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Sample records for wolnych diep scap

  1. Sensors for SCAPS

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    The Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System (SCAPS) platform consists of a 20-ton truck equipped with vertical hydraulic rams that are used to force a cone penetrometer into the ground at a speed of 2 cm/sec to depths of approximately 50 m in nominally consolidated fine-grained soils when using a 100-m umbilical cable (25 m when using 50-m umbilical cables). The SCAPS program is currently conducting field verification investigations on state-of-the-art penetrometer mounted sens...

  2. Rietvlei (CW24) and Diep (CW25)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grindley, JR

    1988-05-01

    Full Text Available . This report is part of a series on Cape Estuaries being published under the general title "The Estuaries of the Cape, Part 2". The report entails available historical information on Rietvlei and Diep estuary and abiotic and biotic characteristics found...

  3. Enhanced SCAP glycosylation by inflammation induces macrophage foam cell formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhou

    Full Text Available Inflammatory stress promotes foam cell formation by disrupting LDL receptor feedback regulation in macrophages. Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Proteins (SREBPs Cleavage-Activating Protein (SCAP glycosylation plays crucial roles in regulating LDL receptor and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCoAR feedback regulation. The present study was to investigate if inflammatory stress disrupts LDL receptor and HMGCoAR feedback regulation by affecting SCAP glycosylation in THP-1 macrophages. Intracellular cholesterol content was assessed by Oil Red O staining and quantitative assay. The expression of molecules controlling cholesterol homeostasis was examined using real-time quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting. The translocation of SCAP from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER to the Golgi was detected by confocal microscopy. We demonstrated that exposure to inflammatory cytokines increased lipid accumulation in THP-1 macrophages, accompanying with an increased SCAP expression even in the presence of a high concentration of LDL. These inflammatory cytokines also prolonged the half-life of SCAP by enhancing glycosylation of SCAP due to the elevated expression of the Golgi mannosidase II. This may enhance translocation and recycling of SCAP between the ER and the Golgi, escorting more SREBP2 from the ER to the Golgi for activation by proteolytic cleavages as evidenced by an increased N-terminal of SREBP2 (active form. As a consequence, the LDL receptor and HMGCoAR expression were up-regulated. Interestingly, these effects could be blocked by inhibitors of Golgi mannosidases. Our results indicated that inflammation increased native LDL uptake and endogenous cholesterol de novo synthesis, thereby causing foam cell formation via increasing transcription and protein glycosylation of SCAP in macrophages. These data imply that inhibitors of Golgi processing enzymes might have a potential vascular-protective role in prevention of atherosclerotic foam

  4. SCAP - a Shaped Charge Analysis Program: user's manual for SCAP 1. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, A.C.

    1985-04-01

    The basic modeling and format for a shaped charge analysis program, SCAP, is described. The code models the motion of liner elements due to explosive loading, jet formation, jet breakup and target penetration through application of a series of analytical approximations. The structure of the code is intended to provide flexibility in shaped charge device and target configurations and in modeling techniques. The code is designed for interactive use and produces both printed and plotted output. Examples of code output are given and compared with experimental data. 19 refs., 13 figs.

  5. Spacial and objective decompositions for very large SCAPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, Russell W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Van Hentenryck, Pascal [BROWN UNIV.; Coffrin, Carleton [BROWN UNIV.

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the single commodity allocation problem (SCAP) for disaster recovery, a fundamental problem faced by all populated areas. SCAPs are complex stochastic optimization problems that combine resource allocation, warehouse routing, and parallel fleet routing. Moreover, these problems must be solved under tight run-time constraints to be practical in real-world disaster situations. This paper revisits the SCAP algorithm proposed in and proposes new storage allocation models that are necessary to enable the algorithm to scale to problem sizes of three orders of magnitude greater (250, 500, 1000 storage locations). The new algorithms are validated on large-scale hurricane disaster scenarios generated by Los Alamos National Laboratory using state-of-the-art disaster simulation tools.

  6. SCAP gene polymorphisms decrease the risk of nonalcoholic fatty ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 92; Issue 3. SCAP gene polymorphisms decrease the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in females with metabolic syndrome. Shanshan Sun Miao Wang Haiyan Song Tao Wu Huafeng Wei Songhua He Zhaoguo Ding Guang Ji. Research Note Volume 92 Issue 3 December ...

  7. SCAP gene polymorphisms decrease the risk of nonalcoholic fatty ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In our study, the association between SCAP gene poly- morphisms and lipid levels/BMI was not observed. BMI and lipid levels were strongly related to NAFLD but did not completely indicate the status of NAFLD. Although. NAFLD is usually associated with obesity and hyperlipi- daemia, nonobese patients can also present ...

  8. The SCAP/SREBP Pathway: A Mediator of Hepatic Steatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ah Moon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is strongly associated with insulin resistance, obesity, and dyslipidemia. NAFLD encompasses a wide range of states from the simple accumulation of triglycerides in the hepatocytes to serious states accompanied by inflammation and fibrosis in the liver. De novo lipogenesis has been shown to be a significant factor in the development of hepatic steatosis in insulin-resistant states. Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c is the main transcription factor that mediates the activation of lipogenesis, and SREBP cleavage activating protein (SCAP is required for the activation of SREBPs. Here, recent animal studies that suggest SCAP as a therapeutic target for hepatic steatosis and hypertriglyceridemia are discussed.

  9. Effect van diepe vooroeversuppletie bij Callantsoog op de benthosgemeenschap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijsman, J.W.M.; Craeymeersch, J.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Bij Callantsoog is er een diepe vooroeversuppletie voorzien van 1.6 miljoen m3. Doordat deze suppletie bij wijze van experiment dieper (ca -10 m NAP) wordt uitgevoerd dan reguliere vooroeversuppleties (-3 tot -8 meter NAP) is er een uitgebreid monitoringsprogramma opgesteld om het gedrag en de

  10. PAQR3 modulates cholesterol homeostasis by anchoring Scap/SREBP complex to the Golgi apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Daqian; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Yuxue; Jiang, Wei; Pan, Yi; Song, Bao-Liang; Chen, Yan

    2015-08-27

    Cholesterol biosynthesis is regulated by transcription factors SREBPs and their escort protein Scap. On sterol depletion, Scap/SREBP complex is transported from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus where SREBP is activated. Under cholesterol sufficient condition, Insigs act as anchor proteins to retain Scap/SREBP in the ER. However, the anchor protein of Scap/SREBP in the Golgi is unknown. Here we report that a Golgi-localized membrane protein progestin and adipoQ receptors 3 (PAQR3) interacts with Scap and SREBP and tethers them to the Golgi. PAQR3 promotes Scap/SREBP complex formation, potentiates SREBP processing and enhances lipid synthesis. The mutually exclusive interaction between Scap and PAQR3 or Insig-1 is regulated by cholesterol level. PAQR3 knockdown in liver blunts SREBP pathway and decreases hepatic cholesterol content. Disrupting the interaction of PAQR3 with Scap/SREBP by a synthetic peptide inhibits SREBP processing and activation. Thus, PAQR3 regulates cholesterol homeostasis by anchoring Scap/SREBP to the Golgi and disruption of such function reduces cholesterol biosynthesis.

  11. SCAP-TT: Tagging and lemmatising Spanish tourism discourse, and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Goethals; Els Lefever; Lieve Macken

    2017-01-01

    In this research note we report on the first results of SCAP, the Spanish Corpus Annotation Project, applied to tourism discourse (SCAP_tur). In particular, we present and assess a new TreeTagger parameter set for Spanish (SCAP-TT), which has been trained for the Part-of-Speech tagging (POS-tagging) and lemmatisation of Spanish promotional tourism texts. Although SCAP-TT has been trained for specialized tourism discourse, we also show promising results for the annotation of other text genres ...

  12. SCAP-TT: Tagging and lemmatising Spanish tourism discourse, and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Goethals

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research note we report on the first results of SCAP, the Spanish Corpus Annotation Project, applied to tourism discourse (SCAP_tur. In particular, we present and assess a new TreeTagger parameter set for Spanish (SCAP-TT, which has been trained for the Part-of-Speech tagging (POS-tagging and lemmatisation of Spanish promotional tourism texts. Although SCAP-TT has been trained for specialized tourism discourse, we also show promising results for the annotation of other text genres such as essays and literary texts.

  13. Analysis of SCAP N-glycosylation and Trafficking in Human Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chunming; Guo, Jeffrey Yunhua; Geng, Feng; Wu, Xiaoning; Cheng, Xiang; Li, Qiyue; Guo, Deliang

    2016-11-08

    Elevated lipogenesis is a common characteristic of cancer and metabolic diseases. Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), a family of membrane-bound transcription factors controlling the expression of genes important for the synthesis of cholesterol, fatty acids and phospholipids, are frequently upregulated in these diseases. In the process of SREBP nuclear translocation, SREBP-cleavage activating protein (SCAP) plays a central role in the trafficking of SREBP from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi and in subsequent proteolysis activation. Recently, we uncovered that glucose-mediated N-glycosylation of SCAP is a prerequisite condition for the exit of SCAP/SREBP from the ER and movement to the Golgi. N-glycosylation stabilizes SCAP and directs SCAP/SREBP trafficking. Here, we describe a protocol for the isolation of membrane fractions in human cells and for the preparation of the samples for the detection of SCAP N-glycosylation and total protein by using western blot. We further provide a method to monitor SCAP trafficking by using confocal microscopy. This protocol is appropriate for the investigation of SCAP N-glycosylation and trafficking in mammalian cells.

  14. Behandelmogelijkheden bij het oplossen van diepe carieuze laesies bij kinderen. Deel 1: introductie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krikken, J.

    2011-01-01

    In dit nummer van het Mondhygiënisten Vademecum het eerste deel van een serie artikelen over de ‘Behandelmogelijkheden bij het oplossen van diepe carieuze laesies bij kinderen’. In deze serie artikelen wordt diepe cariës omschreven als een carieuze laesie waarvan op grond van klinische en

  15. Colgajo DIEP: expandiendo sus usos clínicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German Wolff-Idárraga

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes y Objetivos. La reconstrucción de los defectos de tejidos blandos de la región del muslo raramente aparece en la literatura. Para resolver estos defectos, están descritas varias opciones, incluyendo el uso de colgajos regionales y libres. Pacientes y Método. Presentamos nuestra experiencia clínica con 2 pacientes de sexo femenino, que presentaban defectos extensos en muslo, y que fueron reconstruidos con colgajo DIEP (Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator. Resultados. Tras el procedimiento ambos defectos fueron cubiertos adecuadamente, recuperando el contorno y proporcionando satisfacción a las pacientes. En el segundo caso se presentó un seroma que requirió drenaje quirúrgico. Conclusiones. Los defectos de la región del muslo pueden llegar a ser extensos y provocar un gran déficit de contorno y una apariencia inestética, y es en estos casos donde se requieren reconstrucciones más complejas. Las indicaciones del colgajo DIEP para reconstrucción de miembro inferior deben incluir la reconstrucción de esta zona, siendo de gran utilidad en las pacientes femeninas gracias a las ventajas que proporciona el área donante.

  16. Satisfacción en pacientes con reconstrucción mamaria con colgajo D.I.E.P. Patient’s satisfaction after diep flap reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    E. Cabrera Sánchez; A. Redondo Camacho; A. Dean Ferrer; J.R. Benítez i Gomá; C. Torre Beltrami; G. De Piero Belmonte; J. Navarro Rodríguez; H. Molina Sánchez; J.N. Ramírez Sobrino; L.F. Rioja Torrejón

    2006-01-01

    La reconstrucción mamaria tras mastectomía se realiza primordialmente para proporcionar calidad de vida a la paciente. Este estudio se desarrolló para valorar la satisfacción y calidad de vida de las pacientes reconstruidas mediante colgajo D.I.E.P. (Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator) y evaluar el resultado estético de la reconstrucción. Treinta y tres pacientes, de 51 reconstrucciones mamarias con colgajo DIEP realizadas entre enero de 2000 y noviembre de 2004 fueron preguntadas acerca de ...

  17. Accurately costing unilateral delayed DIEP flap breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paget, J T; Young, K C; Wilson, S M

    2013-07-01

    Free tissue transfer for breast reconstruction is widely practiced in the UK and its availability forms part of the NICE guidelines in treating breast cancer. Free flap reconstruction scores highly on patient reported outcome measures for both immediate and delayed procedures. However there are significant resource implications and a concern that the financial burden is not adequately met by the fixed price tariff system (Payment by Results). This study aims to compare the cost of treatment with both local financial estimates and reimbursement. We conducted a prospective costing analysis for 10 consecutive delayed unilateral DIEP breast reconstructions from August 2011 by a single surgeon in Frenchay Hospital, Bristol. Comparison was made to both the hospital's costing estimates and the Health Resource Group (HRG) tariffs received for 27 similar cases performed by the same surgeon in the 2010-11 financial year. The mean treatment cost for performing a delayed unilateral DIEP procedure was £7628 (±£754 Standard Deviation). This compared to an estimate from the financial department of £8072±(£1683 SD). These values were not significantly different (p=0.27). The HRG tariff was £8792 (±£423 SD). There was an average net income of £720 per case. Personnel in theatre represented the largest cost area at an average of 73% of total cost. This study highlights that the costs of this procedure have been estimated accurately by the financial department and that the current HRG code provides adequate reimbursement. The new HRG code for 2012-13, HRG JA14z, provides significantly less reimbursement at £7012 and measures need to be taken to address this. This study has identified that personnel costs are the greatest contributor to overall cost and allowed us to recognise and implement changes to improve efficiency. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of Short Chained Alkylphenols (SCAP in Analysis of Transport Behaviour of Oil Contaminated Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sauter

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Shortchained alkylphenols (SCAP represent a main constituent of crude oil and coal liquefaction products. Due to their specific oil/water partitioning behaviour and high aqueous solubility they can be detected in oil exploitation waters and groundwaters affected by various spills near oil pipelines, oil exploitation sites and coal liquefaction plants. New efficient and powerful analytical techniques have been developed that allow the identification of all 34 individual compounds (C0-C3 without derivatisation and in complex matrices. Due to the different physico-chemical properties of the SCAP, differential transport behaviour in groundwater can be observed, changing the relative concentrations of SCAP downgradient in space and time. These characteristic ratios can be employed to derive information on migration direction and the ageing of the source of contamination. A case study is presented to illustrate the use of this new tool.

  19. Remodelación de los colgajos TRAM libres y DIEP Reshaping in free TRAM and DIEP flaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fidalgo Rodríguez

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available La reconstrucción mamaria mediante autotrasplante microquirúrgico es la técnica de elección en la mayoría de las pacientes mastectomizadas. Los avances técnicos han permitido el desarrollo del colgajo TRAM libre y posteriormente del Colgajo DIEP como exponentes más representativos del arsenal terapéutico en este campo. Para los cirujanos reconstructores la práctica de estas intervenciones supone un auténtico reto; un reto que ha de convertirse en el quehacer diario de los Servicios de Cirugía Plástica y Reconstructiva, si quieren adaptarse a los tiempos modernos. En nuestro Servicio estas técnicas comienzan a aplicarse en 1999 y desde entonces se han llevado a cabo en 42 casos. Al principio se prestaba mayor atención al desarrollo del proceso microquirúrgico y el cirujano centraba su esfuerzo en la consecución de una sutura óptima que asegurara la supervivencia del colgajo. Una vez conseguido esto, lo demás se consideraba secundario. No obstante nuestra concepción ha cambiado y actualmente centramos el proceso no sólo en lo anterior, sino en la remodelación adecuada del colgajo para dotar a la mama de un aspecto verdaderamente auténtico. En el presente trabajo se exponen una serie de consejos que pueden ser útiles a la hora de concluir la reconstrucción mamaria mediante TRAM libre o DIEP confeccionando una mama de contorno natural, lo más parecida posible a la mama contralateral. Concluimos que en este matiz se encuentra el verdadero éxito de la reconstrucción mamaria.Breast reconstruction through microsurgical autotrasplant is the most common procedure in breast cancer patients. The technical advances have allowed the development of the free TRAM flap (later the DIEP flap, which are the prime examples of the therapeutic material in this field. The implementation of microsurgical techniques has improved the results in breast reconstruction by increasing the survival rate and decreasing the complications. For plastic

  20. energy efficiency of a photovoltaic cell based thin films czts by scaps

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mebarkia C, Dib D, Zerfaoui H, Belghith R

    2016-05-01

    May 1, 2016 ... ZnSe.)/CZTS)on the electrical characteristics of a solar cell based CZTS. Using SCAPS 1D software to simulate the physical characteristics (current density Jsc short circuit, open circuit voltage VCO, form factor FF and the conversion efficiency of the solar cell studied (η). 2. SOLAR CELLBASED ON CZTS.

  1. DIEP Flap Breast Reconstruction Using 3-dimensional Surface Imaging and a Printed Mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Tomita, MD, PhD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Recent advances in 3-dimensional (3D surface imaging technologies allow for digital quantification of complex breast tissue. We performed 11 unilateral breast reconstructions with deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP flaps (5 immediate, 6 delayed using 3D surface imaging for easier surgery planning and 3D-printed molds for shaping the breast neoparenchyma. A single- or double-pedicle flap was preoperatively planned according to the estimated tissue volume required and estimated total flap volume. The DIEP flap was then intraoperatively shaped with a 3D-printed mold that was based on a horizontally inverted shape of the contralateral breast. Cosmetic outcomes were assessed as satisfactory, as confirmed by the postoperative 3D measurements of bilateral breasts. We believe that DIEP flap reconstruction assisted with 3D surface imaging and a 3D-printed mold is a simple and quick method for rebuilding a symmetric breast.

  2. Análisis de controversias en reconstrucción mamaria con colgajo DIEP Analysis of debated uses in mammary reconstruction with DIEP flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Casado Sánchez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La reconstrucción mamaria mediante colgajo DIEP (Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator se encuentra condicionada en muchas ocasiones por características de la paciente o del tratamiento oncológico recibido, de tal forma que diversos grupos de trabajo contraindican este método en caso de existir alguno de esos factores. Nosotros hemos realizado un estudio de los mismos, analizando su impacto sobre la viabilidad del colgajo y su correlación con las complicaciones postoperatorias, para optimizar así su indicación. Los condicionantes analizados son el tabaco, las intervenciones quirúrgicas previas que afecten en alguna medida la pared abdominal, el sobrepeso u obesidad de la paciente, el volumen de la mama contralateral, el tratamiento radioterápico anterior o posterior a la reconstrucción, y finalmente el gasto sanitario que supone. Estas controversias son a su vez las más discutidas en la literatura al respecto. Se valoran los resultados obtenidos tras 55 reconstrucciones mamarias mediante colgajo DIEP entre enero de 2000 y noviembre de 2005, así como los estudios y publicaciones más recientes existentes sobre esta materia. Hemos encontrado una pobre correlación entre los índices de fracaso del colgajo y las controversias estudiadas, determinando así dos contraindicaciones absolutas para que una paciente pudiese beneficiarse de un colgajo DIEP: abdominoplastia previa y radioterapia adyuvante tras reconstrucción inmediata. Los excelentes resultados que se obtienen globalmente, nos llevan a recomendar este colgajo por encima de otras opciones terapéuticas.The use of DIEP (Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator flap surgery in breast reconstruction is often conditioned by the patient and the oncologic treatment characteristics to such an extent that several working groups advise against this surgical procedure when any of these factors is present. In the study of this interaction, an analysis of its impact on the flap feasibility and its

  3. Reduction of the cholesterol sensor SCAP in the brains of mice causes impaired synaptic transmission and altered cognitive function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Suzuki

    Full Text Available The sterol sensor SCAP is a key regulator of SREBP-2, the major transcription factor controlling cholesterol synthesis. Recently, we showed that there is a global down-regulation of cholesterol synthetic genes, as well as SREBP-2, in the brains of diabetic mice, leading to a reduction of cholesterol synthesis. We now show that in mouse models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, this is, in part, the result of a decrease of SCAP. Homozygous disruption of the Scap gene in the brains of mice causes perinatal lethality associated with microcephaly and gliosis. Mice with haploinsufficiency of Scap in the brain show a 60% reduction of SCAP protein and ~30% reduction in brain cholesterol synthesis, similar to what is observed in diabetic mice. This results in impaired synaptic transmission, as measured by decreased paired pulse facilitation and long-term potentiation, and is associated with behavioral and cognitive changes. Thus, reduction of SCAP and the consequent suppression of cholesterol synthesis in the brain may play an important role in the increased rates of cognitive decline and Alzheimer disease observed in diabetic states.

  4. Optimized conical shaped charge design using the SCAP (Shaped Charge Analysis Program) code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil, M.G.

    1988-09-01

    The Shaped Charge Analysis Program (SCAP) is used to analytically model and optimize the design of Conical Shaped Charges (CSC). A variety of existing CSCs are initially modeled with the SCAP code and the predicted jet tip velocities, jet penetrations, and optimum standoffs are compared to previously published experimental results. The CSCs vary in size from 0.69 inch (1.75 cm) to 9.125 inch (23.18 cm) conical liner inside diameter. Two liner materials (copper and steel) and several explosives (Octol, Comp B, PBX-9501) are included in the CSCs modeled. The target material was mild steel. A parametric study was conducted using the SCAP code to obtain the optimum design for a 3.86 inch (9.8 cm) CSC. The variables optimized in this study included the CSC apex angle, conical liner thickness, explosive height, optimum standoff, tamper/confinement thickness, and explosive width. The non-dimensionalized jet penetration to diameter ratio versus the above parameters are graphically presented. 12 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Preliminary results using a newly developed projection method to visualize vascular anatomy prior to DIEP flap breast reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummelink, S.L.; Hameeteman, M.; Hoogeveen, Y.L.; Slump, C.H.; Ulrich, D.J.O.; Schultze Kool, L.J.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In a deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap breast reconstruction, computed tomography angiography (CTA) is currently considered as the gold standard in preoperative imaging for this procedure. Unidirectional Doppler ultrasound (US) is frequently used; however, this method

  6. Preliminary results using a newly developed projection method to visualize vascular anatomy prior to DIEP flap breast reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummelink, S.; Hofer, S.; Hameeteman, M.; Hoogeveen, Y.; Slump, Cornelis H.; Ulrich, D.J.O.; Schultze Kool, L.J.

    Introduction: In a deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap breast reconstruction, computed tomography angiography (CTA) is currently considered as the gold standard in preoperative imaging for this procedure. Unidirectional Doppler ultrasound (US) is frequently used; however, this method

  7. Vaginal reconstruction with pedicled vertical deep inferior epigastric perforator flap (diep) after pelvic exenteration. A consecutive case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferron, Gwénael; Gangloff, Dimitri; Querleu, Denis; Frigenza, Melanie; Torrent, Juan Jose; Picaud, Laetitia; Gladieff, Laurence; Delannes, Martine; Mery, Eliane; Boulet, Berenice; Balague, Gisele; Martinez, Alejandra

    2015-09-01

    Vaginal reconstruction after pelvic exenteration (PE) represents a challenge for the oncologic surgeon. Since the introduction of perforator flaps, using pedicled vertical DIEP (deep inferior epigastric perforator) flap allows to reduce the donor site complication rate. From November 2012 to December 2014, 27 PEs were performed in our institution. 13 patients who underwent PE with vaginal reconstruction and programmed DIEP procedure for gynecologic malignancies were registered. Nine patients underwent PE for recurrent disease and four for primary treatment. Six of the 13 patients have a preoperative fistula. Anterior PE was performed in 10 patients, and total PE in 3 patients. A vertical DIEP flap was performed in 10 patients using one or two medial perforators. The reasons for abortion of vertical DIEP flap procedure were: failure to localizing perforator vessels in two cases, and unavailability of plastic surgeon in one case. A vertical fascia-sparring rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap was then harvested. Median length of surgery was 335min, and 60min for DIEP harvesting and vaginal reconstruction. No flap necrosis occurred. One patient in the VRAM (vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous) group experienced a late incisional hernia and one patient in the DIEP flap group required revision for vaginal stenosis. In our experience, DIEP flap represents our preferred choice of flap for circumferential vaginal reconstruction after PE. To achieve a high reproducibility, the technically demanding pedicled vertical DIEP flap has to be harvested by a trained surgeon, after strict evaluation of the preoperative imaging with identification and localization of perforator vessels. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. [Construction of pGL3-SM22-SCAP (D443N) eukaryotic expression vector and its expression in CHO cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Hu, Jieli; Cui, Jing; Huang, Ailong; Ruan, Xiongzhong; Chen, Yaxi

    2010-01-01

    The experiment was designed to investigate the function of SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) mutant (D443N) by constructing an eukaryotic expressive vector using a smooth muscle specific promoter SM22 (pGL3-SM22-SCAP(D443N)). SM22 promoter (pSM22) was amplified from genome DNA of mice by nested PCR, and then cloned into pMD-T vector. The SM22 promoter fragment released from the vector by Kpn I and Hind III digestion was sub-cloned into pGL3-control-Luc vector, to form pGL3-SM22-Luc. The activity of pSM22 in human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) was tested using Dual-Luciferase Reporter System. SCAP(D443) mutant amplified from plasmid pTK-HSV-SCAP(D443N) and pSM22 from mice liver were cloned into pGL3-control vector to construct pGL3-SM22-SCAP(D443N) which was transfected into Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) to test SCAP(D443) expression by real-time PCR and Western blot. The sequence and construction of pGL3-SM22-SCAP(D443N) were correct. SM22 promoter activity initiated the expression of luciferase in VSMCs and also drove SCAP(D443) expression in transfected CHO cells. The pGL3-SM22-SCAP(D443N) eukaryotic expression vector was successfully constructed and the recombinant vector provides a powerful approach in investigating the function and regulation of SCAP and also in producing vascular smooth muscle specific SCAP transgenic mice.

  9. Satisfacción en pacientes con reconstrucción mamaria con colgajo D.I.E.P. Patient’s satisfaction after diep flap reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Cabrera Sánchez

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available La reconstrucción mamaria tras mastectomía se realiza primordialmente para proporcionar calidad de vida a la paciente. Este estudio se desarrolló para valorar la satisfacción y calidad de vida de las pacientes reconstruidas mediante colgajo D.I.E.P. (Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator y evaluar el resultado estético de la reconstrucción. Treinta y tres pacientes, de 51 reconstrucciones mamarias con colgajo DIEP realizadas entre enero de 2000 y noviembre de 2004 fueron preguntadas acerca de aspectos generales relativos a la cirugía, imagen corporal y sensación subjetiva. El resultado de imagen corporal fue evaluado por dos observadores externos, un cirujano plástico y una enfermera, además de por la propia paciente. Para valorar la reconstrucción mamaria, se utilizó una escala de 4 puntos. La satisfacción general de nuestro estudio fue más elevada que la observada en estudios precedentes. Hemos conseguido una valoración alta en simetría, dentro de los parámetros objetivos y en integridad corporal entre los subjetivos. Hemos encontrado una correlación alta entre las respuestas de los observadores comparada con las respuestas de las propias pacientes. Por último, hemos visto una fuerte correlación entre integridad corporal y satisfacción generalBreast reconstructions after breast cancer surgery are primarily performed to improve patient’s quality of life. This study investigates patient’s satisfaction and quality of life with breast reconstruction after deep inferior epigastric perforator (D.I.E.P. flap surgery and to evaluate the aesthetic result of the breast reconstruction. Thirty-three patiens, from fifty-one DIEP breast reconstruction made between january 2000 and december 2004 were answered about three questionnaires concerning to general aspect, body image, and subjective sensation. The body image outcome was also evaluated by one plastic surgeon and a nurse. The panel evaluated breast reconstruction on 4 subescales

  10. Reconstrucción de antebrazo con colgajo DIEP: caso clínico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Balaguer-Cambra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Las heridas complejas del antebrazo con fracturas asociadas y pérdida circunferencial de piel, suponen un doble reto reconstructivo. Mostramos el tratamiento de una paciente con lesiones combinadas en el miembro superior tras atrapamiento por rodillos fríos industriales mediante el uso de un colgajo libre de perforante del eje epigástrico inferior profundo (DIEP, tras tratamiento de la fractura articular de la extremidad distal de radio guiado por artroscopia. Conseguimos la estabilización de las fracturas y la cobertura completa del defecto. El colgajo DIEP permite la cobertura de áreas extensas con escasa morbilidad en la zona donante y con un correcto resultado estético.

  11. DIEP Flap for Breast Reconstruction Using Epidural Anesthesia with the Patient Awake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Parra, Miguel; Camacho, Marco; de la Garza, Jonatan

    2016-05-01

    Many articles have been published about breast reconstruction using the deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap; however, few articles have been published in plastic/reconstructive surgery journals describing the difference between anesthetic techniques and recovery in microsurgical patients. We analyzed 16 patients who underwent DIEP flap for breast reconstruction. Patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1: general anesthesia (n = 9); group 2: epidural block with the patient awake (n = 7). In group 2, the peridural block was done at 2 levels: thoracic (T2-T3) and lumbar (L2-L3). The success rate was 100% with no partial or total loss of the flap. There was no difference between groups in regard to postoperative pain in the first 5 days (Visual Analog Scale). Analgesia used in group 1 was buprenorphine and ketorolac, and in group 2, only ketorolac without opioid derivatives. Immediate postoperative recovery was better in the peridural group than in the group administered general anesthesia (P = 0.0001). DIEP flap with peridural block and the patient awake during surgery is a feasible technique with better recovery in the immediate postoperative period, achieving good analgesia level with minimal intravenous medication.

  12. Necrosis de un colgajo DIEP a los doce días de postoperatorio Twelve days postoperative necrosis of a DIEP flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Benito Duque

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos una complicación muy poco frecuente en una paciente mastectomizada y reconstruida con un colgajo DIEP que se necrosó a los 12 días de la intervención, sin apreciarse ninguna causa precipitante. La paciente había sido sometida a radioterapia, que es una causa conocida de retraso en la neovascularización del colgajo. Consideramos que en este tipo de pacientes las medidas dirigidas a la protección del colgajo deben mantenerse durante un período de tiempo mayor que en ausencia de radioterapia.We present an unusual complication suffered by a patient who received a DIEP flap for breast reconstruction and suffered necrosis 12 days after surgery, without existing an objective reason. Patient had been submitted to radiotherapy, that it´s a known reason for delaying in neovascularización of the flap, so we consider that in this patients, measures directed to protect the flap must be extended in time, if compared with those patients without radiotherapy.

  13. The Angiogenic Potential of DPSCs and SCAPs in an In Vivo Model of Dental Pulp Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Hilkens

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adequate vascularization, a restricting factor for the survival of engineered tissues, is often promoted by the addition of stem cells or the appropriate angiogenic growth factors. In this study, human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs and stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAPs were applied in an in vivo model of dental pulp regeneration in order to compare their regenerative potential and confirm their previously demonstrated paracrine angiogenic properties. 3D-printed hydroxyapatite scaffolds containing DPSCs and/or SCAPs were subcutaneously transplanted into immunocompromised mice. After twelve weeks, histological and ultrastructural analysis demonstrated the regeneration of vascularized pulp-like tissue as well as mineralized tissue formation in all stem cell constructs. Despite the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor in vitro, the stem cell constructs did not display a higher vascularization rate in comparison to control conditions. Similar results were found after eight weeks, which suggests both osteogenic/odontogenic differentiation of the transplanted stem cells and the promotion of angiogenesis in this particular setting. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate the successful formation of vascularized pulp-like tissue in 3D-printed scaffolds containing dental stem cells, emphasizing the promising role of this approach in dental tissue engineering.

  14. Construction and validation of the community and socio-political participation scale (SCAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Jiménez, M Pilar; Ríos Rodríguez, M Luisa; Martín, Macarena Vallejo

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of a new instrument, the scale (SCAP) which measures community participation (CP) and socio-political participation (SPP). The sample consists of 756 participants in Málaga, residents whose average age is 38.78 years old (SD = 13.96) and of whom 58.5% are women. The results endorse the psychometric qualities of the instrument. We present descriptive analysis of the items, the dimensionality of the scale and its internal consistency. The external evidence of validity shows positive and statistically significant correlations with sense of community and empowerment, variables theoretically related to participation. A confirmatory factor analysis confirms the two-dimensional structure (CP and SPP). Further analysis show a higher CP in women. This instrument extends the quantitative research on citizen participation.

  15. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography for preoperative imaging in DIEP flap breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaverien, Mark V; Ludman, Catherine N; Neil-Dwyer, Jason; Perks, Graeme B; Akhtar, Nadeem; Rodrigues, Jeremy N; Benetatos, Konstantinos; Raurell, Anna; Rasheed, Tuabin; McCulley, Stephen J

    2011-07-01

    Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography has been shown to be very accurate for identifying the perforator size, location, and intramuscular course, and the associated venous system, without exposing the patient to ionizing radiation. This study reports the authors' experience using this imaging modality in a large patient series. A retrospective review of patients who had undergone preoperative contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography followed by free abdominal flap breast reconstruction was conducted. The results of imaging were compared with intraoperative findings, and surgical outcomes were compared with scan data. The results were compared with control data in patients who did not undergo presurgical imaging. One hundred thirty-two patients underwent contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography presurgical imaging, and the results were compared with 84 controls. The imaging was found to be accurate for evaluating the perforator anatomy for free abdominal flap planning, with a high concordance between imaging and intraoperative findings. Without presurgical angiography, the ratio of deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap-to-free transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap harvest was 0.9:1; with presurgical imaging, the ratio was 1.6:1 (p angiography, there was a mean reduction in operating time of 26 minutes for unilateral DIEP flap harvest and 40 minutes for bilateral harvest, although these values were not significant. There was a significant reduction in the partial flap failure rate with preoperative imaging. Presurgical imaging using contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography demonstrates a high concordance with intraoperative findings. In this series, the percentage of flaps that were raised as DIEP flaps was significantly increased in patients who underwent preoperative imaging, and the partial flap failure rate was significantly reduced. : Therapeutic, III.(Figure is included in full-text article.).

  16. Estudio preoperatorio de vasos receptores en reconstrucción mamaria con colgajo DIEP Preoperative planning of receiver vessels in breast reconstruction with DIEP flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tejerina Botella

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El estudio preoperatorio vascular de cualquier colgajo microquirúrgico es esencial para el buen desarrollo del mismo. En el colgajo DIEP (colgajo de perforante de arteria epigástrica inferior profunda aplicado a la reconstrucción mamaria, se han establecido durante los últimos años diferentes técnicas para la planificación preoperatoria de la anatomía de los vasos perforantes de la arteria epigástrica inferior. Sin embargo, pensamos, que también es muy importante la planificación anatómica preoperatoria de los vasos receptores, que en la mayoría de los casos son la arteria y vena mamarias internas. Estos vasos sufren en ocasiones variaciones anatómicas, llegando incluso a no existir en algunos pacientes. El conocimiento exacto de la localización, permeabilidad y calibre de estos vasos receptores hará que la intervención sea mas rápida y sencilla.An accurate preoperative vascular evaluation of microsurgical flaps is essential for a good procedure. In DIEP (deep inferior epigastric perforator flap, in breast reconstruction, have been described different preoperative techniques to study the anatomy of the deep inferior epigastric perforators. We think that preoperative planning of the receiver vessels, (internal mammary artery and vein, in most of cases is very important too. These vessels have anatomic changes in some patients. To know the exact location, permeability, and calibre of these vessels will help us to have a more easy and quick operation.

  17. Comparing the donor-site morbidity using DIEP, SIEA or MS-TRAM flaps for breast reconstructive surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Rasmussen, Mads Kløvgaard; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2012-01-01

    Countless studies have compared the use of autologous tissue for breast reconstruction; however, rates of donor-site morbidity differ greatly. This study examined the donor-site morbidity of superficial inferior epigastric artery (SIEA), deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) and muscle-spari...

  18. Computed Tomographic Angiography-Based Planning of Bipedicled DIEP Flaps with Intraflap Crossover Anastomosis: An Anatomical and Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Young; Lee, Kyeong-Tae; Mun, Goo-Hyun

    2016-09-01

    When using deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flaps in breast reconstruction, harvesting bipedicled flaps can be a valuable option in cases requiring the transfer of a large portion of harvested flaps. Connecting the bilateral deep inferior epigastric arteries (DIEAs) by intraflap crossover anastomosis is one of the most popular methods of constructing bipedicled DIEP flaps. Planning the primary and secondary pedicle configurations for reliable intraflap crossover anastomosis is crucial. To achieve this, detailed anatomical DIEA information might be helpful. However, meticulous planning of bipedicled DIEP flaps based on computed tomographic angiography has not been reported. Detailed anatomical investigation of DIEA branches was conducted using computed tomographic angiographs of 100 hemiabdomens. Thirty-eight prospectively collected patients who underwent breast reconstruction using bipedicled DIEP flaps with intraflap crossover under computed tomographic angiography-based planning were reviewed. Three intramuscular DIEA branching patterns with distinct branch point topography, branch diameters, and superior continuations cranial to sizable perforators were observed. In the prospective clinical study, a primary pedicle with a recipient branch for intraflap crossover anastomosis could be specified preoperatively using computed tomographic angiography-based anatomical data of the pedicles, including size of DIEA branches or their superior continuation and size of perforators. In all cases, the bipedicle configuration was easily achieved as planned on computed tomographic angiography, and secure perfusion of the entire flap was achieved. The authors' results suggest that computed tomographic angiography provides detailed anatomical DIEA information, and comprehensive analysis of these data allows precise planning of bipedicle configurations with intraflap crossover anastomosis in DIEP flaps. Therapeutic, IV.

  19. Numerical Analysis of Copper-Indium-Gallium-Diselenide-Based Solar Cells by SCAPS-1D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ouédraogo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a one-dimensional simulation program Solar Cell Capacitance Simulator in 1 Dimension (SCAPS-1D to investigate Copper-Indium-Gallium-Diselenide- (CIGS- based solar cells properties. Starting with a conventional ZnO-B/i-ZnO/CdS/CIGS structure, we simulated the parameters of current-voltage characteristics and showed how the absorber layer thickness, hole density, and band gap influence the short-circuit current density (Jsc, open-circuit voltage (Voc, fill factor (FF, and efficiency of solar cell. Our simulation results showed that all electrical parameters are greatly affected by the absorber thickness (w below 1000 nm, due to the increase of back-contact recombination and very poor absorption. Increasing hole density (p or absorber band gap (Eg improves Voc and leads to high efficiency, which equals value of 16.1% when p = 1016 cm−3 and Eg=1.2 eV. In order to reduce back-contact recombination, the effect of a very thin layer with high band gap inserted near the back contact and acting as electrons reflector, the so-called back-electron reflector (EBR, has been investigated. The performances of the solar cells are significantly improved, when ultrathin absorbers (w < 500 nm are used; the corresponding gain of Jsc due to the EBR is 3 mA/cm2. Our results are in good agreement with those reported in the literature from experiments.

  20. DIEP flap customization using Fluobeam® indocyanine green tissue perfusion assessment with large previous abdominal scar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Fallucco

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Fluobeam® is a portable, near-infrared camera that is held and controlled by the surgeon to visualize tissue perfusion using indocyanine green (ICG fluorescence imaging. This case report describes how data obtained from ICG imaging allows intraoperative customization in a previously surgically scarred abdomen during autologous Deep Inferior Epigastric Artery Perforator (DIEP flap bilateral breast reconstruction. The outcome was successful breast mound recreation without fat necrosis.

  1. Controllable design of solid-state perovskite solar cells by SCAPS device simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kai; Lin, Peng; Wang, Gang; Liu, Yan; Xu, Zongchang; Lin, Yixin

    2016-12-01

    The highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of solid-state perovskite solar cells (ssPSCs) has achieved 20.1% recently. There is reason to believe that ssPSCs is a strong competitor with silicon and CIGS solar cells in photovoltaic field. The deep understanding of operation mechanism of ssPSCs is essential and required to furtherly improve device performance. The configuration and excition type are similar to inorganic semiconductor solar cells. Therefore, Solar Cell Capacitance Simulator (SCAPS), a device simulator widely using in inorganic solar cells, was employed to controllably design ssPSCs. The validity of device simulation was verified by comparing with real devices from reported literatures. The influence of absorber thickness on device property was discussed, which indicate that it exists an optimal thickness range. Two hypothetical interface layers, TiO2/perovskite layer and perovskite/HTM layer, were introduced into the construction model to consider the effects of interfaces defect density on device performance. It revealed TiO2/perovskite has stronger impact than perovskite/HTM, because higher excess carrier density existing at TiO2/perovskite will cause more recombination rate. In addition, hole transport materials (HTM) parameters, hole mobility and acceptor density, were chosen to study the impact of HTM characteristics on PCE. The analysis illuminate that the design of HTM layer should balance hole mobility and acceptor density. Meanwhile, different HTM candidates were selected and replaced typical HTM layer. The discussion about the function of candidates on solar cells performance demonstrated that a thiophene group hole-transporting polymer (PTAA) and a copper-based conductor (CuI) both have relatively high PCE, which is due to their wide bandgap, high conductivity, and better chemical interaction with perovskite absorber.

