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Sample records for wnv genomic rna

  1. Internally deleted WNV genomes isolated from exotic birds in New Mexico: function in cells, mosquitoes, and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesko, Kendra N; Fitzpatrick, Kelly A; Ryan, Elizabeth M; Shi, Pei-Yong; Zhang, Bo; Lennon, Niall J; Newman, Ruchi M; Henn, Matthew R; Ebel, Gregory D

    2012-05-25

    Most RNA viruses exist in their hosts as a heterogeneous population of related variants. Due to error prone replication, mutants are constantly generated which may differ in individual fitness from the population as a whole. Here we characterize three WNV isolates that contain, along with full-length genomes, mutants with large internal deletions to structural and nonstructural protein-coding regions. The isolates were all obtained from lorikeets that died from WNV at the Rio Grande Zoo in Albuquerque, NM between 2005 and 2007. The deletions are approximately 2kb, in frame, and result in the elimination of the complete envelope, and portions of the prM and NS-1 proteins. In Vero cell culture, these internally deleted WNV genomes function as defective interfering particles, reducing the production of full-length virus when introduced at high multiplicities of infection. In mosquitoes, the shortened WNV genomes reduced infection and dissemination rates, and virus titers overall, and were not detected in legs or salivary secretions at 14 or 21 days post-infection. In mice, inoculation with internally deleted genomes did not attenuate pathogenesis relative to full-length or infectious clone derived virus, and shortened genomes were not detected in mice at the time of death. These observations provide evidence that large deletions may occur within flavivirus populations more frequently than has generally been appreciated and suggest that they impact population phenotype minimally. Additionally, our findings suggest that highly similar mutants may frequently occur in particular vertebrate hosts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Terminal structures of West Nile virus genomic RNA and their interactions with viral NS5 protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Hongping; Zhang Bo; Shi Peiyong

    2008-01-01

    Genome cyclization is essential for flavivirus replication. We used RNases to probe the structures formed by the 5'-terminal 190 nucleotides and the 3'-terminal 111 nucleotides of the West Nile virus (WNV) genomic RNA. When analyzed individually, the two RNAs adopt stem-loop structures as predicted by the thermodynamic-folding program. However, when mixed together, the two RNAs form a duplex that is mediated through base-pairings of two sets of RNA elements (5'CS/3'CSI and 5'UAR/3'UAR). Formation of the RNA duplex facilitates a conformational change that leaves the 3'-terminal nucleotides of the genome (position - 8 to - 16) to be single-stranded. Viral NS5 binds specifically to the 5'-terminal stem-loop (SL1) of the genomic RNA. The 5'SL1 RNA structure is essential for WNV replication. The study has provided further evidence to suggest that flavivirus genome cyclization and NS5/5'SL1 RNA interaction facilitate NS5 binding to the 3' end of the genome for the initiation of viral minus-strand RNA synthesis

  3. Interaction between the cellular protein eEF1A and the 3'-terminal stem-loop of West Nile virus genomic RNA facilitates viral minus-strand RNA synthesis.

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    Davis, William G; Blackwell, Jerry L; Shi, Pei-Yong; Brinton, Margo A

    2007-09-01

    RNase footprinting and nitrocellulose filter binding assays were previously used to map one major and two minor binding sites for the cell protein eEF1A on the 3'(+) stem-loop (SL) RNA of West Nile virus (WNV) (3). Base substitutions in the major eEF1A binding site or adjacent areas of the 3'(+) SL were engineered into a WNV infectious clone. Mutations that decreased, as well as ones that increased, eEF1A binding in in vitro assays had a negative effect on viral growth. None of these mutations affected the efficiency of translation of the viral polyprotein from the genomic RNA, but all of the mutations that decreased in vitro eEF1A binding to the 3' SL RNA also decreased viral minus-strand RNA synthesis in transfected cells. Also, a mutation that increased the efficiency of eEF1A binding to the 3' SL RNA increased minus-strand RNA synthesis in transfected cells, which resulted in decreased synthesis of genomic RNA. These results strongly suggest that the interaction between eEF1A and the WNV 3' SL facilitates viral minus-strand synthesis. eEF1A colocalized with viral replication complexes (RC) in infected cells and antibody to eEF1A coimmunoprecipitated viral RC proteins, suggesting that eEF1A facilitates an interaction between the 3' end of the genome and the RC. eEF1A bound with similar efficiencies to the 3'-terminal SL RNAs of four divergent flaviviruses, including a tick-borne flavivirus, and colocalized with dengue virus RC in infected cells. These results suggest that eEF1A plays a similar role in RNA replication for all flaviviruses.

  4. Mutation of mapped TIA-1/TIAR binding sites in the 3' terminal stem-loop of West Nile virus minus-strand RNA in an infectious clone negatively affects genomic RNA amplification.

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    Emara, Mohamed M; Liu, Hsuan; Davis, William G; Brinton, Margo A

    2008-11-01

    Previous data showed that the cellular proteins TIA-1 and TIAR bound specifically to the West Nile virus 3' minus-strand stem-loop [WNV3'(-)SL] RNA (37) and colocalized with flavivirus replication complexes in WNV- and dengue virus-infected cells (21). In the present study, the sites on the WNV3'(-)SL RNA required for efficient in vitro T-cell intracellular antigen-related (TIAR) and T-cell intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1) protein binding were mapped to short AU sequences (UAAUU) located in two internal loops of the WNV3'(-)SL RNA structure. Infectious clone RNAs with all or most of the binding site nucleotides in one of the 3' (-)SL loops deleted or substituted did not produce detectable virus after transfection or subsequent passage. With one exception, deletion/mutation of a single terminal nucleotide in one of the binding sequences had little effect on the efficiency of protein binding or virus production, but mutation of a nucleotide in the middle of a binding sequence reduced both the in vitro protein binding efficiency and virus production. Plaque size, intracellular genomic RNA levels, and virus production progressively decreased with decreasing in vitro TIAR/TIA-1 binding activity, but the translation efficiency of the various mutant RNAs was similar to that of the parental RNA. Several of the mutant RNAs that inefficiently interacted with TIAR/TIA-1 in vitro rapidly reverted in vivo, indicating that they could replicate at a low level and suggesting that an interaction between TIAR/TIA-1 and the viral 3'(-)SL RNA is not required for initial low-level symmetric RNA replication but instead facilitates the subsequent asymmetric amplification of genome RNA from the minus-strand template.

  5. Experimental infection of Carrion crows (Corvus corone) with two European West Nile virus (WNV) strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dridi, Maha; Vangeluwe, Didier; Lecollinet, Sylvie; van den Berg, Thierry; Lambrecht, Bénédicte

    2013-07-26

    West Nile virus (WNV) has become a wide-spread arbovirus in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin countries. This emerging zoonotic disease disseminated 13 years ago in North America where its impact on animal and public health has been considerable. Although American corvids have been the most reliable avian sentinels for WN surveillance in the United States, there is so far no data available about the susceptibility of their Western European counterparts to WNV. Clinical follow-up and serum, oral swabs and feathers viral RNA load monitoring was herein performed on wild-caught Carrion crows (Corvus corone) experimentally inoculated with two WNV strains, Is98 that was isolated from a stork in Israel where it elicited high rates of avian deaths in 1998, and Fr2000 which was only associated to sporadic equine cases in Camargue, France in 2000. Inoculated crows were sensitive to both WNV infections and, as expected from the available epidemiological data, Is98 induced a higher mortality rate (100% vs. 33%) and a quicker fatal outcome, with higher viral RNA loads detected in the serum, oral swabs and feathers than in the Fr2000 group. Therefore, Carrion crows should also be a target species for WNV surveillance in Western Europe, where reporting for abnormal mortalities could be completed by viral detection in the herein described avian matrices. These experimental findings also emphasize the peculiarity of the European situation where a large spectrum of WNV genetic and pathotypic variants have been so far isolated despite limited WN disease reports in wild birds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Experimental evolution of an RNA virus in wild birds: evidence for host-dependent impacts on population structure and competitive fitness.

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    Nathan D Grubaugh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Within hosts, RNA viruses form populations that are genetically and phenotypically complex. Heterogeneity in RNA virus genomes arises due to error-prone replication and is reduced by stochastic and selective mechanisms that are incompletely understood. Defining how natural selection shapes RNA virus populations is critical because it can inform treatment paradigms and enhance control efforts. We allowed West Nile virus (WNV to replicate in wild-caught American crows, house sparrows and American robins to assess how natural selection shapes RNA virus populations in ecologically relevant hosts that differ in susceptibility to virus-induced mortality. After five sequential passages in each bird species, we examined the phenotype and population diversity of WNV through fitness competition assays and next generation sequencing. We demonstrate that fitness gains occur in a species-specific manner, with the greatest replicative fitness gains in robin-passaged WNV and the least in WNV passaged in crows. Sequencing data revealed that intrahost WNV populations were strongly influenced by purifying selection and the overall complexity of the viral populations was similar among passaged hosts. However, the selective pressures that control WNV populations seem to be bird species-dependent. Specifically, crow-passaged WNV populations contained the most unique mutations (~1.7× more than sparrows, ~3.4× more than robins and defective genomes (~1.4× greater than sparrows, ~2.7× greater than robins, but the lowest average mutation frequency (about equal to sparrows, ~2.6× lower than robins. Therefore, our data suggest that WNV replication in the most disease-susceptible bird species is positively associated with virus mutational tolerance, likely via complementation, and negatively associated with the strength of selection. These differences in genetic composition most likely have distinct phenotypic consequences for the virus populations. Taken together

  7. Serological study on WNV presence in horses in Vojvodina after the human outbreak in Serbia in 2012

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    Petrović T.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To establish the presence of West Nile virus (WNV infection in the animal population in Serbia after the human WNV outbreak, the presence of anti-WNV IgG antibodies was examined by commercial ELISA of blood sera samples of 130 horses collected in 2012 from 6 stables and 1 settlement in Vojvodina Province, northern Serbia. During the blood sampling, hibernating mosquitoes in the vicinity of the sampled horses were collected (31 pools from 4 locations and tested for WNV presence by real-time RT-PCR. The presence of anti-WNV antibodies was observed in 49.23% (64/130 horses. Per stable, the percent of seropositive animals ranged from 35% to 64%. All 31 analyzed pools of hibernating mosquitoes tested negative for WNV RNA. The WNV-antibody prevalence of 49.23% obtained in horses during 2012 was much higher than the prevalence (12% found in horses during 2009/2010. These results, including the confirmed seroconversion in eight horses that tested negative in 2010, indicated an intensive WNV circulation during 2012 in Serbia, and the necessity of implementing surveillance programs. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31084 and III43007

  8. A recombinant novirhabdovirus presenting at the surface the E Glycoprotein from West Nile Virus (WNV is immunogenic and provides partial protection against lethal WNV challenge in BALB/c mice.

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    Angella Nzonza

    Full Text Available West Nile Virus (WNV is a zoonotic mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that can infect and cause disease in mammals including humans. Our study aimed at developing a WNV vectored vaccine based on a fish Novirhabdovirus, the Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia virus (VHSV. VHSV replicates at temperatures lower than 20°C and is naturally inactivated at higher temperatures. A reverse genetics system has recently been developed in our laboratory for VHSV allowing the addition of genes in the viral genome and the recovery of the respective recombinant viruses (rVHSV. In this study, we have generated rVHSV vectors bearing the complete WNV envelope gene (EWNV (rVHSV-EWNV or fragments encoding E subdomains (either domain III alone or domain III fused to domain II (rVHSV-DIIIWNV and rVHSV-DII-DIIIWNV, respectively in the VHSV genome between the N and P cistrons. With the objective to enhance the targeting of the EWNV protein or EWNV-derived domains to the surface of VHSV virions, Novirhadovirus G-derived signal peptide and transmembrane domain (SPG and TMG were fused to EWNV at its amino and carboxy termini, respectively. By Western-blot analysis, electron microscopy observations or inoculation experiments in mice, we demonstrated that both the EWNV and the DIIIWNV could be expressed at the viral surface of rVHSV upon addition of SPG. Every constructs expressing EWNV fused to SPG protected 40 to 50% of BALB/cJ mice against WNV lethal challenge and specifically rVHSV-SPGEWNV induced a neutralizing antibody response that correlated with protection. Surprisingly, rVHSV expressing EWNV-derived domain III or II and III were unable to protect mice against WNV challenge, although these domains were highly incorporated in the virion and expressed at the viral surface. In this study we demonstrated that a heterologous glycoprotein and non membrane-anchored protein, can be efficiently expressed at the surface of rVHSV making this approach attractive to develop new vaccines

  9. Noncoding Subgenomic Flavivirus RNA Is Processed by the Mosquito RNA Interference Machinery and Determines West Nile Virus Transmission by Culex pipiens Mosquitoes.

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    Göertz, G P; Fros, J J; Miesen, P; Vogels, C B F; van der Bent, M L; Geertsema, C; Koenraadt, C J M; van Rij, R P; van Oers, M M; Pijlman, G P

    2016-11-15

    Flaviviruses, such as Zika virus, yellow fever virus, dengue virus, and West Nile virus (WNV), are a serious concern for human health. Flaviviruses produce an abundant noncoding subgenomic flavivirus RNA (sfRNA) in infected cells. sfRNA results from stalling of the host 5'-3' exoribonuclease XRN1/Pacman on conserved RNA structures in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the viral genomic RNA. sfRNA production is conserved in insect-specific, mosquito-borne, and tick-borne flaviviruses and flaviviruses with no known vector, suggesting a pivotal role for sfRNA in the flavivirus life cycle. Here, we investigated the function of sfRNA during WNV infection of Culex pipiens mosquitoes and evaluated its role in determining vector competence. An sfRNA1-deficient WNV was generated that displayed growth kinetics similar to those of wild-type WNV in both RNA interference (RNAi)-competent and -compromised mosquito cell lines. Small-RNA deep sequencing of WNV-infected mosquitoes indicated an active small interfering RNA (siRNA)-based antiviral response for both the wild-type and sfRNA1-deficient viruses. Additionally, we provide the first evidence that sfRNA is an RNAi substrate in vivo Two reproducible small-RNA hot spots within the 3' UTR/sfRNA of the wild-type virus mapped to RNA stem-loops SL-III and 3' SL, which stick out of the three-dimensional (3D) sfRNA structure model. Importantly, we demonstrate that sfRNA-deficient WNV displays significantly decreased infection and transmission rates in vivo when administered via the blood meal. Finally, we show that transmission and infection rates are not affected by sfRNA after intrathoracic injection, thereby identifying sfRNA as a key driver to overcome the mosquito midgut infection barrier. This is the first report to describe a key biological function of sfRNA for flavivirus infection of the arthropod vector, providing an explanation for the strict conservation of sfRNA production. Understanding the flavivirus transmission

  10. WNV infection - an emergent vector borne viral infection in Serbia: Current situation

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    Petrović Tamaš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a neurovirulent mosquito-borne Flavivirus with zoonotic potential. Virus is maintained in nature in an enzootic transmission cycle between avian hosts and mosquito vectors, but occasionally infects other vertebrates. The infection in horses and humans can be asymptomatic or it can have different clinical manifestations ranging from light febrile diseases to fatal meningoencephalitis. Recently, the number, frequency and severity of outbreaks with neurological consequences for birds, humans and horses have increased dramatically throughout central and south Europe, including Serbia, posing a serious veterinary and public health problem. The emergency of WNV infections in Serbia is described through the current epidemiology situation based on recent data on the incidence of WNV infection among virus natural hosts and vectors; sentinel (horses and other animal species, and in human population. The results of the WNV serology studies conducted on horse blood samples collected in different occasions during the last six years, and the results of the serology studies conducted among other animal species like pigs, wild boars, roe deer and dogs in Serbia are presented and discussed. Also, the results of the first studies on WNV presence in mosquito vectors and in wild birds as virus natural hosts in Serbia are presented and analyzed. In addition, the data on the WNV serology studies conducted in human population in Serbia in the last few years, and the existing data of WNV outbreaks in 2012 and 2013 are included. Regarding the existing knowledge on WNV epidemiology situation, the crucial role of veterinary service in early detection of WNV presence and ongoing national program of WNV surveillance in sentinel animals, mosquitoes and wild birds are discussed.

  11. C6/36 Aedes albopictus cells have a dysfunctional antiviral RNA interference response.

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    Doug E Brackney

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes rely on RNA interference (RNAi as their primary defense against viral infections. To this end, the combination of RNAi and invertebrate cell culture systems has become an invaluable tool in studying virus-vector interactions. Nevertheless, a recent study failed to detect an active RNAi response to West Nile virus (WNV infection in C6/36 (Aedes albopictus cells, a mosquito cell line frequently used to study arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses. Therefore, we sought to determine if WNV actively evades the host's RNAi response or if C6/36 cells have a dysfunctional RNAi pathway. C6/36 and Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells were infected with WNV (Flaviviridae, Sindbis virus (SINV, Togaviridae and La Crosse virus (LACV, Bunyaviridae and total RNA recovered from cell lysates. Small RNA (sRNA libraries were constructed and subjected to high-throughput sequencing. In S2 cells, virus-derived small interfering RNAs (viRNAs from all three viruses were predominantly 21 nt in length, a hallmark of the RNAi pathway. However, in C6/36 cells, viRNAs were primarily 17 nt in length from WNV infected cells and 26-27 nt in length in SINV and LACV infected cells. Furthermore, the origin (positive or negative viral strand and distribution (position along viral genome of S2 cell generated viRNA populations was consistent with previously published studies, but the profile of sRNAs isolated from C6/36 cells was altered. In total, these results suggest that C6/36 cells lack a functional antiviral RNAi response. These findings are analogous to the type-I interferon deficiency described in Vero (African green monkey kidney cells and suggest that C6/36 cells may fail to accurately model mosquito-arbovirus interactions at the molecular level.

  12. Noncoding Subgenomic Flavivirus RNA: Multiple Functions in West Nile Virus Pathogenesis and Modulation of Host Responses

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    Justin A. Roby

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flaviviruses are a large group of positive strand RNA viruses transmitted by arthropods that include many human pathogens such as West Nile virus (WNV, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV, yellow fever virus, dengue virus, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. All members in this genus tested so far are shown to produce a unique subgenomic flavivirus RNA (sfRNA derived from the 3' untranslated region (UTR. sfRNA is a product of incomplete degradation of genomic RNA by the cell 5'–3' exoribonuclease XRN1 which stalls at highly ordered secondary RNA structures at the beginning of the 3'UTR. Generation of sfRNA results in inhibition of XRN1 activity leading to an increase in stability of many cellular mRNAs. Mutant WNV deficient in sfRNA generation was highly attenuated displaying a marked decrease in cytopathicity in cells and pathogenicity in mice. sfRNA has also been shown to inhibit the antiviral activity of IFN-α/β by yet unknown mechanism and of the RNAi pathway by likely serving as a decoy substrate for Dicer. Thus, sfRNA is involved in modulating multiple cellular pathways to facilitate viral pathogenicity; however the overlying mechanism linking all these multiple functions of sfRNA remains to be elucidated.

  13. From "Cellular" RNA to "Smart" RNA: Multiple Roles of RNA in Genome Stability and Beyond.

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    Michelini, Flavia; Jalihal, Ameya P; Francia, Sofia; Meers, Chance; Neeb, Zachary T; Rossiello, Francesca; Gioia, Ubaldo; Aguado, Julio; Jones-Weinert, Corey; Luke, Brian; Biamonti, Giuseppe; Nowacki, Mariusz; Storici, Francesca; Carninci, Piero; Walter, Nils G; Fagagna, Fabrizio d'Adda di

    2018-03-30

    Coding for proteins has been considered the main function of RNA since the "central dogma" of biology was proposed. The discovery of noncoding transcripts shed light on additional roles of RNA, ranging from the support of polypeptide synthesis, to the assembly of subnuclear structures, to gene expression modulation. Cellular RNA has therefore been recognized as a central player in often unanticipated biological processes, including genomic stability. This ever-expanding list of functions inspired us to think of RNA as a "smart" phone, which has replaced the older obsolete "cellular" phone. In this review, we summarize the last two decades of advances in research on the interface between RNA biology and genome stability. We start with an account of the emergence of noncoding RNA, and then we discuss the involvement of RNA in DNA damage signaling and repair, telomere maintenance, and genomic rearrangements. We continue with the depiction of single-molecule RNA detection techniques, and we conclude by illustrating the possibilities of RNA modulation in hopes of creating or improving new therapies. The widespread biological functions of RNA have made this molecule a reoccurring theme in basic and translational research, warranting it the transcendence from classically studied "cellular" RNA to "smart" RNA.

  14. Regulatory RNA-assisted genome engineering in microorganisms.

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    Si, Tong; HamediRad, Mohammad; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-12-01

    Regulatory RNAs are increasingly recognized and utilized as key modulators of gene expression in diverse organisms. Thanks to their modular and programmable nature, trans-acting regulatory RNAs are especially attractive in genome-scale applications. Here we discuss the recent examples in microbial genome engineering implementing various trans-acting RNA platforms, including sRNA, RNAi, asRNA and CRISRP-Cas. In particular, we focus on how the scalable and multiplex nature of trans-acting RNAs has been used to tackle the challenges in creating genome-wide and combinatorial diversity for functional genomics and metabolic engineering applications. Advances in computational design and context-dependent regulation are also discussed for their contribution in improving fine-tuning capabilities of trans-acting RNAs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Wolbachia enhances West Nile virus (WNV infection in the mosquito Culex tarsalis.

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    Brittany L Dodson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Novel strategies are required to control mosquitoes and the pathogens they transmit. One attractive approach involves maternally inherited endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria. After artificial infection with Wolbachia, many mosquitoes become refractory to infection and transmission of diverse pathogens. We evaluated the effects of Wolbachia (wAlbB strain on infection, dissemination and transmission of West Nile virus (WNV in the naturally uninfected mosquito Culex tarsalis, which is an important WNV vector in North America. After inoculation into adult female mosquitoes, Wolbachia reached high titers and disseminated widely to numerous tissues including the head, thoracic flight muscles, fat body and ovarian follicles. Contrary to other systems, Wolbachia did not inhibit WNV in this mosquito. Rather, WNV infection rate was significantly higher in Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes compared to controls. Quantitative PCR of selected innate immune genes indicated that REL1 (the activator of the antiviral Toll immune pathway was down regulated in Wolbachia-infected relative to control mosquitoes. This is the first observation of Wolbachia-induced enhancement of a human pathogen in mosquitoes, suggesting that caution should be applied before releasing Wolbachia-infected insects as part of a vector-borne disease control program.

  16. RNA 3D modules in genome-wide predictions of RNA 2D structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theis, Corinna; Zirbel, Craig L; Zu Siederdissen, Christian Höner

    2015-01-01

    . These modules can, for example, occur inside structural elements which in RNA 2D predictions appear as internal loops. Hence one question is if the use of such RNA 3D information can improve the prediction accuracy of RNA secondary structure at a genome-wide level. Here, we use RNAz in combination with 3D......Recent experimental and computational progress has revealed a large potential for RNA structure in the genome. This has been driven by computational strategies that exploit multiple genomes of related organisms to identify common sequences and secondary structures. However, these computational...... approaches have two main challenges: they are computationally expensive and they have a relatively high false discovery rate (FDR). Simultaneously, RNA 3D structure analysis has revealed modules composed of non-canonical base pairs which occur in non-homologous positions, apparently by independent evolution...

  17. Characterizing and annotating the genome using RNA-seq data.

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    Chen, Geng; Shi, Tieliu; Shi, Leming

    2017-02-01

    Bioinformatics methods for various RNA-seq data analyses are in fast evolution with the improvement of sequencing technologies. However, many challenges still exist in how to efficiently process the RNA-seq data to obtain accurate and comprehensive results. Here we reviewed the strategies for improving diverse transcriptomic studies and the annotation of genetic variants based on RNA-seq data. Mapping RNA-seq reads to the genome and transcriptome represent two distinct methods for quantifying the expression of genes/transcripts. Besides the known genes annotated in current databases, many novel genes/transcripts (especially those long noncoding RNAs) still can be identified on the reference genome using RNA-seq. Moreover, owing to the incompleteness of current reference genomes, some novel genes are missing from them. Genome- guided and de novo transcriptome reconstruction are two effective and complementary strategies for identifying those novel genes/transcripts on or beyond the reference genome. In addition, integrating the genes of distinct databases to conduct transcriptomics and genetics studies can improve the results of corresponding analyses.

  18. Global organization of a positive-strand RNA virus genome.

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    Baodong Wu

    Full Text Available The genomes of plus-strand RNA viruses contain many regulatory sequences and structures that direct different viral processes. The traditional view of these RNA elements are as local structures present in non-coding regions. However, this view is changing due to the discovery of regulatory elements in coding regions and functional long-range intra-genomic base pairing interactions. The ∼4.8 kb long RNA genome of the tombusvirus tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV contains these types of structural features, including six different functional long-distance interactions. We hypothesized that to achieve these multiple interactions this viral genome must utilize a large-scale organizational strategy and, accordingly, we sought to assess the global conformation of the entire TBSV genome. Atomic force micrographs of the genome indicated a mostly condensed structure composed of interconnected protrusions extending from a central hub. This configuration was consistent with the genomic secondary structure model generated using high-throughput selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analysed by primer extension (i.e. SHAPE, which predicted different sized RNA domains originating from a central region. Known RNA elements were identified in both domain and inter-domain regions, and novel structural features were predicted and functionally confirmed. Interestingly, only two of the six long-range interactions known to form were present in the structural model. However, for those interactions that did not form, complementary partner sequences were positioned relatively close to each other in the structure, suggesting that the secondary structure level of viral genome structure could provide a basic scaffold for the formation of different long-range interactions. The higher-order structural model for the TBSV RNA genome provides a snapshot of the complex framework that allows multiple functional components to operate in concert within a confined context.

  19. Pro-inflammatory cytokines derived from West Nile virus (WNV-infected SK-N-SH cells mediate neuroinflammatory markers and neuronal death

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    Nerurkar Vivek R

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background WNV-associated encephalitis (WNVE is characterized by increased production of pro-inflammatory mediators, glial cells activation and eventual loss of neurons. WNV infection of neurons is rapidly progressive and destructive whereas infection of non-neuronal brain cells is limited. However, the role of neurons and pathological consequences of pro-inflammatory cytokines released as a result of WNV infection is unclear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the role of key cytokines secreted by WNV-infected neurons in mediating neuroinflammatory markers and neuronal death. Methods A transformed human neuroblastoma cell line, SK-N-SH, was infected with WNV at multiplicity of infection (MOI-1 and -5, and WNV replication kinetics and expression profile of key pro-inflammatory cytokines were analyzed by plaque assay, qRT-PCR, and ELISA. Cell death was measured in SK-N-SH cell line in the presence and absence of neutralizing antibodies against key pro-inflammatory cytokines using cell viability assay, TUNEL and flow cytometry. Further, naïve primary astrocytes were treated with UV-inactivated supernatant from mock- and WNV-infected SK-N-SH cell line and the activation of astrocytes was measured using flow cytometry and ELISA. Results WNV-infected SK-N-SH cells induced the expression of IL-1β, -6, -8, and TNF-α in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which coincided with increase in virus-induced cell death. Treatment of cells with anti-IL-1β or -TNF-α resulted in significant reduction of the neurotoxic effects of WNV. Furthermore treatment of naïve astrocytes with UV-inactivated supernatant from WNV-infected SK-N-SH cell line increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and key inflammatory cytokines. Conclusion Our results for the first time suggest that neurons are one of the potential sources of pro-inflammatory cytokines in WNV-infected brain and these neuron-derived cytokines contribute to WNV

  20. Generating West Nile Virus from an Infectious Clone.

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    Vandergaast, Rianna; Fredericksen, Brenda L

    2016-01-01

    WNV infectious clones are valuable tools for elucidating WNV biology. Nevertheless, relatively few infectious WNV clones have been generated because their construction is hampered by the instability of flaviviral genomes. More recently, advances in cloning techniques as well as the development of several two-plasmid WNV infectious clone systems have facilitated the generation of WNV infectious clones. Here we described a protocol for recovering WNV from a two-plasmid system. In this approach, large quantities of these constructs are digested with restriction enzymes to produce complementary restriction sites at the 3' end of the upstream fragment and the 5' end of the downstream fragment. These fragments are then annealed to produce linear template for in vitro transcription to synthesize infectious RNA. The resulting RNA is transfected into cells and after several days WNV is recovered in the culture supernatant. This method can be used to generate virus from infectious clones encoding high- and low-pathogenicity strains of WNV, as well as chimeric virues.

  1. Functional RNA structures throughout the Hepatitis C Virus genome.

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    Adams, Rebecca L; Pirakitikulr, Nathan; Pyle, Anna Marie

    2017-06-01

    The single-stranded Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) genome adopts a set of elaborate RNA structures that are involved in every stage of the viral lifecycle. Recent advances in chemical probing, sequencing, and structural biology have facilitated analysis of RNA folding on a genome-wide scale, revealing novel structures and networks of interactions. These studies have underscored the active role played by RNA in every function of HCV and they open the door to new types of RNA-targeted therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of serum heat-inactivation and dilution on detection of anti-WNV antibodies in mice by West Nile virus E-protein microsphere immunoassay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri Namekar

    Full Text Available Immunopathogenesis studies employing West Nile virus (WNV mice model are important for the development of antivirals and vaccines against WNV. Since antibodies produced in mice early during WNV infection are essential for clearing virus from the periphery, it is important to detect early and persistent anti-WNV antibodies. ELISA and plaque reduction neutralization tests are traditionally used for detection of anti-WNV antibodies and WNV-neutralizing antibodies, respectively. Although these assays are sensitive and specific, they are expensive and time consuming. Microsphere immunoassays (MIA are sensitive, specific, allow for high throughput, are cost effective, require less time to perform than other methods, and require low serum volumes. Several assay parameters such as serum heat-inactivation (HI and dilution can alter WNV MIA sensitivity. We examined the effect of these parameters on WNV E-protein MIA (WNV E-MIA for the enhanced detection of anti-WNV IgM and IgG antibodies. WNV E-MIA was conducted using serial dilutions of HI and non-HI (NHI serum collected at various time points from mice inoculated with WNV. HI significantly enhanced detection of IgM and IgG antibodies as compared to NHI serum. WNV IgM and IgG antibodies in HI sera were detected earlier at day 3 and IgM antibodies persisted up to day 24 after infection. HI serum at 1∶20 dilution was found to be optimal for detection of both IgM and IgG antibodies as compared to higher-serum dilutions. Further, addition of exogenous complement to the HI serum decreased the WNV E-MIA sensitivity. These results suggest that serum-HI and optimal dilution enhance WNV E-MIA sensitivity by eliminating the complement interference, thereby detecting low-titer anti-WNV antibodies during early and late phases of infection. This improved MIA can also be readily employed for detection of low-titer antibodies for detection of other infectious agents and host proteins.

  3. Visualization of RNA structure models within the Integrative Genomics Viewer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busan, Steven; Weeks, Kevin M

    2017-07-01

    Analyses of the interrelationships between RNA structure and function are increasingly important components of genomic studies. The SHAPE-MaP strategy enables accurate RNA structure probing and realistic structure modeling of kilobase-length noncoding RNAs and mRNAs. Existing tools for visualizing RNA structure models are not suitable for efficient analysis of long, structurally heterogeneous RNAs. In addition, structure models are often advantageously interpreted in the context of other experimental data and gene annotation information, for which few tools currently exist. We have developed a module within the widely used and well supported open-source Integrative Genomics Viewer (IGV) that allows visualization of SHAPE and other chemical probing data, including raw reactivities, data-driven structural entropies, and data-constrained base-pair secondary structure models, in context with linear genomic data tracks. We illustrate the usefulness of visualizing RNA structure in the IGV by exploring structure models for a large viral RNA genome, comparing bacterial mRNA structure in cells with its structure under cell- and protein-free conditions, and comparing a noncoding RNA structure modeled using SHAPE data with a base-pairing model inferred through sequence covariation analysis. © 2017 Busan and Weeks; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  4. Comparative RNA genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backofen, Rolf; Gorodkin, Jan; Hofacker, Ivo L.

    2018-01-01

    Over the last two decades it has become clear that RNA is much more than just a boring intermediate in protein expression. Ancient RNAs still appear in the core information metabolism and comprise a surprisingly large component in bacterial gene regulation. A common theme with these types of mostly...... small RNAs is their reliance of conserved secondary structures. Large scale sequencing projects, on the other hand, have profoundly changed our understanding of eukaryotic genomes. Pervasively transcribed, they give rise to a plethora of large and evolutionarily extremely flexible noncoding RNAs...... that exert a vastly diverse array of molecule functions. In this chapter we provide a—necessarily incomplete—overview of the current state of comparative analysis of noncoding RNAs, emphasizing computational approaches as a means to gain a global picture of the modern RNA world....

  5. Noncoding Subgenomic Flavivirus RNA Is Processed by the Mosquito RNA Interference Machinery and Determines West Nile Virus Transmission by Culex pipiens Mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goertz, G.P.; Fros, J.J.; Miesen, P.; Vogels, C.B.F.; Bent, M.L. van der; Geertsema, C.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Rij, R.P. van; Oers, M.M. van; Pijlman, G.P.

    2016-01-01

    Flaviviruses, such as Zika virus, yellow fever virus, dengue virus, and West Nile virus (WNV), are a serious concern for human health. Flaviviruses produce an abundant noncoding subgenomic flavivirus RNA (sfRNA) in infected cells. sfRNA results from stalling of the host 5'-3' exoribonuclease

  6. Statistical properties of thermodynamically predicted RNA secondary structures in viral genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanò, M.; Lillo, F.; Miccichè, S.; Mantegna, R. N.

    2008-10-01

    By performing a comprehensive study on 1832 segments of 1212 complete genomes of viruses, we show that in viral genomes the hairpin structures of thermodynamically predicted RNA secondary structures are more abundant than expected under a simple random null hypothesis. The detected hairpin structures of RNA secondary structures are present both in coding and in noncoding regions for the four groups of viruses categorized as dsDNA, dsRNA, ssDNA and ssRNA. For all groups, hairpin structures of RNA secondary structures are detected more frequently than expected for a random null hypothesis in noncoding rather than in coding regions. However, potential RNA secondary structures are also present in coding regions of dsDNA group. In fact, we detect evolutionary conserved RNA secondary structures in conserved coding and noncoding regions of a large set of complete genomes of dsDNA herpesviruses.

  7. Protection of horses from West Nile virus Lineage 2 challenge following immunization with a whole, inactivated WNV lineage 1 vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Richard A; Bosco-Lauth, Angela; Syvrud, Kevin; Thomas, Anne; Meinert, Todd R; Ludlow, Deborah R; Cook, Corey; Salt, Jeremy; Ons, Ellen

    2014-09-22

    Over the last years West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 has spread from the African to the European continent. This study was conducted to demonstrate efficacy of an inactivated, lineage 1-based, WNV vaccine (Equip WNV) against intrathecal challenge of horses with a recent isolate of lineage 2 WNV. Twenty horses, sero-negative for WNV, were enrolled and were randomly allocated to one of two treatment groups: an unvaccinated control group (T01, n=10) and a group administered with Equip WNV (T02, n=10). Horses were vaccinated at Day 0 and 21 and were challenged at day 42 with WNV lineage 2, Nea Santa/Greece/2010. Personnel performing clinical observations were blinded to treatment allocation. Sixty percent of the controls had to be euthanized after challenge compared to none of the vaccinates. A significantly lower percentage of the vaccinated animals showed clinical disease (two different clinical observations present on the same day) on six different days of study and the percentage of days with clinical disease was significantly lower in the vaccinated group. A total of 80% of the non-vaccinated horses showed viremia while only one vaccinated animal was positive by virus isolation on a single occasion. Vaccinated animals started to develop antibodies against WNV lineage 2 from day 14 (2 weeks after the first vaccination) and at day 42 (the time of onset of immunity) they had all developed a strong antibody response. Histopathology scores for all unvaccinated animals ranged from mild to very severe in each of the tissues examined (cervical spinal cord, medulla and pons), whereas in vaccinated horses 8 of 10 animals had no lesions and 2 had minimal lesions in one tissue. In conclusion, Equip WNV significantly reduced the number of viremic horses, the duration and severity of clinical signs of disease and mortality following challenge with lineage 2 WNV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Signals Involved in Regulation of Hepatitis C Virus RNA Genome Translation and Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niepmann, Michael; Shalamova, Lyudmila A; Gerresheim, Gesche K; Rossbach, Oliver

    2018-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) preferentially replicates in the human liver and frequently causes chronic infection, often leading to cirrhosis and liver cancer. HCV is an enveloped virus classified in the genus Hepacivirus in the family Flaviviridae and has a single-stranded RNA genome of positive orientation. The HCV RNA genome is translated and replicated in the cytoplasm. Translation is controlled by the Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) in the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR), while also downstream elements like the cis -replication element (CRE) in the coding region and the 3' UTR are involved in translation regulation. The cis -elements controlling replication of the viral RNA genome are located mainly in the 5'- and 3'-UTRs at the genome ends but also in the protein coding region, and in part these signals overlap with the signals controlling RNA translation. Many long-range RNA-RNA interactions (LRIs) are predicted between different regions of the HCV RNA genome, and several such LRIs are actually involved in HCV translation and replication regulation. A number of RNA cis -elements recruit cellular RNA-binding proteins that are involved in the regulation of HCV translation and replication. In addition, the liver-specific microRNA-122 (miR-122) binds to two target sites at the 5' end of the viral RNA genome as well as to at least three additional target sites in the coding region and the 3' UTR. It is involved in the regulation of HCV RNA stability, translation and replication, thereby largely contributing to the hepatotropism of HCV. However, we are still far from completely understanding all interactions that regulate HCV RNA genome translation, stability, replication and encapsidation. In particular, many conclusions on the function of cis -elements in HCV replication have been obtained using full-length HCV genomes or near-full-length replicon systems. These include both genome ends, making it difficult to decide if a cis -element in question acts on HCV

  9. [The Impact of Visual Perceptual Abilities on the Performance on the Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability (WNV)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werpup-Stüwe, L; Petermann, F; Daseking, M

    2015-10-01

    The use of psychometric tests in with children and adolescents is especially important in psychological diagnostics. Nonverbal intelligence tests are very often used to diagnose psychological abnormalities and generate developmental prognosis independent of the child´s verbal abilities. The correlation of the German version of the Developmental Test of Visual Perception - Adolescents and Adults (DTVP-A) with the Wechsler Nonverbal Scala of Abilities (WNV) was calculated based on the results of 172 children, adolescents and young adults aged 9-21 years. Furthermore, it was examined if individuals with poor visual perceptual abilities scored lower on the WNV than healthy subjects. The correlations of the results scored on DTVP-A and WNV ranged from moderate to strong. The group with poor visual perceptual abilities scored significantly lower on the WNV than the control group. Nonverbal intelligence tests like the WNV are not reliable for estimating the intelligence of individuals with low visual perceptual abilities. Therefore, the intelligence of these subjects should be tested with a test that also contains verbal subtests. If poor visual perceptual abilities are suspected, then they should be tested. The DTVP-A seems to be the right instrument for achieving this goal. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. [Investigation of RNA viral genome amplification by multiple displacement amplification technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zheng; Li, Jian-Dong; Li, Chuan; Liang, Mi-Fang; Li, De-Xin

    2013-06-01

    In order to facilitate the detection of newly emerging or rare viral infectious diseases, a negative-strand RNA virus-severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome bunyavirus, and a positive-strand RNA virus-dengue virus, were used to investigate RNA viral genome unspecific amplification by multiple displacement amplification technique from clinical samples. Series of 10-fold diluted purified viral RNA were utilized as analog samples with different pathogen loads, after a series of reactions were sequentially processed, single-strand cDNA, double-strand cDNA, double-strand cDNA treated with ligation without or with supplemental RNA were generated, then a Phi29 DNA polymerase depended isothermal amplification was employed, and finally the target gene copies were detected by real time PCR assays to evaluate the amplification efficiencies of various methods. The results showed that multiple displacement amplification effects of single-strand or double-strand cDNA templates were limited, while the fold increases of double-strand cDNA templates treated with ligation could be up to 6 X 10(3), even 2 X 10(5) when supplemental RNA existed, and better results were obtained when viral RNA loads were lower. A RNA viral genome amplification system using multiple displacement amplification technique was established in this study and effective amplification of RNA viral genome with low load was achieved, which could provide a tool to synthesize adequate viral genome for multiplex pathogens detection.

  11. Signals Involved in Regulation of Hepatitis C Virus RNA Genome Translation and Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Niepmann

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV preferentially replicates in the human liver and frequently causes chronic infection, often leading to cirrhosis and liver cancer. HCV is an enveloped virus classified in the genus Hepacivirus in the family Flaviviridae and has a single-stranded RNA genome of positive orientation. The HCV RNA genome is translated and replicated in the cytoplasm. Translation is controlled by the Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES in the 5′ untranslated region (5′ UTR, while also downstream elements like the cis-replication element (CRE in the coding region and the 3′ UTR are involved in translation regulation. The cis-elements controlling replication of the viral RNA genome are located mainly in the 5′- and 3′-UTRs at the genome ends but also in the protein coding region, and in part these signals overlap with the signals controlling RNA translation. Many long-range RNA–RNA interactions (LRIs are predicted between different regions of the HCV RNA genome, and several such LRIs are actually involved in HCV translation and replication regulation. A number of RNA cis-elements recruit cellular RNA-binding proteins that are involved in the regulation of HCV translation and replication. In addition, the liver-specific microRNA-122 (miR-122 binds to two target sites at the 5′ end of the viral RNA genome as well as to at least three additional target sites in the coding region and the 3′ UTR. It is involved in the regulation of HCV RNA stability, translation and replication, thereby largely contributing to the hepatotropism of HCV. However, we are still far from completely understanding all interactions that regulate HCV RNA genome translation, stability, replication and encapsidation. In particular, many conclusions on the function of cis-elements in HCV replication have been obtained using full-length HCV genomes or near-full-length replicon systems. These include both genome ends, making it difficult to decide if a cis-element in

  12. Disruption of Specific RNA-RNA Interactions in a Double-Stranded RNA Virus Inhibits Genome Packaging and Virus Infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Teodoro; Sung, Po-Yu; Roy, Polly

    2015-12-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) causes hemorrhagic disease in economically important livestock. The BTV genome is organized into ten discrete double-stranded RNA molecules (S1-S10) which have been suggested to follow a sequential packaging pathway from smallest to largest segment during virus capsid assembly. To substantiate and extend these studies, we have investigated the RNA sorting and packaging mechanisms with a new experimental approach using inhibitory oligonucleotides. Putative packaging signals present in the 3'untranslated regions of BTV segments were targeted by a number of nuclease resistant oligoribonucleotides (ORNs) and their effects on virus replication in cell culture were assessed. ORNs complementary to the 3' UTR of BTV RNAs significantly inhibited virus replication without affecting protein synthesis. Same ORNs were found to inhibit complex formation when added to a novel RNA-RNA interaction assay which measured the formation of supramolecular complexes between and among different RNA segments. ORNs targeting the 3'UTR of BTV segment 10, the smallest RNA segment, were shown to be the most potent and deletions or substitution mutations of the targeted sequences diminished the RNA complexes and abolished the recovery of viable viruses using reverse genetics. Cell-free capsid assembly/RNA packaging assay also confirmed that the inhibitory ORNs could interfere with RNA packaging and further substitution mutations within the putative RNA packaging sequence have identified the recognition sequence concerned. Exchange of 3'UTR between segments have further demonstrated that RNA recognition was segment specific, most likely acting as part of the secondary structure of the entire genomic segment. Our data confirm that genome packaging in this segmented dsRNA virus occurs via the formation of supramolecular complexes formed by the interaction of specific sequences located in the 3' UTRs. Additionally, the inhibition of packaging in-trans with inhibitory ORNs

  13. Enhancement of single guide RNA transcription for efficient CRISPR/Cas-based genomic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ui-Tei, Kumiko; Maruyama, Shohei; Nakano, Yuko

    2017-06-01

    Genomic engineering using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) protein is a promising approach for targeting the genomic DNA of virtually any organism in a sequence-specific manner. Recent remarkable advances in CRISPR/Cas technology have made it a feasible system for use in therapeutic applications and biotechnology. In the CRISPR/Cas system, a guide RNA (gRNA), interacting with the Cas protein, recognizes a genomic region with sequence complementarity, and the double-stranded DNA at the target site is cleaved by the Cas protein. A widely used gRNA is an RNA polymerase III (pol III)-driven single gRNA (sgRNA), which is produced by artificial fusion of CRISPR RNA (crRNA) and trans-activation crRNA (tracrRNA). However, we identified a TTTT stretch, known as a termination signal of RNA pol III, in the scaffold region of the sgRNA. Here, we revealed that sgRNA carrying a TTTT stretch reduces the efficiency of sgRNA transcription due to premature transcriptional termination, and decreases the efficiency of genome editing. Unexpectedly, it was also shown that the premature terminated sgRNA may have an adverse effect of inducing RNA interference. Such disadvantageous effects were avoided by substituting one base in the TTTT stretch.

  14. 4EBP-Dependent Signaling Supports West Nile Virus Growth and Protein Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shives, Katherine D; Massey, Aaron R; May, Nicholas A; Morrison, Thomas E; Beckham, J David

    2016-10-18

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a (+) sense, single-stranded RNA virus in the Flavivirus genus. WNV RNA possesses an m7 GpppN m 5' cap with 2'- O -methylation that mimics host mRNAs preventing innate immune detection and allowing the virus to translate its RNA genome through the utilization of cap-dependent translation initiation effectors in a wide variety of host species. Our prior work established the requirement of the host mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) for optimal WNV growth and protein expression; yet, the roles of the downstream effectors of mTORC1 in WNV translation are unknown. In this study, we utilize gene deletion mutants in the ribosomal protein kinase called S6 kinase (S6K) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein (4EBP) pathways downstream of mTORC1 to define the role of mTOR-dependent translation initiation signals in WNV gene expression and growth. We now show that WNV growth and protein expression are dependent on mTORC1 mediated-regulation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein/eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein (4EBP/eIF4E) interaction and eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) complex formation to support viral growth and viral protein expression. We also show that the canonical signals of mTORC1 activation including ribosomal protein s6 (rpS6) and S6K phosphorylation are not required for WNV growth in these same conditions. Our data suggest that the mTORC1/4EBP/eIF4E signaling axis is activated to support the translation of the WNV genome.

  15. 4EBP-Dependent Signaling Supports West Nile Virus Growth and Protein Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine D. Shives

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a (+ sense, single-stranded RNA virus in the Flavivirus genus. WNV RNA possesses an m7GpppNm 5′ cap with 2′-O-methylation that mimics host mRNAs preventing innate immune detection and allowing the virus to translate its RNA genome through the utilization of cap-dependent translation initiation effectors in a wide variety of host species. Our prior work established the requirement of the host mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1 for optimal WNV growth and protein expression; yet, the roles of the downstream effectors of mTORC1 in WNV translation are unknown. In this study, we utilize gene deletion mutants in the ribosomal protein kinase called S6 kinase (S6K and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein (4EBP pathways downstream of mTORC1 to define the role of mTOR-dependent translation initiation signals in WNV gene expression and growth. We now show that WNV growth and protein expression are dependent on mTORC1 mediated-regulation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein/eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein (4EBP/eIF4E interaction and eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F complex formation to support viral growth and viral protein expression. We also show that the canonical signals of mTORC1 activation including ribosomal protein s6 (rpS6 and S6K phosphorylation are not required for WNV growth in these same conditions. Our data suggest that the mTORC1/4EBP/eIF4E signaling axis is activated to support the translation of the WNV genome.

  16. Unique small RNA signatures uncovered in the tammar wallaby genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay James

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small RNAs have proven to be essential regulatory molecules encoded within eukaryotic genomes. These short RNAs participate in a diverse array of cellular processes including gene regulation, chromatin dynamics and genome defense. The tammar wallaby, a marsupial mammal, is a powerful comparative model for studying the evolution of regulatory networks. As part of the genome sequencing initiative for the tammar, we have explored the evolution of each of the major classes of mammalian small RNAs in an Australian marsupial for the first time, including the first genome-scale analysis of the newest class of small RNAs, centromere repeat associated short interacting RNAs (crasiRNAs. Results Using next generation sequencing, we have characterized the major classes of small RNAs, micro (mi RNAs, piwi interacting (pi RNAs, and the centromere repeat associated short interacting (crasi RNAs in the tammar. We examined each of these small RNA classes with respect to the newly assembled tammar wallaby genome for gene and repeat features, salient features that define their canonical sequences, and the constitution of both highly conserved and species-specific members. Using a combination of miRNA hairpin predictions and co-mapping with miRBase entries, we identified a highly conserved cluster of miRNA genes on the X chromosome in the tammar and a total of 94 other predicted miRNA producing genes. Mapping all miRNAs to the tammar genome and comparing target genes among tammar, mouse and human, we identified 163 conserved target genes. An additional nine genes were identified in tammar that do not have an orthologous miRNA target in human and likely represent novel miRNA-regulated genes in the tammar. A survey of the tammar gonadal piRNAs shows that these small RNAs are enriched in retroelements and carry members from both marsupial and tammar-specific repeat classes. Lastly, this study includes the first in-depth analyses of the newly

  17. Diversity of 23S rRNA genes within individual prokaryotic genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The concept of ribosomal constraints on rRNA genes is deduced primarily based on the comparison of consensus rRNA sequences between closely related species, but recent advances in whole-genome sequencing allow evaluation of this concept within organisms with multiple rRNA operons. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the 23S rRNA gene as an example, we analyzed the diversity among individual rRNA genes within a genome. Of 184 prokaryotic species containing multiple 23S rRNA genes, diversity was observed in 113 (61.4% genomes (mean 0.40%, range 0.01%-4.04%. Significant (1.17%-4.04% intragenomic variation was found in 8 species. In 5 of the 8 species, the diversity in the primary structure had only minimal effect on the secondary structure (stem versus loop transition. In the remaining 3 species, the diversity significantly altered local secondary structure, but the alteration appears minimized through complex rearrangement. Intervening sequences (IVS, ranging between 9 and 1471 nt in size, were found in 7 species. IVS in Deinococcus radiodurans and Nostoc sp. encode transposases. T. tengcongensis was the only species in which intragenomic diversity >3% was observed among 4 paralogous 23S rRNA genes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings indicate tight ribosomal constraints on individual 23S rRNA genes within a genome. Although classification using primary 23S rRNA sequences could be erroneous, significant diversity among paralogous 23S rRNA genes was observed only once in the 184 species analyzed, indicating little overall impact on the mainstream of 23S rRNA gene-based prokaryotic taxonomy.

  18. Small RNA pathways and diversity in model legumes: lessons from genomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar eBustos-Sanmamed

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Small non coding RNAs (smRNA participate in the regulation of development, cell differentiation, adaptation to environmental constraints and defense responses in plants. They negatively regulate gene expression by degrading specific mRNA targets, repressing their translation or modifying chromatin conformation through homologous interaction with target loci. MicroRNAs (miRNA and short-interfering RNAs (siRNA are generated from long double stranded RNA (dsRNA that are cleaved into 20- to 24-nucleotide dsRNAs by RNase III proteins called DICERs (DCL. One strand of the duplex is then loaded onto effective complexes containing different ARGONAUTE (AGO proteins. In this review, we explored smRNA diversity in model legumes and compiled available data from miRBAse, the miRNA database, and from 22 reports of smRNA deep sequencing or miRNA identification genome-wide in Medicago truncatula, Glycine max and Lotus japonicus. In addition to conserved miRNAs present in other plant species, 229, 179 and 35 novel miRNA families were identified respectively in these 3 legumes, among which several seems legume-specific. New potential functions of several miRNAs in the legume-specific nodulation process are discussed. Furthermore, a new category of siRNA, the phased siRNAs, which seems to mainly regulate disease-resistance genes, was recently discovered in legumes. Despite that the genome sequence of model legumes are not yet fully completed, further analysis was performed by database mining of gene families and protein characteristics of DCLs and AGOs in these genomes. Although most components of the smRNA pathways are conserved, identifiable homologs of key smRNA players from non-legumes could not yet be detected in M. truncatula available genomic and expressed sequence databases. In addition, an important gene diversification was observed in the three legumes. Functional significance of these variant isoforms may reflect peculiarities of smRNA biogenesis in

  19. Tree decomposition based fast search of RNA structures including pseudoknots in genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yinglei; Liu, Chunmei; Malmberg, Russell; Pan, Fangfang; Cai, Liming

    2005-01-01

    Searching genomes for RNA secondary structure with computational methods has become an important approach to the annotation of non-coding RNAs. However, due to the lack of efficient algorithms for accurate RNA structure-sequence alignment, computer programs capable of fast and effectively searching genomes for RNA secondary structures have not been available. In this paper, a novel RNA structure profiling model is introduced based on the notion of a conformational graph to specify the consensus structure of an RNA family. Tree decomposition yields a small tree width t for such conformation graphs (e.g., t = 2 for stem loops and only a slight increase for pseudo-knots). Within this modelling framework, the optimal alignment of a sequence to the structure model corresponds to finding a maximum valued isomorphic subgraph and consequently can be accomplished through dynamic programming on the tree decomposition of the conformational graph in time O(k(t)N(2)), where k is a small parameter; and N is the size of the projiled RNA structure. Experiments show that the application of the alignment algorithm to search in genomes yields the same search accuracy as methods based on a Covariance model with a significant reduction in computation time. In particular; very accurate searches of tmRNAs in bacteria genomes and of telomerase RNAs in yeast genomes can be accomplished in days, as opposed to months required by other methods. The tree decomposition based searching tool is free upon request and can be downloaded at our site h t t p ://w.uga.edu/RNA-informatics/software/index.php.

  20. Nucleotide composition of the Zika virus RNA genome and its codon usage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hemert, Formijn; Berkhout, Ben

    2016-01-01

    RNA viruses have genomes with a distinct nucleotide composition and codon usage. We present the global characteristics of the RNA genome of Zika virus (ZIKV), an emerging pathogen within the Flavivirus genus. ZIKV was first isolated in 1947 in Uganda, caused a widespread epidemic in South and

  1. SearchSmallRNA: a graphical interface tool for the assemblage of viral genomes using small RNA libraries data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Roberto R S; Vaslin, Maite F S

    2014-03-07

    Next-generation parallel sequencing (NGS) allows the identification of viral pathogens by sequencing the small RNAs of infected hosts. Thus, viral genomes may be assembled from host immune response products without prior virus enrichment, amplification or purification. However, mapping of the vast information obtained presents a bioinformatics challenge. In order to by pass the need of line command and basic bioinformatics knowledge, we develop a mapping software with a graphical interface to the assemblage of viral genomes from small RNA dataset obtained by NGS. SearchSmallRNA was developed in JAVA language version 7 using NetBeans IDE 7.1 software. The program also allows the analysis of the viral small interfering RNAs (vsRNAs) profile; providing an overview of the size distribution and other features of the vsRNAs produced in infected cells. The program performs comparisons between each read sequenced present in a library and a chosen reference genome. Reads showing Hamming distances smaller or equal to an allowed mismatched will be selected as positives and used to the assemblage of a long nucleotide genome sequence. In order to validate the software, distinct analysis using NGS dataset obtained from HIV and two plant viruses were used to reconstruct viral whole genomes. SearchSmallRNA program was able to reconstructed viral genomes using NGS of small RNA dataset with high degree of reliability so it will be a valuable tool for viruses sequencing and discovery. It is accessible and free to all research communities and has the advantage to have an easy-to-use graphical interface. SearchSmallRNA was written in Java and is freely available at http://www.microbiologia.ufrj.br/ssrna/.

  2. CID-miRNA: A web server for prediction of novel miRNA precursors in human genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, Sonika; Vaz, Candida; Gupta, Vipin; Bhatia, Rohit; Maheshwari, Sachin; Srinivasan, Ashwin; Bhattacharya, Alok

    2008-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNA) are a class of non-protein coding functional RNAs that are thought to regulate expression of target genes by direct interaction with mRNAs. miRNAs have been identified through both experimental and computational methods in a variety of eukaryotic organisms. Though these approaches have been partially successful, there is a need to develop more tools for detection of these RNAs as they are also thought to be present in abundance in many genomes. In this report we describe a tool and a web server, named CID-miRNA, for identification of miRNA precursors in a given DNA sequence, utilising secondary structure-based filtering systems and an algorithm based on stochastic context free grammar trained on human miRNAs. CID-miRNA analyses a given sequence using a web interface, for presence of putative miRNA precursors and the generated output lists all the potential regions that can form miRNA-like structures. It can also scan large genomic sequences for the presence of potential miRNA precursors in its stand-alone form. The web server can be accessed at (http://mirna.jnu.ac.in/cidmirna/)

  3. MicroRNA reduction of neuronal West Nile virus replication attenuates and affords a protective immune response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brostoff, Terza; Pesavento, Patricia A; Barker, Christopher M; Kenney, Joan L; Dietrich, Elizabeth A; Duggal, Nisha K; Bosco-Lauth, Angela M; Brault, Aaron C

    2016-10-17

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an important agent of human encephalitis that has quickly become endemic across much of the United States since its identification in North America in 1999. While the majority (∼75%) of infections are subclinical, neurologic disease can occur in a subset of cases, with outcomes including permanent neurologic damage and death. Currently, there are no WNV vaccines approved for use in humans. This study introduces a novel vaccine platform for WNV to reduce viral replication in the central nervous system while maintaining peripheral replication to elicit strong neutralizing antibody titers. Vaccine candidates were engineered to incorporate microRNA (miRNA) target sequences for a cognate miRNA expressed only in neurons, allowing the host miRNAs to target viral transcription through endogenous RNA silencing. To maintain stability, these targets were incorporated in multiple locations within the 3'-untranslated region, flanking sequences essential for viral replication without affecting the viral open reading frame. All candidates replicated comparably to wild type WNV in vitro within cells that did not express the cognate miRNA. Insertional control viruses were also capable of neuroinvasion and neurovirulence in vivo in CD-1 mice. Vaccine viruses were safe at all doses tested and did not demonstrate mutations associated with a reversion to virulence when serially passaged in mice. All vaccine constructs were protective from lethal challenge in mice, producing 93-100% protection at the highest dose tested. Overall, this is a safe and effective attenuation strategy with broad potential application for vaccine development. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Cell-type-specific genome editing with a microRNA-responsive CRISPR–Cas9 switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirosawa, Moe; Fujita, Yoshihiko; Parr, Callum J. C.; Hayashi, Karin; Kashida, Shunnichi; Hotta, Akitsu; Woltjen, Knut

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The CRISPR–Cas9 system is a powerful genome-editing tool useful in a variety of biotechnology and biomedical applications. Here we developed a synthetic RNA-based, microRNA (miRNA)-responsive CRISPR–Cas9 system (miR-Cas9 switch) in which the genome editing activity of Cas9 can be modulated through endogenous miRNA signatures in mammalian cells. We created miR-Cas9 switches by using a miRNA-complementary sequence in the 5΄-UTR of mRNA encoding Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9. The miR-21-Cas9 or miR-302-Cas9 switches selectively and efficiently responded to miR-21-5p in HeLa cells or miR-302a-5p in human induced pluripotent stem cells, and post-transcriptionally attenuated the Cas9 activity only in the target cells. Moreover, the miR-Cas9 switches could differentially control the genome editing by sensing endogenous miRNA activities within a heterogeneous cell population. Our miR-Cas9 switch system provides a promising framework for cell-type selective genome editing and cell engineering based on intracellular miRNA information. PMID:28525578

  5. Nicotiana small RNA sequences support a host genome origin of cucumber mosaic virus satellite RNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Zahid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Satellite RNAs (satRNAs are small noncoding subviral RNA pathogens in plants that depend on helper viruses for replication and spread. Despite many decades of research, the origin of satRNAs remains unknown. In this study we show that a β-glucuronidase (GUS transgene fused with a Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV Y satellite RNA (Y-Sat sequence (35S-GUS:Sat was transcriptionally repressed in N. tabacum in comparison to a 35S-GUS transgene that did not contain the Y-Sat sequence. This repression was not due to DNA methylation at the 35S promoter, but was associated with specific DNA methylation at the Y-Sat sequence. Both northern blot hybridization and small RNA deep sequencing detected 24-nt siRNAs in wild-type Nicotiana plants with sequence homology to Y-Sat, suggesting that the N. tabacum genome contains Y-Sat-like sequences that give rise to 24-nt sRNAs capable of guiding RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM to the Y-Sat sequence in the 35S-GUS:Sat transgene. Consistent with this, Southern blot hybridization detected multiple DNA bands in Nicotiana plants that had sequence homology to Y-Sat, suggesting that Y-Sat-like sequences exist in the Nicotiana genome as repetitive DNA, a DNA feature associated with 24-nt sRNAs. Our results point to a host genome origin for CMV satRNAs, and suggest novel approach of using small RNA sequences for finding the origin of other satRNAs.

  6. Interactions Between HIV-1 Gag and Viral RNA Genome Enhance Virion Assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dilley, Kari A; Nikolaitchik, Olga A; Galli, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    between Gag and viral RNA are required for the enhancement of particle production. Taken together, these studies are consistent with our previous hypothesis that specific dimeric viral RNA:Gag interactions are the nucleation event of infectious virion assembly, ensuring that one RNA dimer is packaged......Most HIV-1 virions contain two copies of full-length viral RNA, indicating that genome packaging is efficient and tightly regulated. However, the structural protein Gag is the only component required for the assembly of noninfectious virus-like particles and the viral RNA is dispensable...... in this process. The mechanism that allows HIV-1 to achieve such high efficiency of genome packaging when a packageable viral RNA is not required for virus assembly is currently unknown. In this report, we examined the role of HIV-1 RNA in virus assembly and found that packageable HIV-1 RNA enhances particle...

  7. In vivo studies of genomic packaging in the dsRNA bacteriophage Φ8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindich Leonard

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Φ8 is a bacteriophage containing a genome of three segments of double-stranded RNA inside a polyhedral capsid enveloped in a lipid-containing membrane. Plus strand RNA binds and is packaged by empty procapsids. Whereas Φ6, another member of the Cystoviridae, shows high stringency, serial dependence and precision in its genomic packaging in vitro and in vivo, Φ8 packaging is more flexible. Unique sequences (pac near the 5' ends of plus strands are necessary and sufficient for Φ6 genomic packaging and the RNA binding sites are located on P1, the major structural protein of the procapsid. Results In this paper the boundaries of the Φ8 pac sequences have been explored by testing the in vivo packaging efficacy of transcripts containing deletions or changes in the RNA sequences. The pac sequences have been localized to the 5' untranslated regions of the viral transcripts. Major changes in the pac sequences are either tolerated or ameliorated by suppressor mutations in the RNA sequence. Changes in the genomic packaging program can be established as a result of mutations in P1, the major structural protein of the procapsid and the determinant of RNA binding specificity. Conclusion Although Φ8 is distantly related to bacteriophage Φ6, and does not show sequence similarity, it has a similar genomic packaging program. This program, however, is less stringent than that of Φ6.

  8. Cell-type-specific genome editing with a microRNA-responsive CRISPR-Cas9 switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirosawa, Moe; Fujita, Yoshihiko; Parr, Callum J C; Hayashi, Karin; Kashida, Shunnichi; Hotta, Akitsu; Woltjen, Knut; Saito, Hirohide

    2017-07-27

    The CRISPR-Cas9 system is a powerful genome-editing tool useful in a variety of biotechnology and biomedical applications. Here we developed a synthetic RNA-based, microRNA (miRNA)-responsive CRISPR-Cas9 system (miR-Cas9 switch) in which the genome editing activity of Cas9 can be modulated through endogenous miRNA signatures in mammalian cells. We created miR-Cas9 switches by using a miRNA-complementary sequence in the 5΄-UTR of mRNA encoding Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9. The miR-21-Cas9 or miR-302-Cas9 switches selectively and efficiently responded to miR-21-5p in HeLa cells or miR-302a-5p in human induced pluripotent stem cells, and post-transcriptionally attenuated the Cas9 activity only in the target cells. Moreover, the miR-Cas9 switches could differentially control the genome editing by sensing endogenous miRNA activities within a heterogeneous cell population. Our miR-Cas9 switch system provides a promising framework for cell-type selective genome editing and cell engineering based on intracellular miRNA information. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. Genomic mid-range inhomogeneity correlates with an abundance of RNA secondary structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Jun

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomes possess different levels of non-randomness, in particular, an inhomogeneity in their nucleotide composition. Inhomogeneity is manifest from the short-range where neighboring nucleotides influence the choice of base at a site, to the long-range, commonly known as isochores, where a particular base composition can span millions of nucleotides. A separate genomic issue that has yet to be thoroughly elucidated is the role that RNA secondary structure (SS plays in gene expression. Results We present novel data and approaches that show that a mid-range inhomogeneity (~30 to 1000 nt not only exists in mammalian genomes but is also significantly associated with strong RNA SS. A whole-genome bioinformatics investigation of local SS in a set of 11,315 non-redundant human pre-mRNA sequences has been carried out. Four distinct components of these molecules (5'-UTRs, exons, introns and 3'-UTRs were considered separately, since they differ in overall nucleotide composition, sequence motifs and periodicities. For each pre-mRNA component, the abundance of strong local SS ( Conclusion We demonstrate that the excess of strong local SS in pre-mRNAs is linked to the little explored phenomenon of genomic mid-range inhomogeneity (MRI. MRI is an interdependence between nucleotide choice and base composition over a distance of 20–1000 nt. Additionally, we have created a public computational resource to support further study of genomic MRI.

  10. Deep sequencing of foot-and-mouth disease virus reveals RNA sequences involved in genome packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Grace; Newman, Joseph; Wright, Caroline F; Lasecka-Dykes, Lidia; Haydon, Daniel T; Cottam, Eleanor M; Tuthill, Tobias J

    2017-10-18

    Non-enveloped viruses protect their genomes by packaging them into an outer shell or capsid of virus-encoded proteins. Packaging and capsid assembly in RNA viruses can involve interactions between capsid proteins and secondary structures in the viral genome as exemplified by the RNA bacteriophage MS2 and as proposed for other RNA viruses of plants, animals and human. In the picornavirus family of non-enveloped RNA viruses, the requirements for genome packaging remain poorly understood. Here we show a novel and simple approach to identify predicted RNA secondary structures involved in genome packaging in the picornavirus foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). By interrogating deep sequencing data generated from both packaged and unpackaged populations of RNA we have determined multiple regions of the genome with constrained variation in the packaged population. Predicted secondary structures of these regions revealed stem loops with conservation of structure and a common motif at the loop. Disruption of these features resulted in attenuation of virus growth in cell culture due to a reduction in assembly of mature virions. This study provides evidence for the involvement of predicted RNA structures in picornavirus packaging and offers a readily transferable methodology for identifying packaging requirements in many other viruses. Importance In order to transmit their genetic material to a new host, non-enveloped viruses must protect their genomes by packaging them into an outer shell or capsid of virus-encoded proteins. For many non-enveloped RNA viruses the requirements for this critical part of the viral life cycle remain poorly understood. We have identified RNA sequences involved in genome packaging of the picornavirus foot-and-mouth disease virus. This virus causes an economically devastating disease of livestock affecting both the developed and developing world. The experimental methods developed to carry out this work are novel, simple and transferable to the

  11. Genome-scale characterization of RNA tertiary structures and their functional impact by RNA solvent accessibility prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuedong; Li, Xiaomei; Zhao, Huiying; Zhan, Jian; Wang, Jihua; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2017-01-01

    As most RNA structures are elusive to structure determination, obtaining solvent accessible surface areas (ASAs) of nucleotides in an RNA structure is an important first step to characterize potential functional sites and core structural regions. Here, we developed RNAsnap, the first machine-learning method trained on protein-bound RNA structures for solvent accessibility prediction. Built on sequence profiles from multiple sequence alignment (RNAsnap-prof), the method provided robust prediction in fivefold cross-validation and an independent test (Pearson correlation coefficients, r, between predicted and actual ASA values are 0.66 and 0.63, respectively). Application of the method to 6178 mRNAs revealed its positive correlation to mRNA accessibility by dimethyl sulphate (DMS) experimentally measured in vivo (r = 0.37) but not in vitro (r = 0.07), despite the lack of training on mRNAs and the fact that DMS accessibility is only an approximation to solvent accessibility. We further found strong association across coding and noncoding regions between predicted solvent accessibility of the mutation site of a single nucleotide variant (SNV) and the frequency of that variant in the population for 2.2 million SNVs obtained in the 1000 Genomes Project. Moreover, mapping solvent accessibility of RNAs to the human genome indicated that introns, 5' cap of 5' and 3' cap of 3' untranslated regions, are more solvent accessible, consistent with their respective functional roles. These results support conformational selections as the mechanism for the formation of RNA-protein complexes and highlight the utility of genome-scale characterization of RNA tertiary structures by RNAsnap. The server and its stand-alone downloadable version are available at http://sparks-lab.org. © 2016 Yang et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  12. Determination of the number of copies of genes coding for 5s-rRNA and tRNA in the genomes of 43 species of wheat and Aegilops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakhitov, V.A.; Gimalov, F.R.; Nikonorov, Yu.M.

