WorldWideScience

Sample records for wolf point substation

  1. Automatic Object Extraction from Electrical Substation Point Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Arastounia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of power delivery can be profoundly improved by preventing wildlife-related power outages. This can be achieved by insulating electrical substation components with non-conductive covers. The manufacture of custom-built covers requires as-built models of the salient components. This study presents new, automated methodology to recognize key components of electrical substations from 3D LiDAR data acquired using terrestrial laser scanning. The proposed methodology includes six novel algorithms to recognize key components (fence, cables, circuit breakers, bushings and bus pipes of electrical substations. Three datasets with different resolutions and configurations are used in this study. A Leica HDS 6100 laser scanner was used to acquire the first dataset and a Faro Focus3D laser scanner was employed to collect the second and third datasets. The obtained results indicate that 178 and 171 out of 181 electrical substation elements were successfully recognized in the first and second dataset, respectively, and 183 out of 191 components were identified in the third dataset. The results also demonstrate that an average 97.8% accuracy and average 98.8% precision at the point cloud level can be achieved.

  2. Electric Substations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Substations. Substations are facilities and equipment that switch, transform, or regulate electric voltage. The Substations feature class includes taps, a location...

  3. Segmentation of planar surfaces in LiDAR point clouds of an electrical substation by exploring the structure of points neighbourhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arastounia, M.; Lichti, D. D.

    2014-06-01

    According to the Department of Energy of the USA, today's electrical distribution system is 97.97% reliable. However, power outages and interruptions still impact many people. Many power outages are caused by animals coming into contact with the conductive elements of the electrical substations. This can be prevented by covering the conductive electrical objects with insulating materials. The design of these custom-built insulating covers requires a 3D as-built plan of the substation. This research aims to develop automated methods to create such a 3D as-built plan using terrestrial LiDAR data for which objects first need to be recognized in the LiDAR point clouds. This paper reports on the application of a new algorithm for the segmentation of planar surfaces found at electrical substations. The proposed approach is a region growing method that aggregates points based on their proximity to each other and their neighbourhood dispersion direction. PCA (principal components analysis) is also employed to segment planar surfaces in the electrical substation. In this research two different laser scanners, Leica HDS 6100 and Faro Focus3D, were utilized to scan an electrical substation in Airdrie, a city located in north of Calgary, Canada. In this research, three subsets incorporating one subset of Leica dataset with approximately 1.7 million points and two subsets of the Faro dataset with 587 and 79 thousand points were utilized. The performance of our proposed method is compared with the performance of PCA by performing check point analysis and investigation of computational speed. Both methods managed to detect a great proportion of planar points (about 70%). However, the proposed method slightly outperformed PCA. 95% of the points that were segmented by both methods as planar points did actually lie on a planar surface. This exhibits the high ability of both methods to identify planar points. The results also indicate that the computational speed of our method is

  4. An Approach of the Continuous Electrical State Monitoring by Using the Ground Wire of Neutral Point at Extra-high Voltage Substations : A Preliminary Report

    OpenAIRE

    井筒, 潤; 原田, 誠; 寺山, 武志; 植竹, 富一; 長尾, 年恭

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new monitoring system by using the neutral current of transformers at substations of an electric power company named “neutral current monitoring”. It means that we have been measuring the telluric field by using the power line system in order to monitor the electromagnetic state of the underground over an extended time period. The principle of this system is as follow: the neutral points of the transformers in the substations are grounded to the earth and power lines connect th...

  5. Electric power substations engineering

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, John D

    2012-01-01

    The use of electric power substations in generation, transmission, and distribution remains one of the most challenging and exciting areas of electric power engineering. Recent technological developments have had a tremendous impact on all aspects of substation design and operation. With 80% of its chapters completely revised and two brand-new chapters on energy storage and Smart Grids, Electric Power Substations Engineering, Third Edition provides an extensive updated overview of substations, serving as a reference and guide for both industry and academia. Contributors have written each chapt

  6. Electric power substations engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of substations, from the initial concept to design, automation, operation, and physical and cyber security. Written by members of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Power Engineering Society (PES) Substations Committee, each section provides a tutorial and includes references for further reading and study. The authors use photographs and graphics to help the reader understand the material. Exploring the most recent technological developments regarding industry practice and standards, the book provides an extensive overview of substations th

  7. Substation noise screening tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maybee, Nigel; Everton, Pascal [HFP Acoustical Consultants Corp. (Canada)], email: nigel.maybee@hfpacoustical.com; Chow, Vincent [Altalink Management Ltd. (Canada)], email: Vincent.Chow@AltaLink.ca

    2011-07-01

    Alberta noise regulations require energy-related facilities to conduct predictions on sound levels, especially for large and medium noise sources. This is usually done with well-known modelling software, but that can be disadvantageous when assessing the noise impact of smaller noise sources, such as transformer substations. This paper focuses on the development of a spreadsheet substation noise screening tool to assess the noise impact of a small transformer substation with precision and ease-of-use. Three aspects must be considered: transformer sound levels, which can be provided by the manufacturer or extracted from accepted sound level references; sound power calculations, which depend on the substation size and operating regime; and sound propagation calculations, which take into account the distance of the receptor from the substation and sound absorption by the air and ground. Comparison of results obtained with this tool with results generated by standard sound modelling software shows the utility, accuracy and ease-of-use of this screening method for assessing the noise impact of transformer substations.

  8. Explaining dog wolf differences in utilizing human pointing gestures: selection for synergistic shifts in the development of some social skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márta Gácsi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The comparison of human related communication skills of socialized canids may help to understand the evolution and the epigenesis of gesture comprehension in humans. To reconcile previously contradicting views on the origin of dogs' outstanding performance in utilizing human gestures, we suggest that dog-wolf differences should be studied in a more complex way.We present data both on the performance and the behaviour of dogs and wolves of different ages in a two-way object choice test. Characteristic behavioural differences showed that for wolves it took longer to establish eye contact with the pointing experimenter, they struggled more with the handler, and pups also bit her more before focusing on the human's signal. The performance of similarly hand-reared 8-week-old dogs and wolves did not differ in utilizing the simpler proximal momentary pointing. However, when tested with the distal momentary pointing, 4-month-old pet dogs outperformed the same aged hand reared wolves. Thus early and intensive socialisation does not diminish differences between young dogs and wolves in behaviour and performance. Socialised adult wolves performed similarly well as dogs in this task without pretraining. The success of adult wolves was accompanied with increased willingness to cooperate.Thus, we provide evidence for the first time that socialised adult wolves are as successful in relying on distal momentary pointing as adult pet dogs. However, the delayed emergence of utilising human distal momentary pointing in wolves shows that these wild canines react to a lesser degree to intensive socialisation in contrast to dogs, which are able to control agonistic behaviours and inhibition of actions in a food related task early in development. We suggest a "synergistic" hypothesis, claiming that positive feedback processes (both evolutionary and epigenetic have increased the readiness of dogs to attend to humans, providing the basis for dog-human communication.

  9. Explaining dog wolf differences in utilizing human pointing gestures: selection for synergistic shifts in the development of some social skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gácsi, Márta; Györi, Borbála; Gyoöri, Borbála; Virányi, Zsófia; Kubinyi, Enikö; Range, Friederike; Belényi, Beatrix; Miklósi, Adám

    2009-08-28

    The comparison of human related communication skills of socialized canids may help to understand the evolution and the epigenesis of gesture comprehension in humans. To reconcile previously contradicting views on the origin of dogs' outstanding performance in utilizing human gestures, we suggest that dog-wolf differences should be studied in a more complex way. We present data both on the performance and the behaviour of dogs and wolves of different ages in a two-way object choice test. Characteristic behavioural differences showed that for wolves it took longer to establish eye contact with the pointing experimenter, they struggled more with the handler, and pups also bit her more before focusing on the human's signal. The performance of similarly hand-reared 8-week-old dogs and wolves did not differ in utilizing the simpler proximal momentary pointing. However, when tested with the distal momentary pointing, 4-month-old pet dogs outperformed the same aged hand reared wolves. Thus early and intensive socialisation does not diminish differences between young dogs and wolves in behaviour and performance. Socialised adult wolves performed similarly well as dogs in this task without pretraining. The success of adult wolves was accompanied with increased willingness to cooperate. Thus, we provide evidence for the first time that socialised adult wolves are as successful in relying on distal momentary pointing as adult pet dogs. However, the delayed emergence of utilising human distal momentary pointing in wolves shows that these wild canines react to a lesser degree to intensive socialisation in contrast to dogs, which are able to control agonistic behaviours and inhibition of actions in a food related task early in development. We suggest a "synergistic" hypothesis, claiming that positive feedback processes (both evolutionary and epigenetic) have increased the readiness of dogs to attend to humans, providing the basis for dog-human communication.

  10. Quaternary geologic map of the Wolf Point 1° × 2° quadrangle, Montana and North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, David S.; Colton, Roger B.; Bush, Charles A.

    2016-09-08

    The Wolf Point quadrangle encompasses approximately 16,084 km2 (6,210 mi2). The northern boundary is the Montana/Saskatchewan (U.S.-Canada) boundary. The quadrangle is in the Northern Plains physiographic province and it includes the Peerless Plateau and Flaxville Plain. The primary river is the Missouri River.The map units are surficial deposits and materials, not landforms. Deposits that comprise some constructional landforms (for example, ground-moraine deposits, end-moraine deposits, and stagnation-moraine deposits, all composed of till) are distinguished for purposes of reconstruction of glacial history. Surficial deposits and materials are assigned to 23 map units on the basis of genesis, age, lithology or composition, texture or particle size, and other physical, chemical, and engineering characteristics. It is not a map of soils that are recognized in pedology or agronomy.  Rather, it is a generalized map of soils recognized in engineering geology, or of substrata or parent materials in which pedologic or agronomic soils are formed.  Glaciotectonic (ice-thrust) structures and deposits are mapped separately, represented by a symbol. The surficial deposits are glacial, ice-contact, glaciofluvial, alluvial, lacustrine, eolian, colluvial, and mass-movement deposits.Till of late Wisconsin age is represented by three map units. Till of Illinoian age also is mapped.  Till deposited during pre-Illinoian glaciations is not mapped, but is widespread in the subsurface.  Linear ice-molded landforms (primarily drumlins), shown by symbol, indicate directions of ice flow during late Wisconsin and Illinoian glaciations. The Quaternary geologic map of the Wolf Point quadrangle, northeastern Montana and North Dakota, was prepared to provide a database for compilation of a Quaternary geologic map of the Regina 4° × 6° quadrangle, United States and Canada, at scale 1:1,000,000, for the U.S. Geological Survey Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States map series

  11. PUREX new substation ATR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, D.E.

    1997-05-12

    This document is the acceptance test report (ATR) for the New PUREX Main and Minisubstations. It covers the factory and vendor acceptance and commissioning test reports. Reports are presented for the Main 5 kV substation building, the building fire system, switchgear, and vacuum breaker; the minisubstation control building and switch gear; commissioning test; electrical system and loads inspection; electrical utilities transformer and cable; and relay setting changes based on operational experience.

  12. Wolf's Panniculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokoeva, Anastasiya Atanasova; Tchernev, Georgi

    2017-06-15

    A 28-year-old male patient, presented with a one-week history of pain and itching on the skin of the left upper leg. Erythematous indurated, warm and painful on palpation, subcutaneous plaques and nodules were clinically observed, affecting the skin of the left upper leg, within a recent black-wolf tattoo. The diagnosis of traumatic panniculitis with superposed bacterial infection, provoked by a wolf tattoo was made. The patient underwent 7-days systemic antibiotic treatment regimen and topical application of iodine povidone unguent under occlusion for 7 days. Significant alleviation of the subjective complaints was achieved within the first week, with a total clinical resolution of the symptoms. The role of the procedure as a source of trauma for subcutaneous inflammation (traumatic panniculitis) and the contamination of the equipment or the staff (infective panniculitis) in simultaneously triggering of the pathogenetic chain of the reported Wolf's panniculitis could be present.

  13. Summary of GOOSE Substation Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Fei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fast real-time application message is an object-oriented substation event—GOOSE (Generic Object Oriented Substation Event. It mainly works on the process layers and bay layers of digital substation. GOOSE intelligent substation communication network can realize the key function of the overall intelligent sub-station functions. This paper will make a systematic analysis of GOOSE. At first, it will provide a detailed analysis of the transmission mechanism and process of GOOSE message. As certain practical operability lacks the actual application of the multicast filtering method which is applied to GOOSE message based on IEC61850 standard, this paper will summarize three message filtering methods, compare the advantages and disadvantages in topological networks of different kinds in accordance with the instantaneity of GOOSE intelligent substation communication network and draw a conclusion that the independent configuration scheme of GOOSE and SV can adapt to the requirement of times, so as to provide theoretical references for the selection of practical intelligent substation communication network in the future.

  14. Certification of district heating substations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-01-15

    These Technical Regulations, F:103-6, have been produced and published by the Swedish District Heating Association in conjunction with manufacturers. Approved testing is part of the process of obtaining certification for a district heating substation. In addition, the process includes a review of documentation and of the manufacturer's production inspection procedures. A certified unit fulfils the requirements set out in the Association's document F:101, General Technical Requirements. Until further notice, the Association has selected SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden for certification of district heating substations. Certification means that the quality and function/performance of a prefabricated district heating substation have been examined and approved. Certification test method F:103-6 includes both static and dynamic tests and inspections. Detailed information on the district heating substation and its properties is given in the certification test reports. The unique feature of this certification is that the test reports are in the public domain. This is possible because the Association has full right of insight into the certification process, and because testing is performed in accordance with test programmes and procedures decided by the Association. In this document (F: 103-6), the Association specifies what is to be reported when SP carries out inspections at the manufacturer's premises. This can include details of claims lodged with the manufacturer and/or non-compliances with the required specification of the district heating substation. Such cases will be considered by a Certification Panel. Test reports and certificates provide information on the district heating substation's properties and performance, which can be used when assessing the substations. The technical tests do not address the long-term properties of substations, but SP's inspection specifically includes visual examination and application of its

  15. Ashland Area Support Substation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides wholesale electric service to the City of Ashland (the City) by transferring power over Pacific Power Light Company's (PP L) 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission lines and through PP L's Ashland and Oak Knoll Substations. The City distributes power over a 12.5-kV system which is heavily loaded during winter peak periods and which has reached the limit of its ability to serve peak loads in a reliable manner. Peak loads under normal winter conditions have exceeded the ratings of the transformers at both the Ashland and Oak Knoll Substations. In 1989, the City modified its distribution system at the request of PP L to allow transfer of three megawatts (MW's) of electric power from the overloaded Ashland Substation to the Oak Knoll Substation. In cooperation with PP L, BPA installed a temporary 6-8 megavolt-amp (MVA) 115-12.5-kV transformer for this purpose. This additional transformer, however, is only a temporary remedy. BPA needs to provide additional, reliable long-term service to the Ashland area through additional transformation in order to keep similar power failures from occurring during upcoming winters in the Ashland area. The temporary installation of another 20-MVA mobile transformer at the Ashland Substation and additional load curtailment are currently being studied to provide for sustained electrical service by the peak winter period 1992. Two overall electrical plans-of-service are described and evaluated in this report. One of them is proposed for action. Within that proposed plan-of-service are location options for the substation. Note that descriptions of actions that may be taken by the City of Ashland are based on information provided by them.

  16. 20 CFR 631.50 - Substate plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substate plan. 631.50 Section 631.50 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE III OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Substate Programs § 631.50 Substate plan. (a) In order to receive an...

  17. VT Electric Transmission Line Corridors - substation points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The ELTRN layer depicts electric transmission line corridors in Vermont. Various methods have been used to digitize features. The data layer...

  18. Wolf homesite attendance patterns

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Potvin, Marcel J; Peterson, Rolf O; Vucetich, John A

    2004-01-01

    .... Pack size, number of pups, and prey density varied during the period of monitoring. Given the effect of prey density on wolf behavior, we predicted that wolf homesite attendance patterns would vary with prey density...

  19. Medium voltage substation insulation coordination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caccia, M.; Gambirasio, D. (SAE Sadelmi, Milan (Italy))

    1991-01-01

    With reference to the provisions contained in applicable CEI (Italian Electrotechnical Committee) and IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) normatives, a review is made of design criteria for the coordination of medium voltage substation switchgear and control gear. The design problematics are discussed with reference to optimization of neutral grounding, three phase ac short circuit calculation methods, and methods for the evaluation of voltages in fault conditions.

  20. Intensity of territorial marking predicts wolf reproduction: implications for wolf monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Llaneza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The implementation of intensive and complex approaches to monitor large carnivores is resource demanding, restricted to endangered species, small populations, or small distribution ranges. Wolf monitoring over large spatial scales is difficult, but the management of such contentious species requires regular estimations of abundance to guide decision-makers. The integration of wolf marking behaviour with simple sign counts may offer a cost-effective alternative to monitor the status of wolf populations over large spatial scales. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a multi-sampling approach, based on the collection of visual and scent wolf marks (faeces and ground scratching and the assessment of wolf reproduction using howling and observation points, to test whether the intensity of marking behaviour around the pup-rearing period (summer-autumn could reflect wolf reproduction. Between 1994 and 2007 we collected 1,964 wolf marks in a total of 1,877 km surveyed and we searched for the pups' presence (1,497 howling and 307 observations points in 42 sampling sites with a regular presence of wolves (120 sampling sites/year. The number of wolf marks was ca. 3 times higher in sites with a confirmed presence of pups (20.3 vs. 7.2 marks. We found a significant relationship between the number of wolf marks (mean and maximum relative abundance index and the probability of wolf reproduction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This research establishes a real-time relationship between the intensity of wolf marking behaviour and wolf reproduction. We suggest a conservative cutting point of 0.60 for the probability of wolf reproduction to monitor wolves on a regional scale combined with the use of the mean relative abundance index of wolf marks in a given area. We show how the integration of wolf behaviour with simple sampling procedures permit rapid, real-time, and cost-effective assessments of the breeding status of wolf packs with substantial

  1. The fuzzy comprehensive evaluation on occupational health hazards of electric field in substation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Wang, Jing; Gao, Yang; Chen, Tao

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, multilevel fuzzy analysis method is used to making a comprehensive evaluation on the health hazards of workers exposed to electric field in 500kV substation. The five different regions of 500kV substation is identified as the first level index, according to the specific measurement substation of each area to set up the second level index. The first level weight is established according to the proportion of the retention time of the workers in the different areas, and the weight of the second level is determined according to the proportion of the measuring points. Establishing five comment sets, and carrying out the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation according to the maximum membership principle, eventually come to the conclusion: although the measured data show that a small number of electric field intensity exposure value of 500kV substation beyond the requirements of the International Commission on non-ionizing radiation protection (ICNIRP) and the requirements of the People's Republic of China(PRC), but workers have very little contact time, therefore, it cannot be explained that there is a large occupational health hazard in 500kV substation. The multilevel fuzzy analysis method can be used to evaluate the health hazards of the electric field in the substation working environment well, it avoids the subjective and limitations of the traditional methods, and can be able to make a more accurate and objective judgment of the substation

  2. 20 CFR 631.82 - Substate allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substate allocation. 631.82 Section 631.82 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE III OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.82 Substate allocation...

  3. Wolf prize in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Piran, Tsvi

    2016-01-01

    The Wolf Foundation began its activities in 1976, with an initial endowment donated by the Wolf family. Within a very short period of time after its initiation, the Wolf prize has become one of the major signs for recognition of scientific achievements and excellence. This volume is devoted to a selection of Wolf Prize laureates in Physics and each has included two respective major publications as well as a commentary written by the laureate describing his scientific career. Readers around the world are provided a unique opportunity to get a glimpse of how scientific processes work in physics, and to comprehend how these laureates have left an indelible imprint on scientific history.

  4. Comparisons process-to-bay level peer-to-peer network delay in IEC 61850 substation communication systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Hasan Ali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of IEC 61850 protocol in electrical power engineering industry for data communication systems between substations. This IEC 61850 protocol presents new challenges for real-time communication performance between Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs within substation because of the Generic Object Oriented Substation Event (GOOSE messages. The analyses of substation Ethernet and WLAN (wireless LAN communication delay, its impact factors, various methods and different network topologies which can improve the real-time performance are discussed. For basic analysis of data flow within a substation, the Optimized Network Engineering Tool (OPNET software is used. The process-to-bay level network simulation model is performed by using the OPNET software. The Ethernet delay and WLAN peer-to-peer performance of the process-to-bay level network simulation results are analyzed which is based on AP (access point, switched, shared Ethernet network or peer-to-peer network.

  5. Wolf prize in mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Hirzebruch, Friedrich; Sinai, Y; Stein, E

    The Wolf Prize, awarded by the Wolf Foundation in Israel, often goes to mathematicians who are in their sixties or older. That is to say, the Prize honours the achievements of a lifetime. T This valuable work features bibliographies, important papers, and speeches (for example at international congresses) of Wolf Prize winners, s uch as R. Bott, A.P. Calderon, A.N. Kolmogorov, M.G. Krein, P. Lax, H. Lewy, L. Lovasz, J. Milnor, J. Moser, I. Piatetski-Shapiro, J.P. Serre, C.L. Siegel, Y. Sinai, E.M. Stein, J. Tits, A. Weil, H. Whitney, A. Wiles and O. Zariski. This is the first time that documents on Wolf Prize winners have been published together. Since the work of the Wolf laureates covers a wide spectrum, much of the mathematics of the 20th century comes to life in this book.

  6. District heating substations - design and installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-12-15

    These technical regulations for district heating substations are sector-wide regulations for the Swedish district heating sector, describing the design, installation, use and maintenance of substations. If a district heating substation is to operate in the best possible way, the building's space heating and domestic hot water systems must comply with the requirements in these regulations and with those issued by public authorities. These regulations also describe aspects that must be considered when substations need to be replaced. The use then of correct values for the building energy requirements ensures that the new substation will be properly matched to its duties. These regulations are intended for use by: - those responsible for contacts between the district heating supplier and the customer. - those who own, operate and/or administer a building or facility that is heated by district heating. - those who design, manufacture, purchase, test or install substations. It is recommended that enquiries should refer to the Swedish District Heating Association's technical regulations when specifying requirements. The procurement criteria described in these regulations should be applied when evaluating tenders

  7. Wolf population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Todd K.; Mech, L. David; Cochrane, Jean Fitts; Mech, L. David; Boitani, Luigi

    2003-01-01

    A large, dark wolf poked his nose out of the pines in Yellowstone National Park as he thrust a broad foot deep into the snow and plowed ahead. Soon a second animal appeared, then another, and a fourth. A few minutes later, a pack of thirteen lanky wolves had filed out of the pines and onto the open hillside.Wolf packs are the main social units of a wolf population. As numbers of wolves in packs change, so too, then, does the wolf population (Rausch 1967). Trying to understand the factors and mechanisms that affect these changes is what the field of wolf population dynamics is all about. In this chapter, we will explore this topic using two main approaches: (1) meta-analysis using data from studies from many areas and periods, and (2) case histories of key long-term studies. The combination presents a good picture – a picture, however, that is still incomplete. We also caution that the data sets summarized in the analyses represent snapshots of wolf population dynamics under widely varying conditions and population trends, and that the figures used are usually composites or averages. Nevertheless, they should allow generalizations that provide important insight into wolf population dynamics.

  8. Wolf management plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A memorandum from the Assistant Region Director, Refuges and Wildlife to all U.S. Fish and Wildlife refuge managers regarding the public planning effort on wolf...

  9. Structural assessment of highway "N" power substation under earthquake loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    In this study, the Highway N Substation was analyzed with a finite element model (FEM) for its vulnerability. The rigid bus and electric switch components were characterized with full scale shake table tests. Each component of the substation wa...

  10. Ashland Area Support Substation Project : Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-06-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides wholesale electric service to the City of Ashland (the City) by transferring power over Pacific Power & Light Company`s (PP&L) 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission lines and through PP&L`s Ashland and Oak Knoll Substations. The City distributes power over a 12.5-kV system which is heavily loaded during winter peak periods and which has reached the limit of its ability to serve peak loads in a reliable manner. Peak loads under normal winter conditions have exceeded the ratings of the transformers at both the Ashland and Oak Knoll Substations. In 1989, the City modified its distribution system at the request of PP&L to allow transfer of three megawatts (MW`s) of electric power from the overloaded Ashland Substation to the Oak Knoll Substation. In cooperation with PP&L, BPA installed a temporary 6-8 megavolt-amp (MVA) 115-12.5-kV transformer for this purpose. This additional transformer, however, is only a temporary remedy. BPA needs to provide additional, reliable long-term service to the Ashland area through additional transformation in order to keep similar power failures from occurring during upcoming winters in the Ashland area. The temporary installation of another 20-MVA mobile transformer at the Ashland Substation and additional load curtailment are currently being studied to provide for sustained electrical service by the peak winter period 1992. Two overall electrical plans-of-service are described and evaluated in this report. One of them is proposed for action. Within that proposed plan-of-service are location options for the substation. Note that descriptions of actions that may be taken by the City of Ashland are based on information provided by them.

  11. Maintenance Optimization of High Voltage Substation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radim Bris

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The real system from practice is selected for optimization purpose in this paper. We describe the real scheme of a high voltage (HV substation in different work states. Model scheme of the HV substation 22 kV is demonstrated within the paper. The scheme serves as input model scheme for the maintenance optimization. The input reliability and cost parameters of all components are given: the preventive and corrective maintenance costs, the actual maintenance period (being optimized, the failure rate and mean time to repair - MTTR.

  12. Using Immersive Virtual Reality for Electrical Substation Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Eduardo H.; Paludo, Juliana A.; Cordeiro, Carlúcio S.; Domingues, Leonardo R.; Gadbem, Edgar V.; Euflausino, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Usually, distribution electricians are called upon to solve technical problems found in electrical substations. In this project, we apply problem-based learning to a training program for electricians, with the help of a virtual reality environment that simulates a real substation. Using this virtual substation, users may safely practice maneuvers…

  13. 20 CFR 631.51 - Allowable substate program activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable substate program activities. 631.51 Section 631.51 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE III OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Substate Programs § 631.51 Allowable substate...

  14. 7 CFR 1726.77 - Substation and transmission line construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Substation and transmission line construction. 1726... and Transmission Facilities § 1726.77 Substation and transmission line construction. (a) Contract... substation and transmission line construction (including minor modifications or improvements), exclusive of...

  15. Accurately Localize and Recognize Instruments with Substation Inspection Robot in Complex Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Song

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper designs and develops an automatic detection system in the substation environment where complex and multi-inspecting objects exist. The inspection robot is able to fix and identify the objects quickly using a visual servo control system. This paper focuses on the analysis of fast lockup and recognition method of the substation instruments based on an improved Adaboost algorithm. The robot adjusts its position to the best view point and best resolution for the instrument in real-time. The dial and pointer of the instruments are detected with an improved Hough algorithm, and the angle of the pointer is converted to the corresponding readings. The experimental results indicate that the inspection robot can fix and identify the substation instruments quickly, and has a wide range of practical applications.

  16. Wiener Stadtwerke-Elektrizitaetswerke's 380 KV south substation; overvoltages and insulation coordination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, K.; Voelcker, O.

    Expected loads from transient overvoltages were calculated for the 380 KV switchgear of the South substation. The values so obtained formed the basis for the use of lightning arresters and the selection of insulation levels. Subjects of special investigation were overvoltages resulting from short-circuit earth currents as a function of the amount of transformer neutral point earthing; the risk, when transformers are connected, of temporary overvoltages as a result of resonance excitation, with allowance being made for the relatively large capacity of the cable network; voltage when the link towards the South-east substation (completely overhead and partly underground alternatives) is connected; protection of the substation in the case of lightnings striking overhead systems.

  17. Automatic extraction of insulators from 3D LiDAR data of an electrical substation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arastounia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A considerable percentage of power outages are caused by animals that come into contact with conductive elements of electrical substations. These can be prevented by insulating conductive electrical objects, for which a 3D as-built plan of the substation is crucial. This research aims to create such a 3D as-built plan using terrestrial LiDAR data while in this paper the aim is to extract insulators, which are key objects in electrical substations. This paper proposes a segmentation method based on a new approach of finding the principle direction of points’ distribution. This is done by forming and analysing the distribution matrix whose elements are the range of points in 9 different directions in 3D space. Comparison of the computational performance of our method with PCA (principal component analysis shows that our approach is 25% faster since it utilizes zero-order moments while PCA computes the first- and second-order moments, which is more time-consuming. A knowledge-based approach has been developed to automatically recognize points on insulators. The method utilizes known insulator properties such as diameter and the number and the spacing of their rings. The results achieved indicate that 24 out of 27 insulators could be recognized while the 3 un-recognized ones were highly occluded. Check point analysis was performed by manually cropping all points on insulators. The results of check point analysis show that the accuracy, precision and recall of insulator recognition are 98%, 86% and 81%, respectively. It is concluded that automatic object extraction from electrical substations using only LiDAR data is not only possible but also promising. Moreover, our developed approach to determine the directional distribution of points is computationally more efficient for segmentation of objects in electrical substations compared to PCA. Finally our knowledge-based method is promising to recognize points on electrical objects as it was

  18. District heating substations. Performance, operation and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollerstrand, J.

    1997-09-01

    This thesis work is concerned with the efficient layout and operation of substations, i.e. those district heating (DH) system units which connect the network and internal building heating systems, such as radiator heating systems and domestic hot water distribution networks. The ambition was to make realistic investigations closely related to practical technologies within the field

  19. Availability analysis of high voltage substations considering its main equipment; Analise de disponibilidade de subestacoes de alta tensao considerando seus principais equipamentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, R.C. [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: ricardo.santos@ufabc.edu.br; Basseto, B.A.; Cugnasca, P.S.; Almeida Junior, J.R.; Camargo Junior, J.B. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica], Emails: ricardo.santos@ufabc.edu.br, joao.camargo@poli.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    This paper evaluates the availability of electric power substations, based on Monte Carlo simulation and Fault Tree Analysis, which can be used in a larger way, considering various scenarios, usually founded. The main fallouts modes considered in the availability analysis of power systems, as well as the main methods applied to reach this goal are discussed. The availability indexes of the Monte Carlos simulation are sufficient to indicate the critical points of the power system, and to make comparisons between different substations, related to the performance levels. Through these indexes it is possible to evaluate the impact of a switching action in a determined substation. For this, the substation studied indexes are compared before and after the switching action be considered to the substation in reference.

  20. Digital Metering System of New Generation Smart Substation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Jingfen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The new generation of smart substation is a summary and improvement of the earlier intelligent substations within the past 5 years. As a part of the substation operation function, the electric energy metering system must adapt to the requirements of the new generation smart substation which is more intelligent, full digitalization, networked and integrated. With the features of digitized, easy information sharing, and hardware shared, the digital measurement system is the inevitable choice for the new generation smart substation. This paper is the first literature to introduce the concept and structure of the digital metering system. The composition and technical characteristics of the new generation Smart Substation measurement system are introduced in detail.

  1. Project FOOTPRINT: Substation modeling and simulations for E1 pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Scott D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Larson, D. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kirkendall, B. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-11-06

    This report includes a presentation with an: Introduction to CW coupling; Introduction to single-pulse coupling; Description of E1 waveforms; Structures in a substation yard --articulated (as part of the substation's defined electrical functionality)--unarticulated (not as part of the substation's defined electrical functionality); Coupling --electrical coupling (capacitive coupling) --magnetic coupling (inductive coupling); Connectivity to long-line transmission lines; Control infrastructure; Summary; and References.

  2. Magnetic field management of substations in high rise buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farag, A.S.; Al-Shehri, A.M. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Cheng, T.C.; Du, Y.; Hu, L.; Penn, D. [Univ. of Southern California, LADWP, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The electric and magnetic field issue has become an area of increasing public concern. Utilities have been carrying out extensive projects to characterize and manage the magnetic fields around their substations in an effort to answer public concerns over the possible health hazard caused by these fields. This paper describes various techniques available for managing magnetic field strength levels in substations. The design guideline aids in the planning, design, construction of substation facilities. Low-frequency magnetic field is directly associated with current-carrying sources and its magnitude is proportional to the distance from the sources. Distribution substations in high-rise buildings are very close to public areas and the magnetic fields imposed by these substations might be relatively higher than that imposed by outdoor substations. Options to manage these substations fields are considered in this paper. Techniques to manage magnetic fields in substations such as: source relocation, compaction, rephasing, return-current control, passive and active shielding are discussed. Several techniques were applied to reduce the magnetic fields in the conference room located in the main floor above a substation located in the basement of the main office high-rise building of LADWP. 10 refs, 14 figs, 3 tabs

  3. Expert systems in power substation operation and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Guilherme Moutinho; Lambert-Torres, Germano; Silva, Alexandre P. Alves da [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    With digital technology being increasingly adopted in power substations (SE), perspectives are created for integration of supervision, control and protection systems in addition to making its process automation feasible. Once a SE is digitalized, the systems which previously were implemented physically will be able to be implemented by means of computer programs (software), allowing the expansion of its scope of operation. Studies and research performed at the international level have pointed to the utilization of Expert Systems (ES) as a more suitable alternative for representation and solution of the operation and control problems, especially those which do not have an established theory, which are provided with diagnosis characteristics and that associate themselves with fuzzy data and information. (author) 4 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Editorial: Authorship: Lone wolf or wolf pack? | Wolvaardt | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Health Professions Education. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 2 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Editorial: Authorship: Lone wolf or wolf pack? J.E. Wolvaardt ...

  5. A wolf in wolf's clothing the abdominal compartment syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A wolf in wolf's clothing the abdominal compartment syndrome. R. Burrows, J. Edington, J. V. Robbs. Four patients are described in whom massive abdominal distension after laparotomy led to ... abdominal surgery or trauma may not be a prerequisite for ... high peak airway pressure and high CVP, although urine output and ...

  6. Measurement of ground potential difference at power substations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipavsky, P. (Cincinnati Bell Telephone, Cincinnati, OH (US)); Nienaber, R.E. (Cincinnati Gas and Electric Co., OH (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Increasing sensitivity of electronic equipment, such as the integrated services digital network, and closer association of telephone and power facilities increase the importance of an accurate determination of ground potential difference (GPD) during a ground fault in or near a power substation. A method of recording actual values of GPD using six years of records at four large substations is presented and analyzed.

  7. Discovering conformational sub-states relevant to protein function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Ramanathan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal motions enable proteins to explore a range of conformations, even in the vicinity of native state. The role of conformational fluctuations in the designated function of a protein is widely debated. Emerging evidence suggests that sub-groups within the range of conformations (or sub-states contain properties that may be functionally relevant. However, low populations in these sub-states and the transient nature of conformational transitions between these sub-states present significant challenges for their identification and characterization.To overcome these challenges we have developed a new computational technique, quasi-anharmonic analysis (QAA. QAA utilizes higher-order statistics of protein motions to identify sub-states in the conformational landscape. Further, the focus on anharmonicity allows identification of conformational fluctuations that enable transitions between sub-states. QAA applied to equilibrium simulations of human ubiquitin and T4 lysozyme reveals functionally relevant sub-states and protein motions involved in molecular recognition. In combination with a reaction pathway sampling method, QAA characterizes conformational sub-states associated with cis/trans peptidyl-prolyl isomerization catalyzed by the enzyme cyclophilin A. In these three proteins, QAA allows identification of conformational sub-states, with critical structural and dynamical features relevant to protein function.Overall, QAA provides a novel framework to intuitively understand the biophysical basis of conformational diversity and its relevance to protein function.

  8. A Structural Approach and Deployment of a Substation Automation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Jeong Sik; Lee, Kwon Han; Choi, Dae Hee; Choi, Yong Bum; Lee, Hak Sung [Hyosung Corporation (Korea)

    2001-07-01

    This paper describes the definition of a substation automation system and presents core components and its layered structure based on the modular approach. Also it introduces the implementation and deployment of our substation automation system which was adopted to the field recently. (author). 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Grizzly Substation Fiber Optics : Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-02-01

    This notice announces BPA`s decision to construct, operate, and maintain the Grizzly Substation Fiber Optic Project (Project). This Project is part of a continuing effort by BPA to complete a regionwide upgrade of its existing telecommunications system. The US Forest Service and BPA jointly prepared the Grizzly Substation Fiber Optic Project Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1241) evaluating the potential environmental impacts of the Proposed Action, the Underground Installation Alternative, and the No Action Alternative. Based on the analysis in the EA, the US Forest Service and BPA have determined that the Proposed Action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI. The US Forest Service has separately issued a FONSI and Decision Notice authorizing BPA to construct, operate, and maintain the Project within the Crooked River National Grassland (Grassland).

  10. The Lurking Wolf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Janni Lisander; Jacobsen, Søren; Hall, Elisabeth

    THE LURKING OF THE WOLF- QUALITATIVE RESARCH OF EXISTENTIAL EXPERIENCES WITH LUPUS IN FEMALE PATIENTS. J. Lisander Larsen (1, 2), S. Jacobsen (2), E.O. C. Hall (1), R. Birkelund(3) (1) Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Section for Nursing, Denmark. (2) University Hospital of Copenha......THE LURKING OF THE WOLF- QUALITATIVE RESARCH OF EXISTENTIAL EXPERIENCES WITH LUPUS IN FEMALE PATIENTS. J. Lisander Larsen (1, 2), S. Jacobsen (2), E.O. C. Hall (1), R. Birkelund(3) (1) Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Section for Nursing, Denmark. (2) University Hospital...... for existential uncertainty. Patient experiences are scarcely researched, and studies do not emphasize existential themes at stake during the illness trajectory and this leaves a knowledge gap important for evidence-based nursing support. Purpose: The purpose of this PhD study is to explore the meaning......, space, body, relationship), and analysed phenomenological- hermeneutically, considering essential themes, reflecting and synthesizing the text. Existential theory and philosophy are used to interpret women´s experience of living with lupus. Patients participate voluntary, have the opportunity...

  11. Study on noise prediction model and control schemes for substation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuanmin; Gao, Yang; Liu, Songtao

    2014-01-01

    With the government's emphasis on environmental issues of power transmission and transformation project, noise pollution has become a prominent problem now. The noise from the working transformer, reactor, and other electrical equipment in the substation will bring negative effect to the ambient environment. This paper focuses on using acoustic software for the simulation and calculation method to control substation noise. According to the characteristics of the substation noise and the techniques of noise reduction, a substation's acoustic field model was established with the SoundPLAN software to predict the scope of substation noise. On this basis, 4 reasonable noise control schemes were advanced to provide some helpful references for noise control during the new substation's design and construction process. And the feasibility and application effect of these control schemes can be verified by using the method of simulation modeling. The simulation results show that the substation always has the problem of excessive noise at boundary under the conventional measures. The excess noise can be efficiently reduced by taking the corresponding noise reduction methods.

  12. Evaluation of demand integrated substations; Utvaerdering av funktionsintegrerad fjaerrvaermecentral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sofie; Werner, Sven [FVB Sverige AB, Boraas (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Demand integrated substations contain an intelligent control unit, which recently has been developed by NordIQ Goeteborg AB. The purpose with this project has been to evaluate the benefits of this intelligent control unit. This evaluation project has been based on field measurement of hourly heat supply, circulated water, forward- and return temperatures in six substations with a 12 month reference period with the existing substation and another 12 month evaluation period with a demand integrated substation. The results from the evaluation show that: - The annual heat delivery was reduced by 10-11 % in average, when a new demand integrated substation replaced an existing conventional substation in the same building. - The annual cooling of the district heat fluid increased by 10-11 deg C, giving lower return temperatures in the district heating systems. The annual volume of circulated water was reduced with 33,200 m{sup 3} from the initial 112,800 m{sup 3} during the reference year. - The daily variation of the customer heat demand became less bumpy from lower morning peaks and heat demands moved to evenings and nights. The financial benefit from the intelligent control unit estimated as net present value is higher than the cost for new conventional substations. Applied to the whole Swedish district heat sector, this benefit has an annual value of about 1,6-2,0 billion SEK (180- 220 million Euro), corresponding to 7-9 % of the current price level for district heat in Sweden.

  13. Project aspects of a shared substation; Aspectos de projeto de uma subestacao compartilhada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caparroz, Sergio L.; Oliveira Penteado Junior, Carlos de [Eletricidade de Sao Paulo SA, SP (Brazil)

    1991-12-31

    Technical and economic aspects of the reformulation on conventional substations, through the shared use of areas on the Sao Paulo town center, are discussed. Studies to the construction of more compact substations, areas and substations buildings, and the design of a shared substation, are also presented. 15 figs., 5 refs.

  14. 7 CFR 1726.76 - Substation and transmission line materials and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Substation and transmission line materials and... Substation and Transmission Facilities § 1726.76 Substation and transmission line materials and equipment. (a... $500,000 and for all materials. (b) Standards and specifications. Substation and transmission line...

  15. Landmark UHV transformers go to Kammer substation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imbeau, G. [ABB Inc., Varennes, PQ (Canada)

    2010-01-15

    This article discussed new transformers built for a tie-in between American Electric Power (AEP) and Allegheny Energy (AE). The transformers were designed to increase electric transmission capabilities while increasing system reliability. The autotransformers had a large MVA rating, a high primary voltage, a very high low voltage, and low tertiary voltage ratings. The transformers weighed approximately 260 tons each and were installed at a substation site near Moundsville, West Virginia. Tests conducted on the units included special temperature rise tests; fast front switching impulse tests; and special termination lightening impulse tests. The tests were conducted to ensure the safe operation of the transformer insulation and cooling systems as well as for the overall transformer design. The core and coil assembly were designed to ensure that the transformers could be easily transported by rail. It was concluded that the transformers are enhancing electric power supply in the region. 4 figs.

  16. INTELLIGENT DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEM OF EMERGENCY SITUATIONS IN TRACTION SUBSTATIONS DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. N. Nasyrov

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article the architecture and algorithm of operating an expert system providing the efficiency of functioning the electric equipment for traction substation as well as the four-parameter belonging function are determined.

  17. National SCADA Test Bed Substation Automation Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth Barnes; Briam Johnson

    2009-10-01

    Increased awareness of the potential for cyber attack has recently resulted in improved cyber security practices associated with the electrical power grid. However, the level of practical understanding and deployment of cyber security practices has not been evenly applied across all business sectors. Much of the focus has been centered on information technology business centers and control rooms. This report explores the current level of substation automation, communication, and cyber security protection deployed in electrical substations throughout existing utilities in the United States. This report documents the evaluation of substation automation implementation and associated vulnerabilities. This evaluation used research conducted by Newton-Evans Research Company for some of its observations and results. The Newton Evans Report aided in the determination of what is the state of substation automation in North American electric utilities. Idaho National Laboratory cyber security experts aided in the determination of what cyber vulnerabilities may pose a threat to electrical substations. This report includes cyber vulnerabilities as well as recommended mitigations. It also describes specific cyber issues found in typical substation automation configurations within the electric utility industry. The evaluation report was performed over a 5-month period starting in October 2008

  18. Fighter Pilot Cognitive Effectiveness During Exercise Wolf Safari

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    d’efficacité cognitive des pilotes de CF-18 pendant l’exercice Wolf Safari (un exercice de bombardement air- sol en prévision du déploiement possible de...programme de modélisation de l’efficacité cognitive fondé sur une quantification de la durée quotidienne de sommeil par rapport à l’horaire de travail ...La 4e Escadre était sur le point de tenir un exercice de bombardement air- sol (Wolf Safari) jour et nuit en vue du déploiement possible de chasseurs

  19. THREE PLANETS ORBITING WOLF 1061

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, D. J.; Wittenmyer, R. A.; Tinney, C. G.; Bentley, J. S.; Zhao, Jinglin, E-mail: duncan.wright@unsw.edu.au [Department of Astronomy and Australian Centre for Astrobiology, School of Physics, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2016-02-01

    We use archival HARPS spectra to detect three planets orbiting the M3 dwarf Wolf 1061 (GJ 628). We detect a 1.36 M{sub ⊕} minimum-mass planet with an orbital period P = 4.888 days (Wolf 1061b), a 4.25 M{sub ⊕} minimum-mass planet with orbital period P = 17.867 days (Wolf 1061c), and a likely 5.21 M{sub ⊕} minimum-mass planet with orbital period P = 67.274 days (Wolf 1061d). All of the planets are of sufficiently low mass that they may be rocky in nature. The 17.867 day planet falls within the habitable zone for Wolf 1061 and the 67.274 day planet falls just outside the outer boundary of the habitable zone. There are no signs of activity observed in the bisector spans, cross-correlation FWHMs, calcium H and K indices, NaD indices, or Hα indices near the planetary periods. We use custom methods to generate a cross-correlation template tailored to the star. The resulting velocities do not suffer the strong annual variation observed in the HARPS DRS velocities. This differential technique should deliver better exploitation of the archival HARPS data for the detection of planets at extremely low amplitudes.

  20. Uncertainty models applied to the substation planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontoura Filho, Roberto N. [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Aires, Joao Carlos O.; Tortelly, Debora L.S. [Light Servicos de Eletricidade S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    The selection of the reinforcements for a power system expansion becomes a difficult task on an environment of uncertainties. These uncertainties can be classified according to their sources as exogenous and endogenous. The first one is associated to the elements of the generation, transmission and distribution systems. The exogenous uncertainly is associated to external aspects, as the financial resources, the time spent to build the installations, the equipment price and the load level. The load uncertainly is extremely sensible to the behaviour of the economic conditions. Although the impossibility to take out completely the uncertainty , the endogenous one can be convenient treated and the exogenous uncertainly can be compensated. This paper describes an uncertainty treatment methodology and a practical application to a group of substations belonging to LIGHT company, the Rio de Janeiro electric utility. The equipment performance uncertainty is treated by adopting a probabilistic approach. The uncertainly associated to the load increase is considered by using technical analysis of scenarios and choice criteria based on the Decision Theory. On this paper it was used the Savage Method and the Fuzzy Set Method, in order to select the best middle term reinforcements plan. (author) 7 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Conformational Sub-states and Populations in Enzyme Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Pratul K [ORNL; Doucet, Nicholas [INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, University of Quebec; Chennubholta, C [University of Pittsburgh; Ramanathan, Arvind [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    reactants in the active site, chemical turnover, and release of products. In addition to formation of crucial structural interactions between enzyme and substrate(s), coordinated motions within the enzyme substrate complex allow reaction to proceed at a much faster rate, compared to the reaction in solution and in the absence of enzyme. An increasing number of enzyme systems show the presence of conserved protein motions that are important for function. A wide variety of motions are naturally sampled (over femtosecond to millisecond time-scales) as the enzyme complex moves along the energetic landscape, driven by temperature and dynamical events from the surrounding environment. Areas of low energy along the landscape form conformational sub-states, which show higher conformational populations than surrounding areas. A small number of these protein conformational sub-states contain functionally important structural and dynamical features, which assist the enzyme mechanism along the catalytic cycle. Identification and characterization of these higher-energy (also called excited) sub-states and the associated populations are challenging, as these sub-states are very short-lived and therefore rarely populated. Specialized techniques based on computer simulations, theoretical modeling, and nuclear magnetic resonance have been developed for quantitative characterization of these sub-states and populations. This chapter discusses these techniques and provides examples of their applications to enzyme systems.

  2. Wolf population genetics in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindrikson, Maris; Remm, Jaanus; Pilot, Malgorzata

    2017-01-01

    The grey wolf (Canis lupus) is an iconic large carnivore that has increasingly been recognized as an apex predator with intrinsic value and a keystone species. However, wolves have also long represented a primary source of human–carnivore conflict, which has led to long-term persecution of wolves...

  3. Determination of Optimum Network Layout for Low-Energy District Heating Systems with Different Substation Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tol, Hakan; Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    In this paper three different District Heating (DH) network types, which comprise substations with storage tank, and with instantaneous heat exchanger (each for domestic hot water production); and booster pumps installed in the beginning of each street at the latter network type, are pointed out...... temperature drop at supply in low heat demand conditions during summer months, are presented with the results of dynamic simulations, carried out in the Termis software with the input data of randomly generated heat demand of consumers in the basis of simultaneity factor effect in each pipe segment at the DH...

  4. Modernised DC traction substation recuperating energy of braking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drozdowski Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traction substation composed of the 3-phase transformer and the output diode rectifier is still the fundamental device for DC traction supply. In this paper two technical solutions (power electronic converters allowing for braking energy recuperation to the AC mains are discussed. This has been thought as the modernisation of the existing traction substations allowing for high speed trains regenerative braking and braking of heavy train hollers. Such a solution brings some profits: energy recuperation, mechanical brakes saving and enhanced quality of traction vehicle control. For the proposed converters technical and economical advantages and drawbacks are indicated.

  5. Interference with the pacemakers of two workers at electricity substations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butrous, G S; Bexton, R S; Barton, D G; Male, J C; Camm, A J

    1983-11-01

    Pacemaker function was tested in two electricity substation workers exposed to high tension electric fields. High intensity electric fields induced reversion to the interference mode, producing in one case competitive rhythm and in the other inappropriately slow pacing which resulted in asymptomatic pauses of up to 2.5 s. A suit designed to shield the body from the effects of high intensity electric fields was tried and proved to be effective in protecting the pacemaker, allowing it to function normally in the substations.

  6. Economic development of substations; Desarrollo economico de subestaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Fayo, Jose M.; Rando, Conrado Alberto [Empresa Distribuidora de Electricidad de Entre Rios S.A. (EDEERSA), Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: jmartine@cmsenergy.com; carando@cmsenergy.com

    2001-07-01

    In substation projects the best economic alternative is that one which satisfies the objective in connection to technical and environmental requisites. To consider this last aspect is an imperative nowadays, defining clearly the measures of impact amortization whose incidence can be significant in relation to the total cost. The project environmental adaptation results direct or indirectly in cost reductions when turning viable its execution. Nevertheless, the economical optimization should include besides the initial work the subsequent enlargements, if there are for them alternative of different cost. These criteria can be exemplified when analysing aspects of the Gran Parana substation design (500/132 Kv - 300 Mva)

  7. 30 CFR 56.4130 - Electric substations and liquid storage facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric substations and liquid storage... MINES Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4130 Electric substations... shall be stored or allowed to accumulate within 25 feet of the following: (1) Electric substations. (2...

  8. 30 CFR 57.4160 - Underground electric substations and liquid storage facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground electric substations and liquid... Underground electric substations and liquid storage facilities. The requirements of this standard apply to...) Electric substations. (2) Unburied, combustible liquid storage tanks. (3) Any group of containers used for...

  9. Wolf-cattle interactions in the northern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since gray wolf reintroduction in 1995, wolf populations in the northern Rocky Mountains have increased dramatically. Incidents of wolf predation on livestock have increased with wolf populations. Although rough tallies of livestock death or injury losses caused by wolf predation are made each yea...

  10. Development of 12-Pulse Regulated Rectifier Circuit for Traction Substation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. N. Nasirov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a power circuit of a regulated 12-pulse direct current converter and a thyristor control impulse diagram for traction substations providing the best electric power supply of a rolling stock, train traction efficiency,  smooth direction regulation.

  11. BE 400/18 kV Substation Renovation Project

    CERN Document Server

    Vairo, Antonio

    2001-01-01

    The 400/18 kV SPS main substation was designed for the 400 GeV SPS project and was commissioned in 1974. It has been upgraded several times to form the present 400/66/18 kV SPS and LEP transmission power comprising 490 MVA and 240 MVAR installed power. The beginning of the LHC project and the obsolescence of the main elements, and consequently limited reliability, made it necessary to begin a complete renovation program. The new configuration of the substation will integrate the new compensator of reactive power efficiently into the 18 kV pulsed network. In this way the new compensator will facilitate the functioning of the pulsed network with the new loads and it will improve the performance of the electrical substation. The renovation program consists in a global reorganisation of the substation, with the total replacement of the 18 kV power equipment, a set up of new control and protection systems for the 18 kV and 400 kV section and the reconditioning of all the 400 kV equipment.

  12. MONITORING OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY QUALITY ON THE TRACTION SUBSTATION INPUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.G. Gryb

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For the implementation of measures to maintain the quality of the energy industrial enterprises have to spend a significant material and monetary assets. In this regard, significant is the feasibility study of the allocation of such funds and, primarily, the determination of the economic damage arising from low quality of electricity. The reliability of the electricity metering system, relay protection and automation of modern digital substations depends on the quality of electrical energy. At the present time to improve the reliability of the substation operation it is necessary to monitor indicators of quality of electric energy, allowing you to take organizational and technical solutions for their improvement. Monitoring the power quality at the input traction substation has shown that indicators such as the coefficient of the n-th harmonic component of the voltage does not meet the standards GOST 13109-97. The source of higher harmonics is a voltage Converter used on the locomotive. To eliminate higher harmonics in the supply network for traction substations will need to install power filters. Today, the USB-analyzer of power quality «Digital measurement system of power quality» type of CSICE of accuracy class 0.2. Work energy requires reliable and quality electricity supply to consumers. The new model of balancing energy market are bilateral contracts. The main task of this market, it ensure the stable and reliable operation of the unified energy system of Ukraine, that is, transmission and supply of electricity of appropriate quality.

  13. Reliability 'H' scheme of HV/MV substations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perić Dragoslav M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Substations (HV/MV connect transmission and distribution systems with consumers of electric energy. The selective search method was used for calculation of substation reliability, where all arrangement elements were grouped into blocks. Subject of the analysis was H-arrangements comprising air-insulated switchgears on the high voltage side of HV/MV substations with different number of feeder and transformer bays and diverse scope of the installed switching equipment. Failure rate and duration were used as main HV/MV substation equipment reliability indices. A large number of arrangements were classified into groups, and within a group the arrangements were ranked with the use of multiple criteria. It is shown that the reliability of the electricity transit depends on the equipment of field for the transit of electricity, which favors poorly equipped field. On the other hand, the reliability of transformation of the full power depends mostly on the equipment in coupling field. It is essential that in the coupling field, there are at least two disconnectors. Installation of the switch in the coupling field is meaningful only with appropriate protection, because it further improves reliability. Conclusions are drawn for phased construction and expansion of the single pole diagram with an additional field for the transmission line.