  2. Post-operative assessment of perfusion of Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator (DIEP) free flaps via Pulsatility Index (PI) using a portable colour Doppler sonogram device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Reza; Griffiths, Louisa; Figus, Andrea; King, David; Ramakrishnan, Venkat; Griffiths, Matthew

    2013-07-01

    PI as an independent indicator of resistance to flow is a widely-accepted alternative index to measurement of flow volume in vessels. This study aimed to determine the normal values and chronological trend of PI of abdominal wall free flaps in breast reconstruction and to revalidate its clinical relevance in post-operative monitoring of these flaps. 47 patients with breast reconstruction using DIEP, MS-TRAM and bi-pedicled DIEP flaps were assessed for PI of the supplying perforator vessels using a hand-held colour Doppler ultrasound device over 6 post-operative days. Triplicate measurements were obtained by one operator once daily concurrently with haemodynamic parameters. DIEP flaps demonstrate a descending trend of PI and resistance to blood flow post-operatively (p=0.005) similar to non-perforator free flaps. MS-TRAM flaps show higher initial PI values and vascular resistance compared to DIEP flaps (p=0.038). PI values show no correlation with haemodynamic parameters (r=0.2, n=38). Flaps with venous insufficiency demonstrate significantly higher values of PI (p=0.03). PI is an objective, non-invasive, efficient, easy-to-measure, reproducible and quickly-responsive indicator of perfusion of DIEP flaps. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Valoración de la selección de los vasos del colgajo DIEP para la reconstrucción mamaria

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez García, Rubén

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo principal de este estudio ha sido la utilización de la planificación preoperatoria del colgajo DIEP en reconstrucción mamaria mediante angiotomografía multicorte para conocer la repercusión de diferentes características del vaso perforante seleccionado en la aparición de complicaciones circulatorias del colgajo. Para ello Se llevo a cabo un estudio retrospectivo sobre 61 reconstrucciones mamarias con colgajo DIEP, comparándose las características anatómicas de la perforante elegid...

  4. Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine TNF-α Attenuates BMP9-Induced Osteo/ Odontoblastic Differentiation of the Stem Cells of Dental Apical Papilla (SCAPs

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    Feilong Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Periapical periodontitis is a common oral disease caused by bacterial invasion of the tooth pulp, which usually leads to local release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and osteolytic lesion. This study is intended to examine the effect of TNF-α on BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation of the stem cells of dental apical papilla (SCAPs. Methods: Rat model of periapical periodontitis was established. TNF-α expression was assessed. Osteogenic markers and ectopic bone formation in iSCAPs were analyzed upon BMP9 and TNF-α treatment. Results: Periapical periodontitis was successfully established in rat immature permanent teeth with periapical lesions, in which TNF-α was shown to release during the inflammatory phase. BMP9-induced alkaline phosphatase activity, the expression of osteocalcin and osteopontin, and matrix mineralization in iSCAPs were inhibited by TNF-α in a dose-dependent fashion, although increased AdBMP9 partially overcame TNF-α inhibition. Furthermore, high concentration of TNF-α effectively inhibited BMP9-induced ectopic bone formation in vivo. Conclusion: TNF-α plays an important role in periapical bone defect during the inflammatory phase and inhibits BMP9-induced osteoblastic differentiation of iSCAPs, which can be partially reversed by high levels of BMP9. Therefore, BMP9 may be further explored as a potent osteogenic factor to improve osteo/odontogenic differentiation in tooth regeneration in chronic inflammation conditions.

  5. Cholesterol-induced conformational changes in the sterol-sensing domain of the Scap protein suggest feedback mechanism to control cholesterol synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yansong; Zhou, Yulian; Goldstein, Joseph L; Brown, Michael S; Radhakrishnan, Arun

    2017-05-26

    Scap is a polytopic protein of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes that transports sterol regulatory element-binding proteins to the Golgi complex for proteolytic activation. Cholesterol accumulation in ER membranes prevents Scap transport and decreases cholesterol synthesis. Previously, we provided evidence that cholesterol inhibition is initiated when cholesterol binds to loop 1 of Scap, which projects into the ER lumen. Within cells, this binding causes loop 1 to dissociate from loop 7, another luminal Scap loop. However, we have been unable to demonstrate this dissociation when we added cholesterol to isolated complexes of loops 1 and 7. We therefore speculated that the dissociation requires a conformational change in the intervening polytopic sequence separating loops 1 and 7. Here we demonstrate such a change using a protease protection assay in sealed membrane vesicles. In the absence of cholesterol, trypsin or proteinase K cleaved cytosolic loop 4, generating a protected fragment that we visualized with a monoclonal antibody against loop 1. When cholesterol was added to these membranes, cleavage in loop 4 was abolished. Because loop 4 is part of the so-called sterol-sensing domain separating loops 1 and 7, these results support the hypothesis that cholesterol binding to loop 1 alters the conformation of the sterol-sensing domain. They also suggest that this conformational change helps transmit the cholesterol signal from loop 1 to loop 7, thereby allowing separation of the loops and facilitating the feedback inhibition of cholesterol synthesis. These insights suggest a new structural model for cholesterol-mediated regulation of Scap activity. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis on the clinical outcomes and cost of deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP flap versus implants for breast reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Khajuria

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mastectomy in the context of breast malignancy can have a profoundly negative impact on a woman’s self-image, impairing personal, sexual and social relationships. The deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP flap and implants are the two commonest reconstructive modalities that can potentially overcome this psychological trauma. The comparative data on clinical outcomes and costs of the two modalities is limited. We aim to synthesise the current evidence on DIEP versus implants to establish which is the superior technique for breast reconstruction, in terms of clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness. Methods A comprehensive search will be undertaken of EMBASE, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, CENTRAL and Science citation index databases (1994 up to August 2017 to identify studies relevant for the review. Primary human studies evaluating clinical outcomes and cost of DIEP and implant-based reconstruction in context of breast malignancy will be included. Primary outcomes will be patient satisfaction and cosmetic outcome from patient-reported outcome measures (scores from validated tools, e.g. BREAST-Q tool, complications and cost-analysis. The secondary outcomes will be duration of surgery, number of surgical revisions, length of stay, availability of procedures and total number of clinic visits. Discussion This will be the first systematic review and meta-analysis in available literature comparing the clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness of DIEP and implants for breast reconstruction. This review is expected to guide worldwide clinical practice for breast reconstruction. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42017072557 .

  7. Expression of sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor (SREBF 2 and SREBF cleavage-activating protein (SCAP in human atheroma and the association of their allelic variants with sudden cardiac death

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    Kytömäki Leena

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disturbed cellular cholesterol homeostasis may lead to accumulation of cholesterol in human atheroma plaques. Cellular cholesterol homeostasis is controlled by the sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 2 (SREBF-2 and the SREBF cleavage-activating protein (SCAP. We investigated whole genome expression in a series of human atherosclerotic samples from different vascular territories and studied whether the non-synonymous coding variants in the interacting domains of two genes, SREBF-2 1784G>C (rs2228314 and SCAP 2386A>G, are related to the progression of coronary atherosclerosis and the risk of pre-hospital sudden cardiac death (SCD. Methods Whole genome expression profiling was completed in twenty vascular samples from carotid, aortic and femoral atherosclerotic plaques and six control samples from internal mammary arteries. Three hundred sudden pre-hospital deaths of middle-aged (33–69 years Caucasian Finnish men were subjected to detailed autopsy in the Helsinki Sudden Death Study. Coronary narrowing and areas of coronary wall covered with fatty streaks or fibrotic, calcified or complicated lesions were measured and related to the SREBF-2 and SCAP genotypes. Results Whole genome expression profiling showed a significant (p = 0.02 down-regulation of SREBF-2 in atherosclerotic carotid plaques (types IV-V, but not in the aorta or femoral arteries (p = NS for both, as compared with the histologically confirmed non-atherosclerotic tissues. In logistic regression analysis, a significant interaction between the SREBF-2 1784G>C and the SCAP 2386A>G genotype was observed on the risk of SCD (p = 0.046. Men with the SREBF-2 C allele and the SCAP G allele had a significantly increased risk of SCD (OR 2.68, 95% CI 1.07–6.71, compared to SCAP AA homologous subjects carrying the SREBF-2 C allele. Furthermore, similar trends for having complicated lesions and for the occurrence of thrombosis were found, although the

  8. Perfusion-Related Complications are Similar for DIEP and MS FTRAM Flaps Harvested on Medial or Lateral Deep Inferior Epigastric Artery Branch Perforators for Breast Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Patrick B.; Salavati, Seroos; Feng, Lei; Butler, Charles E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Anatomic studies suggest the deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA) medial branch perfuses more tissue across the midline than the lateral branch. We hypothesized that unilateral DIEP and MS FTRAM flaps based on medial branch perforators would have fewer perfusion-related complications. Methods We evaluated 2043 consecutive free flap breast reconstructions and included unilateral reconstructions where DIEP or MS FTRAM flaps were definitively harvested from a single DIEA branch. We grouped flaps by tissue volume, i.e., Hemiflaps, Cross-Midline Flaps, and Total Flaps. Primary outcome measures were fat necrosis and partial flap necrosis. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between patient and reconstruction characteristics and perfusion outcomes. Results We included 228 patients: 120 (52.6%) medial and 108 (47.4%) lateral branch flaps. Mean follow-up was 33.2 months. Cross-Midline Flaps (79.8%) were most common, followed by Hemiflaps (15.4%) and Total Flaps (4.8%). Overall fat necrosis and partial flap necrosis rates were 10.5% and 3.1%, respectively. Medial and lateral branch flaps had similar rates of fat necrosis (8.3% vs. 13.0%, respectively; p=0.26) and partial flap necrosis (3.3% vs. 2.8%, respectively; p=1.0). DIEP and MS FTRAM flaps had no difference in the incidence of fat necrosis (10.2% vs. 11.3%; p=0.81) or partial necrosis (3.2% vs. 2.8%; p=1.0). Medial and lateral branch flap perfusion-related complications were also similar among the flap volume classifications. Conclusions We suggest that surgeons base their decisions regarding DIEA branch harvest on the clinical assessment of perforator perfusion quality rather than relying on the theoretic benefit of medial branch perforator harvest. PMID:22094755

  9. Colgajo DIEP de cobertura tras mastectomía de limpieza paliativa en cáncer de mama localmente avanzado

    OpenAIRE

    Arredondo, J; N. Rodríguez-Spiteri; Torre, W.; Aubá, C. (C.); N. Pedano; Regueira, F.M. (F.M.)

    2013-01-01

    Fundamento. La mastectomía de limpieza está indicada con carácter paliativo en el cáncer de mama localmente avanzado. Para cerrar el defecto cutáneo puede ser necesario el empleo de un injerto. Mostramos nuestra experiencia con el uso de un colgajo DIEP (Deep Inferior Epigastric artery Perforators) de cobertura tras la realización de una mastectomía de gran extensión. Material y métodos. Se muestra el caso de una paciente con un tumor de mama muy avanzado localmente, que era subsidiaria de un...

  10. Decision making in double-pedicled DIEP and SIEA abdominal free flap breast reconstructions: An algorithmic approach and comprehensive classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles M Malata

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP free flap is the gold standard for autologous breast reconstruction. However, using a single vascular pedicle may not yield sufficient tissue in patients with midline scars or insufficient lower abdominal pannus. Double-pedicled free flaps overcome this problem using different vascular arrangements to harvest the entire lower abdominal flap. The literature is, however, sparse regarding technique selection. We therefore reviewed our experience in order to formulate an algorithm and comprehensive classification for this purpose. Methods: All patients undergoing unilateral double-pedicled abdominal perforator free flap breast reconstruction (AFFBR by a single surgeon (CMM over 40 months were reviewed from a prospectively collected database. Results: Of the 112 consecutive breast free flaps performed, 25 (22% utilised two vascular pedicles. The mean patient age was 45 years (range=27-54. All flaps but one (which used the thoracodorsal system were anastomosed to the internal mammary vessels using the rib-preservation technique. The surgical duration was 656 minutes (range=468-690 mins. The median flap weight was 618g (range=432-1275g and the mastectomy weight was 445g (range=220-896g. All flaps were successful and only three patients requested minor liposuction to reduce and reshape their reconstructed breasts.Conclusion: Bipedicled free abdominal perforator flaps, employed in a fifth of all our AFFBRs, are a reliable and safe option for unilateral breast reconstruction. They, however, necessitate clear indications to justify the additional technical complexity and surgical duration. Our algorithm and comprehensive classification facilitate technique selection for the anastomotic permutations and successful execution of these operations.

  11. Determining the best recipient vessel site for autologous microsurgical breast reconstruction with DIEP flaps: An anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhuaire, Martin; Hivelin, Mikael; Dramé, Moustapha; Abrahams, Peter; Kianmanesh, Reza; Fontaine, Christian; Lantieri, Laurent

    2017-06-01

    The deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap is a reliable and reproducible technique for autologous microsurgical breast reconstruction. Several recipient vessels sites for microvascular anastomosis have been described such as the internal thoracic vessels, the thoracodorsal vessels, and the circumflex scapular vessels. Nonetheless, the choice of the recipient site depends mainly on individual operator's experience and preferences, and currently the best recipient vessel site is under debate. This anatomical observational study aimed to determine whether anatomy could address this dilemma by determining the best vessel diameter to match the donor with these three recipient sites. Our series reports 80 dissections of the three anatomical regions of interest. Forty formalin-preserved female cadavers were dissected bilaterally. Internal vessels diameter measurements were recorded with a vascular gauge ranging from 1.0 to 5.0 mm with successive half-millimeter graduations. The median diameter of the deep inferior epigastric (DIEA), internal thoracic (ITA), circumflex scapular (CSA), and thoracodorsal arteries (TDA) were: 2.0, 2.5, 2.5, and 1.5 mm, respectively. The median diameter of the deep inferior epigastric, internal thoracic, circumflex scapular, and thoracodorsal veins were: 3.0, 3.0, 3.0, and 2.5 mm, respectively. At the individual level, the perfect match between DIEA and ITA was significantly more frequent than between DIEA and TDA (p = 0.002), and it was more frequent between DIEA and CSA than between DIEA and TDA (p = 0.009). This study supports the use of the internal thoracic pedicle as the first recipient vessel choice, which should be considered, at least anatomically, as the best one with the closest diameter matching with the donor pedicle. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Rare Case of Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Abdominal Wall: Excision and Immediate Reconstruction with a Pedicled Deep Inferior Epigastric Artery Perforator (DIEP) Flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Sara; Zabbia, Giovanni; Corradino, Bartolo; Tripoli, Massimiliano; Pirrello, Roberto; Cordova, Adriana

    2017-12-04

    BACKGROUND Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) greater than 5 cm in diameter is called giant basal cell carcinoma (GBCC), or super giant basal cell carcinoma if it has a diameter larger than 20 cm. Giant BCC only accounts for 0.5% of BCCs and super giant BCC is exceedingly rare. On account of their rarity, there are no established guidelines for GBCC treatment. CASE REPORT We describe a peculiar case of an 82-year-old woman with a GBCC carcinoma of the lower abdominal wall. The tumor was surgically removed with ipsilateral inguinal lymph nodes and the abdominal wall was reconstructed immediately with a pedicled deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flap. CONCLUSIONS Treatment of giant basal cell carcinoma is often difficult, especially in elderly patients with poor general health and multiple pathologies. The pedicled DIEP flap is rotated to cover the loss of substance without tension, and it is easy to harvest and transfer. This flap allowed a good result without local or systemic complication. We present this report as a reminder of the occasional occurrence of extremely aggressive BCCs. We believe that, especially for rare tumors like these, it is very useful for the entire scientific community to publish these cases and the therapeutic strategies used to treat them.

  13. Impact of delayed implant and DIEP flap breast reconstruction on body image and sexual satisfaction: a prospective follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopie, Jessica P; ter Kuile, Moniek M; Timman, Reinier; Mureau, Marc A M; Tibben, Aad

    2014-01-01

    Prospective studies regarding the psychosexual impact after different types of breast reconstruction (BR) are scarce. The impact of either implant or deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flap BR on body image and sexual relationship satisfaction was investigated in time. At baseline, 98 women opting for delayed implant or DIEP flap BR after mastectomy for breast cancer completed a survey. The majority was followed up at 6 months (96%) and 20 months (86%) postoperatively. Questionnaires included the body image scale, Dutch Relationship Questionnaire, Short Form - 36 Health Survey and the Impact of Event Scale. Mixed modeling analyses indicated that preoperative body image improved significantly after 20 months (p body image was related to a better general mental health (p = 0.02), less cancer distress (p Body image and sexual relationship satisfaction significantly improved after BR, and this was not related to the BR type. Psychosexual consequences from previous cancer treatment may interfere. Lower general mental health, higher cancer distress, less partner relationship satisfaction or receiving hormonal therapy can negatively affect body image or sexual relationship satisfaction. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Análisis de perforantes de la epigástrica inferior profunda con Angio TC 3D, Eco Doppler color y Doppler simple de ultrasonidos en colgajo DIEP: resultados preliminares Analysis of deep inferior epigastric perforating vessels with 3D CT angiography, color Doppler ultrasonography and Doppler in diep flaps: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Castro García

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Nuestro objetivo es la validación de la Angio TC tridimensional como herramienta de planificación de los colgajos DIEP, comparándolo con el Doppler de ultrasonidos (US y eco Doppler color. Entre enero de 2006 y marzo de 2007 se realiza en 11 pacientes (13 DIEP un estudio comparativo prospectivo entre el Doppler de US, eco Doppler color y Angio TC con reconstrucción tridimensional, utilizando como dato de referencia los hallazgos intraoperatorios. En dicho proceso se localiza la mejor perforante que pueda servir como pedículo al colgajo DIEP en función de su localización, calibre, trayecto y relaciones anatómicas con respecto al músculo. La Angio TC con reconstrucción tridimensional, demuestra una especificidad del 100% (IC 95% 75.3-100 lo que le convierte en una prueba con un alto valor predictivo positivo y una excelente herramienta en la planificación de los colgajos de perforantes. El eco Doppler color determinó, que tan sólo en un 46,1% (IC 95% 19,2-74,9 de los pacientes, la perforante seleccionada por la prueba de forma preoperatoria, coincidía con la perforante elegida en quirófano. Con el Doppler de US, en un 30,8 % (IC 95% 9,1-61,4 de los colgajos estudiados, coincidía la mejor perforante escogida de forma preoperatoria, con los hallazgos obtenidos tras la disección del colgajo. En el presente estudio, la Angio TC tridimensional se ha mostrado como una técnica con una gran especificidad que proporciona valiosa información, sólo comparable con la disección anatómica y por delante de pruebas como el Doppler de ultrasonidos y el eco Doppler color.The aim of this report, is to validate the Angio-CT technique with three-dimentional reconstruction as a preoperative planning tool, after comparison with Doppler ultrasound and color- Duplex. Between january 2006 and march 2007, we studied 11 consecutive patients (13 DIEP in whom a prospective comparative followed up was performed comparing, the findings observed using

  15. Perfusion-related complications are similar for DIEP and muscle-sparing free TRAM flaps harvested on medial or lateral deep inferior epigastric Artery branch perforators for breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Patrick B; Salavati, Seroos; Feng, Lei; Butler, Charles E

    2011-12-01

    Anatomical studies suggest that the deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA) medial branch perfuses more tissue across the midline than the lateral branch. The authors hypothesized that unilateral deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) and muscle-sparing free transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flaps based on medial branch perforators would have fewer perfusion-related complications. The authors evaluated consecutive DIEP or muscle-sparing TRAM free flaps definitively harvested from a single DIEA branch. Flaps were grouped by tissue volume (hemiflaps, cross-midline flaps, or total flaps). Primary outcome measures were fat necrosis and partial flap necrosis. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between patient and reconstruction characteristics and outcomes. There were 228 patients, with 120 medial (52.6 percent) and 108 lateral (47.4 percent) branch flaps. Mean follow-up was 33.2 months. Cross-midline flaps (79.8 percent) were the most common design. Medial and lateral branch flaps had similar rates of fat necrosis (8.3 percent and 13.0 percent, respectively; p = 0.26) and partial flap necrosis (3.3 percent and 2.8 percent, respectively; p = 1.0). There was no difference in the incidence of fat necrosis between DIEP and muscle-sparing free TRAM flaps (10.2 percent and 11.3 percent, respectively; p = 0.81) or in partial necrosis (3.2 percent and 2.8 percent, respectively; p = 1.0). Medial and lateral branch flap perfusion-related complications were also similar among the flap volume classifications. The authors suggest that surgeons base their decisions regarding DIEA branch harvest on the clinical assessment of perforator perfusion quality rather than relying on the theoretical benefit of medial branch perforator harvest. Therapeutic, III.

  16. Bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH compounds: (acenaphthene and fluorene in water using indigenous bacterial species isolated from the Diep and Plankenburg rivers, Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwadara Oluwaseun Alegbeleye

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was conducted to investigate the occurrence of PAH degrading microorganisms in two river systems in the Western Cape, South Africa and their ability to degrade two PAH compounds: acenaphthene and fluorene. A total of 19 bacterial isolates were obtained from the Diep and Plankenburg rivers among which four were identified as acenaphthene and fluorene degrading isolates. In simulated batch scale experiments, the optimum temperature for efficient degradation of both compounds was determined in a shaking incubator after 14 days, testing at 25 °C, 30 °C, 35 °C, 37 °C, 38 °C, 40 °C and 45 °C followed by experiments in a Stirred Tank Bioreactor using optimum temperature profiles from the batch experiment results. All experiments were run without the addition of supplements, bulking agents, biosurfactants or any other form of biostimulants. Results showed that Raoultella ornithinolytica, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus megaterium and Aeromonas hydrophila efficiently degraded both compounds at 37 °C, 37 °C, 30 °C and 35 °C respectively. The degradation of fluorene was more efficient and rapid compared to that of acenaphthene and degradation at Stirred Tank Bioreactor scale was more efficient for all treatments. Raoultella ornithinolytica, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus megaterium and Aeromonas hydrophila degraded a mean total of 98.60%, 95.70%, 90.20% and 99.90% acenaphthene, respectively and 99.90%, 97.90%, 98.40% and 99.50% fluorene, respectively. The PAH degrading microorganisms isolated during this study significantly reduced the concentrations of acenaphthene and fluorene and may be used on a larger, commercial scale to bioremediate PAH contaminated river systems.

  17. Diepe hersenstimulatie in de psychiatrie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figee, M.; Bervoets, C; Denys, D

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is now used regularly to treat therapy-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorders, and is being applied experimentally for refractory depression, Tourette syndrome, addiction, eating disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, autism and schizophrenia. AIM: To

  18. SCAP gene polymorphisms decrease the risk of nonalcoholic fatty ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the following items: (i) overweight or obesity defined as. BMI > 25 kg/m2; (ii) hyperglycemia: fasting plasma glu- cose > 6.1 mmol/L, or 2-h postprandial plasma glucose >. 7.8 mmol/L, or treatment of previously diagnosed type 2 dia- betes; (iii) hypertension: systolic BP > 140 mmHg or dias- tolic BP > 90 mmHg, or treatment of ...

  19. Waterwinning uit diepe putten, welke door zandzuigen zijn ontstaan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ernst, L.F.

    1965-01-01

    Voor de uitbreiding van steden en de aanleg van wegen zijn grote hoeveelheden zand nodig. In de westelijke helft van Nederland bestaan de bovenste lagen van de grond uit klei, veen en fijn, slibhoudend zand. Een gebruikelijke methode om daar het benodigde zand zonder te hoge transportkosten te

  20. Technical, Psychological, and Economic Aspects of DIEP Flap Breast Reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.H.C. Damen (Tim)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIn the Western world the incidence of breast cancer (BC) is high. In the Netherlands the lifetime risk for women to develop BC is around 13%, making it the most common form of cancer among women with approximately 12.000 women being diagnosed annually. Also, increasing numbers of women

  1. An essential requirement for the SCAP/SREBP signaling axis to protect cancer cells from lipotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kevin J.; Argus, Joseph P.; Zhu, Yue; Wilks, Moses Q.; Marbois, Beth N.; York, Autumn G.; Kidani, Yoko; Pourzia, Alexandra L.; Akhavan, David; Lisiero, Dominique N.; Komisopoulou, Evangelia; Henkin, Amy H.; Soto, Horacio; Chamberlain, Brian T.; Vergnes, Laurent; Jung, Michael E.; Torres, Jorge Z.; Liau, Linda M.; Christofk, Heather R.; Prins, Robert M.; Mischel, Paul S.; Reue, Karen; Graeber, Thomas G.; Bensinger, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    SREBPs are key transcriptional regulators of lipid metabolism and cellular growth. It has been proposed that SREBP signaling regulates cellular growth through its ability to drive lipid biosynthesis. Unexpectedly, we find that loss of SREBP activity inhibits cancer cell growth and viability by uncoupling fatty acid synthesis from desaturation. Integrated lipid profiling and metabolic flux analysis revealed that cancer cells with attenuated SREBP activity maintain long-chain saturated fatty acid synthesis, while losing fatty acid desaturation capacity. We traced this defect to the uncoupling of Fatty Acid Synthase activity from SCD1-mediated desaturation. This deficiency in desaturation drives an imbalance between the saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid pools resulting in severe lipotoxicity. Importantly, replenishing the monounsaturated fatty acid pool restored growth to SREBP-inhibited cells. These studies highlight the importance of fatty acid desaturation in cancer growth and provide a novel mechanistic explanation for the role of SREBPs in cancer metabolism. PMID:23440422

  2. Field demonstration and transition of SCAPS direct push VOC in-situ sensing technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William M. Davis

    1999-11-03

    This project demonstrated two in-situ volatile organic compound (VOC) samplers in combination with the direct sampling ion trap mass spectrometer (DSITMS). The technologies chosen were the Vadose Sparge and the Membrane Interface Probe (MIP) sensing systems. Tests at two demonstration sites showed the newer VOC technologies capable of providing in situ contaminant measurements at two to four times the rate of the previously demonstrated Hydrosparge sensor. The results of this project provide initial results supporting the utility of these new technologies to provide rapid site characterization of VOC contaminants in the subsurface.

  3. Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System (SCAPS) Field Investigation at the Sierra Army Depot, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    0 2 4 6 8 10 12 TRPH (mg/kg) (Thousands) Figure 27. Sierra Fill TRPH versus TPAH 14 4- 12 TPH = 448.TPAH + 164.5, r 2 = 0.9ý7 10- ~8. 0) iso 4 2- 0...SAMPLE: 38500 DF: MD0894 .DAT DEPTH: DATE: 19 NOV 93 NO-LIMITS-RAN GS: .00 WC: 8.90 CLASSIFICATION: 108 SILTY SAND (SM), GRAY; WITH GRAVEL VISUAL TOTAL

  4. Diep snydende vrae, met antwoorde gebore uit weerloosheid: Nav Jurie le Roux se 'spirituele empatie'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dani�l P. Veldsman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Deep probing questions but answers conceived in vulnerability: On Jurie le Roux�s �spiritual empathy�. Taking the conversation between the Old Testament scholar Jurie le Roux and the dogmatician Johan Heyns as point of departure, it is argued that his well-founded criticism of Heyns has to be taken seriously, as well as his proposition in favour of spiritual empathy to enhance the understanding of historical texts. However, his recommendation for spiritual emphaty is subsequently constructively valued and criticised from a theological-experiential perspective. It is especially noted that, on the one hand, Le Roux�s reactionary historical point of view regarding, amongst others, the retrieval of the orginal intention of the author/text is convincing. On the other hand, it is argued that his perspective is predisposed toward an unproblematical self in the present. As a result, the act of historical interpretation is reduced to dependence on �the seams of the heart� in the individual quester. It is after all argued and substantiated from systematic-theological, postmodern, philosophical and theological-scientific perspectives that historicity does not consist solely of historical �seeing� in the sense of retaining the original intention of the author. Historical understanding also entails historical �hearing� (that is, a surplus of meaning which broadens and enriches historical understanding.

  5. Behandelmogelijkheden bij het oplossen van diepe carieuze laesies bij kinderen. Deel 5. Extractie en slot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krikken, J.

    2012-01-01

    De behandeling van carieuze laesies is een veeleisend probleem. In de literatuur zijn preventieve en meer of minder invasieve behandelmethoden voor de behandeling te vinden. Deze serie beschrijft stapsgewijs de behandelmogelijkheden van de carieuze laesie. In nummer 4 (8 april 2011) stond het eerste

  6. Behandelmogelijkheden bij het oplossen van diepe carieuze laesies bij kinderen. Deel 2: preventieve behandeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krikken, J.

    2011-01-01

    De behandeling van carieuze laesies is een veeleisend probleem. In de literatuur zijn preventieve en meer of minder invasieve behandelmethoden voor de behandeling te vinden. Deze serie beschrijft stapsgewijs de behandelmogelijkheden van de carieuze laesie. In het vorige Mondhygiënisten Vademecum

  7. Stereotactic image-guided navigation in the preoperative imaging of perforators for DIEP flap breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozen, W M; Ashton, M W; Stella, D L; Phillips, T J; Taylor, G I

    2008-01-01

    Preoperative imaging is sought prior to DIEA (Deep Inferior Epigastric Artery) perforator flaps due to the potential for maximizing operative success and minimizing operative complications. Recent advances include the use of computed tomography (CT) angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance angiography. Image-guided stereotactic surgery is a recent technique that has been used with success in several fields of surgery. The variability of perforator anatomy makes DIEA perforator flap surgery a suitable candidate for such technology, but as yet this has not been described. A study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of CT-guided stereotaxy technique in DIEA perforator flap surgery and to compare findings with both conventional CTA and operative findings. Five consecutive patients planned for an elective DIEA perforator flap were recruited. Each patient underwent preoperative imaging of the anterior abdominal wall vasculature with both conventional CTA and CT-guided stereotactic imaging. Imaging findings were compared to operative findings. In all cases, all the major perforators were accurately localized with stereotactic imaging and with conventional CTA. Stereotactic navigation demonstrated a slightly better (nonsignificant) correlation with perforator location than conventional CTA. As such, CT-guided stereotactic imaging is an accurate method for the preoperative planning of DIEA perforator flaps, providing additional and potentially more accurate data to conventional CTA. With no additional scanning required, the method described in this paper allows the combined use of both methods for preoperative planning. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Avoiding denervation of rectus abdominis in DIEP flap harvest: the importance of medial row perforators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozen, Warren M; Ashton, Mark W; Murray, Alice C A; Taylor, G Ian

    2008-09-01

    The deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA) perforator flap for breast reconstruction spares rectus abdominis muscle and has low donor-site morbidity. However, abdominal wall weakness and bulge remain significant complications, with damage to the motor innervation of the rectus abdominis postulated as a cause. This study describes the relationship between the nerves supplying rectus abdominis and perforators, based on a thorough cadaveric study and review of the literature. Twenty hemiabdominal walls from fresh and embalmed cadavers were dissected, mapping the course of the nerve and vascular supply of rectus abdominis. The infraumbilical segment of rectus abdominis was innervated by T9-L1, with four to seven nerve branches entering rectus abdominis from its lateral border (12 cases) or posterior surface (93 cases). Each nerve entered a nerve plexus running with the most lateral branch of the DIEA, before running with arterial perforators into rectus abdominis. Nerves entered rectus muscle more medial than the lateral row perforators (83 percent of cases), with the medial branches of the DIEA devoid of these nerve branches. The nerves innervating rectus abdominis are at risk during the raising of a DIEA perforator flap. These nerves enter the posterior surface of rectus abdominis and run with the most lateral branch of the DIEA and its perforators. Damage to these nerves may denervate rectus abdominis muscle and contribute to donor-site morbidity. As medial row perforators were not related to these motor nerves, these perforators are ideal for inclusion in DIEA perforator and transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flaps.

  9. Possible impacts of sea-level rise on the Diep river/Rietvlei system, Cape-Town

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hughes, P

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available Many of the Cape Province's estuaries and tidal inlets have sandy connections to the sea and are often intensively developed for industrial or residential purposes. The possible impacts of sea-level rise are of considerable interest...

  10. Behandelmogelijkheden bij het oplossen van diepe carieuze laesies bij kinderen. Deel 4. Partiële pulpotomie, (volledige) pulpotomie en pulpectomie en pulpectomie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krikken, J.

    2012-01-01

    De behandeling van carieuze laesies is een veeleisend probleem. In de literatuur zijn preventieve en meer of minder invasieve behandelmethoden voor de behandeling te vinden. Deze serie beschrijft stapsgewijs de behandelmogelijkheden van de carieuze laesie. In nummer 4 (8 april 2011) stond het eerste

  11. Behandelmogelijkheden bij het oplossen van diepe carieuze laesies bij kinderen. Deel 3: Indirecte pulpa overkapping, stepwise excavation en directe pulpa overkapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krikken, J.

    2011-01-01

    De behandeling van carieuze laesies is een veeleisend probleem. In de literatuur zijn preventieve en meer of minder invasieve behandelmethoden voor de behandeling te vinden. Deze serie beschrijft stapsgewijs de behandelmogelijkheden van de carieuze laesie. In Mondhygiënisten Vademecum nr. 4 stond

  12. The Dutch footprint on the world. How big and how deep?; De Nederlandse voetafdruk op de wereld. Hoe groot en hoe diep?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Oorschot, M.; Rood, T.; Vixseboxse, E.; Wilting, H.; Van der Esch, S.

    2012-08-15

    The footprint of the Dutch consumption and related ecological consequences are described. In addition, the authors present options to reduce the footprint. A set of indicators is proposed with which various aspects of the footprint can be visualized. Using the indicators policy choices can be made [Dutch] Een beschrijving wordt gegeven van de voetafdruk van de Nederlandse consumptie en de ecologische gevolgen daarvan. Daarnaast geven de auteurs opties om de voetafdruk te verkleinen. Een set indicatoren wordt voorgesteld waarmee verschillende aspecten van de voetafdruk in beeld kunnen worden gebracht. Met behulp van de indicatoren kunnen vervolgens beleidskeuzes worden gemaakt.

  13. DIEP Flap Breast Reconstruction in Patients with Breast Ptosis: 2-Stage Reconstruction Using 3-Dimensional Surface Imaging and a Printed Mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Tomita, MD, PhD

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions:. The method described here may allow even inexperienced surgeons to achieve reconstruction of symmetrical, non-ptotic breasts with ease and in a short time. While the requirement of two surgeries is a potential disadvantage, our method will be particularly useful in cases involving TEs, i.e., delayed reconstruction or immediate reconstruction involving significant skin resection.

  14. Clinical presentations and outcome of severe community-acquired pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Elshamly

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: SCAP occurs more frequently in those with comorbidities. The most frequent isolated causative organism of SCAP is S. pneumoniae, Influenza H1N1 and S. aureus. SCAP is associated with significant mortality, early recognition and prompt treatment may improve outcome.

  15. Nierfunctieverlies bij diep infiltratieve endometriose: tijdige herkenning van ureterobstructie is geboden [Loss of renal function due to deep infiltrating endometriosis; a complicated consideration in women who wish to have children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaff, A.A.; Beets Tan, R.G.; Beets, G.L.; van de Beek, C.K.; Dunselman, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    Three nulliparous women, aged 39, 34 and 26 years, who were treated for fertility problems and who were affected by endometriosis, presented with ureteral obstruction caused by deep infiltrating endometriosis. The first two patients had complete unilateral loss of kidney function at the time of

  16. Comparison of microbial contamination at various sites along the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at investigating and comparing the microbial contamination levels at various sites in the Plankenburg and Diep Rivers in the Western Cape, South Africa. Sampling of sites along the Plankenburg River started in June 2004 and continued for a period of 1 year until June 2005. Sampling of the Diep ...

  17. Comparative bioavailability of diclofenac hydroxyethylpyrrolidine vs diclofenac sodium in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, C A; Lualdi, P; Mautone, G

    1990-01-01

    A phamacokinetic study in man has been made of a new dosage form of diclofenac hydroxyethylpyrrolidine (DIEP); soluble salt packed in sachets was compared with diclofenac sodium as enteric coated tablets. Oral DIEP 2 X 50 mg showed a significant difference in absorption kinetics (ka, lag time and tmax) as compared to oral diclofenac sodium 2 X 50 mg. A relevant plasma concentration of diclofenac was detected just 15 min after DIEP, while diclofenac sodium produced a measurable plasma concentration only 0.5-1 h after the treatment. Cmax and t1/2 after DIEP and diclofenac sodium were comparable. Comparison of the two AUC values showed that DIEP was bioequivalent to diclofenac sodium (Q = 100%).

  18. Proliferation and osteo/odontogenic differentiation of stem cells from apical papilla regulated by Zinc fingers and homeoboxes 2: An in vitro study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Fang [Department of Immunology, Key Laboratory for Experimental Teratology of Ministry of Education, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infection & Immunology, Shandong University School of Medicine, 44 Wenhua Xi Road, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); VIP Center, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Shandong University, 44 Wenhua Xi Road, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); Gao, Lifen [Department of Immunology, Key Laboratory for Experimental Teratology of Ministry of Education, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infection & Immunology, Shandong University School of Medicine, 44 Wenhua Xi Road, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); Lu, Yating [VIP Center, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Shandong University, 44 Wenhua Xi Road, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); Ma, Hongxin; Wang, Hongxing; Liang, Xiaohong [Department of Immunology, Key Laboratory for Experimental Teratology of Ministry of Education, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infection & Immunology, Shandong University School of Medicine, 44 Wenhua Xi Road, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); Wang, Yan, E-mail: wangyan1965@sdu.edu.cn [VIP Center, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Shandong University, 44 Wenhua Xi Road, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); Ma, Chunhong, E-mail: machunhong@sdu.edu.cn [Department of Immunology, Key Laboratory for Experimental Teratology of Ministry of Education, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infection & Immunology, Shandong University School of Medicine, 44 Wenhua Xi Road, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China)

    2016-01-15

    In the process of tooth root development, stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAPs) can differentiate into odontoblasts and form root dentin, however, molecules regulating SCAPs differentiation have not been elucidated. Zinc fingers and homeoboxes 2 (ZHX2) is a novel transcriptional inhibitor. It is reported to modulate the development of nerve cells, liver cells, B cells, red blood cells, and so on. However, the role of ZHX2 in tooth root development remains unclear. In this study, we explored the potential role of ZHX2 in the process of SCAPs differentiation. The results showed that overexpression of ZHX2 upregulated the expression of osteo/odontogenic related genes and ALP activity, inhibited the proliferation of SCAPs. Consistently, ZHX2 knockdown reduced SCAPs mineralization and promoted SCAPs proliferation. These results indicated that ZHX2 plays a critical role in the proliferation and osteo/odontogenic differentiation of SCAPs. - Highlights: • Zinc fingers and homeoboxes 2 (ZHX2) is a novel transcriptional inhibitor. • we found another new biological function of ZHX2 for the first time. • ZHX2 inhibit SCAPs proliferation. • ZHX2 promote the osteo/odontogenic differentiation of SCAPs.

  19. Nuclear Factor I-C promotes proliferation and differentiation of apical papilla-derived human stem cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jing [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Department of Operative Dentistry & Endodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Stomatologic Hospital & College, Anhui Medical University, Key Lab of Oral Diseases Research of Anhui Province, Hefei (China); Wang, Zhihua; Jiang, Yong [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Department of Operative Dentistry & Endodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Niu, Zhongying [Treatment center of oral diseases, The 306th Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing (China); Fu, Lei; Luo, Zhirong [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Department of Operative Dentistry & Endodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Cooper, Paul R.; Smith, Anthony J. [Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, University of Birmingham, B4 6NN (United Kingdom); He, Wenxi, E-mail: hewenxi@fmmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Department of Operative Dentistry & Endodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China)

    2015-03-15

    The transcription factor Nuclear Factor I-C (NFIC) has been implicated in the regulation of tooth root development, where it may be anticipated to impact on the behavior of stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAPs) and root odontoblast activity. We hypothesized that NFIC may provide an important target for promoting dentin/root regeneration. In the present study, the effects of NFIC on the proliferation and differentiation of SCAPs were investigated. Over-expression of NFIC increased cell proliferation, mineralization nodule formation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in SCAPs. Furthermore, NFIC up-regulated the mRNA levels of odontogenic-related markers, ALP, osteocalcin and collagen type I as well as dentin sialoprotein protein levels. In contrast, knockdown of NFIC by si-RNA inhibited the mineralization capacity of SCAPs and down-regulated the expression of odontogenic-related markers. In conclusion, the results indicated that upregulation of NFIC activity in SCAPs may promote osteo/odontoblastic differentiation of SCAPs. - Highlights: • NFIC promotes the proliferation of SCAPs in vitro. • NFIC promotes osteo/odontogenic differentiation of SCAPs in vitro. • Knockdown of NFIC inhibits odontogenic differentiation in SCAPs.

  20. Establishing a comprehensive questionnaire for detecting drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Keiko; Miyazawa, Shinsuke; Hashiguchi, Masayuki; Unemoto, Tamao; Itoh, Atsuo; Echizen, Hirotoshi; Rikihisa, Tadaaki; Ogata, Hiroyasu; Murata, Masahiro

    2003-10-01

    Drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms (DIEPS) often substantially compromise quality of life (QOL) of patients receiving drugs with central antidopaminergic activities. A lack of comprehensive screening method based upon patients' subjective symptoms for detecting DIEPS appears to have prevented pharmacists from delivering satisfactory pharmaceutical care for these patients. Thus, we have attempted to develop a comprehensive questionnaire for screening patients having higher risks of developing DIEPS. One hundred fourteen outpatients taking gastroprokinetic drugs (itopride, cisapride, trimebutine, domperidone and metoclopramide) at least 2 weeks participated in the study. One patient with familial Parkinson disease served as a positive reference. They undertook a questionnaire consisting of 9 comprehensive questions written in non-technical words that were aimed to detect typical symptoms of Parkinsonism including akathisia and dyskinesia. Each symptom was scored in a semiquantitative scale [i.e., from 1 (not at all) to 5 (very much)] by the patients. Of the 108 subjects who successfully completed the questionnaires, 43 gave scores 2 or greater indicating the presence of DIEPS. However, no statistically significant correlations were observed between the scores of any possible pairs of the questionnaire items. Five subjects had a mean questionnaire score of equal to or greater than 1.6, and the patient with familiar Parkinsonism had the highest mean score of 1.9. The questionnaire presented herein detected 4 patients with suspected DIEPS. Further studies should be warranted to assess whether it would be useful for pharmacists as a screening tool for DIEPS in patients having higher risks of DIEPS.