    1986-01-01

    The number of 5s-rRNA and tRNA genes has been studied in 43 species of wheat and Aegilops differing in ploidy level, genomic composition and origin. It has been demonstrated that the repeatability of the 5s-rRNA and tRNA genes increases in wheat with increasing ploidy level, but not in proportion to the genome size. In Aegilops, in distinction from wheat, the relative as well as absolute number of 5s-RNA genes increases with increasing ploidy level. The proportion of the sequences coding for tRNA in the dipoloid and polyploid Aegilops species is practically similar, while the number of tRNA genes increases almost 2-3 times with increasing ploidy level. Large variability has been recorded between the species with similar genomic composition and ploidy level in respect of the number of the 5s-rRNA and tRNA genes. It has been demonstrated that integration of the initial genomes of the amphidiploids is accompanied by elimination of a particular part of these genomes. It has been concluded that the mechanisms of establishment and evolution of genomes in the intra- and intergeneric allopolyploids are not identical

  13. MicroRNA target finding by comparative genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Robin C; Burge, Christopher B

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in virtually every metazoan biological process, exerting a widespread impact on gene expression. MicroRNA repression is conferred by relatively short "seed match" sequences, although the degree of repression varies widely for individual target sites. The factors controlling whether, and to what extent, a target site is repressed are not fully understood. As an alternative to target prediction based on sequence alone, comparative genomics has emerged as an invaluable tool for identifying miRNA targets that are conserved by natural selection, and hence likely effective and important. Here we present a general method for quantifying conservation of miRNA seed match sites, separating it from background conservation, controlling for various biases, and predicting miRNA targets. This method is useful not only for generating predictions but also as a tool for empirically evaluating the importance of various target prediction criteria.

  14. Unprecedented genomic diversity of RNA viruses in arthropods reveals the ancestry of negative-sense RNA viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ci-Xiu; Shi, Mang; Tian, Jun-Hua; Lin, Xian-Dan; Kang, Yan-Jun; Chen, Liang-Jun; Qin, Xin-Cheng; Xu, Jianguo; Holmes, Edward C; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2015-01-29

    Although arthropods are important viral vectors, the biodiversity of arthropod viruses, as well as the role that arthropods have played in viral origins and evolution, is unclear. Through RNA sequencing of 70 arthropod species we discovered 112 novel viruses that appear to be ancestral to much of the documented genetic diversity of negative-sense RNA viruses, a number of which are also present as endogenous genomic copies. With this greatly enriched diversity we revealed that arthropods contain viruses that fall basal to major virus groups, including the vertebrate-specific arenaviruses, filoviruses, hantaviruses, influenza viruses, lyssaviruses, and paramyxoviruses. We similarly documented a remarkable diversity of genome structures in arthropod viruses, including a putative circular form, that sheds new light on the evolution of genome organization. Hence, arthropods are a major reservoir of viral genetic diversity and have likely been central to viral evolution.

  15. Shift in genomic RNA patterns of human rotaviruses isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rotalvirus-positive specimens from 322 infants and young children submitted to private patl1ology laboratories were analysed by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of the viral RNA. A predominance of long RNA profiles occurred and a temporal shift in the genomic patterns was identified. An epidemic of the classic shorter ...

  16. Divergence of RNA polymerase ? subunits in angiosperm plastid genomes is mediated by genomic rearrangement

    OpenAIRE

    Blazier, J. Chris; Ruhlman, Tracey A.; Weng, Mao-Lun; Rehman, Sumaiyah K.; Sabir, Jamal S. M.; Jansen, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    Genes for the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP) persist in the plastid genomes of all photosynthetic angiosperms. However, three unrelated lineages (Annonaceae, Passifloraceae and Geraniaceae) have been identified with unusually divergent open reading frames (ORFs) in the conserved region of rpoA, the gene encoding the PEP ? subunit. We used sequence-based approaches to evaluate whether these genes retain function. Both gene sequences and complete plastid genome sequences were assembled an...

  17. A novel rat genomic simple repeat DNA with RNA-homology shows triplex (H-DNA)-like structure and tissue-specific RNA expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, Indranil; Rath, Pramod C.

    2005-01-01

    Mammalian genome contains a wide variety of repetitive DNA sequences of relatively unknown function. We report a novel 227 bp simple repeat DNA (3.3 DNA) with a d {(GA) 7 A (AG) 7 } dinucleotide mirror repeat from the rat (Rattus norvegicus) genome. 3.3 DNA showed 75-85% homology with several eukaryotic mRNAs due to (GA/CU) n dinucleotide repeats by nBlast search and a dispersed distribution in the rat genome by Southern blot hybridization with [ 32 P]3.3 DNA. The d {(GA) 7 A (AG) 7 } mirror repeat formed a triplex (H-DNA)-like structure in vitro. Two large RNAs of 9.1 and 7.5 kb were detected by [ 32 P]3.3 DNA in rat brain by Northern blot hybridization indicating expression of such simple sequence repeats at RNA level in vivo. Further, several cDNAs were isolated from a rat cDNA library by [ 32 P]3.3 DNA probe. Three such cDNAs showed tissue-specific RNA expression in rat. pRT 4.1 cDNA showed strong expression of a 2.39 kb RNA in brain and spleen, pRT 5.5 cDNA showed strong expression of a 2.8 kb RNA in brain and a 3.9 kb RNA in lungs, and pRT 11.4 cDNA showed weak expression of a 2.4 kb RNA in lungs. Thus, genomic simple sequence repeats containing d (GA/CT) n dinucleotides are transcriptionally expressed and regulated in rat tissues. Such d (GA/CT) n dinucleotide repeats may form structural elements (e.g., triplex) which may be sites for functional regulation of genomic coding sequences as well as RNAs. This may be a general function of such transcriptionally active simple sequence repeats widely dispersed in mammalian genome

  18. Whole genome analysis of CRISPR Cas9 sgRNA off-target homologies via an efficient computational algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hong; Zhou, Michael; Li, Daisy; Manthey, Joseph; Lioutikova, Ekaterina; Wang, Hong; Zeng, Xiao

    2017-11-17

    The beauty and power of the genome editing mechanism, CRISPR Cas9 endonuclease system, lies in the fact that it is RNA-programmable such that Cas9 can be guided to any genomic loci complementary to a 20-nt RNA, single guide RNA (sgRNA), to cleave double stranded DNA, allowing the introduction of wanted mutations. Unfortunately, it has been reported repeatedly that the sgRNA can also guide Cas9 to off-target sites where the DNA sequence is homologous to sgRNA. Using human genome and Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) as an example, this article mathematically analyzed the probabilities of off-target homologies of sgRNAs and discovered that for large genome size such as human genome, potential off-target homologies are inevitable for sgRNA selection. A highly efficient computationl algorithm was developed for whole genome sgRNA design and off-target homology searches. By means of a dynamically constructed sequence-indexed database and a simplified sequence alignment method, this algorithm achieves very high efficiency while guaranteeing the identification of all existing potential off-target homologies. Via this algorithm, 1,876,775 sgRNAs were designed for the 19,153 human mRNA genes and only two sgRNAs were found to be free of off-target homology. By means of the novel and efficient sgRNA homology search algorithm introduced in this article, genome wide sgRNA design and off-target analysis were conducted and the results confirmed the mathematical analysis that for a sgRNA sequence, it is almost impossible to escape potential off-target homologies. Future innovations on the CRISPR Cas9 gene editing technology need to focus on how to eliminate the Cas9 off-target activity.

  19. The RNA 5 of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus is a biologically inactive copy of the 3'-UTR of the genomic RNA 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Terlizzi, B; Skrzeczkowski, L J; Mink, G I; Scott, S W; Zimmerman, M T

    2001-01-01

    In addition to the four RNAs known to be encapsidated by Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) and Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), an additional small RNA (RNA 5) was present in purified preparations of several isolates of both viruses. RNA 5 was always produced following infection of a susceptible host by an artificial mixture of RNAs 1, 2, 3, and 4 indicating that it was a product of viral replication. RNA 5 does not activate the infectivity of mixtures that contain the three genomic RNAs (RNA 1 + RNA 2 + RNA 3) nor does it appear to modify symptom expression. Results from hybridization studies suggested that RNA 5 had partial sequence homology with RNAs 1, 2, 3, and 4. Cloning and sequencing the RNA 5 of isolate CH 57/1-M of PNRSV, and the 3' termini of the RNA 1, RNA 2 and RNA 3 of this isolate indicated that it was a copy of the 3' untranslated terminal region (3'-UTR) of the genomic RNA 3.

  20. RNA interactions in the 5' region of the HIV-1 genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian Kroun; Andersen, Ebbe Sloth; Knudsen, Bjarne

    2004-01-01

    The untranslated leader of the dimeric HIV-1 RNA genome is folded into a complex structure that plays multiple and essential roles in the viral replication cycle. Here, we have investigated secondary and tertiary structural elements within the 5' 744 nucleotides of the HIV-1 genome using...... a combination of bioinformatics, enzymatic probing, native gel electrophoresis, and UV-crosslinking experiments. We used a recently developed RNA folding algorithm (Pfold) to predict the common secondary structure of an alignment of 20 divergent HIV-1 sequences. Combining this analysis with biochemical data, we...

  1. A genome-wide characterization of microRNA genes in maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifang Zhang

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small, non-coding RNAs that play essential roles in plant growth, development, and stress response. We conducted a genome-wide survey of maize miRNA genes, characterizing their structure, expression, and evolution. Computational approaches based on homology and secondary structure modeling identified 150 high-confidence genes within 26 miRNA families. For 25 families, expression was verified by deep-sequencing of small RNA libraries that were prepared from an assortment of maize tissues. PCR-RACE amplification of 68 miRNA transcript precursors, representing 18 families conserved across several plant species, showed that splice variation and the use of alternative transcriptional start and stop sites is common within this class of genes. Comparison of sequence variation data from diverse maize inbred lines versus teosinte accessions suggest that the mature miRNAs are under strong purifying selection while the flanking sequences evolve equivalently to other genes. Since maize is derived from an ancient tetraploid, the effect of whole-genome duplication on miRNA evolution was examined. We found that, like protein-coding genes, duplicated miRNA genes underwent extensive gene-loss, with approximately 35% of ancestral sites retained as duplicate homoeologous miRNA genes. This number is higher than that observed with protein-coding genes. A search for putative miRNA targets indicated bias towards genes in regulatory and metabolic pathways. As maize is one of the principal models for plant growth and development, this study will serve as a foundation for future research into the functional roles of miRNA genes.

  2. High-throughput SHAPE analysis reveals structures in HIV-1 genomic RNA strongly conserved across distinct biological states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A Wilkinson

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Replication and pathogenesis of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is tightly linked to the structure of its RNA genome, but genome structure in infectious virions is poorly understood. We invent high-throughput SHAPE (selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension technology, which uses many of the same tools as DNA sequencing, to quantify RNA backbone flexibility at single-nucleotide resolution and from which robust structural information can be immediately derived. We analyze the structure of HIV-1 genomic RNA in four biologically instructive states, including the authentic viral genome inside native particles. Remarkably, given the large number of plausible local structures, the first 10% of the HIV-1 genome exists in a single, predominant conformation in all four states. We also discover that noncoding regions functioning in a regulatory role have significantly lower (p-value < 0.0001 SHAPE reactivities, and hence more structure, than do viral coding regions that function as the template for protein synthesis. By directly monitoring protein binding inside virions, we identify the RNA recognition motif for the viral nucleocapsid protein. Seven structurally homologous binding sites occur in a well-defined domain in the genome, consistent with a role in directing specific packaging of genomic RNA into nascent virions. In addition, we identify two distinct motifs that are targets for the duplex destabilizing activity of this same protein. The nucleocapsid protein destabilizes local HIV-1 RNA structure in ways likely to facilitate initial movement both of the retroviral reverse transcriptase from its tRNA primer and of the ribosome in coding regions. Each of the three nucleocapsid interaction motifs falls in a specific genome domain, indicating that local protein interactions can be organized by the long-range architecture of an RNA. High-throughput SHAPE reveals a comprehensive view of HIV-1 RNA genome structure, and further

  3. Determinants of Genomic RNA Encapsidation in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Long Terminal Repeat Retrotransposons Ty1 and Ty3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Pachulska-Wieczorek

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Long-terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons are transposable genetic elements that replicate intracellularly, and can be considered progenitors of retroviruses. Ty1 and Ty3 are the most extensively characterized LTR retrotransposons whose RNA genomes provide the template for both protein translation and genomic RNA that is packaged into virus-like particles (VLPs and reverse transcribed. Genomic RNAs are not divided into separate pools of translated and packaged RNAs, therefore their trafficking and packaging into VLPs requires an equilibrium between competing events. In this review, we focus on Ty1 and Ty3 genomic RNA trafficking and packaging as essential steps of retrotransposon propagation. We summarize the existing knowledge on genomic RNA sequences and structures essential to these processes, the role of Gag proteins in repression of genomic RNA translation, delivery to VLP assembly sites, and encapsidation.

  4. Identification of putative noncoding RNA genes in the Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315 genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coenye, T.; Drevinek, P.; Mahenthiralingam, E.

    2007-01-01

    Noncoding RNA (ncRNA) genes are not involved in the production of mRNA and proteins, but produce transcripts that function directly as structural or regulatory RNAs. In the present study, the presence of ncRNA genes in the genome of Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315 was evaluated by combining...

  5. Comparative genomics of metabolic capacities of regulons controlled by cis-regulatory RNA motifs in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Eric I; Leyn, Semen A; Kazanov, Marat D; Saier, Milton H; Novichkov, Pavel S; Rodionov, Dmitry A

    2013-09-02

    In silico comparative genomics approaches have been efficiently used for functional prediction and reconstruction of metabolic and regulatory networks. Riboswitches are metabolite-sensing structures often found in bacterial mRNA leaders controlling gene expression on transcriptional or translational levels.An increasing number of riboswitches and other cis-regulatory RNAs have been recently classified into numerous RNA families in the Rfam database. High conservation of these RNA motifs provides a unique advantage for their genomic identification and comparative analysis. A comparative genomics approach implemented in the RegPredict tool was used for reconstruction and functional annotation of regulons controlled by RNAs from 43 Rfam families in diverse taxonomic groups of Bacteria. The inferred regulons include ~5200 cis-regulatory RNAs and more than 12000 target genes in 255 microbial genomes. All predicted RNA-regulated genes were classified into specific and overall functional categories. Analysis of taxonomic distribution of these categories allowed us to establish major functional preferences for each analyzed cis-regulatory RNA motif family. Overall, most RNA motif regulons showed predictable functional content in accordance with their experimentally established effector ligands. Our results suggest that some RNA motifs (including thiamin pyrophosphate and cobalamin riboswitches that control the cofactor metabolism) are widespread and likely originated from the last common ancestor of all bacteria. However, many more analyzed RNA motifs are restricted to a narrow taxonomic group of bacteria and likely represent more recent evolutionary innovations. The reconstructed regulatory networks for major known RNA motifs substantially expand the existing knowledge of transcriptional regulation in bacteria. The inferred regulons can be used for genetic experiments, functional annotations of genes, metabolic reconstruction and evolutionary analysis. The obtained genome

  6. Polycistronic tRNA and CRISPR guide-RNA enables highly efficient multiplexed genome engineering in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fengping; Xie, Kabin; Chen, Yueying; Yang, Yinong; Mao, Yingwei

    2017-01-22

    CRISPR/Cas9 has been widely used for genomic editing in many organisms. Many human diseases are caused by multiple mutations. The CRISPR/Cas9 system provides a potential tool to introduce multiple mutations in a genome. To mimic complicated genomic variants in human diseases, such as multiple gene deletions or mutations, two or more small guide RNAs (sgRNAs) need to be introduced all together. This can be achieved by separate Pol III promoters in a construct. However, limited enzyme sites and increased insertion size lower the efficiency to make a construct. Here, we report a strategy to quickly assembly multiple sgRNAs in one construct using a polycistronic-tRNA-gRNA (PTG) strategy. Taking advantage of the endogenous tRNA processing system in mammalian cells, we efficiently express multiple sgRNAs driven using only one Pol III promoter. Using an all-in-one construct carrying PTG, we disrupt the deacetylase domain in multiple histone deacetylases (HDACs) in human cells simultaneously. We demonstrate that multiple HDAC deletions significantly affect the activation of the Wnt-signaling pathway. Thus, this method enables to efficiently target multiple genes and provide a useful tool to establish mutated cells mimicking human diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. REDIdb 3.0: A Comprehensive Collection of RNA Editing Events in Plant Organellar Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Giudice, Claudio; Pesole, Graziano; Picardi, Ernesto

    2018-01-01

    RNA editing is an important epigenetic mechanism by which genome-encoded transcripts are modified by substitutions, insertions and/or deletions. It was first discovered in kinetoplastid protozoa followed by its reporting in a wide range of organisms. In plants, RNA editing occurs mostly by cytidine (C) to uridine (U) conversion in translated regions of organelle mRNAs and tends to modify affected codons restoring evolutionary conserved aminoacid residues. RNA editing has also been described in non-protein coding regions such as group II introns and structural RNAs. Despite its impact on organellar transcriptome and proteome complexity, current primary databases still do not provide a specific field for RNA editing events. To overcome these limitations, we developed REDIdb a specialized database for RNA editing modifications in plant organelles. Hereafter we describe its third release containing more than 26,000 events in a completely novel web interface to accommodate RNA editing in its genomics, biological and evolutionary context through whole genome maps and multiple sequence alignments. REDIdb is freely available at http://srv00.recas.ba.infn.it/redidb/index.html.

  8. REDIdb 3.0: A Comprehensive Collection of RNA Editing Events in Plant Organellar Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Lo Giudice

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available RNA editing is an important epigenetic mechanism by which genome-encoded transcripts are modified by substitutions, insertions and/or deletions. It was first discovered in kinetoplastid protozoa followed by its reporting in a wide range of organisms. In plants, RNA editing occurs mostly by cytidine (C to uridine (U conversion in translated regions of organelle mRNAs and tends to modify affected codons restoring evolutionary conserved aminoacid residues. RNA editing has also been described in non-protein coding regions such as group II introns and structural RNAs. Despite its impact on organellar transcriptome and proteome complexity, current primary databases still do not provide a specific field for RNA editing events. To overcome these limitations, we developed REDIdb a specialized database for RNA editing modifications in plant organelles. Hereafter we describe its third release containing more than 26,000 events in a completely novel web interface to accommodate RNA editing in its genomics, biological and evolutionary context through whole genome maps and multiple sequence alignments. REDIdb is freely available at http://srv00.recas.ba.infn.it/redidb/index.html

  9. Transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus genome packaging signal is located at the 5' end of the genome and promotes viral RNA incorporation into virions in a replication-independent process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Lucia; Mateos-Gomez, Pedro A; Capiscol, Carmen; del Palacio, Lorena; Enjuanes, Luis; Sola, Isabel

    2013-11-01

    Preferential RNA packaging in coronaviruses involves the recognition of viral genomic RNA, a crucial process for viral particle morphogenesis mediated by RNA-specific sequences, known as packaging signals. An essential packaging signal component of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) has been further delimited to the first 598 nucleotides (nt) from the 5' end of its RNA genome, by using recombinant viruses transcribing subgenomic mRNA that included potential packaging signals. The integrity of the entire sequence domain was necessary because deletion of any of the five structural motifs defined within this region abrogated specific packaging of this viral RNA. One of these RNA motifs was the stem-loop SL5, a highly conserved motif in coronaviruses located at nucleotide positions 106 to 136. Partial deletion or point mutations within this motif also abrogated packaging. Using TGEV-derived defective minigenomes replicated in trans by a helper virus, we have shown that TGEV RNA packaging is a replication-independent process. Furthermore, the last 494 nt of the genomic 3' end were not essential for packaging, although this region increased packaging efficiency. TGEV RNA sequences identified as necessary for viral genome packaging were not sufficient to direct packaging of a heterologous sequence derived from the green fluorescent protein gene. These results indicated that TGEV genome packaging is a complex process involving many factors in addition to the identified RNA packaging signal. The identification of well-defined RNA motifs within the TGEV RNA genome that are essential for packaging will be useful for designing packaging-deficient biosafe coronavirus-derived vectors and providing new targets for antiviral therapies.

  10. The Persistent Contributions of RNA to Eukaryotic Gen(om)e Architecture and Cellular Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosius, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the best scenario for earliest forms of life is based on RNA molecules as they have the proven ability to catalyze enzymatic reactions and harbor genetic information. Evolutionary principles valid today become apparent in such models already. Furthermore, many features of eukaryotic genome architecture might have their origins in an RNA or RNA/protein (RNP) world, including the onset of a further transition, when DNA replaced RNA as the genetic bookkeeper of the cell. Chromosome maintenance, splicing, and regulatory function via RNA may be deeply rooted in the RNA/RNP worlds. Mostly in eukaryotes, conversion from RNA to DNA is still ongoing, which greatly impacts the plasticity of extant genomes. Raw material for novel genes encoding protein or RNA, or parts of genes including regulatory elements that selection can act on, continues to enter the evolutionary lottery. PMID:25081515

  11. Novel Positive-Sense, Single-Stranded RNA (+ssRNA) Virus with Di-Cistronic Genome from Intestinal Content of Freshwater Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankovics, Péter; Simmonds, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A novel positive-sense, single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) virus (Halastavi árva RNA virus, HalV; JN000306) with di-cistronic genome organization was serendipitously identified in intestinal contents of freshwater carps (Cyprinus carpio) fished by line-fishing from fishpond “Lőrinte halastó” located in Veszprém County, Hungary. The complete nucleotide (nt) sequence of the genomic RNA is 9565 nt in length and contains two long - non-in-frame - open reading frames (ORFs), which are separated by an intergenic region. The ORF1 (replicase) is preceded by an untranslated sequence of 827 nt, while an untranslated region of 139 nt follows the ORF2 (capsid proteins). The deduced amino acid (aa) sequences of the ORFs showed only low (less than 32%) and partial similarity to the non-structural (2C-like helicase, 3C-like cystein protease and 3D-like RNA dependent RNA polymerase) and structural proteins (VP2/VP4/VP3) of virus families in Picornavirales especially to members of the viruses with dicistronic genome. Halastavi árva RNA virus is present in intestinal contents of omnivorous freshwater carps but the origin and the host species of this virus remains unknown. The unique viral sequence and the actual position indicate that Halastavi árva RNA virus seems to be the first member of a new di-cistronic ssRNA virus. Further studies are required to investigate the specific host species (and spectrum), ecology and role of Halastavi árva RNA virus in the nature. PMID:22195010

  12. Orchestrating the Selection and Packaging of Genomic RNA by Retroviruses: An Ensemble of Viral and Host Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaddis Maldonado, Rebecca J.; Parent, Leslie J.

    2016-01-01

    Infectious retrovirus particles contain two copies of unspliced viral RNA that serve as the viral genome. Unspliced retroviral RNA is transcribed in the nucleus by the host RNA polymerase II and has three potential fates: (1) it can be spliced into subgenomic messenger RNAs (mRNAs) for the translation of viral proteins; or it can remain unspliced to serve as either (2) the mRNA for the translation of Gag and Gag–Pol; or (3) the genomic RNA (gRNA) that is packaged into virions. The Gag structural protein recognizes and binds the unspliced viral RNA to select it as a genome, which is selected in preference to spliced viral RNAs and cellular RNAs. In this review, we summarize the current state of understanding about how retroviral packaging is orchestrated within the cell and explore potential new mechanisms based on recent discoveries in the field. We discuss the cis-acting elements in the unspliced viral RNA and the properties of the Gag protein that are required for their interaction. In addition, we discuss the role of host factors in influencing the fate of the newly transcribed viral RNA, current models for how retroviruses distinguish unspliced viral mRNA from viral genomic RNA, and the possible subcellular sites of genomic RNA dimerization and selection by Gag. Although this review centers primarily on the wealth of data available for the alpharetrovirus Rous sarcoma virus, in which a discrete RNA packaging sequence has been identified, we have also summarized the cis- and trans-acting factors as well as the mechanisms governing gRNA packaging of other retroviruses for comparison. PMID:27657110

  13. Analysis of IAV Replication and Co-infection Dynamics by a Versatile RNA Viral Genome Labeling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Dou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Genome delivery to the proper cellular compartment for transcription and replication is a primary goal of viruses. However, methods for analyzing viral genome localization and differentiating genomes with high identity are lacking, making it difficult to investigate entry-related processes and co-examine heterogeneous RNA viral populations. Here, we present an RNA labeling approach for single-cell analysis of RNA viral replication and co-infection dynamics in situ, which uses the versatility of padlock probes. We applied this method to identify influenza A virus (IAV infections in cells and lung tissue with single-nucleotide specificity and to classify entry and replication stages by gene segment localization. Extending the classification strategy to co-infections of IAVs with single-nucleotide variations, we found that the dependence on intracellular trafficking places a time restriction on secondary co-infections necessary for genome reassortment. Altogether, these data demonstrate how RNA viral genome labeling can help dissect entry and co-infections.

  14. Mechanism for Coordinated RNA Packaging and Genome Replication by Rotavirus Polymerase VP1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xiaohui; McDonald, Sarah M.; Tortorici, M. Alejandra; Tao, Yizhi Jane; Vasquez-Del Carpio, Rodrigo; Nibert, Max L.; Patton, John T.; Harrison, Stephen C. (Harvard-Med); (NIH); (CH-Boston)

    2009-04-08

    Rotavirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase VP1 catalyzes RNA synthesis within a subviral particle. This activity depends on core shell protein VP2. A conserved sequence at the 3' end of plus-strand RNA templates is important for polymerase association and genome replication. We have determined the structure of VP1 at 2.9 {angstrom} resolution, as apoenzyme and in complex with RNA. The cage-like enzyme is similar to reovirus {lambda}3, with four tunnels leading to or from a central, catalytic cavity. A distinguishing characteristic of VP1 is specific recognition, by conserved features of the template-entry channel, of four bases, UGUG, in the conserved 3' sequence. Well-defined interactions with these bases position the RNA so that its 3' end overshoots the initiating register, producing a stable but catalytically inactive complex. We propose that specific 3' end recognition selects rotavirus RNA for packaging and that VP2 activates the autoinhibited VP1/RNA complex to coordinate packaging and genome replication.

  15. Coordinated action of histone modification and microRNA regulations in human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; Zheng, Guantao; Dong, Dong

    2015-10-10

    Both histone modifications and microRNAs (miRNAs) play pivotal role in gene expression regulation. Although numerous studies have been devoted to explore the gene regulation by miRNA and epigenetic regulations, their coordinated actions have not been comprehensively examined. In this work, we systematically investigated the combinatorial relationship between miRNA and epigenetic regulation by taking advantage of recently published whole genome-wide histone modification data and high quality miRNA targeting data. The results showed that miRNA targets have distinct histone modification patterns compared with non-targets in their promoter regions. Based on this finding, we proposed a machine learning approach to fit predictive models on the task to discern whether a gene is targeted by a specific miRNA. We found a considerable advantage in both sensitivity and specificity in diverse human cell lines. Finally, we found that our predicted miRNA targets are consistently annotated with Gene Ontology terms. Our work is the first genome-wide investigation of the coordinated action of miRNA and histone modification regulations, which provide a guide to deeply understand the complexity of transcriptional regulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Genome-wide profiling of the PIWI-interacting RNA-mRNA regulatory networks in epithelial ovarian cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Garima; Roy, Jyoti; Rout, Pratiti; Mallick, Bibekanand

    2018-01-01

    PIWI-interacting (piRNAs), ~23-36 nucleotide-long small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs), earlier believed to be germline-specific, have now been identified in somatic cells, including cancer cells. These sncRNAs impact critical biological processes by fine-tuning gene expression at post-transcriptional and epigenetic levels. The expression of piRNAs in ovarian cancer, the most lethal gynecologic cancer is largely uncharted. In this study, we investigated the expression of PIWILs by qRT-PCR and western blotting and then identified piRNA transcriptomes in tissues of normal ovary and two most prevalent epithelial ovarian cancer subtypes, serous and endometrioid by small RNA sequencing. We detected 219, 256 and 234 piRNAs in normal ovary, endometrioid and serous ovarian cancer samples respectively. We observed piRNAs are encoded from various genomic regions, among which introns harbor the majority of them. Surprisingly, piRNAs originated from different genomic contexts showed the varied level of conservations across vertebrates. The functional analysis of predicted targets of differentially expressed piRNAs revealed these could modulate key processes and pathways involved in ovarian oncogenesis. Our study provides the first comprehensive piRNA landscape in these samples and a useful resource for further functional studies to decipher new mechanistic views of piRNA-mediated gene regulatory networks affecting ovarian oncogenesis. The RNA-seq data is submitted to GEO database (GSE83794).

  17. Avian reovirus L2 genome segment sequences and predicted structure/function of the encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wanhong

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The orthoreoviruses are infectious agents that possess a genome comprised of 10 double-stranded RNA segments encased in two concentric protein capsids. Like virtually all RNA viruses, an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp enzyme is required for viral propagation. RdRp sequences have been determined for the prototype mammalian orthoreoviruses and for several other closely-related reoviruses, including aquareoviruses, but have not yet been reported for any avian orthoreoviruses. Results We determined the L2 genome segment nucleotide sequences, which encode the RdRp proteins, of two different avian reoviruses, strains ARV138 and ARV176 in order to define conserved and variable regions within reovirus RdRp proteins and to better delineate structure/function of this important enzyme. The ARV138 L2 genome segment was 3829 base pairs long, whereas the ARV176 L2 segment was 3830 nucleotides long. Both segments were predicted to encode λB RdRp proteins 1259 amino acids in length. Alignments of these newly-determined ARV genome segments, and their corresponding proteins, were performed with all currently available homologous mammalian reovirus (MRV and aquareovirus (AqRV genome segment and protein sequences. There was ~55% amino acid identity between ARV λB and MRV λ3 proteins, making the RdRp protein the most highly conserved of currently known orthoreovirus proteins, and there was ~28% identity between ARV λB and homologous MRV and AqRV RdRp proteins. Predictive structure/function mapping of identical and conserved residues within the known MRV λ3 atomic structure indicated most identical amino acids and conservative substitutions were located near and within predicted catalytic domains and lining RdRp channels, whereas non-identical amino acids were generally located on the molecule's surfaces. Conclusion The ARV λB and MRV λ3 proteins showed the highest ARV:MRV identity values (~55% amongst all currently known ARV and MRV

  18. In vivo genome-wide profiling of RNA secondary structure reveals novel regulatory features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yiliang; Tang, Yin; Kwok, Chun Kit; Zhang, Yu; Bevilacqua, Philip C; Assmann, Sarah M

    2014-01-30

    RNA structure has critical roles in processes ranging from ligand sensing to the regulation of translation, polyadenylation and splicing. However, a lack of genome-wide in vivo RNA structural data has limited our understanding of how RNA structure regulates gene expression in living cells. Here we present a high-throughput, genome-wide in vivo RNA structure probing method, structure-seq, in which dimethyl sulphate methylation of unprotected adenines and cytosines is identified by next-generation sequencing. Application of this method to Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings yielded the first in vivo genome-wide RNA structure map at nucleotide resolution for any organism, with quantitative structural information across more than 10,000 transcripts. Our analysis reveals a three-nucleotide periodic repeat pattern in the structure of coding regions, as well as a less-structured region immediately upstream of the start codon, and shows that these features are strongly correlated with translation efficiency. We also find patterns of strong and weak secondary structure at sites of alternative polyadenylation, as well as strong secondary structure at 5' splice sites that correlates with unspliced events. Notably, in vivo structures of messenger RNAs annotated for stress responses are poorly predicted in silico, whereas mRNA structures of genes related to cell function maintenance are well predicted. Global comparison of several structural features between these two categories shows that the mRNAs associated with stress responses tend to have more single-strandedness, longer maximal loop length and higher free energy per nucleotide, features that may allow these RNAs to undergo conformational changes in response to environmental conditions. Structure-seq allows the RNA structurome and its biological roles to be interrogated on a genome-wide scale and should be applicable to any organism.

  19. Retroviral Gag protein-RNA interactions: Implications for specific genomic RNA packaging and virion assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Erik D; Musier-Forsyth, Karin

    2018-03-31

    Retroviral Gag proteins are responsible for coordinating many aspects of virion assembly. Gag possesses two distinct nucleic acid binding domains, matrix (MA) and nucleocapsid (NC). One of the critical functions of Gag is to specifically recognize, bind, and package the retroviral genomic RNA (gRNA) into assembling virions. Gag interactions with cellular RNAs have also been shown to regulate aspects of assembly. Recent results have shed light on the role of MA and NC domain interactions with nucleic acids, and how they jointly function to ensure packaging of the retroviral gRNA. Here, we will review the literature regarding RNA interactions with NC, MA, as well as overall mechanisms employed by Gag to interact with RNA. The discussion focuses on human immunodeficiency virus type-1, but other retroviruses will also be discussed. A model is presented combining all of the available data summarizing the various factors and layers of selection Gag employs to ensure specific gRNA packaging and correct virion assembly. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rubella virus capsid protein modulation of viral genomic and subgenomic RNA synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzeng, W.-P.; Frey, Teryl K.

    2005-01-01

    The ratio of the subgenomic (SG) to genome RNA synthesized by rubella virus (RUB) replicons expressing the green fluorescent protein reporter gene (RUBrep/GFP) is substantially higher than the ratio of these species synthesized by RUB (4.3 for RUBrep/GFP vs. 1.3-1.4 for RUB). It was hypothesized that this modulation of the viral RNA synthesis was by one of the virus structural protein genes and it was found that introduction of the capsid (C) protein gene into the replicons as an in-frame fusion with GFP resulted in an increase of genomic RNA production (reducing the SG/genome RNA ratio), confirming the hypothesis and showing that the C gene was the moiety responsible for the modulation effect. The N-terminal one-third of the C gene was required for the effect of be exhibited. A similar phenomenon was not observed with the replicons of Sindbis virus, a related Alphavirus. Interestingly, modulation was not observed when RUBrep/GFP was co-transfected with either other RUBrep or plasmid constructs expressing the C gene, demonstrating that modulation could occur only when the C gene was provided in cis. Mutations that prevented translation of the C protein failed to modulate RNA synthesis, indicating that the C protein was the moiety responsible for modulation; consistent with this conclusion, modulation of RNA synthesis was maintained when synonymous codon mutations were introduced at the 5' end of the C gene that changed the C gene sequence without altering the amino acid sequence of the C protein. These results indicate that C protein translated in proximity of viral replication complexes, possibly from newly synthesized SG RNA, participate in regulating the replication of viral RNA

  1. Deciphering the role of the Gag-Pol ribosomal frameshift signal in HIV-1 RNA genome packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaitchik, Olga A; Hu, Wei-Shau

    2014-04-01

    A key step of retroviral replication is packaging of the viral RNA genome during virus assembly. Specific packaging is mediated by interactions between the viral protein Gag and elements in the viral RNA genome. In HIV-1, similar to most retroviruses, the packaging signal is located within the 5' untranslated region and extends into the gag-coding region. A recent study reported that a region including the Gag-Pol ribosomal frameshift signal plays an important role in HIV-1 RNA packaging; deletions or mutations that affect the RNA structure of this signal lead to drastic decreases (10- to 50-fold) in viral RNA packaging and virus titer. We examined here the role of the ribosomal frameshift signal in HIV-1 RNA packaging by studying the RNA packaging and virus titer in the context of proviruses. Three mutants with altered ribosomal frameshift signal, either through direct deletion of the signal, mutation of the 6U slippery sequence, or alterations of the secondary structure were examined. We found that RNAs from all three mutants were packaged efficiently, and they generate titers similar to that of a virus containing the wild-type ribosomal frameshift signal. We conclude that although the ribosomal frameshift signal plays an important role in regulating the replication cycle, this RNA element is not directly involved in regulating RNA encapsidation. To generate infectious viruses, HIV-1 must package viral RNA genome during virus assembly. The specific HIV-1 genome packaging is mediated by interactions between the structural protein Gag and elements near the 5' end of the viral RNA known as packaging signal. In this study, we examined whether the Gag-Pol ribosomal frameshift signal is important for HIV-1 RNA packaging as recently reported. Our results demonstrated that when Gag/Gag-Pol is supplied in trans, none of the tested ribosomal frameshift signal mutants has defects in RNA packaging or virus titer. These studies provide important information on how HIV-1

  2. Considerations in the identification of functional RNA structural elements in genomic alignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blencowe Benjamin J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate identification of novel, functional noncoding (nc RNA features in genome sequence has proven more difficult than for exons. Current algorithms identify and score potential RNA secondary structures on the basis of thermodynamic stability, conservation, and/or covariance in sequence alignments. Neither the algorithms nor the information gained from the individual inputs have been independently assessed. Furthermore, due to issues in modelling background signal, it has been difficult to gauge the precision of these algorithms on a genomic scale, in which even a seemingly small false-positive rate can result in a vast excess of false discoveries. Results We developed a shuffling algorithm, shuffle-pair.pl, that simultaneously preserves dinucleotide frequency, gaps, and local conservation in pairwise sequence alignments. We used shuffle-pair.pl to assess precision and recall of six ncRNA search tools (MSARI, QRNA, ddbRNA, RNAz, Evofold, and several variants of simple thermodynamic stability on a test set of 3046 alignments of known ncRNAs. Relative to mononucleotide shuffling, preservation of dinucleotide content in shuffling the alignments resulted in a drastic increase in estimated false-positive detection rates for ncRNA elements, precluding evaluation of higher order alignments, which cannot not be adequately shuffled maintaining both dinucleotides and alignment structure. On pairwise alignments, none of the covariance-based tools performed markedly better than thermodynamic scoring alone. Although the high false-positive rates call into question the veracity of any individual predicted secondary structural element in our analysis, we nevertheless identified intriguing global trends in human genome alignments. The distribution of ncRNA prediction scores in 75-base windows overlapping UTRs, introns, and intergenic regions analyzed using both thermodynamic stability and EvoFold (which has no thermodynamic component was

  3. Transmissible Gastroenteritis Coronavirus Genome Packaging Signal Is Located at the 5′ End of the Genome and Promotes Viral RNA Incorporation into Virions in a Replication-Independent Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Lucia; Mateos-Gomez, Pedro A.; Capiscol, Carmen; del Palacio, Lorena; Sola, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Preferential RNA packaging in coronaviruses involves the recognition of viral genomic RNA, a crucial process for viral particle morphogenesis mediated by RNA-specific sequences, known as packaging signals. An essential packaging signal component of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) has been further delimited to the first 598 nucleotides (nt) from the 5′ end of its RNA genome, by using recombinant viruses transcribing subgenomic mRNA that included potential packaging signals. The integrity of the entire sequence domain was necessary because deletion of any of the five structural motifs defined within this region abrogated specific packaging of this viral RNA. One of these RNA motifs was the stem-loop SL5, a highly conserved motif in coronaviruses located at nucleotide positions 106 to 136. Partial deletion or point mutations within this motif also abrogated packaging. Using TGEV-derived defective minigenomes replicated in trans by a helper virus, we have shown that TGEV RNA packaging is a replication-independent process. Furthermore, the last 494 nt of the genomic 3′ end were not essential for packaging, although this region increased packaging efficiency. TGEV RNA sequences identified as necessary for viral genome packaging were not sufficient to direct packaging of a heterologous sequence derived from the green fluorescent protein gene. These results indicated that TGEV genome packaging is a complex process involving many factors in addition to the identified RNA packaging signal. The identification of well-defined RNA motifs within the TGEV RNA genome that are essential for packaging will be useful for designing packaging-deficient biosafe coronavirus-derived vectors and providing new targets for antiviral therapies. PMID:23966403

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of a Double-Stranded RNA Virus from Avocado

    OpenAIRE

    Villanueva, Francisco; Sabanadzovic, Sead; Valverde, Rodrigo A.; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    A number of avocado (Persea americana) cultivars are known to contain high-molecular-weight double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules for which a viral nature has been suggested, although sequence data are not available. Here we report the cloning and complete sequencing of a 13.5-kbp dsRNA virus isolated from avocado and show that it corresponds to the genome of a new species of the genus Endornavirus (family Endornaviridae), tentatively named Persea americana endornavirus (PaEV).

  5. Production and processing of siRNA precursor transcripts from the highly repetitive maize genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Hale

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Mutations affecting the maintenance of heritable epigenetic states in maize identify multiple RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM factors including RMR1, a novel member of a plant-specific clade of Snf2-related proteins. Here we show that RMR1 is necessary for the accumulation of a majority of 24 nt small RNAs, including those derived from Long-Terminal Repeat (LTR retrotransposons, the most common repetitive feature in the maize genome. A genetic analysis of DNA transposon repression indicates that RMR1 acts upstream of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, RDR2 (MOP1. Surprisingly, we show that non-polyadenylated transcripts from a sampling of LTR retrotransposons are lost in both rmr1 and rdr2 mutants. In contrast, plants deficient for RNA Polymerase IV (Pol IV function show an increase in polyadenylated LTR RNA transcripts. These findings support a model in which Pol IV functions independently of the small RNA accumulation facilitated by RMR1 and RDR2 and support that a loss of Pol IV leads to RNA Polymerase II-based transcription. Additionally, the lack of changes in general genome homeostasis in rmr1 mutants, despite the global loss of 24 nt small RNAs, challenges the perceived roles of siRNAs in maintaining functional heterochromatin in the genomes of outcrossing grass species.

  6. RSEM: accurate transcript quantification from RNA-Seq data with or without a reference genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewey Colin N

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA-Seq is revolutionizing the way transcript abundances are measured. A key challenge in transcript quantification from RNA-Seq data is the handling of reads that map to multiple genes or isoforms. This issue is particularly important for quantification with de novo transcriptome assemblies in the absence of sequenced genomes, as it is difficult to determine which transcripts are isoforms of the same gene. A second significant issue is the design of RNA-Seq experiments, in terms of the number of reads, read length, and whether reads come from one or both ends of cDNA fragments. Results We present RSEM, an user-friendly software package for quantifying gene and isoform abundances from single-end or paired-end RNA-Seq data. RSEM outputs abundance estimates, 95% credibility intervals, and visualization files and can also simulate RNA-Seq data. In contrast to other existing tools, the software does not require a reference genome. Thus, in combination with a de novo transcriptome assembler, RSEM enables accurate transcript quantification for species without sequenced genomes. On simulated and real data sets, RSEM has superior or comparable performance to quantification methods that rely on a reference genome. Taking advantage of RSEM's ability to effectively use ambiguously-mapping reads, we show that accurate gene-level abundance estimates are best obtained with large numbers of short single-end reads. On the other hand, estimates of the relative frequencies of isoforms within single genes may be improved through the use of paired-end reads, depending on the number of possible splice forms for each gene. Conclusions RSEM is an accurate and user-friendly software tool for quantifying transcript abundances from RNA-Seq data. As it does not rely on the existence of a reference genome, it is particularly useful for quantification with de novo transcriptome assemblies. In addition, RSEM has enabled valuable guidance for cost

  7. Genome-wide analysis of miRNA and mRNA transcriptomes during amelogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kaifeng; Hacia, Joseph G; Zhong, Zhe; Paine, Michael L

    2014-11-19

    In the rodent incisor during amelogenesis, as ameloblast cells transition from secretory stage to maturation stage, their morphology and transcriptome profiles change dramatically. Prior whole genome transcriptome analysis has given a broad picture of the molecular activities dominating both stages of amelogenesis, but this type of analysis has not included miRNA transcript profiling. In this study, we set out to document which miRNAs and corresponding target genes change significantly as ameloblasts transition from secretory- to maturation-stage amelogenesis. Total RNA samples from both secretory- and maturation-stage rat enamel organs were subjected to genome-wide miRNA and mRNA transcript profiling. We identified 59 miRNAs that were differentially expressed at the maturation stage relative to the secretory stage of enamel development (False Discovery Rate (FDR)<0.05, fold change (FC)≥1.8). In parallel, transcriptome profiling experiments identified 1,729 mRNA transcripts that were differentially expressed in the maturation stage compared to the secretory stage (FDR<0.05, FC≥1.8). Based on bioinformatics analyses, 5.8% (629 total) of these differentially expressed genes (DEGS) were highlighted as being the potential targets of 59 miRNAs that were differentially expressed in the opposite direction, in the same tissue samples. Although the number of predicted target DEGs was not higher than baseline expectations generated by examination of stably expressed miRNAs, Gene Ontology (GO) analysis showed that these 629 DEGS were enriched for ion transport, pH regulation, calcium handling, endocytotic, and apoptotic activities. Seven differentially expressed miRNAs (miR-21, miR-31, miR-488, miR-153, miR-135b, miR-135a and miR298) in secretory- and/or maturation-stage enamel organs were confirmed by in situ hybridization. Further, we used luciferase reporter assays to provide evidence that two of these differentially expressed miRNAs, miR-153 and miR-31, are potential

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of a Double-Stranded RNA Virus from Avocado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Francisco; Sabanadzovic, Sead; Valverde, Rodrigo A.

    2012-01-01

    A number of avocado (Persea americana) cultivars are known to contain high-molecular-weight double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules for which a viral nature has been suggested, although sequence data are not available. Here we report the cloning and complete sequencing of a 13.5-kbp dsRNA virus isolated from avocado and show that it corresponds to the genome of a new species of the genus Endornavirus (family Endornaviridae), tentatively named Persea americana endornavirus (PaEV). PMID:22205720

  9. New families of human regulatory RNA structures identified by comparative analysis of vertebrate genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Brian John; Moltke, Ida; Roth, Adam

    2011-01-01

    a comparative method, EvoFam, for genome-wide identification of families of regulatory RNA structures, based on primary sequence and secondary structure similarity. We apply EvoFam to a 41-way genomic vertebrate alignment. Genome-wide, we identify 220 human, high-confidence families outside protein...

  10. tRNA's wobble decoding of the genome: 40 years of modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agris, Paul F; Vendeix, Franck A P; Graham, William D

    2007-02-09

    The genetic code is degenerate, in that 20 amino acids are encoded by 61 triplet codes. In 1966, Francis Crick hypothesized that the cell's limited number of tRNAs decoded the genome by recognizing more than one codon. The ambiguity of that recognition resided in the third base-pair, giving rise to the Wobble Hypothesis. Post-transcriptional modifications at tRNA's wobble position 34, especially modifications of uridine 34, enable wobble to occur. The Modified Wobble Hypothesis proposed in 1991 that specific modifications of a tRNA wobble nucleoside shape the anticodon architecture in such a manner that interactions were restricted to the complementary base plus a single wobble pairing for amino acids with twofold degenerate codons. However, chemically different modifications at position 34 would expand the ability of a tRNA to read three or even four of the fourfold degenerate codons. One foundation of Crick's Wobble Hypothesis was that a near-constant geometry of canonical base-pairing be maintained in forming all three base-pairs between the tRNA anticodon and mRNA codon on the ribosome. In accepting an aminoacyl-tRNA, the ribosome requires maintenance of a specific geometry for the anticodon-codon base-pairing. However, it is the post-transcriptional modifications at tRNA wobble position 34 and purine 37, 3'-adjacent to the anticodon, that pre-structure the anticodon domain to ensure the correct codon binding. The modifications create both the architecture and the stability needed for decoding through restraints on anticodon stereochemistry and conformational space, and through selective hydrogen bonding. A physicochemical understanding of modified nucleoside contributions to the tRNA anticodon domain architecture and its decoding of the genome has advanced RNA world evolutionary theory, the principles of RNA chemistry, and the application of this knowledge to the introduction of new amino acids to proteins.

  11. Transmissible Gastroenteritis Coronavirus Genome Packaging Signal Is Located at the 5′ End of the Genome and Promotes Viral RNA Incorporation into Virions in a Replication-Independent Process

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, Lucia; Mateos-Gomez, Pedro A.; Capiscol, Carmen; del Palacio, Lorena; Enjuanes, Luis; Sola, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Preferential RNA packaging in coronaviruses involves the recognition of viral genomic RNA, a crucial process for viral particle morphogenesis mediated by RNA-specific sequences, known as packaging signals. An essential packaging signal component of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) has been further delimited to the first 598 nucleotides (nt) from the 5′ end of its RNA genome, by using recombinant viruses transcribing subgenomic mRNA that included potential packaging signals. Th...

  12. Integration of Multiple Genomic and Phenotype Data to Infer Novel miRNA-Disease Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hongbo; Zhang, Guangde; Zhou, Meng; Cheng, Liang; Yang, Haixiu; Wang, Jing; Sun, Jie; Wang, Zhenzhen

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in the development and progression of human diseases. The identification of disease-associated miRNAs will be helpful for understanding the molecular mechanisms of diseases at the post-transcriptional level. Based on different types of genomic data sources, computational methods for miRNA-disease association prediction have been proposed. However, individual source of genomic data tends to be incomplete and noisy; therefore, the integration of various types of genomic data for inferring reliable miRNA-disease associations is urgently needed. In this study, we present a computational framework, CHNmiRD, for identifying miRNA-disease associations by integrating multiple genomic and phenotype data, including protein-protein interaction data, gene ontology data, experimentally verified miRNA-target relationships, disease phenotype information and known miRNA-disease connections. The performance of CHNmiRD was evaluated by experimentally verified miRNA-disease associations, which achieved an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.834 for 5-fold cross-validation. In particular, CHNmiRD displayed excellent performance for diseases without any known related miRNAs. The results of case studies for three human diseases (glioblastoma, myocardial infarction and type 1 diabetes) showed that all of the top 10 ranked miRNAs having no known associations with these three diseases in existing miRNA-disease databases were directly or indirectly confirmed by our latest literature mining. All these results demonstrated the reliability and efficiency of CHNmiRD, and it is anticipated that CHNmiRD will serve as a powerful bioinformatics method for mining novel disease-related miRNAs and providing a new perspective into molecular mechanisms underlying human diseases at the post-transcriptional level. CHNmiRD is freely available at http://www.bio-bigdata.com/CHNmiRD.

  13. Integration of Multiple Genomic and Phenotype Data to Infer Novel miRNA-Disease Associations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Shi

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs play an important role in the development and progression of human diseases. The identification of disease-associated miRNAs will be helpful for understanding the molecular mechanisms of diseases at the post-transcriptional level. Based on different types of genomic data sources, computational methods for miRNA-disease association prediction have been proposed. However, individual source of genomic data tends to be incomplete and noisy; therefore, the integration of various types of genomic data for inferring reliable miRNA-disease associations is urgently needed. In this study, we present a computational framework, CHNmiRD, for identifying miRNA-disease associations by integrating multiple genomic and phenotype data, including protein-protein interaction data, gene ontology data, experimentally verified miRNA-target relationships, disease phenotype information and known miRNA-disease connections. The performance of CHNmiRD was evaluated by experimentally verified miRNA-disease associations, which achieved an area under the ROC curve (AUC of 0.834 for 5-fold cross-validation. In particular, CHNmiRD displayed excellent performance for diseases without any known related miRNAs. The results of case studies for three human diseases (glioblastoma, myocardial infarction and type 1 diabetes showed that all of the top 10 ranked miRNAs having no known associations with these three diseases in existing miRNA-disease databases were directly or indirectly confirmed by our latest literature mining. All these results demonstrated the reliability and efficiency of CHNmiRD, and it is anticipated that CHNmiRD will serve as a powerful bioinformatics method for mining novel disease-related miRNAs and providing a new perspective into molecular mechanisms underlying human diseases at the post-transcriptional level. CHNmiRD is freely available at http://www.bio-bigdata.com/CHNmiRD.

  14. Studies on the effects of persistent RNA priming on DNA replication and genomic stability

    OpenAIRE

    Stuckey, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    [EN]: DNA replication and transcription take place on the same DNA template, and the correct interplay between these processes ensures faithful genome duplication. DNA replication must be highly coordinated with other cell cycle events, such as segregation of fully replicated DNA in order to maintain genomic integrity. Transcription generates RNA:DNA hybrids, transient intermediate structures that are degraded by the ribonuclease H (RNaseH) class of enzymes. RNA:DNA hybrids can form R-loops, ...

  15. Efficient cellular release of Rift Valley fever virus requires genomic RNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E Piper

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Rift Valley fever virus is responsible for periodic, explosive epizootics throughout sub-Saharan Africa. The development of therapeutics targeting this virus is difficult due to a limited understanding of the viral replicative cycle. Utilizing a virus-like particle system, we have established roles for each of the viral structural components in assembly, release, and virus infectivity. The envelope glycoprotein, Gn, was discovered to be necessary and sufficient for packaging of the genome, nucleocapsid protein and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase into virus particles. Additionally, packaging of the genome was found to be necessary for the efficient release of particles, revealing a novel mechanism for the efficient generation of infectious virus. Our results identify possible conserved targets for development of anti-phlebovirus therapies.

  16. Genome-Independent Identification of RNA Editing by Mutual Information (GIREMI) | Informatics Technology for Cancer Research (ITCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identification of single-nucleotide variants in RNA-seq data. Current version focuses on detection of RNA editing sites without requiring genome sequence data. New version is under development to separately identify RNA editing sites and genetic variants using RNA-seq data alone.

  17. Distinct binding interactions of HIV-1 Gag to Psi and non-Psi RNAs: Implications for viral genomic RNA packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Joseph A.; Jones, Christopher P.; Parent, Leslie J.; Rouzina, Ioulia; Musier-Forsyth, Karin

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism underlying the selective packaging of genomic RNA into HIV-1 virions is not known. This paper provides important new biophysical insights into the nature of protein–RNA interactions responsible for HIV-1 genome packaging by quantifying the electrostatic and hydrophobic contributions to specific and nonspecific RNA.

  18. BRAKER1: Unsupervised RNA-Seq-Based Genome Annotation with GeneMark-ET and AUGUSTUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Katharina J; Lange, Simone; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Borodovsky, Mark; Stanke, Mario

    2016-03-01

    Gene finding in eukaryotic genomes is notoriously difficult to automate. The task is to design a work flow with a minimal set of tools that would reach state-of-the-art performance across a wide range of species. GeneMark-ET is a gene prediction tool that incorporates RNA-Seq data into unsupervised training and subsequently generates ab initio gene predictions. AUGUSTUS is a gene finder that usually requires supervised training and uses information from RNA-Seq reads in the prediction step. Complementary strengths of GeneMark-ET and AUGUSTUS provided motivation for designing a new combined tool for automatic gene prediction. We present BRAKER1, a pipeline for unsupervised RNA-Seq-based genome annotation that combines the advantages of GeneMark-ET and AUGUSTUS. As input, BRAKER1 requires a genome assembly file and a file in bam-format with spliced alignments of RNA-Seq reads to the genome. First, GeneMark-ET performs iterative training and generates initial gene structures. Second, AUGUSTUS uses predicted genes for training and then integrates RNA-Seq read information into final gene predictions. In our experiments, we observed that BRAKER1 was more accurate than MAKER2 when it is using RNA-Seq as sole source for training and prediction. BRAKER1 does not require pre-trained parameters or a separate expert-prepared training step. BRAKER1 is available for download at http://bioinf.uni-greifswald.de/bioinf/braker/ and http://exon.gatech.edu/GeneMark/ katharina.hoff@uni-greifswald.de or borodovsky@gatech.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. New families of human regulatory RNA structures identified by comparative analysis of vertebrate genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Brian J; Moltke, Ida; Roth, Adam; Washietl, Stefan; Wen, Jiayu; Kellis, Manolis; Breaker, Ronald; Pedersen, Jakob Skou

    2011-11-01

    Regulatory RNA structures are often members of families with multiple paralogous instances across the genome. Family members share functional and structural properties, which allow them to be studied as a whole, facilitating both bioinformatic and experimental characterization. We have developed a comparative method, EvoFam, for genome-wide identification of families of regulatory RNA structures, based on primary sequence and secondary structure similarity. We apply EvoFam to a 41-way genomic vertebrate alignment. Genome-wide, we identify 220 human, high-confidence families outside protein-coding regions comprising 725 individual structures, including 48 families with known structural RNA elements. Known families identified include both noncoding RNAs, e.g., miRNAs and the recently identified MALAT1/MEN β lincRNA family; and cis-regulatory structures, e.g., iron-responsive elements. We also identify tens of new families supported by strong evolutionary evidence and other statistical evidence, such as GO term enrichments. For some of these, detailed analysis has led to the formulation of specific functional hypotheses. Examples include two hypothesized auto-regulatory feedback mechanisms: one involving six long hairpins in the 3'-UTR of MAT2A, a key metabolic gene that produces the primary human methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine; the other involving a tRNA-like structure in the intron of the tRNA maturation gene POP1. We experimentally validate the predicted MAT2A structures. Finally, we identify potential new regulatory networks, including large families of short hairpins enriched in immunity-related genes, e.g., TNF, FOS, and CTLA4, which include known transcript destabilizing elements. Our findings exemplify the diversity of post-transcriptional regulation and provide a resource for further characterization of new regulatory mechanisms and families of noncoding RNAs.

  20. Protection against West Nile virus infection in mice after inoculation with type I interferon-inducing RNA transcripts.

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    Miguel Rodríguez-Pulido

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a neurovirulent single stranded RNA mosquito-borne flavivirus, whose main natural hosts are birds, but it also infects humans and horses. Nowadays, no human vaccine is commercially available and clinical treatment is only supportive. Recently, it has been shown that RNA transcripts, mimicking structural domains in the non-coding regions (NCRs of the foot-and mouth disease virus (FMDV induce a potent IFN response and antiviral activity in transfected cultured cells, and also reduced mice susceptibility to FMDV. By using different transcripts combinations, administration schedules, and infecting routes and doses, we have demonstrated that these FMDV RNA transcripts protect suckling and adult mice against lethal challenge with WNV. The protective activity induced by the transcripts was systemic and dependent on the infection route and dose. These results confirm the antiviral potential of these synthetic RNAs for fighting viruses of different families relevant for human and animal health.

  1. Targeted Genome Editing Using DNA-Free RNA-Guided Cas9 Ribonucleoprotein for CHO Cell Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jongoh; Lee, Namil; Cho, Suhyung; Cho, Byung-Kwan

    2018-01-01

    Recent advances in the CRISPR/Cas9 system have dramatically facilitated genome engineering in various cell systems. Among the protocols, the direct delivery of the Cas9-sgRNA ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex into cells is an efficient approach to increase genome editing efficiency. This method uses purified Cas9 protein and in vitro transcribed sgRNA to edit the target gene without vector DNA. We have applied the RNP complex to CHO cell engineering to obtain desirable phenotypes and to reduce unintended insertional mutagenesis and off-target effects. Here, we describe our routine methods for RNP complex-mediated gene deletion including the protocols to prepare the purified Cas9 protein and the in vitro transcribed sgRNA. Subsequently, we also describe a protocol to confirm the edited genomic positions using the T7E1 enzymatic assay and next-generation sequencing.

  2. TSSer: an automated method to identify transcription start sites in prokaryotic genomes from differential RNA sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorjani, Hadi; Zavolan, Mihaela

    2014-04-01

    Accurate identification of transcription start sites (TSSs) is an essential step in the analysis of transcription regulatory networks. In higher eukaryotes, the capped analysis of gene expression technology enabled comprehensive annotation of TSSs in genomes such as those of mice and humans. In bacteria, an equivalent approach, termed differential RNA sequencing (dRNA-seq), has recently been proposed, but the application of this approach to a large number of genomes is hindered by the paucity of computational analysis methods. With few exceptions, when the method has been used, annotation of TSSs has been largely done manually. In this work, we present a computational method called 'TSSer' that enables the automatic inference of TSSs from dRNA-seq data. The method rests on a probabilistic framework for identifying both genomic positions that are preferentially enriched in the dRNA-seq data as well as preferentially captured relative to neighboring genomic regions. Evaluating our approach for TSS calling on several publicly available datasets, we find that TSSer achieves high consistency with the curated lists of annotated TSSs, but identifies many additional TSSs. Therefore, TSSer can accelerate genome-wide identification of TSSs in bacterial genomes and can aid in further characterization of bacterial transcription regulatory networks. TSSer is freely available under GPL license at http://www.clipz.unibas.ch/TSSer/index.php

  3. Small finger protein of avian and murine retroviruses has nucleic acid annealing activity and positions the replication primer tRNA onto genomic RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prats, A C; Sarih, L; Gabus, C; Litvak, S; Keith, G; Darlix, J L

    1988-06-01

    Retrovirus virions carry a diploid genome associated with a large number of small viral finger protein molecules which are required for encapsidation. Our present results show that finger protein p12 of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) and p10 of murine leukaemia virus (MuLV) positions replication primer tRNA on the replication initiation site (PBS) at the 5' end of the RNA genome. An RSV mutant with a Val-Pro insertion in the finger motif of p12 is able to partially encapsidate genomic RNA but is not infectious because mutated p12 is incapable of positioning the replication primer, tRNATrp. Since all known replication competent retroviruses, and the plant virus CaMV, code for finger proteins analogous to RSV p12 or MuLV p10, the initial stage of reverse transcription in avian, mammalian and human retroviruses and in CaMV is probably controlled in an analogous way.

  4. Analyses of a whole-genome inter-clade recombination map of hepatitis delta virus suggest a host polymerase-driven and viral RNA structure-promoted template-switching mechanism for viral RNA recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Mei; Wang, Tzu-Chi; Lin, Chia-Chi; Yung-Liang Wang, Robert; Lin, Wen-Bin; Lee, Shang-En; Cheng, Ying-Yu; Yeh, Chau-Ting; Iang, Shan-Bei

    2017-01-01

    The genome of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a 1.7-kb single-stranded circular RNA that folds into an unbranched rod-like structure and has ribozyme activity. HDV redirects host RNA polymerase(s) (RNAP) to perform viral RNA-directed RNA transcription. RNA recombination is known to contribute to the genetic heterogeneity of HDV, but its molecular mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we established a whole-genome HDV-1/HDV-4 recombination map using two cloned sequences coexisting in cultured cells. Our functional analyses of the resulting chimeric delta antigens (the only viral-encoded protein) and recombinant genomes provide insights into how recombination promotes the genotypic and phenotypic diversity of HDV. Our examination of crossover distribution and subsequent mutagenesis analyses demonstrated that ribozyme activity on HDV genome, which is required for viral replication, also contributes to the generation of an inter-clade junction. These data provide circumstantial evidence supporting our contention that HDV RNA recombination occurs via a replication-dependent mechanism. Furthermore, we identify an intrinsic asymmetric bulge on the HDV genome, which appears to promote recombination events in the vicinity. We therefore propose a mammalian RNAP-driven and viral-RNA-structure-promoted template-switching mechanism for HDV genetic recombination. The present findings improve our understanding of the capacities of the host RNAP beyond typical DNA-directed transcription. PMID:28977829

  5. DHX9 suppresses RNA processing defects originating from the Alu invasion of the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktaş, Tuğçe; Avşar Ilık, İbrahim; Maticzka, Daniel; Bhardwaj, Vivek; Pessoa Rodrigues, Cecilia; Mittler, Gerhard; Manke, Thomas; Backofen, Rolf; Akhtar, Asifa

    2017-04-06

    Transposable elements are viewed as 'selfish genetic elements', yet they contribute to gene regulation and genome evolution in diverse ways. More than half of the human genome consists of transposable elements. Alu elements belong to the short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) family of repetitive elements, and with over 1 million insertions they make up more than 10% of the human genome. Despite their abundance and the potential evolutionary advantages they confer, Alu elements can be mutagenic to the host as they can act as splice acceptors, inhibit translation of mRNAs and cause genomic instability. Alu elements are the main targets of the RNA-editing enzyme ADAR and the formation of Alu exons is suppressed by the nuclear ribonucleoprotein HNRNPC, but the broad effect of massive secondary structures formed by inverted-repeat Alu elements on RNA processing in the nucleus remains unknown. Here we show that DHX9, an abundant nuclear RNA helicase, binds specifically to inverted-repeat Alu elements that are transcribed as parts of genes. Loss of DHX9 leads to an increase in the number of circular-RNA-producing genes and amount of circular RNAs, translational repression of reporters containing inverted-repeat Alu elements, and transcriptional rewiring (the creation of mostly nonsensical novel connections between exons) of susceptible loci. Biochemical purifications of DHX9 identify the interferon-inducible isoform of ADAR (p150), but not the constitutively expressed ADAR isoform (p110), as an RNA-independent interaction partner. Co-depletion of ADAR and DHX9 augments the double-stranded RNA accumulation defects, leading to increased circular RNA production, revealing a functional link between these two enzymes. Our work uncovers an evolutionarily conserved function of DHX9. We propose that it acts as a nuclear RNA resolvase that neutralizes the immediate threat posed by transposon insertions and allows these elements to evolve as tools for the post

  6. Genome-Wide Analysis of the RNA Helicase Gene Family in Gossypium raimondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The RNA helicases, which help to unwind stable RNA duplexes, and have important roles in RNA metabolism, belong to a class of motor proteins that play important roles in plant development and responses to stress. Although this family of genes has been the subject of systematic investigation in Arabidopsis, rice, and tomato, it has not yet been characterized in cotton. In this study, we identified 161 putative RNA helicase genes in the genome of the diploid cotton species Gossypium raimondii. We classified these genes into three subfamilies, based on the presence of either a DEAD-box (51 genes, DEAH-box (52 genes, or DExD/H-box (58 genes in their coding regions. Chromosome location analysis showed that the genes that encode RNA helicases are distributed across all 13 chromosomes of G. raimondii. Syntenic analysis revealed that 62 of the 161 G. raimondii helicase genes (38.5% are within the identified syntenic blocks. Sixty-six (40.99% helicase genes from G. raimondii have one or several putative orthologs in tomato. Additionally, GrDEADs have more conserved gene structures and more simple domains than GrDEAHs and GrDExD/Hs. Transcriptome sequencing data demonstrated that many of these helicases, especially GrDEADs, are highly expressed at the fiber initiation stage and in mature leaves. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a genome-wide analysis of the RNA helicase gene family in cotton.

  7. Efficient Multiple Genome Modifications Induced by the crRNAs, tracrRNA and Cas9 Protein Complex in Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohga, Rie; Ota, Satoshi; Kawahara, Atsuo

    2015-01-01

    The type II clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) associated with Cas9 endonuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) has become a powerful genetic tool for understanding the function of a gene of interest. In zebrafish, the injection of Cas9 mRNA and guide-RNA (gRNA), which are prepared using an in vitro transcription system, efficiently induce DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at the targeted genomic locus. Because gRNA was originally constructed by fusing two short RNAs CRISPR RNA (crRNA) and trans-activating crRNA (tracrRNA), we examined the effect of synthetic crRNAs and tracrRNA with Cas9 mRNA or Cas9 protein on the genome editing activity. We previously reported that the disruption of tyrosinase (tyr) by tyr-gRNA/Cas9 mRNA causes a retinal pigment defect, whereas the disruption of spns2 by spns2-gRNA1/Cas9 mRNA leads to a cardiac progenitor migration defect in zebrafish. Here, we found that the injection of spns2-crRNA1, tyr-crRNA and tracrRNA with Cas9 mRNA or Cas9 protein simultaneously caused a migration defect in cardiac progenitors and a pigment defect in retinal epithelial cells. A time course analysis demonstrated that the injection of crRNAs and tracrRNA with Cas9 protein rapidly induced genome modifications compared with the injection of crRNAs and tracrRNA with Cas9 mRNA. We further show that the crRNA-tracrRNA-Cas9 protein complex is functional for the visualization of endogenous gene expression; therefore, this is a very powerful, ready-to-use system in zebrafish. PMID:26010089

  8. A Rapid and Efficient Method for Purifying High Quality Total RNA from Peaches (Prunus persica for Functional Genomics Analyses

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    LEE MEISEL

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Prunus persica has been proposed as a genomic model for deciduous trees and the Rosaceae family. Optimized protocols for RNA isolation are necessary to further advance studies in this model species such that functional genomics analyses may be performed. Here we present an optimized protocol to rapidly and efficiently purify high quality total RNA from peach fruits (Prunus persica. Isolating high-quality RNA from fruit tissue is often difficult due to large quantities of polysaccharides and polyphenolic compounds that accumulate in this tissue and co-purify with the RNA. Here we demonstrate that a modified version of the method used to isolate RNA from pine trees and the woody plant Cinnamomun tenuipilum is ideal for isolating high quality RNA from the fruits of Prunus persica. This RNA may be used for many functional genomic based experiments such as RT-PCR and the construction of large-insert cDNA libraries.