  14. performance assessment of substation site earthing using fluke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... Abstract. This study utilizes the automatic frequency control (AFC) feature in Fluke 1625 ground tester to analyze earth impedance in five power substations. Other conventional methods like the use of megger for impedance test runs short of responding to variation in supply frequency and not trustworthy.

  15. Major Refit for CERN's 400 kV Substation

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The 400 kV substation on the Prévessin site brings in the electricity that powers CERN's accelerators and the majority of the Laboratory's installations. It was originally built in the 1970s for the SPS, and is one of only five privately owned 400 kV sub-stations in France. Three of the others belong to the national railway company, SNCF, supplying the Paris-Marseilles TGV line, the other is at the Cadarache research centre near mouth of the Rhone. After nearly thirty years of service, CERN's substation has just undergone a complete overhaul. The new main 18 kV switchboard for the SPS pulsed network. The electricity supply for the original Prévessin substation was from the 400 kV EDF network, delivered through three 90 MW transformers at 18 kV to the SPS pulsed network, With the arrival of LEP, two 110 MW transformers were added to supply the new accelerator. Now, as CERN gears up for the LHC, additional pulsed power capacity is needed to supply the transfer lines carrying protons from...

  16. Performance Assessment of Substation Site Earthing Using Fluke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study utilizes the automatic frequency control (AFC) feature in Fluke 1625 ground tester to analyze earth impedance in ve power substations. Other conventional methods like the use of megger for impedance test runs short of responding to variation in supply frequency and not trustworthy. Earthing is the fundamental ...

  17. Load Flow Analysis of a 15Mva Injection Substation | Oshevire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents the load flow analysis of Otovwodo 33/11kV injection substation, Nigeria. It is an obvious fact that the planning, design and operation of power systems require load flow calculations to analyze the steady state of the system under various operating conditions, and equipment configuration. This load flow ...

  18. SUBSTATIONS OF DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEMS WITH PULSE COOLANT CIRCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey N. Makeev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Objectives The aim of the study is to generalise the results of the application of technologies and means for organising pulse coolant flow within a district heating system in order to increase its energy efficiency based on the organisation of local hydraulic shocks and the subsequent use of their energy to ensure the purification of heat energy equipment, intensify the heat transfer process and realise the possibility of transforming the available head from one hydraulic circuit to another. Methods Substations connecting the thermal power installations of consumers with heat networks via dependent and independent schemes are analytically generalised. The use of pulse coolant circulation is proposed as a means of overcoming identified shortcomings. Results Principal schemes of substations with pulse coolant circulation for dependent and independent connection of thermal power installations are detailed. A detailed description of their operation is given. The advantages of using pulse coolant circulation in substations are shown. The materials reflecting the results of the technical implementation and practical introduction of this technology are presented. Conclusion Theoretical analysis of the operation of the basic schemes of substations with pulse coolant circulation and the results of their practical application, as well as the materials of scientific works devoted to the use of the energy of a hydraulic impact and the study of the effect of pulse coolant flow on thermal and hydrodynamic processes, have yielded a combination of factors reflecting technical and economic rationality of application of pulse coolant circulation. 

  19. Improved district heating substation efficiency with a new control strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Jonas; Delsing, Jerker; van Deventer, Jan [Div. of EISLAB, Dept. of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering, Luleaa University of Technology, 97187 Luleaa (Sweden)

    2010-06-15

    In this paper, we describe a new alternative control approach for indirectly connected district heating substations. Simulations results showed that the new approach results in an increased {delta} T across the substation. Results were obtained for both ideal and non-ideal operation of the system, meaning that less water must be pumped through the district heating network, and a higher overall fuel efficiency can be obtained in the district heating power plants. When a higher fuel efficiency is achieved, the usage of primary fuel sources can be reduced. Improved efficiency also increases the effective heat transfer capacity of a district heating network, allowing more customers to be connected to an existing network without increasing the heating plant or network capacity. Also, if combined heat and power plants are used to produce the heat, the increased {delta} T will result in a further improved overall fuel efficiency, as more electricity can be produced with colder cooling water. The idea behind the new control method is to consider the temperature of the water supplying the district heating substation with heat, often referred to as the primary supply temperature. This represents a logical next step, as currently, the only parameter generally taken into account or measured when controlling the temperature level of the radiator circuit is the local outdoor temperature. In this paper we show how the primary supply temperature together with thermodynamic knowledge of the building can be used to maximize the {delta} T across the district heating substation. (author)

  20. Optimal Allocation of Smart Substations in a Distribution System Considering Interruption Costs of Customers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Lei; You, Shi; Hu, Junjie

    2016-01-01

    number and allocation of smart substations in a given distribution system is presented, with the upgrade costs of substations and the interruption costs of customers taken into account. Besides, the reliability criterion is also properly considered in the model. By linearization strategies, the SSAM......One of the major functions of a smart substation (SS) is to restore power supply to interrupted customers as quickly as possible after an outage. The high cost of a smart substation limits its widespread utilization. In this paper, a smart substation allocation model (SSAM) to determine the optimal...

  1. Rob Wolf 1947-2010

    CERN Multimedia

    TE Department

    2010-01-01

    We deeply regret to announce the death of Mr Rob WOLF on 20.06.2010. Mr Rob Wolf, born on 07.06.1947, worked in the TE Department and had been employed at CERN since 15.09.1973. The Director-General has sent his family a message of condolence on behalf of the CERN staff. Social Affairs Human Resources Department Rob Wolf passed away on Sunday 20 June after a long illness. Born in June 1947 in The Netherlands, he joined CERN as a fellow in September 1972 after obtaining his doctoral qualification from the University of Leiden (NL) on the degradation of superconducting materials in ionizing radiation. He was a member of the CERN personnel since 1st March 1975. Rob immediately assumed full responsibility for the measurement and qualification of the superconducting materials for the low-beta magnet project of the ISR, and was then tasked with the manufacture of the corrector windings of these magnets. Throughout his working life he remained a reference in these areas. Later, Rob took on the responsibi...

  2. Implementation of computational model for the evaluation of electromagnetic susceptibility of the cables for communication and control of high voltage substations; Implementacao de modelo computacional para a avaliacao da suscetibilidade eletromagnetica dos cabos de comunicacao e controle de subestacoes de alta tensao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartin, Antonio C.P. [Companhia de Transmissao de Energia Eletrica Paulista (CTEEP), Bauru, SP (Brazil); Dotto, Fabio R.L.; Sant' Anna, Cezar J.; Thomazella, Rogerio [Fundacao para o Desenvolvimento de Bauru, SP (Brazil); Ulson, Jose A.C.; Aguiar, Paulo R. de [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work show the implementation of a electromagnetic model for supervision cable, protection, communication and high voltage substations control that was investigated in literature and adapted. The model was implemented by using a computational tool in order to obtain the electromagnetic behavior of various cables used in CTEEP substation, subject to several sources of electromagnetic interference in this inhospitable environment, such as lightning strikes, outbreaks of maneuvers switching and the corona effect. The results obtained in computer simulations were compared with results of laboratory tests carried out on a lot of cables that represent those systems that are present in substations 440 kV. This study characterized the electromagnetic interference, ranked them, identified possible susceptible points in the substation, which contributed to the development of a technical procedure that minimizes unwanted effects caused in communication systems and substation control. This developed procedure also assured the maximum reliability and availability in the operation of the electrical power system to the company.

  3. Alternative surfacing materials for weed control at BC Hydro substations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, T.C.; Shrimpton, G.M.

    1997-04-01

    A two year study was conducted by BC Hydro in which a variety of surfacing materials were tested for their suitability for use in substations. Ideally, surfacing materials should have the following characteristics: high electrical resistivity in both dry and wet conditions, resistance to invasion by weeds, good driveability, good drainage, non-flammable, reasonably priced, no dust to foul conductors, and be aesthetically pleasing. Trials at Vernon Koksilah, and Ingledow substations were conducted to test the materials. A qualitative estimate of the amount of weed control provided by each material was recorded. The trials were meant to provide operational recommendations and screening information to allow for future testing of promising materials or combination of materials. Results showed that no single material meets all the desired criteria. The surfaces that best combined good weed control, electrical resistance and surface stability was a 15 cm deep layer of crushed gravel, especially if underlain by a layer of geotextile. 4 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  4. LIFE MANAGEMENT OF ASSET FROM HIGH VOLTAGE SUBSTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina COSTINAŞ

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Companies have to reinvent continuously their business model. Maintenance can play a key role in the long-term profitability of a company. In Romania, especially since the liberalization of the energy market, the electrical companies are forced to identify and coordinate a lot of processes and to promote competitivity. It is necessary to work safety and be environmentally responsible in order to achieve electrical substations obiectives. In this paper will be presented maintenance strategy (replacement, upgrade or repair and informational aspects of decisional process (technical, financial, social politic, legal and risk aspects. Proposed methodology regarding the maintenance of electrical substation will be focused in how to improve the decisions for improving asset maintenance performance through ISO 9001/14001.

  5. Consumers of ancillary services in the electric substations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Oşan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to identify the current state of ancillary services consumption in power station. In order to replace current methods of supply internal services with, modern solutions based on renewable, clean solutions that exceed current system performance at the lowest cost.. In addition, it has been identified the main consumers of power stations in order to approach the implementation phase of a hybrid system in substations.

  6. Interference with the pacemakers of two workers at electricity substations.

    OpenAIRE

    BUTROUS, G. S.; Bexton, R. S.; Barton, D G; Male, J C; Camm, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    Pacemaker function was tested in two electricity substation workers exposed to high tension electric fields. High intensity electric fields induced reversion to the interference mode, producing in one case competitive rhythm and in the other inappropriately slow pacing which resulted in asymptomatic pauses of up to 2.5 s. A suit designed to shield the body from the effects of high intensity electric fields was tried and proved to be effective in protecting the pacemaker, allowing it to functi...

  7. Offshore Substation Locating in Wind Farms Based on Prim Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    to the electrical system layout, the optimal layout design work should be done with the consideration of the impact of the location of offshore substation on the submarine cable connection layout to minimize the investment of cables. This paper addresses a new method to optimize the OS location together...... with the cable connection layout. The results show that the proposed method is an effective way for offshore wind farm cable connection layout design....

  8. A Digital Power Quality Monitoring Equipment Designed for Digital Substation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Xin; Geng, Jiewen

    2018-01-01

    Taking into account both current status and development trend of digital substation, this paper proposed a design of a new multi-channelled digital power quality monitoring equipment with high compatibility. The overall functional structure, hardware architecture, software architecture, interface architecture and some key techniques such as IEC 61850 modelling of transient event and harmonic measurement method under the condition of non-synchronous sampling are described in this paper.

  9. Simulation models and performance assessment of district heating substations

    OpenAIRE

    Vaillant Rebollar, Julio; Himpe, Eline; Janssens, Arnold

    2014-01-01

    Development of new technologies and methodologies regarding district heating substation operational control strategies are increasingly found nowadays. At the same time a great number of modern buildings are provided with energy monitoring and control systems which supervise and collect operating data from different energy components. Accordingly, an exemplary district heating systems is being implemented in the city of Kortrijk in Belgium, as part of a demonstration zero-carbon neighbo...

  10. The enigma of lone wolf terrorism: an assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.

    2010-01-01

    Lone wolf terrorism remains an ambiguous and enigmatic phenomenon. The boundaries of lone wolf terrorism are fuzzy and arbitrary. This article aims to define and analyze the main features and patterns of lone wolf terrorism in fifteen countries. Lone wolf terrorism is shown to be more prevalent in

  11. Substation interference on gas entrance of industrial plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, Paulo Edmundo; Giacommelo, Claudinei [PAIOL Engenharia, Paulinia, SP (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    Industrial plants often have medium or high voltage electrical power entrance and also gas feeders. Often the main substation is located near the gas entrance, in the utilities area. When the occurrence of a phase to ground short-circuit in the substation, the pipeline and gas entrance that serves the plant may be exposed to high voltage soil potential, of the order of a few kilovolts, due to resistive coupling with the substation ground mesh. The consequences of this situation are reflected in various risks, with emphasis on: damage to the protective coating of the duct, due to the increased soil potential, in excess of its dielectric supportability (typically on the order of 5 kV); spread of potentially hazardous to duct exposed parts (valves, measuring place etc.); and damage to cathodic protection system components, as rectifier and insulating joins at gas entrance. This paper presents the investigations conducted in a factory that has a 69 kV main substation very close to the gas entrance, the order of a few meters away. The substation phase to ground short-circuit current is 7 kA, what causes a 9 kV soil potential near the gas pipe. It is presented the methodology for modeling the various elements involved in this process, the results of simulations made, arrangements been taken to reduce soil potential next to the duct to levels below 5 kV, and the measures for people and insulating joins protection. It is important to note that such problems usually will be solved with measures involving the entire grounding system of the industrial complex and also close to the duct (outside the industrial plant). The gas distribution companies should require from customers where this situation occurs, to ensure safety for people who have access to elements of its network, and for the integrity of their own ducts and cathodic protection components. The computer simulations developed for this work were made with the software Auto Grid, developed by the Canadian company Safe

  12. Reconstruction of the extinct Ezo wolf's diet

    OpenAIRE

    Matsubayashi, J.; Ohta, T; Takahashi, O.; Tayasu, I.

    2017-01-01

    On Hokkaido, Japan, the Ezo wolf (Canis lupus hattai), an apex predator, became extinct at the end of the 19th century owing to human activities. Top predators often have an important role in their ecosystems, yet we have no scientific information on the feeding habits of the Ezo wolf. We performed carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis and radiocarbon dating of specimens of the wolf (n = 7) and its prey species and estimated the components of the wolves' diet using an isotope mixing mod...

  13. DNA phylogeny of the extinct marsupial wolf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R H; Schaffner, W; Wilson, A C; Pääbo, S

    1989-08-10

    The phylogenetic affiliation of the extinct marsupial wolf (Thylacinus cynocephalus), which once was widespread in Australia, has been uncertain. On the basis of morphology, some systematists argue that the thylacine was most closely related to an extinct group of South American carnivorous marsupials, the borhyaenids, whereas others consider it to be closer to Australian carnivorous marsupials. Here we use direct sequencing by means of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to compare 219 bases of mitochondrial (mt) DNA from museum specimens of the marsupial wolf and representatives of six genera of extant marsupials. In agreement with the results of an antigenic study of albumin, our genetic data suggest that the marsupial wolf was more closely related to other Australian marsupial carnivores than to those of South America. Thus, the marsupial wolf represents an example of convergent morphological evolution to South American carnivorous marsupials as well as to true wolves.

  14. Wolf Pack Algorithm for Unconstrained Global Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu-Sheng Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The wolf pack unites and cooperates closely to hunt for the prey in the Tibetan Plateau, which shows wonderful skills and amazing strategies. Inspired by their prey hunting behaviors and distribution mode, we abstracted three intelligent behaviors, scouting, calling, and besieging, and two intelligent rules, winner-take-all generation rule of lead wolf and stronger-survive renewing rule of wolf pack. Then we proposed a new heuristic swarm intelligent method, named wolf pack algorithm (WPA. Experiments are conducted on a suit of benchmark functions with different characteristics, unimodal/multimodal, separable/nonseparable, and the impact of several distance measurements and parameters on WPA is discussed. What is more, the compared simulation experiments with other five typical intelligent algorithms, genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization algorithm, artificial fish swarm algorithm, artificial bee colony algorithm, and firefly algorithm, show that WPA has better convergence and robustness, especially for high-dimensional functions.

  15. Uurimist toimetavad Wolfe ja Goodwin / Katrin Mõttus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mõttus, Katrin

    2003-01-01

    Sari filme - Rex Stout'i detektiivromaanide ekraniseeringud, kus peategelaseks eradetektiiv Nero Wolfe (Maury Chaykin) koos oma noore abilise Archie Goodwiniga (Timothy Hutton) : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2001-2002

  16. WOLF REXUS EXPERIMENT - European Planetary Science Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzdugan, A.

    2017-09-01

    WOLF experiment is developing a reaction wheel-based control system, effectively functioning as active nutation damper. One reaction wheel is used to reduce the undesirable lateral rates of spinning cylindrically symmetric free falling units, ejected from a sounding rocket. Once validated in REXUS flight, the concept and the design developed during WOLF experiment can be used for other application which require a flat spin of the free falling units.

  17. Economic Load Dispatch Using Grey Wolf Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Sudhir Sharma; Shivani Mehta

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents grey wolf optimization (GWO) to solve convex economic load dispatch (ELD) problem. Grey Wolf Optimization (GWO) is a new meta-heuristic inspired by grey wolves. The leadership hierarchy and hunting mechanism of the grey wolves is mimicked in GWO. The objective of ELD problem is to minimize the total generation cost while fulfilling the different constraints, when the required load of power system is being supplied. The proposed technique is implemented on two d...

  18. 30 CFR 57.4130 - Surface electric substations and liquid storage facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface electric substations and liquid storage... accumulate within 25 feet of the following: (1) Electric substations. (2) Unburied, flammable or combustible... NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4130 Surface electric...

  19. Optimization design of ground grid mesh of 132/33kv substation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    33kV substation. Ground grid mesh is made up of horizontal and vertical conductors connected with vertical rods buried under substation ground. The function of this structure is to effectively dissipate extremely high current generated in the ...

  20. Cascading in district heating substations - in pursuit of low return temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljunggren, P.; Wollerstrand, J.; Frederiksen, S. [Department of Heat and Power Engineering, Lund Institute of Technology (Sweden)

    2004-07-01

    Building heating and provision of domestic hot water is characterised by a variation of temperature levels which provides a basis for lowered district heating network return temperature (increased cooling of primary water), by employing cascading of heat exchangers in substations. A number of previous studies have shown this, although the calculated gain has generally turned out to be rather small. Thus, in practice cascading often meets difficulties of justifying the higher investment cost associated with a more complicated substation configuration. The present study demonstrates, by simulations based on reliable modelling that especially when substantial heat losses from internal building pipes, leading hot service water to faucets, are compensated for, as is commonly done by re-circulating water in bigger buildings, that cascading can be adopted to achieve significant improvements in primary water cooling. On the basis of the results derived it can be recommended to divide heating of service water into two stages in most cases whenever re-circulation is performed, either in a parallel connection with a heat exchanger for space heating, or in a two-stage connection scheme where the entire primary flow is cooled in a pre-heater. Three-stage cascading can in some cases produce significant additional improvement. This is especially so in cases of a rather high service water temperature, such as 50-60 deg C (nowadays usually employed to prevent growth of Legionella bacteria), combined with a relatively modest space heating load (well-insulated buildings) at low temperature levels of water circulating in the hydronic system. Three-stage cascading can be configured in various ways: One scheme, previously used in certain Swedish towns, may be advantageous from a dynamic control point of view, but tends to cause heat exchanger scaling with hard town's water. An alternative type of three-stage configuration avoids this disadvantage, thus providing an attractive

  1. An application of data mining in district heating substations for improving energy performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Puning; Zhou, Zhigang; Chen, Xin; Liu, Jing

    2017-11-01

    Automatic meter reading system is capable of collecting and storing a huge number of district heating (DH) data. However, the data obtained are rarely fully utilized. Data mining is a promising technology to discover potential interesting knowledge from vast data. This paper applies data mining methods to analyse the massive data for improving energy performance of DH substation. The technical approach contains three steps: data selection, cluster analysis and association rule mining (ARM). Two-heating-season data of a substation are used for case study. Cluster analysis identifies six distinct heating patterns based on the primary heat of the substation. ARM reveals that secondary pressure difference and secondary flow rate have a strong correlation. Using the discovered rules, a fault occurring in remote flow meter installed at secondary network is detected accurately. The application demonstrates that data mining techniques can effectively extrapolate potential useful knowledge to better understand substation operation strategies and improve substation energy performance.

  2. An application of data mining in district heating substations for improving energy performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Puning

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic meter reading system is capable of collecting and storing a huge number of district heating (DH data. However, the data obtained are rarely fully utilized. Data mining is a promising technology to discover potential interesting knowledge from vast data. This paper applies data mining methods to analyse the massive data for improving energy performance of DH substation. The technical approach contains three steps: data selection, cluster analysis and association rule mining (ARM. Two-heating-season data of a substation are used for case study. Cluster analysis identifies six distinct heating patterns based on the primary heat of the substation. ARM reveals that secondary pressure difference and secondary flow rate have a strong correlation. Using the discovered rules, a fault occurring in remote flow meter installed at secondary network is detected accurately. The application demonstrates that data mining techniques can effectively extrapolate potential useful knowledge to better understand substation operation strategies and improve substation energy performance.

  3. The San Bernabe power substation; La subestacion San Bernabe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez Sanudo, Andres D. [Luz y Fuerza del Centro, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The first planning studies that gave rise to the San Bernabe substation go back to year 1985. The main circumstance that supports this decision is the gradual restriction for electric power generation that has been suffering the Miguel Aleman Hydro System, until its complete disappearance, to give priority to the potable water supply through the Cutzamala pumping system, that feeds in an important way Mexico City and the State of Mexico. In this document the author describes the construction project of the San Bernabe Substation; mention is made of the technological experiences obtained during the construction and its geographical location is shown, as well as the one line diagram of the same [Espanol] Los primeros estudios de planeacion que dieron origen a la subestacion San Bernabe se remontan al ano de 1985. La circunstancia principal que soporta esta decision es la restriccion paulatina para generar energia que ha venido experimentando el Sistema Hidroelectrico Miguel Aleman, hasta su desaparicion total, para dar prioridad al suministro de agua potable por medio del sistema de bombeo Cutzamala, que alimenta en forma importante a la Ciudad de Mexico y al Estado de Mexico. En este documento el autor describe el proyecto de construccion de la subestacion San Bernabe; se mencionan las experiencias tecnologicas obtenidas durante su construccion y se ilustra su ubicacion geografica, asi como un diagrama unifilar de la misma

  4. Development of Protection and Control Unit for Distribution Substation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Fumiaki; Hayashi, Hideyuki; Takeuchi, Motohiro; Kido, Mitsuyasu; Kobayashi, Takashi; Yanaoka, Atsushi

    The Recently, electronics and IT technologies have been rapidly innovated and have been introduced to power system protection & control system to achieve high reliability, maintainability and more functionality. Concerning the distribution substation application, digital relays have been applied for more than 10 years. Because of a number of electronic devices used for it, product cost becomes higher. Also, products installed during the past high-growth period will be at the end of lifetime and will be replaced. Therefore, replacing market is expected to grow and the reduction of cost is demanded. Considering above mentioned background, second generation digital protection and control unit as a successor is designed to have following concepts. Functional integration based on advanced digital technologies, Ethernet LAN based indoor communication network, cost reduction and downsizing. Pondering above concepts, integration of protection and control function is adopted in contrary to the functional segregation applied to the previous system in order to achieve one-unit concept. Also the adoption of Ethernet LAN for inter-unit communication is objective. This report shows the development of second-generation digital relay for distribution substation, which is equipped with control function and Ethernet LAN by reducing the size of auxiliary transformer unit and the same size as previous product is realized.

  5. Wolf studies on Kanuti National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A report on wolf distribution and density studies on the Refuge from 1990 through 2001 to gain a better understanding of wolf ecology in the area.

  6. Canby Area Service Project : Substation and Associated Transmission Line : Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-02-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides power to Surprise Valley Electrification Corporation (SVEC) in Modoc County, California. BPA uses PacificCorp's substation and transmission facilities between Alturas and Canby, California to transfer power to SVEC's Canby Substation. In the next year, SVEC expects increased industrial, agricultural, and residential electric loads on their 69-kV transmission system south of Canby. SVEC's substation can accommodate only about 10 percent of the expected additional electric load. BPA's proposed action is intended to meet SVEC's increasing electric load. BPA proposes to meet SVEC's increasing energy load by tapping into BPA's existing BPA Malin-Warner 230-kV transmission line, and building an 7.9-mile transmission line to a new BPA substation. BPA proposes to build the new substation next to the west side of SVEC's Canby Substation (Figure 1). This new substation will allow SVEC to move the additional power over their existing transmission or distribution lines. This report is the environmental assessment of the potential impact of the proposed project. The assessment determined that no environmental impact statement'' is not required.

  7. Canby Area Service Project substation and associated transmission line. Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides power to Surprise Valley Electrification Corporation (SVEC) in Modoc County, California. BPA uses PacificCorp`s substation and transmission facilities between Alturas and Canby, California to transfer power to SVEC`s Canby Substation. In the next year, SVEC expects increased industrial, agricultural, and residential electric loads on their 69-kV transmission system south of Canby. SVEC`s substation can accommodate only about 10 percent of the expected additional electric load. BPA`s proposed action is intended to meet SVEC`s increasing electric load. BPA proposes to meet SVEC`s increasing energy load by tapping into BPA`s existing BPA Malin-Warner 230-kV transmission line, and building an 7.9-mile transmission line to a new BPA substation. BPA proposes to build the new substation next to the west side of SVEC`s Canby Substation (Figure 1). This new substation will allow SVEC to move the additional power over their existing transmission or distribution lines. This report is the environmental assessment of the potential impact of the proposed project. The assessment determined that no ``environmental impact statement`` is not required.

  8. Optical spectrophotometry of Wolf-Rayet galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacca, William D.; Conti, Peter S.

    1992-01-01

    We have obtained long-slit optical spectra of 10 Wolf-Rayet galaxies and four other starburst galaxies. Using the nebular emission lines we have determined the electron temperatures, electron densities, extinctions, oxygen abundances, mass of ionized hydrogen, and numbers of ionizing photons due to hot stars in these galaxies. The various forbidden line ratios clearly indicate a stellar origin for the emission-line spectrum. From the flux of the broad He II 4686 A emission feature we have estimated the number of Wolf-Rayet stars present. We have accounted for the contribution of these stars to the total ionizing flux and have calculated the ratio of the number of these stars to the number of O stars. Wolf-Rayet galaxies are among the youngest examples of the starburst phenomenon, which we observed at a propitious moment.

  9. Towards the Smart Grid: Substation Automation Architecture and Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Leonardi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with Industrial Control Systems (ICS of the electrical sector and especially on the Smart Grid. This sector has been particularly active at establishing new standards to improve interoperability between all sector players, driven by the liberalization of the market and the introduction of distributed generation of energy. The paper provides a state-of-the-art analysis on architectures, technologies, communication protocols, applications, and information standards mainly focusing on substation automation in the transmission and distribution domain. The analysis shows that there is tremendous effort from the Smart Grid key stakeholders to improve interoperability across the different components managing an electrical grid, from field processes to market exchanges, allowing the information flowing more and more freely across applications and domains and creating opportunity for new applications that are not any more constraint to a single domain.

  10. The Timber Wolf: Hands-On Activities for Elementary Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Donald G.; Oh, Bobbie S.

    The focus of this manual is the timber wolf and its experience in the United States. The activities are designed to enable students to gain a factual understanding of the timber wolf, question any misinformation they have learned regarding wolves, and learn to appreciate the wolf as a creature of nature rather than fear it as a creature of fairy…

  11. The Application of Preventative and Diagnostic System for 765kV Substation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kweon, D. J.; Choi, I. H.; Yoo, Y. P. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute (Korea); Jung, S. H.; Choi, Y. J. [Korea Electric Power Corporation (Korea); Choi, D. H.; Kim, K. K. [Hyosung Co., Ltd. (Korea)

    2000-07-01

    In this paper we introduce preventative and diagnostic systems developed to prevent substations from accidental fault of electric power transmitting apparatus. We propose monitoring and diagnostic system for ultra high voltage GIS and main transformer of 765kV substations as an example of preventative and diagnostic techniques being applied in Korea. We also present a guideline to construct and manage an expert system for this purpose. Finally, an engineering solution as a substation management support system is proposed. (author). 2 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  12. Wolf equations for two-photon light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Bahaa E A; Teich, Malvin C; Sergienko, Alexander V

    2005-06-10

    The spatiotemporal two-photon probability amplitude that describes light in a two-photon entangled state obeys equations identical to the Wolf equations, which are satisfied by the mutual coherence function for light in any quantum state. Both functions therefore propagate similarly through optical systems. A generalized van Cittert-Zernike theorem explains the predicted enhancement in resolution for entangled-photon microscopy and quantum lithography. The Wolf equations provide a particularly powerful analytical tool for studying three-dimensional imaging and lithography since they describe propagation in continuous inhomogeneous media.

  13. A Traction Three-Phase to Single-Phase Cascade Converter Substation in an Advanced Traction Power Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiong He

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The advanced traction power supply system (ATPSS is a new directional development for traction power supply systems, which can totally remove the neutral sections and effectively promote power quality. However, the existing converters suffer from small substation capacity. In this paper, a new configuration based on a three-level neutral point clamped (3L-NPC three-phase to single-phase cascade converter in a substation is proposed for ATPSS, which can be used to match the capacity of the converter for high voltage and large power applications. The control strategy of the proposed converter is analyzed in depth, and the phase disposition sinusoidal pulse width modulation (PD-SPWM with phase shift carrier SPWM (PSC-SPWM is employed in the inverters. Then, the inductance equalizing circuit is applied for the voltage balance on the DC-link. Besides, a LC filter circuit is designed to eliminate the double line-frequency ripple of DC voltage. Afterwards, a simulation model and an experimental prototype are developed, respectively. The simulation results show that the proposed converter in this paper can not only meet the requirements of voltage and capacity for the traction network, but also improve power quality. Finally, the experimental results verify the correctness and feasibility of the proposed control strategy.

  14. Measuring Occupational Exposure to Extremely Low-Frequency Electric Fields at 220 kV Substations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkkalainen, Herkko; Heiskanen, Timo; Tonteri, Juhani; Elovaara, Jarmo; Mika, Penttilä; Korpinen, Leena

    2017-11-01

    Earlier studies conducted at 400 and 110 kV substations in Finland have shown that the occupational exposure to electric fields can exceed the action levels (ALs) set by Directive 2013/35/EU. This is a case study investigating the level of occupational exposure experienced by workers at 220 kV substations in order to determine if the actions levels are being exceeded. The measurements were conducted at two old 220 kV substations in Finland. The higher AL of 20 kV m-1 was exceeded at both substations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Perspective loads of transformer substations at development of urban power supply systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Guseva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In work the system approach to formation of the urban power supply system is given. The hierarchical structure of the construction, voltage levels and load densities is considered. The mathematical and geometrical modeling of service areas for transformer substations of diff erent voltage is fulfi lled. Determination of perspective loads of transformer substations is given. The method of graphic placement of transformer substations in the city territory for new substations at existing structure of networks is off ered. The calculation program Microsoft EXCEL and the graphic program AutoCad are used for realization of method. The method allows fi nding a rational decision for the development of urban power supply system on the beginning design stages in conditions of the information uncertainty.

  16. Implementation of superconducting fault current limiter for flexible operation in the power substation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chong Suk; Lee, Hansang; Cho, Yoon-sung; Suh, Jaewan; Jang, Gilsoo

    2014-09-01

    The concentration of large-scale power loads located in the metropolitan areas have resulted in high fault current levels during a fault thereby requiring the substation to operate in the double busbar configuration mode. However, the double busbar configuration mode results in deterioration of power system reliability and unbalanced power flow in the adjacent transmission lines which may result in issues such as overloading of lines. This paper proposes the implementation of the superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) to be installed between the two substation busbars for a more efficient and flexible operation of the substation enabling both single and double busbar configurations depending on the system conditions for guaranteeing power system reliability as well as fault current limitations. Case studies are being performed for the effectiveness of the SFCL installation and results are compared for the cases where the substation is operating in single and double busbar mode and with and without the installation of the SFCL for fault current mitigation.

  17. MACsec Layer 2 Security in HSR Rings in Substation Automation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Lázaro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The smart-grid concept takes the communications from the enclosed and protected environment of a substation to the wider city or nationwide area. In this environment, cyber security takes a key role in order to secure the communications. The challenge is to be able to secure the grid without impacting the latency while, at the same time, maintaining compatibility with older devices and non secure services. At the lower level, added security must not interfere with the redundancy and the latency required for the real-time substation automation communications. This paper studies how to integrate IEEE MAC Security standard (MACsec in the substation environment, especially when used in substation system communications

  18. Music Activities for "Little Wolf's Song"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2015-01-01

    Drawn from Britta Techentrup's children's book "Little Wolf's Song", the author shares music activities appropriate for preschool and children in primary grades. Children will enjoy Technentrup's tender family story, while exploring vocal and instrumental timbres, as well as reading, writing, and creating with melodic contour.

  19. Hyperkahler cones and orthogonal Wolf spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anguelova, L.K.; Rocek, M.; Vandoren, S.

    2002-01-01

    We construct the hyperk¨ahler cones corresponding to the quaternion-K¨ahler orthogonal Wolf spaces SO(n+4)/ SO(n)×SO(4) and their non-compact versions, which appear in hypermultiplet couplings to N = 2 supergravity. The geometry is completely encoded by a single function, the hyperk¨ahler

  20. Computer simulation of vasectomy for wolf control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haight, R.G.; Mech, L.D.

    1997-01-01

    Recovering gray wolf (Canis lupus) populations in the Lake Superior region of the United States are prompting state management agencies to consider strategies to control population growth. In addition to wolf removal, vasectomy has been proposed. To predict the population effects of different sterilization and removal strategies, we developed a simulation model of wolf dynamics using simple rules for demography and dispersal. Simulations suggested that the effects of vasectomy and removal in a disjunct population depend largely on the degree of annual immigration. With low immigration, periodic sterilization reduced pup production and resulted in lower rates of territory recolonization. Consequently, average pack size, number of packs, and population size were significantly less than those for an untreated population. Periodically removing a proportion of the population produced roughly the same trends as did sterilization; however, more than twice as many wolves had to be removed than sterilized. With high immigration, periodic sterilization reduced pup production but not territory recolonization and produced only moderate reductions in population size relative to an untreated population. Similar reductions in population size were obtained by periodically removing large numbers of wolves. Our analysis does not address the possible effects of vasectomy on larger wolf populations, but it suggests that the subject should be considered through modeling or field testing.

  1. 1987 wolf survey, Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A total of 60 observations of wolf track(s) were recorded and 12 wolves were observed (groups of 3, 3, 4 and. 2) (Figure 2). Tracks were observed along all of the...

  2. The Cattle-Wolf Dilemma: Interactions among Three Protected Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Nir; Farja, Yanay

    2017-02-01

    This paper utilizes economic valuation to offer a new perspective on livestock rancher—predator conflicts. While most studies have considered losses to the species directly involved, i.e., cattle and wolves ( Canis lupus), we take into account other species that are threatened by efforts to protect livestock. In this case, vultures ( Gyps fulvus) and gazelles ( Gazella gazella), both endangered species, are either poisoned (vultures) or suffer from habitat fragmentation (gazelles) in the Upper Galilee region in Israel. Since the ecological value of these species is unobserved in the marketplace, we use the contingent valuation method to quantify the loss incurred from damage to protected species: wolves, vultures and gazelles. This method uses surveys of a representative sample from the population to generate estimates for use and non-use values of animals and other components of the natural environment. These value estimates are then used to compare between different measures that address the problem: either protect cattle herds by building anti-wolf fences and taking other protective measures, or compensating ranchers for their losses from wolf depredations. Our analysis suggests that while it is optimal from the ranchers' point of view to invest in protective measures such as fences, dogs and guards against wolves, it is not in society's best interest. A cost-benefit analysis taking into account all the ecological values finds a higher net benefit to society from a relatively small amount of protection, coupled with compensation to the farmers for depredations.

  3. Electric and magnetic field testing in vicinity of 110/x kV substations

    OpenAIRE

    Grbić Maja; Pavlović Aleksandar; Hrvić Dejan; Vulević Branislav

    2016-01-01

    The levels of non-ionizing radiation (electric and magnetic fields) at power frequency, which occur near 110/x kV substations are analyzed in this paper. The results of electric field strength and magnetic flux density measurements in the vicinity of three typical substations of the aforementioned voltage level are shown. With the purpose of estimating the exposure of the population to these fields, the obtained results were compared to the reference maximum levels set for increased sensitivi...

  4. Static Electricity as Part of Electromagnetic Environment on High-Voltage Electrical Substation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Fursanov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Causes of occurrences electrostatic discharges (ESD on high-voltage electric substation were investigated and dependences values ESD’s on parameters interaction structures, humidity of air were found. Experimental research values ESD’s on high-voltage electric substation and in man-made conditions was fulfilled. Uncertainty measurement’s was taken into consideration by research results analyze. Matching with research of other authors was made. Danger ESD’s for electric devises was established.

  5. Effects of wolf mortality on livestock depredations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B Wielgus

    Full Text Available Predator control and sport hunting are often used to reduce predator populations and livestock depredations, but the efficacy of lethal control has rarely been tested. We assessed the effects of wolf mortality on reducing livestock depredations in Idaho, Montana and Wyoming from 1987-2012 using a 25 year time series. The number of livestock depredated, livestock populations, wolf population estimates, number of breeding pairs, and wolves killed were calculated for the wolf-occupied area of each state for each year. The data were then analyzed using a negative binomial generalized linear model to test for the expected negative relationship between the number of livestock depredated in the current year and the number of wolves controlled the previous year. We found that the number of livestock depredated was positively associated with the number of livestock and the number of breeding pairs. However, we also found that the number of livestock depredated the following year was positively, not negatively, associated with the number of wolves killed the previous year. The odds of livestock depredations increased 4% for sheep and 5-6% for cattle with increased wolf control--up until wolf mortality exceeded the mean intrinsic growth rate of wolves at 25%. Possible reasons for the increased livestock depredations at ≤25% mortality may be compensatory increased breeding pairs and numbers of wolves following increased mortality. After mortality exceeded 25%, the total number of breeding pairs, wolves, and livestock depredations declined. However, mortality rates exceeding 25% are unsustainable over the long term. Lethal control of individual depredating wolves may sometimes necessary to stop depredations in the near-term, but we recommend that non-lethal alternatives also be considered.

  6. Algorithms for the evaluation of the reliability of networks and substations; Algoritmos para evaluar la confiabilidad de redes y subestaciones electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega Ortiz, Miguel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    Two algorithms are presented, one for analyzing the reliability of networks and another one to analyzing the reliability of electrical substations. The algorithms model a network or a substation by means of a graph and determine all the exits, of up to third degree, which isolates the load points. The algorithm that is used for the network analysis, is the one of p-cuts and in the case of the substations it is the one of minimum ways, for later, from these minimum p-cuts and of the minimum ways, obtains the minimum cuts. These minimum cuts are evaluated with the approximate method and give as a result the system reliability and of each one of the components that have been modeled. At the end some examples and results obtained are shown. As case of study, the algorithm is applied to two substations arrangements and to a network of industrial distribution, but it is possible to be applied to transmission and distribution networks. [Spanish] Se presentan dos algoritmos, uno para analizar la confiabilidad de redes y otro para analizar la confiabilidad de subestaciones electricas. Los algoritmos modelan una red o una subestacion por medio de un grafo y determinan todas las salidas, de hasta tercer grado, que aislan los puntos de carga. El algoritmo que se utiliza para el analisis de redes, es el de p-cortes y en el caso de las subestaciones es el de caminos minimos, para despues, a partir de estos p-cortes minimos y de los caminos minimos, obtener los cortes minimos. Estos cortes minimos se evaluan con el metodo aproximado y dan como resultado la confiabilidad del sistema y de cada una de las componentes que se hayan modelado. Al final se muestran algunos ejemplos y resultados obtenidos. Como caso de estudio, el algoritmo se aplica a dos arreglos de subestaciones y a una red de distribucion industrial, pero se puede aplicar a redes de transmision y de distribucion.

  7. Offshore substation workers’ exposure to harmful factors – Actions minimizing risk of hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Janusz Piotrowski

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The current development of electric power industry in Poland, especially in the field of renewable energy sources, including wind power, brings about the need to introduce legislation on new work environment. The development of occupational safety and health (OSH regulations that must be met by new workplaces, such as offshore substations becomes necessary in view of the construction of modern offshore wind power plants – offshore wind farms. Staying on offshore substation is associated with an increased exposure to harmful health factors: physical, chemical, biological and psychophysical. The main sources of health risks on offshore substations are: temperature, electromagnetic field, noise from operating wind turbines, direct and alternating current, chemicals, Legionella bacteria and social isolation of people. The aim of this article is to draw attention to the problem of offshore substation workers’ exposure to harmful factors and to present methods of preventing and reducing the risk-related adverse health effects. In this paper, there are identified and described risks occurring on offshore substations (fire, explosion, lightning, accidents at work. Some examples of the means and the methods for reducing the negative impact of exposure on the human health are presented and discussed. The article also highlights the need to develop appropriate laws and health and safety regulations concerning the new working environment at the offshore substations. The review of researches and international standards shows that some of them can be introduced into the Polish labor market. Med Pr 2016;67(1:51–72

  8. NEW APPROACHES TO MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRING OF THE TRACTION SUBSTATIONS EQUIPMENT ON ELECTRIFIED RAILWAYS ON THE BASIS OF SMART-TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Matusevich

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. At the stage of modernization and reconstruction of electrified railroads in Ukraine one should take into account the innovative development level of all electric supply subjects on the basis of advanced technologies. Determination the ways to increase the power supply reliability of electrified railways and reducing the accidents of the traction substation power equipment (TS. Methodology. For attainment a goal it’s studied the international experience on qualitative power supply of the electrical railways at the basis of the ideology of Smart Grid. It’s conducted a research of the major methods of technical servicing, repairing (TS and R and diagnostics the traction substation devices of electrified railways. Findings. As a result of research it was concluded that the basis of the new methods of maintenance and repearing is analysis of the risks of operation of the weared equipment or equipment with some defects (maintenance of equipment on the basis of the actual technical condition. It’s also concluded that the conceptual definitions of Smart Grid point to the important role of smart grid technology to the economic development of the electrical system. Significant world experience of maintenance and repairing at the basis of the actual technical state shows the following general assessment of the effectiveness of this method: reducing maintenance costs by 75%, reducing the number of services up to 50%, reduction the number of failures by 70% in the first year. Originality. As a research and improvement result of the maintenance and repairing system of traction substations, the author has proposed the concept of maintenance and repairing intelligent system, monitoring and diagnostic of technical process equipment. The basic components of the system are proposed. It’s proposed a maintenance of the equipment of traction substation at the actual technical state with better resource parameters. In the normative document for

  9. ω to β Transformation in Group IV B Elements: Hugoniot Discontinuities and Relation with d Substates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, K. D.; Jyoti, G.; Gupta, Satish C.; Sikka, S. K.

    2001-06-01

    The ω (hexagonal) to β (bcc) transformation in Zr and Hf occurs at 30 and 71 GPa under static pressures with corresponding Hugoniot discontinuities around 26 and 60 GPa. This transition has not been found in Ti up to 87 GPa. Our FP-LAPW calculations predict an ω-β transition in Ti around 118 GPa (V/V_o= 0.63) along isotherm. The temperatures near this compression estimated from our theoretical Hugoniot are much above its melting point suggesting that ω-β transition may not occur along the Hugoniot. The ω to β transition pressures, 118, 30 and 71 GPa for Ti, Zr and Hf, respectively, do not follow the trend implied by the principle of corresponding states. We have analysed the causes for this anomalous trend. We observe that the ω-β transition depends on how the increased d-poulation due to s-d transfer under pressure is distributed in the different d-substates. For example, at ambient condition, bcc phase is unstable and the difference between the average charges in the bcc stabilizing d-t_2g state and the destabilizing d-eg state are 0.008, 0.082 and 0.013 for Ti, Zr and Hf, respectively. Compression increases this difference and stablizes bcc structure when it becomes about 0.1. The charge transfer needed for stablizing β structure is highest for Ti followed by Hf and then Zr, in line with the trend in transition pressures.

  10. Digest of "Utilization of Electric Vehicles Connected to Distribution Substations for Peak Shaving of Utility Network Loads"

    OpenAIRE

    Mägi, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Use of modern electric vehicles and their effective integration into power grids depends on the technologies applied around distribution substations. Distribution substations equipped with energy storing and V2G capability enable peak load shaving and demand response, which will reduce the need to make new investments into building new power sources or power grids to meet peak demand. This paper presents a distribution substation topology for utilizing electric vehicles as energy resource uni...

  11. Big bad wolf or man's best friend? Unmasking a false wolf aggression on humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caniglia, R; Galaverni, M; Delogu, M; Fabbri, E; Musto, C; Randi, E

    2016-09-01

    The return of the wolf in its historical range is raising social conflicts with local communities for the perceived potential threat to people safety. In this study we applied molecular methods to solve an unusual case of wolf attack towards a man in the Northern Italian Apennines. We analysed seven biological samples, collected from the clothes of the injured man, using mtDNA sequences, the Amelogenin gene, 39 unlinked autosomal and four Y-linked microsatellites. Results indicated that the aggression was conducted by a male dog and not by a wolf nor a wolf x dog hybrid. Our findings were later confirmed by the victim, who confessed he had been attacked by the guard dog of a neighbour. The genetic profile of the owned dog perfectly matched with that identified from the samples previously collected. Our results prove once again that the wolf does not currently represent a risk for human safety in developed countries, whereas most animal aggressions are carried out by its domestic relative, the dog. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Is incest common in gray wolf packs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Deborah E; Meier, Thomas J.; Geffen, Eli; Mech, L. David; Burch, John W.; Adams, Layne G.; Wayne, Robert K.

    1997-01-01

    Wolf packs generally consist of a breeding pair and their maturing offspring that help provision and protect pack young. Because the reproductive tenure in wolves is often short, reproductively mature offspring might replace their parents, resulting in sibling or parent-offspring matings. To determine the extent of incestuous pairings, we measured relatedness based on variability in 20 microsatellite loci of mated pairs, parent-offspring pairs, and siblings in two populations of gray wolves. Our 16 sampled mated pairs had values of relatedness not overlapping those of known parent-offspring or sibling dyads, which is consistent with their being unrelated or distantly related. These results suggest that full siblings or a parent and its offspring rarely mate and that incest avoidance is an important constraint on gray wolf behavioral ecology.

  13. DNA phylogeny of the marsupial wolf resolved.

    OpenAIRE

    Krajewski, C; Buckley, L; Westerman, M.

    1997-01-01

    The phylogenetic position of the recently extinct marsupial 'wolf', or thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus), has been a source of contention in mammalian systematics for nearly a century. Thylacines were endemic to Australasia, but possessed striking anatomical similarities to Oligo-Miocene borhyaenid marsupials of South America. At issue has been whether these features are indicative of common ancestry or convergent adaptation to carnivory. Recent morphological studies have supported both con...

  14. Sleeping distance in wild wolf packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knick, S.T.; Mech, L.D.

    1980-01-01

    Sleeping distances were observed among members of 13 wild wolf (Canis lupus) packs and 11 pairs in northeastern Minnesota to determine if the distances correlated with pack size and composition. The study utilized aerial radio-tracking and observation during winter. Pack size and number of adults per pack were inversely related to pack average sleeping distance and variability. No correlation between sleeping distance and microclimate was observed. Possible relationships between social bonding and our results are discussed.

  15. Osteological and genetic analysis of the extinct Ezo wolf (Canis lupus hattai) from Hokkaido Island, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Naotaka; Inoshima, Yasuo; Shigehara, Nobuo; Ichikawa, Hideo; Kato, Masaru

    2010-04-01

    The Ezo wolf (Canis lupus hattai Kishida, 1931 ) is an extinct subspecies that inhabited Hokkaido in Japan until the middle of the Meiji Period. Because there are very few preserved skeletons, no osteological and/or genetic analyses of the Ezo wolf have been conducted. In this study, 20 cranial and eight mandibular characters were measured on Ezo wolf skeletons, and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was analyzed to assess genetic relationships between the Ezo wolf and other wolf lineages, including the Japanese wolf on Honshu. The morphological study showed that the Ezo wolf is larger than the Japanese wolf and similar in size to the grey wolf of the Asian and American Continents. MtDNA control sequences (751 bp) from two Ezo wolves were identical to those from the Canadian grey wolf. The morphological and genetic characters indicate that the ancestor of the Ezo wolf was genetically related to that of the grey wolf in Canada.

  16. Implementation of superconducting fault current limiter for flexible operation in the power substation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chong Suk, E-mail: chong_suk@korea.ac.kr [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Anam dong, Seonbukgu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hansang [School of Railway and Electrical Engineering, Kyungil University, Hayang-eup, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-701 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Yoon-sung [Department of Electric and Energy Engineering, Catholic University of Daegu, Hayang-eup, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-702 (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Jaewan [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Anam dong, Seonbukgu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Gilsoo, E-mail: gjang@korea.ac.kr [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Anam dong, Seonbukgu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • The power load concentrated in load centers results in high levels of fault current. • This paper introduces a fault current reduction scheme using SFCLs in substations. • The SFCL is connected in parallel to the bus tie between the two busbars. • The fault current mitigation using SFCLs is verified through PSS/e simulations. - Abstract: The concentration of large-scale power loads located in the metropolitan areas have resulted in high fault current levels during a fault thereby requiring the substation to operate in the double busbar configuration mode. However, the double busbar configuration mode results in deterioration of power system reliability and unbalanced power flow in the adjacent transmission lines which may result in issues such as overloading of lines. This paper proposes the implementation of the superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) to be installed between the two substation busbars for a more efficient and flexible operation of the substation enabling both single and double busbar configurations depending on the system conditions for guaranteeing power system reliability as well as fault current limitations. Case studies are being performed for the effectiveness of the SFCL installation and results are compared for the cases where the substation is operating in single and double busbar mode and with and without the installation of the SFCL for fault current mitigation.

  17. Application of service oriented architecture for sensors and actuators in district heating substations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Jonas; Kyusakov, Rumen; Mäkitaavola, Henrik; Delsing, Jerker

    2014-08-21

    Hardwired sensor installations using proprietary protocols found in today's district heating substations limit the potential usability of the sensors in and around the substations. If sensor resources can be shared and re-used in a variety of applications, the cost of sensors and installation can be reduced, and their functionality and operability can be increased. In this paper, we present a new concept of district heating substation control and monitoring, where a service oriented architecture (SOA) is deployed in a wireless sensor network (WSN), which is integrated with the substation. IP-networking is exclusively used from sensor to server; hence, no middleware is needed for Internet integration. Further, by enabling thousands of sensors with SOA capabilities, a System of Systems approach can be applied. The results of this paper show that it is possible to utilize SOA solutions with heavily resource-constrained embedded devices in contexts where the real-time constrains are limited, such as in a district heating substation.

  18. Characteristic Analysis of DC Electric Railway Systems with Superconducting Power Cables Connecting Power Substations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsaki, H.; Matsushita, N.; Koseki, T.; Tomita, M.

    2014-05-01

    The application of superconducting power cables to DC electric railway systems has been studied. It could leads to an effective use of regenerative brake, improved energy efficiency, effective load sharing among the substations, etc. In this study, an electric circuit model of a DC feeding system is built and numerical simulation is carried out using MATLAB-Simulink software. A modified electric circuit model with an AC power grid connection taken into account is also created to simulate the influence of the grid connection. The analyses have proved that a certain amount of energy can be conserved by introducing superconducting cables, and that electric load distribution and concentration among the substations depend on the substation output voltage distribution.

  19. Electric and magnetic field testing in vicinity of 110/x kV substations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grbić Maja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of non-ionizing radiation (electric and magnetic fields at power frequency, which occur near 110/x kV substations are analyzed in this paper. The results of electric field strength and magnetic flux density measurements in the vicinity of three typical substations of the aforementioned voltage level are shown. With the purpose of estimating the exposure of the population to these fields, the obtained results were compared to the reference maximum levels set for increased sensitivity areas, which amount to 2 kV/m for electric field and 40 μT for magnetic flux density. The objective of the conducted analysis is to reach general conclusions on the levels of electric and magnetic fields, which may occur in the vicinity of the substations mentioned above, and evaluate their compliance with the national regulations on the population protection from non-ionizing radiation.

  20. [Offshore substation workers' exposure to harmful factors - Actions minimizing risk of hazards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Paweł Janusz; Robak, Sylwester; Polewaczyk, Mateusz Maksymilian; Raczkowski, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The current development of electric power industry in Poland, especially in the field of renewable energy sources, including wind power, brings about the need to introduce legislation on new work environment. The development of occupational safety and health (OSH) regulations that must be met by new workplaces, such as offshore substations becomes necessary in view of the construction of modern offshore wind power plants - offshore wind farms. Staying on offshore substation is associated with an increased exposure to harmful health factors: physical, chemical, biological and psychophysical. The main sources of health risks on offshore substations are: temperature, electromagnetic field, noise from operating wind turbines, direct and alternating current, chemicals, Legionella bacteria and social isolation of people. The aim of this article is to draw attention to the problem of offshore substation workers' exposure to harmful factors and to present methods of preventing and reducing the risk-related adverse health effects. In this paper, there are identified and described risks occurring on offshore substations (fire, explosion, lightning, accidents at work). Some examples of the means and the methods for reducing the negative impact of exposure on the human health are presented and discussed. The article also highlights the need to develop appropriate laws and health and safety regulations concerning the new working environment at the offshore substations. The review of researches and international standards shows that some of them can be introduced into the Polish labor market. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  1. Determination of exposure to electric fields in extra high voltage substations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövstrand, K G

    1976-09-01

    Electrophysical effects related to extra high voltage are surveyed for the determination of the exposure of personnel to electric fields in substations. It is concluded that the electric field strengths and the electrical discharges to the personnel are the important electrophysical factors. Instruments for measuring the field strength at grounded surfaces and at nonzero potentials were constructed. Results are presented of measurements with these instruments in substations. A dummy was used for the measurement of the distribution of capacitive currents to a man. The dummy can also be used for measuring the effectiveness of special shielding clothes.

