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Sample records for wombats vombatus ursinus

  1. Sarcoptes scabiei: The Mange Mite with Mighty Effects on the Common Wombat (Vombatus ursinus.

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    Kellie Simpson

    Full Text Available Parasitism has both direct and indirect effects on hosts. Indirect effects (such as behavioural changes may be common, although are often poorly described. This study examined sarcoptic mange (caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei in the common wombat (Vombatus ursinus, a species that shows severe symptoms of infection and often causes mortality. Wombats showed alterations to above ground behaviours associated with mange. Infected wombats were shown to be active outside of the burrow for longer than healthy individuals. Additionally, they spent more time scratching and drinking, and less time walking as a proportion of time spent above ground when compared with healthy individuals. They did not spend a higher proportion of time feeding, but did have a slower feeding rate and were in poorer body condition. Thermal images showed that wombats with mange lost considerably more heat to the environment due to a diminished insulation layer. Infection status did not have an effect on burrow emergence time, although this was strongly dependent on maximum daily temperature. This study, through the most detailed behavioural observations of wombats to date, contributes to a broader understanding of how mange affects wombat health and abundance, and also to our understanding of the evolution of host responses to this parasite. Despite being globally dispersed and impacting over 100 species with diverse intrinsic host traits, the effects of mange on hosts are relatively poorly understood, and it is possible that similar effects of this disease are conserved in other host species. The indirect effects that we observed may extend to other pathogen types.

  2. Morphology of the jaw-closing musculature in the common wombat (Vombatus ursinus using digital dissection and magnetic resonance imaging.

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    Alana C Sharp

    Full Text Available Wombats are unique among marsupials in having one pair of upper incisors, and hypsodont molars for processing tough, abrasive vegetation. Of the three extant species, the most abundant, the common wombat (Vombatus ursinus, has had the least attention in terms of masticatory muscle morphology, and has never been thoroughly described. Using MRI and digital dissection to compliment traditional gross dissections, the major jaw adductor muscles, the masseter, temporalis and pterygoids, were described. The masseter and medial pterygoid muscles are greatly enlarged compared to other marsupials. This, in combination with the distinctive form and function of the dentition, most likely facilitates processing a tough, abrasive diet. The broad, flat skull and large masticatory muscles are well suited to generate a very high bite force. MRI scans allow more detail of the muscle morphology to be observed and the technique of digital dissections greatly enhances the knowledge obtained from gross dissections.

  3. Chemical characterization of milk oligosaccharides of the common wombat (Vombatus ursinus).

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    Hirayama, Kentaro; Taufik, Epi; Kikuchi, Megumi; Nakamura, Tadashi; Fukuda, Kenji; Saito, Tadao; Newgrain, Keith; Green, Brian; Messer, Michael; Urashima, Tadasu

    2016-09-01

    Previous structural characterizations of marsupial milk oligosaccharides have been performed in the tammar wallaby, red kangaroo, koala, common brushtail possum and the eastern quoll. To clarify the homology and heterogeneity of milk oligosaccharides among marsupial species, which could provide information on their evolution, the oligosaccharides of wombat milk carbohydrate were characterized in this study. Neutral and acidic oligosaccharides were isolated from the carbohydrate fractions of two samples of milk of the common wombat and characterized by (1) H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The structures of six neutral saccharides were found to be Gal(β1-4)Glc (lactose), Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (3'-galactosyllactose), Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (3',3"-digalactosyllactose), Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc, Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (galactosyl lacto-N-novopentaose I) and Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (lacto-N-novooctaose), while those of six acidic saccharides were Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc. (sialyl 3'-galactosyllactose), Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (sialyl 3',3"-digalactosyllactose), Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (sialyl lacto-N-novopentaose a), Gal(β1-3)[Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (sialyl lacto-N-novopentaose c), Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc,, Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc and Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)[Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc. In addition, small amounts of sulfated oligosaccharides but no oligosaccharides containing Neu5Gc or α(2-6) linked Neu5Ac were detected. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. An investigation into the similarities and differences governing the cryopreservation success of koala (Phascolarctos cinereus: goldfuss) and common wombat (Vombatus ursinus: shaw) spermatozoa.

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    Johnston, S D; MacCallum, C; Blyde, D; McClean, R; Lisle, A; Holt, W V

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relative cryopreservation success of koala and wombat spermatozoa and to investigate reasons for their respective post-thaw survival by examining the sperm's response to a range of osmotic media and determining the presence and distribution of F-actin. An hypothesis was proposed that F-actin may be imparting a degree of structural inflexibility to the koala sperm plasma membrane; hence, exposure of spermatozoa to cytochalasin D (5 microM), a F-actin depolymerisation agent, should result in increased plasticisation of the membrane and greater tolerance of cell volume changes that typically occur during cryopreservation. In experiment 1, koala (n = 4) and wombat (n = 4) spermatozoa packaged in 0.25 mL straws were cryopreserved using two freezing rates (fast-3 cm above liquid N2 interface; slow-6 degrees C/min in a freezing chamber) and two glycerol concentrations (8 and 14% v/v) in a tris-citrate glucose buffer with 15% (v/v) egg yolk. Wombat spermatozoa showed better (P koala spermatozoa. When exposed to media of varying osmolality, koala spermatozoa were less tolerant (% intact plasma membrane) of hyper-osmotic conditions (920 and 1410 mOsmol/kg) than wombat spermatozoa. F-actin was localised using a monoclonal antibody but only found in the wombat sperm head. When koala and wombat spermatozoa were exposed to media of varying osmolality, cytochalasin D had no beneficial effect on sperm survival (% intact plasma membranes). This study has demonstrated that wombat spermatozoa are highly tolerant of cryopreservation when compared to koala sperm but that spermatozoa from both species show greatest post-thaw survival when frozen slowly in 14% glycerol. Koala sperm are also particularly susceptible to hyper-osmotic environments but lack of detectable F-actin in the koala spermatozoan suggests that poor cryopreservation success in this species is unlikely to be associated with F-actin induced plasma membrane inflexibility.

  5. Assessing Cybercrime Through the Eyes of the WOMBAT

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    Dacier, Marc; Leita, Corrado; Thonnard, Olivier; van Pham, Hau; Kirda, Engin

    The WOMBAT project is a collaborative European funded research project that aims at providing new means to understand the existing and emerging threats that are targeting the Internet economy and the net citizens. The approach carried out by the partners include a data collection effort as well as some sophisticated analysis techniques. In this chapter, we present one of the threats-related data collection system in use by the project, as well as some of the early results obtained when digging into these data sets.

  6. Wombat reproduction (Marsupialia; Vombatidae): an update and future directions for the development of artificial breeding technology.

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    Hogan, Lindsay A; Janssen, Tina; Johnston, Stephen D

    2013-06-01

    This review provides an update on what is currently known about wombat reproductive biology and reports on attempts made to manipulate and/or enhance wombat reproduction as part of the development of artificial reproductive technology (ART) in this taxon. Over the last decade, the logistical difficulties associated with monitoring a nocturnal and semi-fossorial species have largely been overcome, enabling new features of wombat physiology and behaviour to be elucidated. Despite this progress, captive propagation rates are still poor and there are areas of wombat reproductive biology that still require attention, e.g. further characterisation of the oestrous cycle and oestrus. Numerous advances in the use of ART have also been recently developed in the Vombatidae but despite this research, practical methods of manipulating wombat reproduction for the purposes of obtaining research material or for artificial breeding are not yet available. Improvement of the propagation, genetic diversity and management of wombat populations requires a thorough understanding of Vombatidae reproduction. While semen collection and cryopreservation in wombats is fairly straightforward there is currently an inability to detect, induce or synchronise oestrus/ovulation and this is an impeding progress in the development of artificial insemination in this taxon.

  7. Ursinus, die opsteller van die Heidelbergse Kategismus, Olevianus en die Heidelbergse teologie

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    J. J. Steenkamp

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Ursinus, composer of the Heidelberg Catechism, Olevianus and the Heidelberg theology Apart from a survey of the history of the Reformation in Heidelberg and the introduction of Calvinism to the Palatinate, this article concentrates on the contribution of Ursinus and Olevianus to the founding of the socalled Heidelberg theology. The Heidelberg Catechism may be regarded as a summary of the Heidelberg theology. The covenant theology of Ursinus and Olevianus provides the starting point of the Foederaltheologie of la te r times. As such it represents a bridge between Calvin and the subsequent calvinistic scholastics, but without providing any of the philosophical-speculative premises which are characteristic of the scholastics.

  8. Wombat: The high-intensity powder diffractometer at the OPAL reactor

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    Studer, Andrew J [Bragg Institute, ANSTO, PMB 1 Menai 2234 (Australia)]. E-mail: ajs@ansto.gov.au; Hagen, Mark E. [Bragg Institute, ANSTO, PMB 1 Menai 2234 (Australia); Noakes, Terrence J. [Bragg Institute, ANSTO, PMB 1 Menai 2234 (Australia)

    2006-11-15

    The Wombat powder diffractometer will be located on the TG1 thermal guide at the OPAL reactor. A variable vertically focusing monochromator will provide a flux of up to {approx}10{sup 8} ns{sup -1} cm{sup -2} at the sample position. A compact curved 2D position sensitive detector will allow simultaneous acquisition of 120 deg. in 2{theta}, with {approx}10{sup 6} s{sup -1} count rate capability and time resolution down to the microsecond level. Wombat is designed for experiments requiring rapid real time acquisition (time-resolved environmental or kinetics experiments) or very good signal to noise (experiments with difficult sample environments or small sample volumes)

  9. Gene and genome-centric analyses of koala and wombat fecal microbiomes point to metabolic specialization for Eucalyptus digestion

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    Miriam E. Shiffman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The koala has evolved to become a specialist Eucalyptus herbivore since diverging from its closest relative, the wombat, a generalist herbivore. This niche adaptation involves, in part, changes in the gut microbiota. The goal of this study was to compare koala and wombat fecal microbiomes using metagenomics to identify potential differences attributable to dietary specialization. Several populations discriminated between the koala and wombat fecal communities, most notably S24-7 and Synergistaceae in the koala, and Christensenellaceae and RF39 in the wombat. As expected for herbivores, both communities contained the genes necessary for lignocellulose degradation and urea recycling partitioned and redundantly encoded across multiple populations. Secondary metabolism was overrepresented in the koala fecal samples, consistent with the need to process Eucalyptus secondary metabolites. The Synergistaceae population encodes multiple pathways potentially relevant to Eucalyptus compound metabolism, and is predicted to be a key player in detoxification of the koala’s diet. Notably, characterized microbial isolates from the koala gut appear to be minor constituents of this habitat, and the metagenomes provide the opportunity for genome-directed isolation of more representative populations. Metagenomic analysis of other obligate and facultative Eucalyptus folivores will reveal whether putatively detoxifying bacteria identified in the koala are shared across these marsupials.

  10. Gene and genome-centric analyses of koala and wombat fecal microbiomes point to metabolic specialization for Eucalyptus digestion.

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    Shiffman, Miriam E; Soo, Rochelle M; Dennis, Paul G; Morrison, Mark; Tyson, Gene W; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2017-01-01

    The koala has evolved to become a specialist Eucalyptus herbivore since diverging from its closest relative, the wombat, a generalist herbivore. This niche adaptation involves, in part, changes in the gut microbiota. The goal of this study was to compare koala and wombat fecal microbiomes using metagenomics to identify potential differences attributable to dietary specialization. Several populations discriminated between the koala and wombat fecal communities, most notably S24-7 and Synergistaceae in the koala, and Christensenellaceae and RF39 in the wombat. As expected for herbivores, both communities contained the genes necessary for lignocellulose degradation and urea recycling partitioned and redundantly encoded across multiple populations. Secondary metabolism was overrepresented in the koala fecal samples, consistent with the need to process Eucalyptus secondary metabolites. The Synergistaceae population encodes multiple pathways potentially relevant to Eucalyptus compound metabolism, and is predicted to be a key player in detoxification of the koala's diet. Notably, characterized microbial isolates from the koala gut appear to be minor constituents of this habitat, and the metagenomes provide the opportunity for genome-directed isolation of more representative populations. Metagenomic analysis of other obligate and facultative Eucalyptus folivores will reveal whether putatively detoxifying bacteria identified in the koala are shared across these marsupials.

  11. Measurement of testosterone and cortisol metabolites and luteinising hormone in captive southern hairy-nosed wombat (Lasiorhinus latifrons) urine.

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    Du, Z; Keeley, T; Janssen, T; Nicolson, V; Johnston, S D

    2017-09-01

    This study reports the validation and use of enzyme immunoassays (EIA) to measure changes in plasma and urinary luteinizing hormone, testosterone metabolites (UTM) and cortisol metabolites (UCM) in captive southern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons). GnRH agonist and ACTH agonist challenges were conducted to validate urinary testosterone (male wombat only) and cortisol (male and female wombats) EIAs. Following intra-muscular injection of 8-12μg buserelin (n=4 males), there was a significant increase in both plasma (Ptestosterone concentrations (P<0.001) 60min and 21h after administration, respectively. Plasma LH levels were elevated (p<0.05) at 20min but there was no significant increase found in urinary LH concentrations after injection. Intra-muscular injection of Synacthen® Depot (250μg) (n=3 males, 3 females) resulted in a significant increase (p<0.05) in plasma cortisol secretion 15min and in urinary cortisol concentrations 3h post injection, respectively. Sex-related differences in cortisol secretion were also reported in this study. These findings indicate that (1) urinary LH might not be an appropriate index for describing the reproductive status in captive male L. latifrons, and (2) the UTM and UCM assays appear to be suitable for the assessment of the testicular steroidogenic capacity and the adrenocortical activity in captive southern hairy-nosed wombats, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of Funding and Demand for the Conservation of the Charismatic Koala with those for the Critically Endangered Wombat Lasiorhinus krefftii

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    Tisdell, Clement A.; Swarna Nantha, Hemanath

    2005-01-01

    This study contrasts the actual conservation spending and the Australian public’s demand for conservation funding for two Australian mammal species, the koala and the northern hairy-nosed wombat. It involves a survey of 204 members of the Australian public. Willingness to fund conservation action to protect the northern hairy-nosed wombat was found to be higher than that for the koala despite the koala’s immense popularity. The critically endangered status of the northern-hairy nosed wombat a...

  13. Carbonate platform development and drowning on Wombat plateau margin: history of development or rifting off northwestern Australia

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    Sarti, M.; Borella, P.; De Carlo, E.; Dumont, T.; Galbrun, B.; Golovchenko, X.; Lorenzo, J.; O' Connell, S.

    1989-03-01

    A four-site transect drilled on the Wombat Plateau during ODP Leg 122 provided critical information regarding the development of Mesozoic rifting and relative sea level changes. The Wombat Plateau is an isolated tilted horst at the northern margin of the Exmouth Plateau, off northwestern Australia, with steeply dipping, fault-bounded sides to the south and north. At the four sites, a Carnian-Rhaetian deltaic and carbonate sequence was recovered, bounded by a major post-Triassic unconformity. Rhaetian strata are overlain by post-unconformity Lower Cretaceous to Quaternary pelagic chalk and ooze. The southern edge of the plateau is uptilted, and Middle to Upper Triassic deltaic strata and interbedded carbonate bank deposits are eroded. Locally, the succession is reduced and incomplete, and lower to middle Carnian units are inferred to pinch out against an angular unconformity. In the central plateau, the succession consists of Rhaetian shallow-water carbonates and lagoonal mudstones unconformably overlying Norian deltaic clastics. At the northern rim of the plateau, a platform-edge coral-reef complex is developed. The succession progressively thickens from the south to the north. Uppermost Rhaetian Triasina beds record the initial deepening of the Wombat Plateau. Correlation of the four sites suggests that the onset of differential subsidence began in the early Late Triassic.

  14. The seminiferous epithelial cycle and microanatomy of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) and southern hairy-nosed wombat (Lasiorhinus latifrons) testis.

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    Oishi, Motoharu; Takahashi, Mei; Amasaki, Hajime; Janssen, Tina; Johnston, Stephen D

    2013-03-01

    The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) and southern hairy-nosed wombat (Lasiorhinus latifrons) are iconic Australian fauna that share a close phylogenetic relationship but there are currently no comparative studies of the seminiferous epithelial cell or testicular microanatomy of either species. Koala and wombat spermatozoa are unusual for marsupials as they possess a curved stream-lined head and lateral neck insertion that superficially is similar to murid spermatozoa; the koala also contains Sertoli cells with crystalloid inclusions that closely resemble the Charcot-Bottcher crystalloids described in human Sertoli cells. Eighteen sexually mature koalas and four sexually mature southern hairy-nosed (SHN) wombats were examined to establish base-line data on quantitative testicular histology. Dynamics of the seminiferous epithelial cycle in the both species consisted of eight stages of cellular association similar to that described in other marsupials. Both species possessed a high proportion of the pre-meiotic (stages VIII, I - III; koala - 62.2 ± 1.7% and SHN wombat - 66.6 ± 2.4%) when compared with post-meiotic stages of the seminiferous cycle. The mean diameters of the seminiferous tubules found in the koalas and the SHN wombats were 227.8 ± 6.1 and 243.5 ± 3.9 μm, respectively. There were differences in testicular histology between the species including the koala possessing (i) a greater proportion of Leydig cells, (ii) larger Sertoli cell nuclei, (iii) crystalloids in the Sertoli cell cytoplasm, (iv) a distinctive acrosomal granule during spermiogenesis and (v) a highly eosinophilic acrosome. An understanding of the seminiferous epithelial cycle and microanatomy of testis is fundamental for documenting normal spermatogenesis and testicular architecture; recent evidence of orchitis and epididymitis associated with natural chlamydial infection in the koala suggest that this species might be useful as an experimental model for understanding Chlamydia

  15. Family-level relationships among the Australasian marsupial "herbivores" (Diprotodontia: Koala, wombats, kangaroos and possums).

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    Phillips, Matthew J; Pratt, Renae C

    2008-02-01

    The marsupial order Diprotodontia includes 10 extant families, which occupy all terrestrial habitats across Australia and New Guinea and have evolved remarkable dietary and locomotory diversity. Despite considerable attention, the interrelations of these families have for the most part remained elusive. In this study, we separately model mitochondrial RNA and protein-coding sequences in addition to nuclear protein-coding sequences to provide near-complete resolution of diprotodontian family-level phylogeny. We show that alternative topologies inferred in some previous studies are likely to be artifactual, resulting from branch-length and compositional biases. Subordinal groupings resolved herein include Vombatiformes (wombats and koala) and Phalangerida, which in turn comprises Petauroidea (petaurid gliders and striped, feathertail, ringtail and honey possums) and a clade whose plesiomorphic members possess blade-like premolars (phalangerid possums, kangaroos and their allies and most likely, pygmy possums). The topology resolved reveals ecological niche structuring among diprotodontians that has likely been maintained for more than 40 million years.

  16. Die Übersetzung des Genfer Katechismus (1542/1545) ins Deutsche durch Zacharias Ursinus im Jahr 1563

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    W.H. Neuser

    2009-01-01

    The translation of the Genevan Catechism (1542/1545) into German by Zacharias Ursinus in 1563 It is with considerable surprise that one finds in the “Opera Selecta Calvini” vol. 2 a German translation of Calvin’s Geneva Catechism (1542/1545). The translation dates from 1563, and originated in Heidelberg. Even more surprising is the translator – none other than Zacharias Ursinus, one of the chief com-posers of the Heidelberg Catechism, which was also penned in 1563. The impression could be cr...

  17. Activity pattern of Sloth Bear Melursus ursinus (Mammalia: Ursidae in Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, Western Ghats, India

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    T. Ramesh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We used information from systematic camera trapping surveys to study activity patterns of sloth bear (Melursus ursinus in Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, Western Ghats during November 2009 to April 2010.Overall 61 independent photographs were obtained from 2600 trap nights. Sloth Bears showed bimodal peaks activities; late evening to midnight and small peak during sunrise. The mean activity time was 21:54 plus or minus 00:46 hrs. Although sloth bears were active throughout the day they exhibited reduced activity during the hottest hours of the day. Sloth Bears might have reduced their activity during the day to avoid the intense heat.Our data demonstrate that use of camera traps in documenting activity patterns can be an effective tool for identifying biological questions of sloth bear ecology for future studies.

  18. Relative age determination of the skull of the chacma baboon (Papio ursinus

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    J. P. van Niekerk

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available Relative age determination was carried out on the skulls of 261 chacma baboons (Papio ursinus, 117 from the Loskopdam Nature Reserve and 144 from the Messina district in the Northern Transvaal. Seven age groups were distinguished, of which classes I-IV were based on the eruption and displacement of milk and permanent teeth. Adults with a complete set of permanent dentition were subdivided into three additional classes (V- VII, mainly on the basis of the degree of molar attrition. For comparative purposes the pattern of maturation of craniometric parameters which reflect the general size and shape of the skull, as well as the degree of closure of ectocranial sutures, were treated on the same basis. From this it is apparent that a most reliable estimate of relative age can be obtained by using all the above-mentioned criteria.

  19. Comparative finite element analysis of the cranial performance of four herbivorous marsupials.

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    Sharp, Alana C

    2015-10-01

    Marsupial herbivores exhibit a wide variety of skull shapes and sizes to exploit different ecological niches. Several studies on teeth, dentaries, and jaw adductor muscles indicate that marsupial herbivores exhibit different specializations for grazing and browsing. No studies, however, have examined the skulls of marsupial herbivores to determine the relationship between stress and strain, and the evolution of skull shape. The relationship between skull morphology, biomechanical performance, and diet was tested by applying the finite element method to the skulls of four marsupial herbivores: the common wombat (Vombatus ursinus), koala (Phascolarctos cinereus), swamp wallaby (Wallabia bicolor), and red kangaroo (Macropus rufus). It was hypothesized that grazers, requiring stronger skulls to process tougher food, would have higher biomechanical performance than browsers. This was true when comparing the koala and wallaby (browsers) to the wombat (a grazer). The cranial model of the wombat resulted in low stress and high mechanical efficiency in relation to a robust skull capable of generating high bite forces. However, the kangaroo, also a grazer, has evolved a very different strategy to process tough food. The cranium is much more gracile and has higher stress and lower mechanical efficiency, but they adopt a different method of processing food by having a curved tooth row to concentrate force in a smaller area and molar progression to remove worn teeth from the tooth row. Therefore, the position of the bite is crucial for the structural performance of the kangaroo skull, while it is not for the wombat which process food along the entire tooth row. In accordance with previous studies, the results from this study show the mammalian skull is optimized to resist forces generated during feeding. However, other factors, including the lifestyle of the animal and its environment, also affect selection for skull morphology to meet multiple functional demands. © 2015 Wiley

  20. Die Übersetzung des Genfer Katechismus (1542/1545 ins Deutsche durch Zacharias Ursinus im Jahr 1563

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    W.H. Neuser

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The translation of the Genevan Catechism (1542/1545 into German by Zacharias Ursinus in 1563 It is with considerable surprise that one finds in the “Opera Selecta Calvini” vol. 2 a German translation of Calvin’s Geneva Catechism (1542/1545. The translation dates from 1563, and originated in Heidelberg. Even more surprising is the translator – none other than Zacharias Ursinus, one of the chief com-posers of the Heidelberg Catechism, which was also penned in 1563. The impression could be created that Calvin’s Catechism was intended at the outset to achieve the position later attained by the Heidelberg Catechism. The title of the German translation of Calvin’s Catechism is also interesting: “Catechism of the protestant churches in France”. Olevianus explained in a letter to Calvin that the translation was titled thus for fear that the Germans would otherwise not read the catechism. Comparing the German translation with the Geneva Catechism, it is evident that Ursinus made use of the French edition of 1542 as well as the Latin edition of 1545 as the source text. While his translation is literal, a few alterations in meaning occur, giving rise to decisive theological adjustments. A comparison with the Heidelberg Catechism is complicated by the fact that Ursinus was only one of a committee of composers who worked on the latter document. The theological corrections made to Calvin’s Catechism in the German edition reveal Ursinus’ tendency to emphasise the soteriological meaning in his translation. Beza would eventually be the one who would irreversibly modify Calvin’s theology in the direction of the reformed orthodoxy.

  1. Mental maps in chacma baboons (Papio ursinus): using inter-group encounters as a natural experiment.

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    Noser, Rahel; Byrne, Richard W

    2007-07-01

    Encounters between groups of wild chacma baboons (Papio ursinus) can be viewed as a natural experiment to investigate the nature of these primates' mental representations of large-scale space. During a 16-month field study in a high population density habitat we recorded the foraging routes and the most important resources of a group of 25 individuals. Also, we estimated the locations of additional baboon groups relative to the study group. Routes were less linear, travel speed was higher, and inter-resource distances were larger when other groups were present within 500 m of the focal group; thus, the study group avoided others by taking detours. We predicted that evasive manoeuvres would be characteristic of different possible orientation mechanisms, and compared them with our observations. We analysed 34 evasive manoeuvres in detail. In an area that lacked prominent landmarks, detours were small; larger detours occurred when resources were directly visible, or in the vicinity of a hill offering conspicuous landmarks. In areas without prominent landmarks, detours were along familiar routes and waiting bouts of up to 60 min occurred; on one occasion the study group aborted their entire day's journey. We discuss these findings in the light of time and energy costs and suggest that the baboons lack the ability to compute Euclidean relations among locations, but use network maps to find their way to out-of-sight locations.

  2. Brucella placentitis and seroprevalence in northern fur seals ( Callorhinus ursinus) of the Pribilof Islands, Alaska.

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    Duncan, Colleen G; Tiller, Rebekah; Mathis, Demetrius; Stoddard, Robyn; Kersh, Gilbert J; Dickerson, Bobette; Gelatt, Tom

    2014-07-01

    Brucella species infect a wide range of hosts with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. In mammals, one of the most significant consequences of Brucella infection is reproductive failure. There is evidence of Brucella exposure in many species of marine mammals, but the outcome of infection is often challenging to determine. The eastern Pacific stock of northern fur seals (NFSs, Callorhinus ursinus) has declined significantly, spawning research into potential causes for this trend, including investigation into reproductive health. The objective of the current study was to determine if NFSs on St. Paul Island, Alaska have evidence of Brucella exposure or infection. Archived DNA extracted from placentas ( n = 119) and serum ( n = 40) samples were available for testing by insertion sequence (IS) 711 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the Brucella microagglutination test (BMAT), respectively. As well, placental tissue was available for histologic examination. Six (5%) placentas were positive by PCR, and a single animal had severe placentitis. Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis profiles were highly clustered and closely related to other Brucella pinnipedialis isolates. A single animal was positive on BMAT, and 12 animals had titers within the borderline range; 1 borderline animal was positive by PCR on serum. The findings suggest that NFSs on the Pribilof Islands are exposed to Brucella and that the organism has the ability to cause severe placental disease. Given the population trend of the NFS, and the zoonotic nature of this pathogen, further investigation into the epidemiology of this disease is recommended.

  3. Organohalogen Contaminants and Vitamins in Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus ursinus) Collected During Subsistence Hunts in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Jessica L; Becker, Paul R; Gribble, Matthew O; Lynch, Jennifer M; Moors, Amanda J; Ness, Jennifer; Peterson, Danielle; Pugh, Rebecca S; Ragland, Tamika; Rimmer, Catherine; Rhoderick, Jody; Schantz, Michele M; Trevillian, Jennifer; Kucklick, John R

    2016-01-01

    During native subsistence hunts from 1987 to 2007, blubber and liver samples from 50 subadult male northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) were collected on St. Paul Island, Alaska. Samples were analyzed for legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs), recently phased-out/current-use POPs, and vitamins. The legacy POPs measured from blubber samples included polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, DDT (and its metabolites), chlorobenzenes, chlordanes, and mirex. Recently phased-out/current-use POPs included in the blubber analysis were the flame retardants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and hexabromocyclododecanes. The chemical surfactants, perfluorinated alkyl acids, and vitamins A and E were assessed in the liver samples. Overall, concentrations of legacy POPs are similar to levels seen in seal samples from other areas of the North Pacific Ocean and the Bering Sea. Statistically significant correlations were seen between compounds with similar functions (pesticides, flame retardants, vitamins). With sample collection spanning two decades, the temporal trends in the concentrations of POPs and vitamins were assessed. For these animals, the concentrations of the legacy POPs tend to decrease or stay the same with sampling year; however, the concentrations of the current-use POPs increased with sampling year. Vitamin concentrations tended to stay the same across the sampling years. With the population of northern fur seals from St. Paul Island on the decline, a detailed assessment of exposure to contaminants and the correlations with vitamins fills a critical gap for identifying potential population risk factors that might be associated with health effects.

  4. The cestode community in northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) on St. Paul Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmina, Tetiana A.; Hernández-Orts, Jesús S.; Lyons, Eugene T.; Spraker, Terry R.; Kornyushyn, Vadym V.; Kuchta, Roman

    2015-01-01

    The diversity and ecology of cestodes from the northern fur seals, Callorhinus ursinus (NFS), were examined using newly collected material from 756 humanely harvested subadult males between 2011 and 2014. NFSs were collected from five different haul-outs on St. Paul Island, Alaska. A total of 14,660 tapeworms were collected with a prevalence of 98.5% and intensity up to 107 cestodes per host (mean intensity 19.7 ± 16.5 SD). Three species of tapeworms were found: Adenocephalus pacificus (Diphyllobothriidea) was the most prevalent (prevalence 97.4%), followed by Diplogonoporus tetrapterus (49.7%), and 5 immature specimens of Anophryocephalus cf. ochotensis (Tetrabothriidea) (0.5%). Most of the cestodes found in the NFS were immature (69.7%). However, only 0.9% of cestodes were in larval (plerocercoid) stages. The species composition, prevalence and intensity of cestodes from these NFSs were not statistically different between the five separate haul-outs. Significant increases in the intensity of NFS infections were observed during the study period. PMID:26101743

  5. Effects of overnight captivity on antioxidant capacity and clinical chemistry of wild southern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrincat, Steven; Taggart, David; Rich, Brian; Beveridge, Ian; Boardman, Wayne; Dibben, Ron

    2014-09-01

    An animal's antioxidant capacity is measured by its ability to quench reactive oxygen species (ROS). During everyday metabolism, antioxidants and ROS are in equilibrium with one another. In times of stress, an animal produces more ROS and therefore uses its antioxidant capacity more readily in order to maintain this equilibrium. When the production of ROS exceeds the antioxidant capacity, an animal will experience extensive oxidative stress, which can ultimately affect that animal's health. During experimental study of wild animals, it is often necessary to capture them for a short period of time. In order to obtain a measurement of the effects of short-term captivity on oxidative capacity in wild animals, a population of southern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons) in Swan Reach, South Australia (34.57 degrees S, 139.60 degrees E), was studied. To assess the variation in antioxidant capacity, two assays, the ferric reducing ability of plasma and the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, were performed. A third assay, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, was used to measure the effects of ROS. Measurements of the specific antioxidants uric acid, ascorbic acid, retinol, alpha-tocopherol, and superoxide dismutase were also performed. The biochemical parameters albumin, total protein, cholinesterase, creatinine, and urea were measured as indicators for health. Results showed a significant reduction in antioxidant capacity during the overnight period of captivity.

  6. Ontogenetic scaling of fore- and hind limb posture in wild chacma baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biren A Patel

    Full Text Available Large-scale interspecific studies of mammals ranging between 0.04-280 kg have shown that larger animals walk with more extended limb joints. Within a taxon or clade, however, the relationship between body size and joint posture is less straightforward. Factors that may affect the lack of congruence between broad and narrow phylogenetic analyses of limb kinematics include limited sampling of (1 ranges of body size, and/or (2 numbers of individuals. Unfortunately, both issues are inherent in laboratory-based or zoo locomotion research. In this study, we examined the relationship between body mass and elbow and knee joint angles (our proxies of fore- and hind limb posture, respectively in a cross-sectional ontogenetic sample of wild chacma baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus habituated in the De Hoop Nature Reserve, South Africa. Videos were obtained from 33 individuals of known age (12 to ≥ 108 months and body mass (2-29.5 kg during walking trials. Results show that older, heavier baboons walk with significantly more extended knee joints but not elbow joints. This pattern is consistent when examining only males, but not within the female sample. Heavier, older baboons also display significantly less variation in their hind limb posture compared to lighter, young animals. Thus, within this ontogenetic sample of a single primate species spanning an order of magnitude in body mass, hind limb posture exhibited a postural scaling phenomenon while the forelimbs did not. These findings may further help explain 1 why younger mammals (including baboons tend to have relatively stronger bones than adults, and 2 why humeri appear relatively weaker than femora (in at least baboons. Finally, this study demonstrates how field-acquired kinematics can help answer fundamental biomechanical questions usually addressed only in animal gait laboratories.

  7. Isotopic and genetic insights into the persistence of the northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, P. L.; Hadly, E. A.; Pinsky, M. L.; Newsome, S. D.

