV 16 and HPV 18 in women was found to be 3.6% (n = 3, 95% CI ± 4.0) and 2.4% (n = 2, 95% CI ± 3.3), respectively. Moreover, age wise prevalence analysis revealed women of the age of 35-years or more to have higher HPV prevalence. The prevalence of HPV among normal cytology is 12.3% (n = 10, 95% CI ± 7.2) which is similar to the rates in other regions of Asia (China 15.4%; India 10.43%). Finally, higher prevalence of HPV in women of the age of 35-years or more in Sri Lanka, especially with malignant types call for such age group to be screened for proper clinical intervention to be made in reducing the incident of cervical cancers. This is the first report of prevalence of HPV among women with normal cytology in Sri Lanka.

  12. Effect of basal metabolic rate on the bone mineral density in middle to old age women in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wei-Hsiu; Fan, Chun-Hao; Lin, Zin-Rong; Hsu, Robert Wen-Wei

    2013-09-01

    Basal metabolic rate (BMR) reflects a combination of cardiopulmonary function and lean body mass resulting from regular physical activity. Though many studies have examined the relationships between bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition, little is known regarding the relationship between BMD and BMR. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between BMR, anthropometric parameters, body composition and BMD in postmenopausal women in Taiwan. Two hundred and eighty-nine women between the ages of 40 and 80 years were included in this cross-sectional study. The following parameters were assessed: height, body weight, total body fat (TBF), BMR, waist-to-hip ratio, grip strength, and back strength. Differences in all variables between osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic women (categorized according to decades in age) were calculated using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a Bonferroni post-hoc test. Multiple linear regression with a backward stepwise approach was performed to evaluate the relationship between these measurements and BMD. Among women over 50 years of age, those who were non-osteoporotic had higher BMR, BMI, and body fat by comparison to their osteoporotic counterparts (pBMR and body fat significantly predicted BMD of the femoral neck (adjusted beta coefficients of 0.304 and 0.190, respectively; pBMR and body fat also predicted an increased vertebral BMD (adjusted beta coefficients of 0.310 and 0.141, respectively; pBMR is closely associated with BMD in elderly persons, and may be a novel target for interventions aimed at preventing the age-related decline in BMD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Breast Cancer Screening Coverage with clinical examination and Mammography Among insured women in Bogota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arboleda, Walter; Murillo Raul; Pinero, Marion

    2009-01-01

    The objective is to determine the coverage of clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammography for screening of breast cancer among a group of insured women in Bogota. Methods: A telephone survey was carried out with 4,526 women between the ages of 50 and 69, residing in Bogota or its suburbs, who were insured by one of three commercial health plans. Women with a history of breast cancer were excluded. Screening coverage was estimated as the proportion of women who had had a mammography or CBE. Estimates were established for lifetime frequency, two years prior the survey, and one year prior the survey. Factors associated with screening procedures were analyzed with calculations based on adjusted OR. Results: Lifetime frequency of CBE was 59.3% and 79.8% for mammography; and 49.7% and 65.6% of women respectively underwent the tests for screening purposes; the remainder, for diagnostic purposes (breast symptoms). CBE reported a 34.2% one year coverage and mammography reported a 54% two years coverage. Screening was associated to cancer education and family history of breast cancer. Conclusion: Coverage of CBE for screening purposes is low. Mammography coverage is above that required by the Colombian Health Ministry, but below that reported by developed countries.

  14. Aging changes of body composition in the trunk using computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komuro, Yoshikazu

    1989-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scans of the trunk were reviewed from 100 healthy adults (50 males and 50 females). According to the level of Erdheim lattice, CT scans were available in the following planes: midpoint of the sternum (E5), xiphoid (E6), upper abdomen (E7), umbilicus (E8), and lower abdomen (E10). The body composition was divided into subcutaneous fatty layer (SF), bone and muscle layer (BM), and body cavity (BC). The total area was the largest at the level of E5 and smallest at the level of E8, irrespective of sex. It decreased with age in men. It became largest in women in their fifties, and rapidly decreased in their sixties. The SF proportion tended to decrease in men over the age of 30; and for women, it was constant between the ages of 30 and 50 and decreased in the sixth decade of life. This was marked at the level of E8, and was more predominant in women than men. The BM proportion began to decrease in man in their sixties and was the lowest in their seventies; however, it was independent of aging in women. The BC proportion increased in both men and women in their forties. At the levels of E5, E6, and E7, the BC proportion was the largest, followed by the BM proportion. This was independent of age and sex. At the level of E8, the BM proportion was the largest, and the SF proportion was smallest for men; in women, the SF proportion was the largest between the ages of 30 and 50, and the BM proportion became larger over the age of 60. At the level of E10, the BM proportion was the largest in every age group, followed by the SF proportion in men in their thirties and in women below the age of 70. The SF proportion at every level was larger in women than men, irrespective of age. The BM proportion was more predominant for men than women, especially at the levels of E5, E8, and E10. The BC proportion was larger in men than women at the level of E5, irrespective of age, and at the levels of E6 and E7 over the age of 40. (N.K.)