  2. Automated system for load flow prediction in power substations using artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlys Michel Lastre Aleaga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The load flow is of great importance in assisting the process of decision making and planning of generation, distribution and transmission of electricity. Ignorance of the values in this indicator, as well as their inappropriate prediction, difficult decision making and efficiency of the electricity service, and can cause undesirable situations such as; the on demand, overheating of the components that make up a substation, and incorrect planning processes electricity generation and distribution. Given the need for prediction of flow of electric charge of the substations in Ecuador this research proposes the concept for the development of an automated prediction system employing the use of Artificial Neural Networks.

  3. Evaluation of wolf impacts on cattle productivity and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have initiated and employed an Adaptive Management System (AMS) to document the effects of gray wolves on cattle production systems in Oregon and Idaho. The project has collected information on cattle movement on land in both wolf common and wolf rare areas with GPS collars that record positions ...

  4. Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) death by stick impalement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon; Schmidt, Lori; Mech, L. David

    2017-01-01

    Although Canis lupus L. (Gray Wolf) individuals are sometimes impaled by sticks, we could find no documentation of natural impalement by sticks as a cause of death for wild Wolves. Here we report on a wild Gray Wolf from northeastern Minnesota that died due to stick puncture of its thorax and abdomen.

  5. Long GRBs from Binary Stars: Runaway, Wolf-Rayet Progenitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cantiello, M.; Yoon, S.C.; Langer, N.; Livio, M.

    2007-01-01

    The collapsar model for long gamma-ray bursts requires a rapidly rotating Wolf-Rayet star as progenitor. We test the idea of producing rapidly rotating Wolf-Rayet stars in massive close binaries through mass accretion and consecutive quasi-chemically homogeneous evolution - the latter had previously

  6. Prospects for Mexican gray wolf recovery in the Sky Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Robinson

    2005-01-01

    [First paragraph] On November 1, 1917, the first Mexican gray wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) of many to follow was killed by the Federal government in Arizona. The female animal was one of a pair of the diminutive subspecies of the much more widely distributed gray wolf (Canis lupus). Typical of their kind, and of the arid and less...

  7. Bear-baiting may exacerbate wolf-hunting dog conflict.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph K Bump

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The influence of policy on the incidence of human-wildlife conflict can be complex and not entirely anticipated. Policies for managing bear hunter success and depredation on hunting dogs by wolves represent an important case because with increasing wolves, depredations are expected to increase. This case is challenging because compensation for wolf depredation on hunting dogs as compared to livestock is less common and more likely to be opposed. Therefore, actions that minimize the likelihood of such conflicts are a conservation need. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used data from two US states with similar wolf populations but markedly different wolf/hunting dog depredation patterns to examine the influence of bear hunting regulations, bear hunter to wolf ratios, hunter method, and hunter effort on wolf depredation trends. Results indicated that the ratio of bear hunting permits sold per wolf, and hunter method are important factors affecting wolf depredation trends in the Upper Great Lakes region, but strong differences exist between Michigan and Wisconsin related in part to the timing and duration of bear-baiting (i.e., free feeding. The probability that a wolf depredated a bear-hunting dog increases with the duration of bear-baiting, resulting in a relative risk of depredation 2.12-7.22× greater in Wisconsin than Michigan. The net effect of compensation for hunting dog depredation in Wisconsin may also contribute to the difference between states. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results identified a potential tradeoff between bear hunting success and wolf/bear-hunting dog conflict. These results indicate that management options to minimize conflict exist, such as adjusting baiting regulations. If reducing depredations is an important goal, this analysis indicates that actions aside from (or in addition to reducing wolf abundance might achieve that goal. This study also stresses the need to better understand the relationship

  8. Bear-baiting may exacerbate wolf-hunting dog conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bump, Joseph K; Murawski, Chelsea M; Kartano, Linda M; Beyer, Dean E; Roell, Brian J

    2013-01-01

    The influence of policy on the incidence of human-wildlife conflict can be complex and not entirely anticipated. Policies for managing bear hunter success and depredation on hunting dogs by wolves represent an important case because with increasing wolves, depredations are expected to increase. This case is challenging because compensation for wolf depredation on hunting dogs as compared to livestock is less common and more likely to be opposed. Therefore, actions that minimize the likelihood of such conflicts are a conservation need. We used data from two US states with similar wolf populations but markedly different wolf/hunting dog depredation patterns to examine the influence of bear hunting regulations, bear hunter to wolf ratios, hunter method, and hunter effort on wolf depredation trends. Results indicated that the ratio of bear hunting permits sold per wolf, and hunter method are important factors affecting wolf depredation trends in the Upper Great Lakes region, but strong differences exist between Michigan and Wisconsin related in part to the timing and duration of bear-baiting (i.e., free feeding). The probability that a wolf depredated a bear-hunting dog increases with the duration of bear-baiting, resulting in a relative risk of depredation 2.12-7.22× greater in Wisconsin than Michigan. The net effect of compensation for hunting dog depredation in Wisconsin may also contribute to the difference between states. These results identified a potential tradeoff between bear hunting success and wolf/bear-hunting dog conflict. These results indicate that management options to minimize conflict exist, such as adjusting baiting regulations. If reducing depredations is an important goal, this analysis indicates that actions aside from (or in addition to) reducing wolf abundance might achieve that goal. This study also stresses the need to better understand the relationship among baiting practices, the effect of compensation on hunter behavior, and depredation

  9. Infections and parasitic diseases of the gray wolf and their potential effects on wolf populations in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, C.J.; Pybus, M.J.; Ballard, W.B.; Peterson, R.O.

    1995-01-01

    Numerous infections and parasitic diseases have been reported for the gray wolf, including more than 10 viral, bacterial, and mycotic disease and more than 70 species of helminths and ectoparasites. However, few studies have documented the role of diseases in population dynamics. Disease can affect wolf populations directly by causing mortality or indirectly by affecting physiological and homeostatic processes, thriftiness, reproduction, behavior, or social structure. In addition, wolves are hosts to diseases that can affect prey species, thus affecting wolf populations indirectly by reducing prey abundance or increasing vulnerability to predation. Diseases such as canine distemper and infectious canine hepatitis are enzootic in wolf populations, whereas rabies occurs in wolves primarily as a result of transmission from other species such as artic and red foxes. Contact between wolves and domestic pets and livestock may affect the composition of diseases in wolves and their effects on wolf populations. Dogs were suspected of introducing lice and canine parovirus to several wolf populations. THe potential for disease to affect wolf populations and other wild and domestic animals should be considered in wolf management plans, particularly in plans for reintroduction of wolves to area within their former range.

  10. Wolf, wolf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    des-Benz en herehuis in Rondebosch), 'n sta- biele huwelik met 'n vrou, suksesvolle kinders en 'n Christelike geloofsoortuiging. Aan die ander kant is daar Mattheüs, Jack en Mattheüs se oom, Hannes wat nie inskakel by die dominante heteronormatiewe kultuur nie. Hul homoseksuele oriëntasie sluit hulle uit—hulle word ...

  11. Living on the edge: reconstructing the genetic history of the Finnish wolf population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Eeva; Harmoinen, Jenni; Ruokonen, Minna; Aspi, Jouni

    2014-03-28

    Many western European carnivore populations became almost or completely eradicated during the last ~200 years, but are now recovering. Extirpation of wolves started in Finland in the 19th century, and for more than 150 years the population size of wolves has remained small. To investigate historical patterns of genetic variation, we extracted DNA from 114 wolf samples collected in zoological museums over the last ~150 years. Fifteen microsatellite loci were used to look at genotypic variation in this historical sample. Additionally, we amplified a 430 bp sequence of mtDNA control region from the same samples. Contemporary wolf samples (N = 298) obtained after the population recovery in the mid-1990s, were used as a reference. Our analyses of mtDNA revealed reduced variation in the mtDNA control region through the loss of historical haplotypes observed prior to wolf declines. Heterozygosity at autosomal microsatellite loci did not decrease significantly. However, almost 20% of microsatellite alleles were unique to wolves collected before the 1960s. The genetic composition of the population changed gradually with the largest changes occurring prior to 1920. Half of the oldest historical samples formed a distinguishable genetic cluster not detected in the modern-day Finnish or Russian samples, and might therefore represent northern genetic variation lost from today's gene pool. Point estimates of Ne were small (13.2 and 20.5) suggesting population fragmentation. Evidence of a genetic population bottleneck was also detected. Our genetic analyses confirm changes in the genetic composition of the Finnish wolf population through time, despite the geographic interconnectivity to a much larger population in Russia. Our results emphasize the need for restoration of the historical connectivity between the present wolf populations to secure long-term viability. This might be challenging, however, because the management policies between Western and Eastern Europe often

  12. An Auto Tuning Substation Peak Shaving Controller for Congestion Management Using Flexible Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sossan, Fabrizio; Marinelli, Mattia

    2013-01-01

    A closed loop substation peak shaving/congestion management controller for radial distribution networks is presented. The controller it uses an individual control signal in order to shift the consumption of a population of demand side resources, DSRs. The controller auto tunes its parameters on...

  13. [Risk of electromagnetic fields in electric power stations and substations of a petrochemical plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnoli, A; Fabri, G; Romeo, A

    2003-01-01

    Authors evaluate electromagnetic field exposure in the low-frequency range (5-30,000 Hz) in electric power stations and substations of petroleum processing plant. According to the measured values and the reference exposure limits considered, they conclude that operators should be exposed without adverse effects.

  14. Procedures and criteria for increasing the earthquake resistance level of electrical substations and special installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couch, R.W.; Deacon, R.J.

    1973-09-30

    This report defines a procedure and provides basic information needed to determine the modifications required to make electrical substations and special installations of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) more resistant to strong earthquake ground motion. It also provides a procedure for developing an effective plan for establishing the sequence, or priority, of providing the required modifications.

  15. Man-entry grid and power substations in Germany; Begehbare Netz- und Uebergabestationen in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primus, Illo-Frank

    2010-11-15

    Since the first publication of an electrotechnical standard for factory-assembled stations in 1997, grid and power substations in Germany as a rule are not constructed on site - with some exceptions, e.g. large-scale switching stations - but as prefabricated, factory-assembled concrete structures. There are two types of stations depending on the producer.

  16. optimization design of ground grid mesh of 132/33kv substation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    design analysis using IEEE and Finite Element Analysis (FEM) methods. The two methods are used differently to determine the ground grid mesh parameters, step & touch voltages, horizontal and vertical number of conductors, vertical numbers of rods, and final substation Resistance. Etap 12.60 software is used for the ...

  17. The Assessment of Working Conditions of Traction Substation for Power and Reactive Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Lukasik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, problems concerning the management of reactive power of DC traction substation have been discussed. The structure of traction system and its main elements has been sketched. Reactive power issue with respect to rectifier sets has been presented. The case of generating reactive power of capacitive character in the traction supplying systemand taken precautions has been also described.

  18. The challenge and opportunity of recovering wolf populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.

    1995-01-01

    The gray wolf once inhabited a wide variety of habitats throughout most of the northern hemisphere north of 20 degree N latitude. Because the animal preyed on livestock and competed with humans for wild prey, it was extirpated from much of its range outside of wilderness areas. Environmental awareness in the late 1960s brought for the wolf legal protection, increased research, and favorable media coverage The species has increased in both Europe and North America is beginning to reoccupy semi-wilderness and agricultural land, and is causing increased damage to livestock. Because of the wolfs high reproductive rate and long dispersal tendencies, the animal can recolonize many more areas. In most such areas control will be necessary, but the same public sentiments that promoted wolf recovery reject control. If wolf advocates could accept control by the public rather than by the government wolves could live in far more places. Insistence on government control discourages some officials and government agencies from promoting recovery. The use of large- or small-scale zoning for wolf management may help resolve the issue. Public education is probably the most effective way to minimize the problem and maximize wolf recovery, but the effort must begin immediately.

  19. Minnesota wolf ear lengths as possible indicators of taxonomic differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David

    2011-01-01

    Genetic findings suggest that 2 types of wolves, Canis lupus (Gray Wolf) and C. lycaon (Eastern Wolf), and/or their hybrids occupy Minnesota (MN), and this study examines adult wolf ear lengths as a possible distinguisher between these two. Photographic evidence suggested that the Eastern Wolf possesses proportionately longer ears than Gray Wolves. Ear lengths from 22 northwestern MN wolves from the early 1970s and 22 Alaskan wolves were used to represent Gray Wolves, and the greatest length of the sample (12.8 cm) was used as the least length to demarcate Eastern Wolf from Gray Wolf influence in the samples. Twenty-three percent of 112 adult wolves from Algonquin Park in eastern Ontario and 30% of 106 recent adult wolves in northeastern MN possessed ears >12.8 cm. The northeastern MN sample differed significantly from that of current and past northwestern MN wolves. Ear-lengths of wolves in the eastern half of the northeastern MN wolf population were significantly longer than those in the western half of that study area, even though the mean distance between the 2 areas was only 40 km, and the mean length of my 2004–2009 sample was significantly longer than that of 1999–2003. These findings support the hypothesis that Eastern Wolves tend to possess longer ears than do Gray Wolves and suggest a dynamic hybridization process is still underway in MN.

  20. Predictive Maintenance of Power Substation Equipment by Infrared Thermography Using a Machine-Learning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Ullah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A variety of reasons, specifically contact issues, irregular loads, cracks in insulation, defective relays, terminal junctions and other similar issues, increase the internal temperature of electrical instruments. This results in unexpected disturbances and potential damage to power equipment. Therefore, the initial prevention measures of thermal anomalies in electrical tools are essential to prevent power-equipment failure. In this article, we address this initial prevention mechanism for power substations using a computer-vision approach by taking advantage of infrared thermal images. The thermal images are taken through infrared cameras without disturbing the working operations of power substations. Thus, this article augments the non-destructive approach to defect analysis in electrical power equipment using computer vision and machine learning. We use a total of 150 thermal pictures of different electrical equipment in 10 different substations in operating conditions, using 300 different hotspots. Our approach uses multi-layered perceptron (MLP to classify the thermal conditions of components of power substations into “defect” and “non-defect” classes. A total of eleven features, which are first-order and second-order statistical features, are calculated from the thermal sample images. The performance of MLP shows initial accuracy of 79.78%. We further augment the MLP with graph cut to increase accuracy to 84%. We argue that with the successful development and deployment of this new system, the Technology Department of Chongqing can arrange the recommended actions and thus save cost in repair and outages. This can play an important role in the quick and reliable inspection to potentially prevent power substation equipment from failure, which will save the whole system from breakdown. The increased 84% accuracy with the integration of the graph cut shows the efficacy of the proposed defect analysis approach.

  1. Electric Substations, Electric substation locations provided to us from Kansas City Power and Light and City of Gardner only at this time. AIMS is working on getting other providers in area. Data is limited to CUE (Collaborative Utility Exchange) Participants and subcontracto, Published in 2004, Johnson County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Electric Substations dataset current as of 2004. Electric substation locations provided to us from Kansas City Power and Light and City of Gardner only at this time....

  2. MineWolf Tiller Test and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Croatie ont conduit ces essais en coopération. Le projet a été conduit conformément à la méthodologie spécifiée par « l’Accord du groupe de travail ... travail 15044 du CEN; essais et évaluation de machines de déminage » et a eu lieu en septembre 2006, au Centre antimines Croate (CROMAC), près de...interchangeable selon les conditions. Les ressources étant limitées, on a seulement évalué le sarcleur attelé au MineWolf. On a utilisé trois sols différents

  3. Montrose M. Wolf (1935-2004).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risley, Todd

    2005-01-01

    Montrose Madison Wolf, who discovered the reinforcing power of adult attention for children and based on that discovery invented and named the nonviolent parenting procedure time-out; who discovered that absent speech and social development could be artificially created with operant conditioning techniques; who first engineered a token economy into a useful motivational system; who invented the good behavior game; who orchestrated the massive research program that developed and refined the Teaching-Family Model as a residential treatment solution for delinquent development; who reinvented field observation, repeated measurement, and single-subject research methods; who introduced and named the concept of social validity; and who led the founding of the discipline of problem-solving real-world research called applied behavior analysis, died of Huntington's disease on March 19, 2004, at his home in Lawrence, Kansas.

  4. Wolf Testing: Open Source Testing Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braasch, P.; Gay, P. L.

    2004-12-01

    Wolf Testing is software for easily creating and editing exams. Wolf Testing allows the user to create an exam from a database of questions, view it on screen, and easily print it along with the corresponding answer guide. The questions can be multiple choice, short answer, long answer, or true and false varieties. This software can be accessed securely from any location, allowing the user to easily create exams from home. New questions, which can include associated pictures, can be added through a web-interface. After adding in questions, they can be edited, deleted, or duplicated into multiple versions. Long-term test creation is simplified, as you are able to quickly see what questions you have asked in the past and insert them, with or without editing, into future tests. All tests are archived in the database. Written in PHP and MySQL, this software can be installed on any UNIX / Linux platform, including Macintosh OS X. The secure interface keeps students out, and allows you to decide who can create tests and who can edit information already in the database. Tests can be output as either html with pictures or rich text without pictures, and there are plans to add PDF and MS Word formats as well. We would like to thank Dr. Wolfgang Rueckner and the Harvard University Science Center for providing incentive to start this project, computers and resources to complete this project, and inspiration for the project's name. We would also like to thank Dr. Ronald Newburgh for his assistance in beta testing.

  5. Wolf Search Algorithm for Solving Optimal Reactive Power Dispatch Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanagasabai Lenin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new bio-inspired heuristic optimization algorithm called the Wolf Search Algorithm (WSA for solving the multi-objective reactive power dispatch problem. Wolf Search algorithm is a new bio – inspired heuristic algorithm which based on wolf preying behaviour. The way wolves search for food and survive by avoiding their enemies has been imitated to formulate the algorithm for solving the reactive power dispatches. And the speciality  of wolf is  possessing  both individual local searching ability and autonomous flocking movement and this special property has been utilized to formulate the search algorithm .The proposed (WSA algorithm has been tested on standard IEEE 30 bus test system and simulation results shows clearly about the good performance of the proposed algorithm .

  6. Death of a wild wolf from canine parvovirus enteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; Kurtz, H.J.; Goyal, S.

    1997-01-01

    A 9-mo-old female wolf (Canis lupus) in the Superior National Forest of Minnesota (USA) died from a canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. This is the first direct evidence that this infection effects free-ranging wild wolves.

  7. Wolf Island National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Wolf Island NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  8. Nonlinear Conjugate Gradient Methods with Wolfe Type Line Search

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan-Yuan Chen; Shou-Qiang Du

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear conjugate gradient method is one of the useful methods for unconstrained optimization problems. In this paper, we consider three kinds of nonlinear conjugate gradient methods with Wolfe type line search for unstrained optimization problems. Under some mild assumptions, the global convergence results of the given methods are proposed. The numerical results show that the nonlinear conjugate gradient methods with Wolfe type line search are efficient for some unconstrain...

  9. A Novel Complex-Valued Encoding Grey Wolf Optimization Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Qifang Luo; Sen Zhang; Zhiming Li; Yongquan Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Grey wolf optimization (GWO) is one of the recently proposed heuristic algorithms imitating the leadership hierarchy and hunting mechanism of grey wolves in nature. The aim of these algorithms is to perform global optimization. This paper presents a modified GWO algorithm based on complex-valued encoding; namely the complex-valued encoding grey wolf optimization (CGWO). We use CGWO to test 16 unconstrained benchmark functions with seven different scales and infinite impulse response (IIR) mod...

  10. Improving the performance of subtransmission through substation reinforcement; Melhoria do desempenho de sistemas de subtransmissao atraves de reforcos em substacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva Mendes, Dilcemar de [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Melo, Albert Cordeiro Geber de [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pereira, Jose Luiz Rezende [Juiz de Fora Univ., MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This work presents an approach to the global reliability improve of power subtransmission systems through of reinforcements in critical components of the power substations. (author) 13 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. 3D Modeling of Transformer Substation Based on Mapping and 2D Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for building 3D models of transformer substation based on mapping and 2D images is proposed in this paper. This method segments objects of equipment in 2D images by using k-means algorithm in determining the cluster centers dynamically to segment different shapes and then extracts feature parameters from the divided objects by using FFT and retrieves the similar objects from 3D databases and then builds 3D models by computing the mapping data. The method proposed in this paper can avoid the complex data collection and big workload by using 3D laser scanner. The example analysis shows the method can build coarse 3D models efficiently which can meet the requirements for hazardous area classification and constructions representations of transformer substation.

  12. Study of HF behaviour of railway power substation in reduced scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouaddi, H.; Baranowski, S.; Nottet, G.; Demoulin, B.; Koné, L.

    2011-03-01

    The study presented in this paper is a first step of an EMC (Electromagnetic Compatibility) analysis of the behaviour of a railway power substation at high frequency. Before on site intensive experimentation, the approach is performed with a reduced scale model. The mock-up of the substation is powered by a 220 V three-phase voltage supplied by a 15 kV A power transformer, a rectifier and loads. The study consists in designing an equivalent electrical circuit of power transformer in high frequency, available over a large panel of loads. The model of power transformer was deduced from measurements in frequency domain within the range 40 Hz to 30 MHz.

  13. Energy saving in the operation of industrial electrical substations. Part I. Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Jimenez, Juan J; Zerquera Izquierdo, Mariano D; Beltran Leon, Jose S; Garcia Martinez, Juan M; Alvarez Urena, Maria V; Meza Diaz, Guillermo [Universidad de Guadalajara (Mexico)]. E-mails: cheosj@yahoo.com; mdzi@hotmail.com; beltran5601@yahoo.com.mx; jmargarmtz@yahoo.com; victory_alvarez@telmexmail.com; depmec@cucei.udg.mx

    2013-03-15

    The main objective of this work is to offer a methodology for the operation of substations composed by two or more transformers that feed loads of first category. Understand by loads of first category those in that the interruption of the electric supply may cause the loss of human life. The core of this operation shows that in substations with several transformers, the number of transformers connected at a given moment should be one that avoids losses. [Spanish] El objetivo principal de este trabajo es ofrecer una metodologia para la operacion de subestaciones compuestas por dos o mas transformadores que alimentan cargas de primera categoria. Entendiendose por cargas de primera categoria, aquellas en que la interrupcion del suministro electrico puede causar la perdida de vidas humanas. El nucleo de esta operacion muestra que en las subestaciones con varios transformadores, el numero de transformadores conectados, en un momento dado, debe ser aquel que evite perdidas.

  14. Autonomous navigation method for substation inspection robot based on travelling deviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guoqing; Xu, Wei; Li, Jian; Fu, Chongguang; Zhou, Hao; Zhang, Chuanyou; Shao, Guangting

    2017-06-01

    A new method of edge detection is proposed in substation environment, which can realize the autonomous navigation of the substation inspection robot. First of all, the road image and information are obtained by using an image acquisition device. Secondly, the noise in the region of interest which is selected in the road image, is removed with the digital image processing algorithm, the road edge is extracted by Canny operator, and the road boundaries are extracted by Hough transform. Finally, the distance between the robot and the left and the right boundaries is calculated, and the travelling distance is obtained. The robot's walking route is controlled according to the travel deviation and the preset threshold. Experimental results show that the proposed method can detect the road area in real time, and the algorithm has high accuracy and stable performance.

  15. Integrated information systems; protection, substation control, network management - Available solutions on the market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oedmansson, E.; Oehlen, C. [ABB TNP International, Vaesteraas, (Sweden)

    1995-11-01

    Many utilities sees the use of Information Technology as a main tool to meet requirements of improved cost efficiency of their transmission and distribution networks. They need to reduce both investments and operational costs. One of the possibilities is the vertical integration of Protection, Substation Control and Network management as well as the necessary communication links. This paper describes the evolution of the new technology and how this today offers new solutions for `The Intelligent Power System`. 6 refs, 4 figs

  16. Change We Can Fight Over: The Relationship between Arable Land Supply and Substate Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Change We Can Fight Over: The Relationship between Arable Land Supply and Substate Conflict Nathan Black Introduction...valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Change We Can Fight...as discussed in the conclusion, but we can safely state that both humans and nature play a role. This article only argues that if arable land

  17. A new test procedure to evaluate the performance of substations for collective heating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baetens, Robin; Verhaert, Ivan

    2017-11-01

    The overall heat demand of a single dwelling, existing out of space heating and domestic hot water production, decreases due to higher insulation rates. Because of this, investing in efficient and renewable heat generation becomes less interesting. Therefore, to incorporate renewables or residual heat on a larger scale, district heating or collective heating systems grow in importance. Within this set-up, the substation is responsible for the interaction between local demand for comfort and overall energy performance of the collective heating system. Many different configurations of substations exist, which influence both local comfort and central system performance. Next to that, also hybrids exist with additional local energy input. To evaluate performance of such substations, a new experimental-based test procedure is developed in order to evaluate these different aspects, characterized by the two roles a substation has, namely as heat generator and as heat consumer. The advantage of this approach is that an objective comparison between individual and central systems regarding performance on delivering local comfort can be executed experimentally. The lab set-up consists out of three different subsystems, namely the central system, the domestic hot water consumption and the local space heating. The central system can work with different temperature regimes and control strategies, as these aspects have proven to have the largest influence on actual performance. The domestic hot water system is able to generate similar tap profiles according to eco-design regulation for domestic hot water generation. The space heating system is able to demand a modular heat load.

  18. Investigation of Leakage Current Waveforms Recorded in a Coastal High Voltage Substation

    OpenAIRE

    E. Thalassinakis; Pyrgioti, E.; K. Siderakis; D. Pylarinos; I. Vitellas

    2011-01-01

    Leakage current monitoring is a widely employed technique to monitor the performance of outdoor insulation. The evaluation of leakage current waveforms recorded in the field, offers significant information since insulation’s performance is strongly linked with local conditions, and the waveforms’ shape correlate to different types of surface activity. In this paper, an investigation of leakage current waveforms recorded in a 150 kV coastal Substations suffering which suffers inten...

  19. Marys Lake 69/115-kV transmission line upgrade and substation expansion projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    Western Area Power Administration (Western) and the Platte River Power Authority (Platte River) propose to upgrade portions of the existing electric transmission and substation system that serves the Town of Estes Park, Colorado. The existing transmission lines between the Estes Power Plant Switchyard and the Marys Lake Substation include a 115,000 volt (115-kV) line and 69,000 volt (69-kV) line. Approximately one mile is a double-circuit 115/69-kV line on steel lattice structures, and approximately two miles consists of separate single-circuit 115-kV and a 69-kV lines, constructed on wood H-Frame structures. Both lines were constructed in 1951 by the US Bureau of Reclamation. The existing transmission lines are on rights-of-way (ROW) that vary from 75 feet to 120 feet and are owned by Western. There are 48 landowners adjacent to the existing ROW. All of the houses were built adjacent to the existing ROW after the transmission lines were constructed. Upgrading the existing 69-kV transmission line between the Marys Lake Substation and the Estes Power Plant Switchyard to 115-kV and expanding the Marys Lake Substation was identified as the most effective way in which to improve electric service to Estes Park. The primary purpose and need of the proposed project is to improve the reliability of electric service to the Town of Estes Park. Lack of reliability has been a historical concern, and reliability will always be less than desired until physical improvements are made to the electrical facilities serving Estes Park.

  20. Traction Converting Substation from Viewpoint of Feeding Interlocking Plant at Czech Railwayes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Dolecek

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents analyses current and voltage harmonic in traction converting substation 3 kV. It researches their rise and influence to three-phase cable line 6 kV, 50 Hz that is used for feeding interlocking plant. Processing of this task is arisen from requirement practice for line Pěčky - Poříčany - Rostoklaty where happened to adverse ratio in particular transmission line of feeding system. It is meant especially about backward influence traction substation rectifier Pečky to three - phase cable line 6 kV, 50 Hz. At the determinate lenght of the cable line, when resonace frequency of circuit transformer 22 kV/6 kV and the cable line 6 kV, 50 Hz is approached frequency 550 Hz and 650 Hz (i.e. 11 and 13 harmonic are happened to socalled "annulations input reactance of this circuit". That is caused by the leakage of current resonace frequency from traction converting substation to cable line. That proceduces additional losses and deformation waveform of voltage too. This deformation can be reflected on how interlocking plant is working. 

  1. New model of inverting substation for DC traction with regenerative braking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Abdul Malek Saidina; Samat, Ahmad Asri Abd; Isa, Siti Sarah Mat; Shamsuddin, Sarah Addyani; Jamaludin, Nur Fadhilah; Khyasudeen, Muhammad Farris

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a power electronic devices application focus on modeling, analysis, and control of switching power converter in the inverting DC substation with regenerative braking system which is used to recycle the surplus regenerative power by feed it back to the main AC grid. The main objective of this research is to improve the switching power electronic converter of the railway inverting substation and optimize the maximum kinetic energy recovery together with minimum power losses from the railway braking system. Assess performance including efficiency and robustness will be evaluated in order to get the best solution for the design configuration. Research methodology included mathematical calculation, simulation, and detail analysis on modeling of switching power converter on inverting substation. The design stage separates to four main areas include rectification mode, regenerative mode, control inverter mode and filtering mode. The simulation result has shown that the regenerative inverter has a capability to accept a maximum recovery power on the regeneration mode. Total energy recovery has increase and power losses have decreases because inverter abilities to transfer the surplus energy back to the main AC supply. An Inverter controller with PWM Generator and PI Voltage Regulator has been designed to control voltage magnitude and frequency of the DC traction system.

  2. A Real-Time Digital Solver for Smart Substation Based on Orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingda Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to expand the simulation scale of smart substation, a simulation model of the inlet-outlet line unit, as described by the 0/108 S conductance for multivalued coefficients pre-storage is presented in this paper. As a part of orders decomposition, the address conversion circuit for multivalued coefficients can reduce the computational burden of processing elements. For the convenience of the generalization of the real-time digital solver based on FPGA (FRTDS, FPGA: Field–Programmable Gate Array, the address conversion circuit for multivalued coefficients is matched with the guide word, the formation module of sampled value (SV packet, and the resolution module of generic object oriented substation event (GOOSE packet are associated with the application identification (APPID in the Ethernet frame. The address conversion circuit for multivalued coefficients, the formation module of SV packet, and the resolution module of GOOSE packet are reconstructed via the orders. A hardware-in-the-loop real-time simulation platform for smart substation is built based on the novel FRTDS. A case is given to demonstrate the simulation calculating capability and the hardware-in-the-loop ability of the novel FRTDS.

  3. DNA phylogeny of the marsupial wolf resolved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewski, C; Buckley, L; Westerman, M

    1997-06-22

    The phylogenetic position of the recently extinct marsupial 'wolf', or thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus), has been a source of contention in mammalian systematics for nearly a century. Thylacines were endemic to Australasia, but possessed striking anatomical similarities to Oligo-Miocene borhyaenid marsupials of South America. At issue has been whether these features are indicative of common ancestry or convergent adaptation to carnivory. Recent morphological studies have supported both conclusions. Although current marsupial classifications group thylacines with Australian dasyuromorphians, this putative clade is characterized by mostly primitive morphological features. Attempts to determine thylacine affinities with ancient protein and DNA analyses have supported, but not resolved, a dasyuromorphian placement. We report 1546 bp of mitochondrial DNA sequence (from cytochrome b and 12S rRNA genes) and 841 bp of nuclear protamine gene sequence from the thylacine and representatives of all or most other marsupial orders. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences shows unambiguously that thylacines are members of Dasyuromorphia, and suggests a late Oligocene or very early Miocene divergence of familial lineages.

  4. Population genomics of the inbred Scandinavian wolf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenblad, Jenny; Olsson, Maria; Parker, Heidi G; Ostrander, Elaine A; Ellegren, Hans

    2009-04-01

    The Scandinavian wolf population represents one of the genetically most well-characterized examples of a severely bottlenecked natural population (with only two founders), and of how the addition of new genetic material (one immigrant) can at least temporarily provide a 'genetic rescue'. However, inbreeding depression has been observed in this population and in the absence of additional immigrants, its long-term viability is questioned. To study the effects of inbreeding and selection on genomic diversity, we performed a genomic scan with approximately 250 microsatellite markers distributed across all autosomes and the X chromosome. We found linkage disequilibrium (LD) that extended up to distances of 50 Mb, exceeding that of most outbreeding species studied thus far. LD was particularly pronounced on the X chromosome. Overall levels of observed genomic heterozygosity did not deviate significantly from simulations based on known population history, giving no support for a general selection for heterozygotes. However, we found evidence supporting balancing selection at a number of loci and also evidence suggesting directional selection at other loci. For markers on chromosome 23, the signal of selection was particularly strong, indicating that purifying selection against deleterious alleles may have occurred even in this very small population. These data suggest that population genomics allows the exploration of the effects of neutral and non-neutral evolution on a finer scale than what has previously been possible.

  5. Is science in danger of sanctifying the wolf?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David

    2012-01-01

    Historically the wolf (Canis lupus) was hated and extirpated from most of the contiguous United States. The federal Endangered Species Act fostered wolf protection and reintroduction which improved the species' image. Wolf populations reached biological recovery in the Northern Rocky Mountains and upper Midwest, and the animal has been delisted from the Endangered Species List in those areas. Numerous studies in National Parks suggest that wolves, through trophic cascades, have caused ecosystems to change in ways many people consider positive. Several studies have been conducted in Yellowstone National Park where wolf interactions with their prey, primarily elk (Cervus elaphus), are thought to have caused reduction of numbers or changes in movements and behavior. Some workers consider the latter changes to have led to a behaviorally-mediated trophic cascade. Either the elk reduction or the behavioral changes are hypothesized to have fostered growth in browse, primarily willows (Salix spp.) and aspen (Populus spp.), and that growth has resulted in increased beavers (Castor Canadensis), songbirds, and hydrologic changes. The wolf's image thus has gained an iconic cachet. However, later research challenges several earlier studies' findings such that earlier conclusions are now controversial; especially those related to causes of browse regrowth. In any case, any such cascading effects of wolves found in National Parks would have little relevance to most of the wolf range because of overriding anthropogenic influences there on wolves, prey, vegetation, and other parts of the food web. The wolf is neither a saint nor a sinner except to those who want to make it so.

  6. Electromagnetic spectrum caused by partial discharge in air in high voltage substations; Kakushu hendensho ni okeru kichu gaibu noise ni yoru denjiha spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, H.; Kato, T.; Hayakawa, N.; Hikita, M.; Ueda, T.; Okubo, H. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)

    1995-09-20

    We have been investigating characteristics of electromagnetic spectrum for partial discharge (PD) diagnosis systems for SF6 gas insulated switch gears (GIS). We measured noise spectrum in air at three different types of high voltage substations 550 kV open-air insulation substation, 550 kV open-air GIS substation and 275 kV underground GIS substation. A biconical antenna acting in a frequency range from 30 to 300 MHz was placed at a few meter away from GIS or gas circuit breaker (GCB) in the substations. From the experimental result, we obtained the average gain Ga of electromagnetic spectrum at each frequency in the substations. Next, we discussed the relationship between Ga and atmospheric conditions using an empirical formula of PD inception electric field Ec. As a result, we found the inverse proportionality of Ga against Ec which was determined by the temperature, pressure and radius of high voltage overhead conductors. We also investigated the relationship between PD pulse and the emitted electromagnetic spectrum from fundamental experiment for a needle-plane electrode configuration. Finally, we introduced `equivalent charge: qe` for substation, and concluded that the charge magnitudes of the 550 kV open-air insulation substation were about 7 times larger than those in the open-air GIS substation. 12 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Performance of Grey Wolf Optimizer on large scale problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shubham; Deep, Kusum

    2017-01-01

    For solving nonlinear continuous problems of optimization numerous nature inspired optimization techniques are being proposed in literature which can be implemented to solve real life problems wherein the conventional techniques cannot be applied. Grey Wolf Optimizer is one of such technique which is gaining popularity since the last two years. The objective of this paper is to investigate the performance of Grey Wolf Optimization Algorithm on large scale optimization problems. The Algorithm is implemented on 5 common scalable problems appearing in literature namely Sphere, Rosenbrock, Rastrigin, Ackley and Griewank Functions. The dimensions of these problems are varied from 50 to 1000. The results indicate that Grey Wolf Optimizer is a powerful nature inspired Optimization Algorithm for large scale problems, except Rosenbrock which is a unimodal function.

  8. Spatial assessment of wolf-dog hybridization in a single breeding period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, C.; López-Bao, J. V.; García, E. J.; Lema, F. J.; Llaneza, L.; Palacios, V.; Godinho, R.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of wolf-dog hybridization and delineating evidence-based conservation strategies requires information on the spatial extent of wolf-dog hybridization in real-time, which remains largely unknown. We collected 332 wolf-like scats over ca. 5,000km2 in the NW Iberian Peninsula to evaluate wolf-dog hybridization at population level in a single breeding/pup-rearing season. Mitochondrial DNA (MtDNA) and 18 ancestry informative markers were used for species and individual identification, and to detect wolf-dog hybrids. Genetic relatedness was assessed between hybrids and wolves. We identified 130 genotypes, including 67 wolves and 7 hybrids. Three of the hybrids were backcrosses to dog whereas the others were backcrosses to wolf, the latter accounting for a 5.6% rate of introgression into the wolf population. Our results show a previously undocumented scenario of multiple and widespread wolf-dog hybridization events at the population level. However, there is a clear maintenance of wolf genetic identity, as evidenced by the sharp genetic identification of pure individuals, suggesting the resilience of wolf populations to a small amount of hybridization. We consider that real-time population level assessments of hybridization provide a new perspective into the debate on wolf conservation, with particular focus on current management guidelines applied in wolf-dog hybridization events. PMID:28195213

  9. Spatial assessment of wolf-dog hybridization in a single breeding period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, C; López-Bao, J V; García, E J; Lema, F J; Llaneza, L; Palacios, V; Godinho, R

    2017-02-14

    Understanding the dynamics of wolf-dog hybridization and delineating evidence-based conservation strategies requires information on the spatial extent of wolf-dog hybridization in real-time, which remains largely unknown. We collected 332 wolf-like scats over ca. 5,000km 2 in the NW Iberian Peninsula to evaluate wolf-dog hybridization at population level in a single breeding/pup-rearing season. Mitochondrial DNA (MtDNA) and 18 ancestry informative markers were used for species and individual identification, and to detect wolf-dog hybrids. Genetic relatedness was assessed between hybrids and wolves. We identified 130 genotypes, including 67 wolves and 7 hybrids. Three of the hybrids were backcrosses to dog whereas the others were backcrosses to wolf, the latter accounting for a 5.6% rate of introgression into the wolf population. Our results show a previously undocumented scenario of multiple and widespread wolf-dog hybridization events at the population level. However, there is a clear maintenance of wolf genetic identity, as evidenced by the sharp genetic identification of pure individuals, suggesting the resilience of wolf populations to a small amount of hybridization. We consider that real-time population level assessments of hybridization provide a new perspective into the debate on wolf conservation, with particular focus on current management guidelines applied in wolf-dog hybridization events.

  10. Research on the Best Root Span of 500kV Substation Frame Based on Finite Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Fang, Qing; Chen, Haoyuan

    2018-01-01

    A-shaped and steel tube structures have been widely applied when designing 500kV substation frame in China. While, compared with steel tube, angle steels have an advantage of easy-transporting, especially in oversea projects. However, researches on substation frame with angle steel were not enough. In order to find out the best root span of 500kV substation frame under similar engineering conditions, using the overseas project substation frame as an example, the substation frames with different root span have been detailed calculated, to find the best root span according to the cost of it. When the height of column is about 30m, the root suggestion value is 6.1m×3.1m. And then, the buckling analysis of the overall structure has been carried out by ANSYS, to find out that the weak part of the structure is in the middle of it. The structural adjustment is carried out for the weak part, including adjusting the web members and the chord members, to obtain a higher bearing capacity of the structure.

  11. Observations of the Wolf Rayet star WR123 with MOST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, L.; Chené, A. N.

    2009-07-01

    We present an analysis of the intensive visual-broadband photometric monitoring of the highly variable WN8 Wolf-Rayet star WR123, obtained by the MOST satellite. The Canadian space telescope observed WR123 for 38 days non-stop during June/July 2004. To complement previous investigations (Lefèvre et al. 2005), we show spectroscopic data taken a year before the MOST observations and a supplementary analysis of the dataset. This work shows that it is possible to fit quite reliably this supposedly unstable signal with a few sinusoidal components and may lead us to new insights in the variability of Wolf-Rayet stars.

  12. A Novel Complex-Valued Encoding Grey Wolf Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qifang Luo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Grey wolf optimization (GWO is one of the recently proposed heuristic algorithms imitating the leadership hierarchy and hunting mechanism of grey wolves in nature. The aim of these algorithms is to perform global optimization. This paper presents a modified GWO algorithm based on complex-valued encoding; namely the complex-valued encoding grey wolf optimization (CGWO. We use CGWO to test 16 unconstrained benchmark functions with seven different scales and infinite impulse response (IIR model identification. Compared to the real-valued GWO algorithm and other optimization algorithms; the CGWO performs significantly better in terms of accuracy; robustness; and convergence speed.

  13. Case Report of dirofilariasis in grey wolf in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilović, Pavle; Blitva-Robertson, Gordana; Özvegy, József; Kiskároly, Ferenc; Becskei, Zsolt

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes a case of dirofilariasis in a two-year old, female grey wolf (Canis lupus lupus). The autopsy revealed the presence of 42 adult forms of Dirofilaria immitis in the pulmonary artery, right ventricle and right atrium, varying in length from 9.5 to 30 cm. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the second report of D. immitis in grey wolves in Serbia. Our finding confirms that the wolf, as a subspecies distinct from the dog, should also be considered as a very suitable definitive host for dirofilariasis.

  14. The systematic status of the Italian wolf Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, R.M.; Federoff, N.E.

    2002-01-01

    In the past, the gray wolf Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758, has been recognized in Italy as either the subspecies lupus or italicus. It has also been postulated that this population has undergone introgression from the domestic dog Canis familiaris. In order to clarify these issues, multistatistical analyses were made of 10 skull measurements of 34 full grown male wolves from the Italian Peninsula, 91 other male Eurasian wolves, and 20 domestic dogs. The analyses, together with other morphological evidence and prior genetic research, support recognition of the Italian wolf as a separate subspecies, Canis lupus italicus. The same evidence indicates that the subspecies has not been affected through hybridization with the domestic dog.

  15. Echinococcus granulosus (Cestoda, Taeniidae) in the Iberian wolf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino, R; Gonzalez, L M; Vicente, J; Fernández de Luco, D; Garate, T; Gortázar, C

    2006-11-01

    The intestinal contents of 27 Iberian wolves (Canis lupus signatus) from Spain were screened for the presence of the taenid cestode Echinococcus granulosus. Four animals were found positive (15% prevalence). The intensity of parasitation was variable (mean 71, range 1-147 E. granulosus per host). Gravid individuals were found in all wolves positive with the parasite. Molecular characterization of the parasite material showed that the wolf strain belongs to the G1 genotype. According to the results, we conclude that the Iberian wolf takes part in the maintenance of the life cycle of this zoonotic parasite in Spain and that this fact could have public health relevance.

  16. The Zurich Tradition: Backbone of the Wolf Number Series (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedli, T. K.

    2013-12-01

    The Wolf Series of Sunspot Relative Numbers is divided into a more recent part starting from 1849 up to present which is based on dedicated visual observations and into a reconstructed part reaching back to the mythological ages of Galileo, Harriot and Scheiner which is based solely on indirect countings made from drawings or texts from various archives. The Zurich tradition consists of a framework of rules and prerequisites concerning the quality and power of the instrumentation, the observation and counting techniques, the methods for calibration and preservation of scale and the construction of a long-term record. This framework guarantees the homogeneity of the series and the preservation of the original scale. In the modern part of the series up to 1980, the published Wolf numbers are based in over 90% of the days on calibrated visual observations of the original Fraunhofer refractor. The long term preservation of the original scale is thus mainly determined by the quality and validity of the calibration from one generation of standard observers to the next and on the internal consistency of the individual observing and counting methods of each standard observer. Since 1996 the historical standard refractor of Rudolf Wolf, in succession of the Zurich observers, has been used by the author for the daily determination of the sunspot relative number. With the aid of a small network of keen amateur astronomers of the Rudolf Wolf Gesellschaft these observations could be calibrated to the former Zurich scale. This results in an extension of the original Zurich series which is independent from the official one by SIDC or from the one by AAVSO. The main lesson learned from this exercise is that calibration functions reduce to simple proportionality factors as long as the calculations are made within a proper statistical regression framework over a sufficiently long evaluation period covering both maximum and minimum activity phases. Based on the original observations

  17. Wolf's Isotopic Response: Varicella Within a Prior Immunization Reaction Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sam; McShane, Diana B; Burkhart, Craig N; Morrell, Dean S

    2015-01-01

    Wolf's isotopic response describes the occurrence of a dermatologic condition at the site of a prior healed unrelated condition. Our report details a case of varicella occurring as a secondary condition at the site of a prior immunization reaction; herpesvirus infection has not been reported as a secondary condition in cases of Wolf's isotopic response before. Current hypotheses favor the involvement of neurohormonal modulation of local immunity in response to various forms of injury as a model for explaining these phenomena. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. On the optically thick winds of Wolf-Rayet stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräfener, G.; Owocki, S. P.; Grassitelli, L.; Langer, N.

    2017-12-01

    Context. The classical Wolf-Rayet (WR) phase is believed to mark the end stage of the evolution of massive stars with initial masses higher than 25M⊙. Stars in this phase expose their stripped cores with the products of H- or He-burning at their surface. They develop strong, optically thick stellar winds that are important for the mechanical and chemical feedback of massive stars, and that determine whether the most massive stars end their lives as neutron stars or black holes. The winds of WR stars are currently not well understood, and their inclusion in stellar evolution models relies on uncertain empirical mass-loss relations. Aims: We investigate theoretically the mass-loss properties of H-free WR stars of the nitrogen sequence (WN stars). Methods: We connected stellar structure models for He stars with wind models for optically thick winds and assessed the degree to which these two types of models can simultaneously fulfil their respective sonic-point conditions. Results: Fixing the outer wind law and terminal wind velocity ν∞, we obtain unique solutions for the mass-loss rates of optically thick, radiation-driven winds of WR stars in the phase of core He-burning. The resulting mass-loss relations as a function of stellar parameters agree well with previous empirical relations. Furthermore, we encounter stellar mass limits below which no continuous solutions exist. While these mass limits agree with observations of WR stars in the Galaxy, they contradict observations in the LMC. Conclusions: While our results in particular confirm the slope of often-used empirical mass-loss relations, they imply that only part of the observed WN population can be understood in the framework of the standard assumptions of a smooth transonic flow and compact stellar core. This means that alternative approaches such as a clumped and inflated wind structure or deviations from the diffusion limit at the sonic point may have to be invoked. Qualitatively, the existence of mass

  19. Coordinated Voltage Control Scheme for SEIG-Based Wind Park Utilizing Substation STATCOM and ULTC Transformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S. El Moursi, Mohamed; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Abdel-Rahman, Mansour Hassan

    2011-01-01

    and optimal tracking secondary voltage control for wind parks based on self-excited induction generators which comprise STATCOM and under-load tap changer (ULTC) substation transformers. The voltage controllers for the STATCOM and ULTC transformer are coordinated and ensure the voltage support. In steady...... of the short circuit ratio of the interconnection and the inherent communication delay between the wind park and the remote bus on the performance of the controllers and the maximum critical clearing time of fault are considered. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the performance...

  20. A Fast Computational Fluid Dynamics Model for the Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics Analysis of Indoor Substation Rooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L. W.; Zou, A. X.

    2017-05-01

    In order to find a high efficiency, energy saving structure of the indoor substation room, a novel computational fluid dynamics method is proposed to model its flow and heat transfer characteristics. As an automatic optimization system, the efficient methods for mesh generation and numerical calculation are necessary. The mesh of the whole room including the transformer and its heat transfer fins is created using a structured mesh scheme, and a detection technology is adopted to recognize all the obstacles. In order to improve the numerical efficiency, a fast computational fluid dynamics (FFD) method is adopted to establish the three dimensional dynamic model with heat source. The comparisons between the FFD model and the experimental data show that the FFD can model the flow and heat transfer characteristics of the indoor substation efficiently. By modifying the related parameters in the model, this method can be used in the simulation of other indoor substation rooms to optimize their structure and operation.

  1. System to monitoring/diagnosis on substations shielded and insulated at SF{sub 6}; Monitoramento/diagnostico em subestacoes blindadas e isoladas a SF{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Direne, A.J.; Pereira, M.J. [FURNAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Martins, H.J.A. [CEPEL, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Noronha, R.F. [ITAIPU Binacional, Foz do Iguacu, PR (Brazil); Arjona, W. [GEC Alsthom Engineering Systems Ltd., Whetstone (United Kingdom)

    1991-12-31

    A guide to system diagnosis/monitoring in power substations insulated by gas (SF{sub 6}) are reported. A questionnaire was applied in the national and foreign companies working with these types of substation. Monitoring / diagnosis methods available on commercial and research scale, its limitations, and its abnormality detection capacity are shown 1 ref., 3 tabs.

  2. Girlhood, Sexual Violence, and Agency in Francesca Lia Block's "Wolf"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This essay examines the representation of adolescent girlhood, sexual violence and agency in Francesca Lia Block's contemporary fairy tale collection "The Rose and The Beast." Focusing specifically on the tale "Wolf," the author provides a literary analysis of how Block draws on and reworks traditional Western fairy tale variants to reintroduce…

  3. Planck 2015 results: XXI. The integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect from the Planck 2015 temperature and polarization data release. This secondary cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy caused by the large-scale time-evolving gravitational potential is probed from different perspectives....

  4. Modeling Disjunct Gray Wolf Populations in Semi-Wild Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Haight; David J. Mladenoff; Adrian P. Wydeven

    1998-01-01

    Gray wolves (Canis lupus) in parts of the United States and Europe live in networks of disjunct populations, many of which are close to human settlement. Because wolf management goals include sustaining disjunct populations, it is important to ask what types of areas and protections are needed for population survival. To predict the effects of different levels of human...

  5. Studies of wolf x coyote hybridization via artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L David; Asa, Cheryl S; Callahan, Margaret; Christensen, Bruce W; Smith, Fran; Young, Julie K

    2017-01-01

    Following the production of western gray wolf (Canis lupus) x western coyote (Canis latrans) hybrids via artificial insemination (AI), the present article documents that the hybrids survived in captivity for at least 4 years and successfully bred with each other. It further reports that backcrossing one of the hybrids to a male gray wolf by AI also resulted in the birth of live pups that have survived for at least 10 months. All male hybrids (F1 and F2) produced sperm by about 10 months of age, and sperm quality of the F1 males fell within the fertile range for domestic dogs, but sperm motility and morphology, in particular, were low in F2 males at 10 months but improved in samples taken at 22 months of age. These studies are relevant to a long-standing controversy about the identity of the red wolf (Canis rufus), the existence of a proposed new species (Canis lycaon) of gray wolf, and to the role of hybridization in mammalian evolution.

  6. Studies of wolf x coyote hybridization via artificial insemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Asa, Cheryl S.; Callahan, Margaret; Christensen, Bruce W.; Smith, Fran; Young, Julie K.

    2017-01-01

    Following the production of western gray wolf (Canis lupus) x western coyote (Canis latrans) hybrids via artificial insemination (AI), the present article documents that the hybrids survived in captivity for at least 4 years and successfully bred with each other. It further reports that backcrossing one of the hybrids to a male gray wolf by AI also resulted in the birth of live pups that have survived for at least 10 months. All male hybrids (F1 and F2) produced sperm by about 10 months of age, and sperm quality of the F1 males fell within the fertile range for domestic dogs, but sperm motility and morphology, in particular, were low in F2 males at 10 months but improved in samples taken at 22 months of age. These studies are relevant to a long-standing controversy about the identity of the red wolf (Canis rufus), the existence of a proposed new species (Canis lycaon) of gray wolf, and to the role of hybridization in mammalian evolution.

  7. AN INFRARED STUDY OF 3 WOLF-RAYET RING NEBULAE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MATHIS, JS; CASSINELLI, JP; VANDERHUCHT, KA; PRUSTI, T; WESSELIUS, PR; WILLIAMS, PM

    1992-01-01

    We have studied the IRAS colors of the ring nebula RCW 58 surrounding the Wolf-Rayet star HD 96548 (= WR 40; type WN 8) by analyzing the IRAS survey data with the Groningen Exportable High-Resolution Analysis system (GEISHA) and by using the Chopped Photometric Channel high-resolution imaging at

  8. The 1990 Wolf Trap Conference: Academic Freedom and Artistic Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohm, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Proceedings of the 1990 Wolf Trap Conference on Academic Freedom and Artistic Expression (Virginia, April 29-May 1) are summarized, focusing on the current climate for the arts, institutional neutrality, the role of the arts in the academic community, scope of protection of the arts, and the academic community as captive audience. (MSE)

  9. Planck 2013 results. XIX. The integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.

    2014-01-01

    Based on cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps from the 2013 Planck Mission data release, this paper presents the detection of the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect, that is, the correlation between the CMB and large-scale evolving gravitational potentials. The significance of detection ranges...

  10. Testing the control systems of district heating substations under operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koskelainen, R.; Ohvanainen, M.