    2010-12-01

    What factors allow some species to survive in the face of climate change, disease, or anthropogenic disturbance? How do species shift their geographic distributions in the face of such challenges? These pressing questions in ecology and conservation biology are difficult to answer when looking solely at modern populations or the recent historical record. We explore these questions through analysis of DNA and the isotopic composition of modern and ancient northern fur seals (NFS, Callorhinus ursinus). The NFS is an eared seal (otariid) that ranges along the north Pacific, where it breeds on offshore islands; by far the largest modern rookeries are on the Pribilof Islands in the Bering Sea. The species shows a high degree of philopatry, and females feed while nursing, wean pups at 4 months, and spend the rest of the year foraging far offshore further south. Archaelogical study reveals that Holocene NFS had numerous breeding colonies from the Channel Islands to the Aleutians. Temperate latitude colonies collapsed in the late Holocene in response to hunting pressures and perhaps, environmental change. The species has recolonized parts of its former range since the 1960s. Despite facing similar threats, other marine mammals have failed to rebound (e.g., Guadalupe fur seals) or have exceptionally low genetic diversity indicating recent and prolonged bottlenecks (e.g., northern elephant seals). Isotopic analyses of sub-fossil growth series indicate that extirpated mid-latitude colonies weaned much later (≥12 months), like all other otariid species that breed at temperate latitudes. As a result, females were tied to rookery sites year-round and had a much-reduced migratory range relative to modern NFS females breeding in the Bering Sea, a result also supported by isotopic analyses. Serial coalescent simulations of ancient and modern DNA reveals that exceptionally high migration rates and Arctic refugia provided resilience to NFS. These traits allowed the species to

  8. Validation of the Work Observation Method By Activity Timing (WOMBAT method of conducting time-motion observations in critical care settings: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibney RT Noel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electronic documentation handling may facilitate information flows in health care settings to support better coordination of care among Health Care Providers (HCPs, but evidence is limited. Methods that accurately depict changes to the workflows of HCPs are needed to assess whether the introduction of a Critical Care clinical Information System (CCIS to two Intensive Care Units (ICUs represents a positive step for patient care. To evaluate a previously described method of quantifying amounts of time spent and interruptions encountered by HCPs working in two ICUs. Methods Observers used PDAs running the Work Observation Method By Activity Timing (WOMBAT software to record the tasks performed by HCPs in advance of the introduction of a Critical Care clinical Information System (CCIS to quantify amounts of time spent on tasks and interruptions encountered by HCPs in ICUs. Results We report the percentages of time spent on each task category, and the rates of interruptions observed for physicians, nurses, respiratory therapists, and unit clerks. Compared with previously published data from Australian hospital wards, interdisciplinary information sharing and communication in ICUs explain higher proportions of time spent on professional communication and documentation by nurses and physicians, as well as more frequent interruptions which are often followed by professional communication tasks. Conclusions Critical care workloads include requirements for timely information sharing and communication and explain the differences we observed between the two datasets. The data presented here further validate the WOMBAT method, and support plans to compare workflows before and after the introduction of electronic documentation methods in ICUs.

  9. Home ranges and habitat use of sloth bears Melursus ursinus inornatus in Wasgomuwa National Park, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayeke, S.; Van Manen, F.T.; Padmalal, U.K.G.K.

    2007-01-01

    We studied home ranges and habitat selection of 10 adult sloth bears Melursus ursinus inornatus at Wasgomuwa National Park, Sri Lanka during 2002-2003. Very little is known about the ecology and behaviour of M. u. inornatus, which is a subspecies found in Sri Lanka. Our study was undertaken to assess space and habitat requirements typical of a viable population of M. u. inornatus to facilitate future conservation efforts. We captured and radio-collared 10 adult sloth bears and used the telemetry data to assess home-range size and habitat use. Mean 95% fixed kernel home ranges were 2.2 km2 (SE = 0.61) and 3.8 km2 (SE = 1.01) for adult females and males, respectively. Although areas outside the national park were accessible to bears, home ranges were almost exclusively situated within the national park boundaries. Within the home ranges, high forests were used more and abandoned agricultural fields (chenas) were used less than expected based on availability. Our estimates of home-range size are among the smallest reported for any species of bear. Thus, despite its relatively small size, Wasgomuwa National Park may support a sizeable population of sloth bears. The restriction of human activity within protected areas may be necessary for long-term viability of sloth bear populations in Sri Lanka as is maintenance of forest or scrub cover in areas with existing sloth bear populations and along potential travel corridors. ?? Wildlife Biology 2007.

  10. Population structure as revealed by mtDNA and microsatellites in northern fur seals, Callorhinus ursinus, throughout their range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobette R Dickerson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus; NFS is a widely distributed pinniped that has been shown to exhibit a high degree of philopatry to islands, breeding areas on an island, and even to specific segments of breeding areas. This level of philopatry could conceivably lead to highly genetically divergent populations. However, northern fur seals have the potential for dispersal across large distances and have experienced repeated rapid population expansions following glacial retreat and the more recent cessation of intensive harvest pressure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using microsatellite and mitochondrial loci, we examined population structure in NFS throughout their range. We found only weak population genetic structure among breeding islands including significant F(ST and Phi(ST values between eastern and western Pacific islands. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that insufficient time since rapid population expansion events (both post glacial and following the cessation of intense harvest pressure mixed with low levels of contemporary migration have resulted in an absence of genetic structure across the entire northern fur seal range.

  11. Susceptibility of pine stands to bark stripping by chacma Papio ursinus baboons in the Eastern Highlands of Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A.T. KATSVANGA, L. JIMU, J.F. MUPANGWA, D. ZINNER

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility, intensity and distribution of pine trees to bark stripping by chacma baboons Papio ursinus in three plantations in the Eastern Highlands of Zimbabwe. The number of plots/ha, stripped trees/plot and stripped trees/ha was recorded during the pre-rainy, rainy and post-rainy seasons from August 2006 to May 2007. During data collection, altitude, aspect, season and other site predictor variables (e.g., roads and fire traces, water points, indigenous vegetation conservation areas, crop fields, human settlements, wattle scrubs, rocky areas, open grasslands, earlier stripped sites and roost sites were recorded for each plot in association with selected predictor variables within plantation estates. Data on the number of stripped plots/ha, stripped trees/plot and stripped trees/ha were analysed as dependent variables using the Generalised Linear Model (GLM through SPSS version 15 (2006 to determine which predictor variables were significantly related to bark stripping. Differences between means were tested using Bonferroni tests with a 5% level of significance. Our findings show that bark stripping of pine trees by baboons occurred at all altitudes and aspects. Overall, the number of bark stripped trees/ha did not significantly vary by season. The number of bark stripped plots/ha was lower during the pre-rainy season than the rainy season, whereas the number of bark stripped trees/plot was higher during the pre-rainy than the rainy season. Bark stripping of pines occurred more often in the vicinities of areas with abundant food and water [Current Zoology 55 (6: 389 –395, 2009].

  12. Toward a More Inclusive Curriculum: The Integration of Gender, Race, and Class. Selected Proceedings from a Regional Conference [Held at] Ursinus College (Collegeville, Pennsylvania, October 21, 1988). Ephemera, Volume I, No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Colette, Ed.

    The conference proceedings contains 27 papers or summaries concerned with integration of gender, race, and class in the college curriculum. After an introductory paper on the Ursinus model (Colette Hall), remarks concerning New Jersey projects (Connie Murray and Verdelle Freeman) and the keynote address (Margaret Andersen), the first set of…

  13. Pairing ultrasonography with endocrinology to elucidate underlying mechanisms of successful pregnancy in the northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shero, Michelle R; Bergfelt, Don R; Testa, J Ward; Adams, Gregg P

    2018-01-01

    Reproductive success is one of the central tenets of conservation management programs, yet the inability to study underlying physiological processes in a minimally-invasive manner and the unpredictable nature of wild animal populations leaves large gaps in our knowledge of factors critical to successful reproduction in wild species. This study integrated ultrasonography of the reproductive tract and analysis of reproductive hormones in 172 northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) to identify intrinsic factors associated with reinitiating embryonic growth at the end of diapause. Within the first 3-4 weeks of active gestation, pregnant fur seals (n = 126) had a larger corpus luteum and fewer antral follicles than non-pregnant fur seals, or those still in diapause (n = 46). This suggests that the conceptus drives changes in ovarian status to convey its presence to the female. Morphological changes in the reproductive tract associated with pregnancy were not reflected in differences in endocrine profiles (estradiol, estrone, progesterone, and relaxin) between pregnant and non-pregnant individuals. Hormone concentrations correlated more strongly with calendar date than with the presence or size of the conceptus, demonstrating that none of these reproductive hormones were reliable markers for early pregnancy diagnosis. Instead, the northern fur seal's long diestrus may serve to reduce the probability of a temporal mismatch between corpus luteum regression and embryo implantation. Indeed, conception rates were high and confirmed rates of pregnancy loss were relatively low (11%). In this study, minimally-invasive ultrasonography was used in wild pinnipeds to detect very early pregnancy (embryonic vesicles >2 mm) in combination with ovarian and endocrine dynamics at the time of embryo implantation, shedding light on mechanisms for maternal recognition of pregnancy. This study is also the first to track whether these same animals carried the embryo to term, by

  14. Preliminary investigation of a possible lung worm (Parafilaroides decorus), fish (Girella nigricans), and marine mammal (Callorhinus ursinus) cycle for San Miguel sea lion virus type 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A W; Skilling, D E; Brown, R J

    1980-11-01

    Colostrum-deprived neonatal Northern fur seal pups (Callorhinus ursinus) were exposed to San Miguel sea lion virus type 5 (SMSV-5) by feeding them fish (Girella nigricans) infected with virus or fish infected with both the sea lion lung worm larvae (Parafilaroides decorus) and virus. Virus infection was demonstrated in 8 of 9 pups, and 1 of these developed a vesicular lesion on the flipper. In this sequence, P decorus larvae exposed to SMSV-5 were fed to G nigricans held at 15 C in a salt water aquarium; 32 days later, these fish were killed, then fed to the fur seal pups. The vesicle developed 22 days subsequent to this and SMSV-5 was reisolated from the lesion. The SMSV-5 was shown to persist for at least 23 days in infected neonatal fur seals. Attempts to establish P decorus infection in Northern fur seal pups were apparently unsuccessful.

  15. PAPIO URSINUS KERR, 1792

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    calls were typical and differed from the alert warning call. Field example: 16.1.68 - 0500 h: 0500. A female of W troop sat alone with her dead infant at the main sleeping place. She groomed the baby intensively. 0516. The female looked around continually uttering communication calls. 0518. Carrying the dead infant, the ...

  16. Interspecific and geographic variation in the diets of sympatric carnivores: dingoes/wild dogs and red foxes in south-eastern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi E Davis

    Full Text Available Dingoes/wild dogs (Canis dingo/familiaris and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes are widespread carnivores in southern Australia and are controlled to reduce predation on domestic livestock and native fauna. We used the occurrence of food items in 5875 dingo/wild dog scats and 11,569 fox scats to evaluate interspecific and geographic differences in the diets of these species within nine regions of Victoria, south-eastern Australia. The nine regions encompass a wide variety of ecosystems. Diet overlap between dingoes/wild dogs and foxes varied among regions, from low to near complete overlap. The diet of foxes was broader than dingoes/wild dogs in all but three regions, with the former usually containing more insects, reptiles and plant material. By contrast, dingoes/wild dogs more regularly consumed larger mammals, supporting the hypothesis that niche partitioning occurs on the basis of mammalian prey size. The key mammalian food items for dingoes/wild dogs across all regions were black wallaby (Wallabia bicolor, brushtail possum species (Trichosurus spp., common wombat (Vombatus ursinus, sambar deer (Rusa unicolor, cattle (Bos taurus and European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The key mammalian food items for foxes across all regions were European rabbit, sheep (Ovis aries and house mouse (Mus musculus. Foxes consumed 6.1 times the number of individuals of threatened Critical Weight Range native mammal species than did dingoes/wild dogs. The occurrence of intraguild predation was asymmetrical; dingoes/wild dogs consumed greater biomass of the smaller fox. The substantial geographic variation in diet indicates that dingoes/wild dogs and foxes alter their diet in accordance with changing food availability. We provide checklists of taxa recorded in the diets of dingoes/wild dogs and foxes as a resource for managers and researchers wishing to understand the potential impacts of policy and management decisions on dingoes/wild dogs, foxes and the food

  17. Genetic Variation, Structure, and Gene Flow in a Sloth Bear (Melursus ursinus) Meta-Population in the Satpura-Maikal Landscape of Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Trishna; Sharma, Sandeep; Maldonado, Jesús E; Panwar, Hemendra Singh; Seidensticker, John

    2015-01-01

    Sloth bears (Melursus ursinus) are endemic to the Indian subcontinent. As a result of continued habitat loss and degradation over the past century, sloth bear populations have been in steady decline and now exist only in isolated or fragmented habitat across the entire range. We investigated the genetic connectivity of the sloth bear meta-population in five tiger reserves in the Satpura-Maikal landscape of central India. We used noninvasively collected fecal and hair samples to obtain genotypic information using a panel of seven polymorphic loci. Out of 194 field collected samples, we identified 55 individuals in this meta-population. We found that this meta-population has moderate genetic variation, and is subdivided into two genetic clusters. Further, we identified five first-generation migrants and signatures of contemporary gene flow. We found evidence of sloth bears in the corridor between the Kanha and Pench Tiger Reserves, and our results suggest that habitat connectivity and corridors play an important role in maintaining gene flow in this meta-population. These corridors face several anthropogenic and infrastructure development threats that have the potential to sever ongoing gene flow, if policies to protect them are not put into action immediately.

  18. Characteristics of human - sloth bear (Melursus ursinus) encounters and the resulting human casualties in the Kanha-Pench corridor, Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamorikar, Aniruddha H; Mehta, Prakash; Bargali, Harendra; Gore, Kedar

    2017-01-01

    Sloth bears (Melursus ursinus) caused the highest number of human deaths between 2001 and 2015 and ranked second compared to other wild animals in causing human casualties in the Kanha-Pench corridor area. We studied the patterns of sloth bear attacks in the region to understand the reasons for conflict. We interviewed 166 victims of sloth bear attacks which occurred between 2004 and 2016 and found that most attacks occurred in forests (81%), with the greatest number of those (42%) occurring during the collection of Non-Timber Forest Produce (NTFP), 15% during the collection of fuelwood and 13% during grazing of livestock. The remainder took place at forest edges or in agricultural fields (19%), most occurring when person(s) were working in fields (7%), defecating (5%), or engaged in construction work (3%). Most victims were between the ages of 31 to 50 (57%) and most (54%) were members of the Gond tribe. The majority of attacks occurred in summer (40%) followed by monsoon (35%) and winter (25%). Forty-four percent of victims were rescued by people, while 43% of the time bears retreated by themselves. In 60% of attacks, a single bear was involved, whereas 25% involved adult females with dependent cubs and the remainder (15%) of the cases involved a pair of bears. We discuss the compensation program for attack victims as well as other governmental programs which can help reduce conflict. Finally, we recommend short-term mitigation measures for forest-dependent communities.

  19. Genetic Variation, Structure, and Gene Flow in a Sloth Bear (Melursus ursinus Meta-Population in the Satpura-Maikal Landscape of Central India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trishna Dutta

    Full Text Available Sloth bears (Melursus ursinus are endemic to the Indian subcontinent. As a result of continued habitat loss and degradation over the past century, sloth bear populations have been in steady decline and now exist only in isolated or fragmented habitat across the entire range. We investigated the genetic connectivity of the sloth bear meta-population in five tiger reserves in the Satpura-Maikal landscape of central India. We used noninvasively collected fecal and hair samples to obtain genotypic information using a panel of seven polymorphic loci. Out of 194 field collected samples, we identified 55 individuals in this meta-population. We found that this meta-population has moderate genetic variation, and is subdivided into two genetic clusters. Further, we identified five first-generation migrants and signatures of contemporary gene flow. We found evidence of sloth bears in the corridor between the Kanha and Pench Tiger Reserves, and our results suggest that habitat connectivity and corridors play an important role in maintaining gene flow in this meta-population. These corridors face several anthropogenic and infrastructure development threats that have the potential to sever ongoing gene flow, if policies to protect them are not put into action immediately.

  20. Characteristics of human - sloth bear (Melursus ursinus encounters and the resulting human casualties in the Kanha-Pench corridor, Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniruddha H Dhamorikar

    Full Text Available Sloth bears (Melursus ursinus caused the highest number of human deaths between 2001 and 2015 and ranked second compared to other wild animals in causing human casualties in the Kanha-Pench corridor area. We studied the patterns of sloth bear attacks in the region to understand the reasons for conflict. We interviewed 166 victims of sloth bear attacks which occurred between 2004 and 2016 and found that most attacks occurred in forests (81%, with the greatest number of those (42% occurring during the collection of Non-Timber Forest Produce (NTFP, 15% during the collection of fuelwood and 13% during grazing of livestock. The remainder took place at forest edges or in agricultural fields (19%, most occurring when person(s were working in fields (7%, defecating (5%, or engaged in construction work (3%. Most victims were between the ages of 31 to 50 (57% and most (54% were members of the Gond tribe. The majority of attacks occurred in summer (40% followed by monsoon (35% and winter (25%. Forty-four percent of victims were rescued by people, while 43% of the time bears retreated by themselves. In 60% of attacks, a single bear was involved, whereas 25% involved adult females with dependent cubs and the remainder (15% of the cases involved a pair of bears. We discuss the compensation program for attack victims as well as other governmental programs which can help reduce conflict. Finally, we recommend short-term mitigation measures for forest-dependent communities.

  1. Index of Relative Importance of the Dietary Proportions of Sloth Bear (Melursus ursinus in Semi-Arid Region

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    Tana P. MEWADA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Characterisations of the Sloth bear (Melursus ursinus diet during three distinguished seasons (monsoon, winter and summer in the semi-arid region of western India was under study. Diet was estimated using scat analysis, based on the calculation of Index of Relative Importance (IRI in order to determine the contribution of different food items in the Sloth bear diet. Sloth bears were observed to feed on a wide variety of prey items. They are specialized on insect prey, particularly termites or ants, and are considered as myrmecophagous. The myrmecophagousis character was confirmed by the highest score of insect part (IRI = 21.37 from the samples (n = 566, which was followed by Diospyros melanoxylon (IRI Score 13.51, Ficus spp. (IRI score 12.69 and Cassia fistula (IRI Score 10.13. Sloth bear dietary proportions varied among the three seasons under the study interval. Data suggested that the Sloth bear is essentially behaving as an omnivore, having similar diet (in terms of high incidence of wild fruits and insects with the bears inhabiting semi-arid regions. The opportunistic and generalist strategy of selecting diet ingredients has probably helped the species to survive in semi-arid habitat across the North Gujarat.

  2. Fortuitous encounters between seagliders and adult female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus off the Washington (USA coast: upper ocean variability and links to top predator behavior.

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    Noel A Pelland

    Full Text Available Behavioral responses by top marine predators to oceanographic features such as eddies, river plumes, storms, and coastal topography suggest that biophysical interactions in these zones affect predators' prey, foraging behaviors, and potentially fitness. However, examining these pathways is challenged by the obstacles inherent in obtaining simultaneous observations of surface and subsurface environmental fields and predator behavior. In this study, migratory movements and, in some cases, diving behavior of 40 adult female northern fur seals (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus were quantified across their range and compared to remotely-sensed environmental data in the Gulf of Alaska and California Current ecosystems, with a particular focus off the coast of Washington State (USA--a known foraging ground for adult female NFS and where autonomous glider sampling allowed opportunistic comparison of seal behavior to subsurface biophysical measurements. The results show that in these ecosystems, adult female habitat utilization was concentrated near prominent coastal topographic, riverine, or inlet features and within 200 km of the continental shelf break. Seal dive depths, in most ecosystems, were moderated by surface light level (solar or lunar, mirroring known behaviors of diel vertically-migrating prey. However, seal dives differed in the California Current ecosystem due to a shift to more daytime diving concentrated at or below the surface mixed layer base. Seal movement models indicate behavioral responses to season, ecosystem, and surface wind speeds; individuals also responded to mesoscale eddies, jets, and the Columbia River plume. Foraging within small scale surface features is consistent with utilization of the inner coastal transition zone and habitats near coastal capes, which are known eddy and filament generation sites. These results contribute to our knowledge of NFS migratory patterns by demonstrating surface and subsurface behavioral responses

  3. The induction of bone formation by smart biphasic hydroxyapatite tricalcium phosphate biomimetic matrices in the non-human primate Papio ursinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripamonti, U; Richter, P W; Nilen, R W N; Renton, L

    2008-01-01

    Long-term studies in the non-human primate Chacma baboon Papio ursinus were set to investigate the induction of bone formation by biphasic hydroxyapatite/p-tricalcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP) biomimetic matrices. HA/β-TCP biomimetic matrices in a pre-sinter ratio (wt%) of 40/60 and 20/80, respectively, were sintered and implanted in the rectus abdominis and in calvarial defects of four adult baboons. The post-sinter phase content ratios were 19/81 and 4/96, respectively. Morphological analyses on day 90 and 365 showed significant induction of bone formation within concavities of the biomimetic matrices with substantial bone formation by induction and resorption/dissolution of the implanted matrices. One year after implantation in calvarial defects, 4/96 biphasic biomimetic constructs showed prominent induction of bone formation with significant dissolution of the implanted scaffolds. The implanted smart biomimetic matrices induce de novo bone formation even in the absence of exogenously applied osteogenic proteins of the transforming growth factor-β(TGF-β) superfamily. The induction of bone formation biomimetizes the remodelling cycle of the cortico-cancellous bone of primates whereby resorption lacunae, pits and concavities cut by osteoclastogenesis are regulators of bone formation by induction. The concavities assembled in HA/β-TCP biomimetic bioceramics are endowed with multifunctional pleiotropic self-assembly capacities initiating and promoting angiogenesis and bone formation by induction. Resident mesenchymal cells differentiate into osteoblastic cell lines expressing, secreting and embedding osteogenic soluble molecular signals of the TGF-β superfamily within the concavities of the biomimetic matrices initiating bone formation as a secondary response. PMID:18363843

  4. by the baboon (Papio ursinus)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-09-01

    Sep 1, 1990 ... The relative sensitivities for the various in vivo and ifl vitro tests for platelet activation are unknown. This was studied in a baboon model where limited and more substantial injury to the vascular endothelum was inflicted. The endothelium of a segment of the right carotid artery was removed with a balloon ...

  5. Specialization in pyramidal cell structure in the cingulate cortex of the Chacma baboon (Papio ursinus): an intracellular injection study of the posterior and anterior cingulate gyrus with comparative notes on the macaque and vervet monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elston, Guy N; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; Elston, Alejandra; DeFelipe, Javier; Manger, Paul

    2005-10-28

    This study forms part of an ongoing investigation of pyramidal cell structure in the cingulate cortex of primates. Recently we have demonstrated that layer III pyramidal cells in the anterior cingulate gyrus are considerably larger, more branched and more spinous than those in the posterior cingulate gyrus (areas 24 and 23, respectively) in the macaque and vervet monkeys. Moreover, the extent of the interareal difference in specialization in pyramidal cell structure differed between the two species. These data suggest that pyramidal cell circuitry may have evolved differently in these closely related species. Presently there are too few data to speculate on what is selecting for this specialization in structure. Here we extend the basis for comparison by studying pyramidal cell structure in cingulate gyrus of the Chacma baboon (Papio ursinus). Methodology used here is the same as that for our previous studies: intracellular injection of Lucifer Yellow in flat-mounted cortical slices. We found that pyramidal cells in anterior cingulate gyrus (area 24) were more branched and more spinous than those in posterior cingulate gyrus (area 23). Moreover, the complexity in pyramidal cell structure in both the anterior and posterior cingulate gyrus of the baboon differed to that in the corresponding regions in either the macaque or vervet monkeys.

  6. WOMBAT: A Scalable and High-performance Astrophysical Magnetohydrodynamics Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendygral, P. J.; Radcliffe, N.; Kandalla, K. [Cray Inc., St. Paul, MN 55101 (United States); Porter, D. [Minnesota Supercomputing Institute for Advanced Computational Research, Minneapolis, MN USA (United States); O’Neill, B. J.; Nolting, C.; Donnert, J. M. F.; Jones, T. W. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Edmon, P., E-mail: pjm@cray.com, E-mail: nradclif@cray.com, E-mail: kkandalla@cray.com, E-mail: oneill@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: nolt0040@umn.edu, E-mail: donnert@ira.inaf.it, E-mail: twj@umn.edu, E-mail: dhp@umn.edu, E-mail: pedmon@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute for Theory and Computation, Center for Astrophysics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    We present a new code for astrophysical magnetohydrodynamics specifically designed and optimized for high performance and scaling on modern and future supercomputers. We describe a novel hybrid OpenMP/MPI programming model that emerged from a collaboration between Cray, Inc. and the University of Minnesota. This design utilizes MPI-RMA optimized for thread scaling, which allows the code to run extremely efficiently at very high thread counts ideal for the latest generation of multi-core and many-core architectures. Such performance characteristics are needed in the era of “exascale” computing. We describe and demonstrate our high-performance design in detail with the intent that it may be used as a model for other, future astrophysical codes intended for applications demanding exceptional performance.

  7. Blood parameters of the wild chacma baboon, Papio ursinus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most published blood profiles for Papio species come from laboratory populations (e.g. De La Pena, Matthijs- ... blood sample was taken from the femoral vein. Two blood slides were prepared immediately, and the ..... The elapsed time between darting and taking blood was only just significantly related to increased WBC.

  8. Activity Patterns of Chacma Baboons ( Papio Ursinus ) at Cape Point ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field data were analysed to assess daily and seasonal activity patterns of a troop of 85 free-ranging chacma baboons. The baboons emerged from their night-time shelters at sleeping cliffs at roughly 07h00 throughout the year. Foraging began almost immediately after emergence in the dry summer months ...

  9. Prevalence and Clinical Significance of Herpesvirus Infection in Populations of Australian Marsupials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, Kathryn; Vaz, Paola K.; Gilkerson, James R.; Baker, Rupert; Whiteley, Pam; Ficorilli, Nino; Tatarczuch, Liliana; Portas, Timothy; Skogvold, Kim; Anderson, Garry A.; Devlin, Joanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Herpesviruses have been reported in several marsupial species, but molecular classification has been limited to four herpesviruses in macropodids, a gammaherpesvirus in two antechinus species (Antechinus flavipes and Antechinus agilis), a gammaherpesvirus in a potoroid, the eastern bettong (Bettongia gaimardi) and two gammaherpesviruses in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus). In this study we examined a range of Australian marsupials for the presence of herpesviruses using molecular and serological techniques, and also assessed risk factors associated with herpesvirus infection. Our study population included 99 koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), 96 eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus), 50 Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) and 33 common wombats (Vombatus ursinius). In total, six novel herpesviruses (one alphaherpesvirus and five gammaherpesviruses) were identified in various host species. The overall prevalence of detection of herpesvirus DNA in our study population was 27.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) of 22.6–32.2%), but this varied between species and reached as high as 45.4% (95% CI 28.1–63.7%) in common wombats. Serum antibodies to two closely related macropodid herpesviruses (macropodid herpesvirus 1 and 2) were detected in 44.3% (95% CI 33.1–55.9%) of animals tested. This also varied between species and was as high as 92% (95% CI 74.0–99.0%) in eastern grey kangaroos. A number of epidemiological variables were identified as positive predictors for the presence of herpesvirus DNA in the marsupial samples evaluated. The most striking association was observed in koalas, where the presence of Chlamydia pecorum DNA was strongly associated with the presence of herpesvirus DNA (Odds Ratio = 60, 95% CI 12.1–297.8). Our results demonstrate the common presence of herpesviruses in Australian marsupials and provide directions for future research. PMID:26222660

  10. Prevalence and Clinical Significance of Herpesvirus Infection in Populations of Australian Marsupials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Stalder

    Full Text Available Herpesviruses have been reported in several marsupial species, but molecular classification has been limited to four herpesviruses in macropodids, a gammaherpesvirus in two antechinus species (Antechinus flavipes and Antechinus agilis, a gammaherpesvirus in a potoroid, the eastern bettong (Bettongia gaimardi and two gammaherpesviruses in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus. In this study we examined a range of Australian marsupials for the presence of herpesviruses using molecular and serological techniques, and also assessed risk factors associated with herpesvirus infection. Our study population included 99 koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus, 96 eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus, 50 Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii and 33 common wombats (Vombatus ursinius. In total, six novel herpesviruses (one alphaherpesvirus and five gammaherpesviruses were identified in various host species. The overall prevalence of detection of herpesvirus DNA in our study population was 27.2% (95% confidence interval (CI of 22.6-32.2%, but this varied between species and reached as high as 45.4% (95% CI 28.1-63.7% in common wombats. Serum antibodies to two closely related macropodid herpesviruses (macropodid herpesvirus 1 and 2 were detected in 44.3% (95% CI 33.1-55.9% of animals tested. This also varied between species and was as high as 92% (95% CI 74.0-99.0% in eastern grey kangaroos. A number of epidemiological variables were identified as positive predictors for the presence of herpesvirus DNA in the marsupial samples evaluated. The most striking association was observed in koalas, where the presence of Chlamydia pecorum DNA was strongly associated with the presence of herpesvirus DNA (Odds Ratio = 60, 95% CI 12.1-297.8. Our results demonstrate the common presence of herpesviruses in Australian marsupials and provide directions for future research.

  11. Differential resistance of mammalian sperm chromatin to oxidative stress as assessed by a two-tailed comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enciso, María; Johnston, Stephen D; Gosálvez, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Protamines of eutherian species are cysteine-rich molecules that become cross-linked by disulfide bonds during epididymal transit, whereas the protamines of most marsupial species lack cysteine residuals. The present study made use of the differences in protamine structure between eutherian and metatherian mammal spermatozoa to examine the comparative resistance of sperm DNA to oxidative damage in three eutherian species (Mus musculus, Homo sapiens, Sus domesticus) and three metatherian species (Vombatus ursinus, Phascolarctos cinereus, Macropus giganteus). Sperm DNA fragmentation of samples exposed to increasing concentrations of hydrogen peroxide was assessed by means of the two-tailed comet assay. The sperm DNA of the marsupial species studied were significantly more sensitive to oxidative stress than the spermatozoa of eutherian species. Such susceptibility is consistent with the lack of disulfide cross-linking in marsupial sperm chromatin and suggests that the oxidation of thiols to disulfides for chromatin condensation during epididymal transit in eutherian mammals is likely to be important in order to provide stability and protect these cells from the genotoxic effects of adverse environments.

  12. Induction of bone formation by smart biphasic hydroxyapatite tricalcium phosphate biomimetic matrices in the non-human primate Papio ursinus

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ripamonti, U

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available proteins of the transforming growth factor-β(TGF-β) superfamily. The induction of bone formation biomimetizes the remodelling cycle of the cortico-cancellous bone of primates whereby resorption lacunae, pits and concavities cut by osteoclastogenesis...

  13. Chemical Immobilization of Sloth Bears (Melursus ursinus with Ketamine Hydrochloride and Xylazine Hydrochloride: Hematology and Serum Biochemical Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Veeraselvam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to define the physiological responses of captive sloth bears immobilized with ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride and to determine and compare the values of hematology and serum biochemical parameters between sexes. A total of 15 sloth bears were immobilized using combination of ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride drugs at the dose rate of 5.0 milligram (mg per kg body weight and 2.0 mg per kg body weight, respectively. The use of combination of these drugs was found satisfactory for the chemical immobilization of captive sloth bears. There were no significant differences observed in induction time and recovery time and physiological parameters such as heart rate, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature between sexes. Health related parameters comprising hematological values like packed cell volume (PCV, hemoglobin (Hb, red blood cell count (RBC, erythrocyte indices, and so forth and biochemical values like total protein, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, creatinine, alkaline amino-transferase (ALT, aspartate amino-transferase (AST, and so forth were estimated in 11 (5 males and 6 females apparently healthy bears. Comparison between sexes revealed significant difference in PCV (P<0.05 and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC (P<0.05. The study might help to evaluate health profiles of sloth bears for appropriate line treatment.

  14. Molecular identification of Schistosoma mattheei from feces of Kinda (Papio cynocephalus kindae) and grayfoot baboons (Papio ursinus griseipes) in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyher, Anna H; Phillips-Conroy, Jane E; Fischer, Kerstin; Weil, Gary J; Chansa, Wilbroad; Fischer, Peter U

    2010-02-01

    Terminal-spined Schistosoma sp. eggs were detected in several groups of baboons living in Kafue National Park in central Zambia. A total of 166 fecal samples was screened; egg prevalence overall ranged between 7% and 10%, while infection intensities were low. Formalin-fixed eggs had an average length of 144.5 microm and a breadth of 48.3 microm, but the schistosome species could not be unambiguously identified by size or morphology. We used molecular methods to definitively identify the parasite species. Parasite DNA was amplified from stools by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sequence analysis of fragments of the first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1), mitochondrial 12S rDNA, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (nad6), and cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) from 3 egg-positive samples revealed the presence of S. mattheei in these samples. This is the first molecular identification of S. mattheei from free-ranging baboons. Schistosoma mattheei is typically a parasite of bovids, but it can also infect humans. Schistosoma mattheei in baboons in Zambia may affect other wildlife species and humans that live in close proximity to baboons.

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: northern fur seal [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Callorhinus+ursinus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Callorhinus+ursinus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_i...con/icon.cgi?i=Callorhinus+ursinus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Callorhinus+ursinus&t=NS ...

  16. Specialization in pyramidal cell structure in the sensory-motor cortex of the Chacma baboon (Papio ursinus) with comparative notes on macaque and vervet monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elston, Guy N; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; Elston, Alejandra; Manger, Paul R; Defelipe, Javier

    2005-09-01

    The systematic study of pyramidal cell structure has revealed new insights into specialization of the phenotype in the primate cerebral cortex. Regional specialization in the neuronal phenotype may influence patterns of connectivity and the computational abilities of the circuits they compose. The comparative study of pyramidal cells in homologous cortical areas is beginning to yield data on the evolution and development of such specialized circuitry in the primate cerebral cortex. Recently, we have focused our efforts on sensory-motor cortex. Based on our intracellular injection methodology, we have demonstrated a progressive increase in the size of, the branching structure in, and the spine density of the basal dendritic trees of pyramidal cells through somatosensory areas 3b, 1, 2, 5, and 7 in the macaque and vervet monkeys. In addition, we have shown that pyramidal cells in premotor area 6 are larger, more branched, and more spinous than those in the primary motor cortex (MI or area 4) in the macaque monkey, vervet monkey, and baboon. Here we expand the basis for comparison by studying the basal dendritic trees of layer III pyramidal cells in these same sensory-motor areas in the chacma baboon. The baboon was selected because it has a larger cerebral cortex than either the macaque or vervet monkeys; motor cortex has expanded disproportionately in these three species; and motor cortex in the baboon reportedly has differentiated to include a new cortical area not present in either the macaque or vervet monkeys. We found, as in monkeys, a progressive increase in the morphological complexity of pyramidal cells through areas 3b, 5, and 7, as well as from area 4 to area 6, suggesting that areal specialization in microcircuitry was likely to be present in a common ancestor of primates. In addition, we found subtle differences in the extent of the interareal differences in pyramidal cell structure between homologous cortical areas in the three species. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  17. Does indigestible food remains in the scats of Sloth Bear Melursus ursinus (Carnivora: Ursidae represent actual contribution of various diet items?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Baskaran

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of diet items in the food of sloth bears is estimated solely based on the dry weight or volume of indigestible food remains found in the scats, assuming that the ratio of digestible versus indigestible matters is equal in all diet items. However, this is not true in reality. The implication of this assumption is that the species that contribute a larger bulk of digestible matters are underestimated, while that of less digestible parts get overestimated and consequently are portrayed as important food sources. This study experimentally converts the percent contribution of important fruit items estimated using ‘indigestible fruit remains’ in the scats into percent contribution by ‘digestible fruit content’ using known dry weight of digestible fruit contents per volume of indigestible items (estimated using fresh fruit samples from the field. The percent composition of various fruit items obtained using digestible fruit content is significantly different from that derived using indigestible fruit remains in the scats. Future studies could adopt the dry weight of digestible matter as this method estimates the contribution of various food items to the diet of bears more accurately.