  9. Genome-wide Annotation, Identification, and Global Transcriptomic Analysis of Regulatory or Small RNA Gene Expression in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Ronan K; Weiss, Andy; Broach, William H; Wiemels, Richard E; Mogen, Austin B; Rice, Kelly C; Shaw, Lindsey N

    2016-02-09

    In Staphylococcus aureus, hundreds of small regulatory or small RNAs (sRNAs) have been identified, yet this class of molecule remains poorly understood and severely understudied. sRNA genes are typically absent from genome annotation files, and as a consequence, their existence is often overlooked, particularly in global transcriptomic studies. To facilitate improved detection and analysis of sRNAs in S. aureus, we generated updated GenBank files for three commonly used S. aureus strains (MRSA252, NCTC 8325, and USA300), in which we added annotations for >260 previously identified sRNAs. These files, the first to include genome-wide annotation of sRNAs in S. aureus, were then used as a foundation to identify novel sRNAs in the community-associated methicillin-resistant strain USA300. This analysis led to the discovery of 39 previously unidentified sRNAs. Investigating the genomic loci of the newly identified sRNAs revealed a surprising degree of inconsistency in genome annotation in S. aureus, which may be hindering the analysis and functional exploration of these elements. Finally, using our newly created annotation files as a reference, we perform a global analysis of sRNA gene expression in S. aureus and demonstrate that the newly identified tsr25 is the most highly upregulated sRNA in human serum. This study provides an invaluable resource to the S. aureus research community in the form of our newly generated annotation files, while at the same time presenting the first examination of differential sRNA expression in pathophysiologically relevant conditions. Despite a large number of studies identifying regulatory or small RNA (sRNA) genes in Staphylococcus aureus, their annotation is notably lacking in available genome files. In addition to this, there has been a considerable lack of cross-referencing in the wealth of studies identifying these elements, often leading to the same sRNA being identified multiple times and bearing multiple names. In this work

  10. Mutations in Cytosine-5 tRNA Methyltransferases Impact Mobile Element Expression and Genome Stability at Specific DNA Repeats

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    Bianca Genenncher

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of eukaryotic genome stability is ensured by the interplay of transcriptional as well as post-transcriptional mechanisms that control recombination of repeat regions and the expression and mobility of transposable elements. We report here that mutations in two (cytosine-5 RNA methyltransferases, Dnmt2 and NSun2, impact the accumulation of mobile element-derived sequences and DNA repeat integrity in Drosophila. Loss of Dnmt2 function caused moderate effects under standard conditions, while heat shock exacerbated these effects. In contrast, NSun2 function affected mobile element expression and genome integrity in a heat shock-independent fashion. Reduced tRNA stability in both RCMT mutants indicated that tRNA-dependent processes affected mobile element expression and DNA repeat stability. Importantly, further experiments indicated that complex formation with RNA could also contribute to the impact of RCMT function on gene expression control. These results thus uncover a link between tRNA modification enzymes, the expression of repeat DNA, and genomic integrity.

  11. Genomic segments RNA1 and RNA2 of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus codetermine viral pathogenicity to adapt to alternating natural Prunus hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongguang; Hong, Ni; Wang, Guoping; Wang, Aiming

    2013-05-01

    Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) affects Prunus fruit production worldwide. To date, numerous PNRSV isolates with diverse pathological properties have been documented. To study the pathogenicity of PNRSV, which directly or indirectly determines the economic losses of infected fruit trees, we have recently sequenced the complete genome of peach isolate Pch12 and cherry isolate Chr3, belonging to the pathogenically aggressive PV32 group and mild PV96 group, respectively. Here, we constructed the Chr3- and Pch12-derived full-length cDNA clones that were infectious in the experimental host cucumber and their respective natural Prunus hosts. Pch12-derived clones induced much more severe symptoms than Chr3 in cucumber, and the pathogenicity discrepancy between Chr3 and Pch12 was associated with virus accumulation. By reassortment of genomic segments, swapping of partial genomic segments, and site-directed mutagenesis, we identified the 3' terminal nucleotide sequence (1C region) in RNA1 and amino acid K at residue 279 in RNA2-encoded P2 as the severe virulence determinants in Pch12. Gain-of-function experiments demonstrated that both the 1C region and K279 of Pch12 were required for severe virulence and high levels of viral accumulation. Our results suggest that PNRSV RNA1 and RNA2 codetermine viral pathogenicity to adapt to alternating natural Prunus hosts, likely through mediating viral accumulation.

  12. Packaging signals in two single-stranded RNA viruses imply a conserved assembly mechanism and geometry of the packaged genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykeman, Eric C; Stockley, Peter G; Twarock, Reidun

    2013-09-09

    The current paradigm for assembly of single-stranded RNA viruses is based on a mechanism involving non-sequence-specific packaging of genomic RNA driven by electrostatic interactions. Recent experiments, however, provide compelling evidence for sequence specificity in this process both in vitro and in vivo. The existence of multiple RNA packaging signals (PSs) within viral genomes has been proposed, which facilitates assembly by binding coat proteins in such a way that they promote the protein-protein contacts needed to build the capsid. The binding energy from these interactions enables the confinement or compaction of the genomic RNAs. Identifying the nature of such PSs is crucial for a full understanding of assembly, which is an as yet untapped potential drug target for this important class of pathogens. Here, for two related bacterial viruses, we determine the sequences and locations of their PSs using Hamiltonian paths, a concept from graph theory, in combination with bioinformatics and structural studies. Their PSs have a common secondary structure motif but distinct consensus sequences and positions within the respective genomes. Despite these differences, the distributions of PSs in both viruses imply defined conformations for the packaged RNA genomes in contact with the protein shell in the capsid, consistent with a recent asymmetric structure determination of the MS2 virion. The PS distributions identified moreover imply a preferred, evolutionarily conserved assembly pathway with respect to the RNA sequence with potentially profound implications for other single-stranded RNA viruses known to have RNA PSs, including many animal and human pathogens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Immune response to the West Nile virus in aged non-human primates.

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    Anne M Wertheimer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Risk of encephalitis from West Nile virus (WNV infection increases dramatically with age. Understanding the basis of this susceptibility requires development of suitable animal models. Here, we investigated the immune response to WNV in old non-human primates.We investigated clinical, immunological and virological correlates of WNV infection in aging non-human primates. Aged (17-30 yrs and adult (6-9 yrs Rhesus macaques (RM were challenged with WNV in the presence or the absence of the mosquito salivary gland extract (SGE to approximate natural infection. None of the 26 animals exhibited clinical signs of the disease. Quantitative PCR suggested discrete and short-lived viremia, but infectious virus was never isolated. There was markedly increased, age-independent, proliferation of CD3(- non-B cells, followed by B-cell proliferation, which correlated to the loss of detectable WNV genomes. Moreover, animals primed with mosquito salivary gland extract exhibited reduced circulating WNV RNA. While we found the expected age-associated reduction in T cell proliferation, adaptive immunity did not correlate with infection outcome. That was further confirmed in a cohort of thymectomized and/or CD8 T-cell depleted Cynomolgus macaques (CM; N = 15, who also failed to develop WNV disease.Results are consistent with strong and age-independent innate resistance of macaques against WNV challenge. This animal model is therefore not suitable for vaccine and therapeutic testing against WNV. However, understanding the basis of their innate resistance against WNV in macaques could provide helpful clues to improve anti-WNV protection of older adults.

  14. On the biased nucleotide composition of the human coronavirus RNA genome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, Ben; van Hemert, Formijn

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the nucleotide composition of the RNA genome of the six human coronaviruses. Some general coronavirus characteristics were apparent (e.g. high U, low C count), but we also detected species-specific signatures. Most strikingly, the high U and low C proportions are quite variable and

  15. Photobiomodulation effects on mRNA levels from genomic and chromosome stabilization genes in injured muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Neto Trajano, Larissa Alexsandra; Trajano, Eduardo Tavares Lima; da Silva Sergio, Luiz Philippe; Teixeira, Adilson Fonseca; Mencalha, Andre Luiz; Stumbo, Ana Carolina; de Souza da Fonseca, Adenilson

    2018-04-26

    Muscle injuries are the most prevalent type of injury in sports. A great number of athletes have relapsed in muscle injuries not being treated properly. Photobiomodulation therapy is an inexpensive and safe technique with many benefits in muscle injury treatment. However, little has been explored about the infrared laser effects on DNA and telomeres in muscle injuries. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate photobiomodulation effects on mRNA relative levels from genes related to telomere and genomic stabilization in injured muscle. Wistar male rats were randomly divided into six groups: control, laser 25 mW, laser 75 mW, injury, injury laser 25 mW, and injury laser 75 mW. Photobiomodulation was performed with 904 nm, 3 J/cm 2 at 25 or 75 mW. Cryoinjury was induced by two applications of a metal probe cooled in liquid nitrogen directly on the tibialis anterior muscle. After euthanasia, skeletal muscle samples were withdrawn and total RNA extracted for evaluation of mRNA levels from genomic (ATM and p53) and chromosome stabilization (TRF1 and TRF2) genes by real-time quantitative polymerization chain reaction. Data show that photobiomodulation reduces the mRNA levels from ATM and p53, as well reduces mRNA levels from TRF1 and TRF2 at 25 and 75 mW in injured skeletal muscle. In conclusion, photobiomodulation alters mRNA relative levels from genes related to genomic and telomere stabilization in injured skeletal muscle.

  16. Full Genome Sequence and sfRNA Interferon Antagonist Activity of Zika Virus from Recife, Brazil.

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    Claire L Donald

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV in the Americas has transformed a previously obscure mosquito-transmitted arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family into a major public health concern. Little is currently known about the evolution and biology of ZIKV and the factors that contribute to the associated pathogenesis. Determining genomic sequences of clinical viral isolates and characterization of elements within these are an important prerequisite to advance our understanding of viral replicative processes and virus-host interactions.We obtained a ZIKV isolate from a patient who presented with classical ZIKV-associated symptoms, and used high throughput sequencing and other molecular biology approaches to determine its full genome sequence, including non-coding regions. Genome regions were characterized and compared to the sequences of other isolates where available. Furthermore, we identified a subgenomic flavivirus RNA (sfRNA in ZIKV-infected cells that has antagonist activity against RIG-I induced type I interferon induction, with a lesser effect on MDA-5 mediated action.The full-length genome sequence including non-coding regions of a South American ZIKV isolate from a patient with classical symptoms will support efforts to develop genetic tools for this virus. Detection of sfRNA that counteracts interferon responses is likely to be important for further understanding of pathogenesis and virus-host interactions.

  17. Simple genomes, complex interactions: Epistasis in RNA virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elena, Santiago F.; Solé, Ricard V.; Sardanyés, Josep

    2010-06-01

    Owed to their reduced size and low number of proteins encoded, RNA viruses and other subviral pathogens are often considered as being genetically too simple. However, this structural simplicity also creates the necessity for viral RNA sequences to encode for more than one protein and for proteins to carry out multiple functions, all together resulting in complex patterns of genetic interactions. In this work we will first review the experimental studies revealing that the architecture of viral genomes is dominated by antagonistic interactions among loci. Second, we will also review mathematical models and provide a description of computational tools for the study of RNA virus dynamics and evolution. As an application of these tools, we will finish this review article by analyzing a stochastic bit-string model of in silico virus replication. This model analyzes the interplay between epistasis and the mode of replication on determining the population load of deleterious mutations. The model suggests that, for a given mutation rate, the deleterious mutational load is always larger when epistasis is predominantly antagonistic than when synergism is the rule. However, the magnitude of this effect is larger if replication occurs geometrically than if it proceeds linearly.

  18. Annotation Of Novel And Conserved MicroRNA Genes In The Build 10 Sus scrofa Reference Genome And Determination Of Their Expression Levels In Ten Different Tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bo; Nielsen, Mathilde; Hedegaard, Jakob

    The DNA template used in the pig genome sequencing project was provided by a Duroc pig named TJ Tabasco. In an effort to annotate microRNA (miRNA) genes in the reference genome we have conducted deep sequencing to determine the miRNA transcriptomes in ten different tissues isolated from Pinky......, a genetically identical clone of TJ Tabasco. The purpose was to generate miRNA sequences that are highly homologous to the reference genome sequence, which along with computational prediction will improve confidence in the genomic annotation of miRNA genes. Based on homology searches of the sequence data...... against miRBase, we identified more than 600 conserved known miRNA/miRNA*, which is a significant increase relative to the 211 porcine miRNA/miRNA* deposited in the current version of miRBase. Furthermore, the genome-wide transcript profiles provided important information on the relative abundance...

  19. Full-length RNA structure prediction of the HIV-1 genome reveals a conserved core domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sükösd, Zsuzsanna; Andersen, Ebbe Sloth; Seemann, Ernst Stefan

    2015-01-01

    of the HIV-1 genome is highly variable in most regions, with a limited number of stable and conserved RNA secondary structures. Most interesting, a set of long distance interactions form a core organizing structure (COS) that organize the genome into three major structural domains. Despite overlapping...

  20. Heterologous and endogenous U6 snRNA promoters enable CRISPR/Cas9 mediated genome editing in Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaomei; Zheng, Ping; Sun, Jibin; Kun, Zhang; Ma, Yanhe

    2018-01-01

    U6 promoters have been used for single guide RNA (sgRNA) transcription in the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein (CRISPR/Cas9) genome editing system. However, no available U6 promoters have been identified in Aspergillus niger, which is an important industrial platform for organic acid and protein production. Two CRISPR/Cas9 systems established in A. niger have recourse to the RNA polymerase II promoter or in vitro transcription for sgRNA synthesis, but these approaches generally increase cloning efforts and genetic manipulation. The validation of functional RNA polymerase II promoters is therefore an urgent need for A. niger . Here, we developed a novel CRISPR/Cas9 system in A. niger for sgRNA expression, based on one endogenous U6 promoter and two heterologous U6 promoters. The three tested U6 promoters enabled sgRNA transcription and the disruption of the polyketide synthase albA gene in A. niger . Furthermore, this system enabled highly efficient gene insertion at the targeted genome loci in A. niger using donor DNAs with homologous arms as short as 40-bp. This study demonstrated that both heterologous and endogenous U6 promoters were functional for sgRNA expression in A. niger . Based on this result, a novel and simple CRISPR/Cas9 toolbox was established in A. niger, that will benefit future gene functional analysis and genome editing.

  1. De Novo Discovery of Structured ncRNA Motifs in Genomic Sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzzo, Walter L; Gorodkin, Jan

    2014-01-01

    De novo discovery of "motifs" capturing the commonalities among related noncoding ncRNA structured RNAs is among the most difficult problems in computational biology. This chapter outlines the challenges presented by this problem, together with some approaches towards solving them, with an emphas...... on an approach based on the CMfinder CMfinder program as a case study. Applications to genomic screens for novel de novo structured ncRNA ncRNA s, including structured RNA elements in untranslated portions of protein-coding genes, are presented.......De novo discovery of "motifs" capturing the commonalities among related noncoding ncRNA structured RNAs is among the most difficult problems in computational biology. This chapter outlines the challenges presented by this problem, together with some approaches towards solving them, with an emphasis...

  2. The connection domain in reverse transcriptase facilitates the in vivo annealing of tRNALys3 to HIV-1 genomic RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu Meijuan

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The primer tRNA for reverse transcription in HIV-1, tRNALys3, is selectively packaged into the virus during its assembly, and annealed to the viral genomic RNA. The ribonucleoprotein complex that is involved in the packaging and annealing of tRNALys into HIV-1 consists of Gag, GagPol, tRNALys, lysyl-tRNA synthetase (LysRS, and viral genomic RNA. Gag targets tRNALys for viral packaging through Gag's interaction with LysRS, a tRNALys-binding protein, while reverse transcriptase (RT sequences within GagPol (the thumb domain bind to tRNALys. The further annealing of tRNALys3 to viral RNA requires nucleocapsid (NC sequences in Gag, but not the NC sequences GagPol. In this report, we further show that while the RT connection domain in GagPol is not required for tRNALys3 packaging into the virus, it is required for tRNALys3 annealing to the viral RNA genome.

  3. A discontinuous RNA platform mediates RNA virus replication: building an integrated model for RNA-based regulation of viral processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baodong Wu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Plus-strand RNA viruses contain RNA elements within their genomes that mediate a variety of fundamental viral processes. The traditional view of these elements is that of local RNA structures. This perspective, however, is changing due to increasing discoveries of functional viral RNA elements that are formed by long-range RNA-RNA interactions, often spanning thousands of nucleotides. The plus-strand RNA genomes of tombusviruses exemplify this concept by possessing different long-range RNA-RNA interactions that regulate both viral translation and transcription. Here we report that a third fundamental tombusvirus process, viral genome replication, requires a long-range RNA-based interaction spanning approximately 3000 nts. In vivo and in vitro analyses suggest that the discontinuous RNA platform formed by the interaction facilitates efficient assembly of the viral RNA replicase. This finding has allowed us to build an integrated model for the role of global RNA structure in regulating the reproduction of a eukaryotic RNA virus, and the insights gained have extended our understanding of the multifunctional nature of viral RNA genomes.

  4. Viral RNA polymerase scanning and the gymnastics of Sendai virus RNA synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolakofsky, Daniel; Le Mercier, Philippe; Iseni, Frederic; Garcin, Dominique

    2004-01-01

    mRNA synthesis from nonsegmented negative-strand RNA virus (NNV) genomes is unique in that the genome RNA is embedded in an N protein assembly (the nucleocapsid) and the viral RNA polymerase does not dissociate from the template after release of each mRNA, but rather scans the genome RNA for the next gene-start site. A revised model for NNV RNA synthesis is presented, in which RNA polymerase scanning plays a prominent role. Polymerase scanning of the template is known to occur as the viral transcriptase negotiates gene junctions without falling off the template

  5. CpG preconditioning regulates miRNA expression that modulates genomic reprogramming associated with neuroprotection against ischemic injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Keri B; Mitchell, Hugh D; Stevens, Susan L; Conrad, Valerie K; McDermott, Jason E; Stenzel-Poore, Mary P

    2015-01-01

    Cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) preconditioning reprograms the genomic response to stroke to protect the brain against ischemic injury. The mechanisms underlying genomic reprogramming are incompletely understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression; however, their role in modulating gene responses produced by CpG preconditioning is unknown. We evaluated brain miRNA expression in response to CpG preconditioning before and after stroke using microarray. Importantly, we have data from previous gene microarrays under the same conditions, which allowed integration of miRNA and gene expression data to specifically identify regulated miRNA gene targets. CpG preconditioning did not significantly alter miRNA expression before stroke, indicating that miRNA regulation is not critical for the initiation of preconditioning-induced neuroprotection. However, after stroke, differentially regulated miRNAs between CpG- and saline-treated animals associated with the upregulation of several neuroprotective genes, implicating these miRNAs in genomic reprogramming that increases neuroprotection. Statistical analysis revealed that the miRNA targets were enriched in the gene population regulated in the setting of stroke, implying that miRNAs likely orchestrate this gene expression. These data suggest that miRNAs regulate endogenous responses to stroke and that manipulation of these miRNAs may have the potential to acutely activate novel neuroprotective processes that reduce damage. PMID:25388675

  6. SOAPsplice: genome-wide ab initio detection of splice junctions from RNA-Seq data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songbo eHuang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available RNA-Seq, a method using next generation sequencing technologies to sequence the transcriptome, facilitates genome-wide analysis of splice junction sites. In this paper, we introduce SOAPsplice, a robust tool to detect splice junctions using RNA-Seq data without using any information of known splice junctions. SOAPsplice uses a novel two-step approach consisting of first identifying as many reasonable splice junction candidates as possible, and then, filtering the false positives with two effective filtering strategies. In both simulated and real datasets, SOAPsplice is able to detect many reliable splice junctions with low false positive rate. The improvement gained by SOAPsplice, when compared to other existing tools, becomes more obvious when the depth of sequencing is low. SOAPsplice is freely available at http://soap.genomics.org.cn/soapsplice.html.

  7. Yellow fever virus capsid protein is a potent suppressor of RNA silencing that binds double-stranded RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Glady Hazitha; Wiley, Michael R; Badawi, Atif; Adelman, Zach N; Myles, Kevin M

    2016-11-29

    Mosquito-borne flaviviruses, including yellow fever virus (YFV), Zika virus (ZIKV), and West Nile virus (WNV), profoundly affect human health. The successful transmission of these viruses to a human host depends on the pathogen's ability to overcome a potentially sterilizing immune response in the vector mosquito. Similar to other invertebrate animals and plants, the mosquito's RNA silencing pathway comprises its primary antiviral defense. Although a diverse range of plant and insect viruses has been found to encode suppressors of RNA silencing, the mechanisms by which flaviviruses antagonize antiviral small RNA pathways in disease vectors are unknown. Here we describe a viral suppressor of RNA silencing (VSR) encoded by the prototype flavivirus, YFV. We show that the YFV capsid (YFC) protein inhibits RNA silencing in the mosquito Aedes aegypti by interfering with Dicer. This VSR activity appears to be broadly conserved in the C proteins of other medically important flaviviruses, including that of ZIKV. These results suggest that a molecular "arms race" between vector and pathogen underlies the continued existence of flaviviruses in nature.

  8. Probing the HIV-1 genomic RNA trafficking pathway and dimerization by genetic recombination and single virion analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Moore

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Once transcribed, the nascent full-length RNA of HIV-1 must travel to the appropriate host cell sites to be translated or to find a partner RNA for copackaging to form newly generated viruses. In this report, we sought to delineate the location where HIV-1 RNA initiates dimerization and the influence of the RNA transport pathway used by the virus on downstream events essential to viral replication. Using a cell-fusion-dependent recombination assay, we demonstrate that the two RNAs destined for copackaging into the same virion select each other mostly within the cytoplasm. Moreover, by manipulating the RNA export element in the viral genome, we show that the export pathway taken is important for the ability of RNA molecules derived from two viruses to interact and be copackaged. These results further illustrate that at the point of dimerization the two main cellular export pathways are partially distinct. Lastly, by providing Gag in trans, we have demonstrated that Gag is able to package RNA from either export pathway, irrespective of the transport pathway used by the gag mRNA. These findings provide unique insights into the process of RNA export in general, and more specifically, of HIV-1 genomic RNA trafficking.

  9. Molecular mimicry of human tRNALys anti-codon domain by HIV-1 RNA genome facilitates tRNA primer annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher P; Saadatmand, Jenan; Kleiman, Lawrence; Musier-Forsyth, Karin

    2013-02-01

    The primer for initiating reverse transcription in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is tRNA(Lys3). Host cell tRNA(Lys) is selectively packaged into HIV-1 through a specific interaction between the major tRNA(Lys)-binding protein, human lysyl-tRNA synthetase (hLysRS), and the viral proteins Gag and GagPol. Annealing of the tRNA primer onto the complementary primer-binding site (PBS) in viral RNA is mediated by the nucleocapsid domain of Gag. The mechanism by which tRNA(Lys3) is targeted to the PBS and released from hLysRS prior to annealing is unknown. Here, we show that hLysRS specifically binds to a tRNA anti-codon-like element (TLE) in the HIV-1 genome, which mimics the anti-codon loop of tRNA(Lys) and is located proximal to the PBS. Mutation of the U-rich sequence within the TLE attenuates binding of hLysRS in vitro and reduces the amount of annealed tRNA(Lys3) in virions. Thus, LysRS binds specifically to the TLE, which is part of a larger LysRS binding domain in the viral RNA that includes elements of the Psi packaging signal. Our results suggest that HIV-1 uses molecular mimicry of the anti-codon of tRNA(Lys) to increase the efficiency of tRNA(Lys3) annealing to viral RNA.

  10. Generation of Recombinant Polioviruses Harboring RNA Affinity Tags in the 5′ and 3′ Noncoding Regions of Genomic RNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flather, Dylan; Cathcart, Andrea L.; Cruz, Casey; Baggs, Eric; Ngo, Tuan; Gershon, Paul D.; Semler, Bert L.

    2016-01-01

    Despite being intensely studied for more than 50 years, a complete understanding of the enterovirus replication cycle remains elusive. Specifically, only a handful of cellular proteins have been shown to be involved in the RNA replication cycle of these viruses. In an effort to isolate and identify additional cellular proteins that function in enteroviral RNA replication, we have generated multiple recombinant polioviruses containing RNA affinity tags within the 3′ or 5′ noncoding region of the genome. These recombinant viruses retained RNA affinity sequences within the genome while remaining viable and infectious over multiple passages in cell culture. Further characterization of these viruses demonstrated that viral protein production and growth kinetics were unchanged or only slightly altered relative to wild type poliovirus. However, attempts to isolate these genetically-tagged viral genomes from infected cells have been hindered by high levels of co-purification of nonspecific proteins and the limited matrix-binding efficiency of RNA affinity sequences. Regardless, these recombinant viruses represent a step toward more thorough characterization of enterovirus ribonucleoprotein complexes involved in RNA replication. PMID:26861382

  11. Opening of the TAR hairpin in the HIV-1 genome causes aberrant RNA dimerization and packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Atze T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The TAR hairpin is present at both the 5′ and 3′ end of the HIV-1 RNA genome. The 5′ element binds the viral Tat protein and is essential for Tat-mediated activation of transcription. We recently observed that complete TAR deletion is allowed in the context of an HIV-1 variant that does not depend on this Tat-TAR axis for transcription. Mutations that open the 5′ stem-loop structure did however affect the leader RNA conformation and resulted in a severe replication defect. In this study, we set out to analyze which step of the HIV-1 replication cycle is affected by this conformational change of the leader RNA. Results We demonstrate that opening the 5′ TAR structure through a deletion in either side of the stem region caused aberrant dimerization and reduced packaging of the unspliced viral RNA genome. In contrast, truncation of the TAR hairpin through deletions in both sides of the stem did not affect RNA dimer formation and packaging. Conclusions These results demonstrate that, although the TAR hairpin is not essential for RNA dimerization and packaging, mutations in TAR can significantly affect these processes through misfolding of the relevant RNA signals.

  12. Identification of an Arabidopsis thaliana protein that binds to tomato mosaic virus genomic RNA and inhibits its multiplication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisaki, Koki; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2008-01-01

    The genomic RNAs of positive-strand RNA viruses carry RNA elements that play positive, or in some cases, negative roles in virus multiplication by interacting with viral and cellular proteins. In this study, we purified Arabidopsis thaliana proteins that specifically bind to 5' or 3' terminal regions of tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) genomic RNA, which contain important regulatory elements for translation and RNA replication, and identified these proteins by mass spectrometry analyses. One of these host proteins, named BTR1, harbored three heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K-homology RNA-binding domains and preferentially bound to RNA fragments that contained a sequence around the initiation codon of the 130K and 180K replication protein genes. The knockout and overexpression of BTR1 specifically enhanced and inhibited, respectively, ToMV multiplication in inoculated A. thaliana leaves, while such effect was hardly detectable in protoplasts. These results suggest that BTR1 negatively regulates the local spread of ToMV

  13. West Nile virus infection in American Robins: new insights on dose response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaci K VanDalen

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a vector-borne pathogen that was first detected in the United States in 1999. The natural transmission cycle of WNV involves mosquito vectors and avian hosts, which vary in their competency to transmit the virus. American robins are an abundant backyard species in the United States and appear to have an important role in the amplification and dissemination of WNV. In this study we examine the response of American robins to infection with various WNV doses within the range of those administered by some natural mosquito vectors. Thirty American robins were assigned a WNV dosage treatment and needle inoculated with 10(0.95 PFU, 10(1.26 PFU, 10(2.15 PFU, or 10(3.15 PFU. Serum samples were tested for the presence of infectious WNV and/or antibodies, while oral swabs were tested for the presence of WNV RNA. Five of the 30 (17% robins had neutralizing antibodies to WNV prior to the experiment and none developed viremia or shed WNV RNA. The proportion of WNV-seronegative birds that became viremic after WNV inoculation increased in a dose dependent manner. At the lowest dose, only 40% (2/5 of the inoculated birds developed productive infections while at the highest dose, 100% (7/7 of the birds became viremic. Oral shedding of WNV RNA followed a similar trend where robins inoculated with the lower two doses were less likely to shed viral RNA (25% than robins inoculated with one of the higher doses (92%. Viremia titers and morbidity did not increase in a dose dependent manner; only two birds succumbed to infection and, interestingly, both were inoculated with the lowest dose of WNV. It is clear that the disease ecology of WNV is a complex interplay of hosts, vectors, and viral dose delivered.

  14. Genome-wide RNA-seq analysis of human and mouse platelet transcriptomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Jesse W.; Oler, Andrew J.; Tolley, Neal D.; Hunter, Benjamin N.; Low, Elizabeth N.; Nix, David A.; Yost, Christian C.; Zimmerman, Guy A.

    2011-01-01

    Inbred mice are a useful tool for studying the in vivo functions of platelets. Nonetheless, the mRNA signature of mouse platelets is not known. Here, we use paired-end next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to characterize the polyadenylated transcriptomes of human and mouse platelets. We report that RNA-seq provides unprecedented resolution of mRNAs that are expressed across the entire human and mouse genomes. Transcript expression and abundance are often conserved between the 2 species. Several mRNAs, however, are differentially expressed in human and mouse platelets. Moreover, previously described functional disparities between mouse and human platelets are reflected in differences at the transcript level, including protease activated receptor-1, protease activated receptor-3, platelet activating factor receptor, and factor V. This suggests that RNA-seq is a useful tool for predicting differences in platelet function between mice and humans. Our next-generation sequencing analysis provides new insights into the human and murine platelet transcriptomes. The sequencing dataset will be useful in the design of mouse models of hemostasis and a catalyst for discovery of new functions of platelets. Access to the dataset is found in the “Introduction.” PMID:21596849

  15. Novel extraction strategy of ribosomal RNA and genomic DNA from cheese for PCR-based investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaïti, Catherine; Parayre, Sandrine; Irlinger, Françoise

    2006-03-15

    Cheese microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, constitute a complex ecosystem that plays a central role in cheeses ripening. The molecular study of cheese microbial diversity and activity is essential but the extraction of high quality nucleic acid may be problematic: the cheese samples are characterised by a strong buffering capacity which negatively influenced the yield of the extracted rRNA. The objective of this study is to develop an effective method for the direct and simultaneous isolation of yeast and bacterial ribosomal RNA and genomic DNA from the same cheese samples. DNA isolation was based on a protocol used for nucleic acids isolation from anaerobic digestor, without preliminary washing step with the combined use of the action of chaotropic agent (acid guanidinium thiocyanate), detergents (SDS, N-lauroylsarcosine), chelating agent (EDTA) and a mechanical method (bead beating system). The DNA purification was carried out by two washing steps of phenol-chloroform. RNA was isolated successfully after the second acid extraction step by recovering it from the phenolic phase of the first acid extraction. The novel method yielded pure preparation of undegraded RNA accessible for reverse transcription-PCR. The extraction protocol of genomic DNA and rRNA was applicable to complex ecosystem of different cheese matrices.

  16. Correlation of microRNA levels during hypoxia with predicted target mRNAs through genome-wide microarray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Page Grier P

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low levels of oxygen in tissues, seen in situations such as chronic lung disease, necrotic tumors, and high altitude exposures, initiate a signaling pathway that results in active transcription of genes possessing a hypoxia response element (HRE. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a change in miRNA expression following hypoxia could account for changes in the cellular transcriptome based on currently available miRNA target prediction tools. Methods To identify changes induced by hypoxia, we conducted mRNA- and miRNA-array-based experiments in HT29 cells, and performed comparative analysis of the resulting data sets based on multiple target prediction algorithms. To date, few studies have investigated an environmental perturbation for effects on genome-wide miRNA levels, or their consequent influence on mRNA output. Results Comparison of miRNAs with predicted mRNA targets indicated a lower level of concordance than expected. We did, however, find preliminary evidence of combinatorial regulation of mRNA expression by miRNA. Conclusion Target prediction programs and expression profiling techniques do not yet adequately represent the complexity of miRNA-mediated gene repression, and new methods may be required to better elucidate these pathways. Our data suggest the physiologic impact of miRNAs on cellular transcription results from a multifaceted network of miRNA and mRNA relationships, working together in an interconnected system and in context of hundreds of RNA species. The methods described here for comparative analysis of cellular miRNA and mRNA will be useful for understanding genome wide regulatory responsiveness and refining miRNA predictive algorithms.

  17. Structural basis of genomic RNA (gRNA) dimerization and packaging determinants of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktar, Suriya J; Vivet-Boudou, Valérie; Ali, Lizna M; Jabeen, Ayesha; Kalloush, Rawan M; Richer, Delphine; Mustafa, Farah; Marquet, Roland; Rizvi, Tahir A

    2014-11-14

    One of the hallmarks of retroviral life cycle is the efficient and specific packaging of two copies of retroviral gRNA in the form of a non-covalent RNA dimer by the assembling virions. It is becoming increasingly clear that the process of dimerization is closely linked with gRNA packaging, and in some retroviruses, the latter depends on the former. Earlier mutational analysis of the 5' end of the MMTV genome indicated that MMTV gRNA packaging determinants comprise sequences both within the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) and the beginning of gag. The RNA secondary structure of MMTV gRNA packaging sequences was elucidated employing selective 2'hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE). SHAPE analyses revealed the presence of a U5/Gag long-range interaction (U5/Gag LRI), not predicted by minimum free-energy structure predictions that potentially stabilizes the global structure of this region. Structure conservation along with base-pair covariations between different strains of MMTV further supported the SHAPE-validated model. The 5' region of the MMTV gRNA contains multiple palindromic (pal) sequences that could initiate intermolecular interaction during RNA dimerization. In vitro RNA dimerization, SHAPE analysis, and structure prediction approaches on a series of pal mutants revealed that MMTV RNA utilizes a palindromic point of contact to initiate intermolecular interactions between two gRNAs, leading to dimerization. This contact point resides within pal II (5' CGGCCG 3') at the 5' UTR and contains a canonical "GC" dyad and therefore likely constitutes the MMTV RNA dimerization initiation site (DIS). Further analyses of these pal mutants employing in vivo genetic approaches indicate that pal II, as well as pal sequences located in the primer binding site (PBS) are both required for efficient MMTV gRNA packaging. Employing structural prediction, biochemical, and genetic approaches, we show that pal II functions as a primary point of contact between

  18. Forced evolution of a regulatory RNA helix in the HIV-1 genome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, B.; Klaver, B.; Das, A. T.

    1997-01-01

    The 5'and 3'end of the HIV-1 RNA genome forms a repeat (R) element that encodes a double stem-loop structure (the TAR and polyA hairpins). Phylogenetic analysis of the polyA hairpin in different human and simian immunodeficiency viruses suggests that the thermodynamic stability of the helix is

  19. Whole-genome analysis of mRNA decay in Plasmodium falciparum reveals a global lengthening of mRNA half-life during the intra-erythrocytic development cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shock, Jennifer L; Fischer, Kael F; DeRisi, Joseph L

    2007-01-01

    The rate of mRNA decay is an essential element of post-transcriptional regulation in all organisms. Previously, studies in several organisms found that the specific half-life of each mRNA is precisely related to its physiologic role, and plays an important role in determining levels of gene expression. We used a genome-wide approach to characterize mRNA decay in Plasmodium falciparum. We found that, globally, rates of mRNA decay increase dramatically during the asexual intra-erythrocytic developmental cycle. During the ring stage of the cycle, the average mRNA half-life was 9.5 min, but this was extended to an average of 65 min during the late schizont stage of development. Thus, a major determinant of mRNA decay rate appears to be linked to the stage of intra-erythrocytic development. Furthermore, we found specific variations in decay patterns superimposed upon the dominant trend of progressive half-life lengthening. These variations in decay pattern were frequently enriched for genes with specific cellular functions or processes. Elucidation of Plasmodium mRNA decay rates provides a key element for deciphering mechanisms of genetic control in this parasite, by complementing and extending previous mRNA abundance studies. Our results indicate that progressive stage-dependent decreases in mRNA decay rate function are a major determinant of mRNA accumulation during the schizont stage of intra-erythrocytic development. This type of genome-wide change in mRNA decay rate has not been observed in any other organism to date, and indicates that post-transcriptional regulation may be the dominant mechanism of gene regulation in P. falciparum.

  20. Reexamining microRNA site accessibility in Drosophila: a population genomics study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Chen

    Full Text Available Kertesz et al. (Nature Genetics 2008 described PITA, a miRNA target prediction algorithm based on hybridization energy and site accessibility. In this note, we used a population genomics approach to reexamine their data and found that the PITA algorithm had lower specificity than methods based on evolutionary conservation at comparable levels of sensitivity.We also showed that deeply conserved miRNAs tend to have stronger hybridization energies to their targets than do other miRNAs. Although PITA had higher specificity in predicting targets than a naïve seed-match method, this signal was primarily due to the use of a single cutoff score for all miRNAs and to the observed correlation between conservation and hybridization energy. Overall, our results clarify the accuracy of different miRNA target prediction algorithms in Drosophila and the role of site accessibility in miRNA target prediction.

  1. The Integrated System for Public Health Monitoring of West Nile Virus (ISPHM-WNV: a real-time GIS for surveillance and decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebel Germain

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After its first detection in North America in New York in 1999, West Nile virus was detected for the first time in 2002 in the province of Quebec, Canada. This situation forced the Government of Quebec to adopt a public health protection plan against the virus. The plan comprises several fields of intervention including the monitoring of human cases, Corvidae and mosquitoes in order to ensure the early detection of the presence of the virus in a particular area. To help support the monitoring activities, the Integrated System for Public Health Monitoring of West Nile Virus (ISPHM-WNV has been developed. Results The ISPHM-WNV is a real-time geographic information system for public health surveillance of West Nile virus and includes information on Corvidae, mosquitoes, humans, horses, climate, and preventive larvicide interventions. It has been in operation in the province of Quebec, Canada, since May 2003. The ISPHM-WNV facilitates the collection, localization, management and analysis of monitoring data; it also allows for the display of the results of analyses on maps, tables and statistical diagrams. Conclusion The system is very helpful for field workers in all regions of the province, as well as for central authorities. It represents the common authoritative source of data for analysis, exchange and decision-making.

  2. A genome-wide siRNA screen to identify modulators of insulin sensitivity and gluconeogenesis.

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    Ruojing Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatic insulin resistance impairs insulin's ability to suppress hepatic glucose production (HGP and contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D. Although the interests to discover novel genes that modulate insulin sensitivity and HGP are high, it remains challenging to have a human cell based system to identify novel genes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To identify genes that modulate hepatic insulin signaling and HGP, we generated a human cell line stably expressing beta-lactamase under the control of the human glucose-6-phosphatase (G6PC promoter (AH-G6PC cells. Both beta-lactamase activity and endogenous G6PC mRNA were increased in AH-G6PC cells by a combination of dexamethasone and pCPT-cAMP, and reduced by insulin. A 4-gene High-Throughput-Genomics assay was developed to concomitantly measure G6PC and pyruvate-dehydrogenase-kinase-4 (PDK4 mRNA levels. Using this assay, we screened an siRNA library containing pooled siRNA targeting 6650 druggable genes and identified 614 hits that lowered G6PC expression without increasing PDK4 mRNA levels. Pathway analysis indicated that siRNA-mediated knockdown (KD of genes known to positively or negatively affect insulin signaling increased or decreased G6PC mRNA expression, respectively, thus validating our screening platform. A subset of 270 primary screen hits was selected and 149 hits were confirmed by target gene KD by pooled siRNA and 7 single siRNA for each gene to reduce G6PC expression in 4-gene HTG assay. Subsequently, pooled siRNA KD of 113 genes decreased PEPCK and/or PGC1alpha mRNA expression thereby demonstrating their role in regulating key gluconeogenic genes in addition to G6PC. Last, KD of 61 of the above 113 genes potentiated insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation, suggesting that they suppress gluconeogenic gene by enhancing insulin signaling. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results support the proposition that the proteins encoded by the genes identified in

  3. Analysis of an RNA-seq Strand-Specific Library from an East Timorese Cucumber Sample Reveals a Complete Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Solomon; Edwards, Owain R; de Almeida, Luis; Ximenes, Abel; Jones, Roger A C

    2017-05-11

    Analysis of an RNA-seq library from cucumber leaf RNA extracted from a fast technology for analysis of nucleic acids (FTA) card revealed the first complete genome of Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV) from East Timor. We compare it with 35 complete CABYV genomes from other world regions. It most resembled the genome of the South Korean isolate HD118. Copyright © 2017 Maina et al.

  4. RNA structural constraints in the evolution of the influenza A virus genome NP segment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P. Gultyaev (Alexander); A. Tsyganov-Bodounov (Anton); M.I. Spronken (Monique); S. Van Der Kooij (Sander); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); R.C.L. Olsthoorn (René)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractConserved RNA secondary structures were predicted in the nucleoprotein (NP) segment of the influenza A virus genome using comparative sequence and structure analysis. A number of structural elements exhibiting nucleotide covariations were identified over the whole segment length,

  5. Near-Complete Genome Sequence of a Novel Single-Stranded RNA Virus Discovered in Indoor Air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Karyna; Fierer, Noah; Breitbart, Mya

    2018-03-22

    Viral metagenomic analysis of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) filters recovered the near-complete genome sequence of a novel virus, named HVAC-associated R NA v irus 1 (HVAC-RV1). The HVAC-RV1 genome is most similar to those of picorna-like viruses identified in arthropods but encodes a small domain observed only in negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses. Copyright © 2018 Rosario et al.

  6. Analysis Of Transcriptomes In A Porcine Tissue Collection Using RNA-Seq And Genome Assembly 10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornshøj, Henrik; Thomsen, Bo; Hedegaard, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The release of Sus scrofa genome assembly 10 supports improvement of the pig genome annotation and in depth transcriptome analyses using next-generation sequencing technologies. In this study we analyze RNA-seq reads from a tissue collection, including 10 separate tissues from Duroc boars and 10...... short read alignment software we mapped the reads to the genome assembly 10. We extracted contig sequences of gene transcripts using the Cufflinks software. Based on this information we identified expressed genes that are present in the genome assembly. The portion of these genes being previously known...... was roughly estimated by sequence comparison to known genes. Similarly, we searched for genes that are expressed in the tissues but not present in the genome assembly by aligning the non-genome-mapped reads to known gene transcripts. For the genes predicted to have alternative transcript variants by Cufflinks...

  7. 5S rRNA Promoter for Guide RNA Expression Enabled Highly Efficient CRISPR/Cas9 Genome Editing in Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaomei; Zheng, Ping; Zhang, Kun; Cairns, Timothy C; Meyer, Vera; Sun, Jibin; Ma, Yanhe

    2018-04-30

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a revolutionary genome editing tool. However, in eukaryotes, search and optimization of a suitable promoter for guide RNA expression is a significant technical challenge. Here we used the industrially important fungus, Aspergillus niger, to demonstrate that the 5S rRNA gene, which is both highly conserved and efficiently expressed in eukaryotes, can be used as a guide RNA promoter. The gene editing system was established with 100% rates of precision gene modifications among dozens of transformants using short (40-bp) homologous donor DNA. This system was also applicable for generation of designer chromosomes, as evidenced by deletion of a 48 kb gene cluster required for biosynthesis of the mycotoxin fumonisin B1. Moreover, this system also facilitated simultaneous mutagenesis of multiple genes in A. niger. We anticipate that the use of the 5S rRNA gene as guide RNA promoter can broadly be applied for engineering highly efficient eukaryotic CRISPR/Cas9 toolkits. Additionally, the system reported here will enable development of designer chromosomes in model and industrially important fungi.

  8. Distinct functions for the Drosophila piRNA pathway in genome maintenance and telomere protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaspreet S Khurana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Transposons and other selfish DNA elements can be found in all phyla, and mobilization of these elements can compromise genome integrity. The piRNA (PIWI-interacting RNA pathway silences transposons in the germline, but it is unclear if this pathway has additional functions during development. Here we show that mutations in the Drosophila piRNA pathway genes, armi, aub, ago3, and rhi, lead to extensive fragmentation of the zygotic genome during the cleavage stage of embryonic divisions. Additionally, aub and armi show defects in telomere resolution during meiosis and the cleavage divisions; and mutations in lig-IV, which disrupt non-homologous end joining, suppress these fusions. By contrast, lig-IV mutations enhance chromosome fragmentation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies show that aub and armi mutations disrupt telomere binding of HOAP, which is a component of the telomere protection complex, and reduce expression of a subpopulation of 19- to 22-nt telomere-specific piRNAs. Mutations in rhi and ago3, by contrast, do not block HOAP binding or production of these piRNAs. These findings uncover genetically separable functions for the Drosophila piRNA pathway. The aub, armi, rhi, and ago3 genes silence transposons and maintain chromosome integrity during cleavage-stage embryonic divisions. However, the aub and armi genes have an additional function in assembly of the telomere protection complex.

  9. An RNA Phage Lab: MS2 in Walter Fiers' laboratory of molecular biology in Ghent, from genetic code to gene and genome, 1963-1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrel, Jérôme

    2012-01-01

    The importance of viruses as model organisms is well-established in molecular biology and Max Delbrück's phage group set standards in the DNA phage field. In this paper, I argue that RNA phages, discovered in the 1960s, were also instrumental in the making of molecular biology. As part of experimental systems, RNA phages stood for messenger RNA (mRNA), genes and genome. RNA was thought to mediate information transfers between DNA and proteins. Furthermore, RNA was more manageable at the bench than DNA due to the availability of specific RNases, enzymes used as chemical tools to analyse RNA. Finally, RNA phages provided scientists with a pure source of mRNA to investigate the genetic code, genes and even a genome sequence. This paper focuses on Walter Fiers' laboratory at Ghent University (Belgium) and their work on the RNA phage MS2. When setting up his Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Fiers planned a comprehensive study of the virus with a strong emphasis on the issue of structure. In his lab, RNA sequencing, now a little-known technique, evolved gradually from a means to solve the genetic code, to a tool for completing the first genome sequence. Thus, I follow the research pathway of Fiers and his 'RNA phage lab' with their evolving experimental system from 1960 to the late 1970s. This study illuminates two decisive shifts in post-war biology: the emergence of molecular biology as a discipline in the 1960s in Europe and of genomics in the 1990s.

  10. Retrovirus-specific differences in matrix and nucleocapsid protein-nucleic acid interactions: implications for genomic RNA packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meng; Grigsby, Iwen F; Gorelick, Robert J; Mansky, Louis M; Musier-Forsyth, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Retroviral RNA encapsidation involves a recognition event between genomic RNA (gRNA) and one or more domains in Gag. In HIV-1, the nucleocapsid (NC) domain is involved in gRNA packaging and displays robust nucleic acid (NA) binding and chaperone functions. In comparison, NC of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), a deltaretrovirus, displays weaker NA binding and chaperone activity. Mutation of conserved charged residues in the deltaretrovirus bovine leukemia virus (BLV) matrix (MA) and NC domains affects virus replication and gRNA packaging efficiency. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that the MA domain may generally contribute to NA binding and genome encapsidation in deltaretroviruses. Here, we examined the interaction between HTLV-2 and HIV-1 MA proteins and various NAs in vitro. HTLV-2 MA displays higher NA binding affinity and better chaperone activity than HIV-1 MA. HTLV-2 MA also binds NAs with higher affinity than HTLV-2 NC and displays more robust chaperone function. Mutation of two basic residues in HTLV-2 MA α-helix II, previously implicated in BLV gRNA packaging, reduces NA binding affinity. HTLV-2 MA binds with high affinity and specificity to RNA derived from the putative packaging signal of HTLV-2 relative to nonspecific NA. Furthermore, an HIV-1 MA triple mutant designed to mimic the basic character of HTLV-2 MA α-helix II dramatically improves binding affinity and chaperone activity of HIV-1 MA in vitro and restores RNA packaging to a ΔNC HIV-1 variant in cell-based assays. Taken together, these results are consistent with a role for deltaretrovirus MA proteins in viral RNA packaging.

  11. p53 shapes genome-wide and cell type-specific changes in microRNA expression during the human DNA damage response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Hiroyoshi; Janky, Rekin's; Nietfeld, Wilfried; Aerts, Stein; Madan Babu, M; Venkitaraman, Ashok R

    2014-01-01

    The human DNA damage response (DDR) triggers profound changes in gene expression, whose nature and regulation remain uncertain. Although certain micro-(mi)RNA species including miR34, miR-18, miR-16 and miR-143 have been implicated in the DDR, there is as yet no comprehensive description of genome-wide changes in the expression of miRNAs triggered by DNA breakage in human cells. We have used next-generation sequencing (NGS), combined with rigorous integrative computational analyses, to describe genome-wide changes in the expression of miRNAs during the human DDR. The changes affect 150 of 1523 miRNAs known in miRBase v18 from 4-24 h after the induction of DNA breakage, in cell-type dependent patterns. The regulatory regions of the most-highly regulated miRNA species are enriched in conserved binding sites for p53. Indeed, genome-wide changes in miRNA expression during the DDR are markedly altered in TP53-/- cells compared to otherwise isogenic controls. The expression levels of certain damage-induced, p53-regulated miRNAs in cancer samples correlate with patient survival. Our work reveals genome-wide and cell type-specific alterations in miRNA expression during the human DDR, which are regulated by the tumor suppressor protein p53. These findings provide a genomic resource to identify new molecules and mechanisms involved in the DDR, and to examine their role in tumor suppression and the clinical outcome of cancer patients.

  12. TargetRNA: a tool for predicting targets of small RNA action in bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Tjaden, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Many small RNA (sRNA) genes in bacteria act as posttranscriptional regulators of target messenger RNAs. Here, we present TargetRNA, a web tool for predicting mRNA targets of sRNA action in bacteria. TargetRNA takes as input a genomic sequence that may correspond to an sRNA gene. TargetRNA then uses a dynamic programming algorithm to search each annotated message in a specified genome for mRNAs that evince basepair-binding potential to the input sRNA sequence. Based on the calculated basepair-...

  13. Rapid Genome-wide Recruitment of RNA Polymerase II Drives Transcription, Splicing, and Translation Events during T Cell Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Davari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Activation of immune cells results in rapid functional changes, but how such fast changes are accomplished remains enigmatic. By combining time courses of 4sU-seq, RNA-seq, ribosome profiling (RP, and RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II ChIP-seq during T cell activation, we illustrate genome-wide temporal dynamics for ∼10,000 genes. This approach reveals not only immediate-early and posttranscriptionally regulated genes but also coupled changes in transcription and translation for >90% of genes. Recruitment, rather than release of paused RNA Pol II, primarily mediates transcriptional changes. This coincides with a genome-wide temporary slowdown in cotranscriptional splicing, even for polyadenylated mRNAs that are localized at the chromatin. Subsequent splicing optimization correlates with increasing Ser-2 phosphorylation of the RNA Pol II carboxy-terminal domain (CTD and activation of the positive transcription elongation factor (pTEFb. Thus, rapid de novo recruitment of RNA Pol II dictates the course of events during T cell activation, particularly transcription, splicing, and consequently translation. : Davari et al. visualize global changes in RNA Pol II binding, transcription, splicing, and translation. T cells change their functional program by rapid de novo recruitment of RNA Pol II and coupled changes in transcription and translation. This coincides with fluctuations in RNA Pol II phosphorylation and a temporary reduction in cotranscriptional splicing. Keywords: RNA Pol II, cotranscriptional splicing, T cell activation, ribosome profiling, 4sU, H3K36, Ser-5 RNA Pol II, Ser-2 RNA Pol II, immune response, immediate-early genes

  14. Theory Meets Experiment: Metal Ion Effects in HCV Genomic RNA Kissing Complex Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Zhen Sun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The long-range base pairing between the 5BSL3. 2 and 3′X domains in hepatitis C virus (HCV genomic RNA is essential for viral replication. Experimental evidence points to the critical role of metal ions, especially Mg2+ ions, in the formation of the 5BSL3.2:3′X kissing complex. Furthermore, NMR studies suggested an important ion-dependent conformational switch in the kissing process. However, for a long time, mechanistic understanding of the ion effects for the process has been unclear. Recently, computational modeling based on the Vfold RNA folding model and the partial charge-based tightly bound ion (PCTBI model, in combination with the NMR data, revealed novel physical insights into the role of metal ions in the 5BSL3.2-3′X system. The use of the PCTBI model, which accounts for the ion correlation and fluctuation, gives reliable predictions for the ion-dependent electrostatic free energy landscape and ion-induced population shift of the 5BSL3.2:3′X kissing complex. Furthermore, the predicted ion binding sites offer insights about how ion-RNA interactions shift the conformational equilibrium. The integrated theory-experiment study shows that Mg2+ ions may be essential for HCV viral replication. Moreover, the observed Mg2+-dependent conformational equilibrium may be an adaptive property of the HCV genomic RNA such that the equilibrium is optimized to the intracellular Mg2+ concentration in liver cells for efficient viral replication.

  15. Divergence of RNA polymerase α subunits in angiosperm plastid genomes is mediated by genomic rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazier, J Chris; Ruhlman, Tracey A; Weng, Mao-Lun; Rehman, Sumaiyah K; Sabir, Jamal S M; Jansen, Robert K

    2016-04-18

    Genes for the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP) persist in the plastid genomes of all photosynthetic angiosperms. However, three unrelated lineages (Annonaceae, Passifloraceae and Geraniaceae) have been identified with unusually divergent open reading frames (ORFs) in the conserved region of rpoA, the gene encoding the PEP α subunit. We used sequence-based approaches to evaluate whether these genes retain function. Both gene sequences and complete plastid genome sequences were assembled and analyzed from each of the three angiosperm families. Multiple lines of evidence indicated that the rpoA sequences are likely functional despite retaining as low as 30% nucleotide sequence identity with rpoA genes from outgroups in the same angiosperm order. The ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions indicated that these genes are under purifying selection, and bioinformatic prediction of conserved domains indicated that functional domains are preserved. One of the lineages (Pelargonium, Geraniaceae) contains species with multiple rpoA-like ORFs that show evidence of ongoing inter-paralog gene conversion. The plastid genomes containing these divergent rpoA genes have experienced extensive structural rearrangement, including large expansions of the inverted repeat. We propose that illegitimate recombination, not positive selection, has driven the divergence of rpoA.

  16. Genome-Wide Analysis of Gene and microRNA Expression in Diploid and Autotetraploid Paulownia fortunei (Seem Hemsl. under Drought Stress by Transcriptome, microRNA, and Degradome Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenli Zhao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a common and recurring climatic condition in many parts of the world, and it can have disastrous impacts on plant growth and development. Many genes involved in the drought response of plants have been identified. Transcriptome, microRNA (miRNA, and degradome analyses are rapid ways of identifying drought-responsive genes. The reference genome sequence of Paulownia fortunei (Seem Hemsl. is now available, which makes it easier to explore gene expression, transcriptional regulation, and post-transcriptional in this species. In this study, four transcriptome, small RNA, and degradome libraries were sequenced by Illumina sequencing, respectively. A total of 258 genes and 11 miRNAs were identified for drought-responsive genes and miRNAs in P. fortunei. Degradome sequencing detected 28 miRNA target genes that were cleaved by members of nine conserved miRNA families and 12 novel miRNAs. The results here will contribute toward enriching our understanding of the response of Paulownia fortunei trees to drought stress and may provide new direction for further experimental studies related the development of molecular markers, the genetic map construction, and other genomic research projects in Paulownia.

  17. Mapping of RNA initiation sites by high doses of uv iradiation: evidence for three independent promoters within the left 11% of the Ad-2 genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.C.; Fraser, N.W.; Darnell, J.E. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Cells infected with Ad-2 virus were irradiated so that uv-induced lesions were introduced every 500 to 1000 nucleotides in the genomes, consequently leading to the premature termination of RNA transcription. Such cells when labeled with [ 3 H]uridine accumulate labeled promoter proximal RNA. Hybridization of this RNA after size fractionation to restriction fragments of the Ad-2 genome allowed the identification of DNA sequences containing active RNA initiation sites. Early during the infectious cycle two active RNA initiation sites were found within the left 11% of the Ad-2 genome within the 0 to 3.0 and 4.4 to 8.0 restriction fragments. During late infection (15 hr) an additional uv resistant transcript was detected indicating that a newly activated RNA initiation site, presumably for protein IX, resides within the fragment 8.0 to 11.2

  18. Optimized paired-sgRNA/Cas9 cloning and expression cassette triggers high-efficiency multiplex genome editing in kiwifruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zupeng; Wang, Shuaibin; Li, Dawei; Zhang, Qiong; Li, Li; Zhong, Caihong; Liu, Yifei; Huang, Hongwen

    2018-01-13

    Kiwifruit is an important fruit crop; however, technologies for its functional genomic and molecular improvement are limited. The clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) system has been successfully applied to genetic improvement in many crops, but its editing capability is variable depending on the different combinations of the synthetic guide RNA (sgRNA) and Cas9 protein expression devices. Optimizing conditions for its use within a particular species is therefore needed to achieve highly efficient genome editing. In this study, we developed a new cloning strategy for generating paired-sgRNA/Cas9 vectors containing four sgRNAs targeting the kiwifruit phytoene desaturase gene (AcPDS). Comparing to the previous method of paired-sgRNA cloning, our strategy only requires the synthesis of two gRNA-containing primers which largely reduces the cost. We further compared efficiencies of paired-sgRNA/Cas9 vectors containing different sgRNA expression devices, including both the polycistronic tRNA-sgRNA cassette (PTG) and the traditional CRISPR expression cassette. We found the mutagenesis frequency of the PTG/Cas9 system was 10-fold higher than that of the CRISPR/Cas9 system, coinciding with the relative expressions of sgRNAs in two different expression cassettes. In particular, we identified large chromosomal fragment deletions induced by the paired-sgRNAs of the PTG/Cas9 system. Finally, as expected, we found both systems can successfully induce the albino phenotype of kiwifruit plantlets regenerated from the G418-resistance callus lines. We conclude that the PTG/Cas9 system is a more powerful system than the traditional CRISPR/Cas9 system for kiwifruit genome editing, which provides valuable clues for optimizing CRISPR/Cas9 editing system in other plants. © 2018 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons

  19. Variable Copy Number, Intra-Genomic Heterogeneities and Lateral Transfers of the 16S rRNA Gene in Pseudomonas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodilis, Josselin; Nsigue-Meilo, Sandrine; Besaury, Ludovic; Quillet, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    Even though the 16S rRNA gene is the most commonly used taxonomic marker in microbial ecology, its poor resolution is still not fully understood at the intra-genus level. In this work, the number of rRNA gene operons, intra-genomic heterogeneities and lateral transfers were investigated at a fine-scale resolution, throughout the Pseudomonas genus. In addition to nineteen sequenced Pseudomonas strains, we determined the 16S rRNA copy number in four other Pseudomonas strains by Southern hybridization and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis, and studied the intra-genomic heterogeneities by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis and sequencing. Although the variable copy number (from four to seven) seems to be correlated with the evolutionary distance, some close strains in the P. fluorescens lineage showed a different number of 16S rRNA genes, whereas all the strains in the P. aeruginosa lineage displayed the same number of genes (four copies). Further study of the intra-genomic heterogeneities revealed that most of the Pseudomonas strains (15 out of 19 strains) had at least two different 16S rRNA alleles. A great difference (5 or 19 nucleotides, essentially grouped near the V1 hypervariable region) was observed only in two sequenced strains. In one of our strains studied (MFY30 strain), we found a difference of 12 nucleotides (grouped in the V3 hypervariable region) between copies of the 16S rRNA gene. Finally, occurrence of partial lateral transfers of the 16S rRNA gene was further investigated in 1803 full-length sequences of Pseudomonas available in the databases. Remarkably, we found that the two most variable regions (the V1 and V3 hypervariable regions) had probably been laterally transferred from another evolutionary distant Pseudomonas strain for at least 48.3 and 41.6% of the 16S rRNA sequences, respectively. In conclusion, we strongly recommend removing these regions of the 16S rRNA gene during the intra-genus diversity studies. PMID:22545126

  20. Plastid, nuclear and reverse transcriptase sequences in the mitochondrial genome of Oenothera: is genetic information transferred between organelles via RNA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, W; Brennicke, A

    1987-01-01

    We describe an open reading frame (ORF) with high homology to reverse transcriptase in the mitochondrial genome of Oenothera. This ORF displays all the characteristics of an active plant mitochondrial gene with a possible ribosome binding site and 39% T in the third codon position. It is located between a sequence fragment from the plastid genome and one of nuclear origin downstream from the gene encoding subunit 5 of the NADH dehydrogenase. The nuclear derived sequence consists of 528 nucleotides from the small ribosomal RNA and contains an expansion segment unique to nuclear rRNAs. The plastid sequence contains part of the ribosomal protein S4 and the complete tRNA(Ser). The observation that only transcribed sequences have been found i more than one subcellular compartment in higher plants suggests that interorganellar transfer of genetic information may occur via RNA and subsequent local reverse transcription and genomic integration. PMID:14650433

  1. Detection of West Nile virus lineage 2 in the urine of acute human infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anna; Testa, Theodolinda; Papadopoulou, Elpida

    2014-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 emerged in Greece in 2010 and since then outbreaks in humans have been reported for four consecutive years. Laboratory diagnosis is based mainly on serology. A real-time RT-PCR was applied on urine samples obtained from 35 patients with acute WNV infection. WNV RNA was detected in 40% of the samples with cycle threshold (CT) values ranging from 26.95 to 39.89 (mean 33.11). WNV was isolated from two of four urine samples with low CT (sample shipment and storage conditions are very important for virus detection and isolation. The usefulness of the WNV RNA detection in urine as a diagnostic tool of acute WNV infections is discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The genome of the Hi5 germ cell line from Trichoplusia ni, an agricultural pest and novel model for small RNA biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yu; Yang, Yujing; Zhang, Han; Farley, Gwen; Wang, Junling; Quarles, Kaycee A; Weng, Zhiping; Zamore, Phillip D

    2018-01-29

    We report a draft assembly of the genome of Hi5 cells from the lepidopteran insect pest, Trichoplusia ni , assigning 90.6% of bases to one of 28 chromosomes and predicting 14,037 protein-coding genes. Chemoreception and detoxification gene families reveal T. ni -specific gene expansions that may explain its widespread distribution and rapid adaptation to insecticides. Transcriptome and small RNA data from thorax, ovary, testis, and the germline-derived Hi5 cell line show distinct expression profiles for 295 microRNA- and >393 piRNA-producing loci, as well as 39 genes encoding small RNA pathway proteins. Nearly all of the W chromosome is devoted to piRNA production, and T. ni siRNAs are not 2´- O -methylated. To enable use of Hi5 cells as a model system, we have established genome editing and single-cell cloning protocols. The T. ni genome provides insights into pest control and allows Hi5 cells to become a new tool for studying small RNAs ex vivo. © 2018, Fu et al.

  3. Efficient CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Genome Editing Using a Chimeric Single-Guide RNA Molecule

    KAUST Repository

    Butt, Haroon

    2017-08-24

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system has been applied in diverse eukaryotic organisms for targeted mutagenesis. However, targeted gene editing is inefficient and requires the simultaneous delivery of a DNA template for homology-directed repair (HDR). Here, we used CRISPR/Cas9 to generate targeted double-strand breaks and to deliver an RNA repair template for HDR in rice (Oryza sativa). We used chimeric single-guide RNA (cgRNA) molecules carrying both sequences for target site specificity (to generate the double-strand breaks) and repair template sequences (to direct HDR), flanked by regions of homology to the target. Gene editing was more efficient in rice protoplasts using repair templates complementary to the non-target DNA strand, rather than the target strand. We applied this cgRNA repair method to generate herbicide resistance in rice, which showed that this cgRNA repair method can be used for targeted gene editing in plants. Our findings will facilitate applications in functional genomics and targeted improvement of crop traits.

  4. Analysis of intermolecular RNA-RNA recombination by rubella virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Sandra D.; Tzeng, W.-P.; Chen, M.-H.; Frey, Teryl K.

    2003-01-01

    To investigate whether rubella virus (RUB) undergoes intermolecular RNA-RNA recombination, cells were cotransfected with pairs of in vitro transcripts from genomic cDNA plasmid vectors engineered to contain nonoverlapping deletions: the replicative transcript maintained the 5'-proximal nonstructural (NS) ORF (which contained the replicase, making it RNA replication competent), had a deletion in the 3'-proximal structural protein (SP) ORF, and maintained the 3' end of the genome, including the putative 3' cis-acting elements (CSE), while the nonreplicative transcript consisted of the 3' half of the genome including the SP-ORF and 3' CSE. Cotransfection yielded plaque-forming virus that synthesized the standard genomic and subgenomic RNAs and thus was generated by RNA-RNA recombination. Using transcripts tagged with a 3'-terminal deletion, it was found that recombinants contained the 3' end derived from the replicative strand, indicating a cis-preference for initiation of negative-strand synthesis. In cotransfections in which the replicative transcript lacked the 3' CSE, recombination occurred, albeit at lower efficiency, indicating that initiation in trans from the NS-ORF can occur. The 3' CSE was sufficient as a nonreplicative transcript, showing that it can serve as a promoter for negative-strand RNA synthesis. While deletion mutagenesis showed that the presence of the junction untranslated region (J-UTR) between the ORFs appeared to be necessary on both transcripts for recombination in this region of the genome, analysis with transcripts tagged with restriction sites showed that the J-UTR was not a hot spot for recombination compared to neighboring regions in both ORFs. Sequence analysis of recombinants revealed that both precise (homologous) and imprecise recombination (aberrant, homologous resulting in duplications) occurred; however, imprecise recombination only involved the J-UTR or the 3' end of the NS-ORF and the J-UTR (maintaining the NS-ORF), indicating

  5. Mammalian RNA polymerase II core promoters: insights from genome-wide studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandelin, Albin; Carninci, Piero; Lenhard, Boris

    2007-01-01

    The identification and characterization of mammalian core promoters and transcription start sites is a prerequisite to understanding how RNA polymerase II transcription is controlled. New experimental technologies have enabled genome-wide discovery and characterization of core promoters, revealing...... in the mammalian transcriptome and proteome. Promoters can be described by their start site usage distribution, which is coupled to the occurrence of cis-regulatory elements, gene function and evolutionary constraints. A comprehensive survey of mammalian promoters is a major step towards describing...

  6. RNA chaperoning and intrinsic disorder in the core proteins of Flaviviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanyi-Nagy, Roland; Lavergne, Jean-Pierre; Gabus, Caroline; Ficheux, Damien; Darlix, Jean-Luc

    2008-02-01

    RNA chaperone proteins are essential partners of RNA in living organisms and viruses. They are thought to assist in the correct folding and structural rearrangements of RNA molecules by resolving misfolded RNA species in an ATP-independent manner. RNA chaperoning is probably an entropy-driven process, mediated by the coupled binding and folding of intrinsically disordered protein regions and the kinetically trapped RNA. Previously, we have shown that the core protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a potent RNA chaperone that can drive profound structural modifications of HCV RNA in vitro. We now examined the RNA chaperone activity and the disordered nature of core proteins from different Flaviviridae genera, namely that of HCV, GBV-B (GB virus B), WNV (West Nile virus) and BVDV (bovine viral diarrhoea virus). Despite low-sequence similarities, all four proteins demonstrated general nucleic acid annealing and RNA chaperone activities. Furthermore, heat resistance of core proteins, as well as far-UV circular dichroism spectroscopy suggested that a well-defined 3D protein structure is not necessary for core-induced RNA structural rearrangements. These data provide evidence that RNA chaperoning-possibly mediated by intrinsically disordered protein segments-is conserved in Flaviviridae core proteins. Thus, besides nucleocapsid formation, core proteins may function in RNA structural rearrangements taking place during virus replication.

  7. RNA polyadenylation sites on the genomes of microorganisms, animals, and plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Qing Li

    Full Text Available Pre-messenger RNA (mRNA 3'-end cleavage and subsequent polyadenylation strongly regulate gene expression. In comparison with the upstream or downstream motifs, relatively little is known about the feature differences of polyadenylation [poly(A] sites among major kingdoms. We suspect that the precise poly(A sites are very selective, and we therefore mapped mRNA poly(A sites on complete and nearly complete genomes using mRNA sequences available in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI Nucleotide database. In this paper, we describe the mRNA nucleotide [i.e., the poly(A tail attachment position] that is directly in attachment with the poly(A tail and the pre-mRNA nucleotide [i.e., the poly(A tail starting position] that corresponds to the first adenosine of the poly(A tail in the 29 most-mapped species (2 fungi, 2 protists, 18 animals, and 7 plants. The most representative pre-mRNA dinucleotides covering these two positions were UA, CA, and GA in 17, 10, and 2 of the species, respectively. The pre-mRNA nucleotide at the poly(A tail starting position was typically an adenosine [i.e., A-type poly(A sites], sometimes a uridine, and occasionally a cytidine or guanosine. The order was U>C>G at the attachment position but A>>U>C≥G at the starting position. However, in comparison with the mRNA nucleotide composition (base composition, the poly(A tail attachment position selected C over U in plants and both C and G over U in animals, in both A-type and non-A-type poly(A sites. Animals, dicot plants, and monocot plants had clear differences in C/G ratios at the poly(A tail attachment position of the non-A-type poly(A sites. This study of poly(A site evolution indicated that the two positions within poly(A sites had distinct nucleotide compositions and were different among kingdoms.