    1996-12-31

    This research project `Testing the control systems of district heating substations under operating conditions` has been carried out at the Laboratory of Energy Economics and Power Plant Engineering at Helsinki University of Technology. A well-operating control system improves comfort of living and quality of district heating. In addition it saves energy. Testing of the control systems is a part of appropriate quality control and inspection. The aim of this research has been to develop a testing method for control systems of district heating substations. Operation of the control equipment has been studied in order to define the demands of a measuring method and equipment. Measurements have been done mainly in residential buildings under operating conditions and by changing the set value of the domestic hot water temperature. Several control problems occurred with temperature: oscillation, floating, deviation from the set value and transient fluctuations. Most of the problems occurred in controlling the domestic water temperature. A testing method should be developed so that all control problems are taken into account. Special attention should be paid to measuring time, sampling time, measuring sensors and equipment. The results of this study show that two separate testing methods should be developed. One should test whether the control equipment operates well or not. The other test should analyze the operation of control equipment and also find out what causes the control problems

  11. Evaluation of the Optimal Connection of Power Transformers in the Substations of a Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Renedo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Transformers are installed in power distribution systems to perform changes in supply voltage. Large consumers often have several transformers installed in parallel to ensure continuity of supply in the event of failure. These machines can achieve very high efficiency, but their efficiency is not constant since it depends on the power demanded at each time. Therefore, the level of efficiency that correspond to the operation of a specific transformer depends on two factors: machine technical characteristics and electrical load. In this work, the authors have proposed a methodology which shows the optimal number of transformers to be connected at each period in the substations of a large Spanish hospital, in order to achieve the maximum seasonal efficiency of these machines. The results of the energy saving are determined with respect to the current situation, in which all the transformers are permanently connected. On the other hand, the European Union has established a new regulation that sets the minimum energy efficiency requirements for new power transformers. This efficiency improvement is proposed to be applied gradually in two stages, a first limit came into force in 2015, while a more restrictive approach will appear in the year 2021. This work has also studied the potential energy savings that would occur when the substations of the hospital have more efficient transformers complying with the new European Regulation 548/2014.

  12. Occupational exposure to electric fields and currents associated with 110 kV substation tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpinen, Leena H; Kuisti, Harri A; Tarao, Hiroo; Elovaara, Jarmo A

    2012-07-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate occupational exposure to electric fields, and current densities and contact currents associated with tasks at air-insulated 110 kV substations and analyze if the action value of EU Directive 2004/40/EC was exceeded. Four workers volunteered to simulate the following tasks: Task (A) maintenance of an operating device of a disconnector at ground or floor level, Task (B) maintenance of an operating device of a circuit breaker at ground or floor level, Task (C) breaker head maintenance from a man hoist, and Task (D) maintenance of an operating device of a circuit breaker from a service platform. The highest maximum average current density in the neck was 1.8 mA/m(2) (calculated internal electric field 9.0-18.0 mV/m) and the highest contact current was 79.4 µA. All measured values at substations were lower than the limit value (10 mA/m(2)) of the EU Directive 2004/40/EC and the 2010 basic restrictions (0.1 and 0.8 V/m for central nervous system tissues of the head, and all tissues of the head and body, respectively) of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Principles for construction the compensators of reactive power with voltage stabilization for transformer substations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasayevsky, Stanislav; Klimash, Stepan; Klimash, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    Based on the booster transformer and the transistor converter with a DC link, a system is proposed for fast and accurate unloading the electric network from reactive power with simultaneous stabilization of voltage among consumers. The system contains a discrete stage of reactive power compensation and adjustable part. The adjustable part includes series and parallel reactive power compensators. The series compensator consists of a booster transformer, a voltage inverter and is designed to be switched on to the high voltage of the transformer substations. The parallel compensator consists of a rectifier with an input choke and is connected to the low voltage of the substation. The rectifier and inverter are connected by a DC link with an LC filter. The rectifier regulates the output voltage and the phase of the sinusoidal input current. The inverter regulates the magnitude and phase of the voltage on the control winding of the booster transformer. The rectifier and inverter control systems are synchronized with the network and with pulse width modulation.

  14. The insulation coordination and surge arrester design for HTS cable system in Icheon substation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hansang, E-mail: Hansang80@korea.ac.kr [School of Railway and Electrical Engineering, Kyungil University, Hayang-eup, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Dong-Hee [Department of New and Renewable Energy, Kyungil University, Hayang-eup, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung-Ryul [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Naeson-dong, Uiwang-si, Gyeonggi-do 437-080 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Byeong-Mo [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Munji-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-760 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Gilsoo, E-mail: gjang@korea.ac.kr [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Anam-dong 5-ga, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► It is necessary to study lightning response of the HTS cable. ► The analytic model has been developed for the HTS cable in the Icheon substation. ► Well-designed surge arrester has been verified through PSCAD/EMTDC simulations. -- Abstract: This paper proposes an insulation coordination and surge arrester design for HTS (High-Temperature Superconducting) cable system in Icheon substation in Korea. In the aspect of the economic analysis, since the HTS cable is very expensive, the insulation coordination to prevent the dielectric breakdown caused by the lightning surge should be considered carefully. Also, in the aspect of the power system reliability, since the HTS cable has much more capacity compared than conventional power cables and the ripple effect from the HTS cable failure may lead to the wide area blackout, an intensive study for insulation coordination from lightning surge is one of the most important considerations. In this paper, the insulation coordination for lightning surge is verified using HTS cable and power equipment models and the design of the proper surge arrester is proposed.

  15. Intercomparison of magnetic field measurements near MV/LV transformer substations: methodological planning and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violanti, S; Fraschetta, M; Adda, S; Caputo, E

    2009-12-01

    Within the framework of Environmental Agencies system's activities, coordinated by ISPRA (superior institute for environmental protection and research), a comparison among measurements was designed and accomplished, in order to go into depth on the matter of measurement problems and to evaluate magnetic field at power frequencies. These measurements have been taken near medium voltage /low voltage transformer substation. This project was developed with the contribution of several experts who belong to different Regional Agencies. In three of these regions, substations having specific international standard characteristics were chosen; then a measurement and data analysis protocol was arranged. Data analysis showed a good level of coherence among results obtained by different laboratories. However, a range of problems emerged, either during the protocol predisposition and definition of the data analysis procedure or during the execution of measures and data reprocessing, because of the spatial and temporal variability of magnetic field. These problems represent elements of particular interest in determining a correct measurement methodology, whose purpose is the comparison with limits of exposure, attention values and quality targets.

  16. The Mounting process and dielectric tests of the Parque Caballero armored substation in SF6(220 Kv); Montaje y pruebas dielectricas de la estacion blindada en gas SF6 (220 kV) 'Parque Caballero'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decoud, Carlos; Bobadilla, Alberto [ANDE - Administracion Nacional de Electricidad, Assuncion (Paraguay)

    2001-07-01

    This document approaches the aspects referring to the mounting and also dielectric tests for the Parque Caballero armored substation in SF6. This type of installation represents a innovation regarding substations in urban centres. The most relevant items in relation to the mounting process are shown in a summarized way, as well as the aspects related to dielectric tests executed during the substation commissioning.

  17. Sarcoptic mange in the Scandinavian wolf Canis lupus population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Boris; Zimmermann, Barbara; Wabakken, Petter; Bornstein, Set; Månsson, Johan; Evans, Alina L; Liberg, Olof; Sand, Håkan; Kindberg, Jonas; Ågren, Erik O; Arnemo, Jon M

    2016-07-27

    Sarcoptic mange, a parasitic disease caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei, is regularly reported on wolves Canis lupus in Scandinavia. We describe the distribution and transmission of this parasite within the small but recovering wolf population by analysing 269 necropsy reports and performing a serological survey on 198 serum samples collected from free-ranging wolves between 1998 and 2013. The serological survey among 145 individual captured Scandinavian wolves (53 recaptures) shows a consistent presence of antibodies against sarcoptic mange. Seropositivity among all captured wolves was 10.1 % (CI. 6.4 %-15.1 %). Sarcoptic mange-related mortality reported at necropsy was 5.6 % and due to secondary causes, predominantly starvation. In the southern range of the population, seroprevalence was higher, consistent with higher red fox densities. Female wolves had a lower probability of being seropositive than males, but for both sexes the probability increased with pack size. Recaptured individuals changing from seropositive to seronegative suggest recovery from sarcoptic mange. The lack of seropositive pups (8-10 months, N = 56) and the occurrence of seropositive and seronegative individuals in the same pack indicates interspecific transmission of S. scabiei into this wolf population. We consider sarcoptic mange to have little effect on the recovery of the Scandinavian wolf population. Heterogenic infection patterns on the pack level in combination with the importance of individual-based factors (sex, pack size) and the north-south gradient for seroprevalence suggests low probability of wolf-to-wolf transmission of S. scabiei in Scandinavia.

  18. Monitoring gray wolf populations using multiple survey methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausband, David E.; Rich, Lindsey N.; Glenn, Elizabeth M.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Zager, Pete; Miller, David A.W.; Waits, Lisette P.; Ackerman, Bruce B.; Mack, Curt M.

    2013-01-01

    The behavioral patterns and large territories of large carnivores make them challenging to monitor. Occupancy modeling provides a framework for monitoring population dynamics and distribution of territorial carnivores. We combined data from hunter surveys, howling and sign surveys conducted at predicted wolf rendezvous sites, and locations of radiocollared wolves to model occupancy and estimate the number of gray wolf (Canis lupus) packs and individuals in Idaho during 2009 and 2010. We explicitly accounted for potential misidentification of occupied cells (i.e., false positives) using an extension of the multi-state occupancy framework. We found agreement between model predictions and distribution and estimates of number of wolf packs and individual wolves reported by Idaho Department of Fish and Game and Nez Perce Tribe from intensive radiotelemetry-based monitoring. Estimates of individual wolves from occupancy models that excluded data from radiocollared wolves were within an average of 12.0% (SD = 6.0) of existing statewide minimum counts. Models using only hunter survey data generally estimated the lowest abundance, whereas models using all data generally provided the highest estimates of abundance, although only marginally higher. Precision across approaches ranged from 14% to 28% of mean estimates and models that used all data streams generally provided the most precise estimates. We demonstrated that an occupancy model based on different survey methods can yield estimates of the number and distribution of wolf packs and individual wolf abundance with reasonable measures of precision. Assumptions of the approach including that average territory size is known, average pack size is known, and territories do not overlap, must be evaluated periodically using independent field data to ensure occupancy estimates remain reliable. Use of multiple survey methods helps to ensure that occupancy estimates are robust to weaknesses or changes in any 1 survey method

  19. Grounding of metallic fences on urban regions substations; Aterramento de cercas metalicas de subestacoes situadas em regioes urbanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haffner, S.L. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Dias, G.A.D.; Tello, M. [Companhia Estadual de Energia Eletrica do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    1991-12-31

    Metallic fences on power substation situated on urban regions, its insulation, its localization according ground wire mashes, and the occurrence of dangerous electric voltage on its surfaces are described. An analytical method which permits planing a insulation model using a grounding system with insulated electrodes and an example of the method utilization are presented. 6 figs., 1 tab., 6 refs.

  20. A Comparative Study on Substation Types and Network Layouts in Connection with Low-Energy District Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tol, Hakan; Svendsen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    The study deals with low-energy district heating (DH) networks operating in low temperatures such as 55 °C in terms of supply and 25 °C in terms of return. The network layout, additional booster pumps, and different substation types such as storage tanks either equipped or not equipped in domestic...

  1. Antena Kupu - Kupu sebagai Sensor Ultra High Frequency (UHF) untuk Mendeteksi Partial Discharge pada Gas Insulation Substation

    OpenAIRE

    Andre, Hanalde; Khayam, Umar

    2013-01-01

    Penggunaan antena sebagai penerima gelombang elektromagnetik dapat digunakan sebagai alat untuk mendeteksi kegiatan partial discharge (PD) yang terjadi pada paralatan tegangan tinggi. Khususnya pada gas insulation substation (GIS), karakteristik gelombang elektromagnetik yang dihasilkan terletak pada rentang ultra high frequency (UHF) dalam rentang 300 MHz – 3 GHz. Karakteristik antena ultra wide band (UWB) diperlukan untuk mendeteksi PD pada rentang yang lebar. Perancangan antena dilakukan...

  2. Camera Traps on Wildlife Crossing Structures as a Tool in Gray Wolf (Canis lupus Management - Five-Years Monitoring of Wolf Abundance Trends in Croatia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Šver

    Full Text Available The conservation of gray wolf (Canis lupus and its coexistence with humans presents a challenge and requires continuous monitoring and management efforts. One of the non-invasive methods that produces high-quality wolf monitoring datasets is camera trapping. We present a novel monitoring approach where camera traps are positioned on wildlife crossing structures that channel the animals, thereby increasing trapping success and increasing the cost-efficiency of the method. In this way we have followed abundance trends of five wolf packs whose home ranges are intersected by a motorway which spans throughout the wolf distribution range in Croatia. During the five-year monitoring of six green bridges we have recorded 28 250 camera-events, 132 with wolves. Four viaducts were monitored for two years, recording 4914 camera-events, 185 with wolves. We have detected a negative abundance trend of the monitored Croatian wolf packs since 2011, especially severe in the northern part of the study area. Further, we have pinpointed the legal cull as probable major negative influence on the wolf pack abundance trends (linear regression, r2 > 0.75, P < 0.05. Using the same approach we did not find evidence for a negative impact of wolves on the prey populations, both wild ungulates and livestock. We encourage strict protection of wolf in Croatia until there is more data proving population stability. In conclusion, quantitative methods, such as the one presented here, should be used as much as possible when assessing wolf abundance trends.

  3. Camera Traps on Wildlife Crossing Structures as a Tool in Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) Management - Five-Years Monitoring of Wolf Abundance Trends in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šver, Lidija; Bielen, Ana; Križan, Josip; Gužvica, Goran

    2016-01-01

    The conservation of gray wolf (Canis lupus) and its coexistence with humans presents a challenge and requires continuous monitoring and management efforts. One of the non-invasive methods that produces high-quality wolf monitoring datasets is camera trapping. We present a novel monitoring approach where camera traps are positioned on wildlife crossing structures that channel the animals, thereby increasing trapping success and increasing the cost-efficiency of the method. In this way we have followed abundance trends of five wolf packs whose home ranges are intersected by a motorway which spans throughout the wolf distribution range in Croatia. During the five-year monitoring of six green bridges we have recorded 28 250 camera-events, 132 with wolves. Four viaducts were monitored for two years, recording 4914 camera-events, 185 with wolves. We have detected a negative abundance trend of the monitored Croatian wolf packs since 2011, especially severe in the northern part of the study area. Further, we have pinpointed the legal cull as probable major negative influence on the wolf pack abundance trends (linear regression, r2 > 0.75, P wolves on the prey populations, both wild ungulates and livestock. We encourage strict protection of wolf in Croatia until there is more data proving population stability. In conclusion, quantitative methods, such as the one presented here, should be used as much as possible when assessing wolf abundance trends.

  4. Wolf's syndrome in a neonatal period: new find neuroradiology. Sindrome de Wolf-Hirschhorn en periodo neonatal: un nuevo hallazgo neurorradiologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracia Chapulle, A.; Alvarez Villa, A.; Diaz Diaz, E.; Lopez Suarez, Y. (Hospital de Cabuenes, Gijon (Spain). Servicios de radiodiagnostico y Pediatria)

    1992-01-01

    We report a new born patient with Wolf's syndrome. We contribute with the most frequently clinical, genetics and radiological findings including a radiological discovery linked a malformation of the central nervous system, consistent in agenesis of the corpus callosum not described so far in the reviewed literature about the Wolf syndrome. (author)

  5. ANALYSIS OF ELECTROPHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GROUNDS IN THE VICINITY ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.G. Koliushko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Definition of the direction for further research to improve accuracy of the calculation of rated parameters of ground grids based on the analysis of statistical databases of electro-physical characteristics of the soil. Methodology. To solve this problem we compiled the statistical base of soil of Ukraine in the location of electrical substation, we performed the statistical analysis for the number of layers of geoelectric structure, and electrical characteristics. In the experiments implemented the comparing of accuracy calculation of the most typical three-layer soil in the Ukraine, by the new three-layer model of ground grids and the equivalent two-layer model, which used previously. Results. On the results of analysis the ranges of the electrical resistivity and statistical distribution for electro-physical characteristics of the soil are determined. The resulting distributions allow to develop criteria for instruments, installations and means of interpretation during the sounding of soil, as well as the requirements for mathematical models of ground grids. It was found that the most typical for places of locations the electrical substations in Ukraine are three-layer geoelectric structures. In the paper the statistical distribution for three-layer soil by type (Q, K, H, A are described. The results of numerical experiments show that the use of methods to simplify of the multilayers soil does not allow the calculation of grounding grids with high accuracy. In the work recommendations for applicability the method equivalenting depending on the type of geoelectric structure are developed. Originality. For the first time, we obtained the statistical distribution of stratification of the soil in the location of power plant in Ukraine, determined the accuracy of the method to simplify a multi-layer soil in determining the rated parameters of grounding grids. In the paper the necessity to develop a mathematical model of the grounding

  6. The evolution of the Luz y Fuerza del Centro substations. Volume 2; Evolucion de las subestaciones de Luz y Fuerza del Centro. Volumen 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carranza Ramirez, Sergio [Luz y Fuerza del Centro, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This document cites historical background of how the Luz y Fuerza del Centro substations have evolved up to nowadays. A brief description is made of one electric substation, the substation design criteria are mentioned, since it must comply with the requirements of reliability, service continuity, service quality, economy, geographical location, just for mentioning some of them. The more utilized arrangements of the Luz y Fuerza del Centro substations are described. In the same manner, the remote control substations are described mentioning the main elements of this type of substations. Mention is made also of the technological incorporations that have been made to the substations and the perspectives there are from these. One line diagrams of the electric substations are shown, as well as from power plant substations [Espanol] Este documento cita antecedentes historicos de como han evolucionando las subestaciones de Luz y Fuerza del Centro hasta hoy en dia. Se realiza una breve descripcion de una subestacion electrica, se mencionan los criterios de diseno de una subestacion, ya que debe cumplir con los requisitos de confiabilidad, continuidad, calidad del servicio, economia, situacion geografica, por mencionar algunos de estos. Se describen los arreglos de las subestaciones mas utilizados por Luz y Fuerza del Centro. De igual manera se describen las subestaciones telecontroladas mencionando los principales elementos de este tipo de subestaciones. Se mencionan las incorporaciones tecnologicas que se han realizado a las subestaciones y las perspectivas que se tienen de estas. Se muestran diagramas unifilares de subestaciones electricas, al igual que se muestran las plantas de las subestaciones

  7. MASTICATORY MUSCLE MYOSITIS IN A GRAY WOLF (CANIS LUPUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Marc; Glass, Eric N; Castro, Fernando A; Miller, Andrew D; de Lahunta, Alexander

    2017-03-01

    A 10-yr-old male, neutered gray wolf ( Canis lupus ) was presented for atrophy of the temporalis and masseter muscles. Clinical signs and magnetic resonance imaging were consistent with a myopathy. Positive serology for antibody titers directed against Type 2M myofibers, and the observation of a mixed mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltrate along with eosinophils and neutrophils within the temporalis muscle, were diagnostic for masticatory muscle myositis. Importantly, protozoal myositis was excluded based on other clinicopathologic data. The case highlights the potential for immune-mediated polymyositis in canids other than the domesticated dog ( Canis lupus familaris). Additionally, awareness of a diet in which raw meat is used should prompt a thorough investigation for an underlying infectious myositis in the gray wolf.

  8. Wolf predation in the Burwash caribou herd, southwest Yukon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Gauthier

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of wolf predation as a proximate mortality factor influencing caribou herd growth was assessed in the Burwash herd (400 animals in the southwest Yukon between 1980 - 1982. Ten to 14 wolves in two packs preyed primarily on caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou and moose (Alces alces with disproportionate consumption of caribou (relative to available biomass in the rut and winter periods. Wolf predation was responsible for 72% of total annual mortality in 1980 - 1981 and 46% in 1981 - 1982. Losses due to human harvest varied between 7 to 13%. Additional limited data on climatic factors and winter forage indicated forage-climate were not major proximate mortality factors in 1980 - 1981, but that early-calving climate may have been a factor in increased calf mortality in 1982.

  9. Severe maxillary osteomyelitis in a Gray Wolf (Canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Dental injuries to or abnormalities in functionally important teeth and associated bones in predators may significantly reduce the ability to kill and consume prey (Lazar et al. 2009). This impairment is likely exacerbated in coursing predators, such as Gray Wolves, that bite and hold onto fleeing and kicking prey with their teeth. Damage to carnassials (upper fourth premolar, P4, and lower first molar, M1) and associated bones in Gray Wolves may especially inhibit the consumption of prey because these teeth slice meat and crush bone. Here I report maxillary osteomyelitis involving the carnassials in a wild Gray Wolf from northeastern Minnesota of such severity that I hypothesize it ultimately caused the Gray Wolf to starve to death.

  10. Technical process automatic control system programs for large substations and the electrical part of power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, V.I.; Rosman, L.V.; Salamatova, V.P.; Shandura, Z.A.

    1981-04-01

    Technical process automatic control systems (TPACS) for large substations and the electrical part of power plants are created in order to increase operating reliability, decrease the cost of their operation, increasing work capacity, decreasing losses and increasing electrical energy quality. The use of TPACs will also provide a savings in capital outlay as a result of a decrease in reserve coefficients in selection of power equipment, an increase in industrialization of installation and a decrease in the amount of space occupied by control equipment. In order to obtain the maximum savings from the use of the TPACS, certain problems must be solved which cannot be solved using tradition automation means, or are not solved with sufficient accuracy using them or, finally, the solution of which, using TPACS, decrease the overall dimensions and the cost of control equipment. In this article, the authors describe methods for solving these problems. (JMT)

  11. Audible Noise Measurement and Analysis of the Main Power Apparatus in UHV GIS Substations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Nian Guang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of audible noise characteristics of the main power apparatus in UHV GIS substations provides essential statistics for the noise prediction and control. Noise pressure level, spectrum and attenuation characteristics of the main transformers and high voltage (HV reactors are measured and analyzed in this paper. The result shows that the main transformer and HV reactor have identical A-weighted equivalent sound pressure level. The medium- and low-frequency noises are the primary components in the spectral. More attention should be paid to the low-frequency bands in the noise control process. The noise of cooling fan has a large influence on that of the main transformer. Without the consideration of corona noise, the average A-weighted sound pressure level shows an overall decreasing trend with the increase of the propagation distance. Obvious interference phenomenon of the noises at 100 and 200Hz exists in the noise propagation process.

  12. Seminoe-Kortes transmission line/substation consolidation project, Carbon County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-01

    The existing switchyards at Western Area Power Administration's (WESTERN) Seminoe and Kortes facilities, located approximately 40 miles northeast of Rawlines, Carbon County, Wyoming, were constructed in 1939 and 1951, respectively. The circuit breakers at these facilities are beyond or approaching their service life and need to be replaced. In addition, the switchyards have poor access for maintenance and replacement of equipment, and their locations create potential for oil spills into the North Platte River. WESTERN is proposing to consolidate the switchyard facilities into one new substation to provide easier access, restore proper levels of system reliability, and decrease the potential for oil contamination of the river. This environmental assessment (EA) was prepared to evaluate the impacts of the proposed Seminoe-Kortes Consolidation Project. 57 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Study on ventilation and noise reduction in the main transformer room in indoor substation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The noise emission should be considered in the ventilation and cooling design for the main transformer room of indoor substation. In this study, based on Soundplan software, effects of four common ventilation and cooling schemes on the cooling and sound insulation were compared. The research showed that the region with low noise requirement, the ventilation could be set on the outer wall or on the door of the main transformer room, while the region with high noise requirement, air inlet muffler or ventilation through the cable interlayer under the main transformer room must be used. All of the four kinds of ventilation schemes, ventilation through the cable interlayer is the best in cooling and noise reduction.

  14. Development of a system for detecting and locating damaged insulator strings with signals collected at substations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Capelini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel technique for remotely identifying and locating of damaged insulator strings based on an analysis of noise signals recorded on the ground connection of current transformers installed on transmission line substations. Damaged insulators usually present electrical surface activity. Surface and corona discharges may result in the generation of high frequency signals that can travel through the transmission line conductors, which are recorded by a data acquisition system. Each signal generated by the surface or corona discharge has a unique signature. This signature changes according to the position of the source, i.e., the damaged string along the line, which enables the association between the signal signature and the location of the string along the line. A method proposed to achieve this association is discussed in this paper as well as the tools and tests carried out during its development. An innovative way for capacitive coupling, which reduce detection system implementation costs is presented

  15. Investigation of Leakage Current Waveforms Recorded in a Coastal High Voltage Substation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Thalassinakis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Leakage current monitoring is a widely employed technique to monitor the performance of outdoor insulation. The evaluation of leakage current waveforms recorded in the field, offers significant information since insulation’s performance is strongly linked with local conditions, and the waveforms’ shape correlate to different types of surface activity. In this paper, an investigation of leakage current waveforms recorded in a 150 kV coastal Substations suffering which suffers intense marine pollution is presented. Investigation of the recorded waveforms verified the basic waveform shapes described in the literature. Further, several variations of the basic types and complex waveforms, as well as field related waveforms, are presented. The need for added categorization criteria in the case of field measurements is discussed.

  16. Final environmental assessment for vegetation control at VHF stations, microwave stations, electrical substations, and pole yards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-13

    Southwestern Power Adm. operates very high frequency (VHF) and microwave radio stations, electrical substations, and pole yards for electric power transmission throughout AR, MO, and OK. Vegetation growth at the stations must be suppressed for safety of operation and personnel. Southwestern has been using a combination of mechanical/manual and herbicide control for this purpose; Federally- mandated reductions in staff and budgetary resources require Southwestern to evaluate all potentially efficient methods for vegetation control. Three alternatives were examined: no action, mechanical/manual control, and (proposed) a combination of mechanical/manual and herbicide control. Environmental impacts on air and water quality, wetlands, wildlife, endangered species, archaeological and other resources, farmland, human health, transportation, etc. were evaluated.

  17. Type B investigation of electrical fault in 351 Substation, December 4, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debban, H.L.; Shearer, C.A.; Boger, R.M.; McDonald, G.P. [ICF Kaiser Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Eyre, L.E.; Dell, L.D.; Kelly, D.S. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    On December 4, 1994, at 2132:10 hours, an electrical failure of a cable-tapping splice resulted in a fire in the 300 Area of the DOE Hanford Site. The fire occurred in the yard of Substation 351 in electrical Vault R122V, where the cable-tapping splice was located. The fire incinerated all cables passing to and through the vault causing them to fail. The failure of the cables resulted in a power outage to twenty customers in the 300 Area. The vault was electrically isolated, and power was restored to the electrical distribution system at 2311 hours. This report contains the accident scenario, accident analysis, direct cause and root and contributing causes.

  18. Development of a blocking logic checking apparatus for substation measurement and control devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available After transforming substation measurement and control devices, the traditional method of blocking logic check needs to go back and forth among the measurement and control devices, and repeatedly connect a large number of wires, which lead to tedious operation and low efficiency. This paper developed a logic verification device based on 4G wireless communication, which used the Modbus/TCP transport protocol to access Ethernet, to complete the real-time data communication with the mobile control terminal. And this paper made a request to the logic controller according to practicality and cost. And the terminal software interface was designed by the orthogonal experimental design idea. The development of this device provided a new and efficient method for logic verification.

  19. Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome Candidate 1 Is Necessary for Correct Hematopoietic and B Cell Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Campos-Sanchez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Immunodeficiency is one of the most important causes of mortality associated with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS, a severe rare disease originated by a deletion in chromosome 4p. The WHS candidate 1 (WHSC1 gene has been proposed as one of the main genes responsible for many of the alterations in WHS, but its mechanism of action is still unknown. Here, we present in vivo genetic evidence showing that Whsc1 plays an important role at several points of hematopoietic development. Particularly, our results demonstrate that both differentiation and function of Whsc1-deficient B cells are impaired at several key developmental stages due to profound molecular defects affecting B cell lineage specification, commitment, fitness, and proliferation, demonstrating a causal role for WHSC1 in the immunodeficiency of WHS patients.

  20. Pulsations in Wolf-Rayet stars: observations with MOST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chené, André-Nicolas; Moffat, Anthony F. J.

    2011-07-01

    Photometry of Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars obtained with the first Canadian space telescope MOST (Microvariability and Oscillations of STars) has revealed multimode oscillations mainly in continuum light that suggest stellar pulsations could be a significant contributing factor to the mass-loss rates. Since the first clear detection of a pulsation period of P = 9.8h in WR123, two other stars have also shown periods of a few days, which must be related to stellar pulsations.

  1. AHP 6: The Brag 'go Wolf Begging Ritual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mgon po tshe ring

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A ritual performed in 1999 in Dge rtse (Genzhi 更知 Township, Brag 'go (Luhuo 炉霍 County, Dkar mdzes (Ganzi 甘孜 Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan (四川 Province is described. The ritual involved a man, his son, and his nephew taking a wolf skin, visiting nine villages, and asking for donations to appease the 'owner of the wolves'.

  2. Early Termination of Dantzig-Wolfe Algorithm for Economic MPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Standardi, Laura; Sokoler, Leo Emil; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we apply the Economic Model Predictive Control (MPC) for balancing the power supply and demand in the future power systems in the most economic way. The control problem is formulated as a linear program, having a block-angular structure solved by the implementation of the Dantzig-Wo......-Wolfe decomposition. For real-time applications we introduce an early termination technique. Simulations demonstrate that the algorithm developed operates effciently a power system, reducing significantly computational time....

  3. Canine parvovirus effect on wolf population change and pup survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; Goyal, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Canine parvovirus infected wild canids more than a decade ago, but no population effect has been documented. In wild Minnesota wolves (Canis lupus) over a 12-yr period, the annual percent population increase and proportion of pups each were inversely related to the percentage of wolves serologically positive to the disease. Although these effects did not seem to retard this large extant population, similar relationships in more isolated wolf populations might hinder recovery of this endangered and threatened species.

  4. Dance dramatization of a fairy tale Peter and the wolf

    OpenAIRE

    Bukovec, Klavdija

    2014-01-01

    The diploma entitled Dance dramatization of a fairy tale Peter and the Wolf describes the process of dance dramatization with preschool children. The theoretical part contains various definitions and elements of dance dramatization and the role of children and adults in it. Elements of dance dramatization are key factors as they present stages through which children encounter in the creation of the show. The chapter of musical fairy tale describes the musical fairy tale in detail, presen...

  5. Blickwechsel: Christa Wolf und Ingeborg Bachmann: drei Begegnungen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Schumann

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Es ist gewißt nicht ungewöhnlich, daß sich Schriftsteller immer wieder des Lebens und des Werkes anderer Autoren annehmen: sei es um der kritischen Lektüre willen (wie der gleichnamige Sammelband von Stephan Hermlin belegt, sei es, um vergessene Autoren vergangener Jahrhunderte durch Editionen neu zu erschließen (hier ware der von de Bruyn und Gerhard Wolf herausgegebene »Märkische Dichtergarten« zu nennen, sei es, um im Auftrage eines Verlages das Buch eines anderen Autors mit einem Vor- oder Nachwort zu begleiten. Texte dieser Art finden sich mühelos auch in den Essaybänden von Christa Wolf. Erstaunlich ist dabei ebenfalls nicht, daß es in auffallender Weise Schriftstellerkolleginnen sind, denen sie auf diese oder jene Weise dienstbar gewesen ist, ganz gleich, ob es sich darum handelte, das Bild der Günderrode und ihrer Zeit zu zeichnen, das Werk einer be­ breundeten Autorin - Anna Seghers - ins rechte Licht zu rücken, eine Lanze für ein thematisch neuartiges Buch wie das von Maxie Wander (Guten Morgen du Schöne, zu brechen oder im Gespräch mit Elke Erp Lese­ hilfe für das Publikum zu geben. Da es sich bei all diesen Arbeiten nicht um lästige Pflichtübungen handelt, sondern immer auch die Verfasserin dieser Prosaarbeiten mit im Spiel ist, geben diese Texte - in einem Fall mehr, im anderen weniger - auch über Christa Wolf selbst in der ein oder anderen Weise Auskunft. Das gilt wohl in besonderem Maße für jene, die sich auf Ingeborg Bachmann beziehen, deren Präsenz im Werk Christa Wolfs auf eine Affinität besonderer Art schließen läßt.

  6. Effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure on sleep quality in high voltage substations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barsam Tayebeh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aims to investigate the effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields exposure on sleep quality in high voltage substations (132, 230 and 400 KV in Kerman city and the suburbs. For this purpose, the electric field intensity and magnetic flux density were measured in different parts of substations, and then the occupational exposure was estimated by averaging electric field intensity and magnetic flux density in a shift work. The cases comprised 67 workers who had been exposed to electromagnetic fields in age range of 24–57 and the controls were 110 persons the age ranged 24–50 years. Sleep quality of both groups was evaluated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire (PSQI. Finally, these data were subjected to statistical analysis. The results indicated that 90.5% of cases and 85.3% of controls had the poor quality sleep according to PSQI (P-value=0.615. Total sleep quality score mean for the case and control groups were 10.22 ± 3.4 and 9.74 ± 3.62 (P-value=0.415 ,respectively. Meantime to fall asleep for cases(35.68 ± 26.25 min was significantly higher than for controls (28.89 ± 20.18 min (P-value=0.002. Cases had average sleep duration of 5.49 ± 1.31 hours, which was lower ascompared with control subjects (5.90 ± 1.67hours. Although there was a higher percentage for the case group with poor sleep quality than the control group, but no statistically significant difference was observed.

  7. Effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure on sleep quality in high voltage substations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsam, Tayebeh; Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Ghotbi, Mohammad Reza; Dehghan, Somayeh Farhang

    2012-11-30

    This study aims to investigate the effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields exposure on sleep quality in high voltage substations (132, 230 and 400 KV) in Kerman city and the suburbs. For this purpose, the electric field intensity and magnetic flux density were measured in different parts of substations, and then the occupational exposure was estimated by averaging electric field intensity and magnetic flux density in a shift work. The cases comprised 67 workers who had been exposed to electromagnetic fields in age range of 24-57 and the controls were 110 persons the age ranged 24-50 years. Sleep quality of both groups was evaluated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire (PSQI). Finally, these data were subjected to statistical analysis. The results indicated that 90.5% of cases and 85.3% of controls had the poor quality sleep according to PSQI (P-value=0.615). Total sleep quality score mean for the case and control groups were 10.22 ± 3.4 and 9.74 ± 3.62 (P-value=0.415) ,respectively. Meantime to fall asleep for cases(35.68 ± 26.25 min) was significantly higher than for controls (28.89 ± 20.18 min) (P-value=0.002). Cases had average sleep duration of 5.49 ± 1.31 hours, which was lower ascompared with control subjects (5.90 ± 1.67hours). Although there was a higher percentage for the case group with poor sleep quality than the control group, but no statistically significant difference was observed.

  8. Design Optimization of a Natural Gas Substation with Intensification of the Energy Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcangelo Pellegrino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas is currently the natural substitute of petroleum as an energy source, since the foreseen ending up of this latter in the next decades. As a matter of fact, natural gas is easier to handle, less dangerous to be transported, somehow environmentally more friendly. The gas ducts operate with large flow rates over very long distances at high pressures, which are usually lowered in proximity of the final substations by lamination valves which, in fact, dissipate energy. However, a careful management of the pressure reduction may allow an energy recovery while using the gas expansion to operate a turbine. In this case, gas must be preheated to compensate for the energy required by the expansion. A proper control of all the parameters involved becomes crucial to an intelligent use of these resources. In this paper, the possibility of using a pre-heating system has been examined as a way to intensify the energy cycle in an expansion substation of the city gas network. Fuzzy logic has been used to optimize the natural gas expansion in a turbine to produce electrical energy. A fuzzy system has been designed and realized to control the whole process of gas expansion, from the gas pre-heating to the pressure reduction. The system operates over the whole year, accounting for the pressure, temperature, and gas flow rate variations experienced in the gas line. The exit values of the latter and the inlet value of the gas pressure are selected as input variables, being the output variable the temperature of the pre-heating water at the heat exchanger inlet.

  9. Acute granulocytic anaplasmosis in a captive timber wolf (Canis lupus occidentalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leschnik, Michael; Kirtz, Georges; Virányi, Zsófia; Wille-Piazzai, Walpurga; Duscher, Georg

    2012-09-01

    A 2-yr-old male captive timber wolf, kept in an outdoor enclosure in Austria, presented with anorexia, depression, and fever in June. Tick infestation was reported despite monthly acaricidal treatment. The microscopic examination of a blood smear revealed elementary bodies and morulae suspicious for Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Polymerase chain reaction confirmed the infection by the G-variant of the pathogen, also found in horses and humans but not in wild ruminants. The wolf seroconverted within 2 wk, and antibodies persisted thereafter. Therapy was started with doxycycline for 10 days, and the wolf recovered within 24 hr. Clinical symptoms and temporary changes in blood parameters (thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia, mild anemia) in this wolf show high similarity to granulocytic anaplasmosis seen in dogs. This is the first report on granulocytic anaplasmosis in a wolf, indicating that A. phagocytophilum might cause clinical disease in the wolf.

  10. Major Refit for CERN's 400 kV Substation (Part of the new control and protection system for the 18 kV side)

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The 400 kV substation on the Prévessin site brings in the electricity that powers CERN's accelerators and the majority of the Laboratory's installations. It was originally built in the 1970s for the SPS, and is one of only five privately owned 400 kV sub-stations in France. Three of the others belong to the national railway company, SNCF, supplying the Paris-Marseilles TGV line, the other is at the Cadarache research centre near mouth of the Rhone. After nearly thirty years of service, CERN's substation has just undergone a complete overhaul.

  11. Megafaunal extinctions and the disappearance of a specialized wolf ecomorph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Jennifer A; Vilà, Carles; Fox-Dobbs, Kena; Koch, Paul L; Wayne, Robert K; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire

    2007-07-03

    The gray wolf (Canis lupus) is one of the few large predators to survive the Late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions [1]. Nevertheless, wolves disappeared from northern North America in the Late Pleistocene, suggesting they were affected by factors that eliminated other species. Using skeletal material collected from Pleistocene permafrost deposits of eastern Beringia, we present a comprehensive analysis of an extinct vertebrate by exploring genetic (mtDNA), morphologic, and isotopic (delta(13)C, delta(15)N) data to reveal the evolutionary relationships, as well as diet and feeding behavior, of ancient wolves. Remarkably, the Late Pleistocene wolves are genetically unique and morphologically distinct. None of the 16 mtDNA haplotypes recovered from a sample of 20 Pleistocene eastern-Beringian wolves was shared with any modern wolf, and instead they appear most closely related to Late Pleistocene wolves of Eurasia. Moreover, skull shape, tooth wear, and isotopic data suggest that eastern-Beringian wolves were specialized hunters and scavengers of extinct megafauna. Thus, a previously unrecognized, uniquely adapted, and genetically distinct wolf ecomorph suffered extinction in the Late Pleistocene, along with other megafauna. Consequently, the survival of the species in North America depended on the presence of more generalized forms elsewhere.

  12. DoGSD: the dog and wolf genome SNP database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bing; Zhao, Wen-Ming; Tang, Bi-Xia; Wang, Yan-Qing; Wang, Lu; Zhang, Zhang; Yang, He-Chuan; Liu, Yan-Hu; Zhu, Jun-Wei; Irwin, David M; Wang, Guo-Dong; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The rapid advancement of next-generation sequencing technology has generated a deluge of genomic data from domesticated dogs and their wild ancestor, grey wolves, which have simultaneously broadened our understanding of domestication and diseases that are shared by humans and dogs. To address the scarcity of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data provided by authorized databases and to make SNP data more easily/friendly usable and available, we propose DoGSD (http://dogsd.big.ac.cn), the first canidae-specific database which focuses on whole genome SNP data from domesticated dogs and grey wolves. The DoGSD is a web-based, open-access resource comprising ∼ 19 million high-quality whole-genome SNPs. In addition to the dbSNP data set (build 139), DoGSD incorporates a comprehensive collection of SNPs from two newly sequenced samples (1 wolf and 1 dog) and collected SNPs from three latest dog/wolf genetic studies (7 wolves and 68 dogs), which were taken together for analysis with the population genetic statistics, Fst. In addition, DoGSD integrates some closely related information including SNP annotation, summary lists of SNPs located in genes, synonymous and non-synonymous SNPs, sampling location and breed information. All these features make DoGSD a useful resource for in-depth analysis in dog-/wolf-related studies. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. Review of the Australian wolf spider genus Venator (Araneae, Lycosidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Framenau, Volker W

    2015-09-11

    Species of the Australian wolf spider genus Venator are reviewed including the type species, V. spenceri Hogg, 1900, from south-eastern Australia and V. immansuetus (Simon, 1909) comb. nov., a common species in south-west Western Australia. Venator marginatus Hogg, 1900 is only known from two female specimens and the genital morphology of this species does not conform to the diagnosis of genus as presented here. Therefore V. marginatus is considered incerta sedis. Venator includes medium-sized (9.0-22 mm body length) wolf spiders of overall brownish colouration, and with a black patch covering the anterior three quarters of the venter. They differ from all other wolf spiders in particular by genitalic characters, namely an elevated atrium of the female epigyne that forms a raised edged against the inverted T-shaped median septum. This edge often corresponds to a retrolateral incision on the tegular apophysis of the male pedipalp. The genus is mainly a representative of the Bassian fauna of the Australian continent where it occurs predominantly in dry sclerophyll forests.

  14. THE EXEMPLAR T8 SUBDWARF COMPANION OF WOLF 1130

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, Gregory N.; McLean, Ian S.; Logsdon, Sarah E.; Wright, Edward L.; Kulas, Kristin R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Beichman, Charles A. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cushing, Michael C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, MS 111, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft St., Toledo, OH 43606-3328 (United States); Skrutskie, Michael F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Eisenhardt, Peter R., E-mail: gmace@astro.ucla.edu [NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    We have discovered a wide separation (188.''5) T8 subdwarf companion to the sdM1.5+WD binary Wolf 1130. Companionship of WISE J200520.38+542433.9 is verified through common proper motion over a ∼3 yr baseline. Wolf 1130 is located 15.83 ± 0.96 pc from the Sun, placing the brown dwarf at a projected separation of ∼3000 AU. Near-infrared colors and medium resolution (R ≈ 2000-4000) spectroscopy establish the uniqueness of this system as a high-gravity, low-metallicity benchmark. Although there are a number of low-metallicity T dwarfs in the literature, WISE J200520.38+542433.9 has the most extreme inferred metallicity to date with [Fe/H] = –0.64 ± 0.17 based on Wolf 1130. Model comparisons to this exemplar late-type subdwarf support it having an old age, a low metallicity, and a small radius. However, the spectroscopic peculiarities of WISE J200520.38+542433.9 underscore the importance of developing the low-metallicity parameter space of the most current atmospheric models.

  15. Multiple Shells Around Wolf-Rayet Stars: Space Based Astrometric Observing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Anthony P.

    1995-01-01

    The completion of a complementary optical emission-line survey of the nebulae associated with Wolf-Rayet stars in the southern sky is reported, along with the completion of a survey the large-scale environments of Wolf-Rayet stars using IRAS Skyflux data. HIRES IRAS maps in the four IRAS wavebands for appoximately half of all galactic Wolf-Rayet stars are created.

  16. Non-genetic data supporting genetic evidence for the eastern wolf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David

    2011-01-01

    Two schools of thought dominate the molecular-genetics literature on Canis spp. (wolves) in the western Great Lakes region of the US and Canada: (1) they are hybrids between Canis lupus (Gray Wolf) and Canis latrans (Coyote), or (2) they are hybrids between the Gray Wolf and Canis lycaon (Eastern Wolf). This article presents 3 types of non-genetic evidence that bears on the controversy and concludes that all 3 support the second interpretation.

  17. Wolf presence in the ranch of origin: impacts on temperament and physiological responses of beef cattle following a simulated wolf encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, R F; Bohnert, D W; Reis, M M; Cappellozza, B I

    2013-12-01

    This experiment evaluated temperament, vaginal temperature, and plasma cortisol in beef cows from wolf-naïve and wolf-experienced origins that were subjected to a simulated wolf encounter. Multiparous, pregnant, nonlactating Angus-crossbreed cows from the Eastern Oregon Agricultural Research Center located near Burns, OR (CON; n = 50), and from a commercial operation near Council, ID (WLF; n = 50), were used. To date, grey wolves are not present around Burns, OR, and thus CON were naïve to wolves. Conversely, wolves are present around Council, ID, and WLF cows were selected from a herd that had experienced multiple confirmed wolf-predation episodes from 2008 to 2012. Following a 50-d commingling and adaptation period, CON and WLF cows were ranked by temperament, BW, and BCS and allocated to 5 groups (d 0; 10 CON and 10 WLF cows/group). Groups were individually subjected to the experimental procedures on d 2 (n = 3) and d 3 (n = 2). Before the simulated wolf encounter, cow temperament was assessed and blood samples and vaginal temperatures (using intravaginal data loggers) were collected (presimulation assessments). Cows were then sorted by origin, moved to 2 adjacent drylot pens (10 WLF and 10 CON cows/pen), and subjected to a simulated wolf encounter event for 20 min, which consisted of 1) cotton plugs saturated with wolf urine attached to the drylot fence, 2) continuous reproduction of wolf howls, and 3) 3 leashed dogs that were walked along the fence perimeter. Thereafter, WLF and CON cows were commingled and returned to the handling facility for postsimulation assessments, which were conducted immediately after exposure to wolf-urine-saturated cotton plugs, wolf howl reproduction, and 20-s exposure to the 3 dogs while being restrained in a squeeze chute. Chute score, temperament score, and plasma cortisol concentration increased (P ≤ 0.01) from pre- to postsimulation assessment in WLF but did not change in CON cows (P ≥ 0.19). Exit velocity decreased (P

  18. Extinguishing a learned response in a free-ranging gray wolf (Canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David

    2017-01-01

    A free-ranging Gray Wolf (Canis lupus), habituated to human presence (the author) on Ellesmere Island, Canada, learned to anticipate experimental feeding by a human, became impatient, persistent, and bold and exhibited stalking behaviour toward the food source. Only after the author offered the wolf about 90 clumps of dry soil over a period of 45 minutes in three bouts, did the wolf give up this behaviour. To my knowledge, this is the first example of extinguishing a learned response in a free-ranging wolf and provides new insight into the learning behaviour of such animals.

  19. Considerations for developing wolf harvesting regulations in the contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David

    2010-01-01

    As gray wolves (Canis lupus) are removed from the federal Endangered Species List, management reverts to the states. Eventually most states will probably allow public wolf harvesting. Open seasons between about 1 November and 1 March accord more with basic wolf biology than during other times. Managers who consider wolf biology and public sensitivities, adapt public-taking regulations accordingly, and adjust harvest regulations as they learn will be best able to maximize the recreational value of wolf harvesting, minimize public animosity toward it, and meet their harvest objectives.

  20. Spatial assessment of wolf-dog hybridization in a single breeding period

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco, C.; L?pez-Bao, J. V.; Garc?a, E. J.; Lema, F. J.; Llaneza, L.; Palacios, V.; Godinho, R.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of wolf-dog hybridization and delineating evidence-based conservation strategies requires information on the spatial extent of wolf-dog hybridization in real-time, which remains largely unknown. We collected 332 wolf-like scats over ca. 5,000km2 in the NW Iberian Peninsula to evaluate wolf-dog hybridization at population level in a single breeding/pup-rearing season. Mitochondrial DNA (MtDNA) and 18 ancestry informative markers were used for species and individual i...

  1. Wolf restoration to the Adirondacks: the advantages and disadvantages of public participation in the decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Sharpe, V.A.; Norton, B.; Donnelley, S.

    2000-01-01

    The first time I ever saw a wolf in New York State's Adirondack Mountains was in 1956. It was a brush wolf, or coyote (Canis latrans), not a real wolf, but to an eager young wildlife student this distinction meant little. The presence of this large deer-killing canid let my fresh imagination view the Adirondacks as a real northern wilderness. Since then I have spent the last 40 years studying the real wolf: the gray wolf (Canis lupus). Although inhabiting nearby Quebec and Ontario, the gray wolf still has not made its way back to the Adirondacks as it has to Wisconsin, Michigan, and Montana. Those three states had the critical advantages of a nearby reservoir population of wolves and wilderness corridors through which dispersers from the reservoirs could immigrate. The Adirondacks, on the other hand, are geographically more similar to the greater Yellowstone area in that they are separated from any wolf reservoir by long distances and intensively human-developed areas aversive to wolves from the reservoir populations. If wolves are to return to the Adirondacks, they almost certainly will have to be reintroduced, as they were to Yellowstone National Park. Wolf reintroduction, as distinct from natural recovery, is an especially contentious issue, for it entails dramatic, deliberate action that must be open to public scrutiny, thorough discussion and review, and highly polarized debate. This is as it should be because once a wolf population is reintroduced to an area, it must be managed forever. There is no turning back. The wolf was once eradicated not just from the Adirondacks but from almost all of the 48 contiguous states. That feat was accomplished by a primarily pioneering society that applied itself endlessly to the task, armed with poison. We can never return to those days, so once the wolf is reintroduced successfully, it will almost certainly be here to stay.

  2. WCPP-THE WOLF PLOTTING AND CONTOURING PACKAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, G. T.

    1994-01-01

    The WOLF Contouring and Plotting Package provides the user with a complete general purpose plotting and contouring capability. This package is a complete system for producing line printer, SC4020, Gerber, Calcomp, and SD4060 plots. The package has been designed to be highly flexible and easy to use. Any plot from a quick simple plot (which requires only one call to the package) to highly sophisticated plots (including motion picture plots) can be easily generated with only a basic knowledge of FORTRAN and the plot commands. Anyone designing a software system that requires plotted output will find that this package offers many advantages over the standard hardware support packages available. The WCPP package is divided into a plot segment and a contour segment. The plot segment can produce output for any combination of line printer, SC4020, Gerber, Calcomp, and SD4060 plots. The line printer plots allow the user to have plots available immediately after a job is run at a low cost. Although the resolution of line printer plots is low, the quick results allows the user to judge if a high resolution plot of a particular run is desirable. The SC4020 and SD4060 provide high speed high resolution cathode ray plots with film and hard copy output available. The Gerber and Calcomp plotters provide very high quality (of publishable quality) plots of good resolution. Being bed or drum type plotters, the Gerber and Calcomp plotters are usually slow and not suited for large volume plotting. All output for any or all of the plotters can be produced simultaneously. The types of plots supported are: linear, semi-log, log-log, polar, tabular data using the FORTRAN WRITE statement, 3-D perspective linear, and affine transformations. The labeling facility provides for horizontal labels, vertical labels, diagonal labels, vector characters of a requested size (special character fonts are easily implemented), and rotated letters. The gridding routines label the grid lines according to

  3. Hazard zoning around electric substations of petrochemical industries by stimulation of extremely low-frequency magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Monireh; Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Farhang Matin, Laleh; Khosroabadi, Hossein

    2015-05-01

    Electromagnetic fields in recent years have been discussed as one of the occupational hazards at workplaces. Hence, control and assessment of these physical factors is very important to protect and promote the health of employees. The present study was conducted to determine hazard zones based on assessment of extremely low-frequency magnetic fields at electric substations of a petrochemical complex in southern Iran, using the single-axis HI-3604 device. In measurement of electromagnetic fields by the single-axis HI-3604 device, the sensor screen should be oriented in a way to be perpendicular to the field lines. Therefore, in places where power lines are located in different directions, it is required to keep the device towards three axes of x, y, and z. For further precision, the measurements should be repeated along each of the three axes. In this research, magnetic field was measured, for the first time, in three axes of x, y, and z whose resultant value was considered as the value of magnetic field. Measurements were done based on IEEE std 644-1994. Further, the spatial changes of the magnetic field surrounding electric substations were stimulated using MATLAB software. The obtained results indicated that the maximum magnetic flux density was 49.90 μT recorded from boiler substation, while the minimum magnetic flux density of 0.02 μT was measured at the control room of the complex. As the stimulation results suggest, the spaces around incoming panels, transformers, and cables were recognized as hazardous zones of indoor electric substations. Considering the health effects of chronic exposure to magnetic fields, it would be possible to minimize exposure to these contaminants at workplaces by identification of risky zones and observation of protective considerations.