  18. How do wild baboons (Papio ursinus) plan their routes? Travel among multiple high-quality food sources with inter-group competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noser, Rahel; Byrne, Richard W

    2010-01-01

    How do humans and animals travel between multiple destinations on a given foraging trip? This question is of theoretical and practical interest, yet few empirical data exist to date. We examined how a group of wild chacma baboons travelled among multiple, simultaneously fruiting mountain fig trees (Ficus glumosa). In the course of a 16-month study, this highly preferred fruit was available during a 3-week period, from relatively few sites, which were also utilized by four larger baboon groups. We used directness of route and travel speed of 13 days of observation, and approach rates of 31 days of observation to differentiate between purposeful and opportunistic encounters with 50 fig trees. The study group visited a total of 30 fig trees overall, but only 8 trees per day on average. Each morning, they travelled along a highly repetitive route on all days of observation, thereby visiting 2-4 fig trees. They approached these trees rapidly along highly directed paths without intermittently exploiting other food sources that were available in large quantities. Then, they abruptly changed behaviour, switching to lower travel speed and less directed routes as they foraged on a variety of foods. They approached additional fig trees later in the day, but approach rates were similar to those at times of year when fruit of this fig species was unavailable; this suggested that encounters with trees after the behavioural switch were not planned. Comparing visits to purposefully and opportunistically encountered trees, we found no difference in the average time spent feeding or frequency of feeding supplants, suggesting that purposefully and opportunistically visited trees had similar values. We conclude that when foraging for mountain fig fruit the baboons' cognitive maps either contain information on relatively few trees or of only a single route along which several trees are situated, leading to very limited planning abilities.

  19. Ocean drilling finds Triassic reef play off NW Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Exon, N.F.; Williamson, P.E. (Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics, Canberra (Australia)); Haq, B.U. (Nat' l Science Foundation, Washington (US)); O' Connell, S. (Ocean Drilling Program, Texas A and M Univ. (US))

    1989-10-01

    Seismic interpretation of the Wombat plateau is discussed in this article and the distribution of Triassic carbonates is shown. The significance of this discovery for petroleum exploration is addressed. The authors show a composite stratigraphic profile for the Wombat plateau drilling.

  20. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Davidge, Christine. Vol 13, No 1 (1978) - Articles Activity Patterns of Chacma Baboons (Papio Ursinus) at Cape Point Abstract PDF · Vol 12, No 1 (1977) - Articles Baboons as dispersal agents for Acacia cyclops. Abstract PDF · Vol 13, No 2 (1978) - Articles Ecology of baboons (Papio ursinus) at Cape Point Abstract PDF.

  1. Image collection: 51 [Togo Picture Gallery[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 51 Callorhinus_ursinus_NL.png キタオットセイ Northern fur seal Callorhinus ursinus 34884 生物アイコン,脊索動物門,脊椎動物亜門,哺乳綱,獣亜綱,真獣下綱,ネコ目

  2. Making a Noise - Making a Difference: Techno-Punk and Terra-ism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    St John, Graham

    2010-01-01

    ... (and their hybrid outfit Combat Wombat) arose. It provides an entry to punk through an analysis of the concept of "hardcore" in the context of cultural mobilisations which, following more than two centuries of European colonization, evince...

  3. Hookworm intensity of infection in California sea lion and northern fur seal pups collected at haulouts/rookeries in California from 1996-07-17 to 2003-01-16 (NCEI Accession 0141164)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There are various causes of mortality for California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) and northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) pups. This dataset contains...

  4. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Hookworm Intensity of Infection in California sea lion and Northern Fur Seal Pups in California, 1996 through 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There are various causes of mortality for California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) and northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) pups. This dataset contains...

  5. Book Reyiews

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    grass in the case of wombats, and Eucalyptus foliage in the case of arboreal folivores; the Koala has been studied in detail. It is demonstrated that the utilization of. Eucalyptus foliage is potentially limited by low nutritive value and the presence of secondary metabolites. Hume speculates that the folivorous marsupials have ...

  6. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    five years of age. The covariance components were estimated by “restricted maximum likelihood” using the WOMBAT software (Meyer, 2006). In all of the analyses, a pedigree file containing the identification of the animal, sire, and dam was used, with a total of 26 924 animals in the relationship matrix. Spearman correlation.

  7. Fitting the complexity of GPCRs modulation into simple hypotheses of ligand design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Custodi, Chiara; Nuti, Roberto; Oprea, Tudor

    2012-01-01

    covered within the WOMBAT database by GPCRs modulators was investigated with the aim of identifying specific molecular determinants that distinguish GPCR agonists from antagonists.While instrumental to get insights into the design strategies of GPCRs modulators, the results of this study provide novel...

  8. Heritability estimates and correlations between production and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p4263707

    All the effects were significant (P <0.05) and hence they were included in the animal model. (Co)Variance components and correlations were estimated from an animal model in a bivariate analysis using the restricted maximum likelihood method (WOMBAT program of Meyer, 2006). Three different animal models were used.

  9. Measurement and analysis of field-induced crystallographic texture using curved position-sensitive diffraction detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simons, Hugh; Daniels, John E.; Studer, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    voltages and temperatures range from -20 kV to +20 kV and room temperature to 200 A degrees C, respectively. The use of the sample environment for measuring the response of ferroelectric ceramics to an electrical stimulus is demonstrated on the instrument Wombat, a monochromatic neutron diffractometer...

  10. Interface transfer of equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashton, I.J.

    1989-04-01

    This article details the interface transfer of heavy-duty face equipment from 5's to 6's face in the Great Row Seam at Silverdale Colliery, British Coal, Western Area. The salvaged face was roofbolted using leg-mounted Wombat drilling rigs. All heavy-duty equipment was transported by FSV's. 5 figs.

  11. Pop / Mart Kuldkepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuldkepp, Mart

    2008-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: The Wombats "A Guide to Love, Loss & Desperation", Lenny Kravitz "It is Time for a Love Revolution", Nick Cave & Warren Ellis "OST: The Assassination of Jesse James by the Coward Robert Ford", Pat Metheny "Secret Story", Lupe Fiasco "The Cool"

  12. A tale too long for a tail too short? : identification of characteristics in pigs related to tail biting and other oral manipulations directed at conspecifics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursinus, W.W.

    2014-01-01

    Ursinus, W.W. (2014). A tale too long for a tail too short? Identification of characteristics in pigs related to tail biting and other oral manipulations directed at conspecifics. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands. Tail biting in pigs, i.e. the chewing on and biting in tails of

  13. Sintered porous hydroxyapatites with intrinsic osteoinductive activity: geometric induction of bone formation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ripamonti, U

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available of bone formation. Monolithic discs of sintered hydroxyapatite, fabricated with concavities of 800 and 1600 mu m diameter on both planar surfaces, were implanted in the rectus abdominis of the baboon (Papio ursinus). Histology on days 30 and 90 revealed de...

  14. die heidelbergse kategismus en die kategesemateriaal van die ned ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rede was vir die opdrag van die koning aan Zacharias Ursinus en Caspar. Oliveanus vir die skryf van 'n kategismus. Die doel van die kategismus was om nie net beter vir die jeug te sorg nie, maar om aan evangeliedienaars en skoolmeesters 'n vaste leidraad te gee sodat hulle nie willekeurig nuwe dinge leer wat met Gods ...

  15. 76 FR 79157 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; St. George Reef Light Station...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ...); 172 Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus); and six northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) by Level... Rotor and Wing, LLC. The Raven R44, which seats three passengers and one pilot, is a compact-sized (1134 kilograms (kg), 2500 pounds (lbs)) helicopter with two-bladed main and tail rotors. Both sets of rotors are...

  16. Anaesthesia for Baboons – Practical and ethical considerations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    Animal research is still a cornerstone of modern scientific discovery. A practical approach to anaesthetising Chacma baboons (Papio ursinus) undergoing experimental cardiac surgery is described. This physiological model has many similarities to human physiology. Subtle differences exist which could influence outcome.

  17. Visitors to nests of Hooded Vultures Necrosyrtes monachus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hooded Vulture breeding failure was linked to two species only: camera-trap imagery recorded one case of predation of a vulture egg by a Chacma Baboon Papio ursinus, and one case of a Martial Eagle Polemaetus bellicosus predating a vulture nestling. We recommend expanding the Hooded Vulture nest monitoring ...

  18. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 176 - 200 of 1840 ... R.M. Baxter, E.A. Goulden, J. Meester. Vol 13, No 1 (1978), Activity Patterns of Chacma Baboons (Papio Ursinus) at Cape Point, Abstract PDF. Christine Davidge. Vol 7, No 1 (1972), Activity patterns shown by mountain zebra Equus zebra Hartmannae in South West Africa with reference to climatic ...

  19. Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition. Chapter 3. M-X/MPS (M-X/Multiple Protective Shelter). Volume 1. Affected Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-02

    lentiginosus Doug. var. ursinus (A. Gray) Barneby ASLEUI *Astragalus limnocharis Barneby ASLI 1 Astragalus mohavensis Wats. var. hemnigyrus (Clokey...sunfish X L. microlophus redear sunfish S X X X L. macrochirus bluegill S X X X L. humilis orange -spotted sunfish S X X L. megalotis longear sunfish

  20. Anaesthesia for Baboons – Practical and ethical considerations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia & Analgesia • March 2006. 26. Animal research is still a cornerstone of modern scientific discovery. A practical approach to anaesthetising Chacma baboons (Papio ursinus) undergoing experimental cardiac surgery is described. This physiological model has many similarities to ...

  1. Making a Noise – Making a Difference: Techno-Punk and Terra-ism

    OpenAIRE

    Graham St John

    2010-01-01

    This article charts the convergence of post-punk/post-settler logics in the techno-punk development in Australia. Exploring how punk would become implicated in the cultural politics of a settler society struggling for legitimacy, it maps the ground out of which Labrats sound system (and their hybrid outfit Combat Wombat) arose. It provides an entry to punk through an analysis of the concept of hardcore in the context of cultural mobilisations which, following more than two centuries of Europe...

  2. Maintaining mine roadway using rock bolts. Rock bolt ni yoru kodo iji

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujino, T. (Taiheiyo Coal Mining Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-11-01

    This paper describes the rock bolt method, devices and construction experiences in maintaining mine roadway drilling with Wombat-type rock bolt drilling and driving machines. Keeping the pace with coal mining zones reaching increasingly greater depths, timbering arch frames have grown larger and heavier, with frame intervals decreased. The described method was adopted to improve work efficiency and save manpowers. The Wombat, 1200-90 machine uses a driving air pressure at 7 kgf/cm[sup 2] a torque at 170 N/m to 180 N/m, and a free rotation at 800 rpm, consumes a r at 60 L/S, weighs 38 kg., and measures 1,370 mm to 3,420 mm in length. The machine is scheduled for use with three gates placed at a depth below sea level as deep as about 600 m, with gate diameters from about 5.0 m to 5.5 m and a length of about 8000 m. Effectiveness and safety of the rock bolts were verified using an extensometer made in the U.S.A. Roof subsidence after a working face has been drilled to 20 m to 30 m was about one third of that when no rock bolts were used, thus the adaptability of the method was verified. Although the drilling technique using the Wombat machine has taken roots at this particular coal mine, problems still remain such as in workability, for which further efficiency improvement and manpower saving are desired. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Environmental Assessment: 13th Street Bridge Emergency Repair and Retrofit Vandenberg Air Force Base California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-23

    ursinus), nightshade (Solanum sp.), California figwort (Scrophularia cal{fiJrnica), and mugwort ( Artemisia douglasiana). Coyote brush...is readily available. Coastal sage scrub is a diverse vegetation type dominated by the shrub California sagebrush ( Artemisia cal{fiJrnica). In...row crops planted on the fertile valley bottoms. In 1933, the Marshall family moved to the Olivera adobe, and expanded and modernized the building. A

  4. Programmatic Environmental Assessment, 2007 General Plan for the Main Cantonment and the South Base Cantonment at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-05

    a dense, low, closed-canopy, broad- leafed , winter-deciduous riparian forest dominated by arroyo willow (Salix lasiolepis), which can grow as a tree...Wild blackberry (Rubus ursinus), mugwort (Artemisia douglasiana), and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) are common understory components of...effusus), and toad rush (Juncus bufonius). Sword-leaved rush (Juncus ensifolius), and sickle- leaf rush (Juncus falcatus) may dominate where moisture

  5. Guaiaca – a software tool for supporting the use of scientific applications designed for data analysis – part I: execution assistant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Carlos Rodrigues Medeiros

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to develop a software tool that provides a user-friendly graphical interface of generic and configurable design in order to ease the researcher’s tasks in data manipulation and analysis. Two primary targets have influenced the design: data preparation for analysis in animal breeding programs and usability increase for those applications that perform important analysis methods, but interact with users only through text files and command lines. The Guaiaca tool was designed as a “utility belt” in the form of two integrated assistants, and it can be combined with multiple analysis applications. This tool offers facilities to: (a collect, manipulate, and reorganize data; (b organize, register, and retrieve analyses through descriptors; and (c prepare and activate analysis processes. Guaiaca’s Execution Assistant module is described in this paper, where is also emphasized the parameters to configure, the main data structures to maintain, and the form of the relationship between its generic interface and combined analysis applications. The generic interface has been customized and validated for the peculiarities of two applications, WOMBAT (mixed models and INTERGEN (Bayesian models. Several data analyses were performed with the interface support to prove its generality and ease of installation, configuration and operation. Data sets from 5,726 quails in a breeding program were used with these applications. Use of the integrated Guaiaca-WOMBAT application is illustrated with an analysis example, prepared and visualized on the Guaiaca tool and executed by WOMBAT. The Beta version of the Guaiaca tool for Windows is available free of charge to the scientific community and can be obtained at http://www.ufpel.edu.br/~gil.medeiros/guaiaca.

  6. Why Animals Can Make Us Better Victorianists

    OpenAIRE

    Moine, Fabienne

    2017-01-01

    From Elizabeth Barrett Browning’s devoted Flush and Lewis Carroll’s scurrying white rabbit to Anna Sewell’s wretched Black Beauty, Christina Rossetti’s monstrous crocodile and her brother’s darling wombat. From Dickens’s canine friends and Charles Darwin’s memorable finches, to mites under the microscope, pet cats on ladies’ laps and dinosaurs in Sydenham Park. From chimpanzees in menageries and hunting trophies on colonial walls to pedigree dogs at the Kennel Club and war dogs on the battlef...

  7. Molecular characterization of Blastocystis isolates from zoo animals and their animal-keepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkar, Unaiza; Traub, Rebecca J; Vitali, Simone; Elliot, Aileen; Levecke, Bruno; Robertson, Ian; Geurden, Thomas; Steele, Jan; Drake, Bev; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2010-04-19

    Blastocystis is an enteric protist and one of the most frequently reported parasitic infections in humans and a variety of animal hosts. It has also been reported in numerous parasite surveys of animals in zoological gardens and in particular in non-human primate species. PCR-based methods capable of the direct detection of Blastocystis in faeces were used to detect Blastocystis from various hosts, including non-human primates, Australian native fauna, elephants and giraffes, as well as their keepers from a Western Australian zoo. Additional faecal samples were also collected from elephants and giraffes from four other zoos in Amsterdam (The Netherlands), Antwerp (Belgium), Melbourne and Werribee (Australia). Information regarding the general health and lifestyle of the human volunteers were obtained by questionnaire. Overall, 42% and 63% of animals and zoo-keepers sampled from the Western Australian zoo were positive for Blastocystis, respectively. The occurrence of Blastocystis in elephants and giraffes from other cities was similar. This is the first report of Blastocystis found in the elephant, giraffe, quokka, southern hairy nosed wombat and western grey kangaroo. Three novel and what appear to be highly host-specific subtypes (STs) of Blastocystis in the elephant, giraffe and quokka are also described. These findings indicate that further exploration of the genetic diversity of Blastocystis is crucial. Most zoo-keepers at the Perth Zoo were harbouring Blastocystis. Four of these zoo-keeper isolates were identical to the isolates from the southern hairy nosed wombat and five primate species.

  8. Pleistocene aridification cycles shaped the contemporary genetic architecture of Southern African baboons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riashna Sithaldeen

    Full Text Available Plio-Pleistocene environmental change influenced the evolutionary history of many animal lineages in Africa, highlighting key roles for both climate and tectonics in the evolution of Africa's faunal diversity. Here, we explore diversification in the southern African chacma baboon Papio ursinus sensu lato and reveal a dominant role for increasingly arid landscapes during past glacial cycles in shaping contemporary genetic structure. Recent work on baboons (Papio spp. supports complex lineage structuring with a dominant pulse of diversification occurring 1-2Ma, and yet the link to palaeoenvironmental change remains largely untested. Phylogeographic reconstruction based on mitochondrial DNA sequence data supports a scenario where chacma baboon populations were likely restricted to refugia during periods of regional cooling and drying through the Late Pleistocene. The two lineages of chacma baboon, ursinus and griseipes, are strongly geographically structured, and demographic reconstruction together with spatial analysis of genetic variation point to possible climate-driven isolating events where baboons may have retreated to more optimum conditions during cooler, drier periods. Our analysis highlights a period of continuous population growth beginning in the Middle to Late Pleistocene in both the ursinus and the PG2 griseipes lineages. All three clades identified in the study then enter a state of declining population size (Nef through to the Holocene; this is particularly marked in the last 20,000 years, most likely coincident with the Last Glacial Maximum. The pattern recovered here conforms to expectations based on the dynamic regional climate trends in southern Africa through the Pleistocene and provides further support for complex patterns of diversification in the region's biodiversity.

  9. Inverse-kinematics proton scattering from 41P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klybor, B. R.; Gregory, S. D.; Haldeman, E. B.; Riley, L. A.; Skiles, L. M.; Cottle, P. D.; Kemper, K. W.; Bazin, D.; Belarge, J.; Bender, P. C.; Elman, B.; Gade, A.; Lipschutz, S.; Longfellow, B.; Lunderberg, E.; Mijatovic, T.; Pereira, J.; Titus, R.; Weisshaar, D.; Zamora, J. C.; Zegers, R. G. T.

    2017-09-01

    We have measured the gamma-ray spectrum of 41P using proton scattering in inverse kinematics with the NSCL/Ursinus College liquid hydrogen target and the GRETINA gamma-ray tracking array. We present preliminary results, including cross sections for populating several excited states of 41P via proton scattering. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Nos. PHY-1617250, PHY-1303480 and PHY-1102511 and by the US Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  10. Inverse-kinematics proton scattering from 43P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiles, L. M.; Gregory, S. D.; Haldeman, E. B.; Klybor, B. R.; Riley, L. A.; Cottle, P. D.; Kemper, K. W.; Bazin, D.; Belarge, J.; Bender, P. C.; Elman, B.; Gade, A.; Lipschutz, S.; Longfellow, B.; Lunderberg, E.; Mijatovic, T.; Pereira, J.; Titus, R.; Weisshaar, D.; Zamora, J. C.; Zegers, R. G. T.

    2017-09-01

    Following an experiment at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University (NSCL) in October 2016, we study the excited states of the neutron-rich N = 28 isotope 43P via inverse-kinematic proton scattering with the GRETINA gamma-ray tracking array and the NSCL/Ursinus College liquid hydrogen target. We discuss preliminary analysis and results, including measured cross sections for populating excited states of 43P. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Nos. PHY-1617250, PHY-1303480 and PHY-1102511 and by the US Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  11. Soluble and insoluble signals sculpt osteogenesis in angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripamonti, Ugo

    2010-01-01

    The basic tissue engineering paradigm is tissue induction and morphogenesis by combinatorial molecular protocols whereby soluble molecular signals are combined with insoluble signals or substrata. The insoluble signal acts as a three-dimensional scaffold for the initiation of de novo tissue induction and morphogenesis. The osteogenic soluble molecular signals of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) supergene family, the bone morphogenetic/osteogenic proteins (BMPs/OPs) and, uniquely in the non-human primate Papio ursinus (P. ursinus), the three mammalian TGF-β isoforms induce bone formation as a recapitulation of embryonic development. In this paper, I discuss the pleiotropic activity of the BMPs/OPs in the non-human primate P. ursinus, the induction of bone by transitional uroepithelium, and the apparent redundancy of molecular signals initiating bone formation by induction including the three mammalian TGF-β isoforms. Amongst all mammals tested so far, the three mammalian TGF-β isoforms induce endochondral bone formation in the non-human primate P. ursinus only. Bone tissue engineering starts by erecting scaffolds of biomimetic biomaterial matrices that mimic the supramolecular assembly of the extracellular matrix of bone. The molecular scaffolding lies at the hearth of all tissue engineering strategies including the induction of bone formation. The novel concept of tissue engineering is the generation of newly formed bone by the implantation of “smart” intelligent biomimetic matrices that per se initiate the ripple-like cascade of bone differentiation by induction without exogenously applied BMPs/OPs of the TGF-β supergene family. A comprehensive digital iconographic material presents the modified tissue engineering paradigm whereby the induction of bone formation is initiated by intelligent smart biomimetic matrices that per se initiate the induction of bone formation without the exogenous application of the soluble osteogenic molecular signals

  12. Seasonal dynamics of the density of the crab larvae (Decapoda: Brachyura et Anomura) in Minonosok Bay of Pos'eta Bay (Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryeva, N. I.

    2013-03-01

    As the materials for this project, we used data on the distribution of the larvae of the Asian paddle crab Charybdis japonicus (A. Milne-Edwards, 1861); the spider crabs Hyas coarctatus ursinus (= Hyas ursinus) (Rathbun, 1924), Pugettia quadridens (de Haan, 1839), and Pisoides bidentatus (H. Milne-Edwards, 1873); the samurai crab Paradorippe granulata (= Dorippe granulata) (de Haan, 1841); the pea crab Pinnixa rathbuni (Sakai, 1934); and the porcelain crab Pachycheles stevensii (Stimpson, 1858) in Minonosok Bay of Pos'eta Bay obtained during 2000-2002 and in 2004. The planktonic samples were collected from the last third of May to September. The greatest density of the larvae was observed in May, mid-June, late June-early July, and late July-early August. The greatest densities of the crab larvae and the decapod larvae ranged from 20.4 to 48.2 and from 88.4 to 245.3 specimens/m3. The schedule of the crab larvae's occurrence in the plankton is provided for the first time. The distribution of the density showed pronounced patchiness.

  13. Use of reduced graphs to encode bioisosterism for similarity-based virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchall, Kristian; Gillet, Valerie J; Willett, Peter; Ducrot, Pierre; Luttmann, Claude

    2009-06-01

    This paper describes a project to include explicit information about bioisosteric equivalences between pairs of fragment substructures in a system for similarity-based virtual screening. Data from the BIOSTER database show that reduced graphs provide a simple way of encoding known bioisosteric equivalences in a manner that can be used during similarity searching. Scaffold-hopping experiments with the WOMBAT database show that including such information enables similarities to be identified between the reference structures and active structures from the database that contain different, but equivalent, fragment substructures. However, such equivalences also contribute to the similarities between the reference structures and inactives, and the latter equivalences can swamp those involving the actives. This presents serious problems for the routine use of information about bioisosteric fragments in similarity-based virtual screening.

  14. Post-high-throughput screening analysis: an empirical compound prioritization scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprea, Tudor I; Bologa, Cristian G; Edwards, Bruce S; Prossnitz, Eric R; Sklar, Larry A

    2005-08-01

    An empirical scheme to evaluate and prioritize screening hits from high-throughput screening (HTS) is proposed. Negative scores are given when chemotypes found in the HTS hits are present in annotated databases such as MDDR and WOMBAT or for testing positive in toxicity-related experiments reported in TOXNET. Positive scores were given for higher measured biological activities, for testing negative in toxicity-related literature, and for good overlap when profiled against drug-related properties. Particular emphasis is placed on estimating aqueous solubility to prioritize in vivo experiments. This empirical scheme is given as an illustration to assist the decision-making process in selecting chemotypes and individual compounds for further experimentation, when confronted with multiple hits from high-throughput experiments. The decision-making process is discussed for a set of G-protein coupled receptor antagonists and validated on a literature example for dihydrofolate reductase inhibition.

  15. High quality, small molecule-activity datasets for kinase research [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan Sharma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Kinases regulate cell growth, movement, and death. Deregulated kinase activity is a frequent cause of disease. The therapeutic potential of kinase inhibitors has led to large amounts of published structure activity relationship (SAR data. Bioactivity databases such as the Kinase Knowledgebase (KKB, WOMBAT, GOSTAR, and ChEMBL provide researchers with quantitative data characterizing the activity of compounds across many biological assays. The KKB, for example, contains over 1.8M kinase structure-activity data points reported in peer-reviewed journals and patents. In the spirit of fostering methods development and validation worldwide, we have extracted and have made available from the KKB 258K structure activity data points and 76K associated unique chemical structures across eight kinase targets. These data are freely available for download within this data note.

  16. High quality, small molecule-activity datasets for kinase research [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan Sharma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Kinases regulate cell growth, movement, and death. Deregulated kinase activity is a frequent cause of disease. The therapeutic potential of kinase inhibitors has led to large amounts of published structure activity relationship (SAR data. Bioactivity databases such as the Kinase Knowledgebase (KKB, WOMBAT, GOSTAR, and ChEMBL provide researchers with quantitative data characterizing the activity of compounds across many biological assays. The KKB, for example, contains over 1.8M kinase structure-activity data points reported in peer-reviewed journals and patents. In the spirit of fostering methods development and validation worldwide, we have extracted and have made available from the KKB 258K structure activity data points and 76K associated unique chemical structures across eight kinase targets. These data are freely available for download within this data note.

  17. High quality, small molecule-activity datasets for kinase research [version 3; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan Sharma

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Kinases regulate cell growth, movement, and death. Deregulated kinase activity is a frequent cause of disease. The therapeutic potential of kinase inhibitors has led to large amounts of published structure activity relationship (SAR data. Bioactivity databases such as the Kinase Knowledgebase (KKB, WOMBAT, GOSTAR, and ChEMBL provide researchers with quantitative data characterizing the activity of compounds across many biological assays. The KKB, for example, contains over 1.8M kinase structure-activity data points reported in peer-reviewed journals and patents. In the spirit of fostering methods development and validation worldwide, we have extracted and have made available from the KKB 258K structure activity data points and 76K associated unique chemical structures across eight kinase targets. These data are freely available for download within this data note.

  18. In situ neutron diffraction studies of a commercial, soft lead zirconate titanate ceramic: Response to electric fields and mechanical stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pramanick, Abhijit [University of Florida; Prewitt, Anderson [University of Florida; Cottrell, Michelle [University of Florida; Lee, Wayne [ITT Corporation Acoustic Sensors; Studer, Andrew J. [Bragg Institute, ANSTO; An, Ke [ORNL; Hubbard, Camden R [ORNL; Jones, Jacob [University of Florida

    2010-01-01

    Structural changes in commercial lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics (EC-65) under the application of electric fields and mechanical stress were measured using neutron diffraction instruments at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The structural changes during electric-field application were measured on the WOMBAT beamline at ANSTO and include non-180{sup o} domain switching, lattice strains and field-induced phase transformations. Using time-resolved data acquisition capabilities, lattice strains were measured under cyclic electric fields at times as short as 30 {mu}s. Structural changes including the (002) and (200) lattice strains and non-180{sup o} domain switching were measured during uniaxial mechanical compression on the NRSF2 instrument at ORNL. Contraction of the crystallographic polarization axis, (002), and reorientation of non-180{sup o} domains occur at lowest stresses, followed by (200) elastic strains at higher stresses.

  19. Necklace making and placedness in Tasmania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Norman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper has been written against the backdrop of John B. Hawkins’ paper, A Suggested History of Tasmanian Aboriginal Kangaroo Skin or Sinew, Human Bone, Shell, Feather, Apple Seed & Wombat Necklaces, published in Australiana, November 2008, and the research it sparked. Hawkins proffered some contentious propositions concerning unlikely and speculative connections between Tasmanian Aboriginal shell necklace making and the making of so-called “Tasmanian Appleseed necklaces”. Within the acknowledgements section of his paper Hawkins said that he “[looked] forward to a response to [his] article by the museum authorities, for it is only by the cut and thrust of debate that knowledge can be further enhanced”. This paper takes up that challenge albeit from outside the Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery and totally independent of any institutional sponsorship.

  20. Broadband Interferometer for Measuring Transmitted Wavefronts of Optical Bandpass Filters for HST (ACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucarut, R. A.; Leviton, D. B.

    1998-01-01

    The transmitted wavefronts of optical filters for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) are characterized using the Wildly and Openly Modified Broadband Achromatic Twyman Green (WOMBAT) Interferometer developed in the NASA/GSFC Optics Branch's Diffraction Grating Evaluation Facility (DGEF). Because only four of thirty-three of ACS's optical bandpass filters transmit the 633 nm light of most commercial interferometers, a broadband interferometer is required to verify specified transmitted wavefront of ACS filters. WOMBAT's design is a hybrid of the BAT interferometer developed by JPL used for HST Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC-2) filters and a WYKO 400 phase shifting interferometer. It includes a broadband light source, monochromator, off-axis, parabolic collimating and camera mirrors, an aluminum-coated fused silica beam splitter, flat retroreflecting mirrors for the test and reference arms, and a LTV-sensitive CCD camera. An outboarded, piezo-electric phase shifter holds the flat mirror in the interferometer's reference arm. The interferometer is calibrated through interaction between the WYKO system's software and WONMAT hardware for the test wavelength of light entering the beam splitter. Phase-shifted interferograms of the filter mounted in the test arm are analyzed using WYKO's Vision' software. Filters as large as 90 mm in diameter have been measured over a wavelength range from 200 to 1100 nm with a sensitivity of lambda/200 rms at lambda = 633 nm. Results of transmitted wavefront measurements are shown for ACS fixed band pass and spatially-variable bandpass filters for a variety of wavelengths.

  1. Braarudosphaera-rich sediments on the Exmouth Plateau, eastern Indian Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siesser, W.G. (Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)); Bralower, T.J. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States)); Carlo, E.H. de (Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa, Honolulu (United States))

    1991-03-01

    Calcareous nannofossil assemblages enriched in Braarudosphaera occur in lower Oligocene to lower Miocene sediments at Ocean Drilling Program Sites 762 and 763 on the central Exmouth Plateau. Although beds of Braarudosphaera-rich sediments are well known in the Oligocene of the South Atlantic (the Braarudosphaera Chalk), this is the first published report of this phenomenon in the easter Indian Ocean. Braarudosphaerids appear rather abruptly in the lower Oligocene (in Zone NP 21) on the Exmouth Plateau. They reach their greatest numbers in the lower Oligocene (in Zones NP 22 and NP 23), where they comprise up to 10% of some samples. Braarudosphaera bigelowii is the overwhelmingly dominant species, occurring together with rare specimens of B. discula and Micrantholithus pinguis. The holococcoliths Peritrachelina joidesa and Lanternithus minutus are also associated with the Braarudosphaera enrichment. There are two populations of B. bigelowii: one of normal size (10-14 {mu}m) and one of large specimens (20-22 {mu}m). The larger braarudosphaerids are more common than the smaller forms. Braarudosphaera-rich sediments are absent at the nearby Wombat Plateau sites during the same time interval. The authors attribute this to latitudinal control, since the Wombat sites are about 4{degree} north of the Central Exmout Plateau sites. The occurrence of braarudosphaerids on the Exmouth Plateau is related to an Oligocene to early Miocene oceanographic event. Stable-isotope and trace-element analyses suggest that upwelling of cool, low-salinity, nutrient-rich water along a Divergent Zone created the Braarudosphaera-rich sediments in the Indian Ocean.

  2. Mesozoic sea level fluctuations documented on Exmouth Plateau off northwestern Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haq, B.U.; Blome, C.D.; Bralower, T.J.; Brenner, W.; Oda, M.; Siesser, W.; Wonders, A.A.H.

    1989-03-01

    The Exmouth Plateau is uniquely suited to the study of sea level changes because of the existence of an extensive seismic grid and industry well sites, an extended Mesozoic stratigraphic record punctuated with several major unconformities, and the relatively protected position of this high plateau. Thus, documenting sea level fluctuations was one of the major objectives of drilling on the Exmouth Plateau. This documentation depends on their ability to (1) isolate the tectonic overprint from the eustatic signal by retracing the subsidence histories of the drill sites and (2) accurately date the unconformities. Two transects of sites were drilled, one with four sites on the Wombat Plateau and the other with two sites on the central Exmouth Plateau, with one site located relatively proximally and another distally to the source of sediment supply. Preliminary shipboard work indicates that the age of Mesozoic unconformities can be accurately constrained and the subsidence-related tectonic events can be effectively isolated from sea level fluctuations. Sequence stratigraphic analysis of seismic, lithofacies, biofacies, and well-log data document important Upper Triassic sequence boundaries on the Wombat Plateau between the middle and upper Carnian (Norian-Rhaetian boundary) and in the upper most Rhaetian, whose timing and relative magnitude conform well with the eustatic cycle chart. The sequence boundary and systems tracts recognized in the central Exmouth Plateau Barrow Group equivalent strata (Berriasian-Valanginian) also correspond well with the global cycle chart. These preliminary results are of considerable importance in providing a test of the validity of the eustatic model.