  8. Improvement of genome assembly completeness and identification of novel full-length protein-coding genes by RNA-seq in the giant panda genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meili; Hu, Yibo; Liu, Jingxing; Wu, Qi; Zhang, Chenglin; Yu, Jun; Xiao, Jingfa; Wei, Fuwen; Wu, Jiayan

    2015-12-11

    High-quality and complete gene models are the basis of whole genome analyses. The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) genome was the first genome sequenced on the basis of solely short reads, but the genome annotation had lacked the support of transcriptomic evidence. In this study, we applied RNA-seq to globally improve the genome assembly completeness and to detect novel expressed transcripts in 12 tissues from giant pandas, by using a transcriptome reconstruction strategy that combined reference-based and de novo methods. Several aspects of genome assembly completeness in the transcribed regions were effectively improved by the de novo assembled transcripts, including genome scaffolding, the detection of small-size assembly errors, the extension of scaffold/contig boundaries, and gap closure. Through expression and homology validation, we detected three groups of novel full-length protein-coding genes. A total of 12.62% of the novel protein-coding genes were validated by proteomic data. GO annotation analysis showed that some of the novel protein-coding genes were involved in pigmentation, anatomical structure formation and reproduction, which might be related to the development and evolution of the black-white pelage, pseudo-thumb and delayed embryonic implantation of giant pandas. The updated genome annotation will help further giant panda studies from both structural and functional perspectives.

  9. Genome-wide characterization of microRNA in foxtail millet (Setaria italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fei; Xie, Shaojun; Liu, Yuwei; Qi, Xin; Yu, Jingjuan

    2013-12-13

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short non-coding, endogenous RNAs that play key roles in many biological processes in both animals and plants. Although many miRNAs have been identified in a large number of organisms, the miRNAs in foxtail millet (Setaria italica) have, until now, been poorly understood. In this study, two replicate small RNA libraries from foxtail millet shoots were sequenced, and 40 million reads representing over 10 million unique sequences were generated. We identified 43 known miRNAs, 172 novel miRNAs and 2 mirtron precursor candidates in foxtail millet. Some miRNA*s of the known and novel miRNAs were detected as well. Further, eight novel miRNAs were validated by stem-loop RT-PCR. Potential targets of the foxtail millet miRNAs were predicted based on our strict criteria. Of the predicted target genes, 79% (351) had functional annotations in InterPro and GO analyses, indicating the targets of the miRNAs were involved in a wide range of regulatory functions and some specific biological processes. A total of 69 pairs of syntenic miRNA precursors that were conserved between foxtail millet and sorghum were found. Additionally, stem-loop RT-PCR was conducted to confirm the tissue-specific expression of some miRNAs in the four tissues identified by deep-sequencing. We predicted, for the first time, 215 miRNAs and 447 miRNA targets in foxtail millet at a genome-wide level. The precursors, expression levels, miRNA* sequences, target functions, conservation, and evolution of miRNAs we identified were investigated. Some of the novel foxtail millet miRNAs and miRNA targets were validated experimentally.

  10. DMS-MaPseq for genome-wide or targeted RNA structure probing in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubradt, Meghan; Gupta, Paromita; Persad, Sitara; Lambowitz, Alan M; Weissman, Jonathan S; Rouskin, Silvi

    2017-01-01

    Coupling of structure-specific in vivo chemical modification to next-generation sequencing is transforming RNA secondary structure studies in living cells. The dominant strategy for detecting in vivo chemical modifications uses reverse transcriptase truncation products, which introduce biases and necessitate population-average assessments of RNA structure. Here we present dimethyl sulfate (DMS) mutational profiling with sequencing (DMS-MaPseq), which encodes DMS modifications as mismatches using a thermostable group II intron reverse transcriptase. DMS-MaPseq yields a high signal-to-noise ratio, can report multiple structural features per molecule, and allows both genome-wide studies and focused in vivo investigations of even low-abundance RNAs. We apply DMS-MaPseq for the first analysis of RNA structure within an animal tissue and to identify a functional structure involved in noncanonical translation initiation. Additionally, we use DMS-MaPseq to compare the in vivo structure of pre-mRNAs with their mature isoforms. These applications illustrate DMS-MaPseq's capacity to dramatically expand in vivo analysis of RNA structure.

  11. Development of functional genomic tools in trematodes: RNA interference and luciferase reporter gene activity in Fasciola hepatica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Rinaldi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The growing availability of sequence information from diverse parasites through genomic and transcriptomic projects offer new opportunities for the identification of key mediators in the parasite-host interaction. Functional genomics approaches and methods for the manipulation of genes are essential tools for deciphering the roles of genes and to identify new intervention targets in parasites. Exciting advances in functional genomics for parasitic helminths are starting to occur, with transgene expression and RNA interference (RNAi reported in several species of nematodes, but the area is still in its infancy in flatworms, with reports in just three species. While advancing in model organisms, there is a need to rapidly extend these technologies to other parasites responsible for several chronic diseases of humans and cattle. In order to extend these approaches to less well studied parasitic worms, we developed a test method for the presence of a viable RNAi pathway by silencing the exogenous reporter gene, firefly luciferase (fLUC. We established the method in the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni and then confirmed its utility in the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica. We transformed newly excysted juveniles of F. hepatica by electroporation with mRNA of fLUC and three hours later were able to detect luciferase enzyme activity, concentrated mainly in the digestive ceca. Subsequently, we tested the presence of an active RNAi pathway in F. hepatica by knocking down the exogenous luciferase activity by introduction into the transformed parasites of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA specific for fLUC. In addition, we tested the RNAi pathway targeting an endogenous F. hepatica gene encoding leucine aminopeptidase (FhLAP, and observed a significant reduction in specific mRNA levels. In summary, these studies demonstrated the utility of RNAi targeting reporter fLUC as a reporter gene assay to establish the presence of an intact RNAi pathway in helminth

  12. miRNAFold: a web server for fast miRNA precursor prediction in genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tav, Christophe; Tempel, Sébastien; Poligny, Laurent; Tahi, Fariza

    2016-07-08

    Computational methods are required for prediction of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), which are involved in many biological processes, especially at post-transcriptional level. Among these ncRNAs, miRNAs have been largely studied and biologists need efficient and fast tools for their identification. In particular, ab initio methods are usually required when predicting novel miRNAs. Here we present a web server dedicated for miRNA precursors identification at a large scale in genomes. It is based on an algorithm called miRNAFold that allows predicting miRNA hairpin structures quickly with high sensitivity. miRNAFold is implemented as a web server with an intuitive and user-friendly interface, as well as a standalone version. The web server is freely available at: http://EvryRNA.ibisc.univ-evry.fr/miRNAFold. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. Genome-wide identification of microRNA targets in the neglected disease pathogens of the genus Echinococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchiaroli, Natalia; Maldonado, Lucas L; Zarowiecki, Magdalena; Cucher, Marcela; Gismondi, María Inés; Kamenetzky, Laura; Rosenzvit, Mara Cecilia

    2017-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNAs, are key regulators of gene expression at post-transcriptional level and play essential roles in biological processes such as development. MiRNAs silence target mRNAs by binding to complementary sequences in the 3'untranslated regions (3'UTRs). The parasitic helminths of the genus Echinococcus are the causative agents of echinococcosis, a zoonotic neglected disease. In previous work, we performed a comprehensive identification and characterization of Echinococcus miRNAs. However, current knowledge about their targets is limited. Since target prediction algorithms rely on complementarity between 3'UTRs and miRNA sequences, a major limitation is the lack of accurate sequence information of 3'UTR for most species including parasitic helminths. We performed RNA-seq and developed a pipeline that integrates the transcriptomic data with available genomic data of this parasite in order to identify 3'UTRs of Echinococcus canadensis. The high confidence set of 3'UTRs obtained allowed the prediction of miRNA targets in Echinococcus through a bioinformatic approach. We performed for the first time a comparative analysis of miRNA targets in Echinococcus and Taenia. We found that many evolutionarily conserved target sites in Echinococcus and Taenia may be functional and under selective pressure. Signaling pathways such as MAPK and Wnt were among the most represented pathways indicating miRNA roles in parasite growth and development. Genome-wide identification and characterization of miRNA target genes in Echinococcus provide valuable information to guide experimental studies in order to understand miRNA functions in the parasites biology. miRNAs involved in essential functions, especially those being absent in the host or showing sequence divergence with respect to host orthologs, might be considered as novel therapeutic targets for echinococcosis control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A Simple Method to Decode the Complete 18-5.8-28S rRNA Repeated Units of Green Algae by Genome Skimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Geng-Ming; Lai, Yu-Heng; Audira, Gilbert; Hsiao, Chung-Der

    2017-11-06

    Green algae, Chlorella ellipsoidea , Haematococcus pluvialis and Aegagropila linnaei (Phylum Chlorophyta) were simultaneously decoded by a genomic skimming approach within 18-5.8-28S rRNA region. Whole genomic DNAs were isolated from green algae and directly subjected to low coverage genome skimming sequencing. After de novo assembly and mapping, the size of complete 18-5.8-28S rRNA repeated units for three green algae were ranged from 5785 to 6028 bp, which showed high nucleotide diversity (π is around 0.5-0.6) within ITS1 and ITS2 (Internal Transcribed Spacer) regions. Previously, the evolutional diversity of algae has been difficult to decode due to the inability design universal primers that amplify specific marker genes across diverse algal species. In this study, our method provided a rapid and universal approach to decode the 18-5.8-28S rRNA repeat unit in three green algal species. In addition, the completely sequenced 18-5.8-28S rRNA repeated units provided a solid nuclear marker for phylogenetic and evolutionary analysis for green algae for the first time.

  15. A genomic portrait of the genetic architecture and regulatory impact of microRNA expression in response to infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddle, Katherine J; Deschamps, Matthieu; Tailleux, Ludovic; Nédélec, Yohann; Pothlichet, Julien; Lugo-Villarino, Geanncarlo; Libri, Valentina; Gicquel, Brigitte; Neyrolles, Olivier; Laval, Guillaume; Patin, Etienne; Barreiro, Luis B; Quintana-Murci, Lluís

    2014-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are critical regulators of gene expression, and their role in a wide variety of biological processes, including host antimicrobial defense, is increasingly well described. Consistent with their diverse functional effects, miRNA expression is highly context dependent and shows marked changes upon cellular activation. However, the genetic control of miRNA expression in response to external stimuli and the impact of such perturbations on miRNA-mediated regulatory networks at the population level remain to be determined. Here we assessed changes in miRNA expression upon Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and mapped expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) in dendritic cells from a panel of healthy individuals. Genome-wide expression profiling revealed that ∼40% of miRNAs are differentially expressed upon infection. We find that the expression of 3% of miRNAs is controlled by proximate genetic factors, which are enriched in a promoter-specific histone modification associated with active transcription. Notably, we identify two infection-specific response eQTLs, for miR-326 and miR-1260, providing an initial assessment of the impact of genotype-environment interactions on miRNA molecular phenotypes. Furthermore, we show that infection coincides with a marked remodeling of the genome-wide relationships between miRNA and mRNA expression levels. This observation, supplemented by experimental data using the model of miR-29a, sheds light on the role of a set of miRNAs in cellular responses to infection. Collectively, this study increases our understanding of the genetic architecture of miRNA expression in response to infection, and highlights the wide-reaching impact of altering miRNA expression on the transcriptional landscape of a cell.

  16. High-efficiency targeted editing of large viral genomes by RNA-guided nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yanwei; Sun, Le; Gao, Dandan; Ding, Chen; Li, Zhihua; Li, Yadong; Cun, Wei; Li, Qihan

    2014-05-01

    A facile and efficient method for the precise editing of large viral genomes is required for the selection of attenuated vaccine strains and the construction of gene therapy vectors. The type II prokaryotic CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated (Cas)) RNA-guided nuclease system can be introduced into host cells during viral replication. The CRISPR-Cas9 system robustly stimulates targeted double-stranded breaks in the genomes of DNA viruses, where the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homology-directed repair (HDR) pathways can be exploited to introduce site-specific indels or insert heterologous genes with high frequency. Furthermore, CRISPR-Cas9 can specifically inhibit the replication of the original virus, thereby significantly increasing the abundance of the recombinant virus among progeny virus. As a result, purified recombinant virus can be obtained with only a single round of selection. In this study, we used recombinant adenovirus and type I herpes simplex virus as examples to demonstrate that the CRISPR-Cas9 system is a valuable tool for editing the genomes of large DNA viruses.

  17. High-efficiency targeted editing of large viral genomes by RNA-guided nucleases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwei Bi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A facile and efficient method for the precise editing of large viral genomes is required for the selection of attenuated vaccine strains and the construction of gene therapy vectors. The type II prokaryotic CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR-associated (Cas RNA-guided nuclease system can be introduced into host cells during viral replication. The CRISPR-Cas9 system robustly stimulates targeted double-stranded breaks in the genomes of DNA viruses, where the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ and homology-directed repair (HDR pathways can be exploited to introduce site-specific indels or insert heterologous genes with high frequency. Furthermore, CRISPR-Cas9 can specifically inhibit the replication of the original virus, thereby significantly increasing the abundance of the recombinant virus among progeny virus. As a result, purified recombinant virus can be obtained with only a single round of selection. In this study, we used recombinant adenovirus and type I herpes simplex virus as examples to demonstrate that the CRISPR-Cas9 system is a valuable tool for editing the genomes of large DNA viruses.

  18. A genome-wide map of hyper-edited RNA reveals numerous new sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porath, Hagit T.; Carmi, Shai; Levanon, Erez Y.

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine-to-inosine editing is one of the most frequent post-transcriptional modifications, manifested as A-to-G mismatches when comparing RNA sequences with their source DNA. Recently, a number of RNA-seq data sets have been screened for the presence of A-to-G editing, and hundreds of thousands of editing sites identified. Here we show that existing screens missed the majority of sites by ignoring reads with excessive (‘hyper’) editing that do not easily align to the genome. We show that careful alignment and examination of the unmapped reads in RNA-seq studies reveal numerous new sites, usually many more than originally discovered, and in precisely those regions that are most heavily edited. Specifically, we discover 327,096 new editing sites in the heavily studied Illumina Human BodyMap data and more than double the number of detected sites in several published screens. We also identify thousands of new sites in mouse, rat, opossum and fly. Our results establish that hyper-editing events account for the majority of editing sites. PMID:25158696

  19. Relationships between infection, dissemination, and transmission of West Nile virus RNA in Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie L; Anderson, Sheri L; Lord, Cynthia C; Smartt, Chelsea T; Tabachnick, Walter J

    2012-01-01

    Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say fed blood containing 6.8 +/- 0.3 logs (mean +/- SE) plaque-forming units of West Nile virus (WNV)/ml were maintained at 28 degrees C for incubation periods (IP) of 7, 14, or 21 d. Several attributes of vector competence were determined at each IP using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to estimate plaque forming unit equivalents including: infection rate (WNV-positive abdomens), dissemination rate (WNV-positive legs or thoraces), combined dissemination rate (WNV-positive legs and thoraces), transmission rate (WNV-positive saliva), and WNV titers in abdomens, legs, thoraces, and saliva. Each rate increased or was equivalent with increasing IP. Mosquitoes transmitting WNV in saliva also had significantly higher IP-dependent WNV titers in abdomens, legs, and thoraces. Titers of WNV in abdomens were significantly correlated with titers in legs and thoraces, but the degree of association changed with IP. However, titers of abdomens, legs, and thoraces were not correlated with WNV presence or titer in the saliva. The results show that WNV presence or titer in the saliva of infected Cx. p. quinquefasciatus was not directly influenced by processes involved in WNV replication in other tissues. The processes controlling midgut infection and escape are, in part, independent from the infection processes in other tissues. The relationship between infection, dissemination, and transmission varied over time. The infection and replication of WNV in different tissues is likely influenced by different barriers encountered during the extrinsic incubation period. The significance of these observations for understanding vector competence is discussed.

  20. Pervasive, Genome-Wide Transcription in the Organelle Genomes of Diverse Plastid-Bearing Protists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Sanitá Lima

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Organelle genomes are among the most sequenced kinds of chromosome. This is largely because they are small and widely used in molecular studies, but also because next-generation sequencing technologies made sequencing easier, faster, and cheaper. However, studies of organelle RNA have not kept pace with those of DNA, despite huge amounts of freely available eukaryotic RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq data. Little is known about organelle transcription in nonmodel species, and most of the available eukaryotic RNA-seq data have not been mined for organelle transcripts. Here, we use publicly available RNA-seq experiments to investigate organelle transcription in 30 diverse plastid-bearing protists with varying organelle genomic architectures. Mapping RNA-seq data to organelle genomes revealed pervasive, genome-wide transcription, regardless of the taxonomic grouping, gene organization, or noncoding content. For every species analyzed, transcripts covered ≥85% of the mitochondrial and/or plastid genomes (all of which were ≤105 kb, indicating that most of the organelle DNA—coding and noncoding—is transcriptionally active. These results follow earlier studies of model species showing that organellar transcription is coupled and ubiquitous across the genome, requiring significant downstream processing of polycistronic transcripts. Our findings suggest that noncoding organelle DNA can be transcriptionally active, raising questions about the underlying function of these transcripts and underscoring the utility of publicly available RNA-seq data for recovering complete genome sequences. If pervasive transcription is also found in bigger organelle genomes (>105 kb and across a broader range of eukaryotes, this could indicate that noncoding organelle RNAs are regulating fundamental processes within eukaryotic cells.

  1. Impact of delay to cryopreservation on RNA integrity and genome-wide expression profiles in resected tumor samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Caboux

    Full Text Available The quality of tissue samples and extracted mRNA is a major source of variability in tumor transcriptome analysis using genome-wide expression microarrays. During and immediately after surgical tumor resection, tissues are exposed to metabolic, biochemical and physical stresses characterized as "warm ischemia". Current practice advocates cryopreservation of biosamples within 30 minutes of resection, but this recommendation has not been systematically validated by measurements of mRNA decay over time. Using Illumina HumanHT-12 v3 Expression BeadChips, providing a genome-wide coverage of over 24,000 genes, we have analyzed gene expression variation in samples of 3 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC and 3 lung carcinomas (LC cryopreserved at times up to 2 hours after resection. RNA Integrity Numbers (RIN revealed no significant deterioration of mRNA up to 2 hours after resection. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis detected non-significant gene expression variations of -3.5%/hr (95% CI: -7.0%/hr to 0.1%/hr; p = 0.054. In LC, no consistent gene expression pattern was detected in relation with warm ischemia. In HCC, a signature of 6 up-regulated genes (CYP2E1, IGLL1, CABYR, CLDN2, NQO1, SCL13A5 and 6 down-regulated genes (MT1G, MT1H, MT1E, MT1F, HABP2, SPINK1 was identified (FDR <0.05. Overall, our observations support current recommendation of time to cryopreservation of up to 30 minutes and emphasize the need for identifying tissue-specific genes deregulated following resection to avoid misinterpreting expression changes induced by warm ischemia as pathologically significant changes.

  2. West Nile virus blood transfusion-related infection despite nucleic acid testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo de Oliveira, Alexandre; Beecham, Brady D; Montgomery, Susan P; Lanciotti, Robert S; Linnen, Jeffrey M; Giachetti, Cristina; Pietrelli, Larry A; Stramer, Susan L; Safranek, Thomas J

    2004-12-01

    A case of West Nile virus (WNV) encephalitis associated with transfusion of blood that did not react when tested for WNV by minipool (MP) nucleic acid testing (NAT) is described. A Nebraska man developed clinical encephalitis 13 days after surgery and transfusion of 26 blood components. Antibody testing confirmed WNV infection. An investigation was initiated to determine the source of this infection. The patient's family members were interviewed to identify risk factors for WNV infection. Residual samples were retested for WNV RNA using transcription-mediated amplification (TMA) assay and two polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Blood donors' follow-up serum samples were collected. All samples were tested for WNV-specific immunoglobulin M antibodies. The patient's family denied recent mosquito exposure. The 20 blood components collected after July 2003 did not react when tested for WNV in a six-member MP-NAT at the time of donation. Retrospective individual testing identified one sample as WNV-reactive by the TMA assay and one of the PCR assays. Seroconversion was demonstrated in the donor associated with this sample. WNV RNA detection by individual donation NAT demonstrates viremic blood escaping MP-NAT and supports transfusion-related WNV transmission. MP-NAT may not detect all WNV-infected blood donors, allowing WNV transmission to continue at low levels. WNV NAT assays might vary in sensitivity and pooling donations could further impact test performance. Understanding MP NAT limitations can improve strategies to maintain safety of the blood supply in the United States.

  3. RNA-seq reveals the RNA binding proteins, Hfq and RsmA, play various roles in virulence, antibiotic production and genomic flux in Serratia sp. ATCC 39006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilf, Nabil M; Reid, Adam J; Ramsay, Joshua P; Williamson, Neil R; Croucher, Nicholas J; Gatto, Laurent; Hester, Svenja S; Goulding, David; Barquist, Lars; Lilley, Kathryn S; Kingsley, Robert A; Dougan, Gordon; Salmond, George Pc

    2013-11-22

    Serratia sp. ATCC 39006 (S39006) is a Gram-negative enterobacterium that is virulent in plant and animal models. It produces a red-pigmented trypyrrole secondary metabolite, prodigiosin (Pig), and a carbapenem antibiotic (Car), as well as the exoenzymes, pectate lyase and cellulase. Secondary metabolite production in this strain is controlled by a complex regulatory network involving quorum sensing (QS). Hfq and RsmA (two RNA binding proteins and major post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression) play opposing roles in the regulation of several key phenotypes within S39006. Prodigiosin and carbapenem production was abolished, and virulence attenuated, in an S39006 ∆hfq mutant, while the converse was observed in an S39006 rsmA transposon insertion mutant. In order to define the complete regulon of Hfq and RsmA, deep sequencing of cDNA libraries (RNA-seq) was used to analyse the whole transcriptome of S39006 ∆hfq and rsmA::Tn mutants. Moreover, we investigated global changes in the proteome using an LC-MS/MS approach. Analysis of differential gene expression showed that Hfq and RsmA directly or indirectly regulate (at the level of RNA) 4% and 19% of the genome, respectively, with some correlation between RNA and protein expression. Pathways affected include those involved in antibiotic regulation, virulence, flagella synthesis, and surfactant production. Although Hfq and RsmA are reported to activate flagellum production in E. coli and an adherent-invasive E. coli hfq mutant was shown to have no flagella by electron microscopy, we found that flagellar production was increased in the S39006 rsmA and hfq mutants. Additionally, deletion of rsmA resulted in greater genomic flux with increased activity of two mobile genetic elements. This was confirmed by qPCR and analysis of rsmA culture supernatant revealed the presence of prophage DNA and phage particles. Finally, expression of a hypothetical protein containing DUF364 increased prodigiosin production and was

  4. tRNA-like structure regulates translation of Brome mosaic virus RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barends, Sharief; Rudinger-Thirion, Joëlle; Florentz, Catherine; Giegé, Richard; Pleij, Cornelis W A; Kraal, Barend

    2004-04-01

    For various groups of plant viruses, the genomic RNAs end with a tRNA-like structure (TLS) instead of the 3' poly(A) tail of common mRNAs. The actual function of these TLSs has long been enigmatic. Recently, however, it became clear that for turnip yellow mosaic virus, a tymovirus, the valylated TLS(TYMV) of the single genomic RNA functions as a bait for host ribosomes and directs them to the internal initiation site of translation (with N-terminal valine) of the second open reading frame for the polyprotein. This discovery prompted us to investigate whether the much larger TLSs of a different genus of viruses have a comparable function in translation. Brome mosaic virus (BMV), a bromovirus, has a tripartite RNA genome with a subgenomic RNA4 for coat protein expression. All four RNAs carry a highly conserved and bulky 3' TLS(BMV) (about 200 nucleotides) with determinants for tyrosylation. We discovered TLS(BMV)-catalyzed self-tyrosylation of the tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase but could not clearly detect tyrosine incorporation into any virus-encoded protein. We established that BMV proteins do not need TLS(BMV) tyrosylation for their initiation. However, disruption of the TLSs strongly reduced the translation of genomic RNA1, RNA2, and less strongly, RNA3, whereas coat protein expression from RNA4 remained unaffected. This aberrant translation could be partially restored by providing the TLS(BMV) in trans. Intriguingly, a subdomain of the TLS(BMV) could even almost fully restore translation to the original pattern. We discuss here a model with a central and dominant role for the TLS(BMV) during the BMV infection cycle.

  5. DCJ-RNA - double cut and join for RNA secondary structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Ghada H; Al-Aqel, Haifa A

    2017-10-16

    Genome rearrangements are essential processes for evolution and are responsible for existing varieties of genome architectures. Many studies have been conducted to obtain an algorithm that identifies the minimum number of inversions that are necessary to transform one genome into another; this allows for genome sequence representation in polynomial time. Studies have not been conducted on the topic of rearranging a genome when it is represented as a secondary structure. Unlike sequences, the secondary structure preserves the functionality of the genome. Sequences can be different, but they all share the same structure and, therefore, the same functionality. This paper proposes a double cut and join for RNA secondary structures (DCJ-RNA) algorithm. This algorithm allows for the description of evolutionary scenarios that are based on secondary structures rather than sequences. The main aim of this paper is to suggest an efficient algorithm that can help researchers compare two ribonucleic acid (RNA) secondary structures based on rearrangement operations. The results, which are based on real datasets, show that the algorithm is able to count the minimum number of rearrangement operations, as well as to report an optimum scenario that can increase the similarity between the two structures. The algorithm calculates the distance between structures and reports a scenario based on the minimum rearrangement operations required to make the given structure similar to the other. DCJ-RNA can also be used to measure the distance between the two structures. This can help identify the common functionalities between different species.

  6. Genome-Wide Analysis of miRNA targets in Brachypodium and Biomass Energy Crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Pamela J. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)

    2015-08-11

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to the control of numerous biological processes through the regulation of specific target mRNAs. Although the identities of these targets are essential to elucidate miRNA function, the targets are much more difficult to identify than the small RNAs themselves. Before this work, we pioneered the genome-wide identification of the targets of Arabidopsis miRNAs using an approach called PARE (German et al., Nature Biotech. 2008; Nature Protocols, 2009). Under this project, we applied PARE to Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), a model plant in the Poaceae family, which includes the major food grain and bioenergy crops. Through in-depth global analysis and examination of specific examples, this research greatly expanded our knowledge of miRNAs and target RNAs of Brachypodium. New regulation in response to environmental stress or tissue type was found, and many new miRNAs were discovered. More than 260 targets of new and known miRNAs with PARE sequences at the precise sites of miRNA-guided cleavage were identified and characterized. Combining PARE data with the small RNA data also identified the miRNAs responsible for initiating approximately 500 phased loci, including one of the novel miRNAs. PARE analysis also revealed that differentially expressed miRNAs in the same family guide specific target RNA cleavage in a correspondingly tissue-preferential manner. The project included generation of small RNA and PARE resources for bioenergy crops, to facilitate ongoing discovery of conserved miRNA-target RNA regulation. By associating specific miRNA-target RNA pairs with known physiological functions, the research provides insights about gene regulation in different tissues and in response to environmental stress. This, and release of new PARE and small RNA data sets should contribute basic knowledge to enhance breeding and may suggest new strategies for improvement of biomass energy crops.

  7. The family Rhabdoviridae: Mono- and bipartite negative-sense RNA viruses with diverse genome organization and common evolutionary origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzgen, Ralf G.; Kondo, Hideki; Goodin, Michael M.; Kurath, Gael; Vasilakis, Nikos

    2017-01-01

    The family Rhabdoviridae consists of mostly enveloped, bullet-shaped or bacilliform viruses with a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA genome that infect vertebrates, invertebrates or plants. This ecological diversity is reflected by the diversity and complexity of their genomes. Five canonical structural protein genes are conserved in all rhabdoviruses, but may be overprinted, overlapped or interspersed with several novel and diverse accessory genes. This review gives an overview of the characteristics and diversity of rhabdoviruses, their taxonomic classification, replication mechanism, properties of classical rhabdoviruses such as rabies virus and rhabdoviruses with complex genomes, rhabdoviruses infecting aquatic species, and plant rhabdoviruses with both mono- and bipartite genomes.

  8. The 5'UTR-specific mutation in VEEV TC-83 genome has a strong effect on RNA replication and subgenomic RNA synthesis, but not on translation of the encoded proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulasegaran-Shylini, Raghavendran; Thiviyanathan, Varatharasa; Gorenstein, David G; Frolov, Ilya

    2009-04-25

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is one of the most pathogenic members of the Alphavirus genus in the Togaviridae family. Viruses in the VEEV serocomplex continuously circulate in the Central and South America. The only currently available attenuated strain VEEV TC-83 is being used only for vaccination of at-risk laboratory workers and military personnel. Its attenuated phenotype was shown to rely only on two point mutations, one of which, G3A, was found in the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) of the viral genome. Our data demonstrate that the G3A mutation strongly affects the secondary structure of VEEV 5'UTR, but has only a minor effect on translation. The indicated mutation increases replication of the viral genome, downregulates transcription of the subgenomic RNA, and, thus, affects the ratio of genomic and subgenomic RNA synthesis. These findings and the previously reported G3A-induced, higher sensitivity of VEEV TC-83 to IFN-alpha/beta suggest a plausible explanation for its attenuated phenotype.

  9. Pervasive, Genome-Wide Transcription in the Organelle Genomes of Diverse Plastid-Bearing Protists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanitá Lima, Matheus; Smith, David Roy

    2017-11-06

    Organelle genomes are among the most sequenced kinds of chromosome. This is largely because they are small and widely used in molecular studies, but also because next-generation sequencing technologies made sequencing easier, faster, and cheaper. However, studies of organelle RNA have not kept pace with those of DNA, despite huge amounts of freely available eukaryotic RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) data. Little is known about organelle transcription in nonmodel species, and most of the available eukaryotic RNA-seq data have not been mined for organelle transcripts. Here, we use publicly available RNA-seq experiments to investigate organelle transcription in 30 diverse plastid-bearing protists with varying organelle genomic architectures. Mapping RNA-seq data to organelle genomes revealed pervasive, genome-wide transcription, regardless of the taxonomic grouping, gene organization, or noncoding content. For every species analyzed, transcripts covered ≥85% of the mitochondrial and/or plastid genomes (all of which were ≤105 kb), indicating that most of the organelle DNA-coding and noncoding-is transcriptionally active. These results follow earlier studies of model species showing that organellar transcription is coupled and ubiquitous across the genome, requiring significant downstream processing of polycistronic transcripts. Our findings suggest that noncoding organelle DNA can be transcriptionally active, raising questions about the underlying function of these transcripts and underscoring the utility of publicly available RNA-seq data for recovering complete genome sequences. If pervasive transcription is also found in bigger organelle genomes (>105 kb) and across a broader range of eukaryotes, this could indicate that noncoding organelle RNAs are regulating fundamental processes within eukaryotic cells. Copyright © 2017 Sanitá Lima and Smith.

  10. The family Rhabdoviridae: mono- and bipartite negative-sense RNA viruses with diverse genome organization and common evolutionary origins

    OpenAIRE

    Dietzgen, Ralf G.; Kondo, Hideki; Goodin, Michael M.; Kurath, Gael; Vasilakis, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    The family Rhabdoviridae consists of mostly enveloped, bullet-shaped or bacilliform viruses with a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA genome that infect vertebrates, invertebrates or plants. This ecological diversity is reflected by the diversity and complexity of their genomes. Five canonical structural protein genes are conserved in all rhabdoviruses, but may be overprinted, overlapped or interspersed with several novel and diverse accessory genes. This review gives an overview of the char...

  11. Genome-wide RNA polymerase II profiles and RNA accumulation reveal kinetics of transcription and associated epigenetic changes during diurnal cycles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendal Le Martelot

    Full Text Available Interactions of cell-autonomous circadian oscillators with diurnal cycles govern the temporal compartmentalization of cell physiology in mammals. To understand the transcriptional and epigenetic basis of diurnal rhythms in mouse liver genome-wide, we generated temporal DNA occupancy profiles by RNA polymerase II (Pol II as well as profiles of the histone modifications H3K4me3 and H3K36me3. We used these data to quantify the relationships of phases and amplitudes between different marks. We found that rhythmic Pol II recruitment at promoters rather than rhythmic transition from paused to productive elongation underlies diurnal gene transcription, a conclusion further supported by modeling. Moreover, Pol II occupancy preceded mRNA accumulation by 3 hours, consistent with mRNA half-lives. Both methylation marks showed that the epigenetic landscape is highly dynamic and globally remodeled during the 24-hour cycle. While promoters of transcribed genes had tri-methylated H3K4 even at their trough activity times, tri-methylation levels reached their peak, on average, 1 hour after Pol II. Meanwhile, rhythms in tri-methylation of H3K36 lagged transcription by 3 hours. Finally, modeling profiles of Pol II occupancy and mRNA accumulation identified three classes of genes: one showing rhythmicity both in transcriptional and mRNA accumulation, a second class with rhythmic transcription but flat mRNA levels, and a third with constant transcription but rhythmic mRNAs. The latter class emphasizes widespread temporally gated posttranscriptional regulation in the mouse liver.

  12. Evaluation of microRNA alignment techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspi, Antony; El-Osta, Assam

    2016-01-01

    Genomic alignment of small RNA (smRNA) sequences such as microRNAs poses considerable challenges due to their short length (∼21 nucleotides [nt]) as well as the large size and complexity of plant and animal genomes. While several tools have been developed for high-throughput mapping of longer mRNA-seq reads (>30 nt), there are few that are specifically designed for mapping of smRNA reads including microRNAs. The accuracy of these mappers has not been systematically determined in the case of smRNA-seq. In addition, it is unknown whether these aligners accurately map smRNA reads containing sequence errors and polymorphisms. By using simulated read sets, we determine the alignment sensitivity and accuracy of 16 short-read mappers and quantify their robustness to mismatches, indels, and nontemplated nucleotide additions. These were explored in the context of a plant genome (Oryza sativa, ∼500 Mbp) and a mammalian genome (Homo sapiens, ∼3.1 Gbp). Analysis of simulated and real smRNA-seq data demonstrates that mapper selection impacts differential expression results and interpretation. These results will inform on best practice for smRNA mapping and enable more accurate smRNA detection and quantification of expression and RNA editing. PMID:27284164

  13. MicroRNA-34a promotes genomic instability by a broad suppression of genome maintenance mechanisms downstream of the oncogene KSHV-vGPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Claudia J; Popp, Oliver; Thirunarayanan, Nanthakumar; Dittmar, Gunnar; Lipp, Martin; Müller, Gerd

    2016-03-01

    The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-encoded chemokine receptor vGPCR acts as an oncogene in Kaposi's sarcomagenesis. Until now, the molecular mechanisms by which the vGPCR contributes to tumor development remain incompletely understood. Here, we show that the KSHV-vGPCR contributes to tumor progression through microRNA (miR)-34a-mediated induction of genomic instability. Large-scale analyses on the DNA, gene and protein level of cell lines derived from a mouse model of vGPCR-driven tumorigenesis revealed that a vGPCR-induced upregulation of miR-34a resulted in a broad suppression of genome maintenance genes. A knockdown of either the vGPCR or miR-34a largely restored the expression of these genes and confirmed miR-34a as a downstream effector of the KSHV-vGPCR that compromises genome maintenance mechanisms. This novel, protumorigenic role of miR-34a questions the use of miR-34a mimetics in cancer therapy as they could impair genome stability.

  14. The family Rhabdoviridae: mono- and bipartite negative-sense RNA viruses with diverse genome organization and common evolutionary origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzgen, Ralf G; Kondo, Hideki; Goodin, Michael M; Kurath, Gael; Vasilakis, Nikos

    2017-01-02

    The family Rhabdoviridae consists of mostly enveloped, bullet-shaped or bacilliform viruses with a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA genome that infect vertebrates, invertebrates or plants. This ecological diversity is reflected by the diversity and complexity of their genomes. Five canonical structural protein genes are conserved in all rhabdoviruses, but may be overprinted, overlapped or interspersed with several novel and diverse accessory genes. This review gives an overview of the characteristics and diversity of rhabdoviruses, their taxonomic classification, replication mechanism, properties of classical rhabdoviruses such as rabies virus and rhabdoviruses with complex genomes, rhabdoviruses infecting aquatic species, and plant rhabdoviruses with both mono- and bipartite genomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mirnovo: genome-free prediction of microRNAs from small RNA sequencing data and single-cells using decision forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitsios, Dimitrios M; Kentepozidou, Elissavet; Quintais, Leonor; Benito-Gutiérrez, Elia; van Dongen, Stijn; Davis, Matthew P; Enright, Anton J

    2017-12-01

    The discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) remains an important problem, particularly given the growth of high-throughput sequencing, cell sorting and single cell biology. While a large number of miRNAs have already been annotated, there may well be large numbers of miRNAs that are expressed in very particular cell types and remain elusive. Sequencing allows us to quickly and accurately identify the expression of known miRNAs from small RNA-Seq data. The biogenesis of miRNAs leads to very specific characteristics observed in their sequences. In brief, miRNAs usually have a well-defined 5' end and a more flexible 3' end with the possibility of 3' tailing events, such as uridylation. Previous approaches to the prediction of novel miRNAs usually involve the analysis of structural features of miRNA precursor hairpin sequences obtained from genome sequence. We surmised that it may be possible to identify miRNAs by using these biogenesis features observed directly from sequenced reads, solely or in addition to structural analysis from genome data. To this end, we have developed mirnovo, a machine learning based algorithm, which is able to identify known and novel miRNAs in animals and plants directly from small RNA-Seq data, with or without a reference genome. This method performs comparably to existing tools, however is simpler to use with reduced run time. Its performance and accuracy has been tested on multiple datasets, including species with poorly assembled genomes, RNaseIII (Drosha and/or Dicer) deficient samples and single cells (at both embryonic and adult stage). © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. Production of HIV-1 vif mRNA Is Modulated by Natural Nucleotide Variations and SLSA1 RNA Structure in SA1D2prox Genomic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Nomaguchi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Genomic RNA of HIV-1 contains localized structures critical for viral replication. Its structural analysis has demonstrated a stem-loop structure, SLSA1, in a nearby region of HIV-1 genomic splicing acceptor 1 (SA1. We have previously shown that the expression level of vif mRNA is considerably altered by some natural single-nucleotide variations (nSNVs clustering in SLSA1 structure. In this study, besides eleven nSNVs previously identified by us, we totally found nine new nSNVs in the SLSA1-containing sequence from SA1, splicing donor 2, and through to the start codon of Vif that significantly affect the vif mRNA level, and designated the sequence SA1D2prox (142 nucleotides for HIV-1 NL4-3. We then examined by extensive variant and mutagenesis analyses how SA1D2prox sequence and SLSA1 secondary structure are related to vif mRNA level. While the secondary structure and stability of SLSA1 was largely changed by nSNVs and artificial mutations introduced to restore the original NL4-3 form from altered ones by nSNVs, no clear association of the two SLSA1 properties with vif mRNA level was observed. In contrast, when naturally occurring SA1D2prox sequences that contain multiple nSNVs were examined, we attained significant inverse correlation between the vif level and SLSA1 stability. These results may suggest that SA1D2prox sequence adapts over time, and also that the altered SA1D2prox sequence, SLSA1 stability, and vif level are mutually related. In total, we show here that the entire SA1D2prox sequence and SLSA1 stability critically contribute to the modulation of vif mRNA level.

  17. Construction of carrier state viruses with partial genomes of the segmented dsRNA bacteriophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yang; Qiao Xueying; Mindich, Leonard

    2004-01-01

    The cystoviridae are bacteriophages with genomes of three segments of dsRNA enclosed within a polyhedral capsid. Two members of this family, PHI6 and PHI8, have been shown to form carrier states in which the virus replicates as a stable episome in the host bacterium while expressing reporter genes such as kanamycin resistance or lacα. The carrier state does not require the activity of all the genes necessary for phage production. It is possible to generate carrier states by infecting cells with virus or by electroporating nonreplicating plasmids containing cDNA copies of the viral genomes into the host cells. We have found that carrier states in both PHI6 and PHI8 can be formed at high frequency with all three genomic segments or with only the large and small segments. The large genomic segment codes for the proteins that constitute the inner core of the virus, which is the structure responsible for the packaging and replication of the genome. In PHI6, a carrier state can be formed with the large and middle segment if mutations occur in the gene for the major structural protein of the inner core. In PHI8, carrier state formation requires the activity of genes 8 and 12 of segment S

  18. Infinity: An In-Silico Tool for Genome-Wide Prediction of Specific DNA Matrices in miRNA Genomic Loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, Emmanuela; Grandoni, Luca; Garibaldi, Francesca; Manni, Isabella; Filligoi, Giancarlo; Piaggio, Giulia; Gurtner, Aymone

    2016-01-01

    miRNAs are potent regulators of gene expression and modulate multiple cellular processes in physiology and pathology. Deregulation of miRNAs expression has been found in various cancer types, thus, miRNAs may be potential targets for cancer therapy. However, the mechanisms through which miRNAs are regulated in cancer remain unclear. Therefore, the identification of transcriptional factor-miRNA crosstalk is one of the most update aspects of the study of miRNAs regulation. In the present study we describe the development of a fast and user-friendly software, named infinity, able to find the presence of DNA matrices, such as binding sequences for transcriptional factors, on ~65kb (kilobase) of 939 human miRNA genomic sequences, simultaneously. Of note, the power of this software has been validated in vivo by performing chromatin immunoprecipitation assays on a subset of new in silico identified target sequences (CCAAT) for the transcription factor NF-Y on colon cancer deregulated miRNA loci. Moreover, for the first time, we have demonstrated that NF-Y, through its CCAAT binding activity, regulates the expression of miRNA-181a, -181b, -21, -17, -130b, -301b in colon cancer cells. The infinity software that we have developed is a powerful tool to underscore new TF/miRNA regulatory networks. Infinity was implemented in pure Java using Eclipse framework, and runs on Linux and MS Windows machine, with MySQL database. The software is freely available on the web at https://github.com/bio-devel/infinity. The website is implemented in JavaScript, PHP and HTML with all major browsers supported.

  19. Infinity: An In-Silico Tool for Genome-Wide Prediction of Specific DNA Matrices in miRNA Genomic Loci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuela Falcone

    Full Text Available miRNAs are potent regulators of gene expression and modulate multiple cellular processes in physiology and pathology. Deregulation of miRNAs expression has been found in various cancer types, thus, miRNAs may be potential targets for cancer therapy. However, the mechanisms through which miRNAs are regulated in cancer remain unclear. Therefore, the identification of transcriptional factor-miRNA crosstalk is one of the most update aspects of the study of miRNAs regulation.In the present study we describe the development of a fast and user-friendly software, named infinity, able to find the presence of DNA matrices, such as binding sequences for transcriptional factors, on ~65kb (kilobase of 939 human miRNA genomic sequences, simultaneously. Of note, the power of this software has been validated in vivo by performing chromatin immunoprecipitation assays on a subset of new in silico identified target sequences (CCAAT for the transcription factor NF-Y on colon cancer deregulated miRNA loci. Moreover, for the first time, we have demonstrated that NF-Y, through its CCAAT binding activity, regulates the expression of miRNA-181a, -181b, -21, -17, -130b, -301b in colon cancer cells.The infinity software that we have developed is a powerful tool to underscore new TF/miRNA regulatory networks.Infinity was implemented in pure Java using Eclipse framework, and runs on Linux and MS Windows machine, with MySQL database. The software is freely available on the web at https://github.com/bio-devel/infinity. The website is implemented in JavaScript, PHP and HTML with all major browsers supported.

  20. [In silico CRISPR-based sgRNA design].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanli; Chuai, Guohui; Yan, Jifang; Shi, Lei; Liu, Qi

    2017-10-25

    CRISPR-based genome editing has been widely implemented in various cell types. In-silico single guide RNA (sgRNA) design is a key step for successful gene editing using CRISPR system. Continuing efforts are made to refine in-silico sgRNA design with high on-target efficacy and reduced off-target effects. In this paper, we summarize the present sgRNA design tools, and show that efficient in-silico models can be built that integrate current heterogeneous genome-editing data to derive unbiased sgRNA design rules and identify key features for improving sgRNA design. Our review shows that systematic comparisons and evaluation of on-target and off-target effects of sgRNA will allow more precise genome editing and gene therapies using the CRISPR system.

  1. Genomic binding profiles of functionally distinct RNA polymerase III transcription complexes in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moqtaderi, Zarmik; Wang, Jie; Raha, Debasish; White, Robert J; Snyder, Michael; Weng, Zhiping; Struhl, Kevin

    2010-05-01

    Genome-wide occupancy profiles of five components of the RNA polymerase III (Pol III) machinery in human cells identified the expected tRNA and noncoding RNA targets and revealed many additional Pol III-associated loci, mostly near short interspersed elements (SINEs). Several genes are targets of an alternative transcription factor IIIB (TFIIIB) containing Brf2 instead of Brf1 and have extremely low levels of TFIIIC. Strikingly, expressed Pol III genes, unlike nonexpressed Pol III genes, are situated in regions with a pattern of histone modifications associated with functional Pol II promoters. TFIIIC alone associates with numerous ETC loci, via the B box or a novel motif. ETCs are often near CTCF binding sites, suggesting a potential role in chromosome organization. Our results suggest that human Pol III complexes associate preferentially with regions near functional Pol II promoters and that TFIIIC-mediated recruitment of TFIIIB is regulated in a locus-specific manner.

  2. Phylogeny and Taxonomy of Archaea: A Comparison of the Whole-Genome-Based CVTree Approach with 16S rRNA Sequence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghong Zuo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A tripartite comparison of Archaea phylogeny and taxonomy at and above the rank order is reported: (1 the whole-genome-based and alignment-free CVTree using 179 genomes; (2 the 16S rRNA analysis exemplified by the All-Species Living Tree with 366 archaeal sequences; and (3 the Second Edition of Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology complemented by some current literature. A high degree of agreement is reached at these ranks. From the newly proposed archaeal phyla, Korarchaeota, Thaumarchaeota, Nanoarchaeota and Aigarchaeota, to the recent suggestion to divide the class Halobacteria into three orders, all gain substantial support from CVTree. In addition, the CVTree helped to determine the taxonomic position of some newly sequenced genomes without proper lineage information. A few discrepancies between the CVTree and the 16S rRNA approaches call for further investigation.

  3. A Genome-Wide Landscape of Retrocopies in Primate Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Fábio C P; Galante, Pedro A F

    2015-07-29

    Gene duplication is a key factor contributing to phenotype diversity across and within species. Although the availability of complete genomes has led to the extensive study of genomic duplications, the dynamics and variability of gene duplications mediated by retrotransposition are not well understood. Here, we predict mRNA retrotransposition and use comparative genomics to investigate their origin and variability across primates. Analyzing seven anthropoid primate genomes, we found a similar number of mRNA retrotranspositions (∼7,500 retrocopies) in Catarrhini (Old Word Monkeys, including humans), but a surprising large number of retrocopies (∼10,000) in Platyrrhini (New World Monkeys), which may be a by-product of higher long interspersed nuclear element 1 activity in these genomes. By inferring retrocopy orthology, we dated most of the primate retrocopy origins, and estimated a decrease in the fixation rate in recent primate history, implying a smaller number of species-specific retrocopies. Moreover, using RNA-Seq data, we identified approximately 3,600 expressed retrocopies. As expected, most of these retrocopies are located near or within known genes, present tissue-specific and even species-specific expression patterns, and no expression correlation to their parental genes. Taken together, our results provide further evidence that mRNA retrotransposition is an active mechanism in primate evolution and suggest that retrocopies may not only introduce great genetic variability between lineages but also create a large reservoir of potentially functional new genomic loci in primate genomes. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  4. Genetic relatedness of orbiviruses by RNA-RNA blot hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodkin, D.K.

    1985-01-01

    RNA-RNA blot hybridization was developed in order to identify type-specific genes among double-stranded (ds) RNA viruses, to assess the genetic relatedness of dsRNA viruses and to classify new strains. Viral dsRNA segments were electrophoresed through 10% polyacrylamide gels, transferred to membranes, and hybridized to [5' 32 P]-pCp labeled genomic RNA from a related strain. Hybridization was performed at 52 0 C, 50% formamide, 5X SSC. Under these conditions heterologous RNA species must share ≥ 74% sequence homology in order to form stable dsRNA hybrids. Cognate genes of nine members of the Palyam serogroup of orbiviruses were identified and their sequence relatedness to the prototype. Palyam virus, was determined. Reciprocal blot hybridizations were performed using radiolabeled genomic RNA of all members of the Palyam serogroup. Unique and variant genes were identified by lack of cross-homology or by weak homology between segments. Since genes 2 and 6 exhibited the highest degree of sequence variability, response to the vertebrate immune system may be a major cause of sequence divergence among members of a single serogroup. Changuinola serogroup isolates were compared by dot-blot hybridization, while Colorado tick fever (CTF) serogroup isolates were compared by the RNA-RNA blot hybridization procedure described for reovirus and Palyam serogroup isolates. Preliminary blot hybridization data were also obtained on the relatedness of members of different Orbivirus serogroups

  5. The Mapping of Predicted Triplex DNA:RNA in the Drosophila Genome Reveals a Prominent Location in Development- and Morphogenesis-Related Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Pasquier

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Double-stranded DNA is able to form triple-helical structures by accommodating a third nucleotide strand. A nucleic acid triplex occurs according to Hoogsteen rules that predict the stability and affinity of the third strand bound to the Watson–Crick duplex. The “triplex-forming oligonucleotide” (TFO can be a short sequence of RNA that binds to the major groove of the targeted duplex only when this duplex presents a sequence of purine or pyrimidine bases in one of the DNA strands. Many nuclear proteins are known to bind triplex DNA or DNA:RNA, but their biological functions are unexplored. We identified sequences that are capable of engaging as the “triplex-forming oligonucleotide” in both the pre-lncRNA and pre-mRNA collections of Drosophila melanogaster. These motifs were matched against the Drosophila genome in order to identify putative sequences of triplex formation in intergenic regions, promoters, and introns/exons. Most of the identified TFOs appear to be located in the intronic region of the analyzed genes. Computational prediction of the most targeted genes by TFOs originating from pre-lncRNAs and pre-mRNAs revealed that they are restrictively associated with development- and morphogenesis-related gene networks. The refined analysis by Gene Ontology enrichment demonstrates that some individual TFOs present genome-wide scale matches that are located in numerous genes and regulatory sequences. The triplex DNA:RNA computational mapping at the genome-wide scale suggests broad interference in the regulatory process of the gene networks orchestrated by TFO RNAs acting in association simultaneously at multiple sites.

  6. West Nile Virus and Usutu Virus Monitoring of Wild Birds in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Friederike; Fast, Christine; Reuschel, Maximilian; Müller, Kerstin; Urbaniak, Sylvia; Brandes, Florian; Schwehn, Rebekka; Groschup, Martin H.; Ziegler, Ute

    2018-01-01

    By systematically setting up a unique nation-wide wild bird surveillance network, we monitored migratory and resident birds for zoonotic arthropod-borne virus infections, such as the flaviviruses West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV). More than 1900 wild bird blood samples, from 20 orders and 136 different bird species, were collected between 2014 and 2016. Samples were investigated by WNV and USUV-specific real-time polymerase chain reactions as well as by differentiating virus neutralization tests. Dead bird surveillance data, obtained from organ investigations in 2016, were also included. WNV-specific RNA was not detected, whereas four wild bird blood samples tested positive for USUV-specific RNA. Additionally, 73 USUV-positive birds were detected in the 2016 dead bird surveillance. WNV neutralizing antibodies were predominantly found in long-distance, partial and short-distance migrants, while USUV neutralizing antibodies were mainly detected in resident wild bird species, preferentially with low seroprevalences. To date, WNV-specific RNA has neither been detected in wild birds, nor in mosquitoes, thus, we conclude that WNV is not yet present in Germany. Continued wild bird and mosquito monitoring studies are essential to detect the incursion of zoonotic viruses and to allow risk assessments for zoonotic pathogens. PMID:29361762

  7. Quantitative RNA-Seq analysis in non-model species: assessing transcriptome assemblies as a scaffold and the utility of evolutionary divergent genomic reference species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hornett Emily A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background How well does RNA-Seq data perform for quantitative whole gene expression analysis in the absence of a genome? This is one unanswered question facing the rapidly growing number of researchers studying non-model species. Using Homo sapiens data and resources, we compared the direct mapping of sequencing reads to predicted genes from the genome with mapping to de novo transcriptomes assembled from RNA-Seq data. Gene coverage and expression analysis was further investigated in the non-model context by using increasingly divergent genomic reference species to group assembled contigs by unique genes. Results Eight transcriptome sets, composed of varying amounts of Illumina and 454 data, were assembled and assessed. Hybrid 454/Illumina assemblies had the highest transcriptome and individual gene coverage. Quantitative whole gene expression levels were highly similar between using a de novo hybrid assembly and the predicted genes as a scaffold, although mapping to the de novo transcriptome assembly provided data on fewer genes. Using non-target species as reference scaffolds does result in some loss of sequence and expression data, and bias and error increase with evolutionary distance. However, within a 100 million year window these effect sizes are relatively small. Conclusions Predicted gene sets from sequenced genomes of related species can provide a powerful method for grouping RNA-Seq reads and annotating contigs. Gene expression results can be produced that are similar to results obtained using gene models derived from a high quality genome, though biased towards conserved genes. Our results demonstrate the power and limitations of conducting RNA-Seq in non-model species.

  8. Read-Split-Run: an improved bioinformatics pipeline for identification of genome-wide non-canonical spliced regions using RNA-Seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yongsheng; Kinne, Jeff; Donham, Brandon; Jiang, Feng; Ding, Lizhong; Hassler, Justin R; Kaufman, Randal J

    2016-08-22

    Most existing tools for detecting next-generation sequencing-based splicing events focus on generic splicing events. Consequently, special types of non-canonical splicing events of short mRNA regions (IRE1α targeted) have not yet been thoroughly addressed at a genome-wide level using bioinformatics approaches in conjunction with next-generation technologies. During endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, the gene encoding the RNase Ire1α is known to splice out a short 26 nt region from the mRNA of the transcription factor Xbp1 non-canonically within the cytosol. This causes an open reading frame-shift that induces expression of many downstream genes in reaction to ER stress as part of the unfolded protein response (UPR). We previously published an algorithm termed "Read-Split-Walk" (RSW) to identify non-canonical splicing regions using RNA-Seq data and applied it to ER stress-induced Ire1α heterozygote and knockout mouse embryonic fibroblast cell lines. In this study, we have developed an improved algorithm "Read-Split-Run" (RSR) for detecting genome-wide Ire1α-targeted genes with non-canonical spliced regions at a faster speed. We applied the RSR algorithm using different combinations of several parameters to the previously RSW tested mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (MEF) and the human Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) RNA-Seq data. We also compared the performance of RSR with two other alternative splicing events identification tools (TopHat (Trapnell et al., Bioinformatics 25:1105-1111, 2009) and Alt Event Finder (Zhou et al., BMC Genomics 13:S10, 2012)) utilizing the context of the spliced Xbp1 mRNA as a positive control in the data sets we identified it to be the top cleavage target present in Ire1α (+/-) but absent in Ire1α (-/-) MEF samples and this comparison was also extended to human ENCODE RNA-Seq data. Proof of principle came in our results by the fact that the 26 nt non-conventional splice site in Xbp1 was detected as the top hit by our new RSR

  9. An efficient and high fidelity method for amplification, cloning and sequencing of complete tospovirus genomic RNA segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amplification and sequencing of the complete M- and S-RNA segments of Tomato spotted wilt virus and Impatiens necrotic spot virus as a single fragment is useful for whole genome sequencing of tospoviruses co-infecting a single host plant. It avoids issues associated with overlapping amplicon-based ...

  10. Tools to covisualize and coanalyze proteomic data with genomes and transcriptomes: validation of genes and alternative mRNA splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Chi Nam Ignatius; Tay, Aidan P; Aya, Carlos; Twine, Natalie A; Harkness, Linda; Hart-Smith, Gene; Chia, Samantha Z; Chen, Zhiliang; Deshpande, Nandan P; Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Mitchell, Hazel M; Kassem, Moustapha; Wilkins, Marc R

    2014-01-03

    Direct links between proteomic and genomic/transcriptomic data are not frequently made, partly because of lack of appropriate bioinformatics tools. To help address this, we have developed the PG Nexus pipeline. The PG Nexus allows users to covisualize peptides in the context of genomes or genomic contigs, along with RNA-seq reads. This is done in the Integrated Genome Viewer (IGV). A Results Analyzer reports the precise base position where LC-MS/MS-derived peptides cover genes or gene isoforms, on the chromosomes or contigs where this occurs. In prokaryotes, the PG Nexus pipeline facilitates the validation of genes, where annotation or gene prediction is available, or the discovery of genes using a "virtual protein"-based unbiased approach. We illustrate this with a comprehensive proteogenomics analysis of two strains of Campylobacter concisus . For higher eukaryotes, the PG Nexus facilitates gene validation and supports the identification of mRNA splice junction boundaries and splice variants that are protein-coding. This is illustrated with an analysis of splice junctions covered by human phosphopeptides, and other examples of relevance to the Chromosome-Centric Human Proteome Project. The PG Nexus is open-source and available from https://github.com/IntersectAustralia/ap11_Samifier. It has been integrated into Galaxy and made available in the Galaxy tool shed.

  11. Detection of West Nile virus-specific antibodies and nucleic acid in horses and mosquitoes, respectively, in Nuevo Leon State, northern Mexico, 2006-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Juarez, L; Eisen, L; Bolling, B G; Beaty, B J; Blitvich, B J; Sanchez-Casas, R M; Ayala-Sulca, Y O; Fernandez-Salas, I

    2012-09-01

    In the last 5 years, there has been only one reported human case of West Nile virus (WNV) disease in northern Mexico. To determine if the virus was still circulating in this region, equine and entomological surveillance for WNV was conducted in the state of Nuevo Leon in northern Mexico in 2006 and 2007. A total of 203 horses were serologically assayed for antibodies to WNV using an epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA). Seroprevalences for WNV in horses sampled in 2006 and 2007 were 26% and 45%, respectively. Mosquito collections in 2007 produced 7365 specimens representing 15 species. Culex mosquitoes were screened for WNV RNA and other genera (Mansonia, Anopheles, Aedes, Psorophora and Uranotaenia) were screened for flaviviruses using reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR. Two pools consisting of Culex spp. mosquitoes contained WNV RNA. Molecular species identification revealed that neither pool included Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera:Culicidae) complex mosquitoes. No evidence of flaviviruses was found in the other mosquito genera examined. These data provide evidence that WNV is currently circulating in northern Mexico and that non-Cx. quinquefasciatus spp. mosquitoes may be participating in the WNV transmission cycle in this region. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Large Human Outbreak of West Nile Virus Infection in North-Eastern Italy in 2012

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    Luisa Barzon

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Human cases of West Nile virus (WNV disease have been reported in Italy since 2008. So far, most cases have been identified in north-eastern Italy, where, in 2012, the largest outbreak of WNV infection ever recorded in Italy occurred. Most cases of the 2012 outbreak were identified in the Veneto region, where a special surveillance plan for West Nile fever was in place. In this outbreak, 25 cases of West Nile neuroinvasive disease and 17 cases of fever were confirmed. In addition, 14 WNV RNA-positive blood donors were identified by screening of blood and organ donations and two cases of asymptomatic infection were diagnosed by active surveillance of subjects at risk of WNV exposure. Two cases of death due to WNND were reported. Molecular testing demonstrated the presence of WNV lineage 1 in all WNV RNA-positive patients and, in 15 cases, infection by the novel Livenza strain was ascertained. Surveillance in other Italian regions notified one case of neuroinvasive disease in the south of Italy and two cases in Sardinia. Integrated surveillance for WNV infection remains a public health priority in Italy and vector control activities have been strengthened in areas of WNV circulation.

  13. The Csr system regulates genome-wide mRNA stability and transcription and thus gene expression in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquerré, Thomas; Bouvier, Marie; Turlan, Catherine; Carpousis, Agamemnon J; Girbal, Laurence; Cocaign-Bousquet, Muriel

    2016-04-26

    Bacterial adaptation requires large-scale regulation of gene expression. We have performed a genome-wide analysis of the Csr system, which regulates many important cellular functions. The Csr system is involved in post-transcriptional regulation, but a role in transcriptional regulation has also been suggested. Two proteins, an RNA-binding protein CsrA and an atypical signaling protein CsrD, participate in the Csr system. Genome-wide transcript stabilities and levels were compared in wildtype E. coli (MG1655) and isogenic mutant strains deficient in CsrA or CsrD activity demonstrating for the first time that CsrA and CsrD are global negative and positive regulators of transcription, respectively. The role of CsrA in transcription regulation may be indirect due to the 4.6-fold increase in csrD mRNA concentration in the CsrA deficient strain. Transcriptional action of CsrA and CsrD on a few genes was validated by transcriptional fusions. In addition to an effect on transcription, CsrA stabilizes thousands of mRNAs. This is the first demonstration that CsrA is a global positive regulator of mRNA stability. For one hundred genes, we predict that direct control of mRNA stability by CsrA might contribute to metabolic adaptation by regulating expression of genes involved in carbon metabolism and transport independently of transcriptional regulation.

  14. Genomic characteristics comparisons of 12 food-related filamentous fungi in tRNA gene set, codon usage and amino acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wanping; Xie, Ting; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng

    2012-04-10

    Filamentous fungi are widely exploited in food industry due to their abilities to secrete large amounts of enzymes and metabolites. The recent availability of fungal genome sequences has provided an opportunity to explore the genomic characteristics of these food-related filamentous fungi. In this paper, we selected 12 representative filamentous fungi in the areas of food processing and safety, which were Aspergillus clavatus, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans, A. niger, A. oryzae, A. terreus, Monascus ruber, Neurospora crassa, Penicillium chrysogenum, Rhizopus oryzae and Trichoderma reesei, and did the comparative studies of their genomic characteristics of tRNA gene distribution, codon usage pattern and amino acid composition. The results showed that the copy numbers greatly differed among isoaccepting tRNA genes and the distribution seemed to be related with translation process. The results also revealed that genome compositional variation probably constrained the base choice at the third codon, and affected the overall amino acid composition but seemed to have little effect on the integrated physicochemical characteristics of overall amino acids. The further analysis suggested that the wobble pairing and base modification were the important mechanisms in codon-anticodon interaction. In the scope of authors' knowledge, it is the first report about the genomic characteristics analysis of food-related filamentous fungi, which would be informative for the analysis of filamentous fungal genome evolution and their practical application in food industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Genome-wide comparative in silico analysis of the RNA helicase gene family in Zea mays and Glycine max: a comparison with Arabidopsis and Oryza sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ruirui; Zhang, Shizhong; Huang, Jinguang; Zheng, Chengchao

    2013-01-01

    RNA helicases are enzymes that are thought to unwind double-stranded RNA molecules in an energy-dependent fashion through the hydrolysis of NTP. RNA helicases are associated with all processes involving RNA molecules, including nuclear transcription, editing, splicing, ribosome biogenesis, RNA export, and organelle gene expression. The involvement of RNA helicase in response to stress and in plant growth and development has been reported previously. While their importance in Arabidopsis and Oryza sativa has been partially studied, the function of RNA helicase proteins is poorly understood in Zea mays and Glycine max. In this study, we identified a total of RNA helicase genes in Arabidopsis and other crop species genome by genome-wide comparative in silico analysis. We classified the RNA helicase genes into three subfamilies according to the structural features of the motif II region, such as DEAD-box, DEAH-box and DExD/H-box, and different species showed different patterns of alternative splicing. Secondly, chromosome location analysis showed that the RNA helicase protein genes were distributed across all chromosomes with different densities in the four species. Thirdly, phylogenetic tree analyses identified the relevant homologs of DEAD-box, DEAH-box and DExD/H-box RNA helicase proteins in each of the four species. Fourthly, microarray expression data showed that many of these predicted RNA helicase genes were expressed in different developmental stages and different tissues under normal growth conditions. Finally, real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of 10 genes in Arabidopsis and 13 genes in Zea mays were in close agreement with the microarray expression data. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a comparative genome-wide analysis of the RNA helicase gene family in Arabidopsis, Oryza sativa, Zea mays and Glycine max. This study provides valuable information for understanding the classification and putative functions of

  16. Genetic and epigenetic variation in 5S ribosomal RNA genes reveals genome dynamics in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Lauriane; Rabanal, Fernando A; Dubos, Tristan; Oliver, Cecilia; Lauber, Damien; Poulet, Axel; Vogt, Alexander; Mandlbauer, Ariane; Le Goff, Samuel; Sommer, Andreas; Duborjal, Hervé; Tatout, Christophe; Probst, Aline V

    2018-04-06

    Organized in tandem repeat arrays in most eukaryotes and transcribed by RNA polymerase III, expression of 5S rRNA genes is under epigenetic control. To unveil mechanisms of transcriptional regulation, we obtained here in depth sequence information on 5S rRNA genes from the Arabidopsis thaliana genome and identified differential enrichment in epigenetic marks between the three 5S rDNA loci situated on chromosomes 3, 4 and 5. We reveal the chromosome 5 locus as the major source of an atypical, long 5S rRNA transcript characteristic of an open chromatin structure. 5S rRNA genes from this locus translocated in the Landsberg erecta ecotype as shown by linkage mapping and chromosome-specific FISH analysis. These variations in 5S rDNA locus organization cause changes in the spatial arrangement of chromosomes in the nucleus. Furthermore, 5S rRNA gene arrangements are highly dynamic with alterations in chromosomal positions through translocations in certain mutants of the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway and important copy number variations among ecotypes. Finally, variations in 5S rRNA gene sequence, chromatin organization and transcripts indicate differential usage of 5S rDNA loci in distinct ecotypes. We suggest that both the usage of existing and new 5S rDNA loci resulting from translocations may impact neighboring chromatin organization.

  17. Genome-Wide Identification of circRNAs in Pathogenic Basidiomycetous Yeast Cryptococcus neoformans Suggests Conserved circRNA Host Genes over Kingdoms

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    Liang Huo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Circular RNAs (circRNAs, a novel class of ubiquitous and intriguing noncoding RNA, have been found in a number of eukaryotes but not yet basidiomycetes. In this study, we identified 73 circRNAs from 39.28 million filtered RNA reads from the basidiomycete Cryptococcus neoformans JEC21 using next-generation sequencing (NGS and the bioinformatics tool circular RNA identification (CIRI. Furthermore, mapping of newly found circRNAs to the genome showed that 73.97% of the circRNAs originated from exonic regions, whereas 20.55% were from intergenic regions and 5.48% were from intronic regions. Enrichment analysis of circRNA host genes was conducted based on the Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway databases. The results reveal that host genes are mainly responsible for primary metabolism and, interestingly, ribosomal protein production. Furthermore, we uncovered a high-level circRNA that was a transcript from the guanosine triphosphate (GTPase gene CNM01190 (gene ID: 3255052 in our yeast. Coincidentally, YPT5, CNM01190′s ortholog of the GTPase in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, protists, and humans, has already been proven to generate circRNAs. Additionally, overexpression of RNA debranching enzyme DBR1 had varied influence on the expression of circRNAs, indicating that multiple circRNA biosynthesis pathways exist in C. neoformans. Our study provides evidence for the existence of stable circRNAs in the opportunistic human pathogen C. neoformans and raises a question regarding their role related to pathogenesis in this yeast.

  18. Sequence relationships between the genome and the intracellular RNA species 1,3,6 and 7 of mouse hepatitis virus strain A59

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.; Spaan, W.J.M.; Rottier, P.J.M.; Zeijst, B.A.M. van der

    1982-01-01

    We have shown by T1 oligonucleotide fingerprinting that the genome of mouse hepatitis virus strain A59 and its intracellular RNA 1 have identical fingerprints and that RNA 1 and the subgenomic RNAs 3, 6, and 7 contain common sequences. To localize the homologous region between the RNAs, we compared

  19. Gene interactions in the DNA damage-response pathway identified by genome-wide RNA-interference analysis of synthetic lethality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haaften, Gijs; Vastenhouw, Nadine L; Nollen, Ellen A A; Plasterk, Ronald H A; Tijsterman, Marcel

    2004-01-01

    Here, we describe a systematic search for synthetic gene interactions in a multicellular organism, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We established a high-throughput method to determine synthetic gene interactions by genome-wide RNA interference and identified genes that are required to protect

  20. The allosteric HIV-1 integrase inhibitor BI-D affects virion maturation but does not influence packaging of a functional RNA genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikki van Bel

    Full Text Available The viral integrase (IN is an essential protein for HIV-1 replication. IN inserts the viral dsDNA into the host chromosome, thereby aided by the cellular co-factor LEDGF/p75. Recently a new class of integrase inhibitors was described: allosteric IN inhibitors (ALLINIs. Although designed to interfere with the IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction to block HIV DNA integration during the early phase of HIV-1 replication, the major impact was surprisingly found on the process of virus maturation during the late phase, causing a reverse transcription defect upon infection of target cells. Virus particles produced in the presence of an ALLINI are misformed with the ribonucleoprotein located outside the virus core. Virus assembly and maturation are highly orchestrated and regulated processes in which several viral proteins and RNA molecules closely interact. It is therefore of interest to study whether ALLINIs have unpredicted pleiotropic effects on these RNA-related processes. We confirm that the ALLINI BI-D inhibits virus replication and that the produced virus is non-infectious. Furthermore, we show that the wild-type level of HIV-1 genomic RNA is packaged in virions and these genomes are in a dimeric state. The tRNAlys3 primer for reverse transcription was properly placed on this genomic RNA and could be extended ex vivo. In addition, the packaged reverse transcriptase enzyme was fully active when extracted from virions. As the RNA and enzyme components for reverse transcription are properly present in virions produced in the presence of BI-D, the inhibition of reverse transcription is likely to reflect the mislocalization of the components in the aberrant virus particle.