  15. Age-related differences in dual task performance: A cross-sectional study on women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brustio, Paolo R; Magistro, Daniele; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Liubicich, Monica E

    2017-02-01

    Simultaneous performances of motor and attention-demanding tasks are common in activities of everyday life. The present cross-sectional study examined the changes and age-related differences on mobility performance with an additional cognitive or motor task, and evaluated the relative dual-task cost (DTC) on the motor performance in young, middle-aged and older women. A total of 30 young (mean age 25.12 ± 3.00 years), 30 middle-aged (mean age 47.82 ± 5.06 years) and 30 older women (mean age 72.74 ± 5.95 years) were recruited. Participants carried out: (i) single task: Timed Up & Go Test; (ii) cognitive dual-task: Timed Up & Go Test while counting backwards by three; (iii) manual dual-task: Timed Up & Go Test while carrying a glass of water. A repeated measures anova with between-factor as age groups and within-factor as tasks was carried out to assess the effect of aging on the performance of mobility tasks. DTC was calculated as ([performance in single-task - performance in dual-task] / performance in single task) × 100%. One-way ancova were carried out to compare the DTC among the three age groups. A significant interaction between age groups and task (F 4,172  = 6.716, P performance under dual-task condition compared with young and middle-aged groups. Furthermore, DTC differences in cognitive task were observed in older women compared with younger and middle-aged women (F 2,86  = 7.649, P task. Dual-task conditions might affect mobility performance differently across the lifespan, and could be particularly challenging in older women. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 315-321. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  16. Development of a Healthy Aging Score in the Population-Based Rotterdam Study: Evaluating Age and Sex Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Loes; Schoufour, Josje D; Erler, Nicole S; Darweesh, Sirwan K L; Portegies, Marileen L P; Sedaghat, Sanaz; Lahousse, Lies; Brusselle, Guy G; Stricker, Bruno H; Tiemeier, Henning; Ikram, M Arfan; Laven, Joop S E; Franco, Oscar H; Kavousi, Maryam

    2017-03-01

    To develop a healthy aging score (HAS), to assess age and sex differences in HAS, and to evaluate the association of the HAS with survival. Prospective population-based cohort. Inhabitants of Ommoord, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. A total of 1405 men and 2122 women, mean (standard deviation) age 75.9 (6.4) years. We included 7 domains in the total score of HAS: chronic diseases, mental health, cognitive function, physical function, pain, social support, and quality of life; each scored 0, 1, or 2 in each domain. A total score (range 0-14) was constructed and was assessed continuously and in tertiles (13-14: healthy aging, 11-12: intermediate aging, 0-10: poor aging). Sex-specific change in the mean HAS was computed for the age categories of 65-69, 70-74, 75-79, 80-84, and ≥85 years. The association between HAS and mortality was assessed with Cox proportional hazards models. Mean follow-up was 8.6 (3.4) years. Men had poorer scores in the chronic disease domain than women. However, women had poorer mental health, worse physical function, more pain, and lower quality of life compared with men. The prevalence of healthy aging was higher in men (n = 396, 28.2%), than in women (n = 526, 24.8%). The mean (standard deviation) HAS was 11.1 (2.2) in men and 10.7 (2.3) in women. Mean HAS was higher in men than in women for all age categories. The β for change in mean HAS across the 5 increasing age categories was -0.55 (-0.65 to -0.45) in men and -0.65 (-0.73 to -0.57) in women. The age-adjusted hazard ratio per unit increase in HAS with mortality was 0.86 (0.83-0.89) in men, and 0.89 (0.87-0.91) in women. Levels of HAS were lower in women compared with men, in all age categories. The HAS declined with increasing age for both sexes, albeit slightly steeper in women. The HAS was strongly associated with mortality in both sexes. A better understanding of population healthy aging and sex differences in this regard could aid to implement strategies for sustainable

  17. In vitro fertilization in women under 35: counseling should differ by age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humm, K C; Dodge, L E; Wu, L H; Penzias, A S; Malizia, B A; Sakkas, D; Hacker, M R

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF), including cumulative live birth rate, among women age at their first fresh-embryo, non-donor IVF cycle from January 1995 through December 2012 at a single center was conducted. A competing-risk regression model was used to estimate the cumulative probability and 95 % confidence interval (CI) of the first live birth in up to 6 cycles during the study period with IVF cycle number as the time metric. Among 7243 women who underwent 16,792 cycles, there were 163 (2.3 %) women groups, the cumulative live birth rate after 6 cycles was significantly lower than that of women 25 to age following their first IVF cycle. This indicates that there are underlying factors in couples with a female age that should lead to different treatment counseling when they attempt IVF.

  18. The impact of sent-down movement on Chinese women's age at first marriage