  3. Organic matter diagenesis and hydrocarbon generation on outer Continental Margin of northwestern Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, P.A.; Snowdon, L.R.; Heggie, D.; Bent, A.

    1989-03-01

    Organic geochemical analyses of sediments and rocks obtained from drill sites on the Exmouth and Wombat Plateaus and the Argo Abyssal Plain on the northwestern margin of Australia were done onboard the JOIDES Resolution during Ocean Drilling Program Legs 122 and 123. These analyses provide information about the sources of organic matter to these offshore locations from Triassic to Holocene times and also indicate the degree of postdepositional diagenesis and maturation the organic matter has experienced. Because this margin has interest to petroleum explorationists, these data have practical as well as fundamental significance. Triassic claystones (equivalent to the onshore Mungeroo Formation) from the Wombat Plateau contain up to several percent of land-derived organic carbon. Neocomian siltstones and claystones (equivalent to the Barrow Group and Muderong Shale) from the Exmouth Plateau hold similar organic matter but at lower concentrations. Younger sediments are generally very lean in organic matter. Gas chromatographic analysis of extractable hydrocarbons shows a large and often dominant contribution of continental components, notably n-alkanes with a strong odd/even ratio and tricyclic diterpanes. Both Rock-Eval and hydrocarbon results agree in indicating low to moderate levels of thermal maturity. Locations on the Exmouth Plateau typically contain large amounts of thermogenic gaseous hydrocarbons dominated by methane. Concentrations peak in Senonian chalk sequences. In Neocomian siltstones and claystones, methane-ethane ratios diminish as concentrations decrease. The source of these hydrocarbons is likely to be the Triassic coals and coaly material below the Dingo claystone, which was not drilled during these legs but has been characterized from industry wells on this passive margin.

  4. Trabecular architecture in the StW 352 fossil hominin calcaneus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeininger, Angel; Patel, Biren A; Zipfel, Bernhard; Carlson, Kristian J

    2016-08-01

    Australopithecus africanus has been interpreted as having a rigid lateral foot. One mechanism contributing to a rigid foot during push-off in humans is a calcaneocuboid joint (CCJ) with limited dorsiflexion and a "close-packed" talocalcaneal joint (TCJ). In contrast, apes likely have a greater CCJ range of motion and lack a close-packed TCJ. Differences in tarsal arthrokinematics may result in different joint loading environments. In Homo sapiens, we tested the hypothesis that dorsal and plantar CCJ and the TCJ show evidence of predictable habitual loading. In Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla, Gorilla beringei, and Papio ursinus, we tested the hypothesis that only the dorsal CCJ shows evidence of predictable loading. Specifically, we predicted similarity in trabecular properties across the dorsal and plantar CCJ in H. sapiens, but dissimilarity in non-humans. Additionally, we investigated trabecular properties of an A. africanus calcaneus (StW 352) to evaluate joint loading patterns in this hominin and ultimately address the evolution of these properties in H. sapiens. Contrary to predictions, the H. sapiens dorsal CCJ has a significantly higher elongation index, bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness, and trabecular number than the plantar CCJ, while trabecular properties in non-humans do not always differ as predicted between regions. H. sapiens exhibits trabecular morphology indicative of less variable TCJ loading than other groups, having the most anisotropic and rod-like struts oriented in line with predicted principal loads. Multivariate analysis shows that the StW 352 dorsal CCJ matches P. ursinus best, while the plantar CCJ matches G. beringei best and the TCJ matches that of G. gorilla best. Overall patterns suggest that the StW 352 calcaneus experienced more variable loading than H. sapiens, but less variable loading than P. troglodytes, G. gorilla, G. beringei, and P. ursinus, consistent with a large range of foot movements, probably

  5. Use of autologous /sup 111/In-labelled platelets and scintigraphy to illustrate enhanced platelet activity during erection in the chacma baboon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dormehl, I.C.; Du Plessis, M.; Maree, M.; Bornman, M.S.; Du Plessis, D.J.

    1984-12-01

    The demonstration of thrombelastographic hypercoagulability in the penile blood during erection, and the accompanying deposition of fibrin onto the endothelial layer of the deep penile artery and trabecular surface inspired this investigation of the possible role that platelets might play in the process. The bloodpooling pattern in the penis during and after erection from electro-stimulation was studied in 9 male adult baboons (Papio ursinus) using in vivo sup(99m)Tc-labelled red blood cells and scintigraphy. Platelet activity was similarly investigated after administering autologous /sup 111/In-labelled platelets to the baboons. The results indicate an enhanced platelet concentration with respect to blood-pooling during erection, and an entrapment of platelets after erection.

  6. [A molecular phylogeny of Shennongjia white bear based on mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Juan; Zhang, Zhi-Min; Liu, Zhong-Lai; Xiong, Guo-Mei

    2006-10-01

    The phylogenetic relationship of Shennongjia white bear has been an open question. Total DNA was extracted and sequenced from hair and feces of Shennongjia white bear. Based on the partial Cyt b gene sequence obtained from the samples, the authors aligned them using the Clustal W software program. The MEGA software was used to analyze the divergences and base substitutions of the partial Cyt b gene among the 11 species: Shennongjia white bear, Selenarctos thibetanus, Euarctos americanus, Helarctos malayanus, Ursus arctos, Thalarctos maritimus, Melursus ursinus, Procyon lotor, Ailuropoda melanoleuca, Ailurus fulgens and Tremarctos ornatus. The phylogenetic trees constructed by multiple methods (NJ and MP) supported nearly the same topology. Our molecular results show that the sequence divergence between Shennongjia white bear and Asiatic black bear (Selenarctos thibetanus) is lower than that between other species.

  7. Functional morphology underlies performance differences among invasive and non-invasive ruderal Rubus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Joshua S; Yeakley, J Alan

    2013-10-01

    The ability of some introduced plant species to outperform native species under altered resource conditions makes them highly productive in ecosystems with surplus resources. However, ruderal native species are also productive when resources are available. The differences in abundance among invasive and non-invasive ruderal plants may be related to differences in ability to maintain access to or store resources for continual use. For a group of ruderal species in the Pacific Northwest of North America (invasive Rubus armeniacus; non-invasive R. ursinus, R. parviflorus, R. spectabilis, and Rosa nutkana), we sought to determine whether differences in functional morphological traits, especially metrics of water access and storage, were consistent with differences in water conductance and growth rate. We also investigated the changes in these traits in response to abundant vs. limited water availability. Rubus armeniacus had among the largest root systems and cane cross-sectional areas, the lowest cane tissue densities, and the most plastic ratios of leaf area to plant mass and of xylem area to leaf area, often sharing its rank with R. ursinus or Rosa nutkana. These three species had the highest water conductance and relative growth rates, though Rubus armeniacus grew the most rapidly when water was not limited. Our results suggest that water access and storage abilities vary with morphology among the ruderal species investigated, and that these abilities, in combination, are greatest in the invasive. In turn, functional morphological traits allow R. armeniacus to maintain rapid gas exchange rates during the dry summers in its invaded range, conferring on it high productivity.

  8. Towards a fully probabilistic reconstruction of the elastic, thermal and petrological structure of the Earth's mantle transition zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauzin, Benoit; Afonso, Juan-Carlos; Sambridge, Malcolm; Tkalcic, Hrvoje; Kim, Seongryong; Bodin, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    An enigmatic patchwork of seismologically observed low-seismic velocity zones (LVZs) has been reported at various scales and locations above the 410-km discontinuity and in the mantle transition zone (TZ). Geodynamical models suggest that this is possibly a distinctive feature of a convective mantle that preserves small-scale chemical heterogeneities. However, its geographical correlation with tectonic environments remains elusive. Our objective is to study the multi-scale physical properties of the TZ in relation with the global distribution, shape, internal structure, and nature of these LVZs. We develop a novel geophysical inversion relying on Bayesian inference. This probabilistic framework is multidisciplinary, with the production of multi-scale elastic TZ models through partition modeling of raw seismic data, and the use of secondary seismic observables (410 and 660 topography, number of seismic interfaces, elastic profile in the TZ) to constrain thermo-physical parameters for a range of plausible mineralogical models and pressure-temperature conditions. Taking a probabilistic approach does not simply mean that we look for a maximum probability solution but rather, within uncertainties and through probabilistic sampling, for an ensemble of compatible solutions. We illustrate the feasibility of using such a framework on data from dense seismic arrays in the US (Transportable Array), NE China (NECESSArray), Japan (F-Net), Australia (WOMBAT), from permanent networks in Korea, and on a global dataset of SS-precursors. We aim at quantifying in a probabilistic sense how previously published mantle-mixing models and laboratory-based data fit seismological observations.

  9. Interruptions and multitasking in surgery: a multicentre observational study of the daily work patterns of doctors and nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellandi, Tommaso; Cerri, Alessandro; Carreras, Giulia; Walter, Scott; Mengozzi, Cipriana; Albolino, Sara; Mastrominico, Eleonora; Renzetti, Fernando; Tartaglia, Riccardo; Westbrook, Johanna

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain baseline data on doctors' and nurses' work activities and rates of interruptions and multitasking to improve work organisation and processes. Data were collected in six surgical units with the WOMBAT (Work Observation Method by Activity Timing) tool. Results show that doctors and nurses received approximately 13 interruptions per hour, or one interruption every 4.5 min. Compared to doctors, nurses were more prone to interruptions in most activities, while doctors performed multitasking (33.47% of their time, 95% CI 31.84-35.17%) more than nurses (15.23%, 95% CI 14.24-16.25%). Overall, the time dedicated to patient care is relatively limited for both professions (37.21%, 95% CI 34.95-39.60% for doctors, 27.22%, 95% CI 25.18-29.60% for nurses) compared to the time spent for registration of data and professional communication, that accounts for two-thirds of doctors' time and nearly half of nurses' time. Further investigation is needed on strategies to manage job demands and professional communications. Practitioner Summary: This study offers further findings on the characteristics and frequency of multitasking and interruptions in surgery, with a comparison of how they affect doctors and nurses. Further investigation is needed to improve the management of job demands and communications according to the results.

  10. Fine-mapping QTLs in advanced intercross lines and other outbred populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Natalia M; Palmer, Abraham A

    2014-08-01

    Quantitative genetic studies in model organisms, particularly in mice, have been extremely successful in identifying chromosomal regions that are associated with a wide variety of behavioral and other traits. However, it is now widely understood that identification of the underlying genes will be far more challenging. In the last few years, a variety of populations have been utilized in an effort to more finely map these chromosomal regions with the goal of identifying specific genes. The common property of these newer populations is that linkage disequilibrium spans relatively short distances, which permits fine-scale mapping resolution. This review focuses on advanced intercross lines (AILs) which are the simplest such population. As originally proposed in 1995 by Darvasi and Soller, an AIL is the product of intercrossing two inbred strains beyond the F2 generation. Unlike recombinant inbred strains, AILs are maintained as outbred populations; brother-sister matings are specifically avoided. Each generation of intercrossing beyond the F2 further degrades linkage disequilibrium between adjacent makers, which allows for fine-scale mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Advances in genotyping technology and techniques for the statistical analysis of AILs have permitted rapid advances in the application of AILs. We review some of the analytical issues and available software, including QTLRel, EMMA, EMMAX, GEMMA, TASSEL, GRAMMAR, WOMBAT, Mendel, and others.

  11. Experimental Measurements and Modeling of a Helicon Plasma Source with Large Axial Density Gradients*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tysk, Shane; Denning, Mark; Scharer, John; Akhtar, Kamran

    2003-10-01

    Wave magnetic field, density and temperature profiles, electron distribution function and wave-correlated Argon optical emission are examined. The experimental facility is a 10 cm ID magnetized Pyrex tube and up to 1.3 kW of pulsed RF power is coupled to a half-turn, double-helix antenna with densities of 10e11-5x10e13 cm-3. The plasmas have different characteristics than the type-III coil1 and WOMBAT2 experiments. Wave-correlated optical emission and modulation is externally measured at Ar II 443 nm and phase-correlated with the 13.56 MHz source. The plasma, wave character and optical emission characteristics of the transition and helicon modes are examined. Helicon wave harmonic components of the antenna current driving frequency are also observed. The Ar II wave phase-correlated optical emission character is different for the transition and helicon regimes. The 2-D MaxEB and 1-D AntenaII codes and an ionization code are used to model the conditions present in the system and provide a comprehensive picture of wave field behavior and fast and thermal electron ionization processes in the source. 1 X. Guo, J.E. Scharer, Y. Mouzouris and L. Louis, Physics of Plasmas 6 (8), 3400 (1999). 2 J. Scharer, A. Degeling, G. Borg, and R. Boswell, Physics of Plasmas 9 (9), 3734 (2002). *Research supported by NSF and AFOSR

  12. Making a Noise – Making a Difference: Techno-Punk and Terra-ism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham St John

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article charts the convergence of post-punk/post-settler logics in the techno-punk development in Australia. Exploring how punk would become implicated in the cultural politics of a settler society struggling for legitimacy, it maps the ground out of which Labrats sound system (and their hybrid outfit Combat Wombat arose. It provides an entry to punk through an analysis of the concept of hardcore in the context of cultural mobilisations which, following more than two centuries of European colonisation, evince desires to make reparations and forge alliances with indigenous people and landscape. To achieve this, the article traces the contours and investigates the implications of Sydney’s techno-punk emergence (as seen in The Jellyheads, Non Bossy Posse, Vibe Tribe and Ohms not Bombs, tracking the mobile and media savvy exploits of 1990s DIY sound systems and techno terra-ists, aesthetes and activists adopting intimate and tactical media technologies, committing to independent and decentralised EDM creativity, and implicated in a movement for legitimate presence.

  13. A flow-through hydrothermal cell for in situ neutron diffraction studies of phase transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, Brian [School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Tenailleau, Christophe [Department of Mineralogy, South Australian Museum, North Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia 5000 (Australia); Nogthai, Yung [School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Studer, Andrew [Bragg Institute, ANSTO, PMB 1 Menai, New South Wales 2234 (Australia); Brugger, Joel [Department of Mineralogy, South Australian Museum, North Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia 5000 (Australia): Department of Geology and Geophysics, The University of Adelaide, North Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Pring, Allan [Department of Mineralogy, South Australian Museum, North Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia 5000 (Australia): Department of Geology and Geophysics, The University of Adelaide, North Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia)]. E-mail: pring.allan@saugov.sa.gov.au

    2006-11-15

    A flow-through hydrothermal cell for the in situ neutron diffraction study of crystallisation and phase transitions has been developed. It can be used for kinetic studies on materials that exhibit structural transformations under hydrothermal conditions. It is specifically designed for use on the medium-resolution powder diffractometer (MRPD) at ANSTO, Lucas Heights, Sydney. But it is planned to adapt the design for the Polaris beamline at ISIS and the new high-intensity powder diffractometer (Wombat) at the new Australian reactor Opal. The cell will operate in a flow-through mode over the temperature range from 25-300 deg. C and up to pressures of 100 bar. The first results of a successful transformation of pentlandite (Fe,Ni){sub 9}S{sub 8} to violarite (Fe,Ni){sub 3}S{sub 4} under mild conditions (pH{approx}4) at 120 deg. C and 3 bar using in situ neutron diffraction measurements are presented.

  14. ESTIMATION OF GENETIC PARAMETERS IN TROPICARNE CATTLE WITH RANDOM REGRESSION MODELS USING B-SPLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Domínguez Viveros

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives were to estimate variance components, and direct (h2 and maternal (m2 heritability in the growth of Tropicarne cattle based on a random regression model using B-Splines for random effects modeling. Information from 12 890 monthly weightings of 1787 calves, from birth to 24 months old, was analyzed. The pedigree included 2504 animals. The random effects model included genetic and permanent environmental (direct and maternal of cubic order, and residuals. The fixed effects included contemporaneous groups (year – season of weighed, sex and the covariate age of the cow (linear and quadratic. The B-Splines were defined in four knots through the growth period analyzed. Analyses were performed with the software Wombat. The variances (phenotypic and residual presented a similar behavior; of 7 to 12 months of age had a negative trend; from birth to 6 months and 13 to 18 months had positive trend; after 19 months were maintained constant. The m2 were low and near to zero, with an average of 0.06 in an interval of 0.04 to 0.11; the h2 also were close to zero, with an average of 0.10 in an interval of 0.03 to 0.23.

  15. Genetic parameters for gestation length and pre- and postweaning growth traits in Nellore cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heverton Luis Moreira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic correlations for gestation length as calf trait (GLcalf and preweaning [birth weight (BW and weights at 120 (W120 and 210 (W210 days] and postweaning performance traits [weights at 365 (W365 and 450 (W450 days] in Nellore cattle participating in the Nellore Brazil Program coordinated by the National Association of Breeders and Researchers (Associação Nacional de Criadores e Pesquisadores - ANCP. The parameters were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method under an animal model using the WOMBAT software. The genetic correlation between GLcalf and BW was 0.15, indicating a favorable association between the two traits which, however, was of small magnitude. GLcalf showed low positive genetic correlations (0.06 to 0.10 with the other weights, indicating that selection to reduce gestation length would not result in significant losses in weights at older ages. Furthermore, it is possible to infer that selection for higher W365 will not expressively increase gestation length.

  16. Estimates of genetic and phenotypic parameters for reproductive traits in Iranian native Kordi sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Ali Saghi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The data set for estimation of genetic and phenotypic parameters of reproductive traits in Kordi sheep were collected from 1996 to 2013. The reproductive traits included age at first lambing (AFL, number of lambs born (NLB/EL and weaned (NLW/EL per ewe in each lambing, total weight of lambs born (TWLB/EL and weaned (TWLW/EL per ewe in each lambing, total number of lambs born (TNLB and weaned (TNLW per ewe, total weight of lambs born (TWLB and weaned (TWLW per ewe. The genetic parameters were estimated through restricted maximum likelihood method using WOMBAT. The effects of environmental factors (year of lambing, type of birth, maternal age at lambing on all reproductive traits were significant (p < 0.01. Direct heritability, maternal heritability and the ratio of maternal permanent environmental variance to phenotypic variance for reproductive traits were estimated in the range from 0.07 to 0.18, 0.03 to 0.08 and 0.01 to 0.03, respectively. Genetic and phenotypic correlations between reproductive traits were estimated to be positive and within the range of 0.09 to 0.96 and 0.02 to 0.29, respectively. The results suggest that selection based on number of lambs born per ewe can be more effective than other traits in improving reproductive performance in Kordi ewes.

  17. Genetic Evaluation of Age at First Calving, Open Days and Milk Production of Holstein Cattle in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bitaraf Sani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters coupled with genetic and phonotypic trends for age at first calving (AFC, open days(OD and milk yield(MY of first lactation in Iranian Holstein cows. Records of reproduction and production for genetic evaluation from 1984 to 2005 for AFC, OD and MY were 71736, 20126 and 20126, respectively. Single and two-variable animal models were used to estimate genetic parameters by restricted maximum likelihood procedures and WOMBAT software. heritability of AFC, OD and MY was estimated 0.20±0.02 , 0.04±0.01 , 0.47±0.9 respectively. Genetic and phonotypic trends of AFC were negative so that phenotype and breeding value average had decreased from 1984 to 2005. Genetic and phonotypic trends of OD and MY were positive. The genetic and phonotypic correlations between OD and MY were +0.23 and +0.07 respectively.

  18. Herds overhead: Nimbadon lavarackorum (Diprotodontidae, heavyweight marsupial herbivores in the Miocene forests of Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen H Black

    Full Text Available The marsupial family Diprotodontidae (Diprotodontia, Vombatiformes is a group of extinct large-bodied (60-2500 kg wombat-like herbivores that were common and geographically widespread in Cenozoic fossil deposits of Australia and New Guinea. Typically they are regarded to be gregarious, terrestrial quadrupeds and have been likened in body form among placental groups to sheep, rhinoceros and hippopotami. Arguably, one of the best represented species is the zygomaturine diprotodontid Nimbadon lavarackorum which is known from exceptionally well-preserved cranial and postcranial material from the middle Miocene cave deposit AL90, in the Riversleigh World Heritage Area, northwestern Queensland. Here we describe and functionally analyse the appendicular skeleton of Nimbadon lavarackorum and reveal a far more unique lifestyle for this plesiomorphic and smallest of diprotodontids. Striking similarities are evident between the skeleton of Nimbadon and that of the extant arboreal koala Phascolarctos cinereus, including the powerfully built forelimbs, highly mobile shoulder and elbow joints, proportionately large manus and pes (both with a semi-opposable digit I and exceedingly large, recurved and laterally compressed claws. Combined with the unique (among australidelphians proportionately shortened hindlimbs of Nimbadon, these features suggest adept climbing ability, probable suspensory behaviour, and an arboreal lifestyle. At approximately 70 kg, Nimbadon is the largest herbivorous mammal to have occupied the forest canopies of Australia - an ecological niche that is no longer occupied in any Australian ecosystem and one that further expands the already significant niche diversity displayed by marsupials during the Cenozoic.

  19. Evaluation of a Bayesian inference network for ligand-based virtual screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Beining

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bayesian inference networks enable the computation of the probability that an event will occur. They have been used previously to rank textual documents in order of decreasing relevance to a user-defined query. Here, we modify the approach to enable a Bayesian inference network to be used for chemical similarity searching, where a database is ranked in order of decreasing probability of bioactivity. Results Bayesian inference networks were implemented using two different types of network and four different types of belief function. Experiments with the MDDR and WOMBAT databases show that a Bayesian inference network can be used to provide effective ligand-based screening, especially when the active molecules being sought have a high degree of structural homogeneity; in such cases, the network substantially out-performs a conventional, Tanimoto-based similarity searching system. However, the effectiveness of the network is much less when structurally heterogeneous sets of actives are being sought. Conclusion A Bayesian inference network provides an interesting alternative to existing tools for ligand-based virtual screening.

  20. Herds Overhead: Nimbadon lavarackorum (Diprotodontidae), Heavyweight Marsupial Herbivores in the Miocene Forests of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Karen H.; Camens, Aaron B.; Archer, Michael; Hand, Suzanne J.

    2012-01-01

    The marsupial family Diprotodontidae (Diprotodontia, Vombatiformes) is a group of extinct large-bodied (60–2500 kg) wombat-like herbivores that were common and geographically widespread in Cenozoic fossil deposits of Australia and New Guinea. Typically they are regarded to be gregarious, terrestrial quadrupeds and have been likened in body form among placental groups to sheep, rhinoceros and hippopotami. Arguably, one of the best represented species is the zygomaturine diprotodontid Nimbadon lavarackorum which is known from exceptionally well-preserved cranial and postcranial material from the middle Miocene cave deposit AL90, in the Riversleigh World Heritage Area, northwestern Queensland. Here we describe and functionally analyse the appendicular skeleton of Nimbadon lavarackorum and reveal a far more unique lifestyle for this plesiomorphic and smallest of diprotodontids. Striking similarities are evident between the skeleton of Nimbadon and that of the extant arboreal koala Phascolarctos cinereus, including the powerfully built forelimbs, highly mobile shoulder and elbow joints, proportionately large manus and pes (both with a semi-opposable digit I) and exceedingly large, recurved and laterally compressed claws. Combined with the unique (among australidelphians) proportionately shortened hindlimbs of Nimbadon, these features suggest adept climbing ability, probable suspensory behaviour, and an arboreal lifestyle. At approximately 70 kg, Nimbadon is the largest herbivorous mammal to have occupied the forest canopies of Australia - an ecological niche that is no longer occupied in any Australian ecosystem and one that further expands the already significant niche diversity displayed by marsupials during the Cenozoic. PMID:23185250

  1. The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus): a case study in the development of reproductive technology in a marsupial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Stephen D; Holt, William V

    2014-01-01

    The successful development and application of an assisted breeding program in any animal relies primarily on a thorough understanding of the fundamental reproductive biology (anatomy, physiology and behaviour) of the species in question. Surely, the ultimate goal and greatest hallmark of such a program is the efficacious establishment of a series of reliable techniques that facilitate the reproductive and genetic management of fragmented populations, both in captivity and in the wild. Such an achievement is all the more challenging when the reproductive biology of that species is essentially rudimentary and without adequate reproductive models to compare to. Using the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) as a case study, this chapter provides some personal insights into the evolution of a concept that began as a small undergraduate student project but that subsequently evolved into the first-ever successful artificial insemination of a marsupial. Apart from this historical perspective, we also provide a brief review of the current reproductive biology of the koala, discuss technical elements of current assisted breeding technology of this species, its potential application to the wombat, and the future role it might play in helping to conserve wild koala populations. There is little doubt that the unique reproductive biology and tractability of the koala has in this case been a benefit rather than a hindrance to the success of artificial breeding in this species.

  2. Comparing global and local likelihood score thresholds in multiclass laplacian-modified Naive Bayes protein target prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakakis, Georgios; Koutsoukas, Alexios; Brewerton, Suzanne C; Bodkin, Michael J; Evans, David A; Bender, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The increase of publicly available bioactivity data has led to the extensive development and usage of in silico bioactivity prediction algorithms. A particularly popular approach for such analyses is the multiclass Naïve Bayes, whose output is commonly processed by applying empirically-derived likelihood score thresholds. In this work, we describe a systematic way for deriving score cut-offs on a per-protein target basis and compare their performance with global thresholds on a large scale using both 5-fold cross-validation (ChEMBL 14, 189k ligand-protein pairs over 477 protein targets) and external validation (WOMBAT, 63k pairs, 421 targets). The individual protein target cut-offs derived were compared to global cut-offs ranging from -10 to 40 in score bouts of 2.5. The results indicate that individual thresholds had equal or better performance in all comparisons with global thresholds, ranging from 95% of protein targets to 57.96%. It is shown that local thresholds behave differently for particular families of targets (CYPs, GPCRs, Kinases and TFs). Furthermore, we demonstrate the discrepancy in performance when we move away from the training dataset chemical space, using Tanimoto similarity as a metric (from 0 to 1 in steps of 0.2). Finally, the individual protein score cut-offs derived for the in silico bioactivity application used in this work are released, as well as the reproducible and transferable KNIME workflows used to carry out the analysis.

  3. In Situ Neutron Powder Diffraction Using Custom-made Lithium-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brant, William R.; Schmid, Siegbert; Du, Guodong; Brand, Helen E. A.; Pang, Wei Kong; Peterson, Vanessa K.; Guo, Zaiping; Sharma, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    Li-ion batteries are widely used in portable electronic devices and are considered as promising candidates for higher-energy applications such as electric vehicles.1,2 However, many challenges, such as energy density and battery lifetimes, need to be overcome before this particular battery technology can be widely implemented in such applications.3 This research is challenging, and we outline a method to address these challenges using in situ NPD to probe the crystal structure of electrodes undergoing electrochemical cycling (charge/discharge) in a battery. NPD data help determine the underlying structural mechanism responsible for a range of electrode properties, and this information can direct the development of better electrodes and batteries. We briefly review six types of battery designs custom-made for NPD experiments and detail the method to construct the ‘roll-over’ cell that we have successfully used on the high-intensity NPD instrument, WOMBAT, at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). The design considerations and materials used for cell construction are discussed in conjunction with aspects of the actual in situ NPD experiment and initial directions are presented on how to analyze such complex in situ data. PMID:25406578

  4. Redundancy and molecular evolution: the rapid Induction of bone formation by the mammalian transforming growth factor-β3 isoform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Ripamonti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The soluble osteogenic molecular signals of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β supergene family are the molecular bases of the induction of bone formation and postnatal bone tissue morphogenesis with translation into clinical contexts. The mammalian TGF-β3 isoform, a pleiotropic member of the family, controls a vast array of biological processes including the induction of bone formation. Recombinant hTGF-β3 induces substantial bone formation when implanted with either collagenous bone matrices or coral-derived macroporous bioreactors in the rectus abdominis muscle of the non-human primate Papio ursinus. In marked contrast, the three mammalian TGF-βs do not initiate the induction of bone formation in rodents and lagomorphs. The induction of bone by hTGF-β3/preloaded bioreactors is orchestrated by inducing fibrin-fibronectin rings that structurally organize tissue patterning and morphogenesis within the macroporous spaces. Induced advancing extracellular matrix rings provide the structural anchorage for hyper chromatic cells, interpreted as differentiating osteoblasts re-programmed by hTGF-β3 from invading myoblastic and/or pericytic differentiated cells. Runx2 and Osteocalcin expression are significantly up-regulated correlating to multiple invading cells differentiating into the osteoblastic phenotype. Bioreactors pre-loaded with recombinant human Noggin (hNoggin, a BMPs antagonist, show down-regulation of BMP-2 and other profiled osteogenic proteins’ genes resulting in minimal bone formation. Coral-derived macroporous constructs preloaded with binary applications of hTGF-β3 and hNoggin also show down-regulation of BMP-2 with the induction of limited bone formation. The induction of bone formation by hTGF-β3 is via the BMPs pathway and it is thus blocked by hNoggin. Our systematic studies in Papio ursinus with translational hTGF-β3 in large cranio-mandibulo-facial defects in humans are now requesting the re-evaluation of Bone

  5. Social effects on foraging behavior and success depend on local environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Harry H; Carter, Alecia J; Ashford, Alexandra; Rowcliffe, J Marcus; Cowlishaw, Guy

    2015-01-01

    In social groups, individuals' dominance rank, social bonds, and kinship with other group members have been shown to influence their foraging behavior. However, there is growing evidence that the particular effects of these social traits may also depend on local environmental conditions. We investigated this by comparing the foraging behavior of wild chacma baboons, Papio ursinus, under natural conditions and in a field experiment where food was spatially clumped. Data were collected from 55 animals across two troops over a 5-month period, including over 900 agonistic foraging interactions and over 600 food patch visits in each condition. In both conditions, low-ranked individuals received more agonism, but this only translated into reduced foraging performances for low-ranked individuals in the high-competition experimental conditions. Our results suggest one possible reason for this pattern may be low-ranked individuals strategically investing social effort to negotiate foraging tolerance, but the rank-offsetting effect of this investment being overwhelmed in the higher-competition experimental environment. Our results also suggest that individuals may use imbalances in their social bonds to negotiate tolerance from others under a wider range of environmental conditions, but utilize the overall strength of their social bonds in more extreme environments where feeding competition is more intense. These findings highlight that behavioral tactics such as the strategic investment of social effort may allow foragers to mitigate the costs of low rank, but that the effectiveness of these tactics is likely to be limited in certain environments. PMID:25691973

  6. 'Emerging' mycobacteria in South Africa : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.D. Van Helden

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Disease can be caused by various species of the genus Mycobacterium. A number of reports, both published and unpublished, of rarely reported mycobacteria have surfaced in South Africa in the last few years. Some unusual hosts have also been involved, causing concern in some quarters.These include reports on Mycobacterium goodii in a spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta, M. xenopi in a ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata, M. intracellulare in wild-caught chacma baboons (Papio ursinus, the 'dassie bacillus' in free ranging rock hyrax (dassies; Procavia capensis the 'oryx bacillus' from free-ranging buffalo (Syncerus caffer and M. tuberculosis in suricates (Suricata suricatta, a domestic dog and in baboons. In this article it has been attempted to put these in context and show how improved surveillance and technologies have allowed mycobacteria to be identified to species level more easily. Most of the unusual mycobacterial species have most likely been present in the region for many years and have probably caused disease episodes before, but have been misdiagnosed. Each case must be evaluated carefully with respect to the animal species involved, the environment in which the host is found and the mycobacterial species, and operational decisions made accordingly.

  7. From Parasite Encounter to Infection: Multiple-Scale Drivers of Parasite Richness in a Wild Social Primate Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides J. A.; Huchard, E.; Pettorelli, N.; King, A. J.; Brown, M. E.; Archer, C. E.; Appleton, C. C.; Raymond, M.; Cowlishaw, G.

    2011-01-01

    Host parasite diversity plays a fundamental role in ecological and evolutionary processes, yet the factors that drive it are still poorly understood. A variety of processes, operating across a range of spatial scales, are likely to influence both the probability of parasite encounter and subsequent infection. Here, we explored eight possible determinants of parasite richness, comprising rainfall and temperature at the population level, ranging behavior and home range productivity at the group level, and age, sex, body condition, and social rank at the individual level. We used a unique dataset describing gastrointestinal parasites in a terrestrial subtropical vertebrate (chacma baboons, Papio ursinus), comprising 662 faecal samples from 86 individuals representing all age-sex classes across two groups over two dry seasons in a desert population. Three mixed models were used to identify the most important factor at each of the three spatial scales (population, group, individual); these were then standardised and combined in a single, global, mixed model. Individual age had the strongest influence on parasite richness, in a convex relationship. Parasite richness was also higher in females and animals in poor condition, albeit at a lower order of magnitude than age. Finally, with a further halving of effect size, parasite richness was positively correlated to day range and temperature. These findings indicate that a range of factors influence host parasite richness through both encounter and infection probabilities, but that individual-level processes may be more important than those at the group or population level.

  8. Dominance and affiliation mediate despotism in a social primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrew J; Douglas, Caitlin M S; Huchard, Elise; Isaac, Nick J B; Cowlishaw, Guy

    2008-12-09

    Group-living animals routinely have to reach a consensus decision and choose between mutually exclusive actions in order to coordinate their activities and benefit from sociality. Theoretical models predict "democratic" rather than "despotic" decisions to be widespread in social vertebrates, because they result in lower "consensus costs"-the costs of an individual foregoing its optimal action to comply with the decision-for the group as a whole. Yet, quantification of consensus costs is entirely lacking, and empirical observations provide strong support for the occurrence of both democratic and despotic decisions in nature. We conducted a foraging experiment on a wild social primate (chacma baboons, Papio ursinus) in order to gain new insights into despotic group decision making. The results show that group foraging decisions were consistently led by the individual who acquired the greatest benefits from those decisions, namely the dominant male. Subordinate group members followed the leader despite considerable consensus costs. Follower behavior was mediated by social ties to the leader, and where these ties were weaker, group fission was more likely to occur. Our findings highlight the importance of leader incentives and social relationships in group decision-making processes and the emergence of despotism.