  1. The allosteric HIV-1 integrase inhibitor BI-D affects virion maturation but does not influence packaging of a functional RNA genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bel, Nikki; van der Velden, Yme; Bonnard, Damien; Le Rouzic, Erwann; Das, Atze T; Benarous, Richard; Berkhout, Ben

    2014-01-01

    The viral integrase (IN) is an essential protein for HIV-1 replication. IN inserts the viral dsDNA into the host chromosome, thereby aided by the cellular co-factor LEDGF/p75. Recently a new class of integrase inhibitors was described: allosteric IN inhibitors (ALLINIs). Although designed to interfere with the IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction to block HIV DNA integration during the early phase of HIV-1 replication, the major impact was surprisingly found on the process of virus maturation during the late phase, causing a reverse transcription defect upon infection of target cells. Virus particles produced in the presence of an ALLINI are misformed with the ribonucleoprotein located outside the virus core. Virus assembly and maturation are highly orchestrated and regulated processes in which several viral proteins and RNA molecules closely interact. It is therefore of interest to study whether ALLINIs have unpredicted pleiotropic effects on these RNA-related processes. We confirm that the ALLINI BI-D inhibits virus replication and that the produced virus is non-infectious. Furthermore, we show that the wild-type level of HIV-1 genomic RNA is packaged in virions and these genomes are in a dimeric state. The tRNAlys3 primer for reverse transcription was properly placed on this genomic RNA and could be extended ex vivo. In addition, the packaged reverse transcriptase enzyme was fully active when extracted from virions. As the RNA and enzyme components for reverse transcription are properly present in virions produced in the presence of BI-D, the inhibition of reverse transcription is likely to reflect the mislocalization of the components in the aberrant virus particle.

  2. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: molecular cloning of genomic RNA and its diagnostic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brock, K.V.

    1987-01-01

    Molecular cloning of a field isolate of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain 72 RNA was done in this study. The sensitivity and specificity of cloned cDNA sequences in hybridization assays with various BVDV strains were determined. cDNA was synthesized from polyadenylated BVDV RNA templates with oligo-dT primers, reverse transcriptase, and DNA polymerase I. The newly synthesized double-stranded BVDV cDNA was C-tailed with terminal deoxytransferase and annealed into G-tailed, Pst-1-cut pUC9 plasmid. Escherichia coli was transformed with the recombinant plasmids and a library of approximately 200 BVDV specific cDNA clones varying in length from 0.5 to 2.6 kilobases were isolated. The sensitivity and specificity of hybridization between the labelled cDNA and BVDV target sequences were determined. Cloned BVDV sequences were isolated from pUC9 plasmid DNA and labelled with 32 P by nick translation. The detection limit by dot blot hybridization assay was 20 pg of purified genomic BVDV RNA. cDNA hybridization probes were specific for all strains of BVDV tested, regardless of whether they were noncytopathic and cytopathic, but did not hybridize with heterologous bovine viruses tested. Probes did not hybridize with uninfected cell culture or cellular RNA. Hybridization probes were at least as sensitive as infectivity assays in detecting homologous virus

  3. Elucidating the Small Regulatory RNA Repertoire of the Sea Anemone Anemonia viridis Based on Whole Genome and Small RNA Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbarova, Ilona; Patel, Hardip; Forêt, Sylvain; Karlsen, Bård Ove; Jørgensen, Tor Erik; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Johansen, Steinar D

    2018-02-01

    Cnidarians harbor a variety of small regulatory RNAs that include microRNAs (miRNAs) and PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), but detailed information is limited. Here, we report the identification and expression of novel miRNAs and putative piRNAs, as well as their genomic loci, in the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis. We generated a draft assembly of the A. viridis genome with putative size of 313 Mb that appeared to be composed of about 36% repeats, including known transposable elements. We detected approximately equal fractions of DNA transposons and retrotransposons. Deep sequencing of small RNA libraries constructed from A. viridis adults sampled at a natural CO2 gradient off Vulcano Island, Italy, identified 70 distinct miRNAs. Eight were homologous to previously reported miRNAs in cnidarians, whereas 62 appeared novel. Nine miRNAs were recognized as differentially expressed along the natural seawater pH gradient. We found a highly abundant and diverse population of piRNAs, with a substantial fraction showing ping-pong signatures. We identified nearly 22% putative piRNAs potentially targeting transposable elements within the A. viridis genome. The A. viridis genome appeared similar in size to that of other hexacorals with a very high divergence of transposable elements resembling that of the sea anemone genus Exaiptasia. The genome encodes and expresses a high number of small regulatory RNAs, which include novel miRNAs and piRNAs. Differentially expressed small RNAs along the seawater pH gradient indicated regulatory gene responses to environmental stressors. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  4. Deciphering RNA regulatory elements in trypanosomatids: one piece at a time or genome-wide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazestani, Vahid H; Lu, Zhiquan; Salavati, Reza

    2014-05-01

    Morphological and metabolic changes in the life cycle of Trypanosoma brucei are accomplished by precise regulation of hundreds of genes. In the absence of transcriptional control, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) shape the structure of gene regulatory maps in this organism, but our knowledge about their target RNAs, binding sites, and mechanisms of action is far from complete. Although recent technological advances have revolutionized the RBP-based approaches, the main framework for the RNA regulatory element (RRE)-based approaches has not changed over the last two decades in T. brucei. In this Opinion, after highlighting the current challenges in RRE inference, we explain some genome-wide solutions that can significantly boost our current understanding about gene regulatory networks in T. brucei. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of the complement and molecular evolution of tRNA genes in cow

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    Barris Wesley C

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detailed information regarding the number and organization of transfer RNA (tRNA genes at the genome level is becoming readily available with the increase of DNA sequencing of whole genomes. However the identification of functional tRNA genes is challenging for species that have large numbers of repetitive elements containing tRNA derived sequences, such as Bos taurus. Reliable identification and annotation of entire sets of tRNA genes allows the evolution of tRNA genes to be understood on a genomic scale. Results In this study, we explored the B. taurus genome using bioinformatics and comparative genomics approaches to catalogue and analyze cow tRNA genes. The initial analysis of the cow genome using tRNAscan-SE identified 31,868 putative tRNA genes and 189,183 pseudogenes, where 28,830 of the 31,868 predicted tRNA genes were classified as repetitive elements by the RepeatMasker program. We then used comparative genomics to further discriminate between functional tRNA genes and tRNA-derived sequences for the remaining set of 3,038 putative tRNA genes. For our analysis, we used the human, chimpanzee, mouse, rat, horse, dog, chicken and fugu genomes to predict that the number of active tRNA genes in cow lies in the vicinity of 439. Of this set, 150 tRNA genes were 100% identical in their sequences across all nine vertebrate genomes studied. Using clustering analyses, we identified a new tRNA-GlyCCC subfamily present in all analyzed mammalian genomes. We suggest that this subfamily originated from an ancestral tRNA-GlyGCC gene via a point mutation prior to the radiation of the mammalian lineages. Lastly, in a separate analysis we created phylogenetic profiles for each putative cow tRNA gene using a representative set of genomes to gain an overview of common evolutionary histories of tRNA genes. Conclusion The use of a combination of bioinformatics and comparative genomics approaches has allowed the confident identification of a

  6. West Nile virus lineage 2 infection in a blood donor from Vienna, Austria, August 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbauer, C; Hourfar, M K; Stiasny, K; Aberle, S W; Cadar, D; Schmidt-Chanasit, J; Mayr, W R

    2015-03-01

    Eastern Austria is neighbouring regions with ongoing West Nile virus (WNV) transmissions. Three human WNV infections had been diagnosed during the past decade in Austria. The Austrian Red Cross Blood Service (ARC-BS) started a first voluntary screening for WNV in blood donors from Eastern Austria by Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) in June 2014. This is also the most extensive WNV surveillance programme in humans in Austria so far. In August 2014, one autochthonous WNV infection was detected in a blood donor from Vienna. By now, one in 67,800 whole blood donations was found to be positive for WNV RNA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. RNA Editing in Plant Mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiesel, Rudolf; Wissinger, Bernd; Schuster, Wolfgang; Brennicke, Axel

    1989-12-01

    Comparative sequence analysis of genomic and complementary DNA clones from several mitochondrial genes in the higher plant Oenothera revealed nucleotide sequence divergences between the genomic and the messenger RNA-derived sequences. These sequence alterations could be most easily explained by specific post-transcriptional nucleotide modifications. Most of the nucleotide exchanges in coding regions lead to altered codons in the mRNA that specify amino acids better conserved in evolution than those encoded by the genomic DNA. Several instances show that the genomic arginine codon CGG is edited in the mRNA to the tryptophan codon TGG in amino acid positions that are highly conserved as tryptophan in the homologous proteins of other species. This editing suggests that the standard genetic code is used in plant mitochondria and resolves the frequent coincidence of CGG codons and tryptophan in different plant species. The apparently frequent and non-species-specific equivalency of CGG and TGG codons in particular suggests that RNA editing is a common feature of all higher plant mitochondria.

  8. The 3D protein of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 binds to a viral genomic 3' UTR and shows RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Cao, Qianda; Wang, Mingshu; Jia, Renyong; Chen, Shun; Zhu, Dekang; Liu, Mafeng; Sun, Kunfeng; Yang, Qiao; Wu, Ying; Zhao, Xinxin; Chen, Xiaoyue; Cheng, Anchun

    2017-12-01

    To explore the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) function of the 3D protein of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1), the gene was cloned into the pET-32a(+) vector for prokaryotic expression. The 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) of DHAV-1 together with a T7 promoter was cloned into the pMD19-T vector for in vitro transcription of 3' UTR RNA, which was further used as a template in RNA-dependent RNA polymerization. In this study, three methods were applied to analyze the RdRP function of the 3D protein: (1) ammonium molybdate spectrophotometry to detect pyrophosphate produced during polymerization; (2) quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) to investigate the changes in RNA quantity during polymerization; and (3) electrophoresis mobility shift assay to examine the interaction between the 3D protein and 3' UTR. The results showed the 3D protein was successfully expressed in bacteria culture supernatant in a soluble form, which could be purified by affinity chromatography. In 3D enzymatic activity assays, pyrophosphate and RNA were produced, the amounts of which increased based on approximative kinetics, and binding of the 3D protein to the 3' UTR was observed. These results indicate that prokaryotically expressed soluble DHAV-13D protein can bind to a viral genomic 3' UTR and exhibit RdRP activity.

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Diaphorina citri-associated C virus, a Novel Putative RNA Virus of the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri

    OpenAIRE

    Nouri, Shahideh; Salem, Nid?; Falk, Bryce W.

    2016-01-01

    We present here the complete nucleotide sequence and genome organization of a novel putative RNA virus identified in field populations of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, through sequencing of the transcriptome followed by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). We tentatively named this virus Diaphorina citri-associated C virus (DcACV). DcACV is an unclassified positive-sense RNA virus.

  10. microRNA analysis of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci under praziquantel treatment and genome-wide identification of Taenia solium miRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Matías Gastón; Macchiaroli, Natalia; Lichtenstein, Gabriel; Conti, Gabriela; Asurmendi, Sebastián; Milone, Diego Humberto; Stegmayer, Georgina; Kamenetzky, Laura; Cucher, Marcela; Rosenzvit, Mara Cecilia

    2017-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that have emerged as important regulators of gene expression and perform critical functions in development and disease. In spite of the increased interest in miRNAs from helminth parasites, no information is available on miRNAs from Taenia solium, the causative agent of cysticercosis, a neglected disease affecting millions of people worldwide. Here we performed a comprehensive analysis of miRNAs from Taenia crassiceps, a laboratory model for T. solium studies, and identified miRNAs in the T. solium genome. Moreover, we analysed the effect of praziquantel, one of the two main drugs used for cysticercosis treatment, on the miRNA expression profile of T. crassiceps cysticerci. Using small RNA-seq and two independent algorithms for miRNA prediction, as well as northern blot validation, we found transcriptional evidence of 39 miRNA loci in T. crassiceps. Since miRNAs were mapped to the T. solium genome, these miRNAs are considered common to both parasites. The miRNA expression profile of T. crassiceps was biased to the same set of highly expressed miRNAs reported in other cestodes. We found a significant altered expression of miR-7b under praziquantel treatment. In addition, we searched for miRNAs predicted to target genes related to drug response. We performed a detailed target prediction for miR-7b and found genes related to drug action. We report an initial approach to study the effect of sub-lethal drug treatment on miRNA expression in a cestode parasite, which provides a platform for further studies of miRNA involvement in drug effects. The results of our work could be applied to drug development and provide basic knowledge of cysticercosis and other neglected helminth infections. Copyright © 2017 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Flock House virus subgenomic RNA3 is replicated and its replication correlates with transactivation of RNA2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckerle, Lance D.; Albarino, Cesar G.; Ball, L. Andrew.

    2003-01-01

    The nodavirus Flock House virus has a bipartite genome composed of RNAs 1 and 2, which encode the catalytic component of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and the capsid protein precursor, respectively. In addition to catalyzing replication of the viral genome, the RdRp also transcribes from RNA1 a subgenomic RNA3, which is both required for and suppressed by RNA2 replication. Here, we show that in the absence of RNA1 replication, FHV RdRp replicated positive-sense RNA3 transcripts fully and copied negative-sense RNA3 transcripts into positive strands. The two nonstructural proteins encoded by RNA3 were dispensable for replication, but sequences in the 3'-terminal 58 nucleotides were required. RNA3 variants that failed to replicate also failed to transactivate RNA2. These results imply that RNA3 is naturally produced both by transcription from RNA1 and by subsequent RNA1-independent replication and that RNA3 replication may be necessary for transactivation of RNA2

  12. dbSMR: a novel resource of genome-wide SNPs affecting microRNA mediated regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariharan Manoj

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs regulate several biological processes through post-transcriptional gene silencing. The efficiency of binding of miRNAs to target transcripts depends on the sequence as well as intramolecular structure of the transcript. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs can contribute to alterations in the structure of regions flanking them, thereby influencing the accessibility for miRNA binding. Description The entire human genome was analyzed for SNPs in and around predicted miRNA target sites. Polymorphisms within 200 nucleotides that could alter the intramolecular structure at the target site, thereby altering regulation were annotated. Collated information was ported in a MySQL database with a user-friendly interface accessible through the URL: http://miracle.igib.res.in/dbSMR. Conclusion The database has a user-friendly interface where the information can be queried using either the gene name, microRNA name, polymorphism ID or transcript ID. Combination queries using 'AND' or 'OR' is also possible along with specifying the degree of change of intramolecular bonding with and without the polymorphism. Such a resource would enable researchers address questions like the role of regulatory SNPs in the 3' UTRs and population specific regulatory modulations in the context of microRNA targets.

  13. RNA-directed DNA methylation: Mechanisms and functions

    KAUST Repository

    Mahfouz, Magdy M.

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetic RNA based gene silencing mechanisms play a major role in genome stability and control of gene expression. Transcriptional gene silencing via RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) guides the epigenetic regulation of the genome in response

  14. The Ever-Evolving Concept of the Gene: The Use of RNA/Protein Experimental Techniques to Understand Genome Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cipriano

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The completion of the human genome sequence together with advances in sequencing technologies have shifted the paradigm of the genome, as composed of discrete and hereditable coding entities, and have shown the abundance of functional noncoding DNA. This part of the genome, previously dismissed as “junk” DNA, increases proportionally with organismal complexity and contributes to gene regulation beyond the boundaries of known protein-coding genes. Different classes of functionally relevant nonprotein-coding RNAs are transcribed from noncoding DNA sequences. Among them are the long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs, which are thought to participate in the basal regulation of protein-coding genes at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Although knowledge of this field is still limited, the ability of lncRNAs to localize in different cellular compartments, to fold into specific secondary structures and to interact with different molecules (RNA or proteins endows them with multiple regulatory mechanisms. It is becoming evident that lncRNAs may play a crucial role in most biological processes such as the control of development, differentiation and cell growth. This review places the evolution of the concept of the gene in its historical context, from Darwin's hypothetical mechanism of heredity to the post-genomic era. We discuss how the original idea of protein-coding genes as unique determinants of phenotypic traits has been reconsidered in light of the existence of noncoding RNAs. We summarize the technological developments which have been made in the genome-wide identification and study of lncRNAs and emphasize the methodologies that have aided our understanding of the complexity of lncRNA-protein interactions in recent years.

  15. A nutrient-driven tRNA modification alters translational fidelity and genome-wide protein coding across an animal genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborske, John M; DuMont, Vanessa L Bauer; Wallace, Edward W J; Pan, Tao; Aquadro, Charles F; Drummond, D Allan

    2014-12-01

    Natural selection favors efficient expression of encoded proteins, but the causes, mechanisms, and fitness consequences of evolved coding changes remain an area of aggressive inquiry. We report a large-scale reversal in the relative translational accuracy of codons across 12 fly species in the Drosophila/Sophophora genus. Because the reversal involves pairs of codons that are read by the same genomically encoded tRNAs, we hypothesize, and show by direct measurement, that a tRNA anticodon modification from guanosine to queuosine has coevolved with these genomic changes. Queuosine modification is present in most organisms but its function remains unclear. Modification levels vary across developmental stages in D. melanogaster, and, consistent with a causal effect, genes maximally expressed at each stage display selection for codons that are most accurate given stage-specific queuosine modification levels. In a kinetic model, the known increased affinity of queuosine-modified tRNA for ribosomes increases the accuracy of cognate codons while reducing the accuracy of near-cognate codons. Levels of queuosine modification in D. melanogaster reflect bioavailability of the precursor queuine, which eukaryotes scavenge from the tRNAs of bacteria and absorb in the gut. These results reveal a strikingly direct mechanism by which recoding of entire genomes results from changes in utilization of a nutrient.

  16. A nutrient-driven tRNA modification alters translational fidelity and genome-wide protein coding across an animal genus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Zaborske

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural selection favors efficient expression of encoded proteins, but the causes, mechanisms, and fitness consequences of evolved coding changes remain an area of aggressive inquiry. We report a large-scale reversal in the relative translational accuracy of codons across 12 fly species in the Drosophila/Sophophora genus. Because the reversal involves pairs of codons that are read by the same genomically encoded tRNAs, we hypothesize, and show by direct measurement, that a tRNA anticodon modification from guanosine to queuosine has coevolved with these genomic changes. Queuosine modification is present in most organisms but its function remains unclear. Modification levels vary across developmental stages in D. melanogaster, and, consistent with a causal effect, genes maximally expressed at each stage display selection for codons that are most accurate given stage-specific queuosine modification levels. In a kinetic model, the known increased affinity of queuosine-modified tRNA for ribosomes increases the accuracy of cognate codons while reducing the accuracy of near-cognate codons. Levels of queuosine modification in D. melanogaster reflect bioavailability of the precursor queuine, which eukaryotes scavenge from the tRNAs of bacteria and absorb in the gut. These results reveal a strikingly direct mechanism by which recoding of entire genomes results from changes in utilization of a nutrient.

  17. Comparative genomics of Lactobacillus and other LAB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wassenaar, Trudy M.; Lukjancenko, Oksana

    2014-01-01

    that of the others, with the two Streptococcus species having the shortest genomes. The widest distribution in genome content was observed for Lactobacillus. The number of tRNA and rRNA gene copies varied considerably, with exceptional high numbers observed for Lb. delbrueckii, while these numbers were relatively......The genomes of 66 LABs, belonging to five different genera, were compared for genome size and gene content. The analyzed genomes included 37 Lactobacillus genomes of 17 species, six Lactococcus lactis genomes, four Leuconostoc genomes of three species, six Streptococcus genomes of two species...

  18. SHAPE analysis of the FIV Leader RNA reveals a structural switch potentially controlling viral packaging and genome dimerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Julia C; Tanner, Sian J; Legiewicz, Michal; Phillip, Pretty S; Rizvi, Tahir A; Le Grice, Stuart F J; Lever, Andrew M L

    2011-08-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infects many species of cat, and is related to HIV, causing a similar pathology. High-throughput selective 2' hydroxyl acylation analysed by primer extension (SHAPE), a technique that allows structural interrogation at each nucleotide, was used to map the secondary structure of the FIV packaging signal RNA. Previous studies of this RNA showed four conserved stem-loops, extensive long-range interactions (LRIs) and a small, palindromic stem-loop (SL5) within the gag open reading frame (ORF) that may act as a dimerization initiation site (DIS), enabling the virus to package two copies of its genome. Our analyses of wild-type (wt) and mutant RNAs suggest that although the four conserved stem-loops are static structures, the 5' and 3' regions previously shown to form LRI also adopt an alternative, yet similarly conserved conformation, in which the putative DIS is occluded, and which may thus favour translational and splicing functions over encapsidation. SHAPE and in vitro dimerization assays were used to examine SL5 mutants. Dimerization contacts appear to be made between palindromic loop sequences in SL5. As this stem-loop is located within the gag ORF, recognition of a dimeric RNA provides a possible mechanism for the specific packaging of genomic over spliced viral RNAs.

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Diaphorina citri-associated C virus, a Novel Putative RNA Virus of the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Shahideh; Salem, Nidà; Falk, Bryce W

    2016-07-21

    We present here the complete nucleotide sequence and genome organization of a novel putative RNA virus identified in field populations of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, through sequencing of the transcriptome followed by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). We tentatively named this virus Diaphorina citri-associated C virus (DcACV). DcACV is an unclassified positive-sense RNA virus. Copyright © 2016 Nouri et al.

  20. Genome-wide identification and characterization of microRNA genes and their targets in flax (Linum usitatissimum): Characterization of flax miRNA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barvkar, Vitthal T; Pardeshi, Varsha C; Kale, Sandip M; Qiu, Shuqing; Rollins, Meaghen; Datla, Raju; Gupta, Vidya S; Kadoo, Narendra Y

    2013-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (20-24 nucleotide long) endogenous regulatory RNAs that play important roles in plant growth and development. They regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by translational repression or target degradation and gene silencing. In this study, we identified 116 conserved miRNAs belonging to 23 families from the flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) genome using a computational approach. The precursor miRNAs varied in length; while most of the mature miRNAs were 21 nucleotide long, intergenic and showed conserved signatures of RNA polymerase II transcripts in their upstream regions. Promoter region analysis of the flax miRNA genes indicated prevalence of MYB transcription factor binding sites. Four miRNA gene clusters containing members of three phylogenetic groups were identified. Further, 142 target genes were predicted for these miRNAs and most of these represent transcriptional regulators. The miRNA encoding genes were expressed in diverse tissues as determined by digital expression analysis as well as real-time PCR. The expression of fourteen miRNAs and nine target genes was independently validated using the quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). This study suggests that a large number of conserved plant miRNAs are also found in flax and these may play important roles in growth and development of flax.

  1. Genome wide predictions of miRNA regulation by transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffalo, Matthew; Bar-Joseph, Ziv

    2016-09-01

    Reconstructing regulatory networks from expression and interaction data is a major goal of systems biology. While much work has focused on trying to experimentally and computationally determine the set of transcription-factors (TFs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) that regulate genes in these networks, relatively little work has focused on inferring the regulation of miRNAs by TFs. Such regulation can play an important role in several biological processes including development and disease. The main challenge for predicting such interactions is the very small positive training set currently available. Another challenge is the fact that a large fraction of miRNAs are encoded within genes making it hard to determine the specific way in which they are regulated. To enable genome wide predictions of TF-miRNA interactions, we extended semi-supervised machine-learning approaches to integrate a large set of different types of data including sequence, expression, ChIP-seq and epigenetic data. As we show, the methods we develop achieve good performance on both a labeled test set, and when analyzing general co-expression networks. We next analyze mRNA and miRNA cancer expression data, demonstrating the advantage of using the predicted set of interactions for identifying more coherent and relevant modules, genes, and miRNAs. The complete set of predictions is available on the supporting website and can be used by any method that combines miRNAs, genes, and TFs. Code and full set of predictions are available from the supporting website: http://cs.cmu.edu/~mruffalo/tf-mirna/ zivbj@cs.cmu.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. An siRNA-based functional genomics screen for the identification of regulators of ciliogenesis and ciliopathy genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wheway, Gabrielle; Schmidts, Miriam; Mans, Dorus A; Szymanska, Katarzyna; Nguyen, Thanh-Minh T; Racher, Hilary; Phelps, Ian G; Toedt, Grischa; Kennedy, Julie; Wunderlich, Kirsten A; Sorusch, Nasrin; Abdelhamed, Zakia A; Natarajan, Subaashini; Herridge, Warren; van Reeuwijk, Jeroen; Horn, Nicola; Boldt, Karsten; Parry, David A; Letteboer, Stef J F; Roosing, Susanne; Adams, Matthew; Bell, Sandra M; Bond, Jacquelyn; Higgins, Julie; Morrison, Ewan E; Tomlinson, Darren C; Slaats, Gisela G; van Dam, Teunis J P; Huang, Lijia; Kessler, Kristin; Giessl, Andreas; Logan, Clare V; Boyle, Evan A; Shendure, Jay; Anazi, Shamsa; Aldahmesh, Mohammed; Al Hazzaa, Selwa; Hegele, Robert A; Ober, Carole; Frosk, Patrick; Mhanni, Aizeddin A; Chodirker, Bernard N; Chudley, Albert E; Lamont, Ryan; Bernier, Francois P; Beaulieu, Chandree L; Gordon, Paul; Pon, Richard T; Donahue, Clem; Barkovich, A James; Wolf, Louis; Toomes, Carmel; Thiel, Christian T; Boycott, Kym M; McKibbin, Martin; Inglehearn, Chris F; Stewart, Fiona; Omran, Heymut; Huynen, Martijn A; Sergouniotis, Panagiotis I; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; Parboosingh, Jillian S; Innes, A Micheil; Willoughby, Colin E; Giles, Rachel H; Webster, Andrew R; Ueffing, Marius; Blacque, Oliver; Gleeson, Joseph G; Wolfrum, Uwe; Beales, Philip L; Gibson, Toby; Doherty, Dan; Mitchison, Hannah M; Roepman, Ronald; Johnson, Colin A

    Defects in primary cilium biogenesis underlie the ciliopathies, a growing group of genetic disorders. We describe a whole-genome siRNA-based reverse genetics screen for defects in biogenesis and/or maintenance of the primary cilium, obtaining a global resource. We identify 112 candidate ciliogenesis

  3. Broad genomic and transcriptional analysis reveals a highly derived genome in dinoflagellate mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keeling Patrick J

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dinoflagellates comprise an ecologically significant and diverse eukaryotic phylum that is sister to the phylum containing apicomplexan endoparasites. The mitochondrial genome of apicomplexans is uniquely reduced in gene content and size, encoding only three proteins and two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs within a highly compacted 6 kb DNA. Dinoflagellate mitochondrial genomes have been comparatively poorly studied: limited available data suggest some similarities with apicomplexan mitochondrial genomes but an even more radical type of genomic organization. Here, we investigate structure, content and expression of dinoflagellate mitochondrial genomes. Results From two dinoflagellates, Crypthecodinium cohnii and Karlodinium micrum, we generated over 42 kb of mitochondrial genomic data that indicate a reduced gene content paralleling that of mitochondrial genomes in apicomplexans, i.e., only three protein-encoding genes and at least eight conserved components of the highly fragmented large and small subunit rRNAs. Unlike in apicomplexans, dinoflagellate mitochondrial genes occur in multiple copies, often as gene fragments, and in numerous genomic contexts. Analysis of cDNAs suggests several novel aspects of dinoflagellate mitochondrial gene expression. Polycistronic transcripts were found, standard start codons are absent, and oligoadenylation occurs upstream of stop codons, resulting in the absence of termination codons. Transcripts of at least one gene, cox3, are apparently trans-spliced to generate full-length mRNAs. RNA substitutional editing, a process previously identified for mRNAs in dinoflagellate mitochondria, is also implicated in rRNA expression. Conclusion The dinoflagellate mitochondrial genome shares the same gene complement and fragmentation of rRNA genes with its apicomplexan counterpart. However, it also exhibits several unique characteristics. Most notable are the expansion of gene copy numbers and their arrangements

  4. Complete mitochondrial genomes and nuclear ribosomal RNA operons of two species of Diplostomum (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda): a molecular resource for taxonomy and molecular epidemiology of important fish pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabec, Jan; Kostadinova, Aneta; Scholz, Tomáš; Littlewood, D Timothy J

    2015-06-19

    The genus Diplostomum (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda: Diplostomidae) is a diverse group of freshwater parasites with complex life-cycles and global distribution. The larval stages are important pathogens causing eye fluke disease implicated in substantial impacts on natural fish populations and losses in aquaculture. However, the problematic species delimitation and difficulties in the identification of larval stages hamper the assessment of the distributional and host ranges of Diplostomum spp. and their transmission ecology. Total genomic DNA was isolated from adult worms and shotgun sequenced using Illumina MiSeq technology. Mitochondrial (mt) genomes and nuclear ribosomal RNA (rRNA) operons were assembled using established bioinformatic tools and fully annotated. Mt protein-coding genes and nuclear rRNA genes were subjected to phylogenetic analysis by maximum likelihood and the resulting topologies compared. We characterised novel complete mt genomes and nuclear rRNA operons of two closely related species, Diplostomum spathaceum and D. pseudospathaceum. Comparative mt genome assessment revealed that the cox1 gene and its 'barcode' region used for molecular identification are the most conserved regions; instead, nad4 and nad5 genes were identified as most promising molecular diagnostic markers. Using the novel data, we provide the first genome wide estimation of the phylogenetic relationships of the order Diplostomida, one of the two fundamental lineages of the Digenea. Analyses of the mitogenomic data invariably recovered the Diplostomidae as a sister lineage of the order Plagiorchiida rather than as a basal lineage of the Diplostomida as inferred in rDNA phylogenies; this was concordant with the mt gene order of Diplostomum spp. exhibiting closer match to the conserved gene order of the Plagiorchiida. Complete sequences of the mt genome and rRNA operon of two species of Diplostomum provide a valuable resource for novel genetic markers for species delineation and

  5. RNA-Seq of Bacillus licheniformis: active regulatory RNA features expressed within a productive fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The production of enzymes by an industrial strain requires a complex adaption of the bacterial metabolism to the conditions within the fermenter. Regulatory events within the process result in a dynamic change of the transcriptional activity of the genome. This complex network of genes is orchestrated by proteins as well as regulatory RNA elements. Here we present an RNA-Seq based study considering selected phases of an industry-oriented fermentation of Bacillus licheniformis. Results A detailed analysis of 20 strand-specific RNA-Seq datasets revealed a multitude of transcriptionally active genomic regions. 3314 RNA features encoded by such active loci have been identified and sorted into ten functional classes. The identified sequences include the expected RNA features like housekeeping sRNAs, metabolic riboswitches and RNA switches well known from studies on Bacillus subtilis as well as a multitude of completely new candidates for regulatory RNAs. An unexpectedly high number of 855 RNA features are encoded antisense to annotated protein and RNA genes, in addition to 461 independently transcribed small RNAs. These antisense transcripts contain molecules with a remarkable size range variation from 38 to 6348 base pairs in length. The genome of the type strain B. licheniformis DSM13 was completely reannotated using data obtained from RNA-Seq analyses and from public databases. Conclusion The hereby generated data-sets represent a solid amount of knowledge on the dynamic transcriptional activities during the investigated fermentation stages. The identified regulatory elements enable research on the understanding and the optimization of crucial metabolic activities during a productive fermentation of Bacillus licheniformis strains. PMID:24079885

  6. RNA-Seq of Bacillus licheniformis: active regulatory RNA features expressed within a productive fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Sandra; Dietrich, Sascha; Hertel, Robert; Bongaerts, Johannes; Evers, Stefan; Volland, Sonja; Daniel, Rolf; Liesegang, Heiko

    2013-10-01

    The production of enzymes by an industrial strain requires a complex adaption of the bacterial metabolism to the conditions within the fermenter. Regulatory events within the process result in a dynamic change of the transcriptional activity of the genome. This complex network of genes is orchestrated by proteins as well as regulatory RNA elements. Here we present an RNA-Seq based study considering selected phases of an industry-oriented fermentation of Bacillus licheniformis. A detailed analysis of 20 strand-specific RNA-Seq datasets revealed a multitude of transcriptionally active genomic regions. 3314 RNA features encoded by such active loci have been identified and sorted into ten functional classes. The identified sequences include the expected RNA features like housekeeping sRNAs, metabolic riboswitches and RNA switches well known from studies on Bacillus subtilis as well as a multitude of completely new candidates for regulatory RNAs. An unexpectedly high number of 855 RNA features are encoded antisense to annotated protein and RNA genes, in addition to 461 independently transcribed small RNAs. These antisense transcripts contain molecules with a remarkable size range variation from 38 to 6348 base pairs in length. The genome of the type strain B. licheniformis DSM13 was completely reannotated using data obtained from RNA-Seq analyses and from public databases. The hereby generated data-sets represent a solid amount of knowledge on the dynamic transcriptional activities during the investigated fermentation stages. The identified regulatory elements enable research on the understanding and the optimization of crucial metabolic activities during a productive fermentation of Bacillus licheniformis strains.

  7. Mechanism of Genome Interrogation: How CRISPR RNA-Guided Cas9 Proteins Locate Specific Targets on DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvets, Alexey A; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B

    2017-10-03

    The ability to precisely edit and modify a genome opens endless opportunities to investigate fundamental properties of living systems as well as to advance various medical techniques and bioengineering applications. This possibility is now close to reality due to a recent discovery of the adaptive bacterial immune system, which is based on clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated proteins (Cas) that utilize RNA to find and cut the double-stranded DNA molecules at specific locations. Here we develop a quantitative theoretical approach to analyze the mechanism of target search on DNA by CRISPR RNA-guided Cas9 proteins, which is followed by a selective cleavage of nucleic acids. It is based on a discrete-state stochastic model that takes into account the most relevant physical-chemical processes in the system. Using a method of first-passage processes, a full dynamic description of the target search is presented. It is found that the location of specific sites on DNA by CRISPR Cas9 proteins is governed by binding first to protospacer adjacent motif sequences on DNA, which is followed by reversible transitions into DNA interrogation states. In addition, the search dynamics is strongly influenced by the off-target cutting. Our theoretical calculations allow us to explain the experimental observations and to give experimentally testable predictions. Thus, the presented theoretical model clarifies some molecular aspects of the genome interrogation by CRISPR RNA-guided Cas9 proteins. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Transcriptional Slippage and RNA Editing Increase the Diversity of Transcripts in Chloroplasts: Insight from Deep Sequencing of Vigna radiata Genome and Transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ping Lin

    Full Text Available We performed deep sequencing of the nuclear and organellar genomes of three mungbean genotypes: Vigna radiata ssp. sublobata TC1966, V. radiata var. radiata NM92 and the recombinant inbred line RIL59 derived from a cross between TC1966 and NM92. Moreover, we performed deep sequencing of the RIL59 transcriptome to investigate transcript variability. The mungbean chloroplast genome has a quadripartite structure including a pair of inverted repeats separated by two single copy regions. A total of 213 simple sequence repeats were identified in the chloroplast genomes of NM92 and RIL59; 78 single nucleotide variants and nine indels were discovered in comparing the chloroplast genomes of TC1966 and NM92. Analysis of the mungbean chloroplast transcriptome revealed mRNAs that were affected by transcriptional slippage and RNA editing. Transcriptional slippage frequency was positively correlated with the length of simple sequence repeats of the mungbean chloroplast genome (R2=0.9911. In total, 41 C-to-U editing sites were found in 23 chloroplast genes and in one intergenic spacer. No editing site that swapped U to C was found. A combination of bioinformatics and experimental methods revealed that the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase-transcribed genes psbF and ndhA are affected by transcriptional slippage in mungbean and in main lineages of land plants, including three dicots (Glycine max, Brassica rapa, and Nicotiana tabacum, two monocots (Oryza sativa and Zea mays, two gymnosperms (Pinus taeda and Ginkgo biloba and one moss (Physcomitrella patens. Transcript analysis of the rps2 gene showed that transcriptional slippage could affect transcripts at single sequence repeat regions with poly-A runs. It showed that transcriptional slippage together with incomplete RNA editing may cause sequence diversity of transcripts in chloroplasts of land plants.

  9. The HIV-1 leader RNA conformational switch regulates RNA dimerization but does not regulate mRNA translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, Truus E. M.; Ooms, Marcel; Haasnoot, P. C. Joost; Berkhout, Ben

    2005-01-01

    The untranslated leader RNA is the most conserved part of the human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) genome. It contains many regulatory motifs that mediate a variety of steps in the viral life cycle. Previous work showed that the full-length leader RNA can adopt two alternative structures: a

  10. A physical interaction between viral replicase and capsid protein is required for genome-packaging specificity in an RNA virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jang-Kyun; Kwon, Sun-Jung; Rao, A L N

    2012-06-01

    Genome packaging is functionally coupled to replication in RNA viruses pathogenic to humans (Poliovirus), insects (Flock house virus [FHV]), and plants (Brome mosaic virus [BMV]). However, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. We have observed previously that in FHV and BMV, unlike ectopically expressed capsid protein (CP), packaging specificity results from RNA encapsidation by CP that has been translated from mRNA produced from replicating genomic RNA. Consequently, we hypothesize that a physical interaction with replicase increases the CP specificity for packaging viral RNAs. We tested this hypothesis by evaluating the molecular interaction between replicase protein and CP using a FHV-Nicotiana benthamiana system. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation in conjunction with fluorescent cellular protein markers and coimmunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that FHV replicase (protein A) and CP physically interact at the mitochondrial site of replication and that this interaction requires the N-proximal region from either amino acids 1 to 31 or amino acids 32 to 50 of the CP. In contrast to the mitochondrial localization of CP derived from FHV replication, ectopic expression displayed a characteristic punctate pattern on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This pattern was altered to relocalize the CP throughout the cytoplasm when the C-proximal hydrophobic domain was deleted. Analysis of the packaging phenotypes of the CP mutants defective either in protein A-CP interactions or ER localization suggested that synchronization between protein A-CP interaction and its subcellular localization is imperative to confer packaging specificity.

  11. Sentinel site-enhanced near-real time surveillance documenting West Nile virus circulation in two Culex mosquito species indicating different transmission characteristics, Djibouti City, Djibouti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulde, Michael K; Spiesberger, Michael; Abbas, Babiker

    2012-08-01

    The Horn of Africa represents a region formerly known to be highly susceptible to mosquito-borne infectious diseases. In order to investigate whether autochthonous WNV transmission occurs in the Djibouti City area, in how far, and which of, the endemic Culex mosquito species are involved in WNV circulation activity,and whether sentinel site-enhanced near-real time surveillance (SSE-NRTS) may increase WNV detection sensitivity, mosquito vector monitoring was conducted from January 2010 to June 2012. Six monitoring locations, including two identified sentinel sites, considered most probable for potential anthroponotic and zoonotic virus circulation activity, have been continuously employed. Among the 20431 mosquitoes collected, 19069 (93.4%) were Cx. quinquefasciatus, and 1345 (6.6%) Cx. pipiens ssp. torridus. WNV lineage 2 circulation activity was detected between December 20th, 2010 and January 7th, 2011. Overall, 19 WNV RNA-positive mosquito pools were detected. Generally, urban environment-specific WNV-RNA circulation took place in Cx. pipiens ssp. torridus, whereas periurban and rural area-linked circulation was detected only in Cx. quinquefasciatus. Serological investigation data from 10 volunteers employed at the dislocated zoonotic WNV transmission sentinel site suggest that six persons (60%) had an acute, or recent, WNV infection. Results show that WNV should be considered endemic for Djibouti and sentinel site-enhanced near-real time surveillance is an elegant and highly effective epidemiological tool. In Djibouti, the endemicity level, public health impact and transmission modes of vector-borne diseases in concordance with locally optimized monitoring and control regimen deserve further investigation.

  12. RNA Encapsidation and Packaging in the Phleboviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Hornak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Bunyaviridae represents the largest family of segmented RNA viruses, which infect a staggering diversity of plants, animals, and insects. Within the family Bunyaviridae, the Phlebovirus genus includes several important human and animal pathogens, including Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV, Uukuniemi virus (UUKV, and the sandfly fever viruses. The phleboviruses have small tripartite RNA genomes that encode a repertoire of 5–7 proteins. These few proteins accomplish the daunting task of recognizing and specifically packaging a tri-segment complement of viral genomic RNA in the midst of an abundance of host components. The critical nucleation events that eventually lead to virion production begin early on in the host cytoplasm as the first strands of nascent viral RNA (vRNA are synthesized. The interaction between the vRNA and the viral nucleocapsid (N protein effectively protects and masks the RNA from the host, and also forms the ribonucleoprotein (RNP architecture that mediates downstream interactions and drives virion formation. Although the mechanism by which all three genomic counterparts are selectively co-packaged is not completely understood, we are beginning to understand the hierarchy of interactions that begins with N-RNA packaging and culminates in RNP packaging into new virus particles. In this review we focus on recent progress that highlights the molecular basis of RNA genome packaging in the phleboviruses.

  13. Viral uncoating is directional: exit of the genomic RNA in a common cold virus starts with the poly-(A tail at the 3'-end.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shushan Harutyunyan

    Full Text Available Upon infection, many RNA viruses reorganize their capsid for release of the genome into the host cell cytosol for replication. Often, this process is triggered by receptor binding and/or by the acidic environment in endosomes. In the genus Enterovirus, which includes more than 150 human rhinovirus (HRV serotypes causing the common cold, there is persuasive evidence that the viral RNA exits single-stranded through channels formed in the protein shell. We have determined the time-dependent emergence of the RNA ends from HRV2 on incubation of virions at 56°C using hybridization with specific oligonucleotides and detection by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. We report that psoralen UV crosslinking prevents complete RNA release, allowing for identification of the sequences remaining inside the capsid. We also present the structure of uncoating intermediates in which parts of the RNA are condensed and take the form of a rod that is directed roughly towards a two-fold icosahedral axis, the presumed RNA exit point. Taken together, in contrast to schemes frequently depicted in textbooks and reviews, our findings demonstrate that exit of the RNA starts from the 3'-end. This suggests that packaging also occurs in an ordered manner resulting in the 3'-poly-(A tail becoming located close to a position of pore formation during conversion of the virion into a subviral particle. This directional genome release may be common to many icosahedral non-enveloped single-stranded RNA viruses.

  14. Repertoire of bovine miRNA and miRNA-like small regulatory RNAs expressed upon viral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny A Glazov

    Full Text Available MicroRNA (miRNA and other types of small regulatory RNAs play a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. Several distinct classes of small regulatory RNAs have been discovered in recent years. To extend the repertoire of small RNAs characterized in mammals and to examine relationship between host miRNA expression and viral infection we used Illumina's ultrahigh throughput sequencing approach. We sequenced three small RNA libraries prepared from cell line derived from the adult bovine kidney under normal conditions and upon infection of the cell line with Bovine herpesvirus 1. We used a bioinformatics approach to distinguish authentic mature miRNA sequences from other classes of small RNAs and short RNA fragments represented in the sequencing data. Using this approach we detected 219 out of 356 known bovine miRNAs and 115 respective miRNA* sequences. In addition we identified five new bovine orthologs of known mammalian miRNAs and discovered 268 new cow miRNAs many of which are not identifiable in other mammalian genomes and thus might be specific to the ruminant lineage. In addition we found seven new bovine mirtron candidates. We also discovered 10 small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA loci that give rise to small RNA with possible miRNA-like function. Results presented in this study extend our knowledge of the biology and evolution of small regulatory RNAs in mammals and illuminate mechanisms of small RNA biogenesis and function. New miRNA sequences and the original sequencing data have been submitted to miRNA repository (miRBase and NCBI GEO archive respectively. We envisage that these resources will facilitate functional annotation of the bovine genome and promote further functional and comparative genomics studies of small regulatory RNA in mammals.

  15. The unusual nucleotide content of the HIV RNA genome results in a biased amino acid composition of HIV proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, B.; van Hemert, F. J.

    1994-01-01

    Extremely high frequencies of the A nucleotide are found in the RNA genomes of the lentivirus group of retroviruses. It is presently unknown what molecular force is responsible for this A-pressure. In this manuscript, we demonstrate a correlation between this 'A-pressure' and the amino acid-usage of

  16. The cis-acting replication signal at the 3' end of Flock House virus RNA2 is RNA3-dependent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albarino, Cesar G.; Eckerle, Lance D.; Ball, L. Andrew

    2003-01-01

    The nodavirus Flock House virus has a bipartite positive-sense RNA genome consisting of RNAs 1 and 2, which encode the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and capsid protein precursor, respectively. The RdRp catalyzes replication of both genome segments and produces from RNA1 a subgenomic RNA (RNA3) that transactivates RNA2 replication. Here, we replaced internal sequences of RNAs 1 and 2 with a common heterologous core and were thereby able to test the RNA termini for compatibility in supporting the replication of chimeric RNAs. The results showed that the 3' 50 nt of RNA2 contained an RNA3-dependent cis-acting replication signal. Since covalent RNA dimers can direct the synthesis of monomeric replication products, the RdRp can evidently respond to cis-acting replication signals located internally. Accordingly, RNA templates containing the 3' termini of both RNAs 1 and 2 in tandem generated different replication products depending on the presence or absence of RNA3

  17. The agents of natural genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzany, Guenther

    2011-06-01

    The DNA serves as a stable information storage medium and every protein which is needed by the cell is produced from this blueprint via an RNA intermediate code. More recently it was found that an abundance of various RNA elements cooperate in a variety of steps and substeps as regulatory and catalytic units with multiple competencies to act on RNA transcripts. Natural genome editing on one side is the competent agent-driven generation and integration of meaningful DNA nucleotide sequences into pre-existing genomic content arrangements, and the ability to (re-)combine and (re-)regulate them according to context-dependent (i.e. adaptational) purposes of the host organism. Natural genome editing on the other side designates the integration of all RNA activities acting on RNA transcripts without altering DNA-encoded genes. If we take the genetic code seriously as a natural code, there must be agents that are competent to act on this code because no natural code codes itself as no natural language speaks itself. As code editing agents, viral and subviral agents have been suggested because there are several indicators that demonstrate viruses competent in both RNA and DNA natural genome editing.

  18. Isolation of Microarray-Grade Total RNA, MicroRNA, and DNA from a Single PAXgene Blood RNA Tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruhøffer, Mogens; Andersen, Lars Dyrskjøt; Voss, Thorsten

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a procedure for isolation of microRNA and genomic DNA in addition to total RNA from whole blood stabilized in PAXgene Blood RNA tubes. The procedure is based on automatic extraction on a BioRobot MDx and includes isolation of DNA from a fraction of the stabilized blood...... and recovery of small RNA species that are otherwise lost. The procedure presented here is suitable for large-scale experiments and is amenable to further automation. Procured total RNA and DNA was tested using Affymetrix Expression and single-nucleotide polymorphism GeneChips, respectively, and isolated micro......RNA was tested using spotted locked nucleic acid-based microarrays. We conclude that the yield and quality of total RNA, microRNA, and DNA from a single PAXgene blood RNA tube is sufficient for downstream microarray analysis....

  19. ENCODE whole-genome data in the UCSC genome browser (2011 update).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raney, Brian J; Cline, Melissa S; Rosenbloom, Kate R; Dreszer, Timothy R; Learned, Katrina; Barber, Galt P; Meyer, Laurence R; Sloan, Cricket A; Malladi, Venkat S; Roskin, Krishna M; Suh, Bernard B; Hinrichs, Angie S; Clawson, Hiram; Zweig, Ann S; Kirkup, Vanessa; Fujita, Pauline A; Rhead, Brooke; Smith, Kayla E; Pohl, Andy; Kuhn, Robert M; Karolchik, Donna; Haussler, David; Kent, W James

    2011-01-01

    The ENCODE project is an international consortium with a goal of cataloguing all the functional elements in the human genome. The ENCODE Data Coordination Center (DCC) at the University of California, Santa Cruz serves as the central repository for ENCODE data. In this role, the DCC offers a collection of high-throughput, genome-wide data generated with technologies such as ChIP-Seq, RNA-Seq, DNA digestion and others. This data helps illuminate transcription factor-binding sites, histone marks, chromatin accessibility, DNA methylation, RNA expression, RNA binding and other cell-state indicators. It includes sequences with quality scores, alignments, signals calculated from the alignments, and in most cases, element or peak calls calculated from the signal data. Each data set is available for visualization and download via the UCSC Genome Browser (http://genome.ucsc.edu/). ENCODE data can also be retrieved using a metadata system that captures the experimental parameters of each assay. The ENCODE web portal at UCSC (http://encodeproject.org/) provides information about the ENCODE data and links for access.

  20. Targeted CRISPR disruption reveals a role for RNase MRP RNA in human preribosomal RNA processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Katherine C; Cech, Thomas R

    2017-01-01

    MRP RNA is an abundant, essential noncoding RNA whose functions have been proposed in yeast but are incompletely understood in humans. Mutations in the genomic locus for MRP RNA cause pleiotropic human diseases, including cartilage hair hypoplasia (CHH). Here we applied CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing to disrupt the endogenous human MRP RNA locus, thereby attaining what has eluded RNAi and RNase H experiments: elimination of MRP RNA in the majority of cells. The resulting accumulation of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) precursor-analyzed by RNA fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), Northern blots, and RNA sequencing-implicates MRP RNA in pre-rRNA processing. Amelioration of pre-rRNA imbalance is achieved through rescue of MRP RNA levels by ectopic expression. Furthermore, affinity-purified MRP ribonucleoprotein (RNP) from HeLa cells cleaves the human pre-rRNA in vitro at at least one site used in cells, while RNP isolated from cells with CRISPR-edited MRP loci loses this activity, and ectopic MRP RNA expression restores cleavage activity. Thus, a role for RNase MRP in human pre-rRNA processing is established. As demonstrated here, targeted CRISPR disruption is a valuable tool for functional studies of essential noncoding RNAs that are resistant to RNAi and RNase H-based degradation. © 2017 Goldfarb and Cech; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of a wild Siberian tiger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yujiao; Lu, Taofeng; Sun, Zhaohui; Guan, Weijun; Liu, Zhensheng; Teng, Liwei; Wang, Shuo; Ma, Yuehui

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) was sequenced, using muscle tissue obtained from a male wild tiger. The total length of the mitochondrial genome is 16,996 bp. The genome structure of this tiger is in accordance with other Siberian tigers and it contains 12S rRNA gene, 16S rRNA gene, 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, and 1 control region.

  2. The mitochondrial genome of the stingless bee Melipona bicolor (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini: sequence, gene organization and a unique tRNA translocation event conserved across the tribe Meliponini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Silvestre

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available At present a complete mtDNA sequence has been reported for only two hymenopterans, the Old World honey bee, Apis mellifera and the sawfly Perga condei. Among the bee group, the tribe Meliponini (stingless bees has some distinction due to its Pantropical distribution, great number of species and large importance as main pollinators in several ecosystems, including the Brazilian rain forest. However few molecular studies have been conducted on this group of bees and few sequence data from mitochondrial genomes have been described. In this project, we PCR amplified and sequenced 78% of the mitochondrial genome of the stingless bee Melipona bicolor (Apidae, Meliponini. The sequenced region contains all of the 13 mitochondrial protein-coding genes, 18 of 22 tRNA genes, and both rRNA genes (one of them was partially sequenced. We also report the genome organization (gene content and order, gene translation, genetic code, and other molecular features, such as base frequencies, codon usage, gene initiation and termination. We compare these characteristics of M. bicolor to those of the mitochondrial genome of A. mellifera and other insects. A highly biased A+T content is a typical characteristic of the A. mellifera mitochondrial genome and it was even more extreme in that of M. bicolor. Length and compositional differences between M. bicolor and A. mellifera genes were detected and the gene order was compared. Eleven tRNA gene translocations were observed between these two species. This latter finding was surprising, considering the taxonomic proximity of these two bee tribes. The tRNA Lys gene translocation was investigated within Meliponini and showed high conservation across the Pantropical range of the tribe.

  3. Structural dynamics of retroviral genome and the packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yasuyuki; Miyake, Ariko; Nomaguchi, Masako; Adachi, Akio

    2011-01-01

    Retroviruses can cause diseases such as AIDS, leukemia, and tumors, but are also used as vectors for human gene therapy. All retroviruses, except foamy viruses, package two copies of unspliced genomic RNA into their progeny viruses. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of retroviral genome packaging will aid the design of new anti-retroviral drugs targeting the packaging process and improve the efficacy of retroviral vectors. Retroviral genomes have to be specifically recognized by the cognate nucleocapsid domain of the Gag polyprotein from among an excess of cellular and spliced viral mRNA. Extensive virological and structural studies have revealed how retroviral genomic RNA is selectively packaged into the viral particles. The genomic area responsible for the packaging is generally located in the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR), and contains dimerization site(s). Recent studies have shown that retroviral genome packaging is modulated by structural changes of RNA at the 5' UTR accompanied by the dimerization. In this review, we focus on three representative retroviruses, Moloney murine leukemia virus, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and 2, and describe the molecular mechanism of retroviral genome packaging.

  4. dPORE-miRNA: Polymorphic regulation of microRNA genes

    KAUST Repository

    Schmeier, Sebastian; Schaefer, Ulf; MacPherson, Cameron R.; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNA molecules that act as post-transcriptional regulators and affect the regulation of protein-coding genes. Mostly transcribed by PolII, miRNA genes are regulated at the transcriptional level similarly to protein-coding genes. In this study we focus on human miRNAs. These miRNAs are involved in a variety of pathways and can affect many diseases. Our interest is on possible deregulation of the transcription initiation of the miRNA encoding genes, which is facilitated by variations in the genomic sequence of transcriptional control regions (promoters). Methodology: Our aim is to provide an online resource to facilitate the investigation of the potential effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on miRNA gene regulation. We analyzed SNPs overlapped with predicted transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) in promoters of miRNA genes. We also accounted for the creation of novel TFBSs due to polymorphisms not present in the reference genome. The resulting changes in the original TFBSs and potential creation of new TFBSs were incorporated into the Dragon Database of Polymorphic Regulation of miRNA genes (dPORE-miRNA). Conclusions: The dPORE-miRNA database enables researchers to explore potential effects of SNPs on the regulation of miRNAs. dPORE-miRNA can be interrogated with regards to: a/miRNAs (their targets, or involvement in diseases, or biological pathways), b/SNPs, or c/transcription factors. dPORE-miRNA can be accessed at http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/dpore and http://apps.sanbi.ac.za/dpore/. Its use is free for academic and non-profit users. © 2011 Schmeier et al.

  5. dPORE-miRNA: Polymorphic regulation of microRNA genes

    KAUST Repository

    Schmeier, Sebastian

    2011-02-04

    Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNA molecules that act as post-transcriptional regulators and affect the regulation of protein-coding genes. Mostly transcribed by PolII, miRNA genes are regulated at the transcriptional level similarly to protein-coding genes. In this study we focus on human miRNAs. These miRNAs are involved in a variety of pathways and can affect many diseases. Our interest is on possible deregulation of the transcription initiation of the miRNA encoding genes, which is facilitated by variations in the genomic sequence of transcriptional control regions (promoters). Methodology: Our aim is to provide an online resource to facilitate the investigation of the potential effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on miRNA gene regulation. We analyzed SNPs overlapped with predicted transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) in promoters of miRNA genes. We also accounted for the creation of novel TFBSs due to polymorphisms not present in the reference genome. The resulting changes in the original TFBSs and potential creation of new TFBSs were incorporated into the Dragon Database of Polymorphic Regulation of miRNA genes (dPORE-miRNA). Conclusions: The dPORE-miRNA database enables researchers to explore potential effects of SNPs on the regulation of miRNAs. dPORE-miRNA can be interrogated with regards to: a/miRNAs (their targets, or involvement in diseases, or biological pathways), b/SNPs, or c/transcription factors. dPORE-miRNA can be accessed at http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/dpore and http://apps.sanbi.ac.za/dpore/. Its use is free for academic and non-profit users. © 2011 Schmeier et al.

  6. In Silico Meets In Vivo: Towards Computational CRISPR-Based sgRNA Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuai, Guo-Hui; Wang, Qi-Long; Liu, Qi

    2017-01-01

    CRISPR-based genome editing has been widely implemented in various cell types. In silico single guide RNA (sgRNA) design is a key step for successful gene editing using the CRISPR system, and continuing efforts are aimed at refining in silico sgRNA design with high on-target efficacy and reduced off-target effects. Many sgRNA design tools are available, but careful assessments of their application scenarios and performance benchmarks across different types of genome-editing data are needed. Efficient in silico models can be built that integrate current heterogeneous genome-editing data to derive unbiased sgRNA design rules and identify key features for improving sgRNA design. Comprehensive evaluation of on-target and off-target effects of sgRNA will allow more precise genome editing and gene therapies using the CRISPR system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Genome-wide identification of conserved microRNA and their response to drought stress in Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fantao; Luo, Xiangdong; Zhou, Yi; Xie, Jiankun

    2016-04-01

    To identify drought stress-responsive conserved microRNA (miRNA) from Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff., DXWR) on a genome-wide scale, high-throughput sequencing technology was used to sequence libraries of DXWR samples, treated with and without drought stress. 505 conserved miRNAs corresponding to 215 families were identified. 17 were significantly down-regulated and 16 were up-regulated under drought stress. Stem-loop qRT-PCR revealed the same expression patterns as high-throughput sequencing, suggesting the accuracy of the sequencing result was high. Potential target genes of the drought-responsive miRNA were predicted to be involved in diverse biological processes. Furthermore, 16 miRNA families were first identified to be involved in drought stress response from plants. These results present a comprehensive view of the conserved miRNA and their expression patterns under drought stress for DXWR, which will provide valuable information and sequence resources for future basis studies.

  8. Cpf1-Database: web-based genome-wide guide RNA library design for gene knockout screens using CRISPR-Cpf1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeongbin; Bae, Sangsu

    2018-03-15

    Following the type II CRISPR-Cas9 system, type V CRISPR-Cpf1 endonucleases have been found to be applicable for genome editing in various organisms in vivo. However, there are as yet no web-based tools capable of optimally selecting guide RNAs (gRNAs) among all possible genome-wide target sites. Here, we present Cpf1-Database, a genome-wide gRNA library design tool for LbCpf1 and AsCpf1, which have DNA recognition sequences of 5'-TTTN-3' at the 5' ends of target sites. Cpf1-Database provides a sophisticated but simple way to design gRNAs for AsCpf1 nucleases on the genome scale. One can easily access the data using a straightforward web interface, and using the powerful collections feature one can easily design gRNAs for thousands of genes in short time. Free access at http://www.rgenome.net/cpf1-database/. sangsubae@hanyang.ac.kr.

  9. Improved annotation of 3' untranslated regions and complex loci by combination of strand-specific direct RNA sequencing, RNA-Seq and ESTs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Schurch

    Full Text Available The reference annotations made for a genome sequence provide the framework for all subsequent analyses of the genome. Correct and complete annotation in addition to the underlying genomic sequence is particularly important when interpreting the results of RNA-seq experiments where short sequence reads are mapped against the genome and assigned to genes according to the annotation. Inconsistencies in annotations between the reference and the experimental system can lead to incorrect interpretation of the effect on RNA expression of an experimental treatment or mutation in the system under study. Until recently, the genome-wide annotation of 3' untranslated regions received less attention than coding regions and the delineation of intron/exon boundaries. In this paper, data produced for samples in Human, Chicken and A. thaliana by the novel single-molecule, strand-specific, Direct RNA Sequencing technology from Helicos Biosciences which locates 3' polyadenylation sites to within +/- 2 nt, were combined with archival EST and RNA-Seq data. Nine examples are illustrated where this combination of data allowed: (1 gene and 3' UTR re-annotation (including extension of one 3' UTR by 5.9 kb; (2 disentangling of gene expression in complex regions; (3 clearer interpretation of small RNA expression and (4 identification of novel genes. While the specific examples displayed here may become obsolete as genome sequences and their annotations are refined, the principles laid out in this paper will be of general use both to those annotating genomes and those seeking to interpret existing publically available annotations in the context of their own experimental data.

  10. Initiation, elongation, and realignment during influenza virus mRNA synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, te Aartjan J.W.; Oymans, Judith

    2018-01-01

    The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of the influenza A virus replicates and transcribes the viral genome segments in the nucleus of the host cell. To transcribe these viral genome segments, the RdRp "snatches" capped RNA oligonucleotides from nascent host cell mRNAs and aligns these primers to

  11. Structural determinants and mechanism of HIV-1 genome packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kun; Heng, Xiao; Summers, Michael F

    2011-07-22

    Like all retroviruses, the human immunodeficiency virus selectively packages two copies of its unspliced RNA genome, both of which are utilized for strand-transfer-mediated recombination during reverse transcription-a process that enables rapid evolution under environmental and chemotherapeutic pressures. The viral RNA appears to be selected for packaging as a dimer, and there is evidence that dimerization and packaging are mechanistically coupled. Both processes are mediated by interactions between the nucleocapsid domains of a small number of assembling viral Gag polyproteins and RNA elements within the 5'-untranslated region of the genome. A number of secondary structures have been predicted for regions of the genome that are responsible for packaging, and high-resolution structures have been determined for a few small RNA fragments and protein-RNA complexes. However, major questions regarding the RNA structures (and potentially the structural changes) that are responsible for dimeric genome selection remain unanswered. Here, we review efforts that have been made to identify the molecular determinants and mechanism of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genome packaging. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A genome-wide analysis of the RNA-guided silencing pathway in coffee reveals insights into its regulatory mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Noronha Fernandes-Brum

    Full Text Available microRNAs (miRNAs are derived from self-complementary hairpin structures, while small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs are derived from double-stranded RNA (dsRNA or hairpin precursors. The core mechanism of sRNA production involves DICER-like (DCL in processing the smallRNAs (sRNAs and ARGONAUTE (AGO as effectors of silencing, and siRNA biogenesis also involves action of RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase (RDR, Pol IV and Pol V in biogenesis. Several other proteins interact with the core proteins to guide sRNA biogenesis, action, and turnover. We aimed to unravel the components and functions of the RNA-guided silencing pathway in a non-model plant species of worldwide economic relevance. The sRNA-guided silencing complex members have been identified in the Coffea canephora genome, and they have been characterized at the structural, functional, and evolutionary levels by computational analyses. Eleven AGO proteins, nine DCL proteins (which include a DCL1-like protein that was not previously annotated, and eight RDR proteins were identified. Another 48 proteins implicated in smallRNA (sRNA pathways were also identified. Furthermore, we identified 235 miRNA precursors and 317 mature miRNAs from 113 MIR families, and we characterized ccp-MIR156, ccp-MIR172, and ccp-MIR390. Target prediction and gene ontology analyses of 2239 putative targets showed that significant pathways in coffee are targeted by miRNAs. We provide evidence of the expansion of the loci related to sRNA pathways, insights into the activities of these proteins by domain and catalytic site analyses, and gene expression analysis. The number of MIR loci and their targeted pathways highlight the importance of miRNAs in coffee. We identified several roles of sRNAs in C. canephora, which offers substantial insight into better understanding the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of this major crop.

  13. Distinct binding interactions of HIV-1 Gag to Psi and non-Psi RNAs: implications for viral genomic RNA packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Joseph A; Jones, Christopher P; Parent, Leslie J; Rouzina, Ioulia; Musier-Forsyth, Karin

    2013-08-01

    Despite the vast excess of cellular RNAs, precisely two copies of viral genomic RNA (gRNA) are selectively packaged into new human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) particles via specific interactions between the HIV-1 Gag and the gRNA psi (ψ) packaging signal. Gag consists of the matrix (MA), capsid, nucleocapsid (NC), and p6 domains. Binding of the Gag NC domain to ψ is necessary for gRNA packaging, but the mechanism by which Gag selectively interacts with ψ is unclear. Here, we investigate the binding of NC and Gag variants to an RNA derived from ψ (Psi RNA), as well as to a non-ψ region (TARPolyA). Binding was measured as a function of salt to obtain the effective charge (Zeff) and nonelectrostatic (i.e., specific) component of binding, Kd(1M). Gag binds to Psi RNA with a dramatically reduced Kd(1M) and lower Zeff relative to TARPolyA. NC, GagΔMA, and a dimerization mutant of Gag bind TARPolyA with reduced Zeff relative to WT Gag. Mutations involving the NC zinc finger motifs of Gag or changes to the G-rich NC-binding regions of Psi RNA significantly reduce the nonelectrostatic component of binding, leading to an increase in Zeff. These results show that Gag interacts with gRNA using different binding modes; both the NC and MA domains are bound to RNA in the case of TARPolyA, whereas binding to Psi RNA involves only the NC domain. Taken together, these results suggest a novel mechanism for selective gRNA encapsidation.

  14. West Nile virus replication requires fatty acid synthesis but is independent on phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate lipids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Martín-Acebes

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a neurovirulent mosquito-borne flavivirus, which main natural hosts are birds but it also infects equines and humans, among other mammals. As in the case of other plus-stranded RNA viruses, WNV replication is associated to intracellular membrane rearrangements. Based on results obtained with a variety of viruses, different cellular processes have been shown to play important roles on these membrane rearrangements for efficient viral replication. As these processes are related to lipid metabolism, fatty acid synthesis, as well as generation of a specific lipid microenvironment enriched in phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P, has been associated to it in other viral models. In this study, intracellular membrane rearrangements following infection with a highly neurovirulent strain of WNV were addressed by means of electron and confocal microscopy. Infection of WNV, and specifically viral RNA replication, were dependent on fatty acid synthesis, as revealed by the inhibitory effect of cerulenin and C75, two pharmacological inhibitors of fatty acid synthase, a key enzyme of this process. However, WNV infection did not induce redistribution of PI4P lipids, and PI4P did not localize at viral replication complex. Even more, WNV multiplication was not inhibited by the use of the phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase inhibitor PIK93, while infection by the enterovirus Coxsackievirus B5 was reduced. Similar features were found when infection by other flavivirus, the Usutu virus (USUV, was analyzed. These features of WNV replication could help to design specific antiviral approaches against WNV and other related flaviviruses.

  15. West Nile Virus Infection in American Singer Canaries: An Experimental Model in a Highly Susceptible Avian Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K; Lund, Melissa; Shearn Bochsler, Valerie

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the susceptibility of American singer canaries ( Serinus canaria) to West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Adult canaries were inoculated with 10 5 , 10 2 , and 10 1 plaque forming units (PFU) of WNV. All birds became infected and mortality occurred by 5 days postinoculation. The load of viral RNA as determined by RT-qPCR was dose dependent, and was higher at all doses than the level of viral RNA detected in American crows ( Corvus brachyrhynchos) challenged with 10 5 PFU of WNV. In a subset of birds, viremia was detected by virus isolation; canaries inoculated with 10 1 PFU of WNV developed viremia exceeding 10 10 PFU/mL serum, a log higher than American crows inoculated with 10 5 PFU of virus. In canaries euthanized at 3 days postinoculation, WNV was isolated at >10 7 PFU of virus/100 mg of lung, liver, heart, spleen, and kidney tissues. Pallor of the liver and splenomegaly were the most common macroscopic observations and histologic lesions were most severe in liver, spleen, and kidney, particularly in canaries challenged with 10 2 and 10 1 PFU. Immunoreactivity to WNV was pronounced in the liver and spleen. IgG antibodies to WNV were detected in serum by enzyme immunoassay in 11 of 21 (52%) challenged canaries and, in 4 of 5 (20%) of these sera, neutralization antibodies were detected at a titer ≥ 1:20. American singer canaries provide a useful model as this bird species is highly susceptible to WNV infection.

  16. West Nile virus infection in American singer canaries: An experimental model in a highly susceptible avian species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.; Lund, Melissa; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the susceptibility of American singer canaries (Serinus canaria) to West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Adult canaries were inoculated with 105, 102, and 101plaque forming units (PFU) of WNV. All birds became infected and mortality occurred by 5 days postinoculation. The load of viral RNA as determined by RT-qPCR was dose dependent, and was higher at all doses than the level of viral RNA detected in American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) challenged with 105 PFU of WNV. In a subset of birds, viremia was detected by virus isolation; canaries inoculated with 101 PFU of WNV developed viremia exceeding 1010 PFU/mL serum, a log higher than American crows inoculated with 105 PFU of virus. In canaries euthanized at 3 days postinoculation, WNV was isolated at >107 PFU of virus/100 mg of lung, liver, heart, spleen, and kidney tissues. Pallor of the liver and splenomegaly were the most common macroscopic observations and histologic lesions were most severe in liver, spleen, and kidney, particularly in canaries challenged with 102 and 101 PFU. Immunoreactivity to WNV was pronounced in the liver and spleen. IgG antibodies to WNV were detected in serum by enzyme immunoassay in 11 of 21 (52%) challenged canaries and, in 4 of 5 (20%) of these sera, neutralization antibodies were detected at a titer ≥ 1:20. American singer canaries provide a useful model as this bird species is highly susceptible to WNV infection.