  1. Cost analysis of postmastectomy reconstruction: A comparison of two staged implant reconstruction using tissue expander and acellular dermal matrix with abdominal-based perforator free flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Bao Ngoc N; Fadayomi, Ayotunde; Lin, Samuel J; Singhal, Dhruv; Lee, Bernard T

    2017-09-01

    Two staged tissue expander-implant with acellular dermal matrix (TE/I + ADM) and deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap are the most common implant and autologous methods of reconstruction in the U.S. Implant-based techniques are disproportionally more popular, partially due to its presumed cost effectiveness. We performed a comprehensive cost analysis to compare TE/I + ADM and DIEP flap. A comparative cost analysis of TE/I + ADM and DIEP flap was performed. Medicare reimbursement costs for each procedure and their associated complications were calculated. Pooled probabilities of complications including cellulitis, seroma, skin necrosis, implant removal, flap loss, partial flap loss, and fat necrosis, were calculated using published studies from 2010 to 2016. Average actual cost for successful TE/I + ADM and DIEP flap were $13 304.55 and $10 237.13, respectively. Incorporating pooled complication data from published literature resulted in an increase in cost to $13 963.46 for TE/I + ADM and $12 624.29 for DIEP flap. The expected costs for successful TE/I + ADM and DIEP flap were $9700.35 and $8644.23, which are lower than the actual costs. DIEP flap breast reconstruction incurs lower costs compared to TE/I + ADM. These costs are lower at baseline and when additional costs from pooled complications are incorporated. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Pilot study of breast sensation after breast reconstruction: evaluating the effects of radiation therapy and perforator flap neurotization on sensory recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magarakis, Michael; Venkat, Raghunandan; Dellon, A Lee; Shridharani, Sachin M; Bellamy, Justin; Vaca, Elbert E; Jeter, Stacie C; Zoras, Odysseas; Manahan, Michele A; Rosson, Gedge D

    2013-09-01

    Some sensation to the breast returns after breast reconstruction, but recovery is variable and unpredictable. We primarily sought to assess the impact of different types of breast reconstruction [deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flaps versus implants] and radiation therapy on the return of sensation. Thirty-seven patients who had unilateral or bilateral breast reconstruction via a DIEP flap or implant-based reconstruction, with or without radiation therapy (minimum follow-up, 18 months; range, 18-61 months) were studied. Of the 74 breasts, 27 had DIEP flaps, 29 had implants, and 18 were nonreconstructed. Eleven breasts with implants and 10 with DIEP flaps had had prereconstruction radiation therapy. The primary outcome was mean patient-perceived static and moving cutaneous pressure threshold in nine areas. We used univariate and multivariate analyses to assess what independent factors affected the return of sensation (significance, P < 0.05). Implants provided better static (P = 0.071) and moving sensation (P = 0.041) than did DIEP flaps. However, among irradiated breasts, skin over DIEP flaps had significantly better sensation than did that over implants (static, P = 0.019; moving, P = 0.028). Implant reconstructions with irradiated skin had significantly worse static (P = 0.002) and moving sensation (P = 0.014) than did nonirradiated implant reconstructions. Without irradiation, skin overlying implants is associated with better sensation recovery than DIEP flap skin. However, with irradiation, DIEP flap skin had better sensation recovery than did skin over implants. Neurotization trended toward improvement in sensation in DIEP flaps. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Crack Propagation in Single-Crystal Aluminum Plate with Central Cracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The crack propagation process in single-crystal aluminum plate (SCAP with central cracks under tensile load was simulated by molecular dynamics method. Further, the effects of model size, crack length, temperature, and strain rate on strength of SCAP and crack growth were comprehensively investigated. The results showed that, with the increase of the model size, crack length, and strain rate, the plastic yield point of SCAP occurred in advance, the limit stress of plastic yield decreased, and the plastic deformability of material increased, but the temperature had less effect and sensitivity on the strength and crack propagation of SCAP. The model size affected the plastic deformation and crack growth of the material. Specifically, at small scale, the plastic deformation and crack propagation in SCAP are mainly affected through dislocation multiplication and slip. However, the plastic deformation and crack propagation are obviously affected by dislocation multiplication and twinning in larger scale.

  4. Nutrition‐adaptive control of multiple‐bacteriocin production by Weissella hellenica QU 13

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Masuda, Y; Perez, R.H; Zendo, T; Sonomoto, K

    2016-01-01

    ... . ). Previous studies have described multiple‐bacteriocin production from a single LAB strain, belonging to, for instance, Lactobacillus (Diep et al . ; Vaughan et al . ), Enterococcus (Cinta...

  5. Breast reconstruction - natural tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... muscle flap; TRAM; Latissimus muscle flap with a breast implant; DIEP flap; DIEAP flap; Gluteal free flap; Transverse upper gracilis flap; TUG; Mastectomy - breast reconstruction with natural tissue; Breast cancer - breast reconstruction ...

  6. Correlating the deep inferior epigastric artery branching pattern with type of abdominal free flap performed in a series of 145 breast reconstruction patients

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, AR; Jones, ME; Hazari, A; Francis, I; Nduka, C

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap is currently viewed as the gold standard in autologous breast reconstruction. We studied three-dimensional computed tomography angiography (CTA) in 145 patients undergoing free abdominal flap breast reconstruction to try to correlate deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA) branching pattern with the type of flap performed and patient outcome. Today, reconstructive breast surgeons have become more experienced in raising DIEP flaps...

  7. Low-rise scar deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap for breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akita, Shinsuke; Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Tokumoto, Hideki; Kuriyama, Motone; Kubota, Yoshitaka; Kira, Tomoe; Sasahara, Yoshitaro; Sakakibara, Masahiro; Nagashima, Takeshi; Satoh, Kaneshige

    2015-09-01

    To achieve an unnoticeable postoperative scar in patients with little abdominal skin laxity for breast reconstruction by deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flap, we devised a new design called the low-rise scar DIEP flap; the skin paddle of this flap is located lower with a smaller vertical width, and more adipose tissue is elevated to obtain enough volume. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the utility of the low-rise scar DIEP flap compared with that of the conventionally designed flap. Twelve patients who underwent low-rise scar DIEP flaps (study group) and 11 patients who underwent conventionally-designed DIEP flaps (control group) were included in the present study. The distance from the umbilicus to horizontal scar was divided by the patient's height. The length of the scar was divided by the abdominal circumference. These ratios were compared between groups. All flaps survived completely and no recipient site complication was observed, except for one case in the control group with small-range fat necrosis. No donor site complication was observed in either group. The distance ratio was significantly larger in study group (scar DIEP flap leaves a lower and shorter postoperative scar. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. White mineral trioxide aggregate induces migration and proliferation of stem cells from the apical papilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Robert; Holland, G Rex; Chiego, Daniel; Hu, Jan C C; Nör, Jacques E; Botero, Tatiana M

    2014-07-01

    Regenerative endodontic protocols recommend white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA) as a capping material because of its osteoinductive properties. Stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAP) are presumed to be involved in this regenerative process, but the effects of WMTA on SCAP are largely unknown. Our hypothesis was that WMTA induces proliferation and migration of SCAP. Here we used an unsorted population of SCAP (passages 3-5) characterized by high CD24, CD146, and Stro-1 expression. The effect of WMTA on SCAP migration was assessed by using transwells, and its effect on proliferation was determined by the WST-1 assay. Fetal bovine serum (FBS) and calcium chloride-enriched medium were used as positive controls. The SCAP analyzed here showed a low percentage of STRO-1+ and CD24+ cells. Both set and unset WMTA significantly increased the short-term migration of SCAP after 6 hours (P migration and proliferation were significantly and steadily induced by the presence of 2% and 10% FBS. Collectively, these data demonstrate that WMTA induced an early short-term migration and proliferation of a mixed population of stem cells from apical papilla as compared with a later and longer-term induction by calcium chloride or FBS. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of Canonical NF-κB Signaling Pathway on the Proliferation and Odonto/Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Stem Cells from Apical Papilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjun Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Information. NF-κB signaling pathway plays a complicated role in the biological functions of mesenchymal stem cells. However, the effects of NF-κB pathway on the odonto/osteogenic differentiation of stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs remain unclear. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of canonical NF-κB pathway on the osteo/odontogenic capacity of SCAPs in vitro. Results. Western blot results demonstrated that NF-κB pathway in SCAPs was successfully activated by TNF-α or blocked by BMS-345541. NF-κB pathway-activated SCAPs presented a higher proliferation activity compared with control groups, as indicated by dimethyl-thiazol-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay (MTT and flow cytometry assay (FCM. Wound scratch assay revealed that NF-κB pathway-activated SCAPs presented an improved migration capacity, enhanced alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity, and upregulated mineralization capacity of SCAPs, as compared with control groups. Meanwhile, the odonto/osteogenic markers (ALP/ALP, RUNX2/RUNX2, OSX/OSX, OCN/OCN, OPN/OPN, BSP/BSP, DSPP/DSP, and DMP-1/DMP-1 in NF-κB pathway-activated SCAPs were also significantly upregulated as compared with control groups at both protein and mRNA levels. However, NF-κB pathway-inhibited SCAPs exhibited a lower proliferation/migration capacity, and decreased odonto/osteogenic ability in comparison with control groups. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that classical NF-κB pathway plays a paramount role in the proliferation and committed differentiation of SCAPs.

  10. Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Mediated Functional Tooth Regeneration in Swine

    OpenAIRE

    Wataru Sonoyama; Yi Liu; Dianji Fang; Takayoshi Yamaza; Byoung-Moo Seo; Chunmei Zhang; He Liu; Stan Gronthos; Cun-Yu Wang; Songlin Wang; Songtao Shi

    2006-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell-mediated tissue regeneration is a promising approach for regenerative medicine for a wide range of applications. Here we report a new population of stem cells isolated from the root apical papilla of human teeth (SCAP, stem cells from apical papilla). Using a minipig model, we transplanted both human SCAP and periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) to generate a root/periodontal complex capable of supporting a porcelain crown, resulting in normal tooth function. This wo...

  11. Reducing Postoperative Abdominal Bulge Following Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator Flap Breast Reconstruction with Onlay Monofilament Poly-4-Hydroxybutyrate Biosynthetic Mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormer, Blair A; Clavin, Nicholas W; Lefaivre, Jean-Francois; Korn, Jason M; Teng, Edward; Aukskalnis, Anthony S; Robinson, J Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of a biosynthetic mesh onlay on reducing postoperative abdominal bulge following deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap breast reconstruction. Methods All patients undergoing DIEP reconstructions from January, 2010 to January, 2014 at a tertiary center were reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups for comparison based on whether a biosynthetic mesh onlay (Phasix [monofilament poly-4-hydroxybutyrate], Bard Inc., Warwick, RI) was used for reinforcement of the anterior rectus fascia. Rates of postoperative abdominal bulge were compared between the groups utilizing standard statistical methods. Results During the study period, 319 patients underwent 553 DIEP reconstructions, 160 (50.2%) used mesh and 159 (49.8%) did not (nonmesh). The mean follow-up was 16.4 ± 11.1 months. There was no difference in age (49 ± 9.3 years), current tobacco use, diabetes, or mean body mass index (BMI, 29.4 ± 4.4) between the mesh and nonmesh groups (p > 0.05); however, there was a higher proportion of obese patients (BMI > 30) in the mesh group (45.0 vs. 33.3%; p = 0.03). Abdominal bulge rate following DIEP with mesh was lower than the nonmesh group (0 vs. 5.0%; p = 0.004). In the entire sample, 234 (73.4%) underwent bilateral DIEP and 85 (26.6%) underwent unilateral DIEP. In unilateral DIEP patients, the bulge rate was similar between the mesh and nonmesh groups (0 vs. 4.4%; p > 0.05); however, in bilateral DIEP patients, the bulge rate was lower in the mesh group compared with a nonmesh group (0 vs. 5.5%; p = 0.008). Conclusion Reinforcement of the anterior rectus with an onlay monofilament poly-4-hydroxybutyrate biosynthetic mesh may reduce the risk of postoperative bulge rate in patients undergoing DIEP reconstruction. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  12. Super obesity is not necessarily a contraindication to deep inferior epigastric perforator flap breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Marios; Schuster, Frauke; Djedovic, Gabriel; Rahmanian-Schwarz, Afshin

    2018-01-24

    The deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap is widely recognised as a safe and reliable flap for use as a first-choice option in autologous tissue breast reconstruction. Patients with obesity represent a challenging group for autologous breast reconstruction, as they are at increased risk of developing major and minor complications in comparison with patients with normal weight. We report a 59-year-old woman with super obesity, who presented to our department with right breast skin necrosis after implant reconstruction following mastectomy for right breast cancer. After implant removal and local treatment with both surgical debridement and negative pressure wound therapy, the patient successfully underwent a DIEP flap breast reconstruction. We conclude that super obesity should not be a contraindication to DIEP flap breast reconstruction. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Free deep inferior epigastric perforator flap used for management of post-pneumonectomy space empyema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, Kate; Gelvez, Sandra; Meldon, Charlotte J; Levai, Irisz; Malata, Charles M; Coonar, Aman S

    2013-04-01

    Various solutions exist for management of post-pneumonectomy space empyema. We describe the use of a free deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap to fill the space and close a pleural window. Previously, flaps involving abdominal muscle or omentum have been used for this purpose. Abdominal surgery to harvest such flaps can impair ventilatory mechanics. The DIEP flap--harvested from the abdomen, and composed primarily of skin and muscle avoids this problem, thus is a desirable technique in patients with impaired lung function. We believe this is the first report of the DIEP flap to close a postpneumonectomy empyema space. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of microRNAs expression profiles in human dental-derived pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobing Tan

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs technology provides a powerful means to generate and regenerate unlimited pluripotent stem cells directly from body tissue cells. Stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP and Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs are present in 'cell-rich zones' within the dental pulp region, which are capable of regenerating pulp and dentin tissues in vivo. In this study, we investigated the difference of miRNAs expression in SCAPs and DPSCs before and after the reprogramming. Using miRNA microarray, 134 and 265 differentially expressed miRNAs in DPSCs- and SCAP-iPSCs were up-regulated compared to these before reprogramming. 117 specific miRNAs with enhanced more than 2-fold were identified in both DPSCs- and SCAP-iPSCs. Among the co-regulated miRNAs, miR-19a-3p, miR-92b-3p and miR-130b-3p showed the maximum difference, which had involvement in the cell cycle, TGF beta signaling pathway and epithelial mesenchymal transition. Using qRT-PCR analysis, the expression of miR-19a-3p, miR-92b-3p and miR-130b-3p indicated substantial increases in DPSCs-iPSCs and SCAP-iPSCs. The findings suggest that miRNAs play a part in the difference between DPSCs-iPSCs and DPSCs, as well as between SCAP-iPSCs and SCAP. The variation of miRNA expression in reprogrammed dental-derived pluripotent stem cells revealed different characteristics induced by iPSC generation.

  15. Characterization of microRNAs expression profiles in human dental-derived pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiaobing; Dai, Qingyuan

    2017-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) technology provides a powerful means to generate and regenerate unlimited pluripotent stem cells directly from body tissue cells. Stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP) and Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are present in 'cell-rich zones' within the dental pulp region, which are capable of regenerating pulp and dentin tissues in vivo. In this study, we investigated the difference of miRNAs expression in SCAPs and DPSCs before and after the reprogramming. Using miRNA microarray, 134 and 265 differentially expressed miRNAs in DPSCs- and SCAP-iPSCs were up-regulated compared to these before reprogramming. 117 specific miRNAs with enhanced more than 2-fold were identified in both DPSCs- and SCAP-iPSCs. Among the co-regulated miRNAs, miR-19a-3p, miR-92b-3p and miR-130b-3p showed the maximum difference, which had involvement in the cell cycle, TGF beta signaling pathway and epithelial mesenchymal transition. Using qRT-PCR analysis, the expression of miR-19a-3p, miR-92b-3p and miR-130b-3p indicated substantial increases in DPSCs-iPSCs and SCAP-iPSCs. The findings suggest that miRNAs play a part in the difference between DPSCs-iPSCs and DPSCs, as well as between SCAP-iPSCs and SCAP. The variation of miRNA expression in reprogrammed dental-derived pluripotent stem cells revealed different characteristics induced by iPSC generation.

  16. Isolation and structural elucidation of antioxidant peptides from oyster (Saccostrea cucullata) protein hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umayaparvathi, S; Meenakshi, S; Vimalraj, V; Arumugam, M; Balasubramanian, T

    2014-01-01

    Protein derived from the oyster (Saccostrea cucullata) was hydrolyzed using protease from Bacillus cereus SU12 for isolation of antioxidant peptides. The oyster hydrolysate exhibited a strong antioxidant potential in DPPH (85.7±0.37%) followed by Hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity (81.6±0.3%), Hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity (79.32±0.6%), Reducing power assay (2.63±0.2 OD at 700nm). Due to the high antioxidant potential, hydrolysate was fractionated in Sephadex G-25 gel filtration chromatography. The active peptide fraction was further purified by UPLC-MS. Totally 7 antioxidant peptides were collected. Among 7 peptides (SCAP 1-7), 3 peptides (SCAP 1, 3 and 7) had highest scavenging ability on DPPH radicals. The amino acid sequence and molecular mass of purified antioxidant peptides (SCAP1, SCAP3 and SCAP7) were determined by Q-TOF ESI mass spectroscopy and structures of the peptides were Leu-Ala-Asn-Ala-Lys (MW=515.29Da), Pro-Ser-Leu-Val-Gly-Arg-Pro-Pro-Val-Gly-Lys-Leu-Thr-Leu (MW=1432.89Da) and Val-Lys-Val-Leu-Leu-Glu-His-Pro-Val-Leu (MW=1145.75Da), respectively. The unique amino acid composition and sequence in the peptides might play an important role in expression of their antioxidant activity. The results of this study suggest that oyster protein hydrolysate is good source of natural antioxidants.

  17. Selective cytotoxicity of 4-S-cysteaminylphenol on follicular melanocytes of the black mouse: rational basis for its application to melanoma chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Y.; Jimbow, K.

    1987-06-15

    We have previously shown that 4-S-cysteaminylphenol (4-S-CAP) causes a significant inhibition of in vivo melanoma growth. To clarify the mechanism of the in vivo antimelanoma effect, this study evaluated the cellular and subcellular changes of follicular melanocytes after s.c. administration of 4-S-CAP on the lumbar areas of black and albino mice. 4-S-CAP produced a prompt, selective swelling and lysis of melanocytes, resulting eventually in the necrosis of melanocytes and the depigmentation of black hair follicles. None of the degenerative changes were seen in melanocytes and keratinocytes of control albino follicles. Comparison of melanocytes in black and albino follicles revealed that melanin synthesis is highly active in the melanocytes of black follicles while melanin and tyrosinase synthesis is not seen in the melanocytes of albino follicles. The findings indicate that the selective melanocytotoxicity of 4-S-CAP is manifested by lysis and necrosis of cells which are actively engaged in melanin synthesis. 4-S-CAP appears to provide a new modality for rational chemotherapy of malignant melanoma.

  18. Effects of selenizing angelica polysaccharide and selenizing garlic polysaccharide on immune function of murine peritoneal macrophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhenzhen; Liu, Kuanhui; Tian, Weijun; Wang, Hongchao; Liu, Zhenguang; Li, Youying; Li, Entao; Liu, Cui; Li, Xiuping; Hou, Ranran; Yue, Chanjuan; Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang

    2015-07-01

    The effects of two selenizing polysaccharides (sCAP2 and sGPS6) on immune function of murine peritoneal macrophages taking two non-selenizing polysaccharides (CAP and GPS) and modifier Na2SeO3 as control. In vitro test, the changes of selenizing polysaccharides, non-selenizing polysaccharides and Na2SeO3 on murine macrophages function were evaluated by phagocytosis and nitric oxide (NO) secretion tests. In vivo test, the mice were injected respectively with 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 mg of sCAP2, sGPS6, CAP and GPS, or Na2SeO3 80 μg or normal saline 0.4 mL. The peritoneal macrophages were collected and cultured to determine the contents of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 in supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results showed that sCAP2 and sGPS6 could significantly promote the phagocytosis and secretion of NO and three cytokines of macrophages in comparison with CAP and GPS. sCAP2 possessed the strongest activity. This indicates that selenylation modification can further improve the immune-enhancing activity of polysaccharide, and sCAP2 could be as a new immunopotentiator. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of inflammation on lipid accumulation in the kidneys of children with primary nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gaofu; Li, Qiu; Wang, Li; Chen, Yaxi; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Haiping

    2011-12-01

    This study aimed to characterize the relationship between inflammation and lipid accumulation in children with primary nephrotic syndrome (PNS). Local expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr), sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2), SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP), and apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in kidney tissues obtained from children with PNS. Renal histopathology was evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid-Schiff staining. Serum levels of IL-1β and TGF-β1 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Expression of IL-1β, TGF-β1, LDLr, SREBP-2, SCAP, and apoB100 was higher in samples from patients with non-minimal change necrotic syndrome (NMCNS) compared to both controls and patients with minimal change necrotic syndrome. Deposition of apoB100 was significantly correlated with expression of IL-1β, TGF-β1, LDLr, SREBP-2, and SCAP and with the glomerulosclerosis index, but not with plasma lipid levels. Expression of IL-1β and TGF-β1 was significantly correlated with expression of LDLr, SREBP-2, and SCAP. These findings suggest that inflammation leads to lipid accumulation in the kidney through disruption of the expression of proteins in the SCAP/SREBP-2/LDLr signaling pathway, which may underlie glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis in NMCNS.

  20. Een stad, drie rooikoppe, sewe dae. Adeline en Lili Radloff. Pretoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dink duidelik verklap dat hy met 'n diep verbitterdheid rassisties, seksisties en homo- fobies is. Reeds met die “proloog” word daar begin om subtiel spanning op te bou en te sorg dat die leser begin bespiegel. Daar is hoofstukke wat slegs uit dialoog of. 'n telefoonoproep bestaan—'n goeie illustrasie van die skryfreël show, ...

  1. rv.1.7 en rv.1.9

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dit is nogal merkwaardig, omdat Calvyn geweldig baie te sê het vir vandag, want hy was in die sestiende eeu die één kerkhervormer wat die kerk inderdaad weer teruggelei het 'in de diepe bed ding van de ware christelijke traditie' (Oberman 1988:50). Daarom, so meen ek, biy dit belangrik om voortdurend in ons kerklike ...

  2. Sympathie over en weer.Waaruit bestaat de biologische basis van moraal?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weele, van der C.N.

    2010-01-01

    Moraal werd vooral door filosofen bestudeerd. De laatste jaren houden ook steeds meer biologen zich hier mee bezig. Het idee dat moraal een biologische basis heeft ontmoet steeds meer sympathie. Het werk van Frans de Waal draagt ook bij aan het idee dat moraal diep in de evolutionaire geschiedenis

  3. Societal discontent : Deciphering the Zeitgeist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Bles, Anne Marthe

    2017-01-01

    Onrust en onbehagen zijn karakteristieke kenmerken voor deze tijd. In veel landen, waaronder Nederland, is de stemming in de samenleving dat de maatschappij diepe problemen heeft, verrot is. De campagne van president Donald Trump droeg bijvoorbeeld het idee uit dat de Amerikaanse maatschappij in

  4. Het satirische weekblad Asmodée (1854-1911: het negentiende-eeuwse koningshuis onder vuur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathalijne van den Brekel

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available In de decennia na 1850 bevond het Nederlandse koningshuis zich in een diepe identiteitscrisis. De problemen aan het hof werden op de voet gevolgd door het satirische tijdschrift Asmodée, dat grote populariteit verwierf door de wekelijkse sensationele onthullingen over het hofleven en persoonlijke aanvallen op vorst en prinsen.

  5. De indirecte pulpa-overkapping, een waardevolle vitale pulpatherapie?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Strijp, A.J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Veranderende inzichten omtrent de etiologie en pathogenese van dentinecariës hebben geleid tot een minder invasieve benadering van diepe carieuze dentinelaesies. Werden deze laesies vroeger op geleide van hardheid, verkleuring en kleurbaarheid geëxcaveerd, tegenwoordig hanteert men een meer

  6. Kanna hy kô hystoe, Joanie Galant-hulle en

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    This article investigates the extent to which the title characters in three Adam Small plays represent dramatic and theatrical expressions of .... Adam Small se ander werke, diep en onlosmaaklik in die sosio-politieke grond waaruit die stuk ..... verbind Smith (Toneel117) die voorstelling van ruimtelike kodes in Swart Afrikaanse.

  7. H. Giesen, V ijf Minuten, Boekencentrum N.V., 's Gravenhage, 375 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    inleidende woord deur G. P. Klijn. Aan die slot is daar 'n volledige teks- register, waarvan die leser dikwels 'n dankbare gebruik kan maak. Onder al die dagboeke wat ek ken, trek die inhoud van hierdie een my die meeste. Die dagstukkies is eenvoudig, saaklik, Skrifgetrou en getuig van. 'n diepe insig in die Skrifwaarhede.

  8. A single-centre, retrospective proof-of-concept review of salvage of infected or exposed implant breast reconstructions with explantation and one-stage free flap replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramhall, Russell J; Hernan, Izaro; Harris, Paul A

    2017-10-18

    Implant-based breast reconstruction has relatively high complication rates. Removal of infected implants and immediate autologous reconstruction is a safe single-stage procedure that preserves the native breast skin envelope. A single-centre, retrospective proof-of-concept review of all salvage procedures performed for acute/chronic infected or exposed implant-based reconstructions by a single surgeon over a 6-year period. We present 13 cases of a particularly difficult subgroup of acute/chronic infection/extrusion over a 6-year period. All were successfully salvaged in a single procedure by implant removal and immediate free flap reconstruction with no significant complications. All patients had a change of pocket from subpectoral to subcutaneous and partial capsulectomies. Four patients had unilateral DIEP flaps for unilateral reconstruction, 3 bi-pedicle DIEP flaps for unilateral reconstruction, 2 bilateral TUG flaps for unilateral reconstruction, 3 bilateral DIEP flaps for bilateral reconstruction and 1 unilateral DIEP and implant for unilateral reconstruction. These patients are often slim with limited donor sites and pose technical challenges, often requiring double free flap reconstructions. Single-stage implant removal and autologous reconstruction preserves the breast skin envelope to maximise cosmesis in a single procedure. The introduction of healthy, well-vascularised tissue may also help treat the infection. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Telemetry study on migration of river lamprey and silver eel in the Hunze and Aa catchment basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, H.V.; Griffioen, A.B.; Keeken, van O.A.; Schollema, P.P.

    2013-01-01

    Rivierprik (Lampetra fluviatilis) is een belangrijke indicatorsoort voor zowel water (kaderrichtlijn) als natuur (habitatrichtlijn). De Drentsche Aa herbergt een van de weinige locaties (Gasterensche Diep) in Nederland waar het paaien van rivierprik is bewezen. Eén van de gestelde doelen voor de

  10. Eot;kbt;sp•.t;klngs,, Eook Rt

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    van die "Titanic". (1912) geopenbaar is en sowel oorlewendes as tydgenote diep getref het. In sy voorwoord tot Drums of the Birkenhead het brig. G.R.P. Roupel!, V.C., C.B., O.L., in dieselfde verband opgemerk: It is interesting to realise that those qualities which are so essential for a soldier to possess on the battlefield,.

  11. Skin deep: enhanced sleep depth by cutaneous temperature manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raymann, R.J.E.M.; Swaab, D.F.; Someren, E.J.W. Van

    2008-01-01

    Subtiele manipulatie van de huidtemperatuur heeft een groot effect op slaap van ouderen; met milde huidverwarming neemt de kans dat een oudere om 6.00 uur 's ochtends wakker neemt af van 58 procent tot 4 procent en verdubbelt de hoeveelheid diepe slaap gedurende de nacht.

  12. Strategic planning for disaster recovery with stochastic last mile distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, Russell Whitford [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Van Hentenryck, Pascal [BROWN UNIV.; Coffrin, Carleton [BROWN UNIV.

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the single commodity allocation problem (SCAP) for disaster recovery, a fundamental problem faced by all populated areas. SCAPs are complex stochastic optimization problems that combine resource allocation, warehouse routing, and parallel fleet routing. Moreover, these problems must be solved under tight runtime constraints to be practical in real-world disaster situations. This paper formalizes the specification of SCAPs and introduces a novel multi-stage hybrid-optimization algorithm that utilizes the strengths of mixed integer programming, constraint programming, and large neighborhood search. The algorithm was validated on hurricane disaster scenarios generated by Los Alamos National Laboratory using state-of-the-art disaster simulation tools and is deployed to aid federal organizations in the US.

  13. Planning deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps for breast reconstruction: a comparison between multidetector computed tomography and magnetic resonance angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cina, A; Barone-Adesi, L; Rinaldi, P; Cipriani, A; Salgarello, M; Masetti, R; Bonomo, L

    2013-08-01

    Deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flaps have become the state of the art in breast reconstruction. We compared the diagnostic performance of multidetector computed tomography (CTA) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in DIEP flap planning. Twenty-three women (mean age 48.0 years, range 26-72 years) underwent preoperative blinded evaluation using 64-slice CTA and 1.5-T MRA. Perforator identification, measurement of their calibre, intramuscular course (IMC), assessment of direct venous connections (DVC) with main superficial veins, superficial venous communications (SVC) between the right and left hemi-abdomen and deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA) branching type were performed. Surgery was carried out by the same team. Intraoperative findings were the standard of reference. Accuracy in identifying dominant perforators was 91.3 % for both techniques and mean error in calibre measurement 1.18 ± 0.35 mm for CTA and 1.63 ± 0.39 mm for MRA. Accuracy in assessing perforator IMCs was 97.1 % for CTA and 88.4 % for MRA, DVC 94.4 % for both techniques, SVC 91.3 % as well, and DIEA branching type 100 % for CTA and 91.3 % for MRA. Image acquisition and interpretation time was 21 ± 3 min for CTA (35 ± 5 min for MRA). In a strategy to optimise DIEP flap planning avoiding radiation exposure, MRA can be proposed alternatively to CTA. • Identification of deep inferior epigastric perforators (DIEP) is important before breast reconstruction. • Both CT and MR angiography are accurate in identifying DIEA perforator branches. • CTA and MRA are equivalent in demonstrating perforator-venous connections. • MRA can be proposed as an alternative to CTA in DIEP planning.

  14. Correlating the deep inferior epigastric artery branching pattern with type of abdominal free flap performed in a series of 145 breast reconstruction patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, A R; Jones, M E; Hazari, A; Francis, I; Nduka, C

    2012-10-01

    The deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap is currently viewed as the gold standard in autologous breast reconstruction. We studied three-dimensional computed tomography angiography (CTA) in 145 patients undergoing free abdominal flap breast reconstruction to try to correlate deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA) branching pattern with the type of flap performed and patient outcome. Today, reconstructive breast surgeons have become more experienced in raising DIEP flaps and operative times are becoming more acceptable. However, there remains significant interest in finding ways to aid this challenging dissection. We retrospectively evaluated consecutive patients between January 2007 and August 2008. CTAs were analysed using the Moon and Taylor (1988) classification of the DIEA branching pattern. Data gathered included pre-operative morbidity, type of abdominal wall free flap performed, length of operation, length of stay and complications. Some 150 breast reconstructions were performed in 145 patients. There were 67 DIEP flaps, 69 MS-2 transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flaps and 14 MS-1 TRAM flaps (where MS-1 spares the lateral muscle and MS-2 spares both lateral and medial segments). Proportionally more DIEP flaps were performed in patients with a type 2 branching pattern. There was one flap loss (0.67%). In this large CTA series, we found a type 1 (single artery) DIEA pattern most frequently, in contrast to the predominance of the type 2 bifurcating pattern observed previously. The higher proportion of DIEP flaps performed in the type 2 pattern patients is consistent with the documented shorter intramuscular course in this group. We have found CTA useful for faster selection of the best hemiabdomen for dissection and flap loss rates in our unit have reduced from 1.5% to 0.67%.

  15. [Characterization of microRNAs profiles of induced pluripotent stem cells reprogrammed from human dental pulp stem cells and stem cells from apical papilla].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaobing, Tan; Qingyuan, Dai

    2017-06-01

    To compare characterization of microRNAs (miRNAs) expression profiles of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) reprogrammed from human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP) and screen-specific microRNA. Human DPSCs and SCAP were reprogrammed into iPSCs using a Sendai virus vector. Total RNA of human DPSCs-iPSCs and SCAP-iPSCs were extracted. miRNAs were labeled and hybridized. Slides were scanned, and images were imported into GenePix Pro 6.0 for grid alignment and data extraction. Significant differentially expressed miRNAs between the two groups were identified using fold change and P-value and were analyzed. Both human DPSCs and SCAP were successfully reprogrammed into iPSCs. Among miRNA genes analyzed by miRNA microarray, 68 were differentially expressed by more than 10-fold in DPSCs-iPSCs; 37 of these genes were up-regulated, and 31 were down-regulated. In SCAP-iPSCs, 107 genes were differentially expressed by more than 10-fold; 68 were up-regulated, and 39 were down-regulated. In both cells, only miR-302e was up-regulated, whereas 9 miRNAs were down-regulated: miR-29b-3p, miR-181b-5p, miR-4328, miR-22-5p, miR-145-5p, miR-4324, let-7b-5p, miR-181a-5p, and miR-27b-3p. Multiple miRNAs participated in reprogramming of human DPSCs and SCAP into iPSCs. Most miRNAs are related to cell cycle, transforming growth factor-β signaling pathways and epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

  16. Mesenchymal stem cell-mediated functional tooth regeneration in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoyama, Wataru; Liu, Yi; Fang, Dianji; Yamaza, Takayoshi; Seo, Byoung-Moo; Zhang, Chunmei; Liu, He; Gronthos, Stan; Wang, Cun-Yu; Wang, Songlin; Shi, Songtao

    2006-12-20

    Mesenchymal stem cell-mediated tissue regeneration is a promising approach for regenerative medicine for a wide range of applications. Here we report a new population of stem cells isolated from the root apical papilla of human teeth (SCAP, stem cells from apical papilla). Using a minipig model, we transplanted both human SCAP and periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) to generate a root/periodontal complex capable of supporting a porcelain crown, resulting in normal tooth function. This work integrates a stem cell-mediated tissue regeneration strategy, engineered materials for structure, and current dental crown technologies. This hybridized tissue engineering approach led to recovery of tooth strength and appearance.

  17. Mesenchymal stem cell-mediated functional tooth regeneration in swine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Sonoyama

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cell-mediated tissue regeneration is a promising approach for regenerative medicine for a wide range of applications. Here we report a new population of stem cells isolated from the root apical papilla of human teeth (SCAP, stem cells from apical papilla. Using a minipig model, we transplanted both human SCAP and periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs to generate a root/periodontal complex capable of supporting a porcelain crown, resulting in normal tooth function. This work integrates a stem cell-mediated tissue regeneration strategy, engineered materials for structure, and current dental crown technologies. This hybridized tissue engineering approach led to recovery of tooth strength and appearance.

  18. Anticommunism and Academic Freedom: Walter C. Eells and the "Red Purge" in Occupied Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumano, Ruriko

    2010-01-01

    In August 1945, Imperial Japan surrendered to the Allied Powers. From September 1945 to April 1952, the United States occupied the defeated country. Douglas MacArthur, an American army general and the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (SCAP), attempted to transform Japanese society from an authoritarian regime into a budding democracy.…

  19. Capillary-oxygenation-level-dependent near-infrared spectrometry in frontal lobe of humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasmussen, Peter; Dawson, Ellen A.; Nybo, Lars; van Lieshout, Johannes J.; Secher, Niels H.; Gjedde, Albert

    2007-01-01

    Brain function requires oxygen and maintenance of brain capillary oxygenation is important. We evaluated how faithfully frontal lobe near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) follows haemoglobin saturation (SCap) and how calculated mitochondrial oxygen tension (PMitoO2) influences motor performance. Twelve

  20. EGR1 supports the osteogenic differentiation of dental stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, T; Viale-Bouroncle, S; Felthaus, O; Gosau, M; Morsczeck, C

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate whether and how the transcription factor early growth response gene 1 (EGR1) affects the osteogenic differentiation of dental stem cells. Dental stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs) and from the dental follicle (DFCs) were transfected with EGR1-specific siRNA or EGR-1 expression plasmid. Gene regulation was verified at protein level by Western blotting. The expression of the transcription factors distal-less homeobox 3 (DLX3), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), which are all regulators and markers of the osteogenic differentiation in dental stem cells, was determined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). To investigate mineralization, SCAP long-term cultures were stained with alizarin red after EGR1 over-expression. EGR1 was induced in SCAPs during osteogenic differentiation. DLX3 and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) were up-regulated after EGR1 over-expression and down-regulated after EGR1 depletion. The expression of ALP was also down-regulated after EGR1 depletion. The over-expression of EGR1 in SCAPs promoted mineralization after osteogenic differentiation. EGR1 supported the osteogenic differentiation of dental stem cells by potentially regulating the expression of DLX3 and BMP2. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Comparison of osteo/odontogenic differentiation of human adult dental pulp stem cells and stem cells from apical papilla in the presence of platelet lysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuarqoub, Duaa; Awidi, Abdalla; Abuharfeil, Nizar

    2015-10-01

    Human dental pulp cells (DPSCs) and stem cells from apical papilla have been used for the repair of damaged tooth tissues. Human platelet lysate (PL) has been suggested as a substitute for fetal bovine serum (FBS) for large scale expansion of dental stem cells. However, biological effects and optimal concentrations of PL for proliferation and differentiation of human dental stem cells remain to be elucidated. DPSCs and SCAP cells were isolated from impacted third molars of young healthy donors, at the stage of root development and identified by markers using flow cytometry. For comparison the cells were cultured in media containing PL (1%, 5% and 10%) and FBS, with subsequent induction for osteogenic/odontogenic differentiation. The cultures were analyzed for; morphology, growth characteristics, mineralization potential (Alizarin Red method) and differentiation markers using ELISA and real time -polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The proliferation rates of DPSCs and SCAP significantly increased when cells were treated with 5% PL (7X doubling time) as compared to FBS. 5% PL also enhanced mineralized differentiation of DPSCs and SCAP, as indicated by the measurement of alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin and osteopontin, calcium deposition and q-PCR. Our findings suggest that using 5% platelet lysate, proliferation and osteo/odontogenesis of DPSCs and SCAP for a short period of time (15 days), was significantly improved. This may imply its use as an optimum concentration for expansion of dental stem cells in bone regeneration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Temperature Effect of Electrical Properties of Cigs Solar Cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we are interested in studying the copper–indium–gallium–selenium (CIGS) solar cells sandwiched between cadmium sulfide (CdS) and ZnO as buffer layers, and Molybdenum (Mo). Thus, we report our simulation results using the capacitance simulator (SCAPS) in terms of layer thickness, absorber layer band ...

  3. Numerical Simulation and Optimization of Performances of a Solar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Numerical Simulation and Optimization of Performances of a Solar Cell Based on CdTe. ... We will lay the stress, initially, on the essential design features of a photovoltaic module (the open-circuit tension, the short-circuit current, the fill factor, and the output of the cell), our results was simulated with the SCAPS computer ...

  4. Guidelines for severe community-acquired pneumonia in the western world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegelin, AL; Bissumbhar, P; Joore, JCA; Lammers, JWJ; Hoepelman, IM

    Background: Recently, several guidelines (ATS 1993/LDSA 1998; ERS 1998; SWAB 1998) have been issued for the initial therapy of patients with community-acquired pneumonia. In patients who fulfil the criteria for severe community-acquired pneumonia (SCAP), it was advised to start with a macrolide

  5. A Computer Program for Short Circuit Analysis of Electric Power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper described the mathematical basis and computational framework of a computer program developed for short circuit studies of electric power systems. The Short Circuit Analysis Program (SCAP) is to be used to assess the composite effects of unbalanced and balanced faults on the overall reliability of electric ...

  6. Aetiology and outcome of severe community-acquired pneumonia in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the aetiological agents and outcome of severe community-acquired pneumonia (SCAP) in children admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) at Kalafong Hospital, Pretoria. Patients and methods. An audit was done after a protocol was implemented to identify the aetiological agents in ...

  7. Ginsenoside F2 reduces hair loss by controlling apoptosis through the sterol regulatory element-binding protein cleavage activating protein and transforming growth factor-β pathways in a dihydrotestosterone-induced mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Heon-Sub; Park, Sang-Yong; Hwang, Eun-Son; Lee, Don-Gil; Mavlonov, Gafurjon Turdalievich; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to test whether ginsenoside F2 can reduce hair loss by influencing sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) and the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) pathway of apoptosis in dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-treated hair cells and in a DHT-induced hair loss model in mice. Results for ginsenoside F2 were compared with finasteride. DHT inhibits proliferation of hair cells and induces androgenetic alopecia and was shown to activate an apoptosis signal pathway both in vitro and in vivo. The cell-based 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay showed that the proliferation rates of DHT-treated human hair dermal papilla cells (HHDPCs) and HaCaTs increased by 48% in the ginsenoside F2-treated group and by 12% in the finasteride-treated group. Western blot analysis showed that ginsenoside F2 decreased expression of TGF-β2 related factors involved in hair loss. The present study suggested a hair loss related pathway by changing SCAP related apoptosis pathway, which has been known to control cholesterol metabolism. SCAP, sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) and caspase-12 expression in the ginsenoside F2-treated group were decreased compared to the DHT and finasteride-treated group. C57BL/6 mice were also prepared by injection with DHT and then treated with ginsenoside F2 or finasteride. Hair growth rate, density, thickness measurements and tissue histotological analysis in these groups suggested that ginsenoside F2 suppressed hair cell apoptosis and premature entry to catagen more effectively than finasteride. Our results indicated that ginsenoside F2 decreased the expression of TGF-β2 and SCAP proteins, which have been suggested to be involved in apoptosis and entry into catagen. This study provides evidence those factors in the SCAP pathway could be targets for hair loss prevention drugs.