  9. Concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbons and trace elements in marine mammal tissues archived in the U.S. National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, P R; Mackey, E A; Demiralp, R; Schantz, M M; Koster, B J; Wise, S A

    1997-05-01

    The U.S. National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank (NBSB) provides for the long term storage of well documented and preserved specimens representing several types of environmental matrices. A major part of this inventory consists of marine mammal tissues (e.g., blubber, liver, kidney, and muscle). Within the NBSB selected specimens are periodically analyzed for chlorinated hydrocarbons and trace elements. Although only 20% of the 560 marine mammal specimens in the NBSB have been analyzed, the database is of value in evaluating the stability of analytes and sample degradation during storage, for comparing with results from samples collected in the future for long-term monitoring, and for comparing with analytical results from other laboratories on samples collected at the same time for monitoring purposes. The NBSB analytical database contains results for 37 elements, many of which are not analyzed routinely by conventional analytical techniques used in monitoring programs, and the following organic compounds: selected PCB congeners. DDT compounds, alpha- and gamma-HCH, HCB, heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, cis-chlordane, trans-chlordane, cis-nonachlor, trans-nonachlor, and dieldrin in 9 marine mammal species: northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), spotted seal (P. largha), bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus), pilot whale (Globicephala melas), harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), and bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus). Analyses of beluga whale blubber for toxaphene and additional chlorinated hydrocarbons are obtained through collaboration with the Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada.

  10. Inflation and deflation pressure-volume loops in anesthetized pinnipeds confirms compliant chest and lungs

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    Andreas eFahlman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We examined structural properties of the marine mammal respiratory system, and tested Scholander’s hypothesis that the chest is highly compliant by measuring the mechanical properties of the respiratory system in five species of pinniped under anesthesia (Pacific harbor seal, Phoca vitulina; northern elephant seal, Mirounga angustirostris; northern fur seal Callorhinus ursinus; California sea lion, Zalophus californianus; and Steller sea lion, Eumetopias jubatus. We found that the chest wall compliance (CCW of all five species was greater than lung compliance (airways and alveoli, CL as predicted by Scholander, which suggests that the chest provides little protection against alveolar collapse or lung squeeze. We also found that specific respiratory compliance was significantly greater in wild animals than in animals raised under human care. While differences in ages between the two groups may affect this incidental finding, it is also possible that lung conditioning in free-living animals may increase pulmonary compliance and reduce the risk of lung squeeze during diving. Overall, our data indicate that compliance of excised pinniped lungs provide a good estimate of total respiratory compliance.

  11. Christology and Christianity: The theological power of the threefold office in Lord’s Day 12

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    Erik A. de Boer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the threefold office of Jesus was developed in the explanation of the name Christ. The three distinct offices of king, priest and prophet in Israel are thought to be united in the one Messiah. Since the unity of all three offices in one person is not found in so many words in one specific text from the Bible, it is regarded as a theological concept. As such it was developed for the first time in the Heidelberg Catechism (HC. This article traces the development of the exposition of the Apostles’ Creed in earlier Lutheran and reformed catechisms. Special attention is devoted to the one by Johannes Brenz, which was used in the Palatinate before 1563. The main source of the new Catechism of Heidelberg is the Catechismus minorby Zacharias Ursinus, who himself may have been influenced by Martin Bucer and John Calvin and their respective Catechisms. A special feature of the HC is question and answer (Q/A 32, devoted to a parallel exposition of the name Christian. Caspar Olevianus’ work Vester Grund(A Firm Foundation is read as a contemporary commentary on the exposition of the Creed. The catechetical power of the concept of Christ’s threefold office is finally demonstrated in its use in systematic theologies as by Gerrit Immink and Michael Welker, especially in their Christologies.

  12. Reformed Confessions and Scholasticism. Diversity and Harmony

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    Beck Andreas J.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the complex relationship of Reformed confessions and Reformed orthodox scholasticism. It is argued that Reformed confessions differ in genre and method from Reformed scholastic works, although such differences between confessional and scholastic language should not be mistaken for representing different doctrines that are no longer in harmony with each other. What is more, it is precisely the scholastic background and training of the authors of such confessions that enabled them to place their confessional writings in the broader catholic tradition of the Christian church and to include patristic and medieval theological insights. Thus proper attention to their scholastic background helps to see that at least in some confessions the doctrine of predestination, for instance, is not as ‘rigid’ as one might think at first sight. In order to demonstrate that the doctrine of the Reformed confessions was much in line with the scholastic theology of Reformed orthodoxy, this paper discusses, after having explained the terms ‘Reformed orthodoxy’ and ‘scholasticism’, the early Reformed scholastic theologians Beza, Zanchi, and Ursinus, who also have written confessional texts. The paper also includes a more detailed discussion of the Belgic Confession and the scholastic background of the Canons of Dordt and the Westminster Confession, thereby focusing on the doctrines of God, providence, and predestination.

  13. Further evaluation of the efficacy of contamination removal from bone surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Jodi Lynn; Monroe, Cara; Kemp, Brian M

    2013-09-10

    Studies of low copy number (LCN) and degraded DNA are prone to contamination from exogenous DNA sources that in some cases out-compete endogenous DNA in PCR amplification, thus leading to false positives and/or aberrant results. Particularly problematic is contamination that is inadvertently deposited on the surfaces of bones through direct handling. Whereas some previous studies have shown that contamination removal is possible by subjecting samples to sodium hypochlorite prior to DNA extraction, others caution that such treatment can destroy a majority of the molecules endogenous to the sample. To further explore this topic, we experimentally contaminated ancient northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) ribs with human DNA and treated them with sodium hypochlorite to remove that contamination. Our findings are consistent with previous studies that found sodium hypochlorite to be highly efficient (~81-99%) at contamination removal; however, there emerged no treatment capable of removing 100% of the contamination across all of the experiments. Moreover, the ability to estimate the degree of damage to endogenous northern fur seal molecules was compromised due to the inherent variability of preserved mtDNA across the bones, and the presence of co-extracted PCR inhibitors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Simulation modelling of the effects of oil spills on population dynamics of northern fur seals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, M.; French, D.P.; Calambokidis, J.; Cubbage, J.C. (Applied Science Associates, Inc., Narragansett, RI (USA) Cascadia Research Collective, Olympia, WA (USA))

    1989-12-01

    Models of population dynamics and migration were developed and combined with an oil spill simulation model to determine the effects of potential oil spills on the Pribilof Island fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) population. In the population dynamics model, mortality of pups on land and juveniles up to 2 years of age is density-dependent, while that of older seals is age- and sex-specific and constant at all population sizes. Movement patterns of seals within the Bering Sea are functions of date, sexual status and age, conforming to probability distributions based on field observations of their movements and timing. Two simulations of hypothetical 10,000-barrel oil spills were performed. One occurs near Unimak Pass during the peak migration of pregnant females to the Pribilof rookeries, oiling 3% of the total female population. The other occurs near St. Paul Island during the pupping season, and oils 2-4% of the female population. By comparison, about 16% of females die from natural causes each year. Depending on the assumed oil-induced mortality rate in the range 25-100%, 'effective' recovery of the population from these spills (i.e. the number of years before the oil-affected population numbers were within 1% of the non-affected population numbers) took 0-25 years. 10 figs., 24 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. Archaeofaunal insights on pinniped-human interactions in the northeastern Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gifford-Gonzales, D; Newsome, S; Koch, P; Guilderson, T; Snodgrass, J; Burton, R

    2004-02-07

    Human exploitation of pinnipeds has considerable antiquity but shows increasing impacts on population numbers in the Holocene. Pinnipeds are a rich source of fat as well as protein. A few well-documented cases of regional extirpation of seals and sea lions by non-industrial peoples exist. The northeastern Pacific region, from southern California to Alaska, has yielded archaeological evidence for distributions and abundances of eared seals that differs markedly from historically documented biogeography. This is especially true of the northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus), among the most common pinnipeds in many archaeological sites from the Santa Barbara Channel area through to Kodiak Islands. This chapter reviews contemporary eared seal biogeography, evidence for the earlier timing and extent, of occurrence of northern fur seals along the northeastern Pacific coast, zooarchaeological and isotopic evidence for their foraging and probable maintenance of rookeries in lower latitudes, and for their disappearance from the southernmost part of their ancient distribution well before European contact. It also reviews ongoing debates over the behavioral ecology of ancient fur seals and over humans role in contributing to their disappearance.

  16. Characterization of the putatively introduced red alga Acrochaetium secundatum (Acrochaetiales, Rhodophyta) growing epizoically on the pelage of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentall, Gena B.; Rosen, Barry H.; Kunz, Jessica M.; Miller, Melissa A.; Saunders, Gary W.; LaRoche, Nicole L.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological associations between epibionts (organisms that live on the surface of another living organism) and vertebrates have been documented in both marine and terrestrial environments, and may be opportunistic, commensal, or symbiotic (Lewin et al. 1981, Holmes 1985, Allen et al. 1993, Bledsoe et al. 2006, Pfaller et al. 2008, Suutari et al. 2010). Although epibiont proliferation is frequently reported on slow-moving, sparsely haired organisms such as manatees and sloths, reports from densely furred, highly mobile mammals are much less common. There are reports of epizoic algae for several species of pinnipeds (Kenyon and Rice 1959, Scheffer 1962, Baldridge 1977, Allen et al. 1993), which rely to varying degrees on both pelage and blubber for thermoregulation, but the phenomenon has not been widely described. Scheffer (1962) noted that red algae was fairly common on the pelage of northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus), pinnipeds for which fur likely makes a comparatively high contribution to thermoregulation (Donohue et al. 2000). For species with pelage that plays a critical role of thermal insulation, it seems implausible that an epibiont would persist on healthy individuals that devote significant energy resources toward grooming and actively maintaining their coat. Biological characteristics of epibiont settlement and attachment, and physiological requirements of epizoic species play key roles in their successful colonization and potential host impacts. To investigate this relationship, we explore a novel discovery of an epizoic alga from southern sea otters, including describing algal development on sea otter hair and molecular identification of the algae.

  17. Extreme behavioural shifts by baboons exploiting risky, resource-rich, human-modified environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehlmann, Gaelle; O'Riain, M Justin; Kerr-Smith, Catherine; Hailes, Stephen; Luckman, Adrian; Shepard, Emily L C; King, Andrew J

    2017-11-08

    A range of species exploit anthropogenic food resources in behaviour known as 'raiding'. Such behavioural flexibility is considered a central component of a species' ability to cope with human-induced environmental changes. Here, we study the behavioural processes by which raiding male chacma baboons (Papio ursinus) exploit the opportunities and mitigate the risks presented by raiding in the suburbs of Cape Town, South Africa. Ecological sampling and interviews conducted with 'rangers' (employed to manage the baboons' space use) revealed that baboons are at risk of being herded out of urban spaces that contain high-energy anthropogenic food sources. Baboon-attached motion/GPS tracking collars showed that raiding male baboons spent almost all of their time at the urban edge, engaging in short, high-activity forays into the urban space. Moreover, activity levels were increased where the likelihood of deterrence by rangers was greater. Overall, these raiding baboons display a time-activity balance that is drastically altered in comparison to individuals living in more remote regions. We suggest our methods can be used to obtain precise estimates of management impact for this and other species in conflict with people.

  18. Is Allah die Here?

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    J. A. van Rooy

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the issue whether Allah is God, much difference of opinion exists among Reformed theologians. J.H. Bavinck, John Calvin and Z. Ursinus would probably say no in answer to the question as to whether Allah is God. whereas others, like Albert Kruyt and most specialists on Islam would say yes. These differences may be explained as emanating from different approaches. The subjective-personal point of view would not recognize in Allah the God of the Bible. Gods of different faiths reflecting a distorted image of God should, however, only in a very relative and limited way he called false gods. The exegetical point of view should take cognisance of Taul’s statements about the God of Judaism in Romans 10:2 and his own experience according to 2 Timothy 1:3. These Pauline statements make it clear that the God of Judaism cannot historically and objectively be called an idol. Knowledge of Allah of Islam, however, is historically dependent on Judaism and Christianity, and is therefore an extension of the knowledge Jews and Christians have of God. From a New Testament perspective Judaism and Islam cannot be called true religions, but neither can the God they worship be called an idol in the absolute sense of the word.

  19. The dining etiquette of desert baboons: the roles of social bonds, kinship, and dominance in co-feeding networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrew J; Clark, Fay E; Cowlishaw, Guy

    2011-08-01

    To better understand how individual relationships influence patterns of social foraging in primate groups, we explored networks of co-feeding in wild desert baboons (Papio ursinus). To minimize the risk of aggression and injury associated with contest competition, we expected that individual group members would choose to co-feed with those group-mates that are most likely to show tolerance and a willingness to share food patches. We tested two alternative hypotheses about who those group-mates might be: the "social bonds hypothesis" predicts that preferred foraging partners will be those with whom individuals share strong social bonds, indexed by grooming, whereas the "kinship hypothesis" predicts that preferred foraging partners will be relatives. We also investigated and controlled for the effects of dominance rank, given that competitive ability is known to shape foraging patterns. Social network analyses of over 5,000 foraging events for 14 adults in a single troop revealed that baboon co-feeding was significantly correlated with grooming relationships but not genetic relatedness, and this finding was also true of the female-only co-feeding network. Dominant individuals were also found to be central to the co-feeding network, frequently sharing food patches with multiple group-mates. This polyadic analysis of foraging associations between individuals underlines the importance of dominance and affiliation to patterns of primate social foraging. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. The influence of baboon predation and time in water on germination and early establishment of Opuntia stricta (Australian pest pear in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.D. Lotter

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The alien invader weed, Opuntia stricta Haw (family Cactaceae, is seriously threatening biodiversity in veld habitats of the Kruger National Park. Basic biological and ecological information on the establishment, growth and reproduction of the species is necessary for the development of effective strategies for its control. The rapid spread of the plant is apparently mainly due to seed dispersal by baboon (Papio ursinus. Sixty percent of seed taken from baboon faeces resulted in seedlings that established. Although palatability criteria for ripe fruit were more favourable than for unripe or medium-ripe fruit, seed from fruit at all three degrees of ripeness germinated equally well, and seedling establishment was similar. Despite their lower acidity, as well as higher total soluble sugar content and pH, cladodes are not subject to herbivory to near the extent that ripe fruit are. Freshly collected seed kept in Sabie River water showed significantly better germination/emergence after seven days submersion (83 than at 14 or 28 days (52 and 66 , respectively. Results suggest that seed dispersal of the species by animals, principally baboon, is an important cause of rapidly expanding infestations, and that dissipation in water will intensify the problem. Current findings should contribute toward the development of long-term weed management strategies aimed at con- tainment/eradication of the weed.

  1. Reconstruction of historical changes in northern fur seal prey availability and diversity in the western North Pacific through individual-based analysis of dietary records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyota, Masashi; Yonezaki, Shiroh

    2017-06-01

    We analyzed long-term dietary records of northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) to reconstruct historical changes in prey availability and diversity in the western North Pacific off northeastern Japan. The nominal relationships between the occurrence frequencies of fishes or squids in fur seal stomachs and the sampling locations reflected the spatial heterogeneity of fish and squid distributions along the shelf-slope-offshore continuum off northeastern Japan, whereas changes in the temporal occurrence frequencies reflected mainly the migration and foraging patterns of the fur seals. The occurrence probabilities of fishes and squids in fur seal stomachs were standardized by using generalized linear models to compensate for sampling biases in space and time. The reconstructed historical trends revealed decadal shifts in relatively high prey abundance-from mackerels in the 1970s to Japanese sardine in the 1980s and myctophids/sparkling enope squids in the 1990s-that were related to decadal shifts in the oceanographic regime. The sequential increase in mackerel and Japanese sardine abundances coincided with the annual catch trends of commercial fisheries. The index of overall prey availability calculated from the standardized occurrence probabilities of fishes and squids in fur seal stomachs was fairly stable over the decades.

  2. Strong and consistent social bonds enhance the longevity of female baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Joan B; Beehner, Jacinta C; Bergman, Thore J; Crockford, Catherine; Engh, Anne L; Moscovice, Liza R; Wittig, Roman M; Seyfarth, Robert M; Cheney, Dorothy L

    2010-08-10

    Longevity is a major component of variation in fitness in long-lived iteroparous species [1-4]. Among female baboons, variation in breeding lifespan accounts for approximately 50% of the variation in lifetime fitness [5, 6]. However, we know little about the causes of variation in longevity in primates or other long-lived mammals. Savannah baboons form strong, equitable, and enduring relationships with specific female partners, particularly with close relatives and agemates [7-10]. The quality of females' social relationships influences their ability to cope with stressful events [11-13] and is associated with variation in female reproductive success [9, 14]. Here we show that dominance rank and the quality of close social bonds have independent effects on the longevity of female chacma baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus). High-ranking females live longer than lower-ranking females. In addition, females who form stronger and more stable social bonds with other females live significantly longer than females who form weaker and less stable relationships. These data extend our understanding of the adaptive value of social bonds in baboons and complement a growing body of evidence that indicates that social bonds have adaptive value in a range of taxa, from mice to humans [9, 14-19]. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Prolongation of segmental and pancreaticoduodenal allografts in the primate with total-lymphoid irradiation and cyclosporine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Toit, D.F.; Heydenrych, J.J.; Smit, B.; Louw, G.; Zuurmond, T.; Els, D.; Du Toit, L.B.; Weideman, A.; Davids, H.; van der Merwe, E.

    1987-09-01

    The prolongation of segmental and pancreaticoduodenal allografts (PDA) by total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and in combination with cyclosporine (CsA) was assessed in a well established total pancreatectomy, diabetic, primate transplantation model. Pancreatic transplantation was performed in 119 pancreatectomized baboons (Papio ursinus). Of a total of 109 allografts performed, 71 were segmental allografts (open duct drainage) and 38 PDA. Of 119 graft recipients, 10 received segmental pancreatic autografts. TLI and CsA administered separately to segmental allograft recipients resulted in modest allograft survival and indefinite graft survival was not observed. 8 of 17 (47%) segmental allograft recipients that received TLI and CsA had graft survival beyond 100 days, indicating highly significant pancreatic allograft survival. All long-term segmental allograft recipients were rendered normoglycemic (plasma glucose less than 8 mmol/L) by this immunosuppressive regimen. In contrast, poor results were observed in PDA recipients treated with TLI and CsA. Mean survival in 18 treated PDA recipients was 23.8 days, 8 survived longer than 20 days (44.4%), and 1 greater than 100 days (5.5%). Despite treatment, early rejection of the duodenum in PDA recipients frequently resulted in necrosis and perforation and contributed to a high morbidity and mortality. This study indicates that, in contrast to the significant prolongation of segmental allografts by TLI and CsA, poor immunosuppression was achieved by this regimen in PDA recipients and was associated with a high morbidity and mortality caused by early rejection of the duodenum.

  4. Monkey Management: Using Spatial Ecology to Understand the Extent and Severity of Human-Baboon Conflict in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tali S. Hoffman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Conflict with humans poses one of the greatest threats to the persistence and survival of all wildlife. In the Cape Peninsula, South Africa, human-baboon conflict levels remain high despite substantial investment by conservation authorities in a variety of mitigation measures. Here we explore how spatial ecology can inform wildlife managers on the extent and severity of both current and projected human-baboon conflict. We apply conservative and generous densities - 2.3 and 5.9 baboons/km2 - to hypothetical landscape management scenarios to estimate whether the chacma baboon (Papio ursinus population in the Cape Peninsula is currently overabundant. We correlate conflict indices with spatial variables to explain intertroop differences in conflict levels. We investigate how an understanding of key elements of baboon ecology, including sleeping-site characteristics and intertroop territoriality, can direct management efforts and mitigate conflict. Our findings suggest that the current population of 475 baboons is below even the most conservative density estimate and that the area could potentially sustain up to 799 baboons. Conflict levels correlated positively with the loss of access to low-lying land through habitat transformation (Pearson r = 0.77, p = 0.015, n = 9 troops, and negatively with the distance of sleeping sites from the urban edge (Pearson r = 0.81, p = 0.001, n = 9 troops. Despite the availability of suitable sleeping sites elsewhere, more than half of all troops slept

  5. POTENSI TAMAN NASIONAL BOGANI NANI WARTABONE, PERMASALAHAN DAN KONSERVASI PADA TINGKAT PENGEMBANGAN DAN PENGAWASAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femmy Roosje Kawuwung

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Taman Nasional Bogani Nani Wartabone sebelumnya bernama Dumoga Bone. Nani Wartabone seorang pahlawan yang terkenal di daerah Gorontalo, untuk mengenang pahlawan tersebut maka namanya diabadikan pada nama Taman Nasional. Pada tahun 1982 luas 300.000 hektar dinyatakan Menteri Pertanian. Ditunjuk Menteri Kehutanan, SK No. 731/Kpts-II/1992 luas 287.115 hektar. Propinsi Gorontalo dengan ketinggian tempat 50 – 2.000 meter dpl. Posisi 1o– 4o LS, 120o – 124o BT. Permasalahan; terjadinya fragmentasi, perladangan berpindah, pertanian, illegal logging, pemukiman, pertambangan, dan pencurian spesies flora dan fauna. Tujuan mengetahui potensi Taman Nasional Bogani Nani Wartabone, permasalahan dan upaya konservasi.Potensi Taman Nasional Bogani Nani Wartabone adalah; Flora terdiri dari 400 jenis pohon, 241 jenis tumbuhan tinggi, 120 jenis efifit dan terdapat 24 jenis anggrek. Tumbuhan endemik yaitu; palem matayangan, kayu hitam dan bunga bangkai(Amophaphallus compamulatus. Tumbuhan yang umum adalah cempaka, kenanga, agates, dan tanaman hias.Taman Nasional Bogani Nani Wartabone memiliki 24 jenis mamalia, 64 jenis aves, 11 jenis reptile. Mamalia (satwa endemik : monyet hitam/yaki (Macaca nigra, Monyet Dumoga Bone, babirusa, kelelawar bone, kus-kus besar (Palanger ursinus, anoa kecil (B.quarlesi. Di Taman Nasional Bogani Nani Wartabone tercatat 200 – 225 jenis burung. Reptil : ular kobra, king kobra (N. hammah, ular belang, katak pohon (Rhacophorus monticola, ikan : ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio, bekicot (Achatina fulica. Upaya konservasi adalah pada tingkat pengembangan dan pengawasan. Dalam upaya konservasi harus ada kerja sama dari pemerintah dan masyarakat sekitar kawasan.

  6. Phylogeny and biogeography of pacific Rubus subgenus Idaeobatus (Rosaceae) species: Investigating the origin of the endemic Hawaiian raspberry R. macraei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morden, C.W.; Gardner, D.E.; Weniger, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    The endemic Hawaiian raspberries Rubus hawaiensis and R. macraei (both subgenus Idaeobatus) had been thought to be closely related species until recent molecular studies demonstrated otherwise. These studies suggest that they are the products of separate colonizations to the Hawaiian Islands. Affinities of R. hawaiensis to R. spectabilis of western North America were clearly confirmed. However, no clear relation to R. macraei has been published. This study was initiated to examine species of subg. Idaeobatus from the surrounding Pacific region as well as species from other subgenera to better evaluate biogeographic and phylogenetic affinities of R. macraei by means of chromosome analysis and molecular data using the chloroplast gene ndbF. Results show that R. macraei clusters in a clade with species of blackberries, subg. Rubus, and of these it is most closely linked to R. ursinus. Chromosomally, R. macraei is 2n = 6x = 42, a number that would be a new report for subg. Idaeobatus. However, polyploidy is common in subg. Rubus. Analyses indicate that R. macraei and R. hawaiensis are derived from separate colonizations from North America and that similarities between them are due to convergent evolution in the Hawaiian environment.

  7. Determining the Energy Gap Between the sd-pf Neutron Shells in 25O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael; Frank, Nathan; Deyoung, Paul; Baumann, Thomas; Kohley, Zach; Smith, Jenna; Spyrou, Artemis; Stiefel, Krystin; Kuchera, Anthony; Thoennessen, Michael; MoNA Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The excited states of 25O, particularly those of negative parity, are of great interest for determining the evolution of the sd-pf shell gap in and around the ``island of inversion.'' Shell Model (WBBS) calculations tuned to nearby 27Ne predict the 3/2- state in 25O to be only 500 keV above the ground state, implying the sd-pf shell gap to be small. Hence it is likely for nuclei beyond N = 16 to have mixing between the 0d3/2 and 1p3/2 orbitals. A recent experiment, performed at the NSCL, populated 25O through use of a (d , p) reaction. Using the Ursinus College Liquid Hydrogen Target, an 24O beam impinged on a deuterium target cell with a thickness of 400 mg/cm2 at a rate of approximately 30 pps to produce 25O, which decayed immediately by neutron emission. The resulting charged fragments were bent by the Sweeper magnet into a suite of charged particle detectors, while the neutrons traveled unimpeded towards MoNA (Modular Neutron Array) and LISA (Large multi-Institutional Scintillator Array). Together, MoNA-LISA and the Sweeper provide a full kinematic measurement from which the decay energy of the 2-body system can be determined. Preliminary results will be discussed.

  8. Genetic aspects of the growth curve characteristics in Anglo-Nubian goats Aspectos genéticos da curva de crescimento de caprinos Anglo-Nubiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Oliveira do Ó

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Data of Anglo-Nubian goats from experimental herds of Empresa Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuária da Paraíba (EMEPA-PB, recorded between 1980 and 2005 were used, with the objective to study the adjustment of Brody, Gompertz, Logístico, Richards and Von Bertalanffy functions on the growth curve and to estimate genetic parameters for the traits obtained from best fitting function. Functions were fitted using NLIN procedure of Statistical Analysis System software (SAS, by GAUSS method. The best fitting was obtained using the Brody function. The respective values of mature weight and maturation rate estimated by Brody function were 28.22kg and 0.0054/day. The Brody function was used to estimate genetic parameters and the (covariance components for traits of economic importance using the Derivative Free Restricted Maximum Likelihood method, using the WOMBAT software. The estimates direct heritability of mature weight and maturation rate were, respectively, 0.10, and 0.12, and the direct heritability of other weights recorded ranged from 0.10 to 0.28. The results observed in this study indicates small genetic progress using individual selection.Foram utilizados dados de caprinos da raça Anglo-Nubiana controlados entre os anos de 1980 e 2005 na Empresa Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuária da Paraíba – EMEPA com o objetivo de estudar o ajuste das funções de Brody, Gompertz, Logístico, Richards e Von Bertalanffy sobre a curva de crescimento e estimar parâmetros genéticos para características obtidas a partir da função de melhor ajuste. Para o ajuste das curvas, foi utilizado o procedimento NLIN do software Statistical Analysis System (SAS, por meio do método de GAUSS. A curva de Brody foi a que promoveu melhor ajuste. Os valores do peso adulto e da taxa de maturação estimados pela função de Brody foram de 28,22kg e 0.0054/dia, respectivamente. A função de Brody foi usada para estimar parâmetros genéticos e componentes de (covari

  9. Parâmetros genéticos para a produção de leite em caprinos das raças Saanen e Alpina Genetic parameters for milk yield in Saanen and Alpina breed goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Irano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho estimar parâmetros genéticos para a produção de leite acumulada até os 305 dias (P305 de cabras das raças Saanen e Alpina. Foram utilizadas as duas primeiras parições de cabras pertencentes a rebanhos participantes do programa de controle produtivo e reprodutivo de caprinos (PROCAPRI da UNESP-FCAV-Jaboticabal-SP. A P305 foi analisada por meio de modelos de repetibilidade e bicaracterísticas. Para verificar a influência dos efeitos fixos sobre a característica analisada foram realizadas análises preliminares, pelo método de quadrados mínimos. Os componentes de covariâncias foram estimados pelo método da máxima verossimilhança restrita (REML, utilizando o programa Wombat. A duração da lactação, a idade da cabra ao parto, o rebanho, o ano de parto e a estação de parto foram importantes fontes de variação para a P305. Não houve diferença significativa entre as raças estudadas. As estimativas de herdabilidade e repetibilidade para a P305, obtidas com o modelo de repetibilidade, foram de 0,29 e 0,36, respectivamente. As estimativas de herdabilidade, obtidas pelos modelos de repetibilidade e bicaracterísticas foram semelhantes. Sendo assim, um modelo de repetibilidade poderia ser indicado para avaliar a P305 pela sua simplicidade.The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for 305 days milk yield (M305 in Saanen and Alpina breed goats. Data consisted of records from first to second lactations of goats belonging to herds participating in the program control productive and reproductive goats (PROCAPRI from UNESP-FCAV-Jaboticabal-SP. The M305 was analyzed by repeatability and bi-trait models. The influence of fixed effects on the traits was analyzed preliminary analysis by the method of least squares. Variance components were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood method (REML, using the package Wombat. The duration of lactation, age of dam at calving, the herd, calving

  10. Frequency of nursing tasks in medical and surgical wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Barbara; Bell, Cheryl; Johnston, Derek; Jones, Martyn; Schofield, Pat; Allan, Julia; Ricketts, Ian; Morrison, Kenny; Johnston, Marie

    2013-09-01

    To explore the frequency of different nursing tasks in medical and surgical wards. The time nurses spend on direct patient care is important for both patients and nurses. However, little is known about the time nurses spend on various nursing tasks. A real-time, repeated measures design conducted amongst 67 (n = 39 medical, n = 28 surgical) UK hospital nurses. Between September 2011 and August 2012 participants completed an electronic diary version of a classification of nursing tasks (WOMBAT) during shifts. A total of 961 real-time measures of nursing task were obtained. Direct patient care [median = 37.5%, interquartile range = 27.8], indirect care (median = 11.1%, interquartile range = 19.4) and medication (median = 11.1%, interquartile range = 18.8) were most commonly reported. Participants were interrupted in 62% of entries (interquartile range = 35), reported adequate time in 78% (interquartile range = 31) and adequate resources in 89% (interquartile range = 36). Ward-related tasks were significantly more frequent on medical wards than surgical wards but otherwise there were no significant differences. Nurses spend the highest proportion of time in direct patient care and majority of this on core nursing activities. Interruptions to tasks are common. Nurses tend to report adequate time/resources. The frequency of nursing tasks is similar in medical and surgical wards. Nurse managers should review the level of interruptions to nurses' work and ensure appropriate levels of supervision. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Evaluation of DOCK 6 as a pose generation and database enrichment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozell, Scott R; Mukherjee, Sudipto; Balius, Trent E; Roe, Daniel R; Case, David A; Rizzo, Robert C

    2012-06-01

    In conjunction with the recent American Chemical Society symposium titled "Docking and Scoring: A Review of Docking Programs" the performance of the DOCK6 program was evaluated through (1) pose reproduction and (2) database enrichment calculations on a common set of organizer-specified systems and datasets (ASTEX, DUD, WOMBAT). Representative baseline grid score results averaged over five docking runs yield a relatively high pose identification success rate of 72.5 % (symmetry corrected rmsd) and sampling rate of 91.9 % for the multi site ASTEX set (N = 147) using organizer-supplied structures. Numerous additional docking experiments showed that ligand starting conditions, symmetry, multiple binding sites, clustering, and receptor preparation protocols all affect success. Encouragingly, in some cases, use of more sophisticated scoring and sampling methods yielded results which were comparable (Amber score ligand movable protocol) or exceeded (LMOD score) analogous baseline grid-score results. The analysis highlights the potential benefit and challenges associated with including receptor flexibility and indicates that different scoring functions have system dependent strengths and weaknesses. Enrichment studies with the DUD database prepared using the SB2010 preparation protocol and native ligand pairings yielded individual area under the curve (AUC) values derived from receiver operating characteristic curve analysis ranging from 0.29 (bad enrichment) to 0.96 (good enrichment) with an average value of 0.60 (27/38 have AUC ≥ 0.5). Strong early enrichment was also observed in the critically important 1.0-2.0 % region. Somewhat surprisingly, an alternative receptor preparation protocol yielded comparable results. As expected, semi-random pairings yielded poorer enrichments, in particular, for unrelated receptors. Overall, the breadth and number of experiments performed provide a useful snapshot of current capabilities of DOCK6 as well as starting points to

  12. Computerized Tests of Team Performance and Crew Coordination Suitable for Military/Aviation Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Ben D; Britt, Thomas W; Kelley, Amanda M; Athy, Jeremy R; Legan, Shauna M

    2017-08-01

    The coordination of team effort on shared tasks is an area of inquiry. A number of tests of team performance in challenging environments have been developed without comparison or standardization. This article provides a systematic review of the most accessible and usable low-to-medium fidelity computerized tests of team performance and determines which are most applicable to military- and aviation-relevant research, such as studies of group command, control, communication, and crew coordination. A search was conducted to identify computerized measures of team performance. In addition to extensive literature searches (DTIC, Psychinfo, PubMed), the authors reached out to team performance researchers at conferences and through electronic communication. Identified were 57 potential tests according to 6 specific selection criteria (e.g., the requirement for automated collection of team performance and coordination processes, the use of military-relevant scenarios). The following seven tests (listed alphabetically) were considered most suitable for military needs: Agent Enabled Decision Group Environment (AEDGE), C3Conflict, the C3 (Command, Control, & Communications) Interactive Task for Identifying Emerging Situations (NeoCITIES), Distributed Dynamic Decision Making (DDD), Duo Wondrous Original Method Basic Awareness/Airmanship Test (DuoWOMBAT), the Leader Development Simulator (LDS), and the Planning Task for Teams (PLATT). Strengths and weaknesses of these tests are described and recommendations offered to help researchers identify the test most suitable for their particular needs. Adoption of a few standard computerized test batteries to study team performance would facilitate the evaluation of interventions intended to enhance group performance in multiple challenging military and aerospace operational environments.Lawson BD, Britt TW, Kelley AM, Athy JR, Legan SM. Computerized tests of team performance and crew coordination suitable for military/aviation settings

  13. Wave phenomena preceding and during a beam-plasma discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boswell, R.W.; Morey, I.J.; Porteous, R.K. (Australian National Univ., Canberra, Australian Capital Territory (Australia))

    1989-03-01

    The waves and associated phenomena which are generated prior to and during the beam-plasma discharge (BPD) in the waves on magnetized beams and turbulence (WOMBAT) apparatus are described. These range in frequency from below the ion gyrofrequency of a few kilohertz to strong harmonics of the electron plasma frequency above 1 GHz. The low-frequency ion waves appear to be driven by E {times} B forces arising from the nonneutrality of the electron beam-plasma column at low beam currents (I{sub b}) or low gas pressures (P). As I{sub b} increases, the motion becomes chaotic after a sequence of wave period doublings resulting in the generation of subharmonies. Windows of coherent motion are observed within the chaotic regions. Further increases in I{sub b} lead to increases in ionizing collisions and when the background plasma density becomes sufficiently high, waves around the electron plasma frequency can be generated. Initially, these waves are modulated by the gross density perturbations of the large-amplitude ion waves, but subsequently they also increase to large amplitudes: e{phi}/kT {approximately} 1. This is sufficient to accelerate the background electrons to ionizing energies and produce the BPD. At low pressures this occurs for f{sub pe}/f{sub ce} {approximately} 0.5 (BPD1) with the process occurring in short bursts ({approximately} 100{tau}{sub pe}). Increasing I{sub b} produces a sudden jump in the frequency to {approximately} 1.5 f{sub ce} and a further increase in the plasma density and luminosity, which the authors term BPD2.