  17. Structured RNAs and synteny regions in the pig genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthon, Christian; Tafer, Hakim; Havgaard, Jakob H

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Annotating mammalian genomes for noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) is nontrivial since far from all ncRNAs are known and the computational models are resource demanding. Currently, the human genome holds the best mammalian ncRNA annotation, a result of numerous efforts by several groups. However......, a more direct strategy is desired for the increasing number of sequenced mammalian genomes of which some, such as the pig, are relevant as disease models and production animals. RESULTS: We present a comprehensive annotation of structured RNAs in the pig genome. Combining sequence and structure...... lncRNA loci, 11 conflicts of annotation, and 3,183 ncRNA genes. The ncRNA genes comprise 359 miRNAs, 8 ribozymes, 185 rRNAs, 638 snoRNAs, 1,030 snRNAs, 810 tRNAs and 153 ncRNA genes not belonging to the here fore mentioned classes. When running the pipeline on a local shuffled version of the genome...

  18. The Complete Chloroplast Genome of Catha edulis: A Comparative Analysis of Genome Features with Related Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuihua Gu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Qat (Catha edulis, Celastraceae is a woody evergreen species with great economic and cultural importance. It is cultivated for its stimulant alkaloids cathine and cathinone in East Africa and southwest Arabia. However, genome information, especially DNA sequence resources, for C. edulis are limited, hindering studies regarding interspecific and intraspecific relationships. Herein, the complete chloroplast (cp genome of Catha edulis is reported. This genome is 157,960 bp in length with 37% GC content and is structurally arranged into two 26,577 bp inverted repeats and two single-copy areas. The size of the small single-copy and the large single-copy regions were 18,491 bp and 86,315 bp, respectively. The C. edulis cp genome consists of 129 coding genes including 37 transfer RNA (tRNA genes, 8 ribosomal RNA (rRNA genes, and 84 protein coding genes. For those genes, 112 are single copy genes and 17 genes are duplicated in two inverted regions with seven tRNAs, four rRNAs, and six protein coding genes. The phylogenetic relationships resolved from the cp genome of qat and 32 other species confirms the monophyly of Celastraceae. The cp genomes of C. edulis, Euonymus japonicus and seven Celastraceae species lack the rps16 intron, which indicates an intron loss took place among an ancestor of this family. The cp genome of C. edulis provides a highly valuable genetic resource for further phylogenomic research, barcoding and cp transformation in Celastraceae.

  19. The Complete Chloroplast Genome of Catha edulis: A Comparative Analysis of Genome Features with Related Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tembrock, Luke R.; Zheng, Shaoyu; Wu, Zhiqiang

    2018-01-01

    Qat (Catha edulis, Celastraceae) is a woody evergreen species with great economic and cultural importance. It is cultivated for its stimulant alkaloids cathine and cathinone in East Africa and southwest Arabia. However, genome information, especially DNA sequence resources, for C. edulis are limited, hindering studies regarding interspecific and intraspecific relationships. Herein, the complete chloroplast (cp) genome of Catha edulis is reported. This genome is 157,960 bp in length with 37% GC content and is structurally arranged into two 26,577 bp inverted repeats and two single-copy areas. The size of the small single-copy and the large single-copy regions were 18,491 bp and 86,315 bp, respectively. The C. edulis cp genome consists of 129 coding genes including 37 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 8 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and 84 protein coding genes. For those genes, 112 are single copy genes and 17 genes are duplicated in two inverted regions with seven tRNAs, four rRNAs, and six protein coding genes. The phylogenetic relationships resolved from the cp genome of qat and 32 other species confirms the monophyly of Celastraceae. The cp genomes of C. edulis, Euonymus japonicus and seven Celastraceae species lack the rps16 intron, which indicates an intron loss took place among an ancestor of this family. The cp genome of C. edulis provides a highly valuable genetic resource for further phylogenomic research, barcoding and cp transformation in Celastraceae. PMID:29425128

  20. Genome wide identification of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)-encoded microRNA targets against Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shweta; Akhter, Yusuf; Khan, Jawaid Ahmad

    2018-01-05

    Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus (CLCuBV, genus Begomovirus) causes devastating cotton leaf curl disease. Among various known virus controlling strategies, RNAi-mediated one has shown potential to protect host crop plants. Micro(mi) RNAs, are the endogenous small RNAs and play a key role in plant development and stress resistance. In the present study we have identified cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)-encoded miRNAs targeting the CLCuBV. Based on threshold free energy and maximum complementarity scores of host miRNA-viral mRNA target pairs, a number of potential miRNAs were annotated. Among them, ghr-miR168 was selected as the most potent candidate, capable of targeting several vital genes namely C1, C3, C4, V1 and V2 of CLCuBV genome. In addition, ghr-miR395a and ghr-miR395d were observed to target the overlapping transcripts of C1 and C4 genes. We have verified the efficacy of these miRNA targets against CLCuBV following suppression of RNAi-mediated virus control through translational inhibition or cleavage of viral mRNA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Structural organization of poliovirus RNA replication is mediated by viral proteins of the P2 genomic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bienz, K.; Egger, D.; Troxler, M.; Pasamontes, L.

    1990-01-01

    Transcriptionally active replication complexes bound to smooth membrane vesicles were isolated from poliovirus-infected cells. In electron microscopic, negatively stained preparations, the replication complex appeared as an irregularly shaped, oblong structure attached to several virus-induced vesicles of a rosettelike arrangement. Electron microscopic immunocytochemistry of such preparations demonstrated that the poliovirus replication complex contains the proteins coded by the P2 genomic region (P2 proteins) in a membrane-associated form. In addition, the P2 proteins are also associated with viral RNA, and they can be cross-linked to viral RNA by UV irradiation. Guanidine hydrochloride prevented the P2 proteins from becoming membrane bound but did not change their association with viral RNA. The findings allow the conclusion that the protein 2C or 2C-containing precursor(s) is responsible for the attachment of the viral RNA to the vesicular membrane and for the spatial organization of the replication complex necessary for its proper functioning in viral transcription. A model for the structure of the viral replication complex and for the function of the 2C-containing P2 protein(s) and the vesicular membranes is proposed

  2. The RNA gene information: retroelement-microRNA entangling as the RNA quantum code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yoichi Robertus

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) and retroelements may be a master of regulator in our life, which are evolutionally involved in the origin of species. To support the Darwinism from the aspect of molecular evolution process, it has tremendously been interested in the molecular information of naive RNA. The RNA wave model 2000 consists of four concepts that have altered from original idea of the miRNA genes for crosstalk among embryonic stem cells, their niche cells, and retroelements as a carrier vesicle of the RNA genes. (1) the miRNA gene as a mobile genetic element induces transcriptional and posttranscriptional silencing via networking-processes (no hierarchical architecture); (2) the RNA information supplied by the miRNA genes expands to intracellular, intercellular, intraorgan, interorgan, intraspecies, and interspecies under the cycle of life into the global environment; (3) the mobile miRNAs can self-proliferate; and (4) cells contain two types information as resident and genomic miRNAs. Based on RNA wave, we have developed an interest in investigation of the transformation from RNA information to quantum bits as physicochemical characters of RNA with the measurement of RNA electron spin. When it would have been given that the fundamental bases for the acquired characters in genetics can be controlled by RNA gene information, it may be available to apply for challenging against RNA gene diseases, such as stress-induced diseases.

  3. The identification and functional annotation of RNA structures conserved in vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seemann, Ernst Stefan; Mirza, Aashiq Hussain; Hansen, Claus

    2017-01-01

    Structured elements of RNA molecules are essential in, e.g., RNA stabilization, localization and protein interaction, and their conservation across species suggests a common functional role. We computationally screened vertebrate genomes for Conserved RNA Structures (CRSs), leveraging structure-b......-structured counterparts. Our findings of transcribed uncharacterized regulatory regions that contain CRSs support their RNA-mediated functionality.......Structured elements of RNA molecules are essential in, e.g., RNA stabilization, localization and protein interaction, and their conservation across species suggests a common functional role. We computationally screened vertebrate genomes for Conserved RNA Structures (CRSs), leveraging structure......-based, rather than sequence-based, alignments. After careful correction for sequence identity and GC content, we predict ~516k human genomic regions containing CRSs. We find that a substantial fraction of human-mouse CRS regions (i) co-localize consistently with binding sites of the same RNA binding proteins...

  4. Packaging of HCV-RNA into lentiviral vector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caval, Vincent; Piver, Eric; Ivanyi-Nagy, Roland; Darlix, Jean-Luc; Pagès, Jean-Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Description of HCV-RNA Core-D1 interactions. ► In vivo evaluation of the packaging of HCV genome. ► Determination of the role of the three basic sub-domains of D1. ► Heterologous system involving HIV-1 vector particles to mobilise HCV genome. ► Full length mobilisation of HCV genome and HCV-receptor-independent entry. -- Abstract: The advent of infectious molecular clones of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has unlocked the understanding of HCV life cycle. However, packaging of the genomic RNA, which is crucial to generate infectious viral particles, remains poorly understood. Molecular interactions of the domain 1 (D1) of HCV Core protein and HCV RNA have been described in vitro. Since compaction of genetic information within HCV genome has hampered conventional mutational approach to study packaging in vivo, we developed a novel heterologous system to evaluate the interactions between HCV RNA and Core D1. For this, we took advantage of the recruitment of Vpr fusion-proteins into HIV-1 particles. By fusing HCV Core D1 to Vpr we were able to package and transfer a HCV subgenomic replicon into a HIV-1 based lentiviral vector. We next examined how deletion mutants of basic sub-domains of Core D1 influenced HCV RNA recruitment. The results emphasized the crucial role of the first and third basic regions of D1 in packaging. Interestingly, the system described here allowed us to mobilise full-length JFH1 genome in CD81 defective cells, which are normally refractory to HCV infection. This finding paves the way to an evaluation of the replication capability of HCV in various cell types.

  5. Endogenous viral elements in animal genomes.

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    Aris Katzourakis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Integration into the nuclear genome of germ line cells can lead to vertical inheritance of retroviral genes as host alleles. For other viruses, germ line integration has only rarely been documented. Nonetheless, we identified endogenous viral elements (EVEs derived from ten non-retroviral families by systematic in silico screening of animal genomes, including the first endogenous representatives of double-stranded RNA, reverse-transcribing DNA, and segmented RNA viruses, and the first endogenous DNA viruses in mammalian genomes. Phylogenetic and genomic analysis of EVEs across multiple host species revealed novel information about the origin and evolution of diverse virus groups. Furthermore, several of the elements identified here encode intact open reading frames or are expressed as mRNA. For one element in the primate lineage, we provide statistically robust evidence for exaptation. Our findings establish that genetic material derived from all known viral genome types and replication strategies can enter the animal germ line, greatly broadening the scope of paleovirological studies and indicating a more significant evolutionary role for gene flow from virus to animal genomes than has previously been recognized.

  6. Nuclear RNA sequencing of the mouse erythroid cell transcriptome.

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    Jennifer A Mitchell

    Full Text Available In addition to protein coding genes a substantial proportion of mammalian genomes are transcribed. However, most transcriptome studies investigate steady-state mRNA levels, ignoring a considerable fraction of the transcribed genome. In addition, steady-state mRNA levels are influenced by both transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms, and thus do not provide a clear picture of transcriptional output. Here, using deep sequencing of nuclear RNAs (nucRNA-Seq in parallel with chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq of active RNA polymerase II, we compared the nuclear transcriptome of mouse anemic spleen erythroid cells with polymerase occupancy on a genome-wide scale. We demonstrate that unspliced transcripts quantified by nucRNA-seq correlate with primary transcript frequencies measured by RNA FISH, but differ from steady-state mRNA levels measured by poly(A-enriched RNA-seq. Highly expressed protein coding genes showed good correlation between RNAPII occupancy and transcriptional output; however, genome-wide we observed a poor correlation between transcriptional output and RNAPII association. This poor correlation is due to intergenic regions associated with RNAPII which correspond with transcription factor bound regulatory regions and a group of stable, nuclear-retained long non-coding transcripts. In conclusion, sequencing the nuclear transcriptome provides an opportunity to investigate the transcriptional landscape in a given cell type through quantification of unspliced primary transcripts and the identification of nuclear-retained long non-coding RNAs.

  7. Structural dynamics of retroviral genome and the packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki eMiyazaki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Retroviruses can cause diseases such as AIDS, leukemia and tumors, but are also used as vectors for human gene therapy. All retroviruses, except foamy viruses, package two copies of unspliced genomic RNA into their progeny viruses. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of retroviral genome packaging will aid the design of new anti-retroviral drugs targeting the packaging process and improve the efficacy of retroviral vectors. Retroviral genomes have to be specifically recognized by the cognate nucleocapsid (NC domain of the Gag polyprotein from among an excess of cellular and spliced viral mRNA. Extensive virological and structural studies have revealed how retroviral genomic RNA is selectively packaged into the viral particles. The genomic area responsible for the packaging is generally located in the 5’ untranslated region (5’ UTR, and contains dimerization site(s. Recent studies have shown that retroviral genome packaging is modulated by structural changes of RNA at the 5’ UTR accompanied by the dimerization. In this review, we focus on three representative retroviruses, Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 and 2 (HIV-2, and describe the molecular mechanism of retroviral genome packaging.

  8. Mosquito Surveillance for 15 Years Reveals High Genetic Diversity Among West Nile Viruses in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Yaniv; Hindiyeh, Musa; Orshan, Laor; Weiss, Leah; Koren, Ravit; Katz-Likvornik, Shiri; Zadka, Hila; Glatman-Freedman, Aharona; Mendelson, Ella; Shulman, Lester M

    2016-04-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is endemic in Israel and has been the cause of several outbreaks in recent years. In 2000, a countrywide mosquito survey was established to monitor WNV activity and characterize viral genotypes in Israel. We analyzed data from 7135 pools containing 277 186 mosquitoes collected over the past 15 years and, here, report partial sequences of WNV genomes obtained from 102 of the 336 positive mosquito pools. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that cluster 4 and the Mediterranean and Eastern European subtypes of cluster 2 within WNV lineage 1 circulated in Israel, as did WNV lineage 2, highlighting a high genetic diversity of WNV genotypes in our region. As a major crossroads for bird migration between Africa and Eurasia and with a long history of human infection, Israel serves as a resource hub for WNV in Africa and Eurasia and provides valuable information on WNV circulation in these regions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Efficient genome editing in hematopoietic stem cells with helper-dependent Ad5/35 vectors expressing site-specific endonucleases under microRNA regulation

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    Kamola Saydaminova

    Full Text Available Genome editing with site-specific endonucleases has implications for basic biomedical research as well as for gene therapy. We generated helper-dependent, capsid-modified adenovirus (HD-Ad5/35 vectors for zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN– or transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN–mediated genome editing in human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs from mobilized adult donors. The production of these vectors required that ZFN and TALEN expression in HD-Ad5/35 producer 293-Cre cells was suppressed. To do this, we developed a microRNA (miRNA-based system for regulation of gene expression based on miRNA expression profiling of 293-Cre and CD34+ cells. Using miR-183-5p and miR-218-5p based regulation of transgene gene expression, we first produced an HD-Ad5/35 vector expressing a ZFN specific to the HIV coreceptor gene ccr5. We demonstrated that HD-Ad5/35.ZFNmiR vector conferred ccr5 knock out in primitive HSC (i.e., long-term culture initiating cells and NOD/SCID repopulating cells. The ccr5 gene disruption frequency achieved in engrafted HSCs found in the bone marrow of transplanted mice is clinically relevant for HIV therapy considering that these cells can give rise to multiple lineages, including all the lineages that represent targets and reservoirs for HIV. We produced a second HD-Ad5/35 vector expressing a TALEN targeting the DNase hypersensitivity region 2 (HS2 within the globin locus control region. This vector has potential for targeted gene correction in hemoglobinopathies. The miRNA regulated HD-Ad5/35 vector platform for expression of site-specific endonucleases has numerous advantages over currently used vectors as a tool for genome engineering of HSCs for therapeutic purposes.

  10. Comparison of Various Nuclear Localization Signal-Fused Cas9 Proteins and Cas9 mRNA for Genome Editing in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Peinan; Zhao, Xueying; Zhang, Qinghua; Li, Weiming; Zu, Yao

    2018-03-02

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system has been proven to be an efficient and precise genome editing technology in various organisms. However, the gene editing efficiencies of Cas9 proteins with a nuclear localization signal (NLS) fused to different termini and Cas9 mRNA have not been systematically compared. Here, we compared the ability of Cas9 proteins with NLS fused to the N-, C-, or both the N- and C-termini and N-NLS-Cas9-NLS-C mRNA to target two sites in the tyr gene and two sites in the gol gene related to pigmentation in zebrafish. Phenotypic analysis revealed that all types of Cas9 led to hypopigmentation in similar proportions of injected embryos. Genome analysis by T7 Endonuclease I (T7E1) assays demonstrated that all types of Cas9 similarly induced mutagenesis in four target sites. Sequencing results further confirmed that a high frequency of indels occurred in the target sites ( tyr1 > 66%, tyr2 > 73%, gol1 > 50%, and gol2 > 35%), as well as various types (more than six) of indel mutations observed in all four types of Cas9-injected embryos. Furthermore, all types of Cas9 showed efficient targeted mutagenesis on multiplex genome editing, resulting in multiple phenotypes simultaneously. Collectively, we conclude that various NLS-fused Cas9 proteins and Cas9 mRNAs have similar genome editing efficiencies on targeting single or multiple genes, suggesting that the efficiency of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing is highly dependent on guide RNAs (gRNAs) and gene loci. These findings may help to simplify the selection of Cas9 for gene editing using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Copyright © 2018 Hu et al.

  11. Annotation of two large contiguous regions from the Haemonchus contortus genome using RNA-seq and comparative analysis with Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roz Laing

    Full Text Available The genomes of numerous parasitic nematodes are currently being sequenced, but their complexity and size, together with high levels of intra-specific sequence variation and a lack of reference genomes, makes their assembly and annotation a challenging task. Haemonchus contortus is an economically significant parasite of livestock that is widely used for basic research as well as for vaccine development and drug discovery. It is one of many medically and economically important parasites within the strongylid nematode group. This group of parasites has the closest phylogenetic relationship with the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, making comparative analysis a potentially powerful tool for genome annotation and functional studies. To investigate this hypothesis, we sequenced two contiguous fragments from the H. contortus genome and undertook detailed annotation and comparative analysis with C. elegans. The adult H. contortus transcriptome was sequenced using an Illumina platform and RNA-seq was used to annotate a 409 kb overlapping BAC tiling path relating to the X chromosome and a 181 kb BAC insert relating to chromosome I. In total, 40 genes and 12 putative transposable elements were identified. 97.5% of the annotated genes had detectable homologues in C. elegans of which 60% had putative orthologues, significantly higher than previous analyses based on EST analysis. Gene density appears to be less in H. contortus than in C. elegans, with annotated H. contortus genes being an average of two-to-three times larger than their putative C. elegans orthologues due to a greater intron number and size. Synteny appears high but gene order is generally poorly conserved, although areas of conserved microsynteny are apparent. C. elegans operons appear to be partially conserved in H. contortus. Our findings suggest that a combination of RNA-seq and comparative analysis with C. elegans is a powerful approach for the annotation and analysis of strongylid

  12. Next-Generation Genomics Facility at C-CAMP: Accelerating Genomic Research in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Chandana; Russiachand, Heikham; H, Pradeep; S, Shilpa; M, Ashwini; S, Sahana; B, Jayanth; Atla, Goutham; Jain, Smita; Arunkumar, Nandini; Gowda, Malali

    2014-01-01

    Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS; http://www.genome.gov/12513162) is a recent life-sciences technological revolution that allows scientists to decode genomes or transcriptomes at a much faster rate with a lower cost. Genomic-based studies are in a relatively slow pace in India due to the non-availability of genomics experts, trained personnel and dedicated service providers. Using NGS there is a lot of potential to study India's national diversity (of all kinds). We at the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Platforms (C-CAMP) have launched the Next Generation Genomics Facility (NGGF) to provide genomics service to scientists, to train researchers and also work on national and international genomic projects. We have HiSeq1000 from Illumina and GS-FLX Plus from Roche454. The long reads from GS FLX Plus, and high sequence depth from HiSeq1000, are the best and ideal hybrid approaches for de novo and re-sequencing of genomes and transcriptomes. At our facility, we have sequenced around 70 different organisms comprising of more than 388 genomes and 615 transcriptomes – prokaryotes and eukaryotes (fungi, plants and animals). In addition we have optimized other unique applications such as small RNA (miRNA, siRNA etc), long Mate-pair sequencing (2 to 20 Kb), Coding sequences (Exome), Methylome (ChIP-Seq), Restriction Mapping (RAD-Seq), Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) typing, mixed genomes (metagenomes) and target amplicons, etc. Translating DNA sequence data from NGS sequencer into meaningful information is an important exercise. Under NGGF, we have bioinformatics experts and high-end computing resources to dissect NGS data such as genome assembly and annotation, gene expression, target enrichment, variant calling (SSR or SNP), comparative analysis etc. Our services (sequencing and bioinformatics) have been utilized by more than 45 organizations (academia and industry) both within India and outside, resulting several publications in peer-reviewed journals and several genomic

  13. Retroviral RNA Dimerization: From Structure to Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noé Dubois

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The genome of the retroviruses is a dimer composed by two homologous copies of genomic RNA (gRNA molecules of positive polarity. The dimerization process allows two gRNA molecules to be non-covalently linked together through intermolecular base-pairing. This step is critical for the viral life cycle and is highly conserved among retroviruses with the exception of spumaretroviruses. Furthermore, packaging of two gRNA copies into viral particles presents an important evolutionary advantage for immune system evasion and drug resistance. Recent studies reported RNA switches models regulating not only gRNA dimerization, but also translation and packaging, and a spatio-temporal characterization of viral gRNA dimerization within cells are now at hand. This review summarizes our current understanding on the structural features of the dimerization signals for a variety of retroviruses (HIVs, MLV, RSV, BLV, MMTV, MPMV…, the mechanisms of RNA dimer formation and functional implications in the retroviral cycle.

  14. Mi-DISCOVERER: A bioinformatics tool for the detection of mi-RNA in human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Saadia; Mumtaz, Asia; Ahmad, Freed; Liaquat, Sadia; Nadeem, Shahid; Mehboob, Shahid; Afzal, Muhammad

    2010-11-27

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 22 nucleotides non-coding RNAs that play pivotal regulatory roles in diverse organisms including the humans and are difficult to be identified due to lack of either sequence features or robust algorithms to efficiently identify. Therefore, we made a tool that is Mi-Discoverer for the detection of miRNAs in human genome. The tools used for the development of software are Microsoft Office Access 2003, the JDK version 1.6.0, BioJava version 1.0, and the NetBeans IDE version 6.0. All already made miRNAs softwares were web based; so the advantage of our project was to make a desktop facility to the user for sequence alignment search with already identified miRNAs of human genome present in the database. The user can also insert and update the newly discovered human miRNA in the database. Mi-Discoverer, a bioinformatics tool successfully identifies human miRNAs based on multiple sequence alignment searches. It's a non redundant database containing a large collection of publicly available human miRNAs.

  15. Cooperation of an RNA Packaging Signal and a Viral Envelope Protein in Coronavirus RNA Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Narayanan, Krishna; Makino, Shinji

    2001-01-01

    Murine coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) produces a genome-length mRNA, mRNA 1, and six or seven species of subgenomic mRNAs in infected cells. Among these mRNAs, only mRNA 1 is efficiently packaged into MHV particles. MHV N protein binds to all MHV mRNAs, whereas envelope M protein interacts only with mRNA 1. This M protein-mRNA 1 interaction most probably determines the selective packaging of mRNA 1 into MHV particles. A short cis-acting MHV RNA packaging signal is necessary and suffi...

  16. Analyses of charophyte chloroplast genomes help characterize the ancestral chloroplast genome of land plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civaň, Peter; Foster, Peter G; Embley, Martin T; Séneca, Ana; Cox, Cymon J

    2014-04-01

    Despite the significance of the relationships between embryophytes and their charophyte algal ancestors in deciphering the origin and evolutionary success of land plants, few chloroplast genomes of the charophyte algae have been reconstructed to date. Here, we present new data for three chloroplast genomes of the freshwater charophytes Klebsormidium flaccidum (Klebsormidiophyceae), Mesotaenium endlicherianum (Zygnematophyceae), and Roya anglica (Zygnematophyceae). The chloroplast genome of Klebsormidium has a quadripartite organization with exceptionally large inverted repeat (IR) regions and, uniquely among streptophytes, has lost the rrn5 and rrn4.5 genes from the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene cluster operon. The chloroplast genome of Roya differs from other zygnematophycean chloroplasts, including the newly sequenced Mesotaenium, by having a quadripartite structure that is typical of other streptophytes. On the basis of the improbability of the novel gain of IR regions, we infer that the quadripartite structure has likely been lost independently in at least three zygnematophycean lineages, although the absence of the usual rRNA operonic synteny in the IR regions of Roya may indicate their de novo origin. Significantly, all zygnematophycean chloroplast genomes have undergone substantial genomic rearrangement, which may be the result of ancient retroelement activity evidenced by the presence of integrase-like and reverse transcriptase-like elements in the Roya chloroplast genome. Our results corroborate the close phylogenetic relationship between Zygnematophyceae and land plants and identify 89 protein-coding genes and 22 introns present in the chloroplast genome at the time of the evolutionary transition of plants to land, all of which can be found in the chloroplast genomes of extant charophytes.

  17. Cap-independent translation mechanism of red clover necrotic mosaic virus RNA2 differs from that of RNA1 and is linked to RNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumoto, Hiroyuki; Iwakawa, Hiro-Oki; Kaido, Masanori; Mise, Kazuyuki; Okuno, Tetsuro

    2006-04-01

    The genome of Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV) in the genus Dianthovirus is divided into two RNA molecules of RNA1 and RNA2, which have no cap structure at the 5' end and no poly(A) tail at the 3' end. The 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) of RCNMV RNA1 contains an essential RNA element (3'TE-DR1), which is required for cap-independent translation. In this study, we investigated a cap-independent translational mechanism of RNA2 using a firefly luciferase (Luc) gene expression assay system in cowpea protoplasts and a cell-free lysate (BYL) prepared from evacuolated tobacco BY2 protoplasts. We were unable to detect cis-acting RNA sequences in RNA2 that can replace the function of a cap structure, such as the 3'TE-DR1 of RNA1. However, the uncapped reporter RNA2, RNA2-Luc, in which the Luc open reading frame (ORF) was inserted between the 5' UTR and the movement protein ORF, was effectively translated in the presence of p27 and p88 in protoplasts in which RNA2-Luc was replicated. Time course experiments in protoplasts showed that the translational activity of RNA2-Luc did not reflect the amount of RNA2. Mutations in cis-acting RNA replication elements of RNA2 abolished the cap-independent translational activity of RNA2-Luc, suggesting that the translational activity of RNA2-Luc is coupled to RNA replication. Our results show that the translational mechanism differs between two segmented genomic RNAs of RCNMV. We present a model in which only RNA2 that is generated de novo through the viral RNA replication machinery functions as mRNA for translation.

  18. Phenotypic silencing of cytoplasmic genes using sequence-specific double-stranded short interfering RNA and its application in the reverse genetics of wild type negative-strand RNA viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barik Sailen

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS by short interfering RNA has opened up new directions in the phenotypic mutation of cellular genes. However, its efficacy on non-nuclear genes and its effect on the interferon pathway remain unexplored. Since directed mutation of RNA genomes is not possible through conventional mutagenesis, we have tested sequence-specific 21-nucleotide long double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs for their ability to silence cytoplasmic RNA genomes. Results Short dsRNAs were generated against specific mRNAs of respiratory syncytial virus, a nonsegmented negative-stranded RNA virus with a cytoplasmic life cycle. At nanomolar concentrations, the dsRNAs specifically abrogated expression of the corresponding viral proteins, and produced the expected mutant phenotype ex vivo. The dsRNAs did not induce an interferon response, and did not inhibit cellular gene expression. The ablation of the viral proteins correlated with the loss of the specific mRNAs. In contrast, viral genomic and antigenomic RNA, which are encapsidated, were not directly affected. Conclusions Synthetic inhibitory dsRNAs are effective in specific silencing of RNA genomes that are exclusively cytoplasmic and transcribed by RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. RNA-directed RNA gene silencing does not require cloning, expression, and mutagenesis of viral cDNA, and thus, will allow the generation of phenotypic null mutants of specific RNA viral genes under normal infection conditions and at any point in the infection cycle. This will, for the first time, permit functional genomic studies, attenuated infections, reverse genetic analysis, and studies of host-virus signaling pathways using a wild type RNA virus, unencumbered by any superinfecting virus.

  19. Digital Genome-Wide ncRNA Expression, Including SnoRNAs, across 11 Human Tissues Using PolyA-Neutral Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, John C.; Armour, Christopher D.; Löwer, Martin; Haynor, David; Biery, Matthew; Bouzek, Heather; Chen, Ronghua; Jackson, Stuart; Johnson, Jason M.; Rohl, Carol A.; Raymond, Christopher K.

    2010-01-01

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are an essential class of molecular species that have been difficult to monitor on high throughput platforms due to frequent lack of polyadenylation. Using a polyadenylation-neutral amplification protocol and next-generation sequencing, we explore ncRNA expression in eleven human tissues. ncRNAs 7SL, U2, 7SK, and HBII-52 are expressed at levels far exceeding mRNAs. C/D and H/ACA box snoRNAs are associated with rRNA methylation and pseudouridylation, respectively: spleen expresses both, hypothalamus expresses mainly C/D box snoRNAs, and testes show enriched expression of both H/ACA box snoRNAs and RNA telomerase TERC. Within the snoRNA 14q cluster, 14q(I-6) is expressed at much higher levels than other cluster members. More reads align to mitochondrial than nuclear tRNAs. Many lincRNAs are actively transcribed, particularly those overlapping known ncRNAs. Within the Prader-Willi syndrome loci, the snoRNA HBII-85 (group I) cluster is highly expressed in hypothalamus, greater than in other tissues and greater than group II or III. Additionally, within the disease locus we find novel transcription across a 400,000 nt span in ovaries. This genome-wide polyA-neutral expression compendium demonstrates the richness of ncRNA expression, their high expression patterns, their function-specific expression patterns, and is publicly available. PMID:20668672

  20. Digital genome-wide ncRNA expression, including SnoRNAs, across 11 human tissues using polyA-neutral amplification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Castle

    Full Text Available Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs are an essential class of molecular species that have been difficult to monitor on high throughput platforms due to frequent lack of polyadenylation. Using a polyadenylation-neutral amplification protocol and next-generation sequencing, we explore ncRNA expression in eleven human tissues. ncRNAs 7SL, U2, 7SK, and HBII-52 are expressed at levels far exceeding mRNAs. C/D and H/ACA box snoRNAs are associated with rRNA methylation and pseudouridylation, respectively: spleen expresses both, hypothalamus expresses mainly C/D box snoRNAs, and testes show enriched expression of both H/ACA box snoRNAs and RNA telomerase TERC. Within the snoRNA 14q cluster, 14q(I-6 is expressed at much higher levels than other cluster members. More reads align to mitochondrial than nuclear tRNAs. Many lincRNAs are actively transcribed, particularly those overlapping known ncRNAs. Within the Prader-Willi syndrome loci, the snoRNA HBII-85 (group I cluster is highly expressed in hypothalamus, greater than in other tissues and greater than group II or III. Additionally, within the disease locus we find novel transcription across a 400,000 nt span in ovaries. This genome-wide polyA-neutral expression compendium demonstrates the richness of ncRNA expression, their high expression patterns, their function-specific expression patterns, and is publicly available.

  1. Genome-wide search for miRNA-target interactions in Arabidopsis thaliana with an integrated approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Jiandong

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MiRNA are about 22nt long small noncoding RNAs that post transcriptionally regulate gene expression in animals, plants and protozoa. Confident identification of MiRNA-Target Interactions (MTI is vital to understand their function. Currently, several integrated computational programs and databases are available for animal miRNAs, the mechanisms of which are significantly different from plant miRNAs. Methods Here we present an integrated MTI prediction and analysis toolkit (imiRTP for Arabidopsis thaliana. It features two important functions: (i combination of several effective plant miRNA target prediction methods provides a sufficiently large MTI candidate set, and (ii different filters allow for an efficient selection of potential targets. The modularity of imiRTP enables the prediction of high quality targets on genome-wide scale. Moreover, predicted MTIs can be presented in various ways, which allows for browsing through the putative target sites as well as conducting simple and advanced analyses. Results Results show that imiRTP could always find high quality candidates compared with single method by choosing appropriate filter and parameter. And we also reveal that a portion of plant miRNA could bind target genes out of coding region. Based on our results, imiRTP could facilitate the further study of Arabidopsis miRNAs in real use. All materials of imiRTP are freely available under a GNU license at (http://admis.fudan.edu.cn/projects/imiRTP.htm.

  2. Functional long non-coding RNA transcription in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    OpenAIRE

    Ard, Ryan Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomes are pervasively transcribed and frequently generate long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). However, most lncRNAs remain uncharacterized. In this work, a set of positionally conserved intergenic lncRNAs in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe genome are selected for further analysis. Deleting one of these lncRNA genes (ncRNA.1343) exhibited a clear phenotype: increased drug sensitivity. Further analyses revealed that deleting ncRNA.1343 also disrupted a prev...

  3. Visualization and measurement of ATP levels in living cells replicating hepatitis C virus genome RNA.

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    Tomomi Ando

    Full Text Available Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP is the primary energy currency of all living organisms and participates in a variety of cellular processes. Although ATP requirements during viral lifecycles have been examined in a number of studies, a method by which ATP production can be monitored in real-time, and by which ATP can be quantified in individual cells and subcellular compartments, is lacking, thereby hindering studies aimed at elucidating the precise mechanisms by which viral replication energized by ATP is controlled. In this study, we investigated the fluctuation and distribution of ATP in cells during RNA replication of the hepatitis C virus (HCV, a member of the Flaviviridae family. We demonstrated that cells involved in viral RNA replication actively consumed ATP, thereby reducing cytoplasmic ATP levels. Subsequently, a method to measure ATP levels at putative subcellular sites of HCV RNA replication in living cells was developed by introducing a recently-established Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET-based ATP indicator, called ATeam, into the NS5A coding region of the HCV replicon. Using this method, we were able to observe the formation of ATP-enriched dot-like structures, which co-localize with non-structural viral proteins, within the cytoplasm of HCV-replicating cells but not in non-replicating cells. The obtained FRET signals allowed us to estimate ATP concentrations within HCV replicating cells as ∼5 mM at possible replicating sites and ∼1 mM at peripheral sites that did not appear to be involved in HCV replication. In contrast, cytoplasmic ATP levels in non-replicating Huh-7 cells were estimated as ∼2 mM. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate changes in ATP concentration within cells during replication of the HCV genome and increased ATP levels at distinct sites within replicating cells. ATeam may be a powerful tool for the study of energy metabolism during replication of the viral genome.

  4. MAKER2: an annotation pipeline and genome-database management tool for second-generation genome projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Carson; Yandell, Mark

    2011-12-22

    Second-generation sequencing technologies are precipitating major shifts with regards to what kinds of genomes are being sequenced and how they are annotated. While the first generation of genome projects focused on well-studied model organisms, many of today's projects involve exotic organisms whose genomes are largely terra incognita. This complicates their annotation, because unlike first-generation projects, there are no pre-existing 'gold-standard' gene-models with which to train gene-finders. Improvements in genome assembly and the wide availability of mRNA-seq data are also creating opportunities to update and re-annotate previously published genome annotations. Today's genome projects are thus in need of new genome annotation tools that can meet the challenges and opportunities presented by second-generation sequencing technologies. We present MAKER2, a genome annotation and data management tool designed for second-generation genome projects. MAKER2 is a multi-threaded, parallelized application that can process second-generation datasets of virtually any size. We show that MAKER2 can produce accurate annotations for novel genomes where training-data are limited, of low quality or even non-existent. MAKER2 also provides an easy means to use mRNA-seq data to improve annotation quality; and it can use these data to update legacy annotations, significantly improving their quality. We also show that MAKER2 can evaluate the quality of genome annotations, and identify and prioritize problematic annotations for manual review. MAKER2 is the first annotation engine specifically designed for second-generation genome projects. MAKER2 scales to datasets of any size, requires little in the way of training data, and can use mRNA-seq data to improve annotation quality. It can also update and manage legacy genome annotation datasets.

  5. Packaging of HCV-RNA into lentiviral vector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caval, Vincent [INSERM U966, Universite Francois Rabelais de Tours, Faculte de Medecine, 10 Bd. Tonnelle, 37000 Tours (France); Piver, Eric [INSERM U966, Universite Francois Rabelais de Tours, Faculte de Medecine, 10 Bd. Tonnelle, 37000 Tours (France); Service de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire, CHRU de Tours (France); Ivanyi-Nagy, Roland; Darlix, Jean-Luc [LaboRetro, ENS-Lyon INSERM, U758, 46 Allee d' Italie, 69364 Lyon (France); Pages, Jean-Christophe, E-mail: jean-christophe.pages@univ-tours.fr [INSERM U966, Universite Francois Rabelais de Tours, Faculte de Medecine, 10 Bd. Tonnelle, 37000 Tours (France); Service de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire, CHRU de Tours (France)

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Description of HCV-RNA Core-D1 interactions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In vivo evaluation of the packaging of HCV genome. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determination of the role of the three basic sub-domains of D1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heterologous system involving HIV-1 vector particles to mobilise HCV genome. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Full length mobilisation of HCV genome and HCV-receptor-independent entry. -- Abstract: The advent of infectious molecular clones of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has unlocked the understanding of HCV life cycle. However, packaging of the genomic RNA, which is crucial to generate infectious viral particles, remains poorly understood. Molecular interactions of the domain 1 (D1) of HCV Core protein and HCV RNA have been described in vitro. Since compaction of genetic information within HCV genome has hampered conventional mutational approach to study packaging in vivo, we developed a novel heterologous system to evaluate the interactions between HCV RNA and Core D1. For this, we took advantage of the recruitment of Vpr fusion-proteins into HIV-1 particles. By fusing HCV Core D1 to Vpr we were able to package and transfer a HCV subgenomic replicon into a HIV-1 based lentiviral vector. We next examined how deletion mutants of basic sub-domains of Core D1 influenced HCV RNA recruitment. The results emphasized the crucial role of the first and third basic regions of D1 in packaging. Interestingly, the system described here allowed us to mobilise full-length JFH1 genome in CD81 defective cells, which are normally refractory to HCV infection. This finding paves the way to an evaluation of the replication capability of HCV in various cell types.

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome of Cynopterus sphinx (Pteropodidae: Cynopterus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linmiao; Li, Min; Wu, Zhengjun; Chen, Jinping

    2015-01-01

    We have characterized the complete mitochondrial genome of Cynopterus sphinx (Pteropodidae: Cynopterus) and described its organization in this study. The total length of C. sphinx complete mitochondrial genome was 16,895 bp with the base composition of 32.54% A, 14.05% G, 25.82% T and 27.59% C. The complete mitochondrial genome included 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA) and 1 control region (D-loop). The control region was 1435 bp long with the sequence CATACG repeat 64 times. Three protein-coding genes (ND1, COI and ND4) were ended with incomplete stop codon TA or T.

  7. Correlation between sequence conservation and structural thermodynamics of microRNA precursors from human, mouse, and chicken genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shengqi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that microRNA precursors (pre-miRNAs have considerably more stable secondary structures than other native RNAs (tRNA, rRNA, and mRNA and artificial RNA sequences. However, pre-miRNAs with ultra stable secondary structures have not been investigated. It is not known if there is a tendency in pre-miRNA sequences towards or against ultra stable structures? Furthermore, the relationship between the structural thermodynamic stability of pre-miRNA and their evolution remains unclear. Results We investigated the correlation between pre-miRNA sequence conservation and structural stability as measured by adjusted minimum folding free energies in pre-miRNAs isolated from human, mouse, and chicken. The analysis revealed that conserved and non-conserved pre-miRNA sequences had structures with similar average stabilities. However, the relatively ultra stable and unstable pre-miRNAs were more likely to be non-conserved than pre-miRNAs with moderate stability. Non-conserved pre-miRNAs had more G+C than A+U nucleotides, while conserved pre-miRNAs contained more A+U nucleotides. Notably, the U content of conserved pre-miRNAs was especially higher than that of non-conserved pre-miRNAs. Further investigations showed that conserved and non-conserved pre-miRNAs exhibited different structural element features, even though they had comparable levels of stability. Conclusions We proposed that there is a correlation between structural thermodynamic stability and sequence conservation for pre-miRNAs from human, mouse, and chicken genomes. Our analyses suggested that pre-miRNAs with relatively ultra stable or unstable structures were less favoured by natural selection than those with moderately stable structures. Comparison of nucleotide compositions between non-conserved and conserved pre-miRNAs indicated the importance of U nucleotides in the pre-miRNA evolutionary process. Several characteristic structural elements were

  8. RNA-Seq analysis and annotation of a draft blueberry genome assembly identifies candidate genes involved in fruit ripening, biosynthesis of bioactive compounds, and stage-specific alternative splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vikas; Estrada, April D; Blakley, Ivory; Reid, Rob; Patel, Ketan; Meyer, Mason D; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj; Brown, Allan F; Lila, Mary Ann; Loraine, Ann E

    2015-01-01

    Blueberries are a rich source of antioxidants and other beneficial compounds that can protect against disease. Identifying genes involved in synthesis of bioactive compounds could enable the breeding of berry varieties with enhanced health benefits. Toward this end, we annotated a previously sequenced draft blueberry genome assembly using RNA-Seq data from five stages of berry fruit development and ripening. Genome-guided assembly of RNA-Seq read alignments combined with output from ab initio gene finders produced around 60,000 gene models, of which more than half were similar to proteins from other species, typically the grape Vitis vinifera. Comparison of gene models to the PlantCyc database of metabolic pathway enzymes identified candidate genes involved in synthesis of bioactive compounds, including bixin, an apocarotenoid with potential disease-fighting properties, and defense-related cyanogenic glycosides, which are toxic. Cyanogenic glycoside (CG) biosynthetic enzymes were highly expressed in green fruit, and a candidate CG detoxification enzyme was up-regulated during fruit ripening. Candidate genes for ethylene, anthocyanin, and 400 other biosynthetic pathways were also identified. Homology-based annotation using Blast2GO and InterPro assigned Gene Ontology terms to around 15,000 genes. RNA-Seq expression profiling showed that blueberry growth, maturation, and ripening involve dynamic gene expression changes, including coordinated up- and down-regulation of metabolic pathway enzymes and transcriptional regulators. Analysis of RNA-seq alignments identified developmentally regulated alternative splicing, promoter use, and 3' end formation. We report genome sequence, gene models, functional annotations, and RNA-Seq expression data that provide an important new resource enabling high throughput studies in blueberry.

  9. RNA binding and replication by the poliovirus RNA polymerase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberste, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    RNA binding and RNA synthesis by the poliovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase were studied in vitro using purified polymerase. Templates for binding and RNA synthesis studies were natural RNAs, homopolymeric RNAs, or subgenomic poliovirus-specific RNAs synthesized in vitro from cDNA clones using SP6 or T7 RNA polymerases. The binding of the purified polymerase to poliovirion and other RNAs was studied using a protein-RNA nitrocellulose filter binding assay. A cellular poly(A)-binding protein was found in the viral polymerase preparations, but was easily separated from the polymerase by chromatography on poly(A) Sepharose. The binding of purified polymerase to 32 P-labeled ribohomopolymeric RNAs was examined, and the order of binding observed was poly(G) >>> poly(U) > poly(C) > poly(A). The K a for polymerase binding to poliovirion RNA and to a full-length negative strand transcript was about 1 x 10 9 M -1 . The polymerase binds to a subgenomic RNAs which contain the 3' end of the genome with a K a similar to that for virion RNA, but binds less well to 18S rRNA, globin mRNA, and subgenomic RNAs which lack portions of the 3' noncoding region

  10. The piRNAs forge an immune system for the genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, Sébastian; Pandey, R.R.; Pillai, R.S.

    2013-01-01

    Genome integrity of germline is essential for the survival of any species. A dedicated defence mechanism based on small RNA called piRNA (PIWI-interacting RNA) has evolved to protect the germline from the deleterious effects of transposon mobility in genomes such as mutations, deletions or chromo...

  11. Translation of a nonpolyadenylated viral RNA is enhanced by binding of viral coat protein or polyadenylation of the RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeleman, L; Olsthoorn, R C; Linthorst, H J; Bol, J F

    2001-12-04

    On entering a host cell, positive-strand RNA virus genomes have to serve as messenger for the translation of viral proteins. Efficient translation of cellular messengers requires interactions between initiation factors bound to the 5'-cap structure and the poly(A) binding protein bound to the 3'-poly(A) tail. Initiation of infection with the tripartite RNA genomes of alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and viruses from the genus Ilarvirus requires binding of a few molecules of coat protein (CP) to the 3' end of the nonpolyadenylated viral RNAs. Moreover, infection with the genomic RNAs can be initiated by addition of the subgenomic messenger for CP, RNA 4. We report here that extension of the AMV RNAs with a poly(A) tail of 40 to 80 A-residues permitted initiation of infection independently of CP or RNA 4 in the inoculum. Specifically, polyadenylation of RNA 1 relieved an apparent bottleneck in the translation of the viral RNAs. Translation of RNA 4 in plant protoplasts was autocatalytically stimulated by its encoded CP. Mutations that interfered with CP binding to the 3' end of viral RNAs reduced translation of RNA 4 to undetectable levels. Possibly, CP of AMV and ilarviruses stimulates translation of viral RNAs by acting as a functional analogue of poly(A) binding protein or other cellular proteins.

  12. A universal protocol to generate consensus level genome sequences for foot-and-mouth disease virus and other positive-sense polyadenylated RNA viruses using the Illumina MiSeq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Grace; Freimanis, Graham L; King, David J; Valdazo-González, Begoña; Bachanek-Bankowska, Katarzyna; Sanderson, Nicholas D; Knowles, Nick J; King, Donald P; Cottam, Eleanor M

    2014-09-30

    Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) is revolutionizing molecular epidemiology by providing new approaches to undertake whole genome sequencing (WGS) in diagnostic settings for a variety of human and veterinary pathogens. Previous sequencing protocols have been subject to biases such as those encountered during PCR amplification and cell culture, or are restricted by the need for large quantities of starting material. We describe here a simple and robust methodology for the generation of whole genome sequences on the Illumina MiSeq. This protocol is specific for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) or other polyadenylated RNA viruses and circumvents both the use of PCR and the requirement for large amounts of initial template. The protocol was successfully validated using five FMDV positive clinical samples from the 2001 epidemic in the United Kingdom, as well as a panel of representative viruses from all seven serotypes. In addition, this protocol was successfully used to recover 94% of an FMDV genome that had previously been identified as cell culture negative. Genome sequences from three other non-FMDV polyadenylated RNA viruses (EMCV, ERAV, VESV) were also obtained with minor protocol amendments. We calculated that a minimum coverage depth of 22 reads was required to produce an accurate consensus sequence for FMDV O. This was achieved in 5 FMDV/O/UKG isolates and the type O FMDV from the serotype panel with the exception of the 5' genomic termini and area immediately flanking the poly(C) region. We have developed a universal WGS method for FMDV and other polyadenylated RNA viruses. This method works successfully from a limited quantity of starting material and eliminates the requirement for genome-specific PCR amplification. This protocol has the potential to generate consensus-level sequences within a routine high-throughput diagnostic environment.

  13. A genomically modified Escherichia coli strain carrying an orthogonal E. coli histidyl-tRNA synthetase•tRNAHis pair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Markus; Vargas-Rodriguez, Oscar; Reynolds, Noah M; Wang, Yane-Shih; Söll, Dieter; Umehara, Takuya

    2017-11-01

    Development of new aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS)•tRNA pairs is central for incorporation of novel non-canonical amino acids (ncAAs) into proteins via genetic code expansion (GCE). The Escherichia coli and Caulobacter crescentus histidyl-tRNA synthetases (HisRS) evolved divergent mechanisms of tRNA His recognition that prevent their cross-reactivity. Although the E. coli HisRS•tRNA His pair is a good candidate for GCE, its use in C. crescentus is limited by the lack of established genetic selection methods and by the low transformation efficiency of C. crescentus. E. coli was genetically engineered to use a C. crescentus HisRS•tRNA His pair. Super-folder green fluorescent protein (sfGFP) and chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) were used as reporters for read-through assays. A library of 313 ncAAs coupled with the sfGFP reporter system was employed to investigate the specificity of E. coli HisRS in vivo. A genomically modified E. coli strain (named MEOV1) was created. MEVO1 requires an active C. crescentus HisRS•tRNA His pair for growth, and displays a similar doubling time as the parental E. coli strain. sfGFP- and CAT-based assays showed that the E. coli HisRS•tRNA His pair is orthogonal in MEOV1 cells. A mutation in the anticodon loop of E. coli tRNA His CUA elevated its suppression efficiency by 2-fold. The C. crescentus HisRS•tRNA His pair functionally complements an E. coli ΔhisS strain. The E. coli HisRS•tRNA His is orthogonal in MEOV1 cells. E. coli tRNA His CUA is an efficient amber suppressor in MEOV1. We developed a platform that allows protein engineering of E. coli HisRS that should facilitate GCE in E. coli. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Biochemistry of Synthetic Biology - Recent Developments" Guest Editor: Dr. Ilka Heinemann and Dr. Patrick O'Donoghue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Functional characterization of the Drosophila MRP (mitochondrial RNA processing) RNA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Mary D; Bains, Anupinder K; Rajendra, T K; Dominski, Zbigniew; Matera, A Gregory; Simmonds, Andrew J

    2010-11-01

    MRP RNA is a noncoding RNA component of RNase mitochondrial RNA processing (MRP), a multi-protein eukaryotic endoribonuclease reported to function in multiple cellular processes, including ribosomal RNA processing, mitochondrial DNA replication, and cell cycle regulation. A recent study predicted a potential Drosophila ortholog of MRP RNA (CR33682) by computer-based genome analysis. We have confirmed the expression of this gene and characterized the phenotype associated with this locus. Flies with mutations that specifically affect MRP RNA show defects in growth and development that begin in the early larval period and end in larval death during the second instar stage. We present several lines of evidence demonstrating a role for Drosophila MRP RNA in rRNA processing. The nuclear fraction of Drosophila MRP RNA localizes to the nucleolus. Further, a mutant strain shows defects in rRNA processing that include a defect in 5.8S rRNA processing, typical of MRP RNA mutants in other species, as well as defects in early stages of rRNA processing.

  15. GOBASE: an organelle genome database

    OpenAIRE

    O?Brien, Emmet A.; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Eric; Marie, Veronique; Badejoko, Wole; Lang, B. Franz; Burger, Gertraud

    2008-01-01

    The organelle genome database GOBASE, now in its 21st release (June 2008), contains all published mitochondrion-encoded sequences (?913 000) and chloroplast-encoded sequences (?250 000) from a wide range of eukaryotic taxa. For all sequences, information on related genes, exons, introns, gene products and taxonomy is available, as well as selected genome maps and RNA secondary structures. Recent major enhancements to database functionality include: (i) addition of an interface for RNA editing...

  16. Inverse PCR-based method for isolating novel SINEs from genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yawei; Chen, Liping; Guan, Lihong; He, Shunping

    2014-04-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are moderately repetitive DNA sequences in eukaryotic genomes. Although eukaryotic genomes contain numerous SINEs copy, it is very difficult and laborious to isolate and identify them by the reported methods. In this study, the inverse PCR was successfully applied to isolate SINEs from Opsariichthys bidens genome in Eastern Asian Cyprinid. A group of SINEs derived from tRNA(Ala) molecular had been identified, which were named Opsar according to Opsariichthys. SINEs characteristics were exhibited in Opsar, which contained a tRNA(Ala)-derived region at the 5' end, a tRNA-unrelated region, and AT-rich region at the 3' end. The tRNA-derived region of Opsar shared 76 % sequence similarity with tRNA(Ala) gene. This result indicated that Opsar could derive from the inactive or pseudogene of tRNA(Ala). The reliability of method was tested by obtaining C-SINE, Ct-SINE, and M-SINEs from Ctenopharyngodon idellus, Megalobrama amblycephala, and Cyprinus carpio genomes. This method is simpler than the previously reported, which successfully omitted many steps, such as preparation of probes, construction of genomic libraries, and hybridization.

  17. Conflict RNA modification, host-parasite co-evolution, and the origins of DNA and DNA-binding proteins1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Paul J; Keegan, Liam P

    2014-08-01

    Nearly 150 different enzymatically modified forms of the four canonical residues in RNA have been identified. For instance, enzymes of the ADAR (adenosine deaminase acting on RNA) family convert adenosine residues into inosine in cellular dsRNAs. Recent findings show that DNA endonuclease V enzymes have undergone an evolutionary transition from cleaving 3' to deoxyinosine in DNA and ssDNA to cleaving 3' to inosine in dsRNA and ssRNA in humans. Recent work on dsRNA-binding domains of ADARs and other proteins also shows that a degree of sequence specificity is achieved by direct readout in the minor groove. However, the level of sequence specificity observed is much less than that of DNA major groove-binding helix-turn-helix proteins. We suggest that the evolution of DNA-binding proteins following the RNA to DNA genome transition represents the major advantage that DNA genomes have over RNA genomes. We propose that a hypothetical RNA modification, a RRAR (ribose reductase acting on genomic dsRNA) produced the first stretches of DNA in RNA genomes. We discuss why this is the most satisfactory explanation for the origin of DNA. The evolution of this RNA modification and later steps to DNA genomes are likely to have been driven by cellular genome co-evolution with viruses and intragenomic parasites. RNA modifications continue to be involved in host-virus conflicts; in vertebrates, edited cellular dsRNAs with inosine-uracil base pairs appear to be recognized as self RNA and to suppress activation of innate immune sensors that detect viral dsRNA.

  18. Application of Live-Cell RNA Imaging Techniques to the Study of Retroviral RNA Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrin V. Bann

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Retroviruses produce full-length RNA that serves both as a genomic RNA (gRNA, which is encapsidated into virus particles, and as an mRNA, which directs the synthesis of viral structural proteins. However, we are only beginning to understand the cellular and viral factors that influence trafficking of retroviral RNA and the selection of the RNA for encapsidation or translation. Live cell imaging studies of retroviral RNA trafficking have provided important insight into many aspects of the retrovirus life cycle including transcription dynamics, nuclear export of viral RNA, translational regulation, membrane targeting, and condensation of the gRNA during virion assembly. Here, we review cutting-edge techniques to visualize single RNA molecules in live cells and discuss the application of these systems to studying retroviral RNA trafficking.

  19. The coat protein of prunus necrotic ringspot virus specifically binds to and regulates the conformation of its genomic RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Frederic; Vilar, Marçal; Perez-Payá, Enrique; Pallás, Vicente

    2003-08-15

    Binding of coat protein (CP) to the 3' nontranslated region (3'-NTR) of viral RNAs is a crucial requirement to establish the infection of Alfamo- and Ilarviruses. In vitro binding properties of the Prunus necrotic ringspot ilarvirus (PNRSV) CP to the 3'-NTR of its genomic RNA using purified E. coli- expressed CP and different synthetic peptides corresponding to a 26-residue sequence near the N-terminus were investigated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. PNRSV CP bound to, at least, three different sites existing on the 3'-NTR. Moreover, the N-terminal region between amino acid residues 25 to 50 of the protein could function as an independent RNA-binding domain. Single exchange of some arginine residues by alanine eliminated the RNA-interaction capacity of the synthetic peptides, consistent with a crucial role for Arg residues common to many RNA-binding proteins possessing Arg-rich domains. Circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed that the RNA conformation is altered when amino-terminal CP peptides bind to the viral RNA. Finally, mutational analysis of the 3'-NTR suggested the presence of a pseudoknotted structure at this region on the PNRSV RNA that, when stabilized by the presence of Mg(2+), lost its capability to bind the coat protein. The existence of two mutually exclusive conformations for the 3'-NTR of PNRSV strongly suggests a similar regulatory mechanism at the 3'-NTR level in Alfamo- and Ilarvirus genera.

  20. The coat protein of prunus necrotic ringspot virus specifically binds to and regulates the conformation of its genomic RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparicio, Frederic; Vilar, Marcal; Perez-Paya, Enrique; Pallas, Vicente

    2003-01-01

    Binding of coat protein (CP) to the 3' nontranslated region (3'-NTR) of viral RNAs is a crucial requirement to establish the infection of Alfamo- and Ilarviruses. In vitro binding properties of the Prunus necrotic ringspot ilarvirus (PNRSV) CP to the 3'-NTR of its genomic RNA using purified E. coli- expressed CP and different synthetic peptides corresponding to a 26-residue sequence near the N-terminus were investigated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. PNRSV CP bound to, at least, three different sites existing on the 3'-NTR. Moreover, the N-terminal region between amino acid residues 25 to 50 of the protein could function as an independent RNA-binding domain. Single exchange of some arginine residues by alanine eliminated the RNA-interaction capacity of the synthetic peptides, consistent with a crucial role for Arg residues common to many RNA-binding proteins possessing Arg-rich domains. Circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed that the RNA conformation is altered when amino-terminal CP peptides bind to the viral RNA. Finally, mutational analysis of the 3'-NTR suggested the presence of a pseudoknotted structure at this region on the PNRSV RNA that, when stabilized by the presence of Mg 2+ , lost its capability to bind the coat protein. The existence of two mutually exclusive conformations for the 3'-NTR of PNRSV strongly suggests a similar regulatory mechanism at the 3'-NTR level in Alfamo- and Ilarvirus genera

  1. MicroRNA repertoire for functional genome research in tilapia identified by deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Biao; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Zhu, Chang-Dong; Guo, Jin-Tao; Zhao, Jin-Liang

    2014-08-01

    The Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus; Cichlidae) is an economically important species in aquaculture and occupies a prominent position in the aquaculture industry. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression involved in diverse biological and metabolic processes. To increase the repertoire of miRNAs characterized in tilapia, we used the Illumina/Solexa sequencing technology to sequence a small RNA library using pooled RNA sample isolated from the different developmental stages of tilapia. Bioinformatic analyses suggest that 197 conserved and 27 novel miRNAs are expressed in tilapia. Sequence alignments indicate that all tested miRNAs and miRNAs* are highly conserved across many species. In addition, we characterized the tissue expression patterns of five miRNAs using real-time quantitative PCR. We found that miR-1/206, miR-7/9, and miR-122 is abundantly expressed in muscle, brain, and liver, respectively, implying a potential role in the regulation of tissue differentiation or the maintenance of tissue identity. Overall, our results expand the number of tilapia miRNAs, and the discovery of miRNAs in tilapia genome contributes to a better understanding the role of miRNAs in regulating diverse biological processes.

  2. tRNA gene diversity in the three domains of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke eFujishima

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Transfer RNA (tRNA is widely known for its key role in decoding mRNA into protein. Despite their necessity and relatively short nucleotide sequences, a large diversity of gene structures and RNA secondary structures of pre-tRNAs and mature tRNAs have recently been discovered in the three domains of life. Growing evidences of disrupted tRNA genes in the genomes of Archaea reveals unique gene structures such as, intron-containing tRNA, split tRNA, and permuted tRNA. Coding sequence for these tRNAs are either separated with introns, fragmented, or permuted at the genome level. Although evolutionary scenario behind the tRNA gene disruption is still unclear, diversity of tRNA structure seems to be co-evolved with their processing enzyme, so-called RNA splicing endonuclease. Metazoan mitochondrial tRNAs (mtRNAs are known for their unique lack of either one or two arms from the typical tRNA cloverleaf structure, while still maintaining functionality. Recently identified nematode-specific V-arm containing tRNAs (nev-tRNAs possess long variable arms that are specific to eukaryotic class II tRNASer and tRNALeu but also decode class I tRNA codons. Moreover, many tRNA-like sequences have been found in the genomes of different organisms and viruses. Thus this review is aimed to cover the latest knowledge on tRNA gene diversity and further recapitulate the evolutionary and biological aspects that caused such uniqueness.

  3. West Nile virus circulation in South-Eastern Romania, 2011 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinu, S; Cotar, A I; Pănculescu-Gătej, I R; Fălcuţă, E; Prioteasa, F L; Sîrbu, A; Oprişan, G; Bădescu, D; Reiter, P; Ceianu, C S

    2015-05-21

    Lineage 2 West Nile virus (WNV), previously found only in sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar, was identified in Hungary in 2004 and has rapidly expanded in Europe in the past decade. Following a significant outbreak of West Nile fever with neurological cases caused by lineage 1 WNV in Romania in 1996, scattered cases have been recorded in the south-east of the country in each transmission season. Another outbreak, affecting a larger area and caused by lineage 2 WNV, was recorded in 2010. We analysed human sera from neuroinvasive West Nile fever cases and mosquitoes, sampled in south-eastern Romania between 2011 and 2013, for the presence of WNV genome, and obtained partial NS5 and envelope glycoprotein sequences. Human- and mosquito-derived WNV sequences were highly similar (99%) to Volgograd 2007 lineage 2 WNV and differed from isolates previously detected in central and southern Europe. WNV was detected in one pool of Culex pipiens s.l. males, documenting vertical transmission. Lineage 4 WNV, of unknown pathogenicity to mammals, was found in the amphibian-feeding mosquito Uranotaenia unguiculata from the Danube Delta. Our results present molecular evidence for the maintenance of the same isolates of Volgograd 2007-like lineage 2 WNV in south-eastern Romania between 2011 and 2013.

  4. Genome-wide siRNA-based functional genomics of pigmentation identifies novel genes and pathways that impact melanogenesis in human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand K Ganesan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Melanin protects the skin and eyes from the harmful effects of UV irradiation, protects neural cells from toxic insults, and is required for sound conduction in the inner ear. Aberrant regulation of melanogenesis underlies skin disorders (melasma and vitiligo, neurologic disorders (Parkinson's disease, auditory disorders (Waardenburg's syndrome, and opthalmologic disorders (age related macular degeneration. Much of the core synthetic machinery driving melanin production has been identified; however, the spectrum of gene products participating in melanogenesis in different physiological niches is poorly understood. Functional genomics based on RNA-mediated interference (RNAi provides the opportunity to derive unbiased comprehensive collections of pharmaceutically tractable single gene targets supporting melanin production. In this study, we have combined a high-throughput, cell-based, one-well/one-gene screening platform with a genome-wide arrayed synthetic library of chemically synthesized, small interfering RNAs to identify novel biological pathways that govern melanin biogenesis in human melanocytes. Ninety-two novel genes that support pigment production were identified with a low false discovery rate. Secondary validation and preliminary mechanistic studies identified a large panel of targets that converge on tyrosinase expression and stability. Small molecule inhibition of a family of gene products in this class was sufficient to impair chronic tyrosinase expression in pigmented melanoma cells and UV-induced tyrosinase expression in primary melanocytes. Isolation of molecular machinery known to support autophagosome biosynthesis from this screen, together with in vitro and in vivo validation, exposed a close functional relationship between melanogenesis and autophagy. In summary, these studies illustrate the power of RNAi-based functional genomics to identify novel genes, pathways, and pharmacologic agents that impact a biological phenotype

  5. Seeing the forest for the trees: annotating small RNA producing genes in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coruh, Ceyda; Shahid, Saima; Axtell, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    A key goal in genomics is the complete annotation of the expressed regions of the genome. In plants, substantial portions of the genome make regulatory small RNAs produced by Dicer-Like (DCL) proteins and utilized by Argonaute (AGO) proteins. These include miRNAs and various types of endogenous siRNAs. Small RNA-seq, enabled by cheap and fast DNA sequencing, has produced an enormous volume of data on plant miRNA and siRNA expression in recent years. In this review, we discuss recent progress in using small RNA-seq data to produce stable and reliable annotations of miRNA and siRNA genes in plants. In addition, we highlight key goals for the future of small RNA gene annotation in plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Microbial diversity and activity in the Nematostella vectensis holobiont: insights from 16S rRNA gene sequencing, isolate genomes, and a pilot-scale survey of gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Yi Har

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We have characterized the molecular and genomic diversity of the microbiota of the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, a cnidarian model for comparative developmental and functional biology and a year-round inhabitant of temperate salt marshes. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed four ribotypes associated with N. vectensis at multiple locations and times. These associates include two novel ribotypes within the ε-Proteobacterial order Campylobacterales and the Spirochetes, respectively, each sharing 99% 16S rRNA identity with Endozoicomonas elysicola and Pseudomonas oleovorans, respectively. Species-specific PCR revealed that these populations persisted in N. vectensis asexually propagated under laboratory conditions. cDNA indicated expression of the Campylobacterales and Endozoicomonas 16S rRNA in anemones from Sippewissett Marsh, MA. A collection of bacteria from laboratory raised N. vectensis was dominated by isolates from P. oleovorans and Rhizobium radiobacter. Isolates from field-collected anemones revealed an association with Limnobacter and Stappia isolates. Genomic DNA sequencing was carried out on 10 cultured bacterial isolates representing field- and laboratory-associates, i.e. Limnobacter spp., Stappia spp., P. oleovorans and R. radiobacter. Genomes contained multiple genes identified as virulence (host-association factors while S. stellulata and L. thiooxidans genomes revealed pathways for mixotrophic sulfur oxidation. A pilot metatranscriptome of laboratory-raised N. vectensis was compared to the isolate genomes and indicated expression of ORFs from L. thiooxidans with predicted functions of motility, nutrient scavenging (Fe and P, polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis for carbon storage, and selective permeability (porins. We hypothesize that such activities may mediate acclimation and persistence of bacteria in N. vectensis.

  7. DBR1 siRNA inhibition of HIV-1 replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naidu Yathi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 and all retroviruses are related to retroelements of simpler organisms such as the yeast Ty elements. Recent work has suggested that the yeast retroelement Ty1 replicates via an unexpected RNA lariat intermediate in cDNA synthesis. The putative genomic RNA lariat intermediate is formed by a 2'-5' phosphodiester bond, like that found in pre-mRNA intron lariats and it facilitates the minus-strand template switch during cDNA synthesis. We hypothesized that HIV-1 might also form a genomic RNA lariat and therefore that siRNA-mediated inhibition of expression of the human RNA lariat de-branching enzyme (DBR1 expression would specifically inhibit HIV-1 replication. Results We designed three short interfering RNA (siRNA molecules targeting DBR1, which were capable of reducing DBR1 mRNA expression by 80% and did not significantly affect cell viability. We assessed HIV-1 replication in the presence of DBR1 siRNA and found that DBR1 knockdown led to decreases in viral cDNA and protein production. These effects could be reversed by cotransfection of a DBR1 cDNA indicating that the inhibition of HIV-1 replication was a specific effect of DBR1 underexpression. Conclusion These data suggest that DBR1 function may be needed to debranch a putative HIV-1 genomic RNA lariat prior to completion of reverse transcription.

  8. RADIA: RNA and DNA integrated analysis for somatic mutation detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amie J Radenbaugh

    Full Text Available The detection of somatic single nucleotide variants is a crucial component to the characterization of the cancer genome. Mutation calling algorithms thus far have focused on comparing the normal and tumor genomes from the same individual. In recent years, it has become routine for projects like The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA to also sequence the tumor RNA. Here we present RADIA (RNA and DNA Integrated Analysis, a novel computational method combining the patient-matched normal and tumor DNA with the tumor RNA to detect somatic mutations. The inclusion of the RNA increases the power to detect somatic mutations, especially at low DNA allelic frequencies. By integrating an individual's DNA and RNA, we are able to detect mutations that would otherwise be missed by traditional algorithms that examine only the DNA. We demonstrate high sensitivity (84% and very high precision (98% and 99% for RADIA in patient data from endometrial carcinoma and lung adenocarcinoma from TCGA. Mutations with both high DNA and RNA read support have the highest validation rate of over 99%. We also introduce a simulation package that spikes in artificial mutations to patient data, rather than simulating sequencing data from a reference genome. We evaluate sensitivity on the simulation data and demonstrate our ability to rescue back mutations at low DNA allelic frequencies by including the RNA. Finally, we highlight mutations in important cancer genes that were rescued due to the incorporation of the RNA.

  9. Analysis of Genome-Scale Data

    OpenAIRE

    Kemmeren, P.P.C.W.

    2005-01-01

    The genetic material of every cell in an organism is stored inside DNA in the form of genes, which together form the genome. The information stored in the DNA is translated to RNA and subsequently to proteins, which form complex biological systems. The availability of whole genome sequences has given rise to the parallel development of other high-throughput approaches such as determining mRNA expression level changes, gene-deletion phenotypes, chromosomal location of DNA binding proteins, cel...