  4. Holbrook Substation Superconductor Cable System, Long Island, New York Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, James; McNamara, Joseph

    2010-06-25

    The LIPA Superconductor project broke ground on July 4, 2006, was first energized on April 22, 2008 (Earth Day) and was commissioned on June 25, 2008. Since commissioning, up until early March, 2009, there were numerous refrigeration events that impacted steady state operations. This led to the review of the alarms that were being generated and a rewrite of the program logic in order to decrease the hypersensitivity surrounding these alarms. The high temperature superconductor (HTS) cable was energized on March 5, 2009 and ran uninterrupted until a human error during a refrigeration system switchover knocked the cable out of the grid in early February 2010. The HTS cable was in the grid uninterrupted from March 5, 2009 to February 4, 2010. Although there have been refrigeration events (propagated mainly by voltage sags/surges) during this period, the system was able to automatically switch over from the primary to the backup refrigeration system without issue as required during this period. On February 4, 2010, when switching from the backup over to the primary refrigeration system, two rather than one liquid nitrogen pumps were started inadvertently by a human error (communication) causing an overpressure in the cable cooling line. This in turn activated the pressure relief valve located in the grounding substation. The cable was automatically taken out of the grid without any damage to the components or system as a result of signals sent from the AMSC control cabinet to the LIPA substation. The cable was switched back into the grid again on March 16, 2010 without incident and has been operational since that time. Since switching from the backup to the primary is not an automatic process, a recent improvement was added to the refrigeration operating system to allow remote commands to return the system from backup to primary cooling. This improvement makes the switching procedure quicker since travel to the site to perform this operation is no longer necessary and

  5. Evaluation of current densities and total contact currents in occupational exposure at 400 kV substations and power lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpinen, Leena H; Elovaara, Jarmo A; Kuisti, Harri A

    2009-04-01

    This investigation studied the current densities in the neck and total contact currents in occupational exposure at 400 kV substations and power lines. Eight voluntary workers simulated their normal work tasks using the helmet-mask measuring system. In all, 151 work tasks with induced current measurements were made. Work situations were: tasks in 400 kV substations, tasks in 400-110 kV towers and the cutting of vegetation under 400 kV power lines. The average current density in the neck was estimated from the current induced in the helmet. The calculated maximum average current densities in the neck varied from 1.5 to 6.4 mA/m(2) and the maximum total contact currents from 66.8 to 458.4 microA. The study shows that the maximum average current densities and the total contact currents (caused by electric field) in occupational exposure at 400 kV substations and power lines does not exceed the limit and action values (10 mA/m(2) and 1 mA) of the new EU-directive 2004/40/EC (live-line bare-hand works excluded). (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Substation automation. Integration of applications of the SICLE; Automatizacion de subestaciones. Integracion de aplicaciones sobre el SICLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, Gustavo; Vega, Miguel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the first applications developed by the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) on the infrastructure of the SICLE (Sistema de Informacion y Control Local de la Estacion) (Station Information and Local Control System), that Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) is now acquiring in order to automate its transmission substations. A computer infrastructure was obtained similar to the existing in the substation for the development of program testing at the IIE; the personnel of the same was trained; the applications in conjunction with the CFE specialists were defined; the agreed developments were made and installed at the Temascal II Substation. [Espanol] En el presente articulo se presentan las primeras aplicaciones desarrolladas por el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) sobre la infraestructura del SICLE (Sistema de Informacion y Control Local de Estacion) que esta adquiriendo la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) a fin de automatizar sus subestaciones de transmision. Se obtuvo una infraestructura de computo similar a la existente en la subestacion para el desarrollo de prueba de programas en el IIE; se capacito al personal en la misma; se definieron las aplicaciones conjuntamente con los especialistas de la CFE; se hicieron los desarrollos acordados y se instalaron en la subestacion Temascal II.

  7. Assessment of the risk of failure of high voltage substations due to environmental conditions and pollution on insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Sierra, Rafael; Oviedo-Trespalacios, Oscar; Candelo, John E; Soto, Jose D

    2015-07-01

    Pollution on electrical insulators is one of the greatest causes of failure of substations subjected to high levels of salinity and environmental pollution. Considering leakage current as the main indicator of pollution on insulators, this paper focuses on establishing the effect of the environmental conditions on the risk of failure due to pollution on insulators and determining the significant change in the magnitude of the pollution on the insulators during dry and humid periods. Hierarchical segmentation analysis was used to establish the effect of environmental conditions on the risk of failure due to pollution on insulators. The Kruskal-Wallis test was utilized to determine the significant changes in the magnitude of the pollution due to climate periods. An important result was the discovery that leakage current was more common on insulators during dry periods than humid ones. There was also a higher risk of failure due to pollution during dry periods. During the humid period, various temperatures and wind directions produced a small change in the risk of failure. As a technical result, operators of electrical substations can now identify the cause of an increase in risk of failure due to pollution in the area. The research provides a contribution towards the behaviour of the leakage current under conditions similar to those of the Colombian Caribbean coast and how they affect the risk of failure of the substation due to pollution.

  8. Wilderness discount on livestock compensation costs for imperiled gray wolf Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Christopher Haney; Timm Kroeger; Frank Casey; Alysa Quarforth; Gina Schrader; Suzanne Asha Stone

    2007-01-01

    There is evidence that Wilderness reduces costs for livestock depredations caused by the endangered and threatened gray wolf (Canis lupus) in the northern Rockies and upper Midwest, U.S.A. From 1995 to 2004, direct costs for compensation in the northern Rockies came to only 47 to 78 percent of losses anticipated at wolf reintroduction and projected...

  9. The wolf reference genome sequence (Canis lupus lupus) and its implications for Canis spp. population genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gopalakrishnan, Shyam; Samaniego Castruita, Jose Alfredo; Sinding, Mikkel Holger Strander

    2017-01-01

    - that of a boxer dog (Canis lupus familiaris). We generated the first de novo wolf genome (Canis lupus lupus) as an additional choice of reference, and explored what implications may arise when previously published dog and wolf resequencing data are remapped to this reference. Results Reassuringly, we find...

  10. 78 FR 53666 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Wolf River, Gills Landing and Winneconne, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Wolf River, Gills... revising the operating schedule that governs the Winneconne Highway Bridge at Mile 2.4, and the Canadian National Railroad Bridge at mile 27.8, both over the Wolf River. A review of the current regulation was...

  11. 78 FR 27336 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Wolf River, Gills Landing and Winneconne, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... 2.4, and the Canadian National Railroad Bridge at mile 27.8, both over the Wolf River. A review of... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Wolf River, Gills... Canadian National Railroad. DATES: Comments and related material must reach the Coast Guard on or before...

  12. Science, economics, and rhetoric: environmental advocacy and the wolf reintroduction debate, 1987-1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayle C. Hardy-Short; C. Brant Short

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the arguments employed in the debate over reintroduction of wolves into Idaho, Montana, and the Yellowstone National Park Ecosystem; and in Arizona and New Mexico. The study reviews common rhetorical themes used by advocates and opponents of wolf reintroduction and identifies a significant rhetorical shift in the debate. Advocates opposed to wolf...

  13. 75 FR 24741 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... preamble to the rule that the Service would continue to recognize the Mexican wolf as a valid biological... Mexican wolf in the wild, and an overview and assessment of current conservation and recovery efforts..., the three statutorily required elements of a recovery plan (16 U.S.C. 1533(f)(1)(B)), nor does it...

  14. Wolf (Canis lupus Generation Time and Proportion of Current Breeding Females by Age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L David Mech

    Full Text Available Information is sparse about aspects of female wolf (Canis lupus breeding in the wild, including age of first reproduction, mean age of primiparity, generation time, and proportion of each age that breeds in any given year. We studied these subjects in 86 wolves (113 captures in the Superior National Forest (SNF, Minnesota (MN, during 1972-2013 where wolves were legally protected for most of the period, and in 159 harvested wolves from throughout MN wolf range during 2012-2014. Breeding status of SNF wolves were assessed via nipple measurements, and wolves from throughout MN wolf range, by placental scars. In the SNF, proportions of currently breeding females (those breeding in the year sampled ranged from 19% at age 2 to 80% at age 5, and from throughout wolf range, from 33% at age 2 to 100% at age 7. Excluding pups and yearlings, only 33% to 36% of SNF females and 58% of females from throughout MN wolf range bred in any given year. Generation time for SNF wolves was 4.3 years and for MN wolf range, 4.7 years. These findings will be useful in modeling wolf population dynamics and in wolf genetic and dog-domestication studies.

  15. Wolf (Canis lupus) Generation Time and Proportion of Current Breeding Females by Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L David; Barber-Meyer, Shannon M; Erb, John

    2016-01-01

    Information is sparse about aspects of female wolf (Canis lupus) breeding in the wild, including age of first reproduction, mean age of primiparity, generation time, and proportion of each age that breeds in any given year. We studied these subjects in 86 wolves (113 captures) in the Superior National Forest (SNF), Minnesota (MN), during 1972-2013 where wolves were legally protected for most of the period, and in 159 harvested wolves from throughout MN wolf range during 2012-2014. Breeding status of SNF wolves were assessed via nipple measurements, and wolves from throughout MN wolf range, by placental scars. In the SNF, proportions of currently breeding females (those breeding in the year sampled) ranged from 19% at age 2 to 80% at age 5, and from throughout wolf range, from 33% at age 2 to 100% at age 7. Excluding pups and yearlings, only 33% to 36% of SNF females and 58% of females from throughout MN wolf range bred in any given year. Generation time for SNF wolves was 4.3 years and for MN wolf range, 4.7 years. These findings will be useful in modeling wolf population dynamics and in wolf genetic and dog-domestication studies.

  16. Sarcocystis arctica (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae): ultrastructural description and its new host record, the Alaskan wolf (Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarcocystis sarcocysts are common in muscles of herbivores but are rare in muscles of carnivores. Here, we report sarcocysts in muscle of an Alaskan wolf (Canis lupus) from Alaska, USA for the first time. Sarcocysts extracted from tongue of the wolf were up to 900 µm long, slender, and appeared to h...

  17. Wolf (Canis lupus) generation time and proportion of current breeding females by age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.; Erb, John

    2016-01-01

    Information is sparse about aspects of female wolf (Canis lupus) breeding in the wild, including age of first reproduction, mean age of primiparity, generation time, and proportion of each age that breeds in any given year. We studied these subjects in 86 wolves (113 captures) in the Superior National Forest (SNF), Minnesota (MN), during 1972–2013 where wolves were legally protected for most of the period, and in 159 harvested wolves from throughout MN wolf range during 2012–2014. Breeding status of SNF wolves were assessed via nipple measurements, and wolves from throughout MN wolf range, by placental scars. In the SNF, proportions of currently breeding females (those breeding in the year sampled) ranged from 19% at age 2 to 80% at age 5, and from throughout wolf range, from 33% at age 2 to 100% at age 7. Excluding pups and yearlings, only 33% to 36% of SNF females and 58% of females from throughout MN wolf range bred in any given year. Generation time for SNF wolves was 4.3 years and for MN wolf range, 4.7 years. These findings will be useful in modeling wolf population dynamics and in wolf genetic and dog-domestication studies.

  18. A gray wolf (Canis lupus) delivers live prey to a pup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David

    2014-01-01

    A two-year-old sibling Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) carefully captured an Arctic Hare (Lepus arcticus) leveret alive on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada, and delivered it alive to a pup 28–33 days old. This appears to be the first observation of a Gray Wolf delivering live prey to a pup.

  19. In vivo evaluation of the hypoglycemic effect of wolf-apple flour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of diabetes has increased at alarming rates worldwide, and has become a serious health problem in modern society, highlighting the need for adjuvants to assist in its treatment. The starch from wolf-apple is a product extracted from the pulp of the unripe wolf-apple (Solanum lycocarpum A. St.-Hil), which ...

  20. Is climate change affecting wolf populations in the high arctic?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mech, L.D. [Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Biological Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey, 8711-37th St., SE, 58401-7317 Jamestown, North Dakota (United States)

    2004-11-01

    Global climate change may affect wolves in Canadas High Arctic (80{sup o} N) acting through three trophic levels (vegetation, herbivores, and wolves). A wolf pack dependent on muskoxen and arctic hares in the Eureka area of Ellesmere Island denned and produced pups most years from at least 1986 through 1997. However, when summer snow covered vegetation in 1997 and 2000 for the first time since records were kept, halving the herbivore nutrition-replenishment period, muskox and hare numbers dropped drastically, and the area stopped supporting denning wolves through 2003. The unusual weather triggering these events was consistent with global-climate-change phenomena.

  1. Monitoring of Iberian wolf expansion in Sabugal: Malcata Region

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, A. Pinto da

    2009-01-01

    Relatório de projecto no âmbito de Bolsa Universidade de Lisboa/Fundação Amadeu Dias (2008/2009) Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa Scholarship Fundação Amadeu Dias/Universidade de Lisboa Wind farm construction may cause an effect of repulse on the wildlife. Sabugal – Malcata region has a new wind farm in a zone where the situation of the Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus, Cabrera 1907) is considered as precarious. In this context ...

  2. The Wolf of Wall Street. Sopravvivere nello stato di natura

    OpenAIRE

    Addis, Maria Cristina; Tagliani, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    El cine contemporáneo ha profundizado en el retrato de la violencia del capitalismo financiero y The Wolf of Wall Street (2013) de Martin Scorsese denuncia el intento de establecer una representación plausible de las formas de vida y relaciones de poder que emergen de la globalización y de la volatilización de los mercados y de los bienes. El retorno a una dimensión salvaje y primordial de la violencia pone en escena un estado de naturaleza ajeno a las leyes que regulan el c...

  3. Patterns of wolf pack movements prior to kills as read from tracks in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ont., Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijlink, Jan Hilco

    1977-01-01

    From data, gathered by the author and his students, during a wolf study in Algonquin Provincial Park, Canada, six kills of white-tailed deer by wolf packs are described. Case histories are reconstructed by means of interpreting tracks. In one case a wolf was also killed, this animal turned out to

  4. 78 FR 54614 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removing the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) From the List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ...; Removing the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) From the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Maintaining Protections for the Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) by Listing It as Endangered AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... endangered status for the Mexican wolf by listing it as a subspecies (Canis lupus baileyi), and we announced...

  5. A Modified Mean Gray Wolf Optimization Approach for Benchmark and Biomedical Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narinder; Singh, S B

    2017-01-01

    A modified variant of gray wolf optimization algorithm, namely, mean gray wolf optimization algorithm has been developed by modifying the position update (encircling behavior) equations of gray wolf optimization algorithm. The proposed variant has been tested on 23 standard benchmark well-known test functions (unimodal, multimodal, and fixed-dimension multimodal), and the performance of modified variant has been compared with particle swarm optimization and gray wolf optimization. Proposed algorithm has also been applied to the classification of 5 data sets to check feasibility of the modified variant. The results obtained are compared with many other meta-heuristic approaches, ie, gray wolf optimization, particle swarm optimization, population-based incremental learning, ant colony optimization, etc. The results show that the performance of modified variant is able to find best solutions in terms of high level of accuracy in classification and improved local optima avoidance.

  6. A Modified Mean Gray Wolf Optimization Approach for Benchmark and Biomedical Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narinder Singh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A modified variant of gray wolf optimization algorithm, namely, mean gray wolf optimization algorithm has been developed by modifying the position update (encircling behavior equations of gray wolf optimization algorithm. The proposed variant has been tested on 23 standard benchmark well-known test functions (unimodal, multimodal, and fixed-dimension multimodal, and the performance of modified variant has been compared with particle swarm optimization and gray wolf optimization. Proposed algorithm has also been applied to the classification of 5 data sets to check feasibility of the modified variant. The results obtained are compared with many other meta-heuristic approaches, ie, gray wolf optimization, particle swarm optimization, population-based incremental learning, ant colony optimization, etc. The results show that the performance of modified variant is able to find best solutions in terms of high level of accuracy in classification and improved local optima avoidance.

  7. Wolf, Canis lupus, visits to white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, summer ranges: Optimal foraging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demma, D.J.; Mech, L.D.

    2009-01-01

    We tested whether Wolf (Canis lupus) visits to individual female White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) summer ranges during 2003 and 2004 in northeastern Minnesota were in accord with optimal-foraging theory. Using GPS collars with 10- to 30-minute location attempts on four Wolves and five female deer, plus eleven VHF-collared female deer in the Wolves' territory, provided new insights into the frequency of Wolf visits to summer ranges of female deer. Wolves made a mean 0.055 visits/day to summer ranges of deer three years and older, significantly more than their 0.032 mean visits/day to ranges of two-year-old deer, which generally produce fewer fawns, and most Wolf visits to ranges of older deer were much longer than those to ranges of younger deer. Because fawns comprise the major part of the Wolf's summer diet, this Wolf behavior accords with optimal-foraging theory.

  8. A Modified Mean Gray Wolf Optimization Approach for Benchmark and Biomedical Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narinder; Singh, SB

    2017-01-01

    A modified variant of gray wolf optimization algorithm, namely, mean gray wolf optimization algorithm has been developed by modifying the position update (encircling behavior) equations of gray wolf optimization algorithm. The proposed variant has been tested on 23 standard benchmark well-known test functions (unimodal, multimodal, and fixed-dimension multimodal), and the performance of modified variant has been compared with particle swarm optimization and gray wolf optimization. Proposed algorithm has also been applied to the classification of 5 data sets to check feasibility of the modified variant. The results obtained are compared with many other meta-heuristic approaches, ie, gray wolf optimization, particle swarm optimization, population-based incremental learning, ant colony optimization, etc. The results show that the performance of modified variant is able to find best solutions in terms of high level of accuracy in classification and improved local optima avoidance. PMID:28932103

  9. Measurement of the Magnetic Fields from High-Voltage (230 kV Substations in Tehran and Assessment of Their Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Sharifi Fard

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent industrial developments in human societies have caused rapid advancements in technologies of production and distribution of electricity, which in turn result in enhancement of power networks and utilization of high voltages. These networks and the high voltages in transfer lines cause the exposure to electric and magnetic fields. In this study, the situation regarding the magnetic fields from high-voltage (230 kV substations in Tehran was investigated. Material and Methods: In this study, 8 high-voltage (230 kV substations were selected (Shous, Shahid Firouzi, Ozgol, Kan, Tehranpars, Azadegan, Ghorkhane and Besat substations. The premises of each substation was divided into some stations and measurements were done in each one. Measurements were done according to the IEEE std 644-1994 Standard in a way that the device, specifically its probe, was kept at a height of 1 meter above the ground surface. Then, we tried to examine the probable effects of exposure to magnetic fields through the Essex questionnaire, with Cronbach coefficient of 94%, completed by the employees of the substations. These questionnaires were completed by substation operators as an exposed group (36 persons and the employees of the office section of the Tehran regional electric company as a witness group (32 persons. Results: The measured density in none of the stations exceeded the standard limits of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. With regard to the questionnaire results about mental and neurological, cardiac and respiratory, and gastrointestinal and auditory disorders, we observed significant differences between witness and exposed groups, however, regarding skin allergies, there was no significant difference. Conclusion: Among all control rooms, the highest measured magnetic field was 6.9 mG in the Ozgol Substation Control Room and the lowest was 2 mG in the post of Shahid Firouzi. The control room of Ozgol

  10. EFFECTS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS ON HEMATOPOISIS SYSTEM: STUDY ON WORKERS AT HIGH- VOLTAGE SUBSTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A YOUSEFI

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between occupational exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF electromagnetic fields and risk of Hematological changes among workers at High- voltage substations. This is a case - control study. In the present study 79 worker exposed to electromagetic fields (EMFs were compared to 50 control subjects who were not occupationaly exposed to EMFs. Methods: To measurement the levels of exposure to Lf electric and magnetic fields the strength of electric and magnetic field was determined by Dosimetric method. Worker"s blood samples were collected and analyzed for identification of leukemia and other abnormalities. Questionnaire and physical examination were used to study the effects of ELF fields on worker"s health. Measurements showed a high strength of ELF fields at the work places i.e. Results: Mean value of RBC and Hematocrit decreased significantly among exposed workers compared to controls (P < 0.05, but MCV, MCH and MCHC increased. The value of Neutrophiles increased but Lymphocytes decreased significantly among workers considering their workhistory (P < 0.05. Discussion: Moreover, tow leukemics (ALL, AML and ten hypocromic anemias were found. In conclusion study groups are similar in personal characteristics, the difference in RBC, MCV, MCH has to attributed to ELF fields.

  11. Simulation and Study of Power Quality Issues in a Fixed Speed Wind Farm Substation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Magesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Power quality issues associated with the fixed speed wind farm substation located at Coimbatore district are investigated as the wind generators are tripping frequently. The investigations are carried out using two power quality analyzers, Fluke 435 and Dranetz PX5.8, with one of them connected at group control breaker of the 110 kV feeder and the other at the selected 0.69 kV generator busbar during the period of maximum power generation. From the analysis of the recorded data it is found that sag, swell, and transients are the major events which are responsible for the tripping of the generators. In the present study, simulation models for wind, turbine, shaft, pitch mechanism, induction generator, and grid are developed using DIgSILENT. Using the turbine characteristics, a two-dimensional lookup table is designed to generate a reference pitch angle necessary to simulate the power curve of the passive stall controlled wind turbine. Various scenarios and their effects on the performance of the wind farm are studied and validated with the recorded data and waveforms. The simulation model will be useful for the designers for planning and development of the wind farm before implementation.

  12. Simulation and study of power quality issues in a fixed speed wind farm substation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magesh, T; Chellamuthu, C

    2015-01-01

    Power quality issues associated with the fixed speed wind farm substation located at Coimbatore district are investigated as the wind generators are tripping frequently. The investigations are carried out using two power quality analyzers, Fluke 435 and Dranetz PX5.8, with one of them connected at group control breaker of the 110 kV feeder and the other at the selected 0.69 kV generator busbar during the period of maximum power generation. From the analysis of the recorded data it is found that sag, swell, and transients are the major events which are responsible for the tripping of the generators. In the present study, simulation models for wind, turbine, shaft, pitch mechanism, induction generator, and grid are developed using DIgSILENT. Using the turbine characteristics, a two-dimensional lookup table is designed to generate a reference pitch angle necessary to simulate the power curve of the passive stall controlled wind turbine. Various scenarios and their effects on the performance of the wind farm are studied and validated with the recorded data and waveforms. The simulation model will be useful for the designers for planning and development of the wind farm before implementation.

  13. Simulation of the Static VAR Compensator Culiacan Three Substation for the Analysis of Transients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coronel-Mercado Luis Enrique

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since its emergence in the late 60’s the FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission Systems have been and continue to be studied and implemented in all electrical networks around the world, becoming an essential element for stability, control and maximum exploitation of thereof. One of the most used FACTS devices is the Static VAR Compensator or SVC. In this work, the modeling in Simulink of the Static VAR Compensator installed at the substation Culiacán Tres (CUT belonging to CFE is presented. The SVC is the ability of ±100 MVAR and ABB brand. The modeling was performed to visually program in detail the different subsystems in Simulink such as the timing unit, the TSC (thyristor switched capacitor, TCR (thyristor controlled reactors, filters of the 5th and the 7th harmonic, the transformer bank, the control unit, distribution unit and the measurement unit. Data for major components were taken from data sheet and equipment manuals. ASPEN software was used in order to obtain Thevenin equivalent of the EPS to connect to them the SVC model to test the step and three-phase short circuit. The results of these tests were compared with test results of commissioning of the SVC.

  14. Computer simulation of wolf-removal strategies for animal-damage control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haight, R.G.; Travis, L.E.; Nimerfro, K.; Mech, L.D.

    2002-01-01

    Because of the sustained growth of the gray wolf (Canis lupus) population in the western Great Lakes region of the United States, management agencies are anticipating gray wolf removal from the federal endangered species list and are proposing strategies for wolf management. Strategies are needed that would balance public demand for wolf conservation with demand for protection against wolf depredation on livestock, poultry, and pets. We used a stochastic, spatially structured, individually based simulation model of a hypothetical wolf population, representing a small subset of the western Great Lakes wolves, to predict the relative performance of 3 wolf-removal strategies. Those strategies included reactive management (wolf removal occurred in summer after depredation), preventive management (wolves removed in winter from territories with occasional depredation), and population-size management (wolves removed annually in winter from all territories near farms). Performance measures included number of depredating packs and wolves removed, cost, and population size after 20 years. We evaluated various scenarios about immigration, trapping success, and likelihood of packs engaging in depredation. Four robust results emerged from the simulations: 1) each strategy reduced depredation by at least 40% compared with no action, 2) preventive and population-size management removed fewer wolves than reactive management because wolves were removed in winter before pups were born, 3)population-size management was least expensive because repeated annual removal kept most territories near farms free of wolves, and 4) none of the strategies threatened wolf populations unless they were isolated because wolf removal took place near farms and not in wild areas. For isolated populations, reactive management alone ensured conservation and reduced depredation. Such results can assist decision makers in managing gray wolves in the western Great Lakes states.

  15. The validity of the red wolf: a response to Roy et al. (1996)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, R.M.; Federoff, N.E.

    1998-01-01

    'Red wolf' is a name commonly given to a kind of wild Canis historically found from central Texas to the Atlantic. Since first recorded in colonial times, it variously has been treated as a full species or as a subspecies of the Holarctic gray wolf. Recent genetic research presented by Roy et al. (1996) is one of a series of papers suggesting, through analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, that the red wolf is not a valid species or subspecies, but instead originated as a hybrid of C. lupus and C. latrans. That there has been hybridization between the red wolf and coyote is not in dispute. The occurrence of hybridization has long has been recognized by all who have looked into the issue and is a major reason that the red wolf is endangered. And, since hybridization did occur, it would not be unexpected to find that genetic material from one species has spread through the other. However, to accept this process of hybridization and consequent decline of the red wolf within the last century, is very different from accepting that the red wolf had a hybrid origin hundreds or thousands of years ago. It requires some effort to comprehend the fundamental difference between the two positions. One argues that the red wolf is an ancient and natural component of its ecosystem but has nearly disappeared, in part because of a hybridization process induced and perhaps controllable by humans. This interpretation demands priority work to save the animal. The other position holds that the red wolf may actually have been a modern creation of a process brought on by human environmental modification, and hence that the animal is nothing more than an artifact that can be discarded. The salvation of the red wolf may hinge upon the effort that is made to grasp this distinction. Hopefully, all parties who have investigated this complex issue will yet reach a consensus, thus allowing the systematic controversy to be put aside in favor of conservation efforts.

  16. Hypertrophic Osteodystrophy in Two Red Wolf (Canis rufus Pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenessa L. Gjeltema

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 6-month-old red wolf (Canis rufus pup presented for evaluation of progressive thoracic and pelvic limb lameness, joint swelling, and decreased body condition. Radiographic evaluation revealed medullary sclerosis centered at the metaphyses of multiple long bones, well-defined irregular periosteal proliferation, and ill-defined lucent zones paralleling the physes, consistent with hypertrophic osteodystrophy (HOD. Biopsies of affected bone revealed medullary fibrosis and new bone formation. The pup improved following treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, opioids, and supportive care over the course of 4 weeks. Metaphyseal periosteal bone proliferation persisted until the animal was humanely euthanized several years later for poor quality of life associated with bilateral cranial cruciate ligament rupture. A second red wolf pup of 4.5 months of age presented for evaluation of lethargy, kyphotic posture, and swollen carpal and tarsal joints. Radiographs revealed bilateral medullary sclerosis and smooth periosteal reaction affecting multiple long bones, suggestive of HOD. Further diagnostics were not pursued in this case to confirm the diagnosis, and the clinical signs persisted for 4 weeks. In light of these two case reports, HOD should be recognized as a developmental orthopedic disease in growing red wolves.

  17. Wolf body mass cline across Minnesota related to taxonomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; Paul, W.J.

    2008-01-01

    Recent genetic studies suggest that in northern Minnesota two species of wolves (Canis lupus L., 1758 or western wolf and Canis lycaon Schreber, 1775 (= Canis rufus Audubon and Bachman, 1851) or eastern wolf) meet and hybridize. However, little morphological information is available about these two types of wolves in Minnesota. We analyzed the mass of 950 female wolves and 1006 males older than 1 year from across northern Minnesota and found that it increased from 26.30 ?? 0.56 kg (mean ?? SE) for females and 30.60 ?? 0.72 kg for males in northeastern Minnesota to 30.01 ?? 0.43 kg for females and 35.94 ?? 0.45 kg for males in northwestern Minnesota (females: r2 = 0.79, P < 0.02; males: r2 = 0.63, P = 0.06). These mass differences add morphological information to the identities of eastern and western wolves and support the view that ranges of the two species meet in Minnesota. ?? 2008 NRC.

  18. Modified Discrete Grey Wolf Optimizer Algorithm for Multilevel Image Thresholding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lijuan; Guo, Jian; Xu, Bin; Li, Shujing

    2017-01-01

    The computation of image segmentation has become more complicated with the increasing number of thresholds, and the option and application of the thresholds in image thresholding fields have become an NP problem at the same time. The paper puts forward the modified discrete grey wolf optimizer algorithm (MDGWO), which improves on the optimal solution updating mechanism of the search agent by the weights. Taking Kapur's entropy as the optimized function and based on the discreteness of threshold in image segmentation, the paper firstly discretizes the grey wolf optimizer (GWO) and then proposes a new attack strategy by using the weight coefficient to replace the search formula for optimal solution used in the original algorithm. The experimental results show that MDGWO can search out the optimal thresholds efficiently and precisely, which are very close to the result examined by exhaustive searches. In comparison with the electromagnetism optimization (EMO), the differential evolution (DE), the Artifical Bee Colony (ABC), and the classical GWO, it is concluded that MDGWO has advantages over the latter four in terms of image segmentation quality and objective function values and their stability. PMID:28127305

  19. The origins of the enigmatic Falkland Islands wolf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Jeremy J; Soubrier, Julien; Prevosti, Francisco J; Prates, Luciano; Trejo, Valentina; Mena, Francisco; Cooper, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The origins of the extinct Falkland Islands wolf (FIW), Dusicyon australis, have remained a mystery since it was first recorded by Europeans in the seventeenth century. It is the only terrestrial mammal on the Falkland Islands (also known as the Malvinas Islands), which lie ~460 km from Argentina, leading to suggestions of either human-mediated transport or overwater dispersal. Previous studies used ancient DNA from museum specimens to suggest that the FIW diverged from its closest living relative, the South American maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) around 7 Ma, and colonized the islands ~330 ka by unknown means. Here we retrieve ancient DNA from subfossils of an extinct mainland relative, Dusicyon avus, and reveal the FIW lineage became isolated only 16 ka (8-31 ka), during the last glacial phase. Submarine terraces, formed on the Argentine coastal shelf by low sea-stands during this period, suggest that the FIW colonized via a narrow, shallow marine strait, potentially while it was frozen over.

  20. Modified Discrete Grey Wolf Optimizer Algorithm for Multilevel Image Thresholding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linguo; Sun, Lijuan; Guo, Jian; Qi, Jin; Xu, Bin; Li, Shujing

    2017-01-01

    The computation of image segmentation has become more complicated with the increasing number of thresholds, and the option and application of the thresholds in image thresholding fields have become an NP problem at the same time. The paper puts forward the modified discrete grey wolf optimizer algorithm (MDGWO), which improves on the optimal solution updating mechanism of the search agent by the weights. Taking Kapur's entropy as the optimized function and based on the discreteness of threshold in image segmentation, the paper firstly discretizes the grey wolf optimizer (GWO) and then proposes a new attack strategy by using the weight coefficient to replace the search formula for optimal solution used in the original algorithm. The experimental results show that MDGWO can search out the optimal thresholds efficiently and precisely, which are very close to the result examined by exhaustive searches. In comparison with the electromagnetism optimization (EMO), the differential evolution (DE), the Artifical Bee Colony (ABC), and the classical GWO, it is concluded that MDGWO has advantages over the latter four in terms of image segmentation quality and objective function values and their stability.

  1. Modified Discrete Grey Wolf Optimizer Algorithm for Multilevel Image Thresholding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linguo Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The computation of image segmentation has become more complicated with the increasing number of thresholds, and the option and application of the thresholds in image thresholding fields have become an NP problem at the same time. The paper puts forward the modified discrete grey wolf optimizer algorithm (MDGWO, which improves on the optimal solution updating mechanism of the search agent by the weights. Taking Kapur’s entropy as the optimized function and based on the discreteness of threshold in image segmentation, the paper firstly discretizes the grey wolf optimizer (GWO and then proposes a new attack strategy by using the weight coefficient to replace the search formula for optimal solution used in the original algorithm. The experimental results show that MDGWO can search out the optimal thresholds efficiently and precisely, which are very close to the result examined by exhaustive searches. In comparison with the electromagnetism optimization (EMO, the differential evolution (DE, the Artifical Bee Colony (ABC, and the classical GWO, it is concluded that MDGWO has advantages over the latter four in terms of image segmentation quality and objective function values and their stability.

  2. Epilepsy in a child with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radlović Nedeljko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS is a rare chromosomal disorder characterized by facial dismorphy, multiple congenital anomalies, delayed psychomotor development and pharmaco-resistant epilepsy. Case Outline. We present a 5-year-old girl with severe delay in growth and development, microcephaly, mild facial dismorphy and epilepsy. The pregnancy was complicated by intrauterine growth retardation. Generalized muscle hypotonia was observed at birth. First seizures started at age of 9 months as unilateral convulsive status epilepticus (SE, sometimes with bilateral generalization. Seizures were often triggered by fever and were resistant to antiepileptic treatment. Introduction of lamotrigine and valproate therapy led to complete seizure control at the age of 33 months. Electroencephalographic (EEG finding was typical at the beginning. After transitory improvement between age four and five years, epileptiform EEG activity appeared again at the age of five years, without observed clinical seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse brain atrophy and delay in myelination. Using Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA method, we disclosed heterozygote microdeletation of the distal part of the short arm of chromosome 4 (4p16. Conclusion. We present a clinical course of epilepsy in a patient with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome. The diagnosis was verified by modern molecular technique. This is the first molecular characterization of a patient with WHS performed in our country.

  3. Forensic DNA against wildlife poaching: identification of a serial wolf killing in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caniglia, Romolo; Fabbri, Elena; Greco, Claudia; Galaverni, Marco; Randi, Ettore

    2010-10-01

    The recent expansion of the Italian wolf population through the Apennine and western Alps, after centuries of contractions, is causing conflicts with human activities leading to a rise in poaching or illegal killings. Here we show how molecular population genetics has been used to identify a suspect serial wolf killer. We analysed DNA extracted from a necklace made of ten presumed wolf canine teeth, confiscated in 2008 to a man living in the northern Italian Apennine (Liguria Region). Individual genotypes were determined using 12 unlinked autosomal microsatellites (STRs), mtDNA control-region sequences, a male-specific ZFX/ZFY restriction-site and three Y-linked STRs. Results indicate that the teeth belonged to six different individuals (three males and three females), which were assigned to the Italian wolf population with p > 0.90 by Bayesian procedures. One of these genotypes matched with the genetic profile of a male wolf previously found-dead and already non-invasively sampled in the same area. Another genotype matched with that of a female wolf non-invasively sampled twice in the same area 1 year before. These data are being used as forensic genetic evidence in the ongoing criminal trial against the suspect serial wolf killer. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Differentiation of the Italian wolf and the domestic dog based on microsatellite analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breitenmoser Urs

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Italian wolf is in the process of regaining the Alpine region which comes into conflict with the extensive sheep keeping practiced in Switzerland during the summer. As in Switzerland, the wolf is a protected species, the government reimburses losses caused by wolves. Therefore we wanted to know whether the Italian wolf could be distinguished from the domestic dog by microsatellite analysis if DNA samples of the predators could be secured. The evaluation of combined genotypes for the microsatellites CanBern6, CPH4, CPH7, CPH9, CPH12, CPH22 and ZuBeCa1 made it possible to identify an individual as either a domestic dog or an Italian wolf. The assignment of an individual to either one of the two populations is based on the logarithm of the likelihood ratio of an individual being an Italian wolf rather than a domestic dog, given a specific combined genotype. The distribution of the Italian wolf combined genotypes (n = 42 is clearly distinct from the distribution of the domestic dog combined genotypes (n = 90. The likelihood ratio for the "worst" Italian wolf combined genotype was 2.3 E+5 and for the "worst" domestic dog combined genotype was 3.8 E-5.

  5. Nutrient regulation in a predator, the wolf spider Pardosa prativaga

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim; Mayntz, David; Toft, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Nutrient balancing is well known in herbivores and omnivores, but has only recently been demonstrated in predators. To test how a predator might regulate nutrients when the prey varies in nutrient composition, we restricted juvenile Pardosa prativaga wolf spiders to diets of one of six fruit fly......, Drosophila melanogaster, prey types varying in lipid:protein composition during their second instar. We collected all fly remnants to estimate food and nutrient intake over each meal. The spiders adjusted their capture rate and nutrient extraction in response to prey mass and nutrient composition...... irrespective of energy intake. Intake was initially regulated to a constant lipid plus protein mass, but later spiders fed on prey with high proportions of protein increased consumption relative to spiders fed on other prey types. This pattern indicates that the spiders were prepared to overconsume vast...

  6. Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor in a female wolf (Canis lupus lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraki, Ayako; Yoshida, Toshinori; Kawashima, Masahi; Murayama, Hirotada; Nagahara, Rei; Ito, Nanao; Shibutani, Makoto

    2017-03-23

    A 17-year-old female wolf (Canis lupus lupus) had a right lung mass that was adhered to the thoracic cavity. Histopathological examination revealed that the mass consisted of sheets, cord or ribbon-like structures of monotonous, small, cuboidal cells with round, oval or short-spindle nuclei and scant clear cytoplasm, demarcated by a fine fibrovascular stroma. Focal necrosis, congestion and thrombi were observed. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells diffusely expressed cytokeratin AE1/AE3, and some expressed chromogranin A, neural cell adhesion molecule (CD56) and thyroid transcription factor-1. The number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive tumor cells was low. A diagnosis of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor was based on the resemblance to carcinoids.

  7. Developmental changes in associations among timber wolf (Canis lupus) postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, P J

    1996-11-01

    I examined developmental changes in associations among components of timber wolf (Canis lupus) postural communication in two hand-reared pups between 15 and 85 days of age. The frequency with which select postural components co-occurred was scored from 180 randomly sampled frames of video records of these pups made during social interactions. I used this index of association as the basis for multidimensional scaling and cluster analyses. Relations among postural components became more structured with age. Two-dimensional models were found to account for associations among postures displayed at 69-85 and 32-67 days of age but not at 15-32 days of age. I interpret these orthogonal dimensions as continua of dominance to submission and seriousness to playfulness. These data suggest the intended messages contained in postural displays may depend on the specific combinations of components used.

  8. The Search for Wolf-Rayet Stars in IC10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, Katie; Crowther, Paul; Archer, Isabelle

    2017-11-01

    We present a deep imaging and spectroscopic survey of the Local Group starburst galaxy IC10 using Gemini North/GMOS to unveil the global Wolf-Rayet population. It has previously been suggested that for IC10 to follow the WC/WN versus metallicity dependence seen in other Local Group galaxies, a large WN population must remain undiscovered. Our search revealed 3 new WN stars, and 5 candidates awaiting confirmation, providing little evidence to support this claim. We also compute an updated nebular derived metallicity of log(O/H)+12=8.40 +/- 0.04 for the galaxy using the direct method. Inspection of IC10 WR average line luminosities show these stars are more similar to their LMC, rather than SMC counterparts.

  9. The XMM-Newton View of Wolf-Rayet Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, M.; Toala, J.

    2017-10-01

    The powerful stellar winds of Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars blow large bubble into the circumstellar material ejected in previous phases of stellar evolution. The shock of those stellar winds produces X-ray-emitting hot plasmas which tells us about the diffusion of processed material onto the interstellar medium, about processes of heat conduction and turbulent mixing at the interface, about the late stages of stellar evolution, and about the shaping of the circumstellar environment, just before supernova explosions. The unique sensitivity of XMM-Newton has been key for the detection, mapping and spectral analysis of the X-ray emission from the hot bubbles around WR stars. These observations underscore the importance of the structure of the interstellar medium around massive stars, but they have also unveiled unknown phenomena, such as blowouts of hot gas into the interstellar medium or spatially-resolved spectral properties of the hot gas, which disclose inhomogeneous chemical abundances and physical properties across these bubbles.

  10. Machine-learning approaches to select Wolf-Rayet candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, A. P.; Morello, G.; Morris, P.; van Dyk, S.; Mauerhan, J.

    2017-11-01

    The WR stellar population can be distinguished, at least partially, from other stellar populations by broad-band IR colour selection. We present the use of a machine learning classifier to quantitatively improve the selection of Galactic Wolf-Rayet (WR) candidates. These methods are used to separate the other stellar populations which have similar IR colours. We show the results of the classifications obtained by using the 2MASS J, H and K photometric bands, and the Spitzer/IRAC bands at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8 and 8.0μm. The k-Nearest Neighbour method has been used to select Galactic WR candidates for observational follow-up. A few candidates have been spectroscopically observed. Preliminary observations suggest that a detection rate of 50% can easily be achieved.

  11. Thermal properties of three sub-states of quasi-single helicity states on RFX-mod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Auriemma, F.; Fassina, A.; Lorenzini, R.; Terranova, D.; Momo, B.; Martines, E.

    2017-12-01

    Quasi-single helicity (QSH) state has been widely observed in reversed field pinch devices to sustain thermal structures, enclosed by steep temperature gradients interpreted as electron internal transport barriers (eITB). Within the evolution of a QSH cycle, three sub-states can be identified in the RFX-mod experiment, named DAx, SHAx n and SHAx w , where the subscript n and w indicate narrow and wide thermal structures, respectively. Such sub-states feature different magnetic topologies as well as different width of the thermal structures. This paper presents a characterization of the three QSH sub-states mainly devoted to describe the properties of the eITB temperature gradients. The analyses show a decreasing trend of the absolute value of the thermal gradient as the dominant mode increases. Further study on the thermal diffusivity confirms that these behaviors are essentially due to the local change of the heat transport. Besides, the thermal gradient in DAx and SHAx n groups shows an increasing trend with the decrease of secondary modes. Such behavior has been studied and it can be explained by stochastic transport in agreement with what found for SHAX w (Lorenzini et al 2012 Nucl. Fusion 52 062004). As for SHAx w group, the thermal gradient suddenly decreases with respect to DAx and SHAx n values. This behavior can still be explained in the framework of stochastic transport considering the structure of magnetic perturbations at the location of thermal gradients (Lorenzini et al 2016 Phys. Rev. Lett. 116 185002). The total energy confinement time {τ }E has also been evaluated, adopting a more appropriate method. The result shows that the energy confinement time increases up to 40% from DAx to SHAx w .

  12. First operation experiences from a 30 kV 104 MVA HTS power cable installed in a utility substation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willen, D.; Hansen, F.; Daumling, M.

    2002-01-01

    An HTS cable with a voltage rating of 30 kV and a power rating of 104 MVA, has been installed and operated in the electric grid of Copenhagen Energy in the spring of 2001. This article describes the development phases, the system specifications, and the first experiences of operation under...... realistic conditions in the substation of Amager (AMK). Approximately 50 000 private and business customers are supplied from this cable. The load can be adjusted from 20% to 100% of the power supplied and the number of branches connected can be altered. This and other early HTS power installations...

  13. Functional utilization of control and digital protection systems in distribution substations; Aproveitamento funcional de sistemas de controle e protecao digitais em subestacoes de distribuicao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brittes, Jose Luiz Pereira

    1996-07-01

    The application of Digital Protection and Control Systems (DPCS) in Utilities substations is a fundamental part for their Information System. Technological progress in Telematics provides nowadays, the implementation of open digital systems. But it is the wide exploitation of its potentiality that will be one of the survival factor in the competitive and multi-affair environment dictated by the new worldwide economical order. This exploitation is carried out in three levels inside the substation: at bay level, with inherent technological benefits, such as more efficient and reliable protection, data acquisition and registration, and smart control; at central level (substation), by the implantation of automatics with enormous operational and management profits; and a remote level, to whom DPCS's transpire like a very sophisticated large frame remote terminal units. (author)

  14. Numerical modelling and experimental measurements for a low-temperature district heating substation for instantaneous preparation of DHW with respect to service pipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Marek; Thorsen, Jan Eric; Svendsen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    as much as possible. This requires a review and improvement of a DH network, in-house substations, and the whole domestic hot water (DHW) supply system, with the focus on user comfort, hygiene, overall cost and energy efficiency. This paper describes some practical approaches to the implementation of low......-temperature district heating (LTDH) with an entry-to-substation temperature around 50 °C. To this end we developed a numerical model for an instantaneous LTDH substation that takes into consideration the effect of service pipes. The model has been verified and can be used for the further optimization of the whole...... concept as well for individual components. The results show that the way that the service pipe is operated has a significant effect on waiting time for DHW, heat loss, and overall cost. Furthermore, the service pipe should be kept warm by using a bypass in order to fulfil the comfort requirements for DHW...

  15. Draft Supplement to the Environmental Statement Fiscal year 1976 Proposed Program : Facility Location Evaluation for Lake Isabella Service (Kamilche Substation) Study Area 75-12.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1974-10-22

    The statement describes the environmental impacts resulting from the construction of a new substation near Shelton, Washington. Land requirements for the new substation would be approximately 1.5 acres and, depending on the final site location chosen, an access road ranging from 200 to 3000 feet would also be required. Alternative sites 1 and 3 would be located on existing right-of-way and would remove 1.5 acres from other potential uses; alternate sites 2 and 4 would remove 1/4 acre of private timberland from production and 1 acre of existing right-of-way from other potential uses. Disturbance to wildlife during construction and loss of habitat associated with the above land requirements will occur. Grading for the substation site and access road will result in increased erosion and potential sedimentation in local streams may occur. Noise impacts will occur during construction.

  16. Draft Supplement to the Environmental Statement Fiscal Year 1976 Proposed Program : Facility Location Evaluation for Pleasant Prairie Service (Bigelow Substation) Study Area 75-8.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1974-10-22

    The proposed plan of service consists of the construction of a new substation near Millwood, Washington. Land requirements for the new substation would be approximately 3 to 5 acres of land depending on the final site location chosen, and approximately 100 to 500 feet of access road would also be needed. The above requirements would remove 3 to 5 acres of land from agricultural production. Disturbance to wildlife during construction would occur and habitat associated with the above agricultural land would be eliminated. Grading requirements for the substation site and access road would result in slight erosion and sedimentation for alternate site 1 and high levels of erosion for alternate site 2. The proposed facility would be visible from a local road and several residences. Noise and other disturbances to residents will occur during construction.

  17. The Challenges of Red Wolf Conservation and the Fate of an Endangered Species Recovery Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murray, Dennis L; Bastille‐Rousseau, Guillaume; Adams, Jennifer R; Waits, Lisette P

    2015-01-01

    ... by hybridization with closely related coyotes ( C. latrans ) and illegal human‐caused mortality. Ongoing review of the red wolf program in the single recovery area in North Carolina prompted us to compare demography...

  18. 78 FR 20613 - Ochoco National Forest, Paulina Ranger District; Oregon; Wolf Creek Vegetation and Fuels...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... analyze the effects of managing vegetation and fuels within the 24,506 acre Wolf project area, which is... INFORMATION CONTACT: Jeffrey Marszal, Project Leader at 3160 NE Third Street, Prineville, Oregon 97754, or at...

  19. The wolf reference genome sequence (Canis lupus lupus) and its implications for Canis spp. population genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gopalakrishnan, Shyam; Samaniego Castruita, Jose Alfredo; Sinding, Mikkel Holger Strander

    2017-01-01

    Background An increasing number of studies are addressing the evolutionary genomics of dog domestication, principally through resequencing dog, wolf and related canid genomes. There is, however, only one de novo assembled canid genome currently available against which to map such data...... - that of a boxer dog (Canis lupus familiaris). We generated the first de novo wolf genome (Canis lupus lupus) as an additional choice of reference, and explored what implications may arise when previously published dog and wolf resequencing data are remapped to this reference. Results Reassuringly, we find......, then using the boxer reference genome is appropriate, but if the aim of the study is to look at the variation within wolves and their relationships to dogs, then there are clear benefits to using the de novo assembled wolf reference genome....

  20. Cases of spontaneous interbreeding of wolf and domestic dog in the region of Southeast Banat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the first documented data indicating the occurrence of spontaneous interbreeding of wolf and domestic dog in nature on the territory of Serbia, based on three specimens originating from the region of Southeast Banat. Some unique morpho-anatomical malformations of the cranium in two specimens are described. Based on complex morphological and craniometrical analysis of hybrid specimens and comparison with the corresponding material of authentic wolves from this region, it is possible to follow a local process of multiple wolf/dog hybridization and disturbance of the authentic genetic structure of wolf. The identification of wolf/dog hybrids is a subject of primary concern for the development of conservation and management strategies. Because of great vulnerability of the population of South-Carpathian wolves on the boundaries of their range in Serbia, there is a need for permanent and increased protection in order to maintain their adequately strong population in this region. .

  1. An Improved Grey Wolf Optimization Strategy Enhanced SVM and Its Application in Predicting the Second Major

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wei, Yan; Ni, Ni; Liu, Dayou; Chen, Huiling; Wang, Mingjing; Li, Qiang; Cui, Xiaojun; Ye, Haipeng

    2017-01-01

    ...) was explored by using an improved grey wolf optimization (GWO) strategy in this study. An improved GWO, IGWO, was first proposed to identify the most discriminative features for major prediction...

  2. Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) dyad monthly association rates by demographic group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.; Mech, L. David

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary data from GPS-collared wolves (Canis lupus) in the Superior National Forest of northeastern Minnesota indicated wolves had low association rates with packmates during summer. However, aerial-telemetry locations of very high frequency (VHF)-radioed wolves in this same area showed high associations among packmates during winter. We analyzed aerial-telemetry-location data from VHF-collared wolves in several packs (n=18 dyads) in this same area from 1994-2012 by month, and found lowest association rates occurred during June. While other studies have found low association among wolf packmates during summer, information on differences in association patterns depending on the wolf associates’ demographics is sparse. During May-July, association rates were greatest for breeding pairs, followed by sibling dyads, and lowest for parent– offspring dyads. Our findings improve our understanding of how individual wolf relationships affect monthly association rates. We highlight some important remaining questions regarding wolf packmate associations.

  3. The Woman as Wolf (AT 409: Some Interpretations of a Very Estonian Folk Tale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merili Metsvahi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses tale type The Woman as Wolf, which is one of the most popular folk tales in the Estonian Folklore Archives and is represented there both in the form of a fairy tale and in the form of a legend. The vast majority of the versions of The Woman as Wolf were written down in the first part of the 20th century within Estonia and where recorded from Estonians. The article introduces the content of the tale, the origin of the first records from the early 19th century, and the dissemination area of the tale, which remains outside Western Europe: apart from the Estonian versions there are Sami, Karelian, Vepsian, Livonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian versions. While in almost all the Estonian versions the main protagonist is transformed into a wolf, in most of the versions written down in other areas and ethnic groups, another animal or bird replaces the wolf. The author is of the opinion that the Finnic area is central to the distribution of the folk tale The Woman as Wolf. The animal the woman is transformed into in the plot would not have been a wolf in earlier times. The article provides an explanation why the wolf is predominant in Estonian written sources. For that purpose the ways in which the wolf and werewolf were perceived in earlier Estonian folk belief are introduced. At the end of the article interpretation of the folk tale is provided. The author states that the plot and some of the motifs found in this folk tale reflect the difficulties women had in submitting to the norms and values of patriarchal order within their society.

  4. Dantzig-Wolfe Decomposition for Solving Multistage Stochastic Capacity-Planning Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Kavinesh J.; Philpott, Andy B.; Wood, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Operations Research, 57, pp. 1271-1286. We describe a multistage, stochastic, mixed-integer programming model for planning capacity expansion of production facilities. A scenario tree represents uncertainty in the mode; a general mixed-integer program defines the operation submodel at each scenario-tree mode, and capacity expansion decisions link the stages. We apply "variable splitting" to two model variants, and solve those variants using Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition. The Dantzig-Wolf ...

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Tibetan wolf (Canis lupus laniger).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chao; Zhang, Honghai; Zhang, Jin; Chen, Lei; Sha, Weilai; Yang, Xiufeng; Liu, Guangshuai

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the Tibetan wolf (Canis lupus laniger) was sequenced using blood samples obtained from a wild female Tibetan wolf captured from Lhasa in Tibet, China. Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, with an average elevation above 3500 m, is the highest plateau in the world. Sequence analysis showed that its structure is in accordance with other Canidae species, but GTG is used as the start codon in ND4L gene which is different from many canide animals.

  6. Prediction of Peaks inWolf Numbers in Cycle 24 according to Actual ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Previous investigations by Makarov et al. have shown a relation between the peaks in the number of polar faculae and the peaks in the Wolf number. In cycles 20 and 22 the delay between peaks in polar faculae and Wolf number was 6.1 ± 0.1 year, north and south taken separately, as their peaks do not ...

  7. The challenge of wolf recovery: an ongoing dilemma for state managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David

    2013-01-01

    “Dave, would you do another legal declaration on the wolf for us?” The weary voice on the phone belonged to Mike Jimenez, Northern Rocky Mountain Wolf Management and Science Coordinator for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). He was calling from Wyoming to ask me to prepare a document to address a legal challenge to the FWS’s August 2012 delisting of the wolf (Canis lupus) in Wyoming, a highly controversial move. Mike’s tone reflected the reality that — as so many wildlife biologists know and live each day — wildlife management is mainly people management. This contention could not be truer for managing any wildlife species than for managing the wolf. Dubbed “the beast of waste and desolation” by Teddy Roosevelt (The Wilderness Hunter 1893/1900), wolves had been universally hated as prolific predators of valuable livestock and game. Around the turn of the 20th century, members of the U.S. Biological Survey and various state agents, ranchers, cowboys, and other frontiersmen poisoned and persecuted wolves, extirpating them from most of the contiguous United States (Young and Goldman 1944). By 1967, Minnesota and nearby Isle Royale National Park in Michigan held the only remaining wolves in the Lower 48 states, prompting the FWS to place the wolf on the Endangered Species List (established by the Endangered Species Preservation Act of 1966). The wolf then became the list’s poster species, and the timing was ideal: Silent Spring (Carson 1962) had just seeded and fertilized the environmental movement, which blossomed on Earth Day (April 22, 1970) into the environmental revolution. “Save the wolf!” became one of the movement’s rallying cries. And save the wolf we did.

  8. Trophic facilitation by introduced top predators: grey wolf subsidies to scavengers in Yellowstone National Park

    OpenAIRE

    Wilmers, C C; Crabtree, R L; Smith, D W; Murphy, K M; Getz, Wayne M.

    2003-01-01

    1. The reintroduction of grey wolves Canis lupus (L.) to Yellowstone National Park provides a natural experiment in which to study the effects of a keystone predator on ecosystem function. 2. Grey wolves often provision scavengers with carrion by partially consuming their prey. 3. In order to examine how grey wolf foraging behaviour influences the availability of carrion to scavengers, we observed consumption of 57 wolf-killed elk Cervus elaphus (L.) and determined the percentage of edible bi...