  14. Beam--plasma instabilities and the beam--plasma discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellogg, P.J.; Boswell, R.W.

    1986-05-01

    Using a new electron gun, a number of measurements bearing on the generation of beam--plasma discharge (BPD) in WOMBAT (waves on magnetized beams and turbulence) (R. W. Boswell and P. J. Kellogg, Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 565 (1983)) have been made. A beam--plasma discharge is an rf discharge in which the rf fields are provided by instabilities (W. D. Getty and L. D. Smullin, J. Appl. Phys. 34, 3421 (1963)). The new gun has a narrower divergence angle than the old, and comparison of the BPD thresholds for the two guns verifies that the BPD ignition current is proportional to the cross-sectional area of the plasma. The high-frequency instabilities, precursors to the BPD, are identified with the two Trivelpiece--Gould modes (A. W. Trivelpiece and R. W. Gould, J. Appl. Phys. 30, 1784 (1959)). Which frequency appears depends on the neutral pressure. The measured frequencies are not consistent with the simple interpretation of the lower frequency as a Cerenkov resonance with the low-Trivelpiece--Gould mode; it must be a cyclotron resonance. As is generally true in such beam--plasma interaction experiments, strong low-frequency waves appear at currents far below those necessary for BPD ignition. These low-frequency waves are shown to control the onset of the high-frequency precursors to the BPD. A mechanism for this control is suggested, which involves the conversion of a convective instability to an absolute one by trapping of the unstable waves in the density perturbations of the low-frequency waves. This process greatly reduces the current necessary for BPD ignition.

  15. Reduction of personnel vibration hazards in underground coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, X.; Middlin, A. (Vipac Engineers and Scientists Ltd. (Australia))

    1991-03-01

    Whole-Body Vibration (WBV) due to the 'rough ride' in vehicles is a major source of back and neck injury in underground coal mines. Hand-Arm Vibration (HAV) from hand held equipment can also cause long term health damage. Surveys in three collieries in NSW have been conducted to measure the vibration levels to which miners are being exposed and to assess them according to the two relevant Australian Standards namely AS2670 and AS2763. WBV results indicated that shock loadings must be the source of back and neck injuries that are occurring due to 'rough ride'. Existing off-the-shelf seat suspensions were demonstrated to be inadequate for providing effective shock isolation, due to them being prone to bottoming out under rough conditions, and due their scissor action mechanism becoming rapidly jammed by dirt to the point where they become rigid. Commercially available seats were evaluated and tested on a hydraulic shaker, but none proved able to provide the required vibration isolation. A prototype seat suspension was developed by Vipac. This suspension was shaker tested and trialled in low loaders at two collieries. The seat proved capable of cushioning shock loads without bottoming out, as well as attenuating the dominant vibration at 2.5 Hz and higher. This suspension with encapsulated mechanism could be readily adapted to suit a wide range of underground vehicles. The HAV survey results identified the Wombat roof-bolter as the major item requiring vibration level reductions. Extensive investigations resulted in the design of a prototype vibration isolated handle. During field tests this prototype handle reduced the HAV level such that the Exposure Time (10th percentile) was increased from 7 to 11.5 years. Guidelines are presented for additional developments which would further improve this performance and result in a handle design suitable for retrofitting to existing roof bolters.

  16. Genetic and Trend Evaluation of Productive and Reproductive Traits of Dairy Cattle in Razavi Khorasan Province by Using Multivariate Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nosrati

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Data comprising 10479 production and reproduction records of Razavi Khorasan province's dairy cattle, were collected by Animal Breeding Center of Iran during 1986 to 2006, were used. Genetic parameters were estimated by Restricted Maximum Likelihood procedure using WOMBAT software. Genetic and phonotype trends were estimated via linear regression as means genetic and phonotype value on year of calving. Estimates of Heritability for age at first calving (AFC, calving interval1 (CI1, calving interval2 (CI2, dry period (DP, milk yield (MILK305 and fat yield(FAT305 were 0.07±0.02, 0.03±0.01, 0.06±0.02, 0.04± 0.02, 0.31 ± 0.01 and 0.18 ± 0.02 respectively. Genetic correlations of MILK305 and FAT305 with AFC, CI1, CI2 and DP were -0.38, 0.89, 0.55, 0.02, -0.39, 0.82, 0.52 and 0.04 respectively. Regression coefficient for Genetic trend of MILK305, FAT305, DP, AFC, CI1 and CI2 were 8.68±2.5, 0.11±0.07 (Kg/year, 0.01±0.001, -0.23±0.15, 0.13±0.04 and 0.1±0.06 (days/year respectively and Phonotypic regression coefficients for these traits were 147.51±12.14, 6.71±0.36 (Kg/year, -0.1± 0.001, -5.85±3.2, 0.7± 0.06 and 1.29± 0.9 (days/year, respectively.

  17. Genetic trend for growth and wool performance in a closed flock of Bharat Merino sheep at sub temperate region of Kodai hills, Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Mallick

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was conducted at Southern Regional Research Center, ICAR-Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute (CSWRI, Mannavanur, Kodaikanal, Tamil Nadu to estimate genetic trends for birth weight (BWT, weaning weight (3WT, 6 months weight (6WT, and greasy fleece weight (GFY in a Bharat Merino (BM flock, where selection was practiced for 6WT and GFY. Materials and Methods: The data for this study represents a total of 1652 BM lambs; progeny of 144 sires spread over 15 years starting from 2000 to 2014, obtained from the BM flock of ICAR-SRRC (CSWRI, Mannavanur, Kodaikanal, Tamil Nadu, India. The genetic trends were calculated by regression of average predicted breeding values using software WOMBAT for the traits BWT, 3WT, 6WT and GFY versus the animal’s birth year. Results: The least square means were 3.28±0.02 kg, 19.08±0.23 kg, 25.00±0.35 kg and 2.13±0.07 kg for BWT, 3WT, 6WT and GFY, respectively. Genetic trends were positive and highly significant (p<0.01 for BWT, while the values for 3WT, 6WT and GFY though positive, were not significant. The estimates of genetic trends in BWT, 3WT, 6WT and GFY were 5 g, 0.8 g, 7 g and 0.3 g/year gain and the fit of the regression shows 55%, 22%, 42% and 12% coefficient of determination with the regressed value, respectively. In this study, estimated mean predicted breeding value (kg in BWT and 3WT, 6WT and GFY were 0.067, 0.008, 0.036 and −0.003, respectively. Conclusion: Estimates of genetic trends indicated that there was a positive genetic improvement in all studied traits and selection would be effective for the improvement of body weight traits and GFY of BM sheep.

  18. How much time do nurses have for patients? a longitudinal study quantifying hospital nurses' patterns of task time distribution and interactions with health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westbrook Johanna I

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Time nurses spend with patients is associated with improved patient outcomes, reduced errors, and patient and nurse satisfaction. Few studies have measured how nurses distribute their time across tasks. We aimed to quantify how nurses distribute their time across tasks, with patients, in individual tasks, and engagement with other health care providers; and how work patterns changed over a two year period. Methods Prospective observational study of 57 nurses for 191.3 hours (109.8 hours in 2005/2006 and 81.5 in 2008, on two wards in a teaching hospital in Australia. The validated Work Observation Method by Activity Timing (WOMBAT method was applied. Proportions of time in 10 categories of work, average time per task, time with patients and others, information tools used, and rates of interruptions and multi-tasking were calculated. Results Nurses spent 37.0%[95%CI: 34.5, 39.3] of their time with patients, which did not change in year 3 [35.7%; 95%CI: 33.3, 38.0]. Direct care, indirect care, medication tasks and professional communication together consumed 76.4% of nurses' time in year 1 and 81.0% in year 3. Time on direct and indirect care increased significantly (respectively 20.4% to 24.8%, P Conclusions Nurses spent around 37% of their time with patients which did not change. Work patterns were increasingly fragmented with rapid changes between tasks of short length. Interruptions were modest but their substantial over-representation among medication tasks raises potential safety concerns. There was no evidence of an increase in team-based, multi-disciplinary care. Over time nurses spent significantly less time talking with colleagues and more time alone.

  19. Productividad acumulada y su relación genética con características reproductivas en hembras Brahman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Duitama C.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Estimar parámetros genéticos para la característica de productividad acumulada (PAC y correlaciones genéticas con edad al primer parto (EPP, intervalo entre el primero y segundo parto (IEP1 y longevidad (LONG. Materiales y métodos. Fueron usados 8584 registros de hembras Brahman, utilizando un modelo animal en análisis multi-característico con el método de máxima verosimilitud restricta, implementado en el software WOMBAT. Los modelos consideraron los efectos fijos de grupo contemporáneo, número de partos, y la covariable peso al destete del primer ternero; el único efecto aleatorio fue el genético aditivo directo. El peso al destete (P240 fue incluido para disminuir el efecto de la selección en la estimación de los componentes de varianza. Resultados. Las estimativas de heredabilidad fueron de 0.3±0.04, 0.11±0.03, 0.07±0.03 y 0.24±0.04 para EPP, IEP1, LONG y PAC respectivamente. Las correlaciones entre PAC y las otras características se presentaron de moderadas a altas y en sentido favorable. Conclusiones. PAC puede ser incluida en los programas de mejoramiento genético para Brahman, y utilizada como criterio de selección por su heredabilidad moderada y correlación genética favorable con las características reproductivas en estudio.

  20. Estimation of Genetic Associations between Production and Meat Quality Traits in Duroc Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Cabling

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Data collected from 690 purebred Duroc pigs from 2009 to 2012 were used to estimate the heritability, and genetic and phenotypic correlations between production and meat quality traits. Variance components were obtained through the restricted maximum likelihood procedure using Wombat and SAS version 9.0. Animals were raised under the same management in five different breeding farms. The average daily gain, loin muscle area (LMA, backfat thickness (BF, and lean percent (LP were measured as production traits. Meat quality traits included pH, cooking loss, lightness (L*, redness (a*, yellowness (b*, marbling score (MS, moisture content (MC, water holding capacity (WHC, and shear force. The results showed that the heritability estimates for meat quality traits varied largely from 0.19 to 0.79. Production traits were moderate to highly heritable from 0.41 to 0.73. Genotypically, the BF was positively correlated (p<0.05 with MC (0.786, WHC (0.904, and pH (0.328 but negatively correlated with shear force (−0.533. The results of genetic correlations indicated that selection for less BF could decrease pH, moisture content, and WHC and increase the shear force of meat. Additionally, a significant positive correlation was recorded between average daily gain and WHC, which indicates pork from faster-growing animals has higher WHC. Furthermore, selection for larger LMA and LP could increase MS and lightness color of meat. The meat quality and production traits could be improved simultaneously if desired. Hence, to avoid further deterioration of pork characteristics, appropriate selection of traits should be considered.

  1. Modelos de regressão aleatória na seleção de codornas de corte para produção de ovos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Bastos Teixeira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar modelos de regressão aleatória com diferentes ordens de polinômios de Legendre, quanto ao melhor ajuste para a produção de ovos de codornas de corte. Foram avaliados os grupos genéticos UFV1 e UFV2 de codornas de corte, de origens distintas, do programa de melhoramento genético da Universidade Federal de Viçosa. Determinou-se a produção semanal de ovos de 1.294 matrizes, da 6ª até a 57ª semana de idade, das quais 644 do grupo genético UFV1 e 650 do UFV2. Utilizou-se o modelo animal em regressão aleatória pelo programa Wombat e, para modelar as trajetórias das características com o tempo, aplicaram-se as funções polinomiais de Legendre. Foram feitas comparações pelo critério de informação de Akaike, critério de informação bayesiano de Schwarz, logaritmo da função de verossimilhança e teste da razão de verossimilhança. O modelo com K = 3, para efeitos fixos, Ka = 4, para efeitos genéticos, e Kc = 4, para efeito de ambiente, propicia melhor ajuste para ambas as linhagens, não provoca grandes alterações nos componentes de variância e fornece melhores estimativas de herdabilidade.

  2. The carbon cycle in the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator (ACCESS-ESM1 – Part 1: Model description and pre-industrial simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Law

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Earth system models (ESMs that incorporate carbon–climate feedbacks represent the present state of the art in climate modelling. Here, we describe the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator (ACCESS-ESM1, which comprises atmosphere (UM7.3, land (CABLE, ocean (MOM4p1, and sea-ice (CICE4.1 components with OASIS-MCT coupling, to which ocean and land carbon modules have been added. The land carbon model (as part of CABLE can optionally include both nitrogen and phosphorous limitation on the land carbon uptake. The ocean carbon model (WOMBAT, added to MOM simulates the evolution of phosphate, oxygen, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity and iron with one class of phytoplankton and zooplankton. We perform multi-centennial pre-industrial simulations with a fixed atmospheric CO2 concentration and different land carbon model configurations (prescribed or prognostic leaf area index. We evaluate the equilibration of the carbon cycle and present the spatial and temporal variability in key carbon exchanges. Simulating leaf area index results in a slight warming of the atmosphere relative to the prescribed leaf area index case. Seasonal and interannual variations in land carbon exchange are sensitive to whether leaf area index is simulated, with interannual variations driven by variability in precipitation and temperature. We find that the response of the ocean carbon cycle shows reasonable agreement with observations. While our model overestimates surface phosphate values, the global primary productivity agrees well with observations. Our analysis highlights some deficiencies inherent in the carbon models and where the carbon simulation is negatively impacted by known biases in the underlying physical model and consequent limits on the applicability of this model version. We conclude the study with a brief discussion of key developments required to further improve the realism of our model simulation.

  3. Genetic evaluation of Alpine goats using different milk control intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, F G; Torres, R A; Brito, L F; Silva, L P; Menezes, G R O; Brito, L C; Euclydes, R F; Rodrigues, M T

    2013-07-24

    The objective of this study was to compare the results of genetic evaluations by using different milk control intervals to reduce the cost of milk yield controls without harming the quality of genetic evaluation of the animals. We analyzed test day milk yield data from the Goat Sector of Universidade Federal de Viçosa. After editing and checking for errors in the database, there were 20,710 records of test day milk yield for the 667 first lactations of Alpine goats, constituting the complete file, with 7-day control intervals. Information on specific weeks was excluded from the complete file to create files with data on control intervals of 15, 21, and 28 days. The RENPED program was used to recode the pedigree and data files and correct pedigree errors; the WOMBAT program was used for genetic evaluations of the 4 files. The following comparison criteria of analysis results were used: logarithm of the function of the restricted maximum likelihood, length of the analyses in seconds, Pearson and Spearman correlations, and common elimination percentage among the areas below the regression curve of the genetic values of the animals. Overall, it is recommended that a 7-day interval among milk controls should be used in breeding programs and farms with a high technical level. Intervals of 14 and 21 days can achieve satisfactory results combined with a lower data collection cost for farms with an average-to-low technical level, less effective size, and genetic variability that depend on external genetic material for genetic improvement.

  4. Measuring the relationship between interruptions, multitasking and prescribing errors in an emergency department: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raban, Magdalena Z; Walter, Scott R; Douglas, Heather E; Strumpman, Dana; Mackenzie, John; Westbrook, Johanna I

    2015-10-13

    Interruptions and multitasking are frequent in clinical settings, and have been shown in the cognitive psychology literature to affect performance, increasing the risk of error. However, comparatively less is known about their impact on errors in clinical work. This study will assess the relationship between prescribing errors, interruptions and multitasking in an emergency department (ED) using direct observations and chart review. The study will be conducted in an ED of a 440-bed teaching hospital in Sydney, Australia. Doctors will be shadowed at proximity by observers for 2 h time intervals while they are working on day shift (between 0800 and 1800). Time stamped data on tasks, interruptions and multitasking will be recorded on a handheld computer using the validated Work Observation Method by Activity Timing (WOMBAT) tool. The prompts leading to interruptions and multitasking will also be recorded. When doctors prescribe medication, type of chart and chart sections written on, along with the patient's medical record number (MRN) will be recorded. A clinical pharmacist will access patient records and assess the medication orders for prescribing errors. The prescribing error rate will be calculated per prescribing task and is defined as the number of errors divided by the number of medication orders written during the prescribing task. The association between prescribing error rates, and rates of prompts, interruptions and multitasking will be assessed using statistical modelling. Ethics approval has been obtained from the hospital research ethics committee. Eligible doctors will be provided with written information sheets and written consent will be obtained if they agree to participate. Doctor details and MRNs will be kept separate from the data on prescribing errors, and will not appear in the final data set for analysis. Study results will be disseminated in publications and feedback to the ED. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission

  5. The carbon cycle in the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator (ACCESS-ESM1) - Part 1: Model description and pre-industrial simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Rachel M.; Ziehn, Tilo; Matear, Richard J.; Lenton, Andrew; Chamberlain, Matthew A.; Stevens, Lauren E.; Wang, Ying-Ping; Srbinovsky, Jhan; Bi, Daohua; Yan, Hailin; Vohralik, Peter F.

    2017-07-01

    Earth system models (ESMs) that incorporate carbon-climate feedbacks represent the present state of the art in climate modelling. Here, we describe the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator (ACCESS)-ESM1, which comprises atmosphere (UM7.3), land (CABLE), ocean (MOM4p1), and sea-ice (CICE4.1) components with OASIS-MCT coupling, to which ocean and land carbon modules have been added. The land carbon model (as part of CABLE) can optionally include both nitrogen and phosphorous limitation on the land carbon uptake. The ocean carbon model (WOMBAT, added to MOM) simulates the evolution of phosphate, oxygen, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity and iron with one class of phytoplankton and zooplankton. We perform multi-centennial pre-industrial simulations with a fixed atmospheric CO2 concentration and different land carbon model configurations (prescribed or prognostic leaf area index). We evaluate the equilibration of the carbon cycle and present the spatial and temporal variability in key carbon exchanges. Simulating leaf area index results in a slight warming of the atmosphere relative to the prescribed leaf area index case. Seasonal and interannual variations in land carbon exchange are sensitive to whether leaf area index is simulated, with interannual variations driven by variability in precipitation and temperature. We find that the response of the ocean carbon cycle shows reasonable agreement with observations. While our model overestimates surface phosphate values, the global primary productivity agrees well with observations. Our analysis highlights some deficiencies inherent in the carbon models and where the carbon simulation is negatively impacted by known biases in the underlying physical model and consequent limits on the applicability of this model version. We conclude the study with a brief discussion of key developments required to further improve the realism of our model simulation.

  6. The effects of extended work under sleep deprivation conditions on team-based performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, June J; Vander Wood, Melissa A; O'Connell, Kristina L

    2011-07-01

    Teamwork is becoming increasingly common in today's workplaces; however, little research has examined how well teams perform under sleep deprivation conditions. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of extended work under sleep deprivation conditions on team performance. A total of 24 participants were sleep deprived for 30 h and completed 16 h of sustained operations during the last portion of the sleep deprivation period. The participants completed the Wombat, a complex task including vigilance and cognitive components, with a partner in four 24-min testing sessions during the sustained operations period. The results indicated that team performance increased during the work period while, within each testing session, team performance on vigilance tasks remained stable and overall performance decreased. The current results suggest that performance on two-person teams results in improved performance but does not fully counteract the decreases in performance within each work period. Performance in two-person teams increased across an extended work shift under sleep deprivation conditions. However, vigilance performance remained stable while overall performance decreased when examining performance in 8-min segments. These results suggest that averaging team-based performance over a longer testing period may mask the negative effects of sleep deprivation. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Performance in two-person teams increased across an extended work shift under sleep deprivation conditions. However, vigilance performance remained stable while overall performance decreased when examining performance in 8-min segments. These results suggest that averaging team-based performance over a longer testing period may mask the negative effects of sleep deprivation.

  7. Christology and Christianity: The theological power of the threefold office in Lord’s Day 12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik A. de Boer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the threefold office of Jesus was developed in the explanation of the name Christ. The three distinct offices of king, priest and prophet in Israel are thought to be united in the one Messiah. Since the unity of all three offices in one person is not found in so many words in one specific text from the Bible, it is regarded as a theological concept. As such it was developed for the first time in the Heidelberg Catechism (HC. This article traces the development of the exposition of the Apostles’ Creed in earlier Lutheran and reformed catechisms. Special attention is devoted to the one by Johannes Brenz, which was used in the Palatinate before 1563. The main source of the new Catechism of Heidelberg is the Catechismus minor by Zacharias Ursinus, who himself may have been influenced by Martin Bucer and John Calvin and their respective Catechisms. A special feature of the HC is question and answer (Q/A 32, devoted to a parallel exposition of the name Christian. Caspar Olevianus’ work Vester Grund (A Firm Foundation is read as a contemporary commentary on the exposition of the Creed. The catechetical power of the concept of Christ’s threefold office is finally demonstrated in its use in systematic theologies as by Gerrit Immink and Michael Welker, especially in their Christologies. Die konsep van die drievoudige amp van Jesus is ontwikkel in die verklaring van die naam Christus. Die drie onderskeie ampte in Israel, dié van koning, priester en profeet, word gesien as verenig in die Messias. Aangesien die vereniging van al drie ampte in een persoon nie soseer in een spesifieke Bybelteks gevind word nie, word dit as ’n teologiese konsep beskou. Dit is sodanig vir die eerste keer in die Heidelbergse Kategismus (HK ontwikkel. Hierdie artikel ondersoek die ontwikkeling van die uiteensetting van die Apostoliese Geloofsbelydenis in die konteks van vroeëre Lutherse en gereformeerde kategismusse. Daar word veral na Johannes Brenz se

  8. Biological aspects of periodontal tissue regeneration: cementogenesis and the induction of Sharpey's fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magan, A; Ripamonti, U

    2013-08-01

    The realm of periodontal tissue regeneration has a plethora of unanswered questions and challenges due to the complexity of restoring mineralised and fibrous connective tissues ultimately to be covered by epithelium in a very specific spatial organisation. Wound healing of the periodontium follows a highly ordered sequence of events that guides cellular morphology, differentiation, migration and proliferation and comprises a series of cellular, extracellular and molecular reciprocal interactions. The prerequisite for regeneration of any structure is the trio of a soluble molecular signal, a scaffold and responding stem cells. Striated muscle represents an abundant source of easily accessible tissue that contains several perivascular, pericytic and myoblastic cell niches capable of differentiating and inducing selected tissue phenotypes and morphogenesis. Morcellated autogenous rectus abdominis muscle combined with 75 microg of hTGF-beta3 in Matrigel matrix implanted into non-human primate class II and III furcation defects induced greater alveolar bone formation and cementogenesis when compared to furcation defects without the addition of morcellated autogenous bone. In situ hybr disation and immunohistochemistry during embryonic development and tooth morphogenesis have shown synchronous but spatially different bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) expression during tissue induction and morphogenesis. Preclin cal studies in the non-human primate Papio ursinus have shown a seemingly specific cementogenic function of osteogenic protein-1 (OP-1, also known as BMP-7) when treating Class II furcation defects of Papio ursinus. In context, hOP-1 is preferentially cementogenic when implanted into non-human primate class II and III furcation defects whilst hBMP-2 is highly osteogenic but not cementogenic when in contact with dentine extracellular matrix. Importantly, naturally-derived highly purified BMPs/OPs, recombinant hOP-1 and hTGF-beta3 when implanted into non

  9. Fenologia e produção de cultivares de framboeseiras em regiões subtropicais no Brasil Phenology and yield of raspberry cultivars in subtropical regions in Brazil

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    Pedro Henrique Abreu Moura

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a fenologia e a produção de cultivares de framboeseiras em condições subtropicais, no Brasil. O experimento foi realizado nos municípios de Lavras, MG, e Marechal Cândido Rondon, PR. Foram avaliadas sete cultivares, com as espécies Rubus idaeus (vermelhas, 'Heritage', 'Polana', 'Autumn Bliss' e 'Batum'; e amarelas, 'Golden Bliss', em Lavras, e 'Fall Gold', em Marechal Cândido Rondon e R. niveus (framboesa-negra, além de um híbrido (Boysenberry entre R. idaeus e amora-preta (R. ursinus. Foram coletados dados fenológicos (florescimento e período de colheita e produtivos de dois ciclos de produção, e analisadas características físico-químicas dos frutos (dimensão, acidez titulável e conteúdo de sólidos solúveis. As cultivares de R. idaeus e o híbrido interespecífico não se adaptaram às condições climáticas do oeste paranaense, com baixa produção de frutos. No entanto, a framboesa-negra é uma excelente opção de cultivo na região, com alta produtividade (acima de 25 Mg ha-1 e qualidade de frutos (ratio de 9,3. No Sul de Minas, as framboeseiras apresentam boa adaptação, principalmente a framboesa-negra (18,2 Mg ha-1, a framboesa amarela (5 Mg ha-1 e a framboesa vermelha 'Batum' (4,4 Mg ha-1.The objective of this work was to evaluate the phenology and yield of raspberry cultivars under subtropical conditions in Brazil. The experiment was carried out in the municipalities of Lavras, in the south of the state of Minas Gerais, and of Marechal Cândido Rondon, in the west of the state of Paraná. Seven raspberry cultivars were evaluated, from the species Rubus idaeus (red raspberries, 'Heritage', 'Polana', 'Autumn Bliss', and 'Batum'; and yellow raspberries, 'Golden Bliss' in Lavras, and 'Fall Gold' in Marechal Cândido Rondon and R. niveus (black raspberry, besides a hybrid (Boysenberry between R. idaeus and blackberry (R. ursinus. Phenological traits (flowering and harvest time

  10. A survey on faculty perspectives on the transition to a biochemistry course-based undergraduate research experience laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Paul A

    2017-09-01

    It will always remain a goal of an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory course to engage students hands-on in a wide range of biochemistry laboratory experiences. In 2006, our research group initiated a project for in silico prediction of enzyme function based only on the 3D coordinates of the more than 3800 proteins "of unknown function" in the Protein Data Bank, many of which resulted from the Protein Structure Initiative. Students have used the ProMOL plugin to the PyMOL molecular graphics environment along with BLAST, Pfam, and Dali to predict protein functions. As young scientists, these undergraduate research students wanted to see if their predictions were correct and so they developed an approach for in vitro testing of predicted enzyme function that included literature exploration, selection of a suitable assay and the search for commercially available substrates. Over the past two years, a team of faculty members from seven different campuses (California Polytechnic San Luis Obispo, Hope College, Oral Roberts University, Rochester Institute of Technology, St. Mary's University, Ursinus College, and Purdue University) have transferred this approach to the undergraduate biochemistry teaching laboratory as a Course-based Undergraduate Research Experience. A series of ten course modules and eight instructional videos have been created (www.promol.org/home/basil-modules-1) and the group is now expanding these resources, creating assessments and evaluating how this approach helps student to grow as scientists. The focus of this manuscript will be the logistical implications of this transition on campuses that have different cultures, expectations, schedules, and student populations. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(5):426-436, 2017. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  11. Imputation approaches for animal movement modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Henry; Hooten, Mevin B.; Johnson, Devin S.

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of telemetry data is common in animal ecological studies. While the collection of telemetry data for individual animals has improved dramatically, the methods to properly account for inherent uncertainties (e.g., measurement error, dependence, barriers to movement) have lagged behind. Still, many new statistical approaches have been developed to infer unknown quantities affecting animal movement or predict movement based on telemetry data. Hierarchical statistical models are useful to account for some of the aforementioned uncertainties, as well as provide population-level inference, but they often come with an increased computational burden. For certain types of statistical models, it is straightforward to provide inference if the latent true animal trajectory is known, but challenging otherwise. In these cases, approaches related to multiple imputation have been employed to account for the uncertainty associated with our knowledge of the latent trajectory. Despite the increasing use of imputation approaches for modeling animal movement, the general sensitivity and accuracy of these methods have not been explored in detail. We provide an introduction to animal movement modeling and describe how imputation approaches may be helpful for certain types of models. We also assess the performance of imputation approaches in two simulation studies. Our simulation studies suggests that inference for model parameters directly related to the location of an individual may be more accurate than inference for parameters associated with higher-order processes such as velocity or acceleration. Finally, we apply these methods to analyze a telemetry data set involving northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) in the Bering Sea. Supplementary materials accompanying this paper appear online.

  12. Tooth Size Variation in Pinniped Dentitions.

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    Mieczyslaw Wolsan

    Full Text Available It is contentious whether size variation among mammalian teeth is heterogeneous or homogeneous, whether the coefficient of variation is reliable, and whether the standard deviation of log-transformed data and the residual of standard deviation on mean variable size are useful replacements for the coefficient of variation. Most studies of tooth size variation have been on mammals with complex-crowned teeth, with relatively little attention paid to taxa with simple-crowned teeth, such as Pinnipedia. To fill this gap in knowledge and to resolve the existing controversies, we explored the variation of linear size variables (length and width for all teeth from complete permanent dentitions of four pinniped species, two phocids (Histriophoca fasciata, Phoca largha and two otariids (Callorhinus ursinus, Eumetopias jubatus. Size variation among these teeth was mostly heterogeneous both along the toothrow and among species. The incisors, canines, and mesial and distal postcanines were often relatively highly variable. The levels of overall dental size variation ranged from relatively low as in land carnivorans (Phoca largha and both otariids to high (Histriophoca fasciata. Sexual size dimorphism varied among teeth and among species, with teeth being, on average, larger in males than in females. This dimorphism was more pronounced, and the canines were larger and more dimorphic relative to other teeth in the otariids than in the phocids. The coefficient of variation quantified variation reliably in most cases. The standard deviation of log-transformed data was redundant with the coefficient of variation. The residual of standard deviation on mean variable size was inaccurate when size variation was considerably heterogeneous among the compared variables, and was incomparable between species and between sexes. The existing hypotheses invoking developmental fields, occlusal complexity, and the relative timing of tooth formation and sexually dimorphic

  13. Anthropogenic noise alters dwarf mongoose responses to heterospecific alarm calls.

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    Morris-Drake, Amy; Bracken, Anna M; Kern, Julie M; Radford, Andrew N

    2017-04-01

    Anthropogenic noise is an evolutionarily novel and widespread pollutant in both terrestrial and aquatic habitats. Despite increasing evidence that the additional noise generated by human activities can affect vocal communication, the majority of research has focused on the use of conspecific acoustic information, especially sexual signals. Many animals are known to eavesdrop on the alarm calls produced by other species, enhancing their likelihood of avoiding predation, but how this use of heterospecific information is affected by anthropogenic noise has received little empirical attention. Here, we use two field-based playback experiments on a habituated wild population of dwarf mongooses (Helogale parvula) to determine how anthropogenic noise influences the response of foragers to heterospecific alarm calls. We begin by demonstrating that dwarf mongooses respond appropriately to the alarm calls of sympatric chacma baboons (Papio ursinus) and tree squirrels (Paraxerus cepapi); fleeing only to the latter. We then show that mongoose foragers are less likely to exhibit this flee response to tree squirrel alarm calls during road-noise playback compared to ambient-sound playback. One explanation for the change in response is that noise-induced distraction or stress result in maladaptive behaviour. However, further analysis revealed that road-noise playback results in increased vigilance and that mongooses showing the greatest vigilance increase are those that do not subsequently exhibit a flee response to the alarm call. These individuals may therefore be acting appropriately: if the greater gathering of personal information indicates the absence of an actual predator despite an alarm call, the need to undertake costly fleeing behaviour can be avoided. Either way, our study indicates the potential for anthropogenic noise to interfere with the use of acoustic information from other species, and suggests the importance of considering how heterospecific networks are

  14. Long-term ecosystem change in the western North Pacific inferred from commercial fisheries and top predator diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezaki, Shiroh; Kiyota, Masashi; Okamura, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    Assessment of the current status of marine ecosystems is necessary for the sustainable utilization of ecosystem services through fisheries and other human activities under changing environmental conditions. Understanding of historical changes in marine ecosystems can help us to assess their current status. In this study, we analyzed Japanese commercial fishery catch data and scientific survey data of the diet of northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus, NFS) to investigate potential long-term ecosystem changes in the western North Pacific Ocean off northeastern Japan over the past 60 years. Total commercial catches experienced peaks around 1960 and during the 1980s, decreasing to low levels around 1970 and after 1990. Catches were substantively impacted by the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami in 2011. Species composition of the commercial catch changed over time, resulting in changes in the mean trophic level (MTL) of the catches. Trends in observed commercial catches were affected by many factors, including species population fluctuations potentially related to large-scale environmental shifts, migration and distribution patterns of species related to local oceanography, changes in fishing technology, and the introduction of fishery management frameworks. The composition of NFS diet also changed over time: although overall changes were small, MTL derived from NFS stomach contents declined from the early 1970s to the late 1980s. This fall in the MTL of the diet of NFS is suggestive of a shift in pelagic fish fauna from a "mackerel-dominant regime" to a "sardine-dominant regime". Inconsistencies between changes in species composition and MTLs of the commercial catch and NFS diet resulted from differences in commercial fishing targeting and NFS foraging behavior strategies. Although commercial catch is a valuable source of information for investigating historical changes in fisheries, biological resources, and ecosystems, catch data should be interpreted carefully and

  15. Switching spatial scale reveals dominance-dependent social foraging tactics in a wild primate

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    Alexander E.G. Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available When foraging in a social group, individuals are faced with the choice of sampling their environment directly or exploiting the discoveries of others. The evolutionary dynamics of this trade-off have been explored mathematically through the producer-scrounger game, which has highlighted socially exploitative behaviours as a major potential cost of group living. However, our understanding of the tight interplay that can exist between social dominance and scrounging behaviour is limited. To date, only two theoretical studies have explored this relationship systematically, demonstrating that because scrounging requires joining a competitor at a resource, it should become exclusive to high-ranking individuals when resources are monopolisable. In this study, we explore the predictions of this model through observations of the natural social foraging behaviour of a wild population of chacma baboons (Papio ursinus. We collected data through over 800 h of focal follows of 101 adults and juveniles across two troops over two 3-month periods. By recording over 7,900 social foraging decisions at two spatial scales we show that, when resources are large and economically indefensible, the joining behaviour required for scrounging can occur across all social ranks. When, in contrast, dominant individuals can aggressively appropriate a resource, such joining behaviour becomes increasingly difficult to employ with decreasing social rank because adult individuals can only join others lower ranking than themselves. Our study supports theoretical predictions and highlights potentially important individual constraints on the ability of individuals of low social rank to use social information, driven by competition with dominant conspecifics over monopolisable resources.