  10. Genome comparison of barley and maize smut fungi reveals targeted loss of RNA silencing components and species-specific presence of transposable elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, John D; Ali, Shawkat; Linning, Rob; Mannhaupt, Gertrud; Wong, Philip; Güldener, Ulrich; Münsterkötter, Martin; Moore, Richard; Kahmann, Regine; Bakkeren, Guus; Schirawski, Jan

    2012-05-01

    Ustilago hordei is a biotrophic parasite of barley (Hordeum vulgare). After seedling infection, the fungus persists in the plant until head emergence when fungal spores develop and are released from sori formed at kernel positions. The 26.1-Mb U. hordei genome contains 7113 protein encoding genes with high synteny to the smaller genomes of the related, maize-infecting smut fungi Ustilago maydis and Sporisorium reilianum but has a larger repeat content that affected genome evolution at important loci, including mating-type and effector loci. The U. hordei genome encodes components involved in RNA interference and heterochromatin formation, normally involved in genome defense, that are lacking in the U. maydis genome due to clean excision events. These excision events were possibly a result of former presence of repetitive DNA and of an efficient homologous recombination system in U. maydis. We found evidence of repeat-induced point mutations in the genome of U. hordei, indicating that smut fungi use different strategies to counteract the deleterious effects of repetitive DNA. The complement of U. hordei effector genes is comparable to the other two smuts but reveals differences in family expansion and clustering. The availability of the genome sequence will facilitate the identification of genes responsible for virulence and evolution of smut fungi on their respective hosts.

  11. A Method to Predict the Structure and Stability of RNA/RNA Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaojun; Chen, Shi-Jie

    2016-01-01

    RNA/RNA interactions are essential for genomic RNA dimerization and regulation of gene expression. Intermolecular loop-loop base pairing is a widespread and functionally important tertiary structure motif in RNA machinery. However, computational prediction of intermolecular loop-loop base pairing is challenged by the entropy and free energy calculation due to the conformational constraint and the intermolecular interactions. In this chapter, we describe a recently developed statistical mechanics-based method for the prediction of RNA/RNA complex structures and stabilities. The method is based on the virtual bond RNA folding model (Vfold). The main emphasis in the method is placed on the evaluation of the entropy and free energy for the loops, especially tertiary kissing loops. The method also uses recursive partition function calculations and two-step screening algorithm for large, complicated structures of RNA/RNA complexes. As case studies, we use the HIV-1 Mal dimer and the siRNA/HIV-1 mutant (T4) to illustrate the method.

  12. The bipartite mitochondrial genome of Ruizia karukerae (Rhigonematomorpha, Nematoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taeho; Kern, Elizabeth; Park, Chungoo; Nadler, Steven A; Bae, Yeon Jae; Park, Joong-Ki

    2018-05-10

    Mitochondrial genes and whole mitochondrial genome sequences are widely used as molecular markers in studying population genetics and resolving both deep and shallow nodes in phylogenetics. In animals the mitochondrial genome is generally composed of a single chromosome, but mystifying exceptions sometimes occur. We determined the complete mitochondrial genome of the millipede-parasitic nematode Ruizia karukerae and found its mitochondrial genome consists of two circular chromosomes, which is highly unusual in bilateral animals. Chromosome I is 7,659 bp and includes six protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes and nine tRNA genes. Chromosome II comprises 7,647 bp, with seven protein-coding genes and 16 tRNA genes. Interestingly, both chromosomes share a 1,010 bp sequence containing duplicate copies of cox2 and three tRNA genes (trnD, trnG and trnH), and the nucleotide sequences between the duplicated homologous gene copies are nearly identical, suggesting a possible recent genesis for this bipartite mitochondrial genome. Given that little is known about the formation, maintenance or evolution of abnormal mitochondrial genome structures, R. karukerae mtDNA may provide an important early glimpse into this process.

  13. The RNA synthesis machinery of negative-stranded RNA viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortín, Juan; Martín-Benito, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    The group of Negative-Stranded RNA Viruses (NSVs) includes many human pathogens, like the influenza, measles, mumps, respiratory syncytial or Ebola viruses, which produce frequent epidemics of disease and occasional, high mortality outbreaks by transmission from animal reservoirs. The genome of NSVs consists of one to several single-stranded, negative-polarity RNA molecules that are always assembled into mega Dalton-sized complexes by association to many nucleoprotein monomers. These RNA-protein complexes or ribonucleoproteins function as templates for transcription and replication by action of the viral RNA polymerase and accessory proteins. Here we review our knowledge on these large RNA-synthesis machines, including the structure of their components, the interactions among them and their enzymatic activities, and we discuss models showing how they perform the virus transcription and replication programmes. - Highlights: • Overall organisation of NSV RNA synthesis machines. • Structure and function of the ribonucleoprotein components: Atomic structure of the RNA polymerase complex. • Commonalities and differences between segmented- and non-segmented NSVs. • Transcription versus replication programmes

  14. The RNA synthesis machinery of negative-stranded RNA viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortín, Juan, E-mail: jortin@cnb.csic.es [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología (CSIC) and CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias (ISCIII), Madrid (Spain); Martín-Benito, Jaime, E-mail: jmartinb@cnb.csic.es [Department of Macromolecular Structures, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología (CSIC), Madrid (Spain)

    2015-05-15

    The group of Negative-Stranded RNA Viruses (NSVs) includes many human pathogens, like the influenza, measles, mumps, respiratory syncytial or Ebola viruses, which produce frequent epidemics of disease and occasional, high mortality outbreaks by transmission from animal reservoirs. The genome of NSVs consists of one to several single-stranded, negative-polarity RNA molecules that are always assembled into mega Dalton-sized complexes by association to many nucleoprotein monomers. These RNA-protein complexes or ribonucleoproteins function as templates for transcription and replication by action of the viral RNA polymerase and accessory proteins. Here we review our knowledge on these large RNA-synthesis machines, including the structure of their components, the interactions among them and their enzymatic activities, and we discuss models showing how they perform the virus transcription and replication programmes. - Highlights: • Overall organisation of NSV RNA synthesis machines. • Structure and function of the ribonucleoprotein components: Atomic structure of the RNA polymerase complex. • Commonalities and differences between segmented- and non-segmented NSVs. • Transcription versus replication programmes.

  15. Nonreplicative RNA Recombination of an Animal Plus-Strand RNA Virus in the Absence of Efficient Translation of Viral Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine Büning, Maximiliane; Meyer, Denise; Austermann-Busch, Sophia; Roman-Sosa, Gleyder; Rümenapf, Tillmann

    2017-01-01

    RNA recombination is a major driving force for the evolution of RNA viruses and is significantly implicated in the adaptation of viruses to new hosts, changes of virulence, as well as in the emergence of new viruses including drug-resistant and escape mutants. However, the molecular details of recombination in animal RNA viruses are only poorly understood. In order to determine whether viral RNA recombination depends on translation of viral proteins, a nonreplicative recombination system was established which is based on cotransfection of cells with synthetic bovine viral diarrhea virus (family Flaviviridae) RNA genome fragments either lacking the internal ribosome entry site required for cap-independent translation or lacking almost the complete polyprotein coding region. The emergence of a number of recombinant viruses demonstrated that IRES-mediated translation of viral proteins is dispensable for efficient recombination and suggests that RNA recombination can occur in the absence of viral proteins. Analyses of 58 independently emerged viruses led to the detection of recombinant genomes with duplications, deletions and insertions in the 5′ terminal region of the open reading frame, leading to enlarged core fusion proteins detectable by Western blot analysis. This demonstrates a remarkable flexibility of the pestivirus core protein. Further experiments with capped and uncapped genome fragments containing a luciferase gene for monitoring the level of protein translation revealed that even a ∼1,000-fold enhancement of translation of viral proteins did not increase the frequency of RNA recombination. Taken together, this study highlights that nonreplicative RNA recombination does not require translation of viral proteins. PMID:28338950

  16. Transposable-element associated small RNAs in Bombyx mori genome.

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    Yimei Cai

    Full Text Available Small RNAs are a group of regulatory RNA molecules that control gene expression at transcriptional or post-transcriptional levels among eukaryotes. The silkworm, Bombyx mori L., genome harbors abundant repetitive sequences derived from families of retrotransposons and transposons, which together constitute almost half of the genome space and provide ample resource for biogenesis of the three major small RNA families. We systematically discovered transposable-element (TE-associated small RNAs in B. mori genome based on a deep RNA-sequencing strategy and the effort yielded 182, 788 and 4,990 TE-associated small RNAs in the miRNA, siRNA and piRNA species, respectively. Our analysis suggested that the three small RNA species preferentially associate with different TEs to create sequence and functional diversity, and we also show evidence that a Bombyx non-LTR retrotransposon, bm1645, alone contributes to the generation of TE-associated small RNAs in a very significant way. The fact that bm1645-associated small RNAs partially overlap with each other implies a possibility that this element may be modulated by different mechanisms to generate different products with diverse functions. Taken together, these discoveries expand the small RNA pool in B. mori genome and lead to new knowledge on the diversity and functional significance of TE-associated small RNAs.

  17. Genome-wide siRNA Screening at Biosafety Level 4 Reveals a Crucial Role for Fibrillarin in Henipavirus Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celine Deffrasnes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hendra and Nipah viruses (genus Henipavirus, family Paramyxoviridae are highly pathogenic bat-borne viruses. The need for high biocontainment when studying henipaviruses has hindered the development of therapeutics and knowledge of the viral infection cycle. We have performed a genome-wide siRNA screen at biosafety level 4 that identified 585 human proteins required for henipavirus infection. The host protein with the largest impact was fibrillarin, a nucleolar methyltransferase that was also required by measles, mumps and respiratory syncytial viruses for infection. While not required for cell entry, henipavirus RNA and protein syntheses were greatly impaired in cells lacking fibrillarin, indicating a crucial role in the RNA replication phase of infection. During infection, the Hendra virus matrix protein co-localized with fibrillarin in cell nucleoli, and co-associated as a complex in pulldown studies, while its nuclear import was unaffected in fibrillarin-depleted cells. Mutagenesis studies showed that the methyltransferase activity of fibrillarin was required for henipavirus infection, suggesting that this enzyme could be targeted therapeutically to combat henipavirus infections.

  18. The First Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequences in Actinidiaceae: Genome Structure and Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiaohong; Tang, Ping; Li, Zuozhou; Li, Dawei; Liu, Yifei; Huang, Hongwen

    2015-01-01

    Actinidia chinensis is an important economic plant belonging to the basal lineage of the asterids. Availability of a complete Actinidia chloroplast genome sequence is crucial to understanding phylogenetic relationships among major lineages of angiosperms and facilitates kiwifruit genetic improvement. We report here the complete nucleotide sequences of the chloroplast genomes for Actinidia chinensis and A. chinensis var deliciosa obtained through de novo assembly of Illumina paired-end reads produced by total DNA sequencing. The total genome size ranges from 155,446 to 157,557 bp, with an inverted repeat (IR) of 24,013 to 24,391 bp, a large single copy region (LSC) of 87,984 to 88,337 bp and a small single copy region (SSC) of 20,332 to 20,336 bp. The genome encodes 113 different genes, including 79 unique protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes and 4 ribosomal RNA genes, with 16 duplicated in the inverted repeats, and a tRNA gene (trnfM-CAU) duplicated once in the LSC region. Comparisons of IR boundaries among four asterid species showed that IR/LSC borders were extended into the 5' portion of the psbA gene and IR contraction occurred in Actinidia. The clap gene has been lost from the chloroplast genome in Actinidia, and may have been transferred to the nucleus during chloroplast evolution. Twenty-seven polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci were identified in the Actinidia chloroplast genome. Maximum parsimony analyses of a 72-gene, 16 taxa angiosperm dataset strongly support the placement of Actinidiaceae in Ericales within the basal asterids.

  19. Multifaceted regulation of translational readthrough by RNA replication elements in a tombusvirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A Cimino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Translational readthrough of stop codons by ribosomes is a recoding event used by a variety of viruses, including plus-strand RNA tombusviruses. Translation of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp in tombusviruses is mediated using this strategy and we have investigated this process using a variety of in vitro and in vivo approaches. Our results indicate that readthrough generating the RdRp requires a novel long-range RNA-RNA interaction, spanning a distance of ∼3.5 kb, which occurs between a large RNA stem-loop located 3'-proximal to the stop codon and an RNA replication structure termed RIV at the 3'-end of the viral genome. Interestingly, this long-distance RNA-RNA interaction is modulated by mutually-exclusive RNA structures in RIV that represent a type of RNA switch. Moreover, a different long-range RNA-RNA interaction that was previously shown to be necessary for viral RNA replicase assembly was also required for efficient readthrough production of the RdRp. Accordingly, multiple replication-associated RNA elements are involved in modulating the readthrough event in tombusviruses and we propose an integrated mechanistic model to describe how this regulatory network could be advantageous by (i providing a quality control system for culling truncated viral genomes at an early stage in the replication process, (ii mediating cis-preferential replication of viral genomes, and (iii coordinating translational readthrough of the RdRp with viral genome replication. Based on comparative sequence analysis and experimental data, basic elements of this regulatory model extend to other members of Tombusviridae, as well as to viruses outside of this family.

  20. Ensembl Genomes 2016: more genomes, more complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersey, Paul Julian; Allen, James E; Armean, Irina; Boddu, Sanjay; Bolt, Bruce J; Carvalho-Silva, Denise; Christensen, Mikkel; Davis, Paul; Falin, Lee J; Grabmueller, Christoph; Humphrey, Jay; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Khobova, Julia; Aranganathan, Naveen K; Langridge, Nicholas; Lowy, Ernesto; McDowall, Mark D; Maheswari, Uma; Nuhn, Michael; Ong, Chuang Kee; Overduin, Bert; Paulini, Michael; Pedro, Helder; Perry, Emily; Spudich, Giulietta; Tapanari, Electra; Walts, Brandon; Williams, Gareth; Tello-Ruiz, Marcela; Stein, Joshua; Wei, Sharon; Ware, Doreen; Bolser, Daniel M; Howe, Kevin L; Kulesha, Eugene; Lawson, Daniel; Maslen, Gareth; Staines, Daniel M

    2016-01-04

    Ensembl Genomes (http://www.ensemblgenomes.org) is an integrating resource for genome-scale data from non-vertebrate species, complementing the resources for vertebrate genomics developed in the context of the Ensembl project (http://www.ensembl.org). Together, the two resources provide a consistent set of programmatic and interactive interfaces to a rich range of data including reference sequence, gene models, transcriptional data, genetic variation and comparative analysis. This paper provides an update to the previous publications about the resource, with a focus on recent developments. These include the development of new analyses and views to represent polyploid genomes (of which bread wheat is the primary exemplar); and the continued up-scaling of the resource, which now includes over 23 000 bacterial genomes, 400 fungal genomes and 100 protist genomes, in addition to 55 genomes from invertebrate metazoa and 39 genomes from plants. This dramatic increase in the number of included genomes is one part of a broader effort to automate the integration of archival data (genome sequence, but also associated RNA sequence data and variant calls) within the context of reference genomes and make it available through the Ensembl user interfaces. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. Alternative splicing of human elastin mRNA indicated by sequence analysis of cloned genomic and complementary DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indik, Z.; Yeh, H.; Ornstein-goldstein, N.; Sheppard, P.; Anderson, N.; Rosenbloom, J.C.; Peltonen, L.; Rosenbloom, J.

    1987-01-01

    Poly(A) + RNA, isolated from a single 7-mo fetal human aorta, was used to synthesize cDNA by the RNase H method, and the cDNA was inserted into λgt10. Recombinant phage containing elastin sequences were identified by hybridization with cloned, exon-containing fragments of the human elastin gene. Three clones containing inserts of 3.3, 2.7, and 2.3 kilobases were selected for further analysis. Three overlapping clones containing 17.8 kilobases of the human elastin gene were also isolated from genomic libraries. Complete sequence analysis of the six clones demonstrated that: (i) the cDNA encompassed the entire translated portion of the mRNA encoding 786 amino acids, including several unusual hydrophilic amino acid sequences not previously identified in porcine tropoelastin, (ii) exons encoding either hydrophobic or crosslinking domains in the protein alternated in the gene, and (iii) a great abundance of Alu repetitive sequences occurred throughout the introns. The data also indicated substantial alternative splicing of the mRNA. These results suggest the potential for significant variation in the precise molecular structure of the elastic fiber in the human population

  2. In vitro synthesis of minus-strand RNA by an isolated cereal yellow dwarf virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase requires VPg and a stem-loop structure at the 3' end of the virus RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Toba A M; Coutts, Robert H A; Buck, Kenneth W

    2006-11-01

    Cereal yellow dwarf virus (CYDV) RNA has a 5'-terminal genome-linked protein (VPg). We have expressed the VPg region of the CYDV genome in bacteria and used the purified protein (bVPg) to raise an antiserum which was able to detect free VPg in extracts of CYDV-infected oat plants. A template-dependent RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) has been produced from a CYDV membrane-bound RNA polymerase by treatment with BAL 31 nuclease. The RdRp was template specific, being able to utilize templates from CYDV plus- and minus-strand RNAs but not those of three unrelated viruses, Red clover necrotic mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaic virus, and Tobacco mosaic virus. RNA synthesis catalyzed by the RdRp required a 3'-terminal GU sequence and the presence of bVPg. Additionally, synthesis of minus-strand RNA on a plus-strand RNA template required the presence of a putative stem-loop structure near the 3' terminus of CYDV RNA. The base-paired stem, a single-nucleotide (A) bulge in the stem, and the sequence of a tetraloop were all required for the template activity. Evidence was produced showing that minus-strand synthesis in vitro was initiated by priming by bVPg at the 3' end of the template. The data are consistent with a model in which the RdRp binds to the stem-loop structure which positions the active site to recognize the 3'-terminal GU sequence for initiation of RNA synthesis by the addition of an A residue to VPg.

  3. [Satellite RNA (RNA3) of tomato black ring virus is found with one of the 2 major RNAs (RNA2) in a new capsid nucleoprotein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doz, B; Dunez, J; Bove, J M

    1977-12-19

    Tomato Black Ring Virus (TBRV) like other NEPOviruses posseses two nucleoproteins M and B and two major RNAs, RNA1 and RNA2 respectively distributed in B and M. A new nucleoprotein has just been discovered and comprises one molecule of RNA2 associated with one molecule of RNA3. RNA3 is a small RNA of molecular weight 500,000 d considered to be a satellite RNA. Its level appears to depend on the infection stage, local or systemic. RNA3 is able to modify the relative proportions of nucleoproteins M and B and their respective RNAs. The satellite RNA, might be part of the genome and represent a monocistronic mRNA for protein capsid synthesis. However it seems perhaps more tempting to correlate TBRV-RNA3 with satellite RNA5 of certain strains of Cucumber mosaic virus.

  4. From structure prediction to genomic screens for novel non-coding RNAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorodkin, Jan; Hofacker, Ivo L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are receiving more and more attention not only as an abundant class of genes, but also as regulatory structural elements (some located in mRNAs). A key feature of RNA function is its structure. Computational methods were developed early for folding and prediction....... This and the increased amount of available genomes have made it possible to employ structure-based methods for genomic screens. The field has moved from folding prediction of single sequences to computational screens for ncRNAs in genomic sequence using the RNA structure as the main characteristic feature. Whereas early...... upon some of the concepts in current methods that have been applied in genomic screens for de novo RNA structures in searches for novel ncRNA genes and regulatory RNA structure on mRNAs. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the different strategies and how they can complement each other....

  5. Genome sequencing and annotation of Stenotrophomonas sp. SAM8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy Selim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report draft genome sequence of Stenotrophomonas sp. strain SAM8, isolated from environmental water. The draft genome size is 3,665,538 bp with a G + C content of 67.2% and contains 6 rRNA sequence (single copies of 5S, 16S & 23S rRNA. The genome sequence can be accessed at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession no. LDAV00000000.

  6. Quality scores for 32,000 genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Land, Miriam L.; Hyatt, Doug; Jun, Se-Ran

    2014-01-01

    Background More than 80% of the microbial genomes in GenBank are of ‘draft’ quality (12,553 draft vs. 2,679 finished, as of October, 2013). We have examined all the microbial DNA sequences available for complete, draft, and Sequence Read Archive genomes in GenBank as well as three other major...... public databases, and assigned quality scores for more than 30,000 prokaryotic genome sequences. Results Scores were assigned using four categories: the completeness of the assembly, the presence of full-length rRNA genes, tRNA composition and the presence of a set of 102 conserved genes in prokaryotes....... Most (~88%) of the genomes had quality scores of 0.8 or better and can be safely used for standard comparative genomics analysis. We compared genomes across factors that may influence the score. We found that although sequencing depth coverage of over 100x did not ensure a better score, sequencing read...

  7. Microbial diversity and activity in the Nematostella vectensis holobiont: insights from 16S rRNA gene sequencing, isolate genomes, and a pilot-scale survey of gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Har, Jia Y; Helbig, Tim; Lim, Ju H; Fernando, Samodha C; Reitzel, Adam M; Penn, Kevin; Thompson, Janelle R

    2015-01-01

    We have characterized the molecular and genomic diversity of the microbiota of the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, a cnidarian model for comparative developmental and functional biology and a year-round inhabitant of temperate salt marshes. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed four ribotypes associated with N. vectensis at multiple locations and times. These associates include two novel ribotypes within the ε-Proteobacterial order Campylobacterales and the Spirochetes, respectively, each sharing 99% 16S rRNA identity with Endozoicomonas elysicola and Pseudomonas oleovorans, respectively. Species-specific PCR revealed that these populations persisted in N. vectensis asexually propagated under laboratory conditions. cDNA indicated expression of the Campylobacterales and Endozoicomonas 16S rRNA in anemones from Sippewissett Marsh, MA. A collection of bacteria from laboratory raised N. vectensis was dominated by isolates from P. oleovorans and Rhizobium radiobacter. Isolates from field-collected anemones revealed an association with Limnobacter and Stappia isolates. Genomic DNA sequencing was carried out on 10 cultured bacterial isolates representing field- and laboratory-associates, i.e., Limnobacter spp., Stappia spp., P. oleovorans and R. radiobacter. Genomes contained multiple genes identified as virulence (host-association) factors while S. stellulata and L. thiooxidans genomes revealed pathways for mixotrophic sulfur oxidation. A pilot metatranscriptome of laboratory-raised N. vectensis was compared to the isolate genomes and indicated expression of ORFs from L. thiooxidans with predicted functions of motility, nutrient scavenging (Fe and P), polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis for carbon storage, and selective permeability (porins). We hypothesize that such activities may mediate acclimation and persistence of bacteria in a N. vectensis holobiont defined by both internal and external gradients of chemicals and

  8. Biochemical characterization of a recombinant Japanese encephalitis virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Chan-Mi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV NS5 is a viral nonstructural protein that carries both methyltransferase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp domains. It is a key component of the viral RNA replicase complex that presumably includes other viral nonstructural and cellular proteins. The biochemical properties of JEV NS5 have not been characterized due to the lack of a robust in vitro RdRp assay system, and the molecular mechanisms for the initiation of RNA synthesis by JEV NS5 remain to be elucidated. Results To characterize the biochemical properties of JEV RdRp, we expressed in Escherichia coli and purified an enzymatically active full-length recombinant JEV NS5 protein with a hexahistidine tag at the N-terminus. The purified NS5 protein, but not the mutant NS5 protein with an Ala substitution at the first Asp of the RdRp-conserved GDD motif, exhibited template- and primer-dependent RNA synthesis activity using a poly(A RNA template. The NS5 protein was able to use both plus- and minus-strand 3'-untranslated regions of the JEV genome as templates in the absence of a primer, with the latter RNA being a better template. Analysis of the RNA synthesis initiation site using the 3'-end 83 nucleotides of the JEV genome as a minimal RNA template revealed that the NS5 protein specifically initiates RNA synthesis from an internal site, U81, at the two nucleotides upstream of the 3'-end of the template. Conclusion As a first step toward the understanding of the molecular mechanisms for JEV RNA replication and ultimately for the in vitro reconstitution of viral RNA replicase complex, we for the first time established an in vitro JEV RdRp assay system with a functional full-length recombinant JEV NS5 protein and characterized the mechanisms of RNA synthesis from nonviral and viral RNA templates. The full-length recombinant JEV NS5 will be useful for the elucidation of the structure-function relationship of this enzyme and for the

  9. SL1 revisited: functional analysis of the structure and conformation of HIV-1 genome RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuragi, Sayuri; Yokoyama, Masaru; Shioda, Tatsuo; Sato, Hironori; Sakuragi, Jun-Ichi

    2016-11-11

    The dimer initiation site/dimer linkage sequence (DIS/DLS) region of HIV is located on the 5' end of the viral genome and suggested to form complex secondary/tertiary structures. Within this structure, stem-loop 1 (SL1) is believed to be most important and an essential key to dimerization, since the sequence and predicted secondary structure of SL1 are highly stable and conserved among various virus subtypes. In particular, a six-base palindromic sequence is always present at the hairpin loop of SL1 and the formation of kissing-loop structure at this position between the two strands of genomic RNA is suggested to trigger dimerization. Although the higher-order structure model of SL1 is well accepted and perhaps even undoubted lately, there could be stillroom for consideration to depict the functional SL1 structure while in vivo (in virion or cell). In this study, we performed several analyses to identify the nucleotides and/or basepairing within SL1 which are necessary for HIV-1 genome dimerization, encapsidation, recombination and infectivity. We unexpectedly found that some nucleotides that are believed to contribute the formation of the stem do not impact dimerization or infectivity. On the other hand, we found that one G-C basepair involved in stem formation may serve as an alternative dimer interactive site. We also report on our further investigation of the roles of the palindromic sequences on viral replication. Collectively, we aim to assemble a more-comprehensive functional map of SL1 on the HIV-1 viral life cycle. We discovered several possibilities for a novel structure of SL1 in HIV-1 DLS. The newly proposed structure model suggested that the hairpin loop of SL1 appeared larger, and genome dimerization process might consist of more complicated mechanism than previously understood. Further investigations would be still required to fully understand the genome packaging and dimerization of HIV.

  10. Novel approaches for bioinformatic analysis of salivary RNA sequencing data for development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczor-Urbanowicz, Karolina Elzbieta; Kim, Yong; Li, Feng; Galeev, Timur; Kitchen, Rob R; Gerstein, Mark; Koyano, Kikuye; Jeong, Sung-Hee; Wang, Xiaoyan; Elashoff, David; Kang, So Young; Kim, Su Mi; Kim, Kyoung; Kim, Sung; Chia, David; Xiao, Xinshu; Rozowsky, Joel; Wong, David T W

    2018-01-01

    Analysis of RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data in human saliva is challenging. Lack of standardization and unification of the bioinformatic procedures undermines saliva's diagnostic potential. Thus, it motivated us to perform this study. We applied principal pipelines for bioinformatic analysis of small RNA-Seq data of saliva of 98 healthy Korean volunteers including either direct or indirect mapping of the reads to the human genome using Bowtie1. Analysis of alignments to exogenous genomes by another pipeline revealed that almost all of the reads map to bacterial genomes. Thus, salivary exRNA has fundamental properties that warrant the design of unique additional steps while performing the bioinformatic analysis. Our pipelines can serve as potential guidelines for processing of RNA-Seq data of human saliva. Processing and analysis results of the experimental data generated by the exceRpt (v4.6.3) small RNA-seq pipeline (github.gersteinlab.org/exceRpt) are available from exRNA atlas (exrna-atlas.org). Alignment to exogenous genomes and their quantification results were used in this paper for the analyses of small RNAs of exogenous origin. dtww@ucla.edu. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. RNA modifications by oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Henrik E; Specht, Elisabeth; Broedbaek, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    to encompass various classes of novel regulatory RNAs, including, e.g., microRNAs. It is well known that DNA is constantly oxidized and repaired by complex genome maintenance mechanisms. Analogously, RNA also undergoes significant oxidation, and there are now convincing data suggesting that oxidation......The past decade has provided exciting insights into a novel class of central (small) RNA molecules intimately involved in gene regulation. Only a small percentage of our DNA is translated into proteins by mRNA, yet 80% or more of the DNA is transcribed into RNA, and this RNA has been found......, and the consequent loss of integrity of RNA, is a mechanism for disease development. Oxidized RNA is found in a large variety of diseases, and interest has been especially devoted to degenerative brain diseases such as Alzheimer disease, in which up to 50-70% of specific mRNA molecules are reported oxidized, whereas...

  12. Transfer of the 3' non-translated region of grapevine chrome mosaic virus RNA-1 by recombination to tomato black ring virus RNA-2 in pseudorecombinant isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, O; Candresse, T; Dunez, J

    1995-05-01

    In grapevine chrome mosaic and tomato black ring viruses (GCMV and TBRV), as in many other nepoviruses, the 3' non-translated regions (3'NTR) are identical between the two genomic RNAs. We have investigated the structure of the 3'NTR of two recombinant isolates which contain GCMV RNA-1 and TBRV RNA-2. In these isolates, the 3'NTR of RNA-1 was transferred to RNA-2, thus restoring the 3' identity. The transfer occurred within three passages, and probably contributes to the spread of randomly appearing mutations from one genomic RNA to the other. The site of recombination is near the 3' end of the open reading frame.

  13. Nonreplicative RNA Recombination of an Animal Plus-Strand RNA Virus in the Absence of Efficient Translation of Viral Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine Büning, Maximiliane; Meyer, Denise; Austermann-Busch, Sophia; Roman-Sosa, Gleyder; Rümenapf, Tillmann; Becher, Paul

    2017-04-01

    RNA recombination is a major driving force for the evolution of RNA viruses and is significantly implicated in the adaptation of viruses to new hosts, changes of virulence, as well as in the emergence of new viruses including drug-resistant and escape mutants. However, the molecular details of recombination in animal RNA viruses are only poorly understood. In order to determine whether viral RNA recombination depends on translation of viral proteins, a nonreplicative recombination system was established which is based on cotransfection of cells with synthetic bovine viral diarrhea virus (family Flaviviridae) RNA genome fragments either lacking the internal ribosome entry site required for cap-independent translation or lacking almost the complete polyprotein coding region. The emergence of a number of recombinant viruses demonstrated that IRES-mediated translation of viral proteins is dispensable for efficient recombination and suggests that RNA recombination can occur in the absence of viral proteins. Analyses of 58 independently emerged viruses led to the detection of recombinant genomes with duplications, deletions and insertions in the 5' terminal region of the open reading frame, leading to enlarged core fusion proteins detectable by Western blot analysis. This demonstrates a remarkable flexibility of the pestivirus core protein. Further experiments with capped and uncapped genome fragments containing a luciferase gene for monitoring the level of protein translation revealed that even a ∼1,000-fold enhancement of translation of viral proteins did not increase the frequency of RNA recombination. Taken together, this study highlights that nonreplicative RNA recombination does not require translation of viral proteins. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  14. Genome-wide mRNA processing in methanogenic archaea reveals post-transcriptional regulation of ribosomal protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Lei; Yue, Lei; Feng, Deqin; Qi, Fengxia; Li, Jie; Dong, Xiuzhu

    2017-07-07

    Unlike stable RNAs that require processing for maturation, prokaryotic cellular mRNAs generally follow an 'all-or-none' pattern. Herein, we used a 5΄ monophosphate transcript sequencing (5΄P-seq) that specifically captured the 5΄-end of processed transcripts and mapped the genome-wide RNA processing sites (PSSs) in a methanogenic archaeon. Following statistical analysis and stringent filtration, we identified 1429 PSSs, among which 23.5% and 5.4% were located in 5΄ untranslated region (uPSS) and intergenic region (iPSS), respectively. A predominant uridine downstream PSSs served as a processing signature. Remarkably, 5΄P-seq detected overrepresented uPSS and iPSS in the polycistronic operons encoding ribosomal proteins, and the majority upstream and proximal ribosome binding sites, suggesting a regulatory role of processing on translation initiation. The processed transcripts showed increased stability and translation efficiency. Particularly, processing within the tricistronic transcript of rplA-rplJ-rplL enhanced the translation of rplL, which can provide a driving force for the 1:4 stoichiometry of L10 to L12 in the ribosome. Growth-associated mRNA processing intensities were also correlated with the cellular ribosomal protein levels, thereby suggesting that mRNA processing is involved in tuning growth-dependent ribosome synthesis. In conclusion, our findings suggest that mRNA processing-mediated post-transcriptional regulation is a potential mechanism of ribosomal protein synthesis and stoichiometry. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  15. Significance of the BRAF mRNA Expression Level in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: An Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Jun Chai

    Full Text Available BRAFV600E is the most common mutation in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC, and it is associated with high-risk prognostic factors. However, the significance of the BRAF mRNA level in PTC remains unknown. We evaluated the significance of BRAF mRNA expression level by analyzing PTC data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA database.Data from 499 patients were downloaded from the TCGA database. After excluding other PTC variants, we selected 353 cases of classic PTC, including 193 cases with BRAFV600E and 160 cases with the wild-type BRAF. mRNA abundances were measured using RNA-Seq with the Expectation Maximization algorithm.The mean BRAF mRNA level was significantly higher in BRAFV600E patients than in patients with wild-type BRAF (197.6 vs. 179.3, p = 0.031. In wild-type BRAF patients, the mean BRAF mRNA level was higher in cases with a tumor > 2 cm than those with a tumor ≤ 2.0 cm (189.4 vs. 163.8, p = 0.046, and was also higher in cases with lymph node metastasis than in those without lymph node metastasis (188.5 vs. 157.9, p = 0.040. Within BRAFV600E patients, higher BRAF mRNA expression was associated with extrathyroidal extension (186.4 vs. 216.4, p = 0.001 and higher T stage (188.1 vs. 210.2, p = 0.016.A higher BRAF mRNA expression level was associated with tumor aggressiveness in classic PTC regardless of BRAF mutational status. Evaluation of BRAF mRNA level may be helpful in prognostic risk stratification of PTC.

  16. Genome-wide identification of microRNA and siRNA responsive to endophytic beneficial diazotrophic bacteria in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiebaut, Flávia; Rojas, Cristian A; Grativol, Clícia; Motta, Mariana Romeiro; Vieira, Tauan; Regulski, Michael; Martienssen, Robert A; Farinelli, Laurent; Hemerly, Adriana S; Ferreira, Paulo C G

    2014-09-06

    Small RNA (sRNA) has been described as a regulator of gene expression. In order to understand the role of maize sRNA (Zea mays-hybrid UENF 506-8) during association with endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacteria, we analyzed the sRNA regulated by its association with two diazotrophic bacteria, Herbaspirillum seropedicae and Azospirillum brasilense. Deep sequencing analysis was done with RNA extracted from plants inoculated with H. seropedicae, allowing the identification of miRNA and siRNA. A total of 25 conserved miRNA families and 15 novel miRNAs were identified. A dynamic regulation in response to inoculation was also observed. A hypothetical model involving copper-miRNA is proposed, emphasizing the fact that the up-regulation of miR397, miR398, miR408 and miR528, which is followed by inhibition of their targets, can facilitate association with diazotrophic bacteria. Similar expression patterns were observed in samples inoculated with A. brasilense. Moreover, novel miRNA and siRNA were classified in the Transposable Elements (TE) database, and an enrichment of siRNA aligned with TE was observed in the inoculated samples. In addition, an increase in 24-nt siRNA mapping to genes was observed, which was correlated with an increase in methylation of the coding regions and a subsequent reduction in transcription. Our results show that maize has RNA-based silencing mechanisms that can trigger specific responses when plants interact with beneficial endophytic diazotrophic bacteria. Our findings suggest important roles for sRNA regulation in maize, and probably in other plants, during association with diazotrophic bacteria, emphasizing the up-regulation of Cu-miRNA.

  17. Disease-associated mutations that alter the RNA structural ensemble.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Halvorsen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS often identify disease-associated mutations in intergenic and non-coding regions of the genome. Given the high percentage of the human genome that is transcribed, we postulate that for some observed associations the disease phenotype is caused by a structural rearrangement in a regulatory region of the RNA transcript. To identify such mutations, we have performed a genome-wide analysis of all known disease-associated Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD that map to the untranslated regions (UTRs of a gene. Rather than using minimum free energy approaches (e.g. mFold, we use a partition function calculation that takes into consideration the ensemble of possible RNA conformations for a given sequence. We identified in the human genome disease-associated SNPs that significantly alter the global conformation of the UTR to which they map. For six disease-states (Hyperferritinemia Cataract Syndrome, beta-Thalassemia, Cartilage-Hair Hypoplasia, Retinoblastoma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD, and Hypertension, we identified multiple SNPs in UTRs that alter the mRNA structural ensemble of the associated genes. Using a Boltzmann sampling procedure for sub-optimal RNA structures, we are able to characterize and visualize the nature of the conformational changes induced by the disease-associated mutations in the structural ensemble. We observe in several cases (specifically the 5' UTRs of FTL and RB1 SNP-induced conformational changes analogous to those observed in bacterial regulatory Riboswitches when specific ligands bind. We propose that the UTR and SNP combinations we identify constitute a "RiboSNitch," that is a regulatory RNA in which a specific SNP has a structural consequence that results in a disease phenotype. Our SNPfold algorithm can help identify RiboSNitches by leveraging GWAS data and an analysis of the mRNA structural ensemble.

  18. Citrus psorosis virus RNA 1 is of negative polarity and potentially encodes in its complementary strand a 24K protein of unknown function and 280K putative RNA dependent RNA polymerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naum-Onganía, Gabriela; Gago-Zachert, Selma; Peña, Eduardo; Grau, Oscar; Garcia, Maria Laura

    2003-10-01

    Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV), the type member of genus Ophiovirus, has three genomic RNAs. Complete sequencing of CPsV RNA 1 revealed a size of 8184 nucleotides and Northern blot hybridization with chain specific probes showed that its non-coding strand is preferentially encapsidated. The complementary strand of RNA 1 contains two open reading frames (ORFs) separated by a 109-nt intergenic region, one located near the 5'-end potentially encoding a 24K protein of unknown function, and another of 280K containing the core polymerase motifs characteristic of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRp). Comparison of the core RdRp motifs of negative-stranded RNA viruses, supports grouping CPsV, Ranunculus white mottle virus (RWMV) and Mirafiori lettuce virus (MiLV) within the same genus (Ophiovirus), constituting a monophyletic group separated from all other negative-stranded RNA viruses. Furthermore, RNAs 1 of MiLV, CPsV and RWMV are similar in size and those of MiLV and CPsV also in genomic organization and sequence.

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Eimeria innocua (Eimeriidae, Coccidia, Apicomplexa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, Mian Abdul; Vrba, Vladimir; Barta, John Robert

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Eimeria innocua KR strain (Eimeriidae, Coccidia, Apicomplexa) was sequenced. This coccidium infects turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo), Bobwhite quails (Colinus virginianus), and Grey partridges (Perdix perdix). Genome organization and gene contents were comparable with other Eimeria spp. infecting galliform birds. The circular-mapping mt genome of E. innocua is 6247 bp in length with three protein-coding genes (cox1, cox3, and cytb), 19 gene fragments encoding large subunit (LSU) rRNA and 14 gene fragments encoding small subunit (SSU) rRNA. Like other Apicomplexa, no tRNA was encoded. The mitochondrial genome of E. innocua confirms its close phylogenetic affinities to Eimeria dispersa.

  20. A trans-Complementing Recombination Trap Demonstrates a Low Propensity of Flaviviruses for Intermolecular Recombination▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taucher, Christian; Berger, Angelika; Mandl, Christian W.

    2010-01-01

    Intermolecular recombination between the genomes of closely related RNA viruses can result in the emergence of novel strains with altered pathogenic potential and antigenicity. Although recombination between flavivirus genomes has never been demonstrated experimentally, the potential risk of generating undesirable recombinants has nevertheless been a matter of concern and controversy with respect to the development of live flavivirus vaccines. As an experimental system for investigating the ability of flavivirus genomes to recombine, we developed a “recombination trap,” which was designed to allow the products of rare recombination events to be selected and amplified. To do this, we established reciprocal packaging systems consisting of pairs of self-replicating subgenomic RNAs (replicons) derived from tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), West Nile virus (WNV), and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) that could complement each other in trans and thus be propagated together in cell culture over multiple passages. Any infectious viruses with intact, full-length genomes that were generated by recombination of the two replicons would be selected and enriched by end point dilution passage, as was demonstrated in a spiking experiment in which a small amount of wild-type virus was mixed with the packaged replicons. Using the recombination trap and the JEV system, we detected two aberrant recombination events, both of which yielded unnatural genomes containing duplications. Infectious clones of both of these genomes yielded viruses with impaired growth properties. Despite the fact that the replicon pairs shared approximately 600 nucleotides of identical sequence where a precise homologous crossover event would have yielded a wild-type genome, this was not observed in any of these systems, and the TBEV and WNV systems did not yield any viable recombinant genomes at all. Our results show that intergenomic recombination can occur in the structural region of flaviviruses

  1. Transcription Profiling Demonstrates Epigenetic Control of Non-retroviral RNA Virus-Derived Elements in the Human Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozue Sofuku

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous bornavirus-like nucleoprotein elements (EBLNs are DNA sequences in vertebrate genomes formed by the retrotransposon-mediated integration of ancient bornavirus sequence. Thus, EBLNs evidence a mechanism of retrotransposon-mediated RNA-to-DNA information flow from environment to animals. Although EBLNs are non-transposable, they share some features with retrotransposons. Here, to test whether hosts control the expression of EBLNs similarly to retrotransposons, we profiled the transcription of all Homo sapiens EBLNs (hsEBLN-1 to hsEBLN-7. We could detect transcription of all hsEBLNs in at least one tissue. Among them, hsEBLN-1 is transcribed almost exclusively in the testis. In most tissues, expression from the hsEBLN-1 locus is silenced epigenetically. Finally, we showed the possibility that hsEBLN-1 integration at this locus affects the expression of a neighboring gene. Our results suggest that hosts regulate the expression of endogenous non-retroviral virus elements similarly to how they regulate the expression of retrotransposons, possibly contributing to new transcripts and regulatory complexity to the human genome.

  2. A Viral RNA Structural Element Alters Host Recognition of Nonself RNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, J. L.; Gardner, C. L.; Kimura, T.; White, J. P.; Liu, G.; Trobaugh, D. W.; Huang, C.; Tonelli, M.; Paessler, S.; Takeda, K.; Klimstra, W. B.; Amarasinghe, G. K.; Diamond, M. S.

    2014-01-30

    Although interferon (IFN) signaling induces genes that limit viral infection, many pathogenic viruses overcome this host response. As an example, 2'-O methylation of the 5' cap of viral RNA subverts mammalian antiviral responses by evading restriction of Ifit1, an IFN-stimulated gene that regulates protein synthesis. However, alphaviruses replicate efficiently in cells expressing Ifit1 even though their genomic RNA has a 5' cap lacking 2'-O methylation. We show that pathogenic alphaviruses use secondary structural motifs within the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of their RNA to alter Ifit1 binding and function. Mutations within the 5'-UTR affecting RNA structural elements enabled restriction by or antagonism of Ifit1 in vitro and in vivo. These results identify an evasion mechanism by which viruses use RNA structural motifs to avoid immune restriction.

  3. Novel Approach to Analyzing MFE of Noncoding RNA Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Tina P; Thomas, Tessamma

    2016-01-01

    Genomic studies have become noncoding RNA (ncRNA) centric after the study of different genomes provided enormous information on ncRNA over the past decades. The function of ncRNA is decided by its secondary structure, and across organisms, the secondary structure is more conserved than the sequence itself. In this study, the optimal secondary structure or the minimum free energy (MFE) structure of ncRNA was found based on the thermodynamic nearest neighbor model. MFE of over 2600 ncRNA sequences was analyzed in view of its signal properties. Mathematical models linking MFE to the signal properties were found for each of the four classes of ncRNA analyzed. MFE values computed with the proposed models were in concordance with those obtained with the standard web servers. A total of 95% of the sequences analyzed had deviation of MFE values within ±15% relative to those obtained from standard web servers.

  4. SNP identification from RNA sequencing and linkage map construction of rubber tree for anchoring the draft genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearman, Jeremy R; Sangsrakru, Duangjai; Jomchai, Nukoon; Ruang-Areerate, Panthita; Sonthirod, Chutima; Naktang, Chaiwat; Theerawattanasuk, Kanikar; Tragoonrung, Somvong; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke

    2015-01-01

    Hevea brasiliensis, or rubber tree, is an important crop species that accounts for the majority of natural latex production. The rubber tree nuclear genome consists of 18 chromosomes and is roughly 2.15 Gb. The current rubber tree reference genome assembly consists of 1,150,326 scaffolds ranging from 200 to 531,465 bp and totalling 1.1 Gb. Only 143 scaffolds, totalling 7.6 Mb, have been placed into linkage groups. We have performed RNA-seq on 6 varieties of rubber tree to identify SNPs and InDels and used this information to perform target sequence enrichment and high throughput sequencing to genotype a set of SNPs in 149 rubber tree offspring from a cross between RRIM 600 and RRII 105 rubber tree varieties. We used this information to generate a linkage map allowing for the anchoring of 24,424 contigs from 3,009 scaffolds, totalling 115 Mb or 10.4% of the published sequence, into 18 linkage groups. Each linkage group contains between 319 and 1367 SNPs, or 60 to 194 non-redundant marker positions, and ranges from 156 to 336 cM in length. This linkage map includes 20,143 of the 69,300 predicted genes from rubber tree and will be useful for mapping studies and improving the reference genome assembly.

  5. A CRISPR-Based Screen Identifies Genes Essential for West-Nile-Virus-Induced Cell Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongming; Dang, Ying; Wu, Yonggan; Jia, Gengxiang; Anaya, Edgar; Zhang, Junli; Abraham, Sojan; Choi, Jang-Gi; Shi, Guojun; Qi, Ling; Manjunath, N; Wu, Haoquan

    2015-07-28

    West Nile virus (WNV) causes an acute neurological infection attended by massive neuronal cell death. However, the mechanism(s) behind the virus-induced cell death is poorly understood. Using a library containing 77,406 sgRNAs targeting 20,121 genes, we performed a genome-wide screen followed by a second screen with a sub-library. Among the genes identified, seven genes, EMC2, EMC3, SEL1L, DERL2, UBE2G2, UBE2J1, and HRD1, stood out as having the strongest phenotype, whose knockout conferred strong protection against WNV-induced cell death with two different WNV strains and in three cell lines. Interestingly, knockout of these genes did not block WNV replication. Thus, these appear to be essential genes that link WNV replication to downstream cell death pathway(s). In addition, the fact that all of these genes belong to the ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway suggests that this might be the primary driver of WNV-induced cell death. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Segment-specific terminal sequences of Bunyamwera bunyavirus regulate genome replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, John N.; Elliott, Richard M.; Dunn, Ewan F.; Wertz, Gail W.

    2003-01-01

    Bunyamwera virus (BUNV) is the prototype of both the Orthobunyavirus genus and the Bunyaviridae family of segmented negative sense RNA viruses. The tripartite BUNV genome consists of small (S), medium (M), and large (L) segments that are transcribed to give a single mRNA and replicated to generate an antigenome that is the template for synthesis of further genomic RNA strands. We modified an existing cDNA-derived RNA synthesis system to allow identification of BUNV RNA replication and transcription products by direct metabolic labeling. Direct RNA analysis allowed us to distinguish between template activities that affected either RNA replication or mRNA transcription, an ability that was not possible using previous reporter gene expression assays. We generated genome analogs containing the entire nontranslated terminal sequences of the S, M, and L BUNV segments surrounding a common sequence. Analysis of RNAs synthesized from these templates revealed that the relative abilities of BUNV segments to perform RNA replication was M > L > S. Exchange of segment-specific terminal nucleotides identified a 12-nt region located within both the 3' and 5' termini of the M segment that correlated with its high replication ability

  7. CRISPR Mediated Genome Engineering and its Application in Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaboli, Saeed; Babazada, Hasan

    2018-01-01

    The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)-Cas9 (CRISPR-associated nuclease 9) method has been dramatically changing the field of genome engineering. It is a rapid, highly efficient and versatile tool for precise modification of genome that uses a guide RNA (gRNA) to target Cas9 to a specific sequence. This novel RNA-guided genome-editing technique has become a revolutionary tool in biomedical science and has many innovative applications in different fields. In this review, we briefly introduce the Cas9-mediated genome-editing tool, summarize the recent advances in CRISPR/Cas9 technology to engineer the genomes of a wide variety of organisms, and discuss their applications to treatment of fungal and viral disease. We also discuss advantageous of CRISPR/Cas9 technology to drug design, creation of animal model, and to food, agricultural and energy sciences. Adoption of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology in biomedical and biotechnological researches would create innovative applications of it not only for breeding of strains exhibiting desired traits for specific industrial and medical applications, but also for investigation of genome function.

  8. Recent progress in West Nile virus diagnosis and vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Filette Marina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract West Nile virus (WNV is a positive-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family, a large family with 3 main genera (flavivirus, hepacivirus and pestivirus. Among these viruses, there are several globally relevant human pathogens including the mosquito-borne dengue virus (DENV, yellow fever virus (YFV, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV and West Nile virus (WNV, as well as tick-borne viruses such as tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV. Since the mid-1990s, outbreaks of WN fever and encephalitis have occurred throughout the world and WNV is now endemic in Africa, Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Europe and the Unites States. This review describes the molecular virology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and highlights recent progress regarding diagnosis and vaccination against WNV infections.

  9. Characterization of Actinomyces with genomic DNA fingerprints and rRNA gene probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, G; Johnson, J; Schachtele, C

    1993-08-01

    Cellular DNA from 25 Actinomyces naeslundii and Actinomyces viscosus strains belonging to the 7 taxonomic clusters of Fillery et al. (1978) and several unclustered strains was obtained by enzymatic and N-lauroylsarcosine/guanidine isothiocyanate treatment of whole cells, followed by extraction of the nucleic acid. The DNA samples were digested with restriction endonucleases BamHI or PvuII, and agarose gel electrophoresis was used to obtain DNA fingerprints. The DNA fragments were subjected to Southern blot hybridization with a digoxigenin-labeled cDNA probe transcribed from Escherichia coli 16S and 23S rRNA. The patterns of bands from genomic (DNA fingerprints) and rDNA fingerprints (ribotypes) were used for comparison between the taxonomic cluster strains and strains within clusters. Representative strains from each taxonomic cluster provided different BamHI DNA fingerprints and ribotype patterns with 3 to 9 distinct bands. Some strains within a cluster showed identical ribotype patterns with both endonucleases (A. naeslundii B120 and A. naeslundii B102 from cluster 3), while others showed the same pattern with BamHI but a different pattern with PvuII (A. naeslundii ATCC 12104 and 398A from cluster 5). A viscosus ATCC 15987 (cluster 7) and its parent strain T6 yielded identical fingerprint and ribotype patterns. The genomic diversity revealed by DNA fingerprinting and ribotyping demonstrates that these techniques, which do not require phenotypic expression, are suited for study of the oral ecology of the Actinomyces, and for epidemiological tracking of specific Actinomyces strains associated with caries lesions and sites of periodontal destruction.

  10. Construction of self-replicating subgenomic West Nile virus replicons for screening antiviral compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz-Estrada, Sofia L; Reichert, Erin Donohue; Padmanabhan, Radhakrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Mosquito-borne flavivirus RNA genomes encode one long open reading frame flanking 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions (5'- and 3'-UTRs) which contain cis-acting RNA elements playing important roles for viral RNA translation and replication. The viral RNA encodes a single polyprotein, which is processed into three structural proteins and seven nonstructural (NS) proteins. The regions coding for the seven NS proteins are sufficient for replication of the RNA. The sequences encoding the structural genes can be deleted except for two short regions. The first one encompasses 32 amino acid (aa) residues from the N-terminal coding sequence of capsid (C) and the second, 27 aa region from the C-terminus of envelope (E) protein. The deleted region can be substituted with a gene coding for a readily quantifiable reporter to give rise to a subgenomic reporter replicon. Replicons containing a variety of reporter genes and marker genes for construction of stable mammalian cell lines are valuable reagents for studying the effects of mutations in translation and/or replication in isolation from processes like the entry and assembly of the virus particles. Here we describe the construction of two West Nile virus (WNV) replicons by overlap extension PCR and standard recombinant DNA techniques. One has a Renilla luciferase (Rluc) reporter gene followed by an internal ribosome entry site (element) for cap-independent translation of the open reading frame encompassing the carboxy-terminal sequence of E to NS5. The second replicon has in tandem the Rluc gene, foot and mouth disease virus 2A, and neomycin phosphotransferase gene that allows establishment of a stable mammalian cell line expressing the Rluc reporter in the presence of the neomycin analog, G418. The stable replicon-expressing Vero cell line has been used for cell-based screening and determination of EC50 values for antiviral compounds that inhibited WNV replication.

  11. The classification of mRNA expression levels by the phosphorylation state of RNAPII CTD based on a combined genome-wide approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tachibana Taro

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellular function is regulated by the balance of stringently regulated amounts of mRNA. Previous reports revealed that RNA polymerase II (RNAPII, which transcribes mRNA, can be classified into the pausing state and the active transcription state according to the phosphorylation state of RPB1, the catalytic subunit of RNAPII. However, genome-wide association between mRNA expression level and the phosphorylation state of RNAPII is unclear. While the functional importance of pausing genes is clear, such as in mouse Embryonic Stem cells for differentiation, understanding this association is critical for distinguishing pausing genes from active transcribing genes in expression profiling data, such as microarrays and RNAseq. Therefore, we examined the correlation between the phosphorylation of RNAPII and mRNA expression levels using a combined analysis by ChIPseq and RNAseq. Results We first performed a precise quantitative measurement of mRNA by performing an optimized calculation in RNAseq. We then visualized the recruitment of various phosphorylated RNAPIIs, such as Ser2P and Ser5P. A combined analysis using optimized RNAseq and ChIPseq for phosphorylated RNAPII revealed that mRNA levels correlate with the various phosphorylation states of RNAPII. Conclusions We demonstrated that the amount of mRNA is precisely reflected by the phased phosphorylation of Ser2 and Ser5. In particular, even the most "pausing" genes, for which only Ser5 is phosphorylated, were detectable at a certain level of mRNA. Our analysis indicated that the complexity of quantitative regulation of mRNA levels could be classified into three categories according to the phosphorylation state of RNAPII.

  12. The simple fool's guide to population genomics via RNA-Seq: An introduction to high-throughput sequencing data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Wit, P.; Pespeni, M.H.; Ladner, J.T.

    2012-01-01

    to Population Genomics via RNA-seq' (SFG), a document intended to serve as an easy-to-follow protocol, walking a user through one example of high-throughput sequencing data analysis of nonmodel organisms. It is by no means an exhaustive protocol, but rather serves as an introduction to the bioinformatic methods...... used in population genomics, enabling a user to gain familiarity with basic analysis steps. The SFG consists of two parts. This document summarizes the steps needed and lays out the basic themes for each and a simple approach to follow. The second document is the full SFG, publicly available at http://sfg.......stanford.edu, that includes detailed protocols for data processing and analysis, along with a repository of custom-made scripts and sample files. Steps included in the SFG range from tissue collection to de novo assembly, blast annotation, alignment, gene expression, functional enrichment, SNP detection, principal components...

  13. Genome sequencing and annotation of Proteus sp. SAS71

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy Selim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report draft genome sequence of Proteus sp. strain SAS71, isolated from water spring in Aljouf region, Saudi Arabia. The draft genome size is 3,037,704 bp with a G + C content of 39.3% and contains 6 rRNA sequence (single copies of 5S, 16S & 23S rRNA. The genome sequence can be accessed at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession no. LDIU00000000.

  14. Systematic Identification and Assessment of Therapeutic Targets for Breast Cancer Based on Genome-Wide RNA Interference Transcriptomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available With accumulating public omics data, great efforts have been made to characterize the genetic heterogeneity of breast cancer. However, identifying novel targets and selecting the best from the sizeable lists of candidate targets is still a key challenge for targeted therapy, largely owing to the lack of economical, efficient and systematic discovery and assessment to prioritize potential therapeutic targets. Here, we describe an approach that combines the computational evaluation and objective, multifaceted assessment to systematically identify and prioritize targets for biological validation and therapeutic exploration. We first establish the reference gene expression profiles from breast cancer cell line MCF7 upon genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi of a total of 3689 genes, and the breast cancer query signatures using RNA-seq data generated from tissue samples of clinical breast cancer patients in the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA. Based on gene set enrichment analysis, we identified a set of 510 genes that when knocked down could significantly reverse the transcriptome of breast cancer state. We then perform multifaceted assessment to analyze the gene set to prioritize potential targets for gene therapy. We also propose drug repurposing opportunities and identify potentially druggable proteins that have been poorly explored with regard to the discovery of small-molecule modulators. Finally, we obtained a small list of candidate therapeutic targets for four major breast cancer subtypes, i.e., luminal A, luminal B, HER2+ and triple negative breast cancer. This RNAi transcriptome-based approach can be a helpful paradigm for relevant researches to identify and prioritize candidate targets for experimental validation.

  15. Sequences within both the 5' UTR and Gag are required for optimal in vivo packaging and propagation of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV genomic RNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Mustafa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study mapped regions of genomic RNA (gRNA important for packaging and propagation of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV. MMTV is a type B betaretrovirus which preassembles intracellularly, a phenomenon distinct from retroviruses that assemble the progeny virion at cell surface just before budding such as the type C human and feline immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and FIV. Studies of FIV and Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV, a type D betaretrovirus with similar intracellular virion assembly processes as MMTV, have shown that the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR and 5' end of gag constitute important packaging determinants for gRNA. METHODOLOGY: Three series of MMTV transfer vectors containing incremental amounts of gag or 5' UTR sequences, or incremental amounts of 5' UTR in the presence of 400 nucleotides (nt of gag were constructed to delineate the extent of 5' sequences that may be involved in MMTV gRNA packaging. Real time PCR measured the packaging efficiency of these vector RNAs into MMTV particles generated by co-transfection of MMTV Gag/Pol, vesicular stomatitis virus envelope glycoprotein (VSV-G Env, and individual transfer vectors into human 293T cells. Transfer vector RNA propagation was monitored by measuring transduction of target HeLaT4 cells following infection with viral particles containing a hygromycin resistance gene expression cassette on the packaged RNA. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MMTV requires the entire 5' UTR and a minimum of ~120 nucleotide (nt at the 5' end of gag for not only efficient gRNA packaging but also propagation of MMTV-based transfer vector RNAs. Vector RNAs without the entire 5' UTR were defective for both efficient packaging and propagation into target cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results reveal that the 5' end of MMTV genome is critical for both gRNA packaging and propagation, unlike the recently delineated FIV and MPMV packaging determinants that have been shown to be of bipartite nature.

  16. Preparation and characterization of high-specific activity radiolabeled 50 S measles virus RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spruance, S.L.; Ashton, B.N.; Smith, C.B.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described to radiolabeled measles virus RNA for hybridization studies. Tritiated nucleosides were added to the media of measles virus infected Vero cells and negative-strand (genome) RNA with a specific activity of 6X10 5 c.p.m./μg was purified from viral nucleocapsids. 50 S RNA was the sole RNA present in nucleocapsids and self-annealed to 50% due to the presence of 25% 50 S plus-strands (anti-genomes). (Auth.)

  17. The crystal structure and RNA-binding of an orthomyxovirus nucleoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Zheng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Genome packaging for viruses with segmented genomes is often a complex problem. This is particularly true for influenza viruses and other orthomyxoviruses, whose genome consists of multiple negative-sense RNAs encapsidated as ribonucleoprotein (RNP complexes. To better understand the structural features of orthomyxovirus RNPs that allow them to be packaged, we determined the crystal structure of the nucleoprotein (NP of a fish orthomyxovirus, the infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV (genus Isavirus. As the major protein component of the RNPs, ISAV-NP possesses a bi-lobular structure similar to the influenza virus NP. Because both RNA-free and RNA-bound ISAV NP forms stable dimers in solution, we were able to measure the NP RNA binding affinity as well as the stoichiometry using recombinant proteins and synthetic oligos. Our RNA binding analysis revealed that each ISAV-NP binds ~12 nts of RNA, shorter than the 24-28 nts originally estimated for the influenza A virus NP based on population average. The 12-nt stoichiometry was further confirmed by results from electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Considering that RNPs of ISAV and the influenza viruses have similar morphologies and dimensions, our findings suggest that NP-free RNA may exist on orthomyxovirus RNPs, and selective RNP packaging may be accomplished through direct RNA-RNA interactions.

  18. A compromised yeast RNA polymerase II enhances UV sensitivity in the absence of global genome nucleotide excision repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J M; Ingles, C J

    2001-02-01

    Nucleotide excision repair is the major pathway responsible for removing UV-induced DNA damage, and is therefore essential for cell survival following exposure to UV radiation. In this report, we have assessed the contributions of some components of the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription machinery to UV resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Deletion of the gene encoding the Pol II elongation factor TFIIS (SII) resulted in enhanced UV sensitivity, but only in the absence of global genome repair dependent on the RAD7 and RAD16 genes, a result seen previously with deletions of RAD26 and RAD28, yeast homologs of the human Cockayne syndrome genes CSB and CSA, respectively. A RAD7/16-dependent reduction in survival after UV irradiation was also seen in the presence of mutations in RNA Pol II that confer a defect in its response to SII, as well as with other mutations which reside in regions of the largest subunit of Pol II not involved in SII interactions. Indeed, an increase in UV sensitivity was achieved by simply decreasing the steadystate level of RNA Pol II. Truncation of the C-terminal domain and other RNA Pol II mutations conferred sensitivity to the ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor hydroxyurea and induction of RNR1 and RNR2 mRNAs after UV irradiation was attenuated in these mutant cells. That UV sensitivity can be a consequence of mutations in the RNA Pol II machinery in yeast cells suggests that alterations in transcriptional programs could underlie some of the pathophysiological defects seen in the human disease Cockayne syndrome.

  19. Trade-off between Transcriptome Plasticity and Genome Evolution in Cephalopods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liscovitch-Brauer, Noa; Alon, Shahar; Porath, Hagit T; Elstein, Boaz; Unger, Ron; Ziv, Tamar; Admon, Arie; Levanon, Erez Y; Rosenthal, Joshua J C; Eisenberg, Eli

    2017-04-06

    RNA editing, a post-transcriptional process, allows the diversification of proteomes beyond the genomic blueprint; however it is infrequently used among animals for this purpose. Recent reports suggesting increased levels of RNA editing in squids thus raise the question of the nature and effects of these events. We here show that RNA editing is particularly common in behaviorally sophisticated coleoid cephalopods, with tens of thousands of evolutionarily conserved sites. Editing is enriched in the nervous system, affecting molecules pertinent for excitability and neuronal morphology. The genomic sequence flanking editing sites is highly conserved, suggesting that the process confers a selective advantage. Due to the large number of sites, the surrounding conservation greatly reduces the number of mutations and genomic polymorphisms in protein-coding regions. This trade-off between genome evolution and transcriptome plasticity highlights the importance of RNA recoding as a strategy for diversifying proteins, particularly those associated with neural function. PAPERCLIP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [sgRNA design for the CRISPR/Cas9 system and evaluation of its off-target effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Sheng-song; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Li-sheng; Li, Guang-lei; Zhao, Chang-zhi; Ni, Pan; Zhao, Shu-hong

    2015-11-01

    The third generation of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing technology has been successfully applied to genome modification of various species including animals, plants and microorganisms. How to improve the efficiency of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing and reduce its off-target effects has been extensively explored in this field. Using sgRNA (Small guide RNA) with high efficiency and specificity is one of the critical factors for successful genome editing. Several software have been developed for sgRNA design and/or off-target evaluation, which have advantages and disadvantages respectively. In this review, we summarize characters of 16 kinds online and standalone software for sgRNA design and/or off-target evaluation and conduct a comparative analysis of these different kinds of software through developing 38 evaluation indexes. We also summarize 11 experimental approaches for testing genome editing efficiency and off-target effects as well as how to screen highly efficient and specific sgRNA.

  1. Comparative Genomics Reveals High Genomic Diversity in the Genus Photobacterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Henrique; Gram, Lone

    2017-01-01

    was widespread and abundant in the genus, suggesting a role in genomic evolution. The high genetic variability and indications of genetic exchange make it difficult to elucidate genome evolutionary paths and raise the awareness of the roles of foreign DNA in the genomic evolution of environmental organisms.......Vibrionaceae is a large marine bacterial family, which can constitute up to 50% of the prokaryotic population in marine waters. Photobacterium is the second largest genus in the family and we used comparative genomics on 35 strains representing 16 of the 28 species described so far, to understand...... the genomic diversity present in the Photobacterium genus. Such understanding is important for ecophysiology studies of the genus. We used whole genome sequences to evaluate phylogenetic relationships using several analyses (16S rRNA, MLSA, fur, amino-acid usage, ANI), which allowed us to identify two...

  2. Packaging of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV) genomic RNA depends upon conserved long-range interactions (LRIs) between U5 and gag sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalloush, Rawan M; Vivet-Boudou, Valérie; Ali, Lizna M; Mustafa, Farah; Marquet, Roland; Rizvi, Tahir A

    2016-06-01

    MPMV has great potential for development as a vector for gene therapy. In this respect, precisely defining the sequences and structural motifs that are important for dimerization and packaging of its genomic RNA (gRNA) are of utmost importance. A distinguishing feature of the MPMV gRNA packaging signal is two phylogenetically conserved long-range interactions (LRIs) between U5 and gag complementary sequences, LRI-I and LRI-II. To test their biological significance in the MPMV life cycle, we introduced mutations into these structural motifs and tested their effects on MPMV gRNA packaging and propagation. Furthermore, we probed the structure of key mutants using SHAPE (selective 2'hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension). Disrupting base-pairing of the LRIs affected gRNA packaging and propagation, demonstrating their significance to the MPMV life cycle. A double mutant restoring a heterologous LRI-I was fully functional, whereas a similar LRI-II mutant failed to restore gRNA packaging and propagation. These results demonstrate that while LRI-I acts at the structural level, maintaining base-pairing is not sufficient for LRI-II function. In addition, in vitro RNA dimerization assays indicated that the loss of RNA packaging in LRI mutants could not be attributed to the defects in dimerization. Our findings suggest that U5-gag LRIs play an important architectural role in maintaining the structure of the 5' region of the MPMV gRNA, expanding the crucial role of LRIs to the nonlentiviral group of retroviruses. © 2016 Kalloush et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  3. Atypical RNA Elements Modulate Translational Readthrough in Tobacco Necrosis Virus D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newburn, Laura R; White, K Andrew

    2017-04-15

    Tobacco necrosis virus, strain D (TNV-D), is a positive-strand RNA virus in the genus Betanecrovirus and family Tombusviridae The production of its RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, p82, is achieved by translational readthrough. This process is stimulated by an RNA structure that is positioned immediately downstream of the recoding site, termed the readthrough stem-loop (RTSL), and a sequence in the 3' untranslated region of the TNV-D genome, called the distal readthrough element (DRTE). Notably, a base pairing interaction between the RTSL and the DRTE, spanning ∼3,000 nucleotides, is required for enhancement of readthrough. Here, some of the structural features of the RTSL, as well as RNA sequences and structures that flank either the RTSL or DRTE, were investigated for their involvement in translational readthrough and virus infectivity. The results revealed that (i) the RTSL-DRTE interaction cannot be functionally replaced by stabilizing the RTSL structure, (ii) a novel tertiary RNA structure positioned just 3' to the RTSL is required for optimal translational readthrough and virus infectivity, and (iii) these same activities also rely on an RNA stem-loop located immediately upstream of the DRTE. Functional counterparts for the RTSL-proximal structure may also be present in other tombusvirids. The identification of additional distinct RNA structures that modulate readthrough suggests that regulation of this process by genomic features may be more complex than previously appreciated. Possible roles for these novel RNA elements are discussed. IMPORTANCE The analysis of factors that affect recoding events in viruses is leading to an ever more complex picture of this important process. In this study, two new atypical RNA elements were shown to contribute to efficient translational readthrough of the TNV-D polymerase and to mediate robust viral genome accumulation in infections. One of the structures, located close to the recoding site, could have functional

  4. From structure prediction to genomic screens for novel non-coding RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodkin, Jan; Hofacker, Ivo L

    2011-08-01

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are receiving more and more attention not only as an abundant class of genes, but also as regulatory structural elements (some located in mRNAs). A key feature of RNA function is its structure. Computational methods were developed early for folding and prediction of RNA structure with the aim of assisting in functional analysis. With the discovery of more and more ncRNAs, it has become clear that a large fraction of these are highly structured. Interestingly, a large part of the structure is comprised of regular Watson-Crick and GU wobble base pairs. This and the increased amount of available genomes have made it possible to employ structure-based methods for genomic screens. The field has moved from folding prediction of single sequences to computational screens for ncRNAs in genomic sequence using the RNA structure as the main characteristic feature. Whereas early methods focused on energy-directed folding of single sequences, comparative analysis based on structure preserving changes of base pairs has been efficient in improving accuracy, and today this constitutes a key component in genomic screens. Here, we cover the basic principles of RNA folding and touch upon some of the concepts in current methods that have been applied in genomic screens for de novo RNA structures in searches for novel ncRNA genes and regulatory RNA structure on mRNAs. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the different strategies and how they can complement each other.