  9. Genetic epidemiology of Sarcoptes scabiei in the Iberian wolf in Asturias, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Oleaga, Álvaro; Alasaad, Samer; Rossi, Luca; Casais, Rosa; Vicente, Joaquín; Soriguer, Ramón C.; Gortázar, Christian

    2013-01-01

    [Conclusions]: The host-taxon effect in wild animals is still supported with the maintenance of carnivore- and herbivore-derived Sarcoptes clusters’ separation in analyzed mites. However, this phenomenon could be modified with the inclusion of a large predator as wolf in the present work, revealing prey-to-predator Sarcoptes mite infection between the studied host-taxa and suggesting the importance of wolf's immune system for explaining the high variability reported in C. lupus derived mites....

  10. An Enhanced Grey Wolf Optimization Based Feature Selection Wrapped Kernel Extreme Learning Machine for Medical Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang Li; Huiling Chen; Hui Huang; Xuehua Zhao; ZhenNao Cai; Changfei Tong; Wenbin Liu; Xin Tian

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a new predictive framework is proposed by integrating an improved grey wolf optimization (IGWO) and kernel extreme learning machine (KELM), termed as IGWO-KELM, for medical diagnosis. The proposed IGWO feature selection approach is used for the purpose of finding the optimal feature subset for medical data. In the proposed approach, genetic algorithm (GA) was firstly adopted to generate the diversified initial positions, and then grey wolf optimization (GWO) was used to update ...

  11. Simulator for training operators of electric substation: an approach via RBC-Paraconsistent; Simulador para treinamento de operadores de subestacao eletrica: um enfoque via RBC-paraconsistente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert-Torres, G.; Martins, H.G.; Coutinho, M.P.; Goulart, J.D.C.; Soares, F.M.A. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], Emails: germanoltorres@gmail.com, helgagonzaga@gmail.com, maurilio.coutinho@gmail.com, janaina157@yahoo.com.br, francis.azevedo@gmail.com

    2009-07-01

    This article presents a combination of two techniques applied artificial intelligence to solve problems to Restoration of an Electric Substation: Casebased Reasoning - CBR and the Four Values Annotated Paraconsistent Logic - 4vAPL. The process occurs in the connection functions of belief, disbelief, specialty and temporality to LPA4v in the retrieval of cases to determine process diagnostic of an RBC. The field of CBR is applied in a recovery of an electric substation. The LPA4v is the support applied in problems that have inconsistent information, partials and undefined. Thus this study is closer of the real situations.

  12. Draft Supplement to the Environmental Statement Fiscal Year 1976 Proposed Program : Facility Location Evaluation for Horse Heaven Hills Area Service (Horse Heaven Substation) Study Area 75-7.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1974-10-22

    The proposed plan of service consists of the construction of a new substation near Patterson, Washington. Land requirements for the new substation would be approximately 20 to 22 acres of land depending on the final site location chosen. Access road requirements range from 100 feet for alternative site 4 to 2000 feet for alternative site 2. The proposed facility would remove the land from potential irrigation development and could interfere with irrigation practices on adjacent land. Disturbance to wildlife and elimination of habitat associated with the above land requirements would occur. Soil erosion would result from site and access road grading. This facility would be visible from Washington Highway 14.

  13. Randomized Block Frank–Wolfe for Convergent Large-Scale Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Wang, Gang; Romero, Daniel; Giannakis, Georgios B.

    2017-12-01

    Owing to their low-complexity iterations, Frank-Wolfe (FW) solvers are well suited for various large-scale learning tasks. When block-separable constraints are present, randomized block FW (RB-FW) has been shown to further reduce complexity by updating only a fraction of coordinate blocks per iteration. To circumvent the limitations of existing methods, the present work develops step sizes for RB-FW that enable a flexible selection of the number of blocks to update per iteration while ensuring convergence and feasibility of the iterates. To this end, convergence rates of RB-FW are established through computational bounds on a primal sub-optimality measure and on the duality gap. The novel bounds extend the existing convergence analysis, which only applies to a step-size sequence that does not generally lead to feasible iterates. Furthermore, two classes of step-size sequences that guarantee feasibility of the iterates are also proposed to enhance flexibility in choosing decay rates. The novel convergence results are markedly broadened to encompass also nonconvex objectives, and further assert that RB-FW with exact line-search reaches a stationary point at rate $\\mathcal{O}(1/\\sqrt{t})$. Performance of RB-FW with different step sizes and number of blocks is demonstrated in two applications, namely charging of electrical vehicles and structural support vector machines. Extensive simulated tests demonstrate the performance improvement of RB-FW relative to existing randomized single-block FW methods.

  14. Third Level of International Relations: Characteristics of Sub-State Actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey P. Arteev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is in the genre of the review for textbook O. V. Plotnikova and O. Y. Dubrovina International relations of the regions States: characteristics and features (Moscow: Norma; INFRA-M, 2016. 192 p.. Textbook on international activities of sub-state/subnational actors in international relations. Under the sub-state/subnational actors refers to the regions of the States. The authors propose an along with interstate relations (first level and supranational organizations (second level to distinguish a third level of international relations - international relations of the regions in Federal and unitary States. The topic is very relevant due to the ongoing restructuring of the architecture of international relations and world politics. In addition, these processes lead to involvement in international relations new actors. The resulting configuration and the role of traditional players. In addition to long-term evolutionary processes, we should not forget about the position of Russia in the last few years. It is obvious that the current tensions around the Russian Federation may not be fully resolved with the old methods. At the same time, sub-state/ subnational actors as subjects of a combined nature, the role played by regions of the Russian Federation, able to combine harmoniously in its international activities as the techniques characteristic of the traditional actors - States and developments in the tools of non-traditional actors - international non-governmental and non-profit organizations etc. As a result of positive results can be achieved faster and at the interstate level. The review considers the subject and the relevance of the topic, presents the analysis of the content of the work. Marked strengths of the textbook, including those associated with the consideration of the diagonal ties and the political components in the international activities of the regions. In addition to the advantages, attention is paid to the analysis of

  15. Ancient Himalayan wolf (Canis lupus chanco) lineage in Upper Mustang of the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetri, Madhu; Jhala, Yadvendradev V; Jnawali, Shant R; Subedi, Naresh; Dhakal, Maheshwar; Yumnam, Bibek

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomic status of the wolf (Canis lupus) in Nepal's Trans-Himalaya is poorly understood. Recent genetic studies have revealed the existence of three lineages of wolves in the Indian sub-continent. Of these, the Himalayan wolf, Canis lupus chanco, has been reported to be the most ancient lineage historically distributed within the Nepal Himalaya. These wolves residing in the Trans-Himalayan region have been suggested to be smaller and very different from the European wolf. During October 2011, six fecal samples suspected to have originated from wolves were collected from Upper Mustang in the Annapurna Conservation Area of Nepal. DNA extraction and amplification of the mitochondrial (mt) control region (CR) locus yielded sequences from five out of six samples. One sample matched domestic dog sequences in GenBank, while the remaining four samples were aligned within the monophyletic and ancient Himalayan wolf clade. These four sequences which matched each other, were new and represented a novel Himalayan wolf haplotype. This result confirms that the endangered ancient Himalayan wolf is extant in Nepal. Detailed genomic study covering Nepal's entire Himalayan landscape is recommended in order to understand their distribution, taxonomy and, genetic relatedness with other wolves potentially sharing the same landscape.

  16. Fear or food - abundance of red fox in relation to occurrence of lynx and wolf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikenros, Camilla; Aronsson, Malin; Liberg, Olof; Jarnemo, Anders; Hansson, Jessica; Wallgren, Märtha; Sand, Håkan; Bergström, Roger

    2017-08-22

    Apex predators may affect mesopredators through intraguild predation and/or supply of carrion from their prey, causing a trade-off between avoidance and attractiveness. We used wildlife triangle snow-tracking data to investigate the abundance of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in relation to lynx (Lynx lynx) and wolf (Canis lupus) occurrence as well as land composition and vole (Microtus spp.) density. Data from the Swedish wolf-monitoring system and VHF/GPS-collared wolves were used to study the effect of wolf pack size and time since wolf territory establishment on fox abundance. Bottom-up processes were more influential than top-down effects as the proportion of arable land was the key indicator of fox abundance at the landscape level. At this spatial scale, there was no effect of wolf abundance on fox abundance, whereas lynx abundance had a positive effect. In contrast, at the wolf territory level there was a negative effect of wolves on fox abundance when including detailed information of pack size and time since territory establishment, whereas there was no effect of lynx abundance. This study shows that different apex predator species may affect mesopredator abundance in different ways and that the results may be dependent on the spatiotemporal scale and resolution of the data.

  17. The Difficulty of Saying "I": Translation and Censorship of Christa Wolf's Der geteilte Himmel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina von Ankum

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available The end of the GDR in 1990 triggered a vivid literary debate in Germany which focused on the interrelationship of politics, literature, and criticism. In this context, the work of Christa Wolf was attacked as primary example of self-censorship and collaboration. In my article, I argue that Wolf became the target of literary criticism largely because of her attempt to express female subjectivity in her texts. In my contrastive analysis of Der geteilte Himmel (1963 and its English translation (1965, I read Wolf's text as an initial attempt at a "socialist modernism." The continued value of this and subsequent works by Wolf lies in the accuracy and complexity with which she probes human behavior under adverse historical circumstances. Even a text like Der geteilte Himmel , which on a surface level reads merely like a political vote for socialism in the GDR as well as the writer's support for the division of Germany, eludes the binary opposition of East/West, them/us that critics have used to categorize Wolf's work. The hybrid nature of the text serves as example of Wolf's sincerity as a writer, evidence of her personal integrity, as well as her relentless commitment to a social alternative.

  18. Occupational exposure to electric and magnetic fields during work tasks at 110 kV substations in the Tampere region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpinen, Leena H; Pääkkönen, Rauno J

    2010-04-01

    The occupational exposure to electric and magnetic fields during various work tasks at seven 110 kV substations in Finland's Tampere region was studied. The aim was to investigate if the action values (10 kV/m for the E-field and 500 microT for the B-field) of the EU Directive 2004/40/EC were exceeded. Electric and magnetic fields were measured during the following work tasks: (1) walking or operating devices on the ground; (2) working from a service platform; (3) working around the power transformer on the ground or using a ladder; and (4) changing a bulb from a man hoist. In work task 2 "working from a service platform" the measured electric field (maximum value 16.6 kV/m) exceeded 10 kV/m in three cases. In the future it is important to study if the limit value (10 mA/m(2)) of Directive 2004/40/EC is exceeded at 110 kV substations. The occupational 500 microT action value of the magnetic flux density field (B-field) was not exceeded in any working situation.

  19. Three-Dimensional Finite-Element Analysis of the Short-Time and Peak Withstand Current Tests in Substation Connectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Capelli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Power devices intended for high-voltage systems must be tested according to international standards, which includes the short-time withstand current test and peak withstand current test. However, these tests require very special facilities which consume huge amounts of electrical power. Therefore, mathematical tools to simulate such tests are highly appealing since they allow reproducing the electromagnetic and thermal behavior of the test object in a fast and economical manner. In this paper, a three-dimensional finite element method (3D-FEM approach to simulate the transient thermal behavior of substation connectors is presented and validated against experimental data. To this end, a multiphysics 3D-FEM method is proposed, which considers both the connector and the reference power conductors. The transient and steady-state temperature profiles of both the conductors and connector provided by the 3D-FEM method prove its suitability and accuracy as compared to experimental data provided by short-circuit tests conducted in two high-current laboratories. The proposed simulation tool, which was proven to be accurate and realistic, may be particularly useful during the design and optimization phases of substation connectors since it allows anticipating the results of mandatory laboratory tests.

  20. Nuevo enfoque sobre la gestión del mantenimiento en subestaciones eléctricas; New Focus about the Maintenance Management in Electrical Substations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Gondres Torné

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se presenta un nuevo enfoque de la gestión del mantenimiento en las subestaciones eléctricasque interconectan al sistema electroenergético nacional con la generación distribuida, tratando de adaptardicho mantenimiento a las necesidades cada día más crecientes del país enmarcado en la RevoluciónEnergética. Los temas que abordan el mantenimiento son muy extensos y se necesitarían varios tratadostécnicos para enfrentarlos de una manera completa, por ello solo se hace énfasis en algunos puntos devista de dos de las tendencias actuales acordes con la experiencia y estudios del tema, citando losresultados obtenidos a partir de trabajos anteriores y otros en ejecución, lo cual corrobora la importanciaque reviste actualmente la utilización eficiente de las técnicas de avanzada aparejadas a las nuevasfilosofías del mantenimiento mundial.  In this paper a new focus is exposed about the maintenance management in the electrical substations thatinterconnects the system with the distributed generation, trying to adapt this maintenance to the needs ofevery most growing day in the country framed in the Energy Revolution. The approached topics about themaintenance are very extensive and several topics would be needed to face them in a complete way, forthis alone emphasis, is made in some point of views from two of the actual tendencies according to theexperience and theme studies, mentioning the results obtained starting from previous projects and othersin execution, that which corroborates the importance that the efficient use of the new techniques harnessedhas to the new philosophies of the world maintenance.

  1. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point The Tipping Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture ...

  2. Are inland wolf-ungulate systems influenced by marine subsidies of Pacific salmon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, L.G.; Farley, Sean D.; Stricker, C.A.; Demma, D.J.; Roffler, G.H.; Miller, D.C.; Rye, R.O.

    2010-01-01

    Wolves (Canis lupus) in North America are considered obligate predators of ungulates with other food resources playing little role in wolf population dynamics or wolf-prey relations. However, spawning Pacific salmon (Oncorhyncus spp.) are common throughout wolf range in northwestern North America and may provide a marine subsidy affecting inland wolf-ungulate food webs far from the coast. We conducted stable-isotope analyses for nitrogen and carbon to evaluate the contribution of salmon to diets of wolves in Denali National Park and Preserve, 1200 river-km from tidewater in interior Alaska, USA. We analyzed bone collagen from 73 wolves equipped with radio collars during 1986-2002 and evaluated estimates of salmon in their diets relative to the availability of salmon and ungulates within their home ranges. We compared wolf densities and ungulate : wolf ratios among regions with differing salmon and ungulate availability to assess subsidizing effects of salmon on these wolf-ungulate systems. Wolves in the northwestern flats of the study area had access to spawning salmon but low ungulate availability and consumed more salmon (17% ?? 7% [mean ?? SD]) than in upland regions, where ungulates were sixfold more abundant and wolves did or did not have salmon spawning areas within their home ranges (8% ?? 6% and 3% ?? 3%, respectively). Wolves were only 17% less abundant on the northwestern flats compared to the remainder of the study area, even though ungulate densities were 78% lower. We estimated that biomass from fall runs of chum (O. keta) and coho (O. kisutch) salmon on the northwestern flats was comparable to the ungulate biomass there, and the contribution of salmon to wolf diets was similar to estimates reported for coastal wolves in southeast Alaska. Given the ubiquitous consumption of salmon by wolves on the northwestern flats and the abundance of salmon there, we conclude that wolf numbers in this region were enhanced by the allochthonous subsidy provided by

  3. Problems with the claim of ecotype and taxon status of the wolf in the Great Lakes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Matthew A.; Mech, L. David

    2009-01-01

    Koblmuller et al. (2009) analysed molecular genetic data of the wolf in the Great Lakes (GL) region of the USA and concluded that the animal was a unique ecotype of grey wolf and that genetic data supported the population as a discrete wolf taxon. However, some of the literature that the researchers used to support their position actually did not, and additional confusion arises from indefinite use of terminology. Herein, we discuss the problems with designation of a wolf population as a taxon or ecotype without proper definition and assessment of criteria.

  4. Earthquake hoax in Ghana: exploration of the Cry Wolf hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishmael D. Norman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the belief of the news of impending earthquake from any source in the context of the Cry Wolf hypothesis as well as the belief of the news of any other imminent disaster from any source. We were also interested in the correlation between preparedness, risk perception and antecedents. This explorative study consisted of interviews, literature and Internet reviews. Sampling was of a simple random nature. Stratification was carried out by sex and residence type. The sample size of (N=400, consisted of 195 males and 205 Females. Further stratification was based on residential classification used by the municipalities. The study revealed that a person would believe news of an impending earthquake from any source, (64.4% and a model significance of (P=0.000. It also showed that a person would believe news of any other impending disaster from any source, (73.1% and a significance of (P=0.003. There is association between background, risk perception and preparedness. Emergency preparedness is weak. Earthquake awareness needs to be re-enforced. There is a critical need for public education of earthquake preparedness. The authors recommend developing emergency response program for earthquakes, standard operating procedures for a national risk communication through all media including instant bulk messaging.

  5. Experienced Gray Wolf Optimization Through Reinforcement Learning and Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emary, E; Zawbaa, Hossam M; Grosan, Crina

    2017-01-10

    In this paper, a variant of gray wolf optimization (GWO) that uses reinforcement learning principles combined with neural networks to enhance the performance is proposed. The aim is to overcome, by reinforced learning, the common challenge of setting the right parameters for the algorithm. In GWO, a single parameter is used to control the exploration/exploitation rate, which influences the performance of the algorithm. Rather than using a global way to change this parameter for all the agents, we use reinforcement learning to set it on an individual basis. The adaptation of the exploration rate for each agent depends on the agent's own experience and the current terrain of the search space. In order to achieve this, experience repository is built based on the neural network to map a set of agents' states to a set of corresponding actions that specifically influence the exploration rate. The experience repository is updated by all the search agents to reflect experience and to enhance the future actions continuously. The resulted algorithm is called experienced GWO (EGWO) and its performance is assessed on solving feature selection problems and on finding optimal weights for neural networks algorithm. We use a set of performance indicators to evaluate the efficiency of the method. Results over various data sets demonstrate an advance of the EGWO over the original GWO and over other metaheuristics, such as genetic algorithms and particle swarm optimization.

  6. How Turing and Wolf influenced my Decision Support Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Decision Support Systems (DSS) have a vital role to play in today's scenario for Patient Care. They can embody a vast knowledge not normally found in one individual where diagnosis and treatment are involved. This paper highlights the training in minute details and precise mathematics needed in a successful DSS and indicates how such attention-to-detail was instilled into the writer as a result of working with Alan Turing and Emil Wolf who have both since achieved world-wide recognition in their own fields as a result of international publicity by the current writer. The article discusses four Decision Support Systems written by the present writer all of which have been shown to improve patient treatment and care, and which are of such complexity that, without their use, patient care would fall short of optimum. The Systems considered are those for Intensive Care Units, Cardiovascular Surgery, a Programmed Investigation Unit, and Diagnosis of Congenital Abnormalities. All these Systems have performed better than the human alternatives and have shown their value in the improvement of patient care.

  7. Weights, growth, and survival of timber wolf pups in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ballenberghe, V.; Mech, L.D.

    1975-01-01

    Weights, growth rates, canine tooth lengths, and survival data were obtained from 73 wild wolf (Canis lupus) pups that were 8 to 28 weeks old when live-trapped in three areas of northern Minnesota from 1969 to 1972. Relative weights of wild pups are expressed as percentages of a standard weight curve based on data from captive pups of similar age. These relative weights varied greatly within litters, between litters, and between years; extremes of 31 to 144 percent of the standard were observed. Growth rates ranging from 0.05 to 0.23 kilograms per day were observed, and similar variations in general devel pment and in replacement and growth of canine teeth were noted. Survival data based on radio-tracking and tag returns indicated that pups with relative weights less than 65 percent of standard have a poor chance of survival, whereas pups of at least 80 percent of standard weight have a high survivability. Pups born in 1972 were especially underweight, probably a result of declining white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) densities in the interior of the Superior National Forest study area.

  8. Modified Grey Wolf Optimizer for Global Engineering Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Mittal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nature-inspired algorithms are becoming popular among researchers due to their simplicity and flexibility. The nature-inspired metaheuristic algorithms are analysed in terms of their key features like their diversity and adaptation, exploration and exploitation, and attractions and diffusion mechanisms. The success and challenges concerning these algorithms are based on their parameter tuning and parameter control. A comparatively new algorithm motivated by the social hierarchy and hunting behavior of grey wolves is Grey Wolf Optimizer (GWO, which is a very successful algorithm for solving real mechanical and optical engineering problems. In the original GWO, half of the iterations are devoted to exploration and the other half are dedicated to exploitation, overlooking the impact of right balance between these two to guarantee an accurate approximation of global optimum. To overcome this shortcoming, a modified GWO (mGWO is proposed, which focuses on proper balance between exploration and exploitation that leads to an optimal performance of the algorithm. Simulations based on benchmark problems and WSN clustering problem demonstrate the effectiveness, efficiency, and stability of mGWO compared with the basic GWO and some well-known algorithms.

  9. Severe inbreeding depression in a wild wolf (Canis lupus) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberg, Olof; Andrén, Henrik; Pedersen, Hans-Christian; Sand, Håkan; Sejberg, Douglas; Wabakken, Petter; Kesson, Mikael; Bensch, Staffan

    2005-03-22

    The difficulty of obtaining pedigrees for wild populations has hampered the possibility of demonstrating inbreeding depression in nature. In a small, naturally restored, wild population of grey wolves in Scandinavia, founded in 1983, we constructed a pedigree for 24 of the 28 breeding pairs established in the period 1983-2002. Ancestry for the breeding animals was determined through a combination of field data (snow tracking and radio telemetry) and DNA microsatellite analysis. The population was founded by only three individuals. The inbreeding coefficient F varied between 0.00 and 0.41 for wolves born during the study period. The number of surviving pups per litter during their first winter after birth was strongly correlated with inbreeding coefficients of pups (R2=0.39, p<0.001). This inbreeding depression was recalculated to match standard estimates of lethal equivalents (2B), corresponding to 6.04 (2.58-9.48, 95% CI) litter-size-reducing equivalents in this wolf population.

  10. Weaning in an Arctic wolf pack: behavioral mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, J.M.; Mech, L.D.; Ream, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    If behavioral mechanisms controlling suckling have been shaped by parent-offspring conflict in the ultimate sense, then proximate behavioral determinants of conflict should occur throughout lactation, with greatest intensity in the terminal phase, and offspring should have tactics for overcoming parental resistance. We observed the weaning process in a habituated wild wolf pack (Canis lupus) on Ellesmere Island, Canada, from estimated ages 5 through 10 weeks (including a continuous record for 192 h). The following variables declined with age: percentage of suckling bouts initiated by the nurser, persistence by pups, and mean duration of suckling bouts. Variables that increased with age were interbout interval, percentage of suckling bouts terminated by the nurser, and wincing or agonistic actions of the nurser. Behavioral conflict appeared in the develop mental stage (estimated age 7 -8 weeks) during which pups could feed on opened carcasses. Countertactics by pups to obtain milk were not apparent, although the pups developed diverse tactics for obtaining and sharing meat. In this group of wolves, weaning mechanisms were a complex function of food-delivery by adults, discomfort of the nursing female as pups developed, and declining persistence of pups. If there is a conflict over what is optimal for pups and for the nurser in the ultimate sense, behavioral conflict is more likely to be expressed with regard to access to meat, or as conditional tactics dependent on food availability, rather than weaning conflict being controlleg by fixed rules in this species.

  11. Coordination of voltage and reactive power control in the extra high voltage substations based on the example of solutions applied in the national power system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Kołodziej

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents examples of coordination between automatic voltage and reactive power control systems (ARST covering adjacent and strongly related extra high voltage substations. Included are conclusions resulting from the use of these solutions. The Institute of Power Engineering, Gdańsk Division has developed and deployed ARST systems in the national power system for a dozen or so years.

  12. The exposure risks to the magnetic field at internal MV/LV substations; Os riscos da exposicao ao campo magnetico em subestacoes internas MT/BT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keikko, Tommi; Valkealahti, Seppo [Tampere University of Technology (TUT), Tampere (Finland); Paeaekkoenen, Rauno [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Lappeenranta (Finland); Seesvuori, Reino [Tampere Power Distribution, Tampere (Finland); Kaennaelae, Sami [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-10-15

    The risk evaluation due to the magnetic field must be part of the protection concept of health during the work. This paper analyses the worker exposure to magnetic fields in abridged distribution substations, whose values must not surpass the established limits. The real measurements include exposures with measurements synchronous to the load currents and harmonic total distortion among others parameters. (author)

  13. Modeling of a 22.9 kV 50 MVA superconducting power cable based on PSCAD/EMTDC for application to the Icheon substation in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Yoon, J.; Lee, B.; Yang, B.

    2011-11-01

    Two projects for high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable have been carried out in Korea since 2001. One of them is a HTS cable project in DAPAS (Development of Advanced Power system by Applied Superconductivity technologies) program funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology. In this project, LS Cable Ltd. (LSC) and Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI) jointly developed a 22.9 kV, 50 MVA, 3 phase, 100 m HTS cable using first generation (1G) HTS wire in 2006. The HTS cable system has been tested in a power test center of Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO). LSC and KEPCO have been developing a 22.9 kV, 50 MVA, 3 phase, 500 m HTS cable system using second generation (2G) HTS wire since 2008, based on the technology of the DAPAS project. This project is called as GENI (Green Superconducting Electric Power Network at the Icheon Substation) project. The target of GENI project is to install and operate the HTS cable system in the Icheon substation located in near Seoul. In order to analyze the Icheon substation power system employing the HTS cable, an analysis model of the HTS cable is necessary. This paper describes the development of an analysis model for the 22.9 kV, 50 MVA HTS cable that will be applied to the Icheon substation in Korea.

  14. The study for defining the best technical and economical alternatives for the associated substation to the Tucurui hydraulic power plant - second stage; Estudo para definicao da melhor alternativa tecnico-economica para a subestacao elevadora-secionadora associada a Usina Hidroeletrica Tucurui - segunda etapa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado Junior, Camilo; Fukuoka, Nita; Rose, Eber Havila [ELETRONORTE, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)]. E-mail: eber@eln.gov.br; Martinez, Manuel Luis Barreira [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Energia Eletrica. Dept. de Eletrotecnica; Violin, Airton

    2001-07-01

    This document presents a synthesis of the developed study for defining the switching scheme of the associated substation to the Tucurui hydraulic power plant second stage which is being constructed. In order to reduce the short circuit level in the first stage substation (in operation) to suitable values and, at the same time, to maintain the flexibility in the generator and transmission systems, it has been decided to install some series reactors between the substations in 550 Kv. The used methodology to define the suitable alternative is also discussed and the substation final configuration involving the first and second stages of the substation enlargement is presented through a illustration.

  15. Methodology for evaluating the grounding system in electrical substations; Metodologia para la evaluacion del sistema de puesta a tierra en subestaciones electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrelles Rivas, L.F [Universidad Nacional Experimental Politecnica: Antonio Jose de Sucre (UNEXPO), Guayana, Bolivar (Venezuela)]. E-mail: torrellesluis@gmail.com; Alvarez, P. [Petroleos de Venezuela S.A (PDVSA), Maturin, Monagas (Venezuela)]. E-mail: alvarezph@pdvsa.com

    2013-03-15

    The present work proposes a methodology for evaluating grounding systems in electrical substations from medium and high voltage, in order to diagnose the state of the elements of the grounding system and the corresponding electrical variables. The assessment methodology developed includes a visual inspection phase to the elements of the substation. Then, by performing measurements and data analysis, the electrical continuity between the components of the substation and the mesh ground is verified, the soil resistivity and resistance of the mesh. Also included in the methodology the calculation of the step and touch voltage of the substation, based on the criteria of the International IEEE standards. We study the case of the 115 kV Pirital Substation belonging to PDVSA Oriente Transmission Network. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se plantea una metodologia para la evaluacion de sistemas de puesta a tierra en subestaciones electricas de media y alta tension, con la finalidad de diagnosticar el estado de los elementos que conforman dicho sistema y las variables electricas correspondientes. La metodologia de evaluacion desarrollada incluye una fase de inspeccion visual de los elementos que conforman la subestacion. Luego, mediante la ejecucion de mediciones y analisis de datos, se verifica la continuidad electrica entre los componentes de la subestacion y la malla de puesta a tierra, la resistividad del suelo y resistencia de la malla. Se incluye tambien en la metodologia el calculo de las tensiones de paso y de toque de la subestacion, segun lo fundamentado en los criterios de los estandares Internacionales IEEE. Se estudia el caso de la Subestacion Pirital 115 kV perteneciente a la Red de Transmision de PDVSA Oriente.

  16. Advances in the diagnosis of substations primary equipment by means of high sensitivity techniques; Avances en el diagnostico de equipo primario de subestaciones mediante tecnicas de alta sensibilidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Colon H, V. Rodolfo; Nava G, J. Armando; Azcarraga R, Carlos G [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    In an electrical system, the substations primary equipment is integrated by the power transformers, the instrument transformers, the breakers and the interconnection circuits (energy cables). At the present time, the described primary equipment has been integrated in an arrangement denominated encapsulated substation that presents dimensional and aesthetic advantages in the conventional substations. Nevertheless, the isolation involved in this type of substations means new challenges when carrying out its diagnosis in a planned way or after the appearance of a fault. In this sense, the insulating and electromechanical system of the primary equipment of substations must be evaluated in a programmed way or be constantly monitored. This with the final purpose of detecting incipient problems that could evolve towards a fault or to the diminution of the electrical system reliability. [Spanish] En un sistema electrico, el equipo primario de subestaciones esta integrado por los transformadores de potencia, los transformadores de instrumento, los interruptores y los circuitos de interconexion (cables de energia). En la actualidad, el equipo primario descrito se ha integrado en un arreglo denominado subestacion encapsulada que presenta ventajas dimensionales y esteticas sobre las subestaciones convencionales. Sin embargo, el aislamiento involucrado en este tipo de subestaciones significa nuevos retos al efectuar su diagnostico de manera planeada o despues de presentarse una falla. En este sentido, el sistema aislante y electromecanico del equipo primario de subestaciones debe ser evaluado de manera programada o monitoreado constantemente. Ello con la finalidad de detectar problemas incipientes que pudieran evolucionar hacia una falla o la disminucion de la confiabilidad del sistema electrico.

  17. But What About The Big Bad Wolf? Refashionig Red And The Wolf In The 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şerban Andreea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to revisit three adaptations of Red Riding Hood fairy tales and explore some of the wolf’s reincarnations in order to see how realities change in time. It has generally been observed in the literature that in pop culture Red has undergone quite dramatic changes from the little ingénue to the mature seductress. But what has happened to the bad wolf? How is he imagined by the 21st century pop culture? How do his agency and power change? What (new message does he convey? To answer these questions, I shall look at three fairly recent advertisements that adapt the classic Little Red story for the screen: “Red Bull” energizer (February 2010, “Chanel no. 5” (featuring actress Estella Warren, late 1990s, 2007 and “B.U. Heartbeat” (featuring Tyson Kuteyi, 2008 perfumes. I will explore not only how such commercials reframe the dominant Western cultural pattern, but if they also undo the lessons both men and women have so far been forced to learn.

  18. Conditions for caribou persistence in the wolf-elk-caribou systems of the Canadian Rockies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hebblewhite

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou populations are considered threatened in Alberta and have declined in the Canadian Rocky Mountain National Parks of Banff and Jasper despite protection from factors causing caribou populations to decline outside of parks. Recent research emphasizes the importance of the numeric response of wolves to moose in moose-caribou-wolf systems to caribou persistence. Moose are rare in the Canadian Rockies, where the dominant ungulate prey for wolves is elk. Few studies have explored wolf-elk dynamics and none have examined implications for caribou. We used data collected in Banff to estimate the numeric response of wolves to elk from 1985 to 2005. Because no caribou kill-rate data exist for the Rockies, we explore the consequences of a range of hypothetical kill-rates based on kill-rates of alternate prey collected from 1985 to 2000 in Banff. We then multiplied the numeric response of wolves by the estimated caribou kill-rates to estimate the wolf predation response on caribou as a function of elk density. Caribou predation rates were inversely density dependent because wolf numbers depend on prey species besides caribou in multiple prey species systems. We then combined this simple wolf-elk-caribou model with observed demographic and population estimates for Banff and Jasper caribou from 2003-2004 and solved for the critical kill-rate thresholds above which caribou populations would decline. Using these critical kill-rate thresholds, Jasper caribou are likely to persist when wolf densities are below 2.1 - 4.3 wolves/1000km2 and/or when elk densities are below 0.015- 0.033 elk/km2. Thresholds for Banff caribou persistence are much lower because of inverse density dependence. Future research is needed on some of the necessary assumptions underlying our modeling including multi-prey wolf numeric responses, wolf kill-rates of caribou, caribou mortality by other predators, and spatial aspects of wolf-elk-caribou dynamics.

  19. Social-Natural Landscape Reorganised: Swedish Forest-edge Farmers and Wolf Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjolander-Lindqvist Annelie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The politics and the underlying reasons behind the recovery of the Scandinavian wolf population are increasingly contested. According to official policy, wolves should be guaranteed a place in the Swedish natural world. However, the conflict over whether Sweden should host a wolf population sets views on biodiversity and sustainable development against the perspective that local traditions and livelihoods are threatened by the return of wolves. These diverging environmental visions can be seen as competing interests and understandings of nature and wildlife. The desire of the state and nature conservation organisations to implement measures to provide conditions fostering wolf survival are counterbalanced by local action groups and community residents struggling to maintain conditions for conserving summer pastures, opportunities for hunting with sporting dogs, and other recreational activities such as mushroom- and berry-picking. Not only are these activities considered to have high natural and cultural value, the European Union (EU has stated that small-scale farming is important for maintaining the landscape and safeguarding the survival of values associated with ′agri-environmental′ habitats. The conflict between the interest groups is essentially about the access to and use of environmental resources. Squeezed between policies safeguarding wolf populations, preventing cruelty to animals and implementing activities required by the EU agricultural programme, farmers in areas with resident wolf populations have come to take part in processes that may reinforce rural identity.

  20. Assessment of attachment behaviour to human caregivers in wolf pups (Canis lupus lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Nathaniel J; Lord, Kathryn; Arnold, Anne-Marie K; Wynne, Clive D L; Udell, Monique A R

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggested that 16-week old dog pups, but not wolf pups, show attachment behaviour to a human caregiver. Attachment to a caregiver in dog pups has been demonstrated by differential responding to a caregiver compared to a stranger in the Ainsworth Strange Situation Test. We show here that 3-7 week old wolf pups also show attachment-like behaviour to a human caregiver as measured by preferential proximity seeking, preferential contact, and preferential greeting to a human caregiver over a human stranger in a modified and counterbalanced version of the Ainsworth Strange Situation Test. In addition, our results show that preferential responding to a caregiver over a stranger is only apparent following brief isolation. In initial episodes, wolf pups show no differentiation between the caregiver and the stranger; however, following a 2-min separation, the pups show proximity seeking, more contact, and more greeting to the caregiver than the stranger. These results suggest intensive human socialization of a wolf can lead to attachment--like responding to a human caregiver during the first two months of a wolf pup's life. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Affinity for music in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Chikako; Fujita, Yukihiko; Fuchigami, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Yuki; Ishii, Wakako; Endo, Ayumi; Kohira, Ryutaro; Takahashi, Shori

    2014-10-01

    Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome is a congenital malformation syndrome resulting from deletion of the short arm of chromosome 4. Individuals with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome may have a "Greek warrior helmet" appearance, growth retardation, developmental delay, muscular hypotonia, epilepsy, and difficulty with language including verbal communication. An affinity for music has not previously been reported in these patients. We describe two patients with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome who both have a strong affinity for music. One patient is a 20-year-old woman who likes to listen to music all day and can hum many tunes. The other patient is a 9-year-old girl who is calmed by music and received music therapy, with subsequent improvement in her communication skills (eye contact, joint attention, and vocalizations to request music). Individuals with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome may have a strong affinity for music and may benefit from music therapy. Additional studies are needed to investigate the interest in music in individuals with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Design and optimization of wheel-legged robot: Rolling-Wolf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yang; Li, Qimin; Liu, Zhangxing

    2014-11-01

    Though the studies of wheel-legged robots have achieved great success, the existing ones still have defects in load distribution, structure stability and carrying capacity. For overcoming these shortcomings, a new kind of wheel-legged robot(Rolling-Wolf) is designed. It is actuated by means of ball screws and sliders, and each leg forms two stable triangle structures at any moment, which is simple but has high structure stability. The positional posture model and statics model are built and used to analyze the kinematic and mechanical properties of Rolling-Wolf. Based on these two models, important indexes for evaluating its motion performance are analyzed. According to the models and indexes, all of the structure parameters which influence the motion performance of Rolling-Wolf are optimized by the method of Archive-based Micro Genetic Algorithm(AMGA) by using Isight and Matlab software. Compared to the initial values, the maximum rotation angle of the thigh is improved by 4.17%, the maximum lifting height of the wheel is improved by 65.53%, and the maximum driving forces of the thigh and calf are decreased by 25.5% and 12.58%, respectively. The conspicuous optimization results indicate that Rolling-Wolf is much more excellent. The novel wheel-leg structure of Rolling-Wolf is efficient in promoting the load distribution, structure stability and carrying capacity of wheel-legged robot and the proposed optimization method provides a new approach for structure optimization.

  3. Competition between apex predators? Brown bears decrease wolf kill rate on two continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordiz, Andrés; Metz, Matthew C.; Milleret, Cyril; Wikenros, Camilla; Smith, Douglas W.; Stahler, Daniel R.; Kindberg, Jonas; MacNulty, Daniel R.; Wabakken, Petter; Swenson, Jon E.; Sand, Håkan

    2017-01-01

    Trophic interactions are a fundamental topic in ecology, but we know little about how competition between apex predators affects predation, the mechanism driving top-down forcing in ecosystems. We used long-term datasets from Scandinavia (Europe) and Yellowstone National Park (North America) to evaluate how grey wolf (Canis lupus) kill rate was affected by a sympatric apex predator, the brown bear (Ursus arctos). We used kill interval (i.e. the number of days between consecutive ungulate kills) as a proxy of kill rate. Although brown bears can monopolize wolf kills, we found no support in either study system for the common assumption that they cause wolves to kill more often. On the contrary, our results showed the opposite effect. In Scandinavia, wolf packs sympatric with brown bears killed less often than allopatric packs during both spring (after bear den emergence) and summer. Similarly, the presence of bears at wolf-killed ungulates was associated with wolves killing less often during summer in Yellowstone. The consistency in results between the two systems suggests that brown bear presence actually reduces wolf kill rate. Our results suggest that the influence of predation on lower trophic levels may depend on the composition of predator communities. PMID:28179516

  4. Estimating occupancy and predicting numbers of gray wolf packs in Montana using hunter surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Lindsey N.; Russell, Robin E.; Glenn, Elizabeth M.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Gude, Justin A.; Podruzny, Kevin M.; Sime, Carolyn A.; Laudon, Kent; Ausband, David E.; Nichols, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Reliable knowledge of the status and trend of carnivore populations is critical to their conservation and management. Methods for monitoring carnivores, however, are challenging to conduct across large spatial scales. In the Northern Rocky Mountains, wildlife managers need a time- and cost-efficient method for monitoring gray wolf (Canis lupus) populations. Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) conducts annual telephone surveys of >50,000 deer and elk hunters. We explored how survey data on hunters' sightings of wolves could be used to estimate the occupancy and distribution of wolf packs and predict their abundance in Montana for 2007–2009. We assessed model utility by comparing our predictions to MFWP minimum known number of wolf packs. We minimized false positive detections by identifying a patch as occupied if 2–25 wolves were detected by ≥3 hunters. Overall, estimates of the occupancy and distribution of wolf packs were generally consistent with known distributions. Our predictions of the total area occupied increased from 2007 to 2009 and predicted numbers of wolf packs were approximately 1.34–1.46 times the MFWP minimum counts for each year of the survey. Our results indicate that multi-season occupancy models based on public sightings can be used to monitor populations and changes in the spatial distribution of territorial carnivores across large areas where alternative methods may be limited by personnel, time, accessibility, and budget constraints.

  5. Estimated costs of maintaining a recovered wolf population in agricultural regions of Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.

    1999-01-01

    The annual costs of maintaining Minnesota gray wolves (Canis lupus), now numbering about 2,500, under 2 plans are compared: (1) maintaining a population of about 1,400 primarily in the wilderness and semi-wilderness as recommended by the Eastern Timber Wolf Recovery Plan, and (2) allowing wolves to continue colonizing agricultural areas for 5 years after removal from the endangered species list, as recommended by a consensus of wolf stakeholders (Minnesota Wolf Management Roundtable). Under the first plan, each year an estimated 27 farms would suffer livestock losses; wolves would kilt about 3 dogs; 36 wolves would be destroyed; and the cost per wolf in the total population would be \\$86. Under the second plan, conservative estimates are that by the year 2005, there would be an estimated 3,500 wolves; each year 94-171 farms would suffer damage; wolves would kill 8-52 dogs; 109-438 wolves would have to be killed for depredation control; and the annual cost averaged over the total population would be \\$86 for each of the 1,438 wolves living primarily in the wilderness and an additional \\$197 for each wolf outside the wilderness.

  6. Between Female Dialogics and Traces of Essentialism: Gender and Warfare in Christa Wolf's Major Writings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Wilke

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between memory, writing, and the question of how we define ourselves as gendered subjects is at the center of Christa Wolf's work. Her literary production, starting in the late fifties with a rather naive and un-selfconscious love story, has undergone a dramatic shift. In her more recent texts, Wolf sets out to rewrite classical mythology to make us aware of those intersections in the history of Western civilization at which women were made economically and psychologically into objects. The present essay seeks to locate Christa Wolf's evolving conception of gender and warfare within the contemporary theoretical discussion on identity and the subject sketched briefly above. While of late there has been a wealth of studies into the construction of gender in particular works by Wolf, no scholarly contribution has yet addressed the range of answers regarding those questions in her overall oeuvre. I will argue that whereas Wolf's earlier works present a dialogic conception of gender, her later narratives more and more expound a notion of the essentially more peaceful female subject that is counterposed to the essentially warloving male. In these works "female subjectivity is taken to be capable of articulating itself fully in its radical otherness outside of male discourse," which seems to support ideas of an ontological essence of "woman."

  7. Differences in selection drive olfactory receptor genes in different directions in dogs and wolf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2012-11-01

    The olfactory receptor (OR) gene family is the largest gene family found in mammalian genomes. It is known to evolve through a birth-and-death process. Here, we characterized the sequences of 16 segregating OR pseudogenes in the samples of the wolf and the Chinese village dog (CVD) and compared them with the sequences from dogs of different breeds. Our results show that the segregating OR pseudogenes in breed dogs are under strong purifying selection, while evolving neutrally in the CVD, and show a more complicated pattern in the wolf. In the wolf, we found a trend to remove deleterious polymorphisms and accumulate nondeleterious polymorphisms. On the basis of protein structure of the ORs, we found that the distribution of different types of polymorphisms (synonymous, nonsynonymous, tolerated, and untolerated) varied greatly between the wolf and the breed dogs. In summary, our results suggest that different forms of selection have acted on the segregating OR pseudogenes in the CVD since domestication, breed dogs after breed formation, and ancestral wolf population, which has driven the evolution of these genes in different directions.

  8. Parasite species of the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus and a sympatric widespread carnivore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Figueiredo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Parasites have a profound impact on wildlife population dynamics. However, until some years ago, studies on the occurrence and prevalence of wildlife parasites were neglected comparatively with the studies on humans and domestic animals. In this study, we determined the parasite prevalence of two sympatric wild canids: the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus and the widespread red fox (Vulpes vulpes, in central Portugal. From November 2014 to July 2015, fresh fecal samples from both species were collected monthly in several transects distributed throughout the study area. All samples were submitted to several coprological techniques. In total, 6 helminth parasites (Crenosoma vulpis, Angiostrongylus vasorum, Toxocara canis, Trichuris vulpis, Ancylostomatidae, Toxascaris leonina, and a protozoa (Balantidium coli were identified based on size and morphology. The red fox was infected by seven different parasites while the Iberian wolf was infected by four. All parasites present in wolf were also present in the red fox. C. vulpis had the higher prevalence in red fox, while Ancylostomatidae were the most prevalent parasites in wolf. To our knowledge, this is the first study in this isolated subpopulation of the Iberian wolf. Our results show that both carnivores carry parasites that are of concern as they are pathogenic to humans and other wild and domestic animals. We suggest that surveillance programs must also include monitoring protocols of wildlife; particularly endangered species.

  9. Parasite species of the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus) and a sympatric widespread carnivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Ana; Oliveira, Lucia; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís; Fonseca, Carlos; Torres, Rita Tinoco

    2016-08-01

    Parasites have a profound impact on wildlife population dynamics. However, until some years ago, studies on the occurrence and prevalence of wildlife parasites were neglected comparatively with the studies on humans and domestic animals. In this study, we determined the parasite prevalence of two sympatric wild canids: the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus) and the widespread red fox (Vulpes vulpes), in central Portugal. From November 2014 to July 2015, fresh fecal samples from both species were collected monthly in several transects distributed throughout the study area. All samples were submitted to several coprological techniques. In total, 6 helminth parasites (Crenosoma vulpis, Angiostrongylus vasorum, Toxocara canis, Trichuris vulpis, Ancylostomatidae, Toxascaris leonina), and a protozoa (Balantidium coli) were identified based on size and morphology. The red fox was infected by seven different parasites while the Iberian wolf was infected by four. All parasites present in wolf were also present in the red fox. C. vulpis had the higher prevalence in red fox, while Ancylostomatidae were the most prevalent parasites in wolf. To our knowledge, this is the first study in this isolated subpopulation of the Iberian wolf. Our results show that both carnivores carry parasites that are of concern as they are pathogenic to humans and other wild and domestic animals. We suggest that surveillance programs must also include monitoring protocols of wildlife; particularly endangered species.

  10. Koebner's sheep in Wolf's clothing: does the isotopic response exist as a distinct phenomenon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happle, R; Kluger, N

    2017-10-28

    Until 1995, a case of psoriasis developing within the dermatome of a healed herpes zoster was taken as a Koebner phenomenon. In this year, however, the term 'isotopic response' was introduced by Wolf et al. to describe 'the occurrence of a new skin disorder at the site of another, unrelated and already healed skin disease', thus appearing 'on apparently unaffected and healthy skin'. Initially, the term was mainly related to herpes zoster, but today the name 'Wolf's isotopic response' is used to include a plethora of other triggering factors such as healed cutaneous leishmaniasis, tinea or varicella. For obvious reasons, such triggering factors cannot be taken as examples of 'unaffected and healthy skin'. Notably, the authors themselves have categorized the dermatome of a healed herpes zoster as a 'vulnerable area'. In a recent commentary, Wolf et al. have expanded the definition of healed skin diseases triggering an 'isotopic response'. They now included 'scars, pigment changes, color changes or various other minimal changes by the first disease'. Hence, there is no clear-cut criterion to distinguish the isotopic response from a Koebner reaction. Wolf et al. even argue that, if the triggered disorder precedes the appearance of generalized skin lesions, then it is not a Koebner reaction but 'Wolf's isotopic response'. In our view, such definition is unacceptable. All reactions of this kind represent examples of a Koebner phenomenon. Accordingly, the 'isotopic response' should today be taken as a historical error. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  11. A New Approach to Detection of Systematic Errors in Secondary Substation Monitoring Equipment Based on Short Term Load Forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriano, Javier; Rodríguez, Francisco Javier; Martín, Pedro; Jiménez, Jose Antonio; Vuksanovic, Branislav

    2016-01-12

    In recent years, Secondary Substations (SSs) are being provided with equipment that allows their full management. This is particularly useful not only for monitoring and planning purposes but also for detecting erroneous measurements, which could negatively affect the performance of the SS. On the other hand, load forecasting is extremely important since they help electricity companies to make crucial decisions regarding purchasing and generating electric power, load switching, and infrastructure development. In this regard, Short Term Load Forecasting (STLF) allows the electric power load to be predicted over an interval ranging from one hour to one week. However, important issues concerning error detection by employing STLF has not been specifically addressed until now. This paper proposes a novel STLF-based approach to the detection of gain and offset errors introduced by the measurement equipment. The implemented system has been tested against real power load data provided by electricity suppliers. Different gain and offset error levels are successfully detected.

  12. A New Approach to Detection of Systematic Errors in Secondary Substation Monitoring Equipment Based on Short Term Load Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Moriano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Secondary Substations (SSs are being provided with equipment that allows their full management. This is particularly useful not only for monitoring and planning purposes but also for detecting erroneous measurements, which could negatively affect the performance of the SS. On the other hand, load forecasting is extremely important since they help electricity companies to make crucial decisions regarding purchasing and generating electric power, load switching, and infrastructure development. In this regard, Short Term Load Forecasting (STLF allows the electric power load to be predicted over an interval ranging from one hour to one week. However, important issues concerning error detection by employing STLF has not been specifically addressed until now. This paper proposes a novel STLF-based approach to the detection of gain and offset errors introduced by the measurement equipment. The implemented system has been tested against real power load data provided by electricity suppliers. Different gain and offset error levels are successfully detected.

  13. Two-step high-resolution laser spectroscopy of the Stark substates of the n = 33 level in atomic hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delsart, C.; Cabaret, L.; Blondel, C.; Champeau, R.J.

    1987-09-28

    Two synchronised pulsed single-mode tunable laser systems are used to excite atomic hydrogen in an atomic beam. A vacuum ultraviolet laser populates first the 2p /sup 2/Psub(3/2) sublevel from the ground 1s/sup 2/Ssub(1/2) state. A second-step UV laser selects substates of the n = 33 manifold in the presence of a weak electric field. Stark patterns of this manifold are recorded for different polarisation configurations of the exciting light beams. The measured relative intensities of the Stark components agree with the theoretical excitation probabilities in the two-step process, calculated to the first order of perturbation theory. Varying the field value of the ionisation field pulse also makes it possible to plot the ionisation threshold against the parabolic quantum number in the n = 33 manifold. The results agree with an asymptotic formula of ionisation probabilities for hydrogen perturbed by an electric field.

  14. Testing and start up of equipment in a substation; Pruebas y puesta en servicio del equipo de una subestacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raull-Martin, J. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a summarized version of the test series required to determine out the final condition of the isolations, the continuity of the control circuits, as well as protection, measurement, sing-positing, alarms and the total substation performance. [Spanish] El proposito de este articulo es presentar en forma compacta la serie de pruebas que se requieren para determinar el estado final de los aislamientos, la continuidad de los circuitos de control, proteccion, medicion, senalizacion, alarmas, asi como el funcionamiento del conjunto de la subestacion. Se muestra una grafica K-Temperatura y de conexiones para las pruebas con megger. Se muestra un diagrama de conexiones para determinar las marcas de polaridad este tipo bushing e interruptores; asi como para el faseo de una proteccion diferencial. Se da el diagrama de faseo interno y energizado por el lado de 23 kV de una subestacion de 230 kV.

  15. Hungry Unlike the Wolf: Ecology, Posthumanism, Narratology in Fred Vargas’s Seeking Whom He May Devour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Parham

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines posthumanism as a philosophical position equipped to inform ecocriticism and the potential of popular fiction to articulate ecological complexity. Posthumanism will be reappraised as a dialectical model that decentres the human in relation to ‘evolutionary, ecological, or technological coordinates’ (Wolfe 2010: xvi while nevertheless retaining a sense of the integrity of, and boundaries between, human and nonhuman species or phenomena. It will be argued that a novelistic emphasis on human being, agency, and action, coupled with devices of genre, plot, atnd narrative – are consistent with the process of human self‐examinaion engendered by posthumanism. The essay will, thereafter, illustrate and examine this approach through the French crime writer Fred Vargas’s1999 novel Seeking Whom He May Devour. Identifying two human protagonists – the Canadian conservationist Johnstone and his girlfriend Camille – an initial decentring of the human subject will be examined in relation to two equivalent, nonhuman protagonists, the French Alps and the wolf. Utilising newspaper interviews that highlight Vargas’s own posthumanist perspective (grounded in her profession as an archaeologist, I will examine a how the novel explores appropriate relationships between human and nonhuman animals; b how Vargas utilises both the generic features of the crime novel – e.g. the resolution of a ‘crime’ – and the subtle narrative manipulations of character focalisation to construct (via the preferred ‘point of iew’ offered by Camille a posthumanist position on human/animal relations which argas explicitly opposes to the inhumanism represented by Johnstone.

  16. The high redshift Integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jun-Qing; Viel, Matteo; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Matarrese, Sabino

    2009-09-01

    In this paper we rely on the quasar (QSO) catalog of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Six (SDSS DR6) of about one million photometrically selected QSOs to compute the Integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect at high redshift, aiming at constraining the behavior of the expansion rate and thus the behaviour of dark energy at those epochs. This unique sample significantly extends previous catalogs to higher redshifts while retaining high efficiency in the selection algorithm. We compute the auto-correlation function (ACF) of QSO number density from which we extract the bias and the stellar contamination. We then calculate the cross-correlation function (CCF) between QSO number density and Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature fluctuations in different subsamples: at high z > 1.5 and low z analysis. We find an overall evidence for a cross-correlation different from zero at the 2.7 σ level, while this evidence drops to 1.5 σ at z > 1.5. We focus on the capabilities of the ISW to constrain the behaviour of the dark energy component at high redshift both in the Λ CDM and Early Dark Energy cosmologies, when the dark energy is substantially unconstrained by observations. At present, the inclusion of the ISW data results in a poor improvement compared to the obtained constraints from other cosmological datasets. We study the capabilities of future high-redshift QSO survey and find that the ISW signal can improve the constraints on the most important cosmological parameters derived from Planck CMB data, including the high redshift dark energy abundance, by a factor ~ 1.5.