  8. Engineering three dimensional micro nerve tissue using postnatal stem cells from human dental apical papilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung-Chul; Jun, Sung-Min; Kim, So Yeon; Kwon, Yong-Dae; Choe, Sung Chul; Kim, Eun-Chul; Lee, Jae-Hyung; Kim, Jinseok; Suh, Jun-Kyo Francis; Hwang, Yu-Shik

    2017-04-01

    The in vitro generation of cell-based three dimensional (3D) nerve tissue is an attractive subject to improve graft survival and integration into host tissue for neural tissue regeneration or to model biological events in stem cell differentiation. Although 3D organotypic culture strategies are well established for 3D nerve tissue formation of pluripotent stem cells to study underlying biology in nerve development, cell-based nerve tissues have not been developed using human postnatal stem cells with therapeutic potential. Here, we established a culture strategy for the generation of in vitro cell-based 3D nerve tissue from postnatal stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs) of teeth, which originate from neural crest-derived ectomesenchyme cells. A stem cell population capable of differentiating into neural cell lineages was generated during the ex vivo expansion of SCAPs in the presence of EGF and bFGF, and SCAPs differentiated into neural cells, showing neural cell lineage-related molecular and gene expression profiles, morphological changes and electrophysical property under neural-inductive culture conditions. Moreover, we showed the first evidence that 3D cell-based nerve-like tissue with axons and myelin structures could be generated from SCAPs via 3D organotypic culture using an integrated bioprocess composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG) microwell-mediated cell spheroid formation and subsequent dynamic culture in a high aspect ratio vessel (HARV) bioreactor. In conclusion, the culture strategy in our study provides a novel approach to develop in vitro engineered nerve tissue using SCAPs and a foundation to study biological events in the neural differentiation of postnatal stem cells. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 903-914. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Depletion of histone demethylase KDM2A enhanced the adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation potentials of stem cells from apical papilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Rui [Laboratory of Molecular Signaling and Stem Cells Therapy, Beijing Key Laboratory of Tooth Regeneration and Function Reconstruction, Capital Medical University School of Stomatology, Beijing 100050 (China); Yao, Rui [Department of Pediatrics, Stomatological Hospital of Nankai University, Tianjin 300041 (China); Du, Juan [Laboratory of Molecular Signaling and Stem Cells Therapy, Beijing Key Laboratory of Tooth Regeneration and Function Reconstruction, Capital Medical University School of Stomatology, Beijing 100050 (China); Wang, Songlin [Molecular Laboratory for Gene Therapy and Tooth Regeneration, Beijing Key Laboratory of Tooth Regeneration and Function Reconstruction, Capital Medical University School of Stomatology, Beijing 100050 (China); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Capital Medical University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Beijing 100069 (China); Fan, Zhipeng, E-mail: zpfan@ccmu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Molecular Signaling and Stem Cells Therapy, Beijing Key Laboratory of Tooth Regeneration and Function Reconstruction, Capital Medical University School of Stomatology, Beijing 100050 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a reliable resource for tissue regeneration, but the molecular mechanism underlying directed differentiation remains unclear; this has restricted potential MSC applications. The histone demethylase, lysine (K)-specific demethylase 2A (KDM2A), is evolutionarily conserved and ubiquitously expressed members of the JmjC-domain-containing histone demethylase family. A previous study determined that KDM2A can regulate the cell proliferation and osteo/dentinogenic differentiation of MSCs. It is not known whether KDM2A is involved in the other cell lineages differentiation of MSCs. Here, we show that depletion of KDM2A by short hairpin RNAs can enhance adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation potentials in human stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs). We found that the stemness-related genes, SOX2, and the embryonic stem cell master transcription factor, NANOG were significantly increased after silence of KDM2A in SCAPs. Moreover, we found that knock-down of the KDM2A co-factor, BCOR also up-regulated the mRNA levels of SOX2 and NANOG. Furthermore, Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrate that silence of KDM2A increased the histone H3 Lysine 4 (H3K4) trimethylation in the SOX2 and NANOG locus and regulates its expression. In conclusion, our results suggested that depletion of KDM2A enhanced the adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation potentials of SCAPs by up-regulated SOX2 and NANOG, BCOR also involved in this regulation as co-factor, and provided useful information to understand the molecular mechanism underlying directed differentiation in MSCs. - Highlights: • Depletion of KDM2A enhances adipogenic/chondrogenic differentiation in SCAPs. • Depletion of KDM2A enhances the differentiation of SCAPs by activate SOX2 and NANOG. • Silence of KDM2A increases histone H3 Lysine 4 trimethylation in SOX2 and NANOG. • BCOR is co-factor of KDM2A involved in the differentiation regulation.

  10. Biologiczne skutki stresu oksydacyjnego wywołanego działaniem pestycydów

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Grosicka-Maciąg

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pestycydy są powszechnie stosowane do ochrony roślin, produktów roślinnych, a także są wykorzystywane w wielu gałęziach przemysłu. Zaliczane są do związków szkodliwych. Mimo istniejących rygorystycznych kontroli ich stosowania istnieje duże ryzyko, że pestycydy oraz ich pochodne mogą przedostawać się do środowiska naturalnego zanieczyszczając wodę, glebę i żywność, stanowiąc tym samym zagrożenie dla zdrowia człowieka. Prowadzone badania w wielu ośrodkach naukowych koncentrują się na wyjaśnieniu mechanizmów działania pestycydów. Toksyczność pestycydów może być związana m.in. z indukcją stresu oksydacyjnego i nagromadzeniem się wolnych rodników w komórce. Długotrwały, bądź nasilony stres oksydacyjny jest szkodliwy dla komórki, ponieważ wywołuje zaburzenia jej metabolizmu. Prowadzić to może do powstania trwałych zmian w strukturze białek, lipidów i DNA. W wyniku utlenienia wiele białek może utracić lub zwiększyć swoją aktywność, a także tworzyć agregaty mogące hamować systemy odpowiedzialne za ich degradację, co sprzyja nagromadzeniu się zmienionych białek w komórkach. Wzrost utleniania lipidów komórkowych wywołuje uszkodzenia i depolaryzację błon cytoplazmatycznych. W wyniku działania wolnych rodników tlenowych na cząsteczkę DNA dochodzi do powstania licznych uszkodzeń oksydacyjnych (uszkodzeń pojedynczych zasad azotowych, pęknięć nici DNA, tworzenia adduktów. Stres oksydacyjny wymieniany jest jako jedna z przyczyn chorób neurodegeneracyjnych (choroba Alzheimera, Parkinsona i nowotworowych, a także bezpłodności.

  11. Veldonderzoek bestrijdingsmiddelen. Rapportage van de 1e, 2e en 3e bemonstering 1988

    OpenAIRE

    Lagas P; Verdam B; Maaren HJ van

    1988-01-01

    In het veldonderzoek bestrijdingsmiddelen (fase 3) werden in de eerste 3 kwartalen van 1988 verschillende residuen van bestrijdingsmiddelen aangetoond in het grondwater onder landbouwpercelen. Het onderzoek werd uitgevoerd in een drietal regio's: aardappelteelt in de Veenkolonien, maisteelt in Noord-Brabant en bloembollenteelt in de Bollenstreek. Tevens werden hierbij voor het eerst een aantal diepe putten (tot 6 m) bemonsterd. Gebruik van de grondontsmettingsmiddelen leverde residuen in...

  12. The Role of Hypoxia in the Tumor Microenvironment: Implications for Ovarian Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Nat Commun. 2017 May 31;8:15580 2. Kariolis MS, Miao YR, Diep A, Nash SE, Olcina MM, Jiang D, Jones DS 2nd, Kapur S, Math II, Koong AC, Rankin EB...and Angiogenesis (Stanford University) 2016 Guest Instructor CBIO 280: Cancer Biology Journal Club (Stanford University) 2015 Instructor CBIO 280...Cancer Biology Journal Club (Stanford University) 2006 Teaching Assistant BIOM 555: Gene Expression (University of Pennsylvania)

  13. Anatomical Landmarks for Safe Elevation of the Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator Flap: A Cadaveric Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhry, Saeed; Hazani, Ron; Collis, Philip; Wilhelmi, Bradon J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Breast reconstruction techniques have focused increasingly on using autologous tissue, with emphasis being placed on employing muscle sparing adipocutaneous flaps to reduce abdominal wall complications such as hernias, bulges, weakness, and length of hospital stay. The result has been the emergence of the deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap for breast reconstruction. Isolating perforator vessels challenges most surgeons. We describe surface anatomical landmarks to pred...

  14. The short- and ultrashort-pedicle deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap in breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colohan, Shannon; Maia, Munique; Langevin, Claude Jean; Donfrancesco, Andrea; Shirvani, Arash; Trussler, Andrew P; Saint-Cyr, Michel

    2012-02-01

    Breast reconstruction using the deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap is becoming more common and can help reduce donor site morbidity. The authors proposed that dissection of the deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA) and vein (DIEV) to their external iliac source may not be required for safe flap transfer. Sixteen whole fresh cadaveric hemiabdomens were used to dissect transverse abdominal-based flaps. Latex injection of the DIEA system was carried out, and the diameters of the DIEA/DIEV vessels were assessed at various points along the course of the pedicle from the origin to the perforator. A clinical study of 26 patients who underwent a short and ultrashort pedicle DIEP flaps was carried out. The average DIEA and DIEV vessel diameters were relatively similar from the external iliac origin to a point just caudal to the bifurcation. At the lateral rectus edge, the average DIEA diameter was 3.2 mm, and the DIEV diameter was 3.1 mm. The average pedicle length obtained with classic DIEP dissection was 16.9 cm, short-pedicle DIEP dissection 10.4 cm, ultrashort technique 8.1 cm, and free TRAM technique 6.5 cm. Venous injection study demonstrated rich venous interconnections between both venae comitantes. In their clinical study, the authors were able to achieve average pedicle lengths of 11.0 cm when transecting cranial to the lateral edge of the rectus, with average diameters of 2.5 mm (artery) and 2.9 mm (vein). Transection of the DIEA/DIEV pedicle at the lateral rectus edge or more proximally is safe and can help reduce operative time and donor-site morbidity. Therapeutic, IV.

  15. Equilibrium-Phase High Spatial Resolution Contrast-Enhanced MR Angiography at 1.5T in Preoperative Imaging for Perforator Flap Breast Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boetes, Carla; Van Der Hulst, René; Lataster, Arno; Van Mulken, Tom; Wildberger, Joachim; de Haan, Michiel; Leiner, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim was (i) to evaluate the accuracy of equilibrium-phase high spatial resolution (EP) contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) at 1.5T using a blood pool contrast agent for the preoperative evaluation of deep inferior epigastric artery perforator branches (DIEP), and (ii) to compare image quality with conventional first-pass CE-MRA. Methods Twenty-three consecutive patients were included. All patients underwent preoperative CE-MRA to determine quality and location of DIEP. First-pass imaging after a single bolus injection of 10 mL gadofosveset trisodium was followed by EP imaging. MRA data were compared to intra-operative findings, which served as the reference standard. Results There was 100% agreement between EP CE-MRA and surgical findings in identifying the single best perforator branch. All EP acquisitions were of diagnostic quality, whereas in 10 patients the quality of the first-pass acquisition was qualified as non-diagnostic. Both signal- and contrast-to-noise ratios were significantly higher for EP imaging in comparison with first-pass acquisitions (p<0.01). Conclusions EP CE-MRA of DIEP in the preoperative evaluation of patients undergoing a breast reconstruction procedure is highly accurate in identifying the single best perforator branch at 1.5Tesla (T). Besides accuracy, image quality of EP imaging proved superior to conventional first-pass CE-MRA. PMID:24009659

  16. Enhanced Preoperative Deep Inferior Epigastric Artery Perforator Flap Planning with a 3D-Printed Perforasome Template: Technique and Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter-Smith, David J.; Rostek, Marie; Smith, Julian A.; Rozen, Warren Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Summary: Optimizing preoperative planning is widely sought in deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flap surgery. One reason for this is that rates of fat necrosis remain relatively high (up to 35%), and that adjusting flap design by an improved understanding of individual perforasomes and perfusion characteristics may be useful in reducing the risk of fat necrosis. Imaging techniques have substantially improved over the past decade, and with recent advances in 3D printing, an improved demonstration of imaged anatomy has become available. We describe a 3D-printed template that can be used preoperatively to mark out a patient’s individualized perforasome for flap planning in DIEP flap surgery. We describe this “perforasome template” technique in a case of a 46-year-old woman undergoing immediate unilateral breast reconstruction with a DIEP flap. Routine preoperative computed tomographic angiography was performed, with open-source software (3D Slicer, Autodesk MeshMixer and Cura) and a desktop 3D printer (Ultimaker 3E) used to create a template used to mark intra-flap, subcutaneous branches of deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA) perforators on the abdomen. An individualized 3D printed template was used to estimate the size and boundaries of a perforasome and perfusion map. The information was used to aid flap design. We describe a new technique of 3D printing a patient-specific perforasome template that can be used preoperatively to infer perforasomes and aid flap design.

  17. Self-esteem and patients' satisfaction after deep inferior epigastric perforator flap breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haekens, Christel M; Enajat, Morteza; Keymeulen, Kristien; Van der Hulst, Rene R W J

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this article is to assess the impact of deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap breast reconstruction on self-esteem and to analyze the correlation between aesthetic outcome and self-esteem. Global self-esteem was evaluated using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale in 31 patients who underwent DIEP flap breast reconstructions. A study-specific questionnaire and photographic evaluation were used by the patient, the plastic surgeon, and the oncological surgeon to measure satisfaction with the aesthetic outcome. Patients' satisfaction and self-esteem were analyzed for any existing correlation. Overall patients' satisfaction had a mean score of 6.55 (range, 0-10) on the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire. A mean score of 32.48 (range, 10-40) was found on the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. More than 80% of patients were content with their decision to undergo this procedure and would recommend this to a friend. Surgeons tended to rate the aesthetic outcome better than patients. Patients' satisfaction and self-esteem were found to be positively correlated. Patients are generally content with the outcome of primary DIEP flap breast reconstruction. The favorable aesthetic result of this procedure has a beneficial effect on patients' self-esteem.

  18. Prospective, Double-Blind Evaluation of Umbilicoplasty Techniques Using Conventional and Crowdsourcing Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veldhuisen, Charlotte L; Kamali, Parisa; Wu, Winona; Becherer, Babette E; Sinno, Hani H; Ashraf, Azra A; Ibrahim, Ahmed M S; Tobias, Adam; Lee, Bernard T; Lin, Samuel J

    2017-12-01

    Umbilical reconstruction is an important component of deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap breast reconstruction. This study evaluated the aesthetics of three different umbilical reconstruction techniques during DIEP flap breast reconstruction. From January to April of 2013, a total of 29 consecutive patients undergoing DIEP flap breast reconstruction were randomized intraoperatively to receive one of three umbilicoplasty types: a diamond, an oval, or an inverted V incision. Independent plastic surgeons and members of the general public, identified using an online "crowdsourcing" platform, evaluated aesthetic outcomes in a blinded fashion. Reviewers were shown postoperative photographs of the umbilicus of all patients and a four-point Likert scale was used to rate the new umbilicus on the size, scar formation, shape, localization, and overall appearance. Results for the focus group of independent plastic surgeons and 377 members of the public were retrieved (n = 391). A total of 10 patients (34.5 percent) were randomized into having the diamond incision, 10 (34.5 percent) had the oval incision, and nine (31.0 percent) had the inverted V incision. Patients were well matched in terms of overall characteristics. The general public demonstrated a significant preference for the oval incision in all five parameters. There was no preference identified among surgeons. This study provides evidence that a sample of the U.S. general public prefers the aesthetics of the oval umbilicoplasty incision, which contrasted with the lack of preference identified within this focus group of plastic surgeons. Therapeutic, II.

  19. Enhanced Preoperative Deep Inferior Epigastric Artery Perforator Flap Planning with a 3D-Printed Perforasome Template: Technique and Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Chae, MBBS, BMedSc

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary:. Optimizing preoperative planning is widely sought in deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP flap surgery. One reason for this is that rates of fat necrosis remain relatively high (up to 35%, and that adjusting flap design by an improved understanding of individual perforasomes and perfusion characteristics may be useful in reducing the risk of fat necrosis. Imaging techniques have substantially improved over the past decade, and with recent advances in 3D printing, an improved demonstration of imaged anatomy has become available. We describe a 3D-printed template that can be used preoperatively to mark out a patient’s individualized perforasome for flap planning in DIEP flap surgery. We describe this “perforasome template” technique in a case of a 46-year-old woman undergoing immediate unilateral breast reconstruction with a DIEP flap. Routine preoperative computed tomographic angiography was performed, with open-source software (3D Slicer, Autodesk MeshMixer and Cura and a desktop 3D printer (Ultimaker 3E used to create a template used to mark intra-flap, subcutaneous branches of deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA perforators on the abdomen. An individualized 3D printed template was used to estimate the size and boundaries of a perforasome and perfusion map. The information was used to aid flap design. We describe a new technique of 3D printing a patient-specific perforasome template that can be used preoperatively to infer perforasomes and aid flap design.

  20. Increasing options in autologous microsurgical breast reconstruction: four free flaps for ‘stacked’ bilateral breast reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nakul Gamanlal; Ramakrishnan, Venkat V.

    2016-01-01

    For autologous breast reconstruction, there are cases where one free flap cannot provide the volume of tissue required, and the concept of ‘stacked’ bilateral deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEP) flaps was developed, in which hemi-abdominal flaps are raised on each deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA), and both flaps transferred to the chest. In cases of bilateral breast reconstruction, stacked flaps may be required to achieve volume replacement, however options are not described. We demonstrate the use of stacked free flaps for bilateral breast reconstruction, using one DIEP flap stacked with one transverse upper gracilis (TUG) flap for each side. A 49-year-old woman, with BRCA1 mutation, presented for risk reduction mastectomies. Flap design was planned to achieve maximal projection and primary nipple reconstruction. This was able to be achieved by using the DIEP flap de-epithelialised and completely buried, with the flap orientated with the pedicle on its superficial surface, and the TUG flap lying superficially with its skin paddle used for nipple reconstruction and able to be monitored clinically. There were no flap or donor related complications and good aesthetic outcomes were achieved. This technique offers a further option in microsurgical breast reconstruction for patients in whom there is a paucity of abdominal tissue for reconstruction. PMID:27047791

  1. Planning deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps for breast reconstruction: a comparison between multidetector computed tomography and magnetic resonance angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cina, A.; Rinaldi, P.; Cipriani, A.; Bonomo, L. [Agostino Gemelli Hospital, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Department of Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy); Barone-Adesi, L.; Salgarello, M. [Agostino Gemelli Hospital, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Department of Surgery, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Unit, Rome (Italy); Masetti, R. [Agostino Gemelli Hospital, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Department of Surgery, Breast Surgery Unit, Rome (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    Deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flaps have become the state of the art in breast reconstruction. We compared the diagnostic performance of multidetector computed tomography (CTA) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in DIEP flap planning. Twenty-three women (mean age 48.0 years, range 26-72 years) underwent preoperative blinded evaluation using 64-slice CTA and 1.5-T MRA. Perforator identification, measurement of their calibre, intramuscular course (IMC), assessment of direct venous connections (DVC) with main superficial veins, superficial venous communications (SVC) between the right and left hemi-abdomen and deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA) branching type were performed. Surgery was carried out by the same team. Intraoperative findings were the standard of reference. Accuracy in identifying dominant perforators was 91.3 % for both techniques and mean error in calibre measurement 1.18 {+-} 0.35 mm for CTA and 1.63 {+-} 0.39 mm for MRA. Accuracy in assessing perforator IMCs was 97.1 % for CTA and 88.4 % for MRA, DVC 94.4 % for both techniques, SVC 91.3 % as well, and DIEA branching type 100 % for CTA and 91.3 % for MRA. Image acquisition and interpretation time was 21 {+-} 3 min for CTA (35 {+-} 5 min for MRA). In a strategy to optimise DIEP flap planning avoiding radiation exposure, MRA can be proposed alternatively to CTA. (orig.)

  2. [Significance of abdominal wall CT-angiography in planning DIEA perforator flaps, TRAM flaps and SIEA flaps].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fansa, H; Schirmer, S; Frerichs, O; Gehl, H B

    2011-04-01

    Muscle sparing TRAM flaps and DIEA perforator flaps are standard procedures for breast reconstruction. Recently CT-angiography has been established to evaluate perforator vessels pre-operatively. CT-angiography was introduced to our department in July 2009. In a retrospective analysis data of the last 20 patients (altogether 22 flaps) before CT-angiography introduction and the following 20 (also 22 flaps) patients after introduction of CT-angiography were analysed with regard to the ratio of TRAM to DIEP flaps, and the time required to raise the flaps. The same surgeon raised all flaps. As different surgeons performed dissection of the recipient site, anastomoses, and insertion of flaps, and patients received primary (with sentinel or complete lymphadenctomy) or secondary reconstructions, only the time required harvesting the flap was compared. Thus other influences on raising the flap were eliminated. DIEP flaps were harvested with one single perforator. If perfusion or was considered not to be safe via one single perforator a muscle sparing TRAM flap (ms2) was raised. Angiography was performed using a 64-slice multi-detector CT scanner. CT-angiography did not lead to an increased rate of DIEP flaps in relation to ms2-TRAM flaps. Harvesting time of all flap types with CT-angiography on average was 121 min, without CT-angiography 135 min. This was not significantly different. However, separate analysis of DIEP flaps and ms2-TRAM flaps revealed a significant advantage of CT-angiography based harvesting of DIEP flaps of 26 min: with CT-angiography 101 min vs. 127 min without CT-angiography (p<0.028). There were no significant differences for ms2-TRAM flaps. All scans showed course and branching, diameter and size of the inferior epigastric artery. If evident the superficial inferior epigastric artery (SIEA) was marked. Dosage was 292 mGy-606 mGy×cm dependent on body weight. CTDI was 6.8-14.7 mGy. CT-angiography is a reproducible and observer independent procedure

  3. Syringocystadenoma Papilliferum of the Upper Lip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdan A. Al-Habsi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Syringocystadenoma papilliferum (SCAP is a rare skin tumour believed to arise from the apocrine or eccrine sweat glands. It appears predominantly in childhood, usually at birth. It is exceedingly rare for it to appear on the upper lip. We report a case of SCAP in a 10-year-old Omani girl who presented to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital in Muscat, Oman, in February 2012 with a non-tender, non-pruritic, solitary verrucous papule of 4 x 5 mm on the left side of the upper lip. It had been present since birth and had slowly been increasing in size over the years. It was occasionally associated with recurrent ulceration and bleeding and had previously been misdiagnosed and mismanaged. An excisional biopsy was performed and the whole lesion was removed. The surgical site was then sutured and the patient was discharged on the same day.

  4. Phenolic melanin precursors provide a rational approach to the design of antitumor agents for melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimbow, K.; Miura, T.; Ito, S.; Ishikawa, K.

    1989-01-01

    A unique biological property of the melanocyte, melanin synthesis may permit a rational approach to design agents for better management of malignant melanoma. This in vivo and in vitro study examined the selective melanocytotoxicity and antimelanoma effects of phenolic compounds, cysteinylphenol (CP), cysteaminylphenol (CAP), and related compounds, and found (1) that both 4-S-CP and 4-S-CAP are melanin precursors, (2) that 4-S-CAP possesses a marked depigmenting potency with selective destruction of melanocytes in black follicles, and (3) a significant inhibition in the protein synthesis and tumor growth of B16 melanoma. Importantly, a whole body autoradiography indicated that these phenolic melanin precursors are selectively incorporated into melanoma tissues after i.p. administration.

  5. Systèmes locaux d'alerte précoce et de réponse aux urgences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 janv. 2015 ... désormais les succès dans le domaine de la gestion des urgences et au-delà des interventions de relèvement et de réhabilitation. Le Dispositif National de .... incertitude se trouvent en liste les risques les plus fréquents et dont l'incidence sur les ..... techniques et financiers (national). Les OSV et les SCAP-.

  6. Numerical simulation of solar cells besed CZTS buffer layer (ZnO 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This manuscript presents the numerical study, using SCAPS-1D program, the effects of sulfur content in the buffer layer Zn (O,S) on the electrical parameters of the solar cell ZnO: Al / i-ZnO / Zn (O, S) / CZTS /. Changes in the band gap and electron affinity of Zn (O, S) were calculated from the law of Vegard. The numerical ...

  7. Correlation of inflammatory and cardiovascular biomarkers with pneumonia severity scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacoma, Alicia; Bas, Albert; Tudela, Pere; Giménez, Montse; Mòdol, Josep Maria; Pérez, Miguel; Ausina, Vicente; Dominguez, Jose; Prat-Aymerich, Cristina

    2014-03-01

    To assess the correlation of procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), neopterin, mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP), and mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) with severity risk scores: severe CAP (SCAP) and SMART-COP in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), as well as short term prognosis and to determine the correlation with mortality risk scores. Eighty-five patients with a final diagnosis of pneumonia were consecutively included during a two month period. Epidemiological, clinical, microbiological, and radiological data were recorded. Patients were stratified according to the PSI, CURB-65, SCAP and SMART-COP. Complications were defined as respiratory failure/shock, need of ICU, and death. Plasma samples were collected at admission. MR-proANP and MR-proADM showed significantly higher levels in high risk SCAP group in comparison to low risk. When considering SMART-COP none of the biomarkers showed statistical differences. MR-proADM levels were high in patients with high risk of needing intensive respiratory or vasopressor support according to SMRT-CO. Neopterin and MR-proADM were significantly higher in patients that developed complications. PCT and MR-proADM showed significantly higher levels in cases of a definite bacterial diagnosis in comparison to probable bacterial, and unknown origin. MR-proANP and MR-proADM levels increased statistically according to PSI and CURB-65. Biomarker levels are higher in pneumonia patients with a poorer prognosis according to SCAP and SMART-COP indexes, and to the development of complications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  8. The Shoulder Gradient in Patients with Unilateral Shoulder Impingement Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hee-Sang; Lee, Jong Ha; Yun, Dong Hwan; Yun, Jee-Sang; Shin, Yong Won; Chon, Jinmann; Hwang, Dae Gyu

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between the shoulder gradient and acromiohumeral interval of both shoulders in patients with unilateral shoulder impingement syndrome. Method Using the angulometer, we measured the shoulder gradient in patients with unilateral shoulder impingement syndrome in a standing position. Using the radiography, we measured the acromiohumeral interval and the angle between a vertical line and a line connecting a superior angle with an inferior angle of the scap...

  9. Testing the Nuclear Will of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    United States Embassy, Tokyo. Daily Summary of Japanese Press. Office of Translation and Media Analysis. 05 November 2006. 16 Maria Rost Rublee...coupled with the Allied occupation and leadership control lying with SCAP, left Japan with no leverage to negotiate a more favorable deal. 2. San...its climb toward becoming the second largest economy in the world.43 As long as the Japanese leadership did not stray from ensuring this would occur

  10. Genetic markers associated to dyslipidemia in HIV-infected individuals on HAART

    OpenAIRE

    Lazzaretti, Rosmeri K.; Gasparotto, Aline S.; Sassi, Marina G. de M.; Polanczyk,Carísi A.; Regina Kuhmmer; Jussara M. Silveira; Basso, Rossana P.; Pinheiro, Cezar A. T.; Mariângela F Silveira; Eduardo Sprinz; Mattevi, Vanessa S.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 6 candidate genes (APOB, APOA5, APOE, APOC3, SCAP, and LDLR) over dyslipidemia in HIV-infected patients on stable antiretroviral therapy (ART) with undetectable viral loads. Blood samples were collected from 614 patients at reference services in the cities of Porto Alegre, Pelotas, and Rio Grande in Brazil. The SNPs were genotyped by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR. The prevalence of ...

  11. Evolution over a 15-year period of the clinical characteristics and outcomes of critically ill patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallés, J; Diaz, E; Martín-Loeches, I; Bacelar, N; Saludes, P; Lema, J; Gallego, M; Fontanals, D; Artigas, A

    2016-05-01

    To study the characteristics and outcomes of patients in the ICU with severe community-acquired pneumonia (SCAP) over a 15-year surveillance period. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of episodes of SCAP, and assessed the epidemiology, etiology, treatment and outcomes of patients admitted to the ICU, comparing three periods (1999-2003, 2004-2008 and 2009-2013). A total of 458 patients were diagnosed with SCAP. The overall cumulative incidence was 37.4 episodes/1000 admissions, with a progressive increase over the three periods (P<0.001). Patients fulfilling the two major IDSA/ATS criteria at admission increased from 64.2% in the first period to 82.5% in the last period (P=0.005). Streptococcus pneumoniae was the prevalent pathogen. The incidence of bacteremia was 23.1%, and a progressive significant reduction in overall incidence was observed over the three periods (P=0.02). Globally, 91% of the patients received appropriate empiric antibiotic treatment, increasing from 78.3% in the first period to 97.7% in the last period (P<0.001). Combination antibiotic therapy (betalactam+macrolide or fluoroquinolone) increased significantly from the first period (61%) to the last period (81.3%) (P<0.001). Global ICU mortality was 25.1%, and decreased over the three periods (P=0.001). Despite a progressively higher incidence and severity of SCAP in our ICU, crude ICU mortality decreased by 18%. The increased use of combined antibiotic therapy and the decreasing rates of bacteremia were associated to improved patient prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Scapular Function Training on Chronic Pain in the Neck/Shoulder Region: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Christoffer H.; Andersen, Lars L.; Zebis, Mette K.; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Neck and shoulder complaints are common among employees in occupations characterized by intensive computer use. Treatment has varied from passive rest to active treatments and active treatments have often been divided into either training of the painful area or the surrounding musculature avoiding direct training of the painful area. Our study investigates the effect of the latter approach. The purpose of this study was in a randomised controlled trial to investigate if intensive scap...

  13. Systèmes locaux d'alerte précoce et de réponse aux urgences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectif : L'étude vise à analyser le fonctionnement des observatoires de Suivi de la Vulnérabilité (OSV) et des Structures Communautaires d'Alerte Précoce et des Réponses aux Urgences (SCAP-RU) au Niger. Méthodologie et résultats : l'étude a été conduite sur la base des enquêtes terrain (entretien individuel et focus ...

  14. A History of Socio-Cultural Intelligence and Research Under the Occupation of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    closely related to the Emperor issue, was the status of Shinto as an official state religion. SCAP abolished Japanese state support for Shinto on...reports from the field on reactions to the Shinto directive. “Occupational Trends” highlighted that Tokyo papers gave extensive attention to the...directive and mostly supported the move to decouple Shinto from the state. According to a Tokyo newspaper on December 17, “All the Shinto priests involved

  15. The summer snow cover anomaly over the Tibetan Plateau and its association with simultaneous precipitation over the mei-yu-baiu region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ge; Wu, Renguang; Zhang, Yuanzhi; Nan, Sulan

    2014-07-01

    The summer snow anomalies over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and their effects on climate variability are often overlooked, possibly due to the fact that some datasets cannot properly capture summer snow cover over high terrain. The satellite-derived Equal-Area Scalable Earth grid (EASE-grid) dataset shows that snow still exists in summer in the western part and along the southern flank of the TP. Analysis demonstrates that the summer snow cover area proportion (SCAP) over the TP has a significant positive correlation with simultaneous precipitation over the mei-yu-baiu (MB) region on the interannual time scale. The close relationship between the summer SCAP and summer precipitation over the MB region could not be simply considered as a simultaneous response to the Silk Road pattern and the SST anomalies in the tropical Indian Ocean and tropical central-eastern Pacific. The SCAP anomaly has an independent effect and may directly modulate the land surface heating and, consequently, vertical motion over the western TP, and concurrently induce anomalous vertical motion over the North Indian Ocean via a meridional vertical circulation. Through a zonal vertical circulation over the tropics and a Kelvin wave-type response, anomalous vertical motion over the North Indian Ocean may result in an anomalous high over the western North Pacific and modulate the convective activity in the western Pacific warm pool, which stimulates the East Asia-Pacific (EAP) pattern and eventually affects summer precipitation over the MB region.

  16. Optimization methods and silicon solar cell numerical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardini, K.; Jacobsen, S. E.

    1986-01-01

    An optimization algorithm for use with numerical silicon solar cell models was developed. By coupling an optimization algorithm with a solar cell model, it is possible to simultaneously vary design variables such as impurity concentrations, front junction depth, back junction depth, and cell thickness to maximize the predicted cell efficiency. An optimization algorithm was developed and interfaced with the Solar Cell Analysis Program in 1 Dimension (SCAP1D). SCAP1D uses finite difference methods to solve the differential equations which, along with several relations from the physics of semiconductors, describe mathematically the performance of a solar cell. A major obstacle is that the numerical methods used in SCAP1D require a significant amount of computer time, and during an optimization the model is called iteratively until the design variables converge to the values associated with the maximum efficiency. This problem was alleviated by designing an optimization code specifically for use with numerically intensive simulations, to reduce the number of times the efficiency has to be calculated to achieve convergence to the optimal solution.

  17. SREBP pathway genes as candidate markers in country ham production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max F. Rothschild

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Country hams are dry-cured products from the Southeastern region of the USA. This high value product initially requires quality fresh meat to avoid later processing problems. The marker SREBF1, is a transcription factor involved in the regulation of fatty acid synthesis and anti-oxidative enzyme transcription. The SREBF1 gene and its regulating genes, SCAP and MBTPS1, were investigated for associations with several meat quality traits in country hams. After single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP identification, PCR-RFLP tests were designed for one polymorphism in each of the three investigated genes. Meat quality and physical traits were collected on 299 fresh hams. Significant associations were found with ham yield (MBTPS1, P<0.05 and SREBF1xMBTPS1, P<0.05 and ham circumference (MBTPS1, P<0.05 and SREBF1x MBTPS1, P<0.01, Hunter A colour score on fresh meat (SREBF1, P<0.05, Hunter B colour score on cured meat (MBTPS1, P<0.05 and SREBF1xMBTPS1, P<0.01, moisture (SCAPxMBTPS1, P<0.05 and salt percentage (SREBF1xSCAP, P<0.05. Our findings provide initial evidence that SNPs in SREBF1, SCAP and MBTPS1 are associated with some country ham quality traits. Breeders could use these gene tests to improve their animals, which would in turn improve country ham processing and other desired production goals.

  18. An FPGA Implementation to Detect Selective Cationic Antibacterial Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco González, Carlos; Nuño Maganda, Marco Aurelio; Arias-Estrada, Miguel; del Rio, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    Exhaustive prediction of physicochemical properties of peptide sequences is used in different areas of biological research. One example is the identification of selective cationic antibacterial peptides (SCAPs), which may be used in the treatment of different diseases. Due to the discrete nature of peptide sequences, the physicochemical properties calculation is considered a high-performance computing problem. A competitive solution for this class of problems is to embed algorithms into dedicated hardware. In the present work we present the adaptation, design and implementation of an algorithm for SCAPs prediction into a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) platform. Four physicochemical properties codes useful in the identification of peptide sequences with potential selective antibacterial activity were implemented into an FPGA board. The speed-up gained in a single-copy implementation was up to 108 times compared with a single Intel processor cycle for cycle. The inherent scalability of our design allows for replication of this code into multiple FPGA cards and consequently improvements in speed are possible. Our results show the first embedded SCAPs prediction solution described and constitutes the grounds to efficiently perform the exhaustive analysis of the sequence-physicochemical properties relationship of peptides. PMID:21738652

  19. Burden of hospitalized childhood community-acquired pneumonia: A retrospective cross-sectional study in Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kah Kee; Dang, Duc Anh; Kim, Ki Hwan; Kartasasmita, Cissy; Kim, Hwang Min; Zhang, Xu-Hao; Shafi, Fakrudeen; Yu, Ta-Wen; Ledesma, Emilio; Meyer, Nadia

    2018-01-02

    Few studies describe the community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) burden in children in Asia. We estimated the proportion of all CAP hospitalizations in children from nine hospitals across the Republic of Korea (high-income), Indonesia, Malaysia (middle-income), and Vietnam (low/middle-income). Over a one or two-year period, children Malaysia (two centers): 1027 CAP episodes were identified with 2.7% (2.6;2.9); 2.6% (2.4;2.8); 0.04% (0.04;0.1) due to S-CAP, C-CAP, and B-CAP, respectively. One child with B-CAP died. Indonesia (one center): 960 CAP episodes identified with 18.0% (17.0;19.1); 16.8% (15.8;17.9); 0.3% (0.2;0.4) due to S-CAP, C-CAP, and B-CAP, respectively. The B-CAP CFR was 20%. Korea (three centers): 3151 CAP episodes were identified with 21.1% (20.4;21.7); 11.8% (11.2;12.3); 2.4% (2.1;2.7) due to S-CAP, C-CAP, and B-CAP, respectively. There were no deaths. CAP-related hospitalization costs were highest for B-CAP episodes: 145.00 (Vietnam) to 1013.3 USD (Korea) per episode. CAP hospitalization causes an important health and cost burden in all four countries studied (NMRR-12-50-10793).

  20. Evaluation of dynamic infrared thermography as an alternative to CT angiography for perforator mapping in breast reconstruction: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weum, Sven; Mercer, James B; de Weerd, Louis

    2016-07-15

    The current gold standard for preoperative perforator mapping in breast reconstruction with a DIEP flap is CT angiography (CTA). Dynamic infrared thermography (DIRT) is an imaging method that does not require ionizing radiation or contrast injection. We evaluated if DIRT could be an alternative to CTA in perforator mapping. Twenty-five patients scheduled for secondary breast reconstruction with a DIEP flap were included. Preoperatively, the lower abdomen was examined with hand-held Doppler, DIRT and CTA. Arterial Doppler sound locations were marked on the skin. DIRT examination involved rewarming of the abdominal skin after a mild cold challenge. The locations of hot spots on DIRT were compared with the arterial Doppler sound locations. The rate and pattern of rewarming of the hot spots were analyzed. Multiplanar CT reconstructions were used to see if hot spots were related to perforators on CTA. All flaps were based on the perforator selected with DIRT and the surgical outcome was analyzed. First appearing hot spots were always associated with arterial Doppler sounds and clearly visible perforators on CTA. The hot spots on DIRT images were always slightly laterally located in relation to the exit points of the associated perforators through the rectus abdominis fascia on CTA. Some periumbilical perforators were not associated with hot spots and showed communication with the superficial inferior epigastric vein on CTA. The selected perforators adequately perfused all flaps. This study confirms that perforators selected with DIRT have arterial Doppler sound, are clearly visible on CTA and provide adequate perfusion for DIEP breast reconstruction. Retrospectively registered at ClinicalTrials.gov with identifier NCT02806518 .

  1. Maximal Objects and the Semantics of Universal Relation Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    AD-A13 042 STANFORD UNIV CA DIEpT OF COPUTER SCIENCE P/S 9/2 MAXIMAL OBCTS AND THE SEMANTICS OF UNIVERSAL RELATION DYAAS--ETC(U) OCT I 0 MAIER, J D...STANDARDS 1953A October 1981 Report. No. STANI-S1-7M XlOSR-TR- 8 2 -0 2 7 2 hMaximal Objects and the Semantics of Universal Relation Databases 1-4 1 pt by...4. TITLE (aid Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED MAXIMAL OBJECTS AND THE SEMANTICS OF UNIVERSAL Interim RELATION DATABASES Inter i P TNB 7

  2. Teaching material for nursing students: nursing care of mastectomy patients undergoing plastic surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Helle, Jasmin; Ojaranta, Sanna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The purpose of this thesis was to make a project for Turku University of Applied Sci-ences, comparing alternative options for breast reconstruction patients after mastectomy and nursing care. We found out that the most used methods in Finland are Autologous flaps and tissue expander and implant reconstruction. Autologous flaps include Tram-flap, Diep-flap and LD-flap. Tissue expander is a temporary solution before the final reconstruction. For the nurs-ing care part we focused on th...

  3. Rotational relaxation in molecular hydrogen and deuterium: theory versus acoustic experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, S; Pérez-Ríos, J

    2014-09-21

    An explicit formulation of the rotational relaxation time in terms of state-to-state rate coefficients associated to inelastic collisions is reported. The state-to-state rates needed for the detailed interpretation of relaxation in H2 and D2, including isotopic variant mixtures, have been calculated by solving the close-coupling Schrödinger equations using the H2-H2 potential energy surface by Diep and Johnson [J. Chem. Phys. 112, 4465 (2000)]. Relaxation related quantities (rotational effective cross section, bulk viscosity, relaxation time, and collision number) calculated from first principles agree reasonably well with acoustic absorption experimental data on H2 and D2 between 30 and 293 K. This result confirms at once the proposed formulation, and the validation of the H2-H2 potential energy surface employed, since no approximations have been introduced in the dynamics. Accordingly, the state-to-state rates derived from Diep and Johnson potential energy surface appear to be overestimated by up to 10% for H2, and up to 30% for D2 at T = 300 K, showing a better agreement at lower temperatures.