  16. Stability of cardiodynamic and some blood parameters in the baboon following intravenous anaesthesia with ketamine and diazepam

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    W.J. Du Plooy

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The stability of cardiodynamic and some blood parameters during a slow, continuous infusion of a combination of ketamine and diazepam is reported. Contractility (dP/dt, myocardial relaxation (Tln, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP, left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP, arterial blood pressure and certain blood parameters were assessed in 3 male and 3 female juvenile baboons (Papio ursinus. Anaesthesia was induced with 15 mg/kg ketamine IM and maintained with a continuous IV infusion (40-60 mℓ/h of ketamine and diazepam. The mixture consisted of 2 mℓ ketamine (100 mg/mℓ, 2 mℓ diazepam (5 mg/mℓ and 50 mℓ saline. A period of 75 + 10 min was allowed for preparation of the animals, after which lead II of the ECG, femoral artery blood pressure and left ventricular pressure were recorded at 15-min intervals for a period of 2 h: the total duration of anaesthesia was 195 min. Arterial blood samples were analysed at 30-min intervals for blood gases, electrolytes, glucose and insulin. Left ventricular parameters were derived from the left ventricular pressure curve. Tln, LVSP and LVEDP showed small fluctuations. Contractility decreased (p < 0.037 at the 195-min interval. No arrhythmias or ECG changes were seen, while blood pressure decreased gradually. Serum calcium concentration decreased and blood glucose levels increased gradually over time. Anaesthesia and analgesia were sufficient and no other drugs were necessary. The animals appeared sedated and dazed 60-80 min after the procedure. A continuous infusion of a combination of ketamine and diazepam for a duration of 150 min can provide stable anaesthesia for cardiodynamic measurements.

  17. Characterizing Vocal Repertoires--Hard vs. Soft Classification Approaches.

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    Philip Wadewitz

    Full Text Available To understand the proximate and ultimate causes that shape acoustic communication in animals, objective characterizations of the vocal repertoire of a given species are critical, as they provide the foundation for comparative analyses among individuals, populations and taxa. Progress in this field has been hampered by a lack of standard in methodology, however. One problem is that researchers may settle on different variables to characterize the calls, which may impact on the classification of calls. More important, there is no agreement how to best characterize the overall structure of the repertoire in terms of the amount of gradation within and between call types. Here, we address these challenges by examining 912 calls recorded from wild chacma baboons (Papio ursinus. We extracted 118 acoustic variables from spectrograms, from which we constructed different sets of acoustic features, containing 9, 38, and 118 variables; as well 19 factors derived from principal component analysis. We compared and validated the resulting classifications of k-means and hierarchical clustering. Datasets with a higher number of acoustic features lead to better clustering results than datasets with only a few features. The use of factors in the cluster analysis resulted in an extremely poor resolution of emerging call types. Another important finding is that none of the applied clustering methods gave strong support to a specific cluster solution. Instead, the cluster analysis revealed that within distinct call types, subtypes may exist. Because hard clustering methods are not well suited to capture such gradation within call types, we applied a fuzzy clustering algorithm. We found that this algorithm provides a detailed and quantitative description of the gradation within and between chacma baboon call types. In conclusion, we suggest that fuzzy clustering should be used in future studies to analyze the graded structure of vocal repertoires. Moreover, the use of

  18. Can fertility signals lead to quality signals? Insights from the evolution of primate sexual swellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huchard, Elise; Courtiol, Alexandre; Benavides, Julio A; Knapp, Leslie A; Raymond, Michel; Cowlishaw, Guy

    2009-05-22

    The sexual swellings of female primates have generated a great deal of interest in evolutionary biology. Two hypotheses recently proposed to elucidate their functional significance argue that maximal swelling size advertises either female fertility within a cycle or female quality across cycles. Published evidence favours the first hypothesis, and further indicates that larger swellings advertise higher fertility between cycles. If so, a male preference for large swellings might evolve, driving females to use swellings as quality indicators, as proposed by the second hypothesis. In this paper, we explore this possibility using a combination of empirical field data and mathematical modelling. We first test and find support for three key predictions of the female-quality hypothesis in wild chacma baboons (Papio ursinus): (i) inter-individual differences in swelling size are maintained across consecutive cycles, (ii) females in better condition have larger swellings and higher reproductive success, and (iii) males preferentially choose females with large swellings. We then develop an individual-based simulation model that indicates that females producing larger swellings can achieve higher mating success even when female-female competition is low and within-female variance in the trait is high. Taken together, our findings show that once sexual swellings have evolved as fertility signals, they might, in certain socio-sexual systems, be further selected to act as quality signals. These results, by reconciling two hypotheses, help to clarify the processes underlying sexual swelling evolution. More generally, our findings suggest that mate choice for direct benefits (fertility) can lead to indirect benefits (good genes).

  19. Identifikasi Keragaman Genetik Gen 12S Ribomsom RNA Sebagai Penanda Genetik untuk Penentuan Spesies Kuskus (IDENTIFICATION OF GENETIC DIVERSITY 12SRRNA GENES AS GENETIC MARKER FOR DETERMINING SPECIES CUSCUS

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    Rini Widayanti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cuscus is marsupial’s animal (Phalageridae which has limited spread in eastern Indonesia (Sulawesi,Maluku, Papua, Australia and Papua New Guinea. The ex-situ and in-situ conservation of cuscus undercaptivating condition is an alternative solution to protect cuscus from extinction. This study aimed todetermine nucleotide sequence and genetic markers on 12Sr RNA gene with sequencing method of eachspecies on three islands. Whole genome DNA was extracted from 17 samples of cuscus obtained fromdifferent habitats, Sulawesi (2 individual, Maluku (7 individual, and Papua (8 individual according tothe protocol of Qiamp DNA Blood Mini Kit (Qiagen, and then it was used as template for amplificationof 12Sr RNA gene by using PCR. PCR product were then purified using column chromatography and wereused as template for sequencing reaction. Result sequencing of 12Sr RNA gene were analyzed usingMEGA program version 6. PCR product gives a result nucleotida of 958 bp according to databasegenebank, sequencing product gives result nucleotida of 896 bp and found of 105 different nucleotide sites.Filogram based on nucleotide sequences 12SrRNA gene from Sulawesi cuscus is Ailurops ursinus whereasthe cuscus from Papua and Maluku is Phalanger sp. and Spilocuscus maculatus species. Thirteen nucleotidasites were found, sites no 67 (A/G, 89 (G/C, 137 (T/C, 285 (G/A, 468 (T/C, 595 (T/C, 598 (T/C, 647 (T/C,654 (G/A, 665 (T/C, 769 (C/T, 874 (C/T, and 876 (A/G which can be used as genetic marker betweenPhalanger genera from Papua and Maluku, and three nucleotida sites (sites no 127 (G/A, 481 (C/T, and885 (T/C can be used as genetic marker between Spilocuscus genera from Papua and Maluku.

  20. Assessing sloth bears as surrogates for carnivore conservation in Sri Lanka

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    Ratnayeke, Shyamala; Van Manen, Frank T.

    2012-01-01

    Bears are large, charismatic mammals whose presence often garners conservation attention. Because healthy bear populations typically require large, contiguous areas of habitat, land conservation actions often are assumed to benefit co-occurring species, including other mammalian carnivores. However, we are not aware of an empirical test of this assumption. We used remote camera data from 2 national parks in Sri Lanka to test the hypothesis that the frequency of detection of sloth bears (Melursus ursinus) is associated with greater richness of carnivore species. We focused on mammalian carnivores because they play a pivotal role in the stability of ecological communities and are among Sri Lanka's most endangered species. Seven of Sri Lanka's carnivores are listed as endangered, vulnerable, or near threatened, and little empirical information exists on their status and distribution. During 2002–03, we placed camera traps at 152 sites to document carnivore species presence. We used Poisson regression to develop predictive models for 3 categories of dependent variables: species richness of (1) all carnivores, (2) carnivores considered at risk, and (3) carnivores of least conservation concern. For each category, we analyzed 8 a priori models based on combinations of sloth bear detections, sample year, and study area and used Akaike's information criterion (AICc) to test our research hypothesis. We detected sloth bears at 55 camera sites and detected 13 of Sri Lanka's 14 Carnivora species. Species richness of all carnivores showed positive associations with the number of sloth bear detections, regardless of study area. Sloth bear detections were also positively associated with species richness of carnivores at risk across both study years and study areas, but not with species richness of common carnivores. Sloth bears may serve as a valuable surrogate species whose habitat protection would contribute to conservation of other carnivores in Sri Lanka.

  1. Indices of environmental temperatures for primates in open habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Russell A; Weingrill, Tony; Barrett, Louise; Henzi, S Peter; Hill, Russel A; Barrett, Luise

    2004-01-01

    Studies of thermoregulation in primates are under-represented in the literature, although there is sufficient evidence to suggest that temperature represents an important ecological constraint. One of the problems in examining thermoregulation in primates, however, is the difficulty in quantifying the thermal environment, since shade temperatures, solar radiation, humidity and wind speed all serve to alter an animal's 'perceived' temperature. Since animals respond to their perceived temperature, we need methods to account for each of these factors, both individually and collectively, if we are to understand the integrated impact of the thermal environment on primates. Here, we present a review of some thermal indices currently available. Black bulb temperatures can account for the effect of solar radiation, with wind chill equivalent temperatures and the heat index providing quantifiable estimates of the relative impact of wind speed and humidity, respectively. We present three potential indices of the 'perceived environmental temperature' (PET) that account for the combined impact of solar radiation, humidity and wind speed on temperature, and perform a preliminary test of all of the climatic indices against behavioural data from a field study of chacma baboons ( Papio cynocephalus ursinus) at De Hoop Nature Reserve, South Africa. One measure of the perceived environmental temperature, PET2, is an effective thermal index, since it enters the models for feeding and resting behaviour, and also accounts for levels of allogrooming. Solar radiation intensity is an important factor underlying these relationships, although the wind chill equivalent temperature and humidity enter the models for other behaviours. Future studies should thus be mindful of the impact of each of these elements of the thermal environment. A detailed understanding of primate thermoregulation will only come with the development of biophysical models of the thermal characteristics of the species

  2. Prey patch patterns predict habitat use by top marine predators with diverse foraging strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit-Bird, Kelly J; Battaile, Brian C; Heppell, Scott A; Hoover, Brian; Irons, David; Jones, Nathan; Kuletz, Kathy J; Nordstrom, Chad A; Paredes, Rosana; Suryan, Robert M; Waluk, Chad M; Trites, Andrew W

    2013-01-01

    Spatial coherence between predators and prey has rarely been observed in pelagic marine ecosystems. We used measures of the environment, prey abundance, prey quality, and prey distribution to explain the observed distributions of three co-occurring predator species breeding on islands in the southeastern Bering Sea: black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla), thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia), and northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus). Predictions of statistical models were tested using movement patterns obtained from satellite-tracked individual animals. With the most commonly used measures to quantify prey distributions--areal biomass, density, and numerical abundance--we were unable to find a spatial relationship between predators and their prey. We instead found that habitat use by all three predators was predicted most strongly by prey patch characteristics such as depth and local density within spatial aggregations. Additional prey patch characteristics and physical habitat also contributed significantly to characterizing predator patterns. Our results indicate that the small-scale prey patch characteristics are critical to how predators perceive the quality of their food supply and the mechanisms they use to exploit it, regardless of time of day, sampling year, or source colony. The three focal predator species had different constraints and employed different foraging strategies--a shallow diver that makes trips of moderate distance (kittiwakes), a deep diver that makes trip of short distances (murres), and a deep diver that makes extensive trips (fur seals). However, all three were similarly linked by patchiness of prey rather than by the distribution of overall biomass. This supports the hypothesis that patchiness may be critical for understanding predator-prey relationships in pelagic marine systems more generally.

  3. Paternity alone does not predict long-term investment in juveniles by male baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscovice, Liza R; Heesen, Marlies; Di Fiore, Anthony; Seyfarth, Robert M; Cheney, Dorothy L

    2009-08-01

    Adult male chacma baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus) form preferential associations, or friendships, with particular lactating females. Males exhibit high levels of affiliative contact with their friends' infants and defend them from potentially infanticidal attacks (Palombit et al. 1997). Little is known about males' associations with juveniles once they have passed the period of infanticidal risk. We conducted an observational, experimental, and genetic study of adult male and juvenile chacma baboons in the Moremi Reserve, Botswana. We identified preferential associations between males and juveniles and used behavioral data and a playback experiment to explore whether those associations have potential fitness benefits for juveniles. We determined whether males preferentially invest in care of their own offspring. We also determined how often males invest in care of their former friends' offspring. The majority of juveniles exhibited preferential associations with one or two males, who had almost always been their mother's friend during infancy. However, in only a subset of these relationships was the male the actual father, in part because many fathers died or disappeared before their offspring were weaned. Male caretakers intervened on behalf of their juvenile associates in social conflicts more often than they intervened on behalf of unconnected juveniles, and they did not appear to differentiate between genetic offspring and unrelated associates. Playbacks of juveniles' distress calls elicited a stronger response from their caretakers than from control males. Chacma males may provide care to unrelated offspring of former friends because the costs associated with such care are low compared with the potentially high fitness costs of refusing aid to a juvenile who is a possible offspring.

  4. Prey patch patterns predict habitat use by top marine predators with diverse foraging strategies.

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    Kelly J Benoit-Bird

    Full Text Available Spatial coherence between predators and prey has rarely been observed in pelagic marine ecosystems. We used measures of the environment, prey abundance, prey quality, and prey distribution to explain the observed distributions of three co-occurring predator species breeding on islands in the southeastern Bering Sea: black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla, thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia, and northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus. Predictions of statistical models were tested using movement patterns obtained from satellite-tracked individual animals. With the most commonly used measures to quantify prey distributions--areal biomass, density, and numerical abundance--we were unable to find a spatial relationship between predators and their prey. We instead found that habitat use by all three predators was predicted most strongly by prey patch characteristics such as depth and local density within spatial aggregations. Additional prey patch characteristics and physical habitat also contributed significantly to characterizing predator patterns. Our results indicate that the small-scale prey patch characteristics are critical to how predators perceive the quality of their food supply and the mechanisms they use to exploit it, regardless of time of day, sampling year, or source colony. The three focal predator species had different constraints and employed different foraging strategies--a shallow diver that makes trips of moderate distance (kittiwakes, a deep diver that makes trip of short distances (murres, and a deep diver that makes extensive trips (fur seals. However, all three were similarly linked by patchiness of prey rather than by the distribution of overall biomass. This supports the hypothesis that patchiness may be critical for understanding predator-prey relationships in pelagic marine systems more generally.

  5. Cytochrome P450 CYP3A in marsupials: cloning and identification of the first CYP3A subfamily member, isoform 3A70 from Eastern gray kangaroo (Macropus giganteus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Merhibi, Adaweyah; Ngo, Suong N T; Marchant, Ceilidh L; Height, Tamara A; Stupans, Ieva; McKinnon, Ross A

    2012-09-15

    Australian marsupials are unique fauna that have evolved and adapted to unique environments and thus it is likely that their detoxification systems differ considerably from those of well-studied eutherian mammals. Knowledge of these processes in marsupials is therefore vital to understanding the consequences of exposure to xenobiotics. Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are critically important in the oxidative metabolism of a diverse array of both xenobiotics and endogenous substrates. In this study we have cloned and characterized CYP3A70, the first identified member of the CYP3A gene subfamily from Eastern gray kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). A 1665 base pair kangaroo hepatic CYP3A complete cDNA, designated CYP3A70, was cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction approaches, which encodes a protein of 506 amino acids. The CYP3A70 cDNA shares approximately 71% nucleotide and 65% amino acid sequence homology to human CYP3A4 and displays high sequence similarity to other published mammalian CYP3As from human, monkey, cow, pig, dog, rat, rabbit, mouse, hamster, and guinea pig. Transfection of the CYP3A70 cDNAs into 293T cells resulted in stable cell lines expressing a CYP3A immuno-reactive protein that was recognized by a goat anti-human CYP3A4 polyclonal antibody. The anti-human CYP3A4 antibody also detected immunoreactive proteins in liver microsomes from all test marsupials, including the kangaroo, koala, wallaby, and wombat, with multiple CYP3A immunoreactive bands observed in kangaroo and wallaby tissues. Relatively, very low CYP catalytic activity was detected for the kangaroo CYP3A70 cDNA-expressed proteins (19.6 relative luminescent units/μg protein), which may be due to low protein expression levels. Collectively, this study provides primary molecular data regarding the Eastern kangaroo hepatic CYP3A70 gene and enables further functional analyses of CYP3A enzymes in marsupials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Soil methane oxidation in both dry and wet temperate eucalypt forests shows a near-identical relationship with soil air-filled porosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fest, Benedikt J.; Hinko-Najera, Nina; Wardlaw, Tim; Griffith, David W. T.; Livesley, Stephen J.; Arndt, Stefan K.

    2017-01-01

    Well-drained, aerated soils are important sinks for atmospheric methane (CH4) via the process of CH4 oxidation by methane-oxidising bacteria (MOB). This terrestrial CH4 sink may contribute towards climate change mitigation, but the impact of changing soil moisture and temperature regimes on CH4 uptake is not well understood in all ecosystems. Soils in temperate forest ecosystems are the greatest terrestrial CH4 sink globally. Under predicted climate change scenarios, temperate eucalypt forests in south-eastern Australia are predicted to experience rapid and extreme changes in rainfall patterns, temperatures and wild fires. To investigate the influence of environmental drivers on seasonal and inter-annual variation of soil-atmosphere CH4 exchange, we measured soil-atmosphere CH4 exchange at high-temporal resolution (< 2 h) in a dry temperate eucalypt forest in Victoria (Wombat State Forest, precipitation 870 mm yr-1) and in a wet temperature eucalypt forest in Tasmania (Warra Long-Term Ecological Research site, 1700 mm yr-1). Both forest soil systems were continuous CH4 sinks of -1.79 kg CH4 ha-1 yr-1 in Victoria and -3.83 kg CH4 ha-1 yr-1 in Tasmania. Soil CH4 uptake showed substantial temporal variation and was strongly controlled by soil moisture at both forest sites. Soil CH4 uptake increased when soil moisture decreased and this relationship explained up to 90 % of the temporal variability. Furthermore, the relationship between soil moisture and soil CH4 flux was near-identical at both forest sites when soil moisture was expressed as soil air-filled porosity (AFP). Soil temperature only had a minor influence on soil CH4 uptake. Soil nitrogen concentrations were generally low and fluctuations in nitrogen availability did not influence soil CH4 uptake at either forest site. Our data suggest that soil MOB activity in the two forests was similar and that differences in soil CH4 exchange between the two forests were related to differences in soil moisture and

  7. Estimação de valores genéticos para codornas europeias em função dos níveis da relação treonina: lisina da dieta: do nascimento aos 21 dias de idade

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    G.Q. Faria

    Full Text Available RESUMO O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a sensibilidade dos valores genéticos dos pesos corporais e as características de carcaças de codornas europeias às mudanças do gradiente ambiental (níveis da relação treonina com a lisina das dietas, do nascimento aos 21 dias de idade, por meio de modelos de regressão aleatória com diferentes classes de variância residual. Os dados utilizados neste estudo são provenientes de 915 codornas de corte da linhagem LF1 e 839 da linhagem LF2, pertencentes ao Programa de Melhoramento Genético da Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri. Foram avaliados os pesos corporais e os rendimentos da carcaça das aves. As sensibilidades dos valores genéticos às mudanças nos níveis da relação treonina:lisina (interação genótipo x ambiente foram obtidas por modelos de regressão aleatória (utilizando normas de reação por meio do programa Wombat, que utiliza o princípio da máxima verossimilhança restrita (REML. O modelo de regressão aleatória que considerou duas classes de variância residual foi o mais indicado para a maioria das análises realizadas. Verificaram-se alterações na classificação dos valores genéticos para as duas linhagens de codornas de corte estudadas. Esse comportamento indica sensibilidade de valores genéticos aditivos às mudanças nutricionais, o que caracteriza a existência de interação genótipo x ambiente. A predição dos valores genéticos deve ser feita com o mesmo nível da relação treonina:lisina da dieta com a qual as codornas serão alimentadas no sistema de produção.

  8. Estimation of genetic parameters for electrical conductivity of milk for Holstein breed using random regression

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    Diego Augusto Campos da Cruz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The electrical conductivity of milk is an indirect method of mastitis diagnosis and can be used as selection criterion in breeding programs to obtain resistant animals to infection. For the present study data from 9,302 milk electrical conductivity measurements in the morning (ECM, from 1,129 Holstein cows in first lactation, calving between 2001 and 2011, belonging to eight herds in the Southeast of Brazil, obtained from automated milking equipment WESTFALIA® with system management "Dairyplan" was utilized. Classes of ECM were formed at weekly intervals, representing a total of 42 classes. The model included direct additive genetic, permanent environmental and residual effects as random and the fixed effects of contemporary group (herd - year and season of the control, age at calving as a covariate (linear and quadratic. Mean trends were modeled by an orthogonal Legendre polynomial with three coefficients of days in milk. The residual variance was considered homogeneous throughout lactation. Variance components were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood method (REML, using the statistical package Wombat (Meyer, 2006. The mean and standard deviation of the electrical conductivity of milk were 4.799 ± 0.543 ms/cm. The heritability for ECM were increased from the beginning to the middle of lactation (154 days, when it reached the maximum value (0.44, decreasing thereafter and reaching its minimum value at 300 days (0.17. Genetic correlations between the ECM at different periods of lactation were high and positive across the course of lactation, ranging from 0.73 to 0.99. It was observed that the correlation estimates were considerably lower when compared to the ECM 300 days with those of other periods. The data suggest that significant gains can be obtained via selection when using the ECM as selection criterion aimed at resistance to mastitis. It was verified also, that the selection for this trait in the early period of lactation, to

  9. Genetic Relationship of Productive Life, Production and Type Traits of Korean Holsteins at Early Lactations

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    Nidarshani Wasana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to study the genetic relationship of productive life with production and type traits of Korean Holsteins at first three lactations. The data for the analysis from 56,054, 28,997, and 11,816 animals of first, second and third parity cows which were born from 2006 to 2011 were collected by Dairy Cattle Improvement Center, National Agricultural Co-operative Federation. Milk, protein and fat yields adjusted for 305 days and average somatic cell score considered as production traits and analyzed type traits were stature, strength, body depth, dairy form, rump angle, rump width, rear leg side view, foot angle, front attachment placement, rear attachment height, rear attachment width, udder cleft, udder depth, front teat placement and front teat length. A multi trait genetic analysis was performed using Wombat program with restricted maximum likelihood animal model composed of fixed effect of birth year, farm and the random effect of animal and random residual effect according to the traits. Heritability estimates of productive life were between 0.06 and 0.13. Genetic and phenotypic correlations between production and productive life traits ranged from 0.35 to 0.04 for milk, 0.16 to 0.05 for protein and 0.18 to 0.02 f 15-0034 (2nd 150520 or fat. Somatic cells score showed a negative genetic and phenotypic correlation with productive life and also udder type traits, indicating that the selection for higher udder traits will likely to improve resistance to mastitis and persistence in the herd. Among all dairy form type traits, udder characters such as udder cleft showed a significant relationship with productive life. However, a specific change of heritabilities or correlations were not observed with the change of parity. Moreover, further studies are needed to further confirm the significance of the above traits and the effect of parity on above relationships in order to minimize both voluntary and involuntary culling

  10. Utilização de dados parciais na seleção de codornas de corte para produção de ovos

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    Bruno Bastos Teixeira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a possibilidade de uso de dados parciais na seleção de codornas de corte para produção de ovos. Foram avaliados os grupos genéticos de codornas de corte UFV1 e UFV2, de origens distintas. Utilizaram-se informações de 1.632 matrizes, das quais 816 provieram do grupo genético UFV1, e 816 do grupo UFV2. Os parâmetros genéticos foram obtidos nos períodos parciais da 6ª semana até a 24ª (P24, a 32ª (P32, a 40ª (P40 e a 48ª (P48 semanas, e no período total de produção de ovos(P52, da 6ª à 52ª semana. Os componentes de variância e covariância e os parâmetros genéticos foram estimados pelo método da máxima verossimilhança restrita, pelo modelo animal unicaracterístico. A produção parcial e a total de ovos foram estimadas pelo modelo animal multicaracterístico, por meio do aplicativo Wombat. Para UFV1, os valores de herdabilidade foram: 0,09, P24; 0,09, P32; 0,09, P40; 0,08, P48; e 0,07 para P52; as correlações genéticas variaram de 0,79 a 0,99. Para UFV2, os valores de herdabilidade foram: 0,09, P24; 0,09, P32; 0,10, P40; 0,11, P48; e 0,13 para P52; as correlações variaram de 0,70 a 0,99. Para a seleção de UFV1, recomenda-se considerar a produção de ovos até a 40ª semana e, para UFV2, até a 48ª semana. As baixas estimativas de herdabilidade indicam que se devem fazer mudanças de manejo para controlar os efeitos de ambiente.

  11. Modelos de norma de reação para estudo das características de qualidade da carne de codornas de corte em função das razões (metionina + cistina: lisina da dieta

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    R. C. Veloso

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOObjetivou-se avaliar a sensibilidade dos valores genéticos para características de qualidade da carne em codornas de corte alimentadas com dietas contendo diferentes relações de (metionina + cistina: lisina, do nascimento aos 21 dias de idade, por meio de modelos de normas de reação. Utilizaram-se 9011 informações de qualidade de carne referentes a 1400 progênies de 80 reprodutores e 160 matrizes de duas linhas (LF1 e LF2. Para o ajuste dos modelos de regressão aleatória, foi usado o programa WOMBAT, considerando-se nas análises homogeneidade de variância residual. As codornas foram alimentadas do nascimento aos 21 dias de idade com dietas contendo as relações 0,61; 0,66; 0,71; 0,76 e 0,81 de (metionina + cistina: lisina, mantendo os níveis de proteína bruta de 26,12% e de energia em 2900 kcal EM/kg da dieta. Dos 22 aos 35 dias de idade, todas as codornas foram alimentadas com dieta contendo 22% de proteína bruta e 3050 kcal EM/kg da dieta. As estimativas da variância genética e da herdabilidade foram influenciadas pelo gradiente ambiental e pela linha, com mudanças nessas estimativas com o aumento do gradiente ambiental. Os valores genéticos das características de qualidade de carne referentes a cada uma das linhas se alteraram com o aumento das relações de aminoácidos das dietas em razão das mudanças no ordenamento dos valores genéticos, evidenciando a existência da interação genótipo x nível de relação dos aminoácidos da dieta para características de qualidade de carne. Predições de valores genéticos de características de qualidade de carne com base em determinada relação de (metionina + cistina: lisina da dieta não são válidas para outras relações desses aminoácidos.

  12. Key drivers of seasonal plankton dynamics in cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies off East Australia

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    Leonardo Laiolo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mesoscale eddies in the south west Pacific region are prominent ocean features that represent distinctive environments for phytoplankton. Here we examine the seasonal plankton dynamics associated with averaged cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies (CE and ACE, respectively off eastern Australia. We do this through building seasonal climatologies of mixed layer depth and surface chlorophyll-a for both CE and ACE by combining remotely sensed sea surface height (TOPEX/Poseidon, Envisat, Jason-1, and OSTM/Jason-2, remotely sensed ocean colour (GlobColour and in situ profiles of temperature, salinity and pressure from Argo floats. Using the CE and ACE seasonal climatologies, we assimilate the surface chlorophyll-a data into both a single (WOMBAT, and multi-phytoplankton class (EMS biogeochemical model to investigate the level of complexity required to simulate the phytoplankton chlorophyll-a. For the two eddy types, the data assimilation showed both biogeochemical models only needed one set of parameters to represent phytoplankton but needed different parameters for zooplankton. To assess the simulated phytoplankton behavior we compared EMS model simulations with a ship-based experiment that involved incubating a winter phytoplankton community sampled from below the mixed layer under ambient and two higher light intensities with and without nutrient enrichment. By the end of the 5-day field experiment, large diatom abundance was four times greater in all treatments compared to the initial community, with a corresponding decline in pico-cyanobacteria. The experimental results were consistent with the simulated behavior in CE and ACE, where the seasonal deepening of the mixed layer during winter produced a rapid increase in large phytoplankton. Our model simulations suggest that CE off East Australia are not only characterized by a higher chlorophyll-a concentration compared to ACE, but also by a higher concentration of large phytoplankton (i.e. diatoms due

  13. Comparison between multitrait and unitrait analysis in the heritability estimate of electrical conductivity of milk

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    Daniella Flavia Vilas Boas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrical conductivity of milk is an indirect method for diagnosis of mastitis that can be used as criterion of selection in breeding programs, to obtain more resistant animals to infection. Data from 9,302 records of electrical conductivity from the morning milking (ECM, 13,070 milk yield records (MY and 11,560 records of milking time (MT, of 1,129 first lactation Holstein cows, calving from 2001 to 2011, were used in statistical analysis. Data of eight herds of Southeast region of Brazil were obtained by the WESTFALIA® electronic milking machines, with “Dairyplan” management system. Two analysis were performed: a multitrait, including MY, MT and ECM, and an unitrait, considering only test-day morning electrical conductivity. The model included additive genetic, permanent environmental and residual effects as random. Additionally, contemporary groups (CG, the age of cow at calving (AGC and days in milk (DIM (linear and quadratic regression were included as fixed effects. The CG was composed by herd, year and month of test. DIM classes were formed with weekly intervals, constituting a total of 42 classes. The variance components were estimated by Restricted Maximum Likelihood Method (REML, using the Wombat software. The average and standard deviation of ECM were 4.80 mS cm-1 and 0.54 mS cm-1, respectively. The heritability estimates by multitrait model and their standard errors were 0.33 (0.05, 0.15 (0.03 and 0.22 (0.03 for ECM, MY and MT, respectively. Genetic correlation was 0.74 for MY and MT, 0.37 for MY and ECM and -0.09 for MY and ECM. In the unitrait analysis, the heritability estimate for ECM was 0.35 with a standard error of 0.05. These results agree with the literature that reported heritability estimates for electrical conductivity ranging from 0.26 to 0.39. Although the estimates were close, the heritability estimated by unitrait analysis was slightly higher that estimated by multtrait probably because the pedigree file was the

  14. Estimativas de parâmetros genéticos para características de crescimento em ovinos da raça Suffolk no Brasil

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    M.P. Pires

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi estimar os parâmetros genéticos das características de crescimento da raça Suffolk, a fim de fornecer subsídio para a definição de estratégias de seleção para programas de melhoramento genético. Os dados analisados, coletados entre os anos de 2007 a 2009, são referentes a ovinos da raça Suffolk oriundos de uma propriedade localizada no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, participante do programa de melhoramento genético Ovigol, conduzido pela empresa Aries Reprodução e Melhoramento Genético Ovino Ltda. em parceria com a empresa AbacusBio Limited, da Nova Zelândia. As características avaliadas foram: peso ao nascer (PN, ganho de peso pré-desmame (GPP e peso ao desmame (PD, com número de registro de 1.039, 636 e 649 animais, respectivamente. Para análise estatística, utilizou-se o procedimento GLM do programa computacional SAS; para a consistência do pedigree e para as estimativas dos parâmetros genéticos, os programas computacionais utilizados foram Relax2: pedigree analysis program e o WOMBAT, respectivamente. O modelo linear geral incluiu sexo, grupo de contemporâneos (tipo de parto e ano de nascimento, covariável idade ao desmame (GPP e PD com efeito quadrático, efeito genético aditivo direto, efeito de ambiente permanente materno e efeito residual. As herdabilidades para PN, GPP e PD foram 0,06, 0,42 e 0,37, respectivamente. As correlações genéticas entre PN e GPP, PN e PD e GPP e PD foram -0,10, -0,03 e 0,97, respectivamente. Na população estudada, as características GPP e PD, apresentam altas respostas à seleção, ao contrário do PN. As características PN e GPP são suficientes para compor um índice de seleção, sendo aconselhável o monitoramento do PN na fase inicial do programa.