  17. Pathology of Gray Wolf Shoulders: Lessons in Species and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Dennis; Becker, Julia; Reetz, Jennifer; Goodmann, Pat; Evans, Richard; Rubin, David; Tangredi, Basil; Widga, Christopher; Sackman, Jill; Martin, Terrence; Kohn, Luci; Smith, Gail

    2016-10-01

    We examined scapula glenoids (n = 14) and proximal articular humeri (n = 14) of seven gray wolves that were maintained in a sanctuary park setting. Immediately after death, observations were made visually in situ and by radiography. Further observations were made in a museum laboratory setting, prior to and following clearing of soft tissues. Selected dry bone specimens were evaluated using computed tomography. Significant cartilage erosion and osteoarthropathy were identified in all shoulder joints. No single evaluation method yielded maximal information. Plain film radiography revealed only more severe changes. Computed tomography yielded more detail and clarity than standard radiography. Direct examination of articular cartilage informed about joint soft tissue, and dry bone informed about externally visible bone pathology. These data provide a basis for biological, biomedical, ecological, and archaeological scientists to improve retrospective interpretations of bone lesions. They further support developing plausible differential diagnoses for features of ancient and modern animal bones. We noted a dog-like capacity for wolf longevity in a non-free-roaming environment. However, aged wolves' life spans far exceeded those of similar-sized domestic dogs and breeds, suggesting the possibility of an important species difference that should be explored. We suggest also a hypothesis that the driving force for joint pathology in sheltered non-domestic species may relate significantly to achieving the longevity that is possible biologically, but is uncommon in the wild because of differential stochastic influences. Anat Rec, 299:1338-1347, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. No trespassing: using a biofence to manipulate wolf movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausband, David E.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Bassing, Sarah B.; White, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Context: Conserving large carnivores can be challenging because of conflicts with human land use and competition with humans for resources. Predation on domestic stock can have negative economic impacts particularly for owners of small herds, and tools for minimising carnivore depredation of livestock are needed. Canids use scent marking to establish territories and avoid intraspecific conflict. Exploiting scent-marking behaviour may provide a means for manipulating canid movements. Aims: We hypothesised that human-deployed scent marks (i.e. ‘biofence’) could be used to manipulate the movements of grey wolves (Canis lupus) in Idaho, USA. Methods: We deployed 65 km of biofence within three wolf-pack territories during summer 2010 and 2011 and used location data from satellite-collared wolves and sign surveys to assess the effectiveness of biofencing. Key results: Location data provided by satellite-collared wolves and sign surveys in 2010 showed little to no trespass of the biofence, even though the excluded areas were used by the packs in previous summers. We also opportunistically deployed a biofence in between a rendezvous site of a resident pack and a nearby sheep grazing allotment; the pack was not implicated in any depredations in summer 2010, even though they had killed sheep every year since 2006. Location data provided by satellite-collared wolves in summer 2011 showed that wolves did trespass biofences. Conclusions: Biofencing effectively manipulated the movements of wolves in the first year of our study, but not the second. Implications: Our work suggests that biofencing may be most limited by the apparent necessity to maintain a continuous presence once the biofence is established. The inherent labour and costs associated with such efforts may limit the usefulness of biofencing. Our work can be improved on through further testing that maintains biofencing over a longer timeframe (>3 months), samples several animals per treatment pack, and uses a

  19. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... en español Blog About OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point The Tipping Point by ... danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe ...

  20. Genomic characterization of the italian wolf (Canis lupus): the genes involved in black coat colour determination and application of microarray technique for snps detection.

    OpenAIRE

    Greco, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    This study provides a comprehensive genetic overview on the endangered Italian wolf population. In particular, it focuses on two research lines. On one hand, we focalised on melanism in wolf in order to isolate a mutation related with black coat colour in canids. With several reported black individuals (an exception at European level), the Italian wolf population constituted a challenging research field posing many unanswered questions. As found in North American wolf, we re...

  1. 75 FR 65574 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reinstatement of Protections for the Gray Wolf in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ..., placed in captivity, or killed. (C) If the animal is determined not likely to be an experimental animal... animals. In the conterminous United States, a wolf that is outside an experimental area (as defined in... it is marked or otherwise known to be an experimental animal; such a wolf may be captured for...

  2. 77 FR 55529 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Gray Wolf in Wyoming From the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... lupus) are the largest wild members of the dog family (Canidae). Adult gray wolves range from 18-80... and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Gray Wolf in Wyoming From the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Removal of the Wyoming Wolf Population's Status as an Experimental...

  3. Using a top predator as a sentinel for environmental contamination with pathogenic bacteria: the Iberian wolf and leptospires

    OpenAIRE

    Millán, Javier; García, Emilio J; Oleaga, Álvaro; López-Bao, José Vicente; Llaneza, Luis; Palacios, Vicente; Candela, Mónica G; Cevidanes, Aitor; Rodríguez, Alejandro; León-Vizcaíno, Luis

    2014-01-01

    The Iberian wolf (Canis lupus) is the top predator in the Iberian environments in which it lives, feeding on a wide range of species, thus encountering a wide range of disease agents. Therefore, the wolf can serve as sentinel of environmental contamination with pathogens. We investigated the exposure of free-living wolves to 14 serovars of Leptospira interrogans sensu lato. Kidney samples f...

  4. Killing and caching of an adult White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, by a single Gray Wolf, Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    A single Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) killed an adult male White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and cached the intact carcass in 76 cm of snow. The carcass was revisited and entirely consumed between four and seven days later. This is the first recorded observation of a Gray Wolf caching an entire adult deer.

  5. 76 FR 81665 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revising the Listing of the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revising the Listing of the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) in the Western...-AX57 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revising the Listing of the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus... Minnesota population of gray wolves (Canis lupus) to conform to current statutory and policy requirements...

  6. Predicting wolf (Canis lupus)-cattle (Bos Taurus) encounters and consequential effects on cattle resource selection patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gray wolf population in Idaho has grown dramatically from the original 35 reintroduced individuals in 1995-1996 to 94 documented packs and a minimum population of 835 individuals in 2009. Wolf depredation on livestock has also increased dramatically with this population growth. Substantial spa...

  7. 78 FR 60813 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removing the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) From the List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ...; Removing the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) From the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Maintaining Protections for the Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) by Listing It as Endangered AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... it as a subspecies (Canis lupus baileyi). On September 5, 2013, we announced three public hearings on...

  8. A Dantzig-Wolfe Decomposition Algorithm for Linear Economic MPC of a Power Plant Portfolio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Standardi, Laura; Edlund, Kristian; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2012-01-01

    Future power systems will consist of a large number of decentralized power producers and a large number of controllable power consumers in addition to stochastic power producers such as wind turbines and solar power plants. Control of such large scale systems requires new control algorithms....... In this paper, we formulate the control of such a system as an Economic Model Predictive Control (MPC) problem. When the power producers and controllable power consumers have linear dynamics, the Economic MPC may be expressed as a linear program and we apply Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition for solution...... of this linear program. The Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition algorithm for Economic MPC is tested on a simulated case study with a large number of power producers. The Dantzig-Wolfe algorithm is compared to a standard linear programming (LP) solver for the Economic MPC. Simulation results reveal that the Dantzig...

  9. Gray wolf (Canis lupus) is a natural definitive host for Neospora caninum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Jenkins, M C; Rajendran, C; Miska, K; Ferreira, L R; Martins, J; Kwok, O C H; Choudhary, S

    2011-09-27

    The gray wolf (Canis lupus) was found to be a new natural definitive host for Neospora caninum. Neospora-like oocysts were found microscopically in the feces of three of 73 wolves from Minnesota examined at necropsy. N. caninum-specific DNA was amplified from the oocysts of all three wolves. Oocysts from one wolf were infective for the gamma interferon gene knock out (KO) mice. Viable N. caninum (designated NcWolfUS1) was isolated in cell cultures seeded with tissue homogenate from the infected mouse. Typical thick walled tissue cysts were found in outbred mice inoculated with the parasite from the KO mouse. Tissue stages in mice stained positively with N. caninum-specific polyclonal antibodies. Our observation suggests that wolves may be an important link in the sylvatic cycle of N. caninum. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Task specificity and the influence of memory on visual search: comment on Võ and Wolfe (2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingworth, Andrew

    2012-12-01

    Recent results from Võ and Wolfe (2012b) suggest that the application of memory to visual search may be task specific: Previous experience searching for an object facilitated later search for that object, but object information acquired during a different task did not appear to transfer to search. The latter inference depended on evidence that a preview task did not improve later search, but Võ and Wolfe used a relatively insensitive, between-subjects design. Here, we replicated the Võ and Wolfe study using a within-subject manipulation of scene preview. A preview session (focused either on object location memory or on the assessment of object semantics) reliably facilitated later search. In addition, information acquired from distractors in a scene-facilitated search when the distractor later became the target. Instead of being strongly constrained by task, visual memory is applied flexibly to guide attention and gaze during visual search.

  11. Investigation of captive red wolf ejaculate characteristics in relation to age and inbreeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockyear, K M; MacDonald, S E; Waddell, W T; Goodrowe, K L

    2016-09-15

    An evaluation of a large database of red wolf fresh ejaculate characteristics (n = 427 ejaculates from 64 wolves) was undertaken to increase knowledge of seminal characteristics in the red wolf and evaluate possible relationships between inbreeding, age, and seminal quality. Phase microscopy analysis of electroejaculates collected over 14 natural breeding seasons was compared with animal ages and inbreeding coefficients. Ejaculate volume increased and sperm concentration and total count decreased as wolves aged (P inbreeding (P inbreeding of animals that had failed to reproduce given at least one opportunity during their lifetimes was significantly greater than that of wolves with proven fertility, and wolves of proven fertility exhibited higher sperm concentrations and total counts than nonproven wolves. Thus, as the captive red wolf population becomes more inbred, the maximum age of reproduction is likely to decrease; an important finding to consider when projecting population dynamics and determining pairing recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Yellowstone wolf (Canis lupus) denisty predicted by elk (Cervus elaphus) biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Barber-Meyer, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    The Northern Range (NR) of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) hosts a higher prey biomass density in the form of elk (Cervus elaphus L., 1758) than any other system of gray wolves (Canis lupus L., 1758) and prey reported. Therefore, it is important to determine whether that wolf–prey system fits a long-standing model relating wolf density to prey biomass. Using data from 2005 to 2012 after elk population fluctuations dampened 10 years subsequent to wolf reintroduction, we found that NR prey biomass predicted wolf density. This finding and the trajectory of the regression extend the validity of the model to prey densities 19% higher than previous data and suggest that the model would apply to wolf–prey systems of even higher prey biomass.

  13. A structured assessment of motor function, behavior, and communication in patients with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Heidi E; Bergsaker, David K; Hunn, Bente S; Schmidt, Susanne; Hoxmark, Lise B

    2017-11-01

    The present study aimed to increase the knowledge about Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS), especially concerning motor function, autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and adapted behavior, but also regarding clinical symptoms in general. Motor function was evaluated via systematic observation. Standardized assessments such as the Vineland Adapted Behavior Scales II (VABS II), the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ), and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) or Adult Behavior Checklist (ABCL) were used for the behavioral assessment. In total, two males and eight females between one and 48 years of age with a genetically confirmed diagnosis of WHS and their parents participated in this study. Deletion sizes were known for seven of the ten patients and varied between 55 Kb and 20 Mb. The chromosome coordinates were known for six of them, and none of those had the same break points in their deletion. The main finding in this study was that patients with WHS may have a better outcome regarding motor skills and expressive communication than previously described. We could confirm the main medical findings described earlier, but found also a population with a less severe dysmorphology, fewer congenital malformations, and fewer medical challenges than expected. Sleep problems may persist into adulthood and need a more thorough investigation. Research on possible indications of ASD is strongly needed for targeted interventions. In conclusion, a more thorough assessment of communication, possible ASD, and sleep in larger groups of patients with WHS are needed to confirm and further investigate the findings from this study and to provide more targeted interventions for WHS patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Response of moose hunters to predation following wolf return in Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Wikenros

    Full Text Available Predation and hunter harvest constitute the main mortality factors affecting the size and dynamics of many exploited populations. The re-colonization by wolves (Canis lupus of the Scandinavian Peninsula may therefore substantially reduce hunter harvest of moose (Alces alces, the main prey of wolves.We examined possible effects of wolf presence on hunter harvest in areas where we had data before and after wolf establishment (n = 25, and in additional areas that had been continuously exposed to wolf predation during at least ten years (n = 43. There was a general reduction in the total number of moose harvested (n = 31,827 during the ten year study period in all areas irrespective of presence of wolves or not. However, the reduction in hunter harvest was stronger within wolf territories compared to control areas without wolves. The reduction in harvest was larger in small (500-800 km2 compared to large (1,200-1,800 km2 wolf territories. In areas with newly established wolf territories moose management appeared to be adaptive with regard to both managers (hunting quotas and to hunters (actual harvest. In these areas an instant reduction in moose harvest over-compensated the estimated number of moose killed annually by wolves and the composition of the hunted animals changed towards a lower proportion of adult females.We show that the re-colonization of wolves may result in an almost instant functional response by another large predator-humans-that reduced the potential for a direct numerical effect on the density of wolves' main prey, the moose. Because most of the worlds' habitat that will be available for future colonization by large predators are likely to be strongly influenced by humans, human behavioural responses may constitute a key trait that govern the impact of large predators on their prey.

  15. Can occupancy-abundance models be used to monitor wolf abundance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cecilia Latham

    Full Text Available Estimating the abundance of wild carnivores is of foremost importance for conservation and management. However, given their elusive habits, direct observations of these animals are difficult to obtain, so abundance is more commonly estimated from sign surveys or radio-marked individuals. These methods can be costly and difficult, particularly in large areas with heavy forest cover. As an alternative, recent research has suggested that wolf abundance can be estimated from occupancy-abundance curves derived from "virtual" surveys of simulated wolf track networks. Although potentially more cost-effective, the utility of this approach hinges on its robustness to violations of its assumptions. We assessed the sensitivity of the occupancy-abundance approach to four assumptions: variation in wolf movement rates, changes in pack cohesion, presence of lone wolves, and size of survey units. Our simulations showed that occupancy rates and wolf pack abundances were biased high if track surveys were conducted when wolves made long compared to short movements, wolf packs were moving as multiple hunting units as opposed to a cohesive pack, and lone wolves were moving throughout the surveyed landscape. We also found that larger survey units (400 and 576 km2 were more robust to changes in these factors than smaller survey units (36 and 144 km2. However, occupancy rates derived from large survey units rapidly reached an asymptote at 100% occupancy, suggesting that these large units are inappropriate for areas with moderate to high wolf densities (>15 wolves/1,000 km2. Virtually-derived occupancy-abundance relationships can be a useful method for monitoring wolves and other elusive wildlife if applied within certain constraints, in particular biological knowledge of the surveyed species needs to be incorporated into the design of the occupancy surveys. Further, we suggest that the applicability of this method could be extended by directly incorporating some of its

  16. Multilocus detection of wolf x dog hybridization in italy, and guidelines for marker selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randi, Ettore; Hulva, Pavel; Fabbri, Elena; Galaverni, Marco; Galov, Ana; Kusak, Josip; Bigi, Daniele; Bolfíková, Barbora Černá; Smetanová, Milena; Caniglia, Romolo

    2014-01-01

    Hybridization and introgression can impact the evolution of natural populations. Several wild canid species hybridize in nature, sometimes originating new taxa. However, hybridization with free-ranging dogs is threatening the genetic integrity of grey wolf populations (Canis lupus), or even the survival of endangered species (e.g., the Ethiopian wolf C. simensis). Efficient molecular tools to assess hybridization rates are essential in wolf conservation strategies. We evaluated the power of biparental and uniparental markers (39 autosomal and 4 Y-linked microsatellites, a melanistic deletion at the β-defensin CBD103 gene, the hypervariable domain of the mtDNA control-region) to identify the multilocus admixture patterns in wolf x dog hybrids. We used empirical data from 2 hybrid groups with different histories: 30 presumptive natural hybrids from Italy and 73 Czechoslovakian wolfdogs of known hybrid origin, as well as simulated data. We assessed the efficiency of various marker combinations and reference samples in admixture analyses using 69 dogs of different breeds and 99 wolves from Italy, Balkans and Carpathian Mountains. Results confirmed the occurrence of hybrids in Italy, some of them showing anomalous phenotypic traits and exogenous mtDNA or Y-chromosome introgression. Hybridization was mostly attributable to village dogs and not strictly patrilineal. The melanistic β-defensin deletion was found only in Italian dogs and in putative hybrids. The 24 most divergent microsatellites (largest wolf-dog FST values) were equally or more informative than the entire panel of 39 loci. A smaller panel of 12 microsatellites increased risks to identify false admixed individuals. The frequency of F1 and F2 was lower than backcrosses or introgressed individuals, suggesting hybridization already occurred some generations in the past, during early phases of wolf expansion from their historical core areas. Empirical and simulated data indicated the identification of the past

  17. Multilocus detection of wolf x dog hybridization in italy, and guidelines for marker selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettore Randi

    Full Text Available Hybridization and introgression can impact the evolution of natural populations. Several wild canid species hybridize in nature, sometimes originating new taxa. However, hybridization with free-ranging dogs is threatening the genetic integrity of grey wolf populations (Canis lupus, or even the survival of endangered species (e.g., the Ethiopian wolf C. simensis. Efficient molecular tools to assess hybridization rates are essential in wolf conservation strategies. We evaluated the power of biparental and uniparental markers (39 autosomal and 4 Y-linked microsatellites, a melanistic deletion at the β-defensin CBD103 gene, the hypervariable domain of the mtDNA control-region to identify the multilocus admixture patterns in wolf x dog hybrids. We used empirical data from 2 hybrid groups with different histories: 30 presumptive natural hybrids from Italy and 73 Czechoslovakian wolfdogs of known hybrid origin, as well as simulated data. We assessed the efficiency of various marker combinations and reference samples in admixture analyses using 69 dogs of different breeds and 99 wolves from Italy, Balkans and Carpathian Mountains. Results confirmed the occurrence of hybrids in Italy, some of them showing anomalous phenotypic traits and exogenous mtDNA or Y-chromosome introgression. Hybridization was mostly attributable to village dogs and not strictly patrilineal. The melanistic β-defensin deletion was found only in Italian dogs and in putative hybrids. The 24 most divergent microsatellites (largest wolf-dog FST values were equally or more informative than the entire panel of 39 loci. A smaller panel of 12 microsatellites increased risks to identify false admixed individuals. The frequency of F1 and F2 was lower than backcrosses or introgressed individuals, suggesting hybridization already occurred some generations in the past, during early phases of wolf expansion from their historical core areas. Empirical and simulated data indicated the

  18. Growth rates and variances of unexploited wolf populations in dynamic equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Fieberg, John

    2015-01-01

    Several states have begun harvesting gray wolves (Canis lupus), and these states and various European countries are closely monitoring their wolf populations. To provide appropriate perspective for determining unusual or extreme fluctuations in their managed wolf populations, we analyzed natural, long-term, wolf-population-density trajectories totaling 130 years of data from 3 areas: Isle Royale National Park in Lake Superior, Michigan, USA; the east-central Superior National Forest in northeastern Minnesota, USA; and Denali National Park, Alaska, USA. Ratios between minimum and maximum annual sizes for 2 mainland populations (n = 28 and 46 yr) varied from 2.5–2.8, whereas for Isle Royale (n = 56 yr), the ratio was 6.3. The interquartile range (25th percentile, 75th percentile) for annual growth rates, Nt+1/Nt, was (0.88, 1.14), (0.92, 1.11), and (0.86, 1.12) for Denali, Superior National Forest, and Isle Royale respectively. We fit a density-independent model and a Ricker model to each time series, and in both cases we considered the potential for observation error. Mean growth rates from the density-independent model were close to 0 for all 3 populations, with 95% credible intervals including 0. We view the estimated model parameters, including those describing annual variability or process variance, as providing useful summaries of the trajectories of these populations. The estimates of these natural wolf population parameters can serve as benchmarks for comparison with those of recovering wolf populations. Because our study populations were all from circumscribed areas, fluctuations in them represent fluctuations in densities (i.e., changes in numbers are not confounded by changes in occupied area as would be the case with populations expanding their range, as are wolf populations in many states).

  19. Red Wolf (Canis rufus) Recovery: A Review with Suggestions for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Joseph W.; Chamberlain, Michael J.; Rabon, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Once widespread in the Eastern United States, early 20th century predator-control programs reduced red wolves to a remnant population by the 1970s. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, through the Red Wolf Recovery Program, restored red wolves to northeastern North Carolina in 1987. After 25 years of restoration efforts, issues of hybridization with coyotes, inbreeding, and human-caused mortality continue to hamper red wolf recovery. To understand how these issues influence recovery efforts, we examine the history of red wolf restoration and its challenges. We then formulate areas of research that are of direct relevance to the restoration of red wolves. Abstract By the 1970s, government-supported eradication campaigns reduced red wolves to a remnant population of less than 100 individuals on the southern border of Texas and Louisiana. Restoration efforts in the region were deemed unpromising because of predator-control programs and hybridization with coyotes. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) removed the last remaining red wolves from the wild and placed them in a captive-breeding program. In 1980, the USFWS declared red wolves extinct in the wild. During 1987, the USFWS, through the Red Wolf Recovery Program, reintroduced red wolves into northeastern North Carolina. Although restoration efforts have established a population of approximately 70–80 red wolves in the wild, issues of hybridization with coyotes, inbreeding, and human-caused mortality continue to hamper red wolf recovery. We explore these three challenges and, within each challenge, we illustrate how research can be used to resolve problems associated with red wolf-coyote interactions, effects of inbreeding, and demographic responses to human-caused mortality. We hope this illustrates the utility of research to advance restoration of red wolves. PMID:26479530

  20. New hybrid conjugate gradient methods with the generalized Wolfe line search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao; Kong, Fan-Yu

    2016-01-01

    The conjugate gradient method was an efficient technique for solving the unconstrained optimization problem. In this paper, we made a linear combination with parameters β k of the DY method and the HS method, and putted forward the hybrid method of DY and HS. We also proposed the hybrid of FR and PRP by the same mean. Additionally, to present the two hybrid methods, we promoted the Wolfe line search respectively to compute the step size α k of the two hybrid methods. With the new Wolfe line search, the two hybrid methods had descent property and global convergence property of the two hybrid methods that can also be proved.

  1. New techniques for an old disease: sarcoptic mange in the Iberian wolf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleaga, Alvaro; Casais, Rosa; Balseiro, Ana; Espí, Alberto; Llaneza, Luis; Hartasánchez, Alfonso; Gortázar, Christian

    2011-09-27

    Sarcoptic mange, a parasitic skin infection caused by the burrowing mite Sarcoptes scabiei, has been reported in over 100 mammals, including humans. In endangered species, mange causes conservation concerns because it may decimate isolated populations and contribute to extinction. The Iberian Peninsula still maintains one of the largest wolf (Canis lupus) populations in Europe. In Iberia, sarcoptic mange is endemic in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and the first confirmed wolf mange cases were recently reported. However, knowledge on S. scabiei in wolves is scarce because of the sampling difficulties inherent to research on scarce species. In order to describe wolf mange epidemiology and to infer conservation implications, this study combined traditional laboratory techniques with the revision of wolf carcass pictures taken by field biologists and original information obtained by camera trapping. A total of 125 necropsies and 8783 camera-trap days allowed insights into wolf mange epidemiology between 2003 and 2010. Living Sarcoptes mites were detected in 19% of the fresh carcasses. Alopecic (delayed) type IV hypersensitive response reactions were observed, while parakeratotic lesions were infrequent. The number of mites isolated per wolf ranged from 1 to 78, and had a negative correlation with the percentage of alopecic skin. No effect by sex on mange prevalence was found. Yearlings showed a lower probability to present mange-compatible lesions than pups or adults. Wolves with mange-compatible lesions had a lower kidney fat index than apparently healthy ones. ELISA testing of 88 sera yielded an antibody prevalence of 20%. Photo-trapping recorded mange-compatible lesions since 2003 with a peak in 2008. The percentage of wolves with mange-compatible lesions registered in camera-traps during 1 year correlated with the percentage of red foxes with lesions in the previous year. This is the first large survey on sarcoptic mange in the Iberian wolf. Necropsy data, with

  2. Ecosystem scale declines in elk recruitment and population growth with wolf colonization: a before-after-control-impact approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Christianson

    Full Text Available The reintroduction of wolves (Canis lupus to Yellowstone provided the unusual opportunity for a quasi-experimental test of the effects of wolf predation on their primary prey (elk--Cervus elaphus in a system where top-down, bottom-up, and abiotic forces on prey population dynamics were closely and consistently monitored before and after reintroduction. Here, we examined data from 33 years for 12 elk population segments spread across southwestern Montana and northwestern Wyoming in a large scale before-after-control-impact analysis of the effects of wolves on elk recruitment and population dynamics. Recruitment, as measured by the midwinter juvenile∶female ratio, was a strong determinant of elk dynamics, and declined by 35% in elk herds colonized by wolves as annual population growth shifted from increasing to decreasing. Negative effects of population density and winter severity on recruitment, long recognized as important for elk dynamics, were detected in uncolonized elk herds and in wolf-colonized elk herds prior to wolf colonization, but not after wolf colonization. Growing season precipitation and harvest had no detectable effect on recruitment in either wolf treatment or colonization period, although harvest rates of juveniles∶females declined by 37% in wolf-colonized herds. Even if it is assumed that mortality due to predation is completely additive, liberal estimates of wolf predation rates on juvenile elk could explain no more than 52% of the total decline in juvenile∶female ratios in wolf-colonized herds, after accounting for the effects of other limiting factors. Collectively, these long-term, large-scale patterns align well with prior studies that have reported substantial decrease in elk numbers immediately after wolf recolonization, relatively weak additive effects of direct wolf predation on elk survival, and decreased reproduction and recruitment with exposure to predation risk from wolves.

  3. Planck 2013 results. XIX. The integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Fosalba, P.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Frommert, M.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Ho, S.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Ilić, S.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jasche, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Langer, M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Racine, B.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B. M.; Schiavon, F.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutter, P.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Viel, M.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, M.; Xia, J.-Q.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-11-01

    Based on cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps from the 2013 Planck Mission data release, this paper presents the detection of the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect, that is, the correlation between the CMB and large-scale evolving gravitational potentials. The significance of detection ranges from 2 to 4σ, depending on which method is used. We investigated three separate approaches, which essentially cover all previous studies, and also break new ground. (i) We correlated the CMB with the Planck reconstructed gravitational lensing potential (for the first time). This detection was made using the lensing-induced bispectrum between the low-ℓ and high-ℓ temperature anisotropies; the correlation between lensing and the ISW effect has a significance close to 2.5σ. (ii) We cross-correlated with tracers of large-scale structure, which yielded a significance of about 3σ, based on a combination of radio (NVSS) and optical (SDSS) data. (iii) We used aperture photometry on stacked CMB fields at the locations of known large-scale structures, which yielded and confirms a 4σ signal, over a broader spectral range, when using a previously explored catalogue, but shows strong discrepancies in amplitude and scale when compared with expectations. More recent catalogues give more moderate results that range from negligible to 2.5σ at most, but have a more consistent scale and amplitude, the latter being still slightly higher than what is expected from numerical simulations within ΛCMD. Where they can be compared, these measurements are compatible with previous work using data from WMAP, where these scales have been mapped to the limits of cosmic variance. Planck's broader frequency coverage allows for better foreground cleaning and confirms that the signal is achromatic, which makes it preferable for ISW detection. As a final step we used tracers of large-scale structure to filter the CMB data, from which we present maps of the ISW temperature perturbation. These results

  4. Planck 2015 results. XXI. The integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Casaponsa, B.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fergusson, J.; Fernandez-Cobos, R.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Ilić, S.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Langer, M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Ma, Y.-Z.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B. M.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, F.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a study of the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect from the Planck 2015 temperature and polarization data release. This secondary cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy caused by the large-scale time-evolving gravitational potential is probed from different perspectives. The CMB is cross-correlated with different large-scale structure (LSS) tracers: radio sources from the NVSS catalogue; galaxies from the optical SDSS and the infrared WISE surveys; and the Planck 2015 convergence lensing map. The joint cross-correlation of the CMB with the tracers yields a detection at 4σ where most of the signal-to-noise is due to the Planck lensing and the NVSS radio catalogue. In fact, the ISW effect is detected from the Planck data only at ≈3σ (through the ISW-lensing bispectrum), which is similar to the detection level achieved by combining the cross-correlation signal coming from all the galaxy catalogues mentioned above. We study the ability of the ISW effect to place constraints on the dark-energy parameters; in particular, we show that ΩΛ is detected at more than 3σ. This cross-correlation analysis is performed only with the Planck temperature data, since the polarization scales available in the 2015 release do not permit significant improvement of the CMB-LSS cross-correlation detectability. Nevertheless, the Planck polarization data are used to study the anomalously large ISW signal previously reported through the aperture photometry on stacked CMB features at the locations of known superclusters and supervoids, which is in conflict with ΛCDM expectations. We find that the current Planck polarization data do not exclude that this signal could be caused by the ISW effect. In addition, the stacking of the Planck lensing map on the locations of superstructures exhibits a positive cross-correlation with these large-scale structures. Finally, we have improved our previous reconstruction of the ISW temperature fluctuations by combining the

  5. Fixed Points

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 5. Fixed Points - From Russia with Love - A Primer of Fixed Point Theory. A K Vijaykumar. Book Review Volume 5 Issue 5 May 2000 pp 101-102. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  6. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point ... 24 hours a day. For young children whose home is a playground, it’s the best way to ...

  7. Tucurui`s 500 kV S F{sub 6} gas-insulated substation modeling for fast transients - field tests comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima Filho, Joao Ferreira de; Pazo Blanco, Flavio A.F.; D`Ajuz, Ary; Nascimento, Lidio F.A. [ELETRONORTE, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    Many problems in insulation, devices and equipment have been resulted from switching operations in the 500 kV Gas-Insulated Substation (GIS) of Tucurui power plant. Disconnector closing or opening action can subject the GIS components to great stresses from excessive voltages at high frequencies caused by successive reflections of travelling waves at discontinuities (1,2,3). Field tests were carried out in September 18-23, 1991 to verify the actual GIS stresses at Tucurui. From these results simulations on the Alternative Transients Program (ATP) were performed in order to check the substation modeling. This paper presents and discusses the Tucurui GIS modeling for switching fast transients and its field test validation. (author) 8 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Draft Supplement to the Environmental Statement Fiscal Year 1976 Proposed Program : Facility Location Evaluation for Yale Service (Raft Substation), Study Area 75-10.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1974-10-22

    The statement describes the environmental impacts resulting from the construction of a new substation near Yale, Idaho, approximately 22 miles from Burley, Idaho. Land requirements for the new substation would be approximately 2 acres and an access road less than 100 feet in length would also be required. Depending on the final site location chosen, 2 acres of cropland (Alternatives 1 and 2) or 2 acres of grassland (Alternative 3) would be taken out of production. Disturbance of wildlife during construction and loss of habitat associated with the land requirements described above would occur. Some soil erosion as a result of grading will occur and increased runoff and sedimentation into the Raft River may occur. The facility would be visible from I-15 and Raft River Road.

  9. Draft Supplement to the Environmental Statement Fiscal Year 1976 Proposed Program : Facility Location Evaluation for West Burley Substation Study Area 75-9.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1974-10-22

    The statement describes the environmental impacts resulting from the construction of a new substation near Burley, Idaho. Land requirements for the new substation would be approximately 1 acre of land and, depending on the final site location chosen, 100 to 300 feet of access road would also be required. Alternate site 1 would remove approximately 1 acre of potential industrial land; alternate site 2, 1 acre of irrigated cropland; and alternate site 3, 1 acre of marginal pastureland. Wildlife will be disturbed during the construction and habitat associated with the above land requirements will be removed. There would be erosion associated with the site and access road grading and a slight potential for sedimentation in local streams. Alternate site 1 would be visible from US Highway 30 and several local residences.

  10. Seismic damage in the electrical substations of the Colima state; Dano sismico en las subestaciones electricas del estado de Colima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mena H, Ulises; Lopez L, Alberto; Guerrero F, Vicente A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    On the 21 of January of 2003, at 20:06:36 hrs (Mexico center time) an earthquake occurred at the Pacific coast with a magnitude of 7.6 degrees in the Richter scale, whose epicenter was located near the state of Colima and it was felt in a large extent of the Mexican Republic. The earthquake caused numerous material damages in the structures (houses, churches, offices, etc) and vital lines, mainly in the infrastructure of the electrical sector of the region, leaving without electrical energy a large part of the nearby populations and some colonies of distant zones such as in Mexico City. The cause of the interruption of the electrical energy was due to the collapse of some of the equipment of 400 and 230 KV of the electrical transmission substations, among which are Manzanillo II and Colima II. With the experience acquired in the earthquake of October 9, 1995 in Manzanillo, in which also the facilities and equipment of the electrical substations were affected considerably, and as a part of the infrastructure project on the analysis of seismic risk of vital lines that is being developed at this moment at the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), it was decided to inspect the electrical substations of the zone, where the greater damages in the facilities and equipment were reported, to analyze and to determine the main causes of their failure. [Spanish] El 21 de enero de 2003, a las 20:06:36 hrs (hora del centro de Mexico) ocurrio un sismo en la costa del Pacifico con una magnitud de 7.6 grados en escala Richter, cuyo epicentro se localizo cerca del estado de Colima y se percibio en gran parte de la republica mexicana. El sismo causo cuantiosos danos materiales en las estructuras (viviendas, iglesias, oficinas, etc) y lineas vitales, principalmente en la infraestructura del sector electrico de la region, dejando sin energia electrica a gran parte de las poblaciones cercanas y algunas colonias de zonas lejanas como es la ciudad de Mexico. La causa del corte de

  11. System for the design of electrical distribution substations; Sistema para el diseno de subestaciones electricas de distribucion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zayas Perez, Benjamin Eddie; Islas Perez, Eduardo; Bahena Rada, Jessica Liliana; Romero Lima, Jesus [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Sierra Rodriguez, Benjamin; Moreno Diaz, Humberto [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2011-07-01

    The physical design of electric substations involves a variety of activities, such as developing, reviewing and performing modifications to different design proposals, estimating costs and producing documents to be integrated into an executive project. These activities are usually conducted at the Distribution Divisions of the Federal Electric Commission (CFE) through two separate processes: the development of engineering plans with computer-aided design software (CAD) and volumetric calculations for the initial budget using conventional spreadsheets. The documents are manually developed on an individual basis, without the existence of any functions to allow for automatically updating the design modifications of any of the plans. The corresponding initial budget becomes a lengthy and laborious process with the likelihood of inconsistencies among the documents. In order to optimize the design process for the public and electromechanical works of electric substations (ES) in a three-dimensional (3D) graphic environment, the IIE's Management of Process Supervision, in coordination with the CFE Distribution Subdivision, developed the System for the Design of Electric Substation Distribution (SDESD). This system makes use of the advantages of CAD3D technology to develop detail engineering, cost engineering to calculate initial budgets and virtual reality for three-dimensional interactive navigation. It is worth mentioning that this system is currently in the implementation phase at the CFE Distribution Subdivision. This article briefly describes the main stages in the development of the project, as well as the functioning and principal components of the system. [Spanish] El diseno fisico de subestaciones electricas implica una variedad de actividades, tales como elaborar, revisar y efectuar modificaciones de diferentes propuestas de diseno, estimar costos y producir documentos, para integrarlos como parte de un proyecto ejecutivo. Estas actividades usualmente se

  12. Hotspots within hotspots? Hammerhead shark movements around Wolf Island, Galapagos Marine Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, Alex; Ketchum, James; Klimley, A Peter; Espinoza, Eduardo; Peñaherrera, Cesar

    2010-01-01

    Are pelagic species such as sharks and tuna distributed homogenously or heterogeneously in the oceans? Large assemblages of these species have been observed at seamounts and offshore islands in the eastern tropical Pacific, which are considered hotspots of pelagic biodiversity. Is the species distribution uniform at these hotspots or do species aggregate at a finer spatial scale at these sites? We employed three techniques to demonstrate that the aggregations of scalloped hammerhead sharks, Sphyrna lewini, and other pelagic species were confined to the southeastern corner of Wolf Island in the Galapagos Marine Reserve. Coded ultrasonic transmitters were placed on individuals at this site and at another aggregation site at Darwin Island, separated from Wolf by 40 km, and they were detected by monitors moored at the southeastern corner of Wolf Island and rarely by monitors deployed at other sites around the island. Hammerhead sharks, carrying depth-sensing continual transmitters, were tracked for two-day periods in a vessel and shown to reside a disproportionately large fraction of their time at the southeastern corner. Visual censuses were carried out seasonally at the eight monitor sites at Wolf Island, recording the abundance of one species of tuna, four species of jacks, and a number of other species. The highest diversity and abundance of these species occurred in the southeastern corner of the island. Our results support the use of hammerhead sharks as indicator and umbrella species for pelagic hotspots on a fine scale.

  13. Novel Papillomaviral Sequence Detected within Epidermal Plaques in a Wolf (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenburger, Jamie L; Myers, Sherry; Lockerbie, Betty; Wobeser, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    We describe numerous pale plaques affecting the inguinal skin of a grey wolf (Canis lupus). Histologically, these were consistent with papillomaviral plaques. Immunohistochemistry confirmed papillomavirus antigens, and partial sequencing of the L1 gene suggests this is a novel papillomavirus most-closely related to Canis familiaris Papillomavirus 5.

  14. De komst van de wolf (Canis lupus) in Nederland : een 'factfinding study'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot Bruinderink, G.W.T.A.; Jansman, H.A.H.; Jacobs, M.H.; Harmsen, M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2000 waren er voor het eerst weer wolven met jongen in Duitsland in de regio Lausitz (Saksen), grenzend aan Zuidwest-Polen. De populatie breidt zich sindsdien geleidelijk uit. Op voorhand uitsluiten dat ze in Nederland opduiken is niet reëel, maar het is onvoorspelbaar waar en wanneer de wolf zal

  15. Gemini/GNIRS infrared spectroscopy of the Wolf-Rayet stellar wind in Cygnus X-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koljonen, K. I. I.; Maccarone, T. J.

    2017-12-01

    The microquasar Cygnus X-3 was observed several times with the Gemini North Infrared Spectrograph while the source was in the hard X-ray state. We describe the observed 1.0-2.4 μm spectra as arising from the stellar wind of the companion star and suggest its classification as a WN 4-6 Wolf-Rayet star. We attribute the orbital variations of the emission line profiles to the variations in the ionization structure of the stellar wind caused by the intense X-ray emission from the compact object. The strong variability observed in the line profiles will affect the mass function determination. We are unable to reproduce earlier results, from which the mass function for the Wolf-Rayet star was derived. Instead, we suggest that the system parameters are difficult to obtain from the infrared spectra. We find that the near-infrared continuum and the line spectra can be represented with non-LTE Wolf-Rayet atmosphere models if taking into account the effects arising from the peculiar ionization structure of the stellar wind in an approximative manner. From the representative models we infer the properties of the Wolf-Rayet star and discuss possible mass ranges for the binary components.

  16. An historical overview and update of wolf-moose interactions in northeastern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Fieberg, John; Barber-meyer, Shannon

    2018-01-01

    Wolf (Canis lupus) and moose (Alces americanus) populations in northeastern Minnesota, USA, have fluctuated for decades and, based on helicopter counts, moose numbers declined to a new low from 2006 to about 2012. Other steep declines were found in 1991 and 1998 during periods when moose counts were done with ®xed-wing aircraft; these declines also appeared to be real. Winter wolf numbers, monitored in part of the moose range, had been increasing since about 2002 to the highest population in decades in 2009. However, from 2009 to 2016, wolves decreased precipitously, and the moose-population decline leveled off from 2012 to 2017. Calf:population ratios from 1985 to 1997 and from 2005 to 2016 were inversely related to wolf numbers in the wolf-study area the previous winter both as wolves increased and decreased in abundance. Similarly, log annual growth rates of moose numbers were negatively correlated with counts of wolves in the prior year. Other factors such as nutrition and parasites, and possibly climate change, likely have been involved in the recent moose decline. However, wolves, as in other areas, appear to have contributed to the decline in the northeastern Minnesota moose population at least in part through predation on calves, supporting earlier reports. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. GMRT Low Radio Frequency Study of the Wolf Rayet Galaxy NGC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we present the first low frequency (< 1.4 GHz) radio continuum study of a Wolf Rayet galaxy NGC 4214 using the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT). We detect diffuse extended emission from the galaxy disk at 325 MHz and find that the radio emission closely follows the ultraviolet emission mapped by ...

  18. GMRT Low Radio Frequency Study of the Wolf Rayet Galaxy NGC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we present the first low frequency (< 1.4 GHz) radio continuum study of a Wolf Rayet galaxy NGC 4214 using the. Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT). We detect diffuse extended emission from the galaxy disk at 325 MHz and find that the radio emis- sion closely follows the ultraviolet emission ...

  19. Circumstellar carbonaceous material associated with late-type dusty WC Wolf-Rayet stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiar, JE; Tielens, AGGM; Peeters, E; Norris, RP; Stootman, FH

    2004-01-01

    Our own solar system and other planetary systems are composed of organic dust created in the outflows in dying stars. Here, we examine an unlikely source of carbonaceous material in interstellar space, the harsh environment of Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars. We have used spectroscopic data from the Short

  20. Gray wolf (Canis lupus) is a natural definitive host for Neospora caninum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gray wolf (Canis lupus) was found to be a new natural definitive host for Neospora caninum. This finding is based on the recovery of Neospora-like oocysts from the feces of 3 of 73 wolves from Minnesota examined at necropsy, and on successful amplification of N. caninum-specific sequences from ...

  1. Circumstellar carbonaceous material associated with late-type dusty WC Wolf-Rayet stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiar, JE; Tielens, AGGM

    2001-01-01

    We have studied the 5-8.5 mum infrared spectra of the late-type Wolf-Rayet stars WR 118, WR 112, and WR 104, the WN star WR 147, the B5 hypergiant Cygnus OB2 No. 12, and the Galactic center luminous blue variable Pistol Star using the Short Wavelength Spectrometer on the Infrared Space Observatory.

  2. Field testing of the Wolf Creek curved girder bridge : part I : vibration tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Wolf Creek Bridge is a curved, multi-girder three span steel composite bridge located south of Narrows, Virginia, that was completed in 2006. A finite element model of the bridge revealed that pier flexibility may be important in modeling the bri...

  3. William L. Wolfe, 1989 President of SPIE, encourages scientists from Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, Joanna

    2012-10-01

    In 1990 Professor Wolfe after his SPIE presidency trekked the world, even making it as far as post-communist Poland, to see (in the visible and maybe in infrared - who knows) the work of optical scientists hidden behind the iron curtain. I am not sure if he was ready for how different that world was at this time, but for sure he was very inquisitive and eager to learn about the nuances of Poland right after the fall of communism. He met, visited with and encouraged young and old scientists from Poland, Russia, Hungary and Lithuania to add their expertise to the scientific conversations happening in the West. His mission in Poland was to invite us all, and he was ready to help us achieve our dreams. I was one of those he encouraged. This talk is my personal reflection of Professor Wolfe as an encouraging and sometimes brave SPIE pioneer - a stranger in a strange land - and as an energetic, caring SPIE president, Optical Sciences professor and human being. Disclaimer: Professor Bill Wolfe's contributions to the field of radiometry are well known and very well recognized. This conference is a tribute to him. However, my paper is not on radiometry; rather, I wish to illustrate the adventurous, caring and positive Bill Wolfe that helped me find my way to the American desert Southwest.

  4. A case study of wolf use of a mountainous Idaho landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray wolves were reintroduced into Idaho in 1995. As the size of this population and the extent of its range has expanded, so has the number and frequency wolf-livestock interactions. Because wolves are becoming more common in areas with contiguous ranching/farming enterprises, it is important tha...

  5. Effects of wolf presence on daily travel distance of range cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence of gray wolves (Canis lupus) can directly and indirectly affect beef cattle (Bos taurus) production on rangelands of the Northern Rocky Mountains. While fairly extensive knowledge exists for the direct effects of wolf predation threat (e.g., cattle death and injury losses, elevated str...

  6. The Woman as Wolf (AT 409): Some Interpretations of a Very Estonian Folk Tale

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Merili Metsvahi

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses tale type The Woman as Wolf, which is one of the most popular folk tales in the Estonian Folklore Archives and is represented there both in the form of a fairy tale and in the form of a legend...

  7. The wolf reference genome sequence (Canis lupus lupus) and its implications for Canis spp. population genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Shyam; Samaniego Castruita, Jose A; Sinding, Mikkel-Holger S; Kuderna, Lukas F K; Räikkönen, Jannikke; Petersen, Bent; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Larson, Greger; Orlando, Ludovic; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Hansen, Anders J; Dalén, Love; Gilbert, M Thomas P

    2017-06-29

    An increasing number of studies are addressing the evolutionary genomics of dog domestication, principally through resequencing dog, wolf and related canid genomes. There is, however, only one de novo assembled canid genome currently available against which to map such data - that of a boxer dog (Canis lupus familiaris). We generated the first de novo wolf genome (Canis lupus lupus) as an additional choice of reference, and explored what implications may arise when previously published dog and wolf resequencing data are remapped to this reference. Reassuringly, we find that regardless of the reference genome choice, most evolutionary genomic analyses yield qualitatively similar results, including those exploring the structure between the wolves and dogs using admixture and principal component analysis. However, we do observe differences in the genomic coverage of re-mapped samples, the number of variants discovered, and heterozygosity estimates of the samples. In conclusion, the choice of reference is dictated by the aims of the study being undertaken; if the study focuses on the differences between the different dog breeds or the fine structure among dogs, then using the boxer reference genome is appropriate, but if the aim of the study is to look at the variation within wolves and their relationships to dogs, then there are clear benefits to using the de novo assembled wolf reference genome.

  8. Lambdapapillomavirus 2 in a gray wolf (Canis lupus) from Minnesota with oral papillomatosis and sarcoptic mange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Susan N.; Windels, Steve K.; Adams, Marie; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2017-01-01

    Oral papillomatosis was diagnosed in a gray wolf (Canis lupus) with sarcoptic mange from Minnesota, USA found dead in February 2015. Intranuclear inclusion bodies were evident histologically, and papillomaviral antigens were confirmed using immunohistochemistry. Sequencing of the L1 papillomavirus gene showed closest similarity to Lambdapapillomavirus 2.

  9. Introgression of coyote mitochondrial DNA into sympatric North American gray wolf populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, N.; Eisenhawer, A.; Hansen, K.; Mech, L.D.; Peterson, R.O.; Gogan, P.J.P.; Wayne, R.K.

    1991-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genotypes of gray wolves and coyotes from localities throughout North America were determined using restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Of the 13 genotypes found among the wolves, 7 are clearly of coyote origin, indicating that genetic transfer of coyote mtDNA into wolf populations has occurred through hybridization. The transfer of mtDNA appears unidirectional from coyotes into wolves because no coyotes sampled have a wolf-derived mtDNA genotype. Wolves possessing coyote-derived genotypes are confined to a contiguous geographic region in Minnesota, Ontario, and Quebec, and the frequency of coyote-type mtDNA in these wolf populations is high (>50%). The ecological history of the hybrid zone suggests that hybridization is taking place in regions where coyotes have only recently become abundant following conversion of forests to farmlands. Dispersing male wolves unable to find conspecific mates may be pairing with female coyotes in deforested areas bordering wolf territories. Our results demonstrate that closely related species of mobile terrestrial vertebrates have the potential for extensive genetic exchange when ecological conditions change suddenly.

  10. Otoliths of the wolf-fishes (genus Anarrhichas Linnaeus, 1758) from the Northern Atlantic (Pisces, Perciformes)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, H.

    1964-01-01

    While working at the Rijksinstituut voor Visserijonderzoek (R.V.I.O.) at IJmuiden, I received through the courtesy of Mr. C. van Delft some specimens of the three northern Atlantic species of wolf-fishes. At IJmuiden they are brought in by commercial trawlers. The only data in the literature known

  11. Antimicrobial resistance in faecal enterococci and Escherichia coli isolates recovered from Iberian wolf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, A; Igrejas, G; Radhouani, H; Correia, S; Pacheco, R; Santos, T; Monteiro, R; Guerra, A; Petrucci-Fonseca, F; Brito, F; Torres, C; Poeta, P

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to report the antimicrobial resistance, the molecular mechanisms associated and the detection of virulence determinants within faecal Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli isolates of Iberian wolf. Enterococci (n = 227) and E. coli (n = 195) isolates were obtained from faecal samples of Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus). High rates of resistance were detected for tetracycline and erythromycin among the enterococci isolates, and most of resistant isolates harboured the tet(M) and/or tet(L) and erm(B) genes, respectively. The blaTEM, tet(A) and/or tet(B), and aadA or strA-strB genes were detected among most ampicillin-, tetracycline- or streptomycin-resistant E. coli isolates, respectively. E. coli isolates were ascribed to phylogroups A (n = 56), B1 (91), B2 (13) and D (35). The occurrence of resistant enterococci and E. coli isolates in the faecal flora of Iberian wolf, including the presence of resistant genes in integrons, and virulence determinants was showed in this study. Iberian wolf might act as reservoir of certain resistance genes that could be spread throughout the environment. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Task Specificity and the Influence of Memory on Visual Search: Comment on Vo and Wolfe (2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingworth, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Recent results from Vo and Wolfe (2012b) suggest that the application of memory to visual search may be task specific: Previous experience searching for an object facilitated later search for that object, but object information acquired during a different task did not appear to transfer to search. The latter inference depended on evidence that a…

  13. Self-Monitoring: A Comparison of Snyder, and Lennox and Wolfe Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Martin A.; And Others

    This research compares the Snyder (1974) and Lennox and Wolfe (1982) self-monitoring scales. The data indicate that the Snyder scale is multidimensional. The factors of the Snyder scale correlate dissimilarly with important characteristics of self-monitors. Only the other-directedness factor is significantly related to behavioral cross situational…

  14. Management of sleeping problems with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome: A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curfs, L.M.G.; Didden, H.C.M.; Sikkema, S.P.E.; Die-Smulders, C.E.M. de

    1999-01-01

    Sleeping problems are common among children with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome. Extinction may be effective if sleeping problems have been shaped and are positively reinforced by parental attention. The present study shows that extinction was effective in the treatment of severe sleeping problems in a

  15. The Idiap Wolf corpus: exploring group behaviour in a competitive role-playing game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hung, H.; Chittaranjan, G.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present the Idiap Wolf Database. This is a audio-visual corpus containing natural conversational data of volunteers who took part in a competitive role-playing game. Four groups of 8-12 people were recorded. In total, just over 7 hours of interactive conversational data was

  16. Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from the gray wolf Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known of the genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii circulating in wildlife. In the present study feral gray wolf (Canis lupus) from Minnesota were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 130 (52.4%) of 248 wolves tested by the modified agglutination test...

  17. A Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition algorithm for linear economic model predictive control of dynamically decoupled subsystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Leo Emil; Standardi, Laura; Edlund, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a warm-started Dantzig–Wolfe decomposition algorithm tailored to economic model predictive control of dynamically decoupled subsystems. We formulate the constrained optimal control problem solved at each sampling instant as a linear program with state space constraints, input...

  18. Meer dan de wolf: kennis, onzekerheid en duurzaamheid in finance & accounting

    OpenAIRE

    de Graaf, Frank Jan

    2014-01-01

    In zijn Lectorale Rede stelt Frank Jan de Graaf dat de film The Wolf of Wall Street misschien wel zo populair is omdat hij aansluit bij een dominante en enkelvoudige manier van kijken naar de financiële sector, namelijk dat het alleen gaat om geld verdienen.

  19. Meer dan de wolf : kennis, onzekerheid en duurzaamheid in finance & accounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, Frank Jan

    2014-01-01

    In zijn Lectorale Rede stelt Frank Jan de Graaf dat de film The Wolf of Wall Street misschien wel zo populair is omdat hij aansluit bij een dominante en enkelvoudige manier van kijken naar de financiële sector, namelijk dat het alleen gaat om geld verdienen.

  20. A Comparative Study of Electric Load Curve Changes in an Urban Low-Voltage Substation in Spain during the Economic Crisis (2008–2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Santillán, Pedro M.; Mendoza-Villena, Montserrat; Fernández-Jiménez, L. Alfredo; Mañana-Canteli, Mario

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of the electricity consumption (EC) in an urban low-voltage substation before and during the economic crisis (2008–2013). This low-voltage substation supplies electric power to near 400 users. The EC was measured for an 11-year period (2002–2012) with a sampling time of 1 minute. The study described in the paper consists of detecting the changes produced in the load curves of this substation along the time due to changes in the behaviour of consumers. The EC was compared using representative curves per time period (precrisis and crisis). These representative curves were obtained after a computational process, which was based on a search for days with similar curves to the curve of a determined (base) date. This similitude was assessed by the proximity on the calendar, day of the week, daylight time, and outdoor temperature. The last selection parameter was the error between the nearest neighbour curves and the base date curve. The obtained representative curves were linearized to determine changes in their structure (maximum and minimum consumption values, duration of the daily time slot, etc.). The results primarily indicate an increase in the EC in the night slot during the summer months in the crisis period. PMID:24895677

  1. A Comparative Study of Electric Load Curve Changes in an Urban Low-Voltage Substation in Spain during the Economic Crisis (2008–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M. Lara-Santillán

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study of the electricity consumption (EC in an urban low-voltage substation before and during the economic crisis (2008–2013. This low-voltage substation supplies electric power to near 400 users. The EC was measured for an 11-year period (2002–2012 with a sampling time of 1 minute. The study described in the paper consists of detecting the changes produced in the load curves of this substation along the time due to changes in the behaviour of consumers. The EC was compared using representative curves per time period (precrisis and crisis. These representative curves were obtained after a computational process, which was based on a search for days with similar curves to the curve of a determined (base date. This similitude was assessed by the proximity on the calendar, day of the week, daylight time, and outdoor temperature. The last selection parameter was the error between the nearest neighbour curves and the base date curve. The obtained representative curves were linearized to determine changes in their structure (maximum and minimum consumption values, duration of the daily time slot, etc.. The results primarily indicate an increase in the EC in the night slot during the summer months in the crisis period.