  4. Rotational relaxation in molecular hydrogen and deuterium: Theory versus acoustic experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero, S., E-mail: emsalvador@iem.cfmac.csic.es [Laboratory of Molecular Fluid Dynamics @ Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Pérez-Ríos, J. [Physics Department, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2014-09-21

    An explicit formulation of the rotational relaxation time in terms of state-to-state rate coefficients associated to inelastic collisions is reported. The state-to-state rates needed for the detailed interpretation of relaxation in H{sub 2} and D{sub 2}, including isotopic variant mixtures, have been calculated by solving the close-coupling Schrödinger equations using the H{sub 2}–H{sub 2} potential energy surface by Diep and Johnson [J. Chem. Phys. 112, 4465 (2000)]. Relaxation related quantities (rotational effective cross section, bulk viscosity, relaxation time, and collision number) calculated from first principles agree reasonably well with acoustic absorption experimental data on H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} between 30 and 293 K. This result confirms at once the proposed formulation, and the validation of the H{sub 2}–H{sub 2} potential energy surface employed, since no approximations have been introduced in the dynamics. Accordingly, the state-to-state rates derived from Diep and Johnson potential energy surface appear to be overestimated by up to 10% for H{sub 2}, and up to 30% for D{sub 2} at T = 300 K, showing a better agreement at lower temperatures.

  5. Advances in the pre-operative planning of deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flaps: magnetic resonance angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozen, Warren M; Stella, Damien L; Bowden, James; Taylor, G Ian; Ashton, Mark W

    2009-01-01

    Imaging of the abdominal wall vasculature prior to deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA) perforator (DIEP) flaps has been shown to significantly improve surgical outcomes. Although computed tomography angiography (CTA) has been shown to be highly accurate, it is associated with radiation exposure, and as such modalities without radiation exposure have been sought. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) has been proposed as such an option. We conducted a pilot study comparing MRA with CTA and with operative findings in six consecutive patients undergoing DIEP flaps for breast reconstruction. The DIEA, superficial inferior epigastric artery (SIEA) and perforators were all assessed with each modality. We found that the DIEA and SIEA were accurately imaged with both CTA and MRA, but that while MRA could identify some major perforators, CTA was more accurate than MRA for perforator mapping. As such, while MRA does have a role in the imaging of DIEA perforators, CTA is still the preferred modality. On the basis of these findings, a larger study into the role for MRA in this setting is warranted. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Impact of antibiotic guideline compliance on duration of mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorr, Andrew F; Bodi, Maria; Rodriguez, Alejandro; Sole-Violan, Jorge; Garnacho-Montero, Jose; Rello, Jordi

    2006-07-01

    Multiple guidelines exist to aid clinicians in choosing antibiotics to treat patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia (SCAP). Our goal was to assess the impact of following these guidelines, such as those from the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA), on the duration of mechanical ventilation (MV). Analysis of a prospective registry. Multiple ICUs in Spain. ICU patients with SCAP requiring > or = 24 h of endotracheal intubation and surviving their ICU course. None. Demographics, comorbid diseases, severity of illness, and process of care variables were recorded. The duration of MV in patients receiving an antibiotic regimen consistent with IDSA guidelines was compared to patients with prescriptions not in accordance with IDSA recommendations. In the cohort (n = 199), Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most frequent pathogen, and unadjusted analysis showed that the duration of MV was longer in persons receiving IDSA-noncompliant regimens (11 days vs 10 days). In a multivariate hazard model, two variables were independently associated with greater durations of MV: development of acute renal failure (hazard ratio, 1.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 2.12), and prescription of an IDSA-noncompliant regimen (hazard ratio, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.93). Adjusted analysis indicated that patients receiving treatment that was not compliant with IDSA guidelines received MV an added 3 days. Failure to follow antibiotic recommendations for the treatment of SCAP may increase the need for continuing MV. Conversely, guideline compliance could represent a surrogate marker that captures other aspects of clinical care, rather than be the direct factor leading to better outcomes. Nonetheless, given the costs associated with MV, enhanced guideline compliance may represent a means for improving outcomes and enhancing resource utilization.

  7. Decellularized Human Dental Pulp as a Scaffold for Regenerative Endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J S; Takimoto, K; Jeon, M; Vadakekalam, J; Ruparel, N B; Diogenes, A

    2017-06-01

    Teeth undergo postnatal organogenesis relatively late in life and only complete full maturation a few years after the crown first erupts in the oral cavity. At this stage, development can be arrested if the tooth organ is damaged by either trauma or caries. Regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs) are a treatment alternative to conventional root canal treatment for immature teeth. These procedures rely on the transfer of apically positioned stem cells, including stem cells of the apical papilla (SCAP), into the root canal system. Although clinical success has been reported for these procedures, the predictability of expected outcomes and the organization of the newly formed tissues are affected by the lack of an available suitable scaffold that mimics the complexity of the dental pulp extracellular matrix (ECM). In this study, we evaluated 3 methods of decellularization of human dental pulp to be used as a potential autograft scaffold. Tooth slices of human healthy extracted third molars were decellularized by 3 different methods. One of the methods generated the maximum observed decellularization with minimal impact on the ECM composition and organization. Furthermore, recellularization of the scaffold supported the proliferation of SCAP throughout the scaffold with differentiation into odontoblast-like cells near the dentinal walls. Thus, this study reports that human dental pulp from healthy extracted teeth can be successfully decellularized, and the resulting scaffold supports the proliferation and differentiation of SCAP. The future application of this form of an autograft in REPs can fulfill a yet unmet need for a suitable scaffold, potentially improving clinical outcomes and ultimately promoting the survival and function of teeth with otherwise poor prognosis.

  8. Preliminary Estimate for Injury Criterion to Immediate Incapacitation by Projectile Penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    of x cm. Si e depth of pen striking velo , large amoun T, SK, CA, within a few epth of penet Co (MS) thickn valent MS th ch is the key es to...sha king velocity This indicate s, strength of impact velo maximum). ameter rep depending o for a fi f, say x cm, t g Equation ( steel sphere f...ed to stop a p der. The scap . The muscle 6 mm) for th s impact velo same decele the decelera s to obtain th y have disapp in Figure 3. values

  9. Advanced control system for temperature control in the pressurized fluid bed of Escatron Thermal Plant Power; Sistema de Control Avanzado para Control de la Temperatura del Lecho Fluido a Presion de la Central Termica de Escatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In the P. F-B. C a small problem appears, particularly in Escatron the bed temperature gradient is very high. Such gradient very occasionally reaches 50 degree centigree in a same plane. With the reduction of bed difference of temperature, the average bed temperature could be increased with the result steam cycle benefit, at the same time combustion gases would go at a higher temperature to the gas turbine, increasing therefore its performance. The SCAP system will allow to face the resolution of the injection of combustible problem and in this manner achieve the homogenization of bed temperature in Escatron PFBC Thermal Power Station. (Author)

  10. Kawada's Contribution to Induced Velocity by Helical Vortices with Application to Propeller Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukumoto, Y.; Okulov, Valery; Wood, D. H.

    in the summer of 1931, collecting all the members of Laboratory, and in 1938, their airplane achieved the world record of the longest distance flight. Kawada was a chief researcher re-sponsible for propellers. The next project of the laboratory was a creation of an airplane for commercial flight from Tokyo...... to New York. The effort in this direction was suspended with the outbreak of the Second World War in the Pacific in 1941, and the activities of the Japanese aeronautical engineering were com-pletely stopped when Japan surrendered to USA in August 1945. GHQ or GHQ/SCAP (Gen-eral Headquarters, the Supreme...

  11. Occupying the "Vacuum" ー Conflicting Interpretations of Christianity in Post-War Japan ー

    OpenAIRE

    Elmendorf, Hilary; Hilary, Elmendorf

    2008-01-01

    American portrayals of the August 1945 end of the Pacific War often included an emphasis on the righteous defeat of Japan at the hands of the Christian, democratic U.S. As the U.S. began the Occupation of Japan under the leadership of General Douglas MacArthur, the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (SCAP), many Americans argued that American democracy remained unique - and triumphed in World War II - because of its intermingling of political and religious ideology. Indeed, MacArthur pub...

  12. Stem cells in dentistry--review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziubińska, P; Jaskólska, M; Przyborowska, P; Adamiak, Z

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells have been successfully isolated from a variety of human and animal tissues, including dental pulp. This achievement marks progress in regenerative dentistry. This article reviews the latest improvements made in regenerative dental medicine with the involvement of stem cells. Although, various types of multipotent somatic cells can be applied in dentistry, two types of cells have been investigated in this review. Dental pulp cells are classified as: DPSCs, SCAPs and SHEDs.The third group includes two types of cell associated with the periodontium: PDL and DFPC. This review aims to systematize basic knowledge about cellular engineering in dentistry.

  13. Preconditioned CG-solvers and finite element grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, R.; Selberherr, S. [Technical Univ. of Vienna (Austria)

    1994-12-31

    To extract parasitic capacitances in wiring structures of integrated circuits the authors developed the two- and three-dimensional finite element program SCAP (Smart Capacitance Analysis Program). The program computes the task of the electrostatic field from a solution of Poisson`s equation via finite elements and calculates the energies from which the capacitance matrix is extracted. The unknown potential vector, which has for three-dimensional applications 5000-50000 unknowns, is computed by a ICCG solver. Currently three- and six-node triangular, four- and ten-node tetrahedronal elements are supported.

  14. New Architecture towards Ultrathin CdTe Solar Cells for High Conversion Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Teyou Ngoupo, A.; Ouédraogo, S.; Zougmoré, F.; Ndjaka, J. M. B.

    2015-01-01

    Solar Cell Capacitance Simulator in 1 Dimension (SCAPS-1D) is used to investigate the possibility of realizing ultrathin CdTe based solar cells with high and stable conversion efficiency. In the first step, we modified the conventional cell structure by substituting the CdS window layer with a CdS:O film having a wide band gap ranging from 2.42 to 3.17 eV. Thereafter, we simulated the quantum efficiency, as well as the parameters of J-V characteristics, and showed how the thickness of CdS:O l...

  15. STAT3 regulates ABCA3 expression and influences lamellar body formation in alveolar type II cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Yohei; Besnard, Valérie; Clark, Jean C; Xu, Yan; Wert, Susan E; Ikegami, Machiko; Whitsett, Jeffrey A

    2008-05-01

    ATP-Binding Cassette A3 (ABCA3) is a lamellar body associated lipid transport protein required for normal synthesis and storage of pulmonary surfactant in type II cells in the alveoli. In this study, we demonstrate that STAT3, activated by IL-6, regulates ABCA3 expression in vivo and in vitro. ABCA3 mRNA and immunostaining were decreased in adult mouse lungs in which STAT3 was deleted from the respiratory epithelium (Stat3(Delta/Delta) mice). Consistent with the role of STAT3, intratracheal IL-6 induced ABCA3 expression in vivo. Decreased ABCA3 and abnormalities in the formation of lamellar bodies, the intracellular site of surfactant lipid storage, were observed in Stat3(Delta/Delta) mice. Expression of SREBP1a and 1c, SCAP, ABCA3, and AKT mRNAs was inhibited by deletion of Stat3 in type II cells isolated from Stat3(Delta/Delta) mice. The activities of PI3K and AKT were required for normal Abca3 gene expression in vitro. AKT activation induced SREBP expression and increased the activity of the Abca3 promoter in vitro, consistent with the role of STAT3 signaling, at least in part via SREBP, in the regulation of ABCA3. ABCA3 expression is regulated by IL-6 in a pathway that includes STAT3, PI3K, AKT, SCAP, and SREBP. Activation of STAT3 after exposure to IL-6 enhances ABCA3 expression, which, in turn, influences pulmonary surfactant homeostasis.

  16. Cellular Senescence: A Translational Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L. Kirkland

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cellular senescence entails essentially irreversible replicative arrest, apoptosis resistance, and frequently acquisition of a pro-inflammatory, tissue-destructive senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP. Senescent cells accumulate in various tissues with aging and at sites of pathogenesis in many chronic diseases and conditions. The SASP can contribute to senescence-related inflammation, metabolic dysregulation, stem cell dysfunction, aging phenotypes, chronic diseases, geriatric syndromes, and loss of resilience. Delaying senescent cell accumulation or reducing senescent cell burden is associated with delay, prevention, or alleviation of multiple senescence-associated conditions. We used a hypothesis-driven approach to discover pro-survival Senescent Cell Anti-apoptotic Pathways (SCAPs and, based on these SCAPs, the first senolytic agents, drugs that cause senescent cells to become susceptible to their own pro-apoptotic microenvironment. Several senolytic agents, which appear to alleviate multiple senescence-related phenotypes in pre-clinical models, are beginning the process of being translated into clinical interventions that could be transformative.

  17. Noise characteristics of stacked CMOS active pixel sensor for charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunihiro, Takuya E-mail: kunihiro@geo.titech.ac.jp; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Takayanagi, Isao; Nakamura, Junichi; Kosaka, Koji; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi

    2001-09-11

    The noise characteristics of a stacked CMOS active pixel sensor (SCAPS) for incident charged particles have been analyzed under 4.5 keV Si{sup +} ion irradiation. The source of SCAPS dark current was found to change from thermal to electron leakage with decreasing device temperature. Leakage current at charge integration part in a pixel has been reduced to 0.1 electrons s{sup -1} at 77 K. The incident ion signals are computed by subtracting reset frame values from each frame using a non-destructive readout operation. With increase of irradiated ions, the dominant noise source changed from read noise, and shot noise from the incident ions, to signal frame fixed-pattern noise from variations in sensitivity between pixels. Pixel read noise is equivalent to ten incident ions. The charge of an incident ion is converted to 1.5 electrons in the pixel capacitor. Shot noise corresponds to the statistical fluctuation of incident ions. Signal frame fixed-pattern noise is 0.7% of the signal. By comparing full well conditions to noise floor, a dynamic range of 80 dB is achieved. SCPAS is useful as a two-dimensional detector for microanalyses such as stigmatic secondary ion mass spectrometry.

  18. The Regulatory Effects of Long Noncoding RNA-ANCR on Dental Tissue-Derived Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Jia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA have been recognized as important regulators in diverse biological processes, such as transcriptional regulation, stem cell proliferation, and differentiation. Previous study has demonstrated that lncRNA-ANCR (antidifferentiation ncRNA plays a key role in regulating the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs. However, little is known about the role of ANCR in regulating other types of dental tissue-derived stem cells (DTSCs behaviours (including proliferation and multiple-potential of differentiation. In this study, we investigated the regulatory effects of lncRNA-ANCR on the proliferation and differentiation (including osteogenic, adipogenic, and neurogenic differentiation of DTSCs, including dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs, PDLSCs, and stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAP by downregulation of lncRNA-ANCR. We found that downregulation of ANCR exerted little effect on proliferation of DPSCs and SCAP but promoted the osteogenic, adipogenic, and neurogenic differentiation of DTSCs. These data provide an insight into the regulatory effects of long noncoding RNA-ANCR on DTSCs and indicate that ANCR is a very important regulatory factor in stem cell differentiation.

  19. A Simplified and Systematic Method to Isolate, Culture, and Characterize Multiple Types of Human Dental Stem Cells from a Single Tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkar, Mohammed; Liu, Younan; Fang, Dongdong; Stegen, Camille; Su, Xinyun; Ramamoorthi, Murali; Lin, Li-Chieh; Kawasaki, Takako; Makhoul, Nicholas; Pham, Huan; Sumita, Yoshinori; Tran, Simon D

    2017-01-01

    This chapter describes a simplified method that allows the systematic isolation of multiple types of dental stem cells such as dental pulp stem cells (DPSC), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSC), and stem cells of the apical papilla (SCAP) from a single tooth. Of specific interest is the modified laboratory approach to harvest/retrieve the dental pulp tissue by minimizing trauma to DPSC by continuous irrigation, reduction of frictional heat from the bur rotation, and reduction of the bur contact time with the dentin. Also, the use of a chisel and a mallet will maximize the number of live DPSC for culture. Steps demonstrating the potential for multiple cell differentiation lineages of each type of dental stem cell into either osteocytes, adipocytes, or chondrocytes are described. Flow cytometry, with a detailed strategy for cell gating and analysis, is described to verify characteristic markers of human mesenchymal multipotent stromal cells (MSC) from DPSC, PDLSC, or SCAP for subsequent experiments in cell therapy and in tissue engineering. Overall, this method can be adapted to any laboratory with a general setup for cell culture experiments.

  20. Composition of Mineral Produced by Dental Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volponi, A A; Gentleman, E; Fatscher, R; Pang, Y W Y; Gentleman, M M; Sharpe, P T

    2015-11-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells isolated from different dental tissues have been described to have osteogenic/odontogenic-like differentiation capacity, but little attention has been paid to the biochemical composition of the material that each produces. Here, we used Raman spectroscopy to analyze the mineralized materials produced in vitro by different dental cell populations, and we compared them with the biochemical composition of native dental tissues. We show that different dental stem cell populations produce materials that differ in their mineral and matrix composition and that these differ from those of native dental tissues. In vitro, BCMP (bone chip mass population), SCAP (stem cells from apical papilla), and SHED (stem cells from human-exfoliated deciduous teeth) cells produce a more highly mineralized matrix when compared with that produced by PDL (periodontal ligament), DPA (dental pulp adult), and GF (gingival fibroblast) cells. Principal component analyses of Raman spectra further demonstrated that the crystallinity and carbonate substitution environments in the material produced by each cell type varied, with DPA cells, for example, producing a more carbonate-substituted mineral and with SCAP, SHED, and GF cells creating a less crystalline material when compared with other dental stem cells and native tissues. These variations in mineral composition reveal intrinsic differences in the various cell populations, which may in turn affect their specific clinical applications. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  1. Genetic markers associated to dyslipidemia in HIV-infected individuals on HAART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzaretti, Rosmeri K; Gasparotto, Aline S; Sassi, Marina G de M; Polanczyk, Carísi A; Kuhmmer, Regina; Silveira, Jussara M; Basso, Rossana P; Pinheiro, Cezar A T; Silveira, Mariângela F; Sprinz, Eduardo; Mattevi, Vanessa S

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 6 candidate genes (APOB, APOA5, APOE, APOC3, SCAP, and LDLR) over dyslipidemia in HIV-infected patients on stable antiretroviral therapy (ART) with undetectable viral loads. Blood samples were collected from 614 patients at reference services in the cities of Porto Alegre, Pelotas, and Rio Grande in Brazil. The SNPs were genotyped by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was particularly high among the protease inhibitors-treated patients (79%). APOE (rs429358 and rs7412) genotypes and APOA5 -1131T>C (rs662799) were associated with plasma triglycerides (TG) and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol levels (LDL-C). The APOA5 -1131T>C (rs662799) and SCAP 2386A>G (rs12487736) polymorphisms were significantly associated with high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The mean values of the total cholesterol and LDL-C levels were associated with both the APOB SP Ins/Del (rs17240441) and APOB XbaI (rs693) polymorphisms. In conclusion, our data support the importance of genetic factors in the determination of lipid levels in HIV-infected individuals. Due to the relatively high number of carriers of these risk variants, studies to verify treatment implications of genotyping before HAART initiation may be advisable to guide the selection of an appropriate antiretroviral therapy regimen.

  2. Cellular Senescence: A Translational Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, James L; Tchkonia, Tamara

    2017-07-01

    Cellular senescence entails essentially irreversible replicative arrest, apoptosis resistance, and frequently acquisition of a pro-inflammatory, tissue-destructive senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Senescent cells accumulate in various tissues with aging and at sites of pathogenesis in many chronic diseases and conditions. The SASP can contribute to senescence-related inflammation, metabolic dysregulation, stem cell dysfunction, aging phenotypes, chronic diseases, geriatric syndromes, and loss of resilience. Delaying senescent cell accumulation or reducing senescent cell burden is associated with delay, prevention, or alleviation of multiple senescence-associated conditions. We used a hypothesis-driven approach to discover pro-survival Senescent Cell Anti-apoptotic Pathways (SCAPs) and, based on these SCAPs, the first senolytic agents, drugs that cause senescent cells to become susceptible to their own pro-apoptotic microenvironment. Several senolytic agents, which appear to alleviate multiple senescence-related phenotypes in pre-clinical models, are beginning the process of being translated into clinical interventions that could be transformative. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cholesterol through the Looking Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiana, Ika; Luu, Winnie; Stevenson, Julian; Cartland, Sian; Jessup, Wendy; Belani, Jitendra D.; Rychnovsky, Scott D.; Brown, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    How cholesterol is sensed to maintain homeostasis has been explained by direct binding to a specific protein, Scap, or through altering the physical properties of the membrane. The enantiomer of cholesterol (ent-cholesterol) is a valuable tool in distinguishing between these two models because it shares nonspecific membrane effects with native cholesterol (nat-cholesterol), but not specific binding interactions. This is the first study to compare ent- and nat-cholesterol directly on major molecular parameters of cholesterol homeostasis. We found that ent-cholesterol suppressed activation of the master transcriptional regulator of cholesterol metabolism, SREBP-2, almost as effectively as nat-cholesterol. Importantly, ent-cholesterol induced a conformational change in the cholesterol-sensing protein Scap in isolated membranes in vitro, even when steps were taken to eliminate potential confounding effects from endogenous cholesterol. Ent-cholesterol also accelerated proteasomal degradation of the key cholesterol biosynthetic enzyme, squalene monooxygenase. Together, these findings provide compelling evidence that cholesterol maintains its own homeostasis not only via direct protein interactions, but also by altering membrane properties. PMID:22869373

  4. Genetic Markers Associated to Dyslipidemia in HIV-Infected Individuals on HAART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmeri K. Lazzaretti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the impact of 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 6 candidate genes (APOB, APOA5, APOE, APOC3, SCAP, and LDLR over dyslipidemia in HIV-infected patients on stable antiretroviral therapy (ART with undetectable viral loads. Blood samples were collected from 614 patients at reference services in the cities of Porto Alegre, Pelotas, and Rio Grande in Brazil. The SNPs were genotyped by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR and real-time PCR. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was particularly high among the protease inhibitors-treated patients (79%. APOE (rs429358 and rs7412 genotypes and APOA5 −1131T>C (rs662799 were associated with plasma triglycerides (TG and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol levels (LDL-C. The APOA5 −1131T>C (rs662799 and SCAP 2386A>G (rs12487736 polymorphisms were significantly associated with high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The mean values of the total cholesterol and LDL-C levels were associated with both the APOB SP Ins/Del (rs17240441 and APOB XbaI (rs693 polymorphisms. In conclusion, our data support the importance of genetic factors in the determination of lipid levels in HIV-infected individuals. Due to the relatively high number of carriers of these risk variants, studies to verify treatment implications of genotyping before HAART initiation may be advisable to guide the selection of an appropriate antiretroviral therapy regimen.

  5. Die Plantfamilie Asteraceae: 4 Interessante groeivorme en ekonomies belangrike soorte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P.J. Herman

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Die plantfamilie Asteraceae bevat ’n ryke verskeidenheid en interessante groeivorme soos eenjarige en meerjarige kruide, dwergstruike, struike, bome, slingerplante, sukkulente, waterplante, rosetplante, kussingplante, heide-agtige plante, platgroeiend, grasagtig  en doringrig. Die blare vertoon ook baie variasie in vorm en ander kenmerke byvoorbeeld afwisselend, teenoorstaande, saamgepak, sittend, gesteeld, enkelvoudig, gaafrandig, getand, gelob of diep verdeeld, saamgesteld, met drie tot vyf hoofare, gereduseer of heeltemal afwesig, glad of baie harig op die boonste of onderste oppervlakke. Soms is melksap teenwoordig en sommiges is aromaties. Sommige verteenwoordigers van die familie is ekonomies belangrik; sommiges is eetbaar of word vir medisyne gebruik terwyl ander giftig is, sommiges word as veevoer benut maar ander is onkruide en die hout van sommiges is in die verlede gebruik.

  6. Options for shallow geothermal energy for horticulture; Kansen voor Ondiepe Geothermie voor de glastuinbouw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellebrand, K. [IF-Technology, Arnhem (Netherlands); Post, R.J. [DLV glas en energie, Naaldwijk (Netherlands); In ' t Groen, B. [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    Geothermal energy is too expensive to serve as energy supply for most horticultural entrepreneurs. Therefore, research has been carried out into options to use heat from more shallow layers (shallow geothermal energy). Unlike shallow geothermal energy deep geothermal energy can be applied on a smaller scale, possibly also for individual growers. It can be applied in combination with an existing heating system, but with a more sustainable outcome. Because drilling is done in shallow layers, drilling costs and financial risks are lower [Dutch] Geothermie is voor de meeste tuinbouwondernemers teduur om als energievoorziening te dienen. Daarom is onderzoek gedaan naar mogelijkheden om warmte te gebruiken uit ondiepere lagen (ondiepe geothermie). In tegenstelling tot diepe geothermie is ondiepe geothermie op kleinere schaal toepasbaar, mogelijk ook voor individuele kwekers. Het kan in combinatie met de bestaande verwarmingsinstallatie worden ingezet maar met een duurzamer resultaat. Omdat ondieper wordt geboord zijn de boorkosten en de financiele risico's lager.

  7. Cost Analysis of Turbine Engine Warranties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    LET EBIJY() =SPARES(50) 3030 JISAP AHEAD ELSE 3040 LET EALL(iIQ) =EIRCNT - XEALL 3050 LET EDEP(IM’O) =EREM1(1 - XEDEP 3060 LET SPEC(IMO) =ICOUIJNT XSPEC ...LET EDEP(IMO) E:l Ei~i) - X[DIEP 3070 LET SPEC(IIIO) AlCOUNT - XSPEC 3100 LET ETC’tO(:MO) ERm6)- XETCTO 3110 LET LP)US(!M0 LRUCNJT - XLRU 3120 LET...3160 LET XEM"LL rERC.VT LET XEDEF’ EEM 3170 LET XSPEC =iCOUNT LET XETCTO =EREm(6) 3180 LET XLPU =LRUCNT LET XSr.U = 3CNT) + SCNTZ 3190 LET XPHRS =DEP

  8. Metformina – mechanizmy działania i zastosowanie w terapii cukrzycy typu 2[i][/i

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Grzybowska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Metformina jest obecnie najczęściej zalecanym lekiem w terapii cukrzycy typu 2. Mimo iż ta pochodna biguanidu jest stosowana od ponad 50 lat, mechanizm jej działania nie został dokładnie poznany. W pracy przedstawiono najnowsze doniesienia o mechanizmach antyhiperglikemicznego działania metforminy. Obejmują one: zmniejszenie wchłaniania glukozy w jelicie cienkim, zwiększony transport glukozy do komórek, obniżenie osoczowego stężenia wolnych kwasów tłuszczowych oraz hamowanie glukoneogenezy. Szczególną rolę w tych procesach odgrywa aktywacja kinazy białkowej aktywowanej przez AMP. Najnowsze odkrycia umożliwiły poznanie mechanizmów działania przeciwmiażdżycowego, hipotensyjnego i przeciwnowotworowego metforminy oraz jej wpływu na czynność śródbłonka naczyń. Plejotropowe działanie metforminy obejmuje wpływ na profil lipidowy osocza, zmniejszenie stresu oksydacyjnego, a także zwiększenie aktywności fibrynolitycznej osocza. Mimo że metformina nie jest metabolizowana, najnowsze badania wykazały, że jest aktywnie transportowana do hepatocytów, a także do komórek nabłonka kanalików nerkowych, odpowiednio przez OCT1 (organic cation transporter 1, kodowany przez gen SLC22A1 oraz OCT2 (kodowany przez [i]SLC22A2[/i]. Z kolei transporter MATE1 (multidrug and toxin extrusion 1 protein, kodowany przez gen [i]SLC47A1[/i] umożliwia wydzielanie metforminy z tych komórek do żółci lub moczu. Polimorfizm genów transporterów metforminy może się przyczynić do istotnych różnic w reakcji na lek.

  9. Wolne rodniki, selen a padaczka u dzieci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Wendorff

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Autorzy przedstawiają wyniki własnych badań oraz przegląd piśmiennictwa na temat znaczenia wolnych rodników, selenu i cynku w padaczce oraz drgawkach gorączkowych u dzieci. Noworodki i niemowlęta wykazują zwiększone ryzyko objawów stresu tlenowego i są bardzo wrażliwe na zaburzenia równowagi między systemem antyoksydacyjnym a systemem generującym wolne rodniki. Podczas fazy niedokrwienia i reperfuzji w przebiegu okołoporodowego niedotlenienia dochodzi do uszkodzenia aktywności ATP-azy Na+/K+ w błonie komórkowej. Prowadzi to do przetrwałej depolaryzacji błony komórkowej i uwolnienia glutaminianów (głównego transmitera pobudzającego. W 25% przypadków encefalopatii niedotlenieniowo-niedokrwiennej (ENN rozpoznaje się mózgowe porażenie dziecięce. Z kolei padaczka towarzyszy mózgowemu porażeniu dziecięcemu w 15 do 40% przypadków. Wykazaliśmy, że poziom selenu w surowicy jest obniżony u dzieci z padaczką, które otrzymywały karbamazepinę w porównaniu z grupą kontrolną leczoną kwasem walproinowym, jak również stwierdziliśmy obniżenie poziomu równowagi antyoksydacyjnej w obu grupach badanych dzieci, co jest zgodne z danymi z piśmiennictwa. W grupach dzieci z drgawkami gorączkowymi jest także obniżony poziom cynku w surowicy. Powyższe wyniki mogą sugerować, że napady drgawkowe są odpowiedzialne za obniżenie poziomu cynku i selenu, ale dokładny mechanizm wpływu selenu i cynku w patogenezie i przebiegu padaczki u dzieci nie jest w pełni poznany.

  10. Stres oksydacyjny w patogenezie stwardnienia rozsianego. Nowe możliwości terapeutyczne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Karpińska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stwardnienie rozsiane to choroba zapalno-demielinizacyjna ośrodkowego układu nerwowego o dotychczas nieznanej przyczynie. W przebiegu stwardnienia rozsianego następuje uszkodzenie osłonki mielinowej komórek nerwowych oraz śmierć neuronów i  oligodendrocytów. W  ostatnich latach zwrócono uwagę, że ogniwem łączącym proces zapalny z neurodegeneracją może być stres oksydacyjny, czyli przewaga tworzenia wolnych rodników nad ich eliminacją przez systemy antyoksydacyjne komórki. Udowodniono, iż stres oksydacyjny ma związek z  patogenezą wielu chorób neurodegeneracyjnych, w tym choroby Parkinsona czy choroby Alzheimera. Wykazano także jego udział w patogenezie stwardnienia rozsianego. W związku z tym zwalczanie stresu oksydacyjnego stało się jednym z nowych celów terapeutycznych. W badaniach przedklinicznych i klinicznych oceniano skuteczność różnych substancji o właściwościach antyoksydacyjnych, m.in. polifenoli, witamin, kwasu α-liponowego czy ekstraktów z Ginkgo biloba, jako potencjalnych leków na stwardnienie rozsiane. Ich skuteczność w modelach zwierzęcych rzadko znajduje odzwierciedlenie w wynikach badań klinicznych, ale wybrane związki są obecnie w trakcie oceny klinicznej. W badaniach zarówno przedklinicznych, jak i klinicznych skuteczny okazał się fumaran dimetylu, zarejestrowany w 2013 roku do leczenia stwardnienia rozsianego. Mechanizm działania tego związku nie został jeszcze w pełni poznany. Wiadomo jednak, że pobudza on naturalny szlak antyoksydacyjny związany z czynnikiem transkrypcyjnym Nrf2, co prowadzi do redukcji nasilenia stresu oksydacyjnego.

  11. Anatomical landmarks for safe elevation of the deep inferior epigastric perforator flap: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhry, Saeed; Hazani, Ron; Collis, Philip; Wilhelmi, Bradon J

    2010-05-28

    Breast reconstruction techniques have focused increasingly on using autologous tissue, with emphasis being placed on employing muscle sparing adipocutaneous flaps to reduce abdominal wall complications such as hernias, bulges, weakness, and length of hospital stay. The result has been the emergence of the deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap for breast reconstruction. Isolating perforator vessels challenges most surgeons. We describe surface anatomical landmarks to predict the location of the deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA) and its perforators to aid in the efficient elevation of this flap. Ten fresh hemi-abdomens were dissected with loupe magnification. The DIEA and its perforators were identified, and measurements in relation to the rectus muscle, xiphoid, umbilicus, and pubis were taken. Statistical analysis was undertaken to determine distance ratios to account for variance in patient size. Average distance from the xiphoid to umbilicus was 18.2 +/- 1.27 cm. The distance from the umbilicus to pubis was 14.9 +/- 2.3 cm. The vertical distance from the umbilicus to the DRJ (DIEA rtctus junction) was 10.45 +/- 1.58 cm, and the vertical distance from the level of the umbilicus to where the first DIEA perforator traverses the RAM was 7.4 +/- 1.64 cm. The distance between the umbilicus and the DRJ is approximately 0.7 times the distance between the umbilicus and the pubic symphysis. The distance between the umbilicus and the first perforator is approximately 0.5 times the distance between the umbilicus and the pubic symphysis. Knowledge of anatomical landmarks can aid the surgeon in more efficiently harvesting the DIEP flap. Surface landmarks along the abdominal midline coupled with normalizing ratios can aid surgeons in predicting the location of the DIEA and its first perforator. The DIEA crosses the rectus at approximately two thirds of the distance between the umbilicus and pubis, and the first perforator can reliably be located at one half of

  12. Light-to-moderate ethanol feeding augments AMPK-α phosphorylation and attenuates SREBP-1 expression in the liver of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nammi, Srinivas; Roufogalis, Basil D

    2013-01-01

    Fatty liver disease, a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, is one of the major causes of chronic liver diseases. Epidemiological studies suggest that regular light-to-moderate ethanol consumption lowers the risk of developing metabolic disorders including dislipidemia, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and fatty liver disease. However, the mechanism(s) of the protective effect of light-to-moderate ethanol consumption on the liver remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of light (6%, 0.94 g/kg/day) and moderate (12%, 1.88 g/kg/day) ethanol feeding in rats for 3 weeks on the circulating and hepatic biochemical profiles and on the hepatic protein expression and phosphorylation status of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase-α (AMPK-α) and other down-stream targets of this enzyme including sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase). Despite no significant difference in food-intake among the groups, light ethanol treatment significantly increased the body weight compared to control rats. Serum glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and hepatic cholesterol and triglycerides were not significantly different among the groups. However, serum free fatty acids were significantly reduced with light ethanol treatment. Both light and moderate ethanol treatment significantly increased the hepatic levels of phosphorylated AMPK-α protein and this was associated with significant reduction of SREBP-1 protein expression, suggesting an enhanced fatty acid oxidation. In addition, light ethanol treatment significantly decreased the SCAP protein expression in the liver. However, liver HMG-CoA protein expression was not significantly different with ethanol consumption. Chronic light-to-moderate ethanol consumption increased AMPK activation which was associated with decreased expression of SREBP

  13. Effect of Different HTM Layers and Electrical Parameters on ZnO Nanorod-Based Lead-Free Perovskite Solar Cell for High-Efficiency Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhana Anwar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulation has been done using SCAPS-1D to examine the efficiency of CH3NH3SnI3-based solar cells including various HTM layers such as spiro-OMeTAD, Cu2O, and CuSCN. ZnO nanorod array has been considered as an ETM layer. Device parameters such as thickness of the CH3NH3SnI3 layer, defect density of interfaces, density of states, and metal work function were studied. For optimum parameters of all three structures, efficiency of 20.21%, 20.23%, and 18.34% has been achieved for spiro-OMeTAD, Cu2O, and CuSCN, respectively. From the simulations, an alternative lead-free perovskite solar cell is introduced with the CH3NH3SnI3 absorber layer, ZnO nanorod ETM layer, and Cu2O HTM layer.

  14. TEMPERATUREEFFECT OFELECTRICALPROPERTIES OF CIGS SOLAR CELL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Ferouani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we are interested in studying the copper–indium–gallium–selenium (CIGS solar cells sandwiched between cadmium sulfide (CdS and ZnO as buffer layers, and Molybdenum (Mo. Thus, we report our simulation results using the capacitance simulator (SCAPS in terms of layer thickness, absorber layer band gap and operating temperature to find out the optimum choice. An efficiency of 20.61% (with Voc of 635.2mV, Jsc of 44.08 mA/cm2 and fill factor of 0.73 has been achieved with CdS used as buffer layer as the reference case. It is also found that the high efficiency CIGS cells with the low temperature were a very high efficiency conversion.

  15. Reinforcement of Zn(O,S) buffer layer for efficient band matching in a kesterite (Cu2ZnSnS4) solar cell and its analysis using simulation tool for the application in energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Margi; Raval, Dhyey; Mukhopadhyay, Indrajit; Ray, Abhijit

    2017-05-01

    Zinc oxy-sulfide Zn(O,S) owing to its band gap tailoring property and non-toxicity is widely explored as buffer layer for the development of thin film solar cells. In this work band alignment of Zn(O,S) buffer with low cost chalcogenide absorbers layers such as kesterite (Cu2ZnSnS4) has been investigated. A detail study is presented in order to investigate the consequences of band bending in Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) solar cells using Zn(O,S) as buffer layer on its performance by using one dimensional simulation tool SCAPS. The derived parameters are used to find minimum band offset by tuning the properties of Zn(O,S) buffer layer for better performance. Presented analysis shows that the band-gap variation with sulfur concentration in Zn(O,S) is beneficial to reduces the band offset with the hetero-junction partner material.

  16. Modelling Defects Acceptors And Determination Of Electric Model From The Nyquist Plot And Bode In Thin Film CIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demba Diallo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The performance of the chalcopyrite material CuInGaSe2 CIGS used as an absorber layer in thin-film photovoltaic devices is significantly affected by the presence of native defects. Multivalent defects e.g. double acceptors or simple acceptor are important immaterial used in solar cell production in general and in chalcopyrite materials in particular. We used the thin film solar cell simulation software SCAPS to enable the simulation of multivalent defects with up to five different charge states.Algorithms enabled us to simulate an arbitrary number of possible states of load. The presented solution method avoids numerical inaccuracies caused by the subtraction of two almost equal numbers. This new modelling facility is afterwards used to investigate the consequences of the multivalent character of defects for the simulation of chalcopyrite based CIGS. The capacitance increase with the evolution of the number of defects C- f curves have found to have defect dependence.

  17. The major cellular sterol regulatory pathway is required for Andes virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah Petersen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Bunyaviridae comprise a large family of RNA viruses with worldwide distribution and includes the pathogenic New World hantavirus, Andes virus (ANDV. Host factors needed for hantavirus entry remain largely enigmatic and therapeutics are unavailable. To identify cellular requirements for ANDV infection, we performed two parallel genetic screens. Analysis of a large library of insertionally mutagenized human haploid cells and a siRNA genomic screen converged on components (SREBP-2, SCAP, S1P and S2P of the sterol regulatory pathway as critically important for infection by ANDV. The significance of this pathway was confirmed using functionally deficient cells, TALEN-mediated gene disruption, RNA interference and pharmacologic inhibition. Disruption of sterol regulatory complex function impaired ANDV internalization without affecting virus binding. Pharmacologic manipulation of cholesterol levels demonstrated that ANDV entry is sensitive to changes in cellular cholesterol and raises the possibility that clinically approved regulators of sterol synthesis may prove useful for combating ANDV infection.

  18. Study of CdTe/CdS solar cell at low power density for low-illumination applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devi, Nisha, E-mail: nishatanwer1989@gmail.com; Aziz, Anver, E-mail: aaziz@jmi.ac.in [Department Of Physics, Solar PV Lab, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi-110025 (India); Datta, Shouvik [Department of Physics, IISER-Pune, Dr.homi Bhabha road, Pashan, Pune-411008 (India)

    2016-05-06

    In this paper, we numerically investigate CdTe/CdS PV cell properties using a simulation program Solar Cell Capacitance Simulator in 1D (SCAPS-1D). A simple structure of CdTe PV cell has been optimized to study the effect of temperature, absorber thickness and work function at very low incident power. Objective of this research paper is to build an efficient and cost effective solar cell for portable electronic devices such as portable computers and cell phones that work at low incident power because most of such devices work at diffused and reflected sunlight. In this report, we simulated a simple CdTe PV cell at very low incident power, which gives good efficiency.

  19. The major cellular sterol regulatory pathway is required for Andes virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Josiah; Drake, Mary Jane; Bruce, Emily A; Riblett, Amber M; Didigu, Chukwuka A; Wilen, Craig B; Malani, Nirav; Male, Frances; Lee, Fang-Hua; Bushman, Frederic D; Cherry, Sara; Doms, Robert W; Bates, Paul; Briley, Kenneth

    2014-02-01

    The Bunyaviridae comprise a large family of RNA viruses with worldwide distribution and includes the pathogenic New World hantavirus, Andes virus (ANDV). Host factors needed for hantavirus entry remain largely enigmatic and therapeutics are unavailable. To identify cellular requirements for ANDV infection, we performed two parallel genetic screens. Analysis of a large library of insertionally mutagenized human haploid cells and a siRNA genomic screen converged on components (SREBP-2, SCAP, S1P and S2P) of the sterol regulatory pathway as critically important for infection by ANDV. The significance of this pathway was confirmed using functionally deficient cells, TALEN-mediated gene disruption, RNA interference and pharmacologic inhibition. Disruption of sterol regulatory complex function impaired ANDV internalization without affecting virus binding. Pharmacologic manipulation of cholesterol levels demonstrated that ANDV entry is sensitive to changes in cellular cholesterol and raises the possibility that clinically approved regulators of sterol synthesis may prove useful for combating ANDV infection.

  20. Etude Des Caractéristiques Structurelles Des Couches Minces De ZnO. Application à une Cellule Photovoltaïque.

    OpenAIRE

    MERABET, Yassamina

    2014-01-01

    De nos jours les cellules solaires à couches minces sont de plus en plus utilisées essentiellement à raison de leur faible coût. Durant ces dernières décennies les performances de ces cellules ont été nettement améliorées. Dans le présent travail, nous avons fait une étude analytique sur les paramètres (caractéristiques) structurels des couches minces d’Oxyde de Zinc (ZnO) réalisées par la pulvérisation cathodique. Nous avons simulé une cellule solaire à l’aide d’un logiciel (SCAPS1-D) afin d...

  1. Dental Stem Cell in Tooth Development and Advances of Adult Dental Stem Cell in Regenerative Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jiali; Xu, Xin; Lin, Jiong; Fan, Li; Zheng, Yuting; Kuang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell-based therapies are considered as a promising treatment for many clinical usage such as tooth regeneration, bone repairation, spinal cord injury, and so on. However, the ideal stem cell for stem cell-based therapy still remains to be elucidated. In the past decades, several types of stem cells have been isolated from teeth, including dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), dental follicle progenitor stem cells (DFPCs) and stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP), which may be a good source for stem cell-based therapy in certain disease, especially when they origin from neural crest is considered. In this review, the specific characteristics and advantages of the adult dental stem cell population will be summarized and the molecular mechanisms of the differentiation of dental stem cell during tooth development will be also discussed.

  2. Study of CZTS and CZTSSe solar cells for buffer layers selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherouana, Abdelbaki; Labbani, Rebiha

    2017-12-01

    The output characteristics, of a thin film solar cell, are affected by several parameters related to the hetero-structure that is taken into account. In this paper, nontoxic thin film solar cells were studied. CdS/CZTS, CdS/CZTSSe, ZnS/CZTS and ZnS/CZTSSe hetero-junctions were numerically simulated using the Solar Cell Capacitance Simulator (SCAPS). According to the simulation results, we found that CdS buffer was suitable for the CZTSSe absorber and an efficiency of 9.02% was obtained. The ZnS buffer was selected for CZTS absorber and an efficiency of 8.02% has been reached. By optimizing the absorber film parameters (thickness and carrier density), we obtained conversion efficiencies as high as 9.47% and 10.00% for CdS/CZTSSe and ZnS/CZTS based solar cells respectively.

  3. From regenerative dentistry to regenerative medicine: progress, challenges, and potential applications of oral stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao L

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Li Xiao,1 Masanori Nasu2 1Department of Pharmacology, 2Research Center, The Nippon Dental University, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and epithelial stem cells play essential roles in tissue repair and self-healing. Oral MSCs and epithelial stem cells can be isolated from adult human oral tissues, for example, teeth, periodontal ligament, and gingiva. Cocultivated adult oral epithelial stem cells and MSCs could represent some developmental events, such as epithelial invagination and tubular structure formation, signifying their potentials for tissue regeneration. Oral epithelial stem cells have been used in regenerative medicine over 1 decade. They are able to form a stratified cell sheet under three-dimensional culture conditions. Both experimental and clinical data indicate that the cell sheets can not only safely and effectively reconstruct the damaged cornea in humans, but also repair esophageal ulcer in animal models. Oral MSCs include dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs, stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED, stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP, periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs, and mesenchymal stem cells from gingiva (GMSCs. They are widely applied in both regenerative dentistry and medicine. DPSCs, SHED, and SCAP are able to form dentin–pulp complex when being transplanted into immunodeficient animals. They have been experimentally used for the regeneration of dental pulp, neuron, bone muscle and blood vessels in animal models and have shown promising results. PDLSCs and GMSCs are demonstrated to be ideal cell sources for repairing the damaged tissues of periodontal, muscle, and tendon. Despite the abovementioned applications of oral stem cells, only a few human clinical trials are now underway to use them for the treatment of certain diseases. Since clinical use is the end goal, their true regenerative power and safety need to be further examined.Keywords: oral mesenchymal stem cells, oral

  4. Regeneration of dental pulp/dentine complex with a three-dimensional and scaffold-free stem-cell sheet-derived pellet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Sijia; Zhang, Hao; Huang, Fang; Wang, Weiqi; Ding, Yin; Li, Dechao; Jin, Yan

    2016-03-01

    Dental pulp/dentine complex regeneration is indispensable to the construction of biotissue-engineered tooth roots and represents a promising approach to therapy for irreversible pulpitis. We used a tissue-engineering method based on odontogenic stem cells to design a three-dimensional (3D) and scaffold-free stem-cell sheet-derived pellet (CSDP) with the necessary physical and biological properties. Stem cells were isolated and identified and stem cells from root apical papilla (SCAPs)-based CSDPs were then fabricated and examined. Compact cell aggregates containing a high proportion of extracellular matrix (ECM) components were observed, and the CSDP culture time was prolonged. The expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), dentine sialoprotein (DSPP), bone sialoprotein (BSP) and runt-related gene 2 (RUNX2) mRNA was higher in CSDPs than in cell sheets (CSs), indicating that CSDPs have greater odonto/osteogenic potential. To further investigate this hypothesis, CSDPs and CSs were inserted into human treated dentine matrix fragments (hTDMFs) and transplanted into the subcutaneous space in the backs of immunodeficient mice, where they were cultured in vivo for 6 weeks. The root space with CSDPs was filled entirely with a dental pulp-like tissue with well-established vascularity, and a continuous layer of dentine-like tissue was deposited onto the existing dentine. A layer of odontoblast-like cells was found to express DSPP, ALP and BSP, and human mitochondria lined the surface of the newly formed dentine-like tissue. These results clearly indicate that SCAP-CSDPs with a mount of endogenous ECM have a strong capacity to form a heterotopic dental pulp/dentine complex in empty root canals; this method can be used in the fabrication of bioengineered dental roots and also provides an alternative treatment approach for pulp disease. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Effects of vitamin D on insulin resistance and myosteatosis in diet-induced obese mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Benetti

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies pointed out to a strong association between vitamin D deficiency and type 2 diabetes prevalence. However, the role of vitamin D supplementation in the skeletal muscle, a tissue that play a crucial role in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis, has been scarcely investigated so far. On this basis, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of vitamin D supplementation in a murine model of diet-induced insulin resistance with particular attention to the effects evoked on the skeletal muscle. Male C57BL/6J mice (n = 40 were fed with a control or a High Fat-High Sugar (HFHS diet for 4 months. Subsets of animals were treated for 2 months with vitamin D (7 μg·kg-1, i.p. three times/week. HFHS diet induced body weight increase, hyperglycemia and impaired glucose tolerance. HFHS animals showed an impaired insulin signaling and a marked fat accumulation in the skeletal muscle. Vitamin D reduced body weight and improved systemic glucose tolerance. In addition, vitamin D restored the impaired muscle insulin signaling and reverted myosteatosis evoked by the diet. These effects were associated to decreased activation of NF-κB and lower levels of TNF-alpha. Consistently, a significantly decreased activation of the SCAP/SREBP lipogenic pathway and lower levels of CML protein adducts and RAGE expression were observed in skeletal muscle of animals treated with vitamin D. Collectively, these data indicate that vitamin D-induced selective inhibition of signaling pathways (including NF-κB, SCAP/SREBP and CML/RAGE cascades within the skeletal muscle significantly contributed to the beneficial effects of vitamin D supplementation against diet-induced metabolic derangements.

  6. Decrease in mortality in severe community-acquired pneumococcal pneumonia: impact of improving antibiotic strategies (2000-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattarello, Simone; Borgatta, Bárbara; Solé-Violán, Jordi; Vallés, Jordi; Vidaur, Loreto; Zaragoza, Rafael; Torres, Antoni; Rello, Jordi

    2014-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare antibiotic prescribing practices and survival in the ICU for patients with pneumococcal severe community-acquired pneumonia (SCAP) between 2000 and 2013. This was a matched case-control study of two prospectively recorded cohorts in Europe. Eighty patients from the Community-Acquired Pneumonia en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (CAPUCI) II study (case group) were matched with 80 patients from CAPUCI I (control group) based on the following: shock at admission, need of mechanical ventilation, COPD, immunosuppression, and age. Demographic data were comparable in the two groups. Combined antibiotic therapy increased from 66.2% to 87.5% (P < .01), and the percentage of patients receiving the first dose of antibiotic within 3 h increased from 27.5% to 70.0% (P < .01). ICU mortality was significantly lower (OR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.68-0.98) in cases, both in the whole population and in the subgroups of patients with shock (OR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.50-0.89) or receiving mechanical ventilation (OR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.55-0.96). In the multivariate analysis, ICU mortality increased in patients requiring mechanical ventilation (OR, 5.23; 95% CI, 1.60-17.17) and decreased in patients receiving early antibiotic treatment (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.15-0.87) and combined therapy (OR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.07-0.51). In pneumococcal SCAP, early antibiotic prescription and use of combination therapy increased. Both were associated with improved survival.

  7. Association Between Paraspinal Muscle Morphology, Clinical Symptoms, and Functional Status in Patients With Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Maryse; Dobrescu, Octavian; Courtemanche, Matthew; Sparrey, Carolyn J; Santaguida, Carlo; Fehlings, Michael G; Weber, Michael H

    2017-02-15

    A cross-sectional study. The aim of this study was to assess fatty infiltration and asymmetry of the multifidus (MF), semispinalis cervicis (SCer), semispinalis capitis (SCap), and splenius capitis (SPL) muscles in patients with degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM), and evaluate their correlations with clinical symptoms and functional scores. Cervical muscle alterations have been reported in patients with chronic neck pain, but the assessment of cervical muscle morphology has been overlooked in patients with DCM. Thirty-eight patients diagnosed with DCM and spinal cord compression at C4-C5 or C5-C6 (first level of compression) were included. Cervical muscle measurements of cross-sectional area (CSA) and ratio of functional CSA (fat-free area, FCSA) to total CSA were obtained from T2-weighted axial images at the level above, same, and level below the most cranial level of spinal cord compression. Muscle fatty infiltration and asymmetry was assessed at every level and their associations with respect to clinical signs and symptoms and functional scores were investigated. There was a significant increase in fatty infiltration (decrease in FCSA/CSA ratio) of the MF (P = 0.001) and SPL (P < 0.001) muscles at the level below the spinal cord compression. A significant increase in MF CSA asymmetry was also observed at the level below the compression. Lower MF FCSA/CSA ratio was associated with longer 30-m walking test time. Lower SCer FCSA/CSA was associated with corticospinal distribution motor deficits and atrophy of the hands. Greater asymmetry in SCap CSA was associated with higher Neck Disability Index (NDI) scores, whereas lower asymmetry in MF CSA was associated with a positive Hoffman sign and weakness. A significant increase in muscle fatty infiltration and CSA asymmetry at the level below the compression was observed in patients with DCM. Our results also suggest an association between cervical muscle morphology and DCM clinical symptoms and functional

  8. Influence of selenium amount on the structural and electronic properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin films and solar cells formed by the stacked elemental layer process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, B.J., E-mail: bjm.mueller@web.de [Institute of Micro- and Nanomaterials, University of Ulm, D-89081 Ulm (Germany); Corporate Research, Robert Bosch GmbH, D-71272 Renningen (Germany); Opasanont, B.; Haug, V. [Corporate Research, Robert Bosch GmbH, D-71272 Renningen (Germany); Hergert, F. [Bosch Solar CISTech GmbH, D-14772 Brandenburg (Germany); Zweigart, S. [Corporate Research, Robert Bosch GmbH, D-71272 Renningen (Germany); Herr, U., E-mail: ulrich.herr@uni-ulm.de [Institute of Micro- and Nanomaterials, University of Ulm, D-89081 Ulm (Germany)

    2016-06-01

    In the following article the influence of selenium supply on the stacked elemental layer process during the final annealing step is investigated. We find that the Se supply strongly influences the phase formation in the Cu(In,Ga)Se {sub 2} resulting in a modified Ga/In distribution. The effects of Se supply on the structural and electronic properties of the films are reported. The solar cell performance has been investigated in detail using current voltage and external quantum efficiency measurements. We find that the chalcopyrite crystal formation is strongly influenced by the Se supply during the growth process. Furthermore the interdiffusion of Ga and In is accelerated with increasing Se amount. This has direct consequences on band gap and series resistance, which leads to changes in the values of short-circuit current density, open-circuit voltage and fill factor. The open-circuit voltage increases with increasing band gap of the Cu(In,Ga)Se {sub 2}, whereas the short-circuit current density decreases with increasing band gap. The fill factor is affected by the formation of MoSe {sub 2} at the back contact. The experimental findings are compared with the theoretical efficiency limits calculated from the Shockley–Queisser model, and also with numerical 1D SCAPS simulations. - Highlights: • Adjustment of the Ga/In distribution by the Se supply • Enhanced Ga incorporation near-surface • Interdiffusion coefficients of Ga/In are investigated. • Shockley–Queisser modeling and 1D SCAPS simulations • Fill factor is strongly coupled on the MoSe2/Mo ratio.

  9. Is tamoxifen associated with an increased risk for thromboembolic complications in patients undergoing microvascular breast reconstruction? [Ist die Einnahme von Tamoxifen zum Zeitpunkt der mikrovaskulären Brustrekonstruktion mit einer erhöhten Rate an thrombembolischen Komplikationen assoziiert?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krämer, Robert

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available [english] Introduction: Tamoxifen is associated with a twofold increased risk of thromboembolic events. Third generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs, such as letrozole, anastrozole, and exemestane have therefore replaced tamoxifen in the adjuvant therapy of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. A retrospective review was performed in patients who underwent delayed microvascular breast reconstruction and received tamoxifen at the time of surgery in order to assess the risk of both minor and major flap complications including thromboembolic events.Patients and methods: Twenty-nine patients who underwent delayed microsurgical breast reconstruction with autologous tissue between 2006 and 2012 were included in the study. The overall complication rates were compared between patients who did versus those who did not receive tamoxifen at the time of microsurgical breast reconstruction. Results: Breast reconstruction was performed with a DIEP flap in and with a TRAM flap in 4 patients. Overall, the complication rate was 37.9% (n=11 consisting of 5 major (including one total flap loss and 6 minor complications. In patients receiving tamoxifen (n=5, we observed one minor complication and one major complication with a total flap loss due to thrombus formation at the anastomosis site. In one patient pulmonary embolism occurred without association to tamoxifen. The number of thromboembolic events was equivalent in both groups (p=0.642. No increase of major (p=0.858 or minor (p=0.967 complications in the tamoxifen group could be observed. Taking the overall complication rate into account there was no statistically difference between the two groups (p=0.917.Conclusion: In our study we could not observe an increased risk for thromobembolic events in patients receiving tamoxifen while undergoing autologous microvascular breast reconstruction.[german] Aromatasehemmer der dritten Generation haben mittlerweile Tamoxifen in der neoadjuvanten und adjuvanten Therapie

  10. Colgajo de perforantes de arteria epigrástica superior para cobertura de defecto cutáneo preesternal Covergae of a presternal skin defect with a superior epigastric perforator Flap

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    E. García Tutor

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Los colgajos basados en arterias perforantes representan hoy en día una muy buena alternativa para la reconstrucción y cobertura de defectos cutáneos. Sus numerosas ventajas tales como la mínima morbilidad de la zona donante, su fácil recuperación postquirúrgica, su gran versatilidad y la simplicidad que presentan tanto en su planteamiento prequirúrgico como en la técnica misma, han sido algunos de los motivos por los que durante la última década su uso ha tenido un desarrollo notable, siendo quizás el colgajo DIEP el mayor representante de este grupo. Recientemente se ha descrito un tipo de colgajo de similares características basado en arterias perforantes de la arteria epigástrica superior para la cobertura de defectos de la región preesternal baja. En el trabajo actual presentamos un caso clínico en el que una lesión en dicha zona previamente sometida a radioterapia es tratada con este colgajo, obteniendo una cobertura completa de la herida y un resultado estético aceptable.Perforator flaps nowadays represent a very good therapeutic alternative for reconstruction and coverage of skin defects. Their advantages such as the minimal morbidity of the donor site, their good and easy postsurgical recovery, great versatility and rather simple surgical approach and technique are some of the reasons why these flaps have been rapidly developed over the last decade, being the flap based on perforator from de deep inferior epigastric artery, DIEP flap, probably their main model. A flap of similar characteristics based on perforators coming from the superior epigastric artery has been recently described for the coverage of the lower sternum region. In this article we present a clinical case in which a wound in this area that had been previously exposed to radiotherapy is treated with a superiorepigastric perforator flap, achieving complete coverage of the defect and an acceptable aesthetic result.

  11. Reducing Radiation Dose Without Compromising Image Quality in Preoperative Perforator Flap Imaging With CTA Using ASIR Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niumsawatt, Vachara; Debrotwir, Andrew N.; Rozen, Warren Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomographic angiography (CTA) has become a mainstay in preoperative perforator flap planning in the modern era of reconstructive surgery. However, the increased use of CTA does raise the concern of radiation exposure to patients. Several techniques have been developed to decrease radiation dosage without compromising image quality, with varying results. The most recent advance is in the improvement of image reconstruction using an adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm. We sought to evaluate the image quality of ASIR in preoperative deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap surgery, through a direct comparison with conventional filtered back projection (FBP) images. A prospective review of 60 consecutive ASIR and 60 consecutive FBP CTA images using similar protocol (except for radiation dosage) was undertaken, analyzed by 2 independent reviewers. In both groups, we were able to accurately identify axial arteries and their perforators. Subjective analysis of image quality demonstrated no statistically significant difference between techniques. ASIR can thus be used for preoperative imaging with similar image quality to FBP, but with a 60% reduction in radiation delivery to patients. PMID:25058789

  12. Options for shallow geothermal energy for horticulture. Annexes; Kansen voor Ondiepe Geothermie voor de glastuinbouw. Bijlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellebrand, K. [IF-Technology, Arnhem (Netherlands); Post, R.J. [DLV glas en energie, Naaldwijk (Netherlands); In ' t Groen, B. [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    Geothermal energy is too expensive to serve as energy supply for most horticultural entrepreneurs. Therefore, research has been carried out into options to use heat from more shallow layers (shallow geothermal energy). Unlike shallow geothermal energy deep geothermal energy can be applied on a smaller scale, possibly also for individual growers. It can be applied in combination with an existing heating system, but with a more sustainable outcome. Because drilling is done in shallow layers, drilling costs and financial risks are lower. This report comprises the annexes (A) Geologic Framework, and (B) Maps of the Netherlands (depth, thickness of sand layers, temperature and shallow geothermal energy potential [Dutch] Geothermie is voor de meeste tuinbouwondernemers teduur om als energievoorziening te dienen. Daarom is onderzoek gedaan naar mogelijkheden om warmte te gebruiken uit ondiepere lagen (ondiepe geothermie). In tegenstelling tot diepe geothermie is ondiepe geothermie op kleinere schaal toepasbaar, mogelijk ook voor individuele kwekers. Het kan in combinatie met de bestaande verwarmingsinstallatie worden ingezet maar met een duurzamer resultaat. Omdat ondieper wordt geboord zijn de boorkosten en de financiele risico's lager. Dit rapport bevat de bijlagen: (A) Geologisch kader, en (B) B Kaarten Nederland (diepte, zandlaagdikte, temperatuur en ondiepe geothermie (OGT) potentie.

  13. Mechanistic insight on the catecholase activity of dinuclear copper complexes with distant metal centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Quijano, María Rosa; Ferrer-Sueta, Gerardo; Flores-Álamo, Marcos; Aliaga-Alcalde, Núria; Gómez-Vidales, Virginia; Ugalde-Saldívar, Víctor M; Gasque, Laura

    2012-04-28

    The catecholase activity of two dinuclear Cu(II) complexes with distant metal centers is discussed together with solid state and solution studies. The crystal structure for one of them, [Cu(2)(diep)(H(2)O)(4)](ClO(4))(4)·2H(2)O, is described, showing the two copper ions are 7.457 Å apart and in a square pyramidal coordination. Both complexes display a weak antiferromagnetic coupling in the solid state that is manifest in the dimer EPR spectra obtained in frozen solution. The pH-potentiometric speciation performed in 1:1 MeOH-H(2)O allowed the assignment of hydrolyzed copper species as those catalytically active in the oxidation of 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol (DTBC). The kinetic measurements led us to propose behavior consistent with Michaelis-Menten plus a linear dependence of the initial rate on [DTBC]. This can be associated with the presence of more than one catalytically active species, which is consistent with the evidence of several differently hydrolyzed species shown in the predominance diagrams. Product characterization studies led to establishing the formation of hydrogen peroxide during the catalytic cycle, while semiquinone and superoxide radicals were detected by EPR spectroscopy, supporting one-electron transference at each of the copper centers. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  14. The Type of Breast Reconstruction May Not Influence Patient Satisfaction in the Chinese Population: A Single Institutional Experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benlong Yang

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate patient satisfaction with four common types of breast reconstruction performed at our institution: latissimus dorsi myocutaneous (LDM flap reconstruction with or without implants, pedicled transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM flap reconstruction, and free deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP flap reconstruction.A custom survey consisting of questions that assessed general and aesthetic satisfaction was sent to patients who had undergone breast reconstruction in the last 5 years. The clinical data and details of the surgery were also collected from the patients who returned the surveys. We compared satisfaction rates across the four breast reconstruction types and analyzed the effects of various factors on overall general and aesthetic satisfaction rates using a binary logistic regression model.A total of 207 (72% patients completed the questionnaires. Overall, significant differences in general and aesthetic satisfaction among the four procedures were not observed. A multivariate analysis revealed that the factor "complications" (p = 0.001 played a significant role in general satisfaction and that the factors "> 2 years since reconstruction" (p = 0.043 and "age > 35 years" (p = 0.05 played significant roles in overall aesthetic satisfaction.The present study demonstrated that the type of breast reconstruction might not influence satisfaction in Chinese patients.

  15. Co-surgeons in breast reconstructive microsurgery: What do they bring to the table?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Nicholas T; Kayfan, Samar; Pezeshk, Ronnie A; Teotia, Sumeet S

    2017-07-11

    Current research within other surgical specialties suggests that a co-surgeon approach may reduce operative times and complications associated with complex bilateral procedures, possibly leading to improved patient and surgical outcomes. We sought to evaluate the role of the co-surgery team and its development in free flap breast reconstruction. A retrospective review of free-flap breast reconstruction by two surgeons from 2011 to 2016 was conducted. We analyzed 128 patients who underwent bilateral-DIEP breast. Surgical groups were: single-surgeon reconstruction (SSR; 35 patients), co-surgery where both surgeons are present for entire reconstruction (CSR-I; 69 patients), and co-surgery reconstruction where co-surgeons appropriately assist in two concurrent or staggered cases (CSR-II; 24 patients). Efficiency data collected was OR time and patient length-of-stay (LOS). The rate of flap-failure, return to OR, infection, wound breakdown, seroma, hematoma, and PE/DVT were compared. Single-surgeon reconstruction had significantly longer OR time (678 vs. 485 min, P co-surgery (CSR-I or II). The addition of a co-surgeon, even with concurrent surgery, reduces operative time, average patient LOS, and postoperative complications. This work lends a strong credence that co-surgery model is associated with increased operative efficiency. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Stories and story telling in first-levellanguage learning: a re-evaluation

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    Robert W. Blair

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes that in the midst of all our theories on language teaching and language learning, we might have overlooked an age-old tool that has always been at the disposal of mankind; the telling of stories. Attention is drawn to how some have found in stories and story telling a driving force of natural language acquisition, a key that can unlock the intuitive faculties ofthe mind. A case is being made out for the re-instalment of stories and associated activities as a means of real, heart-felt functional communication in a foreign language, rather than through a direct assault on the structure of the language itself. Met hierdie artikel word daar voorgestel dat daar opnuut gekyk moet word na 'n hulpmiddel wat so oud is as die mensheid self en wat nog altyd tot ons beskikking was, naamlik stories en die vertel daarvan. Die aandag word daarop gevestig dat daar persone is wat in stories en die verbale oordrag daarvan 'n stukrag ontdek het tot natuurlike taalvaardigheid, 'n sleutel tot die intultiewe breinfunksies. Daar word 'n saak uitgemaak vir die terugkeer na stories en gepaardgaande aktiwiteite as middel tot 'n egte, diep deurleefde en funksionele wyse van kommunikasie in 'n vreemde taal, eerder as 'n direkte aanslag op die taalstruktuur self.

  17. Oxidative stress in patients with endodontic pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengerfeldt, Veiko; Mändar, Reet; Saag, Mare; Piir, Anneli; Kullisaar, Tiiu

    2017-01-01

    Apical periodontitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease affecting periradicular tissues. It is a widespread condition but its etiopathogenetic mechanisms have not been completely elucidated and the current treatment options are not always successful. To compare oxidative stress (OxS) levels in the saliva and the endodontium (root canal [RC] contents) in patients with different endodontic pathologies and in endodontically healthy subjects. The study group of this comparison study included 22 subjects with primary chronic apical periodontitis (pCAP), 26 with posttreatment or secondary chronic apical periodontitis (sCAP), eight with acute periapical abscess, 13 with irreversible pulpitis, and 17 healthy controls. Resting saliva samples were collected before clinical treatment. Pulp samples (remnants of the pulp, tooth tissue, and/or previous root filling material) were collected under strict aseptic conditions using the Hedström file. The samples were frozen to -80°C until analysis. OxS markers (myeloperoxidase [MPO], oxidative stress index [OSI], 8-isoprostanes [8-EPI]) were detected in the saliva and the endodontium. The highest MPO and 8-EPI levels were seen in pCAP and pulpitis, while the highest levels of OSI were seen in pCAP and abscess patients, as well as the saliva of sCAP patients. Controls showed the lowest OxS levels in both RC contents and saliva. Significant positive correlations between OxS markers, periapical index, and pain were revealed. Patients with pain had significantly higher OxS levels in both the endodontium (MPO median 27.9 vs 72.6 ng/mg protein, p=0.004; OSI 6.0 vs 10.4, p<0.001; 8-EPI 50.0 vs 75.0 pg/mL, p<0.001) and saliva (MPO 34.2 vs 117.5 ng/mg protein, p<0.001; 8-EPI 50.0 vs 112.8 pg/mL, p<0.001) compared to pain-free subjects. OxS is an important pathomechanism in endodontic pathologies that is evident at both the local (RC contents) and systemic (saliva) level. OxS is significantly associated with dental pain and bone destruction.

  18. Nevus sebáceo de Jadassohn: descripción de 261 casos y su asociación con otros tumores

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    Paula Andrea Arango Pérez

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available El nevus sebáceo de Jadassohn (NSJ es una lesión congénita benigna pero por decenios se la consideró con alto potencial de malignización hacia el carcinoma basocelular (CBC, por lo que se sugería su resección precoz. Series recientes han establecido que muchas de las neoplasias diagnosticadas como malignas eran benignas. Nuestra revisión de 261 casos constituye un aporte al conocimiento del NSJ. Hasta ahora no ha habido series similares en Colombia, y en América Latina las publicaciones no superan los 60 pacientes. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: se analizaron 261 casos del archivo de histopatología de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Antioquia con diagnóstico de NSJ entre 1976 y 2008, incluyendo biopsias y resecciones. RESULTADOS: de los 261 pacientes, 143 eran hombres (54,8% y 118 mujeres (45,2%; la edad promedio fue de 17,4 años; el NSJ estaba presente al nacimiento en el 90,4%. La localización más frecuente fue en el cuero cabelludo (62,5%. Presentaron tumores asociados 28 pacientes: siringocistadenoma papilífero (SCAP 8 casos (3,1%, tumor del infundíbulo folicular (TIF 5 casos (1,9%. Cuatro casos fueron de CBC (1,5% con edad promedio de 40,7 años. Cuatro de 7 tumores diagnosticados previamente como CBC, fueron reclasificados como TIF. DISCUSIÓN: el SCAP fue el tumor más frecuentemente asociado, tal como aparece reportado por otros autores. En esta serie se encontró el TIF con una mayor frecuencia que en la literatura revisada. El CBC fue el único tumor maligno y se presentó solo en adultos. Los resultados de esta serie evidencian un comportamiento benigno del NSJ, por lo que se debiera replantear la necesidad de resección precoz. La revisión histológica del diagnóstico inicial demuestra que lesiones benignas pueden ser confundidas fácilmente con CBC, sobreestimando el potencial maligno de este hamartoma.

  19. Oxidative stress in patients with endodontic pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vengerfeldt V

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Veiko Vengerfeldt,1 Reet Mändar,2,3 Mare Saag,1 Anneli Piir,2 Tiiu Kullisaar2 1Institute of Dental Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tartu, 2Institute of Biomedicine and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tartu, 3Competence Centre on Health Technologies, Tartu, Estonia Background: Apical periodontitis (AP is an inflammatory disease affecting periradicular tissues. It is a widespread condition but its etiopathogenetic mechanisms have not been completely elucidated and the current treatment options are not always successful.Purpose: To compare oxidative stress (OxS levels in the saliva and the endodontium (root canal [RC] contents in patients with different endodontic pathologies and in endodontically healthy subjects.Patients and methods: The study group of this comparison study included 22 subjects with primary chronic apical periodontitis (pCAP, 26 with posttreatment or secondary chronic apical periodontitis (sCAP, eight with acute periapical abscess, 13 with irreversible pulpitis, and 17 healthy controls. Resting saliva samples were collected before clinical treatment. Pulp samples (remnants of the pulp, tooth tissue, and/or previous root filling material were collected under strict aseptic conditions using the Hedström file. The samples were frozen to −80°C until analysis. OxS markers (myeloperoxidase [MPO], oxidative stress index [OSI], 8-isoprostanes [8-EPI] were detected in the saliva and the endodontium. Results: The highest MPO and 8-EPI levels were seen in pCAP and pulpitis, while the highest levels of OSI were seen in pCAP and abscess patients, as well as the saliva of sCAP patients. Controls showed the lowest OxS levels in both RC contents and saliva. Significant positive correlations between OxS markers, periapical index, and pain were revealed. Patients with pain had significantly higher OxS levels in both the endodontium (MPO median 27.9 vs 72.6 ng/mg protein, p=0.004; OSI 6.0 vs 10.4, p<0

  20. Leaf morphology and ultrastructure responses to elevated O3 in transgenic Bt (cry1Ab/cry1Ac rice and conventional rice under fully open-air field conditions.

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    Chunyan Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elevated tropospheric ozone severely affects not only yield but also the morphology, structure and physiological functions of plants. Because of concerns regarding the potential environmental risk of transgenic crops, it is important to monitor changes in transgenic insect-resistant rice under the projected high tropospheric ozone before its commercial release. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a free-air concentration enrichment (FACE system, we investigated the changes in leaf morphology and leaf ultrastructure of two rice varieties grown in plastic pots, transgenic Bt Shanyou 63 (Bt-SY63, carrying a fusion gene of cry1Ab and cry1Ac and its non-transgenic counterpart (SY63, in elevated O3 (E-O3 versus ambient O3 (A-O3 after 64-DAS (Days after seeding, 85-DAS and 102-DAS. Our results indicated that E-O3 had no significant effects on leaf length, leaf width, leaf area, stomatal length and stomatal density for both Bt-SY63 and SY63. E-O3 increased the leaf thickness of Bt-SY63, but decreased that of SY63. O3 stress caused early swelling of the thylakoids of chloroplasts, a significant increase in the proportion of total plastoglobule area in the entire cell area (PCAP and a significant decrease in the proportion of total starch grain area in the entire cell area (SCAP, suggesting that E-O3 accelerated the leaf senescence of the two rice genotypes. Compared with SY63, E-O3 caused early swelling of the thylakoids of chloroplasts and more substantial breakdown of chloroplasts in Bt-SY63. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that the incorporation of cry1Ab/Ac into SY63 could induce unintentional changes in some parts of plant morphology and that O3 stress results in greater leaf damage to Bt-SY63 than to SY63, with the former coupled with higher O3 sensitivity in CCAP (the proportions of total chloroplast area in the entire cell area, PCAP and SCAP. This study provides valuable baseline information for the prospective

  1. Transcriptome-Wide Identification, Classification, and Characterization of AP2/ERF Family Genes in the Desert Moss Syntrichia caninervis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoshuang; Zhang, Daoyuan; Gao, Bei; Liang, Yuqing; Yang, Honglan; Wang, Yucheng; Wood, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    APETALA2/Ethylene Responsive Factor (AP2/ERF) is a large family of plant transcription factors which play important roles in the control of plant metabolism and development as well as responses to various biotic and abiotic stresses. The desert moss Syntrichia caninervis, due to its robust and comprehensive stress tolerance, is a promising organism for the identification of stress-related genes. Using S. caninervis transcriptome data, 80 AP2/ERF unigenes were identified by HMM modeling and BLASTP searching. Based on the number of AP2 domains, multiple sequence alignment, motif analysis, and gene tree construction, ScAP2/ERF genes were classified into three main subfamilies (including 5 AP2 gene members, 72 ERF gene members, and 1 RAV member) and two Soloist members. We found that the ratio for each subfamily was constant between S. caninervis and the model moss Physcomitrella patens, however, as compared to the angiosperm Arabidopsis, the percentage of ERF subfamily members in both moss species were greatly expanded, while the members of the AP2 and RAV subfamilies were reduced accordingly. The amino acid composition of the AP2 domain of ScAP2/ERFs was conserved as compared with Arabidopsis. Interestingly, most of the identified DREB genes in S. caninervis belonged to the A-5 group which play important roles in stress responses and are rarely reported in the literature. Expression profile analysis of ScDREB genes showed different gene expression patterns under dehydration and rehydration; the majority of ScDREB genes demonstrated a stronger response to dehydration relative to rehydration indicating that ScDREB may play an important role in dehydrated moss tissues. To our knowledge, this is the first study to detail the identification and characterization of the AP2/ERF gene family in a desert moss. Further, this study will lay the foundation for further functional analysis of these genes, provide greater insight to the stress tolerance mechanisms in S. caninervis

  2. Development and validation of a fully automated online human dried blood spot analysis of bosentan and its metabolites using the Sample Card And Prep DBS System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Norbert; Singrasa, Maharajah; Nicolas, Laurent; Gutierrez, Marcelo; Dingemanse, Jasper; Döbelin, Werner; Glinski, Mirko

    2012-02-15

    This paper describes the development and validation of a liquid chromatography (LC)-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry assay for the fully automated simultaneous determination of bosentan, a dual endothelin receptor antagonist used in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension, and its three primary metabolites hydroxy bosentan (Ro 48-5033), desmethyl bosentan (Ro 47-8634), and hydroxy desmethyl bosentan (Ro 64-1056) in human dried blood spots (DBS) by use of the Sample Card And Prep (SCAP) DBS System. The system enabled the online extraction of compounds from filter paper cards without the need for punching and sample pretreatment. This was realized by automatic introduction of DBS sample cards into the LC flow via a pneumatically controlled clamp module. Using a three-column setup comprised of two pre columns for successive online DBS sample cleanup and a Synergi™ POLAR-RP C(18) analytical column for chromatographic separation under gradient conditions with a mobile phase A consisting of 1% acetic acid and a mobile phase B consisting of 1% acetic acid in methanol/2-propanol (80/20, v/v). MS/MS detection was performed in the positive multiple reaction monitoring mode using a Sciex API 4000 triple quadrupole LC-MS/MS system equipped with a TurboIonSpray™ source. The total run time was 9.0min. The individual phases of online human DBS analysis were synchronized by automated valve switching. The analytical method was shown to be sensitive and selective with inter-day accuracy and precision of 91.6-108.0% and 3.4-14.6%, respectively, and it exhibited good linearity (r(2)≥0.9951 for all analytes) over the concentration range of 2ng/mL (5ng/mL for Ro 47-8634)-1500ng/mL. The analytes were stable in human DBS over 3.5 months at ambient temperature and accurate and precise results were obtained when using a blood spot volume between 20 and 30μL. Furthermore, no apparent (-8.9 to 12.6%) impact of hematocrit values ranging from 0.35 to 0.65 was

  3. Vaporization and Zonal Mixing in Performance Modeling of Advanced LOX-Methane Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, George J., Jr.; Stiegemeier, Benjamin R.

    2013-01-01

    Initial modeling of LOX-Methane reaction control (RCE) 100 lbf thrusters and larger, 5500 lbf thrusters with the TDK/VIPER code has shown good agreement with sea-level and altitude test data. However, the vaporization and zonal mixing upstream of the compressible flow stage of the models leveraged empirical trends to match the sea-level data. This was necessary in part because the codes are designed primarily to handle the compressible part of the flow (i.e. contraction through expansion) and in part because there was limited data on the thrusters themselves on which to base a rigorous model. A more rigorous model has been developed which includes detailed vaporization trends based on element type and geometry, radial variations in mixture ratio within each of the "zones" associated with elements and not just between zones of different element types, and, to the extent possible, updated kinetic rates. The Spray Combustion Analysis Program (SCAP) was leveraged to support assumptions in the vaporization trends. Data of both thrusters is revisited and the model maintains a good predictive capability while addressing some of the major limitations of the previous version.

  4. Simulation of IPV effect in In-doped c-Si with optimized indium concentration and layer thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Hari Sankar; Yadav, Abhimanyu Kumar; Ray, Abhijit

    2011-11-01

    Impurity photovoltaic effect(IPV) is one of the attempts to improve efficiency of solar cells and is the idea of exploiting three step generation via impurity states within the band gap to utilize sub-band gap photons. The three transitions are of electrons from valence band (VB) to conduction band (CB), valence band to impurity level and impurity level to conduction band. In the present simulation, we have used the p+nn+ structure in order to achieve higher photogenerated current and efficiency without loosing the open circuit voltage. Compared to other group-III elements in silicon solar cell, Indium is the most suitable material to achieve higher benefit in IPV. In this simulation, the model of IPV is considered to achieve the maximum benefit from the impurity state in a solar cell. To simulate we have used the one dimensional simulation program, SCAPS-1D. Again light trapping is an important part of IPV solar cell that has been considered in this simulation. Using IPV we have numerically demonstrated, an increase in efficiency, by 2.79% over that without-IPV effect and a 3.23% increase over the efficiency, 30.9% as reported by Schmeits and Mani [1].

  5. Thickness optimization of the ZnO based TCO layer in a CZTSSe solar cell. Evolution of its performance with thickness when external temperature changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadel, Meriem; Moustafa Bouzaki, Mohammed; Chadel, Asma; Aillerie, Michel; Benyoucef, Boumediene

    2017-07-01

    The influence of the thickness of a Zinc Oxide (ZnO) transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layer on the performance of the CZTSSe solar cell is shown in detail. In a photovoltaic cell, the thickness of each layer largely influence the performance of the solar cell and optimization of each layer constitutes a complete work. Here, using the Solar Cell Capacitance Simulation (SCAPS) software, we present simulation results obtained in the analyze of the influence of the TCO layer thickness on the performance of a CZTSSe solar cell, starting from performance of a CZTSSe solar cell commercialized in 2014 with an initial efficiency equal to 12.6%. In simulation, the temperature was considered as a functioning parameter and the evolution of tthe performance of the cell for various thickness of the TCO layer when the external temperature changes is simulated and discussed. The best efficiency of the solar cell based in CZTSSe is obtained with a ZnO thickness equal to 50 nm and low temperature. Based on the considered marketed cell, we show a technological possible increase of the global efficiency achieving 13% by optimization of ZnO based TCO layer.

  6. Optimization by simulation of the nature of the buffer, the gap profile of the absorber and the thickness of the various layers in CZTSSe solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadel, Meriem; Chadel, Asma; Moustafa Bouzaki, Mohammed; Aillerie, Michel; Benyoucef, Boumediene; Charles, Jean-Pierre

    2017-11-01

    Performances of ZnO/ZnS/CZTSSe polycrystalline thin film solar cells (Copper Zinc Tin Sulphur Selenium-solar cell) were simulated for different thicknesses of the absorber and ZnS buffer layers. Simulations were performed with SCAPS (Solar Cell Capacitance Simulator) software, starting with actual parameters available from industrial data for commercial cells processing. The influences of the thickness of the various layers in the structure of the solar cell and the gap profile of the CZTSSe absorber layer on the performance of the solar cell were studied in detail. Through considerations of recent works, we discuss possible routes to enhance the performance of CZTSSe solar cells towards a higher efficiency level. Thus, we found that for one specific thickness of the absorber layer, the efficiency of the CZTSSe solar cell can be increased when a ZnS layer replaces the usual CdS buffer layer. On the other hand, the efficiency of the solar cell can be also improved when the absorber layer presents a grad-gap. In this case, the maximum efficiency for the CZTSSe cell was found equal to 13.73%.

  7. Modelling of Cu2ZnSnSe4-CdS-ZnO thin film solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Messaoud, Khaled; Brammertz, Guy; Buffière, Marie; Oueslati, Souhaib; ElAnzeery, Hossam; Meuris, Marc; Amlouk, Mosbah; Poortmans, Jef

    2017-11-01

    We present a device model for the Cu2ZnSnSe4-CdS-ZnO solar cell with a total area efficiency of 9.7% reported in 2013 (Brammertz et al 2013 Appl. Phys. Lett. 103 163904). The simulations were performed using SCAPS program. In the device model, we reproduce rigorously the full range of layers and device properties estimated experientially using various characterization techniques. We include in the device model barriers at the back contact and the absorber/buffer interfaces, the photo-doped CdS buffer layer and defect states at the CdS/ZnO interface. A perfect match with the electrical behaviors of the solar cell are obtained, including light and dark current voltage, quantum efficiency, open circuit voltage (V OC) versus temperature and capacitance measurements. We show as well that interface recombination does not have an impact on the V OC deficit but partially reduces the short circuit current and the fill factor and that the main electrical limitations are due to the presence of tail states and electrostatic potential fluctuations in the CZTSe material leading to a decrease in the band gap and an increase of radiative recombination by tow orders.

  8. Stem Cells of Dental Origin: Current Research Trends and Key Milestones towards Clinical Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    About, Imad

    2016-01-01

    Dental Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs), including Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs), Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous teeth (SHED), and Stem Cells From Apical Papilla (SCAP), have been extensively studied using highly sophisticated in vitro and in vivo systems, yielding substantially improved understanding of their intriguing biological properties. Their capacity to reconstitute various dental and nondental tissues and the inherent angiogenic, neurogenic, and immunomodulatory properties of their secretome have been a subject of meticulous and costly research by various groups over the past decade. Key milestone achievements have exemplified their clinical utility in Regenerative Dentistry, as surrogate therapeutic modules for conventional biomaterial-based approaches, offering regeneration of damaged oral tissues instead of simply “filling the gaps.” Thus, the essential next step to validate these immense advances is the implementation of well-designed clinical trials paving the way for exploiting these fascinating research achievements for patient well-being: the ultimate aim of this ground breaking technology. This review paper presents a concise overview of the major biological properties of the human dental MSCs, critical for the translational pathway “from bench to clinic.” PMID:27818690

  9. Potential of human dental stem cells in repairing the complete transection of rat spinal cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Li, Xinghan; Sun, Liang; Guo, Weihua; Tian, Weidong

    2017-04-01

    Objective. The adult spinal cord of mammals contains a certain amount of neural precursor cells, but these endogenous cells have a limited capacity for replacement of lost cells after spinal cord injury. The exogenous stem cells transplantation has become a therapeutic strategy for spinal cord repairing because of their immunomodulatory and differentiation capacity. In addition, dental stem cells originating from the cranial neural crest might be candidate cell sources for neural engineering. Approach. Human dental follicle stem cells (DFSCs), stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs) and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were isolated and identified in vitro, then green GFP-labeled stem cells with pellets were transplanted into completely transected spinal cord. The functional recovery of rats and multiple neuro-regenerative mechanisms were explored. Main results. The dental stem cells, especially DFSCs, demonstrated the potential in repairing the completely transected spinal cord and promote functional recovery after injury. The major involved mechanisms were speculated below: First, dental stem cells inhibited the expression of interleukin-1β to reduce the inflammatory response; second, they inhibited the expression of ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA) to promote neurite regeneration; third, they inhibited the sulfonylurea receptor1 (SUR-1) expression to reduce progressive hemorrhagic necrosis; lastly, parts of the transplanted cells survived and differentiated into mature neurons and oligodendrocytes but not astrocyte, which is beneficial for promoting axons growth. Significance. Dental stem cells presented remarkable tissue regenerative capability after spinal cord injury through immunomodulatory, differentiation and protection capacity.

  10. Dental stem cells: recent progresses in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, João; Cavacas, Maria Alzira; Machado, Vanessa; Mendes, José João

    2017-12-01

    Since the disclosure of adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), there have been an intense investigation on the characteristics of these cells and their potentialities. Dental stem cells (DSCs) are MSC-like populations with self-renewal capacity and multidifferentiation potential. Currently, there are five main DSCs, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED), stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and dental follicle precursor cells (DFPCs). These cells are extremely accessible, prevail during all life and own an amazing multipotency. In the past decade, DPSCs and SHED have been thoroughly studied in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering as autologous stem cells therapies and have shown amazing therapeutic abilities in oro-facial, neurologic, corneal, cardiovascular, hepatic, diabetic, renal, muscular dystrophy and auto-immune conditions, in both animal and human models, and most recently some of them in human clinical trials. In this review, we focus the characteristics, the multiple roles of DSCs and its potential translation to clinical settings. These new insights of the apparently regenerative aptitude of these DSCs seems quite promising to investigate these cells abilities in a wide variety of pathologies. Key messages Dental stem cells (DSCs) have a remarkable self-renewal capacity and multidifferentiation potential; DSCs are extremely accessible and prevail during all life; DSCs, as stem cells therapies, have shown amazing therapeutic abilities in oro-facial, neurologic, corneal, cardiovascular, hepatic, diabetic, renal, muscular dystrophy and autoimmune conditions; DSCs are becoming extremely relevant in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  11. Maturation and activity of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 is inhibited by acyl-CoA binding domain containing 3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chen

    Full Text Available Imbalance of lipid metabolism has been linked with pathogenesis of a variety of human pathological conditions such as diabetes, obesity, cancer and neurodegeneration. Sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs are the master transcription factors controlling the homeostasis of fatty acids and cholesterol in the body. Transcription, expression, and activity of SREBPs are regulated by various nutritional, hormonal or stressful stimuli, yet the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in these adaptative responses remains elusive. In the present study, we found that overexpressed acyl-CoA binding domain containing 3 (ACBD3, a Golgi-associated protein, dramatically inhibited SREBP1-sensitive promoter activity of fatty acid synthase (FASN. Moreover, lipid deprivation-stimulated SREBP1 maturation was significantly attenuated by ACBD3. With cell fractionation, gene knockdown and immunoprecipitation assays, it was showed that ACBD3 blocked intracellular maturation of SREBP1 probably through directly binding with the lipid regulator rather than disrupted SREBP1-SCAP-Insig1 interaction. Further investigation revealed that acyl-CoA domain-containing N-terminal sequence of ACBD3 contributed to its inhibitory effects on the production of nuclear SREBP1. In addition, mRNA and protein levels of FASN and de novo palmitate biosynthesis were remarkably reduced in cells overexpressed with ACBD3. These findings suggest that ACBD3 plays an essential role in maintaining lipid homeostasis via regulating SREBP1's processing pathway and thus impacting cellular lipogenesis.

  12. Hand-out: SFOE research conference on traffic technology and accumulators; Handout BFE-Forschungstagung Technologiebereich Verkehr Technologiebereich Akkumulatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive collection contains presentation slides presented at a research conference organised by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) at the Federal Institute of Science and Technology in Zurich in February 2004. Apart from two presentations on the future of the 'SwissEnergy' programme and research in the EU, fifteen further presentations are included. These cover the 'Cleaner Drive' project, the influence of lightweight electric vehicles on mobility behaviour, the advantages of 'EcoDrive' in the year 2010, results of a study on 'park-and-ride' facilities, the CO{sub 2}-effect, innovation, the possibilities offered by S-Cap capacitors and 'Sun Fuels'. Further contributions include the 'Downhill Coaster', weather-protection for bicycles, natural-gas fuelled buses, the operation of an Otto-motor using a petrol / natural gas / reformer gas mix, usage and optimisation of the 'Zebra' battery, innovative vehicles for the 'Novatlantis'-pilot region in Basle and a contribution on climate protection in the aviation area.

  13. Role of UPR Pathway in Defense Response of Aedes aegypti against Cry11Aa Toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Bravo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The insecticidal Cry toxins are pore-forming toxins produced by the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis that disrupt insect-midgut cells. Cells can trigger different survival mechanisms to counteract the effects of sub-lytic doses of pore forming toxins. Particularly, two signaling pathways have been demonstrated to play a role in the defense mechanism to other toxins in Caenorhabditis elegans and in mammalian cells. These are the unfolded protein response (UPR and the sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBP pathways, which are proposed to facilitate membrane repair responses. In this work we analyzed the role of these pathways in Aedes aegypti response to intoxication with Cry11Aa toxin. We show that UPR is activated upon toxin ingestion. The role of these two pathways was analyzed in vivo by using RNA interference. We silenced the expression of specific proteins in A. aegypti larvae. Gene silencing of Ire-1 and Xbp-1 proteins from UPR system, resulted in hypersensitive to Cry11Aa toxin action. In contrast, silencing of Cas-1, Scap and S2P from SREBP pathway had no affect on Cry11Aa toxicity in A. aegypti larvae. However, the role of SREBP pathway requires further studies to be conclusive. Our data indicate that the UPR pathway is involved in the insect defense against Cry toxins.

  14. NUMERICAL SIMULATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF PERFORMANCES OF A SOLAR CELL BASED ON CdTe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Ferouani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article has as an aim the study and the simulation of the photovoltaic cells containing CdTe materials, contributing to the development of renewable energies, and able to feed from the houses, the shelters as well as photovoltaic stations… etc. CdTe is a semiconductor having a structure of bands with an indirect gap of a value of 1,5 eV at ambient temperature what means that photon wavelength of approximately 1200 nm will be able to generate an electron-hole pair. One speaks about photogeneration. We will lay the stress, initially, on the essential design features of a photovoltaic module (the open-circuit tension, the short-circuit current, the fill factor, and the output of the cell, our results was simulated with the SCAPS computer code in one dimension which uses electrical characteristics DC and AC of the thin layers heterojunctions. The results obtained after optimization are: VCO = 0.632V, Jsc = 39.1 mA/cm2, FF=82.98 % and the output energy of conversion is 18.26%.Optimization is made according to the temperature and the wavelength.

  15. Computational analysis of the effect of the surface defect layer (SDL) properties on Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based solar cell performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouédraogo, S.; Zougmoré, F.; Ndjaka, J. M. B.

    2014-05-01

    In this article, the performances of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells have been modelled and numerically simulated using the one-dimensional simulation program Solar Cell Capacitance Simulator in 1 Dimension (SCAPS-1D), and a detailed analysis of the effect of surface defect layer (SDL) thickness, band gap and carrier mobility with Fermi level pinning is presented. Furthermore, donor-type defect state density in the SDL has been investigated, and their effect on device performances has been presented. Based on the simulation results, optimal properties of the SDL for the CIGS solar cell are proposed. The simulated results show that the optimal thickness of the SDL to optimise the solar cells is in the range of 100-200 nm. The increase in the band gap of the SDL >1.3 eV improves the device performance by enhancing the open-circuit voltage (Voc), fill factor (FF) and conversion efficiency due to the larger quasi-Fermi energy-level splitting, and optimal band offset between the SDL and the buffer layer (CdS). The simulation results suggest that the SDL defect density as well as carrier mobilities are the critical parameters for the limitation of the performances for the CIGS solar cells. All these results show that the SDL plays an important role in designing high-efficiency and high-performance CIGS-based solar cells.

  16. Integrative genome comparison of primary and metastatic melanomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Kabbarah

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A cardinal feature of malignant melanoma is its metastatic propensity. An incomplete view of the genetic events driving metastatic progression has been a major barrier to rational development of effective therapeutics and prognostic diagnostics for melanoma patients. In this study, we conducted global genomic characterization of primary and metastatic melanomas to examine the genomic landscape associated with metastatic progression. In addition to uncovering three genomic subclasses of metastastic melanomas, we delineated 39 focal and recurrent regions of amplification and deletions, many of which encompassed resident genes that have not been implicated in cancer or metastasis. To identify progression-associated metastasis gene candidates, we applied a statistical approach, Integrative Genome Comparison (IGC, to define 32 genomic regions of interest that were significantly altered in metastatic relative to primary melanomas, encompassing 30 resident genes with statistically significant expression deregulation. Functional assays on a subset of these candidates, including MET, ASPM, AKAP9, IMP3, PRKCA, RPA3, and SCAP2, validated their pro-invasion activities in human melanoma cells. Validity of the IGC approach was further reinforced by tissue microarray analysis of Survivin showing significant increased protein expression in thick versus thin primary cutaneous melanomas, and a progression correlation with lymph node metastases. Together, these functional validation results and correlative analysis of human tissues support the thesis that integrated genomic and pathological analyses of staged melanomas provide a productive entry point for discovery of melanoma metastases genes.

  17. Stem cell-based tooth and periodontal regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, L; Liu, Y; Wang, S

    2017-06-21

    Currently regeneration of tooth and periodontal damage still remains great challenge. Stem cell-based tissue engineering raised novel therapeutic strategies for tooth and periodontal repair. Stem cells for tooth and periodontal regeneration include dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), stem cells from the dental apical papilla (SCAPs), and stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs), dental follicle stem cells (DFSCs), dental epithelial stem cells (DESCs), bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs), adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs), embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). To date, substantial advances have been made in stem cell-based tooth and periodontal regeneration, including dentin-pulp, whole tooth, bioroot and periodontal regeneration. Translational investigations have been performed such as dental stem cell banking and clinical trials. In this review, we present strategies for stem cell-based tissue engineering for tooth and periodontal repair, and the translational studies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Stem Cells of Dental Origin: Current Research Trends and Key Milestones towards Clinical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athina Bakopoulou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs, including Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs, Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous teeth (SHED, and Stem Cells From Apical Papilla (SCAP, have been extensively studied using highly sophisticated in vitro and in vivo systems, yielding substantially improved understanding of their intriguing biological properties. Their capacity to reconstitute various dental and nondental tissues and the inherent angiogenic, neurogenic, and immunomodulatory properties of their secretome have been a subject of meticulous and costly research by various groups over the past decade. Key milestone achievements have exemplified their clinical utility in Regenerative Dentistry, as surrogate therapeutic modules for conventional biomaterial-based approaches, offering regeneration of damaged oral tissues instead of simply “filling the gaps.” Thus, the essential next step to validate these immense advances is the implementation of well-designed clinical trials paving the way for exploiting these fascinating research achievements for patient well-being: the ultimate aim of this ground breaking technology. This review paper presents a concise overview of the major biological properties of the human dental MSCs, critical for the translational pathway “from bench to clinic.”

  19. Bu-Shen-Jian-Pi-Yi-Qi Therapy Prevents Alcohol-Induced Osteoporosis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shu-Jun; Xing, Guo-Li; Hu, Nai-Wu; Xu, Wei-Ming; Wang, Yong-Qi; Dong, Qing-Ping; Jiang, Yi-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Bu-Shen-Jian-Pi-Yi-Qi therapy, which refers to reinforcing kidney, regulating qi, and invigorating spleen, is a traditional Chinese medicine, and we investigated its efficacy in treatment of alcohol-induced osteoporosis and its underlying mechanism. Forty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into alcohol-supplemented group, JIAN-GU-LING (JGL) group, calcium D3 + alfacalcidol group, and sham-treated group. Bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and bone biomechanical properties were assessed. Biochemical analyses of serum and urine specimens were detected. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the mRNA level of vitamin D receptor (VDR). There were markedly lower bone metabolic markers and biomechanical properties in alcohol-supplemented group compared with sham-treated group (all P alcohol + calcium D3 + alfacalcidol group (P alcoholic osteoporosis. The disease reversal is evidenced by increased BMD and BMC, improved biomechanical properties, elevated VDR mRNA level, enhanced response sensitivity of 1, 25(OH)2D3, and reduced S-Ca/P.

  20. CZTSSe solar cell efficiency improvement using a new band-gap grading model in absorber layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadnejad, Shahram; Baghban Parashkouh, Ali

    2017-12-01

    Earth abundant copper-zinc-tin-chalcogenide is an attractive class of materials for the fabrication of high efficiency, low cost, and sustainable thin-film solar cells. A CZTSSe solar cell was modeled and the effects of absorber layer band-gap grading were investigated. Regarding the tunable bandgap of kesterite absorber layers which is between 0.95 eV for CZTSe and 1.5 eV for CZTS, several grading models were simulated in SCAPS. First, using a set of comprehensive absorption data for CZTS and CZTSe, the basic bandgap was selected to be 1.15 eV due to experimental aspects, and then, five grading models namely back/front linear, back/front exponential, and inside graded were explored. The investigation of simulation results showed that the recombination rate improvement in back and front regions along with current density enhancement is achievable by these graded band-gap profiles. Finally, the modified inside graded model was reached to a power conversion efficiency of 15.6% which leaded to a considerable output performance.

  1. Gingiva as a new and the most accessible source of mesenchymal stem cells from the oral cavity to be used in regenerative therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartłomiej Górski

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs, many researchers have focused their attention on new sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. Consequently, MSCs that display self-renewal capacity, multidifferentiation potential and immunomodulatory properties have been isolated from human oral tissues, including tooth, periodontal ligament, and gingiva. Oral MSCs involve dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs, stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED, periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs, dental follicle stem cells (DFCs, stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP and gingival stem cells (GMSCs. Current research on oral stem cells is expanding at an unprecedented rate. That being the case, a plethora of in vitro differentiation assays, immunodeficient animal transplantations and preclinical trials have demonstrated that these cells exhibit strong potential for both regenerative dentistry and medicine. Oral MSCs have proved their capability to repair cornea, dental pulp, periodontal, bone, cartilage, tendon, neural, muscle and endothelial tissues without neoplasm formation as well as to treat inflammatory diseases and immune disorders. This article describes the current understanding of oral MSCs and their prospective applications in cell-based therapy, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Special attention is placed on GMSCs as they are easily accessible and may be obtained in a convenient and minimally invasive way.

  2. Analysis of the power conversion efficiency of perovskite solar cells with different materials as Hole-Transport Layer by numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, G. A.; Cappelletti, M. A.; Cédola, A. P.; Soucase, Bernabé Marí; Peltzer y Blancá, E. L.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a theoretical study of different p-p-n perovskite solar cells has been performed by means of computer simulation. Effects of the offset level upon the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of these devices have been researched using five different materials such as spiro-OMeTAD, Cu2O, CuSCN, NiO and CuI, as Hole Transporting Layer (HTL). The Solar Cells Capacitance Simulator (SCAPS)-1D has been the tool used for numerical simulation of these devices. A strong dependence of PCE has been found with the difference between the Maximum of the Valence Band of the HTL and perovskite materials, and with the doping level in p-type perovskite layer. A minimum value of hole mobility in the HTL has been also found, below which the PCE is reduced. Efficiencies in the order of 28% have been obtained for the Cu2O/Perovskite/TiO2 solar cell. Results obtained in this work show the potentiality of this promising technology.

  3. De Enquiryen het Serampore ‘Form of Agreement’: William Carey als zendingsstrateeg voor de 21ste eeuw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Kommers

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Wereldwijd is aandacht gegeven aan de 250ste geboortedag van William Carey. Tot op de dag van vandaag wordt hij herinnerd als een zendingsman die met zijn visie voor de zending van blijvende betekenis is. Zijn leven is het onderwerp geweest van meer dan vijftig biografieën en deelstudies, maar het blijft moeilijk hem onder één noemer te vatten. Hij wordt genoemd de stichter en de vader van de moderne zending (Smith 1885:437, maar óók een groot staatsman, een onderlegde botanist, en een echte vriend van Bengalen en India(Davis 1963:73. Carey was in alle opzichten een pionier, die zich hierin onderscheidde van anderen uit zijn tijd dat zijn zendingswerk diep geworteld was in een verscheidenheid van seculiere wetenschappen. Zijn werk geeft een ‘turning point’ (Neill 1982:261 aan voor het zendingswerk in de 19e eeuw. De geloofscrisis binnen de kerken van het Westen heeft geleid tot een verlies van overtuiging dat het geloof in Christus Jezus zó essentieel is, dat zonder geloof in Hem mensen verloren gaan. We vragen ons af, ’Hoe komt het dat Carey tot op heden in de wereld van de missiologie blijft meetellen?’ Wij doen onszelf te kort wanneer we niet luisteren naar zijn stem, mede omdat ‘in the whole history of the church no nobler man has ever given himself so fully to the service of the Redeemer’(Neill et al.1971:83. Hij had een visie1op zending, maar ook een concreet plan om tot uitvoering van zijn visie te komen. Carey is met zijn zendingsprincipes voor de 21ste eeuw een modern zendingsstrateeg.

  4. Congenital breast deformity reconstruction using perforator flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Abhinav K; Allen, Robert J; LoTempio, Maria M; Mountcastle, Timothy S; Levine, Joshua L; Allen, Robert J; Chiu, Ernest S

    2007-04-01

    Congenital breast deformities such as Poland syndrome, unilateral congenital hypoplasia, tuberous breast anomaly, and amastia pose a challenging plastic surgical dilemma. The majority of patients are young, healthy individuals who seek esthetic restoration of their breast deformities. Currently, both implant and autologous reconstructive techniques are used. This study focuses on our experience with congenital breast deformity patients who underwent reconstruction using a perforator flap. From 1994 to 2005, a retrospective chart review was performed on women who underwent breast reconstruction using perforator flaps to correct congenital breast deformities and asymmetry. Patient age, breast deformity type, perforator flap type, flap volume, recipient vessels, postoperative complications, revisions, and esthetic results were determined. Over an 11-year period, 12 perforator flaps were performed. All cases were for unilateral breast deformities. The patients ranged from 16 to 43 years of age. Six patients had undergone previous correctional surgeries. Eight (n = 8) flaps were used for correction of Poland syndrome and its associated chest wall deformities. Four (n = 4) flaps were used for correction of unilateral breast hypoplasia. In all cases, the internal mammary vessels were the recipient vessels of choice. No flaps were lost. No vein grafts were used. All patients were discharged on the fourth postoperative day. Complications encountered included seroma, hematoma, and nipple malposition. Revisional surgery was performed in 30% of the cases. Esthetic results varied from poor to excellent. Perforator flaps are an acceptable choice for patients with congenital breast deformities seeking autologous breast reconstruction. Deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEP) or superficial inferior epigastric artery (SIEA) flaps are performed when adequate abdominal tissue is available; however, many young patients have inadequate abdominal tissue, thus a GAP flap can be used

  5. Lipomodelling: an important advance in breast surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delay, E; Streit, L; Toussoun, G; La Marca, S; Ho Quoc, C

    2013-01-01

    Based on long-term experiences, the authors consider lipomodelling to be a major advance in plastic, reconstructive and aesthetic surgery of the breast. The technique is now well established and the complication rate is very low. The risk of focal fat necrosis is around 3%. Oncological follow-up (now 14 years for the first patients) shows no increased risk of local recurrence or development of a new cancer. 30-40% of the injected fat is absorbed. Volume of the breast becomes stable in 3 to 4 months and remains definitive if the patient maintains constant weight. Because of very good results obtained and excellent acceptance of the procedure by the patients, this technique has completely modified our indications. In breast reconstruction, lipomodelling with autologous latissimus dorsi flap enables obtaining an entirely autologous breast in the majority of the patients. Analogically, lipomodelling can improve results of implant reconstructions, especially if the expander or the implant is planned to be exchanged. Lipomodelling is an effective tool for correction deformities especially in the décolleté after breast reconstruction with abdominal flap (DIEP, SIEA and TRAM). Lipomodelling is also progressively used in the correction of breast and chest wall deformities. In Poland syndrome, this technique appears to be a major advance that will probably revolutionize the treatment of severe cases. This is mainly due to its ability to achieve previously unachievable quality of reconstruction with minimal scaring. The application of lipomodelling in the treatment of pectus excavatum deformities is promising. Lipomodelling represents an advanced therapeutic alternative for tuberous breasts without the need to use an implant, as well as for breast asymmetry due to unilateral hypoplasia. Lipomodelling is an ideal option for cosmetic breast augmentation in patients who wish to achieve moderate, natural enlargement of breasts and who have considerable fat deposits.

  6. Causes of Alternative Pathway Dysregulation in Dense Deposit Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuzhou; Meyer, Nicole C.; Wang, Kai; Nishimura, Carla; Frees, Kathy; Jones, Michael; Katz, Louis M.; Sethi, Sanjeev; Smith, Richard J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives This study was designed to investigate the causes of alternative pathway dysregulation in a cohort of patients with dense deposit disease (DDD). Design, setting, participants, & measurements Thirty-two patients with biopsy-proven DDD underwent screening for C3 nephritic factors (C3Nefs), factor H autoantibodies (FHAAs), factor B autoantibodies (FBAAs), and genetic variants in CFH. C3Nefs were detected by: ELISA, C3 convertase surface assay (C3CSA), C3CSA with properdin (C3CSAP), two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis (2DIEP), and immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE). FHAAs and FBAAs were detected by ELISA, and CFH variants were identified by Sanger sequencing. Results Twenty-five patients (78%) were positive for C3Nefs. Three C3Nef-positive patients were also positive for FBAAs and one of these patients additionally carried two novel missense variants in CFH. Of the seven C3Nef-negative patients, one patient was positive for FHAAs and two patients carried CFH variants that may be causally related to their DDD phenotype. C3CASP was the most sensitive C3Nef-detection assay. C3CASP and IFE are complementary because C3CSAP measures the stabilizing properties of C3Nefs, whereas IFE measures their expected consequence—breakdown of C3b. Conclusions A test panel that includes C3CSAP, IFE, FHAAs, FBAAs, and genetic testing for CFH variants will identify a probable cause for alternative pathway dysregulation in approximately 90% of DDD patients. Dysregulation is most frequently due to C3Nefs, although some patients test positive for FHAAs, FBAAs, and CFH mutations. Defining the pathophysiology of DDD should facilitate the development of mechanism-directed therapies. PMID:22223606

  7. Cosmology in the book of Revelation

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    Gert J.C. Jordaan

    2013-11-01

    Kosmologie in die boek van Openbaring. Die kosmologie van Openbaring getuig van God se herstelde regering oor die geskape heelal (κόσμος. Regdeur die boek word die κόσμος volgens sy samestellende dele beskryf, naamlik hemel, see en aarde. Oppervlakkig beskou, lyk hierdie beskrywing na die antieke Joodse en mitologiese drie-verdieping-kosmologie van ‘daar bo’, ‘hier onder’ en ‘daar onder’. Hierdie ooreenkoms is egter slegs oppervlakkig. Hemel word deur Johannes nie soseer in ruimtelike sin gebruik nie, maar in temporele sin: as simboliese verwysing dat God bo tyd en geskiedenis verhewe is. Hemel is ook ’n kwalitatiewe verwysing na ’n toestand van volmaakte gehoorsame aanbidding van God. Desgelyks word aarde meestal gebruik as metafoor vir ’n sondige mensdom onder Satan se heerskappy. Tog bly die aarde deel van God se skepping onder sy goddelike heerskappy, en word dit selfs aangetoon as ’n toevlugsoord vir die kerk in hierdie bedeling. Waar die see in Openbaring nie na ’n fisiese verskynsel verwys nie, word dit dikwels deur biblioloë op gelyke vlak met die diep put of die onderwêreld gestel. Johannes gebruik die see egter meestal as metafoor vir die boosheid waaruit die dier sy oorsprong het, asook vir alles wat sondig en onrein is. Openbaring 21 en 22 maak bekend dat hemel, see en aarde in die eschatondeel sal wees van die nuwe skepping − vernuwe tot op die punt waar God se heerskappy herstel is en erken word regdeur die κόσμος.

  8. Comparative study of software techniques for 3D mapping of perforators in deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter-Smith, David J.; Rozen, Warren Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Background Computed tomographic (CT) angiography (CTA) is widely considered the gold standard imaging modality for preoperative planning autologous breast reconstruction with deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA) perforator (DIEP) flap. Improved anatomical understanding from CTA has translated to enhanced clinical outcomes. To achieve this, the use of appropriate CT hardware and software is vital. Various CT scanners and contrast materials have been demonstrated to consistently produce adequate scan data. However, the availability of affordable and easily accessible imaging software capable of generating 3D volume-rendered perforator images to clinically useful quality has been lacking. Osirix (Pixmeo, Geneva, Switzerland) is a free, readily available medical image processing software that shows promise. We have previously demonstrated in a case report the usefulness of Osirix in localizing perforators and their course. Methods In the current case series of 50 consecutive CTA scans, we compare the accuracy of Osirix to a commonly used proprietary 3D imaging software, Siemens Syngo InSpace 4D (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany), in identifying perforator number and location. Moreover, we compared both programs to intraoperative findings. Results We report a high rate of concordance with Osirix and Siemens Syngo InSpace 4D (99.6%). Both programs correlated closely with operative findings (92.2%). Most of the discrepancies were found in the lateral row perforators (90%). Conclusions In the current study, we report the accuracy of Osirix that is comparable to Siemens Syngo InSpace 4D, a proprietary software, in mapping perforators. However, it provides an added advantage of being free, easy-to-use, portable, and potentially a superior quality of 3D reconstructed image. PMID:27047778

  9. Abdominal wall CT angiography: a detailed account of a newly established preoperative imaging technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Timothy J; Stella, Damien L; Rozen, Warren M; Ashton, Mark; Taylor, G Ian

    2008-10-01

    Institutional review board approval was obtained for this study, and all patients gave written informed consent. Autologous surgical breast reconstruction with use of abdominal wall donor flaps based on the deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA) and one or more of its anterior musculocutaneous perforating branches (DIEA perforator flap) is being used with increasing frequency instead of breast reconstruction with use of traditional transverse rectus abdominus musculocutaneous and modified muscle-sparing flaps. Preoperative mapping of the DIEA perforators with abdominal wall computed tomographic (CT) angiography may improve patient care by providing the surgeon with additional information that will lead to optimization of the surgical technique, shorter procedure time, and reduction in the frequency of surgical complications. The branching patterns of the DIEA, the segmental anatomy of the anterior adipocutaneous perforating branches of the DIEA, and the importance of these features in pre- and intraoperative surgical planning necessitate a different approach to abdominal wall CT angiography than that used with other abdominal CT angiographic techniques. In abdominal wall CT angiography, the common femoral artery is used as the bolus trigger, CT scanning is performed in the caudocranial direction, the automatic exposure control feature is disabled, a scaled grid overlay tool is used to present information to the surgeons, and radiation dose is minimized (average dose, 6 mSv). The anatomic accuracy of abdominal wall CT angiography has been investigated in cadaveric and surgical studies, with sensitivity of 96%-100% and specificity of 95%-100%. This detailed description will allow other radiologists and surgeons interested in free DIEP flap surgery to incorporate this useful tool into their practice. (c) RSNA, 2008.

  10. Optimization of the front contact to minimize short-circuit current losses in CdTe thin-film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kephart, Jason Michael

    . In this work numerous HRT layers were examined beginning with an empirical optimization to create a SnO2-based HRT which allows significantly reduced CdS thickness while maintaining diode quality. The role of this layer was explored through measurement of band alignment parameters via photoemission. These results suggest a negative correlation of work function to device open-circuit voltage, which implies that non-ideal band alignment at the front interface of CdTe is in large part responsible for the loss of electronic quality. Several scenarios explored through 1-dimensional modeling in the SCAPS program corroborate this theory. A sputter-deposited (Mg,Zn)O layer was tested which allows for complete elimination of the CdS window layer with an increase in open-circuit voltage and near complete transmission of all above-bandgap light. An additional window layer material---sputtered, oxygenated CdS---was explored for its transparency. This material was found only to produce high efficiency devices with an effective buffer layer such as the optimized SnO2-base HRT. The dependence of chemical, optical, electrical, and device properties on oxygen content was explored, and the stability of these devices was determined to depend largely on the minimization of copper in the device. Both sputter-deposited alloy window layers appeared to have tunable electron affinity which was critical to optimizing band alignment and therefore device efficiency. Several scenarios explored through 1-dimensional modeling in the SCAPS program corroborate this theory. Both window layers allowed an AM1.5G efficiency increase from a baseline of approximately 13% to 16%.

  11. New Architecture towards Ultrathin CdTe Solar Cells for High Conversion Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Teyou Ngoupo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar Cell Capacitance Simulator in 1 Dimension (SCAPS-1D is used to investigate the possibility of realizing ultrathin CdTe based solar cells with high and stable conversion efficiency. In the first step, we modified the conventional cell structure by substituting the CdS window layer with a CdS:O film having a wide band gap ranging from 2.42 to 3.17 eV. Thereafter, we simulated the quantum efficiency, as well as the parameters of J-V characteristics, and showed how the thickness of CdS:O layer influences output parameters of Glass/SnO2/ZTO/CdS:O/CdTe1-xSx/CdTe/Ni reference cell. High conversion efficiency of 17.30% has been found using CdTe1-xSx (x=0.12 and CdTe layers of thickness 15 nm and 4 μm, respectively. Secondly, we introduced a BSR layer between the absorber layer and back metal contact, which led to Glass/SnO2/ZTO/CdS:O/CdTe1-xSx/CdTe/BSR/Ni configuration. We found that a few nanometers (about 5 nm of CdTe1-xSx layer is sufficient to obtain high conversion efficiency. For BSR layer, different materials with large band gap, such as ZnTe, Cu2Te, and p+-CdTe, have been used in order to reduce minority carrier recombination at the back contact. When ZnTe is used, high conversion efficiency of 21.65% and better stability are obtained, compared to other BSR.

  12. In-hospital mortality risk factors in community acquired pneumonia: evaluation of immunocompetent adult patients without comorbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Hernan Vicco

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: several scores were developed in order to improve the determination of community acquired pneumonia (CAP severity and its management, mainly CURB-65 and SACP score. However, none of them were evaluated for risk assessment of in-hospital mortality, particularly in individuals who were non-immunosuppressed and/or without any comorbidity. In this regard, the present study was carried out. Methods: we performed a cross-sectional study in 272 immunocompetent patients without comorbidities and with a diagnosis of CAP. Performance of CURB- 65 and SCAP scores in predicting in-hospital mortality was evaluated. Also, variables related to death were assessed. Furthermore, in order to design a model of in-hospital mortality prediction, sampled individuals were randomly divided in two groups. The association of the variables with mortality was weighed and, by multiple binary regression, a model was constructed in one of the subgroups. Then, it was validated in the other subgroup. Results: both scores yielded a fair strength of agreement, and CURB-65 showed a better performance in predicting in-hospital mortality. In our casuistry, age, white blood cell counts, serum urea and diastolic blood pressure were related to death. The model constructed with these variables showed a good performance in predicting in-hospital mortality; moreover, only one patient with fatal outcome was not correctly classified in the group where the model was constructed and in the group where it was validated. Conclusion: our findings suggest that a simple model that uses only 4 variables, which are easily accessible and interpretable, can identify seriously ill patients with CAP

  13. PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase is necessary for lipogenic activation during HCMV infection.

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    Yongjun Yu

    Full Text Available PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum (ER kinase (PERK is an ER-associated stress sensor protein which phosphorylates eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α to induce translation attenuation in response to ER stress. PERK is also a regulator of lipogenesis during adipocyte differentiation through activation of the cleavage of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1, resulting in the upregulation of lipogenic enzymes. Our recent studies have shown that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV infection in human fibroblasts (HF induces adipocyte-like lipogenesis through the activation of SREBP1. Here, we report that PERK expression is highly increased in HCMV-infected cells and is necessary for HCMV growth. Depletion of PERK, using short hairpin RNA (shRNA, resulted in attenuation of HCMV growth, inhibition of lipid synthesis and reduction of lipogenic gene expression. Examination of the cleavage of SREBP proteins showed PERK depletion inhibited the cleavage of SREBP1, but not SREBP2, in HCMV-infected cells, suggesting different cleavage regulatory mechanisms for SREBP1 and 2. Further studies showed that the depletion of SREBP1, but not SREBP2, reduced lipid synthesis in HCMV infection, suggesting that activation of SREBP1 is sufficient to induce lipogenesis in HCMV infection. The reduction of lipid synthesis by PERK depletion can be partially restored by expressing a Flag-tagged nuclear form of SREBP1a. Our studies also suggest that the induction of PERK in HCMV-infected cells stimulates SREBP1 cleavage by reducing levels of Insig1 (Insulin inducible gene 1 protein; this occurs independent of the phosphorylation of eIF2α. Introduction of an exogenous Insig1-Myc into HCMV infected cells significantly reduced HCMV growth and lipid synthesis. Our data demonstrate that the induction of PERK during HCMV infection is necessary for full activation of lipogenesis; this effect appears to be mediated by limiting the levels of Insig1 thus freeing SREBP1-SCAP

  14. PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase is necessary for lipogenic activation during HCMV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yongjun; Pierciey, Francis J; Maguire, Tobi G; Alwine, James C

    2013-01-01

    PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum (ER) kinase (PERK) is an ER-associated stress sensor protein which phosphorylates eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) to induce translation attenuation in response to ER stress. PERK is also a regulator of lipogenesis during adipocyte differentiation through activation of the cleavage of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1), resulting in the upregulation of lipogenic enzymes. Our recent studies have shown that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in human fibroblasts (HF) induces adipocyte-like lipogenesis through the activation of SREBP1. Here, we report that PERK expression is highly increased in HCMV-infected cells and is necessary for HCMV growth. Depletion of PERK, using short hairpin RNA (shRNA), resulted in attenuation of HCMV growth, inhibition of lipid synthesis and reduction of lipogenic gene expression. Examination of the cleavage of SREBP proteins showed PERK depletion inhibited the cleavage of SREBP1, but not SREBP2, in HCMV-infected cells, suggesting different cleavage regulatory mechanisms for SREBP1 and 2. Further studies showed that the depletion of SREBP1, but not SREBP2, reduced lipid synthesis in HCMV infection, suggesting that activation of SREBP1 is sufficient to induce lipogenesis in HCMV infection. The reduction of lipid synthesis by PERK depletion can be partially restored by expressing a Flag-tagged nuclear form of SREBP1a. Our studies also suggest that the induction of PERK in HCMV-infected cells stimulates SREBP1 cleavage by reducing levels of Insig1 (Insulin inducible gene 1) protein; this occurs independent of the phosphorylation of eIF2α. Introduction of an exogenous Insig1-Myc into HCMV infected cells significantly reduced HCMV growth and lipid synthesis. Our data demonstrate that the induction of PERK during HCMV infection is necessary for full activation of lipogenesis; this effect appears to be mediated by limiting the levels of Insig1 thus freeing SREBP1-SCAP complexes for

  15. Secretome Cues Modulate the Neurogenic Potential of Bone Marrow and Dental Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Vinod; Rattan, Vidya; Jha, Vivekanand; Bhattacharyya, Shalmoli

    2017-08-01

    Dental tissue is emerging as a promising source of stem cells especially in nerve regeneration mainly due to their neural origin and ease of harvest. We isolated dental stem cells from three sources, namely, dental pulp (DPSCs), dental follicle (DFSCs), and apical papilla (SCAP), and explored the efficacy of each towards neural differentiation in comparison to bone marrow-derived stem cells. The neural differentiation potential was assessed by expression of various neural markers and neurosphere assay. We observed that DPSCs were inherently predisposed towards neural lineage. To further delineate the paracrine cues responsible for the differences in neural differentiation potential, we harvested the conditioned secretome from each of the stem cell population and observed their effect on colony formation, neurite extension, and neural gene expression of IMR-32, a pre-neuroblastic cell line. We found that neural differentiation was significantly enhanced when IMR-32 cells were treated with secretome derived from DMSCs as compared to the same from BMSCs. Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokine array revealed DPSC secretome had higher expression of the cytokines like GCSF, IFNγ, and TGFβ that promote neural differentiation. Thus, we concluded that DPSCs may be the preferred source of cells for obtaining neural lineage among the four sources of stem cells. Our results also indicate that the DPSC-secreted factors may be responsible for their propensity towards neural differentiation. This study suggests that DPSCs and their secretomes can be a potentially lucrative source for cell-based and "cell-free" (secretome) therapy for neural disorders and injury.

  16. Apple Polyphenols Decrease Atherosclerosis and Hepatic Steatosis in ApoE−/− Mice through the ROS/MAPK/NF-κB Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe-Rong Xu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the effects of apple polyphenols (APs on hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis, hepatic steatosis and endothelial function and investigated the potential mechanisms. ApoE−/− mice were fed a western-type diet and orally treated with APs (100 mg/kg or atorvastatin (10 mg/kg for 12 weeks. Hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis in the aortic sinuses and, and hepatic lipidosis were measured. The treatment with APs or atorvastatin induced a remarkable reduction in the atherosclerotic lesions and hepatic steatosis and decreased the levels of low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, CCL-2 and VCAM-1 levels in the plasma. Conversely, the APs significantly increased the plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol and markedly up-regulated the glutathione peroxidase (GPx, catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD levels in liver tissues. Moreover, the APs treatment modulated lipid metabolism by up-regulating the transcription of associated hepatic genes including PPARα, while down-regulating the transcription of SCAP and its downstream genes associated with lipid synthesis in the liver. Histological assessment showed that the APs treatment also reduced the macrophage infiltration in the aortic root plaque and the inflammatory cells infiltrations to the liver tissues. Moreover, we confirmed that the APs treatment greatly reduced the ox-LDL-induced endothelial dysfunction and monocyte adhesion to rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs. Mechanistically, the APs treatment suppressed the ROS/MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway, and consequently, reduced CCL-2, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. Our results suggest that the APs are a beneficial nutritional supplement for the attenuation of atherosclerosis.

  17. Apple Polyphenols Decrease Atherosclerosis and Hepatic Steatosis in ApoE-/- Mice through the ROS/MAPK/NF-κB Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhe-Rong; Li, Jin-You; Dong, Xin-Wei; Tan, Zhong-Ju; Wu, Wei-Zhen; Xie, Qiang-Min; Yang, Yun-Mei

    2015-08-24

    In this study, we examined the effects of apple polyphenols (APs) on hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis, hepatic steatosis and endothelial function and investigated the potential mechanisms. ApoE(-/-) mice were fed a western-type diet and orally treated with APs (100 mg/kg) or atorvastatin (10 mg/kg) for 12 weeks. Hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis in the aortic sinuses and, and hepatic lipidosis were measured. The treatment with APs or atorvastatin induced a remarkable reduction in the atherosclerotic lesions and hepatic steatosis and decreased the levels of low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, CCL-2 and VCAM-1 levels in the plasma. Conversely, the APs significantly increased the plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and markedly up-regulated the glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in liver tissues. Moreover, the APs treatment modulated lipid metabolism by up-regulating the transcription of associated hepatic genes including PPARα, while down-regulating the transcription of SCAP and its downstream genes associated with lipid synthesis in the liver. Histological assessment showed that the APs treatment also reduced the macrophage infiltration in the aortic root plaque and the inflammatory cells infiltrations to the liver tissues. Moreover, we confirmed that the APs treatment greatly reduced the ox-LDL-induced endothelial dysfunction and monocyte adhesion to rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs). Mechanistically, the APs treatment suppressed the ROS/MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway, and consequently, reduced CCL-2, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. Our results suggest that the APs are a beneficial nutritional supplement for the attenuation of atherosclerosis.