  5. Genome Comparison of Barley and Maize Smut Fungi Reveals Targeted Loss of RNA Silencing Components and Species-Specific Presence of Transposable Elements[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, John D.; Ali, Shawkat; Linning, Rob; Mannhaupt, Gertrud; Wong, Philip; Güldener, Ulrich; Münsterkötter, Martin; Moore, Richard; Kahmann, Regine; Bakkeren, Guus; Schirawski, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Ustilago hordei is a biotrophic parasite of barley (Hordeum vulgare). After seedling infection, the fungus persists in the plant until head emergence when fungal spores develop and are released from sori formed at kernel positions. The 26.1-Mb U. hordei genome contains 7113 protein encoding genes with high synteny to the smaller genomes of the related, maize-infecting smut fungi Ustilago maydis and Sporisorium reilianum but has a larger repeat content that affected genome evolution at important loci, including mating-type and effector loci. The U. hordei genome encodes components involved in RNA interference and heterochromatin formation, normally involved in genome defense, that are lacking in the U. maydis genome due to clean excision events. These excision events were possibly a result of former presence of repetitive DNA and of an efficient homologous recombination system in U. maydis. We found evidence of repeat-induced point mutations in the genome of U. hordei, indicating that smut fungi use different strategies to counteract the deleterious effects of repetitive DNA. The complement of U. hordei effector genes is comparable to the other two smuts but reveals differences in family expansion and clustering. The availability of the genome sequence will facilitate the identification of genes responsible for virulence and evolution of smut fungi on their respective hosts. PMID:22623492

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of Gossypium hirsutum and evolutionary analysis of higher plant mitochondrial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guozheng; Cao, Dandan; Li, Shuangshuang; Su, Aiguo; Geng, Jianing; Grover, Corrinne E; Hu, Songnian; Hua, Jinping

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria are the main manufacturers of cellular ATP in eukaryotes. The plant mitochondrial genome contains large number of foreign DNA and repeated sequences undergone frequently intramolecular recombination. Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is one of the main natural fiber crops and also an important oil-producing plant in the world. Sequencing of the cotton mitochondrial (mt) genome could be helpful for the evolution research of plant mt genomes. We utilized 454 technology for sequencing and combined with Fosmid library of the Gossypium hirsutum mt genome screening and positive clones sequencing and conducted a series of evolutionary analysis on Cycas taitungensis and 24 angiosperms mt genomes. After data assembling and contigs joining, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of G. hirsutum was obtained. The completed G.hirsutum mt genome is 621,884 bp in length, and contained 68 genes, including 35 protein genes, four rRNA genes and 29 tRNA genes. Five gene clusters are found conserved in all plant mt genomes; one and four clusters are specifically conserved in monocots and dicots, respectively. Homologous sequences are distributed along the plant mt genomes and species closely related share the most homologous sequences. For species that have both mt and chloroplast genome sequences available, we checked the location of cp-like migration and found several fragments closely linked with mitochondrial genes. The G. hirsutum mt genome possesses most of the common characters of higher plant mt genomes. The existence of syntenic gene clusters, as well as the conservation of some intergenic sequences and genic content among the plant mt genomes suggest that evolution of mt genomes is consistent with plant taxonomy but independent among different species.

  7. A comparative method for finding and folding RNA secondary structures within protein-coding regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jakob Skou; Meyer, Irmtraud Margret; Forsberg, Roald

    2004-01-01

    that RNA-DECODER's parameters can be automatically trained to successfully fold known secondary structures within the HCV genome. We scan the genomes of HCV and polio virus for conserved secondary-structure elements, and analyze performance as a function of available evolutionary information. On known...... secondary structures, RNA-DECODER shows a sensitivity similar to the programs MFOLD, PFOLD and RNAALIFOLD. When scanning the entire genomes of HCV and polio virus for structure elements, RNA-DECODER's results indicate a markedly higher specificity than MFOLD, PFOLD and RNAALIFOLD....

  8. Mutation of the RDR1 gene caused genome-wide changes in gene expression, regional variation in small RNA clusters and localized alteration in DNA methylation in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ningning; Zhang, Di; Wang, Zhenhui; Xun, Hongwei; Ma, Jian; Wang, Hui; Huang, Wei; Liu, Ying; Lin, Xiuyun; Li, Ning; Ou, Xiufang; Zhang, Chunyu; Wang, Ming-Bo; Liu, Bao

    2014-06-30

    Endogenous small (sm) RNAs (primarily si- and miRNAs) are important trans/cis-acting regulators involved in diverse cellular functions. In plants, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRs) are essential for smRNA biogenesis. It has been established that RDR2 is involved in the 24 nt siRNA-dependent RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway. Recent studies have suggested that RDR1 is involved in a second RdDM pathway that relies mostly on 21 nt smRNAs and functions to silence a subset of genomic loci that are usually refractory to the normal RdDM pathway in Arabidopsis. Whether and to what extent the homologs of RDR1 may have similar functions in other plants remained unknown. We characterized a loss-of-function mutant (Osrdr1) of the OsRDR1 gene in rice (Oryza sativa L.) derived from a retrotransposon Tos17 insertion. Microarray analysis identified 1,175 differentially expressed genes (5.2% of all expressed genes in the shoot-tip tissue of rice) between Osrdr1 and WT, of which 896 and 279 genes were up- and down-regulated, respectively, in Osrdr1. smRNA sequencing revealed regional alterations in smRNA clusters across the rice genome. Some of the regions with altered smRNA clusters were associated with changes in DNA methylation. In addition, altered expression of several miRNAs was detected in Osrdr1, and at least some of which were associated with altered expression of predicted miRNA target genes. Despite these changes, no phenotypic difference was identified in Osrdr1 relative to WT under normal condition; however, ephemeral phenotypic fluctuations occurred under some abiotic stress conditions. Our results showed that OsRDR1 plays a role in regulating a substantial number of endogenous genes with diverse functions in rice through smRNA-mediated pathways involving DNA methylation, and which participates in abiotic stress response.

  9. Re-criticizing RNA-mediated cell evolution: a radical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotakis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Genetic inter-communication of the nucleic-organellar dual in eukaryotes is dominated by DNA-directed phenomena. RNA regulatory circuits have also been observed in artificial laboratory prototypes where gene transfer events are reconstructed, but they are excluded from the primary norm due to their rarity. Recent technical advances in organellar biotechnology, genome engineering and single-molecule tracking give novel experimental insights on RNA metabolism not only at cellular level, but also on organismal survival. Here, I put forward a hypothesis for RNA's involvement in gene piece transfer, taken together the current knowledge on the primitive RNA character as a biochemical modulator with model organisms from peculiar natural habitats. It is proposed that RNA molecules of special structural signature and functional identity can drive evolution, integrating the ecological pressure of environmental oscillations into genome imprinting by buffering-out epigenetic aberrancies.

  10. Complete mitochondrial genome of a rhodolith, Sporolithon durum (Sporolithales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyeong Mi; Yang, Eun Chan; Kim, Jeong Ha; Nelson, Wendy A; Yoon, Hwan Su

    2015-02-01

    We present the first mitochondrial genome of the nongeniculate coralline red alga, Sporolithon durum (Sporolithales). The genome consists of 45 genes, including 24 protein-coding, 2 rRNA and 19 tRNA genes in a circular molecule of 26,202 bp with overall 28.4% GC content.

  11. Evolutionary relationship between Old World West Nile virus strains Evidence for viral gene flow between africa, the middle east, and europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charrel, R.N.; Brault, A.C.; Gallian, P.; Lemasson, J.-J.; Murgue, B.; Murri, S.; Pastorino, B.; Zeller, H.; Chesse, R. de; Micco, P. de; Lamballerie, X. de

    2003-01-01

    Little is known about the genetic relationships between European and other Old-World strains of West Nile virus (WNV) and persistence of WNV North of Mediterranean. We characterized the complete genomes of three WNV strains from France (horse-2000), Tunisia (human-1997) and Kenya (mosquito-1998), and the envelope, NS3 and NS5 genes of the Koutango virus. Phylogenetic analyses including all available full-length sequences showed that: (1) Koutango virus is a distant variant of WNV; (2) the three characterized strains belong to lineage 1, clade 1a; (3) the Tunisian strain roots the lineage of viruses introduced in North America. We established that currently available partial envelope sequences do not generate reliable phylogenies. Accordingly, establishing a large WNV sequence database is pivotal for the understanding of spatial and temporal epidemiology of this virus. For rapid completion of that purpose, colinearized E-NS3-NS5 gene sequences were shown to constitute a valuable surrogate for complete sequences

  12. The value of new genome references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Kim C; Richards, Stephen; Rogers, Jeffrey

    2017-09-15

    Genomic information has become a ubiquitous and almost essential aspect of biological research. Over the last 10-15 years, the cost of generating sequence data from DNA or RNA samples has dramatically declined and our ability to interpret those data increased just as remarkably. Although it is still possible for biologists to conduct interesting and valuable research on species for which genomic data are not available, the impact of having access to a high quality whole genome reference assembly for a given species is nothing short of transformational. Research on a species for which we have no DNA or RNA sequence data is restricted in fundamental ways. In contrast, even access to an initial draft quality genome (see below for definitions) opens a wide range of opportunities that are simply not available without that reference genome assembly. Although a complete discussion of the impact of genome sequencing and assembly is beyond the scope of this short paper, the goal of this review is to summarize the most common and highest impact contributions that whole genome sequencing and assembly has had on comparative and evolutionary biology. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Live Cell Genomics: RNA Exon-Specific RNA-Binding Protein Isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Thomas J; Eberwine, James

    2015-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are essential regulatory proteins that control all modes of RNA processing and regulation. New experimental approaches to isolate these indispensable proteins under in vivo conditions are needed to advance the field of RBP biology. Historically, in vitro biochemical approaches to isolate RBP complexes have been useful and productive, but biological relevance of the identified RBP complexes can be imprecise or erroneous. Here we review an inventive experimental to isolate RBPs under the in vivo conditions. The method is called peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-assisted identification of RBP (PAIR) technology and it uses cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) to deliver photo-activatible RBP-capture molecule to the cytoplasm of the live cells. The PAIR methodology provides two significant advantages over the most commonly used approaches: (1) it overcomes the in vitro limitation of standard biochemical approaches and (2) the PAIR RBP-capture molecule is highly selective and adaptable which allows investigators to isolate exon-specific RBP complexes. Most importantly, the in vivo capture conditions and selectivity of the RBP-capture molecule yield biologically accurate and relevant RBP data.

  14. Purification and properties of cowpea mosaic virus RNA replicase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zabel, P.

    1978-01-01

    This thesis concerns the partial purification and properties of an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNA replicase) produced upon infection of Vigna unguiculata plants with Cowpea Mosaic Virus (CPMV). The enzyme is believed to be coded, at least in part, by the virus genome and to

  15. Complete Mitochondrial Genome of the Medicinal Mushroom Ganoderma lucidum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haimei; Chen, Xiangdong; Lan, Jin; Liu, Chang

    2013-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is one of the well-known medicinal basidiomycetes worldwide. The mitochondrion, referred to as the second genome, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells and participates in critical cellular functions. Elucidating the structure and function of this genome is important to understand completely the genetic contents of G. lucidum. In this study, we assembled the mitochondrial genome of G. lucidum and analyzed the differential expressions of its encoded genes across three developmental stages. The mitochondrial genome is a typical circular DNA molecule of 60,630 bp with a GC content of 26.67%. Genome annotation identified genes that encode 15 conserved proteins, 27 tRNAs, small and large rRNAs, four homing endonucleases, and two hypothetical proteins. Except for genes encoding trnW and two hypothetical proteins, all genes were located on the positive strand. For the repeat structure analysis, eight forward, two inverted, and three tandem repeats were detected. A pair of fragments with a total length around 5.5 kb was found in both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, which suggests the possible transfer of DNA sequences between two genomes. RNA-Seq data for samples derived from three stages, namely, mycelia, primordia, and fruiting bodies, were mapped to the mitochondrial genome and qualified. The protein-coding genes were expressed higher in mycelia or primordial stages compared with those in the fruiting bodies. The rRNA abundances were significantly higher in all three stages. Two regions were transcribed but did not contain any identified protein or tRNA genes. Furthermore, three RNA-editing sites were detected. Genome synteny analysis showed that significant genome rearrangements occurred in the mitochondrial genomes. This study provides valuable information on the gene contents of the mitochondrial genome and their differential expressions at various developmental stages of G. lucidum. The results contribute to the understanding of the

  16. Transcriptional landscape of ncRNA and Repeat elements in somatic cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ghosheh, Yanal

    2016-12-01

    The advancement of Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) sequencing technology has enabled many projects targeted towards the identification of genome structure and transcriptome complexity of organisms. The first conclusions of the human and mouse projects have underscored two important, yet unexpected, findings. First, while almost the entire genome is transcribed, only 5% of it encodes for proteins. Thereby, most transcripts are noncoding RNA. This includes both short RNA (<200 nucleotides (nt)) comprising piRNAs; microRNAs (miRNAs); endogenous Short Interfering RNAs (siRNAs) among others, and includes lncRNA (>200nt). Second, a significant portion of the mammalian genome (45%) is composed of Repeat Elements (REs). RE are mostly relics of ancestral viruses that during evolution have invaded the host genome by producing thousands of copies. Their roles within their host genomes have yet to be fully explored considering that they sometimes produce lncRNA, and have been shown to influence expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Moreover, because some REs can still mobilize within host genomes, host genomes have evolved mechanisms, mainly epigenetic, to maintain REs under tight control. Recent reports indicate that REs activity is regulated in somatic cells, particularily in the brain, suggesting a physiological role of RE mobilization during normal development. In this thesis, I focus on the analysis of ncRNAs, specifically REs; piRNAs; lncRNAs in human and mouse post-mitotic somatic cells. The main aspects of this analysis are: Using sRNA-Seq, I show that piRNAs, a class of ncRNAs responsible for the silencing of Transposable elements (TEs) in testes, are present also in adult mouse brain. Furthermore, their regulation shows only a subset of testes piRNAs are expressed in the brain and may be controlled by known neurogenesis factors. To investigate the dynamics of the transcriptome during cellular differentiation, I examined deep RNA-Seq and Cap

  17. Structural imprints in vivo decode RNA regulatory mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitale, Robert C; Flynn, Ryan A; Zhang, Qiangfeng Cliff; Crisalli, Pete; Lee, Byron; Jung, Jong-Wha; Kuchelmeister, Hannes Y; Batista, Pedro J; Torre, Eduardo A; Kool, Eric T; Chang, Howard Y

    2015-03-26

    Visualizing the physical basis for molecular behaviour inside living cells is a great challenge for biology. RNAs are central to biological regulation, and the ability of RNA to adopt specific structures intimately controls every step of the gene expression program. However, our understanding of physiological RNA structures is limited; current in vivo RNA structure profiles include only two of the four nucleotides that make up RNA. Here we present a novel biochemical approach, in vivo click selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation and profiling experiment (icSHAPE), which enables the first global view, to our knowledge, of RNA secondary structures in living cells for all four bases. icSHAPE of the mouse embryonic stem cell transcriptome versus purified RNA folded in vitro shows that the structural dynamics of RNA in the cellular environment distinguish different classes of RNAs and regulatory elements. Structural signatures at translational start sites and ribosome pause sites are conserved from in vitro conditions, suggesting that these RNA elements are programmed by sequence. In contrast, focal structural rearrangements in vivo reveal precise interfaces of RNA with RNA-binding proteins or RNA-modification sites that are consistent with atomic-resolution structural data. Such dynamic structural footprints enable accurate prediction of RNA-protein interactions and N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) modification genome wide. These results open the door for structural genomics of RNA in living cells and reveal key physiological structures controlling gene expression.

  18. RNA-directed DNA methylation: Mechanisms and functions

    KAUST Repository

    Mahfouz, Magdy M.

    2010-07-01

    Epigenetic RNA based gene silencing mechanisms play a major role in genome stability and control of gene expression. Transcriptional gene silencing via RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) guides the epigenetic regulation of the genome in response to disease states, growth, developmental and stress signals. RdDM machinery is composed of proteins that produce and modify 24-nt- long siRNAs, recruit the RdDM complex to genomic targets, methylate DNA and remodel chromatin. The final DNA methylation pattern is determined by either DNA methyltransferase alone or by the combined action of DNA methyltransferases and demethylases. The dynamic interaction between RdDM and demethylases may render the plant epigenome plastic to growth, developmental, and environmental cues. The epigenome plasticity may allow the plant genome to assume many epigenomes and to have the right epigenome at the right time in response to intracellular or extracellular stimuli. This review discusses recent advances in RdDM research and considers future perspectives.

  19. Analysis of Genome-Scale Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemmeren, P.P.C.W.

    2005-01-01

    The genetic material of every cell in an organism is stored inside DNA in the form of genes, which together form the genome. The information stored in the DNA is translated to RNA and subsequently to proteins, which form complex biological systems. The availability of whole genome sequences has

  20. Genomic GC-content affects the accuracy of 16S rRNA gene sequencing bsed microbial profiling due to PCR bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin F.; Dalgaard, Marlene Danner; Bahl, Martin Iain

    2017-01-01

    Profiling of microbial community composition is frequently performed by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing on benchtop platforms following PCR amplification of specific hypervariable regions within this gene. Accuracy and reproducibility of this strategy are two key parameters to consider, which may...... be influenced during all processes from sample collection and storage, through DNA extraction and PCR based library preparation to the final sequencing. In order to evaluate both the reproducibility and accuracy of 16S rRNA gene based microbial profiling using the Ion Torrent PGM platform, we prepared libraries...... be explained partly by premature read truncation, but to larger degree their genomic GC-content, which correlated negatively with the observed relative abundances, suggesting a PCR bias against GC-rich species during library preparation. Increasing the initial denaturation time during the PCR amplification...

  1. The genetic makeup of the Drosophila piRNA pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Dominik; Meixner, Katharina; Pizka, Manfred; Lauss, Kathrin; Schmied, Christopher; Gruber, Franz Sebastian; Brennecke, Julius

    2013-06-06

    The piRNA (PIWI-interacting RNA) pathway is a small RNA silencing system that acts in animal gonads and protects the genome against the deleterious influence of transposons. A major bottleneck in the field is the lack of comprehensive knowledge of the factors and molecular processes that constitute this pathway. We conducted an RNAi screen in Drosophila and identified ~50 genes that strongly impact the ovarian somatic piRNA pathway. Many identified genes fall into functional categories that indicate essential roles for mitochondrial metabolism, RNA export, the nuclear pore, transcription elongation, and chromatin regulation in the pathway. Follow-up studies on two factors demonstrate that components acting at distinct hierarchical levels of the pathway were identified. Finally, we define CG2183/Gasz as an essential primary piRNA biogenesis factor in somatic and germline cells. Based on the similarities between insect and vertebrate piRNA pathways, our results have far-reaching implications for the understanding of this conserved genome defense system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Analytical study of avian reticuloendotheliosis virus dimeric RNA generated in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlix, J L; Gabus, C; Allain, B

    1992-12-01

    The retroviral genome consists of two identical RNA molecules associated at their 5' ends by a stable structure called the dimer linkage structure. The dimer linkage structure, while maintaining the dimer state of the retroviral genome, might also be involved in packaging and reverse transcription, as well as recombination during proviral DNA synthesis. To study the dimer structure of the retroviral genome and the mechanism of dimerization, we analyzed features of the dimeric genome of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) type A and identified elements required for its dimerization. Here we report that the REV dimeric genome extracted from virions and infected cells, as well as that synthesized in vitro, is more resistant to heat denaturation than avian sarcoma and leukemia virus, murine leukemia virus, or human immunodeficiency virus type 1 dimeric RNA. The minimal domain required to form a stable REV RNA dimer in vitro was found to map between positions 268 and 452 (KpnI and SalI sites), thus corresponding to the E encapsidation sequence (J. E. Embretson and H. M. Temin, J. Virol. 61:2675-2683, 1987). In addition, both the 5' and 3' halves of E are necessary in cis for RNA dimerization and the extent of RNA dimerization is influenced by viral sequences flanking E. Rapid and efficient dimerization of REV RNA containing gag sequences in addition to the E sequences and annealing of replication primer tRNA(Pro) to the primer-binding site necessitate the nucleocapsid protein.

  3. HCV RNA traffic and association with NS5A in living cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiches, Guillaume N.; Eyre, Nicholas S.; Aloia, Amanda L.; Van Der Hoek, Kylie [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Research Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Adelaide, Adelaide and Centre for Cancer Biology, SA Pathology, Adelaide, SA (Australia); Betz-Stablein, Brigit; Luciani, Fabio [Systems Immunology, School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Chopra, Abha [Institute for Immunology and infectious diseases (IIID), Murdoch University, Perth, WA (Australia); Beard, Michael R., E-mail: michael.beard@adelaide.edu.au [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Research Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Adelaide, Adelaide and Centre for Cancer Biology, SA Pathology, Adelaide, SA (Australia)

    2016-06-15

    The spatiotemporal dynamics of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) RNA localisation are poorly understood. To address this we engineered HCV genomes harbouring MS2 bacteriophage RNA stem-loops within the 3′-untranslated region to allow tracking of HCV RNA via specific interaction with a MS2-Coat-mCherry fusion protein. Despite the impact of these insertions on viral fitness, live imaging revealed that replication of tagged-HCV genomes induced specific redistribution of the mCherry-tagged-MS2-Coat protein to motile and static foci. Further analysis showed that HCV RNA was associated with NS5A in both static and motile structures while a subset of motile NS5A structures was devoid of HCV RNA. Further investigation of viral RNA traffic with respect to lipid droplets (LDs) revealed HCV RNA-positive structures in close association with LDs. These studies provide new insights into the dynamics of HCV RNA traffic with NS5A and LDs and provide a platform for future investigations of HCV replication and assembly. - Highlights: • HCV can tolerate can bacteriophage MS2 stem-loop insertions within the 3′ UTR. • MS2 stem-loop containing HCV genomes allow for real-time imaging of HCV RNA. • HCV RNA is both static and motile and associates with NS5A and lipid droplets.

  4. HCV RNA traffic and association with NS5A in living cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiches, Guillaume N.; Eyre, Nicholas S.; Aloia, Amanda L.; Van Der Hoek, Kylie; Betz-Stablein, Brigit; Luciani, Fabio; Chopra, Abha; Beard, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    The spatiotemporal dynamics of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) RNA localisation are poorly understood. To address this we engineered HCV genomes harbouring MS2 bacteriophage RNA stem-loops within the 3′-untranslated region to allow tracking of HCV RNA via specific interaction with a MS2-Coat-mCherry fusion protein. Despite the impact of these insertions on viral fitness, live imaging revealed that replication of tagged-HCV genomes induced specific redistribution of the mCherry-tagged-MS2-Coat protein to motile and static foci. Further analysis showed that HCV RNA was associated with NS5A in both static and motile structures while a subset of motile NS5A structures was devoid of HCV RNA. Further investigation of viral RNA traffic with respect to lipid droplets (LDs) revealed HCV RNA-positive structures in close association with LDs. These studies provide new insights into the dynamics of HCV RNA traffic with NS5A and LDs and provide a platform for future investigations of HCV replication and assembly. - Highlights: • HCV can tolerate can bacteriophage MS2 stem-loop insertions within the 3′ UTR. • MS2 stem-loop containing HCV genomes allow for real-time imaging of HCV RNA. • HCV RNA is both static and motile and associates with NS5A and lipid droplets.

  5. A human torque teno virus encodes a microRNA that inhibits interferon signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney P Kincaid

    Full Text Available Torque teno viruses (TTVs are a group of viruses with small, circular DNA genomes. Members of this family are thought to ubiquitously infect humans, although causal disease associations are currently lacking. At present, there is no understanding of how infection with this diverse group of viruses is so prevalent. Using a combined computational and synthetic approach, we predict and identify miRNA-coding regions in diverse human TTVs and provide evidence for TTV miRNA production in vivo. The TTV miRNAs are transcribed by RNA polymerase II, processed by Drosha and Dicer, and are active in RISC. A TTV mutant defective for miRNA production replicates as well as wild type virus genome; demonstrating that the TTV miRNA is dispensable for genome replication in a cell culture model. We demonstrate that a recombinant TTV genome is capable of expressing an exogenous miRNA, indicating the potential utility of TTV as a small RNA vector. Gene expression profiling of host cells identifies N-myc (and STAT interactor (NMI as a target of a TTV miRNA. NMI transcripts are directly regulated through a binding site in the 3'UTR. SiRNA knockdown of NMI contributes to a decreased response to interferon signaling. Consistent with this, we show that a TTV miRNA mediates a decreased response to IFN and increased cellular proliferation in the presence of IFN. Thus, we add Annelloviridae to the growing list of virus families that encode miRNAs, and suggest that miRNA-mediated immune evasion can contribute to the pervasiveness associated with some of these viruses.

  6. Differential Regulation of rRNA and tRNA Transcription from the rRNA-tRNA Composite Operon in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiraku Takada

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli contains seven rRNA operons, each consisting of the genes for three rRNAs (16S, 23S and 5S rRNA in this order and one or two tRNA genes in the spacer between 16S and 23S rRNA genes and one or two tRNA genes in the 3' proximal region. All of these rRNA and tRNA genes are transcribed from two promoters, P1 and P2, into single large precursors that are afterward processed to individual rRNAs and tRNAs by a set of RNases. In the course of Genomic SELEX screening of promoters recognized by RNA polymerase (RNAP holoenzyme containing RpoD sigma, a strong binding site was identified within 16S rRNA gene in each of all seven rRNA operons. The binding in vitro of RNAP RpoD holoenzyme to an internal promoter, referred to the promoter of riRNA (an internal RNA of the rRNA operon, within each 16S rRNA gene was confirmed by gel shift assay and AFM observation. Using this riRNA promoter within the rrnD operon as a representative, transcription in vitro was detected with use of the purified RpoD holoenzyme, confirming the presence of a constitutive promoter in this region. LacZ reporter assay indicated that this riRNA promoter is functional in vivo. The location of riRNA promoter in vivo as identified using a set of reporter plasmids agrees well with that identified in vitro. Based on transcription profile in vitro and Northern blot analysis in vivo, the majority of transcript initiated from this riRNA promoter was estimated to terminate near the beginning of 23S rRNA gene, indicating that riRNA leads to produce the spacer-coded tRNA. Under starved conditions, transcription of the rRNA operon is markedly repressed to reduce the intracellular level of ribosomes, but the levels of both riRNA and its processed tRNAGlu stayed unaffected, implying that riRNA plays a role in the continued steady-state synthesis of tRNAs from the spacers of rRNA operons. We then propose that the tRNA genes organized within the spacers of rRNA-tRNA composite operons

  7. Systematic Analysis of mRNA and miRNA Expression of 3D-Cultured Neural Stem Cells (NSCs in Spaceflight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Cui

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, with the development of the space program there are growing concerns about the influence of spaceflight on tissue engineering. The purpose of this study was thus to determine the variations of neural stem cells (NSCs during spaceflight. RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq based transcriptomic profiling of NSCs identified many differentially expressed mRNAs and miRNAs between space and earth groups. Subsequently, those genes with differential expression were subjected to bioinformatic evaluation using gene ontology (GO, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway (KEGG and miRNA-mRNA network analyses. The results showed that NSCs maintain greater stemness ability during spaceflight although the growth rate of NSCs was slowed down. Furthermore, the results indicated that NSCs tended to differentiate into neuron in outer space conditions. Detailed genomic analyses of NSCs during spaceflight will help us to elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind their differentiation and proliferation when they are in outer space.

  8. From structure prediction to genomic screens for novel non-coding RNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Gorodkin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs are receiving more and more attention not only as an abundant class of genes, but also as regulatory structural elements (some located in mRNAs. A key feature of RNA function is its structure. Computational methods were developed early for folding and prediction of RNA structure with the aim of assisting in functional analysis. With the discovery of more and more ncRNAs, it has become clear that a large fraction of these are highly structured. Interestingly, a large part of the structure is comprised of regular Watson-Crick and GU wobble base pairs. This and the increased amount of available genomes have made it possible to employ structure-based methods for genomic screens. The field has moved from folding prediction of single sequences to computational screens for ncRNAs in genomic sequence using the RNA structure as the main characteristic feature. Whereas early methods focused on energy-directed folding of single sequences, comparative analysis based on structure preserving changes of base pairs has been efficient in improving accuracy, and today this constitutes a key component in genomic screens. Here, we cover the basic principles of RNA folding and touch upon some of the concepts in current methods that have been applied in genomic screens for de novo RNA structures in searches for novel ncRNA genes and regulatory RNA structure on mRNAs. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the different strategies and how they can complement each other.

  9. An efficient genetic algorithm for structural RNA pairwise alignment and its application to non-coding RNA discovery in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taneda Akito

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aligning RNA sequences with low sequence identity has been a challenging problem since such a computation essentially needs an algorithm with high complexities for taking structural conservation into account. Although many sophisticated algorithms for the purpose have been proposed to date, further improvement in efficiency is necessary to accelerate its large-scale applications including non-coding RNA (ncRNA discovery. Results We developed a new genetic algorithm, Cofolga2, for simultaneously computing pairwise RNA sequence alignment and consensus folding, and benchmarked it using BRAliBase 2.1. The benchmark results showed that our new algorithm is accurate and efficient in both time and memory usage. Then, combining with the originally trained SVM, we applied the new algorithm to novel ncRNA discovery where we compared S. cerevisiae genome with six related genomes in a pairwise manner. By focusing our search to the relatively short regions (50 bp to 2,000 bp sandwiched by conserved sequences, we successfully predict 714 intergenic and 1,311 sense or antisense ncRNA candidates, which were found in the pairwise alignments with stable consensus secondary structure and low sequence identity (≤ 50%. By comparing with the previous predictions, we found that > 92% of the candidates is novel candidates. The estimated rate of false positives in the predicted candidates is 51%. Twenty-five percent of the intergenic candidates has supports for expression in cell, i.e. their genomic positions overlap those of the experimentally determined transcripts in literature. By manual inspection of the results, moreover, we obtained four multiple alignments with low sequence identity which reveal consensus structures shared by three species/sequences. Conclusion The present method gives an efficient tool complementary to sequence-alignment-based ncRNA finders.

  10. MysiRNA-designer: a workflow for efficient siRNA design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mysara

    Full Text Available The design of small interfering RNA (siRNA is a multi factorial problem that has gained the attention of many researchers in the area of therapeutic and functional genomics. MysiRNA score was previously introduced that improves the correlation of siRNA activity prediction considering state of the art algorithms. In this paper, a new program, MysiRNA-Designer, is described which integrates several factors in an automated work-flow considering mRNA transcripts variations, siRNA and mRNA target accessibility, and both near-perfect and partial off-target matches. It also features the MysiRNA score, a highly ranked correlated siRNA efficacy prediction score for ranking the designed siRNAs, in addition to top scoring models Biopredsi, DISR, Thermocomposition21 and i-Score, and integrates them in a unique siRNA score-filtration technique. This multi-score filtration layer filters siRNA that passes the 90% thresholds calculated from experimental dataset features. MysiRNA-Designer takes an accession, finds conserved regions among its transcript space, finds accessible regions within the mRNA, designs all possible siRNAs for these regions, filters them based on multi-scores thresholds, and then performs SNP and off-target filtration. These strict selection criteria were tested against human genes in which at least one active siRNA was designed from 95.7% of total genes. In addition, when tested against an experimental dataset, MysiRNA-Designer was found capable of rejecting 98% of the false positive siRNAs, showing superiority over three state of the art siRNA design programs. MysiRNA is a freely accessible (Microsoft Windows based desktop application that can be used to design siRNA with a high accuracy and specificity. We believe that MysiRNA-Designer has the potential to play an important role in this area.

  11. Alu Mobile Elements: From Junk DNA to Genomic Gems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Dridi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alus, the short interspersed repeated sequences (SINEs, are retrotransposons that litter the human genomes and have long been considered junk DNA. However, recent findings that these mobile elements are transcribed, both as distinct RNA polymerase III transcripts and as a part of RNA polymerase II transcripts, suggest biological functions and refute the notion that Alus are biologically unimportant. Indeed, Alu RNAs have been shown to control mRNA processing at several levels, to have complex regulatory functions such as transcriptional repression and modulating alternative splicing and to cause a host of human genetic diseases. Alu RNAs embedded in Pol II transcripts can promote evolution and proteome diversity, which further indicates that these mobile retroelements are in fact genomic gems rather than genomic junks.

  12. Species-independent MicroRNA Gene Discovery

    KAUST Repository

    Kamanu, Timothy K.

    2012-12-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) are a class of small endogenous non-coding RNA that are mainly negative transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulators in both plants and animals. Recent studies have shown that miRNA are involved in different types of cancer and other incurable diseases such as autism and Alzheimer’s. Functional miRNAs are excised from hairpin-like sequences that are known as miRNA genes. There are about 21,000 known miRNA genes, most of which have been determined using experimental methods. miRNA genes are classified into different groups (miRNA families). This study reports about 19,000 unknown miRNA genes in nine species whereby approximately 15,300 predictions were computationally validated to contain at least one experimentally verified functional miRNA product. The predictions are based on a novel computational strategy which relies on miRNA family groupings and exploits the physics and geometry of miRNA genes to unveil the hidden palindromic signals and symmetries in miRNA gene sequences. Unlike conventional computational miRNA gene discovery methods, the algorithm developed here is species-independent: it allows prediction at higher accuracy and resolution from arbitrary RNA/DNA sequences in any species and thus enables examination of repeat-prone genomic regions which are thought to be non-informative or ’junk’ sequences. The information non-redundancy of uni-directional RNA sequences compared to information redundancy of bi-directional DNA is demonstrated, a fact that is overlooked by most pattern discovery algorithms. A novel method for computing upstream and downstream miRNA gene boundaries based on mathematical/statistical functions is suggested, as well as cutoffs for annotation of miRNA genes in different miRNA families. Another tool is proposed to allow hypotheses generation and visualization of data matrices, intra- and inter-species chromosomal distribution of miRNA genes or miRNA families. Our results indicate that: miRNA and miRNA

  13. Sequencing and analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome in Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Wang, Yan; Li, Xiang-Yu; Peng, Heng; Ma, Ya-Jun

    2017-10-02

    Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae) is a primary vector of Plasmodium vivax and Brugia malayi in most regions of China. In addition, its phylogenetic relationship with the cryptic species of the Hyrcanus Group is complex and remains unresolved. Mitochondrial genome sequences are widely used as molecular markers for phylogenetic studies of mosquito species complexes, of which mitochondrial genome data of An. sinensis is not available. An. sinensis samples was collected from Shandong, China, and identified by molecular marker. Genomic DNA was extracted, followed by the Illumina sequencing. Two complete mitochondrial genomes were assembled and annotated using the mitochondrial genome of An. gambiae as reference. The mitochondrial genomes sequences of the 28 known Anopheles species were aligned and reconstructed phylogenetic tree by Maximum Likelihood (ML) method. The length of complete mitochondrial genomes of An. sinensis was 15,076 bp and 15,138 bp, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and an AT-rich control region. As in other insects, most mitochondrial genes are encoded on the J strand, except for ND5, ND4, ND4L, ND1, two rRNA and eight tRNA genes, which are encoded on the N strand. The bootstrap value was set as 1000 in ML analyses. The topologies restored phylogenetic affinity within subfamily Anophelinae. The ML tree showed four major clades, corresponding to the subgenera Cellia, Anopheles, Nyssorhynchus and Kerteszia of the genus Anopheles. The complete mitochondrial genomes of An. sinensis were obtained. The number, order and transcription direction of An. sinensis mitochondrial genes were the same as in other species of family Culicidae.

  14. The Conserved RNA Exonuclease Rexo5 Is Required for 3′ End Maturation of 28S rRNA, 5S rRNA, and snoRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Gerstberger

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-coding RNA biogenesis in higher eukaryotes has not been fully characterized. Here, we studied the Drosophila melanogaster Rexo5 (CG8368 protein, a metazoan-specific member of the DEDDh 3′-5′ single-stranded RNA exonucleases, by genetic, biochemical, and RNA-sequencing approaches. Rexo5 is required for small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA and rRNA biogenesis and is essential in D. melanogaster. Loss-of-function mutants accumulate improperly 3′ end-trimmed 28S rRNA, 5S rRNA, and snoRNA precursors in vivo. Rexo5 is ubiquitously expressed at low levels in somatic metazoan cells but extremely elevated in male and female germ cells. Loss of Rexo5 leads to increased nucleolar size, genomic instability, defective ribosome subunit export, and larval death. Loss of germline expression compromises gonadal growth and meiotic entry during germline development.

  15. Epidemic Spread of Usutu Virus in Southwest Germany in 2011 to 2013 and Monitoring of Wild Birds for Usutu and West Nile Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Ute; Jöst, Hanna; Müller, Kerstin; Fischer, Dominik; Rinder, Monika; Tietze, Dieter Thomas; Danner, Klaus-Jürgen; Becker, Norbert; Skuballa, Jasmin; Hamann, Hans-Peter; Bosch, Stefan; Fast, Christine; Eiden, Martin; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Groschup, Martin H

    2015-08-01

    Mosquito-borne viruses are becoming an increasing threat for Europe. One of these viruses is Usutu virus (USUV), a single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis virus group within the family Flaviviridae. Since the occurrence of USUV among wild birds in June, 2011, infected Blackbirds (Turdus merula) have frequently been found dead in southwest Germany, cumulating in a massive die-off. Moreover, other bird species (Strigiformes) in this region have been affected. In a first study, 209 of over 600 dead birds (wild birds and birds kept in aviaries) collected from 2011 to 2013 carried USUV, more than 88% of them Blackbirds. USUV had already been detected in 2010, one year before the epizooty, in a mosquito-based surveillance program in Germany. The main epidemic area of the USUV outbreak in wild birds in southwest Germany has been similar for the last three years. In a second study during 2011 to 2013, 902 live migratory and resident birds (representing 87 bird species belonging to 14 bird orders) from four different sampling sites were bled and tested serologically and by qPCR for West Nile virus (WNV) and USUV infections. No USUV or WNV genomes were detected. Some migratory birds (mainly long-distance migrants and some partial migrants) carried neutralizing antibodies against WNV as discriminated by USUV and WNV cross-neutralization tests. Only few resident birds showed relevant USUV-specific neutralizing antibodies. The occurrence of USUV in the Upper Rhine valley area of southwest Germany is a proof of principle for the incursion and spread of other arthropod-borne (arbo)-viruses along these routes. Therefore, monitoring studies in birds and mosquitoes for the presence of arboviruses in these areas are indispensable.

  16. An siRNA-based functional genomics screen for the identification of regulators of ciliogenesis and ciliopathy genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racher, Hilary; Phelps, Ian G.; Toedt, Grischa; Kennedy, Julie; Wunderlich, Kirsten A.; Sorusch, Nasrin; Abdelhamed, Zakia A.; Natarajan, Subaashini; Herridge, Warren; van Reeuwijk, Jeroen; Horn, Nicola; Boldt, Karsten; Parry, David A.; Letteboer, Stef J.F.; Roosing, Susanne; Adams, Matthew; Bell, Sandra M.; Bond, Jacquelyn; Higgins, Julie; Morrison, Ewan E.; Tomlinson, Darren C.; Slaats, Gisela G.; van Dam, Teunis J. P.; Huang, Lijia; Kessler, Kristin; Giessl, Andreas; Logan, Clare V.; Boyle, Evan A.; Shendure, Jay; Anazi, Shamsa; Aldahmesh, Mohammed; Al Hazzaa, Selwa; Hegele, Robert A.; Ober, Carole; Frosk, Patrick; Mhanni, Aizeddin A.; Chodirker, Bernard N.; Chudley, Albert E.; Lamont, Ryan; Bernier, Francois P.; Beaulieu, Chandree L.; Gordon, Paul; Pon, Richard T.; Donahue, Clem; Barkovich, A. James; Wolf, Louis; Toomes, Carmel; Thiel, Christian T.; Boycott, Kym M.; McKibbin, Martin; Inglehearn, Chris F.; Stewart, Fiona; Omran, Heymut; Huynen, Martijn A.; Sergouniotis, Panagiotis I.; Alkuraya, Fowzan S.; Parboosingh, Jillian S.; Innes, A Micheil; Willoughby, Colin E.; Giles, Rachel H.; Webster, Andrew R.; Ueffing, Marius; Blacque, Oliver; Gleeson, Joseph G.; Wolfrum, Uwe; Beales, Philip L.; Gibson, Toby

    2015-01-01

    Defects in primary cilium biogenesis underlie the ciliopathies, a growing group of genetic disorders. We describe a whole genome siRNA-based reverse genetics screen for defects in biogenesis and/or maintenance of the primary cilium, obtaining a global resource. We identify 112 candidate ciliogenesis and ciliopathy genes, including 44 components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, 12 G-protein-coupled receptors, and three pre-mRNA processing factors (PRPF6, PRPF8 and PRPF31) mutated in autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. The PRPFs localise to the connecting cilium, and PRPF8- and PRPF31-mutated cells have ciliary defects. Combining the screen with exome sequencing data identified recessive mutations in PIBF1/CEP90 and C21orf2/LRRC76 as causes of the ciliopathies Joubert and Jeune syndromes. Biochemical approaches place C21orf2 within key ciliopathy-associated protein modules, offering an explanation for the skeletal and retinal involvement observed in individuals with C21orf2-variants. Our global, unbiased approaches provide insights into ciliogenesis complexity and identify roles for unanticipated pathways in human genetic disease. PMID:26167768

  17. The Mitochondrial Genome of the Prasinophyte Prasinoderma coloniale Reveals Two Trans-Spliced Group I Introns in the Large Subunit rRNA Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pombert, Jean-François; Otis, Christian; Turmel, Monique; Lemieux, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Organelle genes are often interrupted by group I and or group II introns. Splicing of these mobile genetic occurs at the RNA level via serial transesterification steps catalyzed by the introns'own tertiary structures and, sometimes, with the help of external factors. These catalytic ribozymes can be found in cis or trans configuration, and although trans-arrayed group II introns have been known for decades, trans-spliced group I introns have been reported only recently. In the course of sequencing the complete mitochondrial genome of the prasinophyte picoplanktonic green alga Prasinoderma coloniale CCMP 1220 (Prasinococcales, clade VI), we uncovered two additional cases of trans-spliced group I introns. Here, we describe these introns and compare the 54,546 bp-long mitochondrial genome of Prasinoderma with those of four other prasinophytes (clades II, III and V). This comparison underscores the highly variable mitochondrial genome architecture in these ancient chlorophyte lineages. Both Prasinoderma trans-spliced introns reside within the large subunit rRNA gene (rnl) at positions where cis-spliced relatives, often containing homing endonuclease genes, have been found in other organelles. In contrast, all previously reported trans-spliced group I introns occur in different mitochondrial genes (rns or coxI). Each Prasinoderma intron is fragmented into two pieces, forming at the RNA level a secondary structure that resembles those of its cis-spliced counterparts. As observed for other trans-spliced group I introns, the breakpoint of the first intron maps to the variable loop L8, whereas that of the second is uniquely located downstream of P9.1. The breakpoint In each Prasinoderma intron corresponds to the same region where the open reading frame (ORF) occurs when present in cis-spliced orthologs. This correlation between the intron breakpoint and the ORF location in cis-spliced orthologs also holds for other trans-spliced introns; we discuss the possible implications

  18. The mitochondrial genome of the prasinophyte Prasinoderma coloniale reveals two trans-spliced group I introns in the large subunit rRNA gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Pombert

    Full Text Available Organelle genes are often interrupted by group I and or group II introns. Splicing of these mobile genetic occurs at the RNA level via serial transesterification steps catalyzed by the introns'own tertiary structures and, sometimes, with the help of external factors. These catalytic ribozymes can be found in cis or trans configuration, and although trans-arrayed group II introns have been known for decades, trans-spliced group I introns have been reported only recently. In the course of sequencing the complete mitochondrial genome of the prasinophyte picoplanktonic green alga Prasinoderma coloniale CCMP 1220 (Prasinococcales, clade VI, we uncovered two additional cases of trans-spliced group I introns. Here, we describe these introns and compare the 54,546 bp-long mitochondrial genome of Prasinoderma with those of four other prasinophytes (clades II, III and V. This comparison underscores the highly variable mitochondrial genome architecture in these ancient chlorophyte lineages. Both Prasinoderma trans-spliced introns reside within the large subunit rRNA gene (rnl at positions where cis-spliced relatives, often containing homing endonuclease genes, have been found in other organelles. In contrast, all previously reported trans-spliced group I introns occur in different mitochondrial genes (rns or coxI. Each Prasinoderma intron is fragmented into two pieces, forming at the RNA level a secondary structure that resembles those of its cis-spliced counterparts. As observed for other trans-spliced group I introns, the breakpoint of the first intron maps to the variable loop L8, whereas that of the second is uniquely located downstream of P9.1. The breakpoint In each Prasinoderma intron corresponds to the same region where the open reading frame (ORF occurs when present in cis-spliced orthologs. This correlation between the intron breakpoint and the ORF location in cis-spliced orthologs also holds for other trans-spliced introns; we discuss the

  19. Global RNA association with the transcriptionally active chromosome of chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehniger, Marie-Kristin; Finster, Sabrina; Melonek, Joanna; Oetke, Svenja; Krupinska, Karin; Schmitz-Linneweber, Christian

    2017-10-01

    Processed chloroplast RNAs are co-enriched with preparations of the chloroplast transcriptionally active chromosome. Chloroplast genomes are organized as a polyploid DNA-protein structure called the nucleoid. Transcriptionally active chloroplast DNA together with tightly bound protein factors can be purified by gel filtration as a functional entity called the transcriptionally active chromosome (TAC). Previous proteomics analyses of nucleoids and of TACs demonstrated a considerable overlap in protein composition including RNA binding proteins. Therefore the RNA content of TAC preparations from Nicotiana tabacum was determined using whole genome tiling arrays. A large number of chloroplast RNAs was found to be associated with the TAC. The pattern of RNAs attached to the TAC consists of RNAs produced by different chloroplast RNA polymerases and differs from the pattern of RNA found in input controls. An analysis of RNA splicing and RNA editing of selected RNA species demonstrated that TAC-associated RNAs are processed to a similar extent as the RNA in input controls. Thus, TAC fractions contain a specific subset of the processed chloroplast transcriptome.

  20. A Transcriptome Map of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae at Single-Nucleotide Resolution Using Deep RNA-Seq.

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    Zhipeng Su

    Full Text Available Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the pathogen of porcine contagious pleuropneumoniae, a highly contagious respiratory disease of swine. Although the genome of A. pleuropneumoniae was sequenced several years ago, limited information is available on the genome-wide transcriptional analysis to accurately annotate the gene structures and regulatory elements. High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq has been applied to study the transcriptional landscape of bacteria, which can efficiently and accurately identify gene expression regions and unknown transcriptional units, especially small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs, UTRs and regulatory regions. The aim of this study is to comprehensively analyze the transcriptome of A. pleuropneumoniae by RNA-seq in order to improve the existing genome annotation and promote our understanding of A. pleuropneumoniae gene structures and RNA-based regulation. In this study, we utilized RNA-seq to construct a single nucleotide resolution transcriptome map of A. pleuropneumoniae. More than 3.8 million high-quality reads (average length ~90 bp from a cDNA library were generated and aligned to the reference genome. We identified 32 open reading frames encoding novel proteins that were mis-annotated in the previous genome annotations. The start sites for 35 genes based on the current genome annotation were corrected. Furthermore, 51 sRNAs in the A. pleuropneumoniae genome were discovered, of which 40 sRNAs were never reported in previous studies. The transcriptome map also enabled visualization of 5'- and 3'-UTR regions, in which contained 11 sRNAs. In addition, 351 operons covering 1230 genes throughout the whole genome were identified. The RNA-Seq based transcriptome map validated annotated genes and corrected annotations of open reading frames in the genome, and led to the identification of many functional elements (e.g. regions encoding novel proteins, non-coding sRNAs and operon structures. The transcriptional units

  1. A 3'-end structure in RNA2 of a crinivirus is essential for viral RNA synthesis and contributes to replication-associated translation activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongkolsiriwattana, Chawin; Zhou, Jaclyn S; Ng, James C K

    2016-10-03

    The terminal ends in the genome of RNA viruses contain features that regulate viral replication and/or translation. We have identified a Y-shaped structure (YSS) in the 3' terminal regions of the bipartite genome of Lettuce chlorosis virus (LCV), a member in the genus Crinivirus (family Closteroviridae). The YSS is the first in this family of viruses to be determined using Selective 2'-Hydroxyl Acylation Analyzed by Primer Extension (SHAPE). Using luciferase constructs/replicons, in vivo and in vitro assays showed that the 5' and YSS-containing 3' terminal regions of LCV RNA1 supported translation activity. In contrast, similar regions from LCV RNA2, including those upstream of the YSS, did not. LCV RNA2 mutants with nucleotide deletions or replacements that affected the YSS were replication deficient. In addition, the YSS of LCV RNA1 and RNA2 were interchangeable without affecting viral RNA synthesis. Translation and significant replication were observed for specific LCV RNA2 replicons only in the presence of LCV RNA1, but both processes were impaired when the YSS and/or its upstream region were incomplete or altered. These results are evidence that the YSS is essential to the viral replication machinery, and contributes to replication enhancement and replication-associated translation activity in the RNA2 replicons.

  2. The 5′ and 3′ Untranslated Regions of the Flaviviral Genome

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    Wy Ching Ng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Flaviviruses are enveloped arthropod-borne viruses with a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome that can cause serious illness in humans and animals. The 11 kb 5′ capped RNA genome consists of a single open reading frame (ORF, and is flanked by 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions (UTR. The ORF is a polyprotein that is processed into three structural and seven non-structural proteins. The UTRs have been shown to be important for viral replication and immune modulation. Both of these regions consist of elements that are essential for genome cyclization, resulting in initiation of RNA synthesis. Genome mutation studies have been employed to investigate each component of the essential elements to show the necessity of each component and its role in viral RNA replication and growth. Furthermore, the highly structured 3′UTR is responsible for the generation of subgenomic flavivirus RNA (sfRNA that helps the virus evade host immune response, thereby affecting viral pathogenesis. In addition, changes within the 3′UTR have been shown to affect transmissibility between vector and host, which can influence the development of vaccines.

  3. The mitochondrial genome of Phallusia mammillata and Phallusia fumigata (Tunicata, Ascidiacea: high genome plasticity at intra-genus level

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    Pesole Graziano

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within Chordata, the subphyla Vertebrata and Cephalochordata (lancelets are characterized by a remarkable stability of the mitochondrial (mt genome, with constancy of gene content and almost invariant gene order, whereas the limited mitochondrial data on the subphylum Tunicata suggest frequent and extensive gene rearrangements, observed also within ascidians of the same genus. Results To confirm this evolutionary trend and to better understand the evolutionary dynamics of the mitochondrial genome in Tunicata Ascidiacea, we have sequenced and characterized the complete mt genome of two congeneric ascidian species, Phallusia mammillata and Phallusia fumigata (Phlebobranchiata, Ascidiidae. The two mtDNAs are surprisingly rearranged, both with respect to one another and relative to those of other tunicates and chordates, with gene rearrangements affecting both protein-coding and tRNA genes. The new data highlight the extraordinary variability of ascidian mt genome in base composition, tRNA secondary structure, tRNA gene content, and non-coding regions (number, size, sequence and location. Indeed, both Phallusia genomes lack the trnD gene, show loss/acquisition of DHU-arm in two tRNAs, and have a G+C content two-fold higher than other ascidians. Moreover, the mt genome of P. fumigata presents two identical copies of trnI, an extra tRNA gene with uncertain amino acid specificity, and four almost identical sequence regions. In addition, a truncated cytochrome b, lacking a C-terminal tail that commonly protrudes into the mt matrix, has been identified as a new mt feature probably shared by all tunicates. Conclusion The frequent occurrence of major gene order rearrangements in ascidians both at high taxonomic level and within the same genus makes this taxon an excellent model to study the mechanisms of gene rearrangement, and renders the mt genome an invaluable phylogenetic marker to investigate molecular biodiversity and speciation

  4. Plum pox virus (PPV) genome expression in genetically engineered RNAi plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    An important approach to controlling sharka disease caused by Plum pox virus (PPV) is the development of PPV resistant plants using small interfering RNAs (siRNA) technology. In order to evaluate siRNA induced gene silencing, we studied, based on knowledge of the PPV genome sequence, virus genome t...

  5. MiRNA-Related SNPs and Risk of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma and Barrett's Esophagus: Post Genome-Wide Association Analysis in the BEACON Consortium.

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    Matthew F Buas

    Full Text Available Incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA has increased substantially in recent decades. Multiple risk factors have been identified for EA and its precursor, Barrett's esophagus (BE, such as reflux, European ancestry, male sex, obesity, and tobacco smoking, and several germline genetic variants were recently associated with disease risk. Using data from the Barrett's and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium (BEACON genome-wide association study (GWAS of 2,515 EA cases, 3,295 BE cases, and 3,207 controls, we examined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that potentially affect the biogenesis or biological activity of microRNAs (miRNAs, small non-coding RNAs implicated in post-transcriptional gene regulation, and deregulated in many cancers, including EA. Polymorphisms in three classes of genes were examined for association with risk of EA or BE: miRNA biogenesis genes (157 SNPs, 21 genes; miRNA gene loci (234 SNPs, 210 genes; and miRNA-targeted mRNAs (177 SNPs, 158 genes. Nominal associations (P0.50, and we did not find evidence for interactions between variants analyzed and two risk factors for EA/BE (smoking and obesity. This analysis provides the most extensive assessment to date of miRNA-related SNPs in relation to risk of EA and BE. While common genetic variants within components of the miRNA biogenesis core pathway appear unlikely to modulate susceptibility to EA or BE, further studies may be warranted to examine potential associations between unassessed variants in miRNA genes and targets with disease risk.

  6. Hsp90 interacts specifically with viral RNA and differentially regulates replication initiation of Bamboo mosaic virus and associated satellite RNA.

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    Ying Wen Huang

    Full Text Available Host factors play crucial roles in the replication of plus-strand RNA viruses. In this report, a heat shock protein 90 homologue of Nicotiana benthamiana, NbHsp90, was identified in association with partially purified replicase complexes from BaMV-infected tissue, and shown to specifically interact with the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR of BaMV genomic RNA, but not with the 3' UTR of BaMV-associated satellite RNA (satBaMV RNA or that of genomic RNA of other viruses, such as Potato virus X (PVX or Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV. Mutational analyses revealed that the interaction occurs between the middle domain of NbHsp90 and domain E of the BaMV 3' UTR. The knockdown or inhibition of NbHsp90 suppressed BaMV infectivity, but not that of satBaMV RNA, PVX, or CMV in N. benthamiana. Time-course analysis further revealed that the inhibitory effect of 17-AAG is significant only during the immediate early stages of BaMV replication. Moreover, yeast two-hybrid and GST pull-down assays demonstrated the existence of an interaction between NbHsp90 and the BaMV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. These results reveal a novel role for NbHsp90 in the selective enhancement of BaMV replication, most likely through direct interaction with the 3' UTR of BaMV RNA during the initiation of BaMV RNA replication.

  7. Targeted viral-mediated plant genome editing using crispr/cas9

    KAUST Repository

    Mahfouz, Magdy M.; Ali, Zahir

    2015-01-01

    The present disclosure provides a viral-mediated genome-editing platform that facilitates multiplexing, obviates stable transformation, and is applicable across plant species. The RNA2 genome of the tobacco rattle virus (TRV) was engineered to carry and systemically deliver a guide RNA molecules into plants overexpressing Cas9 endonuclease. High genomic modification frequencies were observed in inoculated as well as systemic leaves including the plant growing points. This system facilitates multiplexing and can lead to germinal transmission of the genomic modifications in the progeny, thereby obviating the requirements of repeated transformations and tissue culture. The editing platform of the disclosure is useful in plant genome engineering and applicable across plant species amenable to viral infections for agricultural biotechnology applications.

  8. Targeted viral-mediated plant genome editing using crispr/cas9

    KAUST Repository

    Mahfouz, Magdy M.

    2015-12-17

    The present disclosure provides a viral-mediated genome-editing platform that facilitates multiplexing, obviates stable transformation, and is applicable across plant species. The RNA2 genome of the tobacco rattle virus (TRV) was engineered to carry and systemically deliver a guide RNA molecules into plants overexpressing Cas9 endonuclease. High genomic modification frequencies were observed in inoculated as well as systemic leaves including the plant growing points. This system facilitates multiplexing and can lead to germinal transmission of the genomic modifications in the progeny, thereby obviating the requirements of repeated transformations and tissue culture. The editing platform of the disclosure is useful in plant genome engineering and applicable across plant species amenable to viral infections for agricultural biotechnology applications.

  9. Cancer-Related Triplets of mRNA-lncRNA-miRNA Revealed by Integrative Network in Uterine Corpus Endometrial Carcinoma

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    Chenglin Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of transcriptome expression level is a complex process involving multiple-level interactions among molecules such as protein coding RNA (mRNA, long noncoding RNA (lncRNA, and microRNA (miRNA, which are essential for the transcriptome stability and maintenance and regulation of body homeostasis. The availability of multilevel expression data enables a comprehensive view of the regulatory network. In this study, we analyzed the coding and noncoding gene expression profiles of 301 patients with uterine corpus endometrial carcinoma (UCEC. A new method was proposed to construct a genome-wide integrative network based on variance inflation factor (VIF regression method. The cross-regulation relations of mRNA, lncRNA, and miRNA were then selected based on clique-searching algorithm from the network, when any two molecules of the three were shown as interacting according to the integrative network. Such relation, which we call the mRNA-lncRNA-miRNA triplet, demonstrated the complexity in transcriptome regulation process. Finally, six UCEC-related triplets were selected in which the mRNA participates in endometrial carcinoma pathway, such as CDH1 and TP53. The multi-type RNAs are proved to be cross-regulated as to each of the six triplets according to literature. All the triplets demonstrated the association with the initiation and progression of UCEC. Our method provides a comprehensive strategy for the investigation of transcriptome regulation mechanism.

  10. Enhancing faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genome resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooper, James W.; Wilson, Michael H.; Derks, M.F.L.; Smit, Sandra; Kunert, Karl J.; Cullis, Christopher; Foyer, C.H.

    2017-01-01

    Grain legume improvement is currently impeded by a lack of genomic resources. The paucity of genome information for faba bean can be attributed to the intrinsic difficulties of assembling/annotating its giant (~13 Gb) genome. In order to address this challenge, RNA-sequencing analysis was performed

  11. Recent Advances in Genome Editing Using CRISPR/Cas9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yuduan; Li, Hong; Chen, Ling-Ling; Xie, Kabin

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)-Cas9 (CRISPR-associated nuclease 9) system is a versatile tool for genome engineering that uses a guide RNA (gRNA) to target Cas9 to a specific sequence. This simple RNA-guided genome-editing technology has become a revolutionary tool in biology and has many innovative applications in different fields. In this review, we briefly introduce the Cas9-mediated genome-editing method, summarize the recent advances in CRISPR/Cas9 technology, and discuss their implications for plant research. To date, targeted gene knockout using the Cas9/gRNA system has been established in many plant species, and the targeting efficiency and capacity of Cas9 has been improved by optimizing its expression and that of its gRNA. The CRISPR/Cas9 system can also be used for sequence-specific mutagenesis/integration and transcriptional control of target genes. We also discuss off-target effects and the constraint that the protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM) puts on CRISPR/Cas9 genome engineering. To address these problems, a number of bioinformatic tools are available to help design specific gRNAs, and new Cas9 variants and orthologs with high fidelity and alternative PAM specificities have been engineered. Owing to these recent efforts, the CRISPR/Cas9 system is becoming a revolutionary and flexible tool for genome engineering. Adoption of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology in plant research would enable the investigation of plant biology at an unprecedented depth and create innovative applications in precise crop breeding. PMID:27252719

  12. TMEPAI genome editing in triple negative breast cancer cells

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    Bantari W.K. Wardhani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated 9 (CRISPR/Cas9 is a powerful genome editing technique. It consists of RNA-guided DNA endonuclease Cas9 and single guide RNA (gRNA. By combining their expressions, high efficiency cleavage of the target gene can be achieved, leading to the formation of DNA double-strand break (DSB at the genomic locus of interest which will be repaired via NHEJ (non-homologous end joining or HDR (homology-directed repair and mediate DNA alteration. We aimed to apply the CRISPR/Cas9 technique to knock-out the transmembrane prostate androgen-induced protein (TMEPAI gene in the triple negative breast cancer cell line.Methods: Designed gRNA which targets the TMEPAI gene was synthesized, annealed, and cloned into gRNA expression vector. It was co-transfected into the TNBC cell line using polyethylenimine (PEI together with Cas9-GFP and puromycin resistant gene vector. At 24-hours post-transfection, cells were selected by puromycin for 3 days before they were cloned. Selected knock-out clones were subsequently checked on their protein levels by western blotting.Results: CRISPR/Cas9, a genome engineering technique successfully knocked-out TMEPAI in the Hs578T TNBC cell line. Sequencing shows a frameshift mutation in TMEPAI. Western blot shows the absence of TMEPAI band on Hs578T KO cells.Conclusion: TMEPAI gene was deleted in the TNBC cell line using the genomic editing technique CRISPR/Cas9. The deletion was confirmed by genome and protein analysis.

  13. The Piwi pathway: from piRNA methylation to histone methylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luteijn, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are germ line-specific small RNA molecules that have a function in genome defense and germ cell development. They associate with a specific class of Argonaute proteins, named Piwi, and function through an RNA interference-like mechanism. These small RNA molecules play

  14. Chloroplast Genome Sequence of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L. Millspaugh and Cajanus scarabaeoides: Genome organization and Comparison with other legumes

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    Tanvi Kaila

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L. Millspaugh, a diploid (2n = 22 legume crop with a genome size of 852 Mbp, serves as an important source of human dietary protein especially in South East Asian and African regions. In this study, the draft chloroplast genomes of Cajanus cajan and Cajanus scarabaeoides were sequenced. Cajanus scarabaeoides is an important species of the Cajanus gene pool and has also been used for developing promising CMS system by different groups. A male sterile genotype harbouring the Cajanus scarabaeoides cytoplasm was used for sequencing the plastid genome. The cp genome of Cajanus cajan is 152,242bp long, having a quadripartite structure with LSC of 83,455 bp and SSC of 17,871 bp separated by IRs of 25,398 bp. Similarly, the cp genome of Cajanus scarabaeoides is 152,201bp long, having a quadripartite structure in which IRs of 25,402 bp length separates 83,423 bp of LSC and 17,854 bp of SSC. The pigeonpea cp genome contains 116 unique genes, including 30 tRNA, 4 rRNA, 78 predicted protein coding genes and 5 pseudogenes. A 50kb inversion was observed in the LSC region of pigeonpea cp genome, consistent with other legumes. Comparison of cp genome with other legumes revealed the contraction of IR boundaries due to the absence of rps19 gene in the IR region. Chloroplast SSRs were mined and a total of 280 and 292 cpSSRs were identified in Cajanus scarabaeoides and Cajanus cajan respectively. RNA editing was observed at 37 sites in both Cajanus scarabaeoides and Cajanus cajan, with maximum occurrence in the ndh genes. The pigeonpea cp genome sequence would be beneficial in providing informative molecular markers which can be utilized for genetic diversity analysis and aid in understanding the plant systematics studies among major grain legumes.

  15. Overview of methods in RNA nanotechnology: synthesis, purification, and characterization of RNA nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Farzin; Guo, Peixuan

    2015-01-01

    RNA nanotechnology encompasses the use of RNA as a construction material to build homogeneous nanostructures by bottom-up self-assembly with defined size, structure, and stoichiometry; this pioneering concept demonstrated in 1998 (Guo et al., Molecular Cell 2:149-155, 1998; featured in Cell) has emerged as a new field that also involves materials engineering and synthetic structural biology (Guo, Nature Nanotechnology 5:833-842, 2010). The field of RNA nanotechnology has skyrocketed over the last few years, as evidenced by the burst of publications in prominent journals on RNA nanostructures and their applications in nanomedicine and nanotechnology. Rapid advances in RNA chemistry, RNA biophysics, and RNA biology have created new opportunities for translating basic science into clinical practice. RNA nanotechnology holds considerable promise in this regard. Increased evidence also suggests that substantial part of the 98.5 % of human genome (Lander et al. Nature 409:860-921, 2001) that used to be called "junk DNA" actually codes for noncoding RNA. As we understand more on how RNA structures are related to function, we can fabricate synthetic RNA nanoparticles for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. This chapter provides a brief overview of the field regarding the design, construction, purification, and characterization of RNA nanoparticles for diverse applications in nanotechnology and nanomedicince.

  16. Evidence for a Complex Class of Nonadenylated mRNA in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, J. Lynn; Fouts, David L.; Manning, Jerry E.

    1980-01-01

    The amount, by mass, of poly(A+) mRNA present in the polyribosomes of third-instar larvae of Drosophila melanogaster, and the relative contribution of the poly(A+) mRNA to the sequence complexity of total polysomal RNA, has been determined. Selective removal of poly(A+) mRNA from total polysomal RNA by use of either oligo-dT-cellulose, or poly(U)-sepharose affinity chromatography, revealed that only 0.15% of the mass of the polysomal RNA was present as poly(A+) mRNA. The present study shows that this RNA hybridized at saturation with 3.3% of the single-copy DNA in the Drosophila genome. After correction for asymmetric transcription and reactability of the DNA, 7.4% of the single-copy DNA in the Drosophila genome is represented in larval poly(A+) mRNA. This corresponds to 6.73 x 106 nucleotides of mRNA coding sequences, or approximately 5,384 diverse RNA sequences of average size 1,250 nucleotides. However, total polysomal RNA hybridizes at saturation to 10.9% of the single-copy DNA sequences. After correcting this value for asymmetric transcription and tracer DNA reactability, 24% of the single-copy DNA in Drosophila is represented in total polysomal RNA. This corresponds to 2.18 x 107 nucleotides of RNA coding sequences or 17,440 diverse RNA molecules of size 1,250 nucleotides. This value is 3.2 times greater than that observed for poly(A+) mRNA, and indicates that ≃69% of the polysomal RNA sequence complexity is contributed by nonadenylated RNA. Furthermore, if the number of different structural genes represented in total polysomal RNA is ≃1.7 x 104, then the number of genes expressed in third-instar larvae exceeds the number of chromomeres in Drosophila by about a factor of three. This numerology indicates that the number of chromomeres observed in polytene chromosomes does not reflect the number of structural gene sequences in the Drosophila genome. PMID:6777246

  17. mRNA/microRNA gene expression profile in microsatellite unstable colorectal cancer

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    Calin George A

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer develops through two main genetic instability pathways characterized by distinct pathologic features and clinical outcome. Results We investigated colon cancer samples (23 characterized by microsatellite stability, MSS, and 16 by high microsatellite instability, MSI-H for genome-wide expression of microRNA (miRNA and mRNA. Based on combined miRNA and mRNA gene expression, a molecular signature consisting of twenty seven differentially expressed genes, inclusive of 8 miRNAs, could correctly distinguish MSI-H versus MSS colon cancer samples. Among the differentially expressed miRNAs, various members of the oncogenic miR-17-92 family were significantly up-regulated in MSS cancers. The majority of protein coding genes were also up-regulated in MSS cancers. Their functional classification revealed that they were most frequently associated with cell cycle, DNA replication, recombination, repair, gastrointestinal disease and immune response. Conclusion This is the first report that indicates the existence of differences in miRNA expression between MSS versus MSI-H colorectal cancers. In addition, the work suggests that the combination of mRNA/miRNA expression signatures may represent a general approach for improving bio-molecular classification of human cancer.

  18. Tools to covisualize and coanalyze proteomic data with genomes and transcriptomes: validation of genes and alternative mRNA splicing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Chi; Tay, Aidan; Aya, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    contigs, along with RNA-seq reads. This is done in the Integrated Genome Viewer (IGV). A Results Analyzer reports the precise base position where LC-MS/MS-derived peptides cover genes or gene isoforms, on the chromosomes or contigs where this occurs. In prokaryotes, the PG Nexus pipeline facilitates...... the validation of genes, where annotation or gene prediction is available, or the discovery of genes using a "virtual protein"-based unbiased approach. We illustrate this with a comprehensive proteogenomics analysis of two strains of Campylobacter concisus . For higher eukaryotes, the PG Nexus facilitates gene...

  19. Dynamics of West Nile virus persistence in House Sparrows (Passer domesticus.

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