  2. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head ... see news reports about horrible accidents involving young children and furniture, appliance and tv tip-overs. The ...

  3. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head ... TV falls with about the same force as child falling from the third story of a building. ...

  4. Experimental moose reduction lowers wolf density and stops decline of endangered caribou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Serrouya

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of moose into southern British Columbia caused the decline and extirpation of woodland caribou due to their shared predators, a process commonly referred to as apparent competition. Using an adaptive management experiment, we tested the hypothesis that reducing moose to historic levels would reduce apparent competition and therefor recover caribou populations. Nested within this broad hypothesis were three specific hypotheses: (1 sport hunting could be used to substantially reduce moose numbers to an ecological target; (2 wolves in this ecosystem were primarily limited by moose abundance; and (3 caribou were limited by wolf predation. These hypotheses were evaluated with a before-after control-impact (BACI design that included response metrics such as population trends and vital rates of caribou, moose, and wolves. Three caribou subpopulations were subject to the moose reduction treatment and two were in a reference area where moose were not reduced. When the moose harvest was increased, the moose population declined substantially in the treatment area (by 70% but not the reference area, suggesting that the policy had the desired effect and was not caused by a broader climatic process. Wolf numbers subsequently declined in the treatment area, with wolf dispersal rates 2.5× greater, meaning that dispersal was the likely mechanism behind the wolf numerical response, though reduced recruitment and starvation was also documented in the treatment area. Caribou adult survival increased from 0.78 to 0.88 in the treatment area, but declined in the reference. Caribou recruitment was unaffected by the treatment. The largest caribou subpopulation stabilized in the treatment area, but declined in the reference area. The observed population stability is comparable to other studies that used intensive wolf control, but is insufficient to achieve recovery, suggesting that multiple limiting factors and corresponding management tools must be

  5. Calculating the Sachs-Wolfe Effect from Solutions of Null Geodesics in Perturbed FRW Spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Cárdenas, C. A.; Muñoz-Cuartas, J. C.

    2017-07-01

    In the upcoming precision era in cosmology, fine grained effects will be measured accurately. In particular, the late integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect measurements will be improved to levels of unprecedented precision. The ISW consists on temperature fluctuations in the CMB due to gravitational redshift induced by the evolving potential well of large scale structure in the Universe. Currently there is large controversy related to the actual observability of the ISW effect. In principle, it is expected that, as an effect of the late accelerated expansion of the universe motivated by the current amount of dark energy, large scale structures may evolve rapidly, inducing an observable signature in the CMB photons in the way of a ISW anisotropy in the CMB. Tension arises since using galaxy redshift surveys some works report a temperature fluctuations with amplitude smaller than predicted by the Lambda-CDM. We argue that these discrepancies may be originated in the approximation that one has to make to get the classic Sachs-Wolfe effect. In this work, we compare the classic Sachs-Wolfe approximation with an exact solution to the propagation of photons in a dynamical background. We solve numerically the null geodesics on a perturbed FRW spacetime in the Newtonian gauge. From null geodesics, temperature fluctuations in the CMB due to the evolving potential has been calculated. Since solving geodesics accounts for more terms than solving the Sachs-Wolfe (approximated) integral, our results are more accurate. We have been able to substract the background cosmological redshift with the information provided by null geodesics, which allows to get an estimate of the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect contribution to the temperature of the CMB.

  6. Comparison of single nucleotide polymorphisms and microsatellites in non-invasive genetic monitoring of a wolf population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabbri, Elena; Caniglia, R.; Mucci, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    using the TaqMan Probe Assay in 51 Italian wolves, 57 domestic dogs, 15 wolf x dog hybrids and 313 wolf scats collected in the northern Apennines. The obtained results were used to estimate genetic variability and PCR error rates in SNP genotyping protocols compared to standard microsatellite analysis...... genotyping of degraded DNA. We provide the first application of SNP genotyping in an Italian non-invasive genetic monitoring project of the wolf. We compared three different techniques for genotyping SNPs: pyrosequencing, SNaPshot* and TaqMan* Probe Assay in Real-Time PCR. We successively genotyped nine SNPs...

  7. Examples of occupational exposure to electric and magnetic fields at 110-kV gas-insulated substations (GISs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpinen, Leena; Pääkkönen, Rauno

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of the study were to present examples of occupational exposure to electric and magnetic fields at gas-insulated substations (GISs) and to analyse the exposure according to the new European Directive 2013/35/EU. The aim was also to describe the details of the measurements of this study at GISs. Electric and magnetic fields were measured (45 measurements in total) at two GISs in the Tampere region of Finland. Inside the GISs, magnetic field values varied from 0.4 to 43.0 µT, and electric fields from 5 to 90 V m(-1). In the cable room of GIS B, the maximum value was 250 µT (very near the cables). The values did not exceed the low or high action levels of the new Directive 2013/35/EU. In conclusion, it can be stated that at 110-kV GISs, workers are not exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) higher than the new European Directive 2013/35/EU. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. General and Simple Decision Method for DG Penetration Level in View of Voltage Regulation at Distribution Substation Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon-Ho Choi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A distribution system was designed and operated by considering unidirectional power flow from a utility source to end-use loads. The large penetrations of distributed generation (DG into the existing distribution system causes a variety of technical problems, such as frequent tap changing problems of the on-load tap changer (OLTC transformer, local voltage rise, protection coordination, exceeding short-circuit capacity, and harmonic distortion. In view of voltage regulation, the intermittent fluctuation of the DG output power results in frequent tap changing operations of the OLTC transformer. Thus, many utilities limit the penetration level of DG and are eager to find the reasonable penetration limits of DG in the distribution system. To overcome this technical problem, utilities have developed a new voltage regulation method in the distribution system with a large DG penetration level. In this paper, the impact of DG on the OLTC operations controlled by the line drop compensation (LDC method is analyzed. In addition, a generalized determination methodology for the DG penetration limits in a distribution substation transformer is proposed. The proposed DG penetration limits could be adopted for a simplified interconnection process in DG interconnection guidelines.

  9. Sewerage Treatment Plants, File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer plants, sewer pumpstations, water plants, water tanks http://www.harfordcountymd.gov/gis/Index.cfm, Published in 2011, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Harford County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Sewerage Treatment Plants dataset current as of 2011. File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer...

  10. Sewerage Pumping Stations, File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer plants, sewer pumpstations, water plants, water tanks http://www.harfordcountymd.gov/gis/Index.cfm, Published in 2011, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Harford County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Sewerage Pumping Stations dataset current as of 2011. File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer...

  11. Water Treatment Plants, File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer plants, sewer pumpstations, water plants, water tanks http://www.harfordcountymd.gov/gis/Index.cfm, Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Harford County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Water Treatment Plants dataset current as of 2011. File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer...

  12. Water Pumping Stations, File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer plants, sewer pumpstations, water plants, water tanks http://www.harfordcountymd.gov/gis/Index.cfm, Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Harford County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Water Pumping Stations dataset current as of 2011. File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer...

  13. Final Critical Habitat for Kauai cave wolf spider (Adelocosa anops) and the Kauai cave amphipod (Spelaeorchestia koloana).

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas of final critical habitat for Kauai cave wolf spider (Adelocosa anops) and the Kauai cave amphipod (Spelaeorchestia...

  14. IMPACTS OF LANDSCAPE CHANGE ON WOLF RESTORATION SUCCESS: PLANNING A REINTRODUCTION PROGRAM USING STATIC AND DYNAMIC SPATIAL MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammalian carnivores are increasingly the focus of reintroduction attempts in areas from whichthey have been extirpated by historic persecution. We used static and dynamic spatial models to evaluate whether a proposed wolf reintroduction to the southern Rocky Mountain region ...

  15. Wolf Management Operational Plan Game Management Unit 15A Northern Portion of the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this operational plan is to establish a wolf management strategy for the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge that will be jointly implemented by the Fish...

  16. Elk migration patterns and human activity influence wolf habitat use in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Abigail A; Kauffman, Matthew J; Middleton, Arthur D; Jimenez, Michael D; McWhirter, Douglas E; Barber, Jarrett; Gerow, Kenneth

    2012-12-01

    Identifying the ecological dynamics underlying human-wildlife conflicts is important for the management and conservation of wildlife populations. In landscapes still occupied by large carnivores, many ungulate prey species migrate seasonally, yet little empirical research has explored the relationship between carnivore distribution and ungulate migration strategy. In this study, we evaluate the influence of elk (Cervus elaphus) distribution and other landscape features on wolf (Canis lupus) habitat use in an area of chronic wolf-livestock conflict in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA. Using three years of fine-scale wolf (n = 14) and elk (n = 81) movement data, we compared the seasonal habitat use of wolves in an area dominated by migratory elk with that of wolves in an adjacent area dominated by resident elk. Most migratory elk vacate the associated winter wolf territories each summer via a 40-60 km migration, whereas resident elk remain accessible to wolves year-round. We used a generalized linear model to compare the relative probability of wolf use as a function of GIS-based habitat covariates in the migratory and resident elk areas. Although wolves in both areas used elk-rich habitat all year, elk density in summer had a weaker influence on the habitat use of wolves in the migratory elk area than the resident elk area. Wolves employed a number of alternative strategies to cope with the departure of migratory elk. Wolves in the two areas also differed in their disposition toward roads. In winter, wolves in the migratory elk area used habitat close to roads, while wolves in the resident elk area avoided roads. In summer, wolves in the migratory elk area were indifferent to roads, while wolves in resident elk areas strongly avoided roads, presumably due to the location of dens and summering elk combined with different traffic levels. Study results can help wildlife managers to anticipate the movements and establishment of wolf packs as they expand into areas

  17. A study of the moderately wide Wolf-Rayet spectroscopic binary HD 190918

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Anne B.; Hill, Grant M.

    1994-09-01

    Radial-velocity observations of the Wolf-Rayet spectroscopic binary HD 190918 obtained from 25 spectrograms covering the yellow-green range are presented. In general three absorption lines were measured to determine the line-of-sight motion of the O star and one unblended emission line, He II lambda 5411.52, for the Wolf-Rayet star. A sharp C III lambda 5696 emission line, as seen in most Of type spectra, was detected on each spectrogram and measured. This line follows the predicted radial-velocity curve of the O star fairly well when the radial velocities are shifted by an appropriate amount. New orbital elements have been found for the O star, for the Wolf-Rayet star, and for the C III emission line. The estimated systemic velocity is -20.9 +/- 0.7 km/s for the O star, +70.1 +/- 4.6 km/s for the Wolf-Rayet star, and -34.2 +/- 1.5 km/s for the sharp C III emission line. The systemic velocity of the O star is reasonable considering the expected line-of-sight component of motion due to the peculiar motion of Population I stars, Galactic rotation, and reflex solar motion. We adopt the O-star systemic velocity as a fiducial radial velocity for the binary HD 190918. This shows that the He II lambda 5411 line of the WN4.5 star is displaced longward by 91.1 km/s, while the sharp C III line appears to be formed in a body of gas moving toward the observer by an additional 13.3 km/s. We discuss the implications of each possible solution including the swath traversed by the O star in the outer part of the line emitting region of the Wolf-Rayet star and the possible generation of X-rays. We conclude that our observations of the sharp C III lambda 5696 emission line confirm the hydrodynamic models of Stevens, Blondin, and Pollock which show that extensive, chaotic tongues of cooling plasma are formed perpendicular to the line joining the stars in the case of colliding winds in massive binary systems. We describe observational tests which may be used to confirm what type of

  18. Largest global shark biomass found in the northern Galápagos Islands of Darwin and Wolf

    OpenAIRE

    Pelayo Salinas de León; David Acuña-Marrero; Etienne Rastoin; Alan M. Friedlander; Mary K. Donovan; Enric Sala

    2016-01-01

    Overfishing has dramatically depleted sharks and other large predatory fishes worldwide except for a few remote and/or well-protected areas. The islands of Darwin and Wolf in the far north of the Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR) are known for their large shark abundance, making them a global scuba diving and conservation hotspot. Here we report quantitative estimates of fish abundance at Darwin and Wolf over two consecutive years using stereo-video surveys, which reveal the largest reef fish bi...

  19. Taeniid species of the Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus) in Portugal with special focus on Echinococcus spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra, Diogo; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa; Silva, Marta; Bravo, Inês; Santos, Nuno Gonçalo Carvalho Caroço dos; Deplazes, Peter; Carvalho, Luís Manuel Madeira de

    2013-01-01

    Articles in International Journals Taeniid species represent relevant pathogens in human and animals, circulating between carnivorous definitive hosts and a variety of mammalian intermediate hosts. In Portugal, however, little is known about their occurrence and life cycles, especially in wild hosts. An epidemiological survey was conducted to clarify the role of the Iberian wolf as a definitive host for taeniid species, including Echinococcus spp. Wolf fecal samples (n = 68) we...

  20. Parsing demographic effects of canine pParvovirus on a Minnesota wolf population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Goyal, Sagar M.

    2011-01-01

    We examined 35 years of relationships among wolf (Canis lupus) pup survival, population change and canine parvovirus (CPV) seroprevalence in Northeastern Minnesota to determine when CPV exerted its strongest effects. Using correlation analysis of data from five periods of 7-years each from 1973 through 2007, we learned that the strongest effect of CPV on pup survival (r = -0.73) and on wolf population change (r = -0.92) was during 1987 to 1993. After that, little effect was documented despite a mean CPV seroprevalence from 1994 of 2007 of 70.8% compared with 52.6% during 1987 to 1993. We conclude that after CPV became endemic and produced its peak effect on the study population, that population developed enough immunity to withstand the disease.

  1. Demographic effects of canine parvovirus on a free-ranging wolf population over 30 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; Goyal, S.M.; Paul, W.J.; Newton, W.E.

    2008-01-01

    We followed the course of canine parvovinis (CPV) antibody prevalence in a subpopulation of wolves (Canis 1upus) in northeastern Minnesota from 1973, when antibodies were first detected, through 2004. Annual early pup survival was reduced by 70%, and wolf population change was related to CPV antibody prevalence. In the greater Minnesota population of 3,000 wolves, pup survival was reduced by 40-60%. This reduction limited the Minnesota wolf population rate of increase to about 4% per year compared with increases of 16-58% in other populations. Because it is young wolves that disperse, reduced pup survival may have caused reduced dispersal and reduced recolonization of new range in Minnesota. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  2. The predatory behaviour of the thylacine: Tasmanian tiger or marsupial wolf?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueirido, Borja; Janis, Christine M

    2011-12-23

    The extinct thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus) and the extant grey wolf (Canis lupus) are textbook examples of convergence between marsupials and placentals. Craniodental studies confirm the thylacine's carnivorous diet, but little attention has been paid to its postcranial skeleton, which would confirm or refute rare eyewitness reports of a more ambushing predatory mode than the pack-hunting pursuit mode of wolves and other large canids. Here we show that thylacines had the elbow morphology typical of an ambush predator, and propose that the 'Tasmanian tiger' vernacular name might be more apt than the 'marsupial wolf'. The 'niche overlap hypothesis' with dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) as a main cause of thylacine extinction in mainland Australia is discussed in the light of this new information.

  3. A Dantzig-Wolfe Decomposition Algorithm for Economic MPC of Distributed Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Leo Emil; Standardi, Laura; Edlund, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    In economic model predictive control of distributed energy systems, the constrained optimal control problem can be expressed as a linear program with a block-angular structure. In this paper, we present an efficient Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition algorithm specifically tailored to problems of this t...... of this type. Simulations show that a MATLAB implementation of the algorithm is significantly faster than several state-of-the-art linear programming solvers and that it scales in a favorable way.......In economic model predictive control of distributed energy systems, the constrained optimal control problem can be expressed as a linear program with a block-angular structure. In this paper, we present an efficient Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition algorithm specifically tailored to problems...

  4. Automatic guided vehicles fleet size optimization for flexible manufacturing system by grey wolf optimization algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Chawla

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Automatic guided vehicle system (AGVs plays a vital role in material handling operations for a flexible manufacturing system (FMS.Optimum AGVs fleet size selection is one of the most sig-nificant decisions in effective design and control of automated material handling system. The fleet size estimation and optimization of AGVs requires an in-depth understanding of the various factors that AGVs in the FMS relies on. In this paper, an investigation for fleet size optimization of AGVs in different layouts of FMS by application of the analytical method and grey wolf optimization al-gorithm (GWO is carried out. Layout design is one of the significant factors for optimization of AGV’s fleet size in any FMS. Results yield from analytical and grey wolf optimization algorithm are compared and validated for the different sizes of FMS layouts by computational experiments.

  5. Asymptotic dynamic scaling behavior of the (1+1)-dimensional Wolf-Villain model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Zhipeng; Tang, Gang; Han, Kui; Xia, Hui; Hao, Dapeng; Li, Yan

    2012-04-01

    Extensive kinetic Monte Carlo simulations are presented for the Wolf-Villain model in (1+1) dimensions. Asymptotic dynamic scaling is found for lattice sizes L⩾2048. The exponents obtained from our simulations, α=0.50±0.02 and β=0.25±0.02, are in excellent agreement with the exact values α=1/2 and β=1/4 for the one-dimensional Edwards-Wilkinson equation. Our findings explain the widespread discrepancies of previous reports for exponents of the Wolf-Villain model in (1+1) dimensions, and the results are also consistent with the theoretical predictions of López [J. M. López, M. Castro, and R. Gallego, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.94.166103 94, 166103 (2005)].

  6. The violent true believer as a "lone wolf" - psychoanalytic perspectives on terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid Meloy, J; Yakeley, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    The existing research on lone wolf terrorists and case experience are reviewed and interpreted through the lens of psychoanalytic theory. A number of characteristics of the lone wolf are enumerated: a personal grievance and moral outrage; the framing of an ideology; failure to affiliate with an extremist group; dependence on a virtual community found on the Internet; the thwarting of occupational goals; radicalization fueled by changes in thinking and emotion - including cognitive rigidity, clandestine excitement, contempt, and disgust - regardless of the particular ideology; the failure of sexual pair bonding and the sexualization of violence; the nexus of psychopathology and ideology; greater creativity and innovation than terrorist groups; and predatory violence sanctioned by moral (superego) authority. A concluding psychoanalytic formulation is offered. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. An Enhanced Grey Wolf Optimization Based Feature Selection Wrapped Kernel Extreme Learning Machine for Medical Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Chen, Huiling; Huang, Hui; Zhao, Xuehua; Cai, ZhenNao; Tong, Changfei; Liu, Wenbin; Tian, Xin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a new predictive framework is proposed by integrating an improved grey wolf optimization (IGWO) and kernel extreme learning machine (KELM), termed as IGWO-KELM, for medical diagnosis. The proposed IGWO feature selection approach is used for the purpose of finding the optimal feature subset for medical data. In the proposed approach, genetic algorithm (GA) was firstly adopted to generate the diversified initial positions, and then grey wolf optimization (GWO) was used to update the current positions of population in the discrete searching space, thus getting the optimal feature subset for the better classification purpose based on KELM. The proposed approach is compared against the original GA and GWO on the two common disease diagnosis problems in terms of a set of performance metrics, including classification accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, precision, G-mean, F-measure, and the size of selected features. The simulation results have proven the superiority of the proposed method over the other two competitive counterparts.

  8. The influence of using heat storage with PCM on inlet and outlet temperatures in substation in DHS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogaj, Kinga; Turski, Michał; Sekret, Robert

    2017-11-01

    The main objective of this article is to indicate the direction of development of new generation heating systems that use phase change materials, and the important criteria needed when choosing a phase change material. The work contains a detailed classification of materials using the latent heat of organic and inorganic PCM. This references the technical possibilities of existing heat storage technologies. A specific objective was adopted to determine the effect of using heat storage with PCM on inlet and outlet temperatures in substation in district heating systems. The scope of the study included determining the parameters of the heat distribution network as a function of an outdoor air temperature within the range of -20°C to + 12°C. The object of analysis was chosen to be the heating system parameters: supply 120°C and return 60°C. It is located on the surface of 160km2, and supplies heat to 240,000 residents. The total length of the district heating network is 170 km. Based on the study, it was found that the most advantageous material that accumulates heat depends on the return temperature in the heating network. For the above analyzed case, the return temperature was in the range of 46°C to 57°C. The analysis showed that the most preferred materials using heat of phase change, have possible applications in heating networks and received a return temperature including salt hydrates, such as MgSO4·7H2O and Na2S2O3·5H2. The introduction of stored heat for the district heating system with the phase change material in the form of salt hydrates, allows the return temperature in the district heating to remain at temperatures compatible with the adopted regulatory table for temperatures outside the standard heating season.

  9. Habitat suitability and movement corridors of grey wolf (Canis lupus) in Northern Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Muhammad; Hameed, Shoaib; Ali, Hussain; Bosso, Luciano; Din, Jaffar Ud; Bischof, Richard; Redpath, Steve; Nawaz, Muhammad Ali

    2017-01-01

    Habitat suitability models are useful to understand species distribution and to guide management and conservation strategies. The grey wolf (Canis lupus) has been extirpated from most of its historic range in Pakistan primarily due to its impact on livestock and livelihoods. We used non-invasive survey data from camera traps and genetic sampling to develop a habitat suitability model for C. lupus in northern Pakistan and to explore the extent of connectivity among populations. We detected suitable habitat of grey wolf using a maximum entropy approach (Maxent ver. 3.4.0) and identified suitable movement corridors using the Circuitscape 4.0 tool. Our model showed high levels of predictive performances, as seen from the values of area under curve (0.971±0.002) and true skill statistics (0.886±0.021). The main predictors for habitat suitability for C. lupus were distances to road, mean temperature of the wettest quarter and distance to river. The model predicted ca. 23,129 km2 of suitable areas for wolf in Pakistan, with much of suitable habitat in remote and inaccessible areas that appeared to be well connected through vulnerable movement corridors. These movement corridors suggest that potentially the wolf range can expand in Pakistan's Northern Areas. However, managing protected areas with stringent restrictions is challenging in northern Pakistan, in part due to heavy dependence of people on natural resources. The habitat suitability map provided by this study can inform future management strategies by helping authorities to identify key conservation areas.

  10. CHROMOSOMAL COMPLEMENT AND DISTRIBUTION OF A WOLF (CANIS LUPUS L. IN THE NORTH CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Dzuev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The chromosomal complement of a Canis lupus L. in the North Caucasus is described for the first time in this work. The data about modern distribution of a wolf in this territory taking into account mountain ecosystems of caucasus is also cited. The data about number of Canis lupus L., on its regulation in natural and anthropogenic ecosystems of the North Caucasus is cited.

  11. The predatory behaviour of the thylacine: Tasmanian tiger or marsupial wolf?

    OpenAIRE

    Figueirido, Borja; Janis, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    The extinct thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus) and the extant grey wolf (Canis lupus) are textbook examples of convergence between marsupials and placentals. Craniodental studies confirm the thylacine's carnivorous diet, but little attention has been paid to its postcranial skeleton, which would confirm or refute rare eyewitness reports of a more ambushing predatory mode than the pack-hunting pursuit mode of wolves and other large canids. Here we show that thylacines had the elbow morphology...

  12. Conditions for caribou persistence in the wolf-elk-caribou systems of the Canadian Rockies

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Hebblewhite; Jesse Whittington; Mark Bradley; Geoff Skinner; Alan Dibb; White, Clifford A.

    2007-01-01

    Woodland caribou populations are considered threatened in Alberta and have declined in the Canadian Rocky Mountain National Parks of Banff and Jasper despite protection from factors causing caribou populations to decline outside of parks. Recent research emphasizes the importance of the numeric response of wolves to moose in moose-caribou-wolf systems to caribou persistence. Moose are rare in the Canadian Rockies, where the dominant ungulate prey for wolves is elk. Few studies have explored w...

  13. A three-term conjugate gradient method under the strong-Wolfe line search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadijah, Wan; Rivaie, Mohd; Mamat, Mustafa

    2017-08-01

    Recently, numerous studies have been concerned in conjugate gradient methods for solving large-scale unconstrained optimization method. In this paper, a three-term conjugate gradient method is proposed for unconstrained optimization which always satisfies sufficient descent direction and namely as Three-Term Rivaie-Mustafa-Ismail-Leong (TTRMIL). Under standard conditions, TTRMIL method is proved to be globally convergent under strong-Wolfe line search. Finally, numerical results are provided for the purpose of comparison.

  14. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography and population history of the grey wolf Canis lupus

    OpenAIRE

    Vilà, Carles; Amorim, Isabel R.; Leonard, Jennifer A.; Posada, D.; Castroviejo, Javier; Petrucci-Fonseca, F.; Crandall, K. A.; Ellegren, H.; Wayne, Robert K.

    1999-01-01

    The grey wolf (Canis lupus) and coyote (C. latrans) are highly mobile carnivores that disperse over great distances in search of territories and mates. Previous genetic studies have shown little geographical structure in either species. However, population genetic structure is also influenced by past isolation events and population fluctuations during glacial periods. In this study, control region sequence data from a worldwide sample of grey wolves and a more limited sample of coyotes were a...

  15. Sympatric wolf and coyote populations of the western Great Lakes region are reproductively isolated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeldon, Tyler J; Patterson, Brent R; White, Bradley N

    2010-10-01

    Interpretation of the genetic composition and taxonomic history of wolves in the western Great Lakes region (WGLR) of the United States has long been debated and has become more important to their conservation given the recent changes in their status under the Endangered Species Act. Currently, the two competing hypotheses on WGLR wolves are that they resulted from hybridization between (i) grey wolves (Canis lupus) and western coyotes (C. latrans) or (ii) between grey wolves and eastern wolves (C. lycaon). We performed a genetic analysis of sympatric wolves and coyotes from the region to assess the degree of reproductive isolation between them and to clarify the taxonomic status of WGLR wolves. Based on data from maternal, paternal and bi-parental genetic markers, we demonstrate a clear genetic distinction between sympatric wolves and coyotes and conclude that they are reproductively isolated and that wolf-coyote hybridization in the WGLR is uncommon. The data reject the hypothesis that wolves in the WGLR derive from hybridization between grey wolves and western coyotes, and we conclude that the extant WGLR wolf population is derived from hybridization between grey wolves and eastern wolves. Grey-eastern wolf hybrids (C. lupus × lycaon) comprise a substantial population that extends across Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota and western Ontario. These findings have important implications for the conservation and management of wolves in North America, specifically concerning the overestimation of grey wolf numbers in the United States and the need to address policies for hybrids. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Differential wolf-pack-size persistence and the role of risk when hunting dangerous prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.; Mech, L. David; Newton, Wesley E.; Borg, Bridget

    2016-01-01

    Risk to predators hunting dangerous prey is an emerging area of research and could account for possible persistent differences in gray wolf (Canis lupus) pack sizes. We documented significant differences in long-term wolf-pack-size averages and variation in the Superior National Forest (SNF), Denali National Park and Preserve, Yellowstone National Park, and Yukon, Canada (pwolves’ risk when hunting primary prey, for those packs (N=3) hunting moose (Alces americanus) were significantly larger than those (N=10) hunting white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) (F1,8=16.50, p=0.004). Our data support the hypothesis that differential pack-size persistence may be perpetuated by differences in primary prey riskiness to wolves, and we highlight two important extensions of this idea: (1) the potential for wolves to provision and defend injured packmates from other wolves and (2) the importance of less-risky, buffer prey to pack-size persistence and year-to-year variation. Risk to predators hunting dangerous prey is an emerging area of research and could account for possible persistent differences in gray wolf (Canis lupus) pack sizes. We documented significant differences in long-term wolf-pack-size averages and variation in the Superior National Forest (SNF), Denali National Park and Preserve, Yellowstone National Park, and Yukon, Canada (pwolves’ risk when hunting primary prey, for those packs (N=3) hunting moose (Alces americanus) were significantly larger than those (N=10) hunting white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) (F1,8=16.50, p=0.004). Our data support the hypothesis that differential pack-size persistence may be perpetuated by differences in primary prey riskiness to wolves, and we highlight two important extensions of this idea: (1) the potential for wolves to provision and defend injured packmates from other wolves and (2) the importance of less-risky, buffer prey to pack-size persistence and year-to-year variation.

  17. Dioctophyma renale in maned wolf in the geoeconomic region of Jatai, GO, Brazil - Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valcinir Aloisio Scalla Vulcani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Vulcani V.A.S., Franzo V.S., de Araújo D.P., Vicentin F.R., da Costa O.M., Rangel A.S. & Gomes L.A. [Dioctophyma renale in maned wolf in the geoeconomic region of Jatai, GO, Brazil - Case report.] Dioctophyma renale em Lobo-Guará na região geoeconômica de Jataí, GO, Brasil - Relato de caso. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(2:149-152, 2015. Laboratório de Anatomia, Curso de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Campus de Jataí, BR 364 Km 192, 3800, Setor Industrial, Jataí, GO 75801-615, Brasil. E-mail: aloisiosv@hotmail.com The maned Wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815 is the largest animal that represents the canidae species at the South America. The Dioctophyme renale (Goeze, 1782 known as the giant kidney-worm, because it is used to lodges mostly this organs, and it has been also responsible for the majority of captive animals deaths. A maned wolf necropsy was done at the animal anatomy laboratory of the Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG - Campus Jataí and showed a nematode in the right kidney of the wild dog. This is the second confirmed case report of maned wolf that have free life in the city of Jataí and in State of Goiás, that suggests that is a common parasitism in this region of the country.

  18. Taurodontism, an unreported dental finding in Wolf-Hirschhorn (4p-) syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, G H

    1998-01-01

    Presented is a case report describing clinical and radiographic dental findings in a patient with Wolf-Hirschhorn (4p-) syndrome. There is only one case study in the literature that describes dental findings in a patient with this disorder. There are no case reports that include radiographic documentation of dental abnormalities in patients with 4p- syndrome. This report presents a case of taurodontism in a patient with 4p- syndrome, an unreported dental finding.

  19. ISO-SWS spectrophotometry of galactic Wolf-Rayet stars: preliminary results.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hucht, K. A.; Morris, P. W.; Williams, P. M.; Setia Gunawan, D. Y. A.; Beintema, D. A.; Boxhoorn, D. R.; de Graauw, T.; Heras, A.; Kester, D. J. M.; Lahuis, F.; Leech, K. J.; Roelfsema, P. R.; Salama, A.; Valentijn, E. A.; Vandenbussche, B.

    1996-01-01

    ISO-SWS spectra of seven late-type galactic Wolf-Rayet stars are discussed. A high resolution spectrum (2.3-29.6μm, λ/{DELTA}λ=~820-1700) of the WC8 star WR11 (γ^2^ Vel) is shown and its Ne abundance is discussed. Medium resolution spectra (λ/{DELTA}λ=~250-600) of the WC8-9 stars WR48a, WR98a,

  20. Decoding Group Vocalizations: The Acoustic Energy Distribution of Chorus Howls Is Useful to Determine Wolf Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Vicente; López-Bao, José Vicente; Llaneza, Luis; Fernández, Carlos; Font, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Population monitoring is crucial for wildlife management and conservation. In the last few decades, wildlife researchers have increasingly applied bioacoustics tools to obtain information on several essential ecological parameters, such as distribution and abundance. One such application involves wolves (Canis lupus). These canids respond to simulated howls by emitting group vocalizations known as chorus howls. These responses to simulated howls reveal the presence of wolf litters during the breeding period and are therefore often used to determine the status of wolf populations. However, the acoustic structure of chorus howls is complex and discriminating the presence of pups in a chorus is sometimes difficult, even for experienced observers. In this study, we evaluate the usefulness of analyses of the acoustic energy distribution in chorus howls to identify the presence of pups in a chorus. We analysed 110 Iberian wolf chorus howls with known pack composition and found that the acoustic energy distribution is concentrated at higher frequencies when there are pups vocalizing. We built predictive models using acoustic energy distribution features to determine the presence of pups in a chorus, concluding that the acoustic energy distribution in chorus howls can be used to determine the presence of wolf pups in a pack. The method we outline here is objective, accurate, easily implemented, and independent of the observer's experience. These advantages are especially relevant in the case of broad scale surveys or when many observers are involved. Furthermore, the analysis of the acoustic energy distribution can be implemented for monitoring other social canids that emit chorus howls such as jackals or coyotes, provides an easy way to obtain information on ecological parameters such as reproductive success, and could be useful to study other group vocalizations.

  1. Parasite species of the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus) and a sympatric widespread carnivore

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Ana; Oliveira, Lucia; Madeira de Carvalho, Lu?s; Fonseca, Carlos; Torres, Rita Tinoco

    2016-01-01

    Parasites have a profound impact on wildlife population dynamics. However, until some years ago, studies on the occurrence and prevalence of wildlife parasites were neglected comparatively with the studies on humans and domestic animals. In this study, we determined the parasite prevalence of two sympatric wild canids: the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus) and the widespread red fox (Vulpes vulpes), in central Portugal. From November 2014 to July 2015, fresh fecal samples from bo...

  2. Decoding Group Vocalizations: The Acoustic Energy Distribution of Chorus Howls Is Useful to Determine Wolf Reproduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Palacios

    Full Text Available Population monitoring is crucial for wildlife management and conservation. In the last few decades, wildlife researchers have increasingly applied bioacoustics tools to obtain information on several essential ecological parameters, such as distribution and abundance. One such application involves wolves (Canis lupus. These canids respond to simulated howls by emitting group vocalizations known as chorus howls. These responses to simulated howls reveal the presence of wolf litters during the breeding period and are therefore often used to determine the status of wolf populations. However, the acoustic structure of chorus howls is complex and discriminating the presence of pups in a chorus is sometimes difficult, even for experienced observers. In this study, we evaluate the usefulness of analyses of the acoustic energy distribution in chorus howls to identify the presence of pups in a chorus. We analysed 110 Iberian wolf chorus howls with known pack composition and found that the acoustic energy distribution is concentrated at higher frequencies when there are pups vocalizing. We built predictive models using acoustic energy distribution features to determine the presence of pups in a chorus, concluding that the acoustic energy distribution in chorus howls can be used to determine the presence of wolf pups in a pack. The method we outline here is objective, accurate, easily implemented, and independent of the observer's experience. These advantages are especially relevant in the case of broad scale surveys or when many observers are involved. Furthermore, the analysis of the acoustic energy distribution can be implemented for monitoring other social canids that emit chorus howls such as jackals or coyotes, provides an easy way to obtain information on ecological parameters such as reproductive success, and could be useful to study other group vocalizations.

  3. Genetic epidemiology of Sarcoptes scabiei in the Iberian wolf in Asturias, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleaga, Alvaro; Alasaad, Samer; Rossi, Luca; Casais, Rosa; Vicente, Joaquin; Maione, Sandra; Soriguer, Ramón C; Gortázar, Christian

    2013-09-23

    During the last decades, attempts have been made to understand the molecular epidemiology of Sarcoptes scabiei, and to detect and clarify the differences between isolates from different hosts and geographic regions. Two main phenomena have been described: (i) host-taxon derived-Sarcoptes mite infection in European wild animals (revealing the presence of three separate clusters, namely herbivore-, carnivore- and omnivore-derived Sarcoptes populations in Europe) and (ii) prey-to-predator Sarcoptes mite infection in the Masai Mara ecosystem. Using one multiplex of 9 microsatellite markers and Sarcoptes mite samples from sympatric Pyrenean chamois, red deer, red fox and Iberian wolf, different population structure analyses revealed concordance with the host-taxon law described for wild animals in Europe, with two main host-derived Sarcoptes mite populations, herbivore- and carnivore-derived. Surprisingly, Iberian wolf derived Sarcoptes populations had the highest genetic diversity among the other populations, including two different subpopulations: one similar to the herbivore-derived Sarcoptes populations, and another similar to carnivore (fox)-derived Sarcoptes mite population. The host-taxon effect in wild animals is still supported with the maintenance of carnivore- and herbivore-derived Sarcoptes clusters' separation in analyzed mites. However, this phenomenon could be modified with the inclusion of a large predator as wolf in the present work, revealing prey-to-predator Sarcoptes mite infection between the studied host-taxa and suggesting the importance of wolf's immune system for explaining the high variability reported in C. lupus derived mites. Further studies of host diet, behavior and movement, and regarding the role played by its immune system, would be of great help to clarify interactions between the two hypotheses, host-taxon and prey-to-predator. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. La web de Roger Wolfe como aparato multidiscursivo. Literatura y estrategia persuasiva

    OpenAIRE

    Lauren Honrado de la Torre

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the website of the English-born writer Roger Wolfe as a multiple (literary, critical, essayistic and journalistic) and persuasive (ideological and promotional) discourse. The investigation aims to reveal the design and function of the persuasive strategy that structures the web and flows under a complex multi-discursive and multimedia mesh whose last intention is to persuade the site visitor about the utility to read the author. For that purpose it is always demonstrate ...

  5. Early Postnatal Seizures in a Neonate with Wolf?Hirschhorn Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Go, Hayato; Haneda, Kentaro; MAEDA, HAJIME; OGASAWARA, Kei(Department of Special Education, Tokyo Gakugei University); Imamura, Takashi; Momoi, Nobuo; Hosoya, Mitsuaki

    2016-01-01

    Background?Wolf?Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS), which is characterized by a typical facial appearance, growth retardation, mental retardation, seizures, and congenital cardiac defects, has an estimated incidence of 1 per 50,000 births. Case?We report a case of a low birth weight neonate with WHS and seizures, as well as persistent pulmonary hypertension in the early neonatal period. Apgar scores were 6 (1 minute) and 8 (5 minutes) with evident retraction. After admission to the neonatal intensive ...

  6. Optimal Pattern Synthesis of Linear Antenna Array Using Grey Wolf Optimization Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Prerna Saxena; Ashwin Kothari

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the grey wolf optimization (GWO) algorithm to the electromagnetics and antenna community. GWO is a new nature-inspired metaheuristic algorithm inspired by the social hierarchy and hunting behavior of grey wolves. It has potential to exhibit high performance in solving not only unconstrained but also constrained optimization problems. In this work, GWO has been applied to linear antenna arrays for optimal pattern synthesis in the following ways: by optimiz...

  7. Grey Wolf Optimizer Based on Powell Local Optimization Method for Clustering Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sen Zhang; Yongquan Zhou

    2015-01-01

    One heuristic evolutionary algorithm recently proposed is the grey wolf optimizer (GWO), inspired by the leadership hierarchy and hunting mechanism of grey wolves in nature. This paper presents an extended GWO algorithm based on Powell local optimization method, and we call it PGWO. PGWO algorithm significantly improves the original GWO in solving complex optimization problems. Clustering is a popular data analysis and data mining technique. Hence, the PGWO could be applied in solving cluster...

  8. Decoding Group Vocalizations: The Acoustic Energy Distribution of Chorus Howls Is Useful to Determine Wolf Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bao, José Vicente; Llaneza, Luis; Fernández, Carlos; Font, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Population monitoring is crucial for wildlife management and conservation. In the last few decades, wildlife researchers have increasingly applied bioacoustics tools to obtain information on several essential ecological parameters, such as distribution and abundance. One such application involves wolves (Canis lupus). These canids respond to simulated howls by emitting group vocalizations known as chorus howls. These responses to simulated howls reveal the presence of wolf litters during the breeding period and are therefore often used to determine the status of wolf populations. However, the acoustic structure of chorus howls is complex and discriminating the presence of pups in a chorus is sometimes difficult, even for experienced observers. In this study, we evaluate the usefulness of analyses of the acoustic energy distribution in chorus howls to identify the presence of pups in a chorus. We analysed 110 Iberian wolf chorus howls with known pack composition and found that the acoustic energy distribution is concentrated at higher frequencies when there are pups vocalizing. We built predictive models using acoustic energy distribution features to determine the presence of pups in a chorus, concluding that the acoustic energy distribution in chorus howls can be used to determine the presence of wolf pups in a pack. The method we outline here is objective, accurate, easily implemented, and independent of the observer's experience. These advantages are especially relevant in the case of broad scale surveys or when many observers are involved. Furthermore, the analysis of the acoustic energy distribution can be implemented for monitoring other social canids that emit chorus howls such as jackals or coyotes, provides an easy way to obtain information on ecological parameters such as reproductive success, and could be useful to study other group vocalizations. PMID:27144887

  9. Paternal origin of the de novo deleted chromosome 4 in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Tupler, R.; Bortotto, L; Bühler, E M; Alkan, M; Malik, N J; Bösch-Al Jadooa, N; Memo, L; Maraschio, P

    1992-01-01

    The parental origin of the de novo deleted chromosome 4 was studied in five cases of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome using polymorphic probes mapping in the 4p16.3 region. In all the patients the deleted chromosome was found to be of paternal origin and these results, together with similar ones obtained by another group, make the preferential paternal origin of the de novo chromosome 4 deletion highly significant.

  10. Use of cranial characters in taxonomy of the Minnesota wolf (Canis sp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Nowak, Ronald M.; Weisberg, Sanford

    2011-01-01

    Minnesota wolves (Canis sp.) sometimes are reported to have affinity to a small, narrow-skulled eastern form (Canis lupus lycaon Schreber, 1775) and sometimes to a larger, broader western form (Canis lupus nubilus Say, 1823). We found that pre-1950 Minnesota wolf skulls were similar in size to those of wolves from southeastern Ontario and smaller than those of western wolves. However, Minnesota wolf skulls during 1970–1976 showed a shift to the larger, western form. Although Minnesota skull measurements after 1976 were unavailable, rostral ratios from 1969 through 1999 were consistent with hybridization between the smaller eastern wolf and the western form. Our findings help resolve the different taxonomic interpretations of Minnesota skull morphology and are consistent with molecular evidence of recent hybridization or intergradation of the two forms of wolves in Minnesota. Together these data indicate that eastern- and western-type wolves historically mixed and hybridized in Minnesota and continue to do so. Our findings are relevant to a recent government proposal to delist wolves from the endangered species list in Minnesota and surrounding states.

  11. A comparison of bitemark injuries between fatal wolf and domestic dog attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J K; Blenkinsop, B; Sweet, J; Wood, R E

    1999-06-01

    Bitemark patterns in adult human victims following a fatal wolf pack attack and a domestic dog pack attack are compared. Both victims exhibited a concentration of wounds to the extremities, left and right torso, but not to the groin or internal organs. The neck and face of the domestic dog attack victim were primary sites of attack while the feral wolf pack victim was spared damage to the neck, but had facial tissue destroyed postmortem. Most punctures were found on the ventral aspect of the domestic victim and dorsal aspect of the feral victim. It is speculated that most wounds were attributable to dominant animals of both packs and in both victims and this suggests a co-ordination of activity between. Differences in bitemark patterns may well have been caused in part by differences in genetics, training, breeding, socialization and impetus of attack between wolves and dogs. Distinct differences in bitemark patterns were found in these two human victims of a wolf and domestic dog attacks.

  12. A chaos wolf optimization algorithm with self-adaptive variable step-size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available To explore the problem of parameter optimization for complex nonlinear function, a chaos wolf optimization algorithm (CWOA with self-adaptive variable step-size was proposed. The algorithm was based on the swarm intelligence of wolf pack, which fully simulated the predation behavior and prey distribution way of wolves. It possessed three intelligent behaviors such as migration, summons and siege. And the competition rule as “winner-take-all” and the update mechanism as “survival of the fittest” were also the characteristics of the algorithm. Moreover, it combined the strategies of self-adaptive variable step-size search and chaos optimization. The CWOA was utilized in parameter optimization of twelve typical and complex nonlinear functions. And the obtained results were compared with many existing algorithms, including the classical genetic algorithm, the particle swarm optimization algorithm and the leader wolf pack search algorithm. The investigation results indicate that CWOA possess preferable optimization ability. There are advantages in optimization accuracy and convergence rate. Furthermore, it demonstrates high robustness and global searching ability.

  13. The Gender of Authorship: Heiner Müller and Christa Wolf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Fehervary

    1980-09-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between sexuality and politics has always been an underlying assumption of the avant-garde. In recent East German avant-garde literature, the notion of authorship as production has become associated with technological rationality and the patriarchal socialist state. The ensuing crisis of the traditional male author has thus led necessarily to a radicalization of subjectivity and to the politics of gender. A comparison of two contemporary texts, one by a female author, one by a male, shows that the crisis of authorship assumes two distinctly different forms when differences in gender are taken into account. The East German authors Heiner Müller and Christa Wolf have exhibited remarkably similar literary and political developments. Two of their most recent texts, Mülller's Hamletmachine and Wolf's No Place. Nowhere , both address the problematic of traditional male authorship and the disintegration of a preconceived literary gender identity. Yet, these two texts exemplify very different assumptions about the relationship between authorship and the literary tradition. Müller's text suggests the imprisonment of the male author within a petrified system of tradition and images, and hence the necessity of deconstruction. Wolf's text manifests a process of creating a new form of female-identified authorship and the possibility of redefining the tradition of literature and its future.

  14. Intestinal helminth parasites of the grey wolf (Canis lupus L.) in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćirović, Duško; Pavlović, Ivan; Penezić, Aleksandra

    2015-06-01

    The grey wolf (Canis lupus L.) is the most widespread large carnivore in Europe with large populations in the Eastern part of Europe and the Balkan Peninsula. In this study, a total of 102 wolves were examined for intestinal helminth parasites. The carcasses were collected within the Serbian part of the wolf's range during the period 2009-2014. Nine helminth species were found: one nematode, Toxocara canis (3.9%), one trematode, Alaria alata (1.0%), and seven cestodes, Taenia pisiformis (1.0%), T. hydatigena (9.8%), T. polyacantha (2.9%), T. taeniaeformis (2.0%), T. (syn. Multiceps) multiceps (3.9%), T. serialis (1.0%) and Mesocestoides litteratus (1.0%). Taenia (syn. Hydatigera) taeniaeformis has been registered for the first time in a wolf from Europe. An overall moderate prevalence (16.7%) of infected wolves was recorded. There was no statistically significant difference in prevalence between sexes. Of the years studied, the highest prevalence was found in 2014 (57.1%). The maximum number of helminth species per host specimen was four.

  15. Red Wolf (Canis rufus) Recovery: A Review with Suggestions for Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Joseph W; Chamberlain, Michael J; Rabon, David R

    2013-08-13

    By the 1970s, government-supported eradication campaigns reduced red wolves to a remnant population of less than 100 individuals on the southern border of Texas and Louisiana. Restoration efforts in the region were deemed unpromising because of predator-control programs and hybridization with coyotes. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) removed the last remaining red wolves from the wild and placed them in a captive-breeding program. In 1980, the USFWS declared red wolves extinct in the wild. During 1987, the USFWS, through the Red Wolf Recovery Program, reintroduced red wolves into northeastern North Carolina. Although restoration efforts have established a population of approximately 70-80 red wolves in the wild, issues of hybridization with coyotes, inbreeding, and human-caused mortality continue to hamper red wolf recovery. We explore these three challenges and, within each challenge, we illustrate how research can be used to resolve problems associated with red wolf-coyote interactions, effects of inbreeding, and demographic responses to human-caused mortality. We hope this illustrates the utility of research to advance restoration of red wolves.

  16. Red Wolf (Canis rufus Recovery: A Review with Suggestions for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Chamberlain

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available By the 1970s, government-supported eradication campaigns reduced red wolves to a remnant population of less than 100 individuals on the southern border of Texas and Louisiana. Restoration efforts in the region were deemed unpromising because of predator-control programs and hybridization with coyotes. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS removed the last remaining red wolves from the wild and placed them in a captive-breeding program. In 1980, the USFWS declared red wolves extinct in the wild. During 1987, the USFWS, through the Red Wolf Recovery Program, reintroduced red wolves into northeastern North Carolina. Although restoration efforts have established a population of approximately 70–80 red wolves in the wild, issues of hybridization with coyotes, inbreeding, and human-caused mortality continue to hamper red wolf recovery. We explore these three challenges and, within each challenge, we illustrate how research can be used to resolve problems associated with red wolf-coyote interactions, effects of inbreeding, and demographic responses to human-caused mortality. We hope this illustrates the utility of research to advance restoration of red wolves.

  17. Reconstructing the colonization history of lost wolf lineages by the analysis of the mitochondrial genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Shuichi; Inoshima, Yasuo; Ishiguro, Naotaka

    2014-11-01

    The grey wolves (Canis lupus) originally inhabited major parts of the Northern hemisphere, but many local populations became extinct. Two lineages of wolves in Japan, namely, Japanese or Honshu (C. l. hodophilax) and Ezo or Hokkaido (C. l. hattai) wolves, rapidly went extinct between 100 and 120years ago. Here we analyse the complete mitochondrial genome sequences from ancient specimens and reconstruct the colonization history of the two extinct subspecies. We show a unique status of Japanese wolves in wolf phylogeny, suggesting their long time separation from other grey wolf populations. Japanese wolves appeared to have colonized the Japanese archipelago in the Late Pleistocene (ca. 25,000-125,000years ago). By contrast, Ezo wolves, which are clearly separated from Japanese wolves in phylogeny, are likely to have arrived at Japan relatively recently (wolf populations in Europe and America during the last several millennia. Our analyses suggest that at least several thousands of wolves once inhabited in the Japanese archipelago. Our analyses also show that an enigmatic clade of domestic dogs is likely to have originated from rare admixture events between male dogs and female Japanese wolves. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A genome-wide perspective on the evolutionary history of enigmatic wolf-like canids

    Science.gov (United States)

    vonHoldt, Bridgett M.; Pollinger, John P.; Earl, Dent A.; Knowles, James C.; Boyko, Adam R.; Parker, Heidi; Geffen, Eli; Pilot, Malgorzata; Jedrzejewski, Wlodzimierz; Jedrzejewska, Bogumila; Sidorovich, Vadim; Greco, Claudia; Randi, Ettore; Musiani, Marco; Kays, Roland; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Novembre, John; Wayne, Robert K.

    2011-01-01

    High-throughput genotyping technologies developed for model species can potentially increase the resolution of demographic history and ancestry in wild relatives. We use a SNP genotyping microarray developed for the domestic dog to assay variation in over 48K loci in wolf-like species worldwide. Despite the high mobility of these large carnivores, we find distinct hierarchical population units within gray wolves and coyotes that correspond with geographic and ecologic differences among populations. Further, we test controversial theories about the ancestry of the Great Lakes wolf and red wolf using an analysis of haplotype blocks across all 38 canid autosomes. We find that these enigmatic canids are highly admixed varieties derived from gray wolves and coyotes, respectively. This divergent genomic history suggests that they do not have a shared recent ancestry as proposed by previous researchers. Interspecific hybridization, as well as the process of evolutionary divergence, may be responsible for the observed phenotypic distinction of both forms. Such admixture complicates decisions regarding endangered species restoration and protection. PMID:21566151

  19. MANDIBULAR MORPHOMETRY APPLIED TO ANESTHETIC BLOCKAGE IN THE MANED WOLF (CHRYSOCYON BRACHYURUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Junior, Paulo; de Moraes, Flavio Machado; de Carvalho, Natan da Cruz; Canelo, Evandro Alves; Thiesen, Roberto; Santos, André Luiz Quagliatto

    2016-03-01

    Chrysocyon brachyurus (maned wolf) is the biggest South American canid and has a high frequency of dental injuries, both in the wild and in captivity. Thus, veterinary procedures are necessary to preserve the feeding capacity of hundreds of captive specimens worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the mandibular morphometry of the maned wolf with emphasis on the establishment of anatomic references for anesthetic block of the inferior alveolar and mental nerves. Therefore, 16 measurements in 22 mandibles of C. brachyurus adults were taken. For extraoral block of the inferior alveolar nerve at the level of the mandibular foramen, the needle should be advanced close to the medial face of the mandibular ramus for 11.4 mm perpendicular to the palpable concavity. In another extraoral approach, the needle may be introduced for 30.4 mm from the angular process at a 20-25° angle to the ventral margin. For blocking only the mental nerve, the needle should be inserted for 10 mm from ventral border, close to the labial surface of the mandibular body, at the level of the lower first premolar. The mandibular foramen showed similar position, size, and symmetry in the maned wolf specimens examined. Comparison of the data observed here with those available for other carnivores indicates the need to determine these anatomic references specifically for each species.

  20. A chaos wolf optimization algorithm with self-adaptive variable step-size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Jiang, Wanlu; Kong, Xiangdong; Quan, Lingxiao; Zhang, Yongshun

    2017-10-01

    To explore the problem of parameter optimization for complex nonlinear function, a chaos wolf optimization algorithm (CWOA) with self-adaptive variable step-size was proposed. The algorithm was based on the swarm intelligence of wolf pack, which fully simulated the predation behavior and prey distribution way of wolves. It possessed three intelligent behaviors such as migration, summons and siege. And the competition rule as "winner-take-all" and the update mechanism as "survival of the fittest" were also the characteristics of the algorithm. Moreover, it combined the strategies of self-adaptive variable step-size search and chaos optimization. The CWOA was utilized in parameter optimization of twelve typical and complex nonlinear functions. And the obtained results were compared with many existing algorithms, including the classical genetic algorithm, the particle swarm optimization algorithm and the leader wolf pack search algorithm. The investigation results indicate that CWOA possess preferable optimization ability. There are advantages in optimization accuracy and convergence rate. Furthermore, it demonstrates high robustness and global searching ability.