  18. Improved open-circuit voltage in Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells with high work function transparent electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jäger, Timo, E-mail: timo.jaeger@empa.ch; Romanyuk, Yaroslav E.; Bissig, Benjamin; Pianezzi, Fabian; Nishiwaki, Shiro; Reinhard, Patrick; Steinhauser, Jérôme; Tiwari, Ayodhya N. [Empa—Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Thin Films and Photovoltaics, Überlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Schwenk, Johannes [Empa—Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Nanoscale Materials Science, Überlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland)

    2015-06-14

    Hydrogenated indium oxide (IOH) is implemented as transparent front contact in Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) solar cells, leading to an open circuit voltage V{sub OC} enhanced by ∼20 mV as compared to reference devices with ZnO:Al (AZO) electrodes. This effect is reproducible in a wide range of contact sheet resistances corresponding to various IOH thicknesses. We present the detailed electrical characterization of glass/Mo/CIGS/CdS/intrinsic ZnO (i-ZnO)/transparent conductive oxide (TCO) with different IOH/AZO ratios in the front TCO contact in order to identify possible reasons for the enhanced V{sub OC}. Temperature and illumination intensity-dependent current-voltage measurements indicate that the dominant recombination path does not change when AZO is replaced by IOH, and it is mainly limited to recombination in the space charge region and at the junction interface of the solar cell. The main finding is that the introduction of even a 5 nm-thin IOH layer at the i-ZnO/TCO interface already results in a step-like increase in V{sub OC}. Two possible explanations are proposed and verified by one-dimensional simulations using the SCAPS software. First, a higher work function of IOH as compared to AZO is simulated to yield an V{sub OC} increase by 21 mV. Second, a lower defect density in the i-ZnO layer as a result of the reduced sputter damage during milder sputter-deposition of IOH can also add to a maximum enhanced V{sub OC} of 25 mV. Our results demonstrate that the proper choice of the front TCO contact can reduce the parasitic recombination and boost the efficiency of CIGS cells with improved corrosion stability.

  19. Tackling the Pharmaceutical Frontier: Regulation of Cannabinoid-Based Medicines in Postwar Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Tempei; Nagasawa, Michiyuki; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Tsutani, Kiichiro

    2016-01-01

    Background: The valley of death, which refers to the gap due to the lack of support for the translation of basic research to related clinical studies, exists in the field of translational cannabinoid research in Japan owing to regulations. Article 4 of the Cannabis Control Act (CCA) of 1948 prohibits the use of Cannabis-based medicines. Objectives: This study aimed to explore the history of the establishment of regulations on the medical use of Cannabis-based medicines and discuss the current status of cannabinoid research and its regulation in Japan. Methods: We conducted a literature review of nationally archived official documents from the end of World War II in 1945 to 1948, which is the year the CCA was established. The documents were examined, specifically focusing on the sequence of events. Results: We found three memoranda related to the establishment of the CCA. The establishment of law on controlling narcotics was instructed by the general headquarters (GHQ)/Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (SCAP) during the period of occupation after World War II. However, the Japanese Government decided to regulate Cannabis separately from other narcotics. Item (ii) of article 4 in the CCA, which prohibits medical application of Cannabis, was included to protect farmers growing Cannabis for the hemp content. Conclusion: Current Japanese regulations prohibiting clinical research in phytocannabinoids were instituted during the postwar era of World War II. Scientific discoveries have advanced cannabinoid research and have led positive reforms of the regulation of Cannabis in other countries. Therefore, there is ample motivation and opportunity for Japanese stakeholders to revise article 4 of the CCA for the benefit of patients.

  20. Chronic administration of saturated fats and fructose differently affect SREBP activity resulting in different modulation of Nrf2 and Nlrp3 inflammasome pathways in mice liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Debora; Menotti, Francesca; Cento, Alessia S; Serpe, Loredana; Chiazza, Fausto; Dal Bello, Federica; Romaniello, Francesco; Medana, Claudio; Collino, Massimo; Aragno, Manuela; Mastrocola, Raffaella

    2017-04-01

    The overconsumption of both saturated fats and fructose in the modern society has been related to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the specific contribution of individual dietary components on the progression of NAFLD to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has been poorly investigated. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the dissimilar effects of these two dietary components on selected proinflammatory and antioxidant pathways in the liver of C57BL/6 mice fed a standard (SD), a 45% saturated fat (HFAT) or a 60% fructose (HFRT) diet for 12 weeks. HFAT diet evoked systemic metabolic alterations and overweight, not observed in HFRT mice. However, HFRT mice had a greater hepatic triglyceride deposition with increased ratio of triacylglycerols containing the palmitic acid compared to HFAT, as assessed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. This effect is due to the higher activation of the SCAP/SREBP1c lipogenic pathway by HFRT feeding. In addition, we found inhibition of Keap1/Nrf2 antioxidant signaling and more robust stimulation of the Nlrp3 inflammasome pathway in the livers of HFRT-fed mice when compared with HFAT-fed mice, which is consistent with the recent finding that palmitate and SREBP1c are implicated in hepatic oxidative stress and inflammation. These effects were associated with increased hepatic inflammation, as confirmed by high expression of markers of leukocyte infiltration in the HFRT group. Thus, we hypothesize an amplifying loop among lipogenesis, palmitate, Nrf2 and Nlrp3 that leads to a higher risk of NAFLD progression to NASH in a high-fructose diet compared to a high-saturated fat intake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cholesterol synthesis in the lactating cow: Induced expression of candidate genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viturro, Enrique; Koenning, Matthias; Kroemer, Angelika; Schlamberger, Gregor; Wiedemann, Steffi; Kaske, Martin; Meyer, Heinrich H D

    2009-05-01

    Despite the extensive knowledge for other species, cholesterol metabolism in ruminants is nowadays still not clear. Huge differences in milk cholesterol concentration are observed between breeds, managing strategies, individuals and moment of the lactating cycle, but the genetic actors working in the process of cholesterol secretion into milk have not been identified. As ruminant diet contains no cholesterol, understanding the mechanisms and regulation of synthesis, transport and secretion into milk is crucial when trying to reduce the amount of this metabolite in dairy products. The present work aims to study the expression of candidate genes for these processes in the liver of Bos taurus during the lactating cycle. Liver biopsies were obtained from 16 adult brown Swiss cows at different time points (2 weeks pre-partum and 0, 2, 4 and 8 weeks post-partum). After RNA extraction and reverse transcription, gene expression of candidate genes was studied using quantitative RT-PCR. Key enzymes of the cholesterol synthesis (3-hydroxy-methyglutaryl-coenzyme-A (HMG-CoA) synthase, HMG-CoA reductase and farnesyldiphosphat-farnesyltransferase (FDFT)) and gene expression feed-back regulators involved in lipid metabolism (sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBP1and 2) SREBP-cleavage activating protein (Scap) were selected as candidate genes. HMG-CoA-reductase and FDFT showed a huge expression increase until week 2 post-partum (pmilk and blood cholesterol levels in B. taurus after parturition might be the result of a coordinated induction in the expression of key liver enzymes and their regulating factors.

  2. Challenges of stem cell-based pulp and dentin regeneration: a clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, George T-J; Al-Habib, Mey; Gauthier, Philippe

    2013-03-01

    There are two types of approaches to regenerate tissues: cell-based and cell-free. The former approach is to introduce exogenous cells into the host to regenerate tissues, and the latter is to use materials other than cells in an attempt to regenerate tissues. There has been a significant advancement in stem cell-based pulp and dentin regeneration research in the past few years. Studies in small and large animals have demonstrated that pulp/dentin-like tissues can be regenerated partially or completely in the root canal space with apical openings of 0.7-3.0 mm using dental pulp stem cells, including stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP) and subpopulations of pulp stem cells. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) and adipose tissue-derived MSCs (ADMSCs) have also been shown to regenerate pulp-like tissue. In contrast, the cell-free approach has not produced convincing evidence on pulp regeneration. However, one crucial concept has not been considered nor defined in the field of pulp/dentin regeneration and that is the critical size defect of dentin and pulp. Without such consideration and definition, it is difficult to predict or anticipate the extent of cell-free pulp regeneration that would occur. By reasoning, cell-free therapy is unlikely to regenerate an organ/tissue after total loss. Similarly, after a total loss of pulp, it is unlikely to regenerate without using exogenously introduced cells. A cell homing approach may provide a limited amount of tissue regeneration. Although stem cell-based pulp/dentin regeneration has shown great promise, clinical trials are difficult to launch at present. This article will address several issues that challenge and hinder the clinical applications of pulp/dentin regeneration which need to be overcome before stem cell-based pulp/dentin regeneration can occur in the clinic.

  3. Mitochondrial function is involved in regulation of cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein (apoA-I from murine RAW 264.7 macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Anne Marie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial DNA damage, increased production of reactive oxygen species and progressive respiratory chain dysfunction, together with increased deposition of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters, are hallmarks of atherosclerosis. This study investigated the role of mitochondrial function in regulation of macrophage cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein A-I, by the addition of established pharmacological modulators of mitochondrial function. Methods Murine RAW 264.7 macrophages were treated with a range of concentrations of resveratrol, antimycin, dinitrophenol, nigericin and oligomycin, and changes in viability, cytotoxicity, membrane potential and ATP, compared with efflux of [3H]cholesterol to apolipoprotein (apo A-I. The effect of oligomycin treatment on expression of genes implicated in macrophage cholesterol homeostasis were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and immunoblotting, relative to the housekeeping enzyme, Gapdh, and combined with studies of this molecule on cholesterol esterification, de novo lipid biosynthesis, and induction of apoptosis. Significant differences were determined using analysis of variance, and Dunnett’s or Bonferroni post t-tests, as appropriate. Results The positive control, resveratrol (24 h, significantly enhanced cholesterol efflux to apoA-I at concentrations ≥30 μM. By contrast, cholesterol efflux to apoA-I was significantly inhibited by nigericin (45%; ppAbca1 mRNA. Oligomycin treatment did not affect cholesterol biosynthesis, but significantly inhibited cholesterol esterification following exposure to acetylated LDL, and induced apoptosis at ≥30 μM. Finally, oligomycin induced the expression of genes implicated in both cholesterol efflux (Abca1, Abcg4, Stard1 and cholesterol biosynthesis (Hmgr, Mvk, Scap, Srebf2, indicating profound dysregulation of cholesterol homeostasis. Conclusions Acute loss of mitochondrial function, and in particular Δψm, reduces

  4. Investigating the electronic properties of Al2O3/Cu(In,GaSe2 interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kotipalli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Atomic layer deposited (ALD Al2O3 films on Cu(In,GaSe2 (CIGS surfaces have been demonstrated to exhibit excellent surface passivation properties, which is advantageous in reducing recombination losses at the rear metal contact of CIGS thin-film solar cells. Here, we report, for the first time, experimentally extracted electronic parameters, i.e. fixed charge density (Qf and interface-trap charge density (Dit, for as-deposited (AD and post-deposition annealed (PDA ALD Al2O3 films on CIGS surfaces using capacitance–voltage (C-V and conductance-frequency (G-f measurements. These results indicate that the AD films exhibit positive fixed charges Qf (approximately 1012 cm−2, whereas the PDA films exhibit a very high density of negative fixed charges Qf (approximately 1013 cm−2. The extracted Dit values, which reflect the extent of chemical passivation, were found to be in a similar range of order (approximately 1012 cm−2 eV−1 for both AD and PDA samples. The high density of negative Qf in the bulk of the PDA Al2O3 film exerts a strong Coulomb repulsive force on the underlying CIGS minority carriers (ns, preventing them to recombine at the CIGS/Al2O3 interface. Using experimentally extracted Qf and Dit values, SCAPS simulation results showed that the surface concentration of minority carriers (ns in the PDA films was approximately eight-orders of magnitude lower than in the AD films. The electrical characterization and estimations presented in this letter construct a comprehensive picture of the interfacial physics involved at the Al2O3/CIGS interface.

  5. Lipopolysaccharide derived from the rumen down-regulates stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 expression and alters fatty acid composition in the liver of dairy cows fed a high-concentrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tianle; Tao, Hui; Chang, Guangjun; Zhang, Kai; Xu, Lei; Shen, Xiangzhen

    2015-03-07

    Dairy cows are often fed a high-concentrate diet to meet lactating demands, yet long-term concentrate feeding induces subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) and leads to a decrease in milk fat. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase1 (SCD1) participates in fatty acid biosynthesis in the liver of lactating ruminants. Here, we conducted this study to investigate the impact of lipopolysaccharide derived from the rumen on SCD1 expression and on fatty acid composition in the liver of dairy cows fed a high-concentrate diet. Eight multiparous mid-lactating Holstein cows (455 ± 28 kg) were randomly assigned into two groups in the experiment and were fed a low-concentrate diet (LC) or high-concentrate diet (HC) for 18 weeks. The results showed that the total volatile fatty acids and lactic acid accumulated in the rumen, leading to a decreased rumen pH and elevated lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) in the HC group. The long chain fatty acid profile in the rumen and hepatic vein was remarkably altered in the animals fed the HC diet. The triglyceride (TG), non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and total cholesterol (TCH) content in the plasma was significantly decreased, whereas plasma glucose and insulin levels were increased. The expression of SCD1 in the liver was significantly down-regulated in the HC group. In regards to transcriptional regulators, the expression of sterol regulatory element binding transcription factors (SREBF1c, SREBF2) and SREBP cleavage activating protein (SCAP) was down-regulated, while peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) was up-regulated. These data indicate that lipopolysaccharide derived from the rumen down-regulates stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 expression and alters fatty acid composition in the liver of dairy cows fed a high-concentrate diet.

  6. Tackling the Pharmaceutical Frontier: Regulation of Cannabinoid-Based Medicines in Postwar Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Tempei; Nagasawa, Michiyuki; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Tsutani, Kiichiro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The valley of death, which refers to the gap due to the lack of support for the translation of basic research to related clinical studies, exists in the field of translational cannabinoid research in Japan owing to regulations. Article 4 of the Cannabis Control Act (CCA) of 1948 prohibits the use of Cannabis-based medicines. Objectives: This study aimed to explore the history of the establishment of regulations on the medical use of Cannabis-based medicines and discuss the current status of cannabinoid research and its regulation in Japan. Methods: We conducted a literature review of nationally archived official documents from the end of World War II in 1945 to 1948, which is the year the CCA was established. The documents were examined, specifically focusing on the sequence of events. Results: We found three memoranda related to the establishment of the CCA. The establishment of law on controlling narcotics was instructed by the general headquarters (GHQ)/Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (SCAP) during the period of occupation after World War II. However, the Japanese Government decided to regulate Cannabis separately from other narcotics. Item (ii) of article 4 in the CCA, which prohibits medical application of Cannabis, was included to protect farmers growing Cannabis for the hemp content. Conclusion: Current Japanese regulations prohibiting clinical research in phytocannabinoids were instituted during the postwar era of World War II. Scientific discoveries have advanced cannabinoid research and have led positive reforms of the regulation of Cannabis in other countries. Therefore, there is ample motivation and opportunity for Japanese stakeholders to revise article 4 of the CCA for the benefit of patients. PMID:28861477

  7. The covenant as fundamental building block of marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L. Du Plessis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
    Marriage is an institution of God, a social institution, a multidimensional experience, as well as an intimate personal relationship between a man and a woman. In the Bible the marital relationship is used to describe the covenant relationship between God and human beings. The covenant relationship between God and human beings gives man a secure and safe space where he/she can grow to spiritual and emotional maturity in God, through Jesus Christ. When spouses understand and accept the covenant as a fundamental building block in their marriage, and live accordingly, it creates a profound union and intimacy. Marriage then becomes a safe haven in which spouses can grow to spiritual and emotional wholeness. The question this article explores is how the covenant as the pastoral point of departure may contribute to marriage pastorate. The empirical research has shown that marriage counselling is currently executed reactively, rather than pro-actively.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING:
    DIE VERBOND AS FUNDAMENTELE BOUSTEEN VIR DIE HUWELIK
    Die huwelik is ’n instelling van God, ’n sosiale instelling, multidimensionele ervaring, asook ’n intieme persoonlike verhouding tussen ’n man en ’n vrou. In die Bybel word die huweliksverhouding gebruik om die verbondsverhouding tussen God en die mens te beskryf. Die verbondsverhouding tussen God en die mens gee aan die mens sekuriteit en veilige ruimte waarbinne die mens tot volwassenheid in God deur Jesus kan groei. Wanneer huweliksgenote die aspekte van die verbond as fundamentele bousteen in hulle huwelik begryp en daarvolgens leef, ontstaan ’n diepe eenwording en intimiteit. Die huwelik word dan ’n veilige ruimte waarbinne beide huweliksgenote geestelik en emosioneel kan groei tot heelheid. Die vraag wat in hierdie artikel ondersoek word, is op watter manier die verbond as pastorale vertrekpunt kan bydra tot die huwelikspastoraat. Die empiriese

  8. Collisional Quenching of Highly-Excited H2 due to H2 Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yier; Yang, Benhui H.; Stancil, Phillip C.; Naduvalath, Balakrishnan; Forrey, Robert C.; This work was partially support by Hubble grant HST-AT-13899. We thank Kyle Walkerassistance with vrrmm.

    2017-06-01

    . Ferland. 2008, ApJ, 689, 1105-1111.P. Diep and J. K. Johnson, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 4465 (2000).R. J. Hinde, J. Chem. Phys. 128, 154308 (2008).R. V. Krems, TwoBC, Univ. British Columbia, Vancouver, CA (2006).

  9. FITOQUÍMICOS BIOATIVOS EM FRUTOS DE GENÓTIPOS DE CAJÁ-UMBUZEIRAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldenise Chagas Curvêlo Gonçalves MOREIRA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de quantificar os fitoquímicos bioativos em cajá-umbu foram utilizadas polpas de frutos de 4 genótipos (G 2.2, G 2.3, G 3.1 e G 3.2 procedentes do Banco de Germoplasma do Instituto Agronômico de Pernambuco (IPA. Os teores de fenólicos, flavonoides e flavonóis totais e taninos condensados foram quantificados por método espectrofotométrico, de ácido ascórbico por método titulométrico e de carotenoides por método cromatográfico e espectrofotométrico. Os genótipos apresentaram teores de fenólicos totais de 110,61 a 188,86mg equivalente em ácido gálico 100g-1, flavonoides de 1,95 a 2,37mg em equivalente de catequina 100g-1, flavonóis de 2,59 a 2,80mg em equivalente de quercetina 100g-1 e taninos condensados de 42,77 a 48,24mg em equivalente de catequina 100g-1. Os frutos apresentaram baixos teores de ácido ascórbico (6,1 a 7,3mg 100g-1 e de carotenoides (6,67 a 11,44μg g-1. O β-caroteno-5,6-5’6’-diepóxido foi o componente majoritário dos genótipos G 2.2, G 2.3 e G 3.1, enquanto que a luteína-5,6 epóxido foi encontrada em maior quantidade no G 3.2. Assim, embora os frutos dos genótipos tenham exibido variações nos teores dos fitoquí- micos bioativos, apresentam em sua constituição quantidades relevantes destes compostos, podendo contribuir com o aporte de antioxidante dietético.

  10. The effects of cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor-α-like effector C (CIDEC) on milk lipid synthesis in mammary glands of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Lin, Ye; Duan, Xiaoyu; Lv, He; Xing, Weinan; Li, Qingzhang; Gao, Xuejun; Hou, Xiaoming

    2017-05-01

    Adequate lipid synthesis by the mammary gland during lactation is essential for the survival of mammalian offspring. Cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor-α-like effector C (CIDEC) is a lipid droplet-associated protein and functions to promote lipid accumulation and inhibit lipolysis in mice and human adipocytes. However, the function of CIDEC in regulation of milk lipid synthesis in dairy cow mammary gland remains largely unknown. In this study, 6 multiparous Holstein cows (parity = 3) in early lactation were allocated to high-fat milk (milk yield 33.9 ± 2.1 kg/d, milk fat >3.5%, n = 3) and low-fat milk (milk yield 33.7 ± 0.5 kg/d, milk fat milk fat content. Lactating cows were slaughtered at 90 d in milk and mammary tissues were collected to detect CIDEC localization. Immunofluorescence staining of sections of lactating mammary glands with high- and low-fat milk showed that CIDEC was expressed in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells and localized to lipid droplets. Lipid droplets and CIDEC protein were also detected in isolated lactating mammary epithelial cells of dairy cows. Immunostaining of CIDEC in isolated mammary epithelial cells also confirmed its presence in the nucleus. The knockdown of CIDEC in cultured bovine mammary epithelial cells decreased milk lipid content and reduced expression of genes associated with mammary de novo fatty acid synthesis, short- and long-chain intracellular fatty acid activation, triacylglycerol synthesis, and transcription regulation. These genes included those for acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, -60%), fatty acid synthase (FASN, -65%), acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2 (ACSS2, -50%), acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1 (ACSL1, -30%), diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1, -60%), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1, -45%), and SREBP cleavage activating protein (SCAP, -66%). Conversely, in cells overexpressing CIDEC, triacylglycerol content was increased, and transcription of

  11. Cost of schizophrenia in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalore, Roshni; Knapp, Martin

    2007-03-01

    Despite the wide-ranging financial and social burdens associated with schizophrenia, there have been few cost-of-illness studies of this illness in the UK. To provide up-to-date, prevalence based estimate of all costs associated with schizophrenia for England. A bottom-up approach was adopted. Separate cost estimates were made for people living in private households, institutions, prisons and for those who are homeless. The costs included related to: health and social care, informal care, private expenditures, lost productivity, premature mortality, criminal justice services and other public expenditures such as those by the social security system. Data came from many sources, including the UK-SCAP (Schizophrenia Care and Assessment Program) survey, Psychiatric Morbidity Surveys, Department of Health and government publications. The estimated total societal cost of schizophrenia was 6.7 billion pounds in 2004/05. The direct cost of treatment and care that falls on the public purse was about 2 billion pounds; the burden of indirect costs to the society was huge, amounting to nearly 4.7 billion pounds. Cost of informal care and private expenditures borne by families was 615 million pounds. The cost of lost productivity due to unemployment, absence from work and premature mortality of patients was 3.4 billion pounds. The cost of lost productivity of carers was 32 million pounds. Estimated cost to the criminal justice system was about 1 million pounds. It is estimated that about 570 million pounds will be paid out in benefit payments and the cost of administration associated with this is about 14 million pounds. It is difficult to compare estimates from previous cost-of-illness studies due to differences in the methods, scope of analyses and the range of costs covered. Costs estimated in this study are detailed, cover a comprehensive list of relevant items and allow for different levels of disaggregation. The main limitation of the study is that data came from a

  12. Drinks like a fish: using zebrafish to understand alcoholic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Deanna L; Passeri, Mike; Sadler, Kirsten C

    2011-05-01

    Steatosis is the most common consequence of acute alcohol abuse, such as occurs during a drinking binge. Acute alcohol induced steatosis may predispose to more severe hepatic disease. We have developed a model of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) in zebrafish larvae to provide a system in which the genes and pathways that contribute to steatosis can be rapidly identified. Zebrafish larvae represent an attractive vertebrate model for studying acute ALD because they possess the pathways to metabolize alcohol, the liver is mature by 4 days post-fertilization (dpf), and alcohol can be simply added to their water. Exposing 4 dpf zebrafish larvae to 2% ethanol (EtOH) for 32 hours achieves ∼80 mM intracellular EtOH and upregulation of hepatic cyp2e1, sod, and bip, indicating that EtOH is metabolized and provokes oxidative stress. EtOH-treated larvae develop ALD as demonstrated by hepatomegaly and steatosis. Increased lipogenesis driven by the sterol response element binding protein (SREBP) transcription factors is essential for steatosis associated with chronic alcohol ingestion but it has not been determined if the same pathway is essential for steatosis following a drinking binge. We report that several Srebp target genes are induced in the liver of zebrafish exposed to EtOH. We used fish which harbor a mutation in the gene encoding the membrane bound transcription factor protease 1 (mbtps1; also called site-1 protease) and embryos in which the Srebp cleavage activating protein (scap) is knocked down to determine the requirement of this pathway in acute ALD. We find that both means of blocking Srebp activation prevents steatosis in response to 2% EtOH. Moreover, this is accompanied by the failure to activate several Srebp target genes in response to alcohol. We conclude that Srebps are required for steatosis in response to acute alcohol exposure. Moreover, these data highlight the utility of zebrafish as a useful new vertebrate model to study ALD. Copyright © 2011 by the

  13. Novel Pathway for Hypoxia-Induced Proliferation and Migration in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Involvement of HIF-1α, FASN, and mTORC1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Jik; Ryu, Jung Min; Jung, Young Hyun; Oh, Sang Yub; Lee, Sei-Jung; Han, Ho Jae

    2015-07-01

    The control of stem cells by oxygen signaling is an important way to improve various stem cell physiological functions and metabolic nutrient alteration. Lipid metabolism alteration via hypoxia is thought to be a key factor in controlling stem cell fate and function. However, the interaction between hypoxia and the metabolic and functional changes to stem cells is incompletely described. This study aimed to identify hypoxia-inducible lipid metabolic enzymes that can regulate umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) proliferation and migration and to demonstrate the signaling pathway that controls functional change in UCB-hMSCs. Our results indicate that hypoxia treatment stimulates UCB-hMSC proliferation, and expression of two lipogenic enzymes: fatty acid synthase (FASN) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1). FASN but not SCD1 is a key enzyme for regulation of UCB-hMSC proliferation and migration. Hypoxia-induced FASN expression was controlled by the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α)/SCAP/SREBP1 pathway. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was phosphorylated by hypoxia, whereas inhibition of FASN by cerulenin suppressed hypoxia-induced mTOR phosphorylation as well as UCB-hMSC proliferation and migration. RAPTOR small interfering RNA transfection significantly inhibited hypoxia-induced proliferation and migration. Hypoxia-induced mTOR also regulated CDK2, CDK4, cyclin D1, cyclin E, and F-actin expression as well as that of c-myc, p-cofilin, profilin, and Rho GTPase. Taken together, the results suggest that mTORC1 mainly regulates UCB-hMSC proliferation and migration under hypoxia conditions via control of cell cycle and F-actin organization modulating factors. In conclusion, the HIF-1α/FASN/mTORC1 axis is a key pathway linking hypoxia-induced lipid metabolism with proliferation and migration in UCB-hMSCs. Stem Cells 2015;33:2182-2195. © 2015 AlphaMed Press.

  14. Capacidade de suporte de carga e umidade crítica de um Latossolo induzida por diferentes manejos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar Francisco Araujo-Junior

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Os diferentes manejos de plantas invasoras em lavouras cafeeiras têm promovido alterações estruturais aos solos, comprometendo a sua qualidade física. Assim, o conhecimento da capacidade de suporte de carga do solo sob diferentes sistemas de manejo de plantas invasoras é essencial para o manejo sustentável do solo de lavouras cafeeiras. Os objetivos deste estudo foram: (a avaliar a influência da adoção, durante 30 anos, de diferentes sistemas de manejo de plantas invasoras na capacidade de suporte de carga de um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico (LVdf cultivado com cafeeiros e localizado na Fazenda da Epamig em São Sebastião do Paraíso, MG (Latitude de 20 º 55 ' 00 " S e Longitude 47 º 07 ' 10 " W ; b determinar a tensão máxima (σmax aplicada ao solo por um trator; e c estabelecer as umidades volumétricas críticas (θcrítica para o tráfego de um trator. Os manejos de plantas invasoras avaliados foram: sem capina (SCAP; capina manual (CAPM; herbicida de pós-emergência (HPOS; roçadora (ROÇA; enxada rotativa (ENRT; grade (GRAD; e herbicida de pré-emergência (HPRE. Em cada sistema de manejo, 15 amostras indeformadas de solo foram coletadas aleatoriamente no centro das entrelinhas dos cafeeiros, nas profundidades de 0-3, 10-13 e 25-28 cm, totalizando 315 amostras. Em uma mata nativa (MATA sob LVdf, adjacente à área de estudo, foram coletadas 15 amostras adicionais por profundidade, as quais serviram de referência dos atributos avaliados. Os equipamentos utilizados no manejo da lavoura cafeeira foram tracionados por um trator cafeeiro Valmet® modelo 68. Para determinar a θcrítica para o tráfego do trator, foram consideradas apenas aquelas tensões que não excedem a resistência interna do solo expressa pela pressão de preconsolidação. As amostras indeformadas foram utilizadas para determinar a pressão de preconsolidação (σp em diferentes umidades volumétricas (θ e obtenção da densidade do solo (Ds. A

  15. Coste de la reconstrucción mamaria en la sanidad pública española según la técnica aplicada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Novo-Torres

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es llevar a cabo un análisis del coste de la cirugía de reconstrucción mamaria postmastectomía en la sanidad pública española, una práctica muy habitual en nuestros hospitales. Nos basamos en los gastos teóricos, días de estancia hospitalaria e índice de complicaciones de las pacientes que ingresaron en el Hospital General Universitario de Alicante entre los años 2008 y 2009 para someterse a reconstrucción mamaria diferida. Evaluamos 190 pacientes con reconstrucción finalizada, incluido el complejo areola-pezón. Para comparar, las pacientes fueron agrupadas en 3 grupos según la técnica de reconstrucción empleada. Grupo I: con colgajos abdominales DIEP o SIEA; Grupo II: con expansor/prótesis y Grupo III: con colgajos torácicos con expansor/prótesis. Estudiamos los costes en base al sistema de información económica del propio hospital, teniendo en cuenta el importe de las pruebas preoperatorias, de las consultas, días de estancia, tiempo de quirófano, sala de despertar o de reanimación y curas/ revisiones postquirúrgicas. Fueron 28 pacientes reconstruidas en el Grupo I, 110 en el Grupo II y 42 en el Grupo III, distribuidos de la siguiente manera: 24 con gran dorsal, 10 colgajos de perforantes y 8 con colgajos locales. Diez pacientes más se resolvieron con otros procedimientos (reducción mamaria y/o infiltración grasa. Los costes fueron mayores para el Grupo III de colgajos torácicos con expansor/prótesis. La reconstrucción con colgajos abdominales del Grupo I fue ligeramente más costosa que la del grupo de reconstrucción con expansor/prótesis. El tiempo medio de estancia hospitalaria en el Grupo I fue de 6 días, en el Grupo II de 2 días y en el Grupo III de 4 días. El índice de complicaciones mayores fue semejante en todos los grupos. En la mayoría de los casos se logró el objetivo estético de la reconstrucción mamaria, necesitando para ello 2 procedimientos quir

  16. Cosmology in the book of Revelation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert J.C. Jordaan

    2013-06-01

    gebruik nie, maar in temporele sin: as simboliese verwysing dat God bo tyd en geskiedenis verhewe is. Hemel is ook ’n kwalitatiewe verwysing na ’n toestand van volmaakte gehoorsame aanbidding van God. Desgelyks word aarde meestal gebruik as metafoor vir ’n sondige mensdom onder Satan se heerskappy. Tog bly die aarde deel van God se skepping onder sy goddelike heerskappy, en word dit selfs aangetoon as ’n toevlugsoord vir die kerk in hierdie bedeling. Waar die see in Openbaring nie na ’n fisiese verskynsel verwys nie, word dit dikwels deur biblioloë op gelyke vlak met die diep put of die onderwêreld gestel. Johannes gebruik die see egter meestal as metafoor vir die boosheid waaruit die dier sy oorsprong het, asook vir alles wat sondig en onrein is. Openbaring 21 en 22 maak bekend dat hemel, see en aarde in die eschatondeel sal wees van die nuwe skepping − vernuwe tot op die punt waar God se heerskappy herstel is en erken word regdeur die κόσμος. Normal 0 false false false EN-ZA X-NONE X-NONE

  17. [How to treat fat necrosis after lipofilling into the breast?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho Quoc, C; Delay, E

    2015-06-01

    Fat necrosis is a phenomenon that has been known for a long time in surgery. The fat necrosis is produced because of tissue ischemia and it is also known as cytosteatonecrosis. These lesions can appear with different manifestations: indurations or cysts. Fat necrosis develops in breast aesthetic surgery (breast reduction) or reconstructive breast surgery (after abdominal flaps like TRAM or DIEP). In our department we have been using fat grafting into the breast since 1998 and it has really improved the aesthetic results in breast surgery. Also the fat necrosis lesions can appear after fat grafting, and they should be identified in order to avoid worrying the patient and other doctors that are treating her. The purpose of this article is to present different aspects of fat necrosis after surgery and therapeutic approaches to these problems. The two authors have noticed the frequency of fat necrosis in the breast after fat grafting into the breast in aesthetic surgery (asymmetry, deformity, lipoaugmentation, improvement of aesthetic sequelae) and reconstructive surgery (after total mastectomy or to improve the aspect of sequelae after conservative surgery). A retrospective study was performed including a homogenous series of consecutive cases that needed breast lipofilling, operated by the two authors. Fat was harvested with cannula after infiltration. The adipose tissue was preparated with a short centrifugation. Fat grafting was realized as backward injections. The tolerance of the performed technique has been studied with the discovery of the fat necrosis lesions after surgery up to one-year follow-up evaluation. Between 1998 and 2013, 2236 fat transfers have been performed by the two authors and were included in a series of consecutive homogenous cases treated by using the same surgical technique. The fat necrosis incidence after lipofilling in the breast shows two frequency curves: the first one with a frequency of 15% (the first 50 cases) and then decreases

  18. Die eerste vertalings van die Heidelbergse Kategismus in Afrikaans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolf Britz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie artikel diep die geskiedenis van die eerste vertalings van die Heidelbergse Kategismus in Afrikaans uit die primêre bronne op. Die Belydenisskrifte (insluitende die Kategismus is gedurende die eerste helfte van die twintigste eeu in Afrikaans oorgesit tydens ’n vertalingsprojek waaraan die drie Hollands-Afrikaanse Kerke van gereformeerde belydenis saamgewerk het. In hierdie geskiedenis kan drie fases onderskei word. Die aanvanklike fase (1913–1927 eindig in die gemeenskaplike oortuiging dat die werk aan die Bybelvertalers oorgelaat moet word. Daarmee is beslag gegee aan ’n tweede fase (1927–1936. In 1936 is die vertaling voltooi en in ’n Formulierboek vir die ‘drie Hollandse Kerke’ gepubliseer. Die derde fase (1936–1950 behels die ontvangs van die Formulierboek. Slegs die Gereformeerde Kerk in Suid-Afrika (GKSA het die vertaling amptelik aanvaar, omdat dit op die Nederlandse teksuitgawe berus het wat F.L. Rutgers in samewerking met Herman Bavinck en Abraham Kuyper in 1897 vir die Gereformeerde Kerken in Nederland besorg het. Die ander twee Kerke het aansluiting gevind by hulle eie negentiende-eeuse tekstradisie. In 1945 het die Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk van Afrika (NHK ’n eie vertaling asBelydenisskrifte, gebede en formuliere die lig laat sien. Hierdie vertaling is gebaseer op die (Nederlandse krities bewerkte teksuitgawe wat Van Toornenbergen in sy boek, De symbolische schriften (1895, opgeneem het. Die Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk (NGK het in 1950 sy vertaling van die Belydenisskrifte en Formuliere voltooi. Dit is hoofsaaklik geanker in die (Nederlandse tekste van die Formulierboek der N.G. Kerk in Z. Afrika (1907, wat op sy beurt ook in ooreenstemming was met die tekstradisie waarmee Van Toornenbergen gewerk het. This article traces the history of the first Afrikaans translations of the Heidelberg Catechism from primary sources. In a mutual project the three Dutch-Afrikaans and reformed churches translated their

  19. Lead Halide Perovskite Photovoltaic as a Model p-i-n Diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyano, Kenjiro; Tripathi, Neeti; Yanagida, Masatoshi; Shirai, Yasuhiro

    2016-02-16

    The lead halide perovskite photovoltaic cells, especially the iodide compound CH3NH3PbI3 family, exhibited enormous progress in the energy conversion efficiency in the past few years. Although the first attempt to use the perovskite was as a sensitizer in a dye-sensitized solar cell, it has been recognized at the early stage of the development that the working of the perovskite photovoltaics is akin to that of the inorganic thin film solar cells. In fact, theoretically perovskite is always treated as an ordinary direct band gap semiconductor and hence the perovskite photovoltaics as a p-i-n diode. Despite this recognition, research effort along this line of thought is still in pieces and incomplete. Different measurements have been applied to different types of devices (different not only in the materials but also in the cell structures), making it difficult to have a coherent picture. To make the situation worse, the perovskite photovoltaics have been plagued by the irreproducible optoelectronic properties, most notably the sweep direction dependent current-voltage relationship, the hysteresis problem. Under such circumstances, it is naturally very difficult to analyze the data. Therefore, we set out to make hysteresis-free samples and apply time-tested models and numerical tools developed in the field of inorganic semiconductors. A series of electrical measurements have been performed on one type of CH3NH3PbI3 photovoltaic cells, in which a special attention was paid to ensure that their electronic reproducibility was better than the fitting error in the numerical analysis. The data can be quantitatively explained in terms of the established models of inorganic semiconductors: current/voltage relationship can be very well described by a two-diode model, while impedance spectroscopy revealed the presence of a thick intrinsic layer with the help of a numerical solver, SCAPS, developed for thin film solar cell analysis. These results point to that CH3NH3PbI3 is an

  20. Le Procès de Tôkyô, l’empereur et la question du Yasukuni The Tokyo trial, the emperor and the Yasukuni shrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Takahashi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Au Japon, toute une partie de la classe politique conservatrice persiste à refuser les conclusions du procès de Tôkyô, considérant celui-ci comme une justice « orchestrée par les vainqueurs ». Ce faisant, les partisans de cette thèse se trouvent dans une contradiction puisque l’empereur Hirohito lui-même, qui avait exprimé sa gratitude auprès des forces d’occupation américaines pour l’avoir épargné, en avait de facto admis les conclusions. Ce paradoxe pour le camp conservateur est aggravé par le fait que l’empereur a cessé de se rendre au sanctuaire Yasukuni à partir du moment où les mânes de quatorze haut responsables condamnés comme criminels de guerre lors du procès de Tôkyô y furent transférés sans son accord. Ces contradictions internes à la droite irrédentiste japonaise invite ainsi à envisager le procès de Tôkyô sous un autre jour. Loin d’être une simple « justice de vainqueur », la stratégie américaine fut éminemment bénéfique pour la droite conservatrice : Hirohito n’étant pas traduit en justice, il devenait possible de lui conférer une fonction symbolique par l’article I de la nouvelle Constitution de 1946, ce qui permit à la droite conservatrice de sauver le système impérial et d’assurer une continuité entre l’avant et l’après-guerre.In Japan, a part of the conservative political class continues to deny the conclusions of the Tokyo trial, as a justice “of the victors”. But the proponents of this theory face a contradiction since the Emperor Hirohito himself expressed his gratitude to the American occupation authority (SCAP for not condemning him. Hirohito therefore admitted the conclusions of the trial. The paradox goes even further as the conservative leaders publicize their visit to Yasukuni shrine although the Emperor himself ceased to visit the shrine after top leaders convicted as war criminals at the Tokyo Trial were transferred to the shrine without his

  1. Sediment Properties: E-Area Completion Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millings, M.; Bagwell, L.; Amidon, M.; Dixon, K.

    2011-04-29

    Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System (SCAPS) cone penetrometer test (CPT) truck at ECP plots 6, 7, 8 and 9 to collect inferred lithology data for the vadose zone. Results from this study are used to make recommendations for future modeling efforts involving the ECP plots. The conceptual model of the ECP hydrogeology differs from the conceptual model of the current ELLWF disposal area in that for the ECP plots, the topography (ground surface) is generally lower in elevation; The Upland and top of Tobacco Road lithostratigraphic units are missing (eroded); The water table occurs lower in elevation (i.e., it occurs in lower stratigraphic units); and the Tan Clay Confining Zone (TCCZ) often occurs within the vadose zone (rather than in the saturated zone). Due to the difference in the hydrogeology between the current ELLWF location and the ECP plots, different vadose zone properties are recommended for the ECP plots versus the properties recommended by Phifer et al. (2006) for the current disposal units. Results from this study do not invalidate or conflict with the current PA's use of the Upper and Lower Vadose Zone properties as described by Phifer et al. (2006) for the current ELLWF disposal units. The following modeling recommendations are made for future modeling of the ECP plots where vadose zone properties are required: (1) If a single vadose zone property is preferred, the properties described by Phifer et al. (2006) for the Upper Vadose Zone encompass the general physical properties of the combined sands and clays in the ECP vadose zone sediments despite the differences in hydrostratigraphic units. (2) If a dual zone system is preferred, a combination of the Lower Zone properties and the Clay properties described by Phifer et al. (2006) are appropriate for modeling the physical properties of the ECP vadose zone. The Clay properties would be assigned to the Tan Clay Confining Zone (TCCZ) and any other significant clay layers, while the Lower Zone properties