  15. Quantitative assessment of the expanding complementarity between public and commercial databases of bioactive compounds

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    Southan Christopher

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2004 public cheminformatic databases and their collective functionality for exploring relationships between compounds, protein sequences, literature and assay data have advanced dramatically. In parallel, commercial sources that extract and curate such relationships from journals and patents have also been expanding. This work updates a previous comparative study of databases chosen because of their bioactive content, availability of downloads and facility to select informative subsets. Results Where they could be calculated, extracted compounds-per-journal article were in the range of 12 to 19 but compound-per-protein counts increased with document numbers. Chemical structure filtration to facilitate standardised comparisons typically reduced source counts by between 5% and 30%. The pair-wise overlaps between 23 databases and subsets were determined, as well as changes between 2006 and 2008. While all compound sets have increased, PubChem has doubled to 14.2 million. The 2008 comparison matrix shows not only overlap but also unique content across all sources. Many of the detailed differences could be attributed to individual strategies for data selection and extraction. While there was a big increase in patent-derived structures entering PubChem since 2006, GVKBIO contains over 0.8 million unique structures from this source. Venn diagrams showed extensive overlap between compounds extracted by independent expert curation from journals by GVKBIO, WOMBAT (both commercial and BindingDB (public but each included unique content. In contrast, the approved drug collections from GVKBIO, MDDR (commercial and DrugBank (public showed surprisingly low overlap. Aggregating all commercial sources established that while 1 million compounds overlapped with PubChem 1.2 million did not. Conclusion On the basis of chemical structure content per se public sources have covered an increasing proportion of commercial databases over the last

  16. Fukushima derived radiocesium in subsistence-consumed northern fur seal and wild celery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedig, Elizabeth; Duncan, Colleen; Dickerson, Bobette; Williams, Michael; Gelatt, Thomas; Bell, Justin; Johnson, Thomas E

    2016-02-01

    In July 2014, our investigative team traveled to St. Paul Island, Alaska to measure concentrations of radiocesium in wild-caught food products, primarily northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus). The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident released radiocesium into the atmosphere and into the western Pacific Ocean; other investigators have detected Fukushima-derived radionuclides in a variety of marine products harvested off the western coast of North America. We tested two subsistence-consumed food products from St. Paul Island, Alaska for Fukushima-derived radionuclides: 54 northern fur seal, and nine putchki (wild celery, Angelica lucida) plants. Individual northern fur seal samples were below minimum detectable activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (134)Cs, but when composited, northern fur seal tissues tested positive for trace quantities of both isotopes. Radiocesium was detected at an activity concentration of 37.2 mBq (134)Cs kg(-1) f.w. (95% CI: 35.9-38.5) and 141.2 mBq (137)Cs kg(-1) f.w. (95% CI: 135.5-146.8). The measured isotopic ratio, decay-corrected to the date of harvest, was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.25-0.28). The Fukushima nuclear accident released (134)Cs and (137)Cs in roughly equal quantities, but by the date of harvest in July 2014, this ratio was 0.2774, indicating that this population of seals has been exposed to small quantities of Fukushima-derived radiocesium. Activity concentrations of both (134)Cs and (137)Cs in putchki were below detection limits, even for composited samples. Northern fur seal is known to migrate between coastal Alaska and Japan and the trace (134)Cs in northern fur seal tissue suggests that the population under study had been minimally exposed Fukushima-derived radionuclides. Despite this inference, the radionuclide quantities detected are small and no impact is expected as a result of the measured radiation exposure, either in northern fur seal or human populations consuming this species. Published by Elsevier

  17. The quandary of local people—Park relations in Nepal's Royal Chitwan National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepal, Sanjay K.; Weber, Karl E.

    1995-11-01

    This paper analyzes five major causes of park-people conflicts that have occurred in Nepal's Royal Chitwan National Park. The causes include illegal transactions of forest products from the park, livestock grazing in the park, illegal hunting and fishing, crop damage, and threats to human and animal life caused by wild animals from the park. The conflicts indicate a reciprocal relationship between the park and local people. They reflect the attitudes of local people and representatives of the park authority whose priorities and objectives largely diverge. The results show that people settled adjacent to the park are heavily dependent on its resources. Even in places where some, albeit few alternative sources exist, local people continue to trespass the park boundary as these sources are inadequate to ensure the fulfillment of local people's resource needs. Illegal transactions of resources continue throughout the year; however, they are less intense during summer due to flooding caused by the Rapti River, which forms the park boundary towards the northern section where this study is conducted. The frequency of local people's visits to the park is mainly determined by their age, distance between homesteads and park, and volume of crop loss caused by wild animals. Crop damage is the function of size of landholding, distance, and frequency of crop raid. Local people claim that they have no intention of letting their livestock graze in the park; however, the dense vegetation of the park attracts livestock grazing on riverbanks just outside the open park boundary. Many head of livestock are killed by carnivores of the park. Human casualties are mainly caused by sloth bear ( Melursus ursinus), tiger ( Panthera tigris), wild pig ( Sug scrofa), and rhinoceros ( Rhinoceros unicornis). There had been some earlier attempts to reconcile the conflicts by offering local people different kinds of compensations; however, these were unsuccessful measures. An integrated approach is

  18. Activity-specific metabolic rates for diving, transiting, and resting at sea can be estimated from time-activity budgets in free-ranging marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanniard-du-Dot, Tiphaine; Trites, Andrew W; Arnould, John P Y; Speakman, John R; Guinet, Christophe

    2017-05-01

    Time and energy are the two most important currencies in animal bioenergetics. How much time animals spend engaged in different activities with specific energetic costs ultimately defines their likelihood of surviving and successfully reproducing. However, it is extremely difficult to determine the energetic costs of independent activities for free-ranging animals. In this study, we developed a new method to calculate activity-specific metabolic rates, and applied it to female fur seals. We attached biologgers (that recorded GPS locations, depth profiles, and triaxial acceleration) to 12 northern (Callorhinus ursinus) and 13 Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella), and used a hierarchical decision tree algorithm to determine time allocation between diving, transiting, resting, and performing slow movements at the surface (grooming, etc.). We concomitantly measured the total energy expenditure using the doubly-labelled water method. We used a general least-square model to establish the relationship between time-activity budgets and the total energy spent by each individual during their foraging trip to predict activity-specific metabolic rates. Results show that both species allocated similar time to diving (~29%), transiting to and from their foraging grounds (~26-30%), and resting (~8-11%). However, Antarctic fur seals spent significantly more time grooming and moving slowly at the surface than northern fur seals (36% vs. 29%). Diving was the most expensive activity (~30 MJ/day if done non-stop for 24 hr), followed by transiting at the surface (~21 MJ/day). Interestingly, metabolic rates were similar between species while on land or while slowly moving at the surface (~13 MJ/day). Overall, the average field metabolic rate was ~20 MJ/day (for all activities combined). The method we developed to calculate activity-specific metabolic rates can be applied to terrestrial and marine species to determine the energetic costs of daily activities, as well as to

  19. Redefining the induction of periodontal tissue regeneration in primates by the osteogenic proteins of the transforming growth factor-β supergene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripamonti, U

    2016-12-01

    The molecular bases of periodontal tissue induction and regeneration are the osteogenic proteins of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) supergene family. These morphogens act as soluble mediators for the induction of tissues morphogenesis sculpting the multicellular mineralized structures of the periodontal tissues with functionally oriented ligament fibers into newly formed cementum. Human TGF-β3 (hTGF-β3 ) in growth factor-reduced Matrigel(®) matrix induces cementogenesis when implanted in class II mandibular furcation defects surgically prepared in the non-human primate Chacma baboon, Papio ursinus. The newly formed periodontal ligament space is characterized by running fibers tightly attached to the cementoid surface penetrating as mineralized constructs within the newly formed cementum assembling and initiating within the mineralized dentine. Angiogenesis heralds the newly formed periodontal ligament space, and newly sprouting capillaries are lined by cellular elements with condensed chromatin interpreted as angioblasts responsible for the rapid and sustained induction of angiogenesis. The inductive activity of hTGF-β3 in Matrigel(®) matrix is enhanced by the addition of autogenous morcellated fragments of the rectus abdominis muscle potentially providing myoblastic, pericytic/perivascular stem cells for continuous tissue induction and morphogenesis. The striated rectus abdominis muscle is endowed with stem cell niches in para/perivascular location, which can be dominant, thus imposing stem cell features or stemness to the surrounding cells. This capacity to impose stemness is morphologically shown by greater alveolar bone induction and cementogenesis when hTGF-β3 in Matrigel(®) matrix is combined with morcellated fragments of autogenous rectus abdominis muscle. The induction of periodontal tissue morphogenesis develops as a mosaic structure in which the osteogenic proteins of the TGF-β supergene family singly, synergistically and synchronously

  20. Behavioural Profiles of Brown and Sloth Bears in Captivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintavalle Pastorino, Giovanni; Christodoulides, Yiannis; Curone, Giulio; Pearce-Kelly, Paul; Faustini, Massimo; Albertini, Mariangela; Preziosi, Richard; Mazzola, Silvia Michela

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Animal personality research is a growing field, since understanding animal personalities has notable implications in ecology and the evolution of animal behaviours. In the current study, we tested different methods described in the literature to obtain robust individual behavioural profiles. Data collected through behavioral observations were categorised into activity budgets, space usage, and social interactions for each individual. In addition, behavioural profile questionnaires were completed by the three zoo keepers who had regular interactions with the bears. The questionnaires included 22 adjectives, which were rated on a scale of 1–12 depending on how well they described each individual bear. The mean ratings of the keepers were used to create the behavioural profiles by adding the adjectives to the appropriate domains, according to the NEO Five Factor Inventory of personality model (NEO-FFI). The data gathered was used to produce behavioural profiles for all animals, in order to clarify the personality characteristics of each subject. Testing and improving existing methodologies to determine animal personality is important for providing optimal welfare and management of captive animals, since it can help to develop more effective management regimes in zoos by remodelling husbandry according to each animal’s personality type. Abstract Three brown bear (Ursus arctos arctos) individuals and two sloth bear (Melursus ursinus inornatus) individuals were observed in captivity to produce behavioural profiles for each individual. Data collected through behavioural observations were used to produce activity budgets, and to identify space usage and certain aspects of social behavior. Behaviour monitoring allowed the researchers to evaluate the welfare of the animals by identifying the occurrence of stereotypic behaviours, which are sometimes associated with stress. Behavioural profiles were created using data obtained through behavioural

  1. Jenis-Jenis Tikus (Rodentia: Muridae dan Pakan Alaminya di Daerah Pertanian Sekitar Hutan di Kabupaten Banggai, Sulawesi Tengah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Agus Suripto

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The species diversity of rats (Fam. Muridae differs on each island in Indonesia. There are at least 16 genera of 41 species of rats in Sulawesi Island. Recently it has been reported that rats attack relatively new paddy field surrounding forest, but the identity of the species is still unknown. The objectives of this research are to assess the rat’s diversity and the guilds of rats living around the forest. The research was done in agricultural area surrounding forest in Siuna, foothill of Tompotika Mt, Banggai Regency, Central Sulawesi. Rats in the forest and coconut plantation were captured using Shermann traps, which were randomly situated. Rats in paddy field were captured by trap barrier system (TBS. Habitat condition and the presence of predators were recorded. All rat specimens were identified to their scientific names using Corbert & Hill (1992. Their stomach contents was put in 70% alcohol, taken 5 samples for each stomach, and analyzed under a microscope to determine their feed. The data were interpreted descriptively, which was emphasizing its potency as a pest. The result shows that there are 7 genera i.e. Bunomys, Maxomys, Taeromys, Paruromys, Tateomys, Mus, Rattus and 18 species of rats. Bunomys sp., B. penitus, B. prolatus, Maxomys sp., M. musschenbroekii, M. dollmani, Taeromys sp., T. callitrichus, T. celebensis, T. rhinogradoide, Paruromys ursinus, P. camurus, and P. dominator occupy the forest. B. heinrichi, B. prolatus, M. musschenbroekii, P. camurus, Mus musculus; and Rattus nitidus ocupy coconut plantation. R. argentiventer, R. exulans and R. nitidus occupies the paddy field. The stomach content examination shows that B. prolatus, M. musschenbroekii, R. exulans, R. nitidus, and T. rhinogradoide eat mostly animal materials, especially member of Phylum Arthropoda; R. argentiventer mostly eat plant material, especially member of Family Graminae (grass family. Unfortunately the stomach contents B. heinrichi, B. penitus, M

  2. Biomimetic Functionalized Surfaces and the Induction of Bone Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripamonti, Ugo

    2017-11-01

    Tissue engineering still needs to assign the molecular basis of pattern formation, tissue induction, and morphogenesis: What next to morphogens and stem cells? Macroporous biomimetic matrices per se, without the addition of the soluble osteogenic molecular signals of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) supergene family, remarkably initiate the induction of bone formation. Carving geometries within different calcium phosphate-based macroporous bioreactors we show that geometric cues imprinted within the macroporous spaces initiate the spontaneous induction of bone. Concavities biomimetize the remodeling cycle of the primate osteonic bone and are endowed with functionalized smart geometric cues that per se initiate osteoblasts' differentiation with the expression and secretion of osteogenic molecular signals that induce bone as a secondary response. To study the role of calcium ions (Ca ++ ) and osteoclastogenesis, coral-derived calcium carbonate (CC)/hydroxyapatite (HA) bioreactors with limited conversion to HA (7% HA/CC) were preloaded with 500 μg of the L-type voltage gated calcium channel blocker verapamil hydrochloride. Bioreactors were also loaded with 240 μg of the bisphosphonate zoledronate, an osteoclast inhibitor, and implanted in heterotopic sites of the rectus abdominis muscle of Papio ursinus. Bisphosphonate-treated specimens were characterized by a delayed profoundly inhibited induction of tissue patterning with limited induction of bone. Macroporous constructs pretreated with verapamil hydrochloride yielded limited bone formation. Similarly, 125 or 150 μg human Noggin previously adsorbed onto the macroporous bioreactors resulted in minimal bone formation by induction, indirectly showing that the initiation of bone formation is through the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway. Downregulation of BMP-2 and osteogenic protein-1 (OP-1) with upregulation of Noggin correlated with limited bone induction. Angiogenesis, capillary sprouting

  3. Uso de modelos lineares mistos na avaliação genética de escores visuais: estudo de simulação

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    L.O. Duitama

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a aplicação da metodologia de modelos lineares mistos em características de escores visuais por meio de simulação, considerando-se duas estruturas populacionais (com e sem seleção, dois níveis de herdabilidade (0,1 e 0,4 e quatro níveis de conectabilidade (8, 20, 38 e 60%. As populações com e sem seleção estavam constituídas por 6660 e 3360 animais, respectivamente, dos quais os últimos 2460 animais tinham fenótipo para o escore visual. Assumiu-se uma variável contínua adjacente ao escore visual, a partir da qual foram definidos os intervalos correspondentes a cada categoria de escore visual. O processo de simulação foi feito por meio do software R, e a estimação de parâmetros e predição de valores genéticos pelo software Wombat, sob modelo animal, considerando-se modelos com e sem efeitos fixos. Os critérios de avaliação foram: o erro quadrático médio (EQM para a herdabilidade e as correlações de Spearman entre os valores genéticos verdadeiros e preditos. As estimativas da herdabilidade apresentaram-se próximas do valor verdadeiro nos cenários sem seleção (0,084-0,101 e 0,367-0,389, no entanto este resultado não ocorreu quando houve seleção, pois a herdabilidade apresentou-se subestimada (0,032 e 0,278. As correlações apresentaram-se maiores nos cenários sem seleção e com herdabilidade de 0,4 (0,86-0,89. Em todos os cenários simulados, a inclusão do efeito fixo no modelo melhorou as estimativas de herdabilidade e as correlações entre os valores genéticos verdadeiros e preditos. O nível de conectabilidade afetou a correção dos efeitos fixos feita pela atribuição dos escores. Em conclusão, a metodologia dos modelos lineares mistos pode ser utilizada na estimação de parâmetros e predição de valores genéticos de escores visuais em populações sem seleção, entretanto não se apresenta adequada em populações sob seleção.

  4. The epidemiology of tuberculosis in free-ranging African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, V; Bengis, R G; Kriek, N P; Michel, A; Keet, D F; Raath, J P; Huchzermeyer, H F

    2001-06-01

    The presence of bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) in the Kruger National Park (KNP) was determined for the first time in 1990. It was diagnosed in an African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) bull, which was found recumbent and in an emaciated and moribund state near the south-western boundary fence. This prompted an investigation into the bovine tuberculosis (BTB) status of the KNP, with emphasis on its epidemiological determinants and risk factors. This report documents the findings of surveys that were conducted from 1990 to 1996. It was found that BTB had entered the KNP ecosystem relatively recently (+/- 1960), and has found favourable circumstances for survival and propagation in a fully susceptible and immunologically naive buffalo population. Indications are that it entered the KNP from across the southern river boundary, where the presence of infected domestic cattle herds had been documented. From there the infection spread through the southern buffalo population and is currently spreading in a northward direction. It was estimated that this northward spread took place at a rate of about 6 km per year; the prospect being that, if this rate of spread is maintained, the entire KNP may be affected in less than 30 years from now. Spillover from buffalo had already occurred in species such as chacma baboon (Papio ursinus), lion (Panthera leo), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) and leopard (Panthera pardus). Although there is no indication yet that these species act as maintenance hosts, the possibility is raised that these, or an as yet overlooked species, might assume such a role in future. In the KNP, BTB manifests itself as a chronic and predominantly subclinical disease in buffalo. It may take years for clinical signs to develop, and then only at a terminal stage, when emaciation is a constant feature. It is suspected that the time from infection to death is variable and dependent on the animal's immune response, which can be

  5. Introduction pages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu E. Sestras

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Pages and Table of Contents Research ArticlesInsulin Requirements in Relation to Insulin Pump Indications in Type 1 DiabetesPDFGabriela GHIMPEŢEANU,\tSilvia Ş. IANCU,\tGabriela ROMAN,\tAnca M. ALIONESCU259-263Comparative Antibacterial Efficacy of Vitellaria paradoxa (Shea Butter Tree Extracts Against Some Clinical Bacterial IsolatesPDFKamoldeen Abiodun AJIJOLAKEWU,\tFola Jose AWARUN264-268A Murine Effort Model for Studying the Influence of Trichinella on Muscular Activity of MicePDFIonut MARIAN,\tCălin Mircea GHERMAN,\tAndrei Daniel MIHALCA269-271Prevalence and Antibiogram of Generic Extended-Spectrum β-Lactam-Resistant Enterobacteria in Healthy PigsPDFIfeoma Chinyere UGWU,\tMadubuike Umunna ANYANWU,\tChidozie Clifford UGWU,\tOgbonna Wilfred UGWUANYI272-280Index of Relative Importance of the Dietary Proportions of Sloth Bear (Melursus ursinus in Semi-Arid RegionPDFTana P. MEWADA281-288Bioaccumulation Potentials of Momordica charantia L. Medicinal Plant Grown in Lead Polluted Soil under Organic Fertilizer AmendmentPDFOjo Michael OSENI,\tOmotola Esther DADA,\tAdekunle Ajayi ADELUSI289-294Induced Chitinase and Chitosanase Activities in Turmeric Plants by Application of β-D-Glucan NanoparticlesPDFSathiyanarayanan ANUSUYA,\tMuthukrishnan SATHIYABAMA295-298Present or Absent? About a Threatened Fern, Asplenium adulterinum Milde, in South-Eastern Carpathians (RomaniaPDFAttila BARTÓK,\tIrina IRIMIA299-307Comparative Root and Stem Anatomy of Four Rare Onobrychis Mill. (Fabaceae Taxa Endemic in TurkeyPDFMehmet TEKİN,\tGülden YILMAZ308-312Propagation of Threatened Nepenthes khasiana: Methods and PrecautionsPDFJibankumar S. KHURAIJAM,\tRup K. ROY313-315Alleviate Seed Ageing Effects in Silybum marianum by Application of Hormone Seed PrimingPDFSeyed Ata SIADAT,\tSeyed Amir MOOSAVI,\tMehran SHARAFIZADEH316-321The Effect of Halopriming and Salicylic Acid on the Germination of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum under Different Cadmium

  6. Service-Learning in the Undergraduate Geoscience Classroom: Establishing Community Partnerships to Enhance Education in Climate Change Science in Local Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, L. H.; Faust, R.

    2009-12-01

    The complexity of the science surrounding global climate change makes effective communication about this issue to the public difficult, especially at a time when many would argue that public understanding of science in general has decreased. As a service-learning project, a partnership was created between an upper-level environmental studies climate change class at Ursinus College (UC) and the UC Science In Motion (SIM) program to construct an appropriate lab activity that would foster scientific knowledge and abilities in high school students particularly in relation to basic climate change science. The Pennsylvania SIM program is a state-funded initiative to make a selection of lab activities, equipment, and expertise available to teachers at secondary schools at no cost to the schools with the goal to “strengthen the quality of science education for all.” The twelve SIM sites are dispersed throughout PA and serve over 200 school districts overall. The UC SIM program has served over 30 local schools with labs and activities from which the teachers may select. Prior to the partnership discussed here, there were no labs in the UC SIM program that incorporated the concepts of climate change and though a “drop-off” climate change lab was desired, the staff would have no time to design one. The adaptation of a previously written lab set on climate change was assigned as a project for the 9 environmental studies majors at UC enrolled in a Fall 2008 course exploring the science of global climate change. While an advanced course within the environmental studies curriculum, the science backgrounds of the college students themselves were mixed, ranging from science majors to students for whom this was the first or second science course taken at college. In addition to the typical load of coursework, the students worked in small groups on this project throughout the semester, collecting the supplies, testing and adapting the labs, creating a video to guide users

  7. Profiling bone morphogenetic proteins and transforming growth factor-βs by hTGF-β3 pre-treated coral-derived macroporous bioreactors: the power of one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripamonti, Ugo; Dix-Peek, Thérèse; Parak, Ruqayya; Milner, Brenda; Duarte, Raquel

    2015-05-01

    To study the expression profile of bone morphogenetic proteins and transforming growth factor-βs (BMPs and TGFβs), coral-derived calcium carbonate-based macroporous bioreactors with limited conversion to hydroxyapatite (7% HA/CC) were pre-loaded with and without 250 μg hTGF-β3 and implanted in the rectus abdominis of 3 non-human primates Papio ursinus euthanized on day 60. To investigate the required dose of hNoggin, a BMPs antagonist that controls the induction of bone formation, 7% HA/CC were pre-loaded with 150 μg hNoggin, with 125 μg hTGF-β3/150 μg hNoggin, with or without 125 μg hTGF-β3 and implanted in the r. abdominis of 3 additional animals euthanized on day 90. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) evaluated the expression' profile of BMP-2, BMP-3, BMP-4, BMP-6, BMP-7 and TGF-β1, -β2, and -β3 in tissue generating bioreactors as well as in the adjacent r. abdominis muscle. On day 60, 250 μg hTGF-β3 induced bone formation at the periphery of the implanted bioreactors only. On day 90, 125 μg hTGF-β3/treated bioreactors showed the induction of bone formation throughout the macroporous spaces. Untreated bioreactors induced bone, 4.11% vs. 2.00% on days 60 and 90, respectively. In hTGF-β3/treated bioreactors, BMP-2 and BMP-3 were up-regulated at both time periods, both in the homogenized constructs and in the adjacent r. abdominis muscle whilst BMP-4 in the homogenized construct only. In untreated 7% HA/CC constructs, BMP-2 was up-regulated in the macroporous construct only. On day 60, 250 μg hTGF-β3/treated and untreated macroporous constructs showed up-regulation of TGF-β1 with a six fold increase vs. TGF-β1 expression in adjacent muscle of untreated constructs. TGF-β2 was down regulated in both untreated and 250 μg hTGF-β3/treated bioreactors. On day 60, 250 μg hTGF-β3/treated bioreactors showed TGF-β3 expression in untreated, treated and adjacent muscle tissues. On day 90, BMP-2 was up

  8. Patterns in prey use among fur seals and seabirds in the Pribilof Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, E. H.; Vlietstra, L. S.; Johnson, D. S.; Zeppelin, T. K.; Byrd, G. V.; Springer, A. M.; Ream, R. R.; Hunt, G. L., Jr.

    2008-08-01

    We explored correlation in diet trends for five piscivorous predators that reproduce on the Pribilof Islands as illustrative of the shifting structure of the Bering Sea ecosystem. We evaluated the size and species of prey consumed by adult female and juvenile northern fur seals ( Callorhinus ursinus) and adults and chicks of black-legged kittiwakes ( Rissa tridactyla), red-legged kittiwakes ( Rissa brevirostris), thick-billed murres ( Uria lomvia), and common murres ( Uria aalge) from data collected between July and October 1960-2000. Sample sources included stomachs from seals and seabirds collected on pelagic foraging grounds in the eastern Bering Sea, seal scats from rookeries and seabird regurgitations and whole prey from nest sites on St. Paul and St. George Islands of the Pribilof Island archipelago. Typical prey included small fish and invertebrates (⩽20 cm for seals and ⩽12 cm for seabirds) that concentrate along frontal boundaries of the continental shelf/slope and in the epi-pelagic zone. Squids and fishes including walleye pollock ( Theragra chalcogramma), capelin ( Mallotus villosus), and sand lance ( Ammodytes hexapterus) were variably important in the diet of all five predators. Some prey, such as capelin, were principal in predator diets during the 1960s (seals) and into the early 1980s (seabirds), but declined or disappeared from all predator diets thereafter while others, such as walleye pollock, occurred with increasing frequency from the 1970s forward. As the number of individuals consuming walleye pollock increased, the overall volume of pollock in seabird diets declined. This decline was coincident with a decrease in the age and body size of pollock consumed by both seabirds and fur seals. Squid and pollock were negatively correlated in the diets of their primary consumers, northern fur seals (Pearson's coefficient -0.71, p=0.016) and thick-billed murres (Pearson's coefficient=-0.74, p=0.015) from the 1970s forward. Inter-island variation

  9. Genetic analysis of milk solid no-fat percentage by fixed and random regression models in Kurdi sheep of Shirvan

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    fatemh kazemi borzel abad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Milk solid no-fat is economically very important in cheese industry. Compared to the other kinds of milk, ewe’s milk contains higher amount of milk solids no-fat. Milk solids no-fat (MSNF contains lactose, caseins, whey proteins, and minerals. The use of test day records in random regression method has several benefits including flexibility to account for the environmental and genetic components of the shape of lactation, reducing generation interval and cost of recording by making fewer measurements, increasing the accuracy of genetic evaluation and direct correction for fixed effects. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to estimate genetic parameters for test-day milk solid no-fat percentage in Kurdi sheep of Shirvan using fixed and random regression models. Materials and methods In the present investigation, genetic analysis of milk solid no-fat percentage was carried out using fixed and random regression models by Wombat software. Data included 1094 test day records of milk solid no-fat percentage collected from 250 ewes in Hossien Abad Kurdi sheep breeding station. Milking was carried out by hand milking combined with lamb suckling at 14 days interval starting from May to August 2012. Then, 50 ml of milk samples were immediately analysed by Ecomilk total to determine the milk solid no-fat percentage. Fixed effects of litter size, parity, month of recording and days in milk as covariate and random effects of direct genetic and permanent environmental effects were included in the models. General linear model was used to identify effective fixed effects on the trait by SAS 9.1 software. Variance and covariance components were estimated using restricted maximum likelihood procedure. In random regression model, orthogonal Legendre polynomials of order 2 for permanent environmental and additive genetic effects was fitted. Results and Discussion Average milk solid no-fat percentage of Kurdi ewes was 11.83. Average

  10. Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of age at first calving in Iranian Holstein dairy cows

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    Atefeh Seyeddokht

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Age at first calving (AFC has an important effect on profitability and reproductive management of dairy cattle. Every month increase in AFC beyond 24 months increases the cost of production. The time between birth and first calving represents a period in which replacement heifers are not generating income. Instead this rearing period requires considerable capital expenditures including feed, housing, and veterinary expenses. These expenses constitute 15% to 20% of the total expenses related to milk production. A basic approach to reduce this cost is to decrease the time between birth and her first freshening. Worldwide recommendations for one particular AFC might be an incorrect management goal for all of the cattle on all of the farms, since the recommendation might not represent the management goals and/or capabilities of a particular production system or farm. We realize that each dairy has its own set of unique management and environmental conditions, which makes a universal AFC and BW after first calving, a difficult goal to achieve. The AFC has a profound influence on the total cost of raising dairy replacements in which older calving heifers are more expensive to raise than younger ones. Materials and methods: A total of 19499 calving records belonged to 96 herd from 1996 to 2008 were used to estimate genetic components and genetic trend for age at first calving in Holstein dairy cows of Iran. Data were analyzed using a univariate model and Wombat software. Linear regression of estimated breeding values on calving year was used to estimate genetic trend. Results and Discussion: Estimated genetic trend was positive for some years and was negative for others and showed that reducing age at first calving has not been considered in the selection strategies; however, the phenotypic trend was decreased. The age at first calving for Yazd, Markazi, and southern Khorasan provinces were the highest and for Kermanshah, East Azarbayjan

  11. Estimation of genetic, phenotypic and environmental trends for body weights at different ages in Lori sheep

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    zahra yeganehpour

    2016-04-01

    estimation genetic gain. Little information is available on the estimation genetic trends for body weight traits in Lori sheep. Hereupon the objective of the present study was to estimate genetic, phenotypic and environmental trends for body weight traits at different ages in Lori sheep to assess the breeding programmes. Material and Methods In the current study, 6440, 5646, 5073 and 4757 records of birth weight (BW, weaning weigh (WW, 6-month weigh (6MW and 9-month weigh (9MW of Lori sheep were used. Data were collected from 2001 to 2010 by the agricultural and natural resources research centre of Lorestan province Lorestan Agricultural & Natural Resources Research Center. Direct and maternal heritability were estimated using restricted maximum likelihood by fitting six uni-variate animal models. Akaike’s information criterion (AIC was used to selecting (to select or in/for selecting the most appropriate model for each trait. Breeding values were estimated by the best model for uni-variate analysis. Genetic, phenotypic and environmental trends were calculated by regression of means of predicted breeding values, phenotypic means and difference between estimated means of breeding values and phenotypic means on birth year for each trait, respectively. Wombat software was performed to obtaining direct and maternal (co variance components and heritability estimations for body weight at different ages in Lori sheep. Genetic trends analyses were performed by the regression procedure of the SAS software package. Results and Discussion The phenotypic trends for BW, WW, 6MW and 9MW were 0.016, 0.065, 0.032 and -0.783 kg per year, respectively. The direct genetic trends for BW, WW, 6MW and 9MW were 0.008, 0.001, 0.055 and 0.076 kg per year, respectively. The direct genetic trends were significant for all of the traits with the exception of 9MW. Genetic gain for BW, WW, 6MW and 9MW were 0.061, 0.007, 0.139 and 0.150 kg after 10 years, respectively. Hence, genetic gain for all of the

  12. Genetic analysis of production traits of Holstein cows in the Mediterranean climate of Iran using random regression and animal model

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    Mohammad Jabarzadeh Ivrigh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Productive traits such as milk production and fat and protein percentage have economic importance in the livestock industry. Accurate prediction of breeding value of animals is one of the best tools available for maximizing response to selection program. It is a fact that the main objective of the breeding program, is to achieve the maximum economic benefit. For breeders of dairy cattle, milk, fat, and protein are the main sources of income that are the most important traits in the firm goals. For evaluating the dairy cattle based on these traits (milk production, fat, and protein percentage, prediction of breeding values is essential. The present study was performed in order to estimate the genetic and phenotypic parameters and genetic and phenotypic trends of production traits in the Mediterranean climate of Iran (including; Ardebil, Hamadan, East and West Azerbaijan and Zanjan provinces using 105118 records for Test Day and 30985 records for 305-day lactation records Related 8808 Herd of first lactation Holstein Cattle calving between 2003 to 2013. All records collected by Animal Breeding Center of Iran. Materials and Methods Records were edited using Fox pro 8.0 and ACCESS 2010 software and the wrong and unusual records were removed from the dataset. All analyses were performed using the RR (random regression routine of the WOMBAT software package using AIREML algorithm on Linux operation system. Test day records were analyzed with the following random regression model (RRM: Where; Pk; kth fixed effect of province, YSl; lth fixed effect of year-season of calving, Yklimnptv; test day record i obtained at dimt of cow p calved at the nth age group in herd-test day m, HTDm; fixed effect of mth herd-test date, Cf; The fth fixed regression coefficient for calving age, agen; The nth calving age, k; The order of fit for fixed regression coefficients (k=4, βr; The rth fixed regression coefficient, ka; The order of fit for additive

  13. Estimation of Genetic Parameters of Kleiber Ratio and Growth Traits in Kurdish Sheep

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    Davoud Ali Saghi

    2016-11-01

    restricted maximum likelihood (REML method fitting six animal models using WOMBAT (18: y =Xb+Zaa+e Model 1 y=Xb+Zaa+Zpepe+e Model 2 y =Xb+Zaa+Zmm+e\tCov(a,m=0\tModel 3 y =Xb+Zaa+Zmm+e\tCov(a,m=Aσam\tModel 4 y =Xb+Zaa+Zmm+Zpepe+e\tCov(a,m=0\tModel 5 y =Xb+Zaa+Zmm+Zpepe+e\tCov(a,m= Aσam\tModel 6 where y: is a vector of records, b: is a vector of fixed effects, a: is a vector of direct additive genetic effects, m: is a vector of maternal additive genetic effects, pe: is a vector of permanent environmental effects due to ewe, X, Za, Zm and Zpe are corresponding design matrices relating the fixed effects, direct additive genetic effects, maternal additive genetic effects and permanent environmental effects due to ewe to vector of y, respectively, e: is a vector of residual effects, and Cov(a,m: is the covariance between direct additive genetic and maternal additive genetic effects. Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC was used for selecting the best model among the tested models (3: Where logLi: is the maximized log likelihood of model i at convergence and pi: is the number of the parameters in each model. Model with the lowest AIC was considered as the best model for each trait. Estimation of genetic and phenotypic correlations was accomplished using multi-trait analysis (with model 1. The fixed effects included in the multi-trait animal models were those in single-trait analyses. Results and Discussion The pre-weaning average daily gain in Kurdish lambs was 215.33±0.96 g, while this trait in post-weaning periods had a decreased trend. These values (especially in pre-weaning period indicated that Kurdish lambs have a good potential for growth. Results from the analysis of variance of ADG and KR in different ages showed that birth year and sex of the lambs significantly influenced studied traits (P< 0.01. Type of birth had significant effect (P< 0.01 on ADG0-3, ADG3-6, KR1 and KR2. The effect of ewe age was significant for ADG0-3 and KR1. The significant effects